WorldWideScience

Sample records for monodon tata box-binding

  1. Stepwise bending of DNA by a single TATA box binding protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolic-Nørrelykke, Simon F; Rasmussen, Mette B; Pavone, Francesco S;

    2006-01-01

    bead is reduced compared to that of unbent DNA. We detected individual binding and dissocation events and derived kinetic parameters for the process. Dissociation was induced by increasing the salt concentration or by directly pulling on the tethered bead using optical tweezers. In addition to the well......The TATA-box binding protein (TBP) is required by all three eucaryotic RNA polymerases for the initiation of transcription from most promoters. TBP recognizes, binds to, and bends promoter sequences called "TATA-boxes" in the DNA. We present results from the study of individual Saccharomyces...... cerevisiae TBPs interacting with single DNA molecules containing a TATA-box. Using video microscopy, we observed the Brownian motion of the beads tethered by short surface-bound DNA. When TBP binds to and bends the DNA, the conformation of the DNA changes and the amplitude of Brownian motion of the tehtered...

  2. Structures of genes encoding TATA box-binding proteins from Trimeresurus gramineus and T. flavoviridis snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, K; Nobuhisa, I; Deshimaru, M; Ogawa, T; Shimohigashi, Y; Fukumaki, Y; Hattori, M; Sakaki, Y; Hattori, S; Ohno, M

    1995-01-23

    A cDNA encoding the Trimeresurus gramineus (Tg; green habu snake) TATA-box-binding protein (TgTBP) was cloned and sequenced. The cDNA encodes a 33-kDa protein with an extensive sequence similarity to those derived from other organisms, except for the N-terminal domain. Genes encoding TgTBP and Trimeresurus flavoviridis (Tf; habu snake) TBP (TfTBP) were isolated using a TgTBP cDNA and their nt sequences were determined. They are the first TBP genes entirely sequenced in higher animals. Both genes span over 15 kb and are constructed from eight exons and seven introns. Comparison of the loci of introns on the aligned amino-acid sequences of TBP from six organisms (Tg, Tf, mouse, Arabidopsis thaliana, Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Acanthamoeba castellanii) indicated that there are three highly conserved loci in the C-terminal domain.

  3. Mutation analysis of the TATA box-binding protein (TBP) gene in Chinese Han patients with spinocerebellar ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Q; Li, X H; Wang, J L; Jiang, H; Zhang, S; Lei, L F; Shen, L; Xia, K; Pan, Q; Long, Z G; Tang, B S

    2009-10-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 17 (SCA17) is a rare autosomal dominant progressive neurodegenerative disease caused by the CAG/CAA expansion in the TATA box-binding protein (TBP) gene. This study aimed to assess the frequency of SCA17 in patients from mainland China. Analysis of CAG/CAA expansion in this gene was performed in 263 patients consisting of 100 probands with dominantly inherited ataxias and 163 patients with sporadic ataxias. Abnormal expansion of CAG/CAA repeats in the SCA17 locus was found in a proband and her younger sister. To our knowledge, we are providing the first kindred analysis of SCA17 in mainland China.

  4. Molecular Cloning of a cDNA Encoding for Taenia solium TATA-Box Binding Protein 1 (TsTBP1) and Study of Its Interactions with the TATA-Box of Actin 5 and Typical 2-Cys Peroxiredoxin Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Lima, Oscar; García-Gutierrez, Ponciano; Jiménez, Lucía; Zarain-Herzberg, Ángel; Lazzarini, Roberto; Landa, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    TATA-box binding protein (TBP) is an essential regulatory transcription factor for the TATA-box and TATA-box-less gene promoters. We report the cloning and characterization of a full-length cDNA that encodes a Taenia solium TATA-box binding protein 1 (TsTBP1). Deduced amino acid composition from its nucleotide sequence revealed that encodes a protein of 238 residues with a predicted molecular weight of 26.7 kDa, and a theoretical pI of 10.6. The NH2-terminal domain shows no conservation when compared with to pig and human TBP1s. However, it shows high conservation in size and amino acid identity with taeniids TBP1s. In contrast, the TsTBP1 COOH-terminal domain is highly conserved among organisms, and contains the amino acids involved in interactions with the TATA-box, as well as with TFIIA and TFIIB. In silico TsTBP1 modeling reveals that the COOH-terminal domain forms the classical saddle structure of the TBP family, with one α-helix at the end, not present in pig and human. Native TsTBP1 was detected in T. solium cysticerci´s nuclear extract by western blot using rabbit antibodies generated against two synthetic peptides located in the NH2 and COOH-terminal domains of TsTBP1. These antibodies, through immunofluorescence technique, identified the TBP1 in the nucleus of cells that form the bladder wall of cysticerci of Taenia crassiceps, an organism close related to T. solium. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays using nuclear extracts from T. solium cysticerci and antibodies against the NH2-terminal domain of TsTBP1 showed the interaction of native TsTBP1 with the TATA-box present in T. solium actin 5 (pAT5) and 2-Cys peroxiredoxin (Ts2-CysPrx) gene promoters; in contrast, when antibodies against the anti-COOH-terminal domain of TsTBP1 were used, they inhibited the binding of TsTBP1 to the TATA-box of the pAT5 promoter gene.

  5. Nuclear respiratory factor 1 mediates the transcription initiation of insulin-degrading enzyme in a TATA box-binding protein-independent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lang Zhang

    Full Text Available CpG island promoters often lack canonical core promoter elements such as the TATA box, and have dispersed transcription initiation sites. Despite the prevalence of CpG islands associated with mammalian genes, the mechanism of transcription initiation from CpG island promoters remains to be clarified. Here we investigate the mechanism of transcription initiation of the CpG island-associated gene, insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE. IDE is ubiquitously expressed, and has dispersed transcription initiation sites. The IDE core promoter locates within a 32-bp region, which contains three CGGCG repeats and a nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1 binding motif. Sequential mutation analysis indicates that the NRF-1 binding motif is critical for IDE transcription initiation. The NRF-1 binding motif is functional, because NRF-1 binds to this motif in vivo and this motif is required for the regulation of IDE promoter activity by NRF-1. Furthermore, the NRF-1 binding site in the IDE promoter is conserved among different species, and dominant negative NRF-1 represses endogenous IDE expression. Finally, TATA-box binding protein (TBP is not associated with the IDE promoter, and inactivation of TBP does not abolish IDE transcription, suggesting that TBP is not essential for IDE transcription initiation. Our studies indicate that NRF-1 mediates IDE transcription initiation in a TBP-independent manner, and provide insights into the potential mechanism of transcription initiation for other CpG island-associated genes.

  6. Generation of a Monoclonal Antibody Specifically Reacting with Neuron-specific TATA-Box Binding Protein-Associated Factor 1 (N-TAF1

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    Gen Tamiya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available TATA-box binding protein-associated factor 1 (TAF1, the largest subunit of the transcription factor IID complex, plays an important role in the RNA polymerase II-mediated gene transcription pathway regulating the transcription of a large number of genes related to cell division. The neuron-specific isoform of the TAF1 gene (N-TAF1 may have an essential role in neurons through transcriptional regulation of many neuron-specific genes. The present study reports the preparation and properties of a monoclonal antibody directed against N-TAF1. The monoclonal antibody, 3A-11F, specifically recognized N-TAF1 protein with no reactivity to TAF1 protein, as evidenced by immunocytochemistry and immunoprecipitation using cultured cells expressing recombinant N-TAF1 or TAF1 protein. Immunohistochemistry using 3A-11F showed that N-TAF1-imunoreactivity was detected in the nuclear region of neurons in the rat brain. The 3A-11F monoclonal antibody promises to be a useful tool for determining the expression pattern and biological function of N-TAF1 in the brain.

  7. Severe and rapidly progressing cognitive phenotype in a SCA17-family with only marginally expanded CAG/CAA repeats in the TATA-box binding protein gene: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen Troels

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs confine a group of rare and heterogeneous disorders, which present with progressive ataxia and numerous other features e.g. peripheral neuropathy, macular degeneration and cognitive impairment, and a subset of these disorders is caused by CAG-repeat expansions in their respective genes. The diagnosing of the SCAs is often difficult due to the phenotypic overlap among several of the subtypes and with other neurodegenerative disorders e.g. Huntington’s disease. Case presentation We report a family in which the proband had rapidly progressing cognitive decline and only subtle cerebellar symptoms from age 42. Sequencing of the TATA-box binding protein gene revealed a modest elongation of the CAG/CAA-repeat of only two repeats above the non-pathogenic threshold of 41, confirming a diagnosis of SCA17. Normally, repeats within this range show reduced penetrance and result in a milder disease course with slower progression and later age of onset. Thus, this case presented with an unusual phenotype. Conclusions The current case highlights the diagnostic challenge of neurodegenerative disorders and the need for a thorough clinical and paraclinical examination of patients presenting with rapid cognitive decline to make a precise diagnosis on which further genetic counseling and initiation of treatment modalities can be based.

  8. TATA-binding protein and the retinoblastoma gene product bind to overlapping epitopes on c-Myc and adenovirus E1A protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hateboer, G.; Timmers, H.T.M.; Rustgi, A.K.; Billaud, Marc; Veer, L.J. Van 't; Bernards, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    Using a protein binding assay, we show that the amino-teminal 204 amino acids of the c-Myc protein interact di y with a key component of the basal p tdon factor TFID, the TATA box-binding protein (TBP). Essentialy the same region of the c-Myc protein alo binds the product of the retinoblatoma gene,

  9. X-box-binding protein 1-modified neural stem cells for treatment of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Lihui; Xu, Tianmin; Wang, Fengzhang; Liu, Qun; Cui, Manhua

    2012-04-01

    X-box-binding protein 1-transfected neural stem cells were transplanted into the right lateral ventricles of rats with rotenone-induced Parkinson's disease. The survival capacities and differentiation rates of cells expressing the dopaminergic marker tyrosine hydroxylase were higher in X-box-binding protein 1-transfected neural stem cells compared to non-transfected cells. Moreover, dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid levels in the substantia nigra were significantly increased, α-synuclein expression was decreased, and neurological behaviors were significantly ameliorated in rats following transplantation of X-box-binding protein 1-transfected neural stem cells. These results indicate that transplantation of X-box-binding protein 1-transfected neural stem cells can promote stem cell survival and differentiation into dopaminergic neurons, increase dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid levels, reduce α-synuclein aggregation in the substantia nigra, and improve the symptoms of Parkinson's disease in rats.

  10. X-box-binding protein 1-modified neural stem cells for treatment of Parkinson's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lihui Si; Tianmin Xu; Fengzhang Wang; Qun Liu; Manhua Cui

    2012-01-01

    X-box-binding protein 1-transfected neural stem cells were transplanted into the right lateral ventricles of rats with rotenone-induced Parkinson's disease. The survival capacities and differentiation rates of cells expressing the dopaminergic marker tyrosine hydroxylase were higher in X-box-binding protein 1-transfected neural stem cells compared to non-transfected cells. Moreover, dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid levels in the substantia nigra were significantly increased, α-synuclein expression was decreased, and neurological behaviors were significantly ameliorated in rats following transplantation of X-box-binding protein 1-transfected neural stem cells. These results indicate that transplantation of X-box-binding protein 1-transfected neural stem cells can promote stem cell survival and differentiation into dopaminergic neurons, increase dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid levels, reduce α-synuclein aggregation in the substantia nigra, and improve the symptoms of Parkinson's disease in rats.

  11. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Y-box Binding Protein Gene in Min Pig

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Dong-jie; Liu Di; Wang Liang; He Xin-miao; Wang Wen-tao

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the gene sequence of Min pig Y-box binding protein (YB-1) gene, the complete coding sequence of Min pig YB-1 gene was cloned by RT-PCR, the sequence features were analyzed by some software and online website. The results showed that the complete CDS of Min pig Y-box was found to be 975 bp long, encoding 324 amino acids. It contained a conserved cold shock domain and several phosphorylation sites, but had no transmembrane domains, and was consistent with a protein found in the cytoplasm. Min pig YB-1 nucleotides shared high similarity (61.37%-97.66%) with other mammals.

  12. Trust Ownership of the Tata Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    The Indian Tata Group is one of the largest and most admired business groups in the world. It has 28 listed subsidiaries and more than 80 operating businesses. It has shown strong financial performance and social responsibility for decades. Interestingly, it has a unique ownership structure......: the main holding company Tata Sons Limited is majority-owned by charitable trusts. We examine the governance of this remarkable entity. The Trusts own 66% of Tata Sons, the main holding company of the Group, while members of the founding Tata family are very small minority shareholders. The governance...... structure is characterized by managerial distance between trusts and Group companies. The Trusts are almost exclusively concerned with philanthropy, and according to the Articles of Association of Tata Sons Limited, their governance role is limited to nominating two members to the Selection Committee which...

  13. TATA RUANG RUMAH BANGSAWAN YOGYAKARTA

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    Siti Widayatsari

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available To Study old buildings, it is necessary to study cultural aspects, hintory, place, environment, spatial arrangement, plan, shape, structure and construction, building materials, dcoration, and other architectural aspects. This article is a part of the result of the whole study about Architecture of the Noble Residence in Yogyakarta, studying especially the soatial arragement. The conslusion of this part of study is architecture of the noble residence in Yogyakarta having some abstract concept as a part of the tradition that couln't explain rationally. Criterias to select noble residences to study are: the owner's relationship to Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwono, locations near kraton inside and outside fortifications, and recent condition. Four selected noble residences are: Yudaningratan, Notoprajan and Mangkubumen. This study aims to discover the traditional norms including regulations and beliefs that gave shape to noble residence's architecture, to give reference for noble residence's conservation and applied proportional design concept to modern vernakular construction. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Kajian mengenai bangunan masa lalu, mencakup aspek budaya, sejarah, tempat, lingkungan, tata letak, denah, bentuk, struktur dan konstruksi, bahan bangunan, dekorasi, dll aspek arsitektural. Artikel ini adalah bagian dari penelitian tentang Arsitektur Rumah Bangsawan di Yogyakarta mengkaji aspek-aspek tersebut, khusus mengemukakan tata-ruang. Kesimpulan kajian dari segi ini, rumah bangsawan Yogyakarta cukup banyak mempunyai konsep-konsep abstrak, sebagai bagian dari tardisi yang tidak dapat diterangkan secara rasional. Dalem di Yogyakarta cukup banyak sehingga tidak mungkin diteliti secara mendetail semuanya, maka dipilih dengan kriteria : perkerabatan pemilik pertama dengan Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwana, lokasi sekitar kraton dan kondisinya saat ini. Berdasarkan kriteria tersebut dipilih empat yaitu: Yudaningratan, Pakuningratan, Notoprajan dan

  14. The Y-Box Binding Protein 1 Suppresses Alzheimer's Disease Progression in Two Animal Models.

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    N V Bobkova

    Full Text Available The Y-box binding protein 1 (YB-1 is a member of the family of DNA- and RNA binding proteins. It is involved in a wide variety of DNA/RNA-dependent events including cell proliferation and differentiation, stress response, and malignant cell transformation. Previously, YB-1 was detected in neurons of the neocortex and hippocampus, but its precise role in the brain remains undefined. Here we show that subchronic intranasal injections of recombinant YB-1, as well as its fragment YB-11-219, suppress impairment of spatial memory in olfactory bulbectomized (OBX mice with Alzheimer's type degeneration and improve learning in transgenic 5XFAD mice used as a model of cerebral amyloidosis. YB-1-treated OBX and 5XFAD mice showed a decreased level of brain β-amyloid. In OBX animals, an improved morphological state of neurons was revealed in the neocortex and hippocampus; in 5XFAD mice, a delay in amyloid plaque progression was observed. Intranasally administered YB-1 penetrated into the brain and could enter neurons. In vitro co-incubation of YB-1 with monomeric β-amyloid (1-42 inhibited formation of β-amyloid fibrils, as confirmed by electron microscopy. This suggests that YB-1 interaction with β-amyloid prevents formation of filaments that are responsible for neurotoxicity and neuronal death. Our data are the first evidence for a potential therapeutic benefit of YB-1 for treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  15. Spliced X-box binding protein 1 couples the unfolded protein response to hexosamine biosynthetic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhao V; Deng, Yingfeng; Gao, Ningguo; Pedrozo, Zully; Li, Dan L; Morales, Cyndi R; Criollo, Alfredo; Luo, Xiang; Tan, Wei; Jiang, Nan; Lehrman, Mark A; Rothermel, Beverly A; Lee, Ann-Hwee; Lavandero, Sergio; Mammen, Pradeep P A; Ferdous, Anwarul; Gillette, Thomas G; Scherer, Philipp E; Hill, Joseph A

    2014-03-13

    The hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) generates uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) for glycan synthesis and O-linked GlcNAc (O-GlcNAc) protein modifications. Despite the established role of the HBP in metabolism and multiple diseases, regulation of the HBP remains largely undefined. Here, we show that spliced X-box binding protein 1 (Xbp1s), the most conserved signal transducer of the unfolded protein response (UPR), is a direct transcriptional activator of the HBP. We demonstrate that the UPR triggers HBP activation via Xbp1s-dependent transcription of genes coding for key, rate-limiting enzymes. We further establish that this previously unrecognized UPR-HBP axis is triggered in a variety of stress conditions. Finally, we demonstrate a physiologic role for the UPR-HBP axis by showing that acute stimulation of Xbp1s in heart by ischemia/reperfusion confers robust cardioprotection in part through induction of the HBP. Collectively, these studies reveal that Xbp1s couples the UPR to the HBP to protect cells under stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Microarray analysis of E-box binding-related gene expression in young and replicatively senescent human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semov, Alexandre; Marcotte, Richard; Semova, Natalie; Ye, Xiangyun; Wang, Eugenia

    2002-03-01

    An E-box (CACGTG) designer microarray was developed to monitor a group of genes whose expressions share a particular regulatory mode. Sensitivity and specificity of microarray hybridization, as well as variability of microarray data, were evaluated. This designer microarray was used to generate expression profiles of E-box binding-related genes in WI-38 fibroblast cultures at three different growth states: low-passage replicating, low-passage contact-inhibited quiescent, and replicatively senescent. Microarray gene screening reveals that quiescent and senescent cells, in comparison with replicating ones, are characterized by downregulation of Pam, a protein associated with c-Myc, and upregulation of Mad family genes, Max dimerization proteins. Moreover, quiescence and senescence can be distinguished by increased expression of Irlb, c-Myc transcription factor, and Miz-1, c-Myc-interacting Zn finger protein 1, only in the former state. Senescence is characterized by downregulation of Id4, inhibitor of DNA binding 4, and Mitf, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, in comparison with young replicating and quiescent states. Differential expression of genes detected by microarray hybridization was independently confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction technique. Alterations in the expression of E-box-binding transcription factors and c-Myc-binding proteins demonstrate the importance of these genes in establishing the contact-inhibited quiescent or senescent phenotypes.

  17. 75 FR 24747 - TATA Technologies Incorporated, a Subsidiary of TATA Technologies Limited, Formally Known as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... engineering design and product lifecycle management. Information reports that before April 2009, Tata... subject firm who were adversely affected by an affiliated vendor acquiring engineering design and product lifecycle management in India. The amended notice applicable to TA-W-71,414 is hereby issued as follows: All...

  18. 75 FR 21352 - Tata Technologies Incorporated; A Subsidiary of Tata Technologies Limited: Formally Known As...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    ... engineering design and product lifecycle management. Information reports that before April 2009, Tata... subject firm who were adversely affected by an affiliated vendor acquiring engineering design and product lifecycle management in India. The amended notice applicable to TA-W-71,414 is hereby issued as follows: All...

  19. Tata Nano:成就斐然

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    印度熙攘嘈杂的大街小巷可能将变得更加堵塞。到2010年底,印度街头可能会有多达30万辆的TataNano汽车。早在推出之前,这辆小车就已是环保人士的眼中钉。但对于潜在的买家来说,它是否是一辆好车才最重要。

  20. Cellular localization of Y-box binding protein 1 in brain tissue of rats, macaques, and humans

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    Horn Anja

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Y-box binding protein 1 (YB-1 is considered to be one of the key regulators of transcription and translation. However, so far only limited knowledge exists regarding its cellular distribution in the adult brain. Results Analysis of YB-1 immunolabelling as well as double-labelling with the neuronal marker NeuN in rat brain tissue revealed a predominant neuronal expression in the dentate gyrus, the cornu ammonis pyramidal cell layer, layer III of the piriform cortex as well as throughout all layers of the parahippocampal cortex. In the hilus of the hippocampus single neurons expressed YB-1. The neuronal expression pattern was comparable in the hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex of adult macaques and humans. Double-labelling of YB-1 with the endothelial cell marker Glut-1, the multidrug transporter P-glycoprotein, and the astrocytic marker GFAP did not indicate a co-localization. Following status epilepticus in rats, no induction of YB-1 occurred in brain capillary endothelial cells and neurons. Conclusion In conclusion, our study demonstrates that YB-1 is predominantly expressed in neurons in the adult brain of rats, macaques and humans. Lack of a co-localization with Glut-1 and P-glycoprotein argues against a direct role of YB-1 in the regulation of blood-brain barrier P-glycoprotein.

  1. Strategic innovation: The case of ‘Tata Nano’

    OpenAIRE

    Goyal, Megha

    2010-01-01

    In recent years there has been increased interest in innovations as a source of competitive advantage. For many years, it was believed that innovations are the tools of new entrants to gain rapid market share especially in markets with high barriers to entry. But in recent years, many established players (e.g. Apple, Sony and Tata motors) have led their respective industries in terms of strategic innovations. This research investigates different aspects of strategic innovations using Tata Nan...

  2. Identification of two Y-box binding proteins that interact with the promoters of columbid annexin I genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, S L; Horseman, N D

    1998-07-01

    Two annexin I (anxI) genes, called cp35 and cp37, are expressed from the pigeon (Columba livia) genome, but they are regulated differently at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. The proximal promoter elements of these two genes are very similar. A conserved sequence from the cp35 and cp37 promoters bound specifically with proteins present in cropsac cell extracts. This sequence of DNA was used to screen a lambdagt11 cDNA expression library. Clones encoding two pigeon Y-box binding proteins (YB) were isolated. One of the pigeon YB cDNAs was found to be most similar to YB1 from other species, and the other was most similar to chicken YB2. Each YB is encoded by a single-copy gene in the pigeon, and their mRNAs are expressed in many tissues. On Northern blots, the sizes of the mRNAs encoding pigeon YB1 (pYB1) and pigeon YB2 (pYB2) were 1.8 and 1.7kb, respectively. The sequences of both pYB1 and pYB2 diverge from their previously identified relatives in the N-terminal domain 'A'. Antisera were developed to unique peptide epitopes in YB1 or 2. Affinity-purified anti-YB1 and anti-YB2 detected immunoreactive proteins in extracts from a variety of pigeon tissues, including the cropsac. To confirm that pYB1 and pYB2 interact with the cp35 promoter, electrophoretic gel mobility shift reactions were carried out in the presence or absence of YB antibodies. Binding to the cp35 promoter was specifically neutralized by either anti-pYB1 or anti-pYB2. These results are the first evidence that two YB proteins simultaneously bind to a promoter element, and thereby may interact during regulation of gene expression.

  3. Functional characterization of the ER stress induced X-box-binding protein-1 (Xbp-1 in the porcine system

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    Jin Dong-Il

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The unfolded protein response (UPR is an evolutionary conserved adaptive reaction for increasing cell survival under endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress conditions. X-box-binding protein-1 (Xbp1 is a key transcription factor of UPR that activates genes involved in protein folding, secretion, and degradation to restore ER function. The UPR induced by ER stress was extensively studied in diseases linked to protein misfolding and aggregations. However, in the porcine system, genes in the UPR pathway were not investigated. In this study, we isolated and characterized the porcine Xbp1 (pXbp1 gene in ER stress using porcine embryonic fibroblast (PEF cells and porcine organs. ER stress was induced by the treatment of tunicamycin and cell viability was investigated by the MTT assay. For cloning and analyzing the expression pattern of pXbp1, RT-PCR analysis and Western blot were used. Knock-down of pXbp1 was performed by the siRNA-mediated gene silencing. Results We found that the pXbp1 mRNA was the subject of the IRE1α-mediated unconventional splicing by ER stress. Knock-down of pXbp1 enhanced ER stress-mediated cell death in PEF cells. In adult organs, pXbp1 mRNA and protein were expressed and the spliced forms were detected. Conclusions It was first found that the UPR mechanisms and the function of pXbp1 in the porcine system. These results indicate that pXbp1 plays an important role during the ER stress response like other animal systems and open a new opportunity for examining the UPR pathway in the porcine model system.

  4. Analysis of the VMD2 promoter and implication of E-box binding factors in its regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esumi, Noriko; Oshima, Yuji; Li, Yuanyuan; Campochiaro, Peter A; Zack, Donald J

    2004-04-30

    The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is crucial for the normal development and function of retinal photo-receptors, and mutations in several genes that are preferentially expressed in the RPE have been shown to cause retinal degeneration. We analyzed the 5'-up-stream region of human VMD2, a gene that is preferentially expressed in the RPE and, when mutated, causes Best macular dystrophy. Transgenic mouse studies with VMD2 promoter/lacZ constructs demonstrated that a-253 to +38 bp fragment is sufficient to direct RPE-specific expression in the eye. Transient transfection assays using the D407 human RPE cell line with VMD2 promoter/luciferase reporter constructs identified two positive regulatory regions, -585 to -541 bp for high level expression and -56 to -42 bp for low level expression. Mutation of a canonical E-box located in the -56 to -42 bp region greatly diminished luciferase expression in D407 cells and abolished the bands shifted with bovine RPE nuclear extract in electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Independently a candidate approach was used to select microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) for testing because it is expressed in the RPE and associated with RPE abnormalities when mutated. MITF-M significantly increased luciferase expression in D407 cells in an E-box-dependent manner. These studies define the VMD2 promoter region sufficient to drive RPE-specific expression in the eye, identify positive regulatory regions in vitro, and suggest that MITF as well as other E-box binding factors may act as positive regulators of VMD2 expression.

  5. CLOCKWORK ORANGE Enhances PERIOD Mediated Rhythms in Transcriptional Repression by Antagonizing E-box Binding by CLOCK-CYCLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Yu, Wangjie; Hardin, Paul E

    2016-11-01

    The Drosophila circadian oscillator controls daily rhythms in physiology, metabolism and behavior via transcriptional feedback loops. CLOCK-CYCLE (CLK-CYC) heterodimers initiate feedback loop function by binding E-box elements to activate per and tim transcription. PER-TIM heterodimers then accumulate, bind CLK-CYC to inhibit transcription, and are ultimately degraded to enable the next round of transcription. The timing of transcriptional events in this feedback loop coincide with, and are controlled by, rhythms in CLK-CYC binding to E-boxes. PER rhythmically binds CLK-CYC to initiate transcriptional repression, and subsequently promotes the removal of CLK-CYC from E-boxes. However, little is known about the mechanism by which CLK-CYC is removed from DNA. Previous studies demonstrated that the transcription repressor CLOCKWORK ORANGE (CWO) contributes to core feedback loop function by repressing per and tim transcription in cultured S2 cells and in flies. Here we show that CWO rhythmically binds E-boxes upstream of core clock genes in a reciprocal manner to CLK, thereby promoting PER-dependent removal of CLK-CYC from E-boxes, and maintaining repression until PER is degraded and CLK-CYC displaces CWO from E-boxes to initiate transcription. These results suggest a model in which CWO co-represses CLK-CYC transcriptional activity in conjunction with PER by competing for E-box binding once CLK-CYC-PER complexes have formed. Given that CWO orthologs DEC1 and DEC2 also target E-boxes bound by CLOCK-BMAL1, a similar mechanism may operate in the mammalian clock.

  6. The zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 (Zeb1) promotes the conversion of mouse fibroblasts into functional neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Long; Li, Yue; Shi, Zixiao; Lu, Xiaoyin; Ma, Jiao; Hu, Baoyang; Jiao, Jianwei; Wang, Hongmei

    2017-08-04

    The zinc finger E-box-binding transcription factor Zeb1 plays a pivotal role in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Numerous studies have focused on the molecular mechanisms by which Zeb1 contributes to this process. However, the functions of Zeb1 beyond the epithelial-mesenchymal transition remain largely elusive. Using a transdifferentiation system to convert mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) into functional neurons via the neuronal transcription factors achaete-scute family bHLH (basic helix-loop-helix) transcription factor1 (Ascl1), POU class 3 homeobox 2 (POU3F2/Brn2), and neurogenin 2 (Neurog2, Ngn2) (ABN), we found that Zeb1 was up-regulated during the early stages of transdifferentiation. Knocking down Zeb1 dramatically attenuated the transdifferentiation efficiency, whereas Zeb1 overexpression obviously increased the efficiency of transdifferentiation from MEFs to neurons. Interestingly, Zeb1 improved the transdifferentiation efficiency induced by even a single transcription factor (e.g. Asc1 or Ngn2). Zeb1 also rapidly promoted the maturation of induced neuron cells to functional neurons and improved the formation of neuronal patterns and electrophysiological characteristics. Induced neuron cells could form functional synapse in vivo after transplantation. Genome-wide RNA arrays showed that Zeb1 overexpression up-regulated the expression of neuron-specific genes and down-regulated the expression of epithelial-specific genes during conversion. Taken together, our results reveal a new role for Zeb1 in the transdifferentiation of MEFs into neurons. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Differential distribution of Y-box-binding protein 1 and cold shock domain protein A in developing and adult human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Hans-Gert; Lindquist, Jonathan A; Keilhoff, Gerburg; Dobrowolny, Henrik; Brandt, Sabine; Steiner, Johann; Bogerts, Bernhard; Mertens, Peter R

    2015-07-01

    The two cold shock domain containing proteins, Y-box-binding protein-1 and cold shock domain protein A were immunolocalized in developing and adult human brain. With the exception of a small population of hypothalamic astrocytes, brain Y-box-binding protein-1 was predominantly found in multiple neurons in the mature human CNS, which might be related to its involvement in neurotransmission and other neuron-associated functions. Cold shock domain protein A was typically observed in astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, choroid plexus epithelia and nerve fibers. However, in circumscribed brain regions as hypothalamus, habenula, and cerebellum, this protein was also expressed in neurons. In the prenatal brain, both proteins were found to be abundantly expressed in radial glial cells, neuroblasts and neurons, which might be an anatomical correlate of the proposed roles of both proteins in cell proliferation and differentiation. In addition, Y-box-binding protein-1 was identified in cultured, lipopolysaccharide-stimulated microglial cells, which underscores its putative role as a mediator in immune and inflammatory processes.

  8. Airway epithelial inflammation-induced endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ store expansion is mediated by X-box binding protein-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Mary E B; Olsen, John C; Fulcher, Nanette B; Wolfgang, Matthew C; O'Neal, Wanda K; Ribeiro, Carla M P

    2009-05-29

    Inflamed cystic fibrosis (CF) human bronchial epithelia (HBE), or normal HBE exposed to supernatant from mucopurulent material (SMM) from CF airways, exhibit endoplasmic reticulum (ER)/Ca(2+) store expansion and amplified Ca(2+)-mediated inflammation. HBE inflammation triggers an unfolded protein response (UPR) coupled to mRNA splicing of X-box binding protein-1 (XBP-1). Because spliced XBP-1 (XBP-1s) promotes ER expansion in other cellular models, we hypothesized that XBP-1s is responsible for the ER/Ca(2+) store expansion in inflamed HBE. XBP-1s was increased in freshly isolated infected/inflamed CF in comparison with normal HBE. The link between airway epithelial inflammation, XBP-1s, and ER/Ca(2+) store expansion was then addressed in murine airways challenged with phosphate-buffered saline or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. P. aeruginosa-challenged mice exhibited airway epithelial ER/Ca(2+) store expansion, which correlated with airway inflammation. P. aeruginosa-induced airway inflammation triggered XBP-1s in ER stress-activated indicator (ERAI) mice. To evaluate the functional role of XBP-1s in airway inflammation linked to ER/Ca(2+) store expansion, control, XBP-1s, or dominant negative XBP-1 (DN-XBP-1) stably expressing 16HBE14o(-) cell lines were used. Studies with cells transfected with an unfolded protein response element (UPRE) luciferase reporter plasmid confirmed that the UPRE was activated or inhibited by expression of XBP-1s or DN-XBP-1, respectively. Expression of XBP-1s induced ER/Ca(2+) store expansion and potentiated bradykinin-increased interleukin (IL)-8 secretion, whereas expression of DN-XBP-1 inhibited bradykinin-dependent IL-8 secretion. In addition, expression of DN-XBP-1 blunted SMM-induced ER/Ca(2+) store expansion and SMM-induced IL-8 secretion. These findings suggest that, in inflamed HBE, XBP-1s is responsible for the ER/Ca(2+) store expansion that confers amplification of Ca(2+)-dependent inflammatory responses.

  9. Dinamika Keadilan dan Kepastian Hukum dalam Peradilan Tata Usaha Negara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willy Riawan Tjandra

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The shifting paradigm of formal approach for state based on law to substantive approach for state based on law actually gives space to synchronize justice and legal certainty aspect in the administrative judiciary. Good governance principles as a guidance to evaluate administrative decree should be used to make justice aspect prominent in administrative court’s decision which based on Pancasila.  Pergeseran paradigma negara hukum formil menjadi negara hukum materiil memberikan ruang penyelarasan aspek keadilan dan kepastian hukum dalam Peradilan Tata Usaha Negara. Asas- Asas Umum Pemerintahan yang Baik sebagai norma yang menilai keabsahan Keputusan Tata Usaha Negara, seharusnya dapat digunakan untuk mengutamakan dimensi keadilan dalam putusan Peradilan Tata Usaha Negara yang berlandaskan Pancasila.

  10. Tata võidujooks Jaguarile ja Roverile / Gail Edmondson, David Welch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Edmondson, Gail

    2007-01-01

    India autotöösturile Ratan N. Tata kuuluv Tata Motors soovib osta kahjumis olevad Jaguar Carsi ja Land Roveri, mille Ford Motor on enampakkumisele pannud. Kaasautor Nandini Lakshman. Diagramm: Briti brändidest kaugel ees

  11. Tata võidujooks Jaguarile ja Roverile / Gail Edmondson, David Welch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Edmondson, Gail

    2007-01-01

    India autotöösturile Ratan N. Tata kuuluv Tata Motors soovib osta kahjumis olevad Jaguar Carsi ja Land Roveri, mille Ford Motor on enampakkumisele pannud. Kaasautor Nandini Lakshman. Diagramm: Briti brändidest kaugel ees

  12. Building the Method to Determine the Rate of Freezing Water in Penaeus monodon of the Freezing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Tan Dzung

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The method of determination the rate of freezing water in Penaeus monodon of freezing process was established on base the equation of energy balance in warming up process Penaeus monodon after freezing to determine specific heat of Penaeus monodon. The result obtained was built the mathematical model (19 to determine the rate of freezing water according to the freezing temperature of Penaeus monodon. The results indicated that when water was completely frozen (ω = 1 or 100%, the optimal freezing temperature of Penaeus monodon was-22.00°C.

  13. The CCAAT box-binding factor stimulates ammonium assimilation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, defining a new cross-pathway regulation between nitrogen and carbon metabolisms.

    OpenAIRE

    Dang, V D; Bohn, C.; Bolotin-Fukuhara, M; Daignan-Fornier, B.

    1996-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, carbon and nitrogen metabolisms are connected via the incorporation of ammonia into glutamate; this reaction is catalyzed by the NADP-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (NADP-GDH) encoded by the GDH1 gene. In this report, we show that the GDH1 gene requires the CCAAT box-binding activator (HAP complex) for optimal expression. This conclusion is based on several lines of evidence: (1) overexpression of GDH1 can correct the growth defect of hap2 and hap3 mutants on a...

  14. Prevalence of the initiator over the TATA box in human and yeast genes and identification of DNA motifs enriched in human TATA-less core promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuhu; Bolotin, Eugene; Jiang, Tao; Sladek, Frances M; Martinez, Ernest

    2007-03-01

    The core promoter of eukaryotic genes is the minimal DNA region that recruits the basal transcription machinery to direct efficient and accurate transcription initiation. The fraction of human and yeast genes that contain specific core promoter elements such as the TATA box and the initiator (INR) remains unclear and core promoter motifs specific for TATA-less genes remain to be identified. Here, we present genome-scale computational analyses indicating that approximately 76% of human core promoters lack TATA-like elements, have a high GC content, and are enriched in Sp1-binding sites. We further identify two motifs - M3 (SCGGAAGY) and M22 (TGCGCANK) - that occur preferentially in human TATA-less core promoters. About 24% of human genes have a TATA-like element and their promoters are generally AT-rich; however, only approximately 10% of these TATA-containing promoters have the canonical TATA box (TATAWAWR). In contrast, approximately 46% of human core promoters contain the consensus INR (YYANWYY) and approximately 30% are INR-containing TATA-less genes. Significantly, approximately 46% of human promoters lack both TATA-like and consensus INR elements. Surprisingly, mammalian-type INR sequences are present - and tend to cluster - in the transcription start site (TSS) region of approximately 40% of yeast core promoters and the frequency of specific core promoter types appears to be conserved in yeast and human genomes. Gene Ontology analyses reveal that TATA-less genes in humans, as in yeast, are frequently involved in basic "housekeeping" processes, while TATA-containing genes are more often highly regulated, such as by biotic or stress stimuli. These results reveal unexpected similarities in the occurrence of specific core promoter types and in their associated biological processes in yeast and humans and point to novel vertebrate-specific DNA motifs that might play a selective role in TATA-independent transcription.

  15. PENGATURAN KEBIJAKAN PEMERINTAH INDONESIA MENGENAI TATA NIAGA IMPOR PANGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihabudin Sihabudin

    2016-03-01

    This paper is about to do a reformulation of the government's policy regarding the adjustment of the trade system for food imports, in order to find effective policy formulation and efficient in solving the problems that arise regarding the marketing of food imports that has been happening. By using descriptive normative legal analysis, the study found that the common thread of chaos cross trade system for food import regulations which are due to unfitted between national regulations and regional regulations (AFTA, CAFTA, APEC as well as global regulations (GATT-WTO. Thus, administrative reform of domestic and foreign trade are necessary, particularly regarding to the procedure of rice imports. All forms of deviations in import licensing process, document manipulation, and the pattern of non-governmental practices must obtain decisive action, both administratively and legally, as a valuable shock-therapy. Key words: government policy, trade , regulation, import Abstrak Kebijakan adalah keputusan pemerintah yang bersifat umum dan berlaku untuk seluruh anggota masyarakat. Konsekuensi hukum dari menjadi anggota organisasi perdagangan dunia adalah bahwasanya pemerintah Indonesia harus ikut tunduk dan patuh pada kaidah-kaidah yang disepakati dalam persetujuan perdagangan internasional terkait ekspor-impor, termasuk melakukan perubahan terhadap instrumen hukum dan kebijaksanaan pembangunan di sektor perdagangan. Tata niaga beras dan beberapa komoditas pangan lain yang melibatkan impor memiliki dimensi permasalahan yang tidak sederhana, bahkan multi-dimensi, mulai dari ekonomi, politik, bahkan sosio kultural. Kebijakan pemerintah Indonesia mengenai pengaturan tata niaga impor pangan merupakan upaya melindungi produsen dalam negeri dari kegiatan dumping atau karena meningkatnya produk impor, juga untuk melindungi konsumen Indonesia dari produk impor yang tidak memenuhi standar kualitas keamanan dan kesehatan konsumen. Tulisan ini hendak melakukan reformulasi kebijakan

  16. Life history parameters of narwhals (Monodon monoceros) from Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Eva; Hansen, Steen H; Ditlevsen, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Life history parameters for narwhals (Monodon monoceros) were estimated based on age estimates from aspartic acid racemization of eye lens nuclei. Eyes, reproductive organs, and measures of body lengths were collected from 282 narwhals in East and West Greenland in the years 1993, 2004, and 2007...... projection matrix was parameterized with the data on age structure and fertility rates. The annual rate of increase of narwhals in East Greenland was estimated to be 3.8% while narwhals in West Greenland had a rate of increase at 2.6%. Key words:...

  17. TINJAUAN KEADILAN SOSIAL TERHADAP HUKUM TATA PANGAN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulhani Hermawan Hermawan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to explore the perspectives of social justice concepts for food laws in Indonesia, especially food and farm. The analysis begin with critical study about positive Laws in Indonesia on food and farm. This is followed by critical study for Regulation of Government on food and farm. Philosophical study of justice and injustice, the facts of injustice for majority of Indonesian farmers, are used to look critically how the positive laws on food and farm become the trigger of the injustice. Tulisan ini mengungkap perspektif keadilan sosial terhadap Hukum Tata Pangan di Indonesia, terutama pangan dan pertanian. Analisis dimulai dengan studi kritis terhadap Undang-Undang di Indonesia tentang tata pangan dan pertanian lalu diikuti dengan studi kritis terhadap beberapa Peraturan Pemerintah yang terkait dengan UU tersebut. Kajian filosofis soal keadilan dan ketidakadilan serta beberapa fakta tentang ketidakadilan yang diderita oleh mayoritas petani Indonesia, dipakai untuk menyoroti secara kritis bagaimana hukum positif tentang tata pangan dan pertanian justru menjadi pemicu ketidakadilan tersebut.

  18. Immune response of shrimp (Penaeus monodon) against Vibrios furnissii pathogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kumaran Subramanian; Deivasigamani Balaraman; Rajasekar Thirunavukarasu; Suresh Gopal; Pugazhvendan Sampath Renuka; Alagappan Kumarappan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To analyse experimental infection and immune system of shrimp (Penaeus monodon) against Vibrios furnissii (V. furnissii). Methods: Experimental animals were collected and acclimatized by maintaining specific temperature, pH and salinity to avoid mortality. Shrimps were experimentally infected with V. furnissii and their immune responses were monitored. After the infection all the shrimps were monitored for any symptoms, death rate in 0, 12, 24, 36, 48 h. Then haemolymph were collected and tetrahydrocannabinol, phenol oxidase, nitroblue tetrazolium and lysozyme were monitored in every 12 h at the interval of 48 h. Results: Shrimps infected by live V. furnissii had showed gradual increase in tetrahydrocannabinol, phenol oxidase activity, nitro-blue-tetrazolium and lysozyme activity comparing with the killed and control.Conclusions:The live V. furnissii shows infection in experimental shrimps comparing with killed V. furnissii. So the V. furnissii in nature cause the infection in shrimp Penaeus monodon immune system. This report could be applied to control of the infection in shrimp hatchery.

  19. PENGARUH LAMA PENYIMPANAN SAMPEL UDANG WINDU (Penaeus monodon) TERHADAP HASIL ANALISA AMINOHYDANTOIN (AHD) DENGAN METODE ELISA

    OpenAIRE

    Angga Hadi Saputra

    2011-01-01

    Angga Hadi Saputra, Influence Of The Black Tiger Prawn (Penaeus monodon) Depository Time To Aminohydantoin (AHD) Analyzed Result With ELISA Method advised by Azis, S.Pi., M.Si. Black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) was which one of export commodity that been reach the international market. Sometimes many country or citizen use antibiotic that prohibited to overcoming the prawn health from many deseases like group of antibiotic nitrofurans that is Aminohydantoin (AHD). To know the result of an...

  20. Bioaccumulation and depuration of anthracene in Penaeus monodon (Fibricius) through food ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Pei Thing; Yong, Jaw Chuen; Chin, Kam Yew; Hii, Yii Siang

    2011-07-01

    Understanding on the bioaccumulation and depuration of PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in Penaeus monodon is important in seafood safety because it is one of the most popular seafood consumed worldwide. In this study, we used anthracene as the precursor compound for PAHs accumulation and depuration in the shrimp. Commercial feed pellets spiked with anthracene were fed to P. monodon. At 20 mg kg(-1) anthracene, P. monodon accumulated 0.1% of the anthracene from the feed. P. monodon deputed the PAH two times faster than its accumulation. The shrimp reduced its feed consumption when anthracene content in the feed exceeded 20 mg kg(-1). At 100 mg kg(-1) anthracene, P. monodon started to have necrosis tissues on the posterior end of their thorax. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF), uptake rate constant (k(1)) and depuration rate constant (k(2)) of anthracene in P. monodon were 1.15×10(-3), 6.80×10(-4) d(-1) and 6.28×10(-1) d(-1), respectively. The depuration rate constant is about thousand times higher than the uptake rate constant and this indicated that this crustacean is efficient in depurating hydrocarbons from their tissue.

  1. ANALISIS KUALITAS PELAYANAN PADA BAGIAN TATA USAHA BERDASARKAN TINGKAT KEPUASAN MAHASISWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzakiyah Muzakiyah

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Kepuasan pelanggan merupakan hasil (outcome yang dirasakan atas penggunanya produk atau jasa, sama atau melebihi harapan yang diinginkan. Pelayanan di bagian Tata Usaha idealnya lebih bersahabat, cepat dan akurat. Ini berarti orientasi layanan di bagian Tata Usaha harus didasarkan pada kebutuhan mahasiswa. Dalam penelitian ini metode yang digunakan dengan menggunakan Pendekatan Lean ServPerf (Lean Service dan Service Performance. Service Performance digunakan untuk menganalisis tingkat instrumen kinerja pelayanan bagian Tata Usaha. Lean Service digunakan untuk menghilangkan waste aktivitas yang tidak bernilai tambah. Hasil dari penelitian ini, terdapat 14 atribut pelayanan yang perlu dilakukan perbaikan untuk meningkatkan kualitas pelayanan di bagian Tata Usaha Fakultas.

  2. Tata Kelola Publik Dan Kinerja Keuangan Pemerintah Daerah Di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handoko A Hasthoro

    2016-08-01

      Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menguji pengaruh penerapan tata kelola publik terhadap kinerja keuangan pemerintah daerah di Indonesia. Pelaksanaan pemerintahan umum diukur dengan menggunakan transparansi pemerintah daerah, akuntabilitas pemerintah daerah, budaya hukum, dan partisipasi masyarakat. Sejumlah lima puluh pemerintah daerah yang disurvei oleh Tansparency International Indonesia pada tahun 2010 digunakan sebagai sampel. Hasil dari analisis regresi berganda menunjukkan bahwa budaya hukum yang ditunjukkan oleh indeks persepsi korupsi, dan partisipasi masyarakat yang diwakili oleh jumlah pemilih pemilu memiliki pengaruh signifikan positif pada kinerja keuangan pemerintah daerah di Indonesia. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penegakan hukum dan pemilu yang adil mendorong kepercayaan masyarakat untuk membayar pajak yang meningkatkan pendapatan asli.

  3. Protein profiling in the gut of Penaeus monodon gavaged with oral WSSV-vaccines and live white spot syndrom virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulkarni, A.D.; Kiron, V.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.; Brinchmann, M.; Fernandes, J.M.O.; Sudheer, N.S.; Singh, B.I.S.

    2014-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a pathogen that causes considerable mortality of the farmed shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Candidate ‘vaccines’, WSSV envelope protein VP28 and formalin-inactivated WSSV, can provide short-lived protection against the virus. In this study, P. monodon was orally intubate

  4. Evaluation of immune and apoptosis related gene responses using an RNAi approach in vaccinated Penaeus monodon during oral WSSV infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulkarni, A.D.; Caipang, C.M.A.; Kiron, V.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.; Fernandes, J.M.O.; Brinchmann, M.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study RNA interference was used to elucidate the connection between two endogenous genes [Penaeus monodon Rab7 (PmRab7) or P. monodon inhibitor of apoptosis (PmIAP)], and selected immune/apoptosis-related genes in orally ‘vaccinated’ shrimp after white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infec

  5. Duplex real-time PCR for detection and quantification of monodon baculovirus (MBV) and hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) in Penaeus monodon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kathy F J; Lightner, Donald V

    2011-02-22

    We describe a duplex real-time PCR assay using TaqMan probes for the simultaneous detection of monodon baculovirus (MBV) and hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV). Both MBV and HPV are shrimp enteric viruses that infect intestinal and hepatopancreatic epithelial cells. Both viruses can cause significant mortalities and depressed growth in infected larval, postlarval, and early juvenile stages of shrimp, and thus present a risk to commercial aquaculture. In this duplex assay, we combined 2 single real-time PCRs, amplifying MBV and HPV, in a one-tube PCR reaction. The 2 viruses were distinguished by specific fluorescent labels at the 5' end of TaqMan probes: the MBV probe was labeled with dichlorodimethoxyfluorescein (JOE), and the HPV probe was labeled with 6-carboxyfluorescein (FAM). The duplex real-time PCR assay was performed in a multi-channel real-time PCR detection system, and MBV and HPV amplification signals were separately detected by the JOE and FAM channels. This duplex assay was validated to be specific to the target viruses and found to have a detection limit of single copies for each virus. The dynamic range was found to be from 1 to 1 x 10(8) copies per reaction. This assay was further applied to quantify MBV and HPV in samples of infected Penaeus monodon collected from Malaysia, Indonesia, and Thailand. The specificity and sensitivity of this duplex real-time PCR assay offer a valuable tool for routine diagnosis and quantification of MBV and HPV from both wild and farmed shrimp stocks.

  6. X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1s is a critical determinant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa homoserine lactone-mediated apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathleen D Valentine

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections are associated with high mortality rates and occur in diverse conditions including pneumonias, cystic fibrosis and neutropenia. Quorum sensing, mediated by small molecules including N-(3-oxo-dodecanoyl homoserine lactone (C12, regulates P. aeruginosa growth and virulence. In addition, host cell recognition of C12 initiates multiple signalling responses including cell death. To gain insight into mechanisms of C12-mediated cytotoxicity, we studied the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress in host cell responses to C12. Dramatic protection against C12-mediated cell death was observed in cells that do not produce the X-box binding protein 1 transcription factor (XBP1s. The leucine zipper and transcriptional activation motifs of XBP1s were sufficient to restore C12-induced caspase activation in XBP1s-deficient cells, although this polypeptide was not transcriptionally active. The XBP1s polypeptide also regulated caspase activation in cells stimulated with N-(3-oxo-tetradecanoyl homoserine lactone (C14, produced by Yersinia enterolitica and Burkholderia pseudomallei, and enhanced homoserine lactone-mediated caspase activation in the presence of endogenous XBP1s. In C12-tolerant cells, responses to C12 including phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and eukaryotic initiation factor 2α were conserved, suggesting that C12 cytotoxicity is not heavily dependent on these pathways. In summary, this study reveals a novel and unconventional role for XBP1s in regulating host cell cytotoxic responses to bacterial acyl homoserine lactones.

  7. Polymorphism - 116C/G of the human X box binding protein 1 gene is associated with risk of type 2 diabetes in a Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shengyuan; Ma, Guoda; Yao, Songpo; Chen, Zhongwei; Wang, Changyi; Zhao, Bin; Li, Keshen

    2016-01-01

    Evidence has been obtained showing that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is closely associated with the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and that the human X box binding protein 1 (XBP1) is an important transcription factor involved in the development of ER stress. The study aimed to analyze the potential association between polymorphism -116C/G of XBP1 and the risk of T2D. The association between XBP1 polymorphism -116C/G and T2D risk was assessed among 1058 consecutive unrelated subjects, including 523 T2D patients and 535 healthy controls, in a case control study. The -116GG genotype and -116G allele were more frequent in T2D subjects compared with control subjects by statistical analysis, showing that the -116GG homozygote polymorphism of XBP1 might lead to increased susceptibility to T2D in a Chinese Han population. T2D subjects with the -116GG genotype had higher fasting plasma glucose levels, fasting insulin levels, and HbA1c and worse HOMA-IR than the T2D subjects with -116CG and -116CC genotypes (PG polymorphism of the XBP1 promoter in the pathogenesis of T2D in a Chinese Han population, and more studies are needed to further evaluate our results.

  8. Peroxiredoxins, thioredoxin, and Y-box-binding protein-1 are involved in the pathogenesis and progression of dialysis-associated renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fushimi, Fumiyoshi; Taguchi, Kenichi; Izumi, Hiroto; Kohno, Kimitoshi; Kuwano, Michihiko; Ono, Mayumi; Nakashima, Yutaka; Takesue, Tetsuro; Naito, Seiji; Oda, Yoshinao

    2013-10-01

    Patients with end-stage renal disease are exposed to increased oxidative stress and impairment of antioxidant mechanisms. We focused on dialysis renal cell carcinoma (RCC), including epithelial hyperplasia in acquired cystic disease of the kidney (ACDK). We attempted to obtain insight into the carcinogenesis and tumor progression in terms of cellular defense mechanisms associated with oxidative stress by investigating the expression of antioxidant proteins by immunohistochemistry. We evaluated retrospectively 43 cases of dialysis RCC and, as a control group, 49 cases of sporadic RCC. Peroxiredoxin (Prx) 1, 3, 4, 5, and 6 expression in dialysis RCC was positively correlated with the duration of dialysis. In epithelial hyperplasia, in 17 cases of acquired cystic disease of the kidney, Prxs and thioredoxin were highly expressed. Moreover, in dialysis RCC, Prx 3, 4, and 5 immunoreactivity and nuclear expression of Y-box-binding protein-1 were higher than in sporadic RCC. In dialysis RCC, Prx 3, 4, and 5 immunoreactivity positively correlated with the Fuhrman nuclear grade. These data suggest that oxidative stress during dialysis enhances antioxidant activity, with an inhibiting effect on carcinogenesis. Once cancer has developed, antioxidant activity might have a stimulating effect on the progression of dialysis RCC.

  9. Identification of Y-box binding protein 1 as a core regulator of MEK/ERK pathway-dependent gene signatures in colorectal cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Jürchott

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Transcriptional signatures are an indispensible source of correlative information on disease-related molecular alterations on a genome-wide level. Numerous candidate genes involved in disease and in factors of predictive, as well as of prognostic, value have been deduced from such molecular portraits, e.g. in cancer. However, mechanistic insights into the regulatory principles governing global transcriptional changes are lagging behind extensive compilations of deregulated genes. To identify regulators of transcriptome alterations, we used an integrated approach combining transcriptional profiling of colorectal cancer cell lines treated with inhibitors targeting the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK/RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, computational prediction of regulatory elements in promoters of co-regulated genes, chromatin-based and functional cellular assays. We identified commonly co-regulated, proliferation-associated target genes that respond to the MAPK pathway. We recognized E2F and NFY transcription factor binding sites as prevalent motifs in those pathway-responsive genes and confirmed the predicted regulatory role of Y-box binding protein 1 (YBX1 by reporter gene, gel shift, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. We also validated the MAPK-dependent gene signature in colorectal cancers and provided evidence for the association of YBX1 with poor prognosis in colorectal cancer patients. This suggests that MEK/ERK-dependent, YBX1-regulated target genes are involved in executing malignant properties.

  10. Transcription factor binding site positioning in yeast: proximal promoter motifs characterize TATA-less promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, Ionas; van Nimwegen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    The availability of sequence specificities for a substantial fraction of yeast's transcription factors and comparative genomic algorithms for binding site prediction has made it possible to comprehensively annotate transcription factor binding sites genome-wide. Here we use such a genome-wide annotation for comprehensively studying promoter architecture in yeast, focusing on the distribution of transcription factor binding sites relative to transcription start sites, and the architecture of TATA and TATA-less promoters. For most transcription factors, binding sites are positioned further upstream and vary over a wider range in TATA promoters than in TATA-less promoters. In contrast, a group of 6 'proximal promoter motifs' (GAT1/GLN3/DAL80, FKH1/2, PBF1/2, RPN4, NDT80, and ROX1) occur preferentially in TATA-less promoters and show a strong preference for binding close to the transcription start site in these promoters. We provide evidence that suggests that pre-initiation complexes are recruited at TATA sites in TATA promoters and at the sites of the other proximal promoter motifs in TATA-less promoters. TATA-less promoters can generally be classified by the proximal promoter motif they contain, with different classes of TATA-less promoters showing different patterns of transcription factor binding site positioning and nucleosome coverage. These observations suggest that different modes of regulation of transcription initiation may be operating in the different promoter classes. In addition we show that, across all promoter classes, there is a close match between nucleosome free regions and regions of highest transcription factor binding site density. This close agreement between transcription factor binding site density and nucleosome depletion suggests a direct and general competition between transcription factors and nucleosomes for binding to promoters.

  11. Transcription factor binding site positioning in yeast: proximal promoter motifs characterize TATA-less promoters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionas Erb

    Full Text Available The availability of sequence specificities for a substantial fraction of yeast's transcription factors and comparative genomic algorithms for binding site prediction has made it possible to comprehensively annotate transcription factor binding sites genome-wide. Here we use such a genome-wide annotation for comprehensively studying promoter architecture in yeast, focusing on the distribution of transcription factor binding sites relative to transcription start sites, and the architecture of TATA and TATA-less promoters. For most transcription factors, binding sites are positioned further upstream and vary over a wider range in TATA promoters than in TATA-less promoters. In contrast, a group of 6 'proximal promoter motifs' (GAT1/GLN3/DAL80, FKH1/2, PBF1/2, RPN4, NDT80, and ROX1 occur preferentially in TATA-less promoters and show a strong preference for binding close to the transcription start site in these promoters. We provide evidence that suggests that pre-initiation complexes are recruited at TATA sites in TATA promoters and at the sites of the other proximal promoter motifs in TATA-less promoters. TATA-less promoters can generally be classified by the proximal promoter motif they contain, with different classes of TATA-less promoters showing different patterns of transcription factor binding site positioning and nucleosome coverage. These observations suggest that different modes of regulation of transcription initiation may be operating in the different promoter classes. In addition we show that, across all promoter classes, there is a close match between nucleosome free regions and regions of highest transcription factor binding site density. This close agreement between transcription factor binding site density and nucleosome depletion suggests a direct and general competition between transcription factors and nucleosomes for binding to promoters.

  12. TATA 便宜才是硬道理 NANO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    印度塔塔汽车公司(TATA)于3月23日在印度市场正式推出价格只有12万卢比(约合人民币1.8万元)的世界上最便宜的汽车Nano,塔塔Nano的目标是让印度普通民众都能圆上自己的汽车梦。尽管各种舆论对此褒贬不一,但这对于包括印度在内的众多汽车新兴市场而言,毕竟标志着汽车制造业改革的新开端。

  13. IMPLEMENTASI HUKUM LINGKUNGAN DALAM PERENCANAAN TATA RUANG KOTA PAMEKASAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umi Supraptiningsih

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstracThe city master plan connecting to its interior design has been the major requirement to develop a city. It comprises both private and public interest development. Therefore, every city development must intentionally consider environment harmony and balance. To carry out this, the government applies a tight development license. Ijin Lingkungan (environment care license as a means of environment conservation, has not been ruled as a comprehensive environment care license. This license refers to a dual license systems---industrial license and Hinder Ordonannantie. On the other hand, Stb. 1926 No. 226 is not used any longer  as a reference of improving the system of environment care license. The government also recommends a continuity development. It is proportionally  characterized by three pillars---economic, social and environment conservation developmentsKata-kata kunciImplementasi, Hukum Lingkungan, Perencanaan Tata Ruang Kota

  14. X-box binding protein 1 is essential for the anti-oxidant defense and cell survival in the retinal pigment epithelium.

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    Yimin Zhong

    Full Text Available Damage to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE is an early event in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD. X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1 is a key transcription factor that regulates endoplasmic reticulum (ER homeostasis and cell survival. This study aimed to delineate the role of endogenous XBP1 in the RPE. Our results show that in a rat model of light-induced retinal degeneration, XBP1 activation was suppressed in the RPE/choroid complex, accompanied by decreased anti-oxidant genes and increased oxidative stress. Knockdown of XBP1 by siRNA resulted in reduced expression of SOD1, SOD2, catalase, and glutathione synthase and sensitized RPE cells to oxidative damage. Using Cre/LoxP system, we generated a mouse line that lacks XBP1 only in RPE cells. Compared to wildtype littermates, RPE-XBP1 KO mice expressed less SOD1, SOD2, and catalase in the RPE, and had increased oxidative stress. At age 3 months and older, these mice exhibited apoptosis of RPE cells, decreased number of cone photoreceptors, shortened photoreceptor outer segment, reduced ONL thickness, and deficit in retinal function. Electron microscopy showed abnormal ultrastructure, Bruch's membrane thickening, and disrupted basal membrane infolding in XBP1-deficient RPE. These results indicate that XBP1 is an important gene involved in regulation of the anti-oxidant defense in the RPE, and that impaired activation of XBP1 may contribute to RPE dysfunction and cell death during retinal degeneration and AMD.

  15. The CCAAT box-binding factor stimulates ammonium assimilation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, defining a new cross-pathway regulation between nitrogen and carbon metabolisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, V D; Bohn, C; Bolotin-Fukuhara, M; Daignan-Fornier, B

    1996-04-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, carbon and nitrogen metabolisms are connected via the incorporation of ammonia into glutamate; this reaction is catalyzed by the NADP-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (NADP-GDH) encoded by the GDH1 gene. In this report, we show that the GDH1 gene requires the CCAAT box-binding activator (HAP complex) for optimal expression. This conclusion is based on several lines of evidence: (1) overexpression of GDH1 can correct the growth defect of hap2 and hap3 mutants on ammonium sulfate as a nitrogen source, (ii) Northern (RNA) blot analysis shows that the steady-state level of GDH1 mRNA is strongly lowered in a hap2 mutant, (iii) expression of a GDH1-lacZ fusion is drastically reduced in hap mutants, (iv) NADP-GDH activity is several times lower in the hap mutants compared with that in the isogenic wild-type strain, and finally, (v) site-directed mutagenesis of two consensual HAP binding sites in the GDH1 promoter strongly reduces expression of GDH1 and makes it HAP independent. Expression of GDH1 is also regulated by the carbon source, i.e., expression is higher on lactate than on ethanol, glycerol, or galactose, with the lowest expression being found on glucose. Finally, we show that a hap2 mutation does not affect expression of other genes involved in nitrogen metabolism (GDH2, GLN1, and GLN3 encoding, respectively, the NAD-GDH, glutamine synthetase, and a general activator of several nitrogen catabolic genes). The HAP complex is known to regulate expression of several genes involved in carbon metabolism; its role in the control of GDH1 gene expression, therefore, provides evidence for a cross-pathway regulation between carbon and nitrogen metabolisms.

  16. Inositol-requiring protein 1 - X-box-binding protein 1 pathway promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition via mediating snail expression in pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Xiao-Ting; Zhou, Wen-Cheng; Cui, Wen-Hui; Li, De-Lin; Li, Liu-Cheng; Xu, Liang; Zhao, Ping; Gao, Jian

    2015-08-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a complex biological program during which cells loss epithelial phenotype and acquire mesenchymal features. EMT is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of various fibrotic diseases including pulmonary fibrosis (PF). Recent studies suggest that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is associated with EMT in the progression of PF. However, the exact mechanism is unclear. Here, we developed a PF model with bleomycin (BLM) administration in rats and conducted several simulation experiments in alveolar epithelial cell (AECs) RLE-6TN to unravel the role of inositol-requiring protein 1 (IRE1) - X-box-binding protein 1 (XBP1) signal pathway in ER stress-induced EMT in PF. First, we observed that ER stress was occurred in type II AECs accompanied by EMT in BLM-induced PF. Then we explored the role of IRE1-XBP1-snail pathway in transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1/tunicamycin (TM)-induced EMT. When TGF-β1/TM was treated on AECs, IRE1 and XBP1 were overexpressed, meanwhile, snail expression was upregulated accompanied with EMT. However, when IRE1 or XBP1 was knockdown, TGF-β1/TM-induced EMT were blocked while the expression of snail was inhibited. Then we silenced snail and found that TGF-β1/TM-induced EMT were also suppressed, but it had no effect on the up-regulated expression of IRE1 and XBP1. Thus, we concluded that IRE1-XBP1 pathway promotes EMT via mediating snail expression in PF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification and characterization of GIP1, an Arabidopsis thaliana protein that enhances the DNA binding affinity and reduces the oligomeric state of G-box binding factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul C. SEHNKE; Beth J. LAUGHNER; Carla R. LYERLY LINEBARGER; William B. GURLEY; Robert J.FERL

    2005-01-01

    Environmental control of the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) and other stress response genes in plants is in part brought about by transcriptional regulation involving the G-box cis-acting DNA element and bZIP G-box Binding Factors (GBFs).The mechanisms of GBF regulation and requirements for additional factors in this control process are not well understood.In an effort to identify potential GBF binding and control partners, maize GBF1 was used as bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen of an A. thaliana cDNA library. GBF Interacting Protein 1 (GIP1) arose from the screen as a 496 amino acid protein with a predicted molecular weight of 53,748 kDa that strongly interacts with GBFs. Northern analysis of A.thaliana tissue suggests a 1.8-1.9 kb GIP1 transcript, predominantly in roots. Immunolocalization studies indicate that GIP1 protein is mainly localized to the nucleus. In vitro electrophoretic mobility shift assays using an Adh G-box DNA probe and recombinant A. thaliana GBF3 or maize GBF1, showed that the presence of GIP1 resulted in a tenfold increase in GBF DNA binding activity without altering the migration, suggesting a transient association between GIP1 and GBF. Addition of GIP1 to intentionally aggregated GBF converted GBF to lower molecular weight macromolecular complexes and GIP1 also refolded denatured rhodanese in the absence of ATP. These data suggest GIP1 functions to enhance GBF DNA binding activity by acting as a potent nuclear chaperone or crowbar, and potentially regulates the multimeric state of GBFs, thereby contributing to bZIP-mediated gene regulation.

  18. [Extracellular Y-box binding protein-1 promotes proliferation and metastasis of HepG2 cells through Notch3 receptor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, J; Li, P; Zou, L; Chen, P; Zhang, L P

    2016-03-20

    To clarify whether HepG2 cells actively secrete Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1) under stress conditions, and to investigate the pathological significance and mechanism of action of extracellular YB-1. HepG2 cells were stimulated and treated by gradient concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and adriamycin, the supernatant of the culture solution was collected by centrifugation, and the established chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) was used for real-time quantitative determination of YB-1 level in the supernatant. The co-immunoprecipitation assay was used to detect whether extracellular YB-1 specifically bound to Notch3 receptor, and Western blot was used to measure the expression of Notch-NICD. The gradient concentrations of recombinant YB-1 were co-cultured with HepG2 cells, and MTT and migration assays were used to analyze the proliferation and invasion/metastasis of HepG2 cells. One-way analysis of variance was used for comparison of data between multiple groups. The results of CLIA confirmed that the level of extracellular YB-1 in the supernatant was significantly higher than that in the control group (F= 10.54,PHepG2 cells (F= 9.405,PHepG2 cells can actively secrete YB-1 via non-classical pathways. Extracellular YB-1 can specifically bind to Notch3 receptor and further up-regulate its expression, and then promote the proliferation and invasion/metastasis of HepG2 cells. This study lays a foundation for further clarifying the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma and investigating the biological relationship between extracellular YB-1 and malignant tumors.

  19. Molecular decoy to the Y-box binding protein-1 suppresses the growth of breast and prostate cancer cells whilst sparing normal cell viability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer H Law

    Full Text Available The Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1 is an oncogenic transcription/translation factor that is activated by phosphorylation at S102 whereby it induces the expression of growth promoting genes such as EGFR and HER-2. We recently illustrated by an in vitro kinase assay that a novel peptide to YB-1 was highly phosphorylated by the serine/threonine p90 S6 kinases RSK-1 and RSK-2, and to a lesser degree PKCα and AKT. Herein, we sought to develop this decoy cell permeable peptide (CPP as a cancer therapeutic. This 9-mer was designed as an interference peptide that would prevent endogenous YB-1(S102 phosphorylation based on molecular docking. In cancer cells, the CPP blocked P-YB-1(S102 and down-regulated both HER-2 and EGFR transcript level and protein expression. Further, the CPP prevented YB-1 from binding to the EGFR promoter in a gel shift assay. Notably, the growth of breast (SUM149, MDA-MB-453, AU565 and prostate (PC3, LNCap cancer cells was inhibited by ∼90% with the CPP. Further, treatment with this peptide enhanced sensitivity and overcame resistance to trastuzumab in cells expressing amplified HER-2. By contrast, the CPP had no inhibitory effect on the growth of normal immortalized breast epithelial (184htert cells, primary breast epithelial cells, nor did it inhibit differentiation of hematopoietic progenitors. These data collectively suggest that the CPP is a novel approach to suppressing the growth of cancer cells while sparing normal cells and thereby establishes a proof-of-concept that blocking YB-1 activation is a new course of cancer therapeutics.

  20. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1ASEA-1TATA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1ASEA-1TATA 1ASE 1TAT A A --MFENITAAPADPILGLADLFRADERPGKINLGIGVYK...KMNLGVGAYRDDNGKPYVLNCVRKAEAMIAAKKMDKEYLPIAGLADFTRASAELALGENSEAFKSGRYVTVQGISGTGSLRVGANFLQRFFKFSRDVYLPKPSWGNHT...hain> 1ASE A 1ASEA LAKNT-SVKRV A 1ASEA GFARG-LEED

  1. MiRNA-205 modulates cellular invasion and migration via regulating zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 2 expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells

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    Yamashita Shunichi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC is often diagnosed at later stages until they are incurable. MicroRNA (miR is a small, non-coding RNA that negatively regulates gene expression mainly via translational repression. Accumulating evidence indicates that deregulation of miR is associated with human malignancies including ESCC. The aim of this study was to identify miR that could be specifically expressed and exert distinct biological actions in ESCC. Methods Total RNA was extracted from ESCC cell lines, OE21 and TE10, and a non-malignant human esophageal squamous cell line, Het-1A, and subjected to microarray analysis. Expression levels of miR that showed significant differences between the 2 ESCC and Het-1A cells based on the comprehensive analysis were analyzed by the quantitative reverse transcriptase (RT-PCR method. Then, functional analyses, including cellular proliferation, apoptosis and Matrigel invasion and the wound healing assay, for the specific miR were conducted. Using ESCC tumor samples and paired surrounding non-cancerous tissue obtained endoscopically, the association with histopathological differentiation was examined with quantitative RT-PCR. Results Based on the miR microarray analysis, there were 14 miRs that showed significant differences (more than 2-fold in expression between the 2 ESCC cells and non-malignant Het-1A. Among the significantly altered miRs, miR-205 expression levels were exclusively higher in 5 ESCC cell lines examined than any other types of malignant cell lines and Het-1A. Thus, miR-205 could be a specific miR in ESCC. Modulation of miR-205 expression by transfection with its precursor or anti-miR-205 inhibitor did not affect ESCC cell proliferation and apoptosis, but miR-205 was found to be involved in cell invasion and migration. Western blot revealed that knockdown of miR-205 expression in ESCC cells substantially enhanced expression of zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 2

  2. Effects of decomposing Rhizophora apiculata leaves on larvae of the shrimp Penaeus monodon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roijackers, R.M.M.; Nghia, T.T.; Ut, V.N.; Scheffer, M.

    2006-01-01

    We studied the effects of different concentrations of decomposing Rhizophora apiculata leaves and their leachates on larvae of the shrimp Penaeus monodon under laboratory conditions. Shrimp mortality was highly dependent on the concentration of oxygen in the water, which in turn was strongly

  3. Effects of decomposing Rhizophora apiculata leaves on larvae of the shrimp Penaeus monodon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roijackers, R.M.M.; Nghia, T.T.; Ut, V.N.; Scheffer, M.

    2006-01-01

    We studied the effects of different concentrations of decomposing Rhizophora apiculata leaves and their leachates on larvae of the shrimp Penaeus monodon under laboratory conditions. Shrimp mortality was highly dependent on the concentration of oxygen in the water, which in turn was strongly correla

  4. Food preference in the cultured species, Penaeus monodon Fabricius (Crustacea: Decapoda)

    OpenAIRE

    S. Khanum; Tirmizi, N.M.

    1997-01-01

    The study of food preference is necessitated by the need to promote coastal culture of shrimps in Pakistan. The cultured Penaeus monodon was selected for study. Food preferences have been examined through the analysis of the gut contents. The shrimp shows a seasonal variation in its preference to food and feeding.

  5. Penerapan Framework COBIT untuk Identifikasi Tingkat Kematangan Tata Kelola Teknologi Informasi: Studi Kasus di Fasilkom Unwidha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustinus Suradi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan IT sebagai media komunikasi data hingga saat ini berkembang sangat pesat. Peranan teknologi informasi dalam suatu lembaga sangat krusial, namun  masalah  yang sering terjadi di lembaga/ instansi adalah penggunaan teknologi informasi yang ternyata tidak sesuai dengan harapan, oleh karena itu diperlukan tata kelola terhadap penggunaan teknologi informasi. Permasalahan yang dihadapi di Fasilkom Unwidha adalah adanya ketidak puasan layanan IT yang diberikan, terdapatnya gangguan layanan yang tidak segera diatasi, adanya koordinasi maintenance infrastruktur IT yang kurang optimal. Sehingga perlu adanya evaluasi terhadap tata kelola teknologi informasi yang diberikan untuk penyelarasan dengan tujuan organisasi agar visi yang diharapkan dapat tercapai. Penelitian ini membahas tentang kondisi tata kelola teknologi informasi di Fasilkom Unwidha, dan sejauh mana telah menerapkan tata kelola teknologi informasi yang baik. Metode analisis yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah dengan menggunakan  framework Control Objectives for Information and Related Technology (COBIT. Hasil dari analisis ini berupa tingkat kematangan tata kelola  teknologi informasi  yang  mencerminkan  kondisi  tata  kelola  teknologi informasi  di  Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Unwidha. Tingkat kematangan dengan mengacu pada maturity level yang disediakan kerangka kerja COBIT, diperoleh nilai  kematangan 2,84 yaitu pada level Defined Process. Sistem memiliki ruang lingkup Business Goals sebanyak 13, IT Goals sebanyak 18, IT Process sebanyak 30 proses dan 4 Domain.

  6. Conducta de forrajeo del gastrópodo Acanthina monodon Pallas, 1774 (Gastropoda: Muricidae en el intermareal rocoso de Chile central Foraging behavior of the gastropod Acanthina monodon Pallas, 1774 (Gastropoda: Muricidae in the intertidal rocky shores of central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUBÉN E. SOTO

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo investigamos aspectos de la ecología y conducta de forrajeo de Acanthina monodon, un gastrópodo murícido que habita en el intermareal rocoso de Chile central. En terreno, estudiamos las variaciones temporales en su distribución, densidad y dieta. En el laboratorio, cuantificamos la tasa de consumo, las preferencias alimentarias, el tiempo de ingestión y la rentabilidad energética obtenida con distintos tipos de presas mediante experimentos y registros en video. Las mayores densidades de individuos de A. monodon fueron observadas en la franja intermareal cercana al nivel cero de marea. En terreno, A. monodon realiza sus actividades de forrajeo principalmente durante la noche y su dieta consistió principalmente de mitílidos (95 % y cirripedios (5 %. La composición de la dieta de A. monodon en terreno presentó variaciones temporales las cuales dependerían principalmente de cambios en la oferta de los distintos tipos de mitílidos presentes en terreno durante los dos años de muestreo. En el laboratorio, los individuos de Acanthina presentaron preferencias alimentarias significativas por el mitílido Semimytilus algosus. En general, A. monodon bajo condiciones de laboratorio presentó una conducta de forrajeo en la cual maximizó la ganancia neta de energía, mediante la selección de las especies y tamaños de presas que le retribuyen la mayor rentabilidad energéticaWe investigated the ecology and foraging behavior of Acanthina monodon, a muricid gastropod that inhabits in the intertidal rocky shores of central Chile. In the field, we studied temporal variation of their spatial distribution, density, and diet composition. While in the laboratory, we quantified the consumption rate, alimentary preferences, ingestion times and energy profitability obtained with different types of prey using experiments and video recording. High densities of A. monodon individuals were observed in the intertidal fringe near at the

  7. Expansion of the Litopenaeus vannamei and Penaeus monodon peptidomes using transcriptome shotgun assembly sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Andrew E

    2014-09-15

    The shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and Penaeus monodon are arguably the most important commercially farmed crustaceans. While expansion of their aquaculture has classically relied on improvements to rearing facilities, these options have largely been exhausted, and today a shift in focus is occurring, with increased investment in manipulating the shrimp themselves. Hormonal control is one strategy for increasing aquaculture output. However, to use it, one must first understand an animal's native hormonal systems. Here, transcriptome shotgun assembly (TSA) data were used to expand the peptidomes for L. vannamei and P. monodon. Via an established bioinformatics workflow, 41 L. vannamei and 25 P. monodon pre/preprohormone-encoding transcripts were identified, allowing for the prediction of 158 and 106 distinct peptide structures for these species, respectively. The identified peptides included isoforms of allatostatin A, B and C, as well as members the bursicon, CAPA, CCHamide, crustacean cardioactive peptide, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone, diuretic hormone 31, eclosion hormone, FLRFamide, GSEFLamide, intocin, leucokinin, molt-inhibiting hormone, myosuppressin, neuroparsin, neuropeptide F, orcokinin, orcomyotropin, pigment dispersing hormone, proctolin, red pigment concentrating hormone, RYamide, SIFamide, short neuropeptide F and tachykinin-related peptide families. While some of the predicted peptides are known L. vannamei and/or P. monodon isoforms (which vet the structures of many peptides identified previously via mass spectrometry and other means), most are described here for the first time. These data more than double the extant catalogs of L. vannamei and P. monodon peptides and provide platforms from which to launch future physiological studies of peptidergic signaling in these two commercially important species.

  8. Purge lecithin for less-expensive diet formulation for black tiger prawn Penaeus monodon

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    Shanmugam Velmurugan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the nutrient requirements and practical diet formulations for Penaeus monodon is fully known. In the production cost, the cost of diet alone comes around 50 to70%. This ismainly because of the addition of lecithin which is a relatively expensive dietary ingredient. It isimportant to determine the usefulness of lecithin in the growth of P. monodon. In order to keep the dietcost as low as possible this experiment was designed with and without lecithin. The objective of thepresent study was to assess the growth of shrimp with varying lecithin doses. To study the water qualityparameters and to study the growth and survival of animals feed containing different percentage oflecithin. Trials conducted indicated the soybean lecithin did not have any effect on shrimp’s growth. Theshrimp weight varied from 3.15 to 8g in Control, 2.58 to 6g in Treatment A, 2.87 to 6.62g in TreatmentB, 3.1 to 6.75g in Treatment C. These confirm that under a controlled clear water culture system, partialor complete replacement of soybean lecithin in a commercial diet for P. monodon resulted in nodetriment in growth. Purge lecithin in the diet may allow for less-expensive diet formulations for P.monodon and may reduce the diet cost for producers, who are supplying feed. As diet cost representsthe largest variable cost in a commercial aquaculture operation, increased knowledge of specific dietaryrequirements is essential for formulating a cost-effective commercial P. monodon diet.

  9. SISTEM Tata niaga KEDELAI DI DESA CIPEUYEUM, KECAMATAN HAURWANGI, KABUPATEN CIANJUR

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    Aldha Hermianty Alang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objectives of this research were 1 identify the channel, institution, and trade system function of soy in Cipeuyeum Village, Haurwangi District, Cianjur, 2 Analyze the structure and the behavior of soy market in Cipeuyeum Village, Haurwangi District, Cianjur, also 3 Analyze the efficiency of soy trade system at each channel with trade channel margin approach, farmers’ share and profit-cost ratio (π/c. Qualitative and quantitative analysis were used to analyze the data. Qualitative analysis includes: channel and institution of the trade system, analysis of farmers and institutions functions involved in the trade system, analysis of market structure and behavior, trade system margin analysis, farmers’ share analysis, and analysis of π/c ratio.  There are four channels of marketing system in this village with five institutions that identified with the snowball method. The institutions within the trade systems perform their own function and face diverse market structures. Quantitative analysis showed that the most efficient channel is the one with Rp917 for the trade margin, 85,89% for the farmer’s share value, and 7,06 for profit-cost ratio. Therefore, Soybean Farmers should not sell the entire stock system directly to large traders without going through the small traders as it will increase the share of the farmers.Keywords: soy agribusiness, Cipeuyeum village, demand for soy, trade system of soy, soyABSTRAKTujuan dari penelitian ini adalah 1 mengidentifikasi saluran, lembaga, dan fungsi tata niaga kedelai di Desa Cipeuyeum, Kecamatan Haurwangi, Kabupaten Cianjur, 2 menganalisis struktur dan perilaku pasar kedelai di Desa Cipeuyeum, Kecamatan Haurwangi, Kabupaten Cianjur, dan 3 menganlisis efisiensi tata niaga kedelai pada setiap saluran yang ada dengan pendekatan margin tata niaga, farmer’s share, serta rasio keuntungan terhadap biaya (π/c. Analisis data dilakukan secara kualitatif dan kuantitatif. Analisis kualitatif

  10. Effect of Y-box binding protein 1 overexpression on the prognosis of patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma undergoing postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy

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    LIU Heng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the association between Y-box binding protein 1 (YB-1 overexpression and the prognosis of patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC undergoing postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. MethodsThe paraffin-embedded specimens were collected from 58 patients with ICC who underwent surgical treatment and postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy in The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University from January 2010 to January 2015. Immunohistochemistry was used to measure the expression of YB-1 in ICC tissue; after ICC cells were transfected with YB-1 plasmid, the thiazolyl blue method was used to observe the change in gemcitabine sensitivity, and qPCR was used to observe the changes in the expression of multidrug resistance genes. The independent samples t-test was used for comparison of continuous data between two groups and a one-way analysis of variance was used for comparison of continuous data between multiple groups; the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate survival rates and the log-rank test was used for survival difference analysis. ResultsAmong the 58 patients, 44 (75.9% had high expression of YB-1 in the cytoplasm of ICC cells (cytoplasm YB-1 positive group and 14 (24.1% had no expression of YB-1 in the cytoplasm of ICC cells (cytoplasm YB-1 negative group. Of all patients in the cytoplasm YB-1 positive group, 18 (40.9% also had positive nuclear expression of YB-1 (nuclear YB-1 positive group; the other 40 patients had no nuclear expression of YB-1 (nuclear YB-1 negative group. The nuclear YB-1 negative group had a significantly longer survival time than the nuclear YB-1 positive group (63 months vs 28 months, χ2=17.99, P<0.05. In the control plasmid group, the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 of gemcitabine in HCCC-9810 cells was 0.054 μmol, and in the pSG5-YB-1 plasma transfection group, IC50 increased to 0

  11. Optimasi Tata Letak Fasilitas Menggunakan Metode Multi Objective Function Pada Pembangunan Proyek Apartemen Nine Residence Jakarta

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    Rian Okki Gunawan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Optimasi tata letak (site layout fasilitas merupakan suatu tahap dalam perencanaan fasilitas yang bertujuan untuk mengembangkan suatu sistem area yang efisien dan efektif sehingga dapat tercapainya suatu proses yang paling optimum. Pada kenyataannya banyak perusahaan konstruksi yang kurang memperhatikan beberapa faktor yang sebenarnya memiliki potensi untuk dioptimasikan seperti tata letak fasilitas, padahal hal tersebut sangat berpengaruh pada kinerja pekerja untuk dapat lebih menaikkan produktivitas dan efisiensi dalam aktivitas konstruksi. Pada proyek Apartemen Nine Residence Jakarta ini dilakukan pengoptimasian tata letak fasilitas karena terdapat beberapa masalah layout seperti jarak tempuh yang cukup jauh serta tingkat keselamatan dan keamanan yang perlu ditingkatkan. Semua pengoptimasian tata letak ini mengacu pada metode optimasi Multi Objective Function dengan memakai analisis traveling distance dan analisis safety index. Perhitungan traveling distance yang telah dilakukan menunjukkan bahwa nilai TD paling minimum adalah pada skenario 7 dengan nilai sebesar 48635,08 meter atau mengalami penurunan TD sebesar 61,93% dibandingkan nilai TD pada kondisi eksisting. Perhitungan safety index yang telah dilakukan menunjukkan bahwa nilai SI paling minimum adalah pada skenario 7 dengan nilai 1529,34 atau mengalami penurunan SI sebesar 34,10% dari kondisi eksisting. Bentuk tata letak fasilitas yang paling optimum adalah pada site layout skenario 7.

  12. Analisis Tata Kelola Teknologi Informasi Menggunakan Kerangka Kerja COBIT 4.1 pada Fakultas Teknik Undip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arini Arumana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Peran teknologi informasi dalam suatu instansi sudah tidak dapat dielakkan lagi, mengingat perkembangannya yang begitu pesat seiring berjalannya waktu. Namun masalah yang sering terjadi di instansi adalah penggunaan teknologi informasi yang kadang tidak sesuai dengan harapan. Oleh karena itu diperlukan tata kelola terhadap penggunaan teknologi informasi yang biasa disebut dengan IT Governance. Fakultas teknik UNDIP adalah salah satu fakultas yang dalam operasionalnya sangat mengandalkan teknologi informasi, baik dalam aktifitas belajar mengajar maupun dalam menjalankan operasional bisnis. Kondisi sekarang di Fakultas Teknik sendiri tidak terdapat suatu indikator yang dapat menyatakan bahwa kinerja TI yang berjalan telah sesuai dengan visi dan misi Fakultas Teknik, oleh karena itu perlu dilakukan analisis tata kelola teknologi informasi, guna mengetahui performa TI sekarang sesuai dengan yang diharapkan oleh managemen atau tidak. Hasil dari analisis ini berupa tingkat kematangan tata kelola TI yang mecerminkan kondisi tata kelola TI di Fakultas Teknik dengan mengacu pada maturity level yang disediakan kerangka kerja COBIT 4.1, yakni dari level 0 (non-existent sampai 5 (optimized. Berdasarkan analisis yang dilakukan, secara garis besar kondisi kematangan tata kelola TI Fakultas Teknik berada pada level 2 yakni repeatable but intuitive. Kondisi ini mengacu pada beberapa kelemahan dalam proses-proses TI yang berjalan, diantaranya penetapan dan dokumentasi tindakan, kebijakan dan prosedur yang minim, serta tidak tersedianya service level yang disetujui bersama.

  13. Comprehensive study in the inhibitory effect of berberine on gene transcription, including TATA box.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugang Wang

    Full Text Available Berberine (BBR is an established natural DNA intercalator with numerous pharmacological functions. However, currently there are neither detailed reports concerning the distribution of this alkaloid in living cells nor reports concerning the relationship between BBR's association with DNA and the function of DNA. Here we report that the distribution of BBR within the nucleus can be observed 30 minutes after drug administration, and that the content of berberine in the nucleus peaks at around 4 µmol, which is twelve hours after drug administration. The spatial conformation of DNA and chromatin was altered immediately after their association with BBR. Moreover, this association can effectively suppress the transcription of DNA in living cell systems and cell-free systems. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA demonstrated further that BBR can inhibit the association between the TATA binding protein (TBP and the TATA box in the promoter, and this finding was also attained in living cells by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP. Based on results from this study, we hypothesize that berberine can suppress the transcription of DNA in living cell systems, especially suppressing the association between TBP and the TATA box by binding with DNA and, thus, inhibiting TATA box-dependent gene expression in a non-specific way. This novel study has significantly expanded the sphere of knowledge concerning berberine's pharmacological effects, beginning at its paramount initial interaction with the TATA box.

  14. Effective Governance in the Era of Disruptive Changes in Business Illustrated by the Tata Capital Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Caspar; Sherman, David; Haraszuk, Anni

    2015-01-01

    example of Tata Capital, part of the Indian, global conglomerate Tata Group – how to effectively govern in an environment of disruptive forces impacting business while managing risk seen from an audit committee and internal audit perspective. Effective governance through regular evaluation of internal...... financial controls and risk management ensures that the systems of risk management are robust and defensible. This agenda should be integrated into the audit committee oversight and cannot merely reflect a check the box exercise. Instead, as illustrated by the Tata Capital Framework, it must reflect......Identifying, assessing, managing, and containing risks is a fundamental responsibility of business and ‘business as usual’ in 2015. The question is: How can businesses be effectively governed in an era of disruptive changes while managing risks of business? This article explores – through the case...

  15. 印度Tata Sky进军交互电视市场

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢丰奕

    2006-01-01

    2006年9月26日。印度直播卫星电视服务供应商TataSky有限公司宣布,在其提供的DTH数字电视服务中增加印度Zee—Turner系列频道。至此。TataSky卫星电视为订户提供的DTH电视频道已超过100个。同时,TataSky还提供10个音乐广播频道以及8种交互式电视服务。此举表明TataSky向建成印度最大的直播卫星电视平台的目标又迈进了一步。

  16. White Spot Syndrome Virus infection in Penaeus monodon is facilitated by housekeeping molecules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vinayak Biradar; Santosh Narwade; Mandar Paingankar; Deepti Deobagkar

    2013-12-01

    White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is a major pathogen in shrimp aquaculture, and its rampant spread has resulted in great economic loss. Identification of host cellular proteins interacting with WSSV will help in unravelling the repertoire of host proteins involved in WSSV infection. In this study, we have employed one-dimensional and two-dimension virus overlay protein binding assay (VOPBA) followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to identify the host proteins of Penaeus monodon that could interact with WSSV. The VOPBA results suggest that WSSV interacted with housekeeping proteins such as heat shock protein 70, ATP synthase subunit , phosphopyruvate hydratase, allergen Pen m 2, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein, actin and 14-3-3-like protein. Our findings suggest that WSSV exploits an array of housekeeping proteins for its transmission and propagation in P. monodon.

  17. Effects of extraction parameters on physicochemical and functional characteristics of chitosan from Penaeus monodon shell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jubril Olayinka Akolade; Hussein Oyelola Bukoye Oloyede; Paul Chidozie Onyenekwe

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the effect of extraction parameters with particular interest during the microwave deacetylation process on the characteristics of chitosan produced fromPenaeus monodon (P. monodon) sourced within the coastal region of Lagos, Nigeria for applications of controlled release systems for pharmaceutical industries. Methods: Chitosan was extracted from shrimp (P. monodon) shell and evaluated as a controlled release system for curcumin. Effects of relevant processing parameters on physicochemical and functional characteristics of the extracted chitosan were assessed. The crude chitosan was purified and used to prepare controlled release formulations for curcumin via ionic gelation with tripolyphosphate. Results:Data from the study showed that increasing time and temperature during deproteinization significantly improved the removal of protein bound to the shell matrix. Also, the ratio of the weight of the deproteinized sample to the volume ofHCl used for demineralization influenced the process. During microwave-assisted production of chitosan from chitin, increase in the concentration of the deacetylating medium significantly increased solubility, viscosity and degree of deacetylation, whereas increasing temperature and time during deacetylation of chitin degraded the biopolymer to give low molecular weight chitosan. Optimized extraction and purification process yielded absolutely soluble medium to low molecular weight chitosan. The encapsulation efficiency, loading capacity, percentage yield, release efficiencies in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids of curcumin loaded in the formulations of chitosan fromP. monodon were compared favorably to encapsulation and release characteristics of the encapsulated curcumin in commercially available chitosan used as the reference. Conclusions:Valorization of shrimp waste into pharmaceutically graded medium molecular weight chitosan was achieved. The chitosan obtained can be used as a controlled

  18. Immunomodulatory and Growth-Promoting Potential of Lowcost Probiotic Product in Penaeus Monodon Culture System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandran Manohar Navin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The capability of a low-cost probiotic product was evaluated in Penaeus monodon reared under an outdoor culture system for a period of 90 days. The low-cost probiotic product was formulated by mixing the broth culture of Bacillus cereus along with commercial chalk powder in 1:1 ratio. The prepared probiotic product as a powdered supplement was incorporated along with the shrimp diet at various concentrations (1 to 5%. The viability of B. cereus in the experimental diet was tested once in 30 days up to 90 days during the experimentation. After 90 days of feeding experiments, the growth performance of shrimp was determined with a maximum production of 11.98 ± 0.367 g, SGR of 5.030 ± 0.171% and FCE of 86.63 ± 1.300% in P. monodon fed D4 diet (4% probiotic supplement. The immunological parameters determined at the end of the culture experiment showed variation among diets. The total haemocyte count (273.66 ± 3.09 x 105 cells/ml, phenoloxidase activity (0.132 ± 0.007 OD and respiratory burst activity (0.291 ± 0.020 O.D were high in P. monodon fed D4 diet. Similar effects were observed for plasma protein concentration (68.00 ± 1.41 mg/ ml, lysozyme activity (0.483 ± 0.014 U/ml and bactericidal activity (81.0 ± 1.33% in shrimp fed D4 diet. The results of the present investigation conclude that the probiotic product at a concentration of 4% was effective in elevating the growth and immune performances in shrimp P. monodon.

  19. Effects of extraction parameters on physicochemical and functional characteristics of chitosan from Penaeus monodon shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jubril Olayinka Akolade

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of extraction parameters with particular interest during the microwave deacetylation process on the characteristics of chitosan produced from Penaeus monodon (P. monodon sourced within the coastal region of Lagos, Nigeria for applications of controlled release systems for pharmaceutical industries. Methods: Chitosan was extracted from shrimp (P. monodon shell and evaluated as a controlled release system for curcumin. Effects of relevant processing parameters on physicochemical and functional characteristics of the extracted chitosan were assessed. The crude chitosan was purified and used to prepare controlled release formulations for curcumin via ionic gelation with tripolyphosphate. Results: Data from the study showed that increasing time and temperature during deproteinization significantly improved the removal of protein bound to the shell matrix. Also, the ratio of the weight of the deproteinized sample to the volume of HCl used for demineralization influenced the process. During microwave-assisted production of chitosan from chitin, increase in the concentration of the deacetylating medium significantly increased solubility, viscosity and degree of deacetylation, whereas increasing temperature and time during deacetylation of chitin degraded the biopolymer to give low molecular weight chitosan. Optimized extraction and purification process yielded absolutely soluble medium to low molecular weight chitosan. The encapsulation efficiency, loading capacity, percentage yield, release efficiencies in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids of curcumin loaded in the formulations of chitosan from P. monodon were compared favorably to encapsulation and release characteristics of the encapsulated curcumin in commercially available chitosan used as the reference. Conclusions: Valorization of shrimp waste into pharmaceutically graded medium molecular weight chitosan was achieved. The chitosan obtained can be used as

  20. Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) for isolation and characterization of genes related to testicular development in the giant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelatanawit, Rungnapa; Klinbunga, Sirawut; Aoki, Takashi; Hirono, Ikuo; Valyasevi, Rudd; Menasveta, Piamsak

    2008-11-30

    Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA libraries of the giant tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, were constructed. In total, 178 and 187 clones from the forward and reverse SSH libraries, respectively, of P. monodon were unidirectionally sequenced. From these, 37.1% and 53.5% Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) significantly matched known genes (E-value 0.05).

  1. The transcriptional activator GAL4-VP16 regulates the intra-molecular interactions of the TATA-binding protein

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anurag Kumar Mishra; Perumal Vanathi; Purnima Bhargava

    2003-06-01

    Binding characteristics of yeast TATA-binding protein (yTBP) over five oligomers having different TATA variants and lacking a UASGAL, showed that TATA-binding protein (TBP)-TATA complex gets stabilized in the presence of the acidic activator GAL4-VP16. Activator also greatly suppressed the non-specific TBP-DNA complex formation. The effects were more pronounced over weaker TATA boxes. Activator also reduced the TBP dimer levels both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting the dimer may be a direct target of transcriptional activators. The transcriptional activator facilitated the dimer to monomer transition and activated monomers further to help TBP bind even the weaker TATA boxes stably. The overall stimulatory effect of the GAL4-VP16 on the TBP-TATA complex formation resembles the known effects of removal of the N-terminus of TBP on its activity, suggesting that the activator directly targets the N-terminus of TBP and facilitates its binding to the TATA box.

  2. Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) outbreaks in Penaeus vannamei and P. monodon cultured in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Peña, Leobert D; Cabillon, Nikko Alvin R; Catedral, Demy D; Amar, Edgar C; Usero, Roselyn C; Monotilla, Wilberto D; Calpe, Adelaida T; Fernandez, Dalisay Dg; Saloma, Cynthia P

    2015-10-27

    Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) has recently emerged as a serious disease of cultured shrimp. It has also been described as early mortality syndrome (EMS) due to mass mortalities occurring within 20 to 30 d after stocking of ponds with postlarvae. Here, Penaeus vannamei and Penaeus monodon from shrimp farms in the Philippines were examined for the toxin-producing strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus due to AHPND-like symptoms occurring in marketable size shrimp. In the P. vannamei, histology revealed typical AHPND pathology, such as sloughing of undifferentiated cells in the hepatopancreatic tubule epithelium. Analysis using the IQ2000 AHPND/EMS Toxin 1 PCR test generated 218 bp and 432 bp amplicons confirmative of the toxin-producing strain of V. parahaemolyticus among shrimp sampled from 8 of 9 ponds. In the P. monodon, histology revealed massive sloughing of undifferentiated cells of the hepatopancreatic tubule epithelium in the absence of basophilic bacterial cells. PCR testing generated the 2 amplicons confirmatory for AHPND among shrimp sampled from 5 of 7 ponds. This study confirms the presence of AHPND in P. vannamei and P. monodon farmed in the Philippines and suggests that the disease can also impact late-stage juvenile shrimp.

  3. Marine yeast Candida aquaetextoris S527 as a potential immunostimulant in black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Divya T; Antony, Swapna P; Joseph, Simi P; Bright, Ann Rose; Philip, Rosamma

    2013-03-01

    A marine yeast Candida aquaetextoris S527 as a source of immunostimulant in Penaeus monodon was studied. Yeast diet was prepared by incorporating 10% C. aquaetextoris S527 biomass into a standard shrimp diet and administered in P. monodon at different frequencies (daily, once in three days, once in seven days and once in ten days) followed by challenge with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Immune parameters such as total protein, total hemocyte count, pro-phenoloxidase, nitroblue tetrazolium reduction, alkaline phosphatase activity and acid phosphatase activity were tested. Expression profile of antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes viz., anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF), crustin-1, crustin-2, crustin-3, penaeidin-3 and penaeidin-5; immune genes viz., alpha-2-macroglobulin (α-2-M), astakine, peroxinectin, prophenol oxidase (proPO) and transglutaminase, and WSSV genes viz., DNA polymerase, endonuclease, protein kinase, immediate early gene, latency related gene, ribonucleotide reductase, thymidine kinase and VP28 were analyzed. The study demonstrated that marine yeast diet administered once every seven days conferred better protection to P. monodon against WSSV infection, supported by the hematological and immune gene expression profiles analyzed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Changes in oviduct structure in the black tiger shrimp,Penaeus monodon, during ovarian maturation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sitthichai IAMSAARD; Siriporn SRIURAIRATANA; Boonsirm WITHYACHUMNARNKUL

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To examine the structure of the oviduct of the shrimp Penaeus monodon.Methods:The oviducts of P.monodon with three different major groups of ovarian development (Group (Gr.) 1:Stages Ⅰ & Ⅴ; Gr.2:Stages Ⅱ & Ⅲ; and Gr.3:Stage Ⅳ)were examined by light,transmission electron,and scanning electron microscopies,respectively.Results:The epithelium of the oviduct in Gr.1 was composed of tall simple columnar cells with their basal nuclei located on the basement membrane and its thick collagen fibers.In Gr.2,the oviduct seemed to produce some substances and their epithelial cells became transitional with centrally located nuclei and formed some vacuoles.Obviously,the epithelial cells in Gr.3 (at Stage Ⅳ) were disorganized,disrupted,and shed accumulated spherical secretory substances including some cellular contents into the lumen.Conclusions:The structural changes of the P.monodon oviduct were related to ovarian maturation stages (Grs.1-3).Prior to spawning,only the oviduct epithelium at ovary Stage Ⅳ produced and secreted a number of spherical secretion substances into the lumen.These substances may act as the oviductal lubricants to facilitate the spawning process.

  5. Horizontal transmission dynamics of White spot syndrome virus by cohabitation trials in juvenile Penaeus monodon and P. vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyen, N X; Verreth, J; Vlak, J M; de Jong, M C M

    2014-11-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), a rod-shaped double-stranded DNA virus, is an infectious agent causing fatal disease in shrimp farming around the globe. Within shrimp populations WSSV is transmitted very fast, however, the modes and dynamics of transmission of this virus are not well understood. In the current study the dynamics of disease transmission of WSSV were investigated in small, closed populations of Penaeus monodon and Penaeus vannamei. Pair cohabitation experiments using PCR as a readout for virus infection were used to estimate transmission parameters for WSSV in these two species. The mortality rate of contact-infected shrimp in P. monodon was higher than the rate in P. vannamei. The transmission rate parameters for WSSV were not different between the two species. The relative contribution of direct and indirect transmission rates of WSSV differed between the two species. For P. vannamei the direct contact transmission rate of WSSV was significantly lower than the indirect environmental transmission rate, but for P. monodon, the opposite was found. The reproduction ratio R0 for WSSV for these two species of shrimp was estimated to be above one: 2.07 (95%CI 1.53, 2.79) for P. monodon and 1.51 (95%CI 1.12, 2.03) for P. vannamei. The difference in R0 between the two species is due to a lower host mortality and hence a longer infectious period of WSSV in P. monodon.

  6. Tata Kelola Sistem Informasi pada Perusahaan Pelayaran Lepas Pantai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bimo Andono

    2017-05-01

    peningkatan tingkat kematangan Sistem Informasi (SI PT BRL menggunakan kerangka kerja COBIT. Dari hasil penelitian ini dapat diketahui arah yang diinginkan manajemen PT BRL serta dapat disusun beberapa rekomendasi untuk dapat mewujudkannya. Tata kelola TI adalah konsep penting yang berkembang di perusahaan TI dan bertindak sebagai patokan untuk mengukur kematangan organisasi TI (Ayat et al. 2011. Secara keseluruhan proses perencanaan dan implementasi Sistem Informasi (SI di PT BRL sudah mengikuti kaidah-kaidah sesuai dengan kerangka kerja COBIT dan Maturity Level-nya berada pada level: 3 – Defined dimana prosedur kerja telah distandarisasi dan didokumentasikan serta dikomunikasikan melalui proses pelatihan. Telah dimandatkan pula bahwa prosedur ini wajib dipatuhi, namun bagaimanapun juga masih ada deviasi prosedur dalam pelaksanaannya yang belum diakomodasi. Sudah ada prosedur yang memiliki standar dan didokumentasikan dengan baik, sudah ada pelatihan formal untuk mengkomunikasikan prosedur dan kebijakan yang dibuat. Namun pada tahap implementasinya masih tergantung pada individu apakah mau melakukan prosedur yang ditetapkan atau tidak. Prosedur yang dibuat masih terbatas pada bentuk formalisasi dari praktik yang ada.Kata kunci: Audit, COBIT, CSF, KPI, KGI

  7. Instability of human TATA-binding protein CAG triplet repeats during amplification by PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstege, F C; van der Vliet, P C; Timmers, H T

    1994-09-13

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of a TATA-binding protein cDNA that contains CAG triplet repeats results in heterogeneous products. This is caused by a variable loss in the number of CAG triplets. Sequence analysis of PCR products suggests that instability increases with repeat length.

  8. Invasion of Asian tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon Fabricius, 1798, in the western north Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Pam L.; Knott, David M.; Kingsley-Smith, Peter R.; Morris, James A.; Buckel, Christine A.; Hunter, Margaret E.; Hartman, Leslie D.

    2014-01-01

    After going unreported in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean for 18 years (1988 to 2006), the Asian tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, has recently reappeared in the South Atlantic Bight and, for the first time ever, in the Gulf of Mexico. Potential vectors and sources of this recent invader include: 1) discharged ballast water from its native range in Asia or other areas where it has become established; 2) transport of larvae from established non-native populations in the Caribbean or South America via ocean currents; or 3) escape and subsequent migration from active aquaculture facilities in the western Atlantic. This paper documents recent collections of P. monodon from the South Atlantic Bight and the Gulf of Mexico, reporting demographic and preliminary phylogenetic information for specimens collected between North Carolina and Texas from 2006 through 2012. The increased number of reports in 2011 and 2012, ranging from 102 mm to 298 mm total length, indicates that an adult population is present in densities sufficient for breeding, which is indicative of incipient establishment. Based on these reports of P. monodon, its successful invasion elsewhere, and its life history, we believe that this species will become common in the South Atlantic Bight and Gulf of Mexico in less than 10 years. Penaeus monodon is an aggressive predator in its native range and, if established, may prey on native shrimps, crabs, and bivalves. The impacts of an established P. monodon population are potentially widespread (e.g., alterations in local commercial fisheries, direct and indirect pressures on native shrimp, crab and bivalve populations, and subsequent impacts on the populations of other predators of those organisms) and should be considered by resource managers. The impacts of P. monodon on native fauna and the source(s) or vector(s) of the invasion, however, remain unknown at this time.

  9. Core promoter-specific gene regulation: TATA box selectivity and Initiator-dependent bi-directionality of serum response factor-activated transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Muyu; Gonzalez-Hurtado, Elsie; Martinez, Ernest

    2016-04-01

    Gene-specific activation by enhancers involves their communication with the basal RNA polymerase II transcription machinery at the core promoter. Core promoters are diverse and may contain a variety of sequence elements such as the TATA box, the Initiator (INR), and the downstream promoter element (DPE) recognized, respectively, by the TATA-binding protein (TBP) and TBP-associated factors of the TFIID complex. Core promoter elements contribute to the gene selectivity of enhancers, and INR/DPE-specific enhancers and activators have been identified. Here, we identify a TATA box-selective activating sequence upstream of the human β-actin (ACTB) gene that mediates serum response factor (SRF)-induced transcription from TATA-dependent but not INR-dependent promoters and requires the TATA-binding/bending activity of TBP, which is otherwise dispensable for transcription from a TATA-less promoter. The SRF-dependent ACTB sequence is stereospecific on TATA promoters but activates in an orientation-independent manner a composite TATA/INR-containing promoter. More generally, we show that SRF-regulated genes of the actin/cytoskeleton/contractile family tend to have a TATA box. These results suggest distinct TATA-dependent and INR-dependent mechanisms of TFIID-mediated transcription in mammalian cells that are compatible with only certain stereospecific combinations of activators, and that a TBP-TATA binding mechanism is important for SRF activation of the actin/cytoskeleton-related gene family.

  10. PERENCANAAN TATA GUNA LAHAN DAS WAY SEPUTIH HULU LAMPUNG TENGAH MENGGUNAKAN MODEL TATA AIR (Landuse Planning for Way Seputih Watershed at Central Lampung by Water Management Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amin

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Das Way Seputih Hulu merupakan sungai yang terletak di Kabupaten Larnpung Tengah, merniliki luas 175,28 km2. Kejadian banjir di Desa Segalarninder hilir Way Seputih Hulu terjadi setiap datang musim penghujan. Hasil penelitian bempa software program tata-air.exe, konsep dasar rnodel menggunakan neraca air (waterbalance yang dibuat dengart program delphi versi 7. Hasil uji t-tes antara tebal aliran model simulasi dengan pengukuran lapangan menunjukkan nilai t-hitung (0,14 lebih besar dari t-tabel (2,51, sehingga dikatakan model dapat digunakan untuk melakukan simulasi berbagai alternatif penggunaan lahan. Hasil simulasi program tata-air.exe menunjukkan bahwa keseluruhan alternatif untuk eksperimentasi model menghasilkan nilai rasio tebal aliran di bawah angka 30. Kondisi rasio tebal aliran air Way Seputih Hulu memiliki nilai berkisar antara 2,84 sanrpai 3,40, sehingga dapat dikatakan dalam kondisi masih wajar bahkan dapat dikatakan mempunvai nilai yang cukup bagus. Alternatif penggunaan lahan yang mengarah kepada bentuk lahan kebun campuran akan memberikan nilai rasio paling kecil dan menghasilkan produksi air yang kecil pula.   ABSTRACT  Watersheed of Way Seputih Upstream represent river which located in Kabupaten Lampung Tengah, oing wide of 175,28 km2. Occurence of floods in Countryside of Segalaminder go downstream Way Seputih Upstream happened in every coming rain season. Result of the research namely tata-air.exe, base concept of modeling uses water balance was made by using Delphi 7th version. Result of t-test value between modeled discharge flow and field measurement result shows t-counting value (0.14 higher than t-table (2.51, hence the model is can be used for simulating various landuse alternative. The simulation result using tata-air.exe shows that entire alternatives for model experimentation resulted discharge ratio value was under 30. Condition of Way Seputih Hulu River discharge was in the range between 2.84 until 3

  11. Characterization of intestinal bacteria in wild and domesticated adult black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanilada Rungrassamee

    Full Text Available The black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon is a marine crustacean of economic importance in the world market. To ensure sustainability of the shrimp industry, production capacity and disease outbreak prevention must be improved. Understanding healthy microbial balance inside the shrimp intestine can provide an initial step toward better farming practice and probiotic applications. In this study, we employed a barcode pyrosequencing analysis of V3-4 regions of 16S rRNA genes to examine intestinal bacteria communities in wild-caught and domesticated P. monodon broodstock. Shrimp faeces were removed from intestines prior to further analysis in attempt to identify mucosal bacterial population. Five phyla, Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, were found in all shrimp from both wild and domesticated environments. The operational taxonomic unit (OTU was assigned at 97% sequence identity, and our pyrosequencing results identified 18 OTUs commonly found in both groups. Sequences of the shared OTUs were similar to bacteria in three phyla, namely i Proteobacteria (Vibrio, Photobacterium, Novosphingobium, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas and Undibacterium, ii Firmicutes (Fusibacter, and iii Bacteroidetes (Cloacibacterium. The shared bacterial members in P. monodon from two different habitats provide evidence that the internal environments within the host shrimp also exerts selective pressure on bacterial members. Intestinal bacterial profiles were compared using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE. The sequences from DGGE bands were similar to those of Vibrio and Photobacterium in all shrimp, consistent with pyrosequencing results. This work provides the first comprehensive report on bacterial populations in the intestine of adult black tiger shrimp and reveals some similar bacterial members between the intestine of wild-caught and domesticated shrimp.

  12. Characterization of intestinal bacteria in wild and domesticated adult black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungrassamee, Wanilada; Klanchui, Amornpan; Maibunkaew, Sawarot; Chaiyapechara, Sage; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

    2014-01-01

    The black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) is a marine crustacean of economic importance in the world market. To ensure sustainability of the shrimp industry, production capacity and disease outbreak prevention must be improved. Understanding healthy microbial balance inside the shrimp intestine can provide an initial step toward better farming practice and probiotic applications. In this study, we employed a barcode pyrosequencing analysis of V3-4 regions of 16S rRNA genes to examine intestinal bacteria communities in wild-caught and domesticated P. monodon broodstock. Shrimp faeces were removed from intestines prior to further analysis in attempt to identify mucosal bacterial population. Five phyla, Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, were found in all shrimp from both wild and domesticated environments. The operational taxonomic unit (OTU) was assigned at 97% sequence identity, and our pyrosequencing results identified 18 OTUs commonly found in both groups. Sequences of the shared OTUs were similar to bacteria in three phyla, namely i) Proteobacteria (Vibrio, Photobacterium, Novosphingobium, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas and Undibacterium), ii) Firmicutes (Fusibacter), and iii) Bacteroidetes (Cloacibacterium). The shared bacterial members in P. monodon from two different habitats provide evidence that the internal environments within the host shrimp also exerts selective pressure on bacterial members. Intestinal bacterial profiles were compared using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The sequences from DGGE bands were similar to those of Vibrio and Photobacterium in all shrimp, consistent with pyrosequencing results. This work provides the first comprehensive report on bacterial populations in the intestine of adult black tiger shrimp and reveals some similar bacterial members between the intestine of wild-caught and domesticated shrimp.

  13. Deep-diving by narwhals Monodon monoceros: differences in foraging behavior between wintering areas?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laidre, K. L.; Heide-Jørgensen, M. P.; Dietz, R.

    2003-01-01

    -depth recorders (SLTDRs) were used to examine differences in narwhal Monodon monoceros diving behavior and habitat selection among 3 sub-populations in Canada and West Greenland (n = 16 individuals). The number of dives to different depths and time allocation within the water column was investigated in 3 seasons...... between summer and winter. Clear differences were observed between 2 wintering grounds. Whales occupying one wintering ground spent most of their time diving to between 200 and 400 m (25 dives per day, SE 3), confirmed by both depth and temperature recording tags. In contrast, narwhals in a separate...

  14. KARAKTERISTIK SEKUEN cDNA PENGKODE GEN ANTI VIRUS DARI UDANG WINDU, Penaeus monodon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Parenrengi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Transgenesis pada ikan merupakan sebuah teknik modern yang berpotensi besar dalam menghasilkan organisme yang memiliki karakter lebih baik melalui rekombinan DNA gen target termasuk gen anti virus dalam peningkatan resistensi pada udang. Gen anti virus PmAV (Penaeus monodon Anti Viral gene merupakan salah satu gen pengkode anti virus yang berasal dari spesies krustase. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui karakteristik gen anti virus yang diisolasi dari udang windu, Penaeus monodon. Isolasi gen anti virus menggunakan metode Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR dan selanjutnya dipurifikasi untuk sekuensing. Data yang dihasilkan dianalisis dengan program Genetyx Versi 7 dan basic local alignment search tool (BLAST. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa gen anti virus PmAV yang berhasil diisolasi dari cDNA udang windu dengan panjang sekuen 520 bp yang mengkodekan 170 asam amino. BLAST-N menunjukkan tingkat similaritas yang sangat tinggi (100% dengan gen anti virus yang ada di GeneBank. Komposisi asam amino penyusun gen anti virus yang paling besar adalah serin (10,00%, sedangkan yang terkecil adalah asam amino prolin dan lisin masing-masing 1,76%. Analisis sekuen gen dan deduksi asam amino (BLAST-P memperlihatkan adanya C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD yang memiliki kemiripan dengan gen C-type lectin yang diisolasi dari beberapa spesies krustase. Transgenic fish technology is a potential modern technique in producing better character organism through DNA recombinant of target genes including anti viral gene for improvement of shrimp immunity. PmAV (Penaeus monodon Anti Viral gene is one of anti viral genes isolated from crustacean species. The research was conducted to analyze the characteristics anti viral gene isolated from tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon. Anti viral gene was isolated using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR technique and then purified for sequencing. Data obtained were analyzed using Genetyx Version 7 software and basic local alignment

  15. Distribution of Bacteria Injected in Body of Giant Black Shrimp, Penaeus Monodon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Zhixun(郭志勋); Karin van de Braak; Magriet Botterbloom

    2004-01-01

    Distribution of injected Vibrio anguillarum in body of Penaeus monodon was studied with immunohistochemical method. Bacteria could be detected throughout the experiment in some individuals; however in lymphoid tissue, gill, heart and haemolymph of all vibrio injected shrimp, the bacteria could be observed only 5 min after injection. The bacteria density in haemolymph, haemolymph of the hepatopancreas and gills decreased with time. In the lymphoid organ and heart, the bacteria density was the highest 48 h after injection, then decreased. Nodules could be formed in the heart, lymphoid organ and injection site.

  16. RESPON UDANG WINDU ( Penaeus monodon Fabr. TERHADAP ANTIGEN WSSV YANG DIINAKTIVASI DENGAN FORMALDEHID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melta Rini Fahmi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui respon udang windu (Penaeus monodon terhadap pemberian antigen virus WSSV (White Spot Syndrome Virus yang diinaktifkan dengan menggunakan formaldehid. Penelitian dibagi menjadi dua tahapan, tahapan pertama yaitu menentukan nilai VID50 (Virus Infective Doze dengan Rancangan Acak Lengkap, tahap kedua untuk melihat pengaruh pemberian virus WSSV yang diinaktifkan dengan formaldehid terhadap respon imunitas, tingkah laku, dan tingkat sintasan. Pada tahap kedua penelitian dilakukan secara faktorial, faktor yang digunakan adalah konsentrasi virus terdiri atas 2 level serta konsentrasi formaldehid yang terdiri atas 3 level. Masing-masing kombinasi di atas dibuat sebanyak 6 kali, yang digunakan untuk 3 kelompok penelitian yaitu kelompok tanpa diuji tantang, diuji tantang dilakukan setelah 14 hari, dan uji tantang dilakukan setelah 21 hari, dilaksanakan sebanyak 2 kali ulangan. Untuk semua kelompok percobaan respons udang paling sensitif berupa berenang ke permukaan terjadi setelah 1 jam perlakuan diberikan, diikuti oleh penurunan aktivitas dan penurunan nafsu makan. Tingkat kerusakan organ paling tinggi terdapat pada kelompok penelitian ke-2 (uji tantang setelah 14 hari. Untuk kelompok 1 (divaksinasi kondisi organ hampir normal, hal ini menandakan virus berhasil dilemahkan dan mampu memacu timbulnya antibodi. Tingkat sintasan udang lebih tinggi setelah diuji tantang dibandingkan yang tidak divaksinasi. The purpose of the research was to determine response of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon toward formaldehyde inactivated White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV.The study was divided into two phases, the first phase was to determine the VID50 (Virus Infective Doze using Completely Randomize Design, the second phase was to determine of effectiveness of inactive WSSV antigen on the immune response of Penaeus monodon, behavior and pathological respond of Penaeus monodon larvae. VID50 value determined during research was

  17. TATA KELOLA INDUSTRI GULA DI SITUBONDO MASA KOLONIAL DAN KEBIJAKAN PERGULAAN MASA KINI

    OpenAIRE

    Nurcahyo, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Industri gula merupakan industri manufaktur yang berorientasi ekspor bermodal asing. Ketika industri gula mengalami masa jaya tahun 1930, ada 179 pabrik gula yang beroperasi. Pada saat krisis ekonomi, agro industri ini paling parah terkena dampaknya. Tata kelola industri gula sejak masa kolonial sampai sekarang tidak terlepas dengan kebijakan pemerintah. Beroperasi maupun ditutupnya pabrik gula di Situbondo pada masa krisis berkait erat dengan manajemen strategi perusahaan. Dalam hal ini menc...

  18. Foreign establishment mode: determinants in the case of Indian multinational Tata Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Rienda García

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the factors influencing the choice between different FDI modes: acquisitions or greenfield investments. From a sample of 117 outward foreign direct investment (FDI decisions made by the Indian multinational Tata in 43 countries, our findings show that industry technological intensity, host country risk, host market attractiveness, previous international experience and the volume of exports from India to the host country, are determining factors of this choice.

  19. Bibliometric dimension of innovation communication productivity of Tata Institute of Social Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Koganuramath, M. M.; Angadi, Mallikarjun; Kademani, B. S.

    2002-01-01

    Bibliometric analysis of 663 papers published by the social scientists of Tata Institute of Social Sciences during 1990-2000 in diverse domains: Criminology and Correctional Administration, Extra Mural Studies, Family and Child Welfare, Health Service Studies, Medical and Psychiatric Social work, Personnel Management and Industrial Relations, Research Methodology, Social Welfare Administration, and Urban and Rural Community Development, and Research Units: Social Work Education and Practice ...

  20. Molecular Mechanism of Mot1, a TATA-binding Protein (TBP)-DNA Dissociating Enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Ramya; True, Jason D; Auble, David T

    2016-07-22

    The essential Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATPase Mot1 globally regulates transcription by impacting the genomic distribution and activity of the TATA-binding protein (TBP). In vitro, Mot1 forms a ternary complex with TBP and DNA and can use ATP hydrolysis to dissociate the TBP-DNA complex. Prior work suggested an interaction between the ATPase domain and a functionally important segment of DNA flanking the TATA sequence. However, how ATP hydrolysis facilitates removal of TBP from DNA is not well understood, and several models have been proposed. To gain insight into the Mot1 mechanism, we dissected the role of the flanking DNA segment by biochemical analysis of complexes formed using DNAs with short single-stranded gaps. In parallel, we used a DNA tethered cleavage approach to map regions of Mot1 in proximity to the DNA under different conditions. Our results define non-equivalent roles for bases within a broad segment of flanking DNA required for Mot1 action. Moreover, we present biochemical evidence for two distinct conformations of the Mot1 ATPase, the detection of which can be modulated by ATP analogs as well as DNA sequence flanking the TATA sequence. We also show using purified complexes that Mot1 dissociation of a stable, high affinity TBP-DNA interaction is surprisingly inefficient, suggesting how other transcription factors that bind to TBP may compete with Mot1. Taken together, these results suggest that TBP-DNA affinity as well as other aspects of promoter sequence influence Mot1 function in vivo.

  1. Regulation of activity of the yeast TATA-binding protein through intra-molecular interactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Perumal Vanathi; Anurag Kumar Mishra; Purnima Bhargava

    2003-06-01

    Dimerization is proposed to be a regulatory mechanism for TATA-binding protein (TBP) activity both in vitro and in vivo. The reversible dimer-monomer transition of TBP is influenced by the buffer conditions in vitro. Using in vitro chemical cross-linking, we found yeast TBP (yTBP) to be largely monomeric in the presence of the divalent cation Mg2+, even at high salt concentrations. Apparent molecular mass of yTBP at high salt with Mg2+, run through a gel filtration column, was close to that of monomeric yTBP. Lowering the monovalent ionic concentration in the absence of Mg2+, resulted in dimerization of TBP. Effect of Mg2+ was seen at two different levels: at higher TBP concentrations, it suppressed the TBP dimerization and at lower TBP levels, it helped keep TBP monomers in active conformation (competent for binding TATA box), resulting in enhanced TBP-TATA complex formation in the presence of increasing Mg2+. At both the levels, activity of the full-length TBP in the presence of Mg2+ was like that reported for the truncated C-terminal domain of TBP from which the N-terminus is removed. Therefore for full-length TBP, intra-molecular interactions can regulate its activity via a similar mechanism.

  2. Occurrence of viral pathogens in Penaeus monodon post-larvae from aquaculture hatcheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toms C. Joseph

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Viral pathogens appear to exert the most significant constraints on the growth and survival of crustaceans under culture conditions. The prevalence of viral pathogens White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV, Hepatopancreatic Parvo Virus (HPV, Monodon Baculo Virus (MBV and Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHHNV in Penaeus monodon post-larvae was studied. Samples collected from different hatcheries and also samples submitted by farmers from Kerala were analyzed. Out of 104 samples collected, WSSV was detected in 12.5% of the post-larvae samples. Prevalence of concurrent infections by HPV, MBV and WSSV (either dual or triple infection was present in 60.6% of the total post-larvae tested. Out of the 51 double positives, 98% showed either HPV or IHHNV infection. HPV or IHHNV was detected in 11 post-larval samples showing triple viral infection. This is the first report of IHHNV from India. Result of this study reveals the lack of efficient screening strategies to eradicate viruses in hatchery reared post-larvae.

  3. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of cyclin E and CDK2 from Penaeus monodon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C; Fu, M J; Qiu, L H

    2016-09-16

    Reduced reproductive performance of the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) has caused economic losses and hampered the fishing industry. Detailed investigation of the molecular mechanism by which the cell cycle is regulated in this organism is needed to understand the development and maturation of ovaries and oocytes, with a view to improving reproductive capacity. Cell cycle progression is mainly determined by cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) and cyclin complexes, the cyclin E/CDK2 complex playing a key role in G1/S transition. However, knowledge of the interplay between cyclin E and CDK2 in invertebrates remains limited. In this study, full-length P. monodon cyclin E (Pmcyclin E) and CDK2 (PmCDK2) sequences were cloned. The open reading frame of Pmcyclin E was 1263 bp in length and encoded a 47.9-kDa protein, while that of PmCDK2 was 921 bp, encoding a protein of 34.9 kDa. Recombinant cyclin E and CDK2 proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by Ni-chelating affinity chromatography. In addition, a pull-down assay was performed to identify any interaction between Pmcyclin E and PmCDK2. This research provides a basis for the study of the functional mechanisms of the cyclin E/CDK2 complex in shrimp, further enriching our knowledge of invertebrate cell cycle regulation.

  4. STUDY OF PROBIOTICS ON THE SEED PRODUCTION OF BLACK TIGER SHRIMP Penaeus monodon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abdul Kader

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, antibiotics are widely used in shrimp hatcheries to control bacterial infections. Appearance of antibiotic resistant pathogens and restriction on the use of antibiotics have led to the development of alternatives to antibiotics in hatchery systems. In light of this, an attempt was undertaken to investigate the effects of probiotics on the larval rearing of Penaeus monodon, compared with control tanks (without probiotics. The results showed that several issues significantly improved with administering probiotics in the experimental tanks compared with the tanks without probiotics. For example, the concentration of ammonia was estimated to be 1.25 mg/L that was less than half of what was measured in the control tanks. The size variation was observed more in the control tanks than in the experimental tanks. Moreover, the muscle gut ratio of PL15 was about 85 to 92% in the probiotic treated tank and 70 to 80% in the control tank during the eight cycles of production. The fouling organisms were more in the control tank compared to the experimental tanks. The average length of PL15 was maximum when reared in the experimental tanks compared to the control tanks. The final survival rate of PL15 from the control and experimental tank was 35 and 52%, respectively. The present investigation indicated that probiotics played an important role in the growth, survival and health status of P. monodon larvae.

  5. Behavioural and biochemical alterations in Penaeus monodon post-larvae diet-exposed to inorganic mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harayashiki, Cyntia Ayumi Yokota; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J; Liu, Lei; Butcher, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Mercury is a metal naturally present in the environment with concentrations in aquatic systems increasing annually due to human activities. This represents a great concern mainly due to its high toxicity to organisms and consequences for human health. Most studies regarding the toxic effect of mercury have focussed on freshwater species using water as the exposure and uptake pathway. In contrast, the present study investigated the effects of dietary exposure of mercury to the marine crustacean Penaeus monodon post-larvae during 96 h to evaluate changes in behaviour (swimming activity and risk taken) and in biochemical biomarkers [acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glutathione S-transferase (GST)]. Results showed a decrease in swimming activity with an increase in mercury exposure, but no changes were observed regarding the behavioural response 'risk taken'. Prawns from medium (0.56 μg g(-1)) and high (1.18 μg g(-1)) treatments had their GST activity reduced in relation to the beginning of experiment (time 0), while AChE activity was increased in the low (0.15 μg g(-1)) treatment in relation to time 0. In the present study, behaviour analysis were clearer than biochemical biomarkers and results might indicate P. monodon populations from a mercury contaminated environment might be at risk, since the behavioural alterations observed increases the risk of predation.

  6. Efficiency of probiotics (Ecoforce in the growth and survival of Peneaus monodon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Elumalai

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic supplementation of live microorganisms in aquaculture aids in preventing disease, thereby increasing production and decreasing economic loss. Application of probiotics bacteria in aquaculture systems plays significant role that determines the fate and success rate of culture. The present study was carried out to evaluate the performance of commercially available probiotics (The major active ingredients include Streptococcus faecalis, Streptococcus faecium, Bacillus mesentericus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus natto, Clostridium butyricum, Saccharomyces cerevivisiae, Alkaline Protease and Lipase in the growth and survival of Peneaus monodon in grow-out conditions. At the end of the culture, the survival rate of Pond I (treatment pond was 76%, whereas for Pond II (control pond it was only 59%. Pond I (29.2g where as shrimps in the Pond II showed the least average body weight of 22.6g. It is evident that application of probiotics has improved the growth and survival of P. monodon and which in turn paved way to reap better profit for the farmers. This investigation showed that administration of mixed Bacillus probiotics significantly improved growth and survival of shrimp, increased beneficial bacteria in shrimp culture and enhanced water quality for parameter., it seems likely that the use of probiotics will gradually increase in the days to come that will open new vistas in the arena of aquaculture.

  7. Impaired telomerase activity hinders proliferation and in vitro transformation of Penaeus monodon lymphoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayesh, P; Vrinda, S; Priyaja, P; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, I S Bright

    2016-08-01

    Retaining terminal transferase activity of telomerase, the ribonucleoprotein enzyme which add telomeric repeats on chromosome end is thought to be required to prevent cellular ageing. Additionally, telomerase considered as a marker for cell proliferation and immortalization in eukaryotes. We examined telomerase activity in tissues and lymphoid cell culture of Penaeus monodon. Along with telomerase activity, telomere repeats and an attempt on identification of telomerase reverse transcriptase (PmTERT) were made. Telomeric repeat amplification protocol revealed that telomerase-dependent telomeric lengthening has been taking place in P. monodon and the adult tissues were retaining this capacity throughout their lifespan with the highest activity in ovary, testis and lymphoid organ. However, telomerase activity could not be detected in lymphoid cells in culture. The canonical telomeric repeats added by telomerase of lymphoid tissue extract were identified as TTAGG, but pentameric repeats GGTTA and AGGTT were also added by the telomerase. PmTERT protein sequence (partial) shared 100 % identity with the TERT sequence of Daphnia pulex, 27 % sequence identity with Purple sea urchin and 24-25 % with Zebra fish. Undetectable telomerase activity in lymphoid cell culture supports the hypothesis that the inadequate telomerase activity or gene expression may be a reason that prevents neoplastic transformation and spontaneous immortalization of the cells in vitro. Thus, it is envisaged that telomerase activation in lymphoid cells may surmount cellular ageing for in vitro transformation and cell line establishment.

  8. PENERAPAN METODE TUTOR SEBAYA UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KETERAMPILANPREPARE DANTABLE SET UP DALAM MATA KULIAH TATA HIDANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyuningsih Wahyuningsih

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This learning teching research was intended to improve the learning outcomes of the students practicing in the subject of prepare and table set up, the main subject of Tata Hidang I (Servicing Arragements I. The subject for this research consisted of 18 S1 students of the learning group number 02 for the study Program for PKK, concentrating on Tata Boga, Departement of Service & Production Technology, the Technical Faculty of Semarang State University for the academic period of 2009-2010. This research was conducted in the gasal semester of the academic year of 2009-2010. The needed data were collected by means of tests and obsevation on the learning outcomes of the students practicing in the sub-subject of Prepare and Table Set up. The data collection used grading sheets for practices in Tata Hidang as its instrument. The data were then analized using the method of descriptive presentation. This was a classroom-action research planned in three cycles. The second and third cycles were implemented based on reflections on the first cycle and on improvements that should be reached. Every cycle consisted of two face to face encounters and of 4 activities: (1planning, (2 implementations, (3 observations, (4 reflections. The results of this research showed that the use of peeer tutorials for the learning-teching pocesses had positive effects both on the students and the lecturers that it might improve the quality of lecturing for the Tata Hidang I. The grades obtained by the students from practicing in the sub-subject of prepare and table set up increased from the lowest grade C (46.7% BC and B (60% and AB (26.6 %, and AB (26.6%.. Trough the three cycles, the number of BC grade decreased from 66% to only 20%. Based on the results of this research, it is recommended that peer tutorial for the subject of Tata Hidang I and Servicing in Food & Beverage should be continued in order that the educational serveices provided to the practicing students might be

  9. 斑节对虾杆状病毒感染对脂肪代谢的影响%Influence on fat metabolism in mid-gut gland of healthy Penaeus monodon and that infected with Penaeus monodon baculovirus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李贵生; 何建国; 余南; 翁少萍; 江静波

    2001-01-01

    目的:为了探究斑节对虾杆状病毒(MBV)感染对脂肪代谢的影响,指导虾病的防治.方法:利用索氏(Soxhlet)提取法对养殖健康斑节对虾和MBV感染斑节对虾的中肠腺脂肪含量进行了检测.结果:健康对虾中肠腺脂肪占干重平均34.28%,占湿重平均9.60%,含水率平均71.06%.MBV轻度感染的中肠腺脂肪占干重平均31.52%,占湿重平均9.58%,含水率平均69.31%,三者与健康对虾比较均无显著性差异(P>0.30、P>0.90和P>0.40).MBV重度感染的中肠腺脂肪占干重平均56.42%,占湿重平均24.14%,两者均明显高于健康虾和MBV轻度感染虾(均为P<0.001);含水率平均57.22%,明显低于健康虾和MBV轻度感染虾(均为P<0.001).结论:严重感染MBV的斑节对虾可出现脂肪代谢紊乱,造成脂肪堆积,进而影响中肠腺的消化吸收功能.%Aim: To study the relationship between MBV infection and fattymetabolism. Method: The fat average levels of mid-gut gland in healthy Penaeus monodon and in P. monodon infected with Penaeus monodon baculovirus (MBV) were detected by Soxhlet method. Results: The fat average level was 34.28% of dry weight or 9.60% of wet weight and the water average content was 71.06% in healthy P. monodon. The fat average level was 31.52% of dry weight or 9.58% of wet weight and the water average content was 69.31% in P. monodon lightly infected with MBV. There was no distinct difference between healthy P. monodon and P. monodon lightly infected with MBV in fat level and water content (P>0.30, P>0.90 and P>0.40). The fat average level was 56.42% of dry weight or 24.14% of wet weight and the water average content was 57.22% in P. monodon heavily infected with MBV. The fat level was distinctly higher (P<0.001) and the water content was distinctly lower (P<0.001) as compared with those in healthy P. monodon and that lightly infected with MBV. Conclusion:There was metabolic

  10. A G-Box-Binding Protein from Soybean Binds to the E1 Auxin-Response Element in the Soybean GH3 Promoter and Contains a Proline-Rich Repression Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z. B.; Hagen, G.; Guilfoyle, T. J.

    1997-10-01

    The E1 promoter fragment (-249 to -203) is one of three auxin-response elements (AuxREs) in the soybean (Glycine max L.) GH3 promoter (Z.-B. Liu, T. Ulmasov, X. Shi, G. Hagen, T.J. Guilfoyle [1994] Plant Cell 6: 645-657). Results presented here further characterize and delimit the AuxRE within the E1 fragment. The E1 fragment functioned as an AuxRE in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants, as well as in transfected protoplasts. The AuxRE within E1 contains a G-box, and this G-box was used to clone a G-box-binding factor (GBF) from soybean (SGBF-2). This 45-kD GBF contains an N-terminal proline-rich domain and a C-terminal basic/leucine zipper DNA-binding domain. Gel-mobility shift assays were used to characterize the binding specificity of SGBF-2. Antiserum raised against recombinant SGBF-2 was used to further characterize SGBF-2 and antigenically related GBFs in soybean nuclear extracts. Co-transfection assays with effector and reporter plasmids in carrot (Daucus carota L.) protoplasts indicated that the N-terminal proline-rich domain of SGBF-2 functioned as a repression domain in both basal and auxin-inducible transcription.

  11. Silencing of Y-box binding protein-1 by RNA interference inhibits proliferation, invasion, and metastasis, and enhances sensitivity to cisplatin through NF-κB signaling pathway in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Sun, Ruowen; Chi, Zuofei; Li, Shuang; Hao, Liangchun

    2017-04-05

    Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1), a member of Y-box protein family binding DNA and RNA, has been proposed as a novel marker in multiple malignant tumors and found to be associated with tumor malignancy. Neuroblastoma is an embryonal tumor arising from neuroblast cells of the autonomic nervous system, which is the most common cancer diagnosed in infants. It has been reported that YB-1 is highly expressing in various human tumors including nasopharynx, thyroid, lung, breast, colon, ovary, and prostate cancers. This study aimed to investigate the functional role of YB-1 in neuroblastoma by silencing YB-1 using RNA interference (shRNA) in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. We found that silencing of YB-1 decreased the proliferation, migration, and invasion of SH-SY5Y cells. At molecular level, inhibition of YB-1 decreased the expression level of PCNA as well as MMP-2 in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Also, we discovered that YB-1 silencing sensitized SH-SY5Y cells to cisplatin and promoted the apoptosis induced by cisplatin due to down-regulation of multidrug resistance (MDR) 1 protein via NF-κB signaling pathway. Therefore, we consider that targeting YB-1 is promising for neuroblastoma treatment and for overcoming its cisplatin resistance in the development of new neuroblastoma therapeutic strategies.

  12. Protein: FBA4 [TP Atlas

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FBA4 REST-TBP TBP GTF2D1, TF2D, TFIID TATA_binding_protein TATA-box-binding protein... TATA sequence-binding protein, TATA-binding factor, TATA-box factor, Transcription initiation factor TFIID

  13. Kompetensi Higiene-Sanitasi Siswa dalam Pengolahan dan Penyajian Makanan di SMK Bidang Keahlian Tata Boga di Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luh Masdarini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian untuk mengungkap dan mendeskripsikan pemahaman, sikap, dan unjuk kerja higiene-sanitasi siswa dalam pengolahan dan penyajian makanan di SMK Bidang Keahlian Tata Boga di Bali. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan penelitian deskriptif kuantitatif dengan subjek penelitian siswa di SMK Bidang Keahlian Tata Boga di Bali yang berjumlah 198 orang. Instru-men penelitian yang digunakan adalah tes pengetahuan, angket, dan lembar observasi. Selanjutnya data dianalisis dengan teknik deskriptif dengan menggunakan formula persentase. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa: (1 pemahaman higiene-sanitasi siswa dalam pengolahan dan penyajian makanan di SMK Bidang Keahlian Keahlian Tata Boga di Bali 82,89% termasuk kategori sangat baik; (2 Sikap higiene-sanitasi siswa dalam pengolahan dan penyajian makanan di SMK Bidang Keahlian Tata Bo-ga di Bali 84,36% termasuk kategori sangat baik; (3 Unjuk kerja higiene-sanitasi siswa dalam pengolah-an dan penyajian makanan di SMK Bidang Keahlian Tata Boga di Bali 90,20% termasuk kategori sa-ngat baik. Kata kunci: pemahaman, sikap, unjuk kerja, prinsip-prinsip higiene-sanitasi, SMK, pengolahan dan penyajian makanan

  14. A crustin isoform from black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon exhibits broad spectrum anti-bacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debashis Banerjee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Crustaceans have a powerful non-specific immune mechanism that responds to pathogen invasion and together with cellular responses, generates powerful humoral factors such as antimicrobial peptides. Crustins are a diverse class of antimicrobial peptides that are expressed by the circulating haemocytes of crustaceans. Several isoforms of this molecule are reported and in this study, one isoform from the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli SG 13009. The purified recombinant crustin peptide had a molecular weight of 22 kDa and exhibited potent anti-bacterial activity in vitro against several Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria that included pathogens of aquatic animals and humans. The recombinant crustin showed a minimal inhibitory concentration of 0.5 μg ml−1 against the vibrio pathogens of shrimp, which suggests its promise for application in aquaculture.

  15. Crustin protein Amk1 from black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon inhibits Vibrio harveyi and Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moltira Tonganunt1*

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A crustin gene (Amk1 was identified from a haemocyte library of the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon. The full-length cDNA consists of 411 bp encoding a deduced precursor of 136 amino acids with a signal peptide of 17 aminoacids. Amk1 contains a hydrophobic and a Gly-rich region at the N-terminus and a 12 conserved cysteine domain (6-DSC at the C-terminus. Transcripts of Amk1 are mainly detected in haemocytes and gills by RT-PCR analysis. A recombinant Amk1was overexpressed and purified from Escherichia coli. This has a molecular mass of 43.66 kDa with a predicted pI of 8.23. Antibacterial assays demonstrated that recombinant Amk1 exhibited antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gramnegativebacteria with strong inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio harveyi.

  16. Interaction of Vibrio spp. with the Inner Surface of the Digestive Tract of Penaeus monodon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wipasiri Soonthornchai

    Full Text Available Several species of Vibrio are the causative agent of gastroenteritis in humans. In aquaculture, Vibrio harveyi (Vh and V. parahaemolyticus (Vp have long been considered as shrimp pathogens in freshwater, brackish and marine environments. Here we show by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM that Penaeus monodon orally inoculated with each of these two pathogens via an Artemia diet had numerous bacteria attached randomly across the stomach surface, in single and in large biofilm-like clusters 6 h post-infection. A subsequent marked proliferation in the number of V. harveyi within the biofilm-like formations resulted in the development of infections in the stomach, the upper and middle midgut, but neither in the posterior midgut nor the hindgut. SEM also revealed the induced production of peritrichous pili-like structures by the Vp attaching to the stomach lining, whilst only a single polar fibre was seen forming an apparent physical bridge between Vh and the host's epithelium. In contrast to these observations, no such adherences or linkages were seen when trials were conducted with non-pathogenic Vibrio spp. or with Micrococcus luteus, with no obvious resultant changes to the host's gut surface. In naive shrimp, the hindgut was found to be a favorable site for bacteria notably curved, short-rod shaped bacteria which probably belong to Vibrio spp. Data from the current study suggests that pathogens of P. monodon must be able to colonize the digestive tract, particularly the stomach, where chitin is present, and then they use an array of virulent factors and enzymes to infect their host resulting in disease. Oral infection is a better way of mimicking natural routes of infection; investigating the host-bacteria interactions occurring in the digestive tract may lead to new strategies for the prevention or control of bacterial infections in penaeids.

  17. Transcription of the human beta enolase gene (ENO-3) is regulated by an intronic muscle-specific enhancer that binds myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2 proteins and ubiquitous G-rich-box binding factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feo, S; Antona, V; Barbieri, G; Passantino, R; Calì, L; Giallongo, A

    1995-01-01

    To provide evidence for the cis-regulatory DNA sequences and trans-acting factors involved in the complex pattern of tissue- and stage-specific expression of the beta enolase gene, constructs containing fragments of the gene fused to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene were used in transient-transfection assays of C2C12 myogenic cells. Deletion analysis revealed the presence of four major regions: two negative regions in the 5'-flanking sequence, a basal promoter region which directs expression at low levels in proliferating and differentiated muscle cells, and a positive region within the first intron that confers cell-type-specific and differentiation-induced expression. This positive regulatory element is located in the 3'-proximal portion of the first intron (nucleotides +504 to +637) and acts as an enhancer irrespective of orientation and position from the homologous beta enolase promoter or the heterologous thymidine kinase promoter, conferring in both cases muscle-specific expression to the linked reporter gene. Deletion of a putative myocyte-specific enhancer factor 1 (MEF-1) binding site, containing a canonical E-box motif, had no effects on muscle-specific transcription, indicating that this site is not required for the activity of the enhancer. Gel mobility shift assays, competition analysis, DNase I footprinting, and mutagenesis studies indicated that this element interacts through an A/T-rich box with a MEF-2 protein(s) and through a G-rich box with a novel ubiquitous factor(s). Mutation of either the G-rich box or the A/T-rich box resulted in a significantly reduced activity of the enhancer in transient-transfection assays. These data indicate that MEF-2 and G-rich-box binding factors are each necessary for tissue-specific expression of the beta enolase gene in skeletal muscle cells. PMID:7565752

  18. Survival and changes in the fine structure of selected tissues of Penaeus monodon Fabricius juveniles fed various carbohydrates

    OpenAIRE

    Pascual, F.P.; Coloso, R.M.; Tamse, C.T.

    1981-01-01

    Penaeus monodon juveniles were reared on semipurified diets containing various carbohydrates (maltose, sucrose, dextrin, molasses, cassava starch, corn starch or sago palm starch). Significant differences were observed between the type as well as the level of carbohydrate in the diet on the survival of the juveniles. Results indicate that there does not seem to be any correlation between survival and the complexity of the carbohydrates.

  19. Comparison of ovarian maturation and spawning after unilateral eyestalk ablation of wild-caught and pond-reared Penaeus monodon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, W.; Yang, Q.; Ma, Z.; Jiang, S.; Qiu, L.; Huang, J.; Zhou, F.; Qin, J.G.

    2015-07-01

    The present study compares the efficiency of ovarian maturation and spawning success between wild-caught and pond-reared Penaeus monodon females after unilateral eyestalk ablation. The earliest spawning time after eyestalk ablation was 5.9 days in wild-caught females, which is significantly shorter than the spawning time in pond-reared females (10.5 days). Both wild-caught and pond-reared females repeatedly spawned after eyestalk ablation. On average, each wild-caught female spawned 2.94 times while each pond-reared female spawned only 1.09 times. The spawning induction rate, egg hatching rate, and the number of eggs per spawning were significantly greater in wild-caught females than in pond-reared females. However, the egg size was not significantly different between wild-caught and pond-reared females. Four shrimp sizes (60, 80, 100 and 120 (± 1.0) g) were tested in this study and body weight significantly affected ovarian induction in pond-reared females but not in wild-caught females. Within the same body-weight class, the egg number per spawn in wild-caught females was significantly greater than that in pond-reared females. The egg production per spawn of the pond-reared females in the 120-g size group was two times higher than that in the pond-reared females in the 80-g size group. In conclusion, the fecundity of wild-caught P. monodon females is significantly higher than that of pond-reared P. monodon females. In breeding pond-reared P. monodon, the recommended minimum body weight of females is over 80 g, and the desirable body weight is over 100 g. (Author)

  20. Persistence of Penaeus stylirostris densovirus delays mortality caused by white spot syndrome virus infection in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Persistent infection of Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV) (also called IHHNV) and its non-infectious inserts in the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon (P. monodon) genome are commonly found without apparent disease. Here, we introduced the method of multiplex PCR in order to differentiate shrimp with viral inserts from ones with the infectious virus. The method allowed us to study the effect of pre-infection of IHHNV, in comparison to IHHNV inserts, on WSSV resistance in P. monodon. Results A multiplex PCR system was developed to amplify the entire IHHNV genome, ensuring the accurate diagnosis. Field samples containing IHHNV DNA templates as low as 20 pg or equivalent 150 viral copies can be detected by this method. By challenging the two groups of diagnosed shrimp with WSSV, we found that shrimp with IHHNV infection and those with viral inserts responded to WSSV differently. Considering cumulative mortality, average time to death of shrimp in IHHNV-infected group (day 14) was significantly delayed relative to that (day 10) of IHHNV-inserted group. Real-time PCR analysis of WSSV copy number indicated the lower amount of WSSV in the IHHNV-infected group than the virus-inserted group. The ratio of IHHNV: WSSV copy number in all determined IHHNV-infected samples ranged from approximately 4 to 300-fold. Conclusion The multiplex PCR assay developed herein proved optimal for convenient differentiation of shrimp specimens with real IHHNV infection and those with insert types. Diagnosed shrimp were also found to exhibit different WSSV tolerance. After exposed to WSSV, the naturally pre-infected IHHNV P. monodon were less susceptible to WSSV and, consequently, survived longer than the IHHNV-inserted shrimp. PMID:23414329

  1. Effects of ochratoxin A and deoxynivalenol on growth performance and immuno-physiological parameters in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon)

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) and deoxynivalenol (DON), naturally occurring contaminants of animal feed, have been implicated in several mycotoxicoses in farm livestock but there is little information on their toxicity in aquatic invertebrates. Therefore, in the present study an 8-week feeding trial was conducted on black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) to assess the effects of OTA and DON on growth performance, haemolymph parameters and histopathology of shrimp. Results showed that feed supplemented wit...

  2. Oxidative stress response of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) to enrofloxacin and to culture system

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    In Vietnam, enrofloxacin is one of the most commonly used antibiotics in shrimp farms. Although the European Union set a maximum residue limit (MRL) of 100 µg/kg for enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin in edible tissues of aquatic animals for human consumption, only few data are available on its potential deleterious effects on shrimp. This study aimed to investigate the impacts of enrofloxacin on oxidative stress in hepatopancreas and gills of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). ...

  3. Construction of integrated genetic linkage maps of the tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) using microsatellite and AFLP markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, E-M; Liu, K-F; Huang, S-W; Chen, M; Groumellec, M L; Fann, S-J; Yu, H-T

    2010-08-01

    The linkage maps of male and female tiger shrimp (P. monodon) were constructed based on 256 microsatellite and 85 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Microsatellite markers obtained from clone sequences of partial genomic libraries, tandem repeat sequences from databases and previous publications and fosmid end sequences were employed. Of 670 microsatellite and 158 AFLP markers tested for polymorphism, 341 (256 microsatellite and 85 AFLP markers) were used for genotyping with three F(1) mapping panels, each comprising two parents and more than 100 progeny. Chi-square goodness-of-fit test (chi(2)) revealed that only 19 microsatellite and 28 AFLP markers showed a highly significant segregation distortion (P every approximately 11.2 cM, with an observed genome length of 2033.4 cM. The female map consisted of 171 microsatellite and 36 AFLP markers spaced every approximately 13.8 cM, with an observed genome length of 2182 cM. Both maps shared 136 microsatellite markers, and the alignment between them indicated 38 homologous pairs of linkage groups including the linkage group representing the sex chromosome. The karyotype of P. monodon is also presented. The tentative assignment of the 44 pairs of P. monodon haploid chromosomes showed the composition of forty metacentric, one submetacentric and three acrocentric chromosomes. Our maps provided a solid foundation for gene and QTL mapping in the tiger shrimp.

  4. Therapeutic effect of Artemia enriched with Escherichia coli expressing double-stranded RNA in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thammasorn, Thitiporn; Somchai, Parinyachat; Laosutthipong, Chaowanee; Jitrakorn, Sarocha; Wongtripop, Somjai; Thitamadee, Siripong; Withyachumnarnkul, Boonsirm; Saksmerprome, Vanvimon

    2013-10-01

    We exploited Artemia as a double-stranded (ds)RNA-delivery system to combat viral diseases in shrimp. First, the transformed Escherichia coli (E. coli) expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP) was tested in the Artemia enrichment process. RFP signals detectable in the gut of Artemia under confocal microscope were evident for the successful encapsulation. Second, the Artemia enrichment process was performed using E. coli producing Laem-Singh virus (LSNV)-specific dsRNA, which has been previously shown to inhibit the viral infection in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon by intramuscular injection and oral administration. The enriched Artemia nauplii were confirmed to contain dsRNA-LSNV by RT-PCR, and were subjected to the feeding test with P. monodon postlarvae. Quantitative RT-PCR indicated that a number of LSNV copies in most of the treated shrimp were, at least, 1000-fold lower than the untreated controls. During 11-17weeks after feeding, average body weight of the treated group was markedly increased relative to the control group. A smaller differential growth rate of the treated group as compared to the control was also noticed. These results suggested that feeding shrimp with the dsRNA-enriched Artemia can eliminate LSNV infection, which is the cause of retarded growth in P. monodon. The present study reveals for the first time the therapeutic effect of dsRNA-enriched Artemia for shrimp disease control.

  5. Risk factors of suicide among patients admitted with suicide attempt in Tata main hospital, Jamshedpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Sahoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: More than one lakh lives are lost every year due to suicide in India. In the last three decades (from 1975 to 2005, the suicide rate has increased by 43%. Jamshedpur is an Industrial town, which is rapidly growing and having population with mixed cultural background. Recently, there has been increasing trend in a number of suicide attempt across various age groups; there are around 300 cases of suicide attempt admitted to Tata Main Hospital each year. Objective: To study the risk factors associated with suicide attempts. Methods: The study was carried out in the Tata Main Hospital, Jamshedpur. Over a period of 6 months, we gathered data of 101 suicide attempters referred from medical, surgical departments and casualties and taken up for the study. Data were collected on specific pro forma was prepared to collect various others risk factors. Results: More number of female patients compared to male, younger age, lower-middle income group, urban background, school educated, and unemployed were more represented in this study. In 70% of patients, psychiatric disorder was found, but few among them had prior treatment. Increased family conflicts, marital problems, financial difficulties, and perceived humiliations are some of the risk factors. Conclusion: The early identification and treatment of vulnerable populations with risk factors for suicide across the lifespan will help in planning and implementing strategies for prevention.

  6. Recombinant expression of tatABC and tatAC results in the formation of interacting cytoplasmic TatA tubes in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelmann, Felix; Mehner, Denise; Richter, Silke; Lindenstrauss, Ute; Lünsdorf, Heinrich; Hause, Gerd; Brüser, Thomas

    2008-09-12

    The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) system of bacteria and plant plastids serves to translocate folded proteins across energized biological membranes. In Escherichia coli, the three components TatA, TatB, and TatC mediate this membrane passage. Here we demonstrate that TatA can assemble to form clusters of tube-like structures in vivo. While the presence of TatC is essential for their formation, TatB is not required. The TatA tubes have uniform outer and inner diameters of about 11.5 nm and 6.7 nm, respectively. They align to form a crystalline-like structure in which each tube is surrounded by six TatA tubes. The tube structures become easily detectable even at only a 15-fold overexpression of the tatABC genes. The TatA tubes could also be visualized by fluorescence when untagged TatA was mixed with low amounts of TatA-GFP. The structures were often found in contact with the cell poles. Because TatC is most likely polar in E. coli, as demonstrated by a RR-dependent targeting of translocation-incompatible Tat substrates to the cell poles, and because TatC is required for the formation of aligned TatA tubes, it is proposed that the TatA tubes are initiated at polarly localized TatC.

  7. El tratamiento de la metáfora en la traducción de Historias de Tata Mundo (The Treatment of the Metaphor in the Translation of Historias de Tata Mundo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Araya Ríos

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fabián Dobles plantea mediante hechos característicos y regionalismos una imagen del campesino nacional de mediados de siglo xx en su obra Historias de Tata Mundo. Joan Henry lo traduce al inglés en 1998 y lo titula The Stories of Tata Mundo, transportando al campesino costarricense a la escena de habla inglesa. Se analizan las decisiones de la traductora sobre el tratamiento de las metáforas, teniendo en cuenta el lenguaje figurado como una herramienta empleada por el autor para caracterizar la vida rural del campesinado costarricense. Using traditional activities and regionalisms, Fabián Dobles reconstructed the image of the Costa Rican country folk of the mid-twentieth century in his literary work Historias de Tata Mundo. Joan Henry translated it in 1998, with the title The Stories of Tata Mundo, transporting the local peasant to the English-speaking scenario. The translator’s decisions are analyzed here regarding the translation of metaphors, taking into account figurative speech as a tool used by the author to characterize and depict the rural life of Costa Rican country folk.

  8. Main: 1VOL [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ment: Residues 113 - 316; Engineered: Yes; Molecule: Tata-Box-Binding Protein; Chain: B; Engineered: Yes; Mo...lecule: 16 Base-Pair Tata-Containing Oligonucleotide; Chain: C, D; Engineered: Ye

  9. PERANCANGAN ULANG TATA LETAK FASILITAS PABRIK TAHU DAN PENERAPAN METODE 5S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merry Siska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available UD. Dhika Putra merupakan perusahaan yang bergerak dalam pembuatan tahu. Saat ini kondisi layout fasilitas produksi dan kondisi fisik lingkungan kerja di perusahaan mengalami kendala. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk merancang ulang tata letak fasilitas pabrik pembuatan tahu yang dapat meminimalkan panjang lintasan material handling serta menerapkan metode 5S untuk meningkatkan produktivitas kerja, dengan menggunakan pendekatan Systematic Layout Planning (SLP. Sedangkan metode 5S untuk mengatur kondisi tempat kerja yang berdampak terhadap efektivitas kerja, efisiensi, produktivitas dan keselamatan kerja. Hasil penelitian ini menyimpulkan bahwa layout usulan yang terpilih untuk dijadikan layout akhir dalam penelitian ini menunjukkan penurunan panjang lintasan material handling yang cukup signifikan yaitu 45 m atau sekitar 19,2% lebih pendek dari layout awal.

  10. Interpretasi Elemen Vernakular pada Tata Ruang Kawasan sebagai Implementasi Regionalisme Kritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherlly Maulana

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Dampak globalisasi di Kawasan Danau Toba telah menyebabkan hilangnya identitas kawasan yang telah mengakibatkan penurunan nilai dan image kawasan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menjadikan elemen vernakular sebagai identitas pada tata ruang kawasan, melalui penerapan teori regionalisme kritis. Lokasi penelitian berada di Desa Tongging, Kecamatan Merek, Kabupaten Karo. Tahapan penelitian terdiri dari pengumpulan data melalui arsip literatur tentang vernakular Batak Toba dan survey aktivitas masyarakat Tongging melalui observasi, penyebaran kuesioner, dan wawancara semi-terstruktur, tahap analisis dan sintesis berupa analisis deskriptif kualitatif. Hasil penelitian berupa potensi kawasan yang dapat dikembangkan sebagai identitas kawasan berdasarkan interpretasi elemen vernakular, yaitu: 1 budaya agraris; 2 penataan ruang yang mengadopsi bentuk kampung; 3 budaya gotong royong melalui peningkatan partisipasi aktif masyarakat dalam perbaikan kawasan; dan 4 bentuk arsitektur tropis yang beradaptasi terhadap iklim.Dampak globalisasi di Kawasan Danau Toba telah menyebabkan hilangnya identitas kawasan yang telah mengakibatkan penurunan nilai dan image kawasan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menjadikan elemen vernakular sebagai identitas pada tata ruang kawasan, melalui penerapan teori regionalisme kritis. Lokasi penelitian berada di Desa Tongging, Kecamatan Merek, Kabupaten Karo. Tahapan penelitian terdiri dari pengumpulan data melalui arsip literatur tentang vernakular Batak Toba dan survey aktivitas masyarakat Tongging melalui observasi, penyebaran kuesioner, dan wawancara semi-terstruktur, tahap analisis dan sintesis berupa analisis deskriptif kualitatif. Hasil penelitian berupa potensi kawasan yang dapat dikembangkan sebagai identitas kawasan berdasarkan interpretasi elemen vernakular, yaitu: 1 budaya agraris; 2 penataan ruang yang mengadopsi bentuk kampung; 3 budaya gotong royong melalui peningkatan partisipasi aktif masyarakat dalam perbaikan kawasan

  11. Main: 1QNE [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1QNE シロイヌナズナ Arabidopsis Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. Tata-Box Binding Protein ...itiation Factor Tfiid-1; Chain: A, B; Synonym: Tata-Box Factor 1, Tata Sequence-Binding Protein 1, Tbp1; Engin...eered: Yes; Molecule: Dna (5'-D(*Gp*Cp*Tp*Ap*Tp*Ap*Ap*Ap*Ap*Gp*Gp*Gp*Cp*A)-3'); Chain...: C, E; Molecule: Dna (5'-D(*Tp*Gp*Cp*Cp*Cp*Tp*Tp*Tp*Tp*Ap*Tp*Ap*Gp*C)-3'); Chain: D, F Tata Box-Binding Protein...lement Recognition By The Tata Box-Binding Protein Has Been Conserved Throughout

  12. Genetic diversity and differentiation of three populations of Penaeus monodon Fabricus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guizhong; TAN Shuhua; LI shaojing; YE Haihui

    2008-01-01

    Genetic diversity of two wild Penaeus monodon populations sampled from the coastal waters of Qinglan ( Hainan Province of China, HN) and Malaysia (KD),and the F1 generation of a Thailand broodstock population (CP) were examined by vertical polyacryl- amide gel electrophoresis.Of 21 loci encoded by ten enzymes,11 were polymorphic.The mean proportions of polymorphic loci of HN,KD and CP were 36.36%,45.45% and 50.00%,with the average heterezygosities of 0.135,0.181 and 0.191,and the effective numbers of alleles per loci were 1.300,1.330 and 1.329,respectively.The divergent indexes of HN,KD and CP were 0.023,0.124,and 0.117,respectively.The genetic distance between the two wild populations was 0.005,and the gene differ- entiation coefficient was also very low (0.014).The results indicated that the F1 generation population had a higher genetic di- versity than the two wild populations,and that the HN population had the lowest one.There was no significant differentiation be- tween HN and KD populations and all populations existed with a slight heterozygote excess.

  13. Towards improved quality benchmarking and shelf life evaluation of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Nhat Tam; Doan, Nhu Khue; Nguyen Ba, Thanh; Tran, Thi Van Thi

    2017-11-15

    An improved quality benchmarking and shelf life evaluation of freshly harvested black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) was pursued by combining sensory and chemical methods. This involved developing a quality index method (QIM) to further assess both freshness and shelf life of the studied shrimp samples. The quality index included the use of trimethylamine (TMA-N), total volatile basis nitrogen (TVB-N), histamine, and hypoxanthine, which were performed at scheduled times during the ten days of ice storage (0°C). Shelf life of the studied shrimp was most likely to be 8days, and there were positive linear correlations between quality indices (QI) and storage period. The quality of shrimp decreased over storage time. In fact, significant changes of chemical and sensory characteristics of the shrimp samples would become more obvious from day 5 onwards. Besides, quality classification of black tiger shrimp involved four main levels, namely: excellent, good, moderately acceptable, and just acceptable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. PENGARUH PAKAN ALAMI Chaetoceros spp. TERHADAP PERKEMBANGAN DAN SINTASAN LARVA UDANG WINDU, Penaeus monodon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Lante

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pakan alami berupa mikroalga merupakan salah satu faktor pendukung dalam keberhasilan usaha pembenihan udang windu, Penaeus monodon. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui jenis pakan alami, Chaetoceros spp., yang dapat meningkatkan pertumbuhan dan sintasan larva udang windu. Penelitian ini menggunakan 15 buah bak fiber berukuran 60 cm x 40 cm x 50 cm dengan volume 120 liter yang disi air sebanyak 100 liter. Kepadatan naupli adalah 90 ekor/liter atau 9.000 ekor/bak dan lima jenis pakan alami Chaetoceros spp. yang diuji yaitu: Chaetoceros simplex, Chaetoceros ceratosporum, Chaetoceros calcitrans, Chaetoceros amami, dan Chaetoceros gracilis. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa aplikasi kelima jenis pakan alami memberikan laju perkembangan larva yang relatif sama sampai stadia PL-1. Aplikasi Chaetoceros gracilis memberikan sintasan larva udang windu tertinggi yaitu 41,48% dan dengan Chaetoceros simplex memberikan sintasan larva terendah (28,02%. Hasil penelitian ini mengindikasikan bahwa aplikasi Chaetoceros spp. yang berbeda pada pemeliharaan larva berpengaruh terhadap sintasan larva udang windu, namun tidak berpengaruh terhadap laju metamorfosis larva. Aplikasi Chaetoceros gracilis sebagai pakan alami adalah terbaik untuk sintasan larva udang windu.

  15. Acute Toxicity and Neurotoxicity of Chlorpyrifos in Black Tiger Shrimp, Penaeus monodon

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    Tassanee Eamkamon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute toxicity and neurotoxicity of chlorpyrifos were determined in black tiger shrimp, P. monodon. LC50 values after 24 to 96 h of exposure were between 149.55 and 59.16 nmol/L. To determine the neurotoxicity of chlorpyrifos, the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase was monitored in the gill of the shrimps exposed to lethal (0.019, 0.194, and 1.942 µmol/L and sub-lethal (0.019, 0.194, and 1.942 nmol/L concentrations of chlorpyrifos. In lethal dose exposure, the AChE activities observed in shrimp exposed to 0.194, and 1.942 µmol/L of chlorpyrifos were significantly lower (1.7 and 3.3 times than that of control shrimp after 30 min of exposure (p<0.05. In sub-lethal exposure tests, the AChE activity of shrimp was significantly lower (1.9 times than that of control shrimp after exposure to 1.942 nmol/L of chlorpyrifos for 72 h (p<0.05. The sensitive reduction of AChE activity at the sub-lethal concentration, which was 30 times lower than 96 h LC50 value found in this study, indicates the potential use as a biomarker of chlorpyrifos exposure.

  16. Subtracted Transcriptome Profile of Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon That Survived WSSV Challenge

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    Benedict A. Maralit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is increased interest in the development of virus-resistant or improved shrimp stock because production is currently hindered by outbreaks and limited understanding of shrimp defense. Recent advancement now allows for high-throughput molecular studies on shrimp immunity. We used next-generation sequencing (NGS coupled with suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH to generate a transcriptome database of genes from tiger shrimp that survived White spot syndrome virus (WSSV challenge. A total of 9,597 unique sequences were uploaded to NCBI Sequence Read Archive with accession number SRR577080. Sixty-five unique sequences, 6% of the total, were homologous to genes of Penaeus monodon. Genes that were initially related to bacterial infection and environmental stress such as 14-3-3 gene, heat shock protein 90, and calreticulin were also found including a few full-length gene sequences. Initial analysis of the expression of some genes was done. Hemocyanin, ferritin, and fortilin-binding protein exhibited differential expression between survivor and control tiger shrimps. Furthermore, candidate microsatellite markers for brood stock selection were mined and tested. Four trinucleotide and one dinucleotide microsatellites were successfully amplified. The study highlights the advantage of the NGS platform coupled with SSH in terms of gene discovery and marker generation.

  17. Preliminary Study of BAC Library Construction in Black Tiger Shrimp, Penaeus monodon

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    Suwit WUTHISUTHIMETHAVEE

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Availability of shrimp genome information is necessary for shrimp genetic studies and large-insert DNA clones, bacterial artificial chromosome (BACs serve as valuable tools for obtaining genomic sequences. The construction of a BAC library was achieved from this preliminary study of P. monodon. High molecular weight (HMW genomic DNA was isolated from abdominal muscle and the resulting hemocytes were of high quality and sufficient quantity for a BAC library construction. This BAC library was constructed from hemocyte HMW genomic DNA fragments ranging between 100 and 300 kb ligated to a pBAC-lac vector. The average insert size of the BAC clones was calculated as 100 kb ranging from 40 - 150 kb with over 50 % of the clones containing inserts larger than 100 kb. This BAC library contained approximately 60,000 BAC clones representing a 3-fold coverage of the haploid shrimp genome size. Furthermore, the consistency of BAC clones was also proven as no apparent rearrangements were observed before and after 100 generations in serial growth. From the above result, it is essential to improve the insert size and clone numbers of the BAC library to be a powerful tool in the future.

  18. Enhanced wound healing activity of desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria) vs. shrimp (Penaeus monodon) chitosan based scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marei, Narguess H; El-Mazny, W; El-Shaer, Aida; Zaki, Kareem Dorri; Hussein, Zahra S; Abd-El-Samie, Emtithal M

    2017-04-01

    Chitosan (CS) has received great attention in tissue engineering, especially in wound healing acceleration. In this study, chitin was isolated from desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria) and shrimp (Penaeus monodon) then deacetylated to chitosan. Then, chitosan was characterized by degree of deacetylation (DD), molecular weight (M.Wt), swelling index (SI), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X ray diffraction (XRD). The chitosan was then casted into 2D scaffolds and was pictured using scanning electron microscope (SEM). In a comparative study, primary cell cultures of neonatal (1-2day old) mice skin tissue, supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum, were seeded onto locust chitosan based scaffolds (LCSBS) and shrimp chitosan based scaffold (SCSBS). Their attachment percentage was determined after 1h. The cell proliferation rate was tested for 5days on LCSBS and SCSBS. Wound healing activity progress of LCSBS and SCSBS was tested in vivo using histopathology, and results revealed that seeded and unseeded LCSBS accelerated healing in contrast to SCSBS. The data demonstrated that LCSBS shows a high degree of biocompatibility in vivo. These results suggest that LCSBS is a potential substitute for the development of low cost implantable materials to accelerate wound healing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Urea as a Nitrogen Source in a Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon Closed Culture System

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    Supannee SUWANPAKDEE

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Urea [(NH22CO] is an organic compound that serves an important role in the metabolism of nitrogen-containing compound by animals. Urea is widely used in aquaculture systems. This study investigated the effects of urea on growth of Penaeus monodon. Shrimp were reared in 500 l fiber tanks. There was no exchange of water throughout the experiment. Shrimp with an average body weight of 10.99 ± 0.19 g were stocked at a density of 32 shrimp/m2 in 20 ppt diluted seawater and fed with 38 % protein diet for 9 weeks. Urea was added into the culture tanks at a concentration of 1.25 ppm once a week. The results show that urea slightly affects growth and survival of shrimp. Shrimp reared in the culture pond with added urea had a marginal better growth rate (p > 0.05 while the survival rate was significantly higher than the control group (p < 0.05. The urea in the closed culture tanks was shown to reduce the toxicity of ammonia in soil and promoted growth of plankton communities. Adding urea has no effect on water quality. This study concluded that urea is a potential nitrogen source in closed culture systems when the nitrogen input through the feeding regime is limited. It suggests that urea should be added at a concentration of 1.25 ppm once a week into culture systems with limiting nitrogen sources.

  20. Construction of full length cDNA expression library of hepatopancreas of Penaeus monodon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗田; 徐洵

    2002-01-01

    --mRNA was isolated from the hepatopancrease of shrimp Penaeus monodon with a PolyATtract System 1000 Kit. By using mRNA as template, double- strand cDNA with EcoR I/Xho I ends was synthesized by using a ZAP Express cDNA Synthesis Kit. The cDNA was inserted into the lambda ZAP Express vector predigested with EcoR I/Xho I, and the recombinant DNA was in vitro packaged into larnbda phage with GigapackⅢ Gold packaging extracts. These recombinant phages were then used to transfect E. coli XLl - Blue MRF', and finally a cDNA expression library was constructed. The library is 7.2 × 105pfu in capacity and its recombination ratio is higher than 99%. The size of the inserted cDNAs was determined by EcoR I/Xho I digestion of 9 phagemids prepared by in vivo excision of plaques selected randomly from amplified cDNA library . The longest inserted cDNA is about 1.6 kb in length. The complete sequence (about 1.2 kb) of actin cDNA was amplified from the library by PCR reveals that this library contains full-length cDNAs of Penaeus mod on hepatopancreas and is available for screening and expression of shrimp genes.

  1. Transgene expression in Penaeus monodon cells: evaluation of recombinant baculoviral vectors with shrimp specific hybrid promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthumana, Jayesh; Philip, Rosamma; Bright Singh, I S

    2016-08-01

    It has been realized that shrimp cell immortalization may not be accomplished without in vitro transformation by expressing immortalizing gene in cells. In this process, efficiency of transgene expression is confined to the ability of vectors to transmit gene of interests to the genome. Over the years, unavailability of such vectors has been hampering application of such a strategy in shrimp cells. We report the use of recombinant baculovirus mediated transduction using hybrid promoter system for transgene expression in lymphoid cells of Penaeus monodon. Two recombinant baculovirus vectors with shrimp viral promoters (WSSV-Ie1 and IHHNV-P2) were constructed (BacIe1-GFP and BacP2-GFP) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) used as the transgene. The GFP expression in cells under the control of hybrid promoters, PH-Ie1 or PH-P2, were analyzed and confirmed in shrimp cells. The results indicate that the recombinant baculovirus with shrimp specific viral promoters (hybrid) can be employed for delivery of foreign genes to shrimp cells for in vitro transformation.

  2. Antioxidant status of Penaeus monodon fed with Dunaliella salina supplemented diet and resistance against WSSV

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    M. MADHUMATHI

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the protection of shrimp Penaeus monodon against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV using Dunaliella salina algal cells which contains an antioxidant betacarotene for the shrimp nonspecific immunity. To determine the antioxidant activity, the shrimp were treated in vivo (orally with feed methods at the concentration of 0.5 %, 1.0 % and 2 % D. salina incorporated with pellet feed, respectively. In the present study, anti-WSSV activity of D. salina incorporated diet by in vivo methods showed strongantioxidant activity and the immunological parameters such as proPO, SOD,catalase were higher in the WSSVinfected shrimp treated with D. salina incorporated diet when compared to control groups. These results strongly indicate that in vivo of D. salina incorporated diet enhances immunity of the shrimp. Based on the present data and the advantages of harvesting D. salina at low price, we believe that oral administration of D. salina live cells along with the pellet feed is a potential prophylactic agent against WSSV infection of shrimp tosome extent.

  3. Effect of Probiotics on the Hatchery Seed Production of Black Tiger Shrimp, Penaeus monodon (Fabricius

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    P. Soundarapandian

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the diseases of shrimps hindered the development of shrimp culture. Hence, the use of probiotic bacteria in aquaculture has tremendous scope and the study of the application of probiotics in aquaculture has a glorious future. In the present study, the probiotics was applied (experimental for the larval rearing of P. monodon which is compared with control tanks (without probiotics. The temperature and alkalinity of both control and experimental tanks were more of less same. The pH of the control tank w as 8.4 and the experimental tank was 8.2.The dissolved oxygen was higher in experimental tank (6.12ml/litre and lower in control tanks (5.75ml/litre. Likewise, the ammonia was higher in control tanks (0.19 mg/litre rather than experimental tanks (0.15mg/litre. The survival rate of different larval stages (nauplii, zoea and mysis were maximum in the present study than that of control tanks. The final survival rate of the post larvae from the control and experimental tank was 70 and 30% respectively. The average length of all post larvae was maximum when reared in experimental tank than control tanks. The general conclusion obtained from the present study is that the probiotics plays a vital role in maintaining water quality parameters throughout the larval cycle. It is clear from the microbial load data that vibrio sp. is dominant in the control tanks than in experimental tanks.

  4. Induction of ovarian maturation in Penaeus monodon by molecular signal interventional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaraj, Halagowder; Saravanakumar, Marimuthu; Thiyagu, Mani

    2012-11-01

    Vitellogenin (VTG) synthesis in the hepatopancreas and ovary is negatively regulated by vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH) produced in the neurosecretory cell of X-organ/sinus gland complex of the eyestalks of penaeid shrimp. Eyestalk ablation is used commercially to induce ovarian maturation in shrimps which leads to an eventual loss of the spawner. The aim of the present study was to understand the molecular mechanism of VIH regulation in ovarian development and its inhibition of VTG gene expression by using a MEK-specific inhibitor (U0126). The real-time quantitative PCR results showed VTG mRNA level was progressively increased in the ovary and hepatopancreas of unilateral eyestalk-ablated and inhibitor-treated shrimps. Western blot analysis also showed that phosphoMEK was detected only in the unilateral eyestalk-ablated and control shrimp, whereas phospho-MEK was not detected in inhibitor-treated shrimp. DAX-1, SF-1, and StAR expression correlated with changes in VIH mRNA and altered phospho-ERK levels. This is consistent with the hypothesis that suppression of DAX-1 results in SF-1-mediated StAR protein upregulation of estradiol that is implicated in vitellogenesis. This is the first report that demonstrates the molecular mechanism of VIH suppression via MEK pathway to induce ovarian maturation in female Penaeus monodon by molecular signal intervention, a less-invasive method than traditional eyestalk ablation. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. It takes two to tango: two TatA paralogues and two redox enzyme-specific chaperones are involved in the localization of twin-arginine translocase substrates in Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang-Wei; Hitchcock, Andrew; Salmon, Robert C; Kelly, David J

    2014-09-01

    The food-borne zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter jejuni has complex electron transport chains required for growth in the host, many of which contain cofactored periplasmic enzymes localized by the twin-arginine translocase (TAT). We report here the identification of two paralogues of the TatA translocase component in C. jejuni strain NCTC 11168, encoded by cj1176c (tatA1) and cj0786 (tatA2). Deletion mutants constructed in either or both of the tatA1 and tatA2 genes displayed distinct growth and enzyme activity phenotypes. For sulphite oxidase (SorAB), the multi-copper oxidase (CueO) and alkaline phosphatase (PhoX), complete dependency on TatA1 for correct periplasmic activity was observed. However, the activities of nitrate reductase (NapA), formate dehydrogenase (FdhA) and trimethylamine N-oxide reductase (TorA) were significantly reduced in the tatA2 mutant. In contrast, the specific rate of fumarate reduction catalysed by the flavoprotein subunit of the methyl menaquinone fumarate reductase (MfrA) was similar in periplasmic fractions of both the tatA1 and the tatA2 mutants and only the deletion of both genes abolished activity. Nevertheless, unprocessed MfrA accumulated in the periplasm of the tatA1 (but not tatA2) mutant, indicating aberrant signal peptide cleavage. Surprisingly, TatA2 lacks two conserved residues (Gln8 and Phe39) known to be essential in Escherichia coli TatA and we suggest it is unable to function correctly in the absence of TatA1. Finally, only two TAT chaperones (FdhM and NapD) are encoded in strain NCTC 11168, which mutant studies confirmed are highly specific for formate dehydrogenase and nitrate reductase assembly, respectively. Thus, other TAT substrates must use general chaperones in their biogenesis.

  6. Molecular cloning and expression of chitin deacetylase 1 gene from the gills of Penaeus monodon (black tiger shrimp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, Katreena P; Panes, Vivian A; Santos, Mudjekeewis D

    2016-08-01

    Chitin deacetylases have been identified and studied in several fungi and insects but not in crustaceans. These glycoproteins function in catalyzing the conversion of chitin to chitosan by the hydrolysis of N-acetamido bonds of chitin. Here, for the first time, the full length cDNA of chitin deacetylase (CDA) gene from crustaceans was fully cloned using a partial fragment obtained from a transcriptome database of the gills of black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon that survived White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) infection employing Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE) PCR. The shrimp CDA, named PmCDA1, was further characterized by in silico analysis, and its constitutive expression determined in apparently healthy shrimp through reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Results revealed that the P. monodon chitin deacetylase (PmCDA1) is 2176 bp-long gene with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1596 bp encoding for 532 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that PmCDA1 belongs to Group I CDAs together with CDA1 and CDA2 proteins found in insects. Moreover, PmCDA1 is composed of a conserved chitin-binding peritrophin-A domain (CBD), a low-density lipoprotein receptor class A domain (LDL-A) and a catalytic domain that is part of CE4 superfamily, all found in group I CDAs, which are known to serve critical immune function against WSSV. Finally, high expression of PmCDA1 gene in the gills of apparently healthy P. monodon was observed suggesting important basal function of the gene in this tissue. Taken together, this is a first report of the full chitin deacetylase 1 (CDA1) gene in crustaceans particularly in shrimp that exhibits putative immune function against WSSV and is distinctly highly expressed in the gills of shrimp.

  7. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by coastal plant Prosopis chilensis (L.) and their efficacy in controlling vibriosis in shrimp Penaeus monodon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Kathiresan; Alikunhi, Nabeel M.; Manickaswami, Gayathridevi; Nabikhan, Asmathunisha; Ayyavu, Gopalakrishnan

    2013-02-01

    The present work investigated the effect of leaf extract from coastal plant Prosopis chilensis on synthesis of silver nanoparticles using AgNO3 as a substrate and to find their antibacterial potential on pathogenic Vibrio species in the shrimp, Penaeus monodon. The leaf extract could be able to produce silver nanoparticles, as evident by gradual change in colour of the reaction mixture consisted of the extract and 1 mM AgNO3 to dark brown. The silver nanoparticles exhibited 2 θ values corresponding to the presence of silver nanocrystal, as evident by X-ray diffraction spectrum. The peaks corresponding to flavanones and terpenoids were found to be stabilizing agents of the nanoparticles, as revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The size of silver nanoparticles ranged from 5 to 25 nm with an average of 11.3 ± 2.1 nm and was mostly of spherical in shape, as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The silver nanoparticles were found to inhibit Vibrio pathogens viz., Vibrio cholerae, V. harveyi, and V. parahaemolyticus and this antibacterial effect was better than that of leaf extract, as proved by disc diffusion assay. The nanoparticles were then tested in the shrimp Penaeus monodon challenged with the four species of Vibrio pathogens for 30 days. The shrimps fed with silver nanoparticles exhibited higher survival, associated with immunomodulation in terms of higher haemocyte counts, phenoloxidase and antibacterial activities of haemolymph of P. monodon which is on par with that of control. Thus, the present study proved the possibility of using silver nanoparticles produced by coastal Prosopis chilensis as antibacterial agent in controlling vibriosis.

  8. Xeno-oestrogens Bisphenol A and Diethylstilbestrol Selectively Activating Androgen Receptor Mediated AREs-TATA Reporter System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jing; WEI Wei; YANG Nan-yang; SHEN Xiao-yan; TSUJI Ichiro; YAMAMURA Takaki; LI Jiang

    2013-01-01

    We cloned the three androgen response elements(AREs,including AREⅠ,AREⅡ,and AREⅢ) with a core transactivation TATA element of the prostate-specific antigen(PSA) promoter into pGL2 basic vector to create an artificial pGL2/AREs-TATA reporter system,which was applied to evaluating the effects of different xenooestrogens[bisphenol A(BPA),4-nonylphenol(4-NP),dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane(DDT) or diethylstilbestrol (DES)] on androgen receptor(AR) abnormal activation to regulate PSA expression and cell proliferation.In all the three AREs,AREⅢ-TATA displayed as a major element responsive to AR-mediated DHT stimulation of PSA promoter.Therefore,pGL2/AREⅢ-TATA reporter was adopted to analyze the activation capacity of AR activated by four different xeno-oestrogens.The activation ofpGL2/AREⅢ-TATA reporter by each xeno-oestrogen was analyzed in two different cell lines,one was HEK293T(Human Embryonic Kidney 293T) cell line,and the other was AR stably expressed DU145 cell line,which was produced by infecting AR with pLenti-puro-AR into the prostate cancer DU145 cells and that were scanned with puromycin and tested by AR antibody.In both the two cell lines,BPA or DES significantly induced AR-mediated transcriptional activity of AREⅢ-TATA reporter,whereas DDT or 4-nonylphenol did not.Moreover,AR-mediated cell proliferation in response to each of four xeno-oestrogens was measured in MTT assays in both HEK293T cell or AR stably expressed DU145 cell lines.BPA or DES,as an AR inducer,exhibited an enhanced effect in cell proliferation,rather than the effect of DDT or 4-NP,in both cell lines.Finally,we demonstrated that BPA or DES stimulated PSA expression and enhanced the recruitment of AR onto thePSA promoter,resulting in stronger binding to AREⅢ sites.Taken together,four xeno-oestrogens were identified to have different activities on AR.BPA and DES are demonstrated to be androgenic effectors in the regulation of PSA activation or cell proliferation.

  9. Antioxidative activity of protein hydrolysate produced by alcalase hydrolysis from shrimp waste (Penaeus monodon and Penaeus indicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Dey, Satya Sadhan; Dora, Krushna Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Protein hydrolysates prepared by hydrolysis of shrimp waste (Penaeus monodon and Penaeus indicus) for 90 min. using Alcalase enzyme following pH-stat method. Antioxidative activities of SWPH were assessed determining FRAP, ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities, which increased linearly with increasing concentration of protein hydrolysate upto 5 mg/ml maintaining good correlation. SWPH showed high stability over wide ranges of pH (2–11) and temperature (up to 100 °C for 150 min), in whic...

  10. Construction of Yeast One-Hybrid Library for Screening of G-box Binding Proteins%筛选G-box结合蛋白的酵母单杂交文库的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨鹏程; 周波; 李玉花

    2012-01-01

    . Conclusion: The results showed that the construction of yeast one-hybrid library was successful, candidate proteins for G-box binding proteins were acquired by preliminary library screening, which laid the foundation for researches on CHS expression regulation.

  11. Study of Transcription Activity of X-Box Binding Protein 1 Gene in Human Different Cell Lines%人类不同类型细胞中X-盒结合蛋白1转录活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭风劲; 宋方洲; 张静; 李婧; 唐勇

    2007-01-01

    Human X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), an important transcription factor, participates in many signal transduction processes. To further investigate the biological function of XBP1, sequences of XBP1 promoter and its two deletion mutants were first determined using bioinformatic analysis. The report vectors containing XBP1 promoter and its deletion mutants were then constructed, namely, p1-XBP1p, p2-XBP1p, and p3-XBP1p. Each reporter vector was separately transfected into HepG2, L02, K562,SMMC-7721, HSF, and Lipocyte Ito Cell line using FuGENE 6 transfection reagents. The activity of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) in each group of transfected cells was detected by ELISA assay, which in turn reflects the transcription activity of the XBP1 gene promoter. The activity involving p3-XBP1p was the highest in HepG2, which was 12.4-fold of that of pCAT3-Basic. The activities of p3-XBP1p in K562 and SMMC-7721 were the second and the third highest, which were 10.9-fold and 10.0-fold of that of the pCAT3-Basic, respectively. The CAT activity in L02 was lower than that in the above-mentioned abnormal cell, and no reporter activity was detected in HSF and Ito Cell. The XBP1 transcription and expression in K562, HepG2 and SMMC-7721 were found to be higher than that in L02, HSF and Ito cells, based on the results of real-time RT-PCR and Western blot. The XBP1 transcription and expression in L02, HSF was lower, whereas that in Ito cells was totally lacking. The result was similar to that of CAT-ELISA. Therefore, the XBP1 gene promoter can drive its downstream gene expression and its activity is cell line-dependent.The core sequence of XBP1 promoter was found between -227bp and 66bp sequence. This sequence was closely associated with the transcriptional activity of XBP1 promoter.%人类X-盒结合蛋白1(X-box binding protein1,XBP1)作为一种重要的转录因子,在细胞中涉及了广泛的信号调控过程.为进一步研究XBP1的生物学功能,首先利用

  12. Evidence of WSSV transmission from the rotifer (Brachionus plicatilis to the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon postlarvae and means to control rotifer resting eggs using industrial disinfectants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriano Corre, Jr

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rotifers are considered possible vectors of the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV and have been implicated in its recurrence inpond-cultured shrimp. However, direct evidence of the transmission and the pathogenicity of this virus from rotifers to shrimp has been lacking.In the present study, the pathogenicity of WSSV transmitted from infected rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis to post larval black tiger shrimp(Penaeus monodon was investigated. Results show that WSSV transmitted from infected rotifers to post-larval P. monodon caused an 82%cumulative mortality as compared to a 9% mortality in the non-infected control group. We also investigated the possibility of industrial disinfectants(sodium hypochlorite, granulated calcium hypochlorite and formalin as possible means to inhibit the viability of rotifer resting eggs,considered a biological reservoir of WSSV in earthen ponds. Among the disinfectants that were tested, granulated calcium hypochlorite at 5mg/L was the most effective. The present study provides direct evidence of the high pathogenicity of WSSV transmitted from rotifers to postlarval P. monodon and shows the potential use of granulated calcium hypochlorite in pond disinfection. This treatment could be a promisingstrategy to inhibit the spread and recurrence of WSSV outbreaks in P. monodon culture.

  13. Studies on the fungal diseases in Crustaceans II.Halipthoros Philippinensis sp. nov. isolated from cultivated larvae of the jumbo tiger Prawn Penaeus monodon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KishioHATAI; ZhongBIAN; Ma.CeciliaL.BATICADOS; SyuzoEGUSA

    1986-01-01

    Haliphthoros, philippinensis, a marine mastigomycete isolated from larvae of the jumbo tiger p.rawn Penaeus monodon, is described and illustrated as new. The fungus grew at a temperature range of 13.5 to 36.3℃, with the optimum of 29.3-34.5℃.

  14. Pencapaian Standar Kompetensi Siswa SMK Negeri Program Keahlian Tata Busana di Kota Yogyakarta dalam Pembelajaran dengan KBK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widihastuti Widihastuti

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Artikel ini ditulis berdasarkan hasil penelitian evaluasi keefektifan pembelajaran pada penerapan KBK di Program Keahlian Tata Busana Kota Yogyakarta. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian evaluasi dengan pendekatan kuantitatif. Populasi penelitian meliputi 671 siswa Program Keahlian Tata Busana SMK Negeri di Kota Yogyakarta yang telah melaksanakan KBK. Sampel penelitian sebanyak 137 siswa yang ditentukan dengan teknik proportional stratified random sampling menggunakan rumus Krejcie & Morgan. Data penelitian diperoleh dari dokumen nilai prestasi akademik siswa, yang meliputi nilai normatif, adaptif, dan produktif. Teknik analisis menggunakan statistik deskriptif dan inferensial dengan bantuan komputer paket program SPSS 10 for windows. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa: pembelajaran pembentukan kompetensi normatif cukup efekti£ dan pembentukan kompetensi adaptif dan produktif kurang efektif. Kata kunci:  pencapaian standar kompetensi siswa

  15. Pembuatan Tata Kelola Keamanan Informasi Kontrol Akses Berbasis ISO/IEC 27001:2005 Pada Kantor Pelayanan Perbendaharaan Surabaya I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margo Utomo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan teknologi informasi yang pesat saat ini turut berimbas kepada penggunaan teknologi informasi di lingkungan pemerintahan. KPPN Surabaya I sebagai instansi vertikal dari Direktorat Jenderal Perbendaharaan juga menerapkan teknologi informasi dalam untuk mendukung kegiatan pelayanan terhadap satuan kerja yang berada di lingkup bayarnya. Sayangnya masalah keamanan informasi yang merupakan bagian penting dari teknologi informasi sering kali kurang mendapatkan perhatian. Tidak dapat dipungkiri bahwa munculnya ancaman ataupun kelemahan dalam teknologi informasi dapat menggangu jalannya kegiatan pelayanan yang menggunakan teknologi informasi. Oleh karena itu diperlukan pengelolaan teknologi informasi berbasis risiko yang dituangkan dalam tata kelola untuk mengelola ancaman ataupun kelemahan yang muncul. ISO/IEC 27001:2005 merupakan framework sistem manajemen keamanan informasi yang dapat dijadikan dasar dalam pengelolaan keamanan informasi. Tata kelola keamanan informasi yang dibuat ini menitikberatkan pada kontrol akses yang merupakan salah satu kotrol keamanan dari ISO/IEC 27001:2005

  16. Closing the gap between frugal and reverse innovation : Lessons learned from the case of the Tata Nano

    OpenAIRE

    Aschmoneit, Martin; Janevska, Dijana

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Title: Closing the gap between frugal and reverse innovation – Lessons learned from the case of the Tata Nano Authors: Martin Aschmoneit () Dijana Janevska () Supervisor: Malin Tillmar Date: May 27, 2013 Background: Emerging markets are growing and have become increasingly important for the global economy, while the growth of developed markets has slowed down. Emerging economies are the home of a new type of innovation that can help...

  17. Cloning and structure of a yeast gene encoding a general transcription initiation factor TFIID that binds to the TATA box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikoshi, M; Wang, C K; Fujii, H; Cromlish, J A; Weil, P A; Roeder, R G

    1989-09-28

    The TATA sequence-binding factor TFIID plays a central role both in promoter activation by RNA polymerase II and other common initiation factors, and in promoter regulation by gene-specific factors. The sequence of yeast TFIID, which seems to be encoded by a single gene, contains interesting structural motifs that are possibly involved in these functions, and is similar to sequences of bacterial sigma factors.

  18. Expression of immune-related genes in larval stages of the giant tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Puanglarp, Narongsak; Petkon, Sasithon; Donnuea, Seri; Söderhäll, Irene; Söderhäll, Kenneth

    2007-10-01

    Shrimp undergo several morphologically different stages during development and therefore the expression of some immune-related genes such as prophenoloxidase (proPO), peroxinectin (Prx), crustin (Crus), penaeidin (Pen), transglutaminase (TGase), haemocyanin (Hc) and astakine (Ak) were determined during larval development of the shrimp (Penaeus monodon), i.e. nauplius 4 (N4), protozoea 1 and 3 (Z1 and 3), mysis 3 (My 3), post-larvae 3 (PL3) and also in haemocytes of juveniles. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that all transcripts were already present in the early larval stage of N4 but at different levels. The transcript of proPO was found to be extremely low or even absent at N4, whereas Prx, Crus, Pen, TGase, Hc and Ak were significantly expressed at all larval stages. Up to now expression of proPO and Prx has only been reported from haemocytes in crustaceans and in this study Prx also appeared to be expressed in stages which appear to lack haemocytes. Thus, this may suggest that Prx is expressed in other cells than haemocytes. It is well known among invertebrates that the proPO system plays a crucial role as an immune effector molecule against microbes. However, in this study, the transcript of proPO was low during the larval stages and hardly present at all at N4. This might indicate that the development of immune-competent haemocytes during the larval stages is not completed and as a consequence they are likely to be more susceptible to infectious diseases during these stages.

  19. Molecular cloning and characterization of a hemolymph clottable protein from tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, M S; Huang, C J; Leu, J H; Lee, Y C; Tsai, I H

    1999-12-01

    To investigate the coagulation system in crustacean decapoda, a homodimeric glycoprotein of 380 kDa was purified from the hemolymph of tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) by sequential DEAE anion exchange chromatography. The purified protein was coagulated by the shrimp hemocyte transglutaminase in the presence of Ca2+. The clottable protein contains 44% alpha helices and 26% beta sheets as determined by circular dichroism spectra. Its conformation is stable in buffer of pH 4-9. To solve its primary structure, partial sequences of the purified polypeptides from cyanogen bromide cleavage and endopeptidase digestion were also determined. A shrimp cDNA expression library was constructed. By combination with antibody screening, reverse transcriptase PCR using degenerate primers from determined amino acid sequences and cDNA library screening with digoxigenin-labeled DNA probes, the entire cDNA of 6124 bp was obtained. This cDNA encodes a protein of 1670 amino acids, including a 14-amino acid signal peptide. With four potential N-glycosylation sites, the clottable protein was found to contain 3.8% high-mannose glycan; and Man8GlcNAc and Man9GlcNAc were released upon endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase hydrolysis. Upon conducting a protein sequence database survey, the shrimp clottable protein shows 36% identities to the crayfish clotting protein and lower similarities to members of insect vitellogenins, apolipoprotein B and mammalian von Willebrand factor. Notably, a region rich in Gln residues, a polyGln motif and five Ser-Lys-Thr-Ser repeats are present in the shrimp protein, suggesting this protein might be a transglutaminase substrate. Northern blot analysis revealed that the clottable protein is expressed in most of the shrimp tissues but not in the mature hemocytes.

  20. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF Vibrio harveyi ISOLATED FROM TIGER PRAWN Penaeus monodon HATCHERIES AND GROW OUT PONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muliani Muliani

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available ibrio harveyi is known as one among the most harmful bacteria infecting tiger prawn at every stage of its life’s. The present research was aimed to reveal the genetic diversity of Vibrio harveyi isolated from tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon culture. The samples of bacteria were collected from hatchery (brood-stock, larvae, natural feed, artemia, and larval rearing water and grow-out (juveniles, water, shrimp, sediment, plankton, crab, mollusc, microalgae, and wild fish.  The taxonomic identification of Vibrio spp.was performed based on the physiological and biochemical characteristic following the isolation by Thiosulphate Citrate Bile-salt Sucrose Agar (TCBSA media. Amplified Ribosomoal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA for 16S-rRNA analysis and Macrorestriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (MLFP analysis using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE were applied to reveal the genetic diversity of V. harveyi. According to the taxonomic identification, of 361 isolates of Vibrio spp., 129 isolates (35.7% were identified as V. harveyi. The result of ARDRA analysis showed that the 16S-rRNA gene of V. harveyi digested by RsaI and HhaI enzyme, each generated three and four identical fragments respectively for the all samples. These meaned that ARDRA could not reveal any genetic variation on V. harveyi. The size range of all DNA fragment was less than 500 bp. This result indicated that the high genetic diversity of V. harveyi was revealed by MFLP-PFGE analysis. DNA fragment of V. harveyi was digested by NotI enzyme.

  1. Use of Glacial Fronts by Narwhals (Monodon monoceros) in West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidre, K. L.

    2015-12-01

    Glacial fronts in Greenland are known to be important summer habitat for narwhals (Monodon monoceros), as freshwater runoff and sediment discharge may aggregate prey at the terminus. We investigated the importance of glacial habitat characteristics in determining narwhal visitation. Narwhals (n=18) were instrumented with satellite transmitters in September 1993-1994 and 2006-2007 in Melville Bay, West Greenland. Daily narwhal locations were interpolated using a correlated random walk based on observed filtered locations and associated positional error. We also compiled a database on physical features of 41 glaciers along the northwest Greenland coast. This covered the entire coastal region with narwhal activity. Parameters included glacier ice velocity (km/yr) from radar satellite data, glacier front advance and retreat, and glacier width (km) at the ice-ocean interface derived using front position data digitized from 20-100m resolution radar image mosaics and Landsat imagery. We also quantified relative volumes and extent of glacial ice discharge, thickness of the glacial ice at the terminus (m), and water depth at the terminus (m) from gravity and airborne radar data, sediment flux from satellite-based analysis, and freshwater runoff from a regional atmospheric climate model (RACMO2.3). We quantified whale visits to glaciers at three distances (5, 7, and 10 km) and conducted proximity analyses on annual and monthly time steps. We estimated 1) narwhal presence or absence, 2) the number of 24 h periods spent at glaciers, and 3) the fraction of study animals that visited each glacier. The use of glacial habitat by narwhals expanded to the north and south between the 1990s (n=9 unique glaciers visited) and the 2000s (n=30 visited), likely due to loss of summer fast ice and later fall freeze-up trends (3.5 weeks later since 1979). We used a generalized linear mixed effects framework to quantify the glacier and fjord habitat characteristics preferred by narwhals.

  2. Comparative analysis of differentially expressed genes in normal and white spot syndrome virus infected Penaeus monodon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Hsueh-Fen

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background White spot syndrome (WSS is a viral disease that affects most of the commercially important shrimps and causes serious economic losses to the shrimp farming industry worldwide. However, little information is available in terms of the molecular mechanisms of the host-virus interaction. In this study, we used an expressed sequence tag (EST approach to observe global gene expression changes in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV-infected postlarvae of Penaeus monodon. Results Sequencing of the complementary DNA clones of two libraries constructed from normal and WSSV-infected postlarvae produced a total of 15,981 high-quality ESTs. Of these ESTs, 46% were successfully matched against annotated genes in National Center of Biotechnology Information (NCBI non-redundant (nr database and 44% were functionally classified using the Gene Ontology (GO scheme. Comparative EST analyses suggested that, in postlarval shrimp, WSSV infection strongly modulates the gene expression patterns in several organs or tissues, including the hepatopancreas, muscle, eyestalk and cuticle. Our data suggest that several basic cellular metabolic processes are likely to be affected, including oxidative phosphorylation, protein synthesis, the glycolytic pathway, and calcium ion balance. A group of immune-related chitin-binding protein genes is also likely to be strongly up regulated after WSSV infection. A database containing all the sequence data and analysis results is accessible at http://xbio.lifescience.ntu.edu.tw/pm/. Conclusion This study suggests that WSSV infection modulates expression of various kinds of genes. The predicted gene expression pattern changes not only reflect the possible responses of shrimp to the virus infection but also suggest how WSSV subverts cellular functions for virus multiplication. In addition, the ESTs reported in this study provide a rich source for identification of novel genes in shrimp.

  3. Proteomic analysis of differentially expressed proteins in Penaeus monodon hemocytes after Vibrio harveyi infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Lo Chu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Viral and bacterial diseases can cause mass mortalities in commercial shrimp aquaculture. In contrast to studies on the antiviral response, the responses of shrimps to bacterial infections by high throughput techniques have been reported only at the transcriptional level and not at the translational level. In this study, a proteomic analysis of shrimp hemocytes to identify differentially expressed proteins in response to a luminous bacterium Vibrio harveyi was evaluated for its feasibility and is reported for the first time. Results The two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE patterns of the hemocyte proteins from the unchallenged and V. harveyi challenged shrimp, Penaeus monodon, at 24 and 48 h post infection were compared. From this, 27 differentially expressed protein spots, and a further 12 weakly to non-differentially regulated control spots, were selected for further analyses by the LC-ESI-MS/MS. The 21 differentially expressed proteins that could be identified by homologous annotation were comprised of proteins that are directly involved in the host defense responses, such as hemocyanin, prophenoloxidase, serine proteinase-like protein, heat shock protein 90 and alpha-2-macroglobulin, and those involved in signal transduction, such as the14-3-3 protein epsilon and calmodulin. Western blot analysis confirmed the up-regulation of hemocyanin expression upon bacterial infection. The expression of the selected proteins which were the representatives of the down-regulated proteins (the 14-3-3 protein epsilon and alpha-2-macroglobulin and of the up-regulated proteins (hemocyanin was further assessed at the transcription level using real-time RT-PCR. Conclusions This work suggests the usefulness of a proteomic approach to the study of shrimp immunity and revealed hemocyte proteins whose expression were up regulated upon V. harveyi infection such as hemocyanin, arginine kinase and down regulated such as alpha-2-macroglobulin

  4. Sodium alginate from Sargassum wightii retards mortalities in Penaeus monodon postlarvae challenged with white spot syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immanuel, Grasian; Sivagnanavelmurugan, Madasasmy; Balasubramanian, Varatharajan; Palavesam, Arunachalam

    2012-07-25

    Sodium alginate extracted from brown seaweed Sargassum wightii (16.35 ± 1.42%, mean [±SD] yield from 5 extractions) was prepared as a powder or beads and used to enrich Artemia nauplii at concentrations of 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg l-1. The alginate-enriched nauplii were fed to Penaeus monodon shrimp postlarvae (PL) stage 15 (PL15, i.e. 15 d old) for 20 d. Mean weight gain and specific growth rate over this period were 0.24 g and 15.8%, respectively, in PL groups not fed alginate, and 0.20-0.28 g and 14.7-16.5%, respectively, in PL groups fed alginate. Amongst PL35 then challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) by immersion, all PL not fed alginate died within 9 d. However, amongst PL fed the 4 concentrations of alginate powder or beads, mortality rates reduced with increasing alginate concentration, and between 25 and 32% PL remained alive when the bioassay was terminated on Day 21. Amongst alginate-fed PL groups compared with the control group, mortality was reduced by 26.5 to 58.4%. Nested PCR detection of WSSV revealed sodium alginate concentration-dependent reductions in infection loads. The data indicate that sodium alginate extracted from brown seaweed and fed to P. monodon can retard progression of WSSV disease.

  5. Seasonal incidence of protozoan parasites of the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) of Sundarbans, West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborti, Jayati; Bandyapadhyay, Probir K

    2011-06-01

    There is a delicate balance between the host, pathogen and environment. Aquatic organisms, including shellfish, respond directly to climatic changes in their biological environment as their metabolic processes are influenced by temperature, salinity, and oxygen levels. Certain environmental conditions are more conducive to diseases than others among which water temperature is significantly associated with disease outbreak. The present study showed that Peneaus monodon of Sundarbans serve as a host for many protozoan parasites and epibionts including ciliates, gregarines and microsporidia. The protozoan parasites also require a particular environmental condition for their maximum growth and survival. The intensity of infection significantly increases with rise in temperature (P < 0.05) following a definite trend but no significant relationship between infection rate of ciliates and pH of water. In case of gregarine parasites significance (P < 0.05) exists among infection rate and temperature as well as pH of the farm water. Microsporidian parasites do not follow any significant seasonal trend in infecting the host P. monodon.

  6. High prevalence of Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei in shrimps Penaeus monodon and Litopenaeus vannamei sampled from slow growth ponds in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biju, Narayanan; Sathiyaraj, Ganesan; Raj, Mithun; Shanmugam, Venu; Baskaran, Babu; Govindan, Umamaheswari; Kumaresan, Gayathri; Kasthuriraju, Karthick Kannan; Chellamma, Thampi Sam Raj Yohannan

    2016-08-09

    Hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis in cultivated Litopenaeus vannamei and Penaeus monodon is caused by the newly emerged pathogen Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP). It has been detected in shrimp cultured in China, Vietnam and Thailand and is suspected to have occurred in Malaysia and Indonesia and to be associated with severely retarded growth. Due to retarded shrimp growth being reported at farms in the major grow-out states of Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh and Odisha in India, shrimp were sampled from a total of 235 affected ponds between March 2014 and April 2015 to identify the presence of EHP. PCR and histology detected a high prevalence of EHP in both P. monodon and L. vannamei, and infection was confirmed by in situ hybridization using an EHP-specific DNA probe. Histology revealed basophilic inclusions in hepatopancreas tubule epithelial cells in which EHP was observed at various developmental stages ranging from plasmodia to mature spores. The sequence of a region of the small subunit rDNA gene amplified by PCR was found to be identical to EHP sequences deposited in GenBank. Bioassays confirmed that EHP infection could be transmitted orally to healthy shrimp. Histology also identified bacterial co-infections in EHP-infected shrimp sampled from slow-growth ponds with low-level mortality. The data confirm that hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis caused by EHP is prevalent in shrimp being cultivated in India. EHP infection control measures thus need to be implemented urgently to limit impacts of slowed shrimp growth.

  7. Recombinant expression and anti-microbial activity of anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) from the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somboonwiwat, Kunlaya; Marcos, Michael; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Klinbunga, Sirawut; Aumelas, André; Romestand, Bernard; Gueguen, Yannick; Boze, Hélène; Moulin, Guy; Bachère, Evelyne

    2005-01-01

    Anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs), originally characterized from horseshoe crabs, have been recently identified from hemocytes of the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, by a genomic approach. In order to characterize the properties and biological activities of this immune effector in shrimp, ALFPm3, the most abundant isoform found in P. monodon, was expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Large-scale production in fermentor provided 262 mg/l of recombinant ALFPm3 which was purified to homogeneity by single chromatography step on expanded-bed Streamline SP6XL. The rALFPm3 was further characterized in terms of N-terminal sequencing and mass spectrometry. Anti-microbial assays demonstrated that rALFPm3 has a broad spectrum of anti-fungal properties against filamentous fungi, and anti-bacterial activities against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, associated with a bactericidal effect. Interestingly, rALFPm3 is highly efficient against various Vibrio species including strains pathogenic for shrimp. Finally, a synthetic peptide corresponding to a part of the putative LPS-binding site of ALFPm3 was shown to display activities mainly directed against Gram-positive bacteria indicating the involvement of the full molecule to the anti-microbial activity for Gram-negative bacteria.

  8. Protein profiling in the gut of Penaeus monodon gavaged with oral WSSV-vaccines and live white spot syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Amod D; Kiron, Viswanath; Rombout, Jan H W M; Brinchmann, Monica F; Fernandes, Jorge M O; Sudheer, Naduvilamuriparampu S; Singh, Bright I S

    2014-07-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a pathogen that causes considerable mortality of the farmed shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Candidate 'vaccines', WSSV envelope protein VP28 and formalin-inactivated WSSV, can provide short-lived protection against the virus. In this study, P. monodon was orally intubated with the aforementioned vaccine candidates, and protein expression in the gut of immunised shrimps was profiled. The alterations in protein profiles in shrimps infected orally with live-WSSV were also examined. Seventeen of the identified proteins in the vaccine and WSSV-intubated shrimps varied significantly compared to those in the control shrimps. These proteins, classified under exoskeletal, cytoskeletal, immune-related, intracellular organelle part, intracellular calcium-binding or energy metabolism, are thought to directly or indirectly affect shrimp's immunity. The changes in the expression levels of crustacyanin, serine proteases, myosin light chain, and ER protein 57 observed in orally vaccinated shrimp may probably be linked to immunoprotective responses. On the other hand, altered expression of proteins linked to exoskeleton, calcium regulation and energy metabolism in WSSV-intubated shrimps is likely to symbolise disturbances in calcium homeostasis and energy metabolism.

  9. PENGEMBANGAN BUKU AJAR MATA PELAJARAN TATA HIDANG PAKET KEAHLIAN JASA BOGA SEKOLAH MENENGAH KEJURUAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Astuti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Textbooks are the ingredients or the subject matter is arranged systematically used by students in the learning process. The purpose of this study was to develop teaching materials such as textbooks on the subjects of governance hidang class X SMK in Magetan consisting of 3 KD, namely, (1 The scope of food and beverage service, (2 Operating equipment food and beverage service, and (3 providing food and beverage service at the restaurant. The results show that the development of an overall assessment of the completeness of the presentation of the textbook of the development of criteria that are in "good", which means it does not need to be revised textbooks. Buku ajar adalah bahan-bahan atau materi pelajaran yang disusun secara sistematis yang digunakan oleh siswa dalam proses belajar mengajar. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengembangkan bahan ajar berupa buku ajar pada mata pelajaran tata hidang kelas X SMK di Kabupaten Magetan yang terdiri dari 3 KD yaitu, (1 Ruang lingkup pelayanan makanan dan minuman, (2 Mengoperasikan peralatan layanan makanan dan minuman, dan (3 menyediakan layanan makanan dan minuman di restoran. Hasil pengembangan menunjukkan bahwa secara keseluruhan penilaian tentang kelengkapan penyajian terhadap buku ajar hasil pengembangan berada pada kriteria “baik”, yang berarti buku ajar tidak perlu direvisi.

  10. Tolerance to acetic acid is improved by mutations of the TATA-binding protein gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jieun; Kwon, Hyeji; Kim, Eunjung; Lee, Young Mi; Ko, Hyeok Jin; Park, Hongjae; Choi, In-Geol; Kim, Sooah; Kim, Kyoung Heon; Kim, Wankee; Choi, Wonja

    2015-03-01

    Screening a library of overexpressing mutant alleles of the TATA-binding gene SPT15 yielded two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (MRRC 3252 and 3253) with enhanced tolerance to acetic acid. They were also tolerant to propionic acid and hydrogen peroxide. Transcriptome profile analysis identified 58 upregulated genes and 106 downregulated genes in MRRC 3252. Stress- and protein synthesis-related transcription factors were predominantly enriched in the upregulated and downregulated genes respectively. Eight deletion mutants for some of the highly downregulated genes were acetic acid-tolerant. The level of intracellular reactive oxygen species was considerably lessened in MRRC 3252 and 3253 upon exposure to acetic acid. Metabolome profile analysis revealed that intracellular concentrations of 5 and 102 metabolites were increased and decreased, respectively, in MRRC 3252, featuring a large increase of urea and a significant decrease of amino acids. The dur1/2Δmutant, in which the urea degradation gene DUR1/2 is deleted, displayed enhanced tolerance to acetic acid. Enhanced tolerance to acetic acid was also observed on the medium containing a low concentration of amino acids. Taken together, this study identified two SPT15 alleles, nine gene deletions and low concentration of amino acids in the medium that confer enhanced tolerance to acetic acid.

  11. PENGUNGKAPAN RISIKO FINANSIAL DAN TATA KELOLA PERUSAHAAN: STUDI EMPIRIS PERBANKAN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoko Suhardjanto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of corporate governance to financial risk disclosures ofIndonesian banks. Corporate governance was identified as the board size, the number of board meetings, theproportion of independent commissioners, the proportion of independent audit committee members and numberof audit committee meetings. This study also used leverage and profitability as control variable. The levelof financial risk disclosure was measured based on identified items of a circular enclosure of Bank IndonesiaNo.5/21/DPNP/2003. Under purposive sampling, secondary data of 60 annual reports year 2007-2009 ofbanks in Indonesian Stock Exchange were selected. The average level of financial risk disclosures was at46.50%. It indicated that Indonesian’s banks were not fully compliance to regulations since financial riskdisclosures were as mandatory matters. The result of multiple regression showed that corporate governanceaffected the level of financial risk disclosure through the variable board size and the number of board meetings.The important role in implementing tata kelola perusahaan(company management was at the board of commissionerswho served as supervisors of activities and performance of banks as well as advisory directors inensuring that companies implemented good corporate governance, including financial risk disclosures (KomiteNasional Kebijakan Governance, 2006.

  12. Mutations of the TATA-binding protein confer enhanced tolerance to hyperosmotic stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Na-Rae; Yang, Jungwoo; Kwon, Hyeji; An, Jieun; Choi, Wonja; Kim, Wankee

    2013-09-01

    Previously, it was shown that overexpression of either of two SPT15 mutant alleles, SPT15-M2 and SPT15-M3, which encode mutant TATA-binding proteins, confer enhanced ethanol tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, we demonstrated that strains overexpressing SPT15-M2 or SPT15-M3 were tolerant to hyperosmotic stress caused by high concentrations of glucose, salt, and sorbitol. The enhanced tolerance to high glucose concentrations in particular improved ethanol production from very high gravity (VHG) ethanol fermentations. The strains displayed constitutive and sustained activation of Hog1, a central kinase in the high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) signal transduction pathway of S. cerevisiae. However, the cell growth defect known to be caused by constitutive and sustained activation of Hog1 was not observed. We also found that reactive oxygen species (ROS) were accumulated to a less extent upon exposure to high glucose concentration in our osmotolerant strains. We identified six new genes (GPH1, HSP12, AIM17, SSA4, USV1, and IGD1), the individual deletion of which renders cells sensitive to 50 % glucose. In spite of the presence of multiple copies of stress response element in their promoters, it was apparent that those genes were not controlled at the transcriptional level by the HOG pathway under the high glucose conditions. Combined with previously published results, overexpression of SPT15-M2 or SPT15-M3 clearly provides a basis for improved tolerance to ethanol and osmotic stress, which enables construction of strains of any genetic background that need enhanced tolerance to high concentrations of ethanol and glucose, promoting the feasibility for VHG ethanol fermentation.

  13. Penilaian Tingkat Kemapanan Tata Kelola Teknologi Informasi Berbasis COBIT 4.1 Pada Layanan Portal Akademik Online (Studi Kasus : UIN Maulana Malik Ibrahim Malang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fachrul Kurniawan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pemanfaatan TI dalam dunia pendidikan merupakan hal yang sangat penting untuk menunjang kegiatan akademiknya. Termasuk juga di Universitas Islam Negeri Maulana Malik Ibrahim Malang yang terkenal dengan sistem administrasi akademik online atau biasa disebut siakad. Namun dalam pemanfatan tersebut belum bisa diketahui sejauh mana TI yang digunakan bisa mendukung proses bisnis yang ada di universitas, khususnya yang terkait dengan layanan akademik online. Oleh karena itu perlu adanya penilaian resmi dan prosedural terkait kualitas tata kelola TI pada layanan portal akademik online. Proses penilaian tata kelola TI ini menggunakan framework COBIT 4.1. Penelitian ini dilakukan di Lembaga Pengembangan Sistem Informasi (LPSI. Dalam proses penilaian tata kelola TI tersebut COBIT 4.1 menggunakan sistem pemetaan proses bisnis sehingga terpilih proses TI terkait COBIT atau dengan diagram value chain. Hasil dari pemetaan proses bisnis berdasarkan COBIT 4.1 terpilih proses TI DS1 Define and manage service levels dan DS4 Ensure continuous service sebagai acuan penilaian dengan hasil perhitungan tingkat kemapanan kedua proses TI pada level 3 (Defined. Namun LPSI memiliki keinginan dan harapan besar dalam meningkatkan tingkat kemapanan TI yang semakin baik, yaitu tata kelola yang optimal. Hal ini ditunjukkan dari hasil perhitungan tingkat kemapanan yang diharapkan (to-be , yaitu berada pada level 5 (Optimised. Kata kunci : tingkat kemapanan, tata kelola ti, COBIT, portal akademik online.

  14. Optimizations of siRNA design for the activation of gene transcription by targeting the TATA-box motif.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miaomiao Fan

    Full Text Available Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs are widely used to repress gene expression by targeting mRNAs. Some reports reveal that siRNAs can also activate or inhibit gene expression through targeting the gene promoters. Our group has found that microRNAs (miRNAs could activate gene transcription via interaction with the TATA-box motif in gene promoters. To investigate whether siRNA targeting the same region could upregulate the promoter activity, we test the activating efficiency of siRNAs targeting the TATA-box motif of 16 genes and perform a systematic analysis to identify the common features of the functional siRNAs for effective activation of gene promoters. Further, we try various modifications to improve the activating efficiency of siRNAs and find that it is quite useful to design the promoter-targeting activating siRNA by following several rules such as (a complementary to the TATA-box-centered region; (b UA usage at the first two bases of the antisense strand; (c twenty-three nucleotides (nts in length; (d 2'-O-Methyl (2'-OMe modification at the 3' terminus of the antisense strand; (e avoiding mismatches at the 3' end of the antisense strand. The optimized activating siRNAs potently enhance the expression of interleukin-2 (IL-2 gene in human and mouse primary CD4+ T cells with a long-time effect. Taken together, our study provides a guideline for rational design the promoter-targeting siRNA to sequence-specifically enhance gene expression.

  15. Aspartic acid racemization rate in narwhal (Monodon monoceros) eye lens nuclei estimated by counting of growth layers in tusks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Eva; Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter; Ditlevsen, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Ages of marine mammals have traditionally been estimated by counting dentinal growth layers in teeth. However, this method is difficult to use on narwhals (Monodon monoceros) because of their special tooth structures. Alternative methods are therefore needed. The aspartic acid racemization (AAR......) technique has been used in age estimation studies of cetaceans, including narwhals. The purpose of this study was to estimate a species-specific racemization rate for narwhals by regressing aspartic acid D/L ratios in eye lens nuclei against growth layer groups in tusks (n=9). Two racemization rates were...... rate and (D/L)0 value be used in future AAR age estimation studies of narwhals, but also recommend the collection of tusks and eyes of narwhals for further improving the (D/L)0 and 2kAsp estimates obtained in this study....

  16. Effect of dietary pigment on growth performance and disease resistance in black tiger shrimp post larva (Penaeus monodon, Fabricius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boonyaratpalin, M.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Effects of dietary pigment on survival and disease (white spot syndrome virus: WSSV resistance in black tiger shrimp post larva (Penaeus monodon, Fabricius (PL15 for a 30-day period were studied. The results showed that not only was mean survival of black tiger shrimp (PL15 fed with supplementation of Lucarotene or Betatene at 125 mg/kg diet significantly higher (P<0.05 but also the body color was increased. There were no effects of dietary pigment on mean weight, percent weight gain and WSSV resistance. However, mean WSSV resistance of black tiger shrimp (PL15 fed diet containing Lucantin pink 50 mg/kg diet, Spirulina 30 g/kg diet or Betatene 125 mg/kg diet was higher than that of control.

  17. Domain 2 of a Kazal serine proteinase inhibitor SPIPm2 from Penaeus monodon possesses antiviral activity against WSSV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visetnan, Suwattana; Donpudsa, Suchao; Supungul, Premruethai; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Rimphanitchayakit, Vichien

    2014-12-01

    A 5-domain Kazal type serine proteinase inhibitor SPIPm2 from Penaeus monodon is involved in innate immune defense against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). To test which domains were involved, the 5 domains of SPIPm2 were over-expressed and tested against WSSV infection. By using hemocyte primary cell culture treated with each recombinant SPIPm2 domain along with WSSV, the expression of WSSV early genes ie1, WSV477 and late gene VP28 were substantially reduced as compared to other domains when the recombinant domain 2, rSPIPm2D2, was used. Injecting the WSSV along with rSPIPm2D2 but not with other domains caused delay in mortality rate of the infected shrimp. The results indicate that the SPIPm2D2 possesses strong antiviral activity and, hence, contributes predominantly to the antiviral activity of SPIPm2.

  18. A conserved TATA-less proximal promoter drives basal transcription from the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soravia, E; Grebe, A; De Luca, P

    1995-01-01

    The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) focuses at the cell surface the activation of pro-uPA and, hence, the formation of plasmin, thus enhancing directional extracellular proteolysis. To characterize the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that control receptor expression, we...... have cloned an uPAR DNA segment containing upstream regulatory sequences from both the human and murine genomes. We report that a proximal promoter, contained within 180 bp from the major transcription start sites of the human uPAR gene, drives basal transcription. This region lacks TATA and CAAT boxes...

  19. International Conference on Analytic and Algebraic Geometry held at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research and the University of Hyderabad

    CERN Document Server

    Biswas, Indranil; Morye, Archana; Parameswaran, A

    2017-01-01

    This volume is an outcome of the International conference held in Tata Institute of Fundamental Research and the University of Hyderabad. There are fifteen articles in this volume. The main purpose of the articles is to introduce recent and advanced techniques in the area of analytic and algebraic geometry. This volume attempts to give recent developments in the area to target mainly young researchers who are new to this area. Also, some research articles have been added to give examples of how to use these techniques to prove new results.

  20. Purification, characterization and cDNA cloning of a novel lipopolysaccharide-binding lectin from the shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Tian; Yang, Haijie; Li, Fang; Zhang, Xiaobo; Xu, Xun

    2006-01-01

    In invertebrates, C-type lectin plays an important role in innate immunity by mediating the recognition of pathogens to host cells and clearing microinvaders. A few C-type lectins have been identified from shrimps, but none of their gene or protein sequences is known to date. In this paper, a C-type lectin (named PmLec) specific for bacterial lipopolysaccharide was purified from the serum of the shrimp Penaeus monodon. The binding of PmLec to lipopolysaccharide was mainly mediated through the O-antigen. PmLec had a strong hemagglutinating and bacterial-agglutinating activity as well as an opsonic effect that enhances hemocyte phagocytosis. The PmLec cDNA sequence was obtained from the cDNA library of P. monodon by polymerase chain reaction with the degenerated primer designed according to the amino-terminal residue sequence of purified PmLec. A 546-bp open reading frame was found to encode a putative protein comprising 182 amino acids and containing a preceding signal peptide of 17 amino acids. A C-type lectin domain existed in PmLec, but no glycosylation site was found. The recombinant PmLec protein expressed in Escherichia coli also showed the same agglutinating activity and opsonic effect as that of the native protein. This is the first report of a lectin cDNA from the shrimp. PmLec functions as a pattern-recognition protein and an opsonin in the shrimp, and it provides a clue to elucidate the role of lectin in the innate immunity of aquatic invertebrates at the molecular level.

  1. HGSNAT has a TATA-less promoter with multiple starts of transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richtrova, Eva; Mrazova, Lenka S; Musalkova, Dita; Luksan, Ondrej; Stolnaya, Larisa; Minks, Jakub; Lukas, Jan; Dvorakova, Lenka; Jirsa, Milan; Hrebicek, Martin

    2016-10-30

    Acetyl-CoA:α-glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase (N-acetyltransferase) is a lysosomal membrane enzyme that catalyzes a key step in the lysosomal degradation of heparan sulfate. Its deficiency causes Sanfilippo syndrome type IIIC (Mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIC, MPS IIIC). Here we characterize the promoter region of HGSNAT, the gene encoding N-acetyltransferase, which is located in the pericentromeric region of chromosome 8. We show that HGSNAT transcription is driven by a TATA-less promoter whose key elements are contained within the 1054bp region upstream of exon 1. About 400 bases of the region's 3'-prime end overlap with an unmethylated CpG island. Reduced reporter activities from promoter serial deletion constructs suggested strong regulatory elements at positions -101 to -20bp and -1073 to -716bp of the downstream initiation codon (DS-ATG). Targeted mutagenesis of the first Specificity protein 1-A (Sp1-A) of the six in silico-predicted Sp1 sites in the region flanking the major transcription start sites (TSSs, +50/-101) led to a 55% decrease of reporter activity, while inactivation of each of Sp1-B and Sp1-C resulted in its almost two-fold increase. The binding of Sp1 to the region was confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). Overall, this confirms that Sp1 is important for regulation of the HGSNAT promoter. Promoter fragments in antisense orientation (constructs pGL4 -20/-1305 and pGL4 +50/-1305) led to reporter activities of about 50% of the pGL4 -1305/-20 activity, implying divergent initiation of transcription at the promoter. We identified two main TSSs at positions +1 and -15 from DS-ATG using Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (5'RACE). Transcripts initiating at the TSSs thus contain only DS-ATG. Five patients from our MPS IIIC cohort (n=23) carried the rs4523300 promoter variant and one the rs149596192 promoter variant. Both variants lowered the expression of the reporter down to 68% and 59%, respectively. However, white blood cell (WBC) N

  2. Differential regulation of the lipoxygenase pathway in shrimp hepatopancreases and ovaries during ovarian development in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimuttisuk, Wananit; Tobwor, Punsa; Deenarn, Pacharawan; Intaraudom, Chakapong; Pruksatrakul, Thapanee; Nithithanasilp, Sutichai; Wongtripop, Somjai; Phomklad, Suwanchai; Chaitongsakul, Panomkorn; Vichai, Vanicha

    2017-05-27

    Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are critical to the success of ovarian development in marine crustaceans, especially for domesticated species such as the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. These fatty acids are stored in a midgut gland called the hepatopancreas and subsequently serve as an energy source or are incorporated in yolk during ovarian development. PUFAs are known precursors of hydroxy fatty acids, including hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (HEPE), which are catalyzed by lipoxygenases (LOX). In previous studies, 8-HEPE has been shown to regulate female reproduction and adipogenesis in marine crustaceans. However, whether the biosynthesis of 8-HEPE in these species is the result of LOX activity has yet to be investigated. In this study, 8-HEPE was identified exclusively in P. monodon hepatopancreases using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Treatment with nordihydroguaiaretic acid resulted in the reduction of 8-HEPE, suggesting the enzyme-dependent catalysis of 8-HEPE in hepatopancreases. Additionally, a full-length P. monodon LOX (PmLOX) was amplified from shrimp ovary cDNA. Sequence analysis revealed that the putative PmLOX contains domains and catalytic residues required for LOX catalytic function. Furthermore, PmLOX expression increased steadily as shrimp ovary maturation progressed, while PmLOX expression and the amount of 8-HEPE decreased in shrimp hepatopancreases. These findings not only suggest differential requirements for hydroxy fatty acid biosynthesis in shrimp ovaries and hepatopancreases during the P. monodon ovarian development, but also provide insights into the LOX pathway in marine crustaceans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Structure of TatA paralog, TatE, suggests a structurally homogeneous form of Tat protein translocase that transports folded proteins of differing diameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglieri, Jacopo; Beck, Daniel; Vasisht, Nishi; Smith, Corinne J; Robinson, Colin

    2012-03-01

    The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) system transports folded proteins across bacterial and plant thylakoid membranes. Most current models for the translocation mechanism propose the coalescence of a substrate-binding TatABC complex with a separate TatA complex. In Escherichia coli, TatA complexes are widely believed to form the translocation pore, and the size variation of TatA has been linked to the transport of differently sized substrates. Here, we show that the TatA paralog TatE can substitute for TatA and support translocation of Tat substrates including AmiA, AmiC, and TorA. However, TatE is found as much smaller, discrete complexes. Gel filtration and blue native electrophoresis suggest sizes between ∼50 and 110 kDa, and single-particle processing of electron micrographs gives size estimates of 70-90 kDa. Three-dimensional models of the two principal TatE complexes show estimated diameters of 6-8 nm and potential clefts or channels of up to 2.5 nm diameter. The ability of TatE to support translocation of the 90-kDa TorA protein suggests alternative translocation models in which single TatA/E complexes do not contribute the bulk of the translocation channel. The homogeneity of both the TatABC and the TatE complexes further suggests that a discrete Tat translocase can translocate a variety of substrates, presumably through the use of a flexible channel. The presence and possible significance of double- or triple-ring TatE forms is discussed.

  4. Isolation and characterization of genes functionally involved in ovarian development of the giant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preechaphol, Rachanimuk; Klinbunga, Sirawut; Khamnamtong, Bavornlak; Menasveta, Piamsak

    2010-10-01

    Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) libraries between cDNA in stages I (previtellogenic) and III (cortical rod) ovaries of the giant tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) were established. In all, 452 ESTs were unidirectionally sequenced. Sequence assembly generated 28 contigs and 201 singletons, 109 of which (48.0%) corresponding to known sequences previously deposited in GenBank. Several reproduction-related transcripts were identified. The full-length cDNA of anaphase promoting complex subunit 11 (PmAPC11; 600 bp with an ORF of 255 bp corresponding to a polypeptide of 84 amino acids) and selenoprotein Mprecursor (PmSePM; 904 bp with an ORF of 396 bp corresponding to a polypeptide of 131 amino acids) were characterized and reported for the first time in penaeid shrimp. Semiquantitative RT-PCR revealed that the expression levels of PmSePM and keratinocyte-associated protein 2 significantly diminished throughout ovarian development, whereas Ser/Thrcheckpoint kinase 1 (Chk1), DNA replication licensing factor mcm2 and egalitarian were down-regulated in mature ovaries of wild P. monodon (p < 0.05). Accordingly, the expression profiles of PmSePM and keratinocyte-associated protein 2 could be used as biomarkers for evaluating the degree of reproductive maturation in domesticated P. monodon.

  5. Isolation and characterization of genes functionally involved in ovarian development of the giant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachanimuk Preechaphol

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH libraries between cDNA in stages I (previtellogenic and III (cortical rod ovaries of the giant tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon were established. In all, 452 ESTs were unidirectionally sequenced. Sequence assembly generated 28 contigs and 201 singletons, 109 of which (48.0% corresponding to known sequences previously deposited in GenBank. Several reproduction-related transcripts were identified. The full-length cDNA of anaphase promoting complex subunit 11 (PmAPC11; 600 bp with an ORF of 255 bp corresponding to a polypeptide of 84 amino acids and selenoprotein M precursor (PmSePM; 904 bp with an ORF of 396 bp corresponding to a polypeptide of 131 amino acids were characterized and reported for the first time in penaeid shrimp. Semiquantitative RT-PCR revealed that the expression levels of PmSePM and keratinocyte-associated protein 2 significantly diminished throughout ovarian development, whereas Ser/Thr checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1, DNA replication licensing factor mcm2 and egalitarian were down-regulated in mature ovaries of wild P. monodon (p < 0.05. Accordingly, the expression profiles of PmSePM and keratinocyte-associated protein 2 could be used as biomarkers for evaluating the degree of reproductive maturation in domesticated P. monodon.

  6. STUDY ON FRY PERFORMANCE OF BLACK TIGER SHRIMP Penaeus monodon WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ITS MORPHOLOGY AND RNA/DNA RATIO ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryanti Haryanti

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Standard method to asses the performance of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon fry was needed for successful shrimp culture. The main purpose of this study was to determine standard method fry performance of P. monodon assesment based on its morphology and molecular RNA/DNA ratio analysis. Samples of P. monodon fry were collected from hatcheries in Bali, six hatcheries in East Java, three hatcheries in Central Java and six hatcheries in South Sulawesi. Each hatchery gave 25 appropriate sizes of fry samples taken from same tank culture. RNA/DNA ratio value was obtained from gene-quant measurement.  Result of this study shown that morphology performance of shrimp fry correlated with RNA/DNA ratio.  RNA/DNA ratio of shrimp fry from Bali hatcheries were obtained of 0.7121. Shrimp fry from hatcheries in East Java  showed  RNA/DNA value ranged between 0.2823-1.2132, while shrimp fry from hatcheries in Central Java and South Sulawesi  ranged between 1.1810-17478  and  0.1798-0.5116 respectively.

  7. Pencapaian Standar Kompetensi Siswa SMK Negeri Program Keahlian Tata Busana di Kota Yogyakarta dalam Pembelajaran Dengan KBK

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    Widihastuti Widihastuti

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Artikel ini ditulis berdasarkan hasil penelitian yang bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi tingkat keefektifan kegiatan pembelajaran dengan KBK di SMK Negeri Program Keahlian Tata Busana di Kota Yogyakarta ditinjau dari pencapaian standar kompetensi siswa, khususnya terkait dengan prestasi akademik siswa berdasarkan nilai normatif, adaptif, dan produktif. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian evaluasi dengan pendekatan kuantitatif. Populasi penelitian meliputi 671 siswa Program Keahlian Tata Busana SMK Negeri di Kota Yogyakarta yang telah melaksanakan pembelajaran dengan KBK, dengan sampel penelitian sebanyak 137 siswa yang ditentukan dengan teknik proportional stratified random sampling menggunakan rumus Krejcie & Morgan. Data penelitian diperoleh melalui angket dan dokumen nilai prestasi akademik siswa, meliputi nilai normatif, adaptif, dan produktif. Teknik analisis data yang digunakan adalah teknik analisis data statistik deskriptif dan inferensial dengan bantuan komputer paket program SPSS 10 for windows. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa: (1 Tingkat keefektifan pembelajaran dengan KBK ditinjau dari pencapaian standar kompetensi siswa dari nilai normatif termasuk tinggi dan telah memenuhi kriteria efektif 94,9% (>70% siswa telah mencapai nilai >7,0, (2 Tingkat keefektifan pembelajaran dengan KBK ditinjau dari pencapaian standar kompetensi siswa dari nilai adaptif termasuk tinggi namun belum memenuhi kriteria efektif karena baru 66,4% (7,0, dan (3 Tingkat keefektifan pembelajaran dengan KBK ditinjau dari pencapaian standar kompetensi siswa dari nilai produktif termasuk tinggi namun belum memenuhi kriteria efektif karena baru 58,4% (< 70% siswa yang telah mencapai nilai ≥7,5.

  8. Aplikasi Metode Group Technology dalam Memperbaiki Tata Letak Mesin untuk Meminimalkan Jarak Perpindahan Bahan (Studi Kasus di Perusahaan Mebel Logam

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    Amelia Amelia

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Material handling process is affected by planning and setting layout facility since cost of material handling can reached 30-90% total production cost. In a metal furniture factory products were made without good setting layout facility. The machines and material were set at empty places. Distances between machines were not set so the traffic would get traffic jam. Unfinished material must wait until the number requirement for handling is reached. The layout setting of machines will be set with Group Technology. The methods used are Rank Order Clustering, Similarity Coefficient and p-median. The result of this method can reduce distance of material handling until 68%. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia: Perencanaan dan pengaturan tata letak pabrik berpengaruh pada proses pemindahan bahan karena biaya proses pemindahaan bahan dapat mencapai 30%-90% dari total biaya produksi. Selama ini sebuah perusahaan mebel logam melakukan proses pembuatan mebel logam berdasarkan lokasi mesin-mesin yang ada. Penempatan penambahan mesin ataupun bahan yang digunakan hanya berdasarkan ruang yang ada. Jarak antara proses (mesin satu dengan yang lain tidak dipertimbangkan sehingga terjadi kesimpangsiuran proses. Bahan setengah jadi harus menunggu hingga jumlah tertentu untuk dipindahkan. Untuk itu dilakukan pengaturan tata letak mesin-mesin yang ada dengan menggunakan Metode Group Techonology. Metode yang digunakan adalah metode Rank Order Clustering, Similarity Coefficient dan p-median. Dengan metode ini jarak perpindahan bahan berhasil dikurangi hingga 68 %. Kata kunci: Group technology, rank order clustering, pengangkutan material.

  9. Dinamika Tata Kelola Kebijakan Industri Penyiaran dan Telekomunikasi Indonesia Menuju Konvergensi: Sebuah Studi Paradigma Interpretatif

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    Vience Mutiara Rumata

    2017-03-01

    Konvergensi antara penyiaran dan telekomunikasi di Indonesia tidak terhindarkan seiring dengan perkembangan teknologi informasi dan komunikasi (TIK serta ketatnya persaingan dalam industri keduanya. Kedua industri telah mengintegrasi TIK sebagai nilai tambah dari layanan ataupun produk yang ditawarkannya. Meski demikian, tata kelola kedua industri ini masih terpisah yakni melalui UU Penyiaran tahun 2002 dan UU Telekomunikasi tahun 1999. Di saat RUU konvergensi telematika belum menemukan titik terang, regulator berupaya merevisi kedua UU tersebut. Studi ini merupakan penelitian deskriptif kualitatif dengan kerangka paradigma interpretatif dengan berlandaskan teori neo-institusionalisme, yakni historical institutionalism. Studi ini bertujuan untuk memahami relasi kekuasaan serta pandangan para pemangku kebijakan dalam mengatur industri penyiaran dan telekomunikasi di era konvergensi. Teknik pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan cara wawancara mendalam kepada narasumber yang dipilih secara purposif yakni Kemkominfo, KPI, BRTI, dan DPR, selama Januari-Februari 2015. Setiap institusi memiliki path dependence yang berbeda antar satu dengan yang lain, sehingga membentuk pola distribusi kekuasan berbeda dalam prosedur pembuatan kebijakan. Proposal revisi UU baik dari Kemkominfo dan KPI tidak mengatur hal-hal yang berkaitan dengan konvergensi. Akan tetapi, perebutan otoritas antar kedua institusi tersebut justru menjadi fokus dalam proposal tersebut. Kemkominfo, sebagai inisiator UU Telekomunikasi, berencana untuk mengubah revisi UU tersebut menjadi UU konvergensi. Fokus utama revisi tersebut adalah upaya untuk memfasilitasi interkoneksi dan internetworking dalam infrastruktur digital sebagai fondasi ekosistem konvergensi.     Abstract The convergence between broadcasting and telecommunication in Indonesia is envitable as the growing information and communication technology and the growing competition in both industries. These industries have integrated ICT as part of their

  10. PENGARUH DISIPLIN KERJA, MOTIVASI KERJA, DAN TATA RUANG KANTOR TERHADAP KINERJA PEGAWAI KELURAHAN KECAMATAN PURBALINGGA KABUPATEN PURBALINGGA

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    Masasti Suci

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Kinerja adalah suatu hasil kerja baik secara kualitas maupun kuantitas yang dicapai oleh seseorang untuk mencapai tujuan tertentu. Kinerja yang baik tentunya dipengaruhi oleh beberapa faktor, seperti disiplin kerja, motivasi kerja, dan tata ruang kantor yang ada di kantor Kelurahan Kecamatan Purbalingga Kabupaten Purbalingga. Permasalahan dalam penelitian ini yaitu kedisiplinan pegawai dalam jam kerja yang kurang baik, rendahnya semangat pegawai untuk memberikan pelayanan kepada masyarakat dengan maksimal, masih terdapat ketidakteraturan dalam hal penataan ruang kantor dan lingkungan fisik. Metode pengumpulan data yang digunakan adalah metode angket dan dokumentasi. Uji keberartian persamaan regresi dilihat dari uji Fhitung = 49,993 dengan probabilitas sebesar 0,000 < 0,05 sehingga diperoleh hasil analisis regresi linear berganda dengan persamaan Y = 0,281 + 0,357X1 + 0,252X2 + 0,222X3. Besarnya pengaruh secara simultan antara disiplin kerja, motivasi kerja, dan tata ruang kantor terhadap kinerja pegawai yaitu 59,2%. Variabel yang memberikan pengaruh paling besar terhadap kinerja pegawai secara parsial adalah disiplin kerja yaitu sebesar 21,34%, sedangkan untuk motivasi kerja, dan tata ruang kantor berpengaruh lebih kecil yaitu masing-masing sebesar 19,53%, dan 9,18%. A performance is the work result either qualitatively or quantitatively achieved by a person to reach the certain goal. The good performance is influenced by some factors such as work discipline, work motivation, and office room arrangement in the village office. The problems of this reserach were the low disipline of civil servants’ in the work time, the low motivation of the civil servants to give the service for the guests, and the bad ordered office room arrangement and the physical environment. The data were colleted by questionnaire and documentation. The significance test of regression was found out from F test = 49.993 with probability was 0.000 < 0.05, therefore the

  11. Evaluasi Kinerja Tata Kelola TI Terhadap Penerapan Sistem Informasi Starclick Framework COBIT 5 (Studi Kasus: PT. Telekomunikasi Indonesia, Tbk Semarang

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    Guido Waluyan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract— Information Technology (IT Governance used for building a system to help companies in the decision-making process which involve stakeholders and all the company elements. PT. Telekomunikasi Indonesia, Tbk. engaged in Telecommunication, Information, Media, Edutainment and Services (“TIMES” and aim of giving a competitive price with high quality TIMES that becoming the best corporation-management model in Indonesia. Starclick is one of the Information System, which support business objectives in sales process using a map. To ensure the quality of IT governance on that application, framework as reference model is required. Control Objective for Information and related Technology (COBIT providing a best-practice reference that covers the entire business organization and explained it in a structured-logical activity that effectively can be manage and control. The result of this study is the measurement of capability level only reach manage process level. Keyword—  COBIT 5, Information System, IT Governance, Telkom Semarang, Qualitative.  Intisari— Tata kelola Teknologi Informasi (TI digunakan untuk membangun suatu sistem yang membantu perusahaan dalam proses pengambilan keputasan dimana melibatkan para pemangku kepentingan dan elemen-elemen terkait dalam perusahaan. PT. Telekomunikasi Indonesia, Tbk. adalah perusahaan yang bergerak dibidang layanan Telecommunication, Information, Media, Edutainment dan Services (“TIMES” dengan tujuan memberikan layanan TIMES yang berkualitas tinggi dengan harga yang kompetitif dan menjadi model pengelolaan korporasi terbaik di Indonesia. Usaha dalam menunjang tujuan bisnis telah didukung oleh beberapa Sistem Informasi (SI antara lain Starclick yang mendukung proses penjualan menggunakan peta. Diperlukan suatu kerangka kerja sebagai reference model, untuk memastikan kualitas tata kelola TI pada penerapan aplikasi “Starclick” tersebut. Control Objective for Information and related

  12. PERLETAKAN STASIUN KERETA API DALAM TATA RUANG KOTA-KOTA DI JAWA (KHUSUSNYA JAWA TIMUR PADA MASA KOLONIAL

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    Handinoto Handinoto

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Railway Company in Indonesia started in 1860's. They were held by both government (SS- Staad Spoorwegen and private (NIS, etc. The same happened as in Europe after rev. industry, railway station's placement as new kind of building became very important in urban planning. Faster progression,in railway services in Indonesia in the begining 20 th century, that reached almost all of town in Java; caused railway station's placement, either in larger city or Kabupaten city will be importance. In the end of 19 th and 20 th century, railway transportation was one of important infrastructure.But in the second part of 20 th century, after independence, the roadway progression caused railway services become come down, so railway stations were careless. In the end of 20 th century, the dense of roadway in Java caused railway's function raise again. In general towns has been develop, so railway station placement which been though exactly in urban planning, become to make trouble for city trafic. The scoupe of this paper covered about the placement of railway station in the past, as input for development city in Java for the future. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Per kereta api an di Indonesia baru dimulai pada th. 1860 an. Perusahaan kereta api ditangani oleh dua instansi yaitu oleh pihak pemerintah (seperti: S.S - Staad Spoorwegen dan pihak swasta (seperti :NIS - Nederlandsch Indische Spoorweg Maatschappij, dan sebagainya. Seperti halnya di Eropa setelah revolusi industri, perletakkan stasiun sebagai suatu jenis bangunan baru, menjadi sangat penting dalam tata ruang kota. Dengan makin majunya per kereta api an di Indonesia pada awal abad ke 20, yang hampir mencapai seluruh kota di Jawa, maka penempatan stasiun kereta api baik di kota-kota besar maupun kota Kabupaten menjadi suatu pemikiran yang penting. Pada akhir abad ke 19 dan abad ke 20, angkutan dengan kereta api, menjadi salah satu sarana yang sangat penting, baik angkutan barang maupun manusia. Tapi

  13. Analisis Tata Letak Fasilitas Proyek Menggunakan Activity Relationship Chart dan Multi-Objectives Function pada Proyek Pembangunan Apartemen De Papilio Surabaya

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    Eko Pradana

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Setiap proyek konstruksi selalu menggunakan site facility untuk menunjang kinerja dalam proyek. Site facility merupakan fasilitas penunjang yang selalu ada dalam setiap proyek dan memiliki fungsi yang berbeda untuk masing-masing fasilitas tersebut. Perencanaan tata letak site facilities yang baik dapat meningkatkan produktivitas kerja di lapangan. Dalam menentukan tata letak site facilities, digunakan variabel fungsi objektif Traveling Distance (TD dan Safety Index (SI. Letak site facilities yang optimal dapat dicari dengan meminimalkan jarak antar fasilitas (TD dan juga meminimalkan resiko kecelakaan (SI. Activity Relationship Chart (ARC merupakan gambaran hubungan kedekatan antar fasilitas yang digunakan sebagai pedoman dalam melakukan pemindahan tata letak. Pemindahan tata letak dilakukan sebanyak lima skenario, dengan masing-masing skenario dicari nilai TD dan SI nya serta menggunakan ARC sebagai alasan dilakukannya pemindahan. Dari kelima skenario, didapatkan hasil nilai traveling distance paling minimum terletak pada skenario 0 (kondisi eksisting sebesar 5210,4 meter dan nilai safety index paling minimum terletak pada skenario 1 sebesar 1315 atau mengalami penurunan sebesar 11,51 % dari kondisi eksisting.

  14. Using FRET to Measure the Angle at Which a Protein Bends DNA: TBP Binding a TATA Box as a Model System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugel, Jennifer F.

    2008-01-01

    An undergraduate biochemistry laboratory experiment that will teach the technique of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) while analyzing protein-induced DNA bending is described. The experiment uses the protein TATA binding protein (TBP), which is a general transcription factor that recognizes and binds specific DNA sequences known as…

  15. PENGARUH PADAT TEBAR BERBEDA TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN BENIH UDANG WINDU (PENAEUS MONODON FABRICIUS, 1798 YANG DIPELIHARA PADA MEDIA BIOFLOK

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    Ilham Zulfahmi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the optimal stocking density of tiger shrimp seed (Penaeus monodon were maintained in media biofloc. This study uses a randomized complete design with four treatments and three replications ie, treatment A control (10 tiger shrimp seed / container without the addition bioflok, treatment B (10 tiger shrimp seed / container with the addition bioflok, treatment C (15 tiger shrimp seed / container with the addition bioflok , treatment D (tiger shrimp seed / container with the addition bioflok. The observed parameters include the specific growth rate (SGR, a daily increase of the absolute length and survival rate (SR and feed efficiency. The results showed that the stocking density gives significantly effect to increase the daily increase of the absolute length, SGR and feed efficiency value of tiger prawn seed. Values length and SGR growth are highest in treatment C respectively, 3.1 ± 0.06 cm and 1.48 ± 0.041%/day, meanwhile, the value of feed efficiency is highest in treatment D amounted to 47,43 ± 7,26%. There is no significant effect between the stocking density differences of each treatment on the survival of tiger shrimp juvenile Optimal maintenance toward stocking density for tiger shrimp seed using bioflok system is 15 tiger shrimp seed / 10 liters of water.Penelitian ini bertujuan menentukan padat tebar optimal benih udang windu (Penaeus monodon yang dipelihara dalam media bioflok. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan empat perlakuan dan tiga ulangan yaitu, perlakuan A kontrol (10 ekor/wadah tanpa penambahan bioflok, perlakuan B (10 ekor/wadah dengan penambahan bioflok, perlakuan C (15 ekor/wadah dengan penambahan bioflok, perlakuan D (20 ekor/wadah dengan penambahan bioflok. Parameter yang diamati meliputi kelangsungan hidup (SR, Pertambahan Panjang Mutlak, Laju Pertumbuhan Spesifik (SGR dan Efisiensi Pakan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perbedaan padat tebar berpengaruh nyata

  16. Distribución y abundancia de larvas de Heterocarpus reedi Bahamonde, 1955, Cervimunida johni Porter, 1903 y Pleuroncodes monodon (H. Milne Edwards, 1837, frente a Coquimbo y Caldera, Chile Distribution and abundance of Heterocarpus reedi Bahamonde, 1955, Cervimunida johni Porter, 1903, and Pleuroncodes monodon (H. Milne Edwards, 1837, larvae off Coquimbo and Caldera, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Mujica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Como aporte a la dinámica poblacional de especies que constituyen recursos pesqueros, se analizaron 160 muestras de zooplancton obtenidas con redes Bongo en 40 estaciones oceanógraficas entre Caldera y Coquimbo, en octubre y diciembre de 2005. De ellas se separó la totalidad de las larvas de crustáceos decápodos y se identificaron las de Heterocarpus reedi, Cervimunida johni y Pleuroncodes monodon. Las mayores abundancias de zoeas tempranas de las tres especies se encontraron en octubre en la zona de Coquimbo, mientras que en diciembre predominaron los estados más avanzados de desarrollo. En la zona de Caldera, en ambos meses de muestreo, predominaron los estados avanzados de desarrollo de H. reedi y P. monodon y zoeas tempranas de C. johni. La frecuencia de ocurrencia de las larvas de H reedi en la zona de Coquimbo fue similar en ambos meses, mientras que en la zona de Caldera fue mayor en octubre. La frecuencia de ocurrencia de las larvas de P. monodon y C. johni fue mayor en octubre en ambas zonas. Todas las megalopas capturadas en las dos zonas y meses de muestreo corresponden sólo a un morfotipo, con características morfológicas similares a los juveniles más pequeños de P. monodon. Sobre la base de la distribución y abundancia de larvas de las tres especies, se postula que el desove ocurre antes en la zona de Caldera que en la de Coquimbo, principalmente en zonas próximas a la costa, dada las diferencias de abundancia de los estados de desarrollo.To better understand the population dynamics of fishery resource species, 160 zooplankton samples were obtained with a Bongo net at 40 oceanographic stations around Caldera and Coquimbo in October and December, 2005, and analyzed. All crustacean decapod larvae were sorted, and Heterocarpus reedi, Cervimunida johni, and Pleuroncodes monodon larvae were identified. For all three species, the highest abundances of early zoea were found in October in Coquimbo, whereas advanced larval

  17. KONTRIBUSI PENGINDERAAN JAUH UNTUK PENGEMBANGAN SISTEM PEMANTAUAN PEMANFAATAN RUANG PADA RENCANA TATA RUANG WILAYAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panji Agung

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Dampak nyata dari gema Undang-Undang otonomi daerah adalah meningkatnya aktifitas ekonomi di sektor konstruksi yang turut mendorong terjadinya pelanggaran terhadap rencana pemanfaatan ruang pada rencana umum tata ruang di daerah, untuk itu sudah saatnya dilakukan upaya pengendalian dan pengawasan secara terus menerus dan terintegrasi terhadap pelaksanaan rencana pemanfaatan ruang pada RTRW Kabupaten, agar tidak terjadinya dampak-dampak yang tidak diinginkan. Langkah kongkrit mewujudkan hal tersebut perlu dibangun suatu sistem pemantauan yang sederhana cepat dan murah yang merupakan bagian upaya pengendalian dan pengawasan sehingga dapat digunakan oleh pihak yang berkecimpung dalam perencanaan dan pengendalian RTRW setiap saat. Pelaksanaan pengembangan sistem pemantauan pemanfaatan ruang ini menjadikan Kabupaten Sleman sebagai lokasi penelitian. Penelitian dilakukan dengan menggunakan citra TERRA/ASTER rekaman tahun 2007 untuk memperoleh data primer  penggunaan lahan hasil interpretasi langsung dari citra satelit. Sedangkan data sekunder berupa peta pemanfaatan ruang diperoleh dari hasil digitasi peta pemanfaatan ruang RTRW Kabup aten Sleman. Kedua data tersebut selanjutnya dioverlay yaitu proses yang merupakan perwujudan dari proses pemantauan pemanfaat ruang dalam suatu RTRW kabupaten, dalam proses tersebut peta penggunaan lahan hasil dari interpretasi citra Aster berfungsi sebagai parameter pemantau dan peta pemanfaatan ruang berfungsi sebagai obyek yang dipantau. Sistem yang terbangun dalam penelitian ini terdiri dari beberapa subsistem langkah­langkah pengelolaan data citra ASTER dan peta rencana pemanfaatan ruang pada RTRW Kabupaten. Sistem tersebut terdiri dari subsistem persiapan, input, proses, analisis, dan output. Hasil pemantauan pemanfaatan ruang pada lokasi dengan menggunakan sistem pemantauan pemanfaatan ruang, memberi gambaran bahwa di Kabupaten Sleman terjadi pelanggaran terhadap rencana pemanfaatan ruang untuk kawasan

  18. PmSERPIN3 from black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon is capable of controlling the proPO system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetsaphan, Natthiya; Rimphanitchayakit, Vichien; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Somboonwiwat, Kunlaya

    2013-10-01

    Serpin or serine proteinase inhibitor is a family of protease inhibitors that are involved in controlling the proteolytic cascade in various biological processes. In shrimp, several serpins have been identified but only a few have been characterized. Herein, the PmSERPIN3 gene identified from Penaeus monodon EST database was studied. By using the 5'- and 3'-Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE) techniques, the full-length of PmSERPIN3 cDNA was obtained. The cDNA contained an open reading frame of 1233 bp encoding for 410 amino acid residue protein. Genome sequence analysis revealed that the PmSERPIN3 was an intronless gene. RT-PCR analysis revealed that it was constitutively expressed in all developmental stages, all shrimp tissues tested, and upon pathogen infections. The recombinant mature PmSERPIN3 protein (rPmSERPIN3) produced in Escherichia coli exhibited inhibitory activity against subtilisin. The rPmSERPIN3 also inhibited the shrimp prophenoloxidase system activation in vitro. Injecting the rPmSERPIN3 along with Vibrio harveyi into the shrimp decreased the clearance rate of bacteria in the hemolymph. Potentially, the PmSERPIN3 functions as a regulator of the proPO activating system.

  19. Effects of ochratoxin A and deoxynivalenol on growth performance and immuno-physiological parameters in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kidchakan Supamattaya

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA and deoxynivalenol (DON, naturally occurring contaminants of animal feed, have been implicated in several mycotoxicoses in farm livestock but there is little information on their toxicity in aquatic invertebrates. Therefore, in the present study an 8-week feeding trial was conducted on black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon to assess the effects of OTA and DON on growth performance, haemolymph parameters and histopathology of shrimp. Results showed that feed supplemented with DON caused no effect on growth or survival rate of the shrimp. However, shrimps fed DON feed diet with 1,000 ppb showed significantly higher growth performance. No significant difference in total haemocyte counts (THC was found in shrimp fed mycotoxins-supplemented feed. Feeding high level of OTA (1,000 ppb caused a decrease in phenoloxidase (PO activity. Although no histopathological change was observed, decrease in serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP, serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT and serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT levels in shrimp fed OTA or DON indicated that mycotoxin may impair the functioning of hepatopancreatic cells. Since no adverse effect occurred with the highest levels of OTA and DON (1,000 and 2,000 ppb, respectively on haemolymph parameters and no residue was detected at the completion of the 8-week feeding period, it can be concluded that shrimp feeds occasionally contaminated with OTA or DON have no negative impact on the shrimp culture industry.

  20. KARAKTERISASI DAN IDENTIFIKASI MOLEKULER ISOLAT BT951 SERTA EVALUASI POTENSINYA SEBAGAI BAKTERI PROBIOTIK PADA BUDIDAYA UDANG WINDU ( Penaeus monodon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muliani Muliani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan  untuk mengetahui karakteristik, dan menentukan posisi relatif isolat BT951 melalui identifikasi molekuler menggunakan gen 16S-rRNA, serta mengevaluasi potensinya sebagai probiotik pada budidaya udang windu (P. Monodon. Penelitian ini meliputi tahapan: (1 isolasi dan karakterisasi secara morfologi; (2 uji fisiologi dan biokimia; (3 identifikasi isolat BT951 secara molekuler; (4 uji sensitifitas terhadap antibiotik; (5 uji daya hambat isolat BT951 terhadap V. harveyi; (6 uji patogenisitas isolat BT951 terhadap larva udang; (7 uji tantang isolat BT951 dengan V. harveyi; (8 uji ketahanan isolat BT951 pada suhu ruang dan suhu 4oC. Hasil  penelitian menunjukkan bahwa, secara morfologi isolat BT951 koloninya berbentuk bulat kecil, berwarna krem kekuningan, tepian licin, dan cembung, termasuk kelompok bakteri gram positif yang berbentuk batang, oksidase dan katalase positif, indol negatif, dan bersifat motil. Bakteri ini dapat tumbuh pada suhu 40oC, salinitas 0-50 ppt, dan sensitif terhadap beberapa jenis antibiotik seperti rifanpisin, eritromisin, dan klorampenikol akan tetapi resiten terhadap ampisilin, oksitetrasiklin, gentamisin, dan furazolidon. Berdasarkan hasil analisis gen 16S-rRNA menunjukkan bahwa isolat BT951 termasuk kelompok Brevibacillus laterosporus dengan indeks kedekatan sebesar 97,7%. Bakteri ini tidak bersifat patogen terhadap udang windu, dapat menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri V. harveyi, dan potensial dijadikan sebagai bakteri probiotik pada budidaya udang windu.

  1. Effects of mycotoxin T-2 and zearalenone on histopathological changes in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon Fabricius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phromkunthong, W.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of T-2 toxin and zearalenone were studied in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon Fabricius. In the experiment, black tiger shrimp were fed with different concentrations of T-2 toxin, i.e. 0, 0.1, 1.0 and 2.0 ppm and zearalenone, i.e. 0, 0.1. 0.5 and 1.0 ppm. Shrimp with initial average weight of 4.7 g were experimented for a-10-wk period. Supplementation of 0, 0.1 and 1.0 ppm T-2 produced no histological changes in hepatopancreatic, hemopoietic tissue or lymphoid cell while at higher concentration of 2.0 ppm atrophy, severe necrosis and degeneration of hepatopancreatic tubules, loose contact of hemopoietic tissue and lymphoid organ occurred. Similar observations were noted for the treatments with 0.5 and 1.0 ppm zearalenone - supplemented feed. Histological changes were, however, observed in hepatopancreatic tissue. The scale of histological changes correlated with feeding period and concentrations of zearalenone shrimp received.

  2. A five-domain Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor from black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon and its inhibitory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somprasong, Nawarat; Rimphanitchayakit, Vichien; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2006-01-01

    A novel five-domain Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor, SPIPm2, identified from the hemocyte cDNA library of black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon was successfully expressed in the Escherichia coli expression system. The expressed recombinant SPIPm2 (rSPIPm2) as inclusion bodies was solubilized with a sodium carbonate buffer, pH10, and purified by gel filtration chromatography. The molecular mass of rSPIPm2 was determined using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry to be 29.065 kDa. The inhibitory activities of rSPIPm2 were tested against trypsin, alpha-chymotrypsin, subtilisin and elastase. The inhibitor exhibited potent inhibitory activities against subtilisin and elastase, weak inhibitory activity against trypsin, and did not inhibit chymotrypsin. Tight-binding inhibition assay suggested that the molar ratios of SPIPm2 to subtilisin and elastase were 1:2 and 1:1, respectively. The inhibition against subtilisin and elastase was a competitive type with inhibition constants (Ki) of 0.52 and 3.27 nM, respectively. The inhibitory activity of SPIPm2 against subtilisin implies that, in shrimp, it may function as a defense component against proteinases from pathogenic bacteria but the elastase inhibitory function is not known.

  3. Attempts on producing lymphoid cell line from Penaeus monodon by induction with SV40-T and 12S EIA oncogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthumana, Jayesh; Prabhakaran, Priyaja; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, I S Bright

    2015-12-01

    In an attempt of in vitro transformation, transfection mediated expression of Simian virus-40 (T) antigen (SV40-T) and transduction mediated expression of Adenovirus type 12 early region 1A (12S E1A) oncogene were performed in Penaeus monodon lymphoid cells. pSV3-neo vector encoding SV40-T oncogene and a recombinant baculovirus BacP2-12S E1A-GFP encoding 12S E1A oncogene under the control of hybrid promoters were used. Electroporation and lipofection mediated transformation of SV40-T in lymphoid cells confirmed the transgene expression by phenotypic variation and the expression of GFP in co-transfection experiment. The cells transfected by lipofection (≥ 5%) survived for 14 days with lower toxicity (30%), whilst on electroporation, most of the cells succumbed to death (60%) and survived cells lived up to 7 days. Transduction efficiency in primary lymphoid cells was more than 80% within 14 days of post-transduction, however, an incubation period of 7 days post-transduction was observed without detectable expression of 12S E1A. High level of oncogenic 12S E1A expression were observed after 14 day post-transduction and the proliferating cells survived for more than 90 days with GFP expression, however, without in vitro transformation and immortalization. The study put forth the requirement of transduction mediated 'specific' oncogene expression along with telomerase activation and epigenetic induction for the immortalization and establishment of shrimp cell line.

  4. Dietary effect of Sargassum wightii fucoidan to enhance growth, prophenoloxidase gene expression of Penaeus monodon and immune resistance to Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivagnanavelmurugan, Madasamy; Thaddaeus, Bergmans Jude; Palavesam, Arunachalam; Immanuel, Grasian

    2014-08-01

    The polysaccharide fucoidan from brown seaweed Sargassum wightii was extracted and it was incorporated with pellet diets at three concentrations (0.1, 0.2 & 0.3%). The fucoidan incorporated diets were fed to shrimp Penaeus monodon for 60 days and the growth performance was assessed. The weight gain and SGR of control group was 6.83 g and 9.72%, respectively, but the weight gain and SGR of various concentrations (0.1-0.3%) of fucoidan incorporated diets fed groups of shrimp was increased from 7.30 to 8.20 g and 9.83 to 10.03%, respectively. After 60 days of feeding experiment, the relative quantification of prophenoloxidase gene of experimental groups over control group was analysed by RT-PCR and it was ranged between 2.13 and 7.95 fold increase within 33.52-34.61 threshold cycles, respectively at 0.1-0.3% concentrations of fucoidan. After 60 days of feeding experiment, the P. monodon were challenged with shrimp pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus and the mortality percentage was recorded daily up to 21 days. The reduction in mortality percentage of experimental groups over control group was recorded from 44.56 to 72.79%, respectively in 0.1-0.3% of fucoidan incorporated diets fed groups. During challenge experiment, all the immunological parameters such as THC, prophenoloxidase activity, respiratory burst activity, superoxide dismutase activity, phagocytic activity, bactericidal activity and bacterial clearance ability of experimental groups were significantly (P fucoidan had enhanced the innate immunity and increased resistance to V. parahaemolyticus infection in P. monodon.

  5. Determination of the persistence of dimetridazole, metronidazole and ronidazole residues in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) tissue and stability during cooking

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The depletion of three banned nitroimidazole drugs (dimetridazole (DMZ), metronidazole (MNZ) and ronidazole (RNZ)) was investigated in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) following in-water medication. The highest concentrations of residues were measured immediately after the 24 h immersion (day 0). At this time, MNZ and MNZ-OH residues were measured in shrimp tissue samples at concentrations ranging from 361–4189 and 0.28–6.6 μg kg−1, respectively. DMZ and its metabolites HMMNI ranged in co...

  6. Molecular Characterization of Viral Responsive Protein 15 and Its Possible Role in Nuclear Export of Virus in Black Tiger Shrimp Penaeus monodon

    OpenAIRE

    Jaturontakul, Krisadaporn; Jatuyosporn, Thapanan; Laohawutthichai, Pasunee; Kim, Sun-Yong; Mori, Tomoyuki; Supungul, Premruethai; Hakoshima, Toshio; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Krusong, Kuakarun

    2017-01-01

    A viral responsive protein 15 from Penaeus monodon (PmVRP15) has been reported to be important for white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in vivo. This work aims to characterize PmVRP15 and investigate its possible role in nuclear import/export of the virus. Circular dichroism spectra showed that PmVRP15 contains high helical contents (82%). Analytical ultracentrifugation suggested that PmVRP15 could possibly form oligomers in solution. A subcellular fractionation study showed that PmVRP1...

  7. Activin A induces ovine follicle stimulating hormone beta using -169/-58 bp of its promoter and a simple TATA box

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    Miller William L

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activin A increases production of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH by inducing transcription of its beta subunit (FSHB. This induction has been studied here in LbetaT2 gonadotropes using transient expression of ovine FSHBLuc (-4741 bp of ovine FSHB promoter plus exon/intron 1 linked to Luc. Several sequences between -169/-58 bp of the ovine FSHB proximal promoter are necessary for induction by activin A in LbetaT2 cells, but deletions between -4741/-752 bp decrease induction > 70% suggesting the existence of other important 5' sequences. Induction disappears if a minimal T81 thymidine kinase promoter replaces the ovine FSHB TATA box and 3' exon/intron. The study reported here was designed to determine if sequences outside -169/-58 bp are important for induction of ovine FSHB by activin A. Methods Progressively longer deletions of ovine FSHBLuc were created between -4741/-195 bp. Deletions internal to this region were created also, but replaced with substitute DNA. The ovine FSHB TATA box region (-40/+3 bp was replaced by thymidine kinase and rat prolactin minimal promoters, and substitutions were made in 3' intron/exon sequences. All constructs were tested for basal and activin A-induced expression in LbetaT2 cells. Results Successive 5' deletions progressively lowered fold-induction by activin A from 9.5 to zero, but progressively increased basal expression. Replacing deletions with substitute DNA showed no changes in basal expression or fold-induction. Induction by activin A was supported by the minimal rat prolactin promoter (TATA box but not the thymidine kinase promoter (no TATA box. Replacement mutations in the 3' region did not decrease induction by activin A. Conclusion The data show that specific ovine FSHB sequences 5' to -175 bp or 3' of the transcription start site are not required for induction by activin A. A minimal TATA box promoter supports induction by activin A, but the sequence between the TATA box and

  8. Main: 1QNC [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1QNC シロイヌナズナ Arabidopsis Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. Tata-Box Binding Protein ...itiation Factor Tfiid-1; Chain: A, B; Synonym: Tata-Box Factor 1, Tata Sequence-Binding Protein 1, Tbp1; Engin...eered: Yes; Molecule: Dna (5'-D(*Gp*Cp*Ap*Ap*Tp*Ap*Ap*Ap*Ap*Gp*Gp*Gp*Cp*A)-3'); Chain...: C, E; Molecule: Dna (5'-D(*Tp*Gp*Cp*Cp*Cp*Tp*Tp*Tp*Tp*Ap*Tp*Tp*Gp*C)-3'); Chain: D, F Tata Box-Binding Protein....Sun, S.-H.Yang, T.Kodadek, S.K.Burley Tata Element Recognition By The Tata Box-Binding Protein

  9. Main: 1QN9 [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1QN9 シロイヌナズナ Arabidopsis Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. Tata-Box Binding Protein ...itiation Factor Tfiid-1; Chain: A, B; Synonym: Tata-Box Factor 1, Tata Sequence-Binding Protein 1, Tbp1; Engin...eered: Yes; Molecule: Dna (5'-D(*Gp*Cp*Tp*Ap*Cp*Ap*Ap*Ap*Ap*Gp*Gp*Gp*Cp*A)-3'); Chain...: C, E; Molecule: Dna (5'-D(*Tp*Gp*Cp*Cp*Cp*Tp*Tp*Tp*Tp*Gp*Tp*Ap*Gp*C)-3'); Chain: D, F Tata Box-Binding Protein....Sun, S.-H.Yang, T.Kodadek, S.K.Burley Tata Element Recognition By The Tata Box-Binding Protein

  10. Main: 1QN7 [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1QN7 シロイヌナズナ Arabidopsis Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. Tata-Box Binding Protein ...itiation Factor Tfiid-1; Chain: A, B; Synonym: Tata-Box Factor 1, Tata Sequence-Binding Protein 1, Tbp1; Engin...eered: Yes; Molecule: Dna (5'-D(*Gp*Cp*Tp*Ap*Tp*Ap*Tp*Ap*Ap*Gp*Gp*Gp*Cp*A)-3'); Chain...: C, E; Molecule: Dna (5'-D(*Tp*Gp*Cp*Cp*Cp*Tp*Tp*Ap*Tp*Ap*Tp*Ap*Gp*C)-3'); Chain: D, F Tata Box-Binding Protein....Sun, S.-H.Yang, T.Kodadek, S.K.Burley Tata Element Recognition By The Tata Box-Binding Protein

  11. Main: 1QN3 [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1QN3 シロイヌナズナ Arabidopsis Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. Tata-Box Binding Protein ...itiation Factor Tfiid-1; Chain: A, B; Synonym: Tata-Box Factor 1, Tata Sequence-Binding Protein 1, Tbp1; Engin...eered: Yes; Molecule: Dna (5'-D(*Gp*Cp*Tp*Ap*Tp*Ap*Ap*Ap*Cp*Gp*Gp*Gp*Cp*A)-3'); Chain...: C, E; Molecule: Dna (5'-D(*Tp*Gp*Cp*Cp*Cp*Gp*Tp*Tp*Tp*Ap*Tp*Ap*Gp*C)-3'); Chain: D, F Tata Box-Binding Protein....Sun, S.-H.Yang, T.Kodadek, S.K.Burley Tata Element Recognition By The Tata Box-Binding Protein

  12. Interaction between TATA-Binding Protein (TBP and Multiprotein Bridging Factor-1 (MBF1 from the Filamentous Insect Pathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Song

    Full Text Available TATA-binding protein (TBP is a ubiquitous component of eukaryotic transcription factors that acts to nucleate assembly and position pre-initiation complexes. Multiprotein bridging factor 1 (MBF1 is thought to interconnect TBP with gene specific transcriptional activators, modulating transcriptional networks in response to specific signal and developmental programs. The insect pathogen, Beauveria bassiana, is a cosmopolitan fungus found in most ecosystems where it acts as an important regulator of insect populations and can form intimate associations with certain plants. In order to gain a better understanding of the function of MBF1 in filamentous fungi, its interaction with TBP was demonstrated. The MBF1 and TBP homologs in B. bassiana were cloned and purified from a heterologous E. coli expression system. Whereas purified BbTBP was shown to be able to bind oligonucleotide sequences containing the TATA-motif (Kd ≈ 1.3 nM including sequences derived from the promoters of the B. bassiana chitinase and protease genes. In contrast, BbMBF1 was unable to bind to these same target sequences. However, the formation of a ternary complex between BbMBF1, BbTBP, and a TATA-containing target DNA sequence was seen in agarose gel electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA. These data indicate that BbMBF1 forms direct interactions with BbTBP, and that the complex is capable of binding to DNA sequences containing TATA-motifs, confirming that BbTBP can link BbMBF1 to target sequences as part of the RNA transcriptional machinery in fungi.

  13. Interaction between TATA-Binding Protein (TBP) and Multiprotein Bridging Factor-1 (MBF1) from the Filamentous Insect Pathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana

    OpenAIRE

    Chi Song; Almudena Ortiz-Urquiza; Sheng-Hua Ying; Jin-Xia Zhang; Nemat O Keyhani

    2015-01-01

    TATA-binding protein (TBP) is a ubiquitous component of eukaryotic transcription factors that acts to nucleate assembly and position pre-initiation complexes. Multiprotein bridging factor 1 (MBF1) is thought to interconnect TBP with gene specific transcriptional activators, modulating transcriptional networks in response to specific signal and developmental programs. The insect pathogen, Beauveria bassiana, is a cosmopolitan fungus found in most ecosystems where it acts as an important regula...

  14. Aspartic acid racemization rate in narwhal (Monodon monoceros eye lens nuclei estimated by counting of growth layers in tusks

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    Eva Garde

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ages of marine mammals have traditionally been estimated by counting dentinal growth layers in teeth. However, this method is difficult to use on narwhals (Monodon monoceros because of their special tooth structures. Alternative methods are therefore needed. The aspartic acid racemization (AAR technique has been used in age estimation studies of cetaceans, including narwhals. The purpose of this study was to estimate a species-specific racemization rate for narwhals by regressing aspartic acid d/l ratios in eye lens nuclei against growth layer groups in tusks (n=9. Two racemization rates were estimated: one by linear regression (r2=0.98 based on the assumption that age was known without error, and one based on a bootstrap study, taking into account the uncertainty in the age estimation (r2 between 0.88 and 0.98. The two estimated 2kAsp values were identical up to two significant figures. The 2k Asp value from the bootstrap study was found to be 0.00229±0.000089 SE, which corresponds to a racemization rate of 0.00114−yr±0.000044 SE. The intercept of 0.0580±0.00185 SE corresponds to twice the (d/l0 value, which is then 0.0290±0.00093 SE. We propose that this species-specific racemization rate and (d/l0 value be used in future AAR age estimation studies of narwhals, but also recommend the collection of tusks and eyes of narwhals for further improving the (d/l0 and 2kAsp estimates obtained in this study.

  15. A Novel Viral Responsive Protein Is Involved in Hemocyte Homeostasis in the Black Tiger Shrimp, Penaeus monodon*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prapavorarat, Adisak; Vatanavicharn, Tipachai; Söderhäll, Kenneth; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2010-01-01

    A novel viral responsive protein, namely hemocyte homeostasis-associated protein (HHAP), was characterized for its role in the response of shrimp to white spot syndrome virus infection. The full-length cDNAs of HHAP from the black tiger shrimp (PmHHAP), Penaeus monodon, and the fresh water crayfish (PlHHAP), Pacifastacus leniusculus, were obtained and showed high sequence identity to a hypothetical protein from various organisms, with the highest identity to the hypothetical protein TcasGA2_TC006773 from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (54% amino acid sequence identity). Transcripts of PmHHAP were expressed in various shrimp tissues with the highest expression in hematopoietic tissue, whereas the transcripts of PlHHAP were found in the hematopoietic and nerve tissues. Upon white spot syndrome virus infection, a high up-regulation level of shrimp hemocytic HHAP mRNA and protein was observed by real-time reverse transcription-PCR and immunofluorescence microscopy, respectively. Gene silencing of PmHHAP by RNA interference resulted in a significant decrease in the number of circulating hemocytes and 100% shrimp mortality within 30 h of the double-stranded PmHHAP RNA injection (but not in control shrimp), indicating that HHAP is essential for shrimp survival. Interestingly, severe damage of hemocytes was observed in vivo in the PmHHAP knockdown shrimp and in vitro in shrimp primary hemocyte cell culture, suggesting that PmHHAP plays an important role in hemocyte homeostasis. Thus, it is speculated that the up-regulation of PmHHAP is an important mechanism to control circulating hemocyte levels in crustaceans during viral infection. PMID:20444692

  16. A snake-like serine proteinase (PmSnake) activates prophenoloxidase-activating system in black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monwan, Warunthorn; Amparyup, Piti; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2017-02-01

    Clip domain serine proteinases (ClipSPs) play critical roles in the activation of proteolytic cascade in invertebrate immune systems including the prophenoloxidase (proPO) activating system. In this study, we characterized a snake-like serine protease, namely PmSnake, from the shrimp Penaeus monodon which has previously been identified based on the subtractive cDNA library of proPO double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-treated hemocytes. An open reading frame of PmSnake contains 1068 bp encoding a predicted protein of 355 amino acid residues with a putative signal peptide of 22 amino acids and two conserved domains (N-terminal clip domain and C-terminal trypsin-like serine proteinase domain). Sequence analysis revealed that PmSnake was closest to the AeSnake from ant Acromyrmex echinatior (53% similarity), but was quite relatively distant from other shrimp PmclipSPs. PmSnake transcript was mainly expressed in shrimp hemocytes and up-regulated after systemic Vibrio harveyi infection indicating that it is an immune-responsive gene. Suppression of PmSnake expression by dsRNA interference reduced both transcript and protein levels leading to a reduction of the hemolymph phenoloxidase (PO) activity (36%), compared to the control, suggesting that the PmSnake functions as a clip-SP in shrimp proPO system. Western blot analysis using anti-PmSnake showed that the PmSnake was detected in hemocytes but not in cell-free plasma. In vitro PO activity and serine proteinase activity assays showed that adding rPmSnake into the shrimp hemolymph could increase PO activity as well as serine proteinase activity suggesting that the rPmSnake activates the proPO system via serine proteinase cascade. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Use of Streptomyces fradiae and Bacillus megaterium as probiotics in the experimental culture of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (Crustacea, Penaeidae

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    Sheikh Aftabuddin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp hatcheries often beset with diseases, mainly the bacterial infection and antibiotics arewidely used for prevention of disease. Presently, beneficial bacteria (probiotics are used to preventdiseases instead of antibiotics and increasing the production. In the present study, the two new microbialstrains Bacillus megaterium and Streptomyces fradiae isolated from mangrove sediments were applied(experimental culture for the post larval rearing of Penaeus monodon which is compared with controlculture tanks (without probiotics. The water quality condition such as temperature (27-29oC, salinity(26-28‰ and dissolved oxygen (4.7-5.0 mg L-1 of both control and experimental culture were more orless similar. Concentration of ammonia and pH were significantly different (p<0.05 between the controland experimental culture during the study period. The feed assimilation efficiency is higher (above 80%in experimental culture tank when compared to control tank (74.76%. The growth rate was higher -1.70 and 1.67 in S. fradiae, 1.66 and 1.63 in B. megaterium - through feed and water, respectively,while in control tank it was 1.4. The FCR values were 2.06 and 2.12 in S. fradiae treated tanks throughfeed and water, respectively, while 2.51 and 2.55 were observed in B. megaterium treated through feedand water respectively. The FCR value was found higher (4.02 in the control tank. The average totalheterotrophic bacteria (THB and total presumptive Vibrio bacteria both in culture water and post larvaewere lower during experimental culture in compared to control culture. The present study indicates thatthe probiotic treatment using two new microbial strains such as B. megaterium and S. fradiae would helpin better aquaculture production.

  18. Revealing localization and regulation of GTPase PmRab7 in lymphoid cells ofPenaeus monodon after WSSV infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amrendra Kumar; Vaishnavi Ramasubbu; Kiran D Rasal; Saravanankumar Ayyappan

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To identify white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) entry into the host-cells of the cultured shrimpPenaeus monodon, we have attempted to localize PmRab7 (Ras-related in brain) which is playing a vital role in theWSSV internalization. Methods:In this study, we have cloned PmRab7 and expressed inEscherichia coli, further purified rPmRab7 was used for antibody production, isolation of lysosomal sub-cellular fractions and western blot against lysosomal protein. Moreover, high fold-change in PmRab7 regulation with increasing copy number ofWSSV has been studied by using real-timePCR. Results: 651 bp amplicon size gene was successfully amplified, ligated amplicon with pTZ T-tail vector confirmed by colonyPCR and retriction enzyme digestion on agarose gel. Subcloned (pRSET-B) 651 bp gene transformed successfully inRosetta and after 6 h of induction expressed rPmRab7 was onSDS page, furthermore soluble fraction of rPmRab7 (26 kDa) was purified by ni-NTA column. AntiPmRab7 antibody was received by Merk Pvt. Ltd., and western blot analysis revealed that PmRab7 is present in the lysosomal sub-cellular fraction. Copy number ofWSSV was increased 5 fold in 24 h and 20 fold in 72 h of infection and subsequently transcrtipt of PmRab7 was Ct = 1.0 to Ct = 8.5. Conclusions: Presence of PmRab7 on lysosome clearly indicating PmRab7 participating in lysosomal maturation, other handWSSV may follow the same route of entry.WSSV internalization has directly linked with regulation of PmRab7.

  19. Gene expression profiling in gill tissues of White spot syndrome virus infected black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon by DNA microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar, M S; Gomathi, A; Gopikrishna, G; Ponniah, A G

    2015-06-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) continues to be the most devastating viral pathogen infecting penaeid shrimp the world over. The genome of WSSV has been deciphered and characterized from three geographical isolates and significant progress has been made in developing various molecular diagnostic methods to detect the virus. However, the information on host immune gene response to WSSV pathogenesis is limited. Microarray analysis was carried out as an approach to analyse the gene expression in black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon in response to WSSV infection. Gill tissues collected from the WSSV infected shrimp at 6, 24, 48 h and moribund stage were analysed for differential gene expression. Shrimp cDNAs of 40,059 unique sequences were considered for designing the microarray chip. The Cy3-labeled cRNA derived from healthy and WSSV-infected shrimp was subjected to hybridization with all the DNA spots in the microarray which revealed 8,633 and 11,147 as up- and down-regulated genes respectively at different time intervals post infection. The altered expression of these numerous genes represented diverse functions such as immune response, osmoregulation, apoptosis, nucleic acid binding, energy and metabolism, signal transduction, stress response and molting. The changes in gene expression profiles observed by microarray analysis provides molecular insights and framework of genes which are up- and down-regulated at different time intervals during WSSV infection in shrimp. The microarray data was validated by Real Time analysis of four differentially expressed genes involved in apoptosis (translationally controlled tumor protein, inhibitor of apoptosis protein, ubiquitin conjugated enzyme E2 and caspase) for gene expression levels. The role of apoptosis related genes in WSSV infected shrimp is discussed herein.

  20. OPTIMISATION OF SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION OF ASTAXANTHIN FROM PENAEUS MONODON WASTE USING ETHANOL-MODIFIED CARBON DIOXIDE

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    SHAZANA A. RADZALI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Some studies demonstrated that astaxanthin surpasses the antioxidant benefits of beta-carotene, zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin, vitamin C, and vitamin E. Penaeus monodon (Tiger shrimp is one of the most valuable traded crustacean products in which astaxanthin can be found in its by-products. The extraction of thermolabile compound like carotenoids at lower temperatures through supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 can reduce the potential isomerization and degradation of the extraction product. In this study, astaxanthin had been extracted using SC-CO2 with 15% (v/v ethanol as an entrainer and the recovered astaxanthin was analyzed using High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. A central composite design (CCD was employed to study the effect of three SC-CO2 parameters namely temperature (X1 from 40 to 80°C, pressure (X2 from 150 to 250 bar and extraction flow rate (X3 from 1 to 3 ml/min on the astaxanthin complex yield, (Y1 and free astaxanthin content, (Y2. The nonlinear regression equations were significantly (p0.9261, which had no indication of lack of fit. The results indicated that a combined set of values of temperature (56.88°C, pressure (215.68 bar and extraction flow rate (1.89 ml/min was predicted to provide the optimum region in terms of astaxanthin complex yield, (58.50 ± 2.62 µg/g and free astaxanthin content (12.20 ± 4.16 µg/g studied.

  1. Revealing localization and regulation of GTPase PmRab7 in lymphoid cells of Penaeus monodon after WSSV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrendra Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify white spot syndrome virus (WSSV entry into the host-cells of the cultured shrimp Penaeus monodon, we have attempted to localize PmRab7 (Ras-related in brain which is playing a vital role in the WSSV internalization. Methods: In this study, we have cloned PmRab7 and expressed in Escherichia coli, further purified rPmRab7 was used for antibody production, isolation of lysosomal sub-cellular fractions and western blot against lysosomal protein. Moreover, high fold-change in PmRab7 regulation with increasing copy number of WSSV has been studied by using real-time PCR. Results: 651 bp amplicon size gene was successfully amplified, ligated amplicon with pTZ T-tail vector confirmed by colony PCR and retriction enzyme digestion on agarose gel. Subcloned (pRSET-B 651 bp gene transformed successfully in Rosetta and after 6 h of induction expressed rPmRab7 was on SDS page, furthermore soluble fraction of rPmRab7 (26 kDa was purified by ni-NTA column. AntiPmRab7 antibody was received by Merk Pvt. Ltd., and western blot analysis revealed that PmRab7 is present in the lysosomal sub-cellular fraction. Copy number of WSSV was increased 5 fold in 24 h and 20 fold in 72 h of infection and subsequently transcrtipt of PmRab7 was Ct = 1.0 to Ct = 8.5. Conclusions: Presence of PmRab7 on lysosome clearly indicating PmRab7 participating in lysosomal maturation, other hand WSSV may follow the same route of entry. WSSV internalization has directly linked with regulation of PmRab7.

  2. Molecular cloning, expression and functional analysis of three subunits of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) from black tiger shrimps (Penaeus monodon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chao; Wang, Yan; Fu, Mingjun; Yang, Keng; Qiu, Lihua

    2017-02-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a cellular serine-threonine (Ser/Thr) phosphatase that plays a crucial role in regulating most cellular functions. In the present study, the full-length cDNAs of three subunits of PmPP2A (PmPP2A-A, PP2A-B and PP2A-C) were cloned from Penaeus monodon, which are the first available for shrimps. Sequence analysis showed that PmPP2A-A, PmPP2A-B and PmPP2A-C encoded polypeptides of 591, 443, and 324 amino acids, respectively. The mRNAs of three subunits of PmPP2A were expressed constitutively in all tissues examined, and predominantly in the ovaries. In ovarian maturation stages, the three subunits of PmPP2A were continuously but differentially expressed. Dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine injection experiments were conducted to study the expression profile of three subunits of PmPP2A, and the results indicated that PmPP2A played a negative regulatory role in the process of ovarian maturation. In addition, the recombinant proteins of three subunits of PmPP2A were successfully obtained, and the phosphatase activity of PmPP2A was tested in vitro. The results of this study will advance our understanding about the molecular mechanisms of PmPP2A in Penaeus monodon.

  3. Caracterización de agregaciones de langostino colorado (Pleuroncodes monodon y langostino amarillo (Cervimunida johni mediante un sistema de filmación remolcado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Ahumada

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Para caracterizar agregaciones de langostino colorado (Pleuroncodes monodon y langostino amarillo (Cervimunida johni, se utilizó un sistema de filmación remolcado sobre fondos marinos situados en la región de Coquimbo, Chile. Las filmaciones fueron realizadas en 2009 y 2010, a profundidades variables entre 102 y 215 m, a partir de las cuales se estimaron densidades medias por filmación entre 3 y 63 ind m-2 para P. monodon y entre 0,2 y 2,8 ind m-2 para C. johni. Igualmente, se registró la presencia de parejas de C. johni en julio de 2009 (~200 m de profundidad, presumiblemente en proceso de apareamiento. Los resultados indicaron que el sistema de filmación remolcado es un medio efectivo de registro de ejemplares de ambas especies, permitiendo tanto la caracterización cuantitativa del stock sobre el fondo, como la observación de su comportamiento y hábitat. El sistema tiene perspectivas de uso en la evaluación directa de abundancia y en la caracterización del hábitat tanto en términos bióticos como abióticos.

  4. White spot syndrome virus isolates of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (Fabricious) in India are similar to exotic isolates as revealed by polymerase chain reaction and electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, S S; Shekhar, M S

    2005-07-01

    Microbiological analysis of samples collected from cases of white spot disease outbreaks in cultured shrimp in different farms located in three regions along East Coast of India viz. Chidambram (Tamil Nadu), Nellore (Andhra Pradesh) and Balasore (Orissa), revealed presence of Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Aeromonas spp. but experimental infection trials in Penaeus monodon with these isolates did not induce any acute mortality or formation of white spots on carapace. Infection trials using filtered tissue extracts by oral and injection method induced mortality in healthy P. monodon with all samples and 100% mortality was noted by the end of 7 day post-inoculation. Histopathological analysis demonstrated degenerated cells characterized by hypertrophied nuclei in gills, hepatopancreas and lymphoid organ with presence of intranuclear basophilic or eosino-basophilic bodies in tubular cells and intercellular spaces. Analysis of samples using 3 different primer sets as used by other for detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) generated 643, 1447 and 520bp amplified DNA products in all samples except in one instance. Variable size virions with mean size in the range of 110 x 320 +/- 20 nm were observed under electron microscope. It could be concluded that the viral isolates in India involved with white spot syndrome in cultured shrimp are similar to RV-PJ and SEMBV in Japan, WSBV in Taiwan and WSSV in Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, China and Japan.

  5. Expression profile of bio-defense genes in Penaeus monodon gills in response to formalin inactivated white spot syndrome virus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudheer, N S; Poulose, Gigi; Thomas, Ancy; Viswanath, Kiron; Kulkarni, Amod; Narayanan, R B; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, I S Bright

    2015-05-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most devastating pathogen of penaeid shrimp. While developing technology to vaccinate shrimp against WSSV, it is imperative to look into the immune response of the animal at molecular level. However, very little information has been generated in this direction. The present study is an attempt to understand the expression of bio-defense genes in gill tissues of Penaeus monodon in response to formalin inactivated WSSV. A WSSV vaccine with a viral titer of 1×10(9) DNA copies was prepared and orally administered to P. monodon at a rate of 1.75×10(6) DNA copies of inactivated virus preparation (IVP) day(-1) for 7days. The animals were challenged with WSSV on 1st and 5th day post vaccination, and temporal expression of bio-defense genes in gill tissues was studied. Survival of 100% and 50% were observed respectively on 1st and 5th day post vaccination challenge. The humoral immune genes prophenoloxidase (proPO), alpha 2-macroglobulin (α2M), crustin and PmRACK, and the cell mediated immune genes caspase and Rab7 were up regulated in gill tissue upon vaccination and challenge. The expression of humoral gene crustin and cellular gene Rab7 was related to survival in IVP administered shrimp. Results of the study suggest that these genes have roles in protecting shrimp from WSSV on vaccination.

  6. Osmo and ionic regulation of black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon Fabricius 1798) juveniles exposed to K(+) deficient inland saline water at different salinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantulo, Uras; Fotedar, Ravi

    2007-02-01

    An 11-day trial was conducted to investigate the osmoregulatory capacity (OC) and regulation of K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) of Penaeus monodon juveniles when exposed to K(+) deficient inland saline water (ISW) of four different salinities (5, 15, 25 and 35 ppt). The survival of juveniles showed a positive linear relationship (R(2) ranging from 0.72 to 0.98) with salinity. At the end of the trial, juveniles were able to survive only in 5 ppt of ISW and showed no changes in OC when transferred from ocean water (OW) to ISW. Further, the OC of juveniles in 5 ppt of ISW was significantly different (Pjuveniles exposed to 15, 25 and 35 ppt and exhibited strong serum K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) regulation monitored over 16 h. In contrast, at 35 ppt, significant decrease (Pjuveniles, which in turn causes decrease in the OC of the juveniles. The results of this study suggest that K(+) deficiency in ISW has a negative effect on survival, OC and the ability of P. monodon juveniles to regulate serum Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) concentrations. These effects are compounded as salinity increases.

  7. GENETIC STATUS, SOURCE AND ESTABLISHMENT RISK OF THE GIANT TIGER SHRIMP (PENAEIDAE: Penaeus monodon, AN INVASIVE SPECIES IN COLOMBIAN CARIBBEAN WATERS

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    J.C. AGUIRRE-PABÓN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon is an Indo-Pacific species. Its global production between 1970 and 1980 exceeded all other shrimp species, which favored its introduction and cultivation outside its natural range in several countries of Africa, Europe, USA and South America. It is currently found in the coast of the Atlantic Ocean (Mexico, United States, Puerto Rico, Brazil, Guyana, Venezuela and Colombia. Despite the risk involved, no studies have been conducted to evaluate their impact as a possible invasive species and their genetic condition. This study evaluated the genetic status and population origin of P. monodon in the northernmost Colombian Caribbean, analyzing the mitochondrial DNA control region (mtDNA-CR. 16 individuals were randomly collected from Golfo de Salamanca and 342 original Indo-Pacific sequences were obtained from GenBank. Parameters of genetic diversity and genetic relationships were analyzed. There were a total of 358 sequences compared and 303 haplotypes identified. Three haplotypes were identified in the Colombian population. This results showed lower genetic diversity compared with Indo-Pacific populations. These haplotypes were closely related to those found in samples from the Philippines and Taiwan. We discuss the need to create a regional network to characterize the established populations in the Great Caribbean, with the purpose of inferring colonization processes and the establishment of management measures.Estado genético, origen y riesgo de establecimiento del camarón tigre gigante (Penaeidae: Penaeus monodon, una especie inavasora en aguas del Caribe colombianoEl camarón tigre (Penaeus monodon es una especie del Indo-Pacífico. Su producción mundial entre 1970 y 1980 superó todas las otras especies de camarón, lo que favoreció su introducción y cultivo fuera del área de distribución natural en varios países de África, Europa, EE.UU. y América del Sur. Actualmente se encuentra en la costa del

  8. X-Box Binding Protein-1 in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    maintains bone density (agonist) and increases the risk of endometrial carcinomas (agonist) (2). Newer antiestrogens include the “pure antagonist” ICI...tumor if biologically available for receptor binding (Clarke et al., 2001). Although ovariectomy has been used to treat premenopausal women for over...antiestrogen is competition with estrogen for binding to the ER. Since the first report that ovariectomy led to a reduction in breast tumor mass in premenopausal

  9. Main: 1VOK [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1 Name=Tbp1; Orderedlocusnames=At3g13445; Orfnames=Mrp15.10; Arabidopsis Thaliana Molecule: Tata-Box-Binding Protein; Chai...SNPVDLSKHPSGIVPTLQNIVSTVNLDCKLDLKAIALQARNAEYNPKRFAAVIMRIREPKTTALIFASGKMVCTGAKSEDFSKMAARKYARIVQKLGFPAKFKDFKIQ

  10. Facies volcánicas del depósito de avalancha de detritos del volcán Tata Sabaya, Andes Centrales Volcanic facies of the debris avalanche deposit of Tata Sabaya Volcano, Central Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benigno Godoy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Las avalanchas de detritos, asociadas a colapsos parciales de edificios volcánicos, son fenómenos comunes en la evolución de un volcán. Este tipo de flujos son por inestabilidades, que pueden deberse a factores tales como la existencia de zonas afectadas por alteración hidrotermal, cambios climáticos, terremotos, intrusión de magmas en zonas superficiales (criptodomos y/o diques y/o movimiento de fallas bajo el edificio volcánico o cercanas a él. El producto final de estos flujos -denominado depósito de avalancha de detritos (DAD- presenta morfologías típicas de cerrillos y drenajes cerrados. En los Andes Centrales se han reconocido, al menos, 14 centros volcánicos con depósitos de avalancha asociados, entre los que está el volcán Tata Sabaya (Bolivia. El colapso que ha dado origen a este depósito podría haberse generado por una combinación de actividad sísmica y magmática en el volcán. El depósito asociado al colapso parcial de este volcán se distribuye sobre la parte baja del flanco sur del volcán y sobre la parte noroccidental de la cuenca del salar de Coipasa. Cubre una superficie de más de 230 km² y tiene un volumen estimado de 6±1 km³. Sobre la base de las composiciones litológicas, se ha establecido que el depósito está constituido por 6 tipos distintos de cerrillos, los cuales son: lávicos, piroclásticos, sedimentarios mixtos, brecha piroclástica y andesítico-basálticos. Considerando el tipo predominante de cerrillos y su distribución espacial dentro del depósito, se ha definido 6 facies diferentes (Facies de Bloques Toreva, Facies de Cerrillos Volcánicos, Facies Central, Facies de Cerrillos Sedimentarios, Facies Mixta y Facies de Cerrillos de Brecha Piroclástica. Tomando en cuenta la distribución espacial de estas facies, se propone la estructura del paleovolcán previa a su colapso parcial.Debris avalanches associated with partial sector collapse of volcanic edifices are common phenomena in the

  11. Development of SYBR Green and TaqMan quantitative real-time PCR assays for hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) infecting Penaeus monodon in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Reena; Paria, Anutosh; Mankame, Smruti; Makesh, M; Chaudhari, Aparna; Rajendran, K V

    2015-12-01

    Hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) infects Penaeus monodon and causes mortality in the larval stages. Further, it has been implicated in the growth retardation in cultured P. monodon. Though different geographical isolates of HPV show large sequence variations, a sensitive PCR assay specific to Indian isolate has not yet been reported. Here, we developed a sensitive SYBR Green-based and TaqMan real-time PCR for the detection and quantification of the virus. A 441-bp PCR amplicon was cloned in pTZ57 R/T vector and the plasmid copy number was estimated. A 10-fold serial dilution of the plasmid DNA from 1 × 10(9) copies to 1 copy was prepared and used as the standard. The primers were tested initially using the standard on a conventional PCR format to determine the linearity of detection. The standards were further tested on real-time PCR format using SYBR Green and TaqMan chemistry and standard curves were generated based on the Ct values from three well replicates for each dilution. The assays were found to be sensitive, specific and reproducible with a wide dynamic range (1 × 10(9) to 10 copies) with coefficient of regression (R(2)) > 0.99, calculated average slope -3.196 for SYBR Green assay whereas, for TaqMan assay it was >0.99 and -3.367, respectively. The intra- and inter-assay variance of the Ct values ranged from 0.26% to 0.94% and 0.12% to 0.81%, respectively, for SYBR Green assay, and the inter-assay variance of the Ct values for TaqMan assay ranged from 0.07% to 1.93%. The specificity of the assays was proved by testing other DNA viruses of shrimp such as WSSV, IHHNV and MBV. Standardized assays were further tested to detect and quantify HPV in the post-larvae of P. monodon. The result was further compared with conventional PCR to test the reproducibility of the test. The assay was also used to screen Litopeneaus vannamei, Macrobrachium rosenbergii and Scylla serrata for HPV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Transcriptional activation requires protection of the TATA-binding protein Tbp1 by the ubiquitin-specific protease Ubp3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Boon Shang; Siew, Wee Leng; Xiao, Benjamin; Lehming, Norbert

    2010-11-01

    Tbp1, the TATA-binding protein, is essential for transcriptional activation, and Gal4 and Gcn4 are unable to fully activate transcription in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae TBP1E86D mutant strain. In the present study we have shown that the Tbp1E186D mutant protein is proteolytically instable, and we have isolated intragenic and extragenic suppressors of the transcription defects of the TBP1E186D mutant strain. The TBP1R6S mutation stabilizes the Tbp1E186D mutant protein and suppresses the defects of the TBP1E186D mutant strain. Furthermore, we found that the overexpression of the de-ubiquitinating enzyme Ubp3 (ubiquitin-specific protease 3) also stabilizes the Tbp1E186D mutant protein and suppresses of the defects of the TBP1E186D mutant strain. Importantly, the deletion of UBP3 and its cofactor BRE5 lead to increased degradation of wild-type Tbp1 protein and to defects in transcriptional activation by Gal4 and Gcn4. Purified GST (glutathione transferase)-Ubp3 reversed Tbp1 ubiquitination, and the deletion of UBP3 lead to the accumulation of poly-ubiquitinated species of Tbp1 in a proteaseome-deficient genetic background, demonstrating that Ubp3 reverses ubiquitination of Tbp1 in vitro and in vivo. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that Ubp3 was recruited to the GAL1 and HIS3 promoters upon the induction of the respective gene, indicating that protection of promoter-bound Tbp1 by Ubp3 is required for transcriptional activation.

  13. The effects of temperature and oxygen availability on intracapsular development of Acanthina monodon (Gastropoda: Muricidae El efecto de la temperatura y la disponibilidad de oxígeno sobre el desarrollo intracapsular de Acanthina monodon (Gastropoda: Muricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRIAM FERNÁNDEZ

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater and marine organisms show similar models of parental care and are faced with similar constraints to brood, which suggest that comparable environmental limits drive the evolution of parental care in aquatic systems. In fact, the low diffusion coefficient and solubility of oxygen in aquatic environments affect oxygen acquisition and therefore the capacity to aggregate embryos. The effect of other critical environmental variables, such as temperature, is less clear. We assessed the effects of temperature and oxygen availability on (1 the number of developed and undeveloped encapsulated embryos, (2 the proportion of embryos reaching advanced stages during intracapsular development (counting not only developed and undeveloped embryos but also abnormal embryos, (3 asynchrony in development (estimated only in capsules in which development occurred, and (4 final embryo size, as the first step toward identifying the main factors constraining parental care in the ocean. We used the gastropod Acanthina monodon as a model because it has an extended latitudinal range of distribution and exhibits feeding larvae during intracapsular development. The latter factor is relevant because previous studies have suggested that sibling cannibalism could be triggered by intracapsular competition for oxygen. Freshly laid egg capsules were collected and incubated until embryos hatched under different experimental temperatures (7, 11, 15 and 19 °C and oxygen conditions (hypoxia: 50-60 % air saturation; normoxia; and hyperoxia: 150-160 %. More embryos remained in early stages at the end of the experimental period under hypoxia and at the highest experimental temperature. The mean number of developed embryos was significantly lower under hypoxia conditions than under normoxia and hyperoxia, but was not influenced by temperature. However, temperature negatively affected embryo size of developed embryos and the level of asynchrony (number of different developmental

  14. PENGEMBANGAN PROGRAM VRML (VIRTUAL REALITY MODELLING LANGUAGE UNTUK E-LEARNING BERBASIS WEB TERINTEGRASI DALAM PHP-MySQL MATA KULIAH ILMU PENGETAHUAN BUMI DAN ANTARIKSA POKOK BAHASAN SISTEM TATA SURYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azwar Anas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pemahaman tentang fenomena sistem tata surya  membutuhkan daya imaginasi yang cukup. Hal ini merupakan salah satu kesulitan dalam memahami materi tentang sistem tata surya, sehingga diperlukan adanya visualisasi untuk membantu mengatasi kesulitan tersebut. Salah satu visualisasi adalah dengan menggunakan program visualisasi 3D. Pembuatan program diawali dengan identifikasi masalah dan persiapan perangkat lunak. Dalam hal ini program yang digunakan adalah VRML(Virtual Reality Modelling Language. Pelaksanaan pembuatan program dimulai dengan memodelkan gejala-gejala fisis yang terkait dengan fenomena sistem tata surya. Bahasa pemrograman VRML hanya mampu melakukan perhitungan dasar yang sangat sederhana. Untuk perhitungan data yang kompleks digunakan bantuan Microsoft Office Excel. Data yang dihasilkan dari perhitungan menggunakan Microsoft Office Excel kemudian dimasukkan ke dalam list program VRML. Hasil penelitian berupa pemodelan sistem tata surya yang diintergrasikan dalam e-learning berbasis web. Untuk menampilkan hasil program ini digunakan browser Cortona VRML player. Tampilan 3D yang dihasilkan menarik dan interaktif. User dapat mengamati model 3D dari berbagai sudut pengamatan dengan menggunakan toolbar yang tersedia pada browser. Kata kunci : VRML, visualisasi 3D, sistem tata surya

  15. PENGEMBANGAN PROGRAM VRML (VIRTUAL REALITY MODELLING LANGUAGE UNTUK E-LEARNING BERBASIS WEB TERINTEGRASI DALAM PHP-MySQL MATA KULIAH ILMU PENGETAHUAN BUMI DAN ANTARIKSA POKOK BAHASAN SISTEM TATA SURYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azwar Anas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pemahaman tentang fenomena sistem tata surya  membutuhkan daya imaginasi yang cukup. Hal ini merupakan salah satu kesulitan dalam memahami materi tentang sistem tata surya, sehingga diperlukan adanya visualisasi untuk membantu mengatasi kesulitan tersebut. Salah satu visualisasi adalah dengan menggunakan program visualisasi 3D. Pembuatan program diawali dengan identifikasi masalah dan persiapan perangkat lunak. Dalam hal ini program yang digunakan adalah VRML(Virtual Reality Modelling Language. Pelaksanaan pembuatan program dimulai dengan memodelkan gejala-gejala fisis yang terkait dengan fenomena sistem tata surya. Bahasa pemrograman VRML hanya mampu melakukan perhitungan dasar yang sangat sederhana. Untuk perhitungan data yang kompleks digunakan bantuan Microsoft Office Excel. Data yang dihasilkan dari perhitungan menggunakan Microsoft Office Excel kemudian dimasukkan ke dalam list program VRML. Hasil penelitian berupa pemodelan sistem tata surya yang diintergrasikan dalam e-learning berbasis web. Untuk menampilkan hasil program ini digunakan browser Cortona VRML player. Tampilan 3D yang dihasilkan menarik dan interaktif. User dapat mengamati model 3D dari berbagai sudut pengamatan dengan menggunakan toolbar yang tersedia pada browser. Kata kunci : VRML, visualisasi 3D, sistem tata surya

  16. GENETIC STATUS, SOURCE AND ESTABLISHMENT RISK OF THE GIANT TIGER SHRIMP (PENAEIDAE: Penaeus monodon), AN INVASIVE SPECIES IN COLOMBIAN CARIBBEAN WATERS

    OpenAIRE

    AGUIRRE-PABÓN, J.C.; G. Jr. OROZCO BERDUGO; NARVÁEZ BARANDICA, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    El camarón tigre ( Penaeus monodon ) es una especie del Indo-Pacífico. Su producción mundial entre 1970 y 1980 superó todas las otras especies de camarón, lo que favoreció su introducción y cultivo fuera del área de distribución natural en varios países de África, Europa, EE.UU. y América del Sur. Actualmente se encuentra en la costa del Océano Atlántico (México, Estados Unidos, Puerto Rico, Brasil, Guyana, Venezuela y Colombia). A pesar del riesgo que implica, no se han realizado estudios pa...

  17. Expression profile of key immune-related genes in Penaeus monodon juveniles after oral administration of recombinant envelope protein VP28 of white spot syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ancy; Sudheer, Naduvilamuriparampu Saidumuhammed; Kiron, Viswanath; Bright Singh, Issac S; Narayanan, Rangarajan Badri

    2016-07-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most catastrophic pathogen the shrimp industry has ever encountered. VP28, the abundant envelope protein of WSSV was expressed in bacteria, the purified protein administered orally to Penaeus monodon juveniles and its immune modulatory effects examined. The results indicated significant up-regulation of caspase, penaeidin, crustin, astakine, syntenin, PmRACK, Rab7, STAT and C-type lectin in animals orally administered with this antigen. This revealed the immune modulations in shrimps followed by oral administration of rVP28P which resulted in the reduced transcription of viral gene vp28 and delay in mortality after WSSV challenge. The study suggests the potential of rVP28P to elicit a non-specific immune stimulation in shrimps.

  18. The effect of choline and cystine on the utilisation of methionine for protein accretion, remethylation and trans-sulfuration in juvenile shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Lenaïg; Vachot, Christiane; Surget, Anne; Rigolet, Vincent; Kaushik, Sadasivam J; Geurden, Inge

    2011-09-01

    This 35-d feeding experiment examined in juvenile shrimp Penaeus monodon (3·3 g initial body weight) the effects of methionine (Met), choline and cystine on protein accretion and the activity of two key enzymes of remethylation (betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase; BHMT) and trans-sulfuration (cystathionine β-synthase; CBS). The interaction between Met and choline was tested using semi-purified diets either adequate or limiting (30 or 50 %) in total sulphur amino acid (SAA) content with a constant cystine:Met ratio. The diets contained either basal or excess choline (3 v. 7 g/kg feed). Cystine was added to two other 30 and 50 % Met-limiting diets to adjust the SAA supply to that of the control diet in order to evaluate the interaction between Met and cystine. As expected, N accretion was significantly lower with the SAA-limiting diets but increased back to control levels by the extra choline or cystine, demonstrating their sparing effect on Met utilisation for protein accretion. We show, for the first time, the activities of BHMT and CBS in shrimp hepatopancreas. Only BHMT responded to the SAA deficiencies, whereas the extra choline and cystine did not stimulate remethylation or down-regulate trans-sulfuration. Our data also suggest the capacity of P. monodon to synthesise taurine, being significantly affected by the cystine level in the 30 % SAA-limiting diets. Further research is warranted to better understand the metabolic regulation of taurine synthesis in shrimp and of the observed Met-sparing effects.

  19. The novel white spot syndrome virus-induced gene, PmERP15, encodes an ER stress-responsive protein in black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, Jiann-Horng; Liu, Kuan-Fu; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Chen, Shu-Hwa; Wang, Yu-Bin; Lin, Chung-Yen; Lo, Chu-Fang

    2015-04-01

    By microarray screening, we identified a white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-strongly induced novel gene in gills of Penaeus monodon. The gene, PmERP15, encodes a putative transmembrane protein of 15 kDa, which only showed some degree of similarity (54-59%) to several unknown insect proteins, but had no hits to shrimp proteins. RT-PCR showed that PmERP15 was highly expressed in the hemocytes, heart and lymphoid organs, and that WSSV-induced strong expression of PmERP15 was evident in all tissues examined. Western blot analysis likewise showed that WSSV strongly up-regulated PmERP15 protein levels. In WSSV-infected hemocytes, immunofluorescence staining showed that PmERP15 protein was colocalized with an ER enzyme, protein disulfide isomerase, and in Sf9 insect cells, PmERP15-EGFP fusion protein colocalized with ER -Tracker™ Red dye as well. GRP78, an ER stress marker, was found to be up-regulated in WSSV-infected P. monodon, and both PmERP15 and GRP78 were up-regulated in shrimp injected with ER stress inducers tunicamycin and dithiothreitol. Silencing experiments showed that although PmERP15 dsRNA-injected shrimp succumbed to WSSV infection more rapidly, the WSSV copy number had no significant changes. These results suggest that PmERP15 is an ER stress-induced, ER resident protein, and its induction in WSSV-infected shrimp is caused by the ER stress triggered by WSSV infection. Furthermore, although PmERP15 has no role in WSSV multiplication, its presence is essential for the survival of WSSV-infected shrimp.

  20. X盒结合蛋白1反应产物在局灶性脑缺血后内源性神经干细胞增殖过程中的作用%Effect of X box-binding protein 1 on the proliferation of endogenous neural stem cells after focal cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢雪松; 吕威力

    2011-01-01

    背景:细胞核转录因子X盒结合蛋白1在中枢神经系统发育中表达,对神经元的增殖都有很重要的作用.目的:检测细胞核转录因子X盒结合蛋白1在大鼠脑缺血再灌注海马组织神经干细胞中的表达及碱性成纤维细胞生长因子的干预作用.方法:采用大脑中动脉栓塞制作大鼠脑缺血再灌注模型.大鼠随机分为对照组、缺血再灌注组、碱性成纤维细胞生长因子组,免疫组织化学法检测海马神经干细胞BrdU、X盒结合蛋白1的表达及碱性成纤维细胞生长因子的干预作用.结果与结论:脑缺血再灌注第3天缺血海马神经元BrdU阳性细胞明显增多,第7天达高峰.X盒结合蛋白1反应产物第3天较对照组增多,随缺血再灌注时间的延长逐渐增多,第7天达高峰,以后表达逐渐减少.说明碱性成纤维细胞生长因子促进神经干细胞的增殖及缺血脑组织X盒结合蛋白1的表达,其促进神经干细胞增殖作用可能由X盒结合蛋白1信号介导.%BACKGROUND: Nuclear transcription factor X box-binding protein 1 (Xbp1) is expressed during the development of the cental nervous system, and plays an important role in neurons cell proliferation.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of nuclear transcription factor Xbp1 in neural stem cells of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion hippocampal tissue and the inhibition effects of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). METHODS: A novel model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion was established with the method of middle cerebral artery occlusionin rats. The rate were divided into control group, ischemia/reperfusion group and bFGF group. The expression of BrdU and Xbp1 and the inhibition effect of bFGF in hippocampal neural stem cells were detected with immunohstochemical method. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: After 3 days. BrdU positive cells in the hippocampus were obviously increased. To the 7hday. BrdU positive cells were more than those at any time. At 3 days. Xbp1

  1. Candidate SNP Markers of Chronopathologies Are Predicted by a Significant Change in the Affinity of TATA-Binding Protein for Human Gene Promoters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Ponomarenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Variations in human genome (e.g., single nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs may be associated with hereditary diseases, their complications, comorbidities, and drug responses. Using Web service SNP_TATA_Comparator presented in our previous paper, here we analyzed immediate surroundings of known SNP markers of diseases and identified several candidate SNP markers that can significantly change the affinity of TATA-binding protein for human gene promoters, with circadian consequences. For example, rs572527200 may be related to asthma, where symptoms are circadian (worse at night, and rs367732974 may be associated with heart attacks that are characterized by a circadian preference (early morning. By the same method, we analyzed the 90 bp proximal promoter region of each protein-coding transcript of each human gene of the circadian clock core. This analysis yielded 53 candidate SNP markers, such as rs181985043 (susceptibility to acute Q fever in male patients, rs192518038 (higher risk of a heart attack in patients with diabetes, and rs374778785 (emphysema and lung cancer in smokers. If they are properly validated according to clinical standards, these candidate SNP markers may turn out to be useful for physicians (to select optimal treatment for each patient and for the general population (to choose a lifestyle preventing possible circadian complications of diseases.

  2. Dietary values of astaxanthin and canthaxanthin in Penaeus monodon in the presence and absence of cholesterol supplementation: effect on growth, nutrient digestibility and tissue carotenoid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Jin; Li, Chun-Hou; Liu, Yong-Jian; Tian, Li-Xia; Chen, Xu; Huang, Zhong; Lin, Hei-Zhao

    2012-07-14

    Penaeus monodon (mean initial wet weight 1·19 (SE 0·01) g) were fed seven diets in triplicate: a control diet (D1) without carotenoids; three diets formulated to supply 0·1 % astaxanthin alone (D2), 0·2 % astaxanthin alone (D3), and a combination of 0·1 % astaxanthin and 1 % cholesterol (D4); three diets with 0·07 % canthaxanthin alone (D5), 0·13 % canthaxanthin alone (D6), and a combination of 0·07 % canthaxanthin and 1 % cholesterol (D7). Weight gain (WG, %), specific growth rate (SGR, %/d) and survival were chosen as parameters of shrimp growth performance. Total antioxidant status (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were chosen as indices of shrimp plasma antioxidant capacity. Meanwhile, digestibility, retention efficiency and tissue carotenoids were also investigated to determine the additive effect of cholesterol on the efficiency of astaxanthin and canthaxanthin. After 74 d rearing, WG and SGR of shrimp fed D2-D4 and D7 were higher than those of shrimp fed D1 (P astaxanthin in D2-D4 were higher than those of canthaxanthin in D5-D7 (P astaxanthin were quite high (>98 %) in D2-D4 and no differences were found among them (P>0·05), the carotenoid retention efficiencies in the whole body, muscle and shell (D2-D3 treatments) were considerably low; however, cholesterol supplementation significantly improved the carotenoid retention efficiencies in the whole body, muscle and shell (D4 treatment). Accordingly, the addition of cholesterol also significantly enhanced the carotenoid contents of tissues. Shrimp fed supplemented carotenoid diets (D2-D7) had higher TAS and lower SOD, ALT and AST than shrimp fed D1 (P astaxanthin or canthaxanthin was higher than that of shrimp fed D1 during the stress test (P astaxanthin was better than canthaxanthin as the dietary carotenoid source in the commercial diet of P. monodon, and the supplement of cholesterol could positively enhance the efficiency of

  3. Genetic diversity of two wild Penaeus monodon broodstock populations.%斑节对虾两个野生亲虾种群遗传多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭树华; 王桂忠; 李少菁

    2011-01-01

    采用RAPD和mtDNA 16S rRNA基因序列分析方法对海南和马来西亚斑节对虾(Penaeus monodon)种群进行了遗传多样性和遗传分化研究.结果表明:15个RAPD随机引物共检测到82个位点,海南和马来西亚种群的多态位点比例分别为75.90%和76.83%,杂合度分别为0.199和0.218,遗传多样性指数分别为0.276和0.288,种群间的遗传距离为0.015;16S rRNA基因检测的种内遗传变异较低,马来西亚和海南种群的核苷酸多样性分别为0.011和0,种群之间的遗传距离为0.008;马来西亚种群比海南种群的遗传变异水平要高得多,且海南种群可能起源于马来西亚种群;进行遗传选育时可考虑引进马来西亚亲虾作为奠基群体.%By using RAPD and mtDNA 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, this paper studied the genetic diversity and differentiation of two Penaeus monodon wild broodstock populations collected from Hainan and Malaysia. Using 15 random primers, a total of 82 RAPD loci were detected. For the Hainan and Malaysia populations, the proportion of polymorphic loci was 75.90% and 76.83%, heterozygosity was 0.199 and 0.218, and genetic diversity index was 0.276 and 0. 288, respectively, and the genetic distance between the two populations was 0. 015. The genetic variation revealed by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis was low. The nucleotide diversity of the Hainan and Malaysia populations was 0. 011 and 0, respectively, and the genetic distance between the two populations was 0. 008. Phylogeographic pattern analysis indicated that Malaysia population had a higher genetic diversity than Hainan population, and the Hainan population could be derived from Malaysia population. Therefore, the broodstock imported from Malaysia could be used as the founder in genetic breeding programs.

  4. GENETIC STATUS, SOURCE AND ESTABLISHMENT RISK OF THE GIANT TIGER SHRIMP (PENAEIDAE: Penaeus monodon, AN INVASIVE SPECIES IN COLOMBIAN CARIBBEAN WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. AGUIRRE-PABÓN

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El camarón tigre ( Penaeus monodon es una especie del Indo-Pacífico. Su producción mundial entre 1970 y 1980 superó todas las otras especies de camarón, lo que favoreció su introducción y cultivo fuera del área de distribución natural en varios países de África, Europa, EE.UU. y América del Sur. Actualmente se encuentra en la costa del Océano Atlántico (México, Estados Unidos, Puerto Rico, Brasil, Guyana, Venezuela y Colombia. A pesar del riesgo que implica, no se han realizado estudios para evaluar su impacto como posible especie invasora y su condición genética. Este estudio evaluó el estado genético y el origen de la población de P. monodon en el norte del Caribe colombiano, analizando la región control del ADN mitocondrial (ADNmt-CR. 16 individuos fueron recolectados al azar del Golfo de Salamanca y 342 secuencias originales de muestras del Indo- Pacífico fueron obtenidas de GenBank. Se analizaron los parámetros de diversidad genética y las relaciones genéticas. Se analizaron un total de 358 secuencias y se identificaron 303 haplotipos. En la población de Colombia se identificaron tres haplotipos, mostrando una baja diversidad genética en comparación con las poblaciones del Indo-Pacífico. Estos haplotipos se encontraron cercanamente relacionados con secuencias obtenidas de muestras de Filipinas y Taiwán, principalmente. Se discute la necesidad de crear una red regional para caracterizar las poblaciones establecidas en el Gran Caribe, con el propósito de inferir los procesos de colonización y el establecimiento de medidas de manejo.

  5. ANALISIS TATA KELOLA OPTIMALISASI SUMBER DAYA SISTEM INFORMASI MANAJEMEN JEMBATAN TIMBANG (EDM04 BERDASARKAN KERANGKA KERJA COBIT 5 PADA DINAS PERHUBUNGAN KOMUNIKASI DAN INFORMATIKA PROVINSI JAWA TENGAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudistira Dian Hastiti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dinas Perhubungan Komunikasi dan Informatika (Dinhubkominfo Provinsi Jawa tengah sebagai perumus dan pelaksana kebijakan teknis, fasilitator, dan evaluator terkait penyelengaraan kegiatan penimbangan kendaraan bermotor melalui 16 jembatan timbang yang tersebar di wilayah provinsi jawa tengah telah mengimplementasikan sebuah system yang dipergunakan untuk kemudahan dalam menimbang kendaraan dengan mendata setiap kendaraan pada suatu system yang disebut Sistem Informasi Manajemen Jembatan Timbang (SIM JT. Masalah yang ditemukan saat ini yaitu, melihat padatnya antrian panjang kendaraan yang akan ditimbang disebabkan karena SIM JT yang belum memiliki database identitas kendaraan dan tidak dapat terpantau secara real time yang terjadi saat local server dalam keadaan down. Berdasarkan hal tersebut Dinhubkominfo berupaya mengoptimalkan kinerja SIM JT baik dari segi sumber daya manajemen manusia, TI, serta keuangan untuk meminimalkan kesalahan serta meningkatkan efektifitas pelayanan. Dari hasil studi dokumen, wawancara, dan kuesioner  berdasarkan COBIT 5 menghasilkan tingkat kapabilitas tata kelola proses optimalisasi sumer daya (EDM04 pada Dinas Perhubungan Komunikasi dan Informatika Provinsi Jawa Tengah saat ini berada di level 3 dengan status pencapaian Largely Achieved sebesar 80,18% setara dengan 3,80 dimana level 0, 1, dan 2 mencapai status Fully Achieved. Hal ini menunjukan telah mengelola dengan baik proses optimalisasi sumber daya dan diimplementasikan untuk mendukung pengerjaan proses standar dan efektif. Untuk mencapai tingkat target, Dinhubkominfo dapat melakukan strategi perbaikan dengan memperhatikan secara bertahap dari proses atribut level 1 sampai 4 Kata Kunci: Analisis Tata Kelola TI, COBIT 5, Sistem Informasi Manajemen Jembatan Timbang, Analisis Tingkat Kapabilitas, Analisis Kesenjangan.

  6. Application of Spirulina platensis for prevention of white spot syndrome virus in post larvae and juvenile black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemtanon, P.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the extract of Spirulina platensis were examined in vitro to inhibit white spot syndrome virus (WSSV and application of dry S. platensis in diet for prevention of white spot syndrome (WSS in post larvae and juvenile black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon. The results showed that the lowest concentration of the extract for inhibiting WSSV was 0.01 mg/ml, while the optimum concentration was found to be 0.1 mg/ ml in which the mortality rate of the shrimp was 4 percents and infection was not detected from survivalshrimp by the immunohistochemistry method.Furthermore, The results showed that the survival rate of the post larvae fed on steamed egg containing dry S. platensis 5 g/kg of diet was higher than that of the control (p<0.05 when challenged with WSSV and no WSSV infected shrimp examine by polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay. In the case of juvenile shrimp, the survival rate of shrimp fed pellets containing dry S. platensis 10 g/kg of diet was higher than that of the control group (p<0.05 after challenging with WSSV. Moreover percent of WSSV infection in the survival shrimp using the immunohistochemistry method was lower than that of the control group.

  7. White Spot Syndrome Virus vulnerability of Tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon cultured in the coastal ponds of Cox’s Bazar region, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad M. Monwar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Jumbo tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon is the world’s most popular cultivable species for itsfast growth, hardy nature, delicious taste and market demand. During the last three decades shrimpculture has been expanded rapidly. White spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV is a great treat to this cultureexpansion. In this research, WSSV free fries were stocked in four coastal ponds with different salinities.The stocking density was kept low and constant. Water parameters, fish growth, and WSSVcontamination were recorded fortnightly. The WSSV contamination was primarily detected by using EnbioShrimp Virus Detection Test Kit, ‘Shrimple’ and further confirmed by the PCR test. Among the ponds,Pond A, B, and C were in completely controlled environmental condition where as pond D was traditionalone that exposed to tidal variations. Physico-chemical parameter varied from as, temperature 29 to32ºC, salinity 0 to 31‰, water pH 7.1 to 8.3, dissolved oxygen 3.8 to 6.3 mL L-1, alkalinity 80-122 mg L-1,ammonia 0 to 1.5 mg L-1 and transparency 23 to 50 cm. The WSSV was found positive in the pond D justafter hundred days, when the average weight of the shrimps was 26.69 g. It is observed that rapidchange in the salinity and temperature, poor environmental conditions and uncontrolled exchange ofwater made the shrimp more vulnerable to the WSSV.

  8. PmTBC1D20, a Rab GTPase-activating protein from the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, is involved in white spot syndrome virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yingvilasprasert, Wanchart; Supungul, Premruethai; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2014-02-01

    TBC (TRE2/BUB2/CDC16) domain proteins contain an ≈ 200-amino-acid motif and function as Rab GTPase-activating proteins that are required for regulating the activity of Rab proteins, and so, in turn, endocytic membrane trafficking in cells. TBC domain family member 20 (TBC1D20) has recently been reported to mediate Hepatitis C virus replication. Herein, PmTBC1D20 identified from the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, was characterized and evaluated for its role in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. The full-length cDNA sequence of PmTBC1D20 contains 2003 bp with a predicted 1443 bp open reading frame encoding a deduced 480 amino acid protein. Its transcript levels were significantly up-regulated at 24 and 48 h by ≈ 2.3- and 2.1-fold, respectively, after systemic infection with WSSV. In addition, depletion of PmTBC1D20 transcript in shrimps by double stranded RNA interference led to a decrease in the level of transcripts of three WSSV genes (VP28, ie1 and wsv477). This suggests the importance of PmTBC1D20 in WSSV infection. This is the first report of TBC1D20 in a crustacean and reveals the possible mechanism used by WSSV to modulate the activity of the host protein, PmTBC1D20, for its benefit in viral trafficking and replication.

  9. Cholesterol Content of Tiger Shrimp Penaeus monodon at Various Sizes, Moulting and Maturity Stages from Pazhayar Coast (South East Coast of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kannan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative study was made on the occurrence of cholesterol in the muscle of different maturity stages of the wilder tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon collected from Pazhayar coast, Nagapattinam, Tamil Nadu. As the size increased from 8-10 cm to 14-16 cm the cholesterol content increased from 1.4-4.5 mg g-1. The shrimp contained almost the same level of cholesterol in both sexes. The variation in the cholesterol level in relation to moulting in the male and female shrimp revealed that in both the sexes high cholesterol content was noticed in the intermoult stage. Subsequently, in the premoult stage the cholesterol content decreased from 2.0-1.8 mg g-1 and it was found to be the lowest among all the moult stages. In the matured stages the shrimp contained higher level of cholesterol (2.1 mg g-1 and very less amount of cholesterol level (1.2 mg g-1 in the immature and early mature stages. It is inferred from this study that the cholesterol level was more in the intermoult stage suggesting that cholesterol may be converted to some moulting hormones.

  10. Expression of Toll-like receptors (TLR, in lymphoid organ of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon in response to Vibrio harveyi infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mundanda Muthappa Dechamma

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Toll-like receptors (TLR, being pattern recognition molecules, are a powerful first line of defense in response to pathogen invasion. They are known to play a crucial role in detecting and binding to the microbial molecule and triggering a non-specific immune response. Quantitative real time PCR (qPCR expression of the TLR gene was studied in healthy and Vibrio harveyi infected black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon. Lymphoid tissue expression of TLR in V. harveyi infected animals 24 h post injection showed statistically significant up regulation of the gene as compared to the control animals sham injected with phosphate buffered saline (PBS. The qPCR expression pattern of TLR at different time points in shrimp administered with the immunostimulant glucan for 6 days by oral feeding followed by challenge with V. harveyi showed statistically significant level at 48 h post bacterial challenge as compared to the control (immunostimulant treated animals sham injected with PBS. The novelty of the study is that it elicits the role of TLRs as important response proteins of the innate immune system in the shrimp.

  11. Molecular characterization of a crustin-like antimicrobial peptide in the giant tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, and its expression profile in response to various immunostimulants and challenge with WSSV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Swapna P; Singh, I S Bright; Sudheer, N S; Vrinda, S; Priyaja, P; Philip, Rosamma

    2011-01-01

    A crustin-like antimicrobial peptide from the haemocytes of giant tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon was partially characterized at the molecular level and phylogenetic analysis was performed. The partial coding sequence of 299 bp and 91 deduced amino acid residues possessed conserved cysteine residues characteristic of the shrimp crustins. Phylogenetic tree and sequence comparison clearly confirmed divergence of this crustin-like AMP from other shrimp crustins. The differential expression of the crustin-like AMP in P. monodon in response to the administration of various immunostimulants viz., two marine yeasts (Candida haemulonii S27 and Candida sake S165) and two β-glucan isolates (extracted from C. haemulonii S27 and C. sake S165) were noted during the study. Responses to the application of two gram-positive probiotic bacteria (Bacillus MCCB101 and Micrococcus MCCB104) were also observed. The immune profile was recorded pre- and post-challenge white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Expressions of seven WSSV genes were also observed for studying the intensity of viral infection in the experimental animals. The crustin-like AMP was found to be constitutively expressed in the animal and a significant down-regulation could be noted post-challenge WSSV. Remarkable down-regulation of the gene was observed in the immunostimulant fed animals pre-challenge followed by a significant up-regulation post-challenge WSSV. Tissue-wise expression of crustin-like AMP on administration of C. haemulonii and Bacillus showed maximum transcripts in gill and intestine. The marine yeast, C. haemulonii and the probiotic bacteria, Bacillus were found to enhance the production of crustin-like AMP and confer significant protection to P. monodon against WSSV infection.

  12. 人类YB-1蛋白表达对肺腺癌术后患者预后及复发的影响%The expression of the human Y-box binding protein:impact on prognosis and recurrence in patients with resected lung adenocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王力捷; 李锦绣; 谭庆伟; 王金; 赵磊; 刘晶; 关宏伟; 河野公俊; 顾春东

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose:The human Y-box binding protein, YB-1, is one of multifunctional proteins that regulates gene expression at both the transcriptional and translational levels. YB-1 has the potential to be used as a biomarker and predictor of multidrug resistance and prognosis in human cancers. This study was designed to detect YB-1 expression in lung adenocarcinoma by using immunohistochemical staining, and to evaluate the expression of YB-1 in patients with resected lung adenocarcinoma as well as its impact on their prognosis and recurrence. Methods:A total number of 174 lung adenocarcinoma patients who underwent surgical treatment were enrolled in this study. There were 99 men and 75 women with age of 65.0 years (range from 32 to 85). Immunohistochemical staining was done using by a streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method (polyclonal anti-YB-1 antibody). The statistical significance was evaluated using the Pearson’s χ2 test. Survival curves were plotted according to the Kaplan–Meier method, and differences between the curves were analyzed by the log-rank test. The Cox proportional hazards model was applied to the univariate and multivariate survival analysis. Results:Positive expression of YB-1 was detected in the cytoplasm of tumor cells in 92 of 174 patients (52.9%) with lung adenocarcinoma. The positive expression of YB-1 was associated with poorly differentiated tumor (P=0.003), poor pathologic stage (P<0.001), lymph node metastasis (P=0.005) and tumor recurrence (P<0.001). The lung adenocarcinoma patients with positive YB-1 expression had a poorer prognosis than those with negative YB-1 expression, using both univariate and multivariate analyses (overall survival risk: P<0.001 and P=0.035, respectively). In addition, multivariate analysis of the clinicopathological characteristics with stageⅠlung adenocarcinoma indicated that the positive expression of YB-1 was a significant independent factor for predicting poor prognosis and early

  13. Y 盒结合蛋白1在 SK-BR-3乳腺癌细胞增殖中的作用%Roles of Y box-binding protein 1 in SK-BR-3 breast cancer proliferation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史建红; 吕心瑞; 王冰; 林丹丹; 王亚婻; 步玉辉; 马振峰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the roles of Y box-binding protein 1 (YB-1) in breast cancer cell proliferation.Methods Twenty cases of surgical removal of breast cancer tissue ( diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma , stage Ⅱ, by postoperative paraffin pathology ) and normal breast tissues adjacent to carcinoma were collected during June 2013 to August 2013.Quantitative real-time PCR ( qRT-PCR ) was performed to detect the YB1 mRNA levels.Cultured mammary epithelial cells (HBL-100) and breast cancer cells (MCF7, MDA-MB-231 &SK-BR-3 cells) were harvested and qRT-PCR was performed to detect the YB1 mRNA levels.SK-BR-3 cells were stimulated with various concentrations of PDGF-BB and YB1 expression levels were detected by qRT-PCR.Down-regulation or over-expression of YB1 by si-YB1 or Ad-GFP-YB1 was detected in SK-BR-3 cells.And MTS cell proliferation assay kit was used to detect cell proliferation.Results YB1 mRNA levels were significantly higher in breast cancer tissues and MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-3 breast cancer cell lines than that in adjacent normal breast tissues and HBL -100 mammary epithelial cells respectively ( P<0.05 ).YB1 expression levels increased in PDGF-BB stimulated SK-BR-3 cells in a dose-dependent manner.Conclusion A down-regulation of endogenous YB 1 decreases and an over-expression of exogenous YB 1 promotes the proliferation activity in SK-BR-3 cells.%目的:探讨Y盒结合蛋白1(YB1)在乳腺癌细胞增殖中的作用。方法收集河北大学附属医院2013年6-8月的乳腺浸润性导管癌及癌旁正常乳腺组织标本,实时定量PCR( qRT-PCR)分析YB1基因的mRNA水平;培养乳腺上皮细胞HBL-100和乳腺癌细胞MCF-7、MDA-MB-231和SK-BR-3,qRT-PCR 观察 YB1的表达水平, MTS 法分析细胞增殖活力;血小板源性生长因子 BB ( PDGF-BB)刺激SK-BR-3细胞,观察YB1的表达水平;应用特异性小干扰RNA敲低内源性YB1或应用GFP-YB1腺病毒载体过表达外源性GFP-YB1,MTS

  14. Extracellular Y-box binding protein-1 promotes proliferation and metastasis of HepG2 cells through Notch3 receptor%胞外Y-盒结合蛋白1通过Notch3受体促进肝癌细胞HepG2的增殖与转移

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史静; 李朴; 邹麟; 陈瀑; 张莉萍

    2016-01-01

    Objective To clarifywhether HepG2 cells actively secrete Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1) under stress conditions,and to investigate the pathological significance and mechanism of action of extracellular YB-1.Methods HepG2 cells were stimulated and treated by gradient concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and adtiamycin,the supematant of the culture solution was collected by centrifugation,and the established chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) was used for real-time quantitative determination of YB-1 level in the supernatant.The co-immunoprecipitation assay was used to detect whether extracellular YB-1 specifically bound to Notch3 receptor,and Western blot was used to measure the expression of Notch-NICD.The gradient concentrations of recombinant YB-1 were co-cultured with HepG2 cells,and MTT and migration assays were used to analyze the proliferation and invasion/metastasis of HepG2 cells.One-way analysis of variance was used for comparison of data between multiple groups.Results The results of CLIA confirmed that the level of extracellular YB-1 in the supematant was significantly higher than that in the control group (F =10.54,P < 0.001),and the secretory expression of YB-1 reached its peak after 4 hours of stimulation (LPS:8 ng/ml;adriamycin:10 ng/ml).The results of co-immunoprecipitation assay and Western blot showed that extracellular YB-1 specifically bound to Notch3 receptor and upregulated the expression of the Notch3 receptor.MTT and migration assays showed that extracellular YB-1 significantly promoted the proliferation and invasion/metastasis of HepG2 cells (F =9.405,P < 0.001).Conclusion Under the stress conditions induced by chemotherapeutics,HepG2 cells can actively secrete YB-1 via non-classical pathways.Extracellular YB-1 can specifically bind to Notch3 receptor and further up-regulate its expression,and then promote the proliferation and invasion/metastasis of HepG2 cells.This study lays a foundation for further clarifying the pathogenesis

  15. Primary hemocyte culture of Penaeus monodon as an in vitro model for white spot syndrome virus titration, viral and immune related gene expression and cytotoxicity assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Seena; Mohandas, A; Philip, Rosamma; Bright Singh, I S

    2010-11-01

    Immortal cell lines have not yet been reported from Penaeus monodon, which delimits the prospects of investigating the associated viral pathogens especially white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). In this context, a method of developing primary hemocyte culture from this crustacean has been standardized by employing modified double strength Leibovitz-15 (L-15) growth medium supplemented with 2% glucose, MEM vitamins (1×), tryptose phosphate broth (2.95 gl⁻¹), 20% FBS, N-phenylthiourea (0.2 mM), 0.06 μg ml⁻¹ chloramphenicol, 100 μg ml⁻¹ streptomycin and 100 IU ml⁻¹ penicillin and hemolymph drawn from shrimp grown under a bio-secured recirculating aquaculture system (RAS). In this medium the hemocytes remained viable up to 8 days. 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling assay revealed its incorporation in 22 ± 7% of cells at 24h. Susceptibility of the cells to WSSV was confirmed by immunofluorescence assay using a monoclonal antibody against 28 kDa envelope protein of WSSV. A convenient method for determining virus titer as MTT(50)/ml was standardized employing the primary hemocyte culture. Expression of viral genes and cellular immune genes were also investigated. The cell culture could be demonstrated for determining toxicity of a management chemical (benzalkonium chloride) by determining its IC(50). The primary hemocyte culture could serve as a model for WSSV titration and viral and cellular immune related gene expression and also for investigations on cytotoxicity of aquaculture drugs and chemicals.

  16. Effects of carotenoid sources on growth performance, blood parameters, disease resistance and stress tolerance in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon Fabricius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supamattaya, K.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Two feeding trial were conducted to determine the effects of various sources of carotenoid on growth performance, disease resistance, blood parameters, stress tolerance and pigmentation in juvenile black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon. Trial I was performed in small shrimp (1 g average body weight. The shrimp were fed with control diet without carotenoid (diet 1 while diets 2 to 6 contained 50 mg/kg astaxanthin (Lucanthin Pink®, 125 mg/kg β-carotene (Lucarotin®, 200 mg/kg β-carotene (Lucarotin®, 125 mg/kg Betatene® extracted from Dunaliella and 3% dried Spirulina respectively. There was an improvement in color in all groups of shrimp fed caroteniod supplemented diets, but no significant differences in weight gain or survival among the shrimps fed each test diet (p>0.05. Resistance to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV infection and stress tolerance (salinity stress, were not significantly different among treatments. Trial II was performed in juvenile shrimp (10 g average body weight fed test diets containing 100 ppm astaxanthin (Lucanthin pink®, 125 mg/kg β-carotene (Lucarotin®, 250 mg/kg β-carotene (Lucarotin®, 250 mg/kg Betatene® and 3% dried Spirulina compared with those fed control diet without carotenoid. At the end of 6 weeks feeding period, shrimp fed control diet as well as astaxanthin and dried Spirulina supplemented diets had higher levels of total hemocyte counts than those of all β-carotene supplemented diets feeding group. However, phenoloxidase activity and clearance of pathogenic vibrio from the hemolymphwere not significantly different among the treatments (p>0.05. Astaxanthin levels were highest in the shrimp fed all carotenoid-supplemented diets. In conclusion, a natural carotenoid i.e. dried Spirulina and carotenoid extracted from Dunaliella which have a lower production cost than analytical carotenoid showed beneficial effects on shrimp feed supplement.

  17. Identification and cloning of a selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase from tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, and its transcription following pathogen infection and related to the molt stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kuan-Fu; Yeh, Maw-Sheng; Kou, Guang-Hsiung; Cheng, Winton; Lo, Chu-Fang

    2010-09-01

    Complementary (c)DNA encoding glutathione peroxidase (GPx) messenger (m)RNA of the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon was obtained from haemocytes by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. The 1321-bp cDNA contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 564bp, a 69-bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), and a 688-bp 3'-UTR containing a poly A tail and a conserved selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) element. The molecular mass of the deduced amino acid (aa) sequence (188 aa) was 21.05kDa long with an estimated pI of 7.68. It contains a putative selenocysteine residue which is encoded by the unusual stop codon, (190)TGA(192), and forms the active site with residues Glu(75) and Trp(143). Comparison of amino acid sequences showed that tiger shrimp GPx is more closely related to vertebrate GPx1, in accordance with those in Litopenaeus vannamei and Macrobrachium rosenbergii. GPx cDNA was synthesised in lymphoid organ, gills, heart, haemocytes, the hepatopancreas, muscles, and intestines. After injected with either Photobacterium damsela or white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), the respiratory bursts of shrimp significantly increased in order to kill the pathogen, and induced increases in the activities of superoxide dismutase and GPx, and regulation in the expression of cloned GPx mRNA to protect cells against damage from oxidation. The GPx expression significantly increased at stage D(0/1), and then gradually decreased until stage C suggesting that the cloned GPx might play a role in the molt regulation of shrimp.

  18. Determination of the persistence of dimetridazole, metronidazole and ronidazole residues in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) tissue and their stability during cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadaj, Anna; Cooper, Kevin M; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara; Furey, Ambrose; Danaher, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The depletion of three banned nitroimidazole drugs - dimetridazole (DMZ), metronidazole (MNZ) and ronidazole (RNZ) - was investigated in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) following in-water medication. The highest concentrations of residues were measured immediately after the 24-h immersion (d0). At this time, MNZ and MNZ-OH residues were measured in shrimp tissue samples at concentrations ranging from 361 to 4189 and from 0.28 to 6.6 μg kg(-1), respectively. DMZ and its metabolites HMMNI ranged in concentration between 31,509 and 37,780 and between 15.0 and 31.9 μg kg(-1), respectively. RNZ and HMMNI concentrations ranged from 14,530 to 24,206 and from 25.0 to 55 μg kg(-1), respectively. MNZ, DMZ and RNZ were the more persistent marker residues and can be detected for at least 8 days post-treatment. MNZ-OH was only detectable on d0 following treatment with MNZ. HMMNI residues were only detectable up to d1 (0.97-3.2 μg kg(-1)) or d2 (1.2-4.5 μg kg(-1)) following DMZ and RNZ treatment, respectively. The parent drugs MNZ, DMZ and RNZ were still measureable on d8 at 0.12-1.0, 40.5-55 and 8.8-18.7 μg kg(-1), respectively. The study also investigated the stability of nitroimidazole residues under various cooking procedures (frying, grilling, boiling, and boiling followed by microwaving). The experiments were carried out in shrimp muscle tissue containing both high and low concentrations of these residues. Different cooking procedures showed the impact on nitroimidazole residue concentration in shrimp tissue. Residue concentration depleted significantly, but partially, by boiling and/or microwaving, but the compounds were largely resistant to conventional grilling or frying. Cooking cannot therefore be considered as a safeguard against harmful nitroimidazole residues in shrimp.

  19. Identification and cloning of a selenophosphate synthetase (SPS) from tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, and its transcription in relation to molt stages and following pathogen infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Maw-Sheng; Huang, Chang-Jen; Guo, Chih-Hung; Liu, Kuan-Fu; Tsai, Inn-Ho; Cheng, Winton

    2012-01-01

    Complementary (c)DNA encoding selenophosphate synthetase (SPS) messenger (m)RNA of the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, designated PmSPS, was obtained from the hepatopancreas by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The 1582-bp cDNA contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 1248 bp, a 103-bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), and a 231-bp 3'-UTR, which contained a conserved selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) element, a conventional polyadenylation signal, and a poly A tail. The molecular mass of the deduced amino acid (aa) sequence (416 aa) was 45.5 kDa with an estimated pI of 4.85. It contained a putative selenocysteine residue which was encoded by the unusual stop codon, (275)TGA(277), which formed at the active site with residues Sec(58) and Lys(61). A comparison of amino acid sequences showed that PmSPS was more closely related to invertebrate SPS1, such as those of Heliothis virescens and Drosophila melanogaster a and b. PmSPS cDNA was synthesized in all tested tissues, especially in the hepatopancreas. PmSPS in the hepatopancreas of shrimp significantly increased after an injection with either Photobacterium damsela or white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in order to protect cells against damage from oxidation, and enhance the recycling of selenocysteine or selenium metabolism, indicating that PmSPS is involved in the disease-resistance response. The PmSPS expression by hemocytes significantly increased in stage C, and then gradually decreased until stage A, suggesting that the cloned PmSPS in hemocytes might play a role in viability by renewing hemocytes and antioxidative stress response for new exoskeleton synthesis during the molt cycle of shrimp.

  20. Comparison of Penaeus monodon (Crustacea,Penaeidae growth between commercial feed vscommercial shrimp feed supplemented with Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta, Solieriaceaeseaweed sap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotiya Anil S.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The consumer of seafood relates the potential development of animals to the constant use of commercial growth promoters. Nevertheless, nowadays with the development of non antibiotic feed additives, cultured shrimps performance has improved to great level. Present experiment was carried conducted from 27th May 2009 to 11th October 2009 in shrimp grow out ponds at Diu (U.T region of Saurashtra coast. The stocking density of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon Fabricius, 1798 was 7.5 no/m2 in both the culture ponds. Good survival rate (89.70%, average daily growth (0.277, total biomass(2007.48 kg and less Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR (1.26:1 were obtained from Kappaphycus alvarezii(Doty Doty ex P. C. Silva, 1996 sap incorporated in pellet fed shrimps of pond 2, compare to control pond survival rate (73.70%, average daily growth (0.242, total biomass (1476.9 and high FCR(1.52:1 from control pellet fed shrimps of pond 1. There was no significant differences in temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity and salinity, whereas micro-nutrients in water parameter vary during last month of culture period. The present investigation concluded that used ofK. alvarezii sap to the shrimp feed has enhanced growth in term of survival rate from 73.70% to 89.70%, average daily growth from0.242 to 0.277 and total biomass weight from 1476.9 kg to 2007.48 kg when compare to control pond shrimps and is economically viable approach in terms of profit. K. alvarezii is rich in micro nutrient, which can boost up the tiger shrimp growth in fewer days of culture.

  1. Protection of Penaeus monodon against white spot syndrome by continuous oral administration of a low concentration of Bacillus subtilis spores expressing the VP28 antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, K-C; Tran, H T T; Van Doan, C; Le, P H; Van Nguyen, A T; Nguyen, H A; Hong, H A; Cutting, S M; Phan, T-N

    2017-03-01

    In this study, Bacillus subtilis spores expressing a chimeric protein, CotB-VP28, were used as a probiotic vaccine to protect black tiger shrimps (Penaeus monodon) against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. Oral administration of pellets coated with CotB-VP28 spores (at ≥1 × 10(9 ) CFU per g pellet) to shrimps induced immune-relating phenoloxydase activity (PO) in shrimps after 14 days of feeding (prior challenge) and at day 3 post challenge (1·26 and 1·70 fold increase respectively). A 75% protection rate was obtained by continuous feeding of the spore-coated pellets at ≥1 × 10(9 ) CFU per g for 14 days prior to WSSV challenge and during all the postchallenge period. Even when the amount of CotB-VP28 spores in feed pellets was reduced down to ≥5 × 10(7)  CFU per g and ≥1 × 10(6)  CFU per g, relatively high protection rates of 70 and 67·5%, respectively, were still obtained. By contrast, feeding pellets without spores (untreated group) and with naked spores (PY79 group) at ≥1 × 10(9)  CFU per g could not protect shrimps against WSSV. These data suggest that supplementation of CotB-VP28 spores at low dose of ≥1 × 10(6)  CFU per g could be effective as a prophylactic treatment of WSS for black tiger shrimps.

  2. Analysis of polyglutamine-coding repeats in the TATA-binding protein in different human populations and in patients with schizophrenia an bipolar affective disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubinsztein, D.C.; Leggo, J. [Addenbrooke`s National Health Service Trust, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Crow, T.J. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1996-09-20

    A new class of disease (including Huntington disease, Kennedy disease, and spinocerebellar ataxias types 1 and 3) results from abnormal expansions of CAG trinucleotides in the coding regions of genes. In all of these diseases the CAG repeats are thought to be translated into polyglutamine tracts. There is accumulating evidence arguing for CAG trinucleotide expansions as one of the causative disease mutations in schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. We and others believe that the TATA-binding protein (TBP) is an important candidate to investigate in these diseases as it contains a highly polymorphic stretch of glutamine codons, which are close to the threshold length where the polyglutamine tracts start to be associated with disease. Thus, we examined the lengths of this polyglutamine repeat in normal unrelated East Anglians, South African Blacks, sub-Saharan Africans mainly from Nigeria, and Asian Indians. We also examined 43 bipolar affective disorder patients and 65 schizophrenic patients. The range of polyglutamine tract-lengths that we found in humans was from 26-42 codons. No patients with bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia had abnormal expansions at this locus. 22 refs., 1 tab.

  3. Salt-mediated electrostatics in the association of TATA binding proteins to DNA: a combined molecular mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredenberg, Johan H; Russo, Cristina; Fenley, Marcia O

    2008-06-01

    The TATA-binding protein (TBP) is a key component of the archaea ternary preinitiation transcription assembly. The archaeon TBP, from the halophile/hyperthermophile organism Pyrococcus woesei, is adapted to high concentrations of salt and high-temperature environments. Although most eukaryotic TBPs are mesophilic and adapted to physiological conditions of temperature and salt, they are very similar to their halophilic counterparts in sequence and fold. However, whereas the binding affinity to DNA of halophilic TBPs increases with increasing salt concentration, the opposite is observed for mesophilic TBPs. We investigated these differences in nonspecific salt-dependent DNA-binding behavior of halophilic and mesophilic TBPs by using a combined molecular mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann approach. Our results are qualitatively in good agreement with experimentally observed salt-dependent DNA-binding for mesophilic and halophilic TBPs, and suggest that the distribution and the total number of charged residues may be the main underlying contributor in the association process. Therefore, the difference in the salt-dependent binding behavior of mesophilic and halophilic TBPs to DNA may be due to the very unique charge and electrostatic potential distribution of these TBPs, which consequently alters the number of repulsive and attractive electrostatic interactions.

  4. TATA-binding protein (TBP)-like protein is required for p53-dependent transcriptional activation of upstream promoter of p21Waf1/Cip1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hidefumi; Ito, Ryo; Ikeda, Kaori; Tamura, Taka-Aki

    2012-06-01

    TATA-binding protein-like protein (TLP) is involved in development, checkpoint, and apoptosis through potentiation of gene expression. TLP-overexpressing human cells, especially p53-containing cells, exhibited a decreased growth rate and increased proportion of G(1) phase cells. TLP stimulated expression of several growth-related genes including p21 (p21(Waf1/Cip1)). TLP-mediated activation of the p21 upstream promoter in cells was shown by a promoter-luciferase reporter assay. The p53-binding sequence located in the p21 upstream promoter and p53 itself are required for TLP-mediated transcriptional activation. TLP and p53 bound to each other and synergistically enhanced activity of the upstream promoter. TLP specifically activated transcription from the endogenous upstream promoter, and p53 was required for this activation. Etoposide treatment also resulted in activation of the upstream promoter as well as nuclear accumulation of TLP and p53. Moreover, the upstream promoter was associated with endogenous p53 and TLP, and the p53 recruitment was enhanced by TLP. The results of the present study suggest that TLP mediates p53-governed transcriptional activation of the p21 upstream promoter.

  5. TA/TA list planning principles of TD-LTE system%TD-LTE系统TA及TA list规划原则

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕邦国; 于涛

    2013-01-01

      Firstly the TD-LTE system location area management mechanism is introduced in this paper. Secondly this paper analyzes the network paging mechanism, paging capacity according to the TD-LTE system capabilities and the current TD-LTE device performance. Lastly, by predicting the number of users as well as LTE cell single-user paging model, the TA/TA list planning principles and recommendations are given in this paper.%  本文首先介绍了TD-LTE系统位置区的管理机制,其次从TD-LTE系统能力以及目前TD-LTE设备性能等角度,分析了TD-LTE网络的寻呼机制和寻呼容量,最后通过预测LTE小区的用户数目以及单用户寻呼模型,给出了TA/TA list的规划原则和建议。

  6. Transcription factor IID in the Archaea: sequences in the Thermococcus celer genome would encode a product closely related to the TATA-binding protein of eukaryotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, T. L.; Reich, C. I.; Whitelock, R. B.; Olsen, G. J.; Woese, C. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    The first step in transcription initiation in eukaryotes is mediated by the TATA-binding protein, a subunit of the transcription factor IID complex. We have cloned and sequenced the gene for a presumptive homolog of this eukaryotic protein from Thermococcus celer, a member of the Archaea (formerly archaebacteria). The protein encoded by the archaeal gene is a tandem repeat of a conserved domain, corresponding to the repeated domain in its eukaryotic counterparts. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of the two halves of the repeat are consistent with the duplication occurring before the divergence of the archael and eukaryotic domains. In conjunction with previous observations of similarity in RNA polymerase subunit composition and sequences and the finding of a transcription factor IIB-like sequence in Pyrococcus woesei (a relative of T. celer) it appears that major features of the eukaryotic transcription apparatus were well-established before the origin of eukaryotic cellular organization. The divergence between the two halves of the archael protein is less than that between the halves of the individual eukaryotic sequences, indicating that the average rate of sequence change in the archael protein has been less than in its eukaryotic counterparts. To the extent that this lower rate applies to the genome as a whole, a clearer picture of the early genes (and gene families) that gave rise to present-day genomes is more apt to emerge from the study of sequences from the Archaea than from the corresponding sequences from eukaryotes.

  7. JC virus promoter/enhancers contain TATA box-associated Spi-B-binding sites that support early viral gene expression in primary astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Leslie J; Moore, Lisa D; Mirsky, Matthew M; Major, Eugene O

    2012-03-01

    JC virus (JCV) is the aetiological agent of the demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, an AIDS defining illness and serious complication of mAb therapies. Initial infection probably occurs in childhood. In the working model of dissemination, virus persists in the kidney and lymphoid tissues until immune suppression/modulation causes reactivation and trafficking to the brain where JCV replicates in oligodendrocytes. JCV infection is regulated through binding of host factors such as Spi-B to, and sequence variation in the non-coding control region (NCCR). Although NCCR sequences differ between sites of persistence and pathogenesis, evidence suggests that the virus that initiates infection in the brain disseminates via B-cells derived from latently infected haematopoietic precursors in the bone marrow. Spi-B binds adjacent to TATA boxes in the promoter/enhancer of the PML-associated JCV Mad-1 and Mad-4 viruses but not the non-pathogenic, kidney-associated archetype. The Spi-B-binding site of Mad-1/Mad-4 differs from that of archetype by a single nucleotide, AAAAGGGAAGGGA to AAAAGGGAAGGTA. Point mutation of the Mad-1 Spi-B site reduced early viral protein large T-antigen expression by up to fourfold. Strikingly, the reverse mutation in the archetype NCCR increased large T-antigen expression by 10-fold. Interestingly, Spi-B protein binds the NCCR sequence flanking the viral promoter/enhancer, but these sites are not essential for early viral gene expression. The effect of mutating Spi-B-binding sites within the JCV promoter/enhancer on early viral gene expression strongly suggests a role for Spi-B binding to the viral promoter/enhancer in the activation of early viral gene expression.

  8. Genetic selection for context-dependent stochastic phenotypes: Sp1 and TATA mutations increase phenotypic noise in HIV-1 gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Miller-Jensen

    Full Text Available The sequence of a promoter within a genome does not uniquely determine gene expression levels and their variability; rather, promoter sequence can additionally interact with its location in the genome, or genomic context, to shape eukaryotic gene expression. Retroviruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV, integrate their genomes into those of their host and thereby provide a biomedically-relevant model system to quantitatively explore the relationship between promoter sequence, genomic context, and noise-driven variability on viral gene expression. Using an in vitro model of the HIV Tat-mediated positive-feedback loop, we previously demonstrated that fluctuations in viral Tat-transactivating protein levels generate integration-site-dependent, stochastically-driven phenotypes, in which infected cells randomly 'switch' between high and low expressing states in a manner that may be related to viral latency. Here we extended this model and designed a forward genetic screen to systematically identify genetic elements in the HIV LTR promoter that modulate the fraction of genomic integrations that specify 'Switching' phenotypes. Our screen identified mutations in core promoter regions, including Sp1 and TATA transcription factor binding sites, which increased the Switching fraction several fold. By integrating single-cell experiments with computational modeling, we further investigated the mechanism of Switching-fraction enhancement for a selected Sp1 mutation. Our experimental observations demonstrated that the Sp1 mutation both impaired Tat-transactivated expression and also altered basal expression in the absence of Tat. Computational analysis demonstrated that the observed change in basal expression could contribute significantly to the observed increase in viral integrations that specify a Switching phenotype, provided that the selected mutation affected Tat-mediated noise amplification differentially across genomic contexts. Our study

  9. Study on the Distribution of Disease-Resistant Shrimp Identified by DNA Markers in Respect to WSSV Infection in Different Seasons Along the Entire East Coast of India Aiming to Prevent White Spot Disease in Penaeus monodon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, A; Chakrabarty, U; Dutta, S; Mondal, D; Mandal, N

    2016-02-01

    White spot disease caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is responsible for harming shrimp aquaculture industry and results in a pandemic throughout the world. Undeniably, the knowledge on geographic distribution, transmission, virulence, and seasonal prevalence of this disease alongside information on the distribution of disease-resistant shrimps may be helpful to understand important aspects of disease biology. This study was intended to estimate WSSV prevalence by qualitative and quantitative PCR method among the Penaeus monodon samples collected from four different places namely Digha, West Bengal; Chilika, Orissa; Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh; and Chennai, Tamil Nadu at three different seasons in the period of 2011-2013 from east coast of India. Along with this, the disease-resistant prevalence was also investigated using earlier developed 71 bp microsatellite and 457 bp RAPD-SCAR DNA marker among the collected shrimps. Qualitative PCR depicted that the cumulative WSSV prevalence at four places was the lowest (0%) at pre-monsoon, whereas, it was the highest (21.2%) during post-monsoon season. Quantitative real-time PCR showed the average copy number of WSSV to be the highest (~10(3) copy μg(-1) shrimp genomic DNA) at post-monsoon season. Additionally, estimated disease-resistant prevalence was the highest in Visakhapatnam (79%) and lowest in Digha (21%). It is well known to all that a trait cannot be identified using a single genetic pattern. This study will significantly contribute insight to develop specific pathogen-resistant (SPR) seeds of P. monodon simultaneously using two DNA markers that would be a cost-effective and safer approach towards disease prevention instead of conventional trends of seed generation from unselected wild broodstock.

  10. Recruitment of CBP/p300, TATA-binding protein, and S8 to distinct regions at the N terminus of adenovirus E1A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasti, Mozhgan; Grand, Roger J A; Mymryk, Joe S; Gallimore, Phillip H; Turnell, Andrew S

    2005-05-01

    The N-terminal region of the adenovirus (Ad) 12S E1A gene product targets several cellular proteins that are essential for the induction of S phase, cellular immortalization, cellular transformation, transcriptional repression, and transcriptional activation. The precise binding sites for these proteins, however, remain to be resolved. We therefore undertook an extensive site-directed mutagenesis approach to generate specific point mutants and to precisely map the binding sites for CBP, p300, TATA-binding protein (TBP), S4, S8, hGcn5, P/CAF, and Ran within the first 30 amino acids of the Ad5 12S E1A protein. We determined that although common residues within the N-terminal region can form partial binding sites for these proteins, point mutants were also generated that could discriminate between binding sites. These data indicate that AdE1A can target each of these proteins individually through distinct binding sites. It was evident, however, that the mutation of specific hydrophobic residues typically had the greatest effect upon AdE1A's ability to bind individual partners. Indeed, the mutation of L at positions 19 and 20 eliminated the ability of AdE1A to interact with any of the N-terminal binding proteins studied here. Interestingly, although TBP and S8 or CBP/p300 can exist as functional complexes, RNA interference revealed that the recruitment of either TBP, S8, or CBP/p300 to AdE1A was not dependent upon the expression of the other proteins. These data further indicate that AdE1A can target individual partner proteins in vivo and that it does not necessarily recruit these proteins indirectly as components of larger macromolecular complexes. Finally, we took advantage of the fine-mapping data to ascertain which proteins were targeted during the transformation process. Consistent with previous studies, CBP/p300 was found to be targeted by AdE1A during this process, although our data suggest that binding to other N-terminal proteins is also important for

  11. Construction of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with enhanced ethanol tolerance by mutagenesis of the TATA-binding protein gene and identification of novel genes associated with ethanol tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jungwoo; Bae, Ju Yun; Lee, Young Mi; Kwon, Hyeji; Moon, Hye-Yun; Kang, Hyun Ah; Yee, Su-Bog; Kim, Wankee; Choi, Wonja

    2011-08-01

    Since elevated ethanol is a major stress during ethanol fermentation, yeast strains tolerant to ethanol are highly desirable for the industrial scale ethanol production. A technology called global transcriptional machinery engineering (gTME), which exploits a mutant library of SPT15 encoding the TATA-binding protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Alper et al., 2006; Science 314: 1565-1568), seems to a powerful tool for creating ethanol-tolerant strains. However, the ability of created strains to tolerate high ethanol on rich media remains unproven. In this study, a similar strategy was used to obtain five strains with enhanced ethanol tolerance (ETS1-5) of S. cerevisiae. Comparing global transcriptional profiles of two selected strains ETS2 and ETS3 with that of the control identified 42 genes that were commonly regulated with twofold change. Out of 34 deletion mutants available from a gene knockout library, 18 were ethanol sensitive, suggesting that these genes were closely associated with ethanol tolerance. Eight of them were novel with most being functionally unknown. To establish a basis for future industrial applications, strains iETS2 and iETS3 were created by integrating the SPT15 mutant alleles of ETS2 and ETS3 into the chromosomes, which also exhibited enhanced ethanol tolerance and survival upon ethanol shock on a rich medium. Fermentation with 20% glucose for 24 h in a bioreactor revealed that iETS2 and iETS3 grew better and produced approximately 25% more ethanol than a control strain. The ethanol yield and productivity were also substantially enhanced: 0.31 g/g and 2.6 g/L/h, respectively, for control and 0.39 g/g and 3.2 g/L/h, respectively, for iETS2 and iETS3. Thus, our study demonstrates the utility of gTME in generating strains with enhanced ethanol tolerance that resulted in increase of ethanol production. Strains with enhanced tolerance to other stresses such as heat, fermentation inhibitors, osmotic pressure, and so on, may be further created by

  12. Candidate SNP Markers of Familial and Sporadic Alzheimer's Diseases Are Predicted by a Significant Change in the Affinity of TATA-Binding Protein for Human Gene Promoters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Ponomarenko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available While year after year, conditions, quality, and duration of human lives have been improving due to the progress in science, technology, education, and medicine, only eight diseases have been increasing in prevalence and shortening human lives because of premature deaths according to the retrospective official review on the state of US health, 1990-2010. These diseases are kidney cancer, chronic kidney diseases, liver cancer, diabetes, drug addiction, poisoning cases, consequences of falls, and Alzheimer's disease (AD as one of the leading pathologies. There are familial AD of hereditary nature (~4% of cases and sporadic AD of unclear etiology (remaining ~96% of cases; i.e., non-familial AD. Therefore, sporadic AD is no longer a purely medical problem, but rather a social challenge when someone asks oneself: “What can I do in my own adulthood to reduce the risk of sporadic AD at my old age to save the years of my lifespan from the destruction caused by it?” Here, we combine two computational approaches for regulatory SNPs: Web service SNP_TATA_Comparator for sequence analysis and a PubMed-based keyword search for articles on the biochemical markers of diseases. Our purpose was to try to find answers to the question: “What can be done in adulthood to reduce the risk of sporadic AD in old age to prevent the lifespan reduction caused by it?” As a result, we found 89 candidate SNP markers of familial and sporadic AD (e.g., rs562962093 is associated with sporadic AD in the elderly as a complication of stroke in adulthood, where natural marine diets can reduce risks of both diseases in case of the minor allele of this SNP. In addition, rs768454929, and rs761695685 correlate with sporadic AD as a comorbidity of short stature, where maximizing stature in childhood and adolescence as an integral indicator of health can minimize (or even eliminate the risk of sporadic AD in the elderly. After validation by clinical protocols, these candidate SNP

  13. Candidate SNP Markers of Familial and Sporadic Alzheimer's Diseases Are Predicted by a Significant Change in the Affinity of TATA-Binding Protein for Human Gene Promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarenko, Petr; Chadaeva, Irina; Rasskazov, Dmitry A; Sharypova, Ekaterina; Kashina, Elena V; Drachkova, Irina; Zhechev, Dmitry; Ponomarenko, Mikhail P; Savinkova, Ludmila K; Kolchanov, Nikolay

    2017-01-01

    While year after year, conditions, quality, and duration of human lives have been improving due to the progress in science, technology, education, and medicine, only eight diseases have been increasing in prevalence and shortening human lives because of premature deaths according to the retrospective official review on the state of US health, 1990-2010. These diseases are kidney cancer, chronic kidney diseases, liver cancer, diabetes, drug addiction, poisoning cases, consequences of falls, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) as one of the leading pathologies. There are familial AD of hereditary nature (~4% of cases) and sporadic AD of unclear etiology (remaining ~96% of cases; i.e., non-familial AD). Therefore, sporadic AD is no longer a purely medical problem, but rather a social challenge when someone asks oneself: "What can I do in my own adulthood to reduce the risk of sporadic AD at my old age to save the years of my lifespan from the destruction caused by it?" Here, we combine two computational approaches for regulatory SNPs: Web service SNP_TATA_Comparator for sequence analysis and a PubMed-based keyword search for articles on the biochemical markers of diseases. Our purpose was to try to find answers to the question: "What can be done in adulthood to reduce the risk of sporadic AD in old age to prevent the lifespan reduction caused by it?" As a result, we found 89 candidate SNP markers of familial and sporadic AD (e.g., rs562962093 is associated with sporadic AD in the elderly as a complication of stroke in adulthood, where natural marine diets can reduce risks of both diseases in case of the minor allele of this SNP). In addition, rs768454929, and rs761695685 correlate with sporadic AD as a comorbidity of short stature, where maximizing stature in childhood and adolescence as an integral indicator of health can minimize (or even eliminate) the risk of sporadic AD in the elderly. After validation by clinical protocols, these candidate SNP markers may become

  14. Penerapan e-Procurement Dalam Proses Pengadaan Barang Dan Jasa Pemerintah Guna Mendukung Ketahanan Tata Pemerintahan Daerah (Studi pada Unit Layanan Pengadaan Barang dan Jasa Pemerintah Kabupaten Penajam Paser Utara Provinsi Kalimantan Timur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat Hidayat

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini untuk menganalisis penerapan prinsip e-procurement pada Unit Layanan Pengadaan Barang dan Jasadi Pemerintah Kabupaten Penajam Paser Utara, mengkaji kendala yang dihadapi Unit Layanan Pengadaan dalam proses pengadaan barang dan jasa pemerintah melalui proses e-procurement serta untuk merumuskan strategi yang dilakukan Unit Layanan Pengadaan dalam mengatasi kendala penerapan e-procurement guna mendukung ketahanan tata pemerintahan daerah di Kabupaten Penajam Paser Utara. Metode penelitian yang digunakan yaitu metode penelitian deskriptif dengan perpaduan kuantitatif dan kualitatif. Teknik pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan penyebaran kuesioner, wawancara,observasi dan studi pustaka. Pengukuran menggunakan skala Likert kepada 32 orang petugas ULP dan wawancara kepada 3 orang  informan yang mengetahui secara mendalam tentang penerapan e-procurement di Kabupaten Penajam Paser Utara. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan penerapan prinsip e-procurement di Kabupaten Penajam Paser Utara secara umum sudah berjalan sesuai peraturan yang berlaku namun masih terdapat beberapa kendala dalam penerapannya, yakni kelembagaan ULP, Infrastruktur, dan SDM. Untuk itu diperlukan strategi pemerintah daerah dalam mengatasi kendala tersebut guna mendukung ketahanan tata pemerintahan daerah di Kabupaten Penajam Paser Utara.

  15. Dynamic architecture of a minimal RNA polymerase II open promoter complex

    OpenAIRE

    Treutlein, B.; Muschielok, A.; Andrecka, J.; Jawhari, A.; Buchen, C.; Kostrewa, D.; Hög, F.; Cramer, P.; Michaelis, J.

    2012-01-01

    The open promoter complex (OC) is a central intermediate during transcription initiation that contains a DNA bubble. Here, we employ singlemolecule Fo¨ rster resonance energy transfer experiments and Nano-Positioning System analysis to determine the three-dimensional architecture of a minimal OC consisting of promoter DNA, including a TATA box and an 11-nucleotide mismatched region around the transcription start site, TATA box-binding protein (TBP), RNA polymerase (Pol) II, and general transc...

  16. Tres usos de la “mitología” andina: Wiracocha-Tunupa, la no explotación del cerro rico en potosí y Tata santiago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huascar Rodríguez García

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A partir de las propuestas elaboradas por Manuel Gutiérrez Estévez se presentan tres motivos míticos andinos: el mito de Wiracocha-Tunupa, el mito de la no explotación minera en Potosí y el mito de Tata Santiago, para explorar sus usos y actualizaciones, partiendo de la consideración de que las nociones mito y mitología son el resultado de una invención occidental que buscaba, a través de las crónicas y su difusión evangelizadora, legitimar las acciones coloniales en el Nuevo Mundo. Con esta perspectiva se enfocan los tres mitemas señalados, haciendo énfasis en que, en cuanto construcciones sociales, estos han nacido en el seno de relaciones interlocutorias y de poder entre mundos culturalmente distintos, y se han venido transformando según los usos sociales que se les ha dado. Palabras clave: crónicas, Wiracocha, Tunupa, Potosí, Santiago, mitografía. ABSTRACT This paper introduces three andean mythic motives —the myth of Wiracoha-Tunupa, the myth of non mineral exploitation in Potosí and Tata Santiago’s myth—based on the proposals elaborated by Manuel Gutiérrez Estévez, in order to explore their uses and actualizations, and starting from the consideration that the notions of “myth” and “mythology” are the result of an occidental invention intended to legitimize colonial actions in the new world through chronicles and their evangelic diffusion. From that perspective, the three mythic themes mentioned will be analized, emphasizing that, as social constructions, they have been born inside power relationships between different cultural worlds, and they have been continuously transformed, according to the social uses which they have been given. Keywords: chronicles, Wiracocha, Tunupa, Potosí, Santiago, mythography.

  17. Reference: 439 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available or IID (TFIID) complex. Overexpression of atTAF10 under the control of the 35S promoter in Arabidopsis impro...is TATA box-binding protein (TBP)-associated factor 10 (atTAF10), which constitutes the transcriptional fact

  18. APLIKASI SIMOBA UNTUK PREDIKSI GENANGAN BANJIR DALAM PENILAIAN RENCANA TATA RUANG WILAYAH : STUDI KASUS DAS TEMPURAN DI KABUPATEN PONOROGO (Application SIMOBA to Floodplain Prediction to Assessment of Spatial Plan: Case Study in Tempuran Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novia Lusiana

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Banjir dan masalah lingkungan yang terus melanda Kabupaten Ponorogo khususnya, disebabkan oleh semakin berkurangnya kawasan resapan air (alih fungsi lahan dan semakin rusaknya hutan dan kawasan konservasi di wilayah hulu misalnya pada kawasan hutan di Gunung Wilis dan Gunung Sigogor serta sekitarnya (Rahadi B dkk, 2009. Perlu dilakukan usaha prediksi banjir sejak dini sebagai usaha pengendalian bencana banjir. Melalui bantuan Sistem Informasi Geografi (SIG dapat dilakukan prediksi tentang bencana berdasarkan data cuaca atau iklim (prognosa khususnya prognosa potensi genangan banjir yang terjadi. Sistem Informasi dan Model Pengelolaan Banjir (SIMOBA merupakan salah satu software SIG yang dapat memprediksi genangan banjir. Alat-alat yang digunakan berupa PC (Personal Computer sebagai hardware pengolah input data dengan didukung software ArcView 3.3 ESRI, MapObject, Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0, SIMOBA sebagai software pemodelan hidrologi. Data-data input yang dibutuhkan berupa peta kontur wilayah sekitar DAS Tempuran, peta batas DAS Tempuran, peta jaringan sungai dan data curah hujan harian selama 10 tahun terakhir. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah analisis spasial dari genangan (limpasan banjir yang terbentuk pada DAS Tempuran pada kondisi tata guna lahan aktual dan kondisi tata guna lahan berdasarkan Rencana Tata Ruang Wilayah pada tahun 2008-2028. Masing-masing juga dibandingkan luas genangan pada periode ulang 10, 25, 50 tahun. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan hasil simulasi didapatkan luas genangan dan kedalaman genangan periode ulang yaitu pada periode 10 tahun luas genangan 1904,406 ha dengan kedalaman 5,43 m, pada periode 25 tahun luas genangan 2203,068 ha dan kedalaman 6,22 m, pada periode 50 tahun 2530,425 ha dan kedalaman 6,62 m   ABSTRACT Flood and environmental problems at Ponorogo regency, might be caused by the decrease of water infiltration area and the destruction of forests and conservation areas upstream area

  19. Análisis y diseño de medidas preventivas apoyadas en la informática forense para mejorar los niveles de seguridad de la información manejada por el servicio de mesa de ayuda prestado por la empresa Tata

    OpenAIRE

    Chacón Bonifaz, William Henry

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes the analysis and design of preventive measures supported in computer forensics to improve security levels of information handled by the help desk service provided by the company "TATA" - "TELEFÓNICA" using tools (software) and methodologies that allow us to identify potential vulnerabilities in the organization, with the aim of designing preventive measures to improve processes and information management to provide TI support to internal users of the client. El trabajo ...

  20. Candidate SNP markers of gender-biased autoimmune complications of monogenic diseases are predicted by a significant change in the affinity of TATA-binding protein for human gene promoters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail P. Ponomarenko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Some variations of human genome (for example, single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs] are markers of hereditary diseases and drug responses. Analysis of them can help to improve treatment. Computer-based analysis of millions of SNPs in the 1000 Genomes project makes a search for SNP markers more targeted. Here we combined two computer-based approaches: DNA sequence analysis and keyword search in databases. In the binding sites for TATA-binding protein (TBP in human gene promoters, we found candidate SNP markers of gender-biased autoimmune diseases, including rs1143627 (cachexia in rheumatoid arthritis [double prevalence among women]; rs11557611 (demyelinating diseases [thrice more prevalent among young white women than among nonwhite individuals]; rs17231520 and rs569033466 (both: atherosclerosis comorbid with related diseases [double prevalence among women]; rs563763767 (Hughes syndrome-related thrombosis [lethal during pregnancy]; rs2814778 (autoimmune diseases [excluding multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis] underlying hypergammaglobulinemia in women; rs72661131 and rs562962093 (both: preterm delivery in pregnant diabetic women; and rs35518301, rs34166473, rs34500389, rs33981098, rs33980857, rs397509430, rs34598529, rs33931746, rs281864525, and rs63750953 (all: autoimmune diseases underlying hypergammaglobulinemia in women. Validation of these predicted candidate SNP markers using the clinical standards may advance personalized medicine.

  1. EVALUASI TUTUPAN LAHAN PERMUKIMAN TERHADAP RENCANA DETIL TATA RUANG KOTA (RDTRK SURABAYA PADA CITRA RESOLUSI TINGGI DENGAN METODE KLASIFIKASI BERBASIS OBJEK (STUDI KASUS: UP XI TAMBAK OSOWILANGON DAN UP XII SAMBIKEREP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Dwijayanti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Semakin banyaknya penduduk maka kebutuhan akan lahan untuk tempat tinggal semakin besar sehingga banyak terjadi alih fungsi kegiatan dari suatu wilayah sehingga diperlukan suatupenataan ruang yang baik. Penataan ruang yang baik di wujudkan dalam Rencana  Detail Tata Ruang Kota (RDTRK, dalam penyusunan RDTRK dibutuhkan suatu data dasar yang dapat berupa citra resolusi tinggi ataupun foto udara. Perkembangan teknologi penginderaan jauh terutama pada metode pengolahan citra resolusi tinggi memunculkan teknologi yang lebih canggih yang memudahkan dalam teknik interpretasi dan klasifikasi citra yang biasa disebut dengan metode klasifikasi digital. Metode klasifikasi yang dapat digunakan adalah metode klasifikasi berbasis piksel dan metode klasifikasi berbasis objek. Pada penelitian ini dilakukan pengolahan citra menggunakan klasifikasi berbasis objek. Klasifikasi berbasis objek menggunakan segmentasi dan merging dalam prosesnya. Dalam penelitian ini digunakan citra satelit WorldView 2 keluaran tahun 2012 yang menawarkan detail informasi akurat yang dapat diekstrak untuk berbagai keperluan. Hasil yang diperoleh dari penelitian ini adalah koreksigeometrik sebesar 0,300336 piksel dan SOF sebesar 0,0946. Penelitian ini mengevaluasi tutupan lahan khususnya permukiman menggunakan metode klasifikasi berbasis objek terhadap RDTRK. Hasil dari uji ketelitian klasifikasi citra WorldView-2 sebesar 93,3465%  pada UP Tambak Osowilangon, 88,9040% pada Kecamatan Pakal, dan 88,7%  pada Kecamatan Sambikerep dengan jumlah kelas tutupan lahan sebanyak  9 kelas yaitu permukiman,  jalan, ladang, industri, tanah kosong, badan air, sawah dan tambak. Yang kemudian di kaji kesesuaianya dengan RDTRK.

  2. TATA-binding protein-related factor 2 is localized in the cytoplasm of mammalian cells and much of it migrates to the nucleus in response to genotoxic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyoung-ae; Tanaka, Yuji; Suenaga, Yusuke; Tamura, Taka-aki

    2006-10-31

    TBP (TATA-binding protein)-related factor 2 (TRF2) regulates transcription during a nuber of cellular processes. We previously demonstrated that it is localized in the cytoplasm and is translocated to the nucleus by DNA-damaging agents. However, the cytoplasmic localization of TRF2 is controversial. In this study, we reconfirmed its cytoplasmic localization in various ways and examined its nuclear migration. Stresses such as heat shock, redox agents, heavy metals, and osmotic shock did not affect localization whereas genotoxins such as methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), cisplatin, etoposide, and hydroxyurea caused it to migrate to the nucleus. Adriamycin, mitomycin C and gamma-rays had no obvious effect. We determined optimal conditions for the nuclear migration. The proportions of cells with nuclei enriched for TRF2 were 25-60% and 5-10% for stressed cells and control cells, respectively. Nuclear translocation was observed after 1 h, 4 h and 12 h for cisplatin, etoposide and MMS and hydroxyurea, respectively. The association of TRF2 with the chromatin and promoter region of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) gene, a putative target of TRF2, was increased by MMS treatment. Thus TRF2 may be involved in genotoxin-induced transcriptional regulation.

  3. A novel carbonic anhydrase II mRNA isolated from mature chicken testis displays a TATA box and other promoter sequences in a leader 5' untranslated region not present in somatic tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezquita, J; Pau, M; Mezquita, C

    1994-09-30

    The primary structure of a novel carbonic anhydrase II-encoding cDNA clone (CAII) isolated from a chicken testis cDNA library is presented. The size of the CAII mRNA obtained from meiotic and haploid chicken testis cells is larger than the corresponding mRNA from immature testis and somatic tissues. The nucleotide sequence of the chicken testis CAII clone revealed a protein-coding region identical to the published sequence of CAII mRNA from erythroid cells. However, the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of the testis CAII mRNA is larger than the corresponding somatic sequence. The 5' UTR contains a leader sequence not present in the CAII mRNA isolated from erythroid cells or chick retina. The additional 5' UTR of the mRNA displays a TATA box, located 23-30 bp upstream from the cap site of the CAII mRNA transcribed in erythroid cells, and several G+C-rich boxes. Our results suggest that the use of a testis-specific promoter would result in the incorporation of somatic promoter sequences into the 5' UTR of the testis message.

  4. Shutoff of RNA polymerase II transcription by poliovirus involves 3C protease-mediated cleavage of the TATA-binding protein at an alternative site: incomplete shutoff of transcription interferes with efficient viral replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Pallob; Raychaudhuri, Santanu; Tsai, Weimin; Dasgupta, Asim

    2005-08-01

    The TATA-binding protein (TBP) plays a crucial role in cellular transcription catalyzed by all three DNA-dependent RNA polymerases. Previous studies have shown that TBP is targeted by the poliovirus (PV)-encoded protease 3C(pro) to bring about shutoff of cellular RNA polymerase II-mediated transcription in PV-infected cells. The processing of the majority of viral precursor proteins by 3C(pro) involves cleavages at glutamine-glycine (Q-G) sites. We present evidence that suggests that the transcriptional inactivation of TBP by 3C(pro) involves cleavage at the glutamine 104-serine 105 (Q104-S105) site of TBP and not at the Q18-G19 site as previously thought. The TBP Q104-S105 cleavage by 3C(pro) is greatly influenced by the presence of an aliphatic amino acid at the P4 position, a hallmark of 3C(pro)-mediated proteolysis. To examine the importance of host cell transcription shutoff in the PV life cycle, stable HeLa cell lines were created that express recombinant TBP resistant to cleavage by the viral proteases, called GG rTBP. Transcription shutoff was significantly impaired and delayed in GG rTBP cells upon infection with poliovirus compared with the cells that express wild-type recombinant TBP (wt rTBP). Infection of GG rTBP cells with poliovirus resulted in small plaques, significantly reduced viral RNA synthesis, and lower viral yields compared to the wt rTBP cell line. These results suggest that a defect in transcription shutoff can lead to inefficient replication of poliovirus in cultured cells.

  5. 斑节对虾细胞周期蛋白E基因的克隆与表达分析%Molecular cloning and expression analysis of the cyclin E gene from black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵超; 傅明骏; 江世贵; 周发林; 杨其彬; 朱彩艳; 邱丽华

    2014-01-01

    为了解细胞周期蛋白 E(cyclin E)基因在斑节对虾(Penaeus monodon)发育过程中的作用,构建和测序了斑节对虾全组织cDNA文库,获得了斑节对虾细胞周期蛋白(Pmcyclin) E的部分表达序列。通过RACE技术克隆得到1条全长1706 bp的cDNA序列。Pmcyclin E开放阅读框(ORF)为1263 bp,编码420个氨基酸。生物信息学分析表明,该氨基酸序列含有周期蛋白家族特有的 CYCLIN保守区并含有 N-糖基化位点及磷酸化位点。经 BLAST同源性分析表明,该基因编码蛋白与红火蚁(Solenopsis invicta)、切叶蜂(Megachile rotundata)等多种节肢动物细胞周期蛋白 E 有很高的同源性。组织分布分析表明,该基因在斑节对虾精巢、卵巢、肠、脑、肝胰腺、胃和心脏组织中均有表达,其中卵巢中表达量较高,而心脏、胃及肝胰腺中表达量相对较低。分别对蜕皮抑制激素(MIH)注射和眼柄切除的对虾进行表达分析,发现眼柄切除后, Pmcyclin E大量表达,而注射MIH后细胞Pmcyclin E的表达量相对降低。结果表明,细胞cyclin E基因在斑节对虾卵巢发育过程中起重要作用,且眼柄切除对细胞cyclin E的表达具有影响,该结果为进一步探究斑节对虾卵巢的发育机理提供了理论依据。%Cyclins are the positive regulatory subunits of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK). They play a critical role in the coordination of the eucaryotic cell cycle by binding to the catalytic subunits of CDKs. They share distant sequence homology over a 100 amino acid region called the cyclin box and have been classified into two phy-logenetically divergent subfamilies. The first contains A, B, D, E, F, and G cyclins and the second contains the C and H cyclins. Shrimp culture is limited by a lack of methods to breed adults in captivity. This is because female shrimp are unable to reach ovarian maturity without intervention using destructive, expensive, or time consuming methods such as eyestalk

  6. OPTIMASI TATA GUNA LAHAN DAN PENERAPAN REKAYASA TEKNIK DALAM ANALISA BANJIR DI DAERAH ALIRAN SUNGAI: STUDI KASUS DAERAH ALIRAN SUNGAI CILIWUNG HULU DI BENDUNG KATULAMPA (The Optimization of Land Use and the Application of Engineering Treatment in Flood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohana Lilis Handayani

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Peningkatan aliran puncak dan volume runoff dari flood hydrograph dapat disebabkan oleh konversi penggunaan lahan. Fenomena ini terjadi di cekungan hulu sungai Ciliwung sebagai daerah konservasi. DAS ini memiliki peran penting dalam memelihara ketersediaan air di cekungan Ciliwung dan untuk pengendalian banjir di daerah hilir. Berdasarkan data yang dicatat dari 1993 sampai dengan 1996, 14,6% kejadian banjir di daerah hilir disebabkan oleh banjir kiriman. Evaluasi konversi penggunaan lahan di daerah hulu Ciliwung dilakukan dengan membandingkan penggunaan lahan tahun 1989 dan 1998. Optimasi tata guna lahan dilakukan dengan optimasi linier untuk meminimasi nilai koefisien composite runoff. Pendekatan teknis dan penerapan rekayasa teknik digunakan untuk simulasi penurunan aliran puncak dan volume runoff dari flood hydrograph. Perlakuan ini meliputi terracing dan normalisasi kolam detensi (detention pond. Simulasi dilakukan untuk periode banjir 10 tahunan. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa dalam periode 10 tahun (1989-1998 penggunaan lahan dikonversi secara signifikan. Konversi ini menyebabkan peningkatan aliran puncak dan volume runoff masing-masing 18,97% dan 18,87%.   ABSTRACT The risk of peak flow and runoff volume of a flood hydrograph may be caused by land use conversion. This phenomenon had happened in upstream of Ciliwung basin. As a conversation area, this catchment has an important role in maintaining the water availability of Ciliwung basin and for flood control in downstream area. Based on the collected flood data recorded from 1993 to 1996, 14.6% of flood events in downstream of Ciliwung basin were caused by delivery flood from upstream area. Evaluation of land use conversion in upstream of Ciliwung basin was carried out by comparing land use in 1989 and in 1998. Land use optimization was done using linear optimization to minimize the value of composite runoff coefficient. Technical approach of engineering treatment was used to

  7. DIAGNOSIS DAN TATA LAKSANA ENSEFALITIS HERPES SIMPLEKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Yuliantini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Infeksi Herpes simpleks pada susunan saraf pusat (SSP merupakan infeksi SSP yang paling beratdan sering berakibat fatal. Angka kejadiannya diperkirakan 1 kasus per 250 000 sampai 500 000orang per tahun, sepertiganya terjadi pada anak-anak. Gejala dan tanda klinis pada fase awal sangattidak khas. Pemberian terapi yang terlambat membawa dampak terjadinya kecacatan permanen.Deteksi virus Herpes simpleks (VHS di dalam cairan serebrospinal dengan polymerase chain reactionmerupakan modalitas pilihan untuk diagnosis ensefalitis herpes simpleks (EHS. Asiklovir intravenamerupakan obat pilihan pertama. Pengobatan segera diberikan kepada pasien yang dicurigai menderitaEHS, kemudian pengobatan dapat dilanjutkan atau dihentikan sesuai konfirmasi laboratorium atauhasil biopsi otak. Pasien yang tidak diberikan antivirus atau pengobatannya terlambat angkakematiannya cukup tinggi.

  8. TATA KELOLA TEKNOLOGI INFORMASI (IT GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ita Ernala Kaban

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Technology advances offer many advantages for information and data storage, delivery, access and processing. Technology advances have also placed information as one of the most prominent resources requiring good and proper management. Information technology management in enterprise, although has been implemented, yet has not been managed using structured approach, thus, it is difficult to measure the roles of Information Technology in supporting business process for achieving enterprise objectives. In that way, the aim of this research is to analyze standard model for IT Governance. From the study, it can be concluded that COBIT has a better compromise in its horizontal and vertical dimension compared to the other standards. COBIT has a wider and more detailed IT process spectrum.Keywords: IT Governance, enterprise, business process

  9. Adipocyte spliced form of X-box-binding protein 1 promotes adiponectin multimerization and systemic glucose homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sha, H.; Yang, L.; Liu, M.; Xia, S.; Liu, Y.; Liu, F.; Kersten, A.H.; Qi, L.

    2014-01-01

    The physiological role of the spliced form of X-box–binding protein 1 (XBP1s), a key transcription factor of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, in adipose tissue remains largely unknown. In this study, we show that overexpression of XBP1s promotes adiponectin multimerization in

  10. A wheat CCAAT box-binding transcription factor increases the grain yield of wheat with less fertilizer input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Baoyuan; He, Xue; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Yanyan; Teng, Wan; Shao, An; Zhao, Xueqiang; Ma, Wenying; Wang, Junyi; Li, Bin; Li, Zhensheng; Tong, Yiping

    2015-02-01

    Increasing fertilizer consumption has led to low fertilizer use efficiency and environmental problems. Identifying nutrient-efficient genes will facilitate the breeding of crops with improved fertilizer use efficiency. This research performed a genome-wide sequence analysis of the A (NFYA), B (NFYB), and C (NFYC) subunits of Nuclear Factor Y (NF-Y) in wheat (Triticum aestivum) and further investigated their responses to nitrogen and phosphorus availability in wheat seedlings. Sequence mining together with gene cloning identified 18 NFYAs, 34 NFYBs, and 28 NFYCs. The expression of most NFYAs positively responded to low nitrogen and phosphorus availability. In contrast, microRNA169 negatively responded to low nitrogen and phosphorus availability and degraded NFYAs. Overexpressing TaNFYA-B1, a low-nitrogen- and low-phosphorus-inducible NFYA transcript factor on chromosome 6B, significantly increased both nitrogen and phosphorus uptake and grain yield under differing nitrogen and phosphorus supply levels in a field experiment. The increased nitrogen and phosphorus uptake may have resulted from the fact that that overexpressing TaNFYA-B1 stimulated root development and up-regulated the expression of both nitrate and phosphate transporters in roots. Our results suggest that TaNFYA-B1 plays essential roles in root development and in nitrogen and phosphorus usage in wheat. Furthermore, our results provide new knowledge and valuable gene resources that should be useful in efforts to breed crops targeting high yield with less fertilizer input.

  11. [Rbf1 (RPG-box binding factor), a transcription factor involved in yeast-hyphal transition of Candida albicans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Y; Ishii, N; Watanabe, M; Yoshihara, F; Arisawa, M

    1998-01-01

    The major fungal pathogen for fungal diseases which have become a major medical problem in the last few years is Candida albicans, which can grow both in yeast and hyphae forms. This ability of C. albicans is thought to contribute to its colonization and dissemination within host tissues. In a recent few years, accompanying the introduction of molecular biological tools into C. albicans organism, several factors involved in the signal transduction pathway for yeast-hyphal transition have been identified. One MAP kinase pathway in C. albicans, similar to that leading to STE12 activation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been reported. C. albicans strains mutant in these genes show retarded filamentous growth on a solid media but no impairment of filamentous growth in mice. These results suggest two scenarios that a kinase signaling cascade plays a part in stimulating the morphological transition in C. albicans, and that there would be another signaling pathway effective in animals. In this latter true hyphal pathway, although some candidate proteins, such as Efg1 (transcription factor), Int1 (integrin-like membrane protein), or Phr1 (pH-regulated membrane protein), have been identified, it is still too early to say that we understand the whole picture of that cascade. We have cloned a C. albicans gene encoding a novel DNA binding protein, Rbf1, that predominantly localizes in the nucleus, and shows transcriptional activation capability. Disruption of the functional RBF1 genes of C. albicans induced the filamentous growth on all solid and liquid media tested, suggesting that Rbf1 might be another candidate for the true hyphal pathway. Relationships with other factors described above, and the target (regulated) genes of Rbf1 is under investigation.

  12. EKSISTENSI ULTRA PETITA DALAM PELAKSANAAN FUNGSI PERADILAN TATA USAHA NEGARA DI PENGADILAN TATA USAHA NEGARA YOGYAKARTA

    OpenAIRE

    ,, Pratiwi

    2014-01-01

    Administrative Court as one of the judiciary under the Supreme Court, was created to resolve disputes between government and the citizen of the country as a result of government actions are considered to violate the rights of citizens. Beside that, Administrative Court has a function to monitor the actions of the administrative that detrimental to the people, who at the same time it contains the function of legal protection for the people in the state of law. Administrative Court has a cha...

  13. 酵母CYC1启动子TATA框对ERE调控的报告基因的影响%The Effects of TATA-box in CYC1 Promoter on the Reporter Gene Regulated by ERE in the Recombinant Yeast Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭明典; 罗方妮; 葛宜枝; 李晶晶; 徐海荣; 李湘鸣

    2011-01-01

    人工合成两条雌激素效应元件(ERE) 重复的核苷酸序列,并在5′和3′端设计Hind Ⅲ and Sph Ⅰ黏性末端.将两条互补的ERE溶液加热至95℃,然后冷却至室温使其形成双股DNA,将双股ERE插入到pERE-CYC-yEGFP载体的细胞色素C(CYC1)启动子相应的酶切位点,生成pERE-CYCα-yEGFP载体.pERE-CYC-yEGFP和pERE-CYCα-yEGFP载体的不同之处是ERE位于CYC1启动子的位置,前者ERE下游的CYC1启动子含有α和β-TATA框,而后只含有α-TATA框.将两者分别转化于可表达人雌激素受体的酵母细胞,构建成两种受雌激素调控的重组酵母细胞.将该重组酵母细胞经6种不同的雌激素化合物作用4 h,发现重组pERE-CYCα-yEGFP的酵母细胞的绿色荧光蛋白(GFP)表达量与受试物间剂量效应关系较差,而含有pERE-CYC-yEGFP载体重组酵母细胞,与受试物具有明显的剂量效应关系.因此,在用于快速、高通量筛选雌激素类化合物生物评价中,其CYC1基本启动子中的α和β-TATA框是必须的.%The complementary oligonucleotides, each with two consensus estrogen response element (ERE)-sequences and 5'-Hind HI and 3'-Sph I sticky ends were artificially synthesized. A solution with both the complementary DNA sequences was heated to 95^0 and cooled down to room temperature to form double strand DNA (dsD-NA). The set was cloned into the corresponding sites of CYC1 promoter of the pERE-CYC-yEGFP to yield pERE-CYCa-yEGFP vector. The two different reporter vectors, pERE-CYC-yEGFP and pERE-CYCa-yEGFP, the 2ERE, were placed in the CYC1 promoter. The former promoter downstream ERE contains a and 0-TATA boxes and the latter has only a -TATA box. The two different reporter vectors were transformed into the yeast cells that express human estrogen receptor o (Era). Incubation of the recombinant yeasts with the six estrogenic compounds for 4 hours showed that the recombinant cell containing pERE-CYCa-yEGFP would give very poor dose-response curves

  14. 不同环境条件下斑节对虾家系生长和免疫酶活性差异%Analysis on growth and characteristic of immune enzymes activity of Penaeus monodon family under environment-stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨其彬; 王专伟; 周发林; 温为庚; 苏天凤; 邱丽华; 黄建华

    2013-01-01

    研究了正常生长、低温胁迫和高氨氮胁迫下10个斑节对虾家系生长特性及超氧化物歧化酶(Superoxide Dismutase, SOD)、酸性磷酸酶(Acid Phosphatase, ACP)、酚氧化酶(Phenoloxidase, PO)3种免疫酶活性的变化。生长试验结果表明,10个家系特定生长率(SGR)呈现明显差异,家系077与家系017和661的ACP活性存在极显著差异,家系4612与家系017的 SOD活性存在极显著性差异,而其他家系的免疫酶活性无显著差异。斑节对虾在48h低温胁迫下, ACP和SOD活性先升高后降低, PO活性则不断降低,而对照组的3种酶活性呈无规律轻微变化。斑节对虾在48h高氨氮胁迫下, ACP活性不断升高, SOD在0-8h活性上升,8-48h活性快速降低, PO活性不断下降,而对照组的3种酶活性呈无规律轻微变化;一些家系间的3种免疫酶活性存在显著性差异,其中家系4612的3种酶活性均高于其他家系。3个试验中,家系的特定生长率与免疫酶活性均呈负相关。%The response of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Acid Phosphatase (ACP), and Phenoloxidase (PO) in Penaeus monodon families to normal growth, low temperature stress and high ammonia stress was studied under laboratory condition. Growth in terms of specific growth rate (SGR) was significant difference among the selected families (p<0.05). The activities of ACP were significant difference among family 077, 017 and 661. The activities of SOD were significant difference between family 4612 and family 017. When the rearing temperature decreased from 27℃to 20℃, the activities of ACP and SOD first increased and then decreased, the activities of PO reduced prolonged according to the low temperature stress, and the minor changes of control trial were not regular. Under the high ammonia stress, the activities of ACP increased prolonged, the activities of SOD increased in 0−8 h, then rapidly decreased in 8−48 h, the activities of PO reduced in 0−48 h, and the minor

  15. Overexpression of X-Box Binding Protein 1 (XBP1 Correlates to Poor Prognosis and Up-Regulation of PI3K/mTOR in Human Osteosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jielai Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence demonstrates that dysregulation of XBP1 function contributes to tumorigenesis in some cancers. However, little is known about the role of XBP1 in the progression of osteosarcoma (OS. The expression of XBP1 in OS samples was measured by quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting assays. Cell cycle analysis and cell counting kit 8 (CCK8 assays were performed to determine the effects of XBP1 expression on cells growth capacity. Cell apoptosis coassay was applied to determine cell survival. The expression of genes affected by XBP1 was examined by quantitative RT-RCR and validated by Western blotting assays. XBP1 was overexpressed in OS clinical samples compared with corresponding non-cancerous tissues. Overexpression of XBP1 was significantly associated with advanced clinical stages, high degree of malignancy and low tumor necrosis rate. Furthermore, hypoxia activated XBP1, and silencing XBP1 significantly enhanced OS cell apoptosis. Knock-down of XBP1 resulted in inhibition of OS growth. Most importantly, knockdown of XBP1 led to down-regulation of PIK3R3 and mTOR. Taken together, XBP1 is up-regulated and has a pro-tumor effect in OS with activation of PI3K/mTOR signaling. Thus, targeting XBP1 may provide a new potential therapeutic method for OS.

  16. Role of NF-Kappa B Signaling in X-Box Binding Protein 1 (XBP1)-Mediated Antiestrogen Resistance in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    when overexpressed under the CMV promoter (6). To ensure we have sufficient exogenous XBP1(U) to determine its function, we mutated the Lysines that...are important for XBP1(U) ubiquitination and degradation (XBP1-K2R). The mutations were designed to alter the coding sequence of XBP1(U) only and...regulates NFkB Signaling in antiestrogen resistant breast cancer cells” Rong Hu, Ahreej Eltayeb, Ayesha Shajahan, Rebecca Riggins, Robert Clarke

  17. High expression of Y-box-binding protein 1 correlates with poor prognosis and early recurrence in patients with small invasive lung adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao S

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Shilei Zhao,1,* Wei Guo,1,* Jinxiu Li,1 Wendan Yu,1 Tao Guo,1 Wuguo Deng,2,3 Chundong Gu1 1The First Affiliated Hospital, Institute of Cancer Stem Cell, Lung Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment Center, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, 2Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center of Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, 3State Key Laboratory of Targeted Drug for Tumors of Guangdong Province, Guangzhou Double Bioproduct Inc., Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Prognosis of small (≤2 cm invasive lung adenocarcinoma remains poor, and identification of high-risk individuals from the patients after complete surgical resection of lung adenocarcinoma has become an urgent problem. YBX1 has been reported to be able to predict prognosis in many cancers (except lung adenocarcinoma that are independent of TNM (tumor, nodes, metastases staging, especially small invasive lung adenocarcinoma. Therefore, we examined the significance of YBX1 expression on prognosis and recurrence in patients with small invasive lung adenocarcinoma. Material and methods: A total of 75 patients with small invasive lung adenocarcinoma after complete resection were enrolled from January 2008 to December 2010. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expression of YBX1, and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to precisely assess the overall expression of YBX1. Meanwhile, primary lesions were identified based on the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, the American Thoracic Society, and the European Respiratory Society’s classification of lung adenocarcinoma. The effect of different clinicopathological factors on patients’ survival was examined. Furthermore, Western blot analysis was used to show the expression of YBX1 in vitro. Results: Sensitivity and specificity of YBX1 for detecting small invasive lung adenocarcinoma from normal surrounding tissue were 66.7% and 74.7% (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve =0.731; P<0.001, respectively. High YBX1 expression was detected in 31 (41.3% patients, and in A549, H322, Hcc827, and H1299 lung adenocarcinoma cells but not in HLF cells. In addition to sex, age, tumor size, TNM staging, pleural invasion, and lymph node metastasis, the expression of YBX1 was associated with the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, the American Thoracic Society, and the European Respiratory Society pathological grade risk (P=0.026 and differentiation (P=0.009. The patients with low YBX1 expression lived longer than those with high expression (5-year overall survival: 52.3% vs 79.0%; P=0.039 and showed fewer recurrences (P=0.024. In multivariate analyses, high YBX1 expression (odds ratio =2.737; 95% confidence interval: 1.058–7.082; P=0.038 was shown as an independent risk factor of overall survival but not of disease-free survival (odds ratio =1.696; 95% confidence interval: 0.616–4.673; P=0.307. Conclusion: YBX1 is an important predictor for the prognosis in patients with small invasive lung adenocarcinoma after complete resection. Keywords: YBX1, lung adenocarcinoma, prognosis

  18. Role of NF-Kappa B Signaling in X-Box Binding Protein 1 (XBP1)-Mediated Antiestrogen Resistance in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    the cell death response to antiestrogen therapy. ERα knockdown, but not ICI treatment, reduced nuclear Nrf2 (a UPR-induced antioxidant signaling...Cancer Center, 09/2007-09/2009 Skp2 regulation of melanoma cell proliferation: mechanism and role in a skin -like microenvironment Post-doctoral

  19. Retrotransposable CR1-like elements in crotalinae snake genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobuhisa, I; Ogawa, T; Deshimaru, M; Chijiwa, T; Nakashima, K I; Chuman, Y; Shimohigashi, Y; Fukumaki, Y; Hattori, S; Ohno, M

    1998-06-01

    A part of the 3'-flanking region of BP-II gene, which is one of Trimeresurus flavoviridis venom gland phospholopase A2 (PLA2) isozyme genes, has a region homologous to avian chicken repeat 1 (CR1)-element. In the present study, ten CR1-like elements were further identified in T. gramineus venom gland PLA2 isozyme genes, T. flavoviridis PLA2 inhibitor (PLI) genes, and T. flavoviridis and T. gramineus TATA-box binding protein (TBP) genes. Southern blot analysis using a probe for CR1 showed that Crotalinae snake genomes contain a number of CR1-like elements.

  20. Relationship between the Expression of Thymidylate Synthase,Thymidine Phosphorylase and Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase and Survival in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王常玉; 翁艳洁; 王鸿雁; 石英; 马丁

    2010-01-01

    The mRNA and protein expression of thymidylate synthase (TS), thymidine phosphorylase (TP) and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) and their relationship with prognosis were investigated. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR (Taqman) was used to detect the mRNA expression of TS, TP and DPD in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded 106 samples of epithelial ovarian cancer and 29 normal ovaries. A TATA box-binding protein (TBP) was used as an endogenous reference gene. A relationship between TS, TP, DPD expression a...

  1. SINKRONISASI TATA RUANG WILAYAH KOTA BOGOR DALAM MENDUKUNG PROGRAM PEMBANGUNAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigit Prayitno

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The RTRW was intended to help The City Government to prepare an urban development guideline that includes the sectoral and spatial aspect. The synchronization between the development program with RTRW was conducted through application of spatial plan in the development program. The purpose of this study were: (1 analysis of the suitability of land use with RTRW; (2 analysis of the suitability of the development program with RTRW; (3 analysis of the spatial planning use in the preparation of the development program and its influencing factors; and (4 strategy formulations to improve the synchronization. The analytical method used in this study were: overlay analysis, descriptive analysis, and A'WOT. The results showed that the suitability of land use in 2013 with the spatial pattern plan is 59.58%, unrealized 36.41%, not suitable 4.01%. Average physical program in accordance with RTRW is 87.68%. 75% of agencies are already using RTRW in the preparation of the development program, while 25% of institutions did not. The prioritized strategy is to implement the regulations on spatial planning and development plan explicitly so that the city government's commitment can be realized.

  2. Manajemen Laba, Pengungkapan Lingkungan Perusahaan dan Mekanisme Tata Kelola Perusahaan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaky Machmuddah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of earnings management on corporate environmental disclosure with corporate governance mechanisms as a moderating variable. Population of this study is all companies listed in Indonesian Stock Exchange between 2008 and 2011. The samples size is 61 companies or 144 annual reports selected by using purposive sampling method. The data was analysed by employing multiple regression method. The result of this study demonstrated that earnings management significantly affected corporate environmental disclosure. Corporate governance mechanisms represented by proportion of independent board of directors and the number of audit committees moderated the effect of earnings management on corporate environmental disclosure. Meanwhile, the number of board of directors meetings and the number of audit committees meetings did not moderate the effect of earnings management on corporate environmental disclosure. The practical implication of this study is that the government needs to propuse a policy to reduce opportunistic action of managers in order to optimize shareholders and stakeholders  decision making process

  3. PENYELESAIAN SENGKETA LINGKUNGAN MELALUI PERADILAN TATA USAHA NEGARA

    OpenAIRE

    A'an Effendi

    2013-01-01

    Environmental dispute resolution through the administrative courts is done by submitting lawsuit into administrative courts in order the judge will cancel the issuance of environmental permits which were not carefully made, so that it could stop the environment pollution which occurred immediately. Environmental dispute resolution through administrative courts aims to stop the environment pollution which occurred through administrative law procedures. The legal basis for the lawsuit of enviro...

  4. PENYELESAIAN SENGKETA LINGKUNGAN MELALUI PERADILAN TATA USAHA NEGARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A'an Effendi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental dispute resolution through the administrative courts is done by submitting lawsuit into administrative courts in order the judge will cancel the issuance of environmental permits which were not carefully made, so that it could stop the environment pollution which occurred immediately. Environmental dispute resolution through administrative courts aims to stop the environment pollution which occurred through administrative law procedures. The legal basis for the lawsuit of environmental dispute resolution through administrative courts refers to the Law No. 32/2009 about the Environment Protection and Management and also Administrative Court Law.

  5. PERUBAHAN TATA RUANG RUMAH PENGRAJIN GERABAH KLIPOH BOROBUDUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanna Ratih Sari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Klipoh is located in the northern part of Borobudur Central Java province,  is a famous pottery village after Nggundi village. Based on data,almost 80% of the people are making pottery. This become unique because the pottery they made similar to manuscript that stipulated at one of the relief Borobudur Temple.It means that the pottery tradition is actually inheritance by the anchestor. As one of villages in Borobudur, Klipoh is still remain traditional eventhough there are many changes and effects forced local value to be changed. But if we take a look into detail, there are some traditional values are still remain and some were already changed. They changed and rearrangedtheir house from ordinary living  to become pottery production  house. There were many rooms and spaces changed functionally based on their pottery needs that caused crowded and made inconfinience of the room user. From this phenomena, therefore, it was needed to focus the study more on the space transformation of traditional houses as one of the significant changes that made trouble for the room users occurred in Klipoh. By using qualitative research, it is expected to look into detail the space transformation due to some aspects.

  6. PERANCANGAN ULANG TATA LETAK FASILITAS DENGAN PENDEKATAN LEAN MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Prasetya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the big investment in a business is facility design. It is a long-term investment due to great value. In its development, PT. Dwi Putra Sakti faced some problems related to facility layout. Problems that can be identified, such as work in process that has accumulated on the production floor, as well as the anorganizad facility layout. Therefore, it is necessary to redesign the layout for the production process more effective and efficient. This study uses a lean manufacturing approach to redesign facility layout. It used value stream mapping, seven waste, cellular manufacturing and 5S principle. Analysis of the implementation result is used to design the layout of the new facility. Level layout that will be examined are the macro-and micro-layout layout. Results of macro-layout design is decreasing production cycle time of trousers. While the micro-layout design is decreasing in material handling displacement.

  7. Tata Kelola Mahasiswa Terhadap Integritas Akademik Dan Plagiarisme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abid Rohmanu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This research would like to see how the instituion of Postgraduate Program (PPs STAIN Ponorogo to manage about the scholars academic integrity and plagiarism, and how ideal the respond of PPs STAIN Ponorogo about that scholars’ attitude is. This research is quite important because of many things. First, the scientific writing in short paper (makalah is the entry point of education and teaching in PT. Second, in other side, PPs STAIN Ponorogo is immediately charged to address and respond an indication of plagiarism di the scholars level, and it needs the research as its basis. This research basically is survey quantitatively toward active scholars in Sharia Economic Study amount of 37 scholars. Instrument used is questionnaire with analysis technique of descriptive statistic. This research concludes that as many as 53% of respondents accustomed to cite exactly what words, phrase, sentence say from reference even though not in the context of direct citation (word for word plagiarism. According to it, so the implication of policy can be taken is socialization about academic integrity in any kind and forum, integrating strict rule about plagiarism in the academic guide, shaping an institution “Language Service (Layanan Bahasa”, and “ Assembly of Academic Consideration (Majelis Pertimbangan Akademik” which concern about plagiarism and software of plagiarism detector, and no less important is building academic culture which is full of integrity holistically. Abstrak: Penelitian ini ingin melihat bagaimana pengelolaan mahasiswa PPs STAIN Ponorogo terhadap integritas akademik dan plagiarisme, dan bagaimana idealnya respon kebijakan PPs STAIN Ponorogo terhadap sikap mahasiswa tersebut. Penelitian ini dirasa cukup penting karena beberapa hal. Pertama, penulisan karya ilmiah dalam bentuk makalah merupakan ujung tombak pendidikan dan pengajaran PT. Kedua, di sisi yang lain, PPs STAIN Ponorogo dituntut untuk segera menyikapi dan merespon gejala plagiarisme di tingkat mahasiswa, dan ini membutuhkan penelitian sebagai basisnya. Penelitian ini pada dasarnya adalah penelitian survey yang bersifat kuantitatif terhadap mahasiswa aktif Program Studi Ekonomi Syariah yang berjumlah 37 mahasiswa. Instrumen yang dipakai adalah angket dengan teknik analisis statistik deskriptif. Penelitian ini menyimpulkan bahwa sebanyak 53% dari responden terbiasa untuk mengutip secara persis kata, frase dan kalimat dari sumber rujukan walaupun bukan dalam konteks kutipan langsung (word for word plagiarism. Berdasar hal tersebut, maka implikasi kebijakan yang bisa diambil adalah sosialisasi tentang integritas akademik dalam berbagai bentuk dan forum, mengintegrasikan aturan tegas tantang plagiarisme dalam pedoman akademik, membentuk lembaga “Layanan Bahasa”, dan “Majelis Pertimbangan Akademik” yang konsen pada persoalan plagiarisme dan penyediaan software pendeteksi plagiarisme, dan yang tidak kalah penting adalah membangun kultur akademik yang penuh integritas secara holistik.

  8. 印度黄咖喱 TATA NANO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    千呼万唤始出来。当这一坨黄色的物体终于呈现在眼前,我却早已失去了当初的期待。好像同一群印度人同搭航班,浓郁的咖喱味道让你无处藏身。塔塔的NANO亦是如此,它已经纠结了我们的耳膜和视网膜数年之久。没有空调、没有助力转向、没有收音机和副驾一侧反光镜;没有防侧撞保护横梁,没有保险杠,没有内胎。还好,10万卢比(1980美元)确实够便宜。恐怕还会有人对它追捧。

  9. Tata Kelola Database Perguruan Tinggi Yang Optimal Dengan Data Warehouse

    CERN Document Server

    Warnars, Spits

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of new higher education institutions has created the competition in higher education market, and data warehouse can be used as an effective technology tools for increasing competitiveness in the higher education market. Data warehouse produce reliable reports for the institution's high-level management in short time for faster and better decision making, not only on increasing the admission number of students, but also on the possibility to find extraordinary, unconventional funds for the institution. Efficiency comparison was based on length and amount of processed records, total processed byte, amount of processed tables, time to run query and produced record on OLTP database and data warehouse. Efficiency percentages was measured by the formula for percentage increasing and the average efficiency percentage of 461.801,04% shows that using data warehouse is more powerful and efficient rather than using OLTP database. Data warehouse was modeled based on hypercube which is created by limited hig...

  10. Kelangsungan dan Perlawanan Tata Pemerintahan yang Baik di Tingkat Desa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christianti Oktiarini

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the study of political decentralization and the resistance is carried out in three areas, West Sumatra, Javanese and Batak. Obtained from the three research areas each of these karkteristik peralawanan and sustainability of the local nature of the resistance. There was found to give each region a religious response in the context of regional autonomy that has been ongoing since 1999 in Indonesia. Society against its own way that occasionally showed intensity that it seems it never ceases to deal with the conditions faced daily. While the country is also facing the community in its own way so it does not collide with each other mutual support.

  11. Problem Diplomasi Perbatasan dalam Tata Kelola Perbatasan Indonesia-Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Rachmawati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The border diplomacy which is intended as tool for gaining national interest should be built on 3 foundations. Those fondations are law, social and economic development and also institution building. This article will highlight the importance of institution building in border diplomacy. In order to manage the cross border relation with neighbour country, the government needs certain institution to holds the task. Related to our case, we will discuss about KK Sosek Malindo as the main institution which has been managing the border issues between Indonesia and Malaysia. KK Sosek Malindo routinely meets to solve several problems arise between both countries in the border. Since 1985, they’ve already agreed various cooperations related to border management and border area development. Unfortunately, this institution became useless when cannot implement those agreements and contribute more because distracted by inapropriate structure of KK Sosek Malindo. This article also tend to convince that restructuritation of KK Sosek Malindo should be done in order to optimalize the function of KK Sosek Malindo for better bilateral relation and border area development.

  12. Tata Laksana SAR Minor untuk Mengurangi Rekurensi dan Keparahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endah Ayu Tri Wulandari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS is an inflammatory condition of oral mucosa and is very common that occur in 20% of population, in which 80% of all cases are minor type. Etiology remains unknown but there are factors that can precipitate the attack, known as predisposing factors, which are haematinic deficiency, food hypersensitivity, bacterial or viral infection, hormonal changes, psychological stress, drugs and local trauma. Management of minor RAS are symptomatic and also discovering all predisposing factors which may play role in order to give the appropriate treatments to all predisposing factors. The appropriate treatment for all predisposing factors is to prevent recurrency or reduce the severity of RAS.This paper presents 2 cases of minor RAS which have bacterial infection from poor oral hygiene; local trauma from radices, irritating tooth cusp and rough surface of calculus; haematinic deficiency; physical / psychological stress and food hypersensitivity, as predisposing factors. The management of those cases are scaling, grinding irritating cusp, giving advice of proper and healthy diet including vitamin supplementation, finding any stress factor and also overcome it. We concluded that finding and eliminating predisposing factors can reduce recurrency and severity of RAS.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v15i2.72

  13. POTENSIAL PELANGGARAN HUKUM PERSAINGAN PADA TATA NIAGA GULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Purwadi

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available As a public policy instruments, implementation of sugar import commerce system should subject to fulfilling society needs especially customers, such as sugar cane farmers and sugar factories. The potential law violent towards cartel and oligopoly is based on "rule of reason" prohibition so that there is an act in accordance to elements of new related paragraphs when has been proven having negative effects.

  14. ANALISIS TATA KELOLA SISTEM KEUANGAN DI INDONESIA: SEBUAH PERSPEKTIF HISTORIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokot Zein Nasution

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the governance of the financial system in Indonesia. This study uses descriptive analysis by reviewing the literature and analysis of secondary data obtained from the Ministry of Finance, Bank Indonesia (BI, the Central Statistics Agency (BPS. The results of the analysis of this study showed that based on historical experience, to mini-mize internal and external obstacles have to do with governance through improved investment and productive credit. This governance is done by way of coordination between the actors of the financial system, the community, financiers, and government. This model is expected to be a proliferation of governance oriented to minimize the risk of the financial system in the future.

  15. IMPROVED PRODUCTION OF TIGER SHRIMP (Penaeus monodon THROUGH PROBIOTICS APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irsyaphiani Insan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in Brebes District, the North coast of Java. Tiger shrimp farming in Indonesia, particularly in this area faced some problems which caused by improper pond preparation, disease, and low seed quality. Probiotic was applied in pond to solve this problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of tiger shrimp in ponds with probiotic applications. Six experimental ponds (each measuring 0.5 ha were selected of which three were probiotic ponds and three were controlled. Tiger shrimp postlarvae (PL-30 were stocked at density of four shrimps/m2. Tiger shrimps were reared for three months. Shrimps were fed by commercial pellet. In the first month, shrimp were fed about 7%-5% of the total biomass; in the second months, 3.5%-3% of the total biomass; and in the third month, 2.5%-2% of the total biomass. The treatments in this study were the application of probiotics with concentration of 3 mg/L that were given every five days and control (without probiotics. The results showed the rearing period was 92 ± 6 days in probiotic ponds and 76 ± 16 days in controlled pond. The shrimp in controlled pond should be harvest earlier caused by the high mortality. The average final weight was 16.2 ± 0.7 g in probiotic pond and 15.6 ± 1.9 g in controlled pond. The survival rate was 64.13 ± 12.63% in probiotic pond and 44.17 ± 14.15% in controlled pond. Production was 208 ± 46 kg/pond/cycle in probiotic pond and 123 ± 6 kg/pond/cycle in controlled pond. The result showed that probiotic plays an important role in maintaining water quality parameters and health management as well as increases the survival of shrimp.

  16. Immune defence White Spot Syndrome Virus infected shrimp, Penaeus monodon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most important viral pathogen of cultured penaeid shrimp worldwide. Since the initial discovery of the virus inTaiwanin 1992, it has spread to shrimp farming regions in Southeast Asia, the

  17. Past and present population dynamics of narwhals Monodon monoceros

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Eva

    , meat and mattak. Concerns have been raised about the sustainability of the hunt, which have led to implementation of hunting quotas in both countries. Hunting quotas are usually calculated from population dynamics models where survival and reproductive rates, based on reliable age distributions......, are vital. Estimation of life history parameters for the narwhal has previously been hindered by lack of a reliable age estimation technique. The Aspartic Acid Racemization (AAR) technique is a relatively novel method that I have applied to narwhals. This PhD thesis focuses, in part, on current population...... of both marine and terrestrial mammals, although the technique still requires both optimization and further validation. In addition, the thesis includes a study of past population dynamics in narwhals. We have investigated the genetic response to climate change and the emographic history of the narwhal...

  18. Haemocytic defence in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braak, van de C.B.T.

    2002-01-01

    Tropical shrimp culture is one of the fastest growing aquaculture sectors in the world. Since this production sector is highly affected by infectious pathogens, disease control is nowadays a priority. Effective prevention methods can be developed more efficiently when quantitative assays for the eva

  19. Haemocytic defence in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braak, van de K.

    2002-01-01

    Tropical shrimp culture is one of the fastest growing aquaculture sectors in the world. Since this production sector is highly affected by infectious pathogens, disease control is nowadays a priority. Effective prevention methods can be developed more efficiently when quantitative assays fo

  20. Complete regeneration of ablated eyestalk in penaeid prawn, Penaeus monodon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, U.M.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    , in which he demonstrated that ovarian maturation can be accelerated by ablating the ey e- stalk. The eyestalk ganglia and the bra in/thoracic ganglia are considered to be the main neuroendocrine centres which play the dual role of inhibition and stim u...

  1. Environ: E00643 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00643 Monodon monoceros maxillary incisor Crude drug Monodon monoceros [TAX:40151]... Physeteridae Monodon monoceros left side maxillary incisor Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Animals Mammals E00643 Monodon monoceros maxillary incisor ...

  2. Applying Thymine Isostere 2,4-Difluoro-5-Methylbenzene as a NMR Assignment Tool and Probe of Homopyrimidine/Homopurine Tract Structural Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinson, Robert G; Miller, Jennifer T; Kahn, Jason D; Le Grice, Stuart F J; Marino, John P

    2016-01-01

    Proton assignment of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of homopyrimidine/homopurine tract oligonucleotides becomes extremely challenging with increasing helical length due to severe cross-peak overlap. As an alternative to the more standard practice of (15)N and (13)C labeling of oligonucleotides, here, we describe a method for assignment of highly redundant DNA sequences that uses single-site substitution of the thymine isostere 2,4-difluoro-5-methylbenzene (dF). The impact of this approach in facilitating the assignment of intractable spectra and analyzing oligonucleotide structure and dynamics is demonstrated using A-tract and TATA box DNA and two polypurine tract-containing RNA:DNA hybrids derived from HIV-1 and the Saccharomyces cerevisiae long-terminal repeat-containing retrotransposon Ty3. Only resonances proximal to the site of dF substitution exhibit sizable chemical shift changes, providing spectral dispersion while still allowing chemical shift mapping of resonances from unaffected residues distal to the site of modification directly back to the unmodified sequence. It is further illustrated that dF incorporation can subtly alter the conformation and dynamics of homopyrimidine/homopurine tract oligonucleotides, and how these NMR observations can be correlated, in the cases of the TATA box DNA, with modulation in the TATA box-binding protein interaction using an orthogonal gel assay.

  3. Dynamic architecture of a minimal RNA polymerase II open promoter complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treutlein, Barbara; Muschielok, Adam; Andrecka, Joanna; Jawhari, Anass; Buchen, Claudia; Kostrewa, Dirk; Hög, Friederike; Cramer, Patrick; Michaelis, Jens

    2012-04-27

    The open promoter complex (OC) is a central intermediate during transcription initiation that contains a DNA bubble. Here, we employ single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer experiments and Nano-Positioning System analysis to determine the three-dimensional architecture of a minimal OC consisting of promoter DNA, including a TATA box and an 11-nucleotide mismatched region around the transcription start site, TATA box-binding protein (TBP), RNA polymerase (Pol) II, and general transcription factor (TF)IIB and TFIIF. In this minimal OC, TATA-DNA and TBP reside above the Pol II cleft between clamp and protrusion domains. Downstream DNA is dynamically loaded into and unloaded from the Pol II cleft at a timescale of seconds. The TFIIB core domain is displaced from the Pol II wall, where it is located in the closed promoter complex. These results reveal large overall structural changes during the initiation-elongation transition, which are apparently accommodated by the intrinsic flexibility of TFIIB.

  4. Cloning and Analysis of the Promoter Region of Rat uPA Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan LIU; Jin-wen XIONG; Li-gang CHEN; Yong-hong TIAN; Cheng-liang XIONG

    2007-01-01

    Objective To clone and analyze the promoter sequence of rat urokinase plasminogen activator protein gene.Methods The genomic DNA was extracted from rat testicular tissue. According to urokinase plasminogen activator, the gene sense primer and antisense primer of uPA gene were designed and synthesized, then Touch-Down PCR were performed. After proper purification, the PCR product was sequenced, analyzed with the promoter prediction software and compared with the DNA sequence of rattuas urokinase plasminogen activator.Results The cloned uPA gene was about 1 572 bp in length, which contained a full open-reading frame with 21 bp in length exons, and the upper region of transcriptional start was 1 551 bp in length which was eucaryon transcriptional control area.The 5' UTR had a promoter region including a non-responsive TATA-box. Not only the GC-box binding region was found in this gene, but also active protein 1 (AP1) and SP1 were seen in other regions.Conclusion A 1 572 bp uPA gene fragment (GenBank accession No. X65651) was obtained from rat genomic DNA library, containing eucaryon transcriptional control area with a promoter region, non-conspicuous TATA-box, GC-box and an extron. A non-responsive TATA-box is located at the upper -30 region.

  5. Reference gene selection for quantitative real-time PCR analysis in virus infected cells: SARS corona virus, Yellow fever virus, Human Herpesvirus-6, Camelpox virus and Cytomegalovirus infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Marcel A

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ten potential reference genes were compared for their use in experiments investigating cellular mRNA expression of virus infected cells. Human cell lines were infected with Cytomegalovirus, Human Herpesvirus-6, Camelpox virus, SARS coronavirus or Yellow fever virus. The expression levels of these genes and the viral replication were determined by real-time PCR. Genes were ranked by the BestKeeper tool, the GeNorm tool and by criteria we reported previously. Ranking lists of the genes tested were tool dependent. However, over all, β-actin is an unsuitable as reference gene, whereas TATA-Box binding protein and peptidyl-prolyl-isomerase A are stable reference genes for expression studies in virus infected cells.

  6. MED14 tethers mediator to the N-terminal domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and is required for full transcriptional activity and adipogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Lars; Madsen, Maria S; Boergesen, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Mediator by MED1-independent mechanisms. Here, we show that target gene activation by ectopically expressed PPARgamma and PPARalpha is independent of MED1. Consistent with this finding, recruitment of PPARgamma, MED6, MED8, TATA box-binding protein (TBP), and RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) to the enhancer...... and proximal promoter of the PPARgamma target gene Fabp4 is also independent of MED1. Using a small interfering RNA (siRNA)-based approach, we identify MED14 as a novel critical Mediator component for PPARgamma-dependent transactivation, and we demonstrate that MED14 interacts directly with the N terminus...... of PPARgamma in a ligand-independent manner. Interestingly, MED14 knockdown does not affect the recruitment of PPARgamma, MED6, and MED8 to the Fabp4 enhancer but does reduce their occupancy of the Fabp4 proximal promoter. In agreement with the necessity of MED14 for PPARgamma transcriptional activity, we show...

  7. Resonance assignments, secondary structure and 15N relaxation data of the human transcriptional coactivator hMBF1 (57-148)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishima, Masaki; Ozaki, Jun; Ikegami, Takahisa [Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Graduate School of Biological Sciences (Japan); Kabe, Yasuaki; Goto, Masahide [National Institute of Genetics, Department of Developmental Genetics (Japan); Ueda, Hitoshi; Hirose, Susumu [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Faculty of Bioscience and Biotechnology (Japan); Handa, Hiroshi [National Institute of Genetics, Department of Developmental Genetics (Japan); Shirakawa, Masahiro [Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Graduate School of Biological Sciences (Japan)

    1999-08-15

    Multiprotein bridging factor 1 (MBF1) is a transcriptional coactivator that is thought to bridge between the TATA box-binding protein (TBP) and DNA binding regulatory factors, and is conserved from yeast to human. Human MBF1 (hMBF1) can bind to TBP and to the nuclear receptor Ad4BP, and is suggested to mediate Ad4BP-dependent transcriptional activation. Here we report the resonance assignments and secondary structure of hMBF1 (57-148) that contains both TBP binding and activator binding residues. {sup 15}N relaxation data were also obtained. As a result, hMBF1 (57-148) was shown to consist of flexible N-terminal residues and a C-terminal domain. The C-terminal domain contains four helices and a conserved C-terminal region.

  8. The CKH1/EER4 gene encoding a TAF12-like protein negatively regulates cytokinin sensitivity in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Minoru; Furuta, Kaori; Demura, Taku; Fukuda, Hiroo; Liu, Yao-Guang; Shibata, Daisuke; Kakimoto, Tatsuo

    2011-04-01

    The recessive ckh1 (cytokinin hypersensitive 1) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana shows hypersensitivity to cytokinins, which promote proliferation and greening of calli. The CKH1 gene encodes a protein resembling TAF12 (TATA BOX BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTOR 12), which is a component of transcription factor IID (TFIID)- and histone acetyltransferase-containing complexes in yeast and animals. Microarray analyses revealed that a substantially greater number of genes responded to a low level of cytokinins in the ckh1 mutant than in the wild type. However, expression of cytokinin primary response genes was not significantly affected by the ckh1 mutation. These results suggest that the CKH1 protein regulates a set of genes involved in late signaling processes governing a range of cytokinin responses, including cell proliferation and differentiation.

  9. Activation of silenced cytokine gene promoters by the synergistic effect of TBP-TALE and VP64-TALE activators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Anthony

    Full Text Available Recent work has shown that the combinatorial use of multiple TALE activators can selectively activate certain cellular genes in inaccessible chromatin regions. In this study, we aimed to interrogate the activation potential of TALEs upon transcriptionally silenced immune genes in the context of non-immune cells. We designed a unique strategy, in which a single TALE fused to the TATA-box binding protein (TBP-TALE is coupled with multiple VP64-TALE activators. We found that our strategy is significantly more potent than multiple TALE activators alone in activating expression of IL-2 and GM-CSF in diverse cell origins in which both genes are otherwise completely silenced. Chromatin analysis revealed that the gene activation was due in part to displacement of a distinctly positioned nucleosome. These studies provide a novel epigenetic mechanism for artificial gene induction and have important implications for targeted cancer immunotherapy, DNA vaccine development, as well as rational design of TALE activators.

  10. Evaluation of the suitability of six host genes as internal control in real-time RT-PCR assays in chicken embryo cell cultures infected with infectious bursal disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yiping; Bang, Dang Duong; Handberg, Kurt

    2005-01-01

    -time RT-PCR is needed to a suitable internal control. We thus investigated the expression pattern of six chicken genes, including P-actin, 28S rRNA, 18S rRNA, glyceral dehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), TATA box-binding protein (TBP) and beta-2-microglobulin, in chicken embryo (CE) cell cultures...... and GAPDH had a lower expression level in CE cell cultures. Also, beta-actin showed no significant variation in both normalized and non-normalized assays and virus dose-independent of inoculation, while other genes did. beta-Actin was further successfully used as an internal control to quantitate Bursine-2...... virus-specific RNA load in CE cell cultures. Thus, beta-actin was suggested as a suitable internal control in studying gene expression as well as virus-specific RNA load in CE cell after IBDV infection....

  11. [Cajal bodies in insect oocytes. II. New data on the molecular composition of cajal bodies in oocytes of the house cricket Acheta domesticus with special reference to interactions between cajal bodies and interchromatin granule clusters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, I S; Bogoliubov, D S; Parfenov, V N

    2007-01-01

    Cajal bodies (CBs) in oocytes of the house cricket Acheta domesticus are large, perfectly spherical nuclear organelles with a complex internal structure. These consist of a fibrillar coilin-containing matrix and a central cavity with a prominent fibrogranular body inside; the latter has been referred to as an "internal" interchromatin granule cluster (IGC). Within the matrix of CBs we detected transcriptional co-activators CBP/p300 and TATA-box binding protein (TBP). No RNA polymerase II was revealed in CBs of both normal and actynomycin D treated oocytes. In the nucleoplasm of A. domesticus oocytes, besides CBs, free IGCs were observed. In oocytes treated with actynomycin D, the amount of "free" IGCs in the nucleoplasm increase significantly, granular and fibrillar components of IGCs were seen segregated, and RNA polymerase II and CBP/p300 were found to be accumulated in fibrillar zones of IGCs.

  12. Inhibition of RNA Polymerase II Transcription in Human Cells by Synthetic DNA-Binding Ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Liliane A.; Gulizia, Richard J.; Trauger, John W.; Baird, Eldon E.; Mosier, Donald E.; Gottesfeld, Joel M.; Dervan, Peter B.

    1998-10-01

    Sequence-specific DNA-binding small molecules that can permeate human cells potentially could regulate transcription of specific genes. Multiple cellular DNA-binding transcription factors are required by HIV type 1 for RNA synthesis. Two pyrrole--imidazole polyamides were designed to bind DNA sequences immediately adjacent to binding sites for the transcription factors Ets-1, lymphoid-enhancer binding factor 1, and TATA-box binding protein. These synthetic ligands specifically inhibit DNA-binding of each transcription factor and HIV type 1 transcription in cell-free assays. When used in combination, the polyamides inhibit virus replication by >99% in isolated human peripheral blood lymphocytes, with no detectable cell toxicity. The ability of small molecules to target predetermined DNA sequences located with RNA polymerase II promoters suggests a general approach for regulation of gene expression, as well as a mechanism for the inhibition of viral replication.

  13. Activation of silenced cytokine gene promoters by the synergistic effect of TBP-TALE and VP64-TALE activators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Kim; More, Abhijit; Zhang, Xiaoliu

    2014-01-01

    Recent work has shown that the combinatorial use of multiple TALE activators can selectively activate certain cellular genes in inaccessible chromatin regions. In this study, we aimed to interrogate the activation potential of TALEs upon transcriptionally silenced immune genes in the context of non-immune cells. We designed a unique strategy, in which a single TALE fused to the TATA-box binding protein (TBP-TALE) is coupled with multiple VP64-TALE activators. We found that our strategy is significantly more potent than multiple TALE activators alone in activating expression of IL-2 and GM-CSF in diverse cell origins in which both genes are otherwise completely silenced. Chromatin analysis revealed that the gene activation was due in part to displacement of a distinctly positioned nucleosome. These studies provide a novel epigenetic mechanism for artificial gene induction and have important implications for targeted cancer immunotherapy, DNA vaccine development, as well as rational design of TALE activators.

  14. Indole and synthetic derivative activate chaperone expression to reduce polyQ aggregation in SCA17 neuronal cell and slice culture models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kung PJ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pin-Jui Kung,1,* Yu-Chen Tao,1,* Ho-Chiang Hsu,1 Wan-Ling Chen,1 Te-Hsien Lin,1 Donala Janreddy,2 Ching-Fa Yao,2 Kuo-Hsuan Chang,3 Jung-Yaw Lin,1 Ming-Tsan Su,1 Chung-Hsin Wu,1 Guey-Jen Lee-Chen,1 Hsiu-Mei Hsieh-Li1 1Department of Life Science, 2Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan; 3Department of Neurology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: In spinocerebellar ataxia type 17 (SCA17, the expansion of a translated CAG repeat in the TATA box binding protein (TBP gene results in a long polyglutamine (polyQ tract in the TBP protein, leading to intracellular accumulation of aggregated TBP and cell death. The molecular chaperones act in preventing protein aggregation to ameliorate downstream harmful events. In this study, we used Tet-On SH-SY5Y cells with inducible SCA17 TBP/Q79-green fluorescent protein (GFP expression to test indole and synthetic derivative NC001-8 for neuroprotection. We found that indole and NC001-8 up-regulated chaperone expression to reduce polyQ aggregation in neuronal differentiated TBP/Q79 cells. The effects on promoting neurite outgrowth and on reduction of aggregation on Purkinje cells were also confirmed with cerebellar primary and slice cultures of SCA17 transgenic mice. Our results demonstrate how indole and derivative NC001-8 reduce polyQ aggregation to support their therapeutic potentials in SCA17 treatment. Keywords: spinocerebellar ataxia type 17, TATA box binding protein, polyQ aggregation, indole and derivative, therapeutics

  15. Kajian Perencanaan Tata Ruang untuk Memfasilitasi Kegiatan Non-Pertanian di Kecamatan Sukorejo, Kabupaten Kendal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratika Tulus Wahyuhana

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Rural non-farm sector is potential to alleviate poverty and improve rural people’s welfare; however, its development is less encouraged by the government policy, especially the regional spatial plans in Indonesia (Sugiri, et al. 2011. The situation also occurs in Sukorejo District (Kecamatan of Kendal Regency (Kabupaten as a potential region for developing rural non-farm sector. This study is aimed at answering the research question of: "How can spatial planning facilitate better the development of rural non-farm sector in Sukorejo District?" The approach used is qualitative with qualitative descriptive analysis method. The findings show that the rural non-farm activities in Sukorejo District are able to create siginificant jobs for the local community. However, with regard to the spatial structure, the people engaged in rural non-farm activities perceive that intra- and inter-regional connectivity has not been supporting the acitivities. As for the spatial function, they are of the opinion that the spatial plan has no benefits to offer. So, the constructs of the community show that the spatial plan does not facilitate appropriately the development of rural non-farm activities. In some aspects, especially in the spatial structure, implementation of the spatial plan can even be obstructing. It has also been found out that the planning process was not participatory at all as far as the rural non-farm people are concerned. Therefore, reformulation of the spatial planning process is needed so that the plan can accommodate the community needs in the aspects of input, production, and distribution in the rural non-farm sector. Finally, necessary measures towards the reformulation are recommended in this study.

  16. PENGARUH TATA RUANG BANGSAL RUMAH SAKIT JIWA TERHADAP KESELAMATAN DAN KEAMANAN PASIEN

    OpenAIRE

    Titien Saraswati

    2003-01-01

    Patients of a mental hospital stay in mental hospital wards during their ill-treatment time. The hope is that they can be recovered or at least their "illness" can be minimal before they involve in the rehabilitation process. It has been found out, according to this study, that some aspects of the elements of the interior of the ward affect negatively to the safety and security of adult patients. For example, in the means of safety, the patients might injure or be injured by another patients;...

  17. Analisis Tata Kelola Teknologi Informasi menggunakan Kerangka Kerja COBIT 5 pada AMIK JTC Semarang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Hilmawan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Informations technology has been important elements in an organisation but getting higher information technology implementation cost requires any company or organization to implement an effective operation of information technology. Information technology was expected to help organization in achieveing their business goals and providing not only financial profit but also non-financial profit. To achieve their business goals and ensuring process of information technology works effectively and efficiently, a continuously audit and evaluation of our IT process need to introduced in organization. It will help organization aligning their business process with IT process. One of IT governance framework is COBIT 5. COBIT 5 is a comprehensive framewok that helps organizations to create optimal value from IT by maintaining a balance between realizing benefits and optimizing risk levels and resources use. COBIT 5 enables information and related technology to be governed and managed in a holistic manner for the whole organizations, taking full end to end business and functional area of responsibility, considering the IT-related intererst of internal and external stakeholders.

  18. Evaluasi Tata Kelola Sistem Informasi Business Intelligence pada Perusahaan Minuman Ringan

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    Yanis Aulia Rizki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Implementation of Business Intelligence (BI can fulfill complete information needs, qualified, and suitable for each business unit levels to improve the quality of management decision-making. This study aimed to evaluate the governance of BI on one of soft drinks company in Indonesia (PMRI. The evaluation consists of investigation resources information system with descriptive qualitative method, analysis level of maturity by using maturity models COBIT framework 4.1 and analysis of system quality, information quality and service quality which the variable adapted from DeLone and McClane Model and analyzed with Importance Performance Analyst (IPA analysis. Based on the results of investigation resources information system already supports the implementation of BI, but it needs to improve. Based on the result of overall measurement maturity process is already followed the correct rules with COBIT framework and level Maturity is between level: 2 - Repeatable and level: 4 - Managed. Furthermore, based on IPA analysis, low-performance quality system and become priorities for the improvement of PMRI is reliability, accessibility, and efficiency, and for the low performance in the quality of information is attributed accuracy and timeliness, and for the low performance in the quality of service is an attribute of reliability and responsiveness. Improvements focus on enhancement of BI performance, planning, and management. Keywords: Soft Drinks Company, IT Governance, Business Intelligence, COBIT Framework 4.1, Maturity Level, Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA

  19. Pedoman Tata Kelola Teknologi Informasi Menggunakan It Governance Design Frame Work (Cobit Pada PT. X

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    I Ketut Adi Purnawan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of  Information Technology (IT in an organization require significant costs with high risk  of  failure [3]. Managing data is  a matter that must be done continuously by the organization and accompanied by monitoring and measurement of achievement that has been done as to meet the aspect of integrity, availablility. In this study using COBIT as a frame work in preparing the guidelines for information technology governance at PT.  X  on  DS11,  which  focuses  on  management of  data  about  the  level  of  concern  for management (management awareness and  maturity level (maturity level.  The study and analysis indicates that the level of concern for management (management awareness PT. X already on a fairly level and maturity level for the current maturity level (as is at level 3 (defined process and to the expected level of maturity located at level 5 (optimized. From the overall study results showed that PT. X has recognized that the data is an important organizational asset.

  20. Pengaruh Tata Kelola Perusahaan dan Penghindaran Pajak Terhadap Manajemen Laba Pada Perusahaan Manufaktur di Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Juoro Larastomo; Halim Dedy Perdana; Hanung Triatmoko; Eko Arief Sudaryono

    2016-01-01

    The Impact of Corporate Governance and Tax Avoidance on Earning Management at Indonesian Manufacturing CompaniesThe objective of this study is to determine the impact of corporate governance and tax avoidance on earning management by Indonesian manufacturing companies listed on IDX in 2010-204. This study used board of commissioner, independent commissioner, audit committee, and managerial ownership as corporate governance’s variabel. Population of this study is Indonesian manufacturing compa...

  1. Nutritional status in survivors of childhood cancer: Experience from Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, M; Arora, B; Chinnaswamy, G; Vora, T; Narula, G; Banavali, S; Kurkure, P

    2015-01-01

    Survivors of childhood cancer are at increased risk for several cardiometabolic complications. Obesity/overweight and metabolic syndrome have been widely reported in Western literature, but data from India are lacking. To perform an objective assessment of nutritional status in a cohort of childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) and to find risk factors for extremes in nutritional status. The study was a retrospective chart review of CCSs who attended the late effects clinic of a referral pediatric oncology center over the period of 1 year. An objective assessment of nutritional status was done, and results were analyzed in two groups: Adult survivors (present age obesity, overweight, normal, and undernutrition was 2.6%, 10.8%, 62.7%, and 28.8% (CASs) and 0%, 8.5%, 62.7%, and 28.8% (adult survivors), respectively. Factors predictive of overweight/obesity were an initial diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, or brain tumor and follow-up duration of >20 years or current age >30 years in adult survivors. The prevalence of obesity/overweight is lower in our cohort when compared to Western literature. It remains to be clarified whether this reflects the underlying undernutrition in our country, or whether our cohort of survivors is indeed distinct from their Western counterparts. Comparison with age/sex-matched normal controls and baseline parameters would yield more meaningful results.

  2. FUNGSI PERADILAN TATA USAHA NEGARA DALAM MENYELESAIKAN SENGKETA LINGKUNGAN (STUDI GUGATAN ORGANISASI LINGKUNGAN HIDUP

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    Fransisca Romana Harjiyatni

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyse: (1 The function of the Administrative Court in providing protection against environmental sustainability; (2 Constraints of the implementation of the administrative court functions in resolving environmental disputes. The results showed that: The function of the Administrative Court in providing protection toward the environment is not optimal yet. Administrative Court Decisions has not provided environmental sustainability because judges tend to be formalistic procedural in using their consideration. This is due to the presence of a number of constraints which include: government decision restrictions in the field of environment that can be disputed in the administrative court, there is no use of the principle of sustainable development as the consideration for the judge in deciding the case, and the judges’ less understanding about environmental problems. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis: (1 fungsi PTUN dalam memberikan perlindungan terhadap kelestarian lingkungan; (2 kendala-kendala pelaksanaan fungsi PTUN dalam menyelesaikan sengketa lingkungan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa fungsi PTUN dalam memberikan perlindungan terhadap kelestarian lingkungan adalah belum optimal. Putusan-putusan Pengadilan TUN belum memberikan perlindungan kelestarian lingkungan hidup, karena hakim cenderung bersifat prosedural formalistik dalam menggunakan pertimbangannya. Hal ini disebabkan terdapatnya sejumlah kendala yang meliputi: adanya pembatasan KTUN di bidang lingkungan yang dapat menjadi obyek sengketa di PTUN, belum digunakannya asas pembangunan berkelanjutan sebagai pertimbangan hakim untuk memutus perkara, dan pemahaman hakim yang kurang mengenai persoalan lingkungan hidup.

  3. FUNGSI PERADILAN TATA USAHA NEGARA DALAM MENYELESAIKAN SENGKETA LINGKUNGAN (STUDI GUGATAN ORGANISASI LINGKUNGAN HIDUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fransisca Romana Harjiyatni

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyse: (1 The function of the Administrative Court in providing protection against environmental sustainability; (2 Constraints of the implementation of the administrative court functions in resolving environmental disputes. The results showed that: The function of the Administrative Court in providing protection toward the environment is not optimal yet. Administrative Court Decisions has not provided environmental sustainability because judges tend to be formalistic procedural in using their consideration. This is due to the presence of a number of constraints which include: government decision restrictions in the field of environment that can be disputed in the administrative court, there is no use of the principle of sustainable development as the consideration for the judge in deciding the case, and the judges’ less understanding about environmental problems.   Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis: (1 fungsi PTUN dalam memberikan perlindungan terhadap kelestarian lingkungan; (2 kendala-kendala pelaksanaan fungsi PTUN dalam menyelesaikan sengketa lingkungan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa fungsi PTUN dalam memberikan perlindungan terhadap kelestarian lingkungan adalah belum optimal. Putusan-putusan Pengadilan TUN belum memberikan perlindungan kelestarian lingkungan hidup, karena hakim cenderung bersifat prosedural formalistik dalam menggunakan pertimbangannya. Hal ini disebabkan terdapatnya sejumlah kendala yang meliputi: adanya pembatasan KTUN di bidang lingkungan yang dapat menjadi obyek sengketa di PTUN, belum digunakannya asas pembangunan berkelanjutan sebagai pertimbangan hakim untuk memutus perkara, dan pemahaman hakim yang kurang mengenai persoalan lingkungan hidup.

  4. DAMPAK TATA RUANG WILAYAH TERHADAP AKTIVITAS KEWIRAUSAHAAN DAN PERTUMBUHAN USAHA PETERNAKAN AYAM BROILER DI PROVINSI JAMBI

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    Rufti Puji Astuti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Spatial is one issue that is important in assessing the concept of entrepreneurship. Interest studied the problems of spatial and entrepreneurship is to create business growth, through the support of business locations atmosphere, leading to the creation of entrepreneurial activity. The purpose of this study to (1 identify the determining factors of the characteristics of the zone; (2 to analyze the influence of the characteristics of the zone of entrepreneurial activity; (3 Analyze the effects of entrepreneurial activity on the growth of broiler chicken farm. The research was conducted by survey method, conducted in three zones in Jambi province with a total sample of 140 farmers. The results showed (1 Characteristics of the zone formed by the spatial characteristics, enterprises and entrepreneurs. (2 Characteristics of significant zones of direct and positive effect on entrepreneurial activity (3 entrepreneurial activities significantly affect the growth of broiler chicken farm, both of which have a positive relationship. In other words, the growth of the business acquired, occur because of the encouragement of entrepreneurial activity increased farmers.

  5. STRATEGI PENGGUNAAN KOSAKATA DAN TATA BAHASA DALAM BERITA HARIAN UMUM INDEPENDEN SINGGALANG

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    Dina Ramadhanti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article  aims to describe the strategy of the use of vocabulary and grammer in general daily news i Singgalang newspaper. The method used is  descriptive method to descripe the use of vocabulary and grammer in writing news writer. The  discusiion carried out in accordance with the opinion expressed by Roger Flower, etal. Vocabulary  and grammer in general daily news in singgalang newspaper tend to marginalize the victim because writers to write descriptions of the perpetrator, while the victim semed to be ignored. Vocabulary used tend vocabulary and grammer marginalizations tend syntax used passive or passivation and nominalition resulting in the removal of the perpetrator in the news. Victims tend to be the main core of the problem

  6. Academic Integrity and Plagiarism Prevention at Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai: A case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bandi, Shekappa; Pothare, Devyani; Angadi, Mallikarjun; Jange, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism is not always a black and white issue. The boundary between plagiarism and research is often unclear. Learning to recognize the various forms of plagiarism, especially the more ambiguous ones, is an important step towards effective prevention. The study overview the concept and types of plagiarism and it`s benefits, Plagiarism Policies in India, and also discussed turnitin and its workflow process of the TISS comparison of the Turnitin and iThenticate plagiarism tools and other rel...

  7. Penyusunan Tata Kelola Teknologi Informasi Bagi Pemerintah Daerah Menggunakan Framework Cobit 5 (Studi Kasus: Kabupaten Cilacap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annas Wahyu Purwanto

    2013-12-01

    ABSTRACT The failure of the e -government implementation in Indonesia according to Junseok Hwang and Irfan Syamsudin, who were doing research in South Sulawesi, are from the government, not from the people.  Meanwhile in Cilacap District,  Long Term Development Plan for the period 2005-2025 mentioned that e-government in Cilacap already implemented but not optimal yet. Cole methodology used in this study consists of 4 (four stages: problem identification , intervention , evaluation and reflection and learning. Conduct a gap analysis and risk analysis to determine the priorities that need to be carried out in Cilacap Kabupaten. To pursue a level of capability gaps that occur and mitigate the risks that may arise, Cilacap necessary to establish an organizational structure of information technology (IT, convey the purpose and management direction to stakeholders, understanding the direction of government development, develop a vision of the IT architecture governance, maintain the availability of the IT staff, identify IT personnel key, maintain the skills and competency of IT personnel, evaluate the performance achievement of IT personnel and also planning  and mapping of IT human resources .

  8. PENGGUNAAN MEDIA PERMAINAN MONOPOLI MELALUI PEMBELAJARAN KOOPERATIF PADA MAHASISWA FISIKA FAKULTAS TARBIYAHDENGAN KONSEP TATA SURYA

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    Fitriyawany Fitriyawany

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The conducted study concerns about the use of Monopoly game as media in Cooperative Learning on the concept of the Solar System for Students of Physics in Tarbiyah faculty aiming to see the students' mastery of learning outcomes and performance. The study was a Quasi Experimental Research. The population used in the study was all students majoring in Physic Education with a sample of the7th semester students of 2010/2011 academic year. The method of data collection used is testing and observation. Data were analyzed by using the statistical percentage. The result shows there were 90.32% of students passed individually, which therefore the students' learning results were completed classically. In addition, the students' performance on cognitive, affective, and psychomotor in the experimental class also showed positive results. Therefore, it can be concluded that the use of monopoly game as media in cooperative learning on the concept of the Solar System have a positive impact to the quality of learning process.

  9. Penyimpangan Penggunaan Lahan Berdasarkan Rencana Tata Ruang Wilayah Kabupaten Aceh Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hairul Basri

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk: (1 mengevaluasi kesesuaian alokasi ruang RTRW Kabupaten Aceh Barat tahun 2012- 2031 dengan alokasi penetapan kawasan hutan Kabupaten Aceh Barat berdasarkan SK Menhutbun No. 170/Kpts- II/2000, dan (2 mengevaluasi penyimpangan penggunaan lahan eksisting Kabupaten Aceh Barat tahun 2012 dengan RTRW Kabupaten Aceh Barat tahun 2012-2031 dan (3 membahas secara umum penyebab dari penyimpangan penggunaan lahan dan dampak yang ditimbulkannya. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan dari bulan Maret 2012 hingga Februari 2013 di Kabupaten Aceh Barat dan di Laboratorium Penginderaan Jauh dan Kartografi Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Syiah Kuala. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode deskriptif dengan mengumpulkan berbagai data sekunder dan primer yang diperlukan dan analisis tumpang tindih peta (overlay serta cek lapangan (ground check penggunaan lahan terkini. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan terjadi penyimpangan alokasi ruang RTRW Kabupaten Aceh Barat tahun 2012-2031 terhadap kawasan hutan Kabupaten Aceh Barat yang ditetapkan dalam SK Menhutbun No. 170/Kpts- II/2000 seluas 6.663,45 ha (2,41%. Penggunaan lahan eksisting Kabupaten Aceh Barat tahun 2012 juga menunjukkan terjadi penyimpangan terhadap alokasi ruang RTRW Kabupaten Aceh Barat tahun 2012-2031 yaitu seluas 25.319,21 ha (9,16%. Secara umum faktor penyebab terjadinya penyimpangan penggunaan lahan adalah pemekaran kabupaten/kota, pengembangan infrastruktur wilayah, pengembangan usaha perkebunan dan pertambangan. Penyimpangan penggunaan lahan tersebut berdampak kepada semakin luasnya deforestasi, meningkatnya koefisien limpasan dan frekuensi banjir. Deviation of Land Use Based on Spatial Planning of West Aceh District Abstract. This study aimed to: (1 evaluate the suitability of spatial allocation of space in West Aceh district from 2012 to 2031 with the allocation of forest establishment of West Aceh by Decree of Menhutbun No. 170/Kpts-II/2000, (2 evaluate the deviation of the existing land use of West Aceh district in 2012 with the Spatial West Aceh district of 2012-2031, and (3 discuss generally the cause of the deviation and the impact of land use. This study was conducted from March 2012 to February 2013 in the West Aceh district, and at the Laboratory of Remote Sensing and Cartography, Faculty of Agriculture, Kuala University. This research used descriptive method by collecting a variety of secondary and primary data necessary, analysis of overlap maps and ground check for evaluating the current land use. The results showed deviations spatial space allocation of West Aceh District of 2012-2031 to West Aceh forests set out by Decree of Menhutbun No.170/Kpts-II/2000 was 6,663.45 Ha (2.41%. Furthermore, the deviation of existing land use of West Aceh district in 2012 to the spatial allocation of the West Aceh district of 2012-2031 was 25,319.21 Ha (9.16%. In general, the causes of deviation were the division of districts, development of region infrastructure, plantation and mining development. The land use deviations would affect the extent of deforestation, the increasing of runoff coefficients and frequency of floods.

  10. Development of a Composite Leaf Spring for a Light Commercial Vehicle (Tata Magic)

    OpenAIRE

    Vivek Rai

    2013-01-01

    Present time the main issue of automobile industry are weight reduction. The automobile industry has looking for any implementation or modification to reduce the weight of the vehicle. The suspension leaf spring is one of the potential items for weight reduction in automobile as it accounts for 10% to 20% of the unsprung weight. The introduction of composite leaf spring made of glass fiber rein forced plastic (GFRP) has made it to possible to reduce the weight of spring without any reduction ...

  11. 不可思议的空气动力汽车 TATA Nano City Cat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jane

    2008-01-01

    印度的汽车公司TATA似乎总能令世人惊讶,在今年1月推出了全世界最便宜的汽车之后,又在巴黎车展上展出了真正的空气动力汽车,并命名为City Cat。这款奇车由法国公司MDI(Moteur Development International)的前F1工程师Guy Negre设计。

  12. Haematologic and immunophenotypic profile of acute myeloid leukemia : an experience of Tata Memorial Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh S

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES : To study the hematologic and immunophenotypic profile of 260 cases of acute myeloid leukemia at diagnosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS : This is a retrospective analysis of 260 cases of AML diagnosed at our institution between 1998 and 2000. Diagnosis was based on peripheral blood and bone marrow examination for morphology cytochemistry and immunophenotypic studies. SPSS software package, version 10, was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS : Seventy-six percent of our cases were adults. The age of the patients ranged from one year to 78 years with a median age of 27.2 years. There were 187 males and 73 females. The commonest FAB subtype, in both children and adults, was AML-M2. The highest WBC counts were seen in AML-M1 and the lowest in AML-M3 (10-97 x 10(9/L, mean 53.8 x 10(9/L. The mean values and range for hemoglobin was 6.8 gm/l (1.8 gm/l to 9.2 gm/l, platelet count 63.3 x 10(9/L (32-83 x 10(9/L, peripheral blood blasts 41.4% (5 to 77% and bone marrow blasts 57.6% (34-96%. Myeloperoxidase positivity was highest in the M1, M2 and M3 subtypes. CD13 and CD33 were the most useful markers in the diagnosis of AML. CD14 and CD36 were most often seen in monocytic (38% and myelomonocytic (44% leukemias. Lymphoid antigen expression was seen in 15% of cases. CD7 expression was the commonest (11%. CONCLUSION : AML accounted for 39.8% of all acute leukemias at this institution. The most common subtype was AML-M2. Myeloperoxidase stain was a useful tool in the diagnosis of myeloid leukemias. CD13 and CD33 were the most diagnostic myeloid markers.

  13. Model Tata Kelola Administrasi Pemerintahan Yang Baik di Daerah Otonom Baru

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    Yulia Neta

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian adalah menghasilkan model tatakelola administrasi pemerintahan yang baik di Kabupaten Pesawaran sebagai Daerah Otonom Baru.. Penelitian ini dilakukan mulai Mei sampai November 2011 meliputi survay lapang dan analisis di laboratorium. Pekerjaan lapang dilakukan di Kabupaten Pesawaran sebagai daerah otonom baru (DOB. Data di petik melalui wawancara terhadap para key informan. Selain itu data diperoleh dari berbagai dokumen pendukung dan hasil-hasil penelitian pendahuluan yang relevan, dan sebagainya. Hasil penelitian tahun pertama ini adalah :1.Tatakelola administrasi pemerintahan yang baik  di Kabupaten Pesawaran melalui pelayanan publik di bidang kependudukan dan catatan sipil antara lain pelatihan tenaga teknis SIAK, pemutahiran data penduduk,  pelatihan/diklat bagi tugas pendaftaran penduduk dan diklat aparatur dibidang Administrasi Kependudukan serta penerapan pprogram e-KTP 2. pelayanan publik di bidang pendidikan antara lain penyetaraan kualitas pendidikan, pelaksanaan program life skill pada semua sekolah sehingga dapat menghasilkan sumber daya manusia berkualitas yang siap pakai dalam menghadapi dunia kerja, melaksanakan rekruitmen terbuka untuk memperoleh tenaga pendidik yang memiliki spesifikasi latar pendidikan yang tepat, peningkatan pembangunan unit gedung baru, ruang kelas baru dan rehabilitasi gedung sekolah, peningkatan pengadaan sarana pendidikan seperti alat pendidikan dan  alat laboratorium di semua jenis jenjang pendidikan untuk mendukung program peningkatan kualitas dan relevansi tenaga kependidikan. 3.di bidang kesehatan masyarakat melalui penyempurnaan manajemen pelaksanaan program yang meliputi perencanaan, pengorganisasian, pelaksanaan dan pengawasan untuk mencapai tujuan yang efektif dan efisien, meningkatkan profesionalisme dan kualitas tenaga kesehatan dalam rangka meningkatkan kualitas pelayanan kepada masyarakat, meningkatkan advokasi ke Pemerintah Daerah dan Dinas Kesehatan Provinsi serta Kementerian Kesehatan  untuk meningkatkan pemenuhan sumberdaya khususnya pembiayaan kesehatan, meningkatkan pemberdayaan masyarakat dan sektor swasta untuk lebih meningkatkan peran sertanya dalam pelaksanaan pembangunan kesehatan, serta meningkatkan upaya preventif dan promotif dalam pelaksanaan program pembangunan kesehatan.   

  14. TATA GUNA LAHAN DALAM TINJAUAN PENYUSUNAN KEBIJAKAN DAN PENGELOLAANNYA SECARA ISLAMI

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    Aldrin Yusuf Firmansyah

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Land use is still one of the key elements of urban design. It determines the basic two dimensional plans on which three dimensional spaces are created and functions are performed. Urban is also a fusion of architecture, economics, history, geography, politics and religion. This entire aspects make a city has complex form. Islam as an amalgamation on community life, it contributes urban order include policy and management of land use. This paper has a purpose to explore Islamic contribution on arrangement of land use policy and management, from philosophical level to operational level. This paper uses methodical interpretative-historical research. It means investigations into social-physical phenomena that are a past condition, within complex contexts, with a view toward explaining those phenomena in narrative form and in a holistic fashion.

  15. Development of a Composite Leaf Spring for a Light Commercial Vehicle (Tata Magic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Rai

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Present time the main issue of automobile industry are weight reduction. The automobile industry has looking for any implementation or modification to reduce the weight of the vehicle. The suspension leaf spring is one of the potential items for weight reduction in automobile as it accounts for 10% to 20% of the unsprung weight. The introduction of composite leaf spring made of glass fiber rein forced plastic (GFRP has made it to possible to reduce the weight of spring without any reduction on load carrying capacity and stiffness. The achievement of weight reduction with adequate improvement of mechanical properties has made composite a very good replacement material for conventional steel spring. This work deals with the replacement of multi-leaf steel spring with mono composite leaf spring for the LCV. Suspension system in an automobile determines the riding comfort of passengers and the amount of damage to the vehicle. The main function of leaf spring assembly as suspension element is not only to support vertical load, but also to isolate road-induced vibrations. the behavior of leaf spring is complicated due to its clamping effects and inter-leaf contact etc. the objective of this paper is to replace the multi-leaf steel spring by mono composite leaf spring for the same load carrying capacity and stiffness. Since the composite materials have more elastic strain energy storage capacity and high strength-to-weight ratio as compared to those of steel. It is possible to reduce the weight of the leaf spring without any reduction on load carrying capacity and stiffness. The design constraints were limiting stresses and displacement. Modeling and analysis of both the steel and composite leaf springs have been done using ANSYS software.

  16. PENGARUH TATA KELOLA PERUSAHAAN (CORPORATE GOVERNANCE DAN STRUKTUR KEPEMILIKAN TERHADAP PERSISTENSI LABA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khafid

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisis dan memperoleh bukti empiris mengenai pengaruh board composition (komposisi dewan komisaris, komite audit, shareholder by manager/director (kepemilikan manajerial, dan  institusional investor terhadap persistensi laba. Desain penelitian ini merupakan penelitian hypothesis testing study. Populasi penelitian ini adalah seluruh perusahaan yang terdaftar di Bursa Efek Indonesia (BEI sebanyak 430 perusahaan. Periode pengamatan penelitian dilakukan dari tahun 2005 – 2010 untuk menetapkan nilai dari variabel persistensi laba dan tahun 2010 untuk mengukur variabel komposisi dewan komisaris, kepemilikan manajerial, komite audit, kepemilikan institusional. Sampel dalam penelitian ini dipilih berdasarkan kriteria-kriteria tertentu (purposive sampling. Melalui kriteria yang ditetapkan, terpilih sampel sebanyak 242 perusahaan. Metode pengumpulan data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah dokumentasi, yang bersumber dari Indonesian Capital Market Directory (ICMD yang diperoleh dari Accounting Corner Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Negeri Semarang, homepage BEI www.idx.co.id dan annual report.  Metode analisis data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah analisis statistik deskriptif, dan analisis statistik inferensial dengan menggunakan adalah regresi berganda untuk menguji hipotesis penelitian. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa komposisi dewan komisaris, kepemilikan saham oleh manajemen/ kepemilikan manajerial, dan komite audit terbukti secara signifikan berpengaruh terhadap persistensi laba pada α 0,05. Sedangkan kepemilikan institusional tidak berpengaruh secara signifikan terhadap persistensi laba pada α 0,05. Berdasarkan simpulan, saran yang dapat diberikan adalah: (1 BAPEPAM LK sebagai badan yang memiliki kewenangan pengawasan di pasar modal untuk dapat melakukan tindakan yang diperlukan, agar ketentuan mengenai komposisi minimal bagi dewan komisaris independen dapat dipatuhi oleh semua perusahaan yang terdaftar di Bursa Efek Indonesia, (2  pentingnya digagas mengenai pengaturan tentang batasan minimal kepemilikan saham yang harus dimiliki oleh para jajaran manajemen/direksi.The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of board composition, audit committee, shareholder by manager / director (managerial ownership, and institutional investors on earnings persistence. The population of this study are all companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX of 430 companies. The sample was selected based on purposive sampling. Through the defined criteria, selected a sample of 242 companies.Data analysis method used in this research is the analysis of descriptive statistics, and inferential statistical analysis using multiple regression is to test the research hypothesis. Based on the conclusion, the advice that can be provided are: (1 Bapepam LK as a body that has oversight authority in the capital markets in order to take the necessary measures so that the provision of minimal compositions for independent commissioners be adhered to by all companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange , (2 the importance of the arrangement was initiated on stock ownership threshold that must be owned by management/ directors.

  17. APLIKASI PENGINDERAAN JAUH UNTUK PERENCANAAN TATA RUANG WILAYAH PESISIR DAN PULAU- PULAU KECIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bitta Pigawati

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Our beloved country, Indonesia has planty natural resources both in the sea and it the land. It can be seen to thefact that Indonesia is and archipelago country which has thousands islands. Most of our area is surrounded bythe sea that provides foot resources, mining resources, mineral, energy, and tourism place. In short It can besaid that coastal area is not only as living resources for people surrounding but also supporting our nationalsocial and economic development. In order to use the resources optimally and efficienly it need not only a goodplan but also an integrated management.A plan has become a part of everyone’s life. It has been used since people realized they need it to solve aproblem. People often get confused between planning and actuating their daily activities, so it needs acomprehensive understanding about what plan means. Plan is a process, process of thinking and actuating it dosomething. Planning acts as an intervening variable between knowledge and action. The essence of planning ispreventative rather than remedial.Spatial planning is a process of area planning system. Master plan of small islands is one of the detail masterplan. Coastal area is a border area between land and sea. The coastal area management is a process to plan, touse, to supervise, and to control the coastal area as well as coastal resources. Master plan is set into some formsbased on its scale or its area to coverage, its detail level, and its focus and attention. Spatial plan is well knownas master plan RTRWN, RTRWP, TRTW Kota/ Kabupaten to design the three master plans takes three phases,they are data compilation, analysis and planning; further more, the three phases are always completed withsome maps to give illustration and comprehensive understanding about phenomena spatially. The integratedcoastal resources management and planning need information about what potention can be developed as well aswhat problems come up.Remote sensing is an observation method or spatial elements measurement of earth’s surface. This effective andefficient method really supports any activities which use spatial approach. Remote sensing data really suit forcoastal area management and planning research due to the large area to investigate and to reach. The use ofremote sensing data for spatial plan has a function for not only completing the existing data but also providingthe newest information. Considering and area developed rapidly it needs available data to monitor and toevaluate the implementation of a master plan. Some problems emerged as a result of using remote sensing dataare such as; limited budged and limited human resources who are able to use remote sensing.

  18. Academic Integrity and Plagiarism Prevention at Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai: A case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bandi, Shekappa; Pothare, Devyani; Angadi, Mallikarjun; Jange, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism is not always a black and white issue. The boundary between plagiarism and research is often unclear. Learning to recognize the various forms of plagiarism, especially the more ambiguous ones, is an important step towards effective prevention. The study overview the concept and types of plagiarism and it`s benefits, Plagiarism Policies in India, and also discussed turnitin and its workflow process of the TISS comparison of the Turnitin and iThenticate plagiarism tools and other rel...

  19. PENGARUH TATA RUANG DAN KOMUNIKASI INTERN TERHADAP EFEKTIVITAS KERJA GURU DI SMK NEGERI 9 SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ade Rustiana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Office layout is a method to formulate spatial, tools, layout, and their physical environment that aims to provide a means for teachers and internal communications are an important means to unify the direction and the views and thoughts among teachers and between teachers with the Head of School, so create cohesion in the work. This research aims: 1 to determine whether there is any spatial effect on the effectiveness of teachers 'work; 2 to determine whether there is an internal communication influence the effectiveness of teachers' work; 3 to know how big influence of spatial planning and internal communication on the effectiveness of working collectively same. The population that became the subject of this study was the teacher of SMK Negeri 9 Semarang all 44 people who made the research sample because this study represents a population study. In this study, the independent variables are spatial and internal communications, while the dependent variable is the employment effectiveness of teachers. Data collection was performed using a questionnaire technique, documentation and observation. Data analysis technique used is descriptive analysis percentages, multiple regression analysis, simultaneous test, partial test, coefficient of determination and classical assumption. Based on the results of regression analysis obtained F value of 13.357 with a probability of 0.000 <0.05, which means that there is significant influence between spatial planning and internal communication on the effectiveness of teacher working SMK Negeri 9 Semarang. The amount of influence between spatial planning and internal communication on the effectiveness of teacher working SMK Negeri 9 for 39.5% of Semarang. Based on this research, the authors suggest that: in drafting desk should be more loose and in placing the furniture and other equipment should be to take advantage of the space available, so the staff room and classrooms and teachers more impressed with a neat move freely when doing academic activities; head schools should pay more attention to another teacher performance by giving instructions clearly did not even hesitate to reprimand if proven negligent in completing the job, as an effort to improve the quality of education, school principals should be willing to open ourselves to receive all complaints, ideas, or ideas from teachers.

  20. PENGEMBANGAN INFRASTRUKTUR JALAN SEBAGAI IMPLEMENTASI RENCANA TATA RUANG WILAYAH KABUPATEN KETAPANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferry Juniardi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kabupaten Ketapang merupakan kabupaten yang sedang berkembang perlu didukung dengan infrstruktur jaringan jalan yang baik.  Studi ini bertujuan mengembangkan infrastruktur jaringan jalan untuk mendukung pergerakan kendaraan di Kabupaten Ketapang. Studi ini membutuhkan data-data pergerakan kendaraan dan jaringan jalan yang diperoleh dari instansi terkait dan survei lapangan. Model bangkitan pergerakan kendaraan dipengaruhi oleh jumlah sarana kesehatan (X3, sedangkan model tarikan pergerakaan kendaraan  dipengaruhi oleh jumlah penduduk (X1 dan  jumlah sarana kesehatan(X3. Jaringan jalan  arteri primer yang dikembangkan meliputi : ruas Jalan batas Kabupaten Sanggau   Batas  Kecamatan  Balai Berkuak; ruas Jalan Batas Kecamatan Balai Berkuak  Aur Kuning; ruas Jalan Aur Kuning  Sandai; ruas Jalan Sandai  Nanga Tayap; dan ruas Jalan Nanga Tayap  Batas Provinsi Kalimantan Tengah.  Sementara itu, untuk meningkatkan aksesibilitas juga dilakukan peningkatan dan pengembangan terhadap beberapa jalan kolektor primer.   Ketapang regency is growing and need to be supported by a good road network infrastructure. This study aims to develop a network infrastructure to support the movement of vehicles in Ketapang regency. This study requires data of movement of vehicles and the road network, obtained from the relevant agencies/departments and field survey. Vehicles trip generation models influenced by number of health facilities (X3, while pull models of vehicle movement influenced by number of residents (X1 and number of health facilities ( X3. Primary artery roads network that was developed include: regency’s boundary road of Sanggau – district’s boundary road of Balai Bekuak; district’s boundary road of Balai Bekuak - Aur Kuning; road segment of Aur Kuning - Sandai; road segment of Sandai - Nanga Tayap, and road segment of Nang Tayap – province’s boundary of Central Kalimantan. In addition, to improve accessibility, it also necessary to makes some improvement and development of the primary collector roads REFERENCES BPS Kabupaten Ketapang. 2012. Kabupaten Ketapang Dalam Angka. BPS Kabupaten Ketapang. Ketapang. Dirjen Bina Marga. 1997. Manual Kapasitas Jalan Indoensia. Jakarta. Lubis, Muhammad E. 2012. Penetapan Model Bangkitan Pergerakan Untuk Beberapa Tipe Perumahan di Kota Pematangsiantar, Media Teknik Sipil, Volume 10, Nomor 1, Februari 2012: 27 – 34. Fakultas Teknik Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang. Malang. Raperda RTRW Kabupaten Ketapang 2013 – 2033. Ketapang Tamin, Ofyar Z. 2008. Perencanaan, Pemodelan, dan Rekayasa Transportasi : Teori, Contoh Soal, dan Aplikasi. Penerbit ITB. Bandung. -----------. 2009. Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 22 Tahun Tentang Lalu Lintas dan Angkutan Jalan. Sekretariat Negara RI. Jakarta

  1. STRATEGI SISTEM AUDIT INTERNAL PEMERINTAH DALAM RANGKA TATA KELOLA YANG BAIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliki Heru Santosa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The problems related to governance system such as management irregularities or fraud, unaccountable finan-cial practices, and poor public service deliveries have raised some questions to the effectiveness of Units of Government Internal Audit (GIA. The complexity of role and function of GIA, which are both directly and indirectly influenced by the stakeholders and relevant environment, need an appropriate research using sys-temic context. The objective of this study was to identify and establish priority strategy in developing effective internal audit system. This research was based on qualitative approaches with systems methodology which was started with literature study, in-depth interview and focus group discussion (FGD. Then, the study was continued with analytical hierarchy process (AHP with experts representing the stakeholders. The study showed that to enhance the effectiveness of GIA, it is important to have priority strategy to strengthen the governance system, risk management, and control. The role of the stakeholders and management maturity are the key requirements to successful and an effective of GIA System.

  2. Squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary sinus: A Tata Memorial Hospital experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi Sajid

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The optimal treatment of maxillary sinus carcinoma remains to be defined and there is a paucity of Indian studies on the subject. Aims: To present experience of management of squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary sinus treated with curative intent at a single institution. Settings and Design:Retrospective study of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary sinus who presented between 1994 to 1999. materials and Methods:The records of 73 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary sinus were analyzed. Sixty-two patients were evaluable. Forty patients (65% were treated with surgery followed by postoperative radiotherapy, five patients (8% were treated with radiotherapy alone, five patients (8% were treated with surgery alone; 12 patients (19% received chemotherapy. Statistical analysis used: Statistical analysis was done using Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The majority of patients presented with locally advanced disease (52, 84%; nodal involvement was observed in five patients (8%. The most common site of recurrence was at the primary site, which was observed in 28 patients (45% and regional failures occurred in 10 (16%. The 3 and 5-year overall survival was 38% and 35% and the disease free survival was 29% and 26% respectively. The 5-year overall survival after surgery and postoperative radiotherapy was 42%. Conclusions:The majority of patients present with advanced disease resulting in poor outcomes to conventional treatment modalities. Locoregional tumor progression remains a significant pattern of failure. New approaches such as neoadjuvant or concomitant chemoradiotherapy with aggressive surgery need to be considered and evaluated in prospective studies.

  3. Model Tata Kelola Komputasi Hijau Berbasis Dokumen untuk Universitas Bina Nusantara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuril Kusumawardhani Soeprapto Putri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The lack of green computing governance model for environment of universities in Indonesia becomes one major factor to conduct this research. In fact, the teaching and learning activities in campuses depend on support of information system and information technology. Various studies on green computing were observed. However, the suitable model for green computing in the area of private university Indonesia has not been observed yet. Referring to Green ICT Framework by University of Michigan and Connection Research as well as green computing framework by Adcuent, the green computing model for private university in Indonesia was developed through this research. Although the research object was observed in Bina Nusantara University, Jakarta, Indonesia, it is adoptable for other private universities to evaluate their information system and information technology performance surround campuses. Green computing governance is part of information system and information technology strategic plan. Therefore, the management of university should fully concern towards this matter.

  4. Rezim Persahabatan ASEAN dalam Tata Kelola Lintas Perbatasan Darat Indonesia-Malaysia Berbasis Connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saptopo B Ilkodar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article elaborates compatibility of ASEAN’s value with that of the idea of Indonesia-Malaysia borderland governance based on connectivity and common prosperity. It compares the basic value of ASEAN’s regime on amity on the one hand, with that of the borderland governance on the other. The result shows that the two concept are compatible on the surface but contradict to each other in the deeper layer. The idea of Indonesia-Malaysia borderland governance together with ASEAN Connectivity could potentially replace the nature of intra ASEAN relationship of solidarity to business partner.

  5. PRAKTIK TATA KELOLA PERUSAHAAN (CORPORATE GOVERNANCE DAN USEFULNESS INFORMASI AKUNTANSI (Telaah Teoritis Dan Empiris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Miqdad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Accounting researchs on corporate governance and earnings management refers to the positive accounting theory and agency theory. Most of the result empirical studies showed that implementing of good corporate governance (GCG negatively affect to earnings management. Excessive earnings management practices will affect the credibility of the financial statements in the user’s perception namely investors, creditors and other stakeholders. Corporate governance and earnings management associated with behavioral problems, therefore qualitative research method as an alternative to explore further of the behavioral problems.

  6. Pengaruh Tata Kelola Perusahaan dan Penghindaran Pajak Terhadap Manajemen Laba Pada Perusahaan Manufaktur di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juoro Larastomo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Impact of Corporate Governance and Tax Avoidance on Earning Management at Indonesian Manufacturing CompaniesThe objective of this study is to determine the impact of corporate governance and tax avoidance on earning management by Indonesian manufacturing companies listed on IDX in 2010-204. This study used board of commissioner, independent commissioner, audit committee, and managerial ownership as corporate governance’s variabel. Population of this study is Indonesian manufacturing companies listed on IDX in 2010-2014. Sample of this study are 21 companies that generated using purposive sampling method. The multiple regression analysis test showed that board of commissioner, independent commissioner and tax avoidance have positive impact on earning management. But, managerial ownership has positive impact on earning management and audit committee has no impact on earning managementDOI: 10.15408/ess.v6i1.3121

  7. Pendidikan Tata Rias Pengantin (Studi Situs Pengelolaan pada LKP Moncar Surakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Ari Indriastuti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to describe characteristics of (1 education planning; (2 education organizing; (3 education implementation; (4 education evaluation; and (5 supporting and inhibiting factors for education bridal makeup at LKP Mon- car. Type of research is a qualitative with an ethnographic approach. Implementation research in LKP Moncar Surakarta. Informants were chosen are the owner of LKP Moncar, learners, instructure. The validity of the data using source triangulation tech- niques and triangulation method. The conclusions of this research are characteristics of education bridal makeup in LKP Moncar Surakarta (1 education planning through ideas, acceptance of new students, and preparing educational bridal makeup materials are arranged in the form of Teaching Education (Unit Satuan Ajar Pendidikan/ SAP; education organizing done by placing instructors to handle incoming new students and handling facility management skills institutions, infrastructure, media learning and personnel and the distribution of skill levels of learners to all instructors and organize training agenda and organize training agenda and competition schedules based on each competition to the instructor; (3 education implementation in are procurement, usage, maintenance, and removal of owned skills institutions and achievement social- ization to new students also move instructors to carry out activities to achieve the target graduation; (4 education evaluation is done through planning and implementa- tion of admission new students and refers to skills attainment, graduation rates, and acquisition grades of student while monitoring the performance of team success; and (5 Factors supporting education at LKP Moncar is the support of family (husband and children, cost of teaching and learning needs is low, learning facilities bridal makeup does not always use the media and certain brands, and inhibiting factor for education is the difficulty of obtaining student.

  8. IMPLIKASI PENOLAKAN LAPORAN KETERANGAN PERTANGGUNG- JAWABAN KEPALA DAERAH DALAM PERSPEKTIF HUKUM TATA NEGARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Format of Indonesia Local Government that change with implementation Law Number 32 year 2004 concerning Local Government replaces Law Number 22 year 1999 concerning Local Government, the one of consequence change that is about responsibility the leader of local government. In implementation Law Number 22 year 1999 concerning Local Government, the leader of local government is responsible to DPRD as a local parlement with mechanism Responsible Report. DPRD as a local government have a authority to give and punish if a Responsible Report accepted or rejected with implicated the leader of local government can be impeacthment. The important point in implementation in Law Number 32 year 2004 concerning Local Government, with the simetris position like a partenership between leader of local government and DPRD as a local parlement is nothing implication of law with rejected to Progres Report the Leader of Local Government, as a like impeacthment, to claim in court or punish can not able to be a candidat in leader of local government in the next election.

  9. Rancang Bangun Tata Kelola Kinerja Perguruan Tinggi Menggunakan IT Balanced Scorecard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Solechan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Budgeting most colleges are not based on good governance and conceptual, but based on short-term needs in each college. Other problems are related to the use of information technology in both hardware, software and brain ware (user in the management of information technology is still not well-thought in its development. This research aims to design a wake-up governance by using the Information Technology IT Balanced Scorecard framework is a system of management, measurement and control quickly, accurately and comprehensively can provide insight to the Leadership of the portrait and the development of information technology in institution. Information system development using SDLC (system development life cycle. College performance measurement method using IT balanced scorecard framework. The results showed that the use of information systems governance college performance using IT Balanced Scorecard help the efficiency and effectiveness in making an evaluation report IT governance, helping the presentation of information and error reduction calculations, the transaction data maintained intact his security, was able to complete the reporting process with fast, speed up the calculation process and the conclusion of the assessment of the performance of the college.

  10. Characterization of four lytic transducing bacteriophages of luminescent Vibrio harveyi isolated from shrimp (Penaeus monodon) hatcheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiyagarajan, Sanjeevi; Chrisolite, Bagthasingh; Alavandi, Shankar V; Poornima, Modem; Kalaimani, Natarajan; Santiago, T Chinnappan

    2011-12-01

    Four lytic bacteriophages designated as φVh1, φVh2, φVh3, and φVh4 were isolated from commercial shrimp hatcheries, possessing broad spectrum of infectivity against luminescent Vibrio harveyi isolates, considering their potential as biocontrol agent of luminescent bacterial disease in shrimp hatcheries, and were characterized by electron microscopy, genomic analysis, restriction enzyme analysis (REA), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Three phages φVh1, φVh2, and φVh4 had an icosahedral head of 60-115 nm size with a long, noncontractile tail of 130-329 × 1-17 nm, belonged to the family Siphoviridae. φVh3 had an icosahedral head (72 ± 5 nm) with a short tail (27 × 12 nm) and belonged to Podoviridae. REA with DraI and PFGE of genomic DNA digested with ScaI and XbaI and cluster analysis of their banding patterns indicated that φVh3 was distinct from the other three siphophages. PFGE-based genome mean size of the four bacteriophages φVh1, φVh2, φVh3, and φVh4 was estimated to be about 85, 58, 64, and 107 kb, respectively. These phages had the property of generalized transduction as demonstrated by transduction with plasmid pHSG 396 with frequencies ranging from 4.1 × 10(-7) to 2 × 10(-9) per plaque-forming unit, suggesting a potential ecological role in gene transfer among aquatic vibrios.

  11. Three-Dimensional Geometry of the Narwhal (Monodon monoceros) Flukes in Relation to Hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    sections resemble hydrofoils . For a hydrofoil to be effective, a large lift must be produced while drag is minimized; this, in turn, increases the thrust...the flukes. Cross-section profiles taken along the horizontal axis exhibit what is a typical streamlined hydrofoil profile with a rounded leading edge...Chopra and Kambe 1977, Fish 1998b). Aspect ratio (AR) measures the relationship between the span and planform area of a hydrofoil and is related to

  12. Temperature Fluctuation, Low Salinity, Water Microflora: Risk Factors for WSSV Outbreaks in Penaeus monodon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tendencia Alapide, E.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2011-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has been devastating the shrimp industry for almost a decade. This study compares water parameters, alkalinity, and microflora in three ponds on a farm on Negros Island (Philippines) during two production cycles where WSSV infection resulted in an outbreak in 2006 bu

  13. Length and weight relationship of laboratory reared penaeid prawn Penaeus monodon (Fabricius) (Crustacea: Penaeidae)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saldanha, C.M.; Chatterji, A.

    followed the cube law. The weight of the prawn increased at the rate of more or less cube of the length. The relationship was found to be significant (p less than 0.001). At 95% confidence limit the b values were between 3.0524 and 4.3691. ANOVA showed...

  14. KAJIAN KONDISI TAMBAK TRADISIONAL UDANG WINDU (Penaeus monodon) DI PULAU NUNUKAN

    OpenAIRE

    Heppi Iromo; Azis; Ishaq Saleh

    2009-01-01

    The research at shrimp ponds in Nunukan for two months, during the period from June to July 2009. The methods of this research were : Survey, interview and observation. The data collected in formed primary and secondary data. The purposed of this reseach that is to learning about management system of traditional shrimp ponds in Nunukan Island. The result of this reseach indicated that the area wide of traditional ponds in this Island has differences. Subdistrict of Binusan has area wide about...

  15. POTENCY OF VIBRIO ISOLATES FOR BIOCONTROL OF VIBRIOSIS IN TIGER SHRIMP (PENAEUS MONODON LARVAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. W. LAY

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to obtain Vibrio isolates able to function as biocontr ol of vibriosis in shrimp hatchery. Thirty one Vibrio isolates were isolated from tiger shrimp larvae and hatchery environments, i.e. Labuan, Pangandaran, and Lampung, Indonesia. Pathogenic V. harveyi MR5339 was obtained from Maros, South-Sulawesi and was made as a rifampicin resistant mutant (RFR to screen for those 31 Vibrio isolates in in vitro assays and to allow us to monitor their presence in shrimp larvae and larval rearing water. Almost all Vibrio isolates could inhibit the growth of pathogenic V. harveyi MR5339 RFR. SKT-b isolate from Skeletonema was the most effective to inhibit the growth of V. harveyi MR5339 Rf* and significantly reduced larval mortality in pathogen challenge assays. These prospective biocontrol bacteria, at concentration of 10" CFU/ml, did not show pathogenicity to shrimp larvae. SKT-b was Gram negative, short rod-shape, exhibited yellow colonies on TCBS and swarming on SWC-agar media, motile, u tilized glucose and sucrose but not lactose: produced extra-cellular protease and amylase, but did not produce chitmase. Partial sequencing of 16S-rRNA gene SKT-b showed SKT-b similarity to Vibrio alginofyticus.

  16. Quotas on narwhal (Monodon monoceros) hunting in East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Reinhardt; Meilby, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the introduction of quotas on narwhal hunting in East Greenland with respect to effects on Inuit culture and based on trends in narwhal killed per hunter and assessment of migration patterns. Cultural aspects were assessed through group discussions and comparison between East....../hunter; and suggest southwest- bound migration, implying potential immigration from non-hunted populations that was not considered in quota setting. The implementation of quotas without local consultations and legal basis in the relevant executive order is therefore in our opinion inappropriate. Conservation...

  17. Effect of new aeration technology on the bacteriology of shrimp ponds growing Penaeus monodon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karekar, S.V.; Sreepada, R.A.; Shirodkar, R.R.; Kulkarni, S.; Kumar, P.; LokaBharathi, P.A.; Bergheim, A.; Vogelsang, C.

    microbial transformations of nitrogen or organic carbon degradation. Continual aeration can also help to reduce the metabolite diffusion of ammonia, carbon dioxide and other dissolved gases across the water- air interface into the atmosphere. Constant.... Low DO concentrations also increase the toxicity of ammonia to shrimp. Gases such as ammonia can impact aquatic life by acute and chronic toxicity as well as ammonia oxidation, which reduces dissolved oxygen levels. Ammonia in shrimp ponds causes...

  18. Low-input Modified Extensive Shrimp Culture System for Penaeus monodon Restrian Vibriosis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, S.O.; Sreepada, R.A.; Kulkarni, S.S.; Karekar. S.V.; Shirodkar, R.R.; Vogelsang, C.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    . A wide variation in the weight of hepatopancreas of shrimps was also observed during analysis (data not shown) which could be attributed to the differential amounts of ingesta in shrimps sampled in spite of our best efforts to collect specimen....M., Bowers J.C., DePaola A., and Grimes D.J., 2010, Relationships between environmental factors and pathogenic Vibrios in the Northern Gulf of Mexico, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 76(21): 7076-84 http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM...

  19. Vibrio harveyi modulated gene expression in Penaeus monodon and Fenneropenaeus indicus

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nayak, S.

    as the fastest growing among various agricultural commodities. Fish and fishery products represent one of the most valuable and nutritious food item for humans having most of the essential nutrients for human health. Fisheries sector occupies a very important...-producing sector. In global trade, fish and fishery products are among the most sought after of various agricultural commodities. They represent the most valuable and nutritious food items for humans as they have most of the essential nutrients for human health...

  20. Identification of upregulated immune-related genes in Vibrio harveyi challenged Penaeus monodon postlarvae

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nayak, S.; Singh, S.K.; Ramaiah, N.; Sreepada, R.A.

    at the early life-stages of shrimps are of great significance. An understanding therefore, of molecular responses and defense mechanism(s) in shrimps against bacterial pathogens is essential. Besides production of antimicrobial biomolecules, the innate... immune/defense mechanisms in crustaceans involve phagocytosis, pathogen encapsulation, nodule formation, agglutination and prophenoloxidase (proPO) activating system [3]. However, the attempts to understand the molecular responses in the highly...

  1. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN EKSTRAK PAKIS SEBAGAI MOULTING STIMULAN PADA INDUK UDANG WINDU (Penaeus monodon. Fab DI HATCHERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Suryati

    2013-08-01

    kandungan senyawa steroid yaitu fitoekdisteroid dalam bentuk 20-Hydroxyecdyson atau Ecdysteron berfungsi sebagai moulting stimulan pada krustase. Pada umumnya ecdysteron ditemukan pada krustase baik yang ada di darat maupun yang berada di dalam air seperti kepiting, udang, dan krustase lainnya yang ditemukan secara alami dan berfungsi sebagai pengatur proses penggantian kulit dan mengontrol pembentukan exoskeleton baru untuk menggantikan exoskeleton yang lama. Selain ablasi proses moulting pada udang dapat diinduksi melalui penambahan 20-hydroksi ecdysteron (20 E pada hemolim sehingga fase premoulting dapat diatur sesuai dengan kebutuhan. 20-hydroksiecdysteron dapat diperoleh dari ekstrak tumbuhan di antaranya bayam, asparagus, pakis, dan lain-lain melalui pemisahan dengan ekstraksi, fraksinasi, dan pemurnian dengan HPLC dilanjutkan dengan elusidasi struktur. Pemberian ekstrak pakis pada induk udang windu untuk memacu terjadinya pergantian kulit dilakukan melalui dengan beberapa konsentrasi menggunakan desain Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL. Hasil analisis memperlihatkan bahwa kandungan phytoecdysteron pada pakis perkisar 230-730 mg/L dari larutan ekstrak yang setara dengan 20 g bahan segar. Konsentrasi ECD 25 mg/L, memperlihatkan respon yang paling baik sebagai moulting stimulan.

  2. Fungal infection in the tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) and in other crustaceans from the Cochin Backwaters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopalan, U.K.; Meenakshikunjamma, P.P.; Purushan, K.S.

    more serious necrotic lesions than Saprolegnia parasitica. In the other crustaceans, Achlya racemosa and another Achlya sp. were also recorded besides S. parasitica. Experimental infection showed that smaller and thin-shelled crustaceans were more...

  3. Isolation and identification of Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus from prawn (Penaeus monodon) seafood: Preservation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaashikaa, P R; Saravanan, A; Kumar, P Senthil

    2016-10-01

    Bacterial diseases are one of the major problems which affects the production, development and expansion of aqua culture. Vibrio sp. are widespread in marine and estuarine environments. The several pathogenic species are commonly associated with outbreaks of Vibrio species and it is mainly associated with food poisonings. In this research, the occurrence of Vibrio sp. was studied by the isolation and it is confirmed by the biochemical methods. The growth rate was studied by changing the different operating parameters. Isolation studies were done by using enrichment and selective plating methods. The different biochemical test was carried out and inferred that the isolated organisms were Vibrio choleraee and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The antibiotic study was also performed to find out the resistant and sensitivity of the Vibrio species. From the results, it was observed that this can be able to correlate the growth of vibrio species to a limited condition and other environmental parameters for which it will be able to find the remedial measures to prevent the growth and spreading of the diseases. Also the different preservation method was carried out to suppress the growth rate of Vibrio sp. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. INCOME ANALYSIS OF TRADITIONAL PONDS OF POLYCULTURE SYSTEM MILKFISH (Chanos-chanos) AND SHRIMP (Paneus monodon

    OpenAIRE

    Baso, Aris; Mulyanti, Sri; Amiluddin, Ir

    2010-01-01

    Policulture Traditional cultivation at village Tammarupe, subdistrict Mandalle, regency pangkep is very good to expanding and also advocate prosperity of fish farmer. This research has a purpose to know step of benefit that is got from fishpond business with the policulture system and to know expedience of traditional policulture of fishpond business. This research was conducted over two months in November to January. The Method used is survey research that takes samples from a popul...

  5. Penaeus monodon post-larvae and their interaction with Rhizophora apiculata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nga, B.T.

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, expansion of shrimp aquaculture in Vietnam has brought considerable financial benefits to farmers and local communities. In the coastal provinces in the Mekong Delta, brackish shrimp aquaculture is the major economy activity. Extensive shrimp-mangrove culture systems are popularly p

  6. TRANSFER GEN ANTIVIRUS PADA EMBRIO UDANG WINDU, Penaeus monodon DALAM BERBAGAI KONSENTRASI DEOXYRIBO NUCLEIC ACID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Parenrengi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Teknologi transgenesis khususnya rekayasa genetik untuk menghasilkan udang windu resisten penyakit merupakan salah satu strategi yang dapat dilakukan dalam upaya pemecahan masalah penyakit yang menimpa budidaya udang windu. Teknologi transgenesis khususnya transfer gen antivirus pada udang windu telah berhasil dilakukan melalui teknik transfeksi. Meskipun demikian optimalisasi komponen teknologi tersebut masih perlu dilakukan. Konsentrasi DNA gen merupakan salah satu komponen teknologi transgenesis yang harus dioptimalkan untuk mendapatkan efisiensi dalam transfer gen. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui konsentrasi DNA gen antivirus yang optimal sebagai bahan transfer gen ke embrio menggunakan metode transfeksi. Embrio udang windu yang diperoleh dari hasil pemijahan induk asal Aceh, dikoleksi 5-10 menit setelah memijah dengan kepadatan 625 telur/2 mL. Transfeksi dilakukan dengan menggunakan media larutan transfeksi jetPEI dengan konsentrasi DNA gen antivirus sebagai perlakuan, yakni: 5, 10, dan 15 µg serta kontrol positif (tanpa plasmid DNA dan negatif (tanpa plasmid DNA dan larutan transfeksi, masing-masing 3 ulangan. Embrio hasil transfeksi ditetaskan pada stoples berisi air laut sebanyak 2 L yang diletakkan pada waterbath. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa gen antivirus telah berhasil diintroduksi ke embrio udang windu. Hasil analisis ragam menunjukkan bahwa perbedaan konsentrasi DNA (5-15 µg tidak berpengaruh nyata (P>0,05 terhadap daya tetas embrio udang windu. Analisis ekspresi gen pada larva udang windu juga menunjukkan adanya aktivitas ekspresi gen antivirus pada semua perlakuan konsentrasi DNA, di mana ekspresi gen antivirus pada larva transgenik lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan kontrol (tanpa transfeksi. Sintasan pasca-larva PL-1 yang didapatkan pada penelitian ini adalah 12,0%; 10,0%; 10,6%; 12,3%; dan 14,2% masing-masing untuk perlakuan konsentrasi plasmid DNA 5 µg, 10 µg, 15 µg, kontrol positif dan negatif, di mana konsentrasi DNA yang berbeda tidak memperlihatkan pengaruh nyata (P>0,05 terhadap sintasan larva PL-1. Hasil penelitian ini berimplikasi bahwa untuk alasan efisiensi, konsentrasi DNA 5 µg disarankan untuk digunakan dalam transfer gen pada embrio udang windu.

  7. TIGER SHRIMP (Penaeus monodon GROWTH AT DIFFERENT STOCKING DENSITIES IN HIGH SALINITY POND USING MANGROVE RESERVOIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunarto Gunarto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available High salinity pond water ranging from 33—45 ppt between July and October is one of the problems occurred in western part of South Sulawesi brackishwater ponds. It is necessary to know if tiger shrimps grow well in such salinity, since the optimum salinity range for the growth of tiger shrimp is 15—25 ppt. The objective of the research is to know the tiger shrimp production at different stocking densities cultured in high salinity pond in mangrove reservoir. Twelve pond compartments of 500 m2 each were arranged randomly for three treatments of shrimp stocking densities i.e. 4 ,  6, and 8 pcs./m2 , where each treatment was in three replications. The result of study showed that shrimp production at 6 pieces/m2 was higher than that of 4 and 8 pieces/m2, with more efficient  feed conversion was obtained in this stocking density (1.3 compared to treatment 4 pieces/m2 (1.5 and treatment 8 pieces/m2 (>3.

  8. ANALISIS RASIO RNA/DNA UDANG WINDU Penaeus monodon HASIL SELEKSI TUMBUH CEPAT Andi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Parenrengi

    2016-02-01

    bahwa rasio RNA/DNA udang windu tumbuh cepat (4,51 berbeda secara nyata (P<0,05 dengan udang windu kontrol (3,19. Kecenderungan rasio RNA/DNA semakin tinggi dengan semakin beratnya bobot badan, di mana rasio RNA/DNA udang betina (4,96 lebih tinggi (P<0,05 dari udang jantan (2,93. Analisis regresi menunjukkan bahwa rasio RNA/DNA udang windu memiliki hubungan erat dengan panjang (R=0,5628 dan bobot (R=0,6539. Hasil penelitian ini berimplikasi bahwa parameter rasio RNA/DNA dapat dijadikan sebagai indikator pertumbuhan udang windu.

  9. Studies on luminous, Vibrio harveyi associated with shrimp culture system rearing Panaeus monodon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kannapiran, E.; Ravindran, J.; Chandrasekar, R.; Kalaiarasi, A.

    and expressed as CFU ml-1 or g. The enumeration and isolation of V. harveyi in water and sediment samples were made using V. harveyi agar (VH Agar) by spread plate technique as previously described (Harris et al., 1996). From 50th day onwards the animal samples... in shrimp culture ecosystem. Ind. J. Fish., 49, 247-253 (2002). De La Pena, L.D., K.T. Tamaki, T.N. Momoyama and K. Muroga: Characteristic of causative bacterium of vibriosis in kuruma prawn Penaeus Japanicus Aquaculture, 115, 1-12 (1993). Harris, L., L...

  10. PENYEBARAN DAN PREVALENSI WHITE SPOT SYNDROME VIRUS (WSSV PADA BUDI DAYA UDANG WINDU (Penaeus monodon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muliani Muliani

    2016-11-01

    The aims of this experiment was to know the distribution and prevalences of WSSV on tiger shrimp. Sample collection and WSSV detection conducted with PCR method was carried out during April 2004 to November 2006. Tiger shrimp broodstock samples were collected from Central Java, South Sulawesi, Gorontalo, Kalimantan, and Timika waters, and the other samples (tiger shrimp post larvae, juveniles, and cultured shrimp were collected from several region in South Sulawesi. The pleopod, pereiopod, eye stalk, carapax, gill, tail, muscle of broodstock, juveniles, and cultured shrimp, and 30 pcs of postlarvae were extracted using lysis buffer to collect genomic DNA. WSSV DNA amplification was carried out using first and nested PCR technique by specific sequence amplification kit (IQ2000TM  Detection and Prevention system. The WSSV DNA was visualized by gell documentation system. The result showed that more than 33% of broodstock resources of Indonesia waters and 90% of shrimp culture area of South Sulawesi were contaminated by WSSV. WSSV was also infected tiger shrimp broodstock, postlarvae, juveniles, and tiger shrimp cultured with the highest prevalence (40.4% was on tiger shrimp cultured and the lowest prevalence (5.4% was on postlarvae.

  11. PENYEBARAN DAN PREVALENSI WHITE SPOT SYNDROME VIRUS (WSSV) PADA BUDI DAYA UDANG WINDU (Penaeus monodon)

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui penyebaran dan tingkat prevalensi serangan WSSV pada budi daya udang windu. Pengumpulan sampel dan deteksi WSSV dengan teknik PCR dilakukan dari bulan April 2004 sampai November 2006. Sampel induk udang windu yang dikumpulkan berasal dari perairan Jawa Tengah, Sulawesi Selatan, Gorontalo, Kalimantan Timur, dan Timika. Sedangkan benur, tokolan, dan udang yang dibudidayakan dikumpulkan dari beberapa lokasi di Sulawesi Selatan. Sampel udang diambil bagia...

  12. Complete architecture of the archaeal RNA polymerase open complex from single-molecule FRET and NPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Julia; Grohmann, Dina; Cheung, Alan C. M.; Schulz, Sarah; Smollett, Katherine; Werner, Finn; Michaelis, Jens

    2015-01-01

    The molecular architecture of RNAP II-like transcription initiation complexes remains opaque due to its conformational flexibility and size. Here we report the three-dimensional architecture of the complete open complex (OC) composed of the promoter DNA, TATA box-binding protein (TBP), transcription factor B (TFB), transcription factor E (TFE) and the 12-subunit RNA polymerase (RNAP) from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii. By combining single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer and the Bayesian parameter estimation-based Nano-Positioning System analysis, we model the entire archaeal OC, which elucidates the path of the non-template DNA (ntDNA) strand and interaction sites of the transcription factors with the RNAP. Compared with models of the eukaryotic OC, the TATA DNA region with TBP and TFB is positioned closer to the surface of the RNAP, likely providing the mechanism by which DNA melting can occur in a minimal factor configuration, without the dedicated translocase/helicase encoding factor TFIIH.

  13. Selection of reference genes for expression analysis using quantitative real-time PCR in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris (Hemiptera, Aphidiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiao Yang

    Full Text Available To facilitate gene expression study and obtain accurate qRT-PCR analysis, normalization relative to stable expressed housekeeping genes is required. In this study, expression profiles of 11 candidate reference genes, including actin (Actin, elongation factor 1 α (EF1A, TATA-box-binding protein (TATA, ribosomal protein L12 (RPL12, β-tubulin (Tubulin, NADH dehydrogenase (NADH, vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (v-ATPase, succinate dehydrogenase B (SDHB, 28S ribosomal RNA (28S, 16S ribosomal RNA (16S, and 18S ribosomal RNA (18S from the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, under different developmental stages and temperature conditions, were investigated. A total of four analytical tools, geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and the ΔCt method, were used to evaluate the suitability of these genes as endogenous controls. According to RefFinder, a web-based software tool which integrates all four above-mentioned algorithms to compare and rank the reference genes, SDHB, 16S, and NADH were the three most stable house-keeping genes under different developmental stages and temperatures. This work is intended to establish a standardized qRT-PCR protocol in pea aphid and serves as a starting point for the genomics and functional genomics research in this emerging insect model.

  14. Modelling the mechanical behaviour of heterogeneous Ta/TA6V welded joints: behaviour and failure criteria; Modelisation du comportement mecanique des liaisons soudees heterogenes Ta/TA6V: comportement et critere de rupture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paris, Th

    2008-12-15

    As laser welding of two different materials (heterogeneous welding) leads to a joint having a characteristic size close to the millimetre, i.e. much smaller than that of a structure, and as such a junction displays completely different mechanical properties because of the metallurgical transformations induced by intense thermal loading, the aim of this research thesis is to develop a behaviour model, flexible and robust enough, to represent all together the mechanical behaviours of the Ta, the TA6V and the melted zone. This model must be able to take plasticity and visco-plasticity into account, and also to provide a failure criterion through damage mechanics and its coupling with the behaviour. The author first reports the experimental characterization of the base materials (Ta and TA6V) by using tensile tests under different strain rates and different directions, relaxation tests and fatigue shear tests. He also characterizes the melted zone by describing the influence of a thermal treatment (induced by welding) on the formation of the melted zone, and by using different tests: four point bending on notched specimens, nano-indentation test, and longitudinal tensile test. In a second part, the author develops the model within the framework of continuum thermodynamics, and explores the numerical issues. The last part deals with the validation of the model for the concerned materials (Ta and TA6V) and melted zone.

  15. Ta/TA6V heterogeneous welding. Study of the formation and the metallurgical properties of the melted zones; Soudage heterogene Ta/TA6V Etude de la formation et des proprietes metallurgiques des zones fondues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malicrot, A.; Naudy, P.; Durut, L. [CEA Valduc, 21120 Is-sur-Tille (France); Grevey, D. [Pole Laser Creusot Bourgogne, 71200 Le Creusot (France); Daloz, D. [Ecole des Mines de Nancy, 54000 Nancy (France)

    2006-07-01

    The welding laboratory of the department of manufacturing and nuclear technologies is in charge to assemble prototype objects which appeal to a lot of materials as for instance titanium or tantalum. The autogenous weldability of these two materials is relatively well known nowadays, by laser beam or electrons beam. On the other hand, the heterogeneous welding is most difficult on account of the important differences of the thermophysical and metallurgical properties of the two involved materials. This work deals more particularly with the Nd:YAG laser welding of tantalum with the titanium alloy TA6V. Two modes of energy contribution are considered: impulsional and continuous. The aim of this work is to finely characterized, in a metallurgical point of view, the melted zones in order to control their composition (constitution and distribution of the phases in presence, identification of the eventual defects), as well as the reactional processes occurring in the liquid bath during and after the interaction of the laser beam with the matter. Thus, a first study has been carried out at the macroscopic scale in order to obtain global views of the melted zones. The magnification is then strongly increased for analyzing the weldings at the microstructure scale. (O.M.)

  16. Origins of Radio Astronomy at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research and the role of J. L. Pawsey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, W. M.

    I will discuss the interactions of a number of individuals that played major roles in the formation of radio astronomy in India in the period 1952-1962, particularly Dr. Joseph L. Pawsey. The story began in 1953-1954: Pawsey brought Govind Swarup to Australia as a Colombo Fellow in 1953, where he worked with Christiansen, Mills, Wild and Bolton. Later, Swarup went to Stanford where he completed a PhD with Ron Bracewell working on the new Solar Microwave Spectroheliograph. In the era 1960-1963, with the encouragement of Pawsey, several colleagues in Australia and Bracewell, discussions began among a number of Indian colleagues to form a radio astronomy group in India. The main players were G. Swarup, T.K. Menon, M.R. Kundu and T. Krishnan. Homi J. Bhabha, the Director of TIFR, made the decisive offer to this group to start a radio astronomy project in early 1962. Swarup joined TIFR in early April 1963. Many factors contributed to the successful formation of the new group: international networking among scientists of several generations, rapid decisions by Bhabha and the readiness to take chances in choosing promising, young, energetic scientists. In December 2013, we have celebrated 50 years of ground breaking research by the TIFR radio astronomers as well as the outstanding decade of research with the GMRT- the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope. Govind Swarup has provided the inspiration and leadership for this remarkable achievement.

  17. PROGRAM APRESIASI BAGI PEMERINTAH DAERAH (PEMDA DALAM MELAKSANAKAN TATA KELOLA (GOOD GOVERNANCE GUNA MEMAJUKAN KEPARIWISATAAN DI DAERAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismayanti Ismayanti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The success of region is largely determined by the commitment of the local government in the development of tourism. Good governance will certainly provide prosperity for the community. This first year multi-disciplinary research has a purpose: to design blueprint appreciation program for local governments that are committed in developing regions of Tourism through good governance and delivering award of appreciation to the government. This study examines several aspects of appreciation  through commitment identification and governance survey using analytical methods of AHP. Tourism appreciation blueprint is implemented with program testing. The results achieved is the publication and implementation of the blueprint of appreciation in cooperation with the Eljohn Publishing through Travel Club Tourism Award 2012 from the magazine Travel Club. The results is 40 nominees from the provincial governments, district and city governments. From the nominees, it is determined the winner of the provincial government consisting of 3 province, 9 city and 13 district government. Positive implications occurs after administration of appreciation and local prideness increases when each winner received awars and regional leaders gave speech in front of live audience and broadcasting live all over Indonesia. Besides these, dignity of each government showed in local and national publications in the electronic media and print media. Of these positive implications, it is recommended to conduct a similar program on a regular basis and measured the impact of the annual tribute to the development of tourism in the area so that the program becomes one measure the progress of regional tourismDOI: 10.15408/ess.v4i1.1962

  18. Pengaruh Sistem Catur Wangsa terhadap Perwujudan Tata Spasial Kota Peninggalan Kerajaan Hindu di Bali: Kasus Kota Karangasem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ngurah Wiras Hardy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Karangasem City is one of the heritage cities of Karangasem Kingdom in Bali which has a typical spatial layout and society life. The society of Karangasem City is divided into several classes based on the catur wangsa (social group which is presumed affecting the realization of spatial layout of Karangasem City physically. It is interesting to conduct a deeper investigation on it to identify the effect of the system, so that it can be used as an input to manage and develop Karangasem City in the future. In investigating the effect, the method used in this study is qualitative method with inductive-qualitative technique and three data collection techniques, they are field observation, in-depth interview with purposive sampling, and literature study. Based on the results of the study, it is understood that the catur wangsa system took part in affecting the spatial layout of Karangasem City in which divided the city area into three layers of concentric circles according to the level of social classes that inhibits each of the layers. It also shows the suitability of Karangasem City spatial layout with the tri mandala (three spaces concept which divides the area of Karangasem City into three layers.

  19. ANALISIS TINGKAT KEMATANGAN PENYEDIAAN TATA KELOLA TEKNOLOGI INFORMASI DI PDII LIPI MENGGUNAKAN FRAMEWORK COBIT 4.1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima Octavia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Centre for Scientific Documentation and Information – Indonesian Institute of Science (PDII LIPI began to developbusiness objectives towards a digital library. To support this goal should be held IT governance while PDII LIPI hasno specific IT governance. This research aims to study the condition of the IT management and determine the levelof maturity of the provision of IT governance framework based on COBIT 4.1. COBIT is one of the internationalstandard for IT governance. COBIT is used in this study were able to measure the COBIT 4.1 for organizations thatdo not use IT governance. Analysis of the level of maturity of the provision of IT governance is based on aquestionnaire that is processed by the COBIT 4.1 framework and compared with the actual conditions in the ITmanagement in PDII LIPI. The results of the calculation of the maturity level of to provided IT governance in PDIILIPI based on framework COBIT 4.1 shows that PDII-LIPI already at level 3 (Defined Process. This is consistent withthe actual conditions in PDII-LIPI. COBIT 4.1 is considered quite capable, reliable and easy to implement in PDII LIPI. 

  20. Perancangan Tata Kelola Teknologi Informasi di BAPAPSI Pemkab Bandung Menggunakan framework COBIT 5 Pada Domain EDM dan DSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rati Amanda Fajrin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Information technology has an important role to support the implementation of public information. Bandung regency government has one of the bodies, named BAPAPSI. The existing problems in BAPAPSI, especially in PPI are uneven internet network in all districts, bad internet connection, bad handling of the incident, and the procurement of servers that do not support the use of the application in BAPAPSI. Therefore, 7 lifecycle COBIT 5 methodology is used to solve the problems in BAPAPSI. COBIT 5 provides complete, comprehensive guidelines in helping organizations to achieve the effective use of IT. The first stage in this research is assess capability level, then the next stage are mapping governance objective, enterprise goals, IT Related Goals and IT Process on COBIT 5. So, the results are the priority process on EDM04 and DSS01 domain to be analyzed and to design procedure IT governance using COBIT 5. This research also recommends the target of organizational structure in accordance with the needs of the Bandung regency government.

  1. Taking an organisational approach to private sector adaptation � the case of Tata Teleservices in India

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    A growing paradigm of �engaging the private sector� is noticeable in all areas of climate risk management and adaptation. However, there is limited empirical investigation into what action companies are taking and what impact this may have on their own resilience as well as on others�, particularly in emerging economies and low-income countries. A case study investigation of a large telecommunications company in India aims to address this knowledge gap by offering new insights that furt...

  2. Perancangan Tata Kelola Layanan Teknologi Informasi Menggunakan ITIL versi 3 Domain Service Transition Dan Service Operation Di Pemerintah Kota Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luki Aisha Kusuma Wardani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Information Technology plays an important role in an organization, and not only as a support equipment. Bandung City Government, as a government agency, make IT into one of the visions that need to be achieved. To achieve good governance based on Minister Regulation Number 41 in 2007, IT Governance is needed to ensure that the investment of IT can add value and align with institution’s objective. Bandung City Government currently doesn’t have policies and procedure that regulate about IT Service Management. Therefore, this study was conducted with the aim to create a guidance for Office of Communications and Information Technology of Bandung (Diskominfo to optimize the service provided. This study also aims to make Service Management governance so that the management of IT service have certain quality and meet the needs of business customers, and improve the quality as the agreement with the customers. This study was conducted using ITIL v3 with Service Operation and Service Transition domain. ITIL is IT Service Management best practice to improve the efficiency of IT operational. ISO 15504 was conducted to asses Capability Level of ITIL Process. Capability Level of Service Transition is 24.5% and Capability Level of Service Operation is 23%. Because of the inadequacy of the primary data, the assessment was also carried out by mapping the objective of institution with the risks related to the lack of ITIL processes. The results of the design are the governance policies and procedures related to the ITIL processes needed by the institution.

  3. PENGARUH KOMUNIKASI NON FORMAL, DISIPLIN KERJA, KOMPETENSI PEGAWAI DAN EMPATI PEGAWAI TATA USAHA TERHADAP PELAYANAN SISWA SMK PALEBON SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ary Fidayatul Ikhsani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Services students` is one important component in supporting the learning process. If the service provided is poor then the students will find it difficult to take care of all administrative and obtain the information needed. Based on data from interviews with five vocational students obtained Palebon Semarang is still a gap between expectations and the reality of the service given to vocational students Administrative Palebon Semarang. Based on the background of the above problems can be obtained formulation of the problem is there any influence of non-formal communication, work discipline, employee competence and empathy clerical employees with the services of vocational students Palebon Semarang ?. This study aims to determine whether there is influence of non-formal communication, work discipline, employee competence and empathy towards employees Administrative Services Vocational students Palebon Semarang. , This study includes quantitative research. Methods of data collection using the questionnaire. Methods of data analysis using multiple linear regression, the classic assumption test, test hypotheses and descriptive analysis. Y = 1.775 + 0.277 + 0.123 X1 + 0.285 X2 X3 + X4 + 0.39 e. The test results obtained Fhitung 57 601 simultaneous with significance 0.000 <0.05 .. The amount of influence simultaneously the influence of non-formal communication, work discipline, employee competence and empathy employees with the services of 61.3%. Influence in partial non formal communication that is 12.5%, which is 3.8% of labor discipline, the competence of employees is 13.2%, while empathy is 16.6%

  4. A national competitiveness-based portfolio approach for international strategic management: illustrated with the case of the TATA industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiele, Holger; Harms, Rainer; Banerjee, Shrestho

    2014-01-01

    International firms with multiple business units are dealing with the question of how to balance the international dimension of their business portfolio. Which business units should go international and where should they contract or expand their international activities? Previous research lacks

  5. MANAJEMEN PERPUSTAKAAN SEKOLAH BERBASIS SISTEM INFORMASI GUNA MENINGKATKAN KEMANDIRIAN DAN OPTIMALISASI TATA KELOLA PERPUSTAKAAN SEKOLAH DASAR SE-KECAMATAN JATINANGOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine Silvana

    2014-11-01

    ABSTRAK Kegiatan Pengabdian Masyarakat ini dilaksanakan di Kecamatan Jatinangor dengan mengambil tempat pelaksanaan di Aula Kantor UPTD TK, SD dan PNF Kecamatan Jatinangor dan di Ruang Pertemuan GERKOPIN Kecamatan Jatinangor. Sebagai Masyarakat Mitra dalam PKM ini yakni Unit Pengelola Teknis Dinas TK, SD dan PNF Kecamatan Jatinangor. Pencapaian Sasaran PKM ini adalah para Pengelola Perpustakaan Sekolah Dasar Se-Kecamatan Jatinangor. Kegiatan PKM yang telah dilaksanakan yakni dimulai dari kegiatan FGD untuk mengetahui kebutuhan pencapaian sasaran, kemudian Seminar dan Workshop yang diikuti oleh para Kepala Sekolah Dasar serta para Pengelola Perpustakaan dari 29 SD Negeri maupun Swasta. Berikutnya kegiatan Monitoring dan Evaluasi Akhir. Tujuan dari Program PKM ini adalah agar pencapaian sasaran dapat memiliki pengetahuan dan keterampilan teknis dalam mengelola dan mengolah koleksi bahan pustaka maupun layanan perpustakaan sekolah dengan menggunakan sistem informasi perpustakaan yang lebih mudah digunakan. Dalam kegiatan FGD diketahui bahwa hampir semua pengelola perpustakaan sekolah belum dapat menangani pengolahan koleksi secara sistematis. Meskipun sebagian diantara mereka sudah mengetahui adanya sistem informasi yang dapat digunakan untuk mengolah dan mengelola koleksi, mereka belum mengetahui dan belum dapat memanfaatkan dan menggunakannya. Dalam sesi Seminar, para Kepala Sekolah mendapatkan pemahaman lebih lanjut tentang pentingnya meng

  6. A national competitiveness-based portfolio approach for international strategic management: illustrated with the case of the TATA industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiele, Holger; Harms, Rainer; Banerjee, Shrestho

    2014-01-01

    International firms with multiple business units are dealing with the question of how to balance the international dimension of their business portfolio. Which business units should go international and where should they contract or expand their international activities? Previous research lacks tool

  7. Perancangan Tata Kelola Teknologi Informasi di BAPAPSI Pemkab Bandung Menggunakan framework COBIT 5 Pada Domain EDM dan DSS

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Information technology has an important role to support the implementation of public information. Bandung regency government has one of the bodies, named BAPAPSI. The existing problems in BAPAPSI, especially in PPI are uneven internet network in all districts, bad internet connection, bad handling of the incident, and the procurement of servers that do not support the use of the application in BAPAPSI. Therefore, 7 lifecycle COBIT 5 methodology is used to solve the problems in BAPAPSI. COBIT ...

  8. A high speed digital data acquisition system for the Indian National Gamma Array at Tata Institute of Fundamental Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palit, R., E-mail: palit@tifr.res.in [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Saha, S.; Sethi, J.; Trivedi, T.; Sharma, S.; Naidu, B.S.; Jadhav, S.; Donthi, R.; Chavan, P.B. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Tan, H.; Hennig, W. [XIA LLC, Hayward, CA 94544 (United States)

    2012-07-11

    A digital data acquisition system for the Compton suppressed clover detector array has been implemented at the TIFR-BARC accelerator facility for the high resolution gamma ray spectroscopy using the Pixie-16 Digital Gamma Finder modules by XIA LLC. This system has a provision for simultaneous digitization of 96 preamplifier signals of high purity germanium crystals. The energy and timing characteristics of the clover detectors have been investigated in detail. In-beam data has been collected both in singles and in the coincidence mode. The system has been tested with 64 channels with each of the 64 crystals having an event rate up to 5 kHz and 2-fold clover coincidence rate up to 15 kHz. The use of the digital data acquisition system has improved the high counting rate handling capabilities for the clover array. Conventional systems with analog shaping are being replaced by digital system that provides higher throughput, better energy resolution and better stability for the multi-detector Compton suppressed clover array.

  9. Origins of Radio Astronomy at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research and the Role of J.L. Pawsey

    CERN Document Server

    Goss, W M

    2014-01-01

    I will discuss the interactions of a number of individuals that played major roles in the formation of radio astronomy in India in the period 1952-1962, particularly Dr. Joseph L. Pawsey. The story began in 1953-1954: Pawsey brought Govind Swarup to Australia as a Colombo Fellow in 1953, where he worked with Christiansen, Mills, Wild and Bolton. Later, Swarup went to Stanford where he completed a PhD with Ron Bracewell working on the new Solar Microwave Spectroheliograph. In the era 1960-1963, with the encouragement of Pawsey, several colleagues in Australia and Bracewell, discussions began among a number of Indian colleagues to form a radio astronomy group in India. The main players were G. Swarup, T.K. Menon, M.R. Kundu and T. Krishnan. Homi J. Bhabha, the Director of TIFR, made the decisive offer to this group to start a radio astronomy project in early 1962. Swarup joined TIFR in early April 1963. Many factors contributed to the successful formation of the new group: international networking among scienti...

  10. Static Analysis and Fatigue Life prediction of Composite Leaf Spring for a Light Commercial Vehicle (TATA ACE)

    OpenAIRE

    Manjunath H.N, Manjunath.K, T.Rangaswamy

    2014-01-01

    Composite materials consist of two or more physically dissimilar and instinctively separable components called reinforcement and matrix. These two components can be mixed in a restricted way to achieve optimum properties, which are superior to the properties of each individual component. Composite materials have been widely used in automobile industry because of its high strength and modulus to weight ratio, low cost and flexibility in material and structure design...

  11. 印度Tata Nano 3月23日发布、4月销售

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    印度塔塔汽车将在4月份推出全球最廉价汽车Nano,售价大约在10万卢比(约合1948美元,相当于1.36万人民币),此车于2009年3月23日正式上市,而用户最早可以在4月的第二周开始预定,这款车经历了艰难险阻终于走上销售轨道让人钦佩,

  12. A national competitiveness-based portfolio approach for international strategic management: illustrated with the case of the TATA industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiele, Holger; Harms, R.; Banerjee, Shrestho

    2014-01-01

    International firms with multiple business units are dealing with the question of how to balance the international dimension of their business portfolio. Which business units should go international and where should they contract or expand their international activities? Previous research lacks tool

  13. CLUSTER MODEL FOR EXTENSIVE GIANT TIGER SHRIMP (Penaeus monodon Fab. TO PREVENT TRANSMISSION OF WHITE SPOT SYNDROME VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Taslihan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome virus (WSSV has become epidemic in Indonesia and affecting shrimp aquaculture interm of its production. White spot syndrome virus is transmitted from one to other ponds, through crustacean, included planktonic copepode as carrier for WSSV and through water from affected shrimp pond. A cluster model, consist of shrimp grow out ponds surrounded by non-shrimp pond as a role of biosecurity has been developed. The model aimed to prevent white spot virus transmission in extensive giant tiger shrimp pond. The study was conducted in two sites at Demak District, Central Java Province. As the treatment, a cluster consist of three shrimp ponds in site I, and two shrimp ponds in site II, each was surrounded by buffer ponds rearing only finfish. As the control, five extensive shrimp grow out ponds in site I and three shrimp grow out ponds in site II, with shrimp pond has neither applied biosecurity nor surrounded by non-shrimp pond as biosecurity as well considered as control ponds. The results found that treatment of cluster shrimp ponds surrounded by non-shrimp ponds could hold shrimp at duration of culture in the grow out pond (DOC 105.6±4.5 days significantly much longer than that of control that harvested at 60.9±16.0 days due to WSSV outbreak. Survival rate in trial ponds was 77.6±3.6%, significantly higher than that of control at 22.6±15.8%. Shrimp production in treatment ponds has total production of 425.1±146.6 kg/ha significantly higher than that of control that could only produced 54.5±47.6 kg/ha. Implementation of Better Management Practices (BMP by arranging shrimp ponds in cluster and surrounding by non-shrimp ponds proven effectively prevent WSSV transmission from traditional shrimp ponds in surrounding area.

  14. Rapid diagnosis of vibriosis and white spot syndrome (WSS) in the culture of shrimp, Penaeus monodon in Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caipang, Christopher Marlowe A; Aguana, Mary Paz N

    2010-10-01

    Viral and bacterial pathogens have raised serious concerns in the sustainability of the shrimp culture industry in the Philippines. Heavy mortality associated with luminous vibriosis and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection has been the major problem besetting the industry. Using published PCR protocols for the diagnosis of vibriosis and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) disease in shrimp, we optimized these assays that could be suited to the shrimp aquaculture setting in the Philippines. Genomic DNAs of Vibrio spp. that exhibited luminescence as well as those that grew on thiosulfate citrate bile salt sucrose agar (TCBS) were used for the PCR amplification of the ribonuclease P (RNase P) gene. There was differential amplification of the RNase P gene based on the phenotypic characters of the Vibrio spp. Similar results were also obtained using direct colony PCR of the bacterial colonies. White spot syndrome virus was also detected in the infected shrimp and there were differences in the detection frequency in relation to the tissues used for PCR amplification. Duplex PCR was also optimized that could be used for simultaneous detection of these pathogens in shrimp.

  15. Identification of Stressors that Affect White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) Infection and Outbreak in Pond Cultured Penaeus monodon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tendencia Alapide, E.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2011-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has been a big problem to the worldwide shrimp industry. Exposure to stressors related to physicochemical water parameters affect WSSV infection but not all WSSV infections result in outbreaks. This paper describes a detailed monitoring of important physicochemical w

  16. The potential effect of greenwater technology on water quality in the pond culture of Penaeus monodon Fabricius

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tendencia, E.A.; Bosma, R.H.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Whitespot syndrome virus (WSSV) has caused severe production drops in the shrimp industry. Numerous scientific manuscripts deal with WSSV epidemiology, but reports on minimizing disease outbreaks through ecological means are rare. Industry stakeholders resorted to various innovative techniques to re

  17. A multi-biomarker approach to assess the impact of farming systems on black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Huynh Thi; Silvestre, Frederic; Wang, Neil; Thome, Jean-Pierre; Phuong, Nguyen Thanh; Kestemont, Patrick

    2010-11-01

    This study examined the advantages of the use of biomarkers as an early warning system by applying it to different shrimp farming systems in Soctrang and Camau provinces, main shrimp producers in Mekong River Delta, Vietnam. Shrimp were collected at 15 different farms divided into four different farming systems: three farms were converted from originally rice paddies into intensive shrimp farming systems (IS1, IS2, IS3); three farms were rice-shrimp integrated farming systems (RS4, RS5, RS6); three farms were intensive farming systems (IS7, IS8, IS9); six farms were extensive shrimp farming systems (From ES1 to ES6). Lipid peroxidation (LPO) and total glutathione (GSH) were measured as well as catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and acetylcholinesterase activities (ACHE). Organ specificity was observed between gills and hepatopancreas with generally higher activity of GST in gills (GSTG) whereas the contrary was observed for LPO level in gills (LPOG). Hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis clearly indicated that shrimp reared in extensive culture system formed a distinct group from those reared in intensive or rice-shrimp integrated systems. CAT in gills (CATG), GPX in gills (GPXG) and hepatopancreas (GPXHP) and ACHE in muscle (ACHEM) of shrimp collected in extensive farms showed a general higher level than those in intensively farmed shrimp. On the contrary, we observed clear high levels of GSTG and GST in hepatopancreas (GSTHP) and LPOG and hepatopancreas (LPOHP) of shrimp sampled in intensive and rice-shrimp integrated systems. Thus, we propose that LPO and CAT, GPX, GST and ACHE can be used as a set of biomarkers for the assessment of health condition and can discriminate between shrimp cultivated in different farming systems. These findings provide the usefulness of integrating a set of biomarkers to define the health status of shrimp in different shrimp culture systems.

  18. Genetic diversity of the giant tiger prawn Penaeus monodon in relation to trace metal pollution at the Tanzanian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumisha, Cyrus; Leermakers, Martine; Elskens, Marc; Mdegela, Robinson H; Gwakisa, Paul; Kochzius, Marc

    2017-01-30

    The genetic diversity of giant tiger prawns in relation to trace metals (TMs) pollution was analysed using 159 individuals from eight sites at the Tanzanian coast. The seven microsatellites analysed showed high degree of polymorphism (4-44 alleles). The measured genetic diversity (Ho=0.592±0.047) was comparable to that of populations in the Western Indian Ocean. Apart from that, correlation analysis revealed significant negative associations between genetic diversity and TMs pollution (ppollution. This suggests that TMs affect larvae settlement and it may account for the measured deficiency of heterozygosity. This calls for strengthened pollution control measures in order to conserve this commercially important species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Recovery of protein hydrolysate and chitosan from black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) heads: approaching a zero waste process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuong, Pham Thi Dan; Minh, Nguyen Cong; Cuong, Hoang Ngoc; Van Minh, Nguyen; Han, Nguyen The; Van Hoa, Nguyen; Yen, Ha Thi Hai; Trung, Trang Si

    2017-06-01

    Shrimp heads are considered as a potential source for the recovery of many valuable components such as chitin, protein and carotenoids. In the present study, both protein hydrolysate and chitin/chitosan were recovered using combination of physical, biological and chemical treatments. Shrimp heads were separated from liquid phase by a facile and efficient physical pretreatment. The liquid fraction was then hydrolyzed using formic acid and vacuum concentrated to obtain an astaxanthin-rich protein hydrolysate. The solid fraction was used to produce chitin by deproteination and demineralization. The hydrolysate consisted of a high astaxanthin (192 ppm) and protein (26.3 wt%) content. Chitosan prepared from chitin showed a high degree of deacetylation (85.4%) with low protein (0.25 wt%) and mineral (0.22 wt%) contents. The relative crystalline structure of the chitin and chitosan were 54.7 and 10.4%, respectively. The deacetylation of chitin was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. The present procedure approached to produce maximum valuable components including astaxanthin-rich protein hydrolysate and chitin/chitosan from shrimp head waste.

  20. Horizontal transmission dynamics of White spot syndrome virus by cohabitation trials in juvenile Penaeus monodon and P. vannamei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngo Xuan, T.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Vlak, J.M.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), a rod-shaped double-stranded DNA virus, is an infectious agent causing fatal disease in shrimp farming around the globe. Within shrimp populations WSSV is transmitted very fast, however, the modes and dynamics of transmission of this virus are not well understood. I

  1. The development of a high density linkage map for black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon based on cSNPs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Baranski

    Full Text Available Transcriptome sequencing using Illumina RNA-seq was performed on populations of black tiger shrimp from India. Samples were collected from (i four landing centres around the east coastline (EC of India, (ii survivors of a severe WSSV infection during pond culture (SUR and (iii the Andaman Islands (AI in the Bay of Bengal. Equal quantities of purified total RNA from homogenates of hepatopancreas, muscle, nervous tissue, intestinal tract, heart, gonad, gills, pleopod and lymphoid organs were combined to create AI, EC and SUR pools for RNA sequencing. De novo transcriptome assembly resulted in 136,223 contigs (minimum size 100 base pairs, bp with a total length 61 Mb, an average length of 446 bp and an average coverage of 163× across all pools. Approximately 16% of contigs were annotated with BLAST hit information and gene ontology annotations. A total of 473,620 putative SNPs/indels were identified. An Illumina iSelect genotyping array containing 6,000 SNPs was developed and used to genotype 1024 offspring belonging to seven full-sibling families. A total of 3959 SNPs were mapped to 44 linkage groups. The linkage groups consisted of between 16-129 and 13-130 markers, of length between 139-10.8 and 109.1-10.5 cM and with intervals averaging between 1.2 and 0.9 cM for the female and male maps respectively. The female map was 28% longer than the male map (4060 and 2917 cM respectively with a 1.6 higher recombination rate observed for female compared to male meioses. This approach has substantially increased expressed sequence and DNA marker resources for tiger shrimp and is a useful resource for QTL mapping and association studies for evolutionarily and commercially important traits.

  2. Regional and inter annual patterns of heavy metals, organochlorines and stable isotopes in narwhals (Monodon monoceros) from West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietz, R.; Riget, F.; Hobson, K.A.

    2004-01-01

    , indicating a temporal decrease of SigmaPCBs. SigmaPCBs, DDTs, HCHs and toxaphenes seem to be at similar levels in West Greenland and Arctic Canada, which can be explained by the close winter distributions of populations as well as large ranges in concentrations, time span, number of analyses and the size....../age composition of the data. PCB and DDT concentrations in West Greenland narwhals were half those found in East Greenland and Svalbard. Stable-carbon isotope ratios in muscle of 150 narwhals showed a decreasing trend in the first year when they gradually reduced their dependency on mother's milk, after which...

  3. Cellular and molecular markers in monitoring the fate of lymphoid cell culture from Penaeus monodon Fabricius (1798).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthumana, Jayesh; Jose, Seena; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, I S Bright

    2015-12-01

    Lymphoid cell culture from penaeid shrimps has gained much acceptance as an in vitro platform to facilitate research on the development of prophylaxis, and therapeutic strategies against viruses and for cell line development. However, lymphoid cells can be used as platform for in vitro research, only if they are in metabolically and mitotically active state in vitro with unaltered cell surface receptors. Through this study, we addressed the response of lymphoid cells to a new microenvironment at cellular and molecular levels; including the study of mitotic events, DNA synthesis, expression profile of cell cycle genes, cytoskeleton organization, metabolic activity and viral susceptibility. The S-phase entry and synthesis of new DNA was recorded by immunoflourescent technique. Cdc2, CycA, CycB, EF-1α and BUB3 genes involved in cell cycle were studied in both the cells and tissue, of which EF-1α showed an elevated expression in cells in vitro (∼ 19.7%). Cytoskeleton network of the cell was examined by studying the organization of actin filaments. As the markers for metabolic status, mitochondrial dehydrogenase, protein synthesis and glucose assimilation by the cells were also assessed. Viral susceptibility of the cell was determined using WSSV to confirm the preservation of cellular receptors. This study envisages to strengthen the shrimp cell line research and to bring forth lymphoid cell culture system as a 'model' in vitro system for shrimp and crustaceans altogether.

  4. MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR SHRIMP (PENAEUS MONODON, FABRICIUS FARMING AT BHAGBANPUR REGION IN PURBA MEDINIPUR DISTRICT OF WEST BENGAL, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sahu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp culture can give miracles towards socio-economic development for a large number of rural people. Its sustainable development can be achieved through the application of scientific methodology, input of technical knowledge at the crisis time, quality control mechanism targeted to marketing strategy, sufficient supply of institutional credit and Government involvement in the marketing strategy. An optimum output cannot be assured even after taking the risk of huge investment. The export policy promotion and distinct quality measures are the major thrust area for the recent days. Government efforts in implementing a proper planning and management oriented marketing strategies are required for the sustainability of the industry.

  5. PENGARUH APLIKASI SUMBER C- KARBOHIDRAT (TEPUNG TAPIOKA DAN FERMENTASI PROBIOTIK PADA BUDIDAYA UDANG WINDU, Penaeus monodon POLA INTENSIF DI TAMBAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunarto Gunarto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian bertujuan untuk membandingkan pengaruh penambahan sumber C- karbohidrat (tepung tapioka dan fermentasi probiotik pada budidaya udang windu dengan pola intensif di tambak terutama melihat efeknya terhadap perbaikan kualitas air, pertumbuhan, sintasan, dan produksi udang windu. Enam petak tambak masing-masing ukuran sekitar 4.000 m2, setelah selesai tahap persiapan tambak (pengeringan, pembalikan tanah dasar, pengapuran, pengisian air, dan pemupukan, kemudian tambak ditebari tokolan udang windu PL-25 dengan padat tebar 20 ekor/m2. Tiga perlakuan diuji yaitu A. Penambahan tepung tapioka  ke air tambak dengan dosis 62% dari total pakan yang diberikan per hari dan diberikan dalam selang waktu lima hari sekali selama masa pemeliharaan pada bulan pertama dan kemudian dengan selang waktu tiga hari sekali selama masa pemeliharaan bulan kedua hingga menjelang panen; B. Pemberian fermentasi probiotik ke air tambak sebanyak 5 mg/L/minggu; dan C. Pemberian fermentasi probiotik ke air tambak sebanyak 10 mg/L/minggu. Masing-masing perlakuan dengan dua ulangan. Sampling pertumbuhan, kualitas air, dan bakteri dilakukan setiap dua minggu sekali. Sintasan, produksi, dan nilai konversi pakan dihitung setelah udang dipanen. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberian tepung tapioka menyebabkan konsentrasi amoniak relatif lebih rendah di perlakuan A daripada di perlakuan B dan C, namun menunjukkan perbedaan yang tidak nyata (P>0,05 di antara ketiga perlakuan tersebut. Bahan Organik Total (BOT pada hari ke-112 di perlakuan C paling rendah dan menunjukkan perbedaan yang nyata (P0,05 di antara ketiga perlakuan yang diuji. The objective of the research was to compare the effect of addition of carbohydrate source (starch flour and probiotics fermentation to the water quality and the growth, survival, and production of tiger shrimp in intensive brackishwater pond system. Six pond compartments each sized approximately of 4,000 m2, went through preparation stages (pond drying, ploughing, liming, filling the pond with sea water and fertilyzing. Then the ponds were stocked with tiger shrimp post larvae day 25 at stocking density of 20 ind./m2. Three treatments were tested, A. the addition of starch flour in pond water column at a dosage of 62% of the total given feed per day, and applied every five days during the first month of shrimp culture, and then every three days from the second month to harvest time; B. the addition of probiotic fermentation to the pond water column and was given at 5 mg/L/week; and C. the addition of probiotic fermentation to the pond water column and was given at 10 mg/L/week. Result of the research showed that the addition of starch flour was able to decrease the ammonia concentration in treatment A, but there was no significant difference (P>0.05 with the ammonia concentration compared to the treatment B and C. Total Organic Matter (TOM at day 112 in treatment C was the lowest and significantly different (P0.05 among those treatments.

  6. BEBERAPA METODE STRESSING UNTUK MENGINDUKSI PERKEMBANGAN WHITE SPOT SYNDROME VIRUS (WSSV PADA BENUR UDANG WINDU (Penaeus monodon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muliani Muliani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui beberapa model metode stressing yang dapat menginduksi perkembangan WSSV pada benur, sehingga dapat terdeteksi dengan PCR konvensional. Penelitian dilakukan di Laboratorium Basah Balai Penelitian dan Pengembangan Budidaya Air Payau (BPPBAP. Wadah yang digunakan adalah kontainer plastik bervolume 40 L diisi dengan air laut sebanyak 30 L dan dilengkapi dengan aerasi kecuali pada perlakuan oksigen. Setiap wadah ditebari benur (PL-12 sebanyak 500 ekor yang diambil dari panti perbenihan komersil di Kabupaten Barru yang sebelumnya telah diketahui negatif WSSV. Perlakuan yang dicobakan adalah: (A stressing dengan suhu yaitu: 10oC±2oC, 28oC±2oC, dan 40oC±2oC; (B stressing dengan salinitas yaitu: 5 ppt, 28 ppt, dan 51 ppt; (C stressing dengan oksigen yaitu: 1 mg/L, 3 mg/L, dan 5 mg/L; (D stressing dengan pH yaitu: pH 5, pH 6, dan pH 7; dan (E stressing dengan formalin yaitu: 100 mg/L, 200 mg/L, dan 300 mg/L. Sampling dilakukan 1 jam, 3 jam, dan 5 jam setelah perendaman untuk pengecekan WSSV dengan mengambil contoh benur sebanyak 50-100 ekor/wadah lalu dicek dengan PCR untuk WSSV-nya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa stressing dengan oksigen (1 mg/L, 3 mg/L, dan 5 mg/L memberikan hasil yang terbaik dalam memicu perkembangan WSSV pada benur, disusul dengan suhu (suhu 10oC dan 40oC, pH 5; kemudian penggunaan formalin, dan salinitas. Hasil PCR menunjukkan bahwa benur yang awalnya  negatif menjadi positif dengan kategori ringan hingga berat. Semakin lama waktu perendaman maka semakin memicu perkembangan WSSV dalam badan benur.

  7. Regulating gonad inhibition and vitellogenin/vitellin induction in Penaeus monodon using mature GIH fusion protein and polyclonal antisera

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vrinda, S.; Jasmin, C.; Sivakumar, K.C.; Jose, S.; Jose, B.; Philip, R.; BrightSingh, I.S.

    ) starting from 1:200 to 1:4 09,600 (double dilution series) was added and incubated for 1 h. Experiment was done in triplicates. In the control wells, serum from animals prior to immunization, and PBS were added instead of antiserum. An aliquot of 0.1 ml... a,1 hin 6 , Ind and Article history: ilar to GIH, like Sinus IH-B), were isolated 05) and Metapenaeus localization of the hor- in the Norway lobster, Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part A 203 (2017) 167–178 Contents lists available...

  8. Moult-inhibiting fusion protein augments while polyclonal antisera attenuate moult stages and duration in Penaeus monodon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vrinda, S.; Jasmin, C.; Sivakumar, K.C.; Jose, B.; Philip, R.; BrightSingh, I.S.

    ., 2001; Okumura et al., 2005; Yodmuang et al., 2004). The recombinant hormone studies are advantageous in obtaining exogenous MIH for in vitro and in vivo experiments as the endoge- nousMIH levels present in the animals are very low, ranging from 4 to 6..., K , Ke ienc Article history: Received 2 November 2015 Revised 7 May 2016 Accepted 10 May 2016 Available online 11 May 2016 1998; Krungkasem et al., 2002; Wang and Xiang (2003); Chen et al., 2007), fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Yang...

  9. Enumeration of coliforms and Escherichia coli in frozen black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon by conventional and rapid methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwansonthichai, Sasithorn; Rengpipat, Sirirat

    2003-03-15

    Conventional (most probable number, MPN) and rapid methods-including Chromocult coliform agar (CCA), Fluorocult(R) LMX broth (LMX), and Petrifilm Escherichia coli count plates (PEC) for enumeration of coliforms and E. coli in frozen black tiger shrimp from Thailand were compared in order to assess the possibility of using one of the rapid methods for routine analysis. Enumeration of coliforms and E. coli from 18 samples of regular frozen black tiger shrimp and 156 samples of frozen black tiger shrimp experimentally contaminated with coliforms or E. coli at concentrations of approximately 10, approximately 10(2), and approximately 10(3) CFU g(-1) revealed that at the level of approximately 10 CFU g(-1), coliform numbers ranked as LMX>CCA>MPN=PEC and E. coli as MPN=LMX=PEC=CCA. At the level of approximately 10(2) CFU g(-1), coliform numbers ranked as LMX>MPN=PEC=CCA and E. coli as MPN=LMX>PEC=CCA. At the level of 10(3) CFU g(-1), coliforms ranked as LMX>MPN=CCA>PEC and E. coli as MPN>LMX>CCA>PEC. Agreements with the conventional MPN method for coliforms were LMX 108%, PEC 87.2%, and CCA 91.2% and agreements for E. coli were LMX 101%, PEC 95.7%, and CCA 96.3%. Sensitivities (%) ranked LMX>MPN>CCA=PEC for coliforms and E. coli, whereas equal specificities (100%) of all methods for coliforms and E. coli were demonstrated. Rankings for the other parameters compared were: convenience, PEC>CCA=LMX>MPN; time to detection, MPN>LMX=PEC=CCA; expense, MPN=PEC>CCA>LMX; labor, MPN>LMX=CCA>PEC; accuracy for coliforms, PEC>CCA>MPN>LMX; and accuracy for E. coli, PEC=CCA>LMX>MPN.

  10. Strategy of Quality Improvement of Pond Shrimp Post Harvest Management (Penaeus monodon Fabricius in Mahakam Delta (Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Noor Asikin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mahakam Delta area, which is situated in Kutai Kartanegara Regency, has become a pond center that gives a significant contribution to shrimp export of East Kalimantan Province. Pond-produced shrimps, however, do not always accord to the intention of cold storage companies at expected price. The companies even sometimes reject the request due to poor quality of the product. The decreasing shrimp quality may be due to maintenance process by the pond farmers as well as the improper collectors. In the other hand, importing countries have decided more and more restricted requirements for the imported fishing products. This study was held in Muara Jawa, Anggana, and Muara Badak Districts using techniques of data collection of in-depth interview with twelve respondents. In order to improve shrimp quality, farmers or the producers have to formulate a strategy towards the improvement of the post harvest shrimps from the pond using an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. Results of the AHP consist of as follows: (1 application of pond shrimp post harvest technology and improvement of facilities and accommodation that support the quality improvement of the pond shrimps, (2 human resource quality improvement of pond farmers, collectors, and field instructors, (3 development of pond culture by applying best practices principle and local policies in order to improve the quality of the pond shrimps, and (4 improvement of interagency coordination, monitoring, and evaluation to enhance the pond shrimp quality

  11. Transcriptional repression in normal human keratinocytes by wild-type and mutant p53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Salas, L M; Velazquez, A; Lopez-Bayghen, E; Woodworth, C D; Garrido, E; Gariglio, P; DiPaolo, J A

    1995-05-01

    Wild-type p53 is a nuclear phosphoprotein that inhibits cell proliferation and represses transcriptionally most TATA box-containing promoters in transformed or tumor-derived cell lines. This study demonstrates that p53 alters transcription of the long control region (LCR) of human papillomavirus type 18 (HPV-18). Wild-type and mutant p53 143Val to Ala repressed the HPV-18 LCR promoter in normal human keratinocytes, the natural host cell for HPV infections. Repression by wild-type p53 was also observed in C-33A cells and in an HPV-16-immortalized cell line with an inducible wild-type p53. However, when C-33A cells were cotransfected with the HPV-18 LCR and mutant 143Val to Ala, repression did not occur. Mutant p53 135Cys to Ser did not induce repression in either normal human keratinocytes or in the C-33A line; although like 143Val to Ala, it is thought to affect the DNA binding activity of the wild-type protein. The ability of mutant p53 143Val to Ala to inactivate the HPV early promoter in normal cells (by approximately 60% reduction) suggests that this mutant may be able to associate with wild-type p53 and interact with TATA box-binding proteins. Therefore, these results demonstrate that the transcriptional activities of p53 mutants may be dependent upon the cell type assayed and the form of its endogenous p53. Furthermore, normal human keratinocytes represent an alternative model for determining the activities of p53 mutants.

  12. Targeting TBP-associated factors in ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R Ribeiro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available As ovarian tumors progress, they undergo a process of dedifferentiation, allowing adaptive changes in growth and morphology that promote metastasis and chemoresistance. Herein, we outline a hypothesis that TATA-box binding protein (TBP associated factors (TAFs, which compose the RNA Polymerase II initiation factor, TFIID, contribute to regulation of dedifferentiation states in ovarian cancer. Numerous studies demonstrate that TAFs regulate differentiation and proliferation states; their expression is typically high in pluripotent cells and reduced upon differentiation. Strikingly, TAF2 exhibits copy number increases or mRNA overexpression in 73% of high grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSC. At the biochemical level, TAF2 directs TFIID to TATA-less promoters by contact with an Initiator element, which may lead to the deregulation of the transcriptional output of these tumor cells. TAF4, which is altered in 66% of HGSC, is crucial for the stability of the TFIID complex and helps drive dedifferentiation of mouse embryonic fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem cells. Its ovary-enriched paralog, TAF4B, is altered in 26% of HGSC. Here, we show that Taf4b mRNA correlates with Cyclin D2 mRNA expression in human granulosa cell tumors. TAF4B may also contribute to regulation of tumor microenvironment due to its estrogen-responsiveness and ability to act as a cofactor for NFκB. Conversely, TAF9, a cofactor for p53 in regulating apoptosis, may act as a tumor suppressor in ovarian cancer, since it is downregulated or deleted in 98% of HGSC. We conclude that a greater understanding of mechanisms of transcriptional regulation that execute signals from oncogenic signaling cascades is needed in order to expand our understanding of the etiology and progression of ovarian cancer, and most importantly to identify novel targets for therapeutic intervention.

  13. Accelerated evolution in the protein-coding regions is universal in crotalinae snake venom gland phospholipase A2 isozyme genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, K; Nobuhisa, I; Deshimaru, M; Nakai, M; Ogawa, T; Shimohigashi, Y; Fukumaki, Y; Hattori, M; Sakaki, Y; Hattori, S

    1995-06-06

    The nucleotide sequences of four genes encoding Trimeresurus gramineus (green habu snake, crotalinae) venom gland phospholipase A2 (PLA2; phosphatidylcholine 2-acylhydrolase, EC 3.1.1.4) isozymes were compared internally and externally with those of six genes encoding Trimeresurus flavoviridis (habu snake, crotalinae) venom gland PLA2 isozymes. The numbers of nucleotide substitutions per site (KN) for the noncoding regions including introns were one-third to one-eighth of the numbers of nucleotide substitutions per synonymous site (KS) for the protein-coding regions of exons, indicating that the noncoding regions are much more conserved than the protein-coding regions. The KN values for the introns were found to be nearly equivalent to those of introns of T. gramineus and T. flavoviridis TATA box-binding protein genes, which are assumed to be a general (nonvenomous) gene. Thus, it is evident that the introns of venom gland PLA2 isozyme genes have evolved at a similar rate to those of nonvenomous genes. The numbers of nucleotide substitutions per nonsynonymous site (KA) were close to or larger than the KS values for the protein-coding regions in venom gland PLA2 isozyme genes. All of the data combined reveal that Darwinian-type accelerated evolution has universally occurred only in the protein-coding regions of crotalinae snake venom PLA2 isozyme genes.

  14. Transcriptional activation of endoplasmic reticulum chaperone GRP78 by HCMV IE1-72 protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Derick Shi-Chen Ou; Sung-Bau Lee; Chi-Shuen Chu; Liang-Hao Chang; Bon-chu Chung; Li-Jung Juan

    2011-01-01

    Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), a key regulator of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, facilitates cancer cell growth and viral replication. The mechanism leading to grp78 gene activation during viral infection is largely unknown, in this study, we show that the immediate-early 1 (IE1-72) protein of the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is essential for HCMV-mediated GRP78 activation. IE1-72 upregulated grp 78 gene expression depending on the ATPbinding site, the zinc-finger domain and the putative leucine-zipper motif of IE1-72, as well as the ER stress response elements (ERSEs) on the grp78 promoter. The purified IE1-72 protein bound to the CCAAT box within ERSE in vitro, whereas deletion mutants of IE1-72 deficient in grp78 promoter stimulation failed to do so. Moreover, IE1-72 binding to the grp78 promoter in infected cells accompanied the recruitment of TATA box-binding protein-associated factor 1 (TAF1), a histone acetyltransferase, and the increased level of acetylated histone H4, an indicator of activestate chromatin. These results provide evidence that HCMV IE1-72 activates grp78 gene expression through direct promoter binding and modulation of the local chromatin structure, indicating an active viral mechanism of cellular chaperone induction for viral growth.

  15. Structural basis of transcription: an RNA polymerase II-TFIIB cocrystal at 4.5 Angstroms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnell, David A; Westover, Kenneth D; Davis, Ralph E; Kornberg, Roger D

    2004-02-13

    The structure of the general transcription factor IIB (TFIIB) in a complex with RNA polymerase II reveals three features crucial for transcription initiation: an N-terminal zinc ribbon domain of TFIIB that contacts the "dock" domain of the polymerase, near the path of RNA exit from a transcribing enzyme; a "finger" domain of TFIIB that is inserted into the polymerase active center; and a C-terminal domain, whose interaction with both the polymerase and with a TATA box-binding protein (TBP)-promoter DNA complex orients the DNA for unwinding and transcription. TFIIB stabilizes an early initiation complex, containing an incomplete RNA-DNA hybrid region. It may interact with the template strand, which sets the location of the transcription start site, and may interfere with RNA exit, which leads to abortive initiation or promoter escape. The trajectory of promoter DNA determined by the C-terminal domain of TFIIB traverses sites of interaction with TFIIE, TFIIF, and TFIIH, serving to define their roles in the transcription initiation process.

  16. A transcriptional network controlling glial development in the Drosophila visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauke, Ann-Christin; Sasse, Sofia; Matzat, Till; Klämbt, Christian

    2015-06-15

    In the nervous system, glial cells need to be specified from a set of progenitor cells. In the developing Drosophila eye, perineurial glia proliferate and differentiate as wrapping glia in response to a neuronal signal conveyed by the FGF receptor pathway. To unravel the underlying transcriptional network we silenced all genes encoding predicted DNA-binding proteins in glial cells using RNAi. Dref and other factors of the TATA box-binding protein-related factor 2 (TRF2) complex were previously predicted to be involved in cellular metabolism and cell growth. Silencing of these genes impaired early glia proliferation and subsequent differentiation. Dref controls proliferation via activation of the Pdm3 transcription factor, whereas glial differentiation is regulated via Dref and the homeodomain protein Cut. Cut expression is controlled independently of Dref by FGF receptor activity. Loss- and gain-of-function studies show that Cut is required for glial differentiation and is sufficient to instruct the formation of membrane protrusions, a hallmark of wrapping glial morphology. Our work discloses a network of transcriptional regulators controlling the progression of a naïve perineurial glia towards the fully differentiated wrapping glia.

  17. Validation of reference genes for quantitative gene expression studies in Volvox carteri using real-time RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kianianmomeni, Arash; Hallmann, Armin

    2013-12-01

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a sensitive technique for analysis of gene expression under a wide diversity of biological conditions. However, the identification of suitable reference genes is a critical factor for analysis of gene expression data. To determine potential reference genes for normalization of qRT-PCR data in the green alga Volvox carteri, the transcript levels of ten candidate reference genes were measured by qRT-PCR in three experimental sample pools containing different developmental stages, cell types and stress treatments. The expression stability of the candidate reference genes was then calculated using the algorithms geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. The genes for 18S ribosomal RNA (18S) and eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1α2 (eef1) turned out to have the most stable expression levels among the samples both from different developmental stages and different stress treatments. The genes for the ribosomal protein L23 (rpl23) and the TATA-box binding protein (tbpA) showed equivalent transcript levels in the comparison of different cell types, and therefore, can be used as reference genes for cell-type specific gene expression analysis. Our results indicate that more than one reference gene is required for accurate normalization of qRT-PCRs in V. carteri. The reference genes in our study show a much better performance than the housekeeping genes used as a reference in previous studies.

  18. TFIIB-facilitated recruitment of preinitiation complexes by a TAF-independent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Roderick T; Xu, Shuping; Hu, Xianyuan; Pyo, Sung

    2004-01-01

    Gene activators contain activation domains that are thought to recruit limiting components of the transcription machinery to a core promoter. VP16, a viral gene activator, has served as a model for studying the mechanistic aspects of transcriptional activation from yeast to human. The VP16 activation domain can be divided into two modules--an N-terminal subdomain (VPN) and a C-terminal subdomain (VPC). This study demonstrates that VPC stimulates core promoters that are either independent or dependent on TAFs (TATA-box Binding Protein-Associated Factors). In contrast, VPN only activates the TAF-independent core promoter and this activity increases in a synergistic fashion when VPN is dimerized (VPN2). Compared to one copy of VPN (VPN1), VPN2 also displays a highly cooperative increase in binding hTFIIB. The increased TFIIB binding correlates with VPN2's increased ability to recruit a complex containing TFIID, TFIIA and TFIIB. However, VPN1 and VPN2 do not increase the assembly of a complex containing only TFIID and TFIIA. The VPN subdomain also facilitates assembly of a complex containing TBP:TFIIA:TFIIB, which lacks TAFs, and provides a mechanism that could function at TAF-independent promoters. Taken together, these results suggest the interaction between VPN and TFIIB potentially initiate a network of contacts allowing the activator to indirectly tether TFIID or TBP to DNA.

  19. Identification of stable reference genes for quantitative PCR in cells derived from chicken lymphoid organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowska, D; Rothwell, L; Bailey, R A; Watson, K; Kaiser, P

    2016-02-01

    Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is a powerful technique for quantification of gene expression, especially genes involved in immune responses. Although qPCR is a very efficient and sensitive tool, variations in the enzymatic efficiency, quality of RNA and the presence of inhibitors can lead to errors. Therefore, qPCR needs to be normalised to obtain reliable results and allow comparison. The most common approach is to use reference genes as internal controls in qPCR analyses. In this study, expression of seven genes, including β-actin (ACTB), β-2-microglobulin (B2M), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), β-glucuronidase (GUSB), TATA box binding protein (TBP), α-tubulin (TUBAT) and 28S ribosomal RNA (r28S), was determined in cells isolated from chicken lymphoid tissues and stimulated with three different mitogens. The stability of the genes was measured using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper software. The results from both geNorm and NormFinder were that the three most stably expressed genes in this panel were TBP, GAPDH and r28S. BestKeeper did not generate clear answers because of the highly heterogeneous sample set. Based on these data we will include TBP in future qPCR normalisation. The study shows the importance of appropriate reference gene normalisation in other tissues before qPCR analysis.

  20. Appropriateness of reference genes for normalizing messenger RNA in mouse 2,4-dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS)-induced colitis using quantitative real time PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissa, Nour; Kermarrec, Laëtitia; Hussein, Hayam; Bernstein, Charles N.; Ghia, Jean-Eric

    2017-01-01

    2,4-Dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS)-induced colitis is an experimental model that mimics Crohn’s disease. Appropriateness of reference genes is crucial for RT-qPCR. This is the first study to determine the stability of reference gene expression (RGE) in mice treated with DNBS. DNBS experimental Colitis was induced in male C57BL/6 mice. RNA was extracted from colon tissue and comprehensive analysis of 13 RGE was performed according to predefined criteria. Relative colonic TNF-α and IL-1β mRNA levels were calculated. Colitis significantly altered the stability of mucosal RGE. Commonly used glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (Gapdh), β-actin (Actb), or β2-microglobulin (β2m) showed the highest fluctuation within the inflamed and control groups. Conversely, ribosomal protein large P0 (Rplp0), non-POU domain containing (Nono), TATA-box-binding protein (Tbp) and eukaryotic translation elongation factor 2 (Eef2) were not affected by inflammation and were the most stable genes. TNF-α and IL-1β mRNA levels was dependent on the reference gene used and varied from significant when the most stable genes were used to non-significant when the least stable genes were used. The appropriate choice of RGE is critical to guarantee satisfactory normalization of RT-qPCR data when using DNBS-Model. We recommend using Rplp0, Nono, Tbp, Hprt and Eef2 instead of common reference genes. PMID:28186172

  1. Treatment with a Ginkgo biloba extract, EGb 761, inhibits excitotoxicity in an animal model of spinocerebellar ataxia type 17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ding-Siang; Lin, Hsuan-Yuan; Lee-Chen, Guey-Jen; Hsieh-Li, Hsiu-Mei; Wu, Chung-Hsin; Lin, Jung-Yaw

    2016-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 17 (SCA 17) is a polyglutamine disease caused by the expansion of CAG/CAA repeats in the TATA box-binding protein (TBP) gene. The Ginkgo biloba extract, EGb 761, contains flavonoids and terpenoids with a potential use for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. The neuroprotective effects of EGb 761 are obvious, but whether the EGb 761 has therapeutic effects in SCA 17 is still unclear. To manage our issues, we have generated TBP/79Q-expressing SH-SY5Y cells and SCA 17 transgenic mice with the mutant hTBP gene. In in vitro experiment, we observed that the EGb 761 treatment decreased the amount of sodium dodecyl sulfate-insoluble proteins in the TBP/79Q-expressing SH-SY5Y cells. We further found that the EGb 761 treatment could inhibit excitotoxicity and calcium influx and reduce the expression of apoptotic markers in glutamate-treated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. In in vivo experiment, we observed that the EGb 761 treatment (100 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection per day) could relieve the motor deficiencies of the SCA 17 transgenic mice. Our findings provide evidence that the EGb 761 treatment can be a remedy for SCA 17 via suppressing excitotoxicity and apoptosis in SCA 17 cell and animal models. Therefore, we suggest that EGb 761 may be a potential therapeutic agent for treating SCA 17.

  2. Identification of suitable reference genes in bone marrow stromal cells from osteoarthritic donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildberg, Theresa; Rauh, Juliane; Bretschneider, Henriette; Stiehler, Maik

    2013-11-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are key cellular components for musculoskeletal tissue engineering strategies. Furthermore, recent data suggest that BMSCs are involved in the development of Osteoarthritis (OA) being a frequently occurring degenerative joint disease. Reliable reference genes for the molecular evaluation of BMSCs derived from donors exhibiting OA as a primary co-morbidity have not been reported on yet. Hence, the aim of the study was to identify reference genes suitable for comparative gene expression analyses using OA-BMSCs. Passage 1 bone marrow derived BMSCs were isolated from n=13 patients with advanced stage idiopathic hip osteoarthritis and n=15 age-matched healthy donors. The expression of 31 putative reference genes was analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) using a commercially available TaqMan(®) assay. Calculating the coefficient of variation (CV), mRNA expression stability was determined and afterwards validated using geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. Importin 8 (IPO8), TATA box binding protein (TBP), and cancer susceptibility candidate 3 (CASC3) were identified as the most stable reference genes. Notably, commonly used reference genes, e.g. beta-actin (ACTB) and beta-2-microglobulin (B2M) were among the most unstable genes. For normalization of gene expression data of OA-BMSCs the combined use of IPO8, TBP, and CASC3 gene is recommended.

  3. Identification of appropriate reference genes for human mesenchymal stem cell analysis by quantitative real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuying; Yang, Qiwei; Bai, Jinping; Xuan, Yali; Wang, Yimin

    2015-01-01

    Normalization to a reference gene is the method of choice for quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis. The stability of reference genes is critical for accurate experimental results and conclusions. We have evaluated the expression stability of eight commonly used reference genes found in four different human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms, we show that beta-2-microglobulin and peptidyl-prolylisomerase A were the optimal reference genes for normalizing RT-qPCR data obtained from MSC, whereas the TATA box binding protein was not suitable due to its extensive variability in expression. Our findings emphasize the significance of validating reference genes for qPCR analyses. We offer a short list of reference genes to use for normalization and recommend some commercially-available software programs as a rapid approach to validate reference genes. We also demonstrate that the two reference genes, β-actin and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, are frequently used are not always successful in many cases.

  4. The EHV-1 UL4 protein that tempers viral gene expression interacts with cellular transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunfei; Charvat, Robert A; Kim, Seong K; O'Callaghan, Dennis J

    2014-01-20

    The UL4 gene is conserved within the genome of defective interfering particles of equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) that mediate persistent infection. Here, we show that the UL4 protein inhibits EHV-1 reporter gene expression by decreasing the level of transcribed mRNA. The UL4 protein did not bind any gene class of EHV-1 promoters in electromobility or chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, but directly interacted with the TATA box-binding protein (TBP) and the carboxy-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II both in vitro (GST-pulldown assays) and in infected cells (coimmunoprecipitation analyses). Microarray analyses of the expression of the 78 EHV-1 genes revealed that viral late genes important for virion assembly displayed enhanced expression in cells infected with UL4-null virus as compared to wild-type or UL4-restored EHV-1. Quantitative PCR analyses showed that viral DNA replication was not retarded in cells infected with the UL4-null virus as compared to wild-type EHV-1.

  5. Predator-induced defences in Daphnia pulex: Selection and evaluation of internal reference genes for gene expression studies with real-time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Don

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The planktonic microcrustacean Daphnia pulex is among the best-studied animals in ecological, toxicological and evolutionary research. One aspect that has sustained interest in the study system is the ability of D. pulex to develop inducible defence structures when exposed to predators, such as the phantom midge larvae Chaoborus. The available draft genome sequence for D. pulex is accelerating research to identify genes that confer plastic phenotypes that are regularly cued by environmental stimuli. Yet for quantifying gene expression levels, no experimentally validated set of internal control genes exists for the accurate normalization of qRT-PCR data. Results In this study, we tested six candidate reference genes for normalizing transcription levels of D. pulex genes; alpha tubulin (aTub, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, TATA box binding protein (Tbp syntaxin 16 (Stx16, X-box binding protein 1 (Xbp1 and CAPON, a protein associated with the neuronal nitric oxide synthase, were selected on the basis of an earlier study and from microarray studies. One additional gene, a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP, was tested to validate its transcriptional response to Chaoborus, which was earlier observed in a microarray study. The transcription profiles of these seven genes were assessed by qRT-PCR from RNA of juvenile D. pulex that showed induced defences in comparison to untreated control animals. We tested the individual suitability of genes for expression normalization using the programs geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. Intriguingly, Xbp1, Tbp, CAPON and Stx16 were selected as ideal reference genes. Analyses on the relative expression level using the software REST showed that both classical housekeeping candidate genes (aTub and GAPDH were significantly downregulated, whereas the MMP gene was shown to be significantly upregulated, as predicted. aTub is a particularly ill suited reference gene because five copies are

  6. How to Settle the Tussle between Business Model Innovation Approaches : Exploring the Automotive industry using a dual case study of Fiat and Tata Motors

    OpenAIRE

    Shariff, Arifulla; Elsalhy, Mennatullah

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the drivers and forms of business model innovation. It is built on the business model innovation typology proposed by Koen et al. (2011), we have developed its dimensions into Hurdle rate, technology, partners value network and customer value network. The study used these dimensions as a base to differentiate between the two approaches of the business model innovation which were identified as innovating the existing business model approach and multiple business model a...

  7. 打开"TATA"看营销——北京闼闼伟业门窗有限公司

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张坤

    2010-01-01

    @@ 每一次的签售、团购、秒杀活动都能引起消费者的极高热情,创下的现场签单总量也使其他木门企业甚至家居企业望尘莫及,这些销售奇迹的创造者就是TATA木门.TATA木门品牌始建于1999年,是中国最早致力于成品居室门研发、生产、销售、服务的专业企业之一,不但是中国木门协会副会长单位,而且还在2005年荣获CIDE-2005我最喜欢的中国居室门设计大奖赛金奖.

  8. THE LOST-CITY DAN LOST-SPACE KARENA PERKEMBANGAN PENGEMBANGAN TATA-RUANG KOTA Kasus Koridor Komersial Jalan Tunjungan Kotamadya Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Poerbantanoe

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Every town hss its own architectural performance. And architecture is not merely a physical landscape of buildings in a town,, as seen by the observer, but it has a deeper mening, which displays the art of structures and constructions. It is a sequence of buildings along the course of its history (Aldo Rossi, 1980. A Town is a complete work of art, performed by men of urban knowledge. Tehe concept of a town or urban workmanship arises from time to time as a work of art in multiple variations, together and according to spirit of the time, included its aspects of belief and religion. The urban work of art or urban artefact is always related to location, historical events and the spesific urban look. Generally a town has particular rythm and dynamics, at least it does not remain static. Therefore it is quite right, when we say, that a town represents the course of its history and technology during the period of its existence. But when we scrutinise alongthe historical and visual systems, it turns out that so many physical and sociqal spaces have been altered with regard to their quality and quantity, as result mis management ot the physical and social spaces by less careful urban reformists. they may bring about certain inbalancy in the system, destroying public imagination and memory about the identity and message conceived at the time of their construction. At the this may affect a condition, commonly called the lost space. Surabaya is one of the larger towns in Indonesia, which afrtime possessed a number of urban artefacts and workmanship. One of which is the Tunjungan Street, designed and developed by the Gemeente Administration of the Duutch as comercial corriodor of the town, with all its advantages and shortcomings. In spite of the fact that it has never been touched by the hands of the prominent urban planner Mr. Thomas C. Karsten, who has prepared and worked out the architecture of the bigger towns of the former Netherlands Indies like Medan, Jakarta, Bandung, Semarang, Malang and Ujung Pandang with their respective spesific colonial character impression. For the aging generation of the town, Surabaya is called with much regret as the lost city, because of the declining quality of some of its urban artefacts, which once has been their pride and their joy. The abovementioned commercial corridor of Jalan Tunjungan is an example of a lost space Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Kota adalah arsitektur. Arsitektur yang bukan sekedar gambar (wujud fisik-visual dari kota yang bisa dilihat saja, melainkan juga sebagai suatu konstruksi. Yaitu konstruksi dari kota sepanjang waktu (Aldo Rossi, 1980. Kota merupakan karya seni yang sempurna, yang dibuat hanya oleh orang-orang yang benar-benar mengerti tentang urban. Konsep kota atau tepatnya urban-artefak sebagai karya seni selalu muncul dan diketemukan dalam bentuk-bentuk yang bervariasi ; dalam segala jaman dan kehidupan sosial-religius. Urban-artefak selalu berkaitan dengan tempat, peristiwa dan wujud-kota. Kota pada umumnya mempunyai sifat dinamis, alias tidak statis. Oleh karena itu tidaklah berlebihan apabila terdapat pernyataan umum yang menyebutkan bahwa; kota itu adalah lambang perjalanan sejarah, teknologi dan jamannya. Namun jika disimak dari sistem-sejarah maupun sistem-visual. Banyaknya ruang fisik dan sosial telah berubah baik secara kwalitas maupun kwantitas, sebagai konsekwensi logis adanya pertumbuhan (perkembangan dan pengembangan dari ruang fisik dan sosial, yang belum dikelola secara benar dan baik. Bisa mengganggu keseimbangan , serta merusak kesan dan memori publik tentang identitas dan citra. Yang akhirnya akan dapat melahirkan apa yang disebut dengan lost space. Surabaya adalah salah satu kota besar di Indonesia, yang memiliki beberapa artefak-urban yang spesifik. Salah satunya yaitu jalan Tunjungan; yang pernah didesain serta dikembangkan pada masa pemerintahan Gemeente, sebagai "koridor komersial" Belanda dengan segala kelebihan dan kekurangannya. Walaupun tidak sampai tersentuh oleh tangan Thomas C. Karsten, seorang planolog Belanda y

  9. ANALISIS SURVIVAL PENINGKATAN DENSITAS MINERAL TULANG PASIEN PEREMPUAN YANG MENDERITA OSTEOPOROSIS PRIMER DENGAN TERAPI SESUAI TATA LAKSANA KLINIK MTIE (MAKMAL TERPADU IMMUNOENDOKRINOLOGI

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    Halimah Halimah

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Life expectacy in Indonesia was increasing every year as impact of access to health services. On 2004 number of elderly people is 16.5 million, 52.6% is female. The most health problem facing by female elderly was osteoporosis that it proved by incidence of osteoporosis among female was higher than male. In fact of that one out of three female tends to have osteoporosis; meanwhile the incidence among male is one out of seven. The objective of this study was to know the length of time for bone development in order to increase the mineral bone density up to 1.5% and 3 percentages in three measurement locations (lumbal, femur, radius. Method: The study has probed as well as the influence factors of bone growth among the osteoporosis patients who were examinated their bone at Klinik Makmal Terpadu Imunoendokrinologi FK UI. This is a longitudinal study with scope in clinical area which include the secondary data analysis form medical record data. The total sample was 52 osteoporosis patients. Analysis survival application is performed for data analysis by using variable time and event from January 2004 to December 2007. The analysis in this study is univariate, bivariate,Kaplan-Meier method, and multivariate with double regresi cox. The factors related with time of remodeling bone were medication standard operating procedure (SOP, and body mass index (BMI. Results: Medication SOP in Klinik Makmal has faster time of remodeling bone and significant result comparing with SOP in other policlinic; on lumbal (event 1.5% and 3% and femur (event 1.5%. Patients with BMI <25 has faster time remodeling bone than patients BMI >25 on femur 1.5%. Contraception group and patient’s age have not enough provided the different time of remodeling bone in those measurement. SOP hazard ratio on lumbal was 3.359, it means patient who receive therapy in Klinik Makmal has 3.36 times chance to have lumbal remodeling bone up to 1.5%. Meanwhile, medication SOP hazard ratio on femur event was 1.5% is 2.182, means patient who receives medication SOP in Klinik Makmal has chance 2.18 times to have femur bone development 1.5% (Radius bone are medication SOP and contraception on development 3% and SOP and age on development 1.5%. However, multivariate result does not show statistic significant on radius bone. Key words: the mineral bone density, osteoporosis, MTIE

  10. PEMBELAJARAN TATA BAHASA INGGRIS SECARA KOMUNIKATIF DENGAN PENYAJIAN INDUKTIF DAN PENGINTEGRASIAN KETERAMPILAN BERBAHASA: STUDI KASUS DI KELAS BAHASA INGGRIS I DI IAIN RADEN FATAH PALEMBANG

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    Annisa Astrid

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractTeaching grammar has been regarded as prominence in teaching a language where there are some different views of how to teach it. Recently, with the introduction of Communicative Language Teaching, teaching grammar is emphasized on experiential learning and communicative goals. For these reasons the writer tried to implement inductive approach in Bahasa Inggris class, where all the students are from Non English Department. In inductive approach, the learners study examples and from these examples derives an understanding of the rule. the writer also presented the grammar integrated with four language skills (speaking, listening, reading, and writing, where the writer paid more attention to enabling students to work with the target language during the lesson and communicate in it by the end of it.. In totally 14 meetings, the teacher applied inductive approach in presenting the materials and gave all exercises integratedly to four language skills (speaking, writing, reading and listening. The data were collected by means of T-Test. From the results of the T-test, it can be seen that the T value is 5,193, with the significance value 0,001. T value is more than T table ,2,042 . It can be interpreted that there is a significant difference between the students’ achievement in grammar before the treatment and after the treatment by using inductive approach and applying the activities that integrates grammar into four language skills. It was also found that the students were enthusiastic along the teaching and learning processes by implementing inductive approach. Keywords: inductive, communicative language teaching

  11. Impaired Uptake and/or Utilization of Leucine by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Is Suppressed by the SPT15-300 Allele of the TATA-Binding Protein Gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baerends, RJ; Qiu, Jin-Long; Rasmussen, Simon;

    2009-01-01

    us to examine the effect of expression of the SPT15-300 allele in various yeast species of industrial importance. Expression of SPT15-300 in leucine-prototrophic strains of S. cerevisiae, Saccharomyces bayanus, or Saccharomyces pastorianus (lager brewing yeast), however, did not improve tolerance...

  12. Target gene approaches: Gene expression in Daphnia magna exposed to predator-borne kairomones or to microcystin-producing and microcystin-free Microcystis aeruginosa

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    Courts Cornelius

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two major biological stressors of freshwater zooplankton of the genus Daphnia are predation and fluctuations in food quality. Here we use kairomones released from a planktivorous fish (Leucaspius delineatus and from an invertebrate predator (larvae of Chaoborus flavicans to simulate predation pressure; a microcystin-producing culture of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa and a microcystin-deficient mutant are used to investigate effects of low food quality. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR allows quantification of the impact of biotic stressors on differential gene activity. The draft genome sequence for Daphnia pulex facilitates the use of candidate genes by precisely identifying orthologs to functionally characterized genes in other model species. This information is obtained by constructing phylogenetic trees of candidate genes with the knowledge that the Daphnia genome is composed of many expanded gene families. Results We evaluated seven candidate reference genes for QPCR in Daphnia magna after exposure to kairomones. As a robust approach, a combination normalisation factor (NF was calculated based on the geometric mean of three of these seven reference genes: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, TATA-box binding protein and succinate dehydrogenase. Using this NF, expression of the target genes actin and alpha-tubulin were revealed to be unchanged in the presence of the tested kairomones. The presence of fish kairomone up-regulated one gene (cyclophilin involved in the folding of proteins, whereas Chaoborus kairomone down-regulated the same gene. We evaluated the same set of candidate reference genes for QPCR in Daphnia magna after exposure to a microcystin-producing and a microcystin-free strain of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. The NF was calculated based on the reference genes 18S ribosomal RNA, alpha-tubulin and TATA-box binding protein. We found glyceraldehyde-3

  13. Effects of Thai medicinal plants on pathogenic bacterial, growth performance, health condition and disease resistance in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon Fabricius

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    Klowkliang, T.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Chemical analysis of turmeric (Curcuma longa extracts using TLC/densitometry, showed an extract contain 21.57%w/w of three important curcuminoids: curcumin, desmethoxycurcumin and bisdesmethoxycurcumin. GC and MS were used to analyze volatile oils. Aromatic turmerone, α-turmerone and zingiberene were also obtained. Qualitative and quantitative analyses alcoholic extract of Andrographis paniculata using TLC, revealed that the extracts contain three important compounds in total lactone of 30.49% w/w. There are andrographolide,14-deoxy-11-12-didehydroandrographolide and neoandrographolide. TLC-chromatogram of Clinacanthus nutans extract after reacted with anisaldehyde/sulfuric acid showed a 9 key compounds, while preliminary neutralization test of the compounds revealed that there were active compounds against HSV-1 virus. In vitro efficacy test revealed that Curcuma longa and Andrographis paniculata extracts at 250 and 1,500 mg/L could eradicate 15 isolates of Vibrio spp. which were isolated from infected shrimps. Effects of medicinal plant extracts incorporated into the diet on shrimp immune responses were investigated. Shrimp fed diet containing Clinacanthus nutans extract at 20 mg/kg of diet had good growth, FCR and immune responses. The shrimp that were fed diet containing Curcuma longa extracts at 25 mg/kg of diet for 7-14 days showed high resistance to Vibrio harveyi. Likewise, the shrimp fed Andrographis paniculata extract at 25 mg/ kg of diet for 14 days had a higher resistance to WSSV. Incorporating the medicinal extracts at higher levels resulted in reduction in diet palatability which consequently had an effect on a decrease in growth, immune responses and resistance to bacterial and WSSV infection.

  14. Effect of three innovative culture systems on water quality and whitespot syndrome virus (WSSV) viral load in WSSV-fed Penaeus monodon cultured in indoor tanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alapide-Tendencia, E.V.; Bosma, R.H.; Rose Sorio, L.

    2012-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus is the most important among the shrimp diseases. It has been devastating the shrimp industry for more than 3 decades. Previous studies reported that greater percentage of yellow colonies on thiosulfate citrate bile salt sucrose agar (yellow vibrios) in the rearing water, ab

  15. Lymphoid organ cell culture system from Penaeus monodon (Fabricius) as a platform for white spot syndrome virus and shrimp immune-related gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, S; Jayesh, P; Sudheer, N S; Poulose, G; Mohandas, A; Philip, R; Singh, I S Bright

    2012-05-01

    Shrimp cell lines are yet to be reported and this restricts the prospects of investigating the associated viral pathogens, especially white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). In this context, development of primary cell cultures from lymphoid organs was standardized. Poly-l-lysine-coated culture vessels enhanced growth of lymphoid cells, while the application of vertebrate growth factors did not, except insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Susceptibility of the lymphoid cells to WSSV was confirmed by immunofluoresence assay using monoclonal antibody against the 28 kDa envelope protein of WSSV. Expression of viral and immune-related genes in WSSV-infected lymphoid cultures could be demonstrated by RT-PCR. This emphasizes the utility of lymphoid primary cell culture as a platform for research in virus-cell interaction, virus morphogenesis, up and downregulation of shrimp immune-related genes, and also for the discovery of novel drugs to combat WSSV in shrimp culture.

  16. Truncated VP28 as oral vaccine candidate against WSSV infection in shrimp: an uptake and processing study in the midgut of Penaeus monodon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulkarni, V.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.; Singh, I.S.B.; Sudheer, N.S.; Vlak, J.M.; Caipang, C.M.A.; Brinchmann, M.; Kiron, V.

    2013-01-01

    Several oral vaccination studies have been undertaken to evoke a better protection against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), a major shrimp pathogen. Formalin-inactivated virus and WSSV envelope protein VP28 were suggested as candidate vaccine components, but their uptake mechanism upon oral deliver

  17. Effect of different mangrove-to-pond area ratios on influent water quality and WSSV occurence in panaeus monodon Semi-intensive farms using the greenwater culture technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tendencia, E.A.; Bosma, R.H.; Primavera, J.H.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2012-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has been affecting the shrimp industry worldwide for two decades now. It continues to bring economic losses to affected farms. Despite the many studies on its epidemiology, there is no proven treatment or control measure. Diseases, like the WSSV, results from the int

  18. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) risk factors associated with farming practices in polyculture and monoculture P. monodon farms in the Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tendencia Alapide, E.; Bosma, R.H.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2011-01-01

    White spot sydrome virus (WSSV) is one of the most important viral disease of shrimp. Several studies to control the disease have been done. Tank experiments identified WSSV risk factors related to the physico chemical properties of the water. A few studies reported pond level WSSV risk factors. Thi

  19. WSSV risk factors related to water physico-chemical properties and microflora in semi-intensive P .monodon culture ponds in the Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tendencia Alapide, E.; Bosma, R.H.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Whitespot syndrome virus, WSSV, is the most important among the shrimp diseases. One of the suggested WSSV risk factors is the occurrence of stress since stressors could compromise the shrimp defence system thus increasing the risk of WSSV infection. Stressors are usually related to the physico-chem

  20. Trace metals in the giant tiger prawn Penaeus monodon and mangrove sediments of the Tanzania coast: Is there a risk to marine fauna and public health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumisha, Cyrus; Mdegela, Robinson H; Kochzius, Marc; Leermakers, Martine; Elskens, Marc

    2016-10-01

    Mangroves ecosystems support livelihood and economic activities of coastal communities in the tropics and subtropics. Previous reports have documented the inefficiency of waste treatment facilities in Tanzania to contain trace metals. Therefore, the rapidly expanding coastal population and industrial sector is likely to threaten mangrove ecosystems with metal pollution. This study analysed trace metals in 60 sediment samples and 160 giant tiger prawns from the Tanzanian coast in order to document the distribution of trace metals and to establish if measured levels present a threat to mangrove fauna and are of public health importance. High levels of Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, and V was observed in mangroves of river Pangani, Wami, and Rufiji. Multivariate analysis showed that they originate mainly from weathering and erosion in the river catchments. Extreme enrichment of Cd was observed in a mangrove affected by municipal sewage. The distribution of Hg, Pb, and Zn was related with urbanisation and industrial activities along the coast. The metal pollution index was high at Pangani, Saadani, and Rufiji, suggesting that these estuarine mangroves are also affected by human activities in the catchment. Moderate to considerable ecological risks were observed in all sampled mangroves, except for Kilwa Masoko. It was revealed that As, Cd, and Hg present moderate risks to fauna. High levels of Cu, Fe and Zn were observed in prawns but the level of the non-essential Cd, Hg, and Pb did not exceed the maximum allowed levels for human consumption. However, based on the trends of fish consumption in the country, weekly intake of Hg is likely to exceed provisional tolerable weekly intake level, especially in fishing communities. This calls for measures to control Hg emissions and to strengthen sewage and waste treatment in coastal cities and urban centres in the basin of major rivers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of three innovative culture systems on water quality and whitespot syndrome virus (WSSV) viral load in WSSV-fed Penaeus monodon cultured in indoor tanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alapide-Tendencia, E.V.; Bosma, R.H.; Rose Sorio, L.

    2012-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus is the most important among the shrimp diseases. It has been devastating the shrimp industry for more than 3 decades. Previous studies reported that greater percentage of yellow colonies on thiosulfate citrate bile salt sucrose agar (yellow vibrios) in the rearing water,

  2. Development of a monoclonal antibody-based flow-through immunoassay (FTA) for detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, R; Shankar, K M; Kumar, B T N; Kulkarni, A; Patil, P; Moger, N

    2013-09-01

    A flow-through immunoassay (FTA), an improved version of immunodot, was developed using a nitrocellulose membrane baked onto adsorbent pads enclosed in a plastic cassette to detect white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp. Sharp purple dots developed with WSSV against the white background of the nitrocellulose membrane. The detection limits of WSSV by the FTA and immunodot were 0.312 and 1.2 μg mL(-1) crude WSSV protein, respectively. The FTA could be completed in 8-10 min compared with 90 min for immunodot. The FTA was 100 times more sensitive than 1-step polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and in between that of the 1- and 2-step PCR protocol recommended by the Office of International Epizootics (OIE). In experimental, orally infected shrimp post-larvae, WSSV was first detected 14, 16 and 18 h post-infection (hpi) by FTA, immunodot and one-step PCR, respectively. The FTA detected WSSV 2 and 4 h earlier than immunodot and one-step PCR, respectively. The FTA was more sensitive (25/27) than one-step PCR (23/27) and immunodot (23/27) for the detection of WSSV from white spot disease outbreak ponds. The reagent components of the FTA were stable giving expected results for 6 m at 4-8 °C. The FTA is available as a rapid test kit called 'RapiDot' for the early detection of WSSV under field conditions.

  3. ADHERENCE AND PA THOGENICITY ASSA Y OF VIBRIO HARVE YI IN TIGER SHRIMP (PENAEUS MONODON LARVAE FOR SC REENING BIOCONTROL AGE NT

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    YUSMINAH H ALA

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Rifampicin-resistant marker w as empl oyed as a repor ter t o detect the ad here nce and colonization of V. harve yi in s hrimp larvae. Vibri o h arve yi P1B and YA3 2. 2 were isolated f rom dead s hrimp la rv ae i n Besuki, Norther n C oast of East Jav a, while V. harveyi HB3, was isolated from pris tine sea water in Pacita n, S outhe rn Coast of E ast Ja va . Vi brio metsc hnikovii used a s bioc ontr ol a gent was i solated fr om healthy shrimp larvae in Serang, We st Java. Spontane ous mutation was c onducted to generate V. harveyi P1B, YA32.2 and HB3 resistant to rifampi cin. These mutants exhibit ed similar survival ability to t heir parent al (wild type strai ns. Signifi cant larval mortalit y was o bserv ed i n s hrimp l arv ae i noculated with YA32.2 than that of larvae ino culated with P1B. Larvae inoculated with H B 3 showed the lo w est mortality. Bacterial cell c ount of Vi brio Rf* in dead larvae w ere 103-104 cells/larvae. Isolates of Vi brio metschnikovii Z an d M as biocontrol candid ates effectively r educed the growth a nd a dherence ability of YA32.2 t o shrimp larvae. Larval mort ality in rearing water inoculat ed simultaneousl y w ith YA32.2 and V. metschnikovii was lower than the one inoculated with YA32.2 alone. Therefore, Vibrio metschnikovii Z or M could be develope d as an effective pro biotic or biocontrol agent for V. harvey i in shrimp hatcheri es.

  4. INDUCTION OF GONADAL MATURATION OF POND CULTURED MALE TIGER SHRIMP, Penaeus monodon WITH DIFFERENT DOSAGES OF GONADOTROPIN RELEASING HORMONE ANALOGUE AGAINST EYE STALK ABLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asda Laining

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Very low naturally mating rate of pond-reared tiger shrimp broodstock is probably due to the slow maturation of the male stock. The aim of this study was to evaluate the salmon gonadotrophin releasing hormone analoque (sGnRHa in stimulating the gonadal maturation of male stock of pond-reared tiger shrimp. The treatments were three dosages of sGnRHa at 0.1 (OV-1, 0.2 (OV-2, and 0.3 (OV-3 mL/kg of shrimp weight and control was eye stalk ablation (AB. The sGnRHa was administered via injection three times with one week interval. Male stocks with average initial body weight of 82.1 g were randomly distributed into four of 10 m3 concrete tanks, 26 males for each tank. Variables observed were performances of spermatophores and profiles of amino acid and fatty acid of muscle of the male stocks. After induction, number of male maturing indicated by spermatophores releasing from terminal ampullas was higher in shrimp induced with OV-1 (80.8% compared to control which was only 46.1%. Furthermore, shrimp treated OV-2 had the highest spermatophore weight of 0.16 g compared to control (0.11 g and other two groups. Amino acid profiles improved as the dose of sGnRHa increased up to 0.2 mL/kg from 61.23% for ablated male becoming 71.27% for OV-2. Total fatty acid also tended to improve by increasing the dose of hormone injection, however, the ablated male had higher total fatty acid content than that of OV-1. The present finding demonstrated that the dose of sGnRHa to stimulate the gonadal maturation of pond-reared male tiger shrimp could be applied at range between 0.1-0.2 mL/kg of shrimp weight.

  5. Evaluation of an immunodot test to manage white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) during cultivation of the giant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Patil, R.; Palaksha, K.J.; Anil, T.M.; Guruchannabasavanna; Patil, P.; Shankar, K.M.; Mohan, C.V.; Sreepada, R.A.

    results, farms F5, F6, F13, and F14 gave positive results for WSSV by 2-step PCR, and they were successfully harvested at 105 d post stocking. Our results indicate that an inexpensive immunodot assay can be used to replace the more expensive 1-step PCR...

  6. Accelerated evolution of snake venom phospholipase A2 isozymes for acquisition of diverse physiological functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, T; Nakashima, K; Nobuhisa, I; Deshimaru, M; Shimohigashi, Y; Fukumaki, Y; Sakaki, Y; Hattori, S; Ohno, M

    1996-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of two cDNAs and four genes encoding Trimeresurus gramineus venom gland phospholipase A2 (PLA2) isozymes were determined and compared internally and externally with those encoding Trimeresurus flavoviridis venom gland PLA2 isozymes. It was revealed that the protein-coding regions are much more diversified than the 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) and the introns except for the signal peptide domain. The numbers of nucleotide substitutions per site (KN) for the UTRs and the introns were approximately one-quarter of the numbers of nucleotide substitutions per synonymous site (KS) for the protein-coding regions and were at the same level as the KN value of T. gramineus and T. flavoviridis TATA box-binding protein (TBP) genes, indicating that the protein-coding regions of PLA2 isozyme genes are unusually variable and that the UTRs including the introns of venom gland PLA2 isozyme genes have evolved at similar rate to those of non-venomous genes. The numbers of nucleotide substitutions per non-synonymous site (KA) values were close to or larger than the KS values for the protein-coding regions in venom gland PLA2 isozyme genes, indicating that the protein-coding regions of snake venom gland PLA2 isozyme genes have evolved via accelerated evolution. Furthermore, the evolutionary trees derived from the combined sequences of the 5' and 3' UTRs and the signal peptide domain of cDNAs were in accord with the consequences from taxonomy. In contrast, the evolutionary trees from the mature protein-coding region sequences of cDNAs and from the amino acid sequences showed random patterns. Estimations of nucleotide divergence of genes and the phylogenetic analysis reveal that snake venom group IJ PLA2 isozyme genes have been evolving under adaptive pressure to acquire new physiological activities.

  7. Stability of Reference Genes for Messenger RNA Quantification by Real-Time PCR in Mouse Dextran Sodium Sulfate Experimental Colitis.

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    Nour Eissa

    Full Text Available Many animal models have been developed to characterize the complexity of colonic inflammation. In dextran sodium sulfate (DSS experimental colitis in mice the choice of reference genes is critical for accurate quantification of target genes using quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR. No studies have addressed the performance of reference genes in mice DSS-experimental colitis. This study aimed to determine the stability of reference genes expression (RGE in DSS-experimental murine colitis.Colitis was induced in male C57BL/6 mice using DSS5% for 5 days, control group received water. RNA was extracted from inflamed and non-inflamed colon. Using RT-qPCR, comparative analysis of 13 RGE was performed according to predefined criteria and relative colonic TNF-α and IL-1β gene expression was determined by calculating the difference in the threshold cycle.Colitis significantly altered the stability of mucosal RGE. Commonly used glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (Gapdh, β-actin (Actb, or β2-microglobulin (β2m showed the highest variability within the inflamed and control groups. Conversely, TATA-box-binding protein (Tbp and eukaryotic translation elongation factor 2 (Eef2 were not affected by inflammation and were the most stable genes. Normalization of colonic TNF-α and IL-1β mRNA levels was dependent on the reference gene used. Depending on the genes used to normalize the data, statistical significance varied from significant when TBP / Eef2 were used to non-significant when Gapdh, Actb or β2m were used.This study highlights the appropriate choice of RGE to ensure adequate normalization of RT-qPCR data when using this model. Suboptimal RGE may explain controversial results from published studies. We recommend using Tbp and Eef2 instead of Gapdh, Actb or β2m as reference genes.

  8. Myc promoter-binding protein-1 (MBP-1 is a novel potential prognostic marker in invasive ductal breast carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariavera Lo Presti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alpha-enolase is a glycolytic enzyme that catalyses the formation of phosphoenolpyruvate in the cell cytoplasm. α-Enolase and the predominantly nuclear Myc promoter-binding protein-1 (MBP-1 originate from a single gene through the alternative use of translational starting sites. MBP-1 binds to the P2 c-myc promoter and competes with TATA-box binding protein (TBP to suppress gene transcription. Although several studies have shown an antiproliferative effect of MBP-1 overexpression on several human cancer cells, to date detailed observations of α-enolase and MBP-1 relative expression in primary tumors versus normal tissues and their correlation with clinicopathological features have not been undertaken. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: We analyzed α-enolase and MBP-1 expression in normal breast epithelium and primary invasive ductal breast carcinoma (IDC from 177 patients by Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses, using highly specific anti-α-enolase monoclonal antibodies. A significant increase in the expression of cytoplasmic α-enolase was observed in 98% of the tumors analysed, compared to normal tissues. Nuclear MBP-1 was found in almost all the normal tissues while its expression was retained in only 35% of the tumors. Statistically significant associations were observed among the nuclear expression of MBP-1 and ErbB2 status, Ki-67 expression, node status and tumor grade. Furthermore MBP-1 expression was associated with good survival of patients with IDC. CONCLUSIONS: MBP-1 functions in repressing c-myc gene expression and the results presented indicate that the loss of nuclear MBP-1 expression in a large number of IDC may be a critical step in the development and progression of breast cancer and a predictor of adverse outcome. Nuclear MBP-1 appears to be a novel and valuable histochemical marker with potential prognostic value in breast cancer.

  9. TBP binding-induced folding of the glucocorticoid receptor AF1 domain facilitates its interaction with steroid receptor coactivator-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shagufta H Khan

    Full Text Available The precise mechanism by which glucocorticoid receptor (GR regulates the transcription of its target genes is largely unknown. This is, in part, due to the lack of structural and functional information about GR's N-terminal activation function domain, AF1. Like many steroid hormone receptors (SHRs, the GR AF1 exists in an intrinsically disordered (ID conformation or an ensemble of conformers that collectively appears to be unstructured. The GR AF1 is known to recruit several coregulatory proteins, including those from the basal transcriptional machinery, e.g., TATA box binding protein (TBP that forms the basis for the multiprotein transcription initiation complex. However, the precise mechanism of this process is unknown. We have earlier shown that conditional folding of the GR AF1 is the key for its interactions with critical coactivator proteins. We hypothesize that binding of TBP to AF1 results in the structural rearrangement of the ID AF1 domain such that its surfaces become easily accessible for interaction with other coactivators. To test this hypothesis, we determined whether TBP binding-induced structure formation in the GR AF1 facilitates its interaction with steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1, a critical coactivator that is important for GR-mediated transcriptional activity. Our data show that stoichiometric binding of TBP induces significantly higher helical content at the expense of random coil configuration in the GR AF1. Further, we found that this induced AF1 conformation facilitates its interaction with SRC-1, and subsequent AF1-mediated transcriptional activity. Our results may provide a potential mechanism through which GR and by large other SHRs may regulate the expression of the GR-target genes.

  10. Reference gene validation for qPCR in rat carotid body during postnatal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carroll John L

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The carotid bodies are the main arterial oxygen chemoreceptors in mammals. Afferent neural output from the carotid bodies to brainstem respiratory and cardiovascular nuclei provides tonic input and mediates important protective responses to acute and chronic hypoxia. It is widely accepted that the selection of reference genes for mRNA normalization in quantitative real-time PCR must be validated for a given tissue and set of conditions. This is particularly important for studies in carotid body during early postnatal maturation as the arterial oxygen tension undergoes major changes from fetal to postnatal life, which may affect reference gene expression. In order to determine the most stable and suitable reference genes for the study of rat carotid body during development, six commonly used reference genes, β-actin, RPII (RNA polymerase II, PPIA (peptidyl-proyl-isomerase A, TBP (TATA-box binding protein, GAPDH, and 18s rRNA, were evaluated in two age groups (P0-1 and P14-16 under three environmental oxygen conditions (normoxia, chronic hypoxia and chronic hyperoxia using the three most commonly used software programs, geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. Findings The three programs produced similar results but the reference gene rankings were not identical between programs or experimental conditions. Overall, 18s rRNA was the least stable reference gene for carotid body and, when hyperoxia and/or hypoxia conditions were included, actin was similarly unstable. Conclusions Reference or housekeeping gene expression for qPCR studies of carotid body during postnatal development may vary with developmental stage and environmental conditions. Selection of the best reference gene or combination of reference genes for carotid body development studies should take environmental conditions into account. Two commonly used reference genes, 18s rRNA and actin, may be unsuitable for studies of carotid body maturation, especially if the study

  11. Heat Stress Upregulates the Expression of TLR4 and Its Alternative Splicing Variant in Bama Miniature Pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU Xiang-hong; XU Han-jin; YONG Yan-hong; AN Li-long; XU Ying-mei; JIAO Pei-rong; LIAO Ming

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing is a cellular mechanism in eukaryotes that results in considerable diversity of gene products. It plays an important role in several diseases and cellular signal regulation. Heat stress is a major factor that induces immunosuppression in pigs. Little is known about the correlation between alternative splicing and heat stress in pigs. Therefore, this study aimed to clone, sequence and quantify the alternative splicing variant of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in Bama miniature pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) following exposure to heat stress. The results showed that the second exon of TLR4 was spliced and 167 bp shorter in the alternative splicing variant, and the protein was putatively identiifed as a type of truncated membrane protein consisting of extramembrane, transmembrane and intramembrane regions lacking a signal peptide. Further, it was not a non-classical secretory protein. Five potential reference genes were screened for their potential as reliable standards to quantify the expression of TLR4 alternative spliced variants by real-time quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The stability of these reference genes was ranked using the geNorm and NormFinder programs, and ribosomal protein L4 (RPL4) and TATA box-binding protein (TBP) were found to be the two genes showing the most stable expression in the in vitro cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) during heat shock. The mRNA level of the TLR4 gene (both classical and spliced) in stressed pigs increased signiifcantly (P<0.05). Further, the expression levels of the alternative spliced variant of TLR4 (TLR4-ASV) showed a 2-3 folds increase in heat-stressed PBMCs as compared to control pigs. The results of the present study suggested that heat shock might modulate the host immune response by regulating the expressions of TLR4 and its alternative splicing variant.

  12. Assessment of Suitable Reference Genes for Quantitative Gene Expression Studies in Melon Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qiusheng; Gao, Lingyun; Cao, Lei; Liu, Yue; Saba, Hameed; Huang, Yuan; Bie, Zhilong

    2016-01-01

    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is an attractive model plant for investigating fruit development because of its morphological, physiological, and biochemical diversity. Quantification of gene expression by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) with stably expressed reference genes for normalization can effectively elucidate the biological functions of genes that regulate fruit development. However, the reference genes for data normalization in melon fruits have not yet been systematically validated. This study aims to assess the suitability of 20 genes for their potential use as reference genes in melon fruits. Expression variations of these genes were measured in 24 samples that represented different developmental stages of fertilized and parthenocarpic melon fruits by qRT-PCR analysis. GeNorm identified ribosomal protein L (CmRPL) and cytosolic ribosomal protein S15 (CmRPS15) as the best pair of reference genes, and as many as five genes including CmRPL, CmRPS15, TIP41-like family protein (CmTIP41), cyclophilin ROC7 (CmCYP7), and ADP ribosylation factor 1 (CmADP) were required for more reliable normalization. NormFinder ranked CmRPS15 as the best single reference gene, and RAN GTPase gene family (CmRAN) and TATA-box binding protein (CmTBP2) as the best combination of reference genes in melon fruits. Their effectiveness was further validated by parallel analyses on the activities of soluble acid invertase and sucrose phosphate synthase, and expression profiles of their respective encoding genes CmAIN2 and CmSPS1, as well as sucrose contents during melon fruit ripening. The validated reference genes will help to improve the accuracy of gene expression studies in melon fruits.

  13. Identification of valid reference genes for the normalization of RT qPCR gene expression data in human brain tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravid Rivka

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of gene expression in post mortem human brain can contribute to understanding of the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD, Parkinson's disease (PD and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB. Quantitative real-time PCR (RT qPCR is often used to analyse gene expression. The validity of results obtained using RT qPCR is reliant on accurate data normalization. Reference genes are generally used to normalize RT qPCR data. Given that expression of some commonly used reference genes is altered in certain conditions, this study aimed to establish which reference genes were stably expressed in post mortem brain tissue from individuals with AD, PD or DLB. Results The present study investigated the expression stability of 8 candidate reference genes, (ubiquitin C [UBC], tyrosine-3-monooxygenase [YWHAZ], RNA polymerase II polypeptide [RP II], hydroxymethylbilane synthase [HMBS], TATA box binding protein [TBP], β-2-microglobulin [B2M], glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [GAPDH], and succinate dehydrogenase complex-subunit A, [SDHA] in cerebellum and medial temporal gyrus of 6 AD, 6 PD, 6 DLB subjects, along with 5 matched controls using RT qPCR (TaqMan® Gene Expression Assays. Gene expression stability was analysed using geNorm to rank the candidate genes in order of decreasing stability in each disease group. The optimal number of genes recommended for accurate data normalization in each disease state was determined by pairwise variation analysis. Conclusion This study identified validated sets of mRNAs which would be appropriate for the normalization of RT qPCR data when studying gene expression in brain tissue of AD, PD, DLB and control subjects.

  14. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 17: Report of a family with reduced penetrance of an unstable Gln49 TBP allele, haplotype analysis supporting a founder effect for unstable alleles and comparative analysis of SCA17 genotypes

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    Schwinger Eberhard

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinocerebellar ataxia type 17 (SCA17, a neurodegenerative disorder in man, is caused by an expanded polymorphic polyglutamine-encoding trinucleotide repeat in the gene for TATA-box binding protein (TBP, a main transcription factor. Observed pathogenic expansions ranged from 43 – 63 glutamine (Gln codons (Gln43–63. Reduced penetrance is known for Gln43–48 alleles. In the vast majority of families with SCA17 an expanded CAG repeat interrupted by a CAA CAG CAA element is inherited stably. Results Here, we report the first pedigree with a Gln49 allele that is a not interrupted, b unstable upon transmission, and c associated with reduced penetrance or very late age of onset. The 76-year-old father of two SCA17 patients carries the Gln49 TBP allele but presents without obvious neurological symptoms. His children with Gln53 and Gln52 developed ataxia at the age of 41 and 50. Haplotype analysis of this and a second family both with uninterrupted expanded and unstable pathological SCA17 alleles revealed a common core genotype not present in the interrupted expansion of an unrelated SCA17 patient. Review of the literature did not present instability in SCA17 families with expanded alleles interrupted by the CAA CAG CAA element. Conclusion The presence of a Gln49 SCA17 allele in an asymptomatic 76-year-old male reams the discussion of reduced penetrance and genotypes producing very late disease onset. In SCA17, uninterrupted expanded alleles of TBP are associated with repeat instability and a common founder haplotype. This suggests for uninterrupted expanded alleles a mutation mechanism and some clinical genetic features distinct from those alleles interrupted by a CAA CAG CAA element.

  15. An Epstein-Barr Virus-Encoded Protein Complex Requires an Origin of Lytic Replication In Cis to Mediate Late Gene Transcription.

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    Reza Djavadian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus lytic replication is accomplished by an intricate cascade of gene expression that integrates viral DNA replication and structural protein synthesis. Most genes encoding structural proteins exhibit "true" late kinetics-their expression is strictly dependent on lytic DNA replication. Recently, the EBV BcRF1 gene was reported to encode a TATA box binding protein homolog, which preferentially recognizes the TATT sequence found in true late gene promoters. BcRF1 is one of seven EBV genes with homologs found in other β- and γ-, but not in α-herpesviruses. Using EBV BACmids, we systematically disrupted each of these "βγ" genes. We found that six of them, including BcRF1, exhibited an identical phenotype: intact viral DNA replication with loss of late gene expression. The proteins encoded by these six genes have been found by other investigators to form a viral protein complex that is essential for activation of TATT-containing reporters in EBV-negative 293 cells. Unexpectedly, in EBV infected 293 cells, we found that TATT reporter activation was weak and non-specific unless an EBV origin of lytic replication (OriLyt was present in cis. Using two different replication-defective EBV genomes, we demonstrated that OriLyt-mediated DNA replication is required in cis for TATT reporter activation and for late gene expression from the EBV genome. We further demonstrate by fluorescence in situ hybridization that the late BcLF1 mRNA localizes to EBV DNA replication factories. These findings support a model in which EBV true late genes are only transcribed from newly replicated viral genomes.

  16. In search of suitable reference genes for gene expression studies of human renal cell carcinoma by real-time PCR

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    Kristiansen Glen

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Housekeeping genes are commonly used as endogenous reference genes for the relative quantification of target genes in gene expression studies. No conclusive systematic study comparing the suitability of different candidate reference genes in clear cell renal cell carcinoma has been published to date. To remedy this situation, 10 housekeeping genes for normalizing purposes of RT-PCR measurements already recommended in various studies were examined with regard to their usefulness as reference genes. Results The expression of the potential reference genes was examined in matched malignant and non-malignant tissue specimens from 25 patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Quality assessment of isolated RNA performed with a 2100 Agilent Bioanalyzer showed a mean RNA integrity number of 8.7 for all samples. The between-run variations related to the crossing points of PCR reactions of a control material ranged from 0.17% to 0.38%. The expression of all genes did not depend on age, sex, and tumour stage. Except the genes TATA box binding protein (TBP and peptidylprolyl isomerase A (PPIA, all genes showed significant differences in expression between malignant and non-malignant pairs. The expression stability of the candidate reference genes was additionally controlled using the software programs geNorm and NormFinder. TBP and PPIA were validated as suitable reference genes by normalizing the target gene ADAM9 using these two most stably expressed genes in comparison with up- and down-regulated housekeeping genes of the panel. Conclusion Our study demonstrated the suitability of the two housekeeping genes PPIA and TBP as endogenous reference genes when comparing malignant tissue samples with adjacent normal tissue samples from clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Both genes are recommended as reference genes for relative gene quantification in gene profiling studies either as single gene or preferably in combination.

  17. In silico analysis of transcription factor binding sites in promoters of germin-like protein genes in rice

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    Ilyas Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Germins (GERs and germin-like proteins (GLPs play important roles in responses to various stresses; however, their function is still not fully understood. Significant insight into their function can be obtained by analyzing their promoters. In the present study, the 5' upstream promoters (1000 bp of 43 Asian rice (Oryza sativa var. Japonica GLP genes were retrieved from the Plant Ensemble, based on the Rice Annotation Project database (RAP-DB. Phylogenetic analysis via MEGA6 showed a narrow genetic background (0.2% with a Tajima neutrality value (π of 0.69. Overall, 4234 transcription factor (TF binding sites (TFBSs were found on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 11 and 12 via “MatInspector” from 90 different TF families using a total of 444 families. Common TFs and DiAlign analyses showed that arabidopsis homeobox protein (AHBP, MYB-like proteins (MYBL and vertebrate TATA-box-binding protein (VTBP were the most abundant, common and evolutionarily conserved elements in the upstream region from 0 to -800. Finding their mutual interaction via Farmworker analysis uncovered three new cisregulatory modules (VTBP_VTBP, MYBS_MYBS, and AHBP_VTBP, which appear to be decisive for OsGLP regulation. In silico functional analysis via ModelInspector revealed 77 cis-regulatory modules, each comprised of two elements, among which DOFF_OPAQ_03 and GTBX_MYCL_01 were the most frequent and mostly found on chromosome 8 and 12, indicating that the combinatorial interaction of these elements has a fundamental role in various biological processes. The study revealed the importance of these elements in regulating OsGLP expression that will help in predicting the role of these genes in various stresses, and can have application in biotechnology.

  18. Sustained expression of a neuron-specific isoform of the Taf1 gene in development stages and aging in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jambaldorj, Jamiyansuren [Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Health Biosciences, Graduate School, The University of Tokushima, Tokushima 770-8503 (Japan); Advanced Molecular Epidemiology Research Institute, Yamagata University Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata 990-9585 (Japan); Central Scientific Research Laboratory, Institute of Medical Sciences, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia); Makino, Satoshi, E-mail: smakino@genetix-h.com [Molecular Neuroscience Research Center, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu 520-2192 (Japan); Munkhbat, Batmunkh [Central Scientific Research Laboratory, Institute of Medical Sciences, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia); Tamiya, Gen [Advanced Molecular Epidemiology Research Institute, Yamagata University Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata 990-9585 (Japan)

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We identified the mouse homologue of neuron-specific TAF1 (N-Taf1). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Taf1 mRNA was expressed in most tissues and cell lines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N-Taf1 mRNA was expressed in the brain and Neuroblastoma N2a cell lines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Taf1 and N-Taf1 showed different expression profile in development stage and aging. -- Abstract: TATA-box binding protein associated factor 1 (TAF1) protein is the largest and the essential component of the TFIID complex in the pathway of RNA polymerase II-mediated gene transcription, and it regulates transcription of a large number of genes related to cell division. The neuron-specific isoform of the TAF1 gene (N-TAF1), which we reported previously, may have an essential role in neurons through transcriptional regulation of many neuron-specific genes. In the present study, we cloned the full-length cDNA that encodes the mouse homologue of N-TAF1 (N-Taf1) protein. By carrying out of real time RT-PCR, we investigated the expression analysis of the N-Taf1 mRNA in mouse tissues and cell lines. As well as the human N-TAF1, the N-Taf1 showed limited expression in the brain and neuroblastoma, whereas Taf1 expressed elsewhere. Furthermore, in mouse embryo head or mouse brain, mRNA expression of TAF1 changes dramatically during development but N-Taf1 showed sustained expression. Our result suggests that the N-Taf1 gene has an important role in non-dividing neuronal cell rather than in cell division and proliferation during neurogenesis.

  19. Assessment of Suitable Reference Genes for Quantitative Gene Expression Studies in Melon Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qiusheng; Gao, Lingyun; Cao, Lei; Liu, Yue; Saba, Hameed; Huang, Yuan; Bie, Zhilong

    2016-01-01

    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is an attractive model plant for investigating fruit development because of its morphological, physiological, and biochemical diversity. Quantification of gene expression by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) with stably expressed reference genes for normalization can effectively elucidate the biological functions of genes that regulate fruit development. However, the reference genes for data normalization in melon fruits have not yet been systematically validated. This study aims to assess the suitability of 20 genes for their potential use as reference genes in melon fruits. Expression variations of these genes were measured in 24 samples that represented different developmental stages of fertilized and parthenocarpic melon fruits by qRT-PCR analysis. GeNorm identified ribosomal protein L (CmRPL) and cytosolic ribosomal protein S15 (CmRPS15) as the best pair of reference genes, and as many as five genes including CmRPL, CmRPS15, TIP41-like family protein (CmTIP41), cyclophilin ROC7 (CmCYP7), and ADP ribosylation factor 1 (CmADP) were required for more reliable normalization. NormFinder ranked CmRPS15 as the best single reference gene, and RAN GTPase gene family (CmRAN) and TATA-box binding protein (CmTBP2) as the best combination of reference genes in melon fruits. Their effectiveness was further validated by parallel analyses on the activities of soluble acid invertase and sucrose phosphate synthase, and expression profiles of their respective encoding genes CmAIN2 and CmSPS1, as well as sucrose contents during melon fruit ripening. The validated reference genes will help to improve the accuracy of gene expression studies in melon fruits. PMID:27536316

  20. Reference gene for primary culture of prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Aline Francielle Damo; Brum, Ilma Simoni; Neto, Brasil Silva; Berger, Milton; Branchini, Gisele

    2013-04-01

    Selection of reference genes to normalize mRNA levels between samples is critical for gene expression studies because their expression can vary depending on the tissues or cells used and the experimental conditions. We performed ten cell cultures from samples of prostate cancer. Cells were divided into three groups: control (with no transfection protocol), cells transfected with siRNA specific to knockdown the androgen receptor and cells transfected with inespecific siRNAs. After 24 h, mRNA was extracted and gene expression was analyzed by Real-time qPCR. Nine candidates to reference genes for gene expression studies in this model were analyzed (aminolevulinate, delta-, synthase 1 (ALAS1); beta-actin (ACTB); beta-2-microglobulin (B2M); glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH); hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1 (HPRT1); succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit A, flavoprotein (Fp) (SDHA); TATA box binding protein (TBP); ubiquitin C (UBC); tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, zeta polypeptide (YWHAZ)). Expression stability was calculated NormFinder algorithm to find the most stable genes. NormFinder calculated SDHA as the most stable gene and the gene with the lowest intergroup and intragroup variation, and indicated GAPDH and SDHA as the best combination of two genes for the purpose of normalization. Androgen receptor mRNA expression was evaluated after normalization by each candidate gene and showed statistical difference in the transfected group compared to control group only when normalized by combination of GAPDH and SDHA. Based on the algorithm analysis, the combination of SDHA and GAPDH should be used to normalize target genes mRNA levels in primary culture of prostate cancer cells submitted to transfection with siRNAs.

  1. Main: TATAPVTRNALEU [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TATAPVTRNALEU S000340 21-May-2002 (last modified) uchi TATA-like motif; A TATA-like... sequence found in Phaseolus vulgaris tRNALeu gene promoter; Frequently observed upstream of plant tRNA gene...f TATA binding protein (TBP); TATA; tRNA; re-initiation; GapC4; Myb; TATA binding protein; TBP; Phaseolus vulgaris; maize (Zea mays) TTTATATA ...

  2. Validation of endogenous control genes for gene expression studies on human ocular surface epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bina Kulkarni

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate a panel of ten known endogenous control genes (ECG with quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qPCR, for identification of stably expressed endogenous control genes in the ocular surface (OS epithelial regions including cornea, limbus, limbal epithelial crypt and conjunctiva to normalise the quantitative reverse transcription PCR data of genes of interest expressed in above-mentioned regions. METHOD: The lasermicrodissected (LMD OS epithelial regions of cryosectioned corneoscleral buttons from the cadaver eyes were processed for RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis to detect genes of interest with qPCR. Gene expression of 10 known ECG--glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, beta actin (ACTB, peptidylprolyl isomerase (PPIA, TATA-box binding protein (TBP1, hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT1, beta glucuronidase (GUSB, Eucaryotic 18S ribosomal RNA (18S, phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK1, beta-2-microglobulin (B2M, ribosomal protein, large, P0 (RPLP0--was measured in the OS epithelial regions by qPCR method and the data collected was further analysed using geNorm software. RESULTS: The expression stability of ecgs in the os epithelial regions in increasing order as determined with genorm software is as follows: ACTB<18S

  3. Characterization of housekeeping genes in zebrafish: male-female differences and effects of tissue type, developmental stage and chemical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callard Gloria V

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research using the zebrafish model has experienced a rapid growth in recent years. Although real-time reverse transcription PCR (QPCR, normalized to an internal reference ("housekeeping" gene, is a frequently used method for quantifying gene expression changes in zebrafish, many commonly used housekeeping genes are known to vary with experimental conditions. To identify housekeeping genes that are stably expressed under different experimental conditions, and thus suitable as normalizers for QPCR in zebrafish, the present study evaluated the expression of eight commonly used housekeeping genes as a function of stage and hormone/toxicant exposure during development, and by tissue type and sex in adult fish. Results QPCR analysis was used to quantify mRNA levels of bactin1, tubulin alpha 1(tuba1, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapdh, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (g6pd, TATA-box binding protein (tbp, beta-2-microglobulin (b2m, elongation factor 1 alpha (elfa, and 18s ribosomal RNA (18s during development (2 – 120 hr postfertilization, hpf; in different tissue types (brain, eye, liver, heart, muscle, gonads of adult males and females; and after treatment of embryos/larvae (24 – 96 hpf with commonly used vehicles for administration and agents that represent known environmental endocrine disruptors. All genes were found to have some degree of variability under the conditions tested here. Rank ordering of expression stability using geNorm analysis identified 18s, b2m, and elfa as most stable during development and across tissue types, while gapdh, tuba1, and tpb were the most variable. Following chemical treatment, tuba1, bactin1, and elfa were the most stably expressed whereas tbp, 18s, and b2m were the least stable. Data also revealed sex differences that are gene- and tissue-specific, and treatment effects that are gene-, vehicle- and ligand-specific. When the accuracy of QPCR analysis was tested using

  4. Effect of obesity and exercise on the expression of the novel myokines, Myonectin and Fibronectin type III domain containing 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mart, Ryan; Bond, Cherie E.

    2014-01-01

    /or exercise and would have skewed the results of this study if used to normalize gene expression data. The unstable reference genes include: beta-Actin, beta-2-microglobulin, Non-POU domain containing, octamer-binding, Peptidylprolyl isomerase H, 18S ribosomal RNA, TATA box binding protein and Transferrin receptor. PMID:25289190

  5. Effect of obesity and exercise on the expression of the novel myokines, Myonectin and Fibronectin type III domain containing 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M. Peterson

    2014-09-01

    obesity and/or exercise and would have skewed the results of this study if used to normalize gene expression data. The unstable reference genes include: beta-Actin, beta-2-microglobulin, Non-POU domain containing, octamer-binding, Peptidylprolyl isomerase H, 18S ribosomal RNA, TATA box binding protein and Transferrin receptor.

  6. Identification of suitable reference genes for gene expression studies using quantitative polymerase chain reaction in lung cancer in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hassan; Du, Zhenwu; Li, Xiuying; Yang, Qiwei; Zhang, Yu Cheng; Wu, Mei; Li, Yi; Zhang, Guizhen

    2015-05-01

    The present study aimed to examine 10 housekeeping genes (HKGs), including 18s ribosomal RNA (18S), glyceraldehyde‑3‑phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), ribosomal protein large P0 (RPLP0), β‑actin (ACTB), peptidylprolyl isomerase A (PPIA), phosphoglycerate kinase‑1 (PGK1), β‑2‑microglobulin (B2M), ribosomal protein LI3a (RPL13A), hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase‑1 (HPRT1) and TATA box binding protein (TBP) in order to identify the most stable and suitable reference genes for use in expression studies in non‑small cell lung cancer. The mRNA expression encoding the panel of the 10 HKGs was determined using reverse transcription‑quantitative PCR (RT‑qPCR) in human lung cancer cell lines. Three software programs, BestKeeper, NormFinder and geNorm, were used to ascertain the most suitable reference genes to normalize the RNA input. The present study examined three lung cancer cell lines (A549, NCI‑H446 and NCI‑H460). The analysis of the experimental data using BestKeeper software revealed that all 10 HKGs were stable, with GADPH, followed by 18S being the most stable genes and PPIA and HPRT1 being the least stable genes. The NormFinder software results demonstrated that PPIA followed by ACTB were the most stable and B2M and RPLP0 were the least stable. The geNorm software results revealed that ACTB and PGK1, followed by PPIA were the most stable genes and B2M and RPLP0 were identified as the least stable genes. Due to discrepancies in the ranking orders of the reference genes obtained by different analyzing software programs, it was not possible to determine a single universal reference gene. The suitability of selected reference genes requires unconditional validation prior to each study. Based on the three analyzing programs, ACTB, PPIA and PGK1 were the most stable reference genes in lung cancer cell lines.

  7. Effect of carbon monoxide on gene expression in cerebrocortical astrocytes: Validation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Sara R; Vieira, Helena L A; Duarte, Carlos B

    2015-09-15

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a widely used technique to characterize changes in gene expression in complex cellular and tissue processes, such as cytoprotection or inflammation. The accurate assessment of changes in gene expression depends on the selection of adequate internal reference gene(s). Carbon monoxide (CO) affects several metabolic pathways and de novo protein synthesis is crucial in the cellular responses to this gasotransmitter. Herein a selection of commonly used reference genes was analyzed to identify the most suitable internal control genes to evaluate the effect of CO on gene expression in cultured cerebrocortical astrocytes. The cells were exposed to CO by treatment with CORM-A1 (CO releasing molecule A1) and four different algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder, Delta Ct and BestKeeper) were applied to evaluate the stability of eight putative reference genes. Our results indicate that Gapdh (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) together with Ppia (peptidylpropyl isomerase A) is the most suitable gene pair for normalization of qRT-PCR results under the experimental conditions used. Pgk1 (phosphoglycerate kinase 1), Hprt1 (hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase I), Sdha (Succinate Dehydrogenase Complex, Subunit A), Tbp (TATA box binding protein), Actg1 (actin gamma 1) and Rn18s (18S rRNA) genes presented less stable expression profiles in cultured cortical astrocytes exposed to CORM-A1 for up to 60 min. For validation, we analyzed the effect of CO on the expression of Bdnf and bcl-2. Different results were obtained, depending on the reference genes used. A significant increase in the expression of both genes was found when the results were normalized with Gapdh and Ppia, in contrast with the results obtained when the other genes were used as reference. These findings highlight the need for a proper and accurate selection of the reference genes used in the quantification of qRT-PCR results

  8. Roles of RNA-Binding Proteins in DNA Damage Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihoko Kai

    2016-02-01

    liquid-demixing”. Among the PAR-associated IDPs are FUS/TLS (fused in sarcoma/translocated in sarcoma, EWS (Ewing sarcoma, TARF15 (TATA box-binding protein-associated factor 68 kDa (also called FET proteins, a number of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs, and RBM14. Importantly, various point mutations within the FET genes have been implicated in pathological protein aggregation in neurodegenerative diseases, specifically with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, and frontotemporal lobe degeneration (FTLD. The FET proteins also frequently exhibit gene translocation in human cancers, and emerging evidence shows their physical interactions with DDR proteins and thus implies their involvement in the maintenance of genome stability.

  9. Cloning and functional characterization of the 5' regulatory region of ovine Hormone Sensitive Lipase (HSL) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampidonis, Antonis D; Stravopodis, Dimitrios J; Voutsinas, Gerassimos E; Messini-Nikolaki, Niki; Stefos, George C; Margaritis, Lukas H; Argyrokastritis, Alexandros; Bizelis, Iosif; Rogdakis, Emmanuel

    2008-12-31

    Hormone Sensitive Lipase (HSL) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the mobilization of fatty acids from adipose tissue, thus determining the supply of energy substrates in the body. HSL enzymatic activity is increased by adrenergic agonists, such as catecholamines and glucagons, which induce cyclic AMP (cAMP) intracellular production, subsequently followed by the activation of Protein Kinase A (PKA) and its downstream signaling cascade reactions. HSL constitutes the critical enzyme in the modulation of lipid stores and the only component being subjected to hormonal control in terms of the recently identified Adipose Triglyceride Lipase (ATGL). In order to acquire detailed knowledge with regard to the mechanisms regulating ovine HSL (ovHSL) gene transcription activity, we initially isolated and cloned the 5' proximal and distal promoter regions through a genome walking approach, with the utilization of the already characterized ovHSL cDNAs. As evinced by BLAST analysis and a multiple alignment procedure, the isolated genomic fragment of 2.744 kb appeared to contain the already specified 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR), which was interrupted by a relatively large intron of 1.448 kb. Regarding the upstream remaining part of 1.224 kb, it was demonstrated to represent a TATA-less promoter area, harboring several cis-regulatory elements that could be putatively recognized by relatively more general transcription factors, mainly including Stimulating protein 1 (Sp1), CCAAT-box Binding Factors (CBFs), Activator Protein 2 (AP2) and Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR), as well as other cis-acting regions denominated as Insulin Response Element (IRE), Glucose Response Element (GRE), Fat Specific Element (FSE) and cAMP Response Element (CRE), which could likely function in a nourishment (i.e. glucose)-/hormone-dependent fashion. When different genomic fragments were directionally (5' to 3') cloned into a suitable reporter vector upstream of a promoter-less luciferase gene and

  10. α-Phellandrene alters expression of genes associated with DNA damage, cell cycle, and apoptosis in murine leukemia WEHI-3 cells.

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    Lin, Jen-Jyh; Yu, Chien-Chih; Lu, Kung-Wen; Chang, Shu-Jen; Yu, Fu-Shun; Liao, Ching-Lung; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2014-08-01

    α-phellandrene (α-PA) is a cyclic monoterpene, present in natural plants such as Schinus molle L. α-PA promotes immune responses in mice in vivo. However, there is no available information on whether α-PA affects gene expression in leukemia cells. The present study determined effects of α-PA on expression levels of genes associated with DNA damage, cell cycle and apoptotic cell death in mouse leukemia WEHI-3 cells. WEHI-3 cells were treated with 10 μM α-PA for 24 h, cells were harvested and total RNA was extracted, and gene expression was analyzed by cDNA microarray. Results indicated that α-PA up-regulated 10 genes 4-fold, 13 by over 3-fold and 175 by over 2-fold; 21 genes were down-regulated by over 4-fold, 26 genes by over 3-fold and expression of 204 genes was altered by at leas 2-fold compared with the untreated control cells. DNA damage-associated genes such as DNA damage-inducer transcript 4 and DNA fragmentation factor were up-regulated by 4-fold and over 2-fold, respectively; cell-cycle check point genes such as cyclin G2 and cyclin-dependent kinases inhibitor 2D and IA (p21) were up-regulated by over 3-fold and over 2-fold, respectively; apoptosis-associated genes such as BCL2/adenovirus EIB interacting protein 3, XIAP-associated factor 1, BCL2 modifying factor, caspase-8 and FADD-like apoptosis regulator were over 2-fold up-regulated. Furthermore, DNA damage-associated gene TATA box binding protein was over 4-fold down-regulated, and D19Ertd652c (DNA segment) over 2-fold down-regulated; cell cycle-associated gene cyclin E2 was over 2-fold down-regulated; apoptosis associated gene growth arrest-specific 5 was over 9-fold down-regulated, Gm5426 (ATP synthase) was over 3-fold down-regulated, and death box polypeptide 33 was over 2-fold down-regulated. Based on these observations, α-PA altered gene expression in WEHI-3 cells in vitro.

  11. Identification of stable reference genes for gene expression analysis of three-dimensional cultivated human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells for bone tissue engineering.

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    Rauh, Juliane; Jacobi, Angela; Stiehler, Maik

    2015-02-01

    The principles of tissue engineering (TE) are widely used for bone regeneration concepts. Three-dimensional (3D) cultivation of autologous human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) on porous scaffolds is the basic prerequisite to generate newly formed bone tissue. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a specific and sensitive analytical tool for the measurement of mRNA-levels in cells or tissues. For an accurate quantification of gene expression levels, stably expressed reference genes (RGs) are essential to obtain reliable results. Since the 3D environment can affect a cell's morphology, proliferation, and gene expression profile compared with two-dimensional (2D) cultivation, there is a need to identify robust RGs for the quantification of gene expression. So far, this issue has not been adequately investigated. The aim of this study was to identify the most stably expressed RGs for gene expression analysis of 3D-cultivated human bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs). For this, we analyzed the gene expression levels of n=31 RGs in 3D-cultivated human BM-MSCs from six different donors compared with conventional 2D cultivation using qRT-PCR. MSCs isolated from bone marrow aspirates were cultivated on human cancellous bone cube scaffolds for 14 days. Osteogenic differentiation was assessed by cell-specific alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and expression of osteogenic marker genes. Expression levels of potential reference and target genes were quantified using commercially available TaqMan(®) assays. mRNA expression stability of RGs was determined by calculating the coefficient of variation (CV) and using the algorithms of geNorm and NormFinder. Using both algorithms, we identified TATA box binding protein (TBP), transferrin receptor (p90, CD71) (TFRC), and hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1 (HPRT1) as the most stably expressed RGs in 3D-cultivated BM-MSCs. Notably, genes that are routinely used as RGs, for example, beta actin

  12. Treatment with a Ginkgo biloba extract, EGb 761, inhibits excitotoxicity in an animal model of spinocerebellar ataxia type 17

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    Huang DS

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ding-Siang Huang,1,* Hsuan-Yuan Lin,1,2,* Guey-Jen Lee-Chen,1 Hsiu-Mei Hsieh-Li,1 Chung-Hsin Wu,1 Jung-Yaw Lin1,21Department of Life Science, National Taiwan Normal University, 2Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, National Taiwan University, Taipei City, Taiwan, Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Spinocerebellar ataxia type 17 (SCA 17 is a polyglutamine disease caused by the expansion of CAG/CAA repeats in the TATA box-binding protein (TBP gene. The Ginkgo biloba extract, EGb 761, contains flavonoids and terpenoids with a potential use for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. The neuroprotective effects of EGb 761 are obvious, but whether the EGb 761 has therapeutic effects in SCA 17 is still unclear. To manage our issues, we have generated TBP/79Q-expressing SH-SY5Y cells and SCA 17 transgenic mice with the mutant hTBP gene. In in vitro experiment, we observed that the EGb 761 treatment decreased the amount of sodium dodecyl sulfate-insoluble proteins in the TBP/79Q-expressing SH-SY5Y cells. We further found that the EGb 761 treatment could inhibit excitotoxicity and calcium influx and reduce the expression of apoptotic markers in glutamate-treated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. In in vivo experiment, we observed that the EGb 761 treatment (100 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection per day could relieve the motor deficiencies of the SCA 17 transgenic mice. Our findings provide evidence that the EGb 761 treatment can be a remedy for SCA 17 via suppressing excitotoxicity and apoptosis in SCA 17 cell and animal models. Therefore, we suggest that EGb 761 may be a potential therapeutic agent for treating SCA 17.Keywords: spinocerebellar ataxia type 17, excitotoxicity, EGb 761, polyQ diseases, apoptosis 

  13. The validation of housekeeping genes as a reference in quantitative Real Time PCR analysis: application in the milk somatic cells and frozen whole blood of goats infected with caprine arthritis encephalitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarczak, Justyna; Kaba, Jarosław; Bagnicka, Emilia

    2014-10-10

    The validation of housekeeping genes (HKGs) for normalization of RNA expression in Real-Time PCR is crucial to obtain the most reliable results. There is limited information on reference genes used in the study of gene expression in milk somatic cells and the frozen whole blood of goats. Thus, the aim of this study was to propose the most stable housekeeping genes that can be used as a reference in Real-Time PCR analysis of milk somatic cells and whole blood of goats infected with caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV). Animals were divided into two groups: non-infected (N=13) and infected with CAEV (N=13). Biological material (milk somatic cells and whole blood) was collected 4 times during the lactation period (7, 30, 100 and 240days post-partum). The expression levels of candidate reference genes were analyzed using geNorm and NormFinder software. The stability of candidates for reference gene expression was analyzed for CAEV-free (control) and CAEV-infected groups, and also for both groups together (combined group). The stability of expression of β-actin (ACTB), glyceraldehyde-3P-dehydrogenase (GAPDH), cyclophilin A (PPIA), RNA18S1, ubiquilin (UBQLN1) and ribosomal protein large subunit P0 (RPLP0) was determined in milk somatic cells, while ACTB, PPIA, RPLP0, succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit A (SDHA), zeta polypeptide (YWHAZ), battenin (CLN3), eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3K (EIF3K) and TATA box-binding protein (TBP) were measured in frozen whole blood of goats. PPIA and RPLP0 were considered as the most suitable internal controls as they were stably expressed in milk somatic cells regardless of disease status, according to NormFinder software. Furthermore, geNorm results indicated the expression of PPIA/RPLP0 genes as the best combination under these experimental conditions. The results of frozen whole blood analysis using NormFinder software revealed that the most stable reference gene in control, CAEV-infected and combined groups is

  14. Monitoring of Chicken RNA Integrity as a Function of Prolonged Postmortem Duration

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    Yuwares Malila

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression profiling has offered new insights into postmortem molecular changes associated with meat quality. To acquire reliable transcript quantification, high quality RNA is required. The objective of this study was to analyze integrity of RNA isolated from chicken skeletal muscle (pectoralis major and its capability of serving as the template in quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR as a function of postmortem intervals representing the end-points of evisceration, carcass chilling and aging stages in chicken abattoirs. Chicken breast muscle was dissected from the carcasses (n = 6 immediately after evisceration, and one-third of each sample was instantly snap-frozen and labeled as 20 min postmortem. The remaining muscle was stored on ice until the next rounds of sample collection (1.5 h and 6 h postmortem. The delayed postmortem duration did not significantly affect A260/A280 and A260/A230 (p≥0.05, suggesting no altered purity of total RNA. Apart from a slight decrease in the 28s:18s ribosomal RNA ratio in 1.5 h samples (p<0.05, the value was not statistically different between 20 min and 6 h samples (p≥0.05, indicating intact total RNA up to 6 h. Abundance of reference genes encoding beta-actin (ACTB, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT, peptidylprolylisomerase A (PPIA and TATA box-binding protein (TBP as well as meat-quality associated genes (insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isozyme 4 (PDK4, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD were investigated using qPCR. Transcript abundances of ACTB, GAPDH, HPRT, and PPIA were significantly different among all postmortem time points (p<0.05. Transcript levels of PDK4 and PPARD were significantly reduced in the 6 h samples (p<0.05. The findings suggest an adverse effect of a prolonged postmortem duration on reliability of transcript quantification in chicken

  15. Low-pass sequencing for microbial comparative genomics

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    Kennedy Sean

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We studied four extremely halophilic archaea by low-pass shotgun sequencing: (1 the metabolically versatile Haloarcula marismortui; (2 the non-pigmented Natrialba asiatica; (3 the psychrophile Halorubrum lacusprofundi and (4 the Dead Sea isolate Halobaculum gomorrense. Approximately one thousand single pass genomic sequences per genome were obtained. The data were analyzed by comparative genomic analyses using the completed Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 genome as a reference. Low-pass shotgun sequencing is a simple, inexpensive, and rapid approach that can readily be performed on any cultured microbe. Results As expected, the four archaeal halophiles analyzed exhibit both bacterial and eukaryotic characteristics as well as uniquely archaeal traits. All five halophiles exhibit greater than sixty percent GC content and low isoelectric points (pI for their predicted proteins. Multiple insertion sequence (IS elements, often involved in genome rearrangements, were identified in H. lacusprofundi and H. marismortui. The core biological functions that govern cellular and genetic mechanisms of H. sp. NRC-1 appear to be conserved in these four other halophiles. Multiple TATA box binding protein (TBP and transcription factor IIB (TFB homologs were identified from most of the four shotgunned halophiles. The reconstructed molecular tree of all five halophiles shows a large divergence between these species, but with the closest relationship being between H. sp. NRC-1 and H. lacusprofundi. Conclusion Despite the diverse habitats of these species, all five halophiles share (1 high GC content and (2 low protein isoelectric points, which are characteristics associated with environmental exposure to UV radiation and hypersalinity, respectively. Identification of multiple IS elements in the genome of H. lacusprofundi and H. marismortui suggest that genome structure and dynamic genome reorganization might be similar to that previously observed in the

  16. Selection of reference genes for qPCR in hairy root cultures of peanut

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    Medrano Giuliana

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hairy root cultures produced via Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation have emerged as practical biological models to elucidate the biosynthesis of specialized metabolites. To effectively understand the expression patterns of the genes involved in the metabolic pathways of these compounds, reference genes need to be systematically validated under specific experimental conditions as established by the MIQE (Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments guidelines. In the present report we describe the first validation of reference genes for RT-qPCR in hairy root cultures of peanut which produce stilbenoids upon elicitor treatments. Results A total of 21 candidate reference genes were evaluated. Nineteen genes were selected based on previous qPCR studies in plants and two were from the T-DNAs transferred from A. rhizogenes. Nucleotide sequences of peanut candidate genes were obtained using their homologous sequences in Arabidopsis. To identify the suitable primers, calibration curves were obtained for each candidate reference gene. After data analysis, 12 candidate genes meeting standard efficiency criteria were selected. The expression stability of these genes was analyzed using geNorm and NormFinder algorithms and a ranking was established based on expression stability of the genes. Candidate reference gene expression was shown to have less variation in methyl jasmonate (MeJA treated root cultures than those treated with sodium acetate (NaOAc. Conclusions This work constitutes the first effort to validate reference genes for RT-qPCR in hairy roots. While these genes were selected under conditions of NaOAc and MeJA treatment, we anticipate these genes to provide good targets for reference genes for hairy roots under a variety of stress conditions. The lead reference genes were a gene encoding for a TATA box