WorldWideScience

Sample records for monocytes expressed higher

  1. EXPRESSION OF ADHESION MOLECULES ON PERIPHERAL BLOOD MONOCYTES DURING PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Mikhaylova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral blood monocytes play a key role in regulation of immune response during pregnancy. Intensive adhesion of monocytes to endothelium proves that monocytes are activated during pregnancy. To determine a potential role of adhesion molecules for ability of monocytes to adhere, we studied expression of CD11a, CD11b, CD11c, CD18, CD49d, CD29 markers of monocytes from non-pregnant and pregnant women. Expression of adhesion molecules on monocytes was analyzed by flow cytometry. The amounts of CD11b-expressing monocytes increased during pregnancy, as compared with non-pregnant women. Intensity of CD11a, CD11b, CD11c, CD29 expression on the monocytes did also increase at normal pregnancy. These results suggest that intense adhesion of monocytes to endothelium during uncomplicated pregnancy may be determined by increased expression of CD11a, CD11b, CD11c, CD29, and higher amounts of CD11b+ monocytes.

  2. Differential expression of monocyte surface markers among TB patients with diabetes co-morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stew, Samuel S; Martinez, Perla J; Schlesinger, Larry S; Restrepo, Blanca I

    2013-12-01

    The expression of monocyte surface markers was compared between tuberculosis patients with and without type 2 diabetes (DM2). DM2 was associated with increased CCR2 expression, which may restrain monocyte traffic to the lung. Other host factors associated with baseline monocyte changes were older age (associated with lower CD11b) and obesity (associated with higher RAGE). Given that DM2 patients are more likely to be older and obese, their monocytes are predicted to be altered in function in ways that affect their interaction with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

  3. Sialoadhesin expressed on IFN-induced monocytes binds HIV-1 and enhances infectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Rempel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV-1 infection dysregulates the immune system and alters gene expression in circulating monocytes. Differential gene expression analysis of CD14(+ monocytes from subjects infected with HIV-1 revealed increased expression of sialoadhesin (Sn, CD169, Siglec 1, a cell adhesion molecule first described in a subset of macrophages activated in chronic inflammatory diseases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed sialoadhesin expression on CD14(+ monocytes by flow cytometry and found significantly higher expression in subjects with elevated viral loads compared to subjects with undetectable viral loads. In cultured CD14(+ monocytes isolated from healthy individuals, sialoadhesin expression was induced by interferon-alpha and interferon-gamma but not tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Using a stringent binding assay, sialoadhesin-expressing monocytes adsorbed HIV-1 through interaction with the sialic acid residues on the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120. Furthermore, monocytes expressing sialoadhesin facilitated HIV-1 trans infection of permissive cells, which occurred in the absence of monocyte self-infection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Increased sialoadhesin expression on CD14(+ monocytes occurred in response to HIV-1 infection with maximum expression associated with high viral load. We show that interferons induce sialoadhesin in primary CD14(+ monocytes, which is consistent with an antiviral response during viremia. Our findings suggest that circulating sialoadhesin-expressing monocytes are capable of binding HIV-1 and effectively delivering virus to target cells thereby enhancing the distribution of HIV-1. Sialoadhesin could disseminate HIV-1 to viral reservoirs during monocyte immunosurveillance or migration to sites of inflammation and then facilitate HIV-1 infection of permissive cells.

  4. Differential Expression of CD163 on Monocyte Subsets in Healthy and HIV-1 Infected Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippett, Emma; Cheng, Wan-Jung; Westhorpe, Clare; Cameron, Paul U.; Brew, Bruce J.; Lewin, Sharon R.; Jaworowski, Anthony; Crowe, Suzanne M.

    2011-01-01

    CD163, a haptoglobin-hemoglobin (Hp-Hb) scavenger receptor, expressed by monocytes and macrophages, is important in resolution of inflammation. Age-related non-AIDS co-morbidities in HIV-infected individuals, particularly dementia and cardiovascular disease, result in part from effects of HIV-1 infection on monocyte and macrophage biology. CD163 co-expression on CD14+CD16++ monocytes has been proposed as a useful biomarker for HIV-1 disease progression and the presence of HIV associated dementia. Here we investigated CD163 expression on monocyte subsets ex vivo, on cultured macrophages, and soluble in plasma, in the setting of HIV-1 infection. Whole blood immunophenotyping revealed CD163 expression on CD14++CD16- monocytes but not on CD14+CD16++ monocytes (P = 0.004), supported by CD163 mRNA levels. Incubation with M-CSF induced CD163 protein expression on CD14+CD16++ monocytes to the same extent as CD14++CD16− monocytes. CD163 expression on CD14++CD16+ monocytes from HIV-infected subjects was significantly higher than from uninfected individuals, with a trend towards increased expression on CD14++CD16− monocytes (P = 0.019 and 0.069 respectively), which is accounted for by HIV-1 therapy including protease inhibitors. Shedding of CD163 was shown to predominantly occur from the CD14++CD16− subset after Ficoll isolation and LPS stimulation. Soluble CD163 concentration in plasma from HIV-1 infected donors was similar to HIV-1 uninfected donors. Monocyte CD163 expression in HIV-1 infected patients showed a complicated relationship with classical measures of disease progression. Our findings clarify technical issues regarding CD163 expression on monocyte subsets and further elucidates its role in HIV-associated inflammation by demonstrating that CD163 is readily lost from CD14++CD16− monocytes and induced in pro-inflammatory CD14+CD16++ monocytes by M-CSF. Our data show that all monocyte subsets are potentially capable of differentiating into CD163

  5. Differential expression of CD163 on monocyte subsets in healthy and HIV-1 infected individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Tippett

    Full Text Available CD163, a haptoglobin-hemoglobin (Hp-Hb scavenger receptor, expressed by monocytes and macrophages, is important in resolution of inflammation. Age-related non-AIDS co-morbidities in HIV-infected individuals, particularly dementia and cardiovascular disease, result in part from effects of HIV-1 infection on monocyte and macrophage biology. CD163 co-expression on CD14+CD16++ monocytes has been proposed as a useful biomarker for HIV-1 disease progression and the presence of HIV associated dementia. Here we investigated CD163 expression on monocyte subsets ex vivo, on cultured macrophages, and soluble in plasma, in the setting of HIV-1 infection. Whole blood immunophenotyping revealed CD163 expression on CD14++CD16- monocytes but not on CD14+CD16++ monocytes (P = 0.004, supported by CD163 mRNA levels. Incubation with M-CSF induced CD163 protein expression on CD14+CD16++ monocytes to the same extent as CD14++CD16- monocytes. CD163 expression on CD14++CD16+ monocytes from HIV-infected subjects was significantly higher than from uninfected individuals, with a trend towards increased expression on CD14++CD16- monocytes (P = 0.019 and 0.069 respectively, which is accounted for by HIV-1 therapy including protease inhibitors. Shedding of CD163 was shown to predominantly occur from the CD14++CD16- subset after Ficoll isolation and LPS stimulation. Soluble CD163 concentration in plasma from HIV-1 infected donors was similar to HIV-1 uninfected donors. Monocyte CD163 expression in HIV-1 infected patients showed a complicated relationship with classical measures of disease progression. Our findings clarify technical issues regarding CD163 expression on monocyte subsets and further elucidates its role in HIV-associated inflammation by demonstrating that CD163 is readily lost from CD14++CD16- monocytes and induced in pro-inflammatory CD14+CD16++ monocytes by M-CSF. Our data show that all monocyte subsets are potentially capable of differentiating into CD

  6. TLR4-mediated expression of Mac-1 in monocytes plays a pivotal role in monocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Jin; Choi, Eun Kyoung; Seo, Kyo Won; Bae, Jin Ung; Park, So Youn; Kim, Chi Dae

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is known to mediate monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells, however, its role on the expression of monocyte adhesion molecules is unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of TLR4 on the expression of monocyte adhesion molecules, and determined the functional role of TLR4-induced adhesion molecules on monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells. When THP-1 monocytes were stimulated with Kdo2-Lipid A (KLA), a specific TLR4 agonist, Mac-1 expression was markedly increased in association with an increased adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells. These were attenuated by anti-Mac-1 antibody, suggesting a functional role of TLR4-induced Mac-1 on monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells. In monocytes treated with MK886, a 5-lipoxygenase (LO) inhibitor, both Mac-1 expression and monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells induced by KLA were markedly attenuated. Moreover, KLA increased the expression of mRNA and protein of 5-LO, suggesting a pivotal role of 5-LO on these processes. In in vivo studies, KLA increased monocyte adhesion to aortic endothelium of wild-type (WT) mice, which was attenuated in WT mice treated with anti-Mac-1 antibody as well as in TLR4-deficient mice. Taken together, TLR4-mediated expression of Mac-1 in monocytes plays a pivotal role on monocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium, leading to increased foam cell formation in the development of atherosclerosis.

  7. Abnormalities in Monocyte Recruitment and Cytokine Expression in Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1–deficient Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bao; Rutledge, Barbara J.; Gu, Long; Fiorillo, Joseph; Lukacs, Nicholas W.; Kunkel, Steven L.; North, Robert; Gerard, Craig; Rollins, Barrett J.

    1998-01-01

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) is a CC chemokine that attracts monocytes, memory T lymphocytes, and natural killer cells. Because other chemokines have similar target cell specificities and because CCR2, a cloned MCP-1 receptor, binds other ligands, it has been uncertain whether MCP-1 plays a unique role in recruiting mononuclear cells in vivo. To address this question, we disrupted SCYA2 (the gene encoding MCP-1) and tested MCP-1–deficient mice in models of inflammation. Despite normal numbers of circulating leukocytes and resident macrophages, MCP-1−/− mice were specifically unable to recruit monocytes 72 h after intraperitoneal thioglycollate administration. Similarly, accumulation of F4/80+ monocytes in delayed-type hypersensitivity lesions was impaired, although the swelling response was normal. Development of secondary pulmonary granulomata in response to Schistosoma mansoni eggs was blunted in MCP-1−/− mice, as was expression of IL-4, IL-5, and interferon γ in splenocytes. In contrast, MCP-1−/− mice were indistinguishable from wild-type mice in their ability to clear Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Our data indicate that MCP-1 is uniquely essential for monocyte recruitment in several inflammatory models in vivo and influences expression of cytokines related to T helper responses. PMID:9463410

  8. Divergent JAM-C Expression Accelerates Monocyte-Derived Cell Exit from Atherosclerotic Plaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul F Bradfield

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis, caused in part by monocytes in plaques, continues to be a disease that afflicts the modern world. Whilst significant steps have been made in treating this chronic inflammatory disease, questions remain on how to prevent monocyte and macrophage accumulation in atherosclerotic plaques. Junctional Adhesion Molecule C (JAM-C expressed by vascular endothelium directs monocyte transendothelial migration in a unidirectional manner leading to increased inflammation. Here we show that interfering with JAM-C allows reverse-transendothelial migration of monocyte-derived cells, opening the way back out of the inflamed environment. To study the role of JAM-C in plaque regression we used a mouse model of atherosclerosis, and tested the impact of vascular JAM-C expression levels on monocyte reverse transendothelial migration using human cells. Studies in-vitro under inflammatory conditions revealed that overexpression or gene silencing of JAM-C in human endothelium exposed to flow resulted in higher rates of monocyte reverse-transendothelial migration, similar to antibody blockade. We then transplanted atherosclerotic, plaque-containing aortic arches from hyperlipidemic ApoE-/- mice into wild-type normolipidemic recipient mice. JAM-C blockade in the recipients induced greater emigration of monocyte-derived cells and further diminished the size of atherosclerotic plaques. Our findings have shown that JAM-C forms a one-way vascular barrier for leukocyte transendothelial migration only when present at homeostatic copy numbers. We have also shown that blocking JAM-C can reduce the number of atherogenic monocytes/macrophages in plaques by emigration, providing a novel therapeutic strategy for chronic inflammatory pathologies.

  9. Divergent JAM-C Expression Accelerates Monocyte-Derived Cell Exit from Atherosclerotic Plaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradfield, Paul F; Menon, Arjun; Miljkovic-Licina, Marijana; Lee, Boris P; Fischer, Nicolas; Fish, Richard J; Kwak, Brenda; Fisher, Edward A; Imhof, Beat A

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, caused in part by monocytes in plaques, continues to be a disease that afflicts the modern world. Whilst significant steps have been made in treating this chronic inflammatory disease, questions remain on how to prevent monocyte and macrophage accumulation in atherosclerotic plaques. Junctional Adhesion Molecule C (JAM-C) expressed by vascular endothelium directs monocyte transendothelial migration in a unidirectional manner leading to increased inflammation. Here we show that interfering with JAM-C allows reverse-transendothelial migration of monocyte-derived cells, opening the way back out of the inflamed environment. To study the role of JAM-C in plaque regression we used a mouse model of atherosclerosis, and tested the impact of vascular JAM-C expression levels on monocyte reverse transendothelial migration using human cells. Studies in-vitro under inflammatory conditions revealed that overexpression or gene silencing of JAM-C in human endothelium exposed to flow resulted in higher rates of monocyte reverse-transendothelial migration, similar to antibody blockade. We then transplanted atherosclerotic, plaque-containing aortic arches from hyperlipidemic ApoE-/- mice into wild-type normolipidemic recipient mice. JAM-C blockade in the recipients induced greater emigration of monocyte-derived cells and further diminished the size of atherosclerotic plaques. Our findings have shown that JAM-C forms a one-way vascular barrier for leukocyte transendothelial migration only when present at homeostatic copy numbers. We have also shown that blocking JAM-C can reduce the number of atherogenic monocytes/macrophages in plaques by emigration, providing a novel therapeutic strategy for chronic inflammatory pathologies.

  10. Association of haemolytic uraemic syndrome with dysregulation of chemokine receptor expression in circulating monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Maria Victoria; Ruggieri, Matias; Panek, Analia Cecilia; Mejias, Maria Pilar; Fernandez-Brando, Romina Jimena; Abrey-Recalde, Maria Jimena; Exeni, Andrea; Barilari, Catalina; Exeni, Ramon; Palermo, Marina Sandra

    2015-08-01

    Haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) is the major complication of Escherichia coli gastrointestinal infections that are Shiga toxin (Stx) producing. Monocytes contribute to HUS evolution by producing cytokines that sensitize endothelial cells to Stx action and migration to the injured kidney. As CC chemokine receptors (CCRs) are involved in monocyte recruitment to injured tissue, we analysed the contribution of these receptors to the pathogenesis of HUS. We analysed CCR1, CCR2 and CCR5 expression in peripheral monocytes from HUS patients during the acute period, with healthy children as controls. We observed an increased expression of CCRs per cell in monocytes from HUS patients, accompanied by an increase in the absolute number of monocytes CCR1+, CCR2+ and CCR5+. It is interesting that prospective analysis confirmed that CCR1 expression positively correlated with HUS severity. The evaluation of chemokine levels in plasma showed that regulated on activation of normal T-cell-expressed and -secreted (RANTES) protein was reduced in plasma from patients with severe HUS, and this decrease correlated with thrombocytopenia. Finally, the expression of the higher CCRs was accompanied by a loss of functionality which could be due to a mechanism for desensitization to compensate for altered receptor expression. The increase in CCR expression correlates with HUS severity, suggesting that the dysregulation of these receptors might contribute to an increased risk of renal damage. Activated monocytes could be recruited by chemokines and then receptors could be dysregulated. The dysregulation of CCRs and their ligands observed during the acute period suggests that a chemokine pathway would participate in HUS development.

  11. DMPD: LPS induction of gene expression in human monocytes. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 11257452 LPS induction of gene expression in human monocytes. Guha M, Mackman N. Ce...ll Signal. 2001 Feb;13(2):85-94. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show LPS induction of gene expression in human... monocytes. PubmedID 11257452 Title LPS induction of gene expression in human monocytes. Authors Guha M, Ma

  12. Chronic Low-Grade Inflammation in Childhood Obesity Is Associated with Decreased IL-10 Expression by Monocyte Subsets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattos, Rafael T.; Medeiros, Nayara I.; Menezes, Carlos A.; Fares, Rafaelle C. G.; Franco, Eliza P.; Dutra, Walderez O.; Rios-Santos, Fabrício; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Gomes, Juliana A. S.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic low-grade inflammation is related to the development of comorbidities and poor prognosis in obesity. Monocytes are main sources of cytokines and play a pivotal role in inflammation. We evaluated monocyte frequency, phenotype and cytokine profile of monocyte subsets, to determine their association with the pathogenesis of childhood obesity. Children with obesity were evaluated for biochemical and anthropometric parameters. Monocyte subsets were characterized by flow cytometry, considering cytokine production and activation/recognition molecules. Correlation analysis between clinical parameters and immunological data delineated the monocytes contribution for low-grade inflammation. We observed a higher frequency of non-classical monocytes in the childhood obesity group (CO) than normal-weight group (NW). All subsets displayed higher TLR4 expression in CO, but their recognition and antigen presentation functions seem to be diminished due to lower expression of CD40, CD80/86 and HLA-DR. All subsets showed a lower expression of IL-10 in CO and correlation analyses showed changes in IL-10 expression profile. The lower expression of IL-10 may be decisive for the maintenance of the low-grade inflammation status in CO, especially for alterations in non-classical monocytes profile. These cells may contribute to supporting inflammation and loss of regulation in the immune response of children with obesity. PMID:27977792

  13. Aberrant Low Expression of A20 in Tumor Necrosis Factor-α-stimulated SLE Monocytes Mediates Sustained NF-κB Inflammatory Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaowei; Qian, Tian; Li, Min; Chen, Fangru; Chen, Yan; Hao, Fei

    2015-01-01

    The aberrantly activated monocytes and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) pathway contribute to the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and the aberrantly activated NF-κB is associated with defects in the anti-inflammatory A20 in SLE. However, whether SLE monocytes express A20 and whether the A20 expression under sustained proinflammatory stimulation is altered to contribute to the uncontrolled NF-κB inflammatory response are unclear. In this study, we found that the freshly isolated monocytes from SLE patients and healthy controls did not differ in expression levels of IL-1β, IκBα and A20. After TNF-α stimulation for 48 h, the monocytes from both groups expressed higher levels of IL-1β and IκBα than the monocytes without TNF-α treatment. Although the increased levels of NF-κB were observed in the nucleus of both the SLE and control monocytes after 24 h of TNF-α stimulation, the enhancement in SLE monocytes was significantly more robust than in the control monocytes. In addition, while the p-IκBα level in healthy monocytes was increased, the p-IκBα level in SLE monocytes was slightly decreased after TNF-α stimulation. Interestingly, after TNF-α treatment, the A20 expression in SLE monocytes was not markedly altered compared with the untreated SLE monocytes; moreover, the SLE monocytes expressed significantly lower A20 than healthy monocytes with TNF-α treatment at each time point. Results in this study demonstrate that TNF-α activates a significant NF-κB inflammatory response in SLE monocytes, which is at least partially mediated by the aberrantly low expression of A20 upon TNF-α stimulation, contributing to the prolonged inflammatory response in SLE.

  14. The TLR Expression Pattern on Monocyte-Derived Macrophages for Lipopolysaccharid Stimulation of Calves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Yi-jie; ZHAO Guo-Qi; HUO Yong-jiu; Sachi Tana-ka; Hisashi Aso; Takahiro Yamaguchi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, toll-like receptor expression pattern in monocytes-derived macrophages by lipopolysaccharid (LPS) stimulation was examined. Jugular venous blood samples from 4 Japanese calves were obtained and the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated. The PBMC were cultured for 7 d so as to collect monocytes-derived macrophages in Repcell. The PBMC were stimulated by LPS for 24 h and the mRNA expression pattern of TLR and cytokines in monocytes-derived macrophages (Mod-Mφ) was analyzed. Results showed that LPS stimulation of Mod-Mφ could increase the mRNA levels of the genes of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8. In addition, the mRNA levels of the genes of TNF-α and IL-6 in the group of LPS stimulation were most significantly (P<0.01) higher than those in control group and the mRNA levels of TLR1, 3, 5, 8, and 10 were significantly (P<0.05) decreased after LPS stimulation. There was no difference in the mRNA expressions of TLR2, 4, 6, and 7 between the groups of the control and LPS stimulation. Besides, expression of TLR9 was not found. It suggested that monocytes-derived macrophages could respond to LPS and they might take an important role in the innate immunity. The important function of the cells might contribute to better disease treatment.

  15. P-Selectin Induces the Expression of Tissue Factor on Monocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celi, Alessandro; Pellegrini, Giuliana; Lorenzet, Roberto; de Blasi, Antonio; Ready, Neal; Ready, Neal; Furie, Barbara C.; Furie, Bruce

    1994-09-01

    P-selectin on activated platelets and stimulated endothelial cells mediates cell adhesion with monocytes and neutrophils. Since activated platelets induce tissue factor on mononuclear leukocytes, we examined the effect of P-selectin on the expression of tissue factor activity in monocytes. Purified P-selectin stimulated tissue factor expression on mononuclear leukocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing P-selectin stimulated tissue factor procoagulant activity in purified monocytes, whereas untransfected CHO cells and CHO cells expressing E-selectin did not. Anti-P-selectin antibodies inhibited the effects of purified P-selectin and CHO cells expressing P-selectin on monocytes. Incubation of CHO cells expressing P-selectin with monocytes leads to the development of tissue factor mRNA in monocytes and to the expression of tissue factor antigen on the monocyte surface. These results indicate that P-selectin upregulates the expression of tissue factor on monocytes as well as mediates the binding of platelets and endothelial cells with monocytes and neutrophils. The binding of P-selectin to monocytes in the area of vascular injury may be a component of a mechanism that initiates thrombosis.

  16. Higher levels of circulating monocyte-platelet aggregates are correlated with viremia and increased sCD163 levels in HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hua; Duan, Zhaojun; Li, Dan; Li, Dongliang; Wang, Zheng; Ren, Li; Shen, Tao; Shao, Yiming

    2015-07-01

    Increased levels of monocyte-platelet aggregates (MPAs) are reported to be highly correlated with cardiovascular events. In this study, the MPA levels in different monocyte subsets and the associations between MPA levels, HIV-1 viremia and monocyte activation were evaluated during HIV-1 infection. The results showed that the percentages of MPAs in all three monocyte subsets were higher in HIV-1-infected subjects than in healthy controls, and were associated with the plasma viral load in the non-classical and intermediate monocyte subsets. The plasma levels of sCD14 and sCD163 were upregulated in HIV-1 infection and were positively associated with viral loads and negatively associated with CD4 counts. P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) was shown to be expressed at significantly lower levels on all three monocyte subsets and was negatively correlated with the sCD163 level. The MPA level was correlated with the levels of plasma sCD163 but negatively correlated with CD163 and PSGL-1 on all three monocyte subsets. An elevated immune activation status was correlated with increased MPA formation, underlying the potential interaction between monocyte activation and MPA formation. This interaction may be related to a higher thromboembolic risk in patients infected with HIV-1.Cellular & Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 11 August 2014; doi:10.1038/cmi.2014.66.

  17. Tie2 Expressing Monocytes in the Spleen of Patients with Primary Myelofibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanelli, Rita; Fois, Gabriela; Catarsi, Paolo; Poletto, Valentina; Villani, Laura; Erba, Benedetta Gaia; Maddaluno, Luigi; Jemos, Basilio; Salmoiraghi, Silvia; Guglielmelli, Paola; Abbonante, Vittorio; Di Buduo, Christian Andrea; Balduini, Alessandra; Iurlo, Alessandra; Barosi, Giovanni; Rosti, Vittorio; Massa, Margherita

    2016-01-01

    Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) is a Philadelphia-negative (Ph−) myeloproliferative disorder, showing abnormal CD34+ progenitor cell trafficking, splenomegaly, marrow fibrosis leading to extensive extramedullary haematopoiesis, and abnormal neoangiogenesis in either the bone marrow or the spleen. Monocytes expressing the angiopoietin-2 receptor (Tie2) have been shown to support abnormal angiogenic processes in solid tumors through a paracrine action that takes place in proximity to the vessels. In this study we investigated the frequency of Tie2 expressing monocytes in the spleen tissue samples of patients with PMF, and healthy subjects (CTRLs), and evaluated their possible role in favouring spleen angiogenesis. We show by confocal microscopy that in the spleen tissue of patients with PMF, but not of CTRLs, the most of the CD14+ cells are Tie2+ and are close to vessels; by flow cytometry, we found that Tie2 expressing monocytes were Tie2+CD14lowCD16brightCDL62−CCR2− (TEMs) and their frequency was higher (p = 0.008) in spleen tissue-derived mononuclear cells (MNCs) of patients with PMF than in spleen tissue-derived MNCs from CTRLs undergoing splenectomy for abdominal trauma. By in vitro angiogenesis assay we evidenced that conditioned medium of immunomagnetically selected spleen tissue derived CD14+ cells of patients with PMF induced a denser tube like net than that of CTRLs; in addition, CD14+Tie2+ cells sorted from spleen tissue derived single cell suspension of patients with PMF show a higher expression of genes involved in angiogenesis than that found in CTRLs. Our results document the enrichment of Tie2+ monocytes expressing angiogenic genes in the spleen of patients with PMF, suggesting a role for these cells in starting/maintaining the pathological angiogenesis in this organ. PMID:27281335

  18. Modulation of the expression of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan in stimulated human monocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhlin-Hansen, L.; Eskeland, T.; Kolset, S.O. (Univ. of Tromso (Norway))

    1989-09-05

    Proteoglycan biosynthesis was studied in human monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) after exposure to typical activators of the monocyte/macrophage system: interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). By morphological examination, both monocytes and MDM were stimulated by these activators. Treatment with IFN-gamma resulted in a slight decrease in the expression of (35S)chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) in both monocytes and MDM, whereas LPS treatment increased the (35S)CSPG expression 1.8 and 2.2 times, respectively. PMA, in contrast, decreased the CSPG expression 0.4 times in monocytes, whereas MDM were stimulated to increase the biosynthesis 1.9 times. An increase in the sulfate density of the chondroitin sulfate chains was evident following differentiation of monocytes into MDM due to the expression of disulfated disaccharide units of the chondroitin sulfate E type (CS-E). However, monocytes exposed to PMA did also express disaccharides of the chondroitin sulfate E type. Furthermore, the expression of CS-E in MDM was increased 2 times following PMA treatment. An inactive phorbol ester, phorbol 12,13-diacetate, did not affect the expression of CS-E in either monocytes or MDM when compared with control cultures, suggesting that protein kinase C-dependent signal pathways may be involved in the regulation of sulfation of CSPG. Exposure to LPS or IFN-gamma did not lead to any changes in the sulfation of the chondroitin sulfate chains.

  19. Tissue factor expression on the surface of monocytes from a patient with hereditary angioedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Kazumasa; Morioke, Satoshi; Yanase, Yuhki; Uchida, Kazue; Hide, Michihiro

    2014-10-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) presents as severe angioedema, which is mostly due to the C1 inhibitor (C1-INH) gene mutations. Environmental factors, minor trauma and oral contraceptives have been reported to induce angioedema attack, but the trigger may often be uncertain. Activated factor XII controlled by C1-INH facilitates bradykinin generation and also regulates coagulation cascade, but the relationship between edema formation and coagulation is still unclear. We have described a 35-year-old female patient with HAE, presenting with frequent angioedema attacks in the absence of an apparent triggering factor. She showed higher levels of FDP and D-dimer during angioedema than those in remission. In addition, tissue factor (TF), an initiator of the extrinsic coagulation cascade, was expressed on the surface of monocytes. It was significantly higher than that of monocytes from healthy controls and tends to further increase during attacks. The expression of TF on monocytes may play a role in the induction of angioedema attacks in HAE by activating the coagulation pathway in association with reduced functions of C1-INH.

  20. A Higher Frequency of CD14+ CD169+ Monocytes/Macrophages in Patients with Colorectal Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenguang Li

    Full Text Available Monocytes and macrophages can infiltrate into tumor microenvironment and regulate the progression of tumors. This study aimed at determining the frequency of different subsets of circulating monocytes and tumor infiltrating macrophages (TIMs in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC.The frequency of different subsets of circulating monocytes was characterized in 46 CRC patients and 22 healthy controls (HC by flow cytometry. The frequency of different subsets of macrophages was analyzed in TIMs from 30 tumor tissues and in lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMCs from 12 non-tumor tissues. The concentrations of plasma cytokines and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA were determined. The potential association of these measures with the values of clinical parameters was analyzed.In comparison with that in the HC, the percentages of circulating CD14+ CD169+, CD14+ CD169+ CD163+ and CD14+ CD169+ CD206+ monocytes and TIMs CD14+ CD169+ as well as IL-10+ CD14+ CD169+, but not IL-12+ CD14+ CD169+ macrophages were significantly increased, accompanied by higher levels of plasma IL-10 in the CRC patients. The percentages of CD14+ CD169+ circulating monocytes and TIM macrophages were associated with the stage of disease and correlated positively with the levels of plasma IL-10 and CEA in CRC patients.Our data suggest that an increase in the frequency of CD14+ CD169+ cells may be associated with the development and progression of CRC and is concomitant rise of both, pro-tumor (M2-like, IL-10 producing and anti-tumor (M1-like, IL-12 producing monocytes and infiltrating macrophages. The frequency of CD14+ CD169+ circulating monocytes and infiltrating macrophages may serve as a biomarker for evaluating the pathogenic degrees of CRC.

  1. Mechanism linking atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes: increased expression of scavenger receptor CD36 in monocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong-mei; ZHANG Xiao-lian; ZHOU Xin; LI Dong; GU Jin-gang; WU Juan-juan

    2005-01-01

    Background We investigated the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in diabetes, and detected the expression of scavenger receptor CD36 in monocytes in patients with type 2 diabetes.Methods According to the criteria by WHO, diabetic patients were classified into two groups: well controlled diabetic patients (WCP) and poorly controlled diabetic patients (PCP). The expression of CD36 protein and mRNA were evaluated by flow cytometry and reversal transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Plasma levels of accumulution of oxidized LDL (oxLDL) were directly measured by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method.Results Flow cytometry and RT-PCR showed that the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of CD36 in monocyte and CD36 mRNA were significantly higher in the PCP and WCP in comparison with healthy controls (P0.05). The concentrations of plasma oxLDL were higher in the PCP group compared to WCP and control group (P0.05). In the WCP and PCP groups, oxLDL levels were higher in patients with diabetic atherosclerosis than those without diabetic atherosclerosis (P<0.05).Conclusions The increased expression of scavenger receptor CD36 may be one of the mechanism of accelerated atherosclerosis in diabetic. The poorly controlled diabetes patients are at higher risk for the vascular complications than the well controlled diabetic patients.

  2. Expression and regulation of Schlafen (SLFN family members in primary human monocytes, monocyte-derived dendritic cells and T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Puck

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schlafen (SLFN/Slfn family members have been investigated for their involvement in fundamental cellular processes including growth regulation, differentiation and control of viral replication. However, most research has been focused on the characterization of Slfns within the murine system or in human cell lines. Since little is known about SLFNs in primary human immune cells, we set out to analyze the expression and regulation of the six human SLFN genes in monocytes, monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs and T cells. Comparison of SLFN gene expression across these three cell types showed high mRNA expression of SLFN11 in monocytes and moDCs and high SLFN5 expression in T cells, indicating functional importance within these cell types. Differentiation of monocytes to moDCs leads to the gradual upregulation of SLFN12L and SLFN13 while SLFN12 levels were decreased by differentiation stimuli. Stimulation of moDCs via human rhinovirus, lipopolysaccharide, or IFN-α lead to strong upregulation of SLFN gene expression, while peptidoglycan poorly stimulated regulation of both SLFNs and the classical interferon-stimulated gene MxA. T cell activation was found to downregulate the expression of SLFN5, SLFN12 and SLFN12L, which was reversible upon addition of exogenous IFN-α. In conclusion, we demonstrate, that SLFN gene upregulation is mainly dependent on autocrine type I interferon signaling in primary human immune cells. Rapid decrease of SLFN expression levels following T cell receptor stimulation indicates a role of SLFNs in the regulation of human T cell quiescence.

  3. Distinct monocyte Gene-Expression profiles in autoimmune diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.C. Padmos (Roos); N.C. Schloot (Nanette); H. Beyan (Huriya); C. Ruwhof (Cindy); F.J.T. Staal (Frank); D. de Ridder (Dick); H-J. Aanstoot (Henk-Jan); W.K. Lam-Tse; H.J. de Wit (Harm); C. Herder (Christian); R.C. Drexhage (Roos); B. Menart (Barbara); R.D. Leslie

    2008-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE-There is evidence that monocytes of patients with type 1 diabetes show proinflammatory activation and disturbed migration/adhesion, but the evidence is inconsistent. Our hypothesis is that monocytes are distinctly activated/disturbed in different subforms of autoimmune diabetes

  4. Intermediate monocytes in ANCA vasculitis: increased surface expression of ANCA autoantigens and IL-1β secretion in response to anti-MPO antibodies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, Eóin C

    2015-01-01

    ANCA vasculitis encompasses several autoimmune conditions characterised by destruction of small vessels, inflammation of the respiratory tract and glomerulonephritis. Most patients harbour autoantibodies to myeloperoxidase (MPO) or proteinase 3 (PR3). Clinical and experimental data suggest that pathogenesis is driven by ANCA-mediated activation of neutrophils and monocytes. We investigated a potential role for distinct monocyte subsets. We found that the relative proportion of intermediate monocytes is increased in patients versus control individuals, and both MPO and PR3 are preferentially expressed on these cells. We demonstrate that MPO and PR3 are expressed independently of each other on monocytes and that PR3 is not associated with CD177. MPO expression correlates with that of Fc receptor CD16 on intermediate monocytes. Monocyte subsets respond differently to antibodies directed against MPO and PR3, with anti-MPO but not anti-PR3 leading to increased IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 production. In concordance with the observed higher surface expression of MPO on intermediate monocytes, this subset produces the highest quantity of IL-1β in response to anti-MPO stimulation. These data suggest that monocytes, specifically, the intermediate subset, may play a role in ANCA vasculitis, and also indicate that substantial differences exist between the effect of anti-MPO and anti-PR3 antibodies on these cells.

  5. Aged mice have increased inflammatory monocyte concentration and altered expression of cell-surface functional receptors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kelley Strohacker; Whitney L Breslin; Katie C Carpenter; Brian K McFarlin

    2012-03-01

    The expression of monocyte cell-surface receptors represents one index of immune dysfunction, which is common with aging. Although mouse models of aging are prevalent, monocyte subset assessment is rare. Our purpose was to compare cell receptor expression on classic (CD115+/Gr-1high) and non-classic (CD115+/Gr-1low) monocytes from 80- or 20-week-old CD-1 mice. Three-colour flow cytometry was used to determine the concentration of monocyte subsets and their respective cell-surface expression of TLR2, TLR4, CD80, CD86, MHC II and CD54. These receptors were selected because they have been previously associated with altered monocyte function. Data were analysed with independent -tests; significance was set at < 0.05. Old mice had a greater concentration of both classic (258%, =0.003) and non-classic (70%, =0.026) monocytes. The classic : non-classic monocyte ratio doubled in old as compared with that in young mice (=0.006), indicating a pro-inflammatory shift. TLR4 ($\\downarrow$27%, =0.001) and CD80 ($\\downarrow$37%, =0.004) were decreased on classic monocytes from old as compared with those from young mice. TLR2 ($\\uparrow$24%, =0.002) and MHCII ($\\downarrow$21%, =0.026) were altered on non-classic monocytes from old as compared with those from young mice. The increased classic : non-classic monocyte ratio combined with changes in the cell-surface receptor expression on both monocyte subsets is indicative of immune dysfunction, which may increase age-associated disease risk.

  6. Differential Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinases 2, 9 and Cytokines by Neutrophils and Monocytes in the Clinical Forms of Chagas Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Nayara I.; Fares, Rafaelle C. G.; Franco, Eliza P.; Sousa, Giovane R.; Mattos, Rafael T.; Chaves, Ana T.; Nunes, Maria do Carmo P.; Dutra, Walderez O.; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Rocha, Manoel O. C.; Gomes, Juliana A. S.

    2017-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy, the most severe manifestation in chronic phase of Chagas disease, affects about 30% of patients and is characterized by myocardial dysfunction and interstitial fibrosis due to extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. ECM remodeling is regulated by proteolytic enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cytokines produced by immune cells, including phagocytes. We evaluated by flow cytometry the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, IL-1β, TNF-α, TGF-β and IL-10 by neutrophils and monocytes from patients with indeterminate (IND) and cardiac (CARD) clinical forms of Chagas disease and non-infected individuals (NI), before and after in vitro stimulation with Trypanosoma cruzi antigens. Our results showed an important contribution of neutrophils for MMPs production, while monocytes seemed to be involved in cytokine production. The results showed that neutrophils and monocytes from IND and CARD patients had higher intracellular levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 than NI individuals. On the other hand, T. cruzi derived-antigens promote a differential expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in patients with Chagas disease and may regulate MMPs expression in neutrophils and monocytes, mainly when a cardiac alteration is not present. Our data also showed that in the presence of T. cruzi derived-antigens the production of cytokines by neutrophils and monocytes, but mainly by monocytes, may be intensified. Correlation analysis demonstrated that MMP-2 had a positive correlation with IL-10 and a negative correlation with IL-1β, whereas MMP-9 showed a negative correlation with IL-10. We also observed that IND patients presented a greater percentage of high producer cells of regulatory molecules when compared to CARD patients, indicating a different pattern in the immune response. Our data suggest that MMPs and cytokines produced by neutrophils and monocytes are important contributors for cardiac remodeling and may be an interesting target for new biomarker research. PMID

  7. High glucose-induced oxidative stress increases transient receptor potential channel expression in human monocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wuensch, Tilo; Thilo, Florian; Krueger, Katharina;

    2010-01-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channel-induced cation influx activates human monocytes, which play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In the present study, we investigated the effects of high glucose-induced oxidative stress on TRP channel expression in human monocytes....

  8. Expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in the pancreas of mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Dong; ZHU Su-wen; LIU Dong-juan; LIU Guo-liang; SHAN Zhong-yan

    2005-01-01

    Background Type 1 diabetes has been recognized as an organ specific autoimmune disease owing to the immune destruction of pancreatic islet β cells in genetically susceptible individuals.In both human and rodent models of type 1 diabetes, such as nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, biobreeding rats, the disease has a distinct stage characterized by immune cells infiltrating in the pancreas (insulitis).The major populations of infiltrating cells are macrophages and T lymphocytes.Therefore, immune cell infiltration of pancreatic islets may be a crucial step in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes.Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 can specifically attract monocytes in vivo.Interferon induced protein-10 has chemoattractant effects on the activated lymphocytes.In this study, we analysed the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in the pancreas of mice and interferon inducible protein-10 mRNA in the pancreas of NOD mice, and discussed their possible role in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes.Methods The immunohistochemical method and immunoelectronmicroscopy were used to evaluate the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in the pancreas of NOD mice and BALB/c mice.RT-PCR was used to evaluate the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interferon inducible protein mRNA in NOD mice.Results Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 was positive in the pancreas of NOD mice, whereas negative in the pancreas of BALB/C mice.RT-PCR showed that monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interferon inducible protein-10 mRNA could be found in the pancreas of NOD mice.Immunoelectronmicroscopy demonstrated that monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 was produced by β cells and stored in the cytoplasm of the cells.Conclusions Pancreatic islet β cells produce monocyte chemoattractantprotein-1 in NOD mice.Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 may play an important part in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes by attracting monocytes/macrophages to infiltrate pancreatic

  9. Extracellular HIV Tat and Tat cysteine rich peptide increase CCR5 expression in monocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Lin; YANG Yi-da; LU Guo-cai; SALVATO Maria S

    2005-01-01

    In our previous work we reported that HIV Tat and 6 cysteine rich peptides of Tat induce tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-induced ligand (TRAIL) in human monocytes (Yang et al., 2003). Here our results showed that HIV Tat and Tat cysteine rich peptide increase CCR5 expression in human monocytes, and this activity is inhibited by rabbit anti-Tat. Boiled Tat does not increase CCR5 expression in monocytes. These results provide insight into a new mechanism by which HIV Tat plays a key role in the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection.

  10. Different effect induced by treatment with several statins on monocyte tissue factor expression in hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, F; Puccetti, L; Pasqui, A L; Pastorelli, M; Bova, G; Cercignani, M; Palazzuoli, A; Leo, A; Auteri, A

    2003-05-01

    Platelets and monocytes are involved in atherothrombosis via tissue factor expression. Moreover, they are activated in hypercholesterolemia, a classic risk factor for atherothrombosis. Cholesterol-lowering drugs (statins) reduce cardiovascular risk either by decreasing cholesterol or non-lipidic actions, such as platelet and monocyte activity. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of several statins on platelet and monocyte activity in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Platelet activity (P-selectin, cytofluorimetric detection), tissue factor levels (ELISA) and activity (detected in whole blood and cellular preparations by a specific clotting assay) were measured in hypercholesterolemic subjects (41 males, 23 females, aged 34-65 years, total cholesterol 6.86+/-0.60 mmol/l) treated with atorvastatin 10 mg, simvastatin 20 mg, fluvastatin 40 mg, or pravastatin 40 mg for 6 weeks. P-selectin and tissue factor expression in whole blood and isolated cells were increased in hypercholesterolemic subjects with respect to controls (all Psel and cholesterol (Pimpact of several statins on monocyte tissue factor expression in whole blood, suggesting a possible role of decreased platelet activity and a direct action on monocytes. In contrast, pravastatin decreased monocyte procoagulant activity with relation to cholesteroldependent modifications of platelet function.

  11. Increased percentages of T helper cells producing IL-17 and monocytes expressing markers of alternative activation in patients with sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Karina Colo Brunialti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A shift from Th1 to Th2 as well as an increase in Treg CD4+T cell subsets has been reported in septic patients (SP. Furthermore, these patients display modulation of monocyte function, with reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines upon LPS stimulus, which resembles the phenotype of alternatively activated macrophages. In this study, we evaluated the percentages of T cells differentiated into Th1, Th17 and Treg subsets, as well as the percentage of monocytes expressing markers of alternatively activated monocytes/macrophages (AAM in SP. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were obtained from 32 healthy volunteers (HV and from SP at admission (D0, n = 67 and after 7 days of therapy (D7, n = 33. Th1 and Th17 (CD3+CD8- lymphocytes were identified by the intracellular detection of IFN-γ and IL-17, respectively, spontaneously and after PMA/Io stimulation, and Treg cells were identified by Foxp3+CD127- expression. Monocytes were evaluated for CD206 and CD163 expression. Absolute numbers of CD4+T lymphocytes were measured in whole blood samples by flow cytometry. The Mann-Whitney or Wilcoxon test was applied, as appropriate. The percentage of Th1 cells was lower in SP than in HV at admission after PMA/Io stimulation, whereas the percentage of Th17 cells was higher. In patients' follow-up samples, a higher percentage of Th1 cells and a lower percentage of Th17 cells were observed on D7 compared with the D0 samples. Treg cells remained unchanged. Septic patients showed a markedly increased proportion of monocytes expressing CD163 and CD206. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Upon in vitro stimulus, the percentage of T helper lymphocytes producing IL-17 was higher in SP than in HV at admission, and the percentage producing IFN-γ was lower, a pattern that was reversed during follow-up. The increased expression of CD163 and CD206 indicates that monocytes may acquire the AAM phenotype during sepsis.

  12. Monocyte-expressed urokinase regulates human vascular smooth muscle cell migration in a coculture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusch, Angelika; Tkachuk, Sergey; Lutter, Steffen; Haller, Hermann; Dietz, Rainer; Lipp, Martin; Dumler, Inna

    2002-01-01

    Interactions of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) with monocytes recruited to the arterial wall at a site of injury, with resultant modulation of VSMC growth and migration, are central to the development of vascular intimal thickening. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) expressed by monocytes is a potent chemotactic factor for VSMC and might serve for the acceleration of vascular remodeling. In this report, we demonstrate that coculture of human VSMC with freshly isolated peripheral blood-derived human monocytes results in significant VSMC migration that increases during the coculture period. Accordingly, VSMC adhesion was inhibited with similar kinetics. VSMC proliferation, however, was not affected and remained at the same basal level during the whole period of coculture. The increase of VSMC migration in coculture was equivalent to the uPA-induced migration of monocultured VSMC and was blocked by addition into coculture of soluble uPAR (suPAR). Analysis of uPA and uPAR expression in cocultured cells demonstrated that monocytes are a major source of uPA, whose expression increases in coculture five-fold, whereas VSMC display an increased expression of cell surface-associated uPAR. These findings indicate that upregulated uPA production by monocytes following vascular injury acts most likely as an endogenous activator of VSMC migration contributing to the remodeling of vessel walls.

  13. Expression of the cytochrome P450 epoxygenase CYP2J2 in human monocytic leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Kaeko; Nitto, Takeaki; Inoue, Teruo; Node, Koichi

    2008-08-29

    CYP2J2 is one of the cytochrome P450 epoxygenases involved in the metabolism of arachidonic acid. CYP2J2 has been identified in several tissues, especially cardiovascular tissues. CYP2J2 has cardiovascular effects, as epoxyeicosatrienoic acid, one of its metabolites, has anti-inflammatory and vasodilative activities. We investigated the expression of CYP2J2 in human leukocytes using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting and immunostaining. Human monocytic cells, but not human neutrophils, exhibited constitutive expression of CYP2J2. Furthermore, the expression of CYP2J2 mRNA increased when the human monocytic cell line THP-1 cells and human monocytes were stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and macrophage-colony stimulating factor in combination with granulocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor, respectively. These results suggest that expression of CYP2J2 was up-regulated when human monocytes differentiated into macrophages and that human monocytic cells and macrophages have a pathway to metabolize arachidonic acid using CYP epoxygenases.

  14. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 expression in coronary atherosclerosis plaque of sudden coronary death patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯相平

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) in coronary atherosclerosis plaque of sudden coronary death (SCD) patients and the relationship between MCP-1 expression and SCD. Methods Autopsy heart samples (n=90) collected during 2001 - 2003 were divided to SCD group (n=

  15. Children with postsurgical capillary leak syndrome can be distinguished by antigen expression on neutrophils and monocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnok, Attila; Pipek, Michal; Valet, Guenter; Richter, Jacqueline; Hambsch, Joerg; Schneider, Peter

    1999-04-01

    Our initial studies indicate that children who develop post- operative capillary leak syndrome (CLS) following cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) can be distinguished based on their pre-operative level of circulating cytokines an adhesion molecules. We tested flow cytometric analysis of surface antigen expression as a potential assay for risk assessment of CLS. 24th preoperative blood samples were stained with monoclonal antibodies for the adhesion molecules ICAM-1, LFA1, MAC1, (beta) -integrin, activation markers CD25, CD54, CD69, HLA- DR, CD14 or CD4. Cells were measured on a dual-laser flow cytometer calibrated with microbeads. Antigen expression was detected as mean fluorescence intensity. The data indicate, that neutrophils of CLS patients express preoperatively higher levels of LFA1 and monocytes higher levels of HLA-DR and activation markers thus are in a state of activation. This could in combination with surgical trauma and CPB lead to their additional stimulation and migration into sites of inflammation and induce postoperative CLS. It is planned to set up a Flow-Classification program for individual risk assessment. By discriminate analysis over 80 percent of the patients were correctly classified. Our preliminary study indicates that flow cytometry with its low samples requirements and rapid access of the results could be a powerful tool to perform risk assessment prior to pediatric open heart surgery.

  16. Interferon-beta induces distinct gene expression response patterns in human monocytes versus T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noa Henig

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Monocytes, which are key players in innate immunity, are outnumbered by neutrophils and lymphocytes among peripheral white blood cells. The cytokine interferon-β (IFN-β is widely used as an immunomodulatory drug for multiple sclerosis and its functional pathways in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs have been previously described. The aim of the present study was to identify novel, cell-specific IFN-β functions and pathways in tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α-activated monocytes that may have been missed in studies using PBMCs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Whole genome gene expression profiles of human monocytes and T cells were compared following in vitro priming to TNF-α and overnight exposure to IFN-β. Statistical analyses of the gene expression data revealed a cell-type-specific change of 699 transcripts, 667 monocyte-specific transcripts, 21 T cell-specific transcripts and 11 transcripts with either a difference in the response direction or a difference in the magnitude of response. RT-PCR revealed a set of differentially expressed genes (DEGs, exhibiting responses to IFN-β that are modulated by TNF-α in monocytes, such as RIPK2 and CD83, but not in T cells or PBMCs. Known IFN-β promoter response elements, such as ISRE, were enriched in T cell DEGs but not in monocyte DEGs. The overall directionality of the gene expression regulation by IFN-β was different in T cells and monocytes, with up-regulation more prevalent in T cells, and a similar extent of up and down-regulation recorded in monocytes. CONCLUSIONS: By focusing on the response of distinct cell types and by evaluating the combined effects of two cytokines with pro and anti-inflammatory activities, we were able to present two new findings First, new IFN-β response pathways and genes, some of which were monocytes specific; second, a cell-specific modulation of the IFN-β response transcriptome by TNF-α.

  17. Urotensin II is a new chemotactic factor for UT receptor-expressing monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segain, Jean-Pierre; Rolli-Derkinderen, Malvyne; Gervois, Nadine; Raingeard de la Blétière, Diane; Loirand, Gervaise; Pacaud, Pierre

    2007-07-15

    Urotensin II (U-II), a vasoactive cyclic neuropeptide which activates the G protein-coupled receptor UT receptor, exerts various cardiovascular effects and may play a role in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. In this study, we report that the UT receptor is expressed and functional on human PBMC and rat splenocytes. PBMC surface expression of the UT receptor was mainly found in monocytes and NK cells, also in a minority of B cells, but not in T cells. Stimulation of monocytes with LPS increased UT receptor mRNA and protein expression. Cloning and functional characterization of the human UT receptor gene promoter revealed the presence of NF-kappaB-binding sites involved in the stimulation of UT receptor gene expression by LPS. Activation of the UT receptor by U-II induced chemotaxis with maximal activity at 10 and 100 nM. This U-II effect was restricted to monocytes. Analysis of the signaling pathway involved indicated that U-II-mediated chemotaxis was related to RhoA and Rho kinase activation and actin cytoskeleton reorganization. The present results thus identify U-II as a chemoattractant for UT receptor-expressing monocytes and indicate a pivotal role of the RhoA-Rho kinase signaling cascade in the chemotaxis induced by U-II.

  18. An inflammatory gene-expression fingerprint in monocytes of autoimmune thyroid disease patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Heul-Nieuwenhuijsen (Leonie); R.C. Padmos (Roos); R.C. Drexhage (Roos); H.J. de Wit (Harm); A. Berghout (Arie)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractContext: In monocytes of patients with autoimmune diabetes, we recently identified a gene expression fingerprint of two partly overlapping gene clusters, a PDE4B-associated cluster (consisting of 12 core proinflammatory cytokine/compound genes), a FABP5-associated cluster (three core gen

  19. Increased Expression of Visfatin in Monocytes and Macrophages in Male Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-An Chiu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated that visfatin expressed in monocytes and neutrophils and increased their reactivity in male acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients. Furthermore, visfatin was strongly appeared in lipid rich coronary rupture plaques and macrophages. These results suggest another explanation about leukocytes mediated visfatin that may play a pathogenesis role in coronary vulnerable plaques rupture.

  20. IL21R expressing CD14(+)CD16(+) monocytes expand in multiple myeloma patients leading to increased osteoclasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzoni, Marina; Ronchetti, Domenica; Storti, Paola; Donofrio, Gaetano; Marchica, Valentina; Costa, Federica; Agnelli, Luca; Toscani, Denise; Vescovini, Rosanna; Todoerti, Katia; Bonomini, Sabrina; Sammarelli, Gabriella; Vecchi, Andrea; Guasco, Daniela; Accardi, Fabrizio; Palma, Benedetta Dalla; Gamberi, Barbara; Ferrari, Carlo; Neri, Antonino; Aversa, Franco; Giuliani, Nicola

    2017-04-01

    Bone marrow monocytes are primarily committed to osteoclast formation. It is, however, unknown whether potential primary alterations are specifically present in bone marrow monocytes from patients with multiple myeloma, smoldering myeloma or monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. We analyzed the immunophenotypic and transcriptional profiles of bone marrow CD14(+) monocytes in a cohort of patients with different types of monoclonal gammopathies to identify alterations involved in myeloma-enhanced osteoclastogenesis. The number of bone marrow CD14(+)CD16(+) cells was higher in patients with active myeloma than in those with smoldering myeloma or monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. Interestingly, sorted bone marrow CD14(+)CD16(+) cells from myeloma patients were more pro-osteoclastogenic than CD14(+)CD16-cells in cultures ex vivo Moreover, transcriptional analysis demonstrated that bone marrow CD14(+) cells from patients with multiple myeloma (but neither monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance nor smoldering myeloma) significantly upregulated genes involved in osteoclast formation, including IL21RIL21R mRNA over-expression by bone marrow CD14(+) cells was independent of the presence of interleukin-21. Consistently, interleukin-21 production by T cells as well as levels of interleukin-21 in the bone marrow were not significantly different among monoclonal gammopathies. Thereafter, we showed that IL21R over-expression in CD14(+) cells increased osteoclast formation. Consistently, interleukin-21 receptor signaling inhibition by Janex 1 suppressed osteoclast differentiation from bone marrow CD14(+) cells of myeloma patients. Our results indicate that bone marrow monocytes from multiple myeloma patients show distinct features compared to those from patients with indolent monoclonal gammopathies, supporting the role of IL21R over-expression by bone marrow CD14(+) cells in enhanced osteoclast formation. Copyright© Ferrata Storti

  1. Relationship between clinical features and inflammation-related monocyte gene expression in bipolar disorder - towards a better understanding of psychoimmunological interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haarman, Bartholomeus (Benno) C. M.; Riemersma-Van der Lek, Rixt F.; Burger, Huibert; Netkova, Mina; Drexhage, Roosmarijn C.; Bootsman, Florian; Mesman, Esther; Hillegers, Manon H. J.; Spijker, Anne T.; Hoencamp, Erik; Drexhage, Hemmo A.; Nolen, Willem A.

    Objectives Existing and previously published datasets were examined for associations between illness and treatment characteristics and monocyte pro-inflammatory gene expression in patients with bipolar disorder (BD). We hypothesized a priori that increased monocyte pro-inflammatory gene expression

  2. Predominant expression of murine Bmx tyrosine kinase in the granulo-monocytic lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, D; Power, M A; Smith, S I; Li, C L

    1997-12-01

    In the course of systematic cloning of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) expressed in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, we have identified the murine homologue of human Bmx. It encodes a protein containing the five domains characteristic of the Tec family of cytoplasmic src-related PTKs: pleckstrin homology (PH), Tec homology (TH), src homology 3 and 2 (SH3 and SH2), and tyrosine kinase (TK). In adults, Bmx expression was found primarily in bone marrow and at a lower level in lung and heart. During fetal development it was also found in the spleen at late stage of gestation and in neonates. Analysis of bone marrow subpopulations showed that Bmx was expressed in the progenitor cell population and maturing hematopoietic cells of the granulo/monocytic lineage where expression increased with maturation and differentiation. At the periphery, a high level of Bmx expression was also found in neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages. Bmx expression was not detected in the primitive hematopoietic stem cell population, and cells of the B-, T-, and erythroid-lineages. It was also not detected in most of the cell lines examined. Our results indicate that Bmx is another member of the Btk/Itk/Tec PTK family, which is predominantly expressed in the granulo-monocytic lineage within the hematopoietic system.

  3. Differential Constitutive and Cytokine-Modulated Expression of Human Toll-like Receptors in Primary Neutrophils, Monocytes, and Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Shane O'Mahony, Uyenvy Pham, Ramesh Iyer, Thomas R. Hawn, W. Conrad Liles

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Human Toll-like receptors (TLRs comprise a family of proteins that recognizes pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs and initiates host innate immune responses. Neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages are critical cellular components of the human innate immune system. Proinflammatory cytokines, such as granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF, and interferon-γ (IFN-γ, have been shown to up-regulate microbicidal activity in these effector cells of innate immunity. Currently, the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for these effects are not completely understood. We hypothesized that these cytokines may up-regulate TLR expression as a mechanism to facilitate microbial recognition and augment the innate immune response. Using quantitative realtime rt-PCR technology, we examined constitutive expression of TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, and TLR9 mRNA and the effects of G-CSF, GM-CSF, M-CSF, and IFN-γ on TLR mRNA expression in purified populations of normal human neutrophils, monocytes, and monocyte-derived macrophages. Relative constitutive expression of TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9 was similar in neutrophils and monocytes. Constitutive expression of TLR5 was less in neutrophils compared to monocytes. Constitutive expression of TLR4 was greater and that of TLR9 lower in monocyte-derived macrophages compared to monocytes. Of the cytokines examined, IFN-γ and GM-CSF caused the greatest effects on TLR expression. IFN- γ up-regulated TLR2 and TLR4 in neutrophils and monocytes. GM-CSF up-regulated expression of TLR2 and TLR4 in neutrophils and TLR2 in monocytes. TLR5 was down-regulated by inflammatory cytokines in monocytes. These results suggest a potential role for IFN- γ and/or GM-CSF as therapeutic immunomodulators of the host defense to infection.

  4. Differential expression of function-related antigens on blood monocytes in children with hemolytic uremic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Gabriela C; Ramos, María V; Gómez, Sonia A; Dran, Graciela I; Exeni, Ramón; Alduncín, Marta; Grimoldi, Irene; Vallejo, Graciela; Elías-Costa, Christian; Isturiz, Martín A; Palermo, Marina S

    2005-10-01

    Monocytes (Mo) mediate central functions in inflammation and immunity. Different subpopulations of Mo with distinct phenotype and functional properties have been described. Here, we investigate the phenotype and function of peripheral Mo from children with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). For this purpose, blood samples from patients in the acute period of HUS (HUS AP) were obtained on admission before dialysis and/or transfusion. The Mo phenotypic characterization was performed on whole blood by flow cytometry, and markers associated to biological functions were selected: CD14 accounting for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) responsiveness, CD11b for adhesion, Fc receptor for immunoglobulin G type I (FcgammaRI)/CD64 for phagocytosis and cytotoxicity, and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR for antigen presentation. Some of these functions were also determined. Moreover, the percentage of CD14+ CD16+ Mo was evaluated. We found that the entire HUS AP Mo population exhibited reduced CD14, CD64, and CD11b expression and decreased LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor production and Fcgamma-dependent cytotoxicity. HUS AP showed an increased percentage of CD14+ CD16+ Mo with higher CD16 and lower CD14 levels compared with the same subset from healthy children. Moreover, the CD14++ CD16- Mo subpopulation of HUS AP had a decreased HLA-DR expression, which correlated with severity. In conclusion, the Mo population from HUS AP patients presents phenotypic and functional alterations. The contribution to the pathogenesis and the possible scenarios that led to these changes are discussed.

  5. Influence of sex and genetic variability on expression of X-linked genes in human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagné, Raphaële; Zeller, Tanja; Rotival, Maxime; Szymczak, Silke; Truong, Vinh; Schillert, Arne; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; Münzel, Thomas; Ziegler, Andreas; Cambien, François; Blankenberg, Stefan; Tiret, Laurence

    2011-11-01

    In humans, the fraction of X-linked genes with higher expression in females has been estimated to be 5% from microarray studies, a proportion lower than the 25% of genes thought to escape X inactivation. We analyzed 715 X-linked transcripts in circulating monocytes from 1,467 subjects and found an excess of female-biased transcripts on the X compared to autosomes (9.4% vs 5.5%, pgenes not previously known to escape inactivation, the most significant one was EFHC2 whose 20% of variability was explained by sex. We also investigated cis expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) by analyzing 15,703 X-linked SNPs. The frequency and magnitude of X-linked cis eQTLs were quite similar in males and females. Few genes exhibited a stronger genetic effect in females than in males (ARSD, DCX, POLA1 and ITM2A). These genes would deserve further investigation since they may contribute to sex pathophysiological differences.

  6. Independent expression of the two paralogous CCL4 genes in monocytes and B lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Honczarenko, Marek; Sloan, Steven R

    2004-01-01

    The CCL4 chemokine is secreted by a variety of cells following stimulation. CCL4 affects several different types of cells that are important for acute inflammatory responses and are critical for the development of specific immune responses to foreign antigens. The human genome contains two genes for the CCL4 chemokine. Although highly homologous, the two genes encode slightly different proteins. We analyzed the mRNA expressed in monocytes and B lymphocytes and found that while monocytes express predominantly one CCL4 gene, known as ACT-2, peripheral blood B lymphocytes express a mixture of ACT-2 and the second CCL4 gene, lymphocyte activating gene-1 ( LAG-1). Although peripheral blood B cells, CD27(-) B cells, and CD27(+) B cells all express a mixture of LAG-1 and ACT-2, the B-cell lines that were studied regulate the two genes independently. RL, SU-DHL-6, and REH cells predominantly express LAG-1. These studies demonstrate that monocytes and B cells utilize different mechanisms to regulate expression of the two CCL4 genes and suggest that the two genes may not have identical activities.

  7. SARS-CoV regulates immune function-related gene expression in human monocytic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wanchung; Yen, Yu-Ting; Singh, Sher; Kao, Chuan-Liang; Wu-Hsieh, Betty A

    2012-08-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is characterized by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and pulmonary fibrosis, and monocytes/macrophages are the key players in the pathogenesis of SARS. In this study, we compared the transcriptional profiles of SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-infected monocytic cells against that infected by coronavirus 229E (CoV-229E). Total RNA was extracted from infected DC-SIGN-transfected monocytes (THP-1-DC-SIGN) at 6 and 24 h after infection, and the gene expression was profiled in oligonucleotide-based microarrays. Analysis of immune-related gene expression profiles showed that at 24 h after SARS-CoV infection: (1) IFN-α/β-inducible and cathepsin/proteasome genes were downregulated; (2) hypoxia/hyperoxia-related genes were upregulated; and (3) TLR/TLR-signaling, cytokine/cytokine receptor-related, chemokine/chemokine receptor-related, lysosome-related, MHC/chaperon-related, and fibrosis-related genes were differentially regulated. These results elucidate that SARS-CoV infection regulates immune-related genes in monocytes/macrophages, which may be important to the pathogenesis of SARS.

  8. Dysferlin expression in monocytes: a source of mRNA for mutation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luna, N; Freixas, A; Gallano, P; Caselles, L; Rojas-García, R; Paradas, C; Nogales, G; Dominguez-Perles, R; Gonzalez-Quereda, L; Vílchez, J J; Márquez, C; Bautista, J; Guerrero, A; Salazar, J A; Pou, A; Illa, I; Gallardo, E

    2007-01-01

    Dysferlin protein is expressed in peripheral blood monocytes. The genomic analysis of the DYSF gene has proved to be time consuming because it has 55 exons. We designed a mutational screening strategy based on cDNA from monocytes to find out whether the mutational analysis could be performed in mRNA from a source less invasive than the muscle biopsy. We studied 34 patients from 23 families diagnosed with dysferlinopathy. The diagnosis was based on clinical findings and on the absence of protein expression using either immunohistochemistry or Western blot of skeletal muscle and/or monocytes. We identified 28 different mutations, 13 of which were novel. The DYSF mutations in both alleles were found in 30 patients and only in one allele in four. The results were confirmed using genomic DNA in 26/34 patients. This is the first report to furnish evidence of reliable mutational analysis using monocytes cDNA and constitutes a good alternative to genomic DNA analysis.

  9. CD11c/CD18 expression is upregulated on blood monocytes during hypertriglyceridemia and enhances adhesion to VCAM-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, R. Michael; Wu, Huaizhu; Foster, Greg A.; Devaraj, Sridevi; Jialal, Ishwarlal; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Knowlton, Anne A.; Simon, Scott I.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Atherosclerosis is associated with monocyte adhesion to the arterial wall that involves integrin activation and emigration across inflamed endothelium. Involvement of β2-integrin CD11c/CD18 in atherogenesis was recently shown in dyslipidemic mice, which motivates our study of its inflammatory function during hypertriglyceridemia in humans. Methods and Results Flow cytometry of blood from healthy subjects fed a standardized high fat meal revealed that at 3.5 hours postprandial, monocyte CD11c surface expression was elevated and the extent of upregulation correlated with blood triglycerides. Monocytes from postprandial blood exhibited an increased light scatter profile, which correlated with elevated CD11c expression and uptake of lipid particles. Purified monocytes internalized triglyceride-rich lipoproteins isolated from postprandial blood through LRP-1, and this also elicited CD11c upregulation. Lab-on-a-chip analysis of whole blood showed that monocyte arrest on a VCAM-1 substrate under shear flow was elevated at 3.5 hours and correlated with blood triglyceride and CD11c expression. At 7 hours postprandial, blood triglycerides decreased and monocyte CD11c expression and arrest on VCAM-1 returned to fasting levels. Conclusions During hypertriglyceridemia, monocytes internalize lipid, upregulate CD11c, and increase adhesion to VCAM-1. These data suggest that analysis of monocyte inflammation may provide additional framework for evaluating individual susceptibility to cardiovascular disease. PMID:21030716

  10. Baseline Gene Expression Signatures in Monocytes from Multiple Sclerosis Patients Treated with Interferon-beta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Marta F.; Nurtdinov, Ramil N.; Río, Jordi; Montalban, Xavier; Comabella, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Background A relatively large proportion of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients do not respond to interferon-beta (IFNb) treatment. In previous studies with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), we identified a subgroup of IFNb non-responders that was characterized by a baseline over-expression of type I IFN inducible genes. Additional mechanistic experiments carried out in IFNb non-responders suggested a selective alteration of the type I IFN signaling pathway in the population of blood monocytes. Here, we aimed (i) to investigate whether the type I IFN signaling pathway is up-regulated in isolated monocytes from IFNb non-responders at baseline; and (ii) to search for additional biological pathways in this cell population that may be implicated in the response to IFNb treatment. Methods Twenty RRMS patients classified according to their clinical response to IFNb treatment and 10 healthy controls were included in the study. Monocytes were purified from PBMC obtained before treatment by cell sorting and the gene expression profiling was determined with oligonucleotide microarrays. Results and discussion Purified monocytes from IFNb non-responders were characterized by an over-expression of type I IFN responsive genes, which confirms the type I IFN signature in monocytes suggested from previous studies. Other relevant signaling pathways that were up-regulated in IFNb non-responders were related with the mitochondrial function and processes such as protein synthesis and antigen presentation, and together with the type I IFN signaling pathway, may also be playing roles in the response to IFNb. PMID:23637780

  11. Liver myofibroblasts up-regulate monocyte CD163 expression via PGE2 during hepatitis B induced liver failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Ye, Yinong; Wang, Fenglan; Zhu, Jianyun; Zhao, Qiyi; Zheng, Yubao; Gu, Yurong; Xie, Chan; Huang, Zhanlian; Tai, Qiang; Chong, Yutian; Gao, Zhiliang

    2014-03-06

    Although patients with liver failure exhibit a generalized inflammatory-imbalance status, substantial evidence indicates that this immunosuppressive or anti-inflammatory state may be deleterious. Increased expression of CD163 (known to be involved in several anti-inflammatory functions of the immune system) in patients with liver failure is significantly correlated with a fatal outcome. However, little is known of the regulatory mechanisms that influence the expression of CD163. We assessed the expression of CD163 on monocytes from both circulating cells and the liver tissues of patients with hepatitis B induced liver failure using flow cytometry and isolated the myofibroblasts from diseased livers. The ability of human liver myofibroblasts to regulate CD163 expression on monocytes was studied in vitro. We showed that CD163⁺ monocytes were enriched primarily in diseased livers and that they were associated with liver myofibroblasts in the same area. Accordingly, liver myofibroblasts were significantly superior to normal skin fibroblasts in inducing the expression of CD163 on monocytes in vitro. Moreover, we found that liver myofibroblasts triggered the activation of monocytes by secreting PGE2. Inhibition of PGE2 production in liver myofibroblasts using NS-398 markedly reduced CD163 expression in vitro. These results suggest that liver myofibroblasts play a direct role in regulating the expression of CD163 on monocytes in human liver tissues and thereby may regulate monocyte function during hepatitis B induced liver failure.

  12. Adiponectin Enhances Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 Expression and Promotes Monocyte Adhesion in Human Synovial Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsien-Te; Tsou, Hsi-Kai; Chen, Jui-Chieh; Shih, James Meng-Kun; Chen, Yen-Jen; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    Adiponectin is a protein hormone secreted predominantly by differentiated adipocytes and is involved in energy homeostasis. Adiponectin expression is significantly high in the synovial fluid of patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is an important adhesion molecule that mediates monocyte adhesion and infiltration during OA pathogenesis. Adiponectin-induced expression of ICAM-1 in human OA synovial fibroblasts (OASFs) was examined by using qPCR, flow cytometry and western blotting. The intracellular signaling pathways were investigated by pretreated with inhibitors or transfection with siRNA. The monocyte THP-1 cell line was used for an adhesion assay with OASFs. Stimulation of OASFs with adiponectin induced ICAM-1 expression. Pretreatment with AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitors (AraA and compound C) or transfection with siRNA against AMPKα1 and two AMPK upstream activator- liver kinase B1 (LKB1) and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) diminished the adiponectin-induced ICAM-1 expression. Stimulation of OASFs with adiponectin increased phosphorylation of LKB1, CaMKII, AMPK, and c-Jun, resulting in c-Jun binding to AP-1 element of ICAM-1 promoter. In addition, adiponectin-induced activation of the LKB1/CaMKII, AMPK, and AP-1 pathway increased the adhesion of monocytes to the OASF monolayer. Our results suggest that adiponectin increases ICAM-1 expression in human OASFs via the LKB1/CaMKII, AMPK, c-Jun, and AP-1 signaling pathway. Adiponectin-induced ICAM-1 expression promoted the adhesion of monocytes to human OASFs. These findings may provide a better understanding of the pathogenesis of OA and can utilize this knowledge to design a new therapeutic strategy. PMID:24667577

  13. A Simple Flow Cytometric Method to Measure Glucose Uptake and Glucose Transporter Expression for Monocyte Subpopulations in Whole Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Clovis S; Anzinger, Joshua J; Butterfield, Tiffany R; McCune, Joseph M; Crowe, Suzanne M

    2016-08-12

    Monocytes are innate immune cells that can be activated by pathogens and inflammation associated with certain chronic inflammatory diseases. Activation of monocytes induces effector functions and a concomitant shift from oxidative to glycolytic metabolism that is accompanied by increased glucose transporter expression. This increased glycolytic metabolism is also observed for trained immunity of monocytes, a form of innate immunological memory. Although in vitro protocols examining glucose transporter expression and glucose uptake by monocytes have been described, none have been examined by multi-parametric flow cytometry in whole blood. We describe a multi-parametric flow cytometric protocol for the measurement of fluorescent glucose analog 2-NBDG uptake in whole blood by total monocytes and the classical (CD14(++)CD16(-)), intermediate (CD14(++)CD16(+)) and non-classical (CD14(+)CD16(++)) monocyte subpopulations. This method can be used to examine glucose transporter expression and glucose uptake for total monocytes and monocyte subpopulations during homeostasis and inflammatory disease, and can be easily modified to examine glucose uptake for other leukocytes and leukocyte subpopulations within blood.

  14. Diminished monocytic HLA-DR expression and ex vivo cytokine secretion capacity in patients with glioblastoma: effect of tumor extirpation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woiciechowsky, C; Asadullah, K; Nestler, D; Schöning, B; Glöckner, F; Döcke, W D; Volk, H D

    1998-04-15

    Severe immunodysregulation on lymphocyte level has been described in patients with glioblastoma and is likely involved into its unfavorable prognosis. Although the major importance of monocytic cells for immunoregulation is well established, only very limited data exist regarding the monocyte status in glioblastoma patients. Here we demonstrate a markedly diminished monocytic HLA-DR expression and ex vivo cytokine secretion capacity (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-10) as signs for monocyte deactivation in glioblastoma patients but not in patients with astrocytoma. As known in immunocompromised patients from other reasons, monocyte deactivation indicate global immunodepression associated with an enhanced risk of infectious complications. Interestingly, tumor resection resulted in partial recovery from the monocytic deactivation. This suggests that the glioblastoma itself contributed to this phenomenon. However, IL-10 and the active forms of transforming growth factor-beta2 and -beta1, which are produced by glioblastoma cells and known to inhibit monocyte function, were not detectable in plasma in our patients. Moreover, low levels of the adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol excluded hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis involvement. So, further investigations are necessary to clarify the mechanism. The demonstrated severe glioblastoma-associated monocytic deactivation may contribute to its unfavorable prognosis. Therefore, monocytes may represent target cells for new adjuvant immunotherapies in glioblastoma.

  15. Interleukin-18 Increases TLR4 and Mannose Receptor Expression and Modulates Cytokine Production in Human Monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Alarcão Dias-Melicio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-18 is a proinflammatory cytokine belonging to the interleukin-1 family of cytokines. This cytokine exerts many unique biological and immunological effects. To explore the role of IL-18 in inflammatory innate immune responses, we investigated its impact on expression of two toll-like receptors (TLR2 and TLR4 and mannose receptor (MR by human peripheral blood monocytes and its effect on TNF-α, IL-12, IL-15, and IL-10 production. Monocytes from healthy donors were stimulated or not with IL-18 for 18 h, and then the TLR2, TLR4, and MR expression and intracellular TNF-α, IL-12, and IL-10 production were assessed by flow cytometry and the levels of TNF-α, IL-12, IL-15, and IL-10 in culture supernatants were measured by ELISA. IL-18 treatment was able to increase TLR4 and MR expression by monocytes. The production of TNF-α and IL-10 was also increased by cytokine treatment. However, IL-18 was unable to induce neither IL-12 nor IL-15 production by these cells. Taken together, these results show an important role of IL-18 on the early phase of inflammatory response by promoting the expression of some pattern recognition receptors (PRRs that are important during the microbe recognition phase and by inducing some important cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-10.

  16. Deciphering the transcriptional circuitry of microRNA genes expressed during human monocytic differentiation

    KAUST Repository

    Schmeier, Sebastian

    2009-12-10

    Background: Macrophages are immune cells involved in various biological processes including host defence, homeostasis, differentiation, and organogenesis. Disruption of macrophage biology has been linked to increased pathogen infection, inflammation and malignant diseases. Differential gene expression observed in monocytic differentiation is primarily regulated by interacting transcription factors (TFs). Current research suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs) degrade and repress translation of mRNA, but also may target genes involved in differentiation. We focus on getting insights into the transcriptional circuitry regulating miRNA genes expressed during monocytic differentiation. Results: We computationally analysed the transcriptional circuitry of miRNA genes during monocytic differentiation using in vitro time-course expression data for TFs and miRNAs. A set of TF?miRNA associations was derived from predicted TF binding sites in promoter regions of miRNA genes. Time-lagged expression correlation analysis was utilised to evaluate the TF?miRNA associations. Our analysis identified 12 TFs that potentially play a central role in regulating miRNAs throughout the differentiation process. Six of these 12 TFs (ATF2, E2F3, HOXA4, NFE2L1, SP3, and YY1) have not previously been described to be important for monocytic differentiation. The remaining six TFs are CEBPB, CREB1, ELK1, NFE2L2, RUNX1, and USF2. For several miRNAs (miR-21, miR-155, miR-424, and miR-17-92), we show how their inferred transcriptional regulation impacts monocytic differentiation. Conclusions: The study demonstrates that miRNAs and their transcriptional regulatory control are integral molecular mechanisms during differentiation. Furthermore, it is the first study to decipher on a large-scale, how miRNAs are controlled by TFs during human monocytic differentiation. Subsequently, we have identified 12 candidate key controllers of miRNAs during this differentiation process. 2009 Schmeier et al; licensee Bio

  17. Ultrafine carbon particles down-regulate CYP1B1 expression in human monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziegler-Heitbrock Loems

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytochrome P450 monoxygenases play an important role in the defence against inhaled toxic compounds and in metabolizing a wide range of xenobiotics and environmental contaminants. In ambient aerosol the ultrafine particle fraction which penetrates deeply into the lungs is considered to be a major factor for adverse health effects. The cells mainly affected by inhaled particles are lung epithelial cells and cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Results In this study we have analyzed the effect of a mixture of fine TiO2 and ultrafine carbon black Printex 90 particles (P90 on the expression of cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1 in human monocytes, macrophages, bronchial epithelial cells and epithelial cell lines. CYP1B1 expression is strongly down-regulated by P90 in monocytes with a maximum after P90 treatment for 3 h while fine and ultrafine TiO2 had no effect. CYP1B1 was down-regulated up to 130-fold and in addition CYP1A1 mRNA was decreased 13-fold. In vitro generated monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM, epithelial cell lines, and primary bronchial epithelial cells also showed reduced CYP1B1 mRNA levels. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP is inducing CYB1B1 but ultrafine P90 can still down-regulate gene expression at 0.1 μM of BaP. The P90-induced reduction of CYP1B1 was also demonstrated at the protein level using Western blot analysis. Conclusion These data suggest that the P90-induced reduction of CYP gene expression may interfere with the activation and/or detoxification capabilities of inhaled toxic compounds.

  18. Mitogen-activated protein kinases mediate Mycobacterium tuberculosis–induced CD44 surface expression in monocytes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Natarajan Palaniappan; S Anbalagan; Sujatha Narayanan

    2012-03-01

    CD44, an adhesion molecule, has been reported to be a binding site for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) in macrophages and it also mediates mycobacterial phagocytosis, macrophage recruitment and protective immunity against pulmonary tuberculosis in vivo. However, the signalling pathways that are involved in M. tuberculosis–induced CD44 surface expression in monocytic cells are currently unknown. Exposure of THP-1 human monocytes to M. tuberculosis H37Rv and H37Ra induced distinct, time-dependent, phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-1, extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3/6, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and c-jun N-terminal kinases. The strains also differed in their usage of CD14 and human leukocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR) receptors in mediating mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. M. tuberculosis H37Rv strain induced lower CD44 surface expression and tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels, whereas H37Ra the reverse. Using highly specific inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-1, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and c-jun N-terminal kinase, we report that inhibition of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 and c-jun N-terminal kinases increases, but that inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase decreases M. tuberculosis–induced CD44 surface expression in THP-1 human monocytes.

  19. Clinical characteristics of inflammation-associated depression: Monocyte gene expression is age-related in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Laura; Carvalho, Livia A; Wijkhuijs, Annemarie J M; Bellingrath, Silja; Ruland, Tillmann; Ambrée, Oliver; Alferink, Judith; Ehring, Thomas; Drexhage, Hemmo A; Arolt, Volker

    2015-02-01

    Increased inflammatory activation might only be present in a subgroup of depressed individuals in which immune processes are especially relevant to disease development. We aimed to analyze demographic, depression, and trauma characteristics of major depressive disorder (MDD) patients with regard to inflammatory monocyte gene expression. Fifty-six naturalistically treated MDD patients (32 ± 12 years) and 57 healthy controls (HC; 31 ± 11 years) were analyzed by the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS) and by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). We determined the expression of 38 inflammatory and immune activation genes including the glucocorticoid receptor (GR)α and GRβ genes in purified CD14(+) monocytes using quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Monocyte gene expression was age-dependent, particularly in MDD patients. Increased monocyte gene expression and decreased GRα/β ratio were only present in MDD patients aged ⩾ 28 years. Post hoc analyses of monocyte immune activation in patients depression (recurrent type, onset depression, onset ⩾15 years) - additionally characterized by the absence of panic symptoms - that exhibited a strongly reduced inflammatory monocyte activation compared to HC. In conclusion, monocyte immune activation was not uniformly raised in MDD patients but was increased only in patients of 28 years and older.

  20. Mycobacterium tuberculosis ESAT6 and CPF10 Induce Adenosine Deaminase 2 mRNA Expression in Monocyte-Derived Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Mi Jung; Ryu, Suyeon; Kim, Ha-Jeong; Cha, Seung Ick

    2017-01-01

    Background Delayed hypersensitivity plays a large role in the pathogenesis of tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE). Macrophages infected with live Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) increase the levels of adenosine deaminase2 (ADA2) in the pleural fluid of TPE patients. However, it is as yet unclear whether ADA2 can be produced by macrophages when challenged with MTB antigens alone. This study therefore evaluated the levels of ADA2 mRNA expression, using monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) stimulated with MTB antigens. Methods Purified monocytes from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy volunteers were differentiated into macrophages using granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). The MDMs were stimulated with early secretory antigenic target protein 6 (ESAT6) and culture filtrate protein 10 (CFP10). The mRNA expression levels for the cat eye syndrome chromosome region, candidate 1 (CECR1) gene encoding ADA2 were then measured. Results CECR1 mRNA expression levels were significantly higher in MDMs stimulated with ESAT6 and CFP10, than in the unstimulated MDMs. When stimulated with ESAT6, M-CSF-treated MDMs showed more pronounced CECR1 mRNA expression than GM-CSF-treated MDMs. Interferon-γ decreased the ESAT6- and CFP10-induced CECR1 mRNA expression in MDMs. CECR1 mRNA expression levels were positively correlated with mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 10, respectively. Conclusion ADA2 mRNA expression increased when MDMs were stimulated with MTB antigens alone. This partly indicates that pleural fluid ADA levels could increase in patients with culture-negative TPE. Our results may be helpful in improving the understanding of TPE pathogenesis.

  1. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase alpha is expressed by monocytic cells and regulates the activation profile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher B Guest

    Full Text Available Macrophages are capable of assuming numerous phenotypes in order to adapt to endogenous and exogenous challenges but many of the factors that regulate this process are still unknown. We report that Ca(2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase alpha (CaMKKalpha is expressed in human monocytic cells and demonstrate that its inhibition blocks type-II monocytic cell activation and promotes classical activation. Affinity chromatography with paramagnetic beads isolated an approximately 50 kDa protein from nuclear lysates of U937 human monocytic cells activated with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA. This protein was identified as CaMKKalpha by mass spectrometry and Western analysis. The function of CaMKKalpha in monocyte activation was examined using the CaMKKalpha inhibitors (STO-609 and forskolin and siRNA knockdown. Inhibition of CaMKKalpha, enhanced PMA-dependent CD86 expression and reduced CD11b expression. In addition, inhibition was associated with decreased translocation of CaMKKalpha to the nucleus. Finally, to further examine monocyte activation profiles, TNFalpha and IL-10 secretion were studied. CaMKKalpha inhibition attenuated PMA-dependent IL-10 production and enhanced TNFalpha production indicating a shift from type-II to classical monocyte activation. Taken together, these findings indicate an important new role for CaMKKalpha in the differentiation of monocytic cells.

  2. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression by interaction between monocytes and vascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojo, Y; Ikeda, U; Takahashi, M; Sakata, Y; Takizawa, T; Okada, K; Saito, T; Shimada, K

    2000-08-01

    There is accumulating evidence of complicated interactions among vascular cells, i.e. endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and monocytes/macrophages, in the regulation of vascular function and remodeling. We have investigated the mechanisms responsible for matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 expression by interactions between monocytes and vascular endothelial cells. THP-1 cells (human monocytic cell line) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cocultured. MMP-1 levels in the culture medium were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Collagenolytic activity in the culture medium was measured by fluorescence labeled-collagen digestion. Immunohistochemistry using an anti-MMP antibody was carried out to determine which types of cell produce MMP-1. The addition of THP-1 cells to HUVECs for 48 h induced increases in MMP-1 levels and collagenolytic activity, which were 5- and 2-fold relative to those of HUVECs alone, respectively. A separate coculture experiment revealed that direct contact of THP-1 cells and HUVECs contributed to enhanced MMP-1 production in the cocolture. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that both types of cell produce MMP-1 in the coculture. Neutralizing anti-interleukin-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor- alpha antibodies inhibited MMP-1 production by the coculture. The Src kinase and MEK inhibitors significantly inhibited MMP-1 production by the coculture. Coculture of THP-1 cells and HUVECs induced significant increases in Src and mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase activities. Enhanced MMP-1 expression induced by monocyte-endothelial cell interactions may play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and plaque rupture.

  3. Interaction between human monocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells induces vascular endothelial growth factor expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojo, Y; Ikeda, U; Maeda, Y; Takahashi, M; Takizawa, T; Okada, M; Funayama, H; Shimada, K

    2000-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether synthesis of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a major mitogen for vascular endothelial cells, was induced by a cell-to-cell interaction between monocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Human VSMCs and THP-1 cells (human monocytoid cell) were cocultured. VEGF levels in the coculture medium were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Northern blot analysis of VEGF mRNA was performed using a specific cDNA probe. Immunohistochemistry was performed to determine which types of cell produce VEGF. Adding THP-1 cells to VSMCs for 24 h increased VEGF levels of the culture media, 8- and 10-fold relative to those of THP-1 cells and VSMCs alone, respectively. Northern blot analysis showed that VEGF mRNA expression was induced in the cocultured cells and peaked after 12 h. Immunohistochemistry disclosed that both types of cell in the coculture produced VEGF. Separate coculture experiments revealed that both direct contact and a soluble factor(s) contributed to VEGF production. Neutralizing anti-interleukin (IL)-6 antibody inhibited VEGF production by the coculture of THP-1 cells and VSMCs. A cell-to-cell interaction between monocytes and VSMCs induced VEGF synthesis in both types of cell. An IL-6 mediated mechanism is at least partially involved in VEGF production by the cocultures. Local VEGF production induced by a monocyte-VSMC interaction may play an important role in atherosclerosis and vascular remodeling.

  4. Dilazep and dipyridamole inhibit tissue factor expression on monocytes induced by IgG from patients with antiphospholipid syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong ZHON

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether antiplatelet agents, dilazep and dipyridamole, inhibit tissue factor (TF) expression on monocytes induced by IgG from patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). METHODS: Freshly isolated peripheral blood monocytes were allowed to adhere on plastic and then cultured in media containing patient or control antibodies and/or other agonists with or without dilazep or dipyridamole. The TF activity on monocytes was investigated by measuring factor VIIa-dependent generation of factor Xa, using a chromogenic substrate and the TF mRNA expression was examined by real-time PCR (TaqMan PCR). RESULTS: The TF activity on monocytes induced by APS IgG (250 mg/L) was inhibited by dilazep (0.15-150 μmol/L) and dipyridamole (0.2-200 μrmol/L) in a dose-dependent fashion. But, the TF mRNA expression induced by APS IgG was not inhibited. Theophylline (500 μmol/L), an adenosine receptor antagonist, could counteract the inhibitory effect of dilazep and dipyridamole on TF activity. CONCLUSION: Antiplatelet agents, dilazep and dipyridamole, block APS IgG-induced monocytes TF expression at a post-transcriptional level, partly by adenosine receptor pathway. Pharmacological agents that block monocytes TF activity, such as dilazep and dipyridamole, are a novel therapeutic approach in APS.

  5. Suppression of lipin-1 expression increases monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Nobuhiko, E-mail: ntkhs@hoku-iryo-u.ac.jp [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Division of Gastroenterology and Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, 2-1-1-1 Midorigaoka-Higashi, Asahikawa, Hokkaido 078-8510 (Japan); Yoshizaki, Takayuki [Innovation Center, Kagoshima University, 1-21-40 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Hiranaka, Natsumi; Suzuki, Takeshi [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Yui, Tomoo; Akanuma, Masayasu; Oka, Kazuya [Department of Fixed Prosthodontics and Oral Implantology, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Kanazawa, Kaoru [Department of Dental Anesthesiology, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Yoshida, Mika; Naito, Sumiyoshi [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Fujiya, Mikihiro; Kohgo, Yutaka [Division of Gastroenterology and Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, 2-1-1-1 Midorigaoka-Higashi, Asahikawa, Hokkaido 078-8510 (Japan); Ieko, Masahiro [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan)

    2011-11-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lipin-1 affects lipid metabolism, adipocyte differentiation, and transcription. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adipose lipin-1 expression is reduced in obesity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lipin-1 depletion using siRNA in 3T3-L1 adipocytes increased MCP-1 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lipin-1 is involved in adipose inflammation. -- Abstract: Lipin-1 plays a crucial role in the regulation of lipid metabolism and cell differentiation in adipocytes. Expression of adipose lipin-1 is reduced in obesity, and metabolic syndrome. However, the significance of this reduction remains unclear. This study investigated if and how reduced lipin-1 expression affected metabolism. We assessed mRNA expression levels of various genes related to adipocyte metabolism in lipin-1-depleted 3T3-L1 adipocytes by introducing its specific small interfering RNA. In lipin-1-depleted adipocytes, mRNA and protein expression levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were significantly increased, although the other genes tested were not altered. The conditioned media from the cells promoted monocyte chemotaxis. The increase in MCP-1 expression was prevented by treatment with quinazoline or salicylate, inhibitors of nuclear factor-{kappa}B activation. Because MCP-1 is related to adipose inflammation and systemic insulin resistance, these results suggest that a reduction in adipose lipin-1 in obesity may exacerbate adipose inflammation and metabolism.

  6. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles induce the expression of early and late receptors for adhesion molecules on monocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Rueda-Romero, Cristhiam; Hernández-Pérez, Guillermina; Ramos-Godínez, Pilar; Vázquez-López, Inés; Raúl Omar QUINTANA-BELMARES; Huerta-García, Elizabeth; Stepien, Ewa; López-Marure, Rebeca; Montiel-Dávalos, Angélica; Alfaro-Moreno, Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    Background There is growing evidence that exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) could be harmful. Previously, we have shown that TiO2 NPs induces endothelial cell dysfunction and damage in glial cells. Considering that inhaled particles can induce systemic effects and the evidence that nanoparticles may translocate out of the lungs, we evaluated whether different types of TiO2 NPs can induce the expression of receptors for adhesion molecules on monocytes (U937 cell line). We e...

  7. CD163 and CD206 expression does not correlate with tolerance and cytokine production in LPS-tolerant human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Januzzi, Amanda Barba; Brunialti, Milena Karina Colo; Salomao, Reinaldo

    2017-05-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-tolerant monocytes produce small amounts of inflammatory cytokines, which is one of the characteristics of the alternative activated macrophages (AAM). These cells exhibited an increased expression of CD206 and CD163. Given the functional similarities of AAMs with the modulation of monocytes' functions observed during sepsis and LPS-tolerance, we evaluated whether the inhibition of inflammatory cytokine production by LPS-tolerant monocytes is associated with the phenotype of cells expressing CD206 and CD163. We investigated whether tolerant human monocytes would modulate their expression of CD206 and CD163, markers of alternative activation, and whether the level of their expression would be related to cytokines detection. Tolerance to LPS was induced in peripheral blood mononuclear cell by pre-incubating the cells with increasing concentrations of LPS. The expression of CD206 and CD163 and intracellular TNF-α and IL-6 was determined 24 h after LPS challenge by flow cytometry. No differences in CD163 expression were observed between tolerant and non-tolerant cells, while the expression of CD206, which was decreased following LPS stimulation in non-tolerized cells, was further reduced in tolerant cells. Decreased production of inflammatory cytokines was observed in the tolerized cells, regardless of the expression of CD163 and CD206, with the exception of IL-6 in CD206+ monocytes, which was similarly expressed in both tolerized and non-tolerized cells. The effect of LPS in the expression of CD163 and CD206 on monocytes is not reverted in LPS tolerant cells, and the inhibition of inflammatory cytokines in tolerant cells is not related with modulation of these receptors. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  8. FUCOIDIN INHIBITS OXIDIZED LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN FROM INDUCING HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD MONOCYTE EXPRESSION OF PROINFLAMMATORY CYTOKINES mRNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷新军; 马爱群; 任冰稳; 耿涛; 张葳; 白玲

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the significance of scavenger receptor class A(SR-A)in mediating human peripheral blood monocyte to uptake oxidized low density lipoprotein(OxLDL) and promoting the atherosclerotic immuno-pathological lesion in the local blood vessel. Methods With the Digoxenin-labeled Oligonucleotide-probes In situ Hybridization, this research investigated the effects of OxLDL on the mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines including MCP-1, bFGF, PDGF and IL-10 in the human peripheral blood monocyte and whether fucoidin, a peculiarly inhibitory ligand for SR-A, would influence this process. Results Monocyte was significantly increased the mRNA expression of MCP-1, bFGF, PDGF and IL-10 in a dose-dependent manner after incubating with OxLDL (10,15,20,25,30·mg·L-1, respectively)for 24 hours(P<0.001). Fucoidin(50,100,150,200,250·mg·mL-1, respectively)completely inhibited OxLDL(20·mg·L-1)from inducing monocyte the mRNA expression of above proinflammatory cytokines(P<0.001). Conclusion OxLDL can stimulate human peripheral blood monocyte to give expression to proinflammatory cytokines mRNA in a dose-dependent manner, while a peculiarly inhibitory ligand for SR-A-fucoidin has an obviously opposed role.

  9. Nordihydroguaiaretic Acid Attenuates the Oxidative Stress-Induced Decrease of CD33 Expression in Human Monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Guzmán-Beltrán

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA is a natural lignan with recognized antioxidant and beneficial properties that is isolated from Larrea tridentata. In this study, we evaluated the effect of NDGA on the downregulation of oxidant stress-induced CD33 in human monocytes (MNs. Oxidative stress was induced by iodoacetate (IAA or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and was evaluated using reactive oxygen species (ROS production, and cell viability. NDGA attenuates toxicity, ROS production and the oxidative stress-induced decrease of CD33 expression secondary to IAA or H2O2 in human MNs. It was also shown that NDGA (20 μM attenuates cell death in the THP-1 cell line that is caused by treatment with either IAA or H2O2. These results suggest that NDGA has a protective effect on CD33 expression, which is associated with its antioxidant activity in human MNs.

  10. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid attenuates the oxidative stress-induced decrease of CD33 expression in human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Beltrán, Silvia; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Gonzalez-Reyes, Susana; Hernández-Sánchez, Fernando; Juarez-Figueroa, Ulises E; Gonzalez, Yolanda; Bobadilla, Karen; Torres, Martha

    2013-01-01

    Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) is a natural lignan with recognized antioxidant and beneficial properties that is isolated from Larrea tridentata. In this study, we evaluated the effect of NDGA on the downregulation of oxidant stress-induced CD33 in human monocytes (MNs). Oxidative stress was induced by iodoacetate (IAA) or hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and was evaluated using reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and cell viability. NDGA attenuates toxicity, ROS production and the oxidative stress-induced decrease of CD33 expression secondary to IAA or H(2)O(2) in human MNs. It was also shown that NDGA (20  μ M) attenuates cell death in the THP-1 cell line that is caused by treatment with either IAA or H(2)O(2). These results suggest that NDGA has a protective effect on CD33 expression, which is associated with its antioxidant activity in human MNs.

  11. Reprogramming of human peripheral blood monocytes to erythroid lineage by blocking of the PU-1 gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Masoumeh; Deezagi, Abdolkhalegh; Ebrahimi, Marzieh

    2016-03-01

    In hematopoietic system development, PU.1 and GATA-1 as lineage-specific transcription factors (TF) are expressed in common myeloid progenitors. The cross antagonism between them ascertains gene expression programs of monocytic and erythroid cells, respectively. This concept in transdifferentiation approaches has not been well considered yet, especially in intralineage conversion systems. To demonstrate whether PU.1 suppression induces monocyte lineage conversion into red blood cells, a combination of three PU.1-specific siRNAs was implemented to knock down PU.1 gene expression and generate the balance in favor of GATA-1 expression to induce erythroid differentiation. For this purpose, monocytes were isolated from human peripheral blood and transfected by PU.1 siRNAs. In transfected monocytes, the rate of PU.1 expression in mRNA level was significantly decreased until 0.38 ± 0.118 when compared to untreated monocytes at 72 h (p value ≤0.05) which resulted in significant overexpression of GATA1 of 16.1 ± 0.343-fold compared to the untreated group (p value ≤0.01). Subsequently, overexpression of hemoglobin (α 13.26 ± 1.34-fold; p value≤0.0001) and β-globin (37.55 ± 16.56-fold; p value≤0.0001) was observed when compared to control groups. The results of western immunoblotting confirm those findings too. While, reduced expression of monocyte, CD14 gene, was observed in qRT-PCR and flow cytometry results. Our results suggest that manipulating the ratio of the two TFs in bifurcation differentiation pathways via applying siRNA technology can possibly change the cells' fate as a safe way for therapeutics application.

  12. Prostaglandin E2 Does Not Modulate CCR7 Expression and Functionality after Differentiation of Blood Monocytes into Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc-André Allaire

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we demonstrated that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 induces C-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CCR7 expression on human monocytes, which stimulates their subsequent migration in response to the CCR7 natural ligands CCL19 and CCL21. In this study, we determined whether PGE2 affects CCR7 expression on macrophages. Flow cytometric analysis and chemotaxis assays were performed on Mono Mac-1-derived macrophage (MDMM-1 as well as unpolarized monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs to determine the CCR7 expression and functionality in the presence of PGE2. Data revealed that a MDMM-1 exhibited markedly downregulated CCR7 expression and functionality that were partially restored by treatment with PGE2. In MDMs, we observed a drastic downregulation of CCR7 expression and functionality that were unaffected following PGE2 treatment. Our data indicate that monocyte differentiation induces the loss of CCR7 expression and that PGE2 is unable to modulate CCR7 expression and functionality as shown previously in monocytes.

  13. Toll-like receptor 2 ligands regulate monocyte Fcγ receptor expression and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Prexy; Fatehchand, Kavin; Patel, Hemal; Fang, Huiqing; Justiniano, Steven E; Mo, Xiaokui; Jarjoura, David; Tridandapani, Susheela; Butchar, Jonathan P

    2013-04-26

    Fcγ receptor (FcγR) clustering on monocytes/macrophages results in phagocytosis and inflammatory cytokine production, which serve to eliminate antibody-opsonized targets and activate neighboring immune cells. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), which recognizes a range of both bacterial and fungal components, elicits strong proinflammatory responses in these cells when stimulated by ligands, either natural or synthetic. Thus, we explored the possibility that TLR2 agonists could strengthen FcγR activity within the context of antibody therapy. Human peripheral blood monocytes treated with the TLR2 agonist Pam2CSK4 showed significantly enhanced FcγR-mediated cytokine production as well as phagocytic ability. An examination of the molecular mechanism behind this enhancement revealed increased expression of both FcγRIIa and the common γ subunit following Pam2CSK4 treatment. Interestingly however, expression of the inhibitory receptor FcγRIIb was also modestly increased. Further investigation revealed that Pam2CSK4 also dramatically decreased the expression of SHIP, the major mediator of FcγRIIb inhibitory activity. Using a murine Her2/neu solid tumor model of antibody therapy, we found that Pam2CSK4 significantly enhanced the ability of anti-Her2 antibody to reduce the rate of tumor growth. To verify that the FcγR enhancement was not unique to the diacylated Pam2CSK4, we also tested Pam3CSK4, a related triacylated TLR2 agonist. Results showed significant enhancement in FcγR function and expression. Taken together, these findings indicate that TLR2 activation can positively modulate FcγR and suggest that TLR2 agonists should be considered for testing as adjuvants for antitumor antibody therapy.

  14. Toll-like Receptor 2 Ligands Regulate Monocyte Fcγ Receptor Expression and Function*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Prexy; Fatehchand, Kavin; Patel, Hemal; Fang, Huiqing; Justiniano, Steven E.; Mo, Xiaokui; Jarjoura, David; Tridandapani, Susheela; Butchar, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    Fcγ receptor (FcγR) clustering on monocytes/macrophages results in phagocytosis and inflammatory cytokine production, which serve to eliminate antibody-opsonized targets and activate neighboring immune cells. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), which recognizes a range of both bacterial and fungal components, elicits strong proinflammatory responses in these cells when stimulated by ligands, either natural or synthetic. Thus, we explored the possibility that TLR2 agonists could strengthen FcγR activity within the context of antibody therapy. Human peripheral blood monocytes treated with the TLR2 agonist Pam2CSK4 showed significantly enhanced FcγR-mediated cytokine production as well as phagocytic ability. An examination of the molecular mechanism behind this enhancement revealed increased expression of both FcγRIIa and the common γ subunit following Pam2CSK4 treatment. Interestingly however, expression of the inhibitory receptor FcγRIIb was also modestly increased. Further investigation revealed that Pam2CSK4 also dramatically decreased the expression of SHIP, the major mediator of FcγRIIb inhibitory activity. Using a murine Her2/neu solid tumor model of antibody therapy, we found that Pam2CSK4 significantly enhanced the ability of anti-Her2 antibody to reduce the rate of tumor growth. To verify that the FcγR enhancement was not unique to the diacylated Pam2CSK4, we also tested Pam3CSK4, a related triacylated TLR2 agonist. Results showed significant enhancement in FcγR function and expression. Taken together, these findings indicate that TLR2 activation can positively modulate FcγR and suggest that TLR2 agonists should be considered for testing as adjuvants for antitumor antibody therapy. PMID:23504312

  15. Prostaglandin E 2 Does Not Modulate CCR7 Expression and Functionality after Differentiation of Blood Monocytes into Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Marc-André Allaire; Bérengère Tanné; Côté, Sandra C.; Nancy Dumais

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) induces C-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CCR7) expression on human monocytes, which stimulates their subsequent migration in response to the CCR7 natural ligands CCL19 and CCL21. In this study, we determined whether PGE2 affects CCR7 expression on macrophages. Flow cytometric analysis and chemotaxis assays were performed on Mono Mac-1-derived macrophage (MDMM-1) as well as unpolarized monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) to determine the C...

  16. Effect of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 on chemotactic gene expression by macrophage cell line U937

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BIAN Guang-xing; GUO Bao-yu; MIAO Hong; QIU Lei; CAO Dong-mei; DAO Shu-yan; ZHANG Ran

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the chemotactic superfamily genes expression profiling of macrophage line U937 treated with monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) using gene chip technique. Methods: Total RNA from macrophage line U937 (as control) and U937 with MCP-1 was extracted, made reverse transcript to cDNA and tested with gene expression chip HO2 human. Results: Some chemotactic-related gene expressions were changed in all analyzed genes. Regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) was up-regulated over 2-fold and 7 chemotactic-related genes (CCR2, CCR5, CCL16, GROβ, GROγ, IL-8 and granulocyte chemotactic protein 2) were down-regulated over 2-fold inMCP-1 treated U937 cells at mRNA level. Conclusion: MCP-1 can influence some chemokines and receptors expression in macrophage in vitro, in which MCP-1 mainly down-regulates the chemotactic genes expression of those influencing neutrophilic granulocyte (GROβ, GROγ, IL-8 and granulocyte chemotactic protein 2). Another novel finding is that it can also down-regulate the mRNA level of CCR5, which plays a critical role in many disorders and illnesses.

  17. Cell surface expression and function of the macromolecular C1 complex on the surface of human monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga K Hosszu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of the subunits of the C1 complex (C1q, C1s, C1r, and its regulator C1 inhibitor (C1-Inh by human monocytes has been previously established. However, surface expression of these molecules by monocytes has not been shown. Using flow cytometry and antigen-capture ELISA, we show here for the first time that, in addition to C1q, PB monocytes and the monocyte-derived U937 cells express C1s and C1r, as well as Factor B and C1-Inh on their surface. C1s and C1r immunoprecipitated with C1q, suggesting that at least some of the C1q on these cells is part of the C1 complex. Furthermore, the C1 complex on U937 cells was able to trigger complement activation via the classical pathway. The presence of C1-Inh may ensure that an unwarranted autoactivation of the C1 complex does not take place. Since C1-Inh closely monitors the activation of the C1 complex in a sterile or infectious inflammatory environment, further elucidation of the role of C1 complex is crucial to dissect its function in monocyte, DC and T cell activities, and its implications in host defense and tolerance.

  18. Prostaglandin E2 suppresses beta1-integrin expression via E-prostanoid receptor in human monocytes/macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Shunji; Ichiyama, Takashi; Kohno, Fumitaka; Korenaga, Yuno; Ohsaki, Ayami; Hirano, Reiji; Haneda, Yasuhiro; Fukano, Reiji; Furukawa, Susumu

    2010-01-01

    Beta1-integrins mediate cell attachment to different extracellular matrix proteins, intracellular proteins, and intercellular adhesions. Recently, it has been reported that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has anti-inflammatory properties such as inhibition of the expression of adhesion molecules or production of chemokines. However, the effect of PGE2 on the expression of beta1-integrin remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of PGE2 on the expression of beta1-integrin in the human monocytic cell line THP-1 and in CD14+ monocytes/macrophages in human peripheral blood. For this, we examined the role of four subtypes of PGE2 receptors and E-prostanoid (EP) receptors on PGE2-mediated inhibition. We found that PGE2 significantly inhibited the expression of beta1-integrin, mainly through EP4 receptors in THP-1 cells and CD14+ monocytes/macrophages in human peripheral blood. We suggest that PGE2 has anti-inflammatory effects, leading to the inhibited expression of beta1-integrin in human monocytes/macrophages, and that the EP4 receptor may play an important role in PGE2-mediated inhibition. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Immature monocyte derived dendritic cells gene expression profile in response to Virus-Like Particles stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marincola Francesco M

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have recently developed a candidate HIV-1 vaccine model based on HIV-1 Pr55gag Virus-Like Particles (HIV-VLPs, produced in a baculovirus expression system and presenting a gp120 molecule from an Ugandan HIV-1 isolate of the clade A (HIV-VLPAs. The HIV-VLPAs induce in Balb/c mice systemic and mucosal neutralizing Antibodies as well as cytotoxic T lymphocytes, by intra-peritoneal as well as intra-nasal administration. Moreover, we have recently shown that the baculovirus-expressed HIV-VLPs induce maturation and activation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs which, in turn, produce Th1- and Th2-specific cytokines and stimulate in vitro a primary and secondary response in autologous CD4+ T cells. In the present manuscript, the effects of the baculovirus-expressed HIV-VLPAs on the genomic transcriptional profile of MDDCs obtained from normal healthy donors have been evaluated. The HIV-VLPA stimulation, compared to both PBS and LPS treatment, modulate the expression of genes involved in the morphological and functional changes characterizing the MDDCs activation and maturation. The results of gene profiling analysis here presented are highly informative on the global pattern of gene expression alteration underlying the activation of MDDCs by HIV-VLPAs at the early stages of the immune response and may be extremely helpful for the identification of exclusive activation markers.

  20. Relationship between clinical features and inflammation-related monocyte gene expression in bipolar disorder - towards a better understanding of psychoimmunological interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haarman, Bartholomeus (Benno) C. M.; Riemersma-Van der Lek, Rixt F.; Burger, Huibert; Netkova, Mina; Drexhage, Roosmarijn C.; Bootsman, Florian; Mesman, Esther; Hillegers, Manon H. J.; Spijker, Anne T.; Hoencamp, Erik; Drexhage, Hemmo A.; Nolen, Willem A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Existing and previously published datasets were examined for associations between illness and treatment characteristics and monocyte pro-inflammatory gene expression in patients with bipolar disorder (BD). We hypothesized a priori that increased monocyte pro-inflammatory gene expression w

  1. Effects of an exercise challenge on mobilization and surface marker expression of monocyte subsets in individuals with normal vs. elevated blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Suzi; Mills, Paul J

    2008-05-01

    High blood pressure (BP) and monocyte activation are associated with atherogenic processes. Especially, CD16 expressing monocytes are shown to be activated in many inflammatory conditions but their characteristics in hypertension is unknown. We compared CD16(++), CD16(+) and CD16(-) monocyte populations and their cellular adhesion molecule (CAM), chemokine receptor, and activation marker expression in response to a moderate 20-min treadmill exercise bout at 65-70% V O(2peak) in 44 participants with elevated (EBP) or normal BP (NBP). Blood was drawn before, immediately after, and 10min after exercise. Phenotyping of monocytes and detection of surface markers were done by flow cytometry. Monocyte subset by exercise [pre, post, 10-min post] repeated measures ANOVA and group [EBP vs. NBP] by exercise repeated measures of ANCOVA with age, BMI, and fitness as covariates were employed. Circulating numbers of all the three monocyte subsets increased after exercise (pexercise changes in CD62L, CD11b, CXCR2, and HLA-DR expression were different among the monocyte subsets (p'sexercise changes in CD62L and CXCR2 levels were greater in EBP individuals (pexercise leads to a different mobilization among monocyte subsets based on CD16 expression. Individuals with high BP showed greater responses to a physical challenge in some monocyte chemokine receptors and selectins, but its clinical implications need further examination.

  2. Time-dependent changes in the expression of lymphocyte and monocyte cell adhesion molecules after meals of different composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrecilla, Esther; González-Muñoz, Miguel; Lahoz, Carlos; Mostaza, Jose

    2010-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the acute effect of meals of different composition on the expression of adhesion molecules that play a key role in leucocyte trafficking. A total of twenty apparently healthy subjects randomly consumed three isoenergetic meals 1 week apart: enriched in carbohydrates (CHO), enriched in monounsaturated fat and enriched in saturated fat. Blood samples were obtained before the meals and at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 h after meal ingestion. Samples were analysed for LDL resistance to Cu-mediated oxidation and for the surface expression on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of CD62L, CD162, CD11a, CD11b, CD49d and CD54 by flow cytometry. The present results showed that there were no changes in LDL susceptibility to oxidation within and among the meals. After the CHO-enriched meal, there was a time-dependent increased expression of CD162, CD49d, CD11a and CD54 on PBMC that returned to basal values after 8-10 h. These changes were significantly greater than the ones observed after the consumption of the monounsaturated fat- and the saturated fat-enriched meals and were more evident in lymphocytes than in monocytes. In conclusion, acute ingestion of a CHO-enriched meal induces higher increases of lymphocyte activation markers than fat-enriched meals. These results suggest that long-term consumption of CHO-enriched diets may be associated with a sustained pro-inflammatory state.

  3. Type 2 Diabetes Monocyte MicroRNA and mRNA Expression: Dyslipidemia Associates with Increased Differentiation-Related Genes but Not Inflammatory Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Baldeón R

    Full Text Available To study the expression pattern of microRNAs and mRNAs related to inflammation in T2D monocytes.A microRNA finding study on monocytes of T2D patients and controls using array profiling was followed by a quantitative Real Time PCR (qPCR study on monocytes of an Ecuadorian validation cohort testing the top over/under-expressed microRNAs. In addition, monocytes of the validation cohort were tested for 24 inflammation-related mRNAs and 2 microRNAs previously found deregulated in (auto-inflammatory monocytes.In the finding study, 142 significantly differentially expressed microRNAs were identified, 15 having the strongest power to discriminate T2D patients from controls (sensitivity 66%, specificity 90%. However, differences in expression of these microRNAs between patients and controls were small. On the basis of >1.4 or <0.6-fold change expression 5 microRNAs were selected for further validation. One microRNA (miR-34c-5p was validated as significantly over-expressed in T2D monocytes. In addition, we found over expression of 3 mRNAs (CD9, DHRS3 and PTPN7 in the validation cohort. These mRNAs are important for cell morphology, adhesion, shape change, and cell differentiation. Classical inflammatory genes (e.g. TNFAIP3 were only over-expressed in monocytes of patients with normal serum lipids. Remarkably, in dyslipidemia, there was a reduction in the expression of inflammatory genes (e.g. ATF3, DUSP2 and PTGS2.The expression profile of microRNAs/mRNAs in monocytes of T2D patients indicates an altered adhesion, differentiation, and shape change potential. Monocyte inflammatory activation was only found in patients with normal serum lipids. Abnormal lipid values coincided with a reduced monocyte inflammatory state.

  4. Graphical modeling of gene expression in monocytes suggests molecular mechanisms explaining increased atherosclerosis in smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo A Verdugo

    Full Text Available Smoking is a risk factor for atherosclerosis with reported widespread effects on gene expression in circulating blood cells. We hypothesized that a molecular signature mediating the relation between smoking and atherosclerosis may be found in the transcriptome of circulating monocytes. Genome-wide expression profiles and counts of atherosclerotic plaques in carotid arteries were collected in 248 smokers and 688 non-smokers from the general population. Patterns of co-expressed genes were identified by Independent Component Analysis (ICA and network structure of the pattern-specific gene modules was inferred by the PC-algorithm. A likelihood-based causality test was implemented to select patterns that fit models containing a path "smoking→gene expression→plaques". Robustness of the causal inference was assessed by bootstrapping. At a FDR ≤0.10, 3,368 genes were associated to smoking or plaques, of which 93% were associated to smoking only. SASH1 showed the strongest association to smoking and PPARG the strongest association to plaques. Twenty-nine gene patterns were identified by ICA. Modules containing SASH1 and PPARG did not show evidence for the "smoking→gene expression→plaques" causality model. Conversely, three modules had good support for causal effects and exhibited a network topology consistent with gene expression mediating the relation between smoking and plaques. The network with the strongest support for causal effects was connected to plaques through SLC39A8, a gene with known association to HDL-cholesterol and cellular uptake of cadmium from tobacco, while smoking was directly connected to GAS6, a gene reported to have anti-inflammatory effects in atherosclerosis and to be up-regulated in the placenta of women smoking during pregnancy. Our analysis of the transcriptome of monocytes recovered genes relevant for association to smoking and atherosclerosis, and connected genes that before, were only studied in separate contexts

  5. Age-Related Gene Expression Differences in Monocytes from Human Neonates, Young Adults, and Older Adults

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lissner, Michelle M; Thomas, Brandon J; Wee, Kathleen; Tong, Ann-Jay; Kollmann, Tobias R; Smale, Stephen T

    2015-01-01

    .... An examination of ex vivo human monocyte responses to lipopolysaccharide stimulation or Listeria monocytogenes infection by RNA-seq revealed extensive similarities between neonates, young adults...

  6. Up-Regulation of CCR5 and CXCR4 Expression on Human Monocytes by Interferon Gamma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆韵; 刘祖强; 陈应华

    2003-01-01

    Chemokine receptors, mainly CCR5 and CXCR4, have been proved to be the important coreceptors in HIV-1 entry.HIV-1 disease progression is, in general, characterized by an initial predominance of CCR5 using macrophage tropic, non-syncytium-inducing (NSI) isolates, switching later to CXCR4 using T-cell tropic, syncytium-inducing (SI) isolates.How this shift occurs and how the shift can be controlled are still unclear.Since patients with rapid decline of T cell counts have constantly high levels of IFN-γ in the sera and lymphoid nodes, we investigated the influence of this cytokine on the expression of the HIV-1 coreceptors CCR5 and CXCR4 on the cell surfaces of human monocytic cell line U937 and promonocyte NB4.IFN-γ could intensively enhance the expression of both, while a low level of CCR5 expression was detected in two cell lines before stimulation.The results of semiquantitative RT-PCR also confirm the up-regulation.As the newly generated X4-strains have been demonstrated to be insensitive to chemokine in some reports, IFN-γ may play an important role in selecting CXCR4-used strains.

  7. Increased expression of Siglec-1 on peripheral blood monocytes and its role in mononuclear cell reactivity to autoantigen in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yi-Song; Cheng, Yue; Lin, Qiu-Shui; Wu, Ai-Lin; Yu, Juan; Li, Chang; Sun, Yi; Zhong, Ren-Qian; Wu, Li-Juan

    2014-02-01

    Elevated expression of Siglec-1 on circulating monocytes has been reported in some inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, but its expression and role in RA has not been elucidated. The aims of this study were to determine the expression of Siglec-1 in peripheral blood and to explore its role in mononuclear cell reactivity to autoantigen in RA. Siglec-1 protein and mRNA levels in 42 RA patients, 39 OA patients, 28 SLE patients and 42 normal controls were determined by flow cytometry and quantitative RT-PCR, respectively. In addition, 10 patients with active RA received DMARDs for 12 weeks and the frequencies of Siglec-1-positive cells and the 28-joint DAS (DAS28) were assessed before and after therapy. Furthermore, TNF-α, IFN-γ and type II collagen were used to up-regulate Siglec-1. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from different groups were stimulated with mitogens or antigens and cell proliferation and cytokine production were determined. The protein and mRNA levels of Siglec-1 on PBMCs and monocytes in RA patients were significantly higher than those in OA patients and healthy controls. Moreover, the expression of Siglec-1 protein on PBMCs was positively correlated with DAS28, ESR, high-sensitivity CRP and IgM-RF, but not with anti-CCP antibody. Interestingly, Siglec-1 expression was decreased in parallel with the decrease in the DAS28 after 12 weeks of anti-rheumatic treatment. Furthermore, TNF-α, IFN-γ and type II collagen can up-regulate Siglec-1 in PBMCs. Elevated PBMC proliferation and proinflammatory cytokine production to collagen stimulation in RA patients decreased when Siglec-1 was inhibited by anti-Siglec-1 antibodies. Elevated Siglec-1 expression in PBMCs and monocytes can potentially serve as a biomarker for monitoring disease activity in RA. Siglec-1 may also play a proinflammatory role in stimulating lymphocyte proliferation and activation in RA.

  8. How is mRNA expression predictive for protein expression? A correlation study on human circulating monocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanfang Guo; Yuan Chen; Hui Jiang; Lijun Tan; Jingyun Xie; Xuezhen Zhu; Songping Liang; Hongwen Deng; Peng Xiao; Shufeng Lei; Feiyan Deng; Gary Guishan Xiao; Yaozhong Liu; Xiangding Chen; Liming Li; Shan Wu

    2008-01-01

    A key assumption in studying mRNA expression is that it is informative in the prediction of protein expression. However,only limited studies have explored the mRNA-protein expression correlation in yeast or human tissues and the results have been relatively inconsistent. We carried out correlation analyses on mRNA-protein expressions in freshly isolated human circulating monocytes from 30 unrelated women. The expressed proteins for 71 genes were quantified and identified by 2-D electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry. The corresponding mRNA expressions were quantified by Affymetrix gene chips. Significant correlation (r=0.235, P<0.0001) was observed for the whole dataset including all studied genes and all samples. The correlations varied in different biological categories of gene ontology. For example, the highest correlation was achieved for genes of the extracellular region in terms of cellular component (r=0.643, P<0.0001) and the lowest correlation was obtained for genes of regulation (r=0.099, P=0.213) in terms of biological process. In the genome, half of the samples showed significant positive correlation for the 71 genes and significant correlation was found between the average mRNA and the average protein expression levels in all samples (r=0.296, P<0.01). However, at the study group level, only five studied genes had significant positive correlation across all the samples. Our results showed an overall positive correlation between mRNA and protein expression levels.However, the moderate and varied correlations suggest that mRNA expression might be sometimes useful, but certainly far from perfect, in predicting protein expression levels.

  9. Altered regulation of ELAVL1/HuR in HLA-B27-expressing U937 monocytic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna S Sahlberg

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of HLA-B27 expression in the regulation of RNA binding protein (RBP Embryonic Lethal Abnormal Vision (ELAV L1/Human antigen R (HuR expression in Salmonella-infected or LPS-stimulated human monocytic cells, since HuR is a critical regulator of the post-transcriptional fate of many genes (e.g. TNFα important in inflammatory response. METHODS: U937 monocytic cells were stably transfected with pSV2neo resistant vector (mock, wild type HLA-B27, or mutated HLA-B27 with amino acid substitutions in the B pocket. Cells were differentiated, infected with Salmonella enteritidis or stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. The expression levels of HuR protein and cleavage products (CP1 and CP2 were detected by Western blotting and flow cytometry. Specific inhibitors were used to study the role of PKR and p38 in HuR expression and generation of CPs. TNFα and IL-10 secretion after p38 and PKR inhibition were measured by ELISA. RESULTS: Full length HuR is overexpressed and HuR cleavage is disturbed in U937 monocytic cells expressing HLA-B27 heavy chains (HC. Increased full length HuR expression, disturbed cleavage and reduced dependence on PKR after infection correlate with the expression of glutamic acid 45 in the B pocket that is linked to the misfolding of HLA-B27. CONCLUSION: Results show that the expression of HLA-B27 HCs modulates the intracellular environment of U937 monocyte/macrophages by altering HuR regulation. This phenomenon is at least partly dependent on the misfolding feature of the B27 molecule. Since HuR is an important regulator of multiple genes involved in inflammatory response observations offer an explanation how HLA-B27 may modulate inflammatory response.

  10. SOBREPESO Y EXPRESIÓN DE RECEPTORES DE ADIPONECTINA EN MONOCITOS DE SANGRE PERIFÉRICA Overweight and adiponectin receptors expression in peripheral blood monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismena Mockus

    2007-12-01

    were measured. Results. AdipoR1 expression in peripheral blood monocytes was higher than that of AdipoR2 (p < 0.001. According to sex, body mass index, percentage body fat, insulin resistance or lipid profile, there were no differences in AdipoR1 or AdipoR2 expression. Conclusions. Our results about a greater AdipoR1 expression in comparison to AdipoR2 corroborate previous findings. Our data suggest no relation between the expression of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 in monocytes of normal and overweighted subjects and insulin sensibility. Further studies are recommended which involve population with body mass index superior to 30 kg/m2 and individuals with abdominal obesity, and in addition establish possible effects of style-life related factors on the regulation of the expression of these receptors in peripheral monocytes.

  11. Brief report: Decreased expression of CD244 (SLAMF4) on monocytes and platelets in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Anselm; Thornhill, Susannah I; Lee, Hui Yin; Lee, Bernett; Poidinger, Michael; Connolly, John E; Fairhurst, Anna-Marie

    2017-06-08

    The signalling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) family receptors play important roles in modulating immune responses. Previous studies in murine models and patients have suggested an association of the SLAM family (SLAMF) members with the development of autoimmunity, particularly systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Since previous investigations on CD244 expression have focussed on NK and T cells, the aim of this study was to evaluate the surface expression of major SLAMF members across monocytes and polymorphonuclear cells in an Asian SLE cohort and explore their potential associations with SLE-related disease activity and autoantibodies. Thirty-nine SLE patients and twenty-nine healthy controls (HC) were evaluated for the expression of CD150, CD84, CD229, CD48, CD244, CD352 and CD319. We determined a significantly lower expression of CD244 on monocytes in SLE patients compared to HC. Furthermore, monocyte CD244 expression was negatively associated with several serum autoantibody titres. Our findings suggest that this molecule plays an important role in immune tolerance mechanisms and should be investigated further.

  12. Monocyte expression and soluble levels of the haemoglobin receptor (CD163/sCD163) and the mannose receptor (MR/sMR) in septic and critically ill non-septic ICU patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjærgaard, Anders G; Rødgaard-Hansen, Sidsel; Dige, Anders; Krog, Jan; Møller, Holger J; Tønnesen, Else

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of sepsis is challenging and there is an unmet need for sensitive and specific diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. Following activation of macrophages and monocytes, the haptoglobin-haemoglobin receptor (CD163) and the mannose receptor (MR) are shed into the circulation (sCD163 and sMR). We investigated monocyte expression of CD163 and MR, and levels of sCD163 and sMR in septic and non-septic patients, and in healthy controls. We hypothesised that these receptors are elevated during sepsis and can be used diagnostic and prognostic. Twenty-one patients with severe sepsis or septic shock and 15 critically ill non-septic patients were included in this prospective observational study at three ICUs at Aarhus University Hospital and Randers Regional Hospital, Denmark. Fifteen age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers served as controls. Levels of sCD163 and sMR were measured using a sandwich ELISA and monocyte expression of CD163 and MR was evaluated by flow cytometry during the first four days of ICU stay. The diagnostic and prognostic values of the receptors were assessed using AUROC curves. At ICU admission and during the observation period, monocyte expression of CD163 and levels of sCD163 and sMR were significantly higher in septic patients compared with non-septic patients and healthy controls (pCD163. Among the septic patients, monocyte expression of CD163 was higher in non-survivors compared with survivors at ICU admission (p = 0.02) and during the observation period (p = 0.006). The prognostic value of monocyte-bound CD163 estimated by AUROC at ICU admission was 0.82. The macrophage-specific markers CD163, sCD163, and sMR are increased in septic patients. Particularly sMR is a promising new biomarker of sepsis.

  13. Effect of acute and regular exercise on growth hormone secretagogue receptor-1a expression in human lymphocytes, T cell subpopulation and monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Nicolette C; Hayashida, Harumi; Clark, Megan; Coombs, Charlotte; Miller, Sean; Stensel, David J

    2014-07-01

    The orexigenic peptide hormone ghrelin exerts potent inhibitory effects on pro-inflammatory cytokine release via the growth hormone secretagogue receptor-1a (GHS-R1a) on T cells and monocytes. As such, ghrelin is a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of inflammatory conditions, but these effects depend on the availability of GHS-R1a. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of acute exercise on GHS-R1a expression on circulating CD14+ monocytes, total lymphocytes and CD3+ T cells. Nine male club-standard cyclists cycled for 1h at 75% V̇O2peak (EX) or rested (REST) in a randomised cross-over design. Compared with the equivalent times in REST, the concentration of circulating GHS-R1a+ lymphocytes and monocytes was higher in EX at immediately and 1 and 2h post-exercise (all pexercise only (258 (203)cellsμl(-1) vs. 62 (42)cellsμl(-1), pexercise. Given that the anti-inflammatory effects of ghrelin depend on the availability of GHS-R1a, the preferential recruitment of subpopulations with high anti-inflammatory potential found here add a novel aspect to the potential mechanisms by which exercise acts to reduce pro-inflammatory cytokine levels.

  14. ASGR1 and ASGR2, the Genes that Encode the Asialoglycoprotein Receptor (Ashwell Receptor, Are Expressed in Peripheral Blood Monocytes and Show Interindividual Differences in Transcript Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Louise Harris

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR is a hepatic receptor that mediates removal of potentially hazardous glycoconjugates from blood in health and disease. The receptor comprises two proteins, asialoglycoprotein receptor 1 and 2 (ASGR1 and ASGR2, encoded by the genes ASGR1 and ASGR2. Design and Methods. Using reverse transcription amplification (RT-PCR, expression of ASGR1 and ASGR2 was investigated in human peripheral blood monocytes. Results. Monocytes were found to express ASGR1 and ASGR2 transcripts. Correctly spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms of ASGR1 and ASGR2 were present in monocytes. The profile of transcript variants from both ASGR1 and ASGR2 differed among individuals. Transcript expression levels were compared with the hepatocyte cell line HepG2 which produces high levels of ASGPR. Monocyte transcripts were 4 to 6 orders of magnitude less than in HepG2 but nonetheless readily detectable using standard RT-PCR. The monocyte cell line THP1 gave similar results to monocytes harvested from peripheral blood, indicating it may provide a suitable model system for studying ASGPR function in this cell type. Conclusions. Monocytes transcribe and correctly process transcripts encoding the constituent proteins of the ASGPR. Monocytes may therefore represent a mobile pool of the receptor, capable of reaching sites remote from the liver.

  15. Relationship between HMGB1 content and MHC-Ⅱ expression in circulating monocytes and spleen of mice challenged with zymosan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Yi; LU Jiang-yang; ZHAO Min; LI Zhi-hong; YANG Yi

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To observe the regularity of change in high mobility group protein box 1 (HMGB1) content in serum and spleen of mice with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), to analyze the correlation between HMGB1 content and major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-Ⅱ-I-Ab expression on monocytes in blood and spleen, and to explore the effect of HMGB1 on immune function of circulating monocytes and splenocytes. Methods: One hundred 8-week-old male 57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into normal group and experimental group subdivided into 8 subgroups: 3, 8, 12 hours, 1, 2, 3, 5-7 days and 10-12 days post zymosan injection (PZI). MODS model was replicated by injecting zymosan into the peritoneal cavity. At each time point, blood and spleen were collected to detect HMGB1 content and the rate of I-Ab positive monocytes. Results: In normal and PZI 3-hour, 8-hour mice, serum HMGB1 was not detected, but it significantly increased at PZI 12 hours. In spleen of normal mice, there was low level of HMGB1 expression. In zymosan-treated mice, HMGB1 started to rise in spleen at PZI 3 hours. Subsequently, HMGB1 content in both serum and spleen significantly increased, and it reached the peak level in 1-2 days, decreased in 5 days, and then increased in 10-12 days. The number of I-Ab positive monocytes in circulating blood and spleen decreased at 1-2 days (t=9.589, 4.432, P<0.01) and 10-12 days following the challenge, forming a two trough like decrease, just corresponding with two-peak increase of HMGB1. However, at 3 hours after zyrnosan challenge, I-Ab expression on circulating monocytes was downregulated (t=5.977, P<0.01), while that in spleen upregulated (t=4.814, P<0.01). Conclusion: In mice with MODS, up-regulated HMGB1 expression can regulate I-Ab expression on monocytes to depress their ability of presenting antigen, which results in immune disturbance contributing development of MODS.

  16. Effect of different degrees of impaired glucose metabolism on the expression of inflammatory markers in monocytes of patients with atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal-Lopez, M R; Llorente-Cortes, V; Calleja, F; Lopez-Carmona, D; Mayas, M D; Gomez-Huelgas, R; Badimon, L; Tinahones, F J

    2013-08-01

    Inflammatory markers are elevated in type 2 diabetic patients (DP) and may predict the development of type 2 diabetes. Our aims were to analyze differences in the expression of inflammatory and immunological molecules between DP and healthy subjects and to investigate whether glycemic control might prevent the overexpression of inflammatory markers in DP. Twenty-two DP with advanced atherosclerosis and eight healthy blood donors were included. DP were classified as well (HbA1c ≤ 6.5) or poorly controlled (HbA1c > 6.5). In "in vitro" studies, monocytes were exposed to low (5.5 mM) or high glucose (26 mM) concentrations in the absence or presence of insulin. Expression profiling of 14 inflammatory genes was analyzed using TLDA analysis. "In vivo" results show that monocytes from DP had increased levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1) and interleukin 6 (IL6) and lower levels of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) mRNA than healthy subjects. Well-controlled DP had lower levels of IL-6 than poorly controlled DP, suggesting that glycemic control may prevent IL6 mRNA alterations associated with diabetes. "In vitro" results demonstrate that glucose directly and significantly induced MCP-1 and IL6 and reduced TLR2 mRNA expression. Insulin at high dose (100 IU/ml) dramatically enhanced the upregulatory effects of glucose on MCP-1 and IL-6 and reduced per se TLR2 mRNA expression. MCP-1, IL-6 and TLR2 are key inflammatory players altered in monocytes from type 2 DP. Both hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia contribute to alter the expression of these genes. The glycemic control only significantly prevented IL6 overexpression in this group of patients.

  17. Monocyte Subsets in Schistosomiasis Patients with Periportal Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamille Souza Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A major issue with Schistosoma mansoni infection is the development of periportal fibrosis, which is predominantly caused by the host immune response to egg antigens. Experimental studies have pointed to the participation of monocytes in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. The aim of this study was to characterize the subsets of monocytes in individuals with different degrees of periportal fibrosis secondary to schistosomiasis. Monocytes were classified into classical (CD14++CD16−, intermediate (CD14++CD16+, and nonclassical (CD14+CD16++. The expressions of monocyte markers and cytokines were assessed using flow cytometry. The frequency of classical monocytes was higher than the other subsets. The expression of HLA-DR, IL-6, TNF-α, and TGF-β was higher in monocytes from individuals with moderate to severe fibrosis as compared to other groups. Although no differences were observed in receptors expression (IL-4R and IL-10R between groups of patients, the expression of IL-12 was lower in monocytes from individuals with moderate to severe fibrosis, suggesting a protective role of this cytokine in the development of fibrosis. Our data support the hypothesis that the three different monocyte populations participate in the immunopathogenesis of periportal fibrosis, since they express high levels of proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokines and low levels of regulatory markers.

  18. Platelet binding to monocytes increases the adhesive properties of monocytes by up-regulating the expression and functionality of beta(1) and B-2 integrins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A.D.C. Martins; J.M. van Gils; A. Mol; P.L. Hordijk; J.J. Zwaginga

    2006-01-01

    Human monocytes adhere to activated platelets, resulting in the formation of platelet-monocyte complexes (PMC). Complex formation depends on the interaction between platelet-displayed P-selectin and the specific ligand for P-selectin on leukocytes, P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1). We have

  19. Monocyte expression and soluble levels of the haemoglobin receptor (CD163/sCD163 and the mannose receptor (MR/sMR in septic and critically ill non-septic ICU patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders G Kjærgaard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of sepsis is challenging and there is an unmet need for sensitive and specific diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. Following activation of macrophages and monocytes, the haptoglobin-haemoglobin receptor (CD163 and the mannose receptor (MR are shed into the circulation (sCD163 and sMR. OBJECTIVE: We investigated monocyte expression of CD163 and MR, and levels of sCD163 and sMR in septic and non-septic patients, and in healthy controls. We hypothesised that these receptors are elevated during sepsis and can be used diagnostic and prognostic. METHODS: Twenty-one patients with severe sepsis or septic shock and 15 critically ill non-septic patients were included in this prospective observational study at three ICUs at Aarhus University Hospital and Randers Regional Hospital, Denmark. Fifteen age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers served as controls. Levels of sCD163 and sMR were measured using a sandwich ELISA and monocyte expression of CD163 and MR was evaluated by flow cytometry during the first four days of ICU stay. The diagnostic and prognostic values of the receptors were assessed using AUROC curves. RESULTS: At ICU admission and during the observation period, monocyte expression of CD163 and levels of sCD163 and sMR were significantly higher in septic patients compared with non-septic patients and healthy controls (p<0.01 for all comparisons. Monocytes did not express MR. The diagnostic values estimated by AUROC were 1.00 for sMR, 0.95 for sCD163, 0.87 for CRP, and 0.75 for monocyte-bound CD163. Among the septic patients, monocyte expression of CD163 was higher in non-survivors compared with survivors at ICU admission (p = 0.02 and during the observation period (p = 0.006. The prognostic value of monocyte-bound CD163 estimated by AUROC at ICU admission was 0.82. CONCLUSION: The macrophage-specific markers CD163, sCD163, and sMR are increased in septic patients. Particularly sMR is a promising new

  20. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue: characterization of interstitial concentration and regulation of gene expression by insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdolo, Giuseppe; Hammarstedt, Ann; Sandqvist, Madeléne; Schmelz, Martin; Herder, Christian; Smith, Ulf; Jansson, Per-Anders

    2007-07-01

    The chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is implicated in obesity-associated chronic inflammation, insulin resistance, and atherosclerosis. The objectives of this study were to: 1) characterize the interstitial levels and the gene expression of MCP-1 in the sc abdominal adipose tissue (SCAAT), 2) elucidate the response of MCP-1 to acute hyperinsulinemia, and 3) determine the relationship between MCP-1 and arterial stiffness. Nine lean (L) and nine uncomplicated obese (OB) males were studied in the fasting state and during a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp combined with the microdialysis technique. Interstitial and serum MCP-1 (iMCP-1 and sMCP-1, respectively) levels, pulse wave analysis, and SCAAT biopsies were characterized at baseline and after hyperinsulinemia. OB showed elevated sMCP-1 (P iMCP-1 levels as compared with L. Basal iMCP-1 concentrations were considerably higher than sMCP-1 (P iMCP-1 and sMCP-1 levels was maintained throughout the hyperinsulinemia. At baseline, SCAAT gene expression profile revealed a "co-upregulation" of MCP-1, MCP-2, macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha, and CD68 in OB, and whole-body glucose disposal inversely correlated with the MCP-1 gene expression. After hyperinsulinemia, MCP-1 and MCP-2 mRNA levels significantly increased in L, but not in OB. Finally, sMCP-1 excess in the OB positively correlated with the stiffer vasculature. These observations demonstrate similar interstitial concentrations and a differential gene response to hyperinsulinemia of MCP-1 in the SCAAT from L and OB individuals. In human obesity, we suggest the SCAAT MCP-1 gene overexpression as a biomarker of an "inflamed" adipose organ and impaired glucose metabolism.

  1. Interleukin-17 (IL-17 Expression Is Reduced during Acute Myocardial Infarction: Role on Chemokine Receptor Expression in Monocytes and Their in Vitro Chemotaxis towards Chemokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guro Valen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The roles of immune cells and their soluble products during myocardial infarction (MI are not completely understood. Here, we observed that the percentages of IL-17, but not IL-22, producing cells are reduced in mice splenocytes after developing MI. To correlate this finding with the functional activity of IL-17, we sought to determine its effect on monocytes. In particular, we presumed that this cytokine might affect the chemotaxis of monocytes important for cardiac inflammation and remodeling. We observed that IL-17 tends to reduce the expression of two major chemokine receptors involved in monocyte chemotaxis, namely CCR2 and CXCR4. Further analysis showed that monocytes pretreated with IL-17 have reduced in vitro chemotaxis towards the ligand for CCR2, i.e., MCP-1/CCL2, and the ligand for CXCR4, i.e., SDF-1α/CXCL12. Our results support the possibility that IL-17 may be beneficial in MI, and this could be due to its ability to inhibit the migration of monocytes.

  2. The impact of telmisartan on angiotensin converting enzyme 2 mRNA expression in monocyte-derived macrophages of diabetic hypertensive patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永勤

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of telmisartan on the expression of angiotensin converting enzyme 2(ACE2) mRNA in monocyte-derived macrophages of hypertensive patients accompanied with diabetes. Methods 62 essential hypertensive patients accompanied with

  3. Inflammatory gene expression in monocytes of patients with schizophrenia : overlap and difference with bipolar disorder. A study in naturalistically treated patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drexhage, Roosmarijn C.; van der Heul-Nieuwenhuijsen, Leonie; Padmos, Roos C.; van Beveren, Nico; Cohen, Dan; Versnel, Marjan A.; Nolen, Willem A.; Drexhage, Hemmo A.

    2010-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates an activated inflammatory response system as a vulnerability factor for schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD). We aimed to detect a specific inflammatory monocyte gene expression signature in SZ and compare such signature with our recently described

  4. Activated human mast cells induce LOX-1-specific scavenger receptor expression in human monocyte-derived macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervi Alanne-Kinnunen

    Full Text Available Activated mast cells in atherosclerotic lesions degranulate and release bioactive compounds capable of regulating atherogenesis. Here we examined the ability of activated human primary mast cells to regulate the expression of the major scavenger receptors in cultured human primary monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDMs.Components released by immunologically activated human primary mast cells induced a transient expression of lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor (LOX-1 mRNA in HMDMs, while the expression of two other scavenger receptors, MSR1 and CD36, remained unaffected. The LOX-1-inducing secretory components were identified as histamine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β1, which exhibited a synergistic effect on LOX-1 mRNA expression. Histamine induced a transient expression of LOX-1 protein. Mast cell -induced increase in LOX-1 expression was not associated with increased uptake of oxidized LDL by the macrophages.Mast cell-derived histamine, TNF-α, and TGF-β1 act in concert to induce a transient increase in LOX-1 expression in human primary monocyte-derived macrophages. The LOX-1-inducing activity potentially endows mast cells a hitherto unrecognized role in the regulation of innate immune reactions in atherogenesis.

  5. CD1c-Expression by Monocytes - Implications for the Use of Commercial CD1c+ Dendritic Cell Isolation Kits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Schrøder

    Full Text Available Conventional dendritic cells (cDCs comprise a heterogeneous population of cells that are important regulators of immunity and homeostasis. CD1c+ cDCs are present in human blood and tissues, and found to efficiently activate naïve CD4+ T cells. While CD1c is thought to specifically identify this subset of human cDCs, we show here that also classical and intermediate monocytes express CD1c. Accordingly, the commercial CD1c (BDCA-1+ Dendritic Cell Isolation Kit isolates two distinct cell populations from blood: CD1c+CD14- cDCs and CD1c+CD14+ monocytes. CD1c+ cDCs and CD1c+ monocytes exhibited strikingly different properties, including their differential regulation of surface marker expression, their levels of cytokine production, and their ability to stimulate naïve CD4+ T cells. These results demonstrate that a commercial CD1c (BDCA-1+ Dendritic Cell Isolation Kit isolates two functionally different cell populations, which has important implications for the interpretation of previously generated data using this kit to characterize CD1c+ cDCs.

  6. Gene expression study of monocytes/macrophages during early foreign body reaction and identification of potential precursors of myofibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Mesure

    Full Text Available Foreign body reaction (FBR, initiated by adherence of macrophages to biomaterials, is associated with several complications. Searching for mechanisms potentially useful to overcome these complications, we have established the signaling role of monocytes/macrophages in the development of FBR and the presence of CD34(+ cells that potentially differentiate into myofibroblasts. Therefore, CD68(+ cells were in vitro activated with fibrinogen and also purified from the FBR after 3 days of implantation in rats. Gene expression profiles showed a switch from monocytes and macrophages attracted by fibrinogen to activated macrophages and eventually wound-healing macrophages. The immature FBR also contained a subpopulation of CD34(+ cells, which could be differentiated into myofibroblasts. This study showed that macrophages are the clear driving force of FBR, dependent on milieu, and myofibroblast deposition and differentiation.

  7. Infection of U937 monocytic cells with Chlamydia pneumoniae induces extensive changes in host cell gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virok, Dezso; Loboda, Andrey; Kari, Laszlo; Nebozhyn, Michael; Chang, Celia; Nichols, Calen; Endresz, Valeria; Gonczol, Eva; Berencsi, Klara; Showe, Michael K; Showe, Louise C

    2003-11-01

    The effect of infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae on host messenger RNA expression in human monocytic cells with complement DNA microarrays was studied. The data chronicle a cascade of transcriptional events affecting 128 genes, many of which have not previously been reported to be affected by C. pneumoniae infection. Down-regulated genes are primarily associated with RNA and DNA metabolism, chromosomal stability, and cell-cycle regulation. Up-regulated messages include those for a variety of genes with important proinflammatory functions. Many of the up-regulated genes-including the hyaluron receptor CD44, vasoconstrictor endothelin-1, smooth muscle growth factor heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor, and fatty acid binding protein-4-had been previously described as linked to the development of atherosclerosis and other chronic inflammatory diseases. C. pneumoniae-infected monocytes can contribute to the development and progression of diseases for which acute or chronic inflammation has been shown to be important, such as atherosclerosis.

  8. Microparticles engineered to highly express peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ decreased inflammatory mediator production and increased adhesion of recipient monocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Sahler

    Full Text Available Circulating blood microparticles are submicron vesicles released primarily by megakaryocytes and platelets that act as transcellular communicators. Inflammatory conditions exhibit elevated blood microparticle numbers compared to healthy conditions. Direct functional consequences of microparticle composition, especially internal composition, on recipient cells are poorly understood. Our objective was to evaluate if microparticle composition could impact the function of recipient cells, particularly during inflammatory provocation. We therefore engineered the composition of megakaryocyte culture-derived microparticles to generate distinct microparticle populations that were given to human monocytes to assay for influences recipient cell function. Herein, we tested the responses of monocytes exposed to either control microparticles or microparticles that contain the anti-inflammatory transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ. In order to normalize relative microparticle abundance from two microparticle populations, we implemented a novel approach that utilizes a Nanodrop Spectrophotometer to assay for microparticle density rather than concentration. We found that when given to peripheral blood mononuclear cells, microparticles were preferentially internalized by CD11b+ cells, and furthermore, microparticle composition had a profound functional impact on recipient monocytes. Specifically, microparticles containing PPARγ reduced activated monocyte production of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 compared to activated monocytes exposed to control microparticles. Additionally, treatment with PPARγ microparticles greatly increased monocyte cell adherence. This change in morphology occurred simultaneously with increased production of the key extracellular matrix protein, fibronectin and increased expression of the fibronectin-binding integrin, ITGA5. PPARγ microparticles

  9. Comparative assessment of the recognition of domain-specific CD163 monoclonal antibodies in human monocytes explains wide discrepancy in reported levels of cellular surface CD163 expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maniecki, Maciej Bogdan; Etzerodt, Anders; Moestrup, Søren Kragh

    2011-01-01

    Background CD163 is expressed exclusively on cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage and is widely used as a marker of human macrophages. Further, it has been suggested as a diagnostic marker of monocyte/macrophage activity in inflammatory conditions and as a therapeutic target. However, studies...... continue to exhibit great discrepancy in the measured percentage of CD163-expressing blood monocytes in healthy individuals. In this study we sought to clarify this inconsistency in reported levels of CD163 surface expression by a detailed analysis of a panel of CD163 antibodies used in previous studies....... Materials and Methods The cellular distribution of CD163 on human peripheral blood monocytes in freshly drawn blood and peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from buffy-coats was investigated by flow cytometry using CD163 monoclonal antibodies recognizing scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) domain...

  10. Effect of β-agonist on the dexamethasone-induced expression of aromatase by the human monocyte cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatada Watanabe

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that sex steroids are important for human skin health. In particular, estrogen improves skin thickness, elasticity and moisture of older women. The major source of circulating estrogen is the ovary; however, local estrogen synthesis and secretion have important roles in, for example, bone metabolism and breast cancer development. We hypothesized that infiltrated peripheral monocytes are one of the sources of estrogen in skin tissues. We also hypothesized that, during atopic dermatitis under stress, a decline in the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA and facilitation of the (hypothalamus–sympathetic–adrenomedullary system (SAM attenuates estrogen secretion from monocytes. Based on this hypothesis, we tested aromatase expression in the human peripheral monocyte-derived cell line THP-1 in response to the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (Dex, the synthetic β-agonist isoproterenol (Iso and the β-antagonist propranolol (Pro. Dex mimics glucocorticoid secreted during excitation of the HPA, and Iso mimics catecholamine secreted during excitation of the SAM. We found that aromatase activity and the CYP19A1 gene transcript were both upregulated in THP-1 cells in the presence of Dex. Addition of Iso induced their downregulation and further addition of Pro rescued aromatase expression. These results may suggest that attenuation of estrogen secretion from peripheral monocytes could be a part of the pathology of stress-caused deterioration of atopic dermatitis. Further examination using an in vitro human skin model including THP-1 cells might be a valuable tool for investigating the therapeutic efficacy and mechanism of estrogen treatment for skin health.

  11. Monocyte/macrophage androgen receptor suppresses cutaneous wound healing in mice by enhancing local TNF-alpha expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jiann-Jyh; Lai, Kuo-Pao; Chuang, Kuang-Hsiang; Chang, Philip; Yu, I-Chen; Lin, Wen-Jye; Chang, Chawnshang

    2009-12-01

    Cutaneous wounds heal more slowly in elderly males than in elderly females, suggesting a role for sex hormones in the healing process. Indeed, androgen/androgen receptor (AR) signaling has been shown to inhibit cutaneous wound healing. AR is expressed in several cell types in healing skin, including keratinocytes, dermal fibroblasts, and infiltrating macrophages, but the exact role of androgen/AR signaling in these different cell types remains unclear. To address this question, we generated and studied cutaneous wound healing in cell-specific AR knockout (ARKO) mice. General and myeloid-specific ARKO mice exhibited accelerated wound healing compared with WT mice, whereas keratinocyte- and fibroblast-specific ARKO mice did not. Importantly, the rate of wound healing in the general ARKO mice was dependent on AR and not serum androgen levels. Interestingly, although dispensable for wound closure, keratinocyte AR promoted re-epithelialization, while fibroblast AR suppressed it. Further analysis indicated that AR suppressed wound healing by enhancing the inflammatory response through a localized increase in TNF-alpha expression. Furthermore, AR enhanced local TNF-alpha expression via multiple mechanisms, including increasing the inflammatory monocyte population, enhancing monocyte chemotaxis by upregulating CCR2 expression, and enhancing TNF-alpha expression in macrophages. Finally, targeting AR by topical application of a compound (ASC-J9) that degrades AR protein resulted in accelerated healing, suggesting a potential new therapeutic approach that may lead to better treatment of wound healing.

  12. Ubiquinol decreases monocytic expression and DNA methylation of the pro-inflammatory chemokine ligand 2 gene in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Alexandra

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coenzyme Q10 is an essential cofactor in the respiratory chain and serves in its reduced form, ubiquinol, as a potent antioxidant. Studies in vitro and in vivo provide evidence that ubiquinol reduces inflammatory processes via gene expression. Here we investigate the putative link between expression and DNA methylation of ubiquinol sensitive genes in monocytes obtained from human volunteers supplemented with 150 mg/ day ubiquinol for 14 days. Findings Ubiquinol decreases the expression of the pro-inflammatory chemokine (C-X-C motif ligand 2 gene (CXCL2 more than 10-fold. Bisulfite-/ MALDI-TOF-based analysis of regulatory regions of the CXCL2 gene identified six adjacent CpG islands which showed a 3.4-fold decrease of methylation status after ubiquinol supplementation. This effect seems to be rather gene specific, because ubiquinol reduced the expression of two other pro-inflammatory genes (PMAIP1, MMD without changing the methylation pattern of the respective gene. Conclusion In conclusion, ubiquinol decreases monocytic expression and DNA methylation of the pro-inflammatory CXCL2 gene in humans. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN26780329.

  13. Regulation on expression of toll-like receptors on monocytes after stimulation with the 3-o-C12-HSL molecule from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qi; Lin, Yujia; Yang, Xiqiang; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Xianhong; Huang, Daochao; Zhong, Haiying

    2012-10-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a type of cell-to-cell communication. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa QS molecule N-3-(oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3-o-C12-HSL) has the potential to modulate the immune system of its host. However, the mechanism of that activity is yet to be fully characterized. To be able to understand this activity, we determined whether 3-o-C12-HSL has a direct effect on the immune function and the expression of toll-like receptors (TLRs) in monocytes. Monocytes were cultured with 3-o-C12-HSL at different concentrations (0, 10, 25, 50, and 100 μmol/L) for 12 h; upon exposure to 3-o-C12-HSL, IL-12 production in monocytes was inhibited, monocyte proliferation was blocked, TLR2- and 4-mRNA expressions were reduced, and TLR5-mRNA expression was increased in a dose-dependent manner. Strikingly, 3-o-C12-HSL was able to significantly induce mRNA changes in the monocytes even at the lowest concentration (10 μmol/L, P < 0.05). Interestingly, though TLR2- and 4-protein levels were reduced, TLR5 protein expression was not changed. These findings provide a new perspective toward understanding the persistence of chronic inflammation in P. aeruginosa infections. They also suggest that TLR2, 4, and 5 may not share the same signaling pathways during monocyte activation.

  14. Inhibition of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression in tubular epithelium attenuates tubulointerstitial alteration in rat Goodpasture syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, H; Moriwaki, K; Kalluri, R; Imai, H; Ban, S; Takahama, M; Suzuki, H

    2000-03-01

    To examine the role of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) expressed by tubular epithelium in tubulointerstitial alterations in situ, the level of MCP-1 mRNA in tubular epithelium was lowered selectively in the rat model of Goodpasture syndrome (GPS). Intravenously administered antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) is taken up by renal tubular epithelium and has been found to block expression of target genes in rats. MCP-1 antisense ODN was injected into GPS rats every second day from days 27 to 35 after immunization (this represents the time when renal MCP-1 mRNA level was increased and interstitial mononuclear cell infiltration was aggravated). In addition to a reduction in the level of tubular MCP-1 mRNA, antisense ODN treatment attenuated monocyte infiltration significantly and preserved renal function in GPS rats. However, ODN injection did not affect glomerular MCP-1 expression and glomerular histopathology, and there were no significant changes in the urinary protein excretion rate. Our findings provide direct evidence that MCP-1, expressed by tubular epithelium, plays a pivotal role in mediating secondary tubulointerstitial alterations in the GPS model.

  15. Ratios of CD64 expressed on neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes may be a novel method for diagnosis of neonatal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Dai-Hua; Fan, Cong-Hai; Li, Juan; An, Qi; Yao, Hong; Ji, Qiang; Niu, Gao

    2015-02-19

    Neutrophil CD64 expression has been demonstrated as an improved diagnostic marker of infection and sepsis. The purpose of this study was to develop a new method to evaluate neutrophil CD64 expression for diagnosis of neonatal sepsis. Eighty neonates with neonatal sepsis (21 culture positive, 59 negative) were enrolled in this prospective study along with 19 neonates with no symptoms or signs of infection as controls. Expressions of CD64 on monocytes, lymphocytes, and neutrophils were evaluated with flow cytometry (FCM). Ratios were calculated with these levels of CD64 expression. Blood culture and other laboratory exams were done at the same time for the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis. Results were compared between the neonatal sepsis and control groups. CD64 ratios showed significant difference between the groups (p neonatal sepsis identification. The novel CD64 evaluation method, CD64 ratio, can be used as a supplementary method for diagnosis of neonatal sepsis.

  16. Human monocytes and macrophages express NADPH oxidase 5; a potential source of reactive oxygen species in atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manea, Adrian; Manea, Simona-Adriana; Gan, Ana Maria; Constantin, Alina; Fenyo, Ioana Madalina; Raicu, Monica; Muresian, Horia; Simionescu, Maya

    2015-05-22

    Monocytes (Mon) and Mon-derived macrophages (Mac) orchestrate important oxidative and inflammatory reactions in atherosclerosis by secreting reactive oxygen species (ROS) due, in large part, to the upregulated NADPH oxidases (Nox). The Nox enzymes have been extensively investigated in human Mon and Mac. However, the expression and functional significance of the Nox5 subtypes is not known. We aimed at elucidating whether Nox5 is expressed in human Mon and Mac, and examine its potential role in atherosclerosis. Human monocytic THP-1 cell line and CD14(+) Mon were employed to search for Nox5 expression. RT-PCR, Western blot, lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence and dihydroethidium assays were utilized to examine Nox5 in these cells. We found that Nox5 transcription variants and proteins are constitutively expressed in THP-1 cells and primary CD14(+) Mon. Silencing of Nox5 protein expression by siRNA reduced the Ca(2+)-dependent Nox activity and the formation of ROS in Mac induced by A23187, a selective Ca(2+) ionophore. Exposure of Mac to increasing concentrations of IFNγ (5-100 ng/ml) or oxidized LDL (5-100 μg/ml) resulted in a dose-dependent increase in Nox5 protein expression and elevation in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that Nox5 is present in CD68(+) Mac-rich area within human carotid artery atherosclerotic plaques. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first evidence that Nox5 is constitutively expressed in human Mon. Induction of Nox5 expression in IFNγ- and oxidized LDL-exposed Mac and the presence of Nox5 in Mac-rich atheroma are indicative of the implication of Nox5 in atherogenesis.

  17. Inflammatory gene expression in monocytes of patients with schizophrenia: overlap and difference with bipolar disorder. A study in naturalistically treated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexhage, Roosmarijn C; van der Heul-Nieuwenhuijsen, Leonie; Padmos, Roos C; van Beveren, Nico; Cohen, Dan; Versnel, Marjan A; Nolen, Willem A; Drexhage, Hemmo A

    2010-11-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates an activated inflammatory response system as a vulnerability factor for schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD). We aimed to detect a specific inflammatory monocyte gene expression signature in SZ and compare such signature with our recently described inflammatory monocyte gene signature in BD. A quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) case-control gene expression study was performed on monocytes of 27 SZ patients and compared to outcomes collected in 56 BD patients (all patients naturalistically treated). For Q-PCR we used nine 'SZ specific genes' (found in whole genome analysis), the 19 BD signature genes (previously found by us) and six recently described autoimmune diabetes inflammatory monocyte genes. Monocytes of SZ patients had (similar to those of BD patients) a high inflammatory set point composed of three subsets of strongly correlating genes characterized by different sets of transcription/MAPK regulating factors. Subset 1A, characterized by ATF3 and DUSP2, and subset 1B, characterized by EGR3 and MXD1, were shared between BD and SZ patients (up-regulated in 67% and 51%, and 34% and 41%, respectively). Subset 2, characterized by PTPN7 and NAB2 was up-regulated in the monocytes of 62% BD, but down-regulated in the monocytes of 48% of SZ patients. Our approach shows that monocytes of SZ and BD patients overlap, but also differ in inflammatory gene expression. Our approach opens new avenues for nosological classifications of psychoses based on the inflammatory state of patients, enabling selection of those patients who might benefit from an anti-inflammatory treatment.

  18. Monocyte and plasma expression of TAM ligand and receptor in renal failure: Links to unregulated immunity and chronic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Iris J; Hilliard, Brendan A; Ulas, Mehriban; Yu, Daohai; Vangala, Chandan; Rao, Swati; Lee, Jean; Gadegbeku, Crystal A; Cohen, Philip L

    2015-06-01

    Chronic inflammation is increased in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and contributes to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Specific immune mechanisms and pathways that drive and maintain chronic inflammation in CKD are not well described. The TAM ligands (Gas6 and protein S) and receptors (Axl and Mer) have been recently recognized as playing a prominent role in immune regulation. The receptors exist in both soluble and cell-bound forms; the soluble receptors (sAxl and sMer) are believed to compete with the bound receptors and thus inhibit their function. In this study, we determined the expression of cell-bound and soluble TAM proteins in patients with CKD. CKD patients had significantly lower expression of Mer in monocytes, yet increased expression of soluble TAM receptors sAxl and sMer in plasma compared to controls. The metalloproteinase ADAM 17, responsible for cleavage of Mer to its soluble form, was increased in patient monocytes. Elevated levels of soluble TAM receptors were more evident in patients with progressive renal failure. These observations suggest that functional deficiency of TAM receptor-mediated regulation of inflammation may contribute to chronic inflammation in patients with CKD.

  19. Helicobacter pylori outer membrane vesicles inhibit human T cell responses via induction of monocyte COX-2 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Barry D; McKenzie, Judith L; Keenan, Jacqueline I

    2017-06-01

    The modulation of T cell responses by Helicobacter pylori is thought to potentiate both H. pylori persistence and development of gastric pathologies including cancer. Release of outer membrane vesicles (OMV) by H. pylori provides a potential vehicle for modulation of the immune system. Although OMV are thought to have T cell suppressive activity, this has not yet been demonstrated. Their suppressive activity was investigated in this study using the responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to T cell stimuli as a readout. We demonstrate that addition of OMV to PBMC significantly inhibits subsequent T cell proliferation in a cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2)-dependent manner. Addition of OMV did not significantly modulate PBMC apoptosis, but induced strong expression of COX-2 by the monocytes present and significantly increased levels of PGE2 and IL-10. These effects were independent of vacuolating cytotoxin expression. Together, these findings demonstrate that OMV can suppress human T cell responses and that the predominant mechanism is not through a direct effect on the T cells but results from the induction of COX-2 expression in monocytes. This increased COX-2 activity may modulate not only H. pylori-directed immune responses but also wider immune responses. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Activation of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus expression during maturation of monocytes to macrophages.

    OpenAIRE

    Narayan, O; Kennedy-Stoskopf, S; Sheffer, D; Griffin, D E; Clements, J E

    1983-01-01

    Lentiviruses, which cause arthritis-encephalitis and maedi-visna in goats and sheep, respectively, cause persistent infections in these animals. The viruses replicate productively at low levels in macrophages in diseased organs such as the "maedi lung" and nonproductively in other cell types such as leukocytes in peripheral blood. Nonproductive infections become productive during in vitro cultivation of the cells. This study showed that monocytes were the only cells in the peripheral blood le...

  1. Telmisartan attenuates hyperglycemia-exacerbated VCAM-1 expression and monocytes adhesion in TNFα-stimulated endothelial cells by inhibiting IKKβ expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kee-Ho; Park, Jung-Hyun; Jo, Inho; Park, Joong-Yeol; Seo, Jungwon; Kim, Soon Ae; Cho, Du-Hyong

    2016-03-01

    Uncontrolled hyperglycemia accelerates endothelial damage and vascular inflammation caused by proinflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), which leads to arteriosclerotic cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infarction. Telmisartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB), is prescribed for treatment of hypertensive patients with concurrent diabetes mellitus (DM). Although a few clinical trials have suggested that telmisartan decreases cardiovascular complications in diabetic patients, the molecular mechanism for the beneficial effects remains elusive. Here, we investigated a molecular mechanism and effects of telmisartan on the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and attachment of monocytes onto endothelial cells induced by TNFα in hyperglycemia-treated bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC). Telmisartan dose-dependently decreased hyperglycemia-aggravated IκB kinase β (IKKβ) expression and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65-Ser(536) phosphorylation, which accompanied a decrease in VCAM-1 expression and THP-1 monocytes adhesion. Among ARBs, including losartan and fimasartan, only telmisartan showed the inhibitory effects on expression of VCAM-1 and IKKβ, and phosphorylation of NF-κB p65-Ser(536). The telmisartan's beneficial effects were not changed by pretreatment with GW9662, a specific and irreversible peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) antagonist, although GW9662 clearly inhibited rosiglitazone-induced CD36 expression. Finally, ectopic expression of wild type (WT)-IKKβ significantly restored telmisartan-attenuated VCAM-1 expression, NF-κB p65-Ser(536) phosphorylation, and THP-1 monocytes adhesion. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that telmisartan ameliorates hyperglycemia-exacerbated vascular inflammation, at least in part, by decreasing expression of IKKβ and VCAM-1 independently of PPARγ. Telmisartan may be useful for the treatment of DM-associated vascular

  2. ABPS-INDUCED HLA-DR EXPRESSION IN MONOCYTES%ABPS诱导单核细胞HLA-DR表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宇学; 彭颖; 吕建新; 金丽琴

    2004-01-01

    目的研究牛膝多糖(ABPS)在体外激活单核细胞的效应.方法采集健康成人抗凝血,用贴壁法分离单核细胞,调节细胞数接种到24孔板.在370 C,5%CO2条件下,以同一时间不同ABPS浓度或同一ABPS浓度不同时间培养,用流式细胞术和电镜检测单核细胞的激活.结果 ABPS诱导单核细胞超微结构和HLA-DR的改变.结论 ABPS上调HLA-DR表达并能激活单核细胞.%Objective To investigate the activating effect of Achyrathes bidentata polysaccharides (ABPS) on mononuclear cells in vitro.Method Heparinized blood was collected from adults. The monocytes were separated by the anchoring technique. Freshly isolated in 24-well flat-bottom plates, the cells were cultured with serially diluted ABPS-RPMI1640 for identical time or with the same ABPS-RPMI1640 for different periods at 37℃ in 5% CO2. The activation of the cells was assayed by electron microscopy and flow cytometry. Result Monocytes cultured with ABPS underwent substaintial changes in the cell ultrastructure, and the expression of HLA-DR was up-regulated in these cells in significant dose- and time-dependent manner. Conclusion ABPS can induce the expression of HLA-DR in the monocytes, and thereby activate them.

  3. Changes in adhesion molecule expression and oxidative burst activity of granulocytes and monocytes during open-heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass compared with abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, P; Nielsen, C H; Tønnesen, Else Kirstine

    1998-01-01

    Cardiac and major abdominal surgery are associated with granulocytosis in peripheral blood. The purpose of the present study was to describe the granulocyte and monocyte oxidative burst and the expression of adhesion molecules following cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass and abdominal...... surgery, 1, 5, 10 and 20 min after aortic clamping, and then 1, 5, 10 and 20 min and 1, 2 and 3 h after declamping. Samples from eight patients undergoing abdominal surgery were taken before surgery, at the end of surgery, and 2 and 3 h post-operatively. A decrease in number of granulocytes and monocytes...... burst of the granulocytes and monocytes decreased after declamping to 15% and 27% of initial values in vitro. Several hours after surgery, there was no significant difference between the two groups. These results can be explained by a granulocyte and monocyte refractory response developing subsequent...

  4. Changes in monocyte counts and expression of mCD14 and HLA-DR in the peripheral blood of patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    National Research Project for SARS, Beijing Group

    2004-01-01

    @@ Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is an infectious disease that originally emerged in China in November 2002. It subsequently spread worldwide.Investigators involved in an international collaboration have attempted to determine a specific etiology in order to redefine what is currently best described as a syndrome into a specific disease. At present, a novel coronavirus is generally accepted as the single most probable causative agent. In the case of HIV infection, monocytes/macrophages are infected early in the infection process,and the activation of monocytes/macrophages can influence the susceptibility of these cells to infection. 1Therefore, we examined the number of monocytes and the expression of CD14 and HLA-DR in the peripheral blood of patients with SARS to determine whether monocytes were involved in the pathogenesis of SARS.

  5. HCV-induced miR146a controls SOCS1/STAT3 and cytokine expression in monocytes to promote regulatory T-cell development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, J P; Ying, R S; Cheng, Y Q; Wang, L; El Gazzar, M; Li, G Y; Ning, S B; Moorman, J P; Yao, Z Q

    2016-10-01

    Host innate and adaptive immune responses must be tightly regulated by an intricate balance between positive and negative signals to ensure their appropriate onset and termination while fighting pathogens and avoiding autoimmunity; persistent pathogens may usurp these regulatory machineries to dampen host immune responses for their persistence in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that miR146a is up-regulated in monocytes from hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected individuals compared to control subjects. Interestingly, miR146a expression in monocytes without HCV infection increased, whereas its level in monocytes with HCV infection decreased, following Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation. This miR146a induction by HCV infection and differential response to TLR stimulation were recapitulated in vitro in monocytes co-cultured with hepatocytes with or without HCV infection. Importantly, inhibition of miR146a in monocytes from HCV-infected patients led to a decrease in IL-23, IL-10 and TGF-β expressions through the induction of suppressor of cytokine signalling 1 (SOCS1) and the inhibition of signal transducer and activator transcription 3 (STAT3), and this subsequently resulted in a decrease in regulatory T cells (Tregs) accumulated during HCV infection. These results suggest that miR146a may regulate SOCS1/STAT3 and cytokine signalling in monocytes, directing T-cell differentiation and balancing immune clearance and immune injury during chronic viral infection.

  6. Determination and Modulation of Total and Surface Calcium-Sensing Receptor Expression in Monocytes In Vivo and In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paccou, Julien; Boudot, Cédric; Mary, Aurélien; Kamel, Said; Drüeke, Tilman Bernhard; Fardellone, Patrice; Massy, Ziad; Brazier, Michel; Mentaverri, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    Expression of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) has previously been demonstrated in human circulating monocytes (HCM). The present study was designed to measure CaSR expression in HCM and to examine its potential modulation by pro-inflammatory cytokines, Ca2+, vitamin D sterols in U937 cell line. Twenty healthy volunteers underwent blood sampling with subsequent isolation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) at 3 visits. Flow cytometry analysis (FACS) was performed initially (V1) and 19 days later (V2) to examine intra- and intersubject fluctuations of total and surface CaSR expression in HCM and 15 weeks later (V3) to study the effect of vitamin D supplementation. In vitro experiments were conducted to assess the effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines, calcidiol, calcitriol and Ca2+ on CaSR expression in U937 cell line. By FACS analysis, more than 95% of HCM exhibited cell surface CaSR staining. In contrast, CaSR staining failed to detect surface CaSR expression in other PBMC. After cell permeabilization, total CaSR expression was observed in more than 95% of all types of PBMC. Both total and surface CaSR expression in HCM showed a high degree of intra-assay reproducibility (<3%) and a moderate intersubject fluctuation. In response to vitamin D supplementation, there was no significant change for both total and surface CaSR expression. In the in vitro study, U937 cells showed strong total and surface CaSR expression, and both were moderately increased in response to calcitriol exposure. Neither total nor surface CaSR expression was modified by increasing Ca2+ concentrations. Total CaSR expression was concentration dependently decreased by TNFα exposure. In conclusion, CaSR expression can be easily measured by flow cytometry in human circulating monocytes. In the in vitro study, total and surface CaSR expression in the U937 cell line were increased by calcitriol but total CaSR expression was decreased by TNFα stimulation. PMID:24098349

  7. Powerful identification of cis-regulatory SNPs in human primary monocytes using allele-specific gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Carlsson Almlöf

    Full Text Available A large number of genome-wide association studies have been performed during the past five years to identify associations between SNPs and human complex diseases and traits. The assignment of a functional role for the identified disease-associated SNP is not straight-forward. Genome-wide expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL analysis is frequently used as the initial step to define a function while allele-specific gene expression (ASE analysis has not yet gained a wide-spread use in disease mapping studies. We compared the power to identify cis-acting regulatory SNPs (cis-rSNPs by genome-wide allele-specific gene expression (ASE analysis with that of traditional expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL mapping. Our study included 395 healthy blood donors for whom global gene expression profiles in circulating monocytes were determined by Illumina BeadArrays. ASE was assessed in a subset of these monocytes from 188 donors by quantitative genotyping of mRNA using a genome-wide panel of SNP markers. The performance of the two methods for detecting cis-rSNPs was evaluated by comparing associations between SNP genotypes and gene expression levels in sample sets of varying size. We found that up to 8-fold more samples are required for eQTL mapping to reach the same statistical power as that obtained by ASE analysis for the same rSNPs. The performance of ASE is insensitive to SNPs with low minor allele frequencies and detects a larger number of significantly associated rSNPs using the same sample size as eQTL mapping. An unequivocal conclusion from our comparison is that ASE analysis is more sensitive for detecting cis-rSNPs than standard eQTL mapping. Our study shows the potential of ASE mapping in tissue samples and primary cells which are difficult to obtain in large numbers.

  8. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in monocytes during acute Dengue Fever in patients and during in vitro infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves-Souza, Patrícia CF; Azeredo, Elzinandes L; Zagne, Sonia MO; Valls-de-Souza, Rogério; Reis, Sonia RNI; Cerqueira, Denise IS; Nogueira, Rita MR; Kubelka, Claire F

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Mononuclear phagocytes are considered to be main targets for Dengue Virus (DENV) replication. These cells are activated after infection, producing proinflammatory mediators, including tumour-necrosis factor-α, which has also been detected in vivo. Nitric oxide (NO), usually produced by activated mononuclear phagocytes, has antimicrobial and antiviral activities. Methods The expression of DENV antigens and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in human blood isolated monocytes were analysed by flow cytometry using cells either from patients with acute Dengue Fever or after DENV-1 in vitro infection. DENV-1 susceptibility to iNOS inhibition and NO production was investigated using NG-methyl L-Arginine (NGMLA) as an iNOS inhibitor, which was added to DENV-1 infected human monocytes, and sodium nitroprussiate (SNP), a NO donor, added to infected C6/36 mosquito cell clone. Viral antigens after treatments were detected by flow cytometry analysis. Results INOS expression in activated monocytes was observed in 10 out of 21 patients with Dengue Fever and was absent in cells from ten healthy individuals. DENV antigens detected in 25 out of 35 patients, were observed early during in vitro infection (3 days), significantly diminished with time, indicating that virus replicated, however monocytes controlled the infection. On the other hand, the iNOS expression was detected at increasing frequency in in vitro infected monocytes from three to six days, exhibiting an inverse relationship to DENV antigen expression. We demonstrated that the detection of the DENV-1 antigen was enhanced during monocyte treatment with NGMLA. In the mosquito cell line C6/36, virus detection was significantly reduced in the presence of SNP, when compared to that of untreated cells. Conclusion This study is the first to reveal the activation of DENV infected monocytes based on induction of iNOS both in vivo and in vitro, as well as the susceptibility of DENV-1 to a NO production. PMID:16109165

  9. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression in monocytes during acute Dengue Fever in patients and during in vitro infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerqueira Denise IS

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mononuclear phagocytes are considered to be main targets for Dengue Virus (DENV replication. These cells are activated after infection, producing proinflammatory mediators, including tumour-necrosis factor-α, which has also been detected in vivo. Nitric oxide (NO, usually produced by activated mononuclear phagocytes, has antimicrobial and antiviral activities. Methods The expression of DENV antigens and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS in human blood isolated monocytes were analysed by flow cytometry using cells either from patients with acute Dengue Fever or after DENV-1 in vitro infection. DENV-1 susceptibility to iNOS inhibition and NO production was investigated using NG-methyl L-Arginine (NGMLA as an iNOS inhibitor, which was added to DENV-1 infected human monocytes, and sodium nitroprussiate (SNP, a NO donor, added to infected C6/36 mosquito cell clone. Viral antigens after treatments were detected by flow cytometry analysis. Results INOS expression in activated monocytes was observed in 10 out of 21 patients with Dengue Fever and was absent in cells from ten healthy individuals. DENV antigens detected in 25 out of 35 patients, were observed early during in vitro infection (3 days, significantly diminished with time, indicating that virus replicated, however monocytes controlled the infection. On the other hand, the iNOS expression was detected at increasing frequency in in vitro infected monocytes from three to six days, exhibiting an inverse relationship to DENV antigen expression. We demonstrated that the detection of the DENV-1 antigen was enhanced during monocyte treatment with NGMLA. In the mosquito cell line C6/36, virus detection was significantly reduced in the presence of SNP, when compared to that of untreated cells. Conclusion This study is the first to reveal the activation of DENV infected monocytes based on induction of iNOS both in vivo and in vitro, as well as the susceptibility of DENV-1 to a NO production.

  10. Oxidized Lipids and Lysophosphatidylcholine Induce the Chemotaxis, Up-Regulate the Expression of CCR9 and CXCR4 and Abrogate the Release of IL-6 in Human Monocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolin, Johannes; Vego, Heidi; Maghazachi, Azzam A.

    2014-01-01

    Lipids through regulation of chronic inflammation play key roles in the development of various diseases. Here, we report that a mixed population of human primary monocytes migrated towards LPC, as well as oxidized linoleic acid isoforms 9-S-HODE, 9-R-HODE and 13-R-HODE. Incubation with 9-R-HODE, 13-R-HODE and LPC resulted in increased expression of CXCR4, the receptor for SDF-1α/CXCL12, correlated with increased monocyte migration towards SDF-1α/CXCL12. Further, we report increased expression of CCR9, the receptor for TECK/CCL25, after stimulation with these lipids. Upon examining the migratory response towards TECK/CCL25, it was observed that an increase in CCR9 expression upon pre-treatment with 9-S-HODE, 9-R-HODE, 13-R-HODE and LPC resulted in increased migration of monocytes expressing CCR9. Only LPC but not any other lipid examined increased the influx of intracellular Ca2+ in monocytes. Finally, 9-S-HODE, 9-R-HODE, 13-R-HODE, or LPC inhibited the release of IL-6 from monocytes suggesting that these lipids may play important role in controlling inflammatory responses. PMID:25251539

  11. Effect of eicosapentaenoic acid on the expression of ABCG1 gene in the human monocyte THP-1 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Moradi Sarabi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of death and disability in developed countries. Atherosclerosis is the major cause of CVD, accounting for about half of the attributed deaths. Cholesterol homeostasis is one of the most important factors in atherosclerosis. ATP-Binding cassette transporters cholesterol. Omega (ω 3 fatty acids are important ligands for regulation of ABC transporters such as ABCG1. Concern has been raised that the low absolute intakes of EPA and high ratios of ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-6 PUFA to EPA may predispose some individuals to CVD. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA is the most abundant ω3 fatty acid in the diet. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of EPA on the expression of ABCG1 gene in the human monocyte THP-1 cells. In this study, THP-1 cells were cultured in RPMI 1640 medium, THP-1 monocytes were then differentiated to macrophages with PMA (phorbol myristic acid and stimulated with 50, 75 and 100 μM of EPA for 24 h at 37°C. We examined the effects of EPA treatment on the expression of ABCG1 gene using Quantitative Real time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR. Our results, indicate that ABCG1 mRNA expression was significantly reduced by 50, 75 and 100 μM EPA fatty acid treatments as compared to the control cells (р = 0.009, р < 0.001 and р = 0.002, respectively. These results suggest that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs such as EPA have an effect on the cholesterol homeostasis in macrophages, and they can change the expression of ABCG1 gene. It seems that EPA has different effects on gene expression and lipid metabolism.

  12. Effect of eicosapentaenoic acid on the expression of ABCG1 gene in the human monocyte THP-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi Sarabi, Mostafa; Doosti, Mahmood; Einollahi, Nahid; Hesami, Soroush Shahryar; Dashti, Nasrin

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death and disability in developed countries. Atherosclerosis is the major cause of CVD, accounting for about half of the attributed deaths. Cholesterol homeostasis is one of the most important factors in atherosclerosis. ATP-Binding cassette transporters cholesterol. Omega (ω) 3 fatty acids are important ligands for regulation of ABC transporters such as ABCG1. Concern has been raised that the low absolute intakes of EPA and high ratios of ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-6 PUFA) to EPA may predispose some individuals to CVD. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is the most abundant ω3 fatty acid in the diet. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of EPA on the expression of ABCG1 gene in the human monocyte THP-1 cells. In this study, THP-1 cells were cultured in RPMI 1640 medium, THP-1 monocytes were then differentiated to macrophages with PMA (phorbol myristic acid) and stimulated with 50, 75 and 100 μM of EPA for 24 h at 37°C. We examined the effects of EPA treatment on the expression of ABCG1 gene using Quantitative Real time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Our results, indicate that ABCG1 mRNA expression was significantly reduced by 50, 75 and 100 μM EPA fatty acid treatments as compared to the control cells (р = 0.009, р < 0.001 and р = 0.002, respectively). These results suggest that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as EPA have an effect on the cholesterol homeostasis in macrophages, and they can change the expression of ABCG1 gene. It seems that EPA has different effects on gene expression and lipid metabolism.

  13. Upregulated baseline plasma CCL19 and CCR7 cell-surface expression on monocytes in early rheumatoid arthritis normalized during treatment and CCL19 correlated with radiographic progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellingsen, T; Hansen, I; Thorsen, J;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to measure, in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, the concentration of CC-chemokine ligand 19 (CCL19) in plasma and the cell-surface expression of CC-chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) on circulating monocytes and CD4+ T lymphocytes and to analyse correlations...... with disease activity and 5-year radiographic progression. METHOD: In disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD)-naïve RA patients (disease duration CCR7 cell-surface expression on monocytes and CD4+ T...... smoked, C-reactive protein (CRP), gender, age, number of tender (NTJ) and swollen joints (NSJ), and 28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28). Increased CCR7 expression on monocytes (p = 0.008) correlated to CRP (p = 0.006, r = 0.52) and normalized (n = 15) after 1 year (p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: In DMARD...

  14. Increased Expression of CD200 on Circulating CD11b+ Monocytes in Patients with Neovascular Age-related Macular Degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Amardeep; Falk, Mads K; Hviid, Thomas V F

    2013-01-01

    , and detailed retinal imaging was performed: fundus autofluorescence imaging, digital color fundoscopy, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography were performed in patients with suspected neovascular AMD. Visual acuity was measured in both eyes. Fresh venous...... was observed in controls with healthy eyes, but not in patients with neovascular AMD. We did not find any differences in CD200 and CD200R expression between patients with subretinal fibrosis and patients without subretinal fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: The surface expression of CD200 on circulating CD11b+ monocytes...... was found to be increased in patients with neovascular AMD compared with controls with healthy eyes. This novel finding supports the notion that altered regulation of the inflammatory response plays an integral role in the pathogenesis of AMD. FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE(S): The author(s) have no proprietary...

  15. Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Targeting of CXCR3(+) CD4(+) T Cells in Secondary Lymphoid Organs Is Associated with Robust CXCL10 Expression in Monocyte/Macrophage Subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Masayuki; Sato, Hirotaka; Okamura, Tomotaka; Uda, Akihiko; Takeda, Satoshi; Ahmed, Nursarat; Shichino, Shigeyuki; Shiino, Teiichiro; Saito, Yohei; Watanabe, Satoru; Sugimoto, Chie; Kuroda, Marcelo J; Ato, Manabu; Nagai, Yoshiyuki; Izumo, Shuji; Matsushima, Kouji; Miyazawa, Masaaki; Ansari, Aftab A; Villinger, Francois; Mori, Kazuyasu

    2017-07-01

    Glycosylation of Env defines pathogenic properties of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). We previously demonstrated that pathogenic SIVmac239 and a live-attenuated, quintuple deglycosylated Env mutant (Δ5G) virus target CD4(+) T cells residing in different tissues during acute infection. SIVmac239 and Δ5G preferentially infected distinct CD4(+) T cells in secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) and within the lamina propria of the small intestine, respectively (C. Sugimoto et al., J Virol 86:9323-9336, 2012, https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00948-12). Here, we studied the host responses relevant to SIV targeting of CXCR3(+) CCR5(+) CD4(+) T cells in SLOs. Genome-wide transcriptome analyses revealed that Th1-polarized inflammatory responses, defined by expression of CXCR3 chemokines, were distinctly induced in the SIVmac239-infected animals. Consistent with robust expression of CXCL10, CXCR3(+) T cells were depleted from blood in the SIVmac239-infected animals. We also discovered that elevation of CXCL10 expression in blood and SLOs was secondary to the induction of CD14(+) CD16(+) monocytes and MAC387(+) macrophages, respectively. Since the significantly higher levels of SIV infection in SLOs occurred with a massive accumulation of infiltrated MAC387(+) macrophages, T cells, dendritic cells (DCs), and residential macrophages near high endothelial venules, the results highlight critical roles of innate/inflammatory responses in SIVmac239 infection. Restricted infection in SLOs by Δ5G also suggests that glycosylation of Env modulates innate/inflammatory responses elicited by cells of monocyte/macrophage/DC lineages.IMPORTANCE We previously demonstrated that a pathogenic SIVmac239 virus and a live-attenuated, deglycosylated mutant Δ5G virus infected distinct CD4(+) T cell subsets in SLOs and the small intestine, respectively (C. Sugimoto et al., J Virol 86:9323-9336, 2012, https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00948-12). Accordingly, infections with SIVmac239, but not with Δ5G

  16. Testosterone replacement therapy in hypogonadal men is associated with increased expression of LAMP-2 (CD107b) by circulating monocytes and dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, J J; Almeida, M; Martín-Martín, L; Miralles, J M; Orfao, A

    2014-04-01

    Accumulated experimental data indicates that androgen therapy has effects on inflammation and protects from autoimmune disorders. Despite this, the in vivo effects of testosterone replacement therapy on human antigen-presenting cells-for example, monocytes and dendritic cells- remain unknown. We monitored the effects of testosterone replacement therapy on the number and the functionality -as assessed by the expression of CD107b (lysosome-associated membrane protein 2, LAMP-2)- of resting and in vitro-stimulated peripheral blood (classical and nonclassical) monocytes and dendritic cells (myeloid and plasmacytoid) from hypogonadal men. Our results show that testosterone replacement therapy induces overexpression of CD107b by circulating monocytes and dendritic cells from hypogonadal men, both under resting (i.e. nonstimulated) conditions and after in vitro stimulation. CD107b overexpression mostly involved monocytes and in vitro stimulation with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides. Of note, a strong correlation was found between CD107b expression on monocytes and serum gonadotrophins levels. These results support the existence of an effect of testosterone therapy, and potentially also of gonadotrophins, on circulating antigen-presenting cells. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies suppress let-7a expression in monocytes from patients with rheumatoid arthritis and facilitate the inflammatory responses in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ning-Sheng; Yu, Hui-Chun; Yu, Chia-Li; Koo, Malcolm; Huang, Hsien-Bin; Lu, Ming-Chi

    2015-12-01

    We hypothesized that anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs) could affect the expression of miRNAs in monocytes and contribute to the inflammatory responses in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The expression profiles of 270 human miRNAs, co-cultured with ACPAs or human immunoglobulin G (IgG), were analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Ten miRNAs exhibited differential expression in U937 cells after co-cultured with ACPAs compared with human IgG. The expression levels of these miRNAs were investigated in monocytes from 21 ACPA-positive RA patients and 13 controls. Among these miRNAs, the expression levels of let-7a was decreased in monocytes from ACPA-positive RA patients. The expression levels of let-7a showed a negative correlation with positivity of rheumatoid factor in patients sampled. We found that transfection of U937 cells with let-7a mimic suppressed K-Ras protein expression. In the ACPA-mediated signaling pathway, transfection of U937 cells with let-7a mimic suppressed the ACPA-enhanced phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), and the expression and secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β. In conclusion, ACPA-mediated decreased let-7a expression in monocytes from ACPA-positive RA patients. Decreased let-7a expression was associated with the positivity of RF in ACPA-positive RA patients. The decreased expression of let-7a could facilitate the inflammatory pathway via enhanced ACPA-mediated phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK and increased expression of IL-1β through an increase in the expression of Ras proteins.

  18. CD80 and CD86 expression on LPS-stimulated monocytes and the effect of CD80 and CD86 blockade on IL-4 and IFN-gamma production in nonatopic bronchial asthma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rutkowski, Ryszard; Moniuszko, Tadeusz; Stasiak-Barmuta, Anna; Kosztyła-Hojna, Bozena; Alifier, Marek; Rutkowski, Krzysztof; Tatarczuk-Krawiel, Anetta

    2003-01-01

    .... Up to now, the expressions of CD80 (B7.1) and CD86 (B7.2) on monocytes and the kinetics of the expression of these molecules on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated monocytes in nonatopic asthma have not been defined...

  19. Inflammatory gene expression in monocytes of patients with schizophrenia : overlap and difference with bipolar disorder. A study in naturalistically treated patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drexhage, Roosmarijn C.; van der Heul-Nieuwenhuijsen, Leonie; Padmos, Roos C.; van Beveren, Nico; Cohen, Dan; Versnel, Marjan A.; Nolen, Willem A.; Drexhage, Hemmo A.

    2010-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates an activated inflammatory response system as a vulnerability factor for schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD). We aimed to detect a specific inflammatory monocyte gene expression signature in SZ and compare such signature with our recently described inflammator

  20. Global gene expression and systems biology analysis of bovine monocyte-derived macrophages in response to in vitro challenge with Mycobacterium bovis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Magee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis, is a major cause of mortality in global cattle populations. Macrophages are among the first cell types to encounter M. bovis following exposure and the response elicited by these cells is pivotal in determining the outcome of infection. Here, a functional genomics approach was undertaken to investigate global gene expression profiles in bovine monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM purified from seven age-matched non-related females, in response to in vitro challenge with M. bovis (multiplicity of infection 2:1. Total cellular RNA was extracted from non-challenged control and M. bovis-challenged MDM for all animals at intervals of 2 hours, 6 hours and 24 hours post-challenge and prepared for global gene expression analysis using the Affymetrix® GeneChip® Bovine Genome Array. RESULTS: Comparison of M. bovis-challenged MDM gene expression profiles with those from the non-challenged MDM controls at each time point identified 3,064 differentially expressed genes 2 hours post-challenge, with 4,451 and 5,267 differentially expressed genes detected at the 6 hour and 24 hour time points, respectively (adjusted P-value threshold ≤ 0.05. Notably, the number of downregulated genes exceeded the number of upregulated genes in the M. bovis-challenged MDM across all time points; however, the fold-change in expression for the upregulated genes was markedly higher than that for the downregulated genes. Systems analysis revealed enrichment for genes involved in: (1 the inflammatory response; (2 cell signalling pathways, including Toll-like receptors and intracellular pathogen recognition receptors; and (3 apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS: The increased number of downregulated genes is consistent with previous studies showing that M. bovis infection is associated with the repression of host gene expression. The results also support roles for MyD88-independent signalling and intracellular PRRs in

  1. Integrating genome-wide genetic variations and monocyte expression data reveals trans-regulated gene modules in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Rotival

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One major expectation from the transcriptome in humans is to characterize the biological basis of associations identified by genome-wide association studies. So far, few cis expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs have been reliably related to disease susceptibility. Trans-regulating mechanisms may play a more prominent role in disease susceptibility. We analyzed 12,808 genes detected in at least 5% of circulating monocyte samples from a population-based sample of 1,490 European unrelated subjects. We applied a method of extraction of expression patterns-independent component analysis-to identify sets of co-regulated genes. These patterns were then related to 675,350 SNPs to identify major trans-acting regulators. We detected three genomic regions significantly associated with co-regulated gene modules. Association of these loci with multiple expression traits was replicated in Cardiogenics, an independent study in which expression profiles of monocytes were available in 758 subjects. The locus 12q13 (lead SNP rs11171739, previously identified as a type 1 diabetes locus, was associated with a pattern including two cis eQTLs, RPS26 and SUOX, and 5 trans eQTLs, one of which (MADCAM1 is a potential candidate for mediating T1D susceptibility. The locus 12q24 (lead SNP rs653178, which has demonstrated extensive disease pleiotropy, including type 1 diabetes, hypertension, and celiac disease, was associated to a pattern strongly correlating to blood pressure level. The strongest trans eQTL in this pattern was CRIP1, a known marker of cellular proliferation in cancer. The locus 12q15 (lead SNP rs11177644 was associated with a pattern driven by two cis eQTLs, LYZ and YEATS4, and including 34 trans eQTLs, several of them tumor-related genes. This study shows that a method exploiting the structure of co-expressions among genes can help identify genomic regions involved in trans regulation of sets of genes and can provide clues for understanding the

  2. Retinoic acid regulates CD1d gene expression at the transcriptional level in human and rodent monocytic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiuyan; Ross, A Catharine

    2007-04-01

    CD1d belongs to a group of nonclassical antigen-presenting molecules that present glycolipid antigens and thereby activate natural killer T (NKT) cells, a subset of bifunctional T cells. Little is known so far regarding the expression and physiologic regulation of CD1d. Here we show that all-trans-retinoic acid (RA), the active metabolite of vitamin A, rapidly (1 hr after treatment) increases CD1d mRNA in human and rodent monocytic cells at a physiologic dose (10 nM). The induction is RA specific and RA receptor (RAR) dependent-RA and an RARalpha agonist, Am580, both had a pronounced positive effect, whereas the addition of RARalpha antagonist partially blocked the increase in CD1d mRNA induced by RA and Am580. The induction was also completely blocked by the presence of actinomycin D. A putative RA-response element was identified in the distal 5' flanking region of the CD1d gene, which binds nuclear retinoid receptors and was responsive to RA in both gel mobility shift assay and transient transfection assay in THP-1 cells. These results further confirmed the transcriptional regulation of RA in CD1d gene expression. Moreover, RA significantly increased alpha-galactosylceramide-induced spleen cell proliferation. These studies together provide evidence for a previously unknown mechanism of CD1d gene expression regulation by RA and suggest that RA is a significant modulator of NKT cell activation.

  3. Human monocyte-derived dendritic cells expressing both chemotactic cytokines IL-8, MCP-1, RANTES and their receptors,and their selective migration to these chemokines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To characterize the mRNA expression of CXC chemokine IL-8, CC chemokine monocyte chemothractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and regulated on activation,normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), and a newly defined DC chemokine DC- CK1 as well as the expression of IL-8 receptor, MCP-1 receptor and RANTES receptor in human monocyte derived dendritic cells (MoDCs).The migratory responsiveness of MoDC to IL-8, MCP-1 and RANTES was alsso studied. Methods In vitro generated MoDCs were obtained by differentiating monocytes in the presence of GM-CSF and IL-4 for 5 days. The time course of RNA expression was analyzed by RT-PCR and migratoly ability was assessed by a micromultiwell chemotaxis chamber assay. Results IL-8, MCP-1, RANTES and their corres ponding receptors were consistently expressed in MoDCs. DC-CK-1 expression was detectable efter 48 hours of differentiation. MoDC selectively migrated in response to MCP-1 and RANTES but not to IL-8 though transcripts of IL-8 receptor were present. Conclusion Because the capacity of dendritic cells to initiate immune responses depends on their specialized migratory and tissue homing properties, the expression of chemokines and their receptors along with the migratory responsiveness to chemokines of MoDC in our study suggests a potential role of chemokines in the interaction between dendritic cells and T cells and the induction of immune responses.

  4. Markedly elevated CD64 expressions on neutrophils and monocytes are useful for diagnosis of periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome during flares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Takashi; Hokibara, Sho; Shigemura, Tomonari; Kobayashi, Norimoto; Honda, Kimiko; Umeda, Yoh; Agematsu, Kazunaga

    2014-05-01

    Periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome is the most commonly encountered autoinflammatory disease in children, but its pathogenesis and diagnostic biomarkers are unknown. In this study, we examined the utility of CD64, a member of the Fcγ receptors, expressions on neutrophils and monocytes in diagnosing patients with PFAPA, along with other autoinflammatory diseases exhibiting periodic fever, and bacterial infections. Although CD64 was expressed at a similar level in the attack-free period of PFAPA and in controls, CD64 expressions on both neutrophils and monocytes were dramatically increased during attacks. Serum IFN-γ also increased in some PFAPA patients during flares, suggesting the involvement of T cell activation. Our findings demonstrate that remarkable CD64 expression during PFAPA flares serves as a potential biomarker for the diagnosis. We also suspect that IFN-γ, possibly from retention of activated T cells in peripheral tissues, increases CD64 synthesis in such cases.

  5. Efek ekstrak daun singkong (Manihot utilissima terhadap ekspresi COX-2 pada monosit yang dipapar LPS E.coli (The effect of Manihot utilissima extracts on COX-2 expression of monocytes induced by LPS E. coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahara Meilawaty

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal disease is a common and widespread disease in the community. Gram negative bacteria have a role inperiodontitis. These bacteria secrete a variety of products such as endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS, which causes the occurrenceof inflammation or infection. The body defense responses are neutrophils and mononuclear cells (monocytes and macrophages. Inresponse to defense mechanism, the body will be expressed enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX which functions convert arachidonic acidto prostaglandins. Cassava leaf cells known to play a role in reducing inflammation, but the mechanism for inhibiting COX-2, is notknown. Purpose: The study was aimed to determine the effect of cassava leaf extract (Manihot utilissima on expression of enzyme COX-2 in monocytes which were exposed by LPS E. coli. Methods: This study was in vitro experimental studies with the design of posttestonly control group design. The sample was the cassava leaves extract (Manihot utilissima at concentration of 12.5 % and 25 %. Theexpression of COX-2 was determined by immunocytochemistry method. Isolated monocytes were incubated in cassava leaf extract, andthen exposed to LPS, after washing imunostaning procedure was performed using a monoclonal antibody (MAb anti-human COX-2.The research data was the number of monocytes that express COX-2. Results: Expression of COX-2 in the group cassava leaf extractwas higher than the group that induced by LPS E. coli only. Conclusion: Cassava leaf extract did not inhibit the expression of COX-2in monocytes which were exposed by LPS E. coli.Latar belakang: Penyakit periodontal merupakan penyakit umum dan tersebar luas di masyarakat. Bakteri yang banyak berperanpada periodontitis adalah Gram negatif. Bakteri ini mengeluarkan berbagai produk antara lain endotoksin lipopolisakarida (LPS yangmenyebabkan inflamasi atau infeksi. Respon pertahanan tubuh pertama adalah netrofil dan sel mononuklear (monosit dan makrofag.Pada respon

  6. Gene expression profiling of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells - Searching for molecular regulators of tolerogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katina eSchinnerling

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability of dendritic cells (DCs to initiate and modulate antigen-specific immune responses has made them attractive targets for immunotherapy. Since DC research in humans is limited by the scarcity of DC populations in the blood circulation, most of our knowledge about DC biology and function has been obtained in vitro from monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs, which can be readily generated in sufficient numbers and are able to differentiate into distinct functional subsets depending on the nature of stimulus. In particular, moDCs with tolerogenic properties (tolDCs possess great therapeutic potential for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Several protocols have been developed to generate tolDCs in vitro, able to reinstruct auto-reactive T cells and to promote regulatory cells. While ligands and soluble mediators, by which DCs shape immune responses, have been vastly studied, the intracellular pathways and transcriptional regulators that govern tolDC differentiation and function are poorly understood. Whole-genome microarrays and proteomics provide useful strategies to dissect the complex molecular processes that promote tolerogenicity. Only few attempts have been made to understand tolDC biology through a global view on ‘omics’ profiles. So far, the identification of a common regulator of tolerogenicity has been hampered by the fact that each protocol, used for tolDC generation, targets distinct signaling pathways. Here we review the progress in understanding the transcriptional regulation of moDC differentiation, with a special focus on tolDCs, and highlight candidate molecules that might be associated with DC tolerogenicity.

  7. Postoperative Changes in Aqueous Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1 Levels and Bleb Morphology after Trabeculectomy vs. Ex-PRESS Shunt Surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Shobayashi

    Full Text Available To evaluate the postoperative changes in blebs and levels of aqueous monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1 after trabeculectomy vs. Ex-PRESS tube shunt surgery.Rabbits were subjected to trabeculectomy or Ex-PRESS tube shunt surgery and observed for up to 3 months. Intraocular pressure (IOP was measured using a rebound tonometer. The MCP-1 level was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Bleb morphology was evaluated using photos and anterior-segment optical coherence tomography (OCT.There were no differences in bleb appearance or IOP at any time between the groups. Bleb wall density in the anterior-segment OCT image was significantly lower 1 week after surgery in the Ex-PRESS group than the trabeculectomy group. The MCP-1 level in control eyes was 304.1 ± 45.2 pg/mL. In the trabeculectomy group, the mean aqueous MCP-1 level was 1444.9, 1914.3, 1899.8, 516.4, 398.3, 427.3, 609.5, 1612.7, 386.2, and 167.9 pg/mL at 3, 6, and 12 h, and 1, 2, 5, 7, 14, 30, and 90 days after surgery, respectively. In the Ex-PRESS group, the corresponding values were 1744.0, 1372.0, 932.5, 711.7, 396.1, 487.3, 799.5, 1327.9, 293.6, and 184.0 pg/mL. There were no significant differences in the aqueous MCP-1 level between the groups at any time point.The postoperative changes were similar in the Ex-PRESS and trabeculectomy groups, except for bleb wall density in the anterior-segment OCT image. The postoperative aqueous MCP-1 level had bimodal peaks in both groups.

  8. Expression of autocrine prolactin and the short isoform of prolactin receptor are associated with inflammatory response and apoptosis in monocytes stimulated with Mycobacterium bovis proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rincón, Gonzalo; Mancilla, Raúl; Pereira-Suárez, Ana L; Martínez-Neri, Priscila A; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra; Muñoz-Valle, José Francisco; Estrada-Chávez, Ciro

    2015-06-01

    Increased levels of prolactin (PRL) have recently been associated with carcinogenesis and the exacerbation of autoimmune diseases, and might be involved in the progression of tuberculosis (TB). To investigate the relationship between PRL and prolactin receptor (PRLr) expression with inflammatory response and apoptosis in monocytes, we used THP-1 cells stimulated with antigens of the Mycobacterium bovis AN5 strain culture filtrate protein (CFP-M. bovis). Western blot (WB), real-time Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and immunocytochemistry were performed to identify both PRL and PRLr molecules. PRL bioactivity and proinflammatory cytokine detection were assessed. The results showed that PRL and PRLr messenger RNA (mRNA) were synthesized in THP-1 monocytes induced with CFP-M. bovis at peaks of 176- and 404-fold, respectively. PRL forms of 60 and 80kDa and PRLr isoforms of 40, 50, and 65kDa were also identified as time-dependent, while 60-kDa PRL, as well as 40-, and 50-kDa PRLr, were found as soluble forms in culture media and later in the nucleus of THP-1 monocytes. PRL of 60kDa released by monocytes exhibited bioactivity in Nb2 cells, and both synthesized PRL and synthesized PRLr were related with nitrite and proinflammatory cytokine levels proapoptotic activity in CFP-M. bovis-induced monocytes. Our results suggest the overexpression of a full-autocrine loop of PRL and PRLr in monocytes that enhances the inflammatory response and apoptosis after priming with M. bovis antigens.

  9. Soluble ions more than particulate cobalt-alloy implant debris induce monocyte costimulatory molecule expression and release of proinflammatory cytokines critical to metal-induced lymphocyte reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caicedo, Marco S; Pennekamp, Peter H; McAllister, Kyron; Jacobs, Joshua J; Hallab, Nadim J

    2010-06-15

    Aseptic osteolysis has been associated with excessive immune reactivity to particulate implant debris; however, innate and adaptive immune mechanisms that underlie implant debris reactivity remain incompletely understood. Although particulate debris has been implicated as the major type of implant debris mediating macrophage-induced osteolysis, the degree to which metal ions affect a proinflammatory response (if at all) remains unknown. We hypothesized that both soluble and particulate metal implant debris will induce proinflammatory responses in human monocytes resulting in cytokine production and elevated expression of T cell costimulatory molecules, facilitating adaptive immune responses. We tested this hypothesis by characterizing the response of a human monocyte cell line (THP-1), isolated primary human monocytes and PBMCs challenged with Co-Cr-Mo alloy particles and soluble cobalt, chromium, molybdenum, and nickel ions. Our results indicate that soluble cobalt, nickel, and molybdenum can induce monocyte up-regulation of T cell costimulatory molecules (CD80, CD86, ICAM-1) in human monocytes/macrophages. Furthermore, cobalt, molybdenum ions, and Co-Cr-Mo alloy particles similarly induce elevated secretion of IL-1beta, TNFalpha, and IL-6. Antibody blockade of CD80 and CD86, crucial secondary molecules for adaptive responses, abrogated lymphocyte reactivity to metal challenge in metal reactive subjects. Also the addition of IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), (which indirectly blocks pro-IL-1beta and thus IL-1beta release), significantly reduced lymphocyte reactivity in metal-reactive subjects. Thus, both soluble and particulate metal implant debris induce monocyte/macrophage proinflammatory responses that are metal and individual specific. This suggests metal-induced up-regulation of costimulatory molecules and proinflammatory cytokine production is necessary to induce lymphocyte activation/proliferation to metal implant debris.

  10. Cytokine expression in CD4(+) cells exposed to the monocyte locomotion inhibitory factor produced by Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Dotor, Sara; Rico, Guadalupe; Pérez, Julia; Velázquez, Juan; Silva, Raúl; Morales, Esther; Kretschmer, Roberto

    2006-04-01

    Entamoeba histolytica produces monocyte locomotion inhibitory factor (MLIF), a pentapeptide with in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory properties. MLIF may interfere with leukocyte migration, disturbing the balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines secreted by CD4(+) T lymphocytes. We evaluated the effect of MLIF on expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in human CD4(+) T lymphocytes. Regulatory cytokines [interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta), IL-2, interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10] were studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method in CD4(+)-cell supernatant fluids. Proinflammatory cytokines were produced per se by MLIF (IL-1beta, IL-2, and IFN-gamma) and also anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10) with 1-phorbol-12 myristate-13 acetate + MLIF; the IL-1beta, IFN-gamma, IL-5 and IL-6 production was inhibited but not that of IL-10 which disclosed increase in its expression. MLIF disturbs the pro- and anti-inflammatory balance, and it induces inhibition of IL-1beta (principal proinflammatory cytokine) and increases IL-10 (prototype of an anti-inflammatory cytokine).

  11. Expression and activation of intracellular receptors TLR7, TLR8 and TLR9 in peripheral blood monocytes from HIV-infected patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Valencia

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. TLR´s play a role in host defense in HIV infection recognizing the viral DNA or RNA. Their activation induces a signaling pathway that includes the proteins MyD88, IRAK4, TRAF6 and the transcription factor NF-kBp65. Objective. To determine the expression of TLR7, TLR8 and TLR9, and activation of its signaling pathway in monocytes from patients infected with HIV. Methods. Expression of TLR7, TLR8 and TLR9 was determined in monocytes from HIV-infected patients (n = 13 and control subjects (n = 13, which were activated with specific ligands. The expression of MyD88 and NF-kBp65 were determined by flow cytometry; IRAK4 and TRAF6 were studied by immunoblotting. Results. No statistical difference was found in the expression of TLR7, 8 and 9 in monocytes from patients compared to controls, but we observed the non-significant increased expression of TLR9 in patients. The activation showed no significant difference in the expression of MyD88 and NF-kBp65 in patients when compared to controls, but were decreased in stimulated cells over non-stimulated cells. IRAK4 and TRAF6 were not detected. Conclusions. No statistical difference was observed in the expression of intracellular TLRs, MyD88 and NFkBp65 in monocytes from patients compared to controls. This was probably due to effective antiretroviral therapy being received at the time of study entry. Additional studies are needed (ARTV under controlled conditions that include infected patients with and without ARVT, responders and non- responders, and work with different cell populations 

  12. Altered signaling in systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaubas, Claudia; Wong, Elizabeth; Zhang, Yujuan; Nguyen, Khoa D; Lee, Justin; Milojevic, Diana; Shenoi, Susan; Stevens, Anne M; Ilowite, Norman; Saper, Vivian; Lee, Tzielan; Mellins, Elizabeth D

    2016-02-01

    Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) is characterized by systemic inflammation and arthritis. Monocytes are implicated in sJIA pathogenesis, but their role in disease is unclear. The response of sJIA monocytes to IFN may be dysregulated. We examined intracellular signaling in response to IFN type I (IFNα) and type II (IFNγ) in monocytes during sJIA activity and quiescence, in 2 patient groups. Independent of disease activity, monocytes from Group 1 (collected between 2002 and 2009) showed defective STAT1 phosphorylation downstream of IFNs, and expressed higher transcript levels of SOCS1, an inhibitor of IFN signaling. In the Group 2 (collected between 2011 and 2014), monocytes of patients with recent disease onset were IFNγ hyporesponsive, but in treated, quiescent subjects, monocytes were hyperresponsive to IFNγ. Recent changes in medication in sJIA may alter the IFN hyporesponsiveness. Impaired IFN/pSTAT1 signaling is consistent with skewing of sJIA monocytes away from an M1 phenotype and may contribute to disease pathology.

  13. Neutrophil and Monocyte CD64 and CD163 Expression in Critically Ill Neonates and Children with Sepsis: Comparison of Fluorescence Intensities and Calculated Indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Groselj-Grenc

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the expression of CD64 and CD163 on neutrophils and monocytes in SIRS with/without sepsis and to compare the diagnostic accuracy of CD64 and CD163 molecules expression determined as (1 mean fluorescence intensities (MFI of CD64 and CD163; and (2 the ratio (index of linearized MFI to the fluorescence signal of standardized beads. Patients and methods. Fifty-six critically ill neonates and children with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS and suspected sepsis, classified into two groups: SIRS with sepsis (n=29 and SIRS without sepsis (n=27. Results. CD64 and CD163 MFI measured on neutrophils and monocytes were elevated in patients with SIRS with sepsis. Diagnostic accuracy of indexes was equal to diagnostic accuracy of MFI for CD64 on neutrophils (0.833 versus 0.854 for day 0 and 0.975 versus 0.983 for day 1 and monocytes (0.811 versus 0.865 for day 0 and 0.825 versus 0.858 for day 1, and CD163 on neutrophils (0.595 versus 0.655 for day 0 and 0.677 versus 0.750 for day 1, but not for CD163 on monocytes. Conclusion. CD64 MFI, CD163 MFI, CD64 indexes for neutrophils and monocytes, and CD163 index for neutrophils can all be used for discrimination of SIRS and sepsis in critically ill neonates and children. CD64 index for neutrophils, however, is superior to all other markers.

  14. α-Helix peptides designed from EBV-gH protein display higher antigenicity and induction of monocyte apoptosis than the native peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquiza, Mauricio; Melo-Cardenas, Johanna; Guevara, Tatiana; Echeverria, Ignacia; Rodriguez, Isabel C; Vanegas, Magnolia; Amzel, Mario; Patarroyo, Manuel E

    2010-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that stabilizing α-helix of Epstein-Barr virus gH-derived peptide 11438 used for binding human cells will increase its biological activity. Non-stable α-helix of peptide 11438 was unfolded in an entropy-driven process, despite the opposing effect of the enthalpy factor. Adding and/or changing amino acids in peptide 11438 allowed the designing of peptides 33207, 33208 and 33210; peptides 33208 and 33210 displayed higher helical content due to a decreased unfolding entropy change as was determined by AGADIR, molecular dynamics and circular dichroism analysis. Peptides 33207, 33208 and 33210 inhibited EBV invasion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and displayed epitopes more similar to native protein than peptide 11438; these peptides could be useful for detecting antibodies induced by native gH protein since they displayed high reactivity with anti-EBV antibodies. Anti-peptide 33207 antibodies showed higher reactivity with EBV than anti-peptide 11438 antibodies being useful for inducing antibodies against EBV. Anti-peptide 33210 antibodies inhibit EBV invasion of epithelial cells better than anti-peptide 11438 antibodies. Peptide 33210 bound to normal T lymphocytes and Raji cells stronger than peptide 11438 and also induced apoptosis of monocytes and Raji cells but not of normal T cells in a similar way to EBV-gH. Peptide 33210 inhibited the monocytes' development toward dendritic cells better than EBV and peptide 11438. In conclusion, stabilizing the α-helix in peptides 33208 and 33210 designed from peptide 11438 increased the antigenicity and the ability of the antibodies induced by peptides of inhibiting EBV invasion of host cells.

  15. IVIG inhibits TNF-α-induced MMP9 expression and activity in monocytes by suppressing NF-κB and P38 MAPK activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cuizhen; Huang, Min; Xie, Lijian; Shen, Jie; Xiao, Tingting; Wang, Renjian

    2015-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) has been involved in inflammatory and pathologic processes of coronary artery lesions (CAL) in Kawasaki disease (KD). Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), a traditional treatment for Kawasaki disease, could decrease the expressions of MMP9. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effect of IVIG in chemotactic migration of monocyte and the regulation of MMP9 induced by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in U937s. Studies were carried out with real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), zymographic, Western blotting and immunofluorescence. U937s' migration was enhanced by TNF-α stimulation, while was inhibited by IVIG pretreatment. MMP9 expression and activity in U937s were also significantly enhanced by TNF-α and inhibited by IVIVG pretreatment. During inflammatory stimulus, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and P38 Mitogenactivated protein kinase (P38 MAPK) pathways play a significant role in regulating MMP9 gene expression. TNF-α induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB and P38 MAPK activation in U937s were inhibited significantly by IVIG. Furthermore, we clarified that nuclear NF-κB and P38 MAPK pathways play pivotal roles in regulating U937s' migration and MMP9 expressions using PDTC and SB203580, which were specific inhibitors of NF-κB and p38 MAPK pathways. IVIG displays striking biological effects, notably promoting monocyte migration. These effects involve the NF-κB and p38 pathways, and increased MMP9 activity. It might be a crucial mechanism of IVIG reducing the occurrence of CAL that IVIG inhibited monocytes expressing MMP9 and decreased chemotactic migration of monocyte.

  16. Dysregulation of toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 expression on monocytes and upregulation of the frequency of T cells expressing TLR2 in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronit, Andreas; Salem, Mohammad; Hartling, Hans J

    2013-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) initiate inflammatory responses that may play a role in disease progression in patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). TLR2 and TLR4 surface expression were assessed on CD14(+) monocytes, CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in treatment naïve patients with chronic HCV...... infection with fibrosis, without fibrosis, co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and in healthy controls. Increased expression of TLR2 was found on monocytes in HCV-infected patients with fibrosis (p...

  17. Elevated ARG1 expression in primary monocytes-derived macrophages as a predictor of radiation-induced acute skin toxicities in early breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Karen; Sabri, Siham; Hanson, John; Xu, Yaoxian; Wang, Ying Wayne; Lai, Raymond; Abdulkarim, Bassam S

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) the front-line treatment after surgery for early breast cancer patients is associated with acute skin toxicities in at least 40% of treated patients. Monocyte-derived macrophages are polarized into functionally distinct (M1 or M2) activated phenotypes at injury sites by specific systemic cytokines known to play a key role in the transition between damage and repair in irradiated tissues. The role of M1 and M2 macrophages in RT-induced acute skin toxicities remains to be defined. We investigated the potential value of M1 and M2 macrophages as predictive factors of RT-induced skin toxicities in early breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant RT after lumpectomy. Blood samples collected from patients enrolled in a prospective clinical study (n = 49) were analyzed at baseline and after the first delivered 2Gy RT dose. We designed an ex vivo culture system to differentiate patient blood monocytes into macrophages and treated them with M1 or M2-inducing cytokines before quantitative analysis of their "M1/M2" activation markers, iNOS, Arg1, and TGFß1. Statistical analysis was performed to correlate experimental data to clinical assessment of acute skin toxicity using Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) grade for objective evaluation of skin reactions. Increased ARG1 mRNA significantly correlated with higher grades of erythema, moist desquamation, and CTC grade. Multivariate analysis revealed that increased ARG1 expression in macrophages after a single RT dose was an independent prognostic factor of erythema (p = 0 .032), moist desquamation (p = 0 .027), and CTC grade (p = 0 .056). Interestingly, multivariate analysis of ARG1 mRNA expression in macrophages stimulated with IL-4 also revealed independent prognostic value for predicting acute RT-induced toxicity factors, erythema (p = 0 .069), moist desquamation (p = 0 .037), and CTC grade (p = 0 .046). To conclude, our findings underline for the first time the biological significance of increased ARG1 m

  18. Ly6C(high) Monocytes Oscillate in the Heart During Homeostasis and After Myocardial Infarction-Brief Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloss, Maximilian J; Hilby, Michael; Nitz, Katrin; Guillamat Prats, Raquel; Ferraro, Bartolo; Leoni, Giovanna; Soehnlein, Oliver; Kessler, Thorsten; He, Wenyan; Luckow, Bruno; Horckmans, Michael; Weber, Christian; Duchene, Johan; Steffens, Sabine

    2017-09-01

    Circadian regulation of neutrophil homeostasis affects myocardial infarction (MI) healing. It is unknown whether diurnal variations of monocyte counts exist in the heart and whether this affects their cardiac infiltration in response to MI. Murine blood and organs were harvested at distinct times of day and analyzed by flow cytometry. Ly6C(high) monocyte surface expression levels of chemokine receptors (CCR) were ≈2-fold higher at the beginning of the active phase, Zeitgeber Time (ZT) 13 compared with ZT5. This was because of enhanced receptor surface expression at ZT13, whereas no significant changes in total cellular protein levels were found. Most blood Ly6C(high) monocytes were CCR2(high), whereas only a minority was CCR1(high) and CCR5(high). We also found diurnal changes of classical monocyte blood counts in humans, being higher in the evening, while exhibiting enhanced CCR2 surface expression in the morning. In support of monocyte oscillations between blood and tissue, murine cardiac Ly6C(high) monocyte counts were highest at ZT13, accompanied by an upregulation of cardiac CC chemokine ligand 2 mRNA. Mice subjected to MI at ZT13 had an even higher upregulation of CCR2 surface expression on circulating monocytes compared with noninfarcted mice and more elevated cardiac CC chemokine ligand 2 protein expression and more pronounced Ly6C(high) monocyte infiltration compared with ZT5-infarcted mice. Concomitantly, CCR2 antagonism only inhibited the excessive cardiac Ly6C(high) monocyte infiltration after ZT13 MI but not ZT5 MI. CCR2 surface expression on Ly6C(high) monocytes changes in a time-of-day-dependent manner, which crucially affects cardiac monocyte recruitment after an acute ischemic event. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. A hot water extract of Curcuma longa inhibits adhesion molecule protein expression and monocyte adhesion to TNF-α-stimulated human endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Kengo; Muroyama, Koutarou; Yamamoto, Norio; Murosaki, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    The recruitment of arterial leukocytes to endothelial cells is an important step in the progression of various inflammatory diseases. Therefore, its modulation is thought to be a prospective target for the prevention or treatment of such diseases. Adhesion molecules on endothelial cells are induced by proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and contribute to the recruitment of leukocytes. In the present study, we investigated the effect of hot water extract of Curcuma longa (WEC) on the protein expression of adhesion molecules, monocyte adhesion induced by TNF-α in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). Treatment of HUVECs with WEC significantly suppressed both TNF-α-induced protein expression of adhesion molecules and monocyte adhesion. WEC also suppressed phosphorylation and degradation of nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha (IκBα) induced by TNF-α in HUVECs, suggesting that WEC inhibits the NF-κB signaling pathway.

  20. Comparative assessment of the recognition of domain-specific CD163 monoclonal antibodies in human monocytes explains wide discrepancy in reported levels of cellular surface CD163 expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maniecki, Maciej Bogdan; Etzerodt, Anders; Moestrup, Søren Kragh;

    2011-01-01

    continue to exhibit great discrepancy in the measured percentage of CD163-expressing blood monocytes in healthy individuals. In this study we sought to clarify this inconsistency in reported levels of CD163 surface expression by a detailed analysis of a panel of CD163 antibodies used in previous studies...... 1 (MAC2-158), domain 4 (R-20), domain 7 (GHI/61), and domain 9 (RM3/1). The CD163 monoclonal antibodies were characterized in binding and endocytosis experiments in human macrophages and CD163-transfected Flp-In CHO cells. Calcium-dependent ligand binding was assessed using surface plasmon resonance......-terminal part of CD163, remote from the membrane surface. Moreover, the proportion of CD163 positive monocytes observed was highly dependent on free calcium. GHI/61 did not exhibit CD163 binding in the presence of calcium as measured by surface plasmon resonance, which was in agreement with the concordant loss...

  1. Elevation of Platelet and Monocyte Activity Markers of Atherosclerosis in Haemodialysis Patients Compared to Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenija Stach

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The predominant cause of mortality in dialysis patients are cardiovascular events. Platelet and monocyte activity markers play an important role in cardiovascular mortality and were assessed and related to dialysis quality criteria in haemodialysis (HD and peritoneal dialysis (PD patients. Methods. For this prospective comparative study, HD patients (n=41 and PD patients (n=10 were included. In whole blood samples, surface expression of CD62P and CD40L on platelets, tissue factor binding on monocytes, and platelet-monocyte aggregates were measured by flow cytometry. Plasma levels of MCP-1, IL-6, TNFα, and soluble CD40L were analysed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. Haemodialysis patients showed a significantly higher CD62P expression on platelets (p=0.017, significantly higher amount of platelet-monocyte aggregates (p<0.0001, and significantly more tissue factor binding on monocytes (p<0.0001 compared to PD patients. In PD patients, a significant correlation between Kt/V and platelet CD40L expression (r=0.867; 0.001 and between Kt/V and platelet CD62P expression (r=0.686; p=0.028 was observed, while there was no significant correlation between Kt/V and tissue factor binding on monocytes and platelet-monocyte aggregates, respectively. Conclusion. Platelet and monocyte activity markers are higher in HD patients in comparison with those in PD patients, possibly suggesting a higher risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  2. Elevation of Platelet and Monocyte Activity Markers of Atherosclerosis in Haemodialysis Patients Compared to Peritoneal Dialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stach, Ksenija; Karb, Susanne; Akin, Ibrahim; Borggrefe, Martin; Krämer, Bernhard; Kälsch, Thorsten; Kälsch, Anna-Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    The predominant cause of mortality in dialysis patients are cardiovascular events. Platelet and monocyte activity markers play an important role in cardiovascular mortality and were assessed and related to dialysis quality criteria in haemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. For this prospective comparative study, HD patients (n = 41) and PD patients (n = 10) were included. In whole blood samples, surface expression of CD62P and CD40L on platelets, tissue factor binding on monocytes, and platelet-monocyte aggregates were measured by flow cytometry. Plasma levels of MCP-1, IL-6, TNFα, and soluble CD40L were analysed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Haemodialysis patients showed a significantly higher CD62P expression on platelets (p = 0.017), significantly higher amount of platelet-monocyte aggregates (p < 0.0001), and significantly more tissue factor binding on monocytes (p < 0.0001) compared to PD patients. In PD patients, a significant correlation between Kt/V and platelet CD40L expression (r = 0.867; 0.001) and between Kt/V and platelet CD62P expression (r = 0.686; p = 0.028) was observed, while there was no significant correlation between Kt/V and tissue factor binding on monocytes and platelet-monocyte aggregates, respectively. Platelet and monocyte activity markers are higher in HD patients in comparison with those in PD patients, possibly suggesting a higher risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  3. Monocyte CD163 is altered in association with diabetic complications: possible protective role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Danqing; Brooks, Belinda; Wong, Jencia; Aamidor, Sarah; Seehoo, Rebecca; Sutanto, Surya; Harrisberg, Brian; Yue, Dennis K; Twigg, Stephen M; McLennan, Susan V

    2016-12-01

    The scavenger receptor CD163 is exclusively expressed by monocyte/macrophages and is shed by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and neutrophil elastase (ELA2) as soluble CD163 (sCD163). Monocyte phenotype is altered in diabetes, but the relationship among monocyte CD163, sCD163, and diabetic complications is not known and was investigated in this study. Blood was obtained from patients with diabetes for >10 yr and mice with diabetes for ≤20 wk. Blood from people and mice without diabetes acted as controls. The percentage of CD163(+) monocytes and monocyte CD163 mRNA was determined by flow cytometry and qRT-PCR, respectively. Plasma sCD163, MMPs, and ELA2 were measured by ELISA. The ability of glucocorticoids to stimulate isolated monocyte CD163 expression was also investigated. The percentage of CD163(+) monocytes was significantly decreased and sCD163 significantly increased (both P CD163 mRNA was unaltered. sCD163 correlated with worsening renal function, as determined by eGFR (r = -0.48, P CD163(+) monocytes at wk 10 preceded alteration in kidney collagen IV mRNA at wk 20 (all P CD163(+) monocytes (P CD163(+) monocytes were consistent with increased monocyte activation and shedding. The murine data indicated that these changes preceded the development of diabetic complications. Taken together, these results suggest that higher circulating percentage of CD163(+) monocytes may have anti-inflammatory effects and may protect from development of diabetic complications. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  4. Short communication: localization and expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in different subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues of early-lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häussler, S; Sacré, C; Friedauer, K; Dänicke, S; Sauerwein, H

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed to examine the mRNA abundance of the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and to localize the MCP-1 protein in different subcutaneous (s.c.) and visceral (v.c.) fat depots in high-yielding dairy cows. Early-lactating German Holstein cows (n=25) were divided into a control (CON) and a conjugated linoleic acids (CLA)-supplemented group to investigate potential effects of dietary CLA treatment on MCP-1. The MCP-1 was localized in different s.c. and v.c. adipose tissue (AT) by immunohistochemistry, whereas the mRNA abundance was investigated using quantitative PCR. Albeit the infiltration of immune cells into bovine AT has been demonstrated to be only marginal, both MCP-1 protein and mRNA could be detected in bovine AT depots. The MCP-1 protein was localized both in the cytoplasm of adipocytes and in the cytoplasm of cells from the stromal vascular fraction; however, the number of MCP-1-positive cells was low. The mRNA abundances of MCP-1 were higher in v.c. compared with s.c. AT. Moreover, neither mRNA abundance nor protein expression of MCP-1 was seriously influenced by CLA supplementation of early-lactating dairy cows.

  5. TLR-2 and TLR-4 expression in monocytes of newborns with late-onset sepsis,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C.C. Redondo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Analisar a expressão dos TLR-2 e TLR-4 em monócitos de recém-nascidos com sepse tardia. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo prospectivo com 27 recém-nascidos a termo entre 8 e 29 dias de vida com diagnóstico clínico e laboratorial de sepse tardia dos quais dez (37% apresentaram cultura positiva. As citocinas foram determinadas por teste de CBA em sangue periférico enquanto que a expressão e MFI (mediana de intensidade de fluorescência dos TLR-2 e TLR-4 foi determinado por imunofenotipagem em monócitos de sangue periférico total através de análise pelo citômetro de fluxo BD FACSDiva. O grupo usado para comparação foi de adultos saudáveis. Resultados: Microrganismos foram identificados em 37% dos pacientes e estes juntamente com os pacientes com sepse clínica tiveram níveis elevados de citocinas pró-inflamatórias (IL-8, IL-6, IL-1β e de citocina anti-inflamatória (IL-10 corroborando o processo inflamatório/infeccioso. No monócito, a frequência de expressão do TLR-4 foi mais elevada (p = 0,01. Conclusões: Este estudo analisou a resposta imune inata no recém-nascido com sepse. Recémnascidos sépticos que dependem quase exclusivamente do sistema imune inato apresentaram pouca resposta in vivo na ativação de monócitos o que sugere uma resposta imune deficiente e maior susceptibilidade à infecção.

  6. Coxiella burnetii Nine Mile II proteins modulate gene expression of monocytic host cells during infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw Edward I

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes acute and chronic disease in humans. Bacterial replication occurs within enlarged parasitophorous vacuoles (PV of eukaryotic cells, the biogenesis and maintenance of which is dependent on C. burnetii protein synthesis. These observations suggest that C. burnetii actively subverts host cell processes, however little is known about the cellular biology mechanisms manipulated by the pathogen during infection. Here, we examined host cell gene expression changes specifically induced by C. burnetii proteins during infection. Results We have identified 36 host cell genes that are specifically regulated when de novo C. burnetii protein synthesis occurs during infection using comparative microarray analysis. Two parallel sets of infected and uninfected THP-1 cells were grown for 48 h followed by the addition of chloramphenicol (CAM to 10 μg/ml in one set. Total RNA was harvested at 72 hpi from all conditions, and microarrays performed using Phalanx Human OneArray™ slides. A total of 784 (mock treated and 901 (CAM treated THP-1 genes were up or down regulated ≥2 fold in the C. burnetii infected vs. uninfected cell sets, respectively. Comparisons between the complementary data sets (using >0 fold, eliminated the common gene expression changes. A stringent comparison (≥2 fold between the separate microarrays revealed 36 host cell genes modulated by C. burnetii protein synthesis. Ontological analysis of these genes identified the innate immune response, cell death and proliferation, vesicle trafficking and development, lipid homeostasis, and cytoskeletal organization as predominant cellular functions modulated by C. burnetii protein synthesis. Conclusions Collectively, these data indicate that C. burnetii proteins actively regulate the expression of specific host cell genes and pathways. This is in addition to host cell genes that respond to the presence of the

  7. TNF Drives Monocyte Dysfunction with Age and Results in Impaired Anti-pneumococcal Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchta, Alicja; Naidoo, Avee; Verschoor, Chris P; Loukov, Dessi; Thevaranjan, Netusha; Mandur, Talveer S; Nguyen, Phuong-Son; Jordana, Manel; Loeb, Mark; Xing, Zhou; Kobzik, Lester; Larché, Maggie J; Bowdish, Dawn M E

    2016-01-01

    Monocyte phenotype and output changes with age, but why this occurs and how it impacts anti-bacterial immunity are not clear. We found that, in both humans and mice, circulating monocyte phenotype and function was altered with age due to increasing levels of TNF in the circulation that occur as part of the aging process. Ly6C+ monocytes from old (18-22 mo) mice and CD14+CD16+ intermediate/inflammatory monocytes from older adults also contributed to this "age-associated inflammation" as they produced more of the inflammatory cytokines IL6 and TNF in the steady state and when stimulated with bacterial products. Using an aged mouse model of pneumococcal colonization we found that chronic exposure to TNF with age altered the maturity of circulating monocytes, as measured by F4/80 expression, and this decrease in monocyte maturation was directly linked to susceptibility to infection. Ly6C+ monocytes from old mice had higher levels of CCR2 expression, which promoted premature egress from the bone marrow when challenged with Streptococcus pneumoniae. Although Ly6C+ monocyte recruitment and TNF levels in the blood and nasopharnyx were higher in old mice during S. pneumoniae colonization, bacterial clearance was impaired. Counterintuitively, elevated TNF and excessive monocyte recruitment in old mice contributed to impaired anti-pneumococcal immunity since bacterial clearance was improved upon pharmacological reduction of TNF or Ly6C+ monocytes, which were the major producers of TNF. Thus, with age TNF impairs inflammatory monocyte development, function and promotes premature egress, which contribute to systemic inflammation and is ultimately detrimental to anti-pneumococcal immunity.

  8. TNF Drives Monocyte Dysfunction with Age and Results in Impaired Anti-pneumococcal Immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Puchta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Monocyte phenotype and output changes with age, but why this occurs and how it impacts anti-bacterial immunity are not clear. We found that, in both humans and mice, circulating monocyte phenotype and function was altered with age due to increasing levels of TNF in the circulation that occur as part of the aging process. Ly6C+ monocytes from old (18-22 mo mice and CD14+CD16+ intermediate/inflammatory monocytes from older adults also contributed to this "age-associated inflammation" as they produced more of the inflammatory cytokines IL6 and TNF in the steady state and when stimulated with bacterial products. Using an aged mouse model of pneumococcal colonization we found that chronic exposure to TNF with age altered the maturity of circulating monocytes, as measured by F4/80 expression, and this decrease in monocyte maturation was directly linked to susceptibility to infection. Ly6C+ monocytes from old mice had higher levels of CCR2 expression, which promoted premature egress from the bone marrow when challenged with Streptococcus pneumoniae. Although Ly6C+ monocyte recruitment and TNF levels in the blood and nasopharnyx were higher in old mice during S. pneumoniae colonization, bacterial clearance was impaired. Counterintuitively, elevated TNF and excessive monocyte recruitment in old mice contributed to impaired anti-pneumococcal immunity since bacterial clearance was improved upon pharmacological reduction of TNF or Ly6C+ monocytes, which were the major producers of TNF. Thus, with age TNF impairs inflammatory monocyte development, function and promotes premature egress, which contribute to systemic inflammation and is ultimately detrimental to anti-pneumococcal immunity.

  9. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides in human monocytic leukemia cells: from gene expression to network construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ou Chern-Han

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ganoderma lucidum has been widely used as a herbal medicine for promoting health and longevity in China and other Asian countries. Polysaccharide extracts from Ganoderma lucidum have been reported to exhibit immuno-modulating and anti-tumor activities. In previous studies, F3, the active component of the polysaccharide extract, was found to activate various cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-12, and TNF-α. This gave rise to our investigation on how F3 stimulates immuno-modulating or anti-tumor effects in human leukemia THP-1 cells. Results Here, we integrated time-course DNA microarray analysis, quantitative PCR assays, and bioinformatics methods to study the F3-induced effects in THP-1 cells. Significantly disturbed pathways induced by F3 were identified with statistical analysis on microarray data. The apoptosis induction through the DR3 and DR4/5 death receptors was found to be one of the most significant pathways and play a key role in THP-1 cells after F3 treatment. Based on time-course gene expression measurements of the identified pathway, we reconstructed a plausible regulatory network of the involved genes using reverse-engineering computational approach. Conclusion Our results showed that F3 may induce death receptor ligands to initiate signaling via receptor oligomerization, recruitment of specialized adaptor proteins and activation of caspase cascades.

  10. Effects of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α on Podocyte Expression of Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 and in Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choon Hee Chung

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α is believed to play a role in diabetic kidney disease. This study explores the specific effects of TNF-α with regard to nephropathy-relevant parameters in the podocyte. Methods: Cultured mouse podocytes were treated with recombinant TNF-α and assayed for production of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. TNF-α signaling of MCP-1 was elucidated by antibodies against TNF receptor (TNFR 1 or TNFR2 or inhibitors of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K or Akt. In vivo studies were done on male db/m and type 2 diabetic db/db mice. Levels of TNF-α and MCP-1 were measured by RT-qPCR and ELISA in the urine, kidney and plasma of the two cohorts and correlated with albuminuria. Results: Podocytes treated with TNF-α showed a robust increase (∼900% in the secretion of MCP-1, induced in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Signaling of MCP-1 expression occurred through TNFR2, which was inducible by TNF-α ligand, but did not depend on TNFR1. TNF-α then proceeded via the NF-κB and the PI3K/Akt systems, based on the effectiveness of the inhibitors of those pathways. For in vivo relevance to diabetic kidney disease, TNF-α and MCP-1 levels were found to be elevated in the urine of db/db mice but not in the plasma. Conclusion: TNF-α potently stimulates podocytes to produce MCP-1, utilizing the TNFR2 receptor and the NF-κB and PI3K/Akt pathways. Both TNF-α and MCP-1 levels were increased in the urine of diabetic db/db mice, correlating with the severity of diabetic albuminuria.

  11. Changes in adhesion molecule expression and oxidative burst activity of granulocytes and monocytes during open-heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass compared with abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, P; Nielsen, C H; Tønnesen, E

    1998-01-01

    Cardiac and major abdominal surgery are associated with granulocytosis in peripheral blood. The purpose of the present study was to describe the granulocyte and monocyte oxidative burst and the expression of adhesion molecules following cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass and abdominal...... surgery. The ability to respond with an oxidative burst was measured by means of flow cytometry using 123-dihydrorhodamine. The adhesion molecules CD11a/CD18, CD11c/CD18, CD44 were measured using monoclonal antibodies. Blood samples from eight patients undergoing open-heart surgery were taken before...... surgery, 1, 5, 10 and 20 min after aortic clamping, and then 1, 5, 10 and 20 min and 1, 2 and 3 h after declamping. Samples from eight patients undergoing abdominal surgery were taken before surgery, at the end of surgery, and 2 and 3 h post-operatively. A decrease in number of granulocytes and monocytes...

  12. Enhanced Inhibitory Effect of Ultra-Fine Granules of Red Ginseng on LPS-induced Cytokine Expression in the Monocyte-Derived Macrophage THP-1 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Yeoul Kim

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Red ginseng is one of the most popular traditional medicines in Korea because its soluble hot-water extract is known to be very effective on enhancing immunity as well as inhibiting inflammation. Recently, we developed a new technique, called the HACgearshift system, which can pulverize red ginseng into the ultra-fine granules ranging from 0.2 to 7.0 μm in size. In this study, the soluble hot-water extract of those ultra-fine granules of red ginseng (URG was investigated and compared to that of the normal-sized granules of red ginseng (RG. The high pressure liquid chromatographic analyses of the soluble hot-water extracts of both URG and RG revealed that URG had about 2-fold higher amounts of the ginsenosides, the biologically active components in red ginseng, than RG did. Using quantitative RT-PCR, cytokine profiling against the Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS in the monocyte-derived macrophage THP-1 cells demonstrated that the URG-treated cells showed a significant reduction in cytokine expression than the RG-treated ones. Transcription expression of the LPS-induced cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TGF-β was significantly inhibited by URG compared to RG. These results suggest that some biologically active and soluble components in red ginseng can be more effectively extracted from URG than RG by standard hot-water extraction.

  13. In vitro effects of monophthalates on cytokine expression in the monocytic cell line THP-1 and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from allergic and non-allergic donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glue, C; Millner, A; Bødtger, Uffe;

    2002-01-01

    was to investigate the in vitro effect of metabolites of phthalate plastisizers, such as whether an adjuvant effect is paralleled by changes of the cytokine expression in the monocytic cell line THP-1 and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from allergics and non-allergics. The toxicity monitored by cell...... determined using Quantitative Competitive RT-PCR. PBMCs from allergics and non-allergics were incubated with monophthalate 220 microg/ml) for up to 48 h and cytokine expression (IL-4, IL-5, IFN-gamma) was measured using real-time PCR. The cytotoxic level of monophthalates is 20-200 microg/ml, depending...

  14. Expression of adhesion molecules, monocyte interactions and oxidative stress in human endothelial cells exposed to wood smoke and diesel exhaust particulate matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Lykke Ali; Loft, Steffen; Roursgaard, Martin

    2012-01-01

    -1 expression on HUVECs in mono-cultures. However, only the exposure to wood smoke particles was associated with increased expression of TNF and IL8 mRNA in THP-1 cells. We found no effect on the intracellular production of reactive oxygen species by the fluorescent probe DCFH-DA, whereas especially...... the wood smoke particles caused increased level of DNA strand breaks and oxidised guanines at concentrations with low cytotoxicity. In conclusion, our results indicate that the adherence of monocytes on endothelial cells in wood smoke particle exposed cultures depend on activation of both cell types....

  15. Monocyte derived dendritic cells generated by IFN-α acquire mature dendritic and natural killer cell properties as shown by gene expression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czibere Akos

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dendritic cell (DC vaccines can induce antitumor immune responses in patients with malignant diseases, while the most suitable DC culture conditions have not been established yet. In this study we compared monocyte derived human DC from conventional cultures containing GM-CSF and IL-4/TNF-α (IL-4/TNF-DC with DC generated by the novel protocol using GM-CSF and IFN-α (IFN-DC. Methods To characterise the molecular differences of both DC preparations, gene expression profiling was performed using Affymetrix microarrays. The data were conformed on a protein level by immunophenotyping, and functional tests for T cell stimulation, migration and cytolytic activity were performed. Results Both methods resulted in CD11c+ CD86+ HLA-DR+ cells with a typical DC morphology that could efficiently stimulate T cells. But gene expression profiling revealed two distinct DC populations. Whereas IL-4/TNF-DC showed a higher expression of genes envolved in phagocytosis IFN-DC had higher RNA levels for markers of DC maturity and migration to the lymph nodes like DCLAMP, CCR7 and CD49d. This different orientation of both DC populations was confined by a 2.3 fold greater migration in transwell experiments (p = 0.01. Most interestingly, IFN-DC also showed higher RNA levels for markers of NK cells such as TRAIL, granzymes, KLRs and other NK cell receptors. On a protein level, intracytoplasmatic TRAIL and granzyme B were observed in 90% of IFN-DC. This translated into a cytolytic activity against K562 cells with a median specific lysis of 26% at high effector cell numbers as determined by propidium iodide uptake, whereas IL-4/TNF-DC did not induce any tumor cell lysis (p = 0.006. Thus, IFN-DC combined characteristics of mature DC and natural killer cells. Conclusion Our results suggest that IFN-DC not only stimulate adaptive but also mediate innate antitumor immune responses. Therefore, IFN-DC should be evaluated in clinical vaccination trials. In

  16. [Peripheral blood monocyte hepcidin in patients with multiple myeloma is associated with anemia of chronic disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiao; Zhou, Dao-Bin; Duan, Ming-Hui; Wang, Xuan; Zhang, Jie-Ping; Zhao, Yong-Qiang; Shen, Ti; Wu, Yong-Ji

    2013-04-01

    Disorders of iron utilization caused by abnormal elevation of hepcidin levels are the main mechanism of anemia of chronic disease. Hepcidin is mainly produced by the liver. Recently it has been found that monocytes are another source of hepcidin. The increased hepcidin in serum and urine of multiple myeloma patients may be one cause of anemia of chronic disease (ACD). However it is unclear whether the peripheral blood monocyte hepcidin is involved in the pathogenesis of anemia of chronic disease. This study was purposed to investigate the role of monocyte hepcidin in multiple myeloma patients with anemia of chronic disease. The clinical data and peripheral venous blood of multiple myeloma patients were collected.Serum concentration of IL-6 and TNF-α was detected by ELISA. Peripheral blood monocytes were isolated by CD14(+) magnetic beads. Hepcidin, IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA of monocytes were detected by real time quantitative PCR. The results showed that the expression level of monocyte hepcidin mRNA in myeloma patients was higher than that in normal controls. In untreated patients, the expression level of monocyte hepcidin mRNA was negatively correlated with hemoglobin, and positively correlated with serum ferritin and IL-6 levels, but unrelated with TNF-α levels.It is concluded that the increased monocyte hepcidin levels in multiple myeloma patients may play an etiologic role in ACD.

  17. Monocytes conditioned media stimulate fibronectin expression and spreading of inflammatory breast cancer cells in three-dimensional culture: A mechanism mediated by IL-8 signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mona M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC is the most aggressive form of breast cancer characterized by invasion of carcinoma cells into dermal lymphatic vessels where they form tumor emboli over expressing adhesion molecule E-cadherin. Although invasion and metastasis are dynamic processes controlled by complex interaction between tumor cells and microenvironment the mechanisms by which soluble mediators may regulate motility and invasion of IBC cells are poorly understood. The present study investigated the effect of media conditioned by human monocytes U937 secreted cytokines, chemokines and growth factors on the expression of adhesion molecules E-cadherin and fibronectin of human IBC cell line SUM149. Furthermore, cytokines signaling pathway involved were also identified. Results U937 secreted cytokines, chemokines and growth factors were characterized by cytokine antibody array. The major U937 secreted cytokines/chemokines were interleukin-8 (IL-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2. When SUM149 cells were seeded in three dimensional (3D models with media conditioned by U937 secreted cytokines, chemokines and growth factors; results showed: 1 changes in the morphology of IBC cells from epithelial to migratory spindle shape branched like structures; 2 Over-expression of adhesion molecule fibronectin and not E-cadherin. Further analysis revealed that over-expression of fibronectin may be mediated by IL-8 via PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Conclusion The present results suggested that cytokines secreted by human monocytes may promote chemotactic migration and spreading of IBC cell lines. Results also indicated that IL-8 the major secreted cytokine by U937 cells may play essential role in fibronectin expression by SUM149 cells via interaction with IL-8 specific receptors and stimulation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  18. Induction of cyclooxygenase-2 expression during HIV-1-infected monocyte-derived macrophage and human brain microvascular endothelial cell interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira, CF; Boven, LA; Middel, J; Verhoef, J; Nottet, HSLM

    2000-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1)-associated dementia (HAD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by HIV infection and replication in brain tissue. HIV-1-infected monocytes overexpress inflammatory molecules that facilitate their entry into the brain. Prostanoids are lipid mediators

  19. MIF inhibition reverts the gene expression profile of human melanoma cell line-induced MDSCs to normal monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Waigel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs are potently immunosuppressive innate immune cells that accumulate in advanced cancer patients and actively inhibit anti-tumor T lymphocyte responses [1]. Increased numbers of circulating MDSCs directly correlate with melanoma patient morbidity and reduced anti-tumor immune responses [2,3]. Previous studies have revealed that monocyte-derived macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF is necessary for the immune suppressive function of MDSCs in mouse models of melanoma [4,5]. To investigate whether MIF participates in human melanoma-induced MDSC differentiation and/or suppressive function, we have established an in vitro MDSC induction model using primary, normal human monocytes co-cultured with human melanoma cell lines in the presence or absence of the MIF antagonist—4-IPP [4,6–9]. To identify potential mechanistic effectors, we have performed transcriptome analyses on cultured monocytes and on melanoma-induced MDSCs obtained from either untreated or 4-IPP-treated A375:monocyte co-cultures. Here, we present a detailed protocol, which can facilitate easy reproduction of the microarray results (NCBI GEO accession number GSE73333 published by Yaddanapudi et al. (2015 in Cancer Immunology Research [10].

  20. Expression of dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3 grabbing nonintegrin on dendritic cells generated from human peripheral blood monocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Li; Zhi-Hua Feng; Guang-Yu Li; Dan-Lei Mou; Qing-He Nie

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To generate dendritic cells (DCs) from human peripheral blood and to detect the expression of dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3 grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN; CD209) for the further study of DC-SIGN in hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission.METHODS: Peripheral blood monocytes were isolated from blood of healthy individuals by Ficoll-Hypaque sedimentation and cultured in complete medium containing rhGM-CSF and rhIL-4. Cells were cultured for seven days, with cytokine addition every two days to obtain immature DCs. Characteristics of the cultured cells were observed under light and scanning microscope, and the expression of DC-SIGN was detected by immunofluorescence staining.RESULTS: After seven-day culture, a large number of cells with typical characteristics of DCs appeared. Their characteristics were observed under light and scanning electron microscope. These cells had a variety of cell shapes such as those of bipolar elongate cells, elaborate stellate cells and DCs. DC-SIGN was detected by immunofluorescence staining and its expression level on cultivated dendritic cells was high.CONCLUSION: DCs with a high expression of DC-SIGN can be generated from human peripheral blood monocytes in complete medium containing rhGM-CSF and rhIL-4.

  1. Androgen-androgen receptor system improves chronic inflammatory conditions by suppressing monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 gene expression in adipocytes via transcriptional regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morooka, Nobukatsu; Ueguri, Kei; Yee, Karen Kar Lye; Yanase, Toshihiko; Sato, Takashi

    2016-09-02

    Age-related decreases in sex hormones are closely related to chronic inflammation in obesity and metabolic diseases. Particularly, the molecular basis of androgen activity in regulating inflammation and controlling metabolism remains largely unknown. Obese adipocytes secrete monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), a key chemokine that promotes the infiltration of monocytes/macrophages into adipose tissue, thereby leading to metabolic disorders. Here, we studied the role of androgen-androgen receptor (AR) action in regulating MCP-1 expression in adipose tissue. We observed the induction of Mcp-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes co-cultured with RAW264.7 macrophages. Additionally, Mcp-1 expression was upregulated by culturing in conditioned medium derived from inflammatory macrophages (M1-Mφ) containing tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). We found that sex hormones downregulated TNF-α-induced Mcp-1 and interleukin (Il)-6 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Furthermore, luciferase-reporter analysis indicated that MCP-1 promoter activity was predominantly suppressed by dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-AR interactions through functional canonical nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) sites, whereas non-canonical NF-κB site containing important flanking sequences exhibited minor contributions to DHT-AR transcriptional repression. These findings suggested that androgen-AR suppressed obesity-induced chronic inflammation in adipose tissue.

  2. Ethanol-mediated regulation of cytochrome P450 2A6 expression in monocytes: role of oxidative stress-mediated PKC/MEK/Nrf2 pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengyao Jin

    Full Text Available Cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6 is known to metabolize nicotine, the major constituent of tobacco, leading to the production of toxic metabolites and induction of oxidative stress that result in liver damage and lung cancer. Recently, we have shown that CYP2A6 is induced by ethanol and metabolizes nicotine into cotinine and other metabolites leading to generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in U937 monocytes. However, the mechanism by which CYP2A6 is induced by ethanol is unknown. In this study, we have examined the role of the PKC/Nrf2 pathway (protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation and translocation of nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 to the nucleus in ethanol-mediated CYP2A6 induction. Our results showed that 100 mM ethanol significantly induced CYP2A6 mRNA and protein (~150% and increased ROS formation, and induction of gene expression and ROS were both completely blocked by treatment with either a CYP2E1 inhibitor (diallyl sulfide or an antioxidant (vitamin C. The results suggest the role of oxidative stress in the regulation of CYP2A6 expression. Subsequently, we investigated the role of Nrf2 pathway in oxidative stress-mediated regulation of CYP2A6 expression in U937 monocytes. Our results showed that butylated hydroxyanisole, a stabilizer of nuclear Nrf2, increased CYP2A6 levels >200%. Staurosporine, an inhibitor of PKC, completely abolished ethanol-induced CYP2A6 expression. Furthermore, our results showed that a specific inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK (U0126 completely abolished ethanol-mediated CYP2A6 induction and Nrf2 translocation. Overall, these results suggest that CYP2E1-mediated oxidative stress produced as a result of ethanol metabolism translocates Nrf2 into the nucleus through PKC/MEK pathway, resulting in the induction of CYP2A6 in monocytes. An increased level of CYP2A6 in monocytes is expected to further increase oxidative stress in smokers through CYP2A6-mediated nicotine metabolism

  3. Monocyte derived dendritic cells generated by IFN-α acquire mature dendritic and natural killer cell properties as shown by gene expression analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Czibere Akos; Winter Meike; Diaz Blanco Elena; Papewalis Claudia; Schott Matthias; Maihöfer Dagmar; Kronenwett Ralf; Safaian Nancy; Korthals Mark; Haas Rainer; Kobbe Guido; Fenk Roland

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Dendritic cell (DC) vaccines can induce antitumor immune responses in patients with malignant diseases, while the most suitable DC culture conditions have not been established yet. In this study we compared monocyte derived human DC from conventional cultures containing GM-CSF and IL-4/TNF-α (IL-4/TNF-DC) with DC generated by the novel protocol using GM-CSF and IFN-α (IFN-DC). Methods To characterise the molecular differences of both DC preparations, gene expression profil...

  4. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells from HLA-B27+ axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) patients display altered functional capacity and deregulated gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talpin, Alice; Costantino, Félicie; Bonilla, Nelly; Leboime, Ariane; Letourneur, Franck; Jacques, Sébastien; Dumont, Florent; Amraoui, Sonia; Dutertre, Charles-Antoine; Garchon, Henri-Jean; Breban, Maxime; Chiocchia, Gilles

    2014-08-21

    This study aimed to compare the functional capacity and gene expression profile of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MD-DCs) in HLA-B27+ axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) patients and healthy controls. MD-DCs were differentiated with interleukin 4 (IL-4) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) for seven days, starting from purified CD14+ monocytes and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for six and twenty four hours. Their capacity to stimulate allogeneic CD4+ T cells from unrelated healthy donor was tested. Transcriptomic study was performed with Affymetrix HuGene 1.0 ST microarrays. Gene expression levels were compared between patients and controls using a multivariate design under a linear model (LIMMA). Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed for validation of the most striking gene expression differences. The stimulatory capacity of allogeneic CD4+ T cells by MD-DCs from SpA patients was decreased. Transcriptomic analysis revealed 81 genes differentially expressed in MD-DCs between SpA patients and controls (P 1.5). Four selected genes were validated by q ADAMTS15, CITED2, F13A1 and SELL. Expression levels of ADAMTS15 and CITED2, encoding a metallopeptidase and a transcription factor, respectively, were inversely correlated with each other (R = 0.75, P = 0.0003). Furthermore, in silico analysis identified several genes of the Wnt signaling pathway having expression co-regulated with CITED2. This study revealed altered function and gene expression pattern in MD-DCs from HLA-B27+ axial SpA. Co-expression study showed an inverse correlation between ADAMTS15 and CITED2. Moreover, the Wnt signaling pathway appeared as deregulated in SpA MD-DCs, a finding which may be connected to Th17-driven inflammatory responses.

  5. Age-dependent alterations of monocyte subsets and monocyte-related chemokine pathways in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trautwein Christian

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent experimental approaches have unraveled essential migratory and functional differences of monocyte subpopulations in mice. In order to possibly translate these findings into human physiology and pathophysiology, human monocyte subsets need to be carefully revisited in health and disease. In analogy to murine studies, we hypothesized that human monocyte subsets dynamically change during ageing, potentially influencing their functionality and contributing to immunosenescence. Results Circulating monocyte subsets, surface marker and chemokine receptor expression were analyzed in 181 healthy volunteers (median age 42, range 18-88. Unlike the unaffected total leukocyte or total monocyte counts, non-classical CD14+CD16+ monocytes significantly increased with age, but displayed reduced HLA-DR and CX3CR1 surface expression in the elderly. Classical CD14++CD16- monocyte counts did not vary dependent on age. Serum MCP-1 (CCL2, but not MIP1α (CCL3, MIP1β (CCL4 or fractalkine (CX3CL1 concentrations increased with age. Monocyte-derived macrophages from old or young individuals did not differ with respect to cytokine release in vitro at steady state or upon LPS stimulation. Conclusions Our study demonstrates dynamic changes of circulating monocytes during ageing in humans. The expansion of the non-classical CD14+CD16+ subtype, alterations of surface protein and chemokine receptor expression as well as circulating monocyte-related chemokines possibly contribute to the preserved functionality of the monocyte pool throughout adulthood.

  6. CD99 isoforms regulate CD1a expression in human monocyte-derived DCs through ATF-2/CREB-1 phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahiddine, Karim; Mallavialle, Aude; Bziouech, Hanen; Larbret, Frédéric; Bernard, Alain; Bernard, Ghislaine

    2016-06-01

    CD1a expression is considered one of the major characteristics qualifying in vitro human dendritic cells (DCs) during their generation process. Here, we report that CD1A transcription is regulated by a mechanism involving the long and short isoforms of CD99. Using a lentiviral construct encoding for a CD99 short hairpin RNA, we were able to inhibit CD99 expression in human primary DCs. In such cells, CD1a membrane expression increased and CD1A transcripts were much higher in abundance compared to cells expressing CD99 long form (CD99LF). We also show that CD1A transcription is accompanied by a switch in expression from CD99LF to expression at comparable levels of both CD99 isoforms during immature DCs generation in vitro. We demonstrate that CD99LF maintains a lower level of CD1A transcription by up-regulating the phosphorylated form of the ATF-2 transcription factor and that CD99 short form (SF) is required to counteract this regulatory mechanism. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms related to CD99 alternative splicing will be very helpful to better understand the transcriptional regulatory mechanism of CD1a molecules during DCs differentiation and its involvement in the immune response. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Augmented TLR2 expression on monocytes in both human Kawasaki disease and a mouse model of coronary arteritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Chun Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Kawasaki disease (KD of unknown immunopathogenesis is an acute febrile systemic vasculitis and the leading cause of acquired heart diseases in childhood. To search for a better strategy for the prevention and treatment of KD, this study compared and validated human KD immunopathogenesis in a mouse model of Lactobacillus casei cell wall extract (LCWE-induced coronary arteritis. METHODS: Recruited subjects fulfilled the criteria of KD and were admitted for intravenous gamma globulin (IVIG treatment at the Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital from 2001 to 2009. Blood samples from KD patients were collected before and after IVIG treatment, and cardiovascular abnormalities were examined by transthoracic echocardiography. Wild-type male BALB/c mice (4-week-old were intraperitoneally injected with LCWE (1 mg/mL to induce coronary arteritis. The induced immune response in mice was examined on days 1, 3, 7, and 14 post injections, and histopathology studies were performed on days 7 and 14. RESULTS: Both human KD patients and LCWE-treated mice developed coronary arteritis, myocarditis, valvulitis, and pericarditis, as well as elevated plasma levels of interleukin (IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α in acute phase. Most of these proinflammatory cytokines declined to normal levels in mice, whereas normal levels were achieved in patients only after IVIG treatment, with a few exceptions. Toll-like receptor (TLR-2, but not TLR4 surface enhancement on circulating CD14+ monocytes, was augmented in KD patients before IVIG treatment and in LCWE-treated mice, which declined in patients after IVIG treatment. CONCLUSION: This result suggests that that not only TLR2 augmentation on CD14+ monocytes might be an inflammatory marker for both human KD patients and LCWE-induced CAL mouse model but also this model is feasible for studying therapeutic strategies of coronary arteritis in human KD by

  8. Augmented TLR2 expression on monocytes in both human Kawasaki disease and a mouse model of coronary arteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, I-Chun; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Lin, Ying-Jui; Wang, Feng-Shen; Wang, Lin; Huang, Shun-Chen; Chien, Shao-Ju; Huang, Chien-Fu; Wang, Chih-Lu; Yu, Hong-Ren; Chen, Rong-Fu; Yang, Kuender D

    2012-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) of unknown immunopathogenesis is an acute febrile systemic vasculitis and the leading cause of acquired heart diseases in childhood. To search for a better strategy for the prevention and treatment of KD, this study compared and validated human KD immunopathogenesis in a mouse model of Lactobacillus casei cell wall extract (LCWE)-induced coronary arteritis. Recruited subjects fulfilled the criteria of KD and were admitted for intravenous gamma globulin (IVIG) treatment at the Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital from 2001 to 2009. Blood samples from KD patients were collected before and after IVIG treatment, and cardiovascular abnormalities were examined by transthoracic echocardiography. Wild-type male BALB/c mice (4-week-old) were intraperitoneally injected with LCWE (1 mg/mL) to induce coronary arteritis. The induced immune response in mice was examined on days 1, 3, 7, and 14 post injections, and histopathology studies were performed on days 7 and 14. Both human KD patients and LCWE-treated mice developed coronary arteritis, myocarditis, valvulitis, and pericarditis, as well as elevated plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, IL-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in acute phase. Most of these proinflammatory cytokines declined to normal levels in mice, whereas normal levels were achieved in patients only after IVIG treatment, with a few exceptions. Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2, but not TLR4 surface enhancement on circulating CD14+ monocytes, was augmented in KD patients before IVIG treatment and in LCWE-treated mice, which declined in patients after IVIG treatment. This result suggests that that not only TLR2 augmentation on CD14+ monocytes might be an inflammatory marker for both human KD patients and LCWE-induced CAL mouse model but also this model is feasible for studying therapeutic strategies of coronary arteritis in human KD by modulating TLR2-mediated immune activation on CD14

  9. Monocytes-derived macrophages mediated stable expression of human brain-derived neurotrophic factor, a novel therapeutic strategy for neuroAIDS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Tong

    Full Text Available HIV-1 associated dementia remains a significant public health burden. Clinical and experimental research has shown that reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF may be a risk factor for neurological complications associated with HIV-1 infection. We are actively testing genetically modified macrophages for their possible use as the cell-based gene delivery vehicle for the central nervous system (CNS. It can be an advantage to use the natural homing/migratory properties of monocyte-derived macrophages to deliver potentially neuroprotective BDNF into the CNS, as a non-invasive manner. Lentiviral-mediated gene transfer of human (hBDNF plasmid was constructed and characterized. Defective lentiviral stocks were generated by transient transfection of 293T cells with lentiviral transfer plasmid together with packaging and envelope plasmids. High titer lentiviral vector stocks were harvested and used to transduce human neuronal cell lines, primary cultures of human peripheral mononocyte-derived macrophages (hMDM and murine myeloid monocyte-derived macrophages (mMDM. These transduced cells were tested for hBDNF expression, stability, and neuroprotective activity. The GenomeLab GeXP Genetic Analysis System was used to evaluate transduced cells for any adverse effects by assessing gene profiles of 24 reference genes. High titer vectors were prepared for efficient transduction of neuronal cell lines, hMDM, and mMDM. Stable secretion of high levels of hBDNF was detected in supernatants of transduced cells using western blot and ELISA. The conditioned media containing hBDNF were shown to be protective to neuronal and monocytic cell lines from TNF-α and HIV-1 Tat mediated cytotoxicity. Lentiviral vector-mediated gene transduction of hMDM and mMDM resulted in high-level, stable expression of the neuroprotective factorBDNF in vitro. These findings form the basis for future research on the potential use of BDNF as a novel therapy for neuroAIDS.

  10. Monocytes-derived macrophages mediated stable expression of human brain-derived neurotrophic factor, a novel therapeutic strategy for neuroAIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jing; Buch, Shilpa; Yao, Honghong; Wu, Chengxiang; Tong, Hsin-I; Wang, Youwei; Lu, Yuanan

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1 associated dementia remains a significant public health burden. Clinical and experimental research has shown that reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may be a risk factor for neurological complications associated with HIV-1 infection. We are actively testing genetically modified macrophages for their possible use as the cell-based gene delivery vehicle for the central nervous system (CNS). It can be an advantage to use the natural homing/migratory properties of monocyte-derived macrophages to deliver potentially neuroprotective BDNF into the CNS, as a non-invasive manner. Lentiviral-mediated gene transfer of human (h)BDNF plasmid was constructed and characterized. Defective lentiviral stocks were generated by transient transfection of 293T cells with lentiviral transfer plasmid together with packaging and envelope plasmids. High titer lentiviral vector stocks were harvested and used to transduce human neuronal cell lines, primary cultures of human peripheral mononocyte-derived macrophages (hMDM) and murine myeloid monocyte-derived macrophages (mMDM). These transduced cells were tested for hBDNF expression, stability, and neuroprotective activity. The GenomeLab GeXP Genetic Analysis System was used to evaluate transduced cells for any adverse effects by assessing gene profiles of 24 reference genes. High titer vectors were prepared for efficient transduction of neuronal cell lines, hMDM, and mMDM. Stable secretion of high levels of hBDNF was detected in supernatants of transduced cells using western blot and ELISA. The conditioned media containing hBDNF were shown to be protective to neuronal and monocytic cell lines from TNF-α and HIV-1 Tat mediated cytotoxicity. Lentiviral vector-mediated gene transduction of hMDM and mMDM resulted in high-level, stable expression of the neuroprotective factorBDNF in vitro. These findings form the basis for future research on the potential use of BDNF as a novel therapy for neuroAIDS.

  11. Relationship between depressive symptoms and miRNA expression level in monocytes of patients with depression before and after antidepressant treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao-li ZHANG

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the correlation of depressive symptoms to the microRNA (miRNA expression level in monocytes of patients with depression before and after antidepressant treatment. Methods Eighty-one patients with depression, admitted to the 102 Hospital of PLA from Aug. 2012 to Oct. 2013, having not received antidepressants treatment and meeting the criteria as listed in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual 4th edition (DSM-IV, were selected as case group. Eighty-one normal individuals served as control group. With Affymetrix Expression Array, 26 miRNAs were identified from 3 individuals from each group as candidate miRNA, and among them 9 miRNAs (miR-146b, miR-1972, miR-26b, miR-29b, miR-338, miR-4485, miR-4498, miR-4743 and miR-874 in monocytes were selected for quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR assessment. Twenty patients from the case group were selected for the assessment of miRNA expression levels, and the clinical symptoms and treatment effect were evaluated using Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD and Clinical Global Impression (CGI, before and 6 weeks after antidepressant (venlafaxine, sertraline, mirtazapine, etc. treatment. Results Compared with the control group, the expression levels of miRNA-26b, miRNA-4743, miRNA-4498, miRNA-4485 and miRNA-1972 of the case group were significantly up-regulated (P<0.05. The variance of expression level of miRNA-4743, miRNA-4498, miRNA-4485 and miRNA-1972 was respectively positively correlated with improvement in retardation factors (P<0.05, meanwhile the variance of expression level of miRNA-26b was negatively correlated with the improvement of day and night change factors (P<0.05. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the alteration of miRNA-4485 expression may account 28.8% of retardation variance (P<0.05. Conclusion  The miRNA-4743, miRNA-4498, miRNA-4485, miRNA-1972 and miRNA-26b in monocytes may serve as the biomarkers for the

  12. Molecular Mechanisms That Underlie the Dynamic Adaptation of Innate Monocyte Memory to Varying Stimulant Strength of TLR Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ruoxi; Geng, Shuo; Li, Liwu

    2016-01-01

    In adaptation to rising stimulant strength, innate monocytes can be dynamically programed to preferentially express either pro- or anti-inflammatory mediators. Such dynamic innate adaptation or programing may bear profound relevance in host health and disease. However, molecular mechanisms that govern innate adaptation to varying strength of stimulants are not well understood. Using lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the model stimulant of toll-like-receptor 4 (TLR4), we reported that the expressions of pro-inflammatory mediators are preferentially sustained in monocytes adapted by lower doses of LPS, and suppressed/tolerized in monocytes adapted by higher doses of LPS. Mechanistically, monocytes adapted by super-low dose LPS exhibited higher levels of transcription factor, interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5), and reduced levels of transcriptional modulator B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp-1). Intriguingly, the inflammatory monocyte adaptation by super-low dose LPS is dependent upon TRAM/TRIF but not MyD88. Similar to LPS, we also observed biphasic inflammatory adaptation and tolerance in monocytes challenged with varying dosages of TLR7 agonist. In sharp contrast, rising doses of TLR3 agonist preferentially caused inflammatory adaptation without inducing tolerance. At the molecular level, the differential regulation of IRF5 and Blimp-1 coincides with unique monocyte adaptation dynamics by TLR4/7 and TLR3 agonists. Our study provides novel clue toward the understanding of monocyte adaptation and memory toward distinct TLR ligands.

  13. Advanced oxidation protein products induce monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression via p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in rat vascular smooth muscle cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Kan-fu; WU Xiong-fei; ZHAO Hong-wen; SUN Yan

    2006-01-01

    Background Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) are new uremic toxins reported by Witko-Sarsat in 1996, which are associated with the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. However, the mechanisms by which AOPPs enhance atherosclerosis have not been fully understood. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a chemokine which stimulates migration of monocytes and plays a critical role in the development of atherosclerosis. In this study, we investigated the effect of AOPPs on MCP-1 expression in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs).Methods VSMCs were cultured and then co-incubated with AOPP (200 μ mol/L, 400 μ mol/L) for different times with or without pretreatment with specific p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor SB203580. RT-PCR and Western blott were used to detect MCP-1 mRNA and protein expression at different time points after AOPP stimulation in rat smooth muscle cells. Western blot was used to detect the expression of phosphorylated p38 MAPK.Results Treatment of VSMC with AOPPs resulted in a significant increase of the expression of MCP- 1 mRNA and protein in time- and dose-dependent manner, and could activated p38 MAPK. Pretreatment of VSMCs with SB203580 resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of AOPPs-induced MCP-1 mRNA and protein expression.Conclusions AOPPs can stimulate MCP-1 expression via p38 MAPK in VSMCs. This suggests that AOPPs might contribute to the formation of atherosclerosis through this proinflammatory effect.

  14. Glucagon-like peptide-1 suppresses advanced glycation end product-induced monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression in mesangial cells by reducing advanced glycation end product receptor level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Yuji; Nishino, Yuri; Matsui, Takanori; Takeuchi, Masayoshi; Yamagishi, Sho-ichi

    2011-09-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGE) and receptor for AGE (RAGE) interaction elicits reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and inflammatory reactions, thereby being involved in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy. Recently, we, along with others, found that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), one of the incretins and a gut hormone secreted from L cells in the intestine in response to food intake, could have anti-inflammatory and antithrombogenic properties in cultured endothelial cells. However, the effects of GLP-1 on renal mesangial cells are largely unknown. Therefore, to elucidate the role of GLP-1 in diabetic nephropathy, this study investigated whether and how GLP-1 blocked AGE-induced monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression in human cultured mesangial cells. Gene and protein expression was analyzed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions, Western blots, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The ROS generation was measured with dihydroethidium staining. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) was expressed in mesangial cells. Glucagon-like peptide-1 inhibited RAGE gene expression in mesangial cells, which was blocked by small interfering RNAs raised against GLP-1R. Furthermore, GLP-1 decreased ROS generation and subsequently reduced monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 gene and protein expression in AGE-exposed mesangial cells. An analogue of cyclic adenosine monophosphate mimicked the effects of GLP-1 on mesangial cells. Our present study suggests that GLP-1 may directly act on mesangial cells via GLP-1R and that it could work as an anti-inflammatory agent against AGE by reducing RAGE expression via activation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate pathway.

  15. Hemoglobin induces monocyte recruitment and CD163-macrophage polarization in abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Navarro, Alfonso; Amaro Villalobos, Juan Manuel; Lindholt, Jes S; Buendía, Irene; Egido, Jesús; Blanco-Colio, Luis Miguel; Samaniego, Rafael; Meilhac, Olivier; Michel, Jean Baptiste; Martín-Ventura, José Luis; Moreno, Juan Antonio

    2015-12-15

    Increased hemoglobin (Hb) accumulation was reported in abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). CD163 is a macrophage receptor involved in tissue Hb clearance, however its role in AAA has not been reported. We investigated the role of Hb on monocyte recruitment and differentiation towards CD163 expressing macrophages ex vivo, in vitro and in human AAA. CD163 mRNA and protein expression was significantly higher in human AAA (n=7) vs. healthy wall (n=6). CD163 was predominantly found in adventitia of AAA, coinciding with areas rich in hemosiderin and adjacent to neoangiogenic microvessels. Dual CD14/CD163 expression was observed in recently infiltrated monocytes surrounding microvessels. A higher release of soluble CD163 was observed in the conditioned medium from AAA (AAA-CM, n=10), mainly in the adventitial layer. Similar to Hb, AAA-CM induced CD163-dependent monocyte chemotaxis, especially on circulating monocytes from AAA patients. Hb or AAA-CM promoted differentiation towards CD163(high)/HLA-DR(low)-expressing macrophages, with enhanced Hb uptake, increased anti-inflammatory IL-10 secretion and decreased pro-inflammatory IL-12p40 release. All these effects were partially suppressed when Hb was removed from AAA-CM. Separate analysis on circulating monocytes reported increased percentage of pre-infiltrating CD14(++)CD16(+) monocytes in patients with AAA (n=21), as compared to controls (n=14). A significant increase in CD163 expression in CD14(++)CD16(+) monocyte subpopulation was observed in AAA patients. The presence of Hb in the adventitial AAA-wall promotes the migration and differentiation of activated circulating monocytes in AAA patients, explaining the existence of a protective CD163-macrophage phenotype that could take up the Hb present in the AAA-wall, avoiding its injurious effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sinomenine influences capacity for invasion and migration in activated human monocytic THP-1 cells by inhibiting the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, and CD147

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang-qiong OU; Li-hua CHEN; Xue-jun LI; Zhi-bin LIN; Wei-dong LI

    2009-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of the effects of Sinomenine (SIN) on the invasion and migration ability of activated human monocytic THP-1 cells (A-THP-1). Sinomenine is a pure alkaloid extracted from the Chinese medical plant Sinomenium acutum.Methods: Human monocytic THP-1 cells were induced to differentiate into macrophages with phorbol 12-myristate 13-ac-etate (PMA). Cells were treated with different concentrations of SIN. The invasion and migration ability of cells was tested by in vitro transwell assays. The levels of CD147 and MMPs were evaluated by flow cytometric analysis and zymographic analysis, respectively. The mRNA expression of CD147, MMP-2, and MMP-9 was measured by RT-PCR. Results: The invasion and migration ability of A-THP-1 cells was significantly inhibited by SIN in a concentration-depen-dent fashion; at the same time, the levels of CD147, MMP-2, and MMP-9 were markedly down-regulated. This inhibitory effect was most notable at concentrations of 0.25 mmol/L and 1.00 mmol/L (P<0.01). Conclusion: A possible mechanism of the inhibitory effect of SIN on cell invasion and migration ability is repression of the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9, which strongly correlates with the inhibition of CD147 activity.

  17. Androgen-androgen receptor system improves chronic inflammatory conditions by suppressing monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 gene expression in adipocytes via transcriptional regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morooka, Nobukatsu, E-mail: amorooka@gunma-u.ac.jp [Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Gunma University, 3-39-15 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma, 371-8512 (Japan); Ueguri, Kei [Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Gunma University, 3-39-15 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma, 371-8512 (Japan); Yee, Karen Kar Lye [Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Gunma University, 3-39-15 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma, 371-8512 (Japan); Human Resources Cultivation Center, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryushi, Gunma, 376-8515 (Japan); Yanase, Toshihiko [Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes Mellitus, School of Medicine, Fukuoka University, Jonan-ku, Fukuoka, 814-0180 (Japan); Sato, Takashi [Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Gunma University, 3-39-15 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma, 371-8512 (Japan)

    2016-09-02

    Age-related decreases in sex hormones are closely related to chronic inflammation in obesity and metabolic diseases. Particularly, the molecular basis of androgen activity in regulating inflammation and controlling metabolism remains largely unknown. Obese adipocytes secrete monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), a key chemokine that promotes the infiltration of monocytes/macrophages into adipose tissue, thereby leading to metabolic disorders. Here, we studied the role of androgen-androgen receptor (AR) action in regulating MCP-1 expression in adipose tissue. We observed the induction of Mcp-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes co-cultured with RAW264.7 macrophages. Additionally, Mcp-1 expression was upregulated by culturing in conditioned medium derived from inflammatory macrophages (M1-Mφ) containing tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). We found that sex hormones downregulated TNF-α-induced Mcp-1 and interleukin (Il)-6 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Furthermore, luciferase-reporter analysis indicated that MCP-1 promoter activity was predominantly suppressed by dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-AR interactions through functional canonical nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) sites, whereas non-canonical NF-κB site containing important flanking sequences exhibited minor contributions to DHT-AR transcriptional repression. These findings suggested that androgen-AR suppressed obesity-induced chronic inflammation in adipose tissue. - Highlights: • DHT, non-aromatizable androgen suppresses Mcp-1 expression in adipocytes. • Mcp-1 transcription was negatively regulated by DHT-AR action. • DHT-AR selectively regulates Mcp-1 transcription through distinct NF-κB sites.

  18. Effects of berberine on the secretion of cytokines and expression of genes involved in cell cycle regulation in THP-1 monocytic cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Saeed; Seyedhoseini, Fakhri Sadat; Asadi, Jahanbakhsh; Yazdani, Yaghoub

    2017-05-01

    Current acute myeloid leukemia (AML) therapeutic strategies have irreversible side-effects. Berberine (BBR) is an isoquinoline alkaloid, which has been known as an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand. AhR is a cytoplasmic receptor, which is involved in the regulation of cellular and immune responses. Here, we investigated the expression profile of genes involved in the cell cycle and different cytokines upon BBR-mediated AhR activation on AML THP-1 cell line. THP-1 cells and normal monocytes were treated with different concentrations of BBR (10 μM, 25 μM, 50 μM, and 100 μM) for 24 and 48 hr. The cell viability was measured by MTT assay. Real-time RT-PCR was conducted to evaluate the expression of AhR, cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), interleukin 1 beta (IL1β), p21, p27, cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) and p53. Cellular expression of AhR was also assessed using immunofluorescence method. ELISA was used to determine the level of IL-10 and IL-12 cytokines. BBR inhibits the proliferation of THP-1 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner with minimal toxicity on normal monocytes. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) treatment increased the cellular expression of AhR. The AhR target genes (CYP1A1, IL1β) were overexpressed upon BBR treatment. BBR downregulated Cdk2 and upregulated p21, p27 and p53 genes in THP-1 cells. IL-10 was significantly increased upon BBR treatment, while IL-12 was not significantly changed in all combinations. BBR could be introduced as an effective chemotherapeutic agent against AML by giving rise to the expression of CDK inhibitors and anti-inflammatory cytokines and downregulation of CDK2.

  19. Differential effect of exogenous interleukin-10 versus glucocorticoids on gene expression and pro-inflammatory cytokine release by polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes of the newly born

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Dennis; Patel, Hardik; Degoy, Ana C; Gershkovich, Irina; Vancurova, Ivana; Miskolci, Veronika

    2013-01-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is one of the most common causes of mortality and morbidity in neonatal intensive care units. Persistent inflammation, with an abnormal influx of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) followed by monocytes (MONOs), occurs early in the pathogenesis of BPD. Anti-inflammatory therapy with better efficacy and safety than dexamethasone (DEX) is needed. In the present study we determined cell-specific gene expression and cytokine release in response to glucocorticoids versus interleukin-10 (IL-10). Subsequently, we hypothesized that the insensitivity of MONOs to DEX was associated with a failure of the glucocorticoid receptor to translocate to the nucleus. PMNs and MONOs were isolated from umbilical cord blood at birth, and pretreated with PBS vehicle, IL-10 or glucocorticoids prior to endotoxin (LPS)-stimulation for 4 and 18h. Genome-wide gene expressions were determined by microarray and validated by RT-qPCR. Interleukin 8 release in cell culture supernatant was measured by ELISA. To examine the mechanism of monocyte insensitivity to glucocorticoids, nuclear translocation of the glucocorticoid receptor was determined by Western blots. MONOs had 6 times the number of genes changing expression with IL-10 compared to PMNs at 4h. DEX at the therapeutic level for neonates with BPD had no effect on gene expression in MONOs. The order of potency for inhibition of interleukin-8 release from MONOs was IL-10 >betamethasone >dexamethasone and hydrocortisone. Glucocorticoid potency in MONOs was directly related to glucocorticoid receptor translocation to nucleus. Gene expression profiling for IL-10 versus glucocorticoids indicates there may be major differences in therapeutic efficacy for BPD. PMID:23390570

  20. Surface-expressed viral proteins in feline infectious peritonitis virus-infected monocytes are internalized through a clathrin- and caveolae-independent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewerchin, Hannah L; Cornelissen, Els; Van Hamme, Evelien; Smits, Kaatje; Verhasselt, Bruno; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2008-11-01

    Infection with feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), a feline coronavirus, frequently leads to death in spite of a strong humoral immune response. In previous work, we reported that infected monocytes, the in vivo target cells of FIPV, express viral proteins in their plasma membranes. These proteins are quickly internalized upon binding of antibodies. As the cell surface is cleared from viral proteins, internalization might offer protection against antibody-dependent cell lysis. Here, the internalization and subsequent trafficking of the antigen-antibody complexes were characterized using biochemical, cell biological and genetic approaches. Internalization occurred through a clathrin- and caveolae-independent pathway that did not require dynamin, rafts, actin or rho-GTPases. These findings indicate that the viral antigen-antibody complexes were not internalized through any of the previously described pathways. Further characterization showed that this internalization process was independent from phosphatases and tyrosine kinases but did depend on serine/threonine kinases. After internalization, the viral antigen-antibody complexes passed through the early endosomes, where they resided only briefly, and accumulated in the late endosomes. Between 30 and 60 min after antibody addition, the complexes left the late endosomes but were not degraded in the lysosomes. This study reveals what is probably a new internalization pathway into primary monocytes, confirming once more the complexity of endocytic processes.

  1. HSV-1-induced chemokine expression via IFI16-dependent and IFI16-independent pathways in human monocyte-derived macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søby, Stine; Laursen, Rune R; Østergaard, Lars Jørgen;

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Innate recognition is essential in the antiviral response against infection by herpes simplex virus (HSV). Chemokines are important for control of HSV via recruitment of natural killer cells, T lymphocytes, and antigen-presenting cells. We previously found that early HSV-1......-mediated chemokine responses are not dependent on TLR2 and TLR9 in human macrophages. Here, we investigated the role of the recently identified innate IFN-inducible DNA receptor IFI16 during HSV-1 infection in human macrophages. METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were purified from buffy coats...... and monocytes were differentiated to macrophages. Macrophages infected with HSV-1 were analyzed using siRNA-mediated knock-down of IFI16 by real-time PCR, ELISA, and Western blotting. RESULTS: We determined that both CXCL10 and CCL3 are induced independent of HSV-1 replication. IFI16 mediates CCL3 m...

  2. Imbalance of Circulating Monocyte Subsets and PD-1 Dysregulation in Q Fever Endocarditis: The Role of IL-10 in PD-1 Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ka, Mignane B.; Gondois-Rey, Françoise; Capo, Christian; Textoris, Julien; Million, Mathieu; Raoult, Didier; Olive, Daniel; Mege, Jean-Louis

    2014-01-01

    Q fever endocarditis, a severe complication of Q fever, is associated with a defective immune response, the mechanisms of which are poorly understood. We hypothesized that Q fever immune deficiency is related to altered distribution and activation of circulating monocyte subsets. Monocyte subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with Q fever endocarditis and controls. The proportion of classical monocytes (CD14+CD16− monocytes) was similar in patients and controls. In contrast, the patients with Q fever endocarditis exhibited a decrease in the non-classical and intermediate subsets of monocytes (CD16+ monocytes). The altered distribution of monocyte subsets in Q fever endocarditis was associated with changes in their activation profile. Indeed, the expression of HLA-DR, a canonical activation molecule, and PD-1, a co-inhibitory molecule, was increased in intermediate monocytes. This profile was not restricted to CD16+ monocytes because CD4+ T cells also overexpressed PD-1. The mechanism leading to the overexpression of PD-1 did not require the LPS from C. burnetii but involved interleukin-10, an immunosuppressive cytokine. Indeed, the incubation of control monocytes with interleukin-10 led to a higher expression of PD-1 and neutralizing interleukin-10 prevented C. burnetii-stimulated PD-1 expression. Taken together, these results show that the immune suppression of Q fever endocarditis involves a cross-talk between monocytes and CD4+ T cells expressing PD-1. The expression of PD-1 may be useful to assess chronic immune alterations in Q fever endocarditis. PMID:25211350

  3. IgE in the absence of allergen induces the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in the rat basophilic cell-line RBL-2H3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ki Bum; Jeon, Jun Ho; Kang, Seok-Seong; Chung, Dae Kyun; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Han, Seung Hyun

    2014-11-01

    Recently, basophils have been suggested to produce inflammatory mediators in response to IgE in the absence of allergens. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) plays an important role in the initiation of inflammatory responses by recruiting various immune cells to the site of allergic inflammation. In the present study, we examined whether IgE under allergen-free conditions could stimulate basophils and lead to the production of MCP-1. Exposure of the rat basophilic cell-line RBL-2H3 to IgE without allergen resulted in a dose- and time-dependent induction of MCP-1 expression at both the mRNA and protein level. Although allergen was not necessary for IgE-induced MCP-1 expression, it was essential for degranulation as determined by β-hexosaminidase release assay. IgE enhanced phosphorylation of MAP kinases including ERK, p38 kinase, and JNK. However, IgE-induced MCP-1 expression was attenuated by inhibitors for JNK and PKC. Concomitantly, IgE induced activation of AP-1, which is an important transcription factor for MCP-1 gene expression in RBL-2H3 cells. Taken together, our results suggest that IgE alone is sufficient to stimulate basophils to increase expression of MCP-1, which in turn might contribute to the inflammatory response.

  4. B7-H4 expression is elevated in human U251 glioma stem-like cells and is inducible in monocytes cultured with U251 stem-like cell conditioned medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Lian-Jie; Ye, Hong-Xing; Mao, Ying; Yao, Yu; Zhang, Jian-Min

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies indicated that B7-H4, the youngest B7 family, negatively regulates T cell-mediated immunity and is significantly overexpressed in many human tumors. Tumor stem cells are purported to play a role in tumor renewal and resistance to radiation and chemotherapy. However, the link between B7-H4 and tumor stem cells is unclear. In this study, we investigated B7-H4 expression in the medium of human glioma U251 cell cultures. Immunofluorescence results showed that U251 cells cultured in serum-free medium (supplemented with 2% B27, 20 ng/mL epidermal growth factor, 20 ng/mL basic fibroblast growth factor) maintained stem-like cell characteristics, including expression of stem cell marker CD133 and the neural progenitor cell markers nestin and SOX2. In contrast, U251 cells cultured in serum-containing medium highly expressed differentiation marker glial fibrillary acidic protein. Flow cytometry analysis showed serum-free medium-cultured U251 cells expressed higher intracellular B7-H4 than serum-containing medium-cultured U251 cells (24%-35% vs. 8%-11%, P cells revealed moderate expression of B7-H4 after stimulation with conditioned medium from U251 cells cultured in serum-containing medium. Moreover, conditioned medium from U251 stem-like cells had a significant stimulation effect on B7-H4 expression compared with serum-containing conditioned medium (P cells, and conditioned medium from these cells more effectively induced monocytes to express B7-H4 than conditioned medium from U251 cells cultured in the presence of serum. Our results show that U251 stem-like cells may play a more crucial role in tumor immunoloregulation with high expression of B7-H4.

  5. PU.1 is essential for CD11c expression in CD8(+/CD8(- lymphoid and monocyte-derived dendritic cells during GM-CSF or FLT3L-induced differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Jun Zhu

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs regulate innate and acquired immunity through their roles as antigen-presenting cells. Specific subsets of mature DCs, including monocyte-derived and lymphoid-derived DCs, can be distinguished based on distinct immunophenotypes and functional properties. The leukocyte integrin, CD11c, is considered a specific marker for DCs and it is expressed by all DC subsets. We created a strain of mice in which DCs and their progenitors could be lineage traced based on activity of the CD11c proximal promoter. Surprisingly, we observed levels of CD11c promoter activity that were similar in DCs and in other mature leukocytes, including monocytes, granulocytes, and lymphocytes. We sought to identify DNA elements and transcription factors that regulate DC-associated expression of CD11c. The ets transcription factor, PU.1, is a key regulator of DC development, and expression of PU.1 varies in different DC subsets. GM-CSF increased monocyte-derived DCs in mice and from mouse bone marrow cultured in vitro, but it did not increase CD8(+ lymphoid-derived DCs or B220(+ plasmacytoid DCs. FLT3L increased both monocyte-derived DCs and lymphoid-derived DCs from mouse bone marrow cultured in vitro. GM-CSF increased the 5.3 Kb CD11c proximal promoter activity in monocyte-derived DCs and CD8(+ lymphoid-derived DCs, but not in B220(+ plasmacytoid DCs. In contrast, FLT3L increased the CD11c proximal promoter activity in both monocyte-derived DCs and B220(+ plasmacytoid DCs. We used shRNA gene knockdown and chromatin immunoprecipitation to demonstrate that PU.1 is required for the effects of GM-CSF or FLT3L on monocyte-derived DCs. We conclude that both GM-CSF and FLT3L act through PU.1 to activate the 5.3 Kb CD11c proximal promoter in DCs and to induce differentiation of monocyte-derived DCs. We also confirm that the CD11c proximal promoter is not sufficient to direct lineage specificity of CD11c expression, and that additional DNA elements are required

  6. Both common and specialty mushrooms inhibit adhesion molecule expression and in vitro binding of monocytes to human aortic endothelial cells in a pro-inflammatory environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Keith R

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD is a leading cause of mortality in the United States as well as globally. Epidemiological studies show that regular fruit and vegetable consumption reduces CVD risk, in part, due to antioxidant activity and immunomodulation since oxidative stress and inflammation are features of atherogenesis. Accumulating evidence also shows that dietary fungi, viz., mushrooms, can protect against chronic disease by altering inflammatory environments such as those associated with CVD although most research has focused on specialty mushrooms. In this study, we tested the ability of both common and specialty mushrooms to inhibit cellular processes associated with CVD. Methods Human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC were incubated overnight with control media with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO vehicle (1% v/v or containing DMSO extracts of whole dehydrated mushrooms (0.1 mg/mL, which included Agaricus bisporus (white button and crimini, Lentinula edodes (shiitake, Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster, and Grifola frondosa (maitake. Monolayers were subsequently washed and incubated with medium alone or containing the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β (5 ng/mL for 6 h to upregulate pro-atherosclerotic adhesion molecules (AM. AM expression was assayed by ELISA and binding of U937 human monocytes pre-loaded with fluorescent dye was determined. Results White button mushrooms consistently reduced (p Conclusion These data provide evidence that dietary mushrooms can inhibit cellular processes such as adhesion molecule expression and ultimate binding of monocytes to the endothelium under pro-inflammatory conditions, which are associated with CVD. As a result, these findings support the notion that dietary mushrooms can be protective against CVD.

  7. The CD16+ monocyte subset is more permissive to infection and preferentially harbors HIV-1 in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellery, Philip J; Tippett, Emma; Chiu, Ya-Lin; Paukovics, Geza; Cameron, Paul U; Solomon, Ajantha; Lewin, Sharon R; Gorry, Paul R; Jaworowski, Anthony; Greene, Warner C; Sonza, Secondo; Crowe, Suzanne M

    2007-05-15

    HIV-1 persists in peripheral blood monocytes in individuals receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) with viral suppression, despite these cells being poorly susceptible to infection in vitro. Because very few monocytes harbor HIV-1 in vivo, we considered whether a subset of monocytes might be more permissive to infection. We show that a minor CD16+ monocyte subset preferentially harbors HIV-1 in infected individuals on HAART when compared with the majority of monocytes (CD14highCD16-). We confirmed this by in vitro experiments showing that CD16+ monocytes were more susceptible to CCR5-using strains of HIV-1, a finding that is associated with higher CCR5 expression on these cells. CD16+ monocytes were also more permissive to infection with a vesicular stomatitis virus G protein-pseudotyped reporter strain of HIV-1 than the majority of monocytes, suggesting that they are better able to support HIV-1 replication after entry. Consistent with this observation, high molecular mass complexes of apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G (APOBEC3G) were observed in CD16+ monocytes that were similar to those observed in highly permissive T cells. In contrast, CD14highCD16- monocytes contained low molecular mass active APOBEC3G, suggesting this is a mechanism of resistance to HIV-1 infection in these cells. Collectively, these data show that CD16+ monocytes are preferentially susceptible to HIV-1 entry, more permissive for replication, and constitute a continuing source of viral persistence during HAART.

  8. Perturbations of Monocyte Subsets and Their Association with T Helper Cell Differentiation in Acute and Chronic HIV-1-Infected Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Su, Bin; Zhang, Tong; Zhu, Xiaojing; Xia, Wei; Fu, Yan; Zhao, Guoxian; Xia, Huan; Dai, Lili; Sun, Lijun; Liu, Lifeng; Wu, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Monocytes have been recently subdivided into three subsets: classical (CD14++CD16−), intermediate (CD14++CD16+), and non-classical (CD14+CD16++) subsets, but phenotypic and functional abnormalities of the three monocyte subsets in HIV-1 infection have not been fully characterized, especially in acute HIV-1 infection (AHI). In the study, we explored the dynamic changes of monocyte subsets and their surface markers, and the association between monocyte subsets and the IFN-γ, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-17, and TNF-α producing CD4+ T cells in acute and chronic HIV-1-infected patients. We found that, in the acute HIV-1-infected individuals, the frequency of the intermediate CD14++CD16+ monocyte subsets, the CD163 density and HLA-DR density on intermediate CD14++CD16+ monocytes, and plasma soluble form of CD163 (sCD163) were significantly higher than that in healthy controls. Intermediate CD14++CD16+ monocyte subsets and their HLA-DR expression levels were inversely correlated with the CD4+ T cell counts, and the intermediate CD14++CD16+ monocytes were positively correlated with plasma sCD163. In contrast to the non-classical CD14+CD16++ and classical CD14++CD16− monocyte subsets, the frequency of the intermediate CD14++CD16+ monocytes was positively associated with the frequency of IFN-γ and IL-4 producing CD4+ T cells in HIV-1-infected patients. Taken together, our observations provide new insight into the roles of the monocyte subsets in HIV pathogenesis, particularly during AHI, and our findings may be helpful for the treatment of HIV-related immune activation.

  9. The HIV matrix protein p17 subverts nuclear receptors expression and induces a STAT1-dependent proinflammatory phenotype in monocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Renga

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Long-term remission of HIV-1 disease can be readily achieved by combinations of highly effective antiretroviral therapy (HAART. However, a residual persistent immune activation caused by circulating non infectious particles or viral proteins is observed under HAART and might contribute to an higher risk of non-AIDS pathologies and death in HIV infected persons. A sustained immune activation supports lipid dysmetabolism and increased risk for development of accelerated atehrosclerosis and ischemic complication in virologically suppressed HIV-infected persons receiving HAART. AIM: While several HIV proteins have been identified and characterized for their ability to maintain immune activation, the role of HIV-p17, a matrix protein involved in the viral replication, is still undefined. RESULTS: Here, we report that exposure of macrophages to recombinant human p17 induces the expression of proinflammatory and proatherogenic genes (MCP-1, ICAM-1, CD40, CD86 and CD36 while downregulating the expression of nuclear receptors (FXR and PPARγ that counter-regulate the proinflammatory response and modulate lipid metabolism in these cells. Exposure of macrophage cell lines to p17 activates a signaling pathway mediated by Rack-1/Jak-1/STAT-1 and causes a promoter-dependent regulation of STAT-1 target genes. These effects are abrogated by sera obtained from HIV-infected persons vaccinated with a p17 peptide. Ligands for FXR and PPARγ counteract the effects of p17. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study show that HIV p17 highjacks a Rack-1/Jak-1/STAT-1 pathway in macrophages, and that the activation of this pathway leads to a simultaneous dysregulation of immune and metabolic functions. The binding of STAT-1 to specific responsive elements in the promoter of PPARγ and FXR and MCP-1 shifts macrophages toward a pro-atherogenetic phenotype characterized by high levels of expression of the scavenger receptor CD36. The present work identifies p17 as a

  10. Inhibitory effect of microRNA-27b on interleukin 17 (IL-17)-induced monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP1) expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, K D; Shen, Y; Wei, X; Zhang, F Q; Liu, Y Y; Ma, L

    2016-07-14

    We investigated the effect of microRNA-27b (miR-27b), a gene expression regulatory factor, on the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP1) stimulated by interleukin 17 (IL-17). After IL-17 had been added to H9C2 cardiomyocytes, an miR-27b mimic was transfected into the H9C2 cells. The mRNA expression levels of miR-27b and MCP1 in the H9C2 cells were detected by SYBR green I fluorescence quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the expression levels of MCP1 protein in the H9C2 cells. The expression of MCP1 mRNA in the H9C2 cells began to increase 2 h after IL-17 stimulation, reached a peak at 4 h, and then decreased. The MCP1 protein level increased gradually in the 24 h following IL-17 stimulation. After transfection with the miR-27b mimic, the expression of miR-27b in the H9C2 cells significantly increased than that in the miRNA negative control group (P < 0.01). The MCP1 mRNA and protein levels in the miR-27b mimic + IL-17 group were significantly reduced than that in the miRNA negative control + IL-17 group (P < 0.01). miR-27b inhibited IL-17-induced MCP1 expression in the H9C2 cells, which demonstrates that treatment with microRNA could alleviate myocardial injury in viral myocarditis.

  11. Growth factors induce monocyte binding to vascular smooth muscle cells: implications for monocyte retention in atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qiangjun; Lanting, Linda; Natarajan, Rama

    2004-09-01

    Adhesive interactions between monocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) may contribute to subendothelial monocyte-macrophage retention in atherosclerosis. We investigated the effects of angiotensin II (ANG II) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB on VSMC-monocyte interactions. Treatment of human aortic VSMC (HVSMC) with ANG II or PDGF-BB significantly increased binding to human monocytic THP-1 cells and to peripheral blood monocytes. This was inhibited by antibodies to monocyte beta(1)- and beta(2)-integrins. The binding was also attenuated by blocking VSMC arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism by inhibitors of 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LO) or cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Conversely, binding was enhanced by overexpression of 12/15-LO or COX-2. Direct treatment of HVSMC with AA or its metabolites also increased binding. Furthermore, VSMC derived from 12/15-LO knockout mice displayed reduced binding to mouse monocytic cells relative to genetic control mice. Using specific signal transduction inhibitors, we demonstrated the involvement of Src, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, and MAPKs in ANG II- or PDGF-BB-induced binding. Interestingly, after coculture with HVSMC, THP-1 cell surface expression of the scavenger receptor CD36 was increased. These results show for the first time that growth factors may play additional roles in atherosclerosis by increasing monocyte binding to VSMC via AA metabolism and key signaling pathways. This can lead to monocyte subendothelial retention, CD36 expression, and foam cell formation.

  12. Differential Activation of Human Monocytes and Lymphocytes by Distinct Strains of Trypanosoma cruzi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Luísa M. D.; Viana, Agostinho; Chiari, Egler; Galvão, Lúcia M. C.; Gollob, Kenneth J.; Dutra, Walderez O.

    2015-01-01

    Background Trypanosoma cruzi strains are currently classified into six discrete typing units (DTUs) named TcI to VI. It is known that these DTUs have different geographical distribution, as well as biological features. TcI and TcII are major DTUs found in patients from northern and southern Latin America, respectively. Our hypothesis is that upon infection of human peripheral blood cells, Y strain (Tc II) and Col cl1.7 (Tc I), cause distinct immunological changes, which might influence the clinical course of Chagas disease. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated the infectivity of CFSE-stained trypomastigotes of Col cl1.7 and Y strain in human monocytes for 15 and 72 hours, and determined the immunological profile of lymphocytes and monocytes exposed to the different isolates using multiparameter flow cytometry. Our results showed a similar percentage and intensity of monocyte infection by Y and Col cl1.7. We also observed an increased expression of CD80 and CD86 by monocytes infected with Col cl1.7, but not Y strain. IL-10 was significantly higher in monocytes infected with Col cl1.7, as compared to Y strain. Moreover, infection with Col cl1.7, but not Y strain, led to an increased expression of IL-17 by CD8+ T cells. On the other hand, we observed a positive correlation between the expression of TNF-alpha and granzyme A only after infection with Y strain. Conclusion/Significance Our study shows that while Col cl1.7 induces higher monocyte activation and, at the same time, production of IL-10, infection with Y strain leads to a lower monocyte activation but higher inflammatory profile. These results show that TcI and TcII have a distinct immunological impact on human cells during early infection, which might influence disease progression. PMID:26147698

  13. mTORC1-Activated Monocytes Increase Tregs and Inhibit the Immune Response to Bacterial Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Huaijun; Guo, Wei; Wang, Shixuan; Xue, Ting; Yang, Fei; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Yang, Yazhi; Wan, Qian; Shi, Zhexin; Zhan, Xulong

    2016-01-01

    The TSC1/2 heterodimer, a key upstream regulator of the mTOR, can inhibit the activation of mTOR, which plays a critical role in immune responses after bacterial infections. Monocytes are an innate immune cell type that have been shown to be involved in bacteremia. However, how the mTOR pathway is involved in the regulation of monocytes is largely unknown. In our study, TSC1 KO mice and WT mice were infected with E. coli. When compared to WT mice, we found higher mortality, greater numbers of bacteria, decreased expression of coactivators in monocytes, increased numbers of Tregs, and decreased numbers of effector T cells in TSC1 KO mice. Monocytes obtained from TSC1 KO mice produced more ROS, IL-6, IL-10, and TGF-β and less IL-1, IFN-γ, and TNF-α. Taken together, our results suggest that the inhibited immune functioning in TSC1 KO mice is influenced by mTORC1 activation in monocytes. The reduced expression of coactivators resulted in inhibited effector T cell proliferation. mTORC1-activated monocytes are harmful during bacterial infections. Therefore, inhibiting mTORC1 signaling through rapamycin administration could rescue the harmful aspects of an overactive immune response, and this knowledge provides a new direction for clinical therapy.

  14. Monocyte Subpopulations in Angiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Heather J.; Armaiz-Pena, Guillermo; Gonzalez-Villasana, Vianey; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Bar-Eli, Menashe; Sood, Anil K.

    2014-01-01

    Growing understanding of the role of the tumor microenvironment in angiogenesis has brought monocyte-derived cells into focus. Monocyte subpopulations are an increasingly attractive therapeutic target in many pathologic states, including cancer. Before monocyte-directed therapies can be fully harnessed for clinical use, understanding of monocyte-driven angiogenesis in tissue development and homeostasis, as well as malignancy, is required. Here, we provide an overview of the mechanisms by which monocytic subpopulations contribute to angiogenesis in tissue and tumor development, highlight gaps in our existing knowledge, and discuss opportunities to exploit these cells for clinical benefit. PMID:24556724

  15. Effects of Berberine on NLRP3 and IL-1β Expressions in Monocytic THP-1 Cells with Monosodium Urate Crystals-Induced Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Cai-Yu-Zhu; Chen, Zhe; Wang, Yu; Huang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Background. Urate crystals-induced inflammation is a critical factor during the initiation of gouty arthritis. Berberine is well known for its anti-inflammatory activity. However, the underlying effects of berberine on monosodium urate crystals-induced inflammation remain obscure. Objectives. This study is set to explore the protective effect and mechanism of berberine on monosodium urate crystals-induced inflammation in human monocytic THP-1 cells. Methods. The mRNA levels of NLRP3 and IL-1β were measured by Real-Time PCR, and the protein levels of NLRP3 and IL-1β were determined by ELISA, Western blot, and immunofluorescence. Results. The NLRP3 and IL-1β expressions were significantly increased in model group compared to that in normal group (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, there was significant reduction in the expressions of NLRP3 and IL-1β mRNA in groups 6.25 μM berberine and 25 μM berberine when compared with model group (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Therefore, berberine alleviates monosodium urate crystals-induced inflammation by downregulating NLRP3 and IL-1β expressions. The regulatory effects of berberine may be related to the inactivation of NLRP3 inflammasome. PMID:27689075

  16. Effects of Berberine on NLRP3 and IL-1β Expressions in Monocytic THP-1 Cells with Monosodium Urate Crystals-Induced Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Fei Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Urate crystals-induced inflammation is a critical factor during the initiation of gouty arthritis. Berberine is well known for its anti-inflammatory activity. However, the underlying effects of berberine on monosodium urate crystals-induced inflammation remain obscure. Objectives. This study is set to explore the protective effect and mechanism of berberine on monosodium urate crystals-induced inflammation in human monocytic THP-1 cells. Methods. The mRNA levels of NLRP3 and IL-1β were measured by Real-Time PCR, and the protein levels of NLRP3 and IL-1β were determined by ELISA, Western blot, and immunofluorescence. Results. The NLRP3 and IL-1β expressions were significantly increased in model group compared to that in normal group (P<0.05. Meanwhile, there was significant reduction in the expressions of NLRP3 and IL-1β mRNA in groups 6.25 μM berberine and 25 μM berberine when compared with model group (P<0.05. Conclusions. Therefore, berberine alleviates monosodium urate crystals-induced inflammation by downregulating NLRP3 and IL-1β expressions. The regulatory effects of berberine may be related to the inactivation of NLRP3 inflammasome.

  17. Fli-1 transcription factor affects glomerulonephritis development by regulating expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in endothelial cells in the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Eiji; Karam, Eva; Williams, Sarah; Watson, Dennis K; Gilkeson, Gary; Zhang, Xian K

    2012-12-01

    Expression of transcription factor Fli-1 is implicated in the development of glomerulonephritis. Fli-1 heterozygous knockout (Fli1(+/-)) NZM2410 mice, a murine model of lupus, had significantly improved survival and reduced glomerulonephritis. In this study, we found that infiltrated inflammatory cells were significantly decreased in the kidneys from Fli-1(+/-) NZM2410 mice. The expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) was significantly decreased in kidneys from Fli-1(+/-) NZM2410 mice. The primary endothelial cells isolated from the kidneys of Fli-1(+/-) NZM2410 mice produced significantly less MCP-1. In endothelial cells transfected with specific Fli-1 siRNA the production of MCP-1 was significantly reduced compared to cells transfected with negative control siRNA. By Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay, we further demonstrated that Fli-1 directly binds to the promoter of the MCP-1 gene. Our data indicate that Fli-1 impacts glomerulonephritis development by regulating expression of inflammatory chemokine MCP-1 and inflammatory cell infiltration in the kidneys in the NZM2410 mice. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Interleukin-1β,Tumor Necrosis Factor-α and Lipopolysaccharide Induce Expression of Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 in Calf Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Feng; DENG Zhongduan; NI Juan

    2000-01-01

    To investigate whether interleukin-1β(IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induce expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)mRNA and protein in calf aortic smooth muscle cells(SMCs), calf aortic SMCs were cultured by a substrate-attached explant method. The cultured SMCs were used between the third to the fifth passage. After the cells became confluent, the SMCs were exposed to 2 ng/ml IL- 1β, 20 ng/mlTNF-lα and 100 ng/ml LPS respectively, and the total RNA of SMCs which were incubated for 4h at 37℃ were extracted from the cells by using guanidinium isothiocyanate method. The expression of MCP-1 mRNA in SMCs was detected by using dot blotting analysis using a probe of γ-32p-end-labelled 35-mer oligonucleotide. After a 24-h incubation, the media conditioned by the cultured SMCs were collected. The MCP-1 protein content in the conditioned media was determined by using sandwich ELISA. The results were as follows: Dot blotting analysis showed that the cultured SMCs could express MCP-1 mRNA. After a 4-h exposure to IL-Iβ, TNF-α and LPS, the MCP-1 mRNA expression in SMCs was increased (3.6-fold, 2.3-fold and 1.6-fold, respectively).ELISA showed that the levels of MCP-1 protein in the conditioned media were also increased (2.9-fold, 1.7-fold and 1.1-fold, respectively ). The results suggest that calf aortic SMCs could express MCP-1 mRNA and protein. IL-1β and TNF-α can induce strong expression of MCP- 1mRNA and protein, and the former is more effective than the latter.

  19. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 secreted by decidual stromal cells inhibits NK cells cytotoxicity by up-regulating expression of SOCS3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofei Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Decidual stromal cells (DSCs are of particular importance due to their pleiotropic functions during pregnancy. Although previous research has demonstrated that DSCs participated in the regulation of immune cells during pregnancy, the crosstalk between DSCs and NK cells has not been fully elucidated. To address this issue, we investigated the effect of DSCs on perforin expression in CD56(+ NK cells and explored the underlying mechanism. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Flow cytometry analysis showed perforin production in NK cells was attenuated by DSC media, and it was further suppressed by media from DSCs pretreated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS. However, the expression of granzyme A and apoptosis of NK cells were not influenced by DSC media. ELISA assays to detect cytokine production indicated that monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 in the supernatant of DSCs conditioned culture significantly increased after LPS stimulation. The inhibitory effect of DSC media on perforin was abolished by the administration of anti-MCP-1 neutralizing antibody. Notably, reduced perforin expression attenuated the cytotoxic potential of CD56(+ NK cells to K562 cells. Moreover, Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3 expression in NK cells was enhanced by treatment with MCP-1, as measured by RT-PCR and western blot. Interestingly, MCP-1-induced perforin expression was partly abolished by the siRNA induced SOCS3 knockdown. Western blot analysis suggested that both NF-κB and ERK/MAPKs pathway were involved in the LPS-induced upregulation of MCP-1 in DSCs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that LPS induces upregulation of MCP-1 in DSCs, which may play a critical role in inhibiting the cytotoxicity of NK cells partly by promoting SOCS3 expression. These findings suggest that the crosstalk between DSCs and NK cells may be crucial to maintain pregnancy homeostasis.

  20. Age Increases Monocyte Adhesion on Collagen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaji, Samira; Zondler, Lisa; Kleinjan, Fenneke; Nolte, Ulla; Mulaw, Medhanie A.; Danzer, Karin M.; Weishaupt, Jochen H.; Gottschalk, Kay-E.

    2017-05-01

    Adhesion of monocytes to micro-injuries on arterial walls is an important early step in the occurrence and development of degenerative atherosclerotic lesions. At these injuries, collagen is exposed to the blood stream. We are interested whether age influences monocyte adhesion to collagen under flow, and hence influences the susceptibility to arteriosclerotic lesions. Therefore, we studied adhesion and rolling of human peripheral blood monocytes from old and young individuals on collagen type I coated surface under shear flow. We find that firm adhesion of monocytes to collagen type I is elevated in old individuals. Pre-stimulation by lipopolysaccharide increases the firm adhesion of monocytes homogeneously in older individuals, but heterogeneously in young individuals. Blocking integrin αx showed that adhesion of monocytes to collagen type I is specific to the main collagen binding integrin αxβ2. Surprisingly, we find no significant age-dependent difference in gene expression of integrin αx or integrin β2. However, if all integrins are activated from the outside, no differences exist between the age groups. Altered integrin activation therefore causes the increased adhesion. Our results show that the basal increase in integrin activation in monocytes from old individuals increases monocyte adhesion to collagen and therefore the risk for arteriosclerotic plaques.

  1. Functional role of CD11c+ monocytes in atherogenesis associated with hypercholesterolemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monocyte activation and migration into the arterial wall are key events in atherogenesis associated with hypercholesterolemia. CD11c/CD18, a beta2 integrin expressed on human monocytes and a subset of mouse monocytes, has been shown to play a distinct role in human monocyte adhesion on endothelial c...

  2. The effect of low oxygen with and without steady-state hydrogen peroxide on cytokine gene and protein expression of monocyte-derived macrophages - biomed 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Owegi, H.; Bouwens, M.; Egot-Lemaire, S.; Mueller, S.; Geib, R.W.; Waite, G.N.

    2011-01-01

    An early event during inflammation and infection is the migration of monocytes into tissues where they differentiate into macrophages. Such monocyte-derived macrophages face an unfavorable environment characterized by extremely low oxygen tension and accumulation of reactive oxygen species such as h

  3. Estrogen-Induced Monocytic Response Correlates with Temporomandibular Disorder Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Dasilva, M C; Fillingim, R B; Wallet, S M

    2017-03-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are a set of conditions characterized by pain and dysfunction in the temporomandibular joint and muscles of mastication. These pain conditions are associated with considerable morbidity, societal costs, and reduced quality of life. The prevalence varies between 4% and 10%, with females at higher risk, and a higher prevalence occurs during reproductive years. The increased prevalence of TMD in females and low prevalence in childhood reinforce that sex hormones, like estrogen, play an important, complex role in the pathophysiology of these disorders. The goal of this study was to determine whether women with TMD exhibit a monocytic hyperinflammatory response compared with control women, and to examine associations of monocytic inflammatory responses with clinical pain. Eighteen women, aged 18 to 35 y, were seen during their follicular menstrual phase. A blood sample was collected, a clinical questionnaire about pain history was administered, and a Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) exam was performed. Extracted monocytes were stimulated with the toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 ligand, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), in the presence and absence of estrogen, and the levels of IL6 expression evaluated. Women with TMD showed a systemic hyperinflammatory phenotype, manifested by an increased monocytic release of cytokines after an inflammatory insult, and this was further increased by estrogen. In addition, monocytes from participants who self-reported more pain on the VAS scale produced higher levels of IL6 compared with those from participants who self-reported lower pain sensitivity. These data suggest that an estrogen-induced hyperinflammatory phenotype in women with TMD may at least in part contribute to heightened clinical pain, perhaps via central sensitization.

  4. Effects of Simvastatin on NF-κB-DNA Binding Activity and Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 Expression in a Rabbit Model of Atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiaoyun; WANG Lin; ZENG Hesong; DUBEY Laxman; ZHOU Ning; PU Jun

    2006-01-01

    To observe the effects of simvastatin on nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB)-DNA binding activity and on the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in atherosclerotic plaque in rabbits and to explore the anti-atherosclerotic properties beyond its lipid-lowering effects.Thirty-six New Zealand male rabbits were randomly divided into low-cholesterol group (LC), highcholesterol group (HC), high-cholesterol+ simvastatin group (HC+S) and then were fed for 12weeks. At the end of theexperiment, standard enzymatic assays, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), immunohistochemical staining, and morphometry were performed to observe serum lipids, NF-κB-DNA binding activity, MCP-1 protein expression, intima thickness and plaque area of aorta respectively in all three groups. Our results showed that the serum lipids, NF-κB-DNA binding activity, expression of MCP-1 protein, intima thickness, and plaque area of aorta in the LC and HC+S groups were significantly lower than those in the HC group (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the serum lipids between the LC and HC+S groups (P>0.05), but the NF-κB-DNA binding activity, the expression of MCP-1 protein and the intima thickness and plaque area of aorta in the HC+S group were significantly decreased as compared to the LC group (P<0.05). This study demonstrated that simvastatin could decrease atherosclerosis by inhibiting the NFκB-DNA binding activity and by reducing the expression of MCP-1 protein.

  5. PRRSV-infected monocyte-derived dendritic cells express high levels of SLA-DR and CD80/86 but do not stimulate PRRSV-naïve regulatory T cells to proliferate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Gómez, Irene M; Käser, Tobias; Gómez-Laguna, Jaime; Lamp, Benjamin; Sinn, Leonie; Rümenapf, Till; Carrasco, Librado; Saalmüller, Armin; Gerner, Wilhelm

    2015-05-20

    In vitro generated monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) have frequently been used to study the influence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection on antigen presenting cells. However, obtained results have often been conflicting in regard to expression of co-stimulatory molecules and interaction with T cells. In this study we performed a detailed phenotypic characterisation of PRRSV-infected moDCs and non-infected moDCs. For CD163 and CD169, which are involved in PRRSV-entry into host cells, our results show that prior to infection porcine moDCs express high levels of CD163 but only very low levels for CD169. Following infection with either PRRSV-1 or PRRSV-2 strains after 24 h, PRRSV-nucleoprotein (N-protein)(+) and N-protein(-) moDCs derived from the same microculture were analyzed for expression of swine leukocyte antigen-DR (SLA-DR) and CD80/86. N-protein(+) moDCs consistently expressed higher levels of SLA-DR and CD80/86 compared to N-protein(-) moDCs. We also investigated the influence of PRRSV-infected moDCs on proliferation and frequency of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells present within CD4(+) T cells in in vitro co-cultures. Neither CD3-stimulated nor unstimulated CD4(+) T cells showed differences in regard to proliferation and frequency of Foxp3(+) T cells following co-cultivation with either PRRSV-1 or PRRSV-2 infected moDCs. Our results suggest that a more detailed characterisation of PRRSV-infected moDCs will lead to more consistent results across different laboratories and PRRSV strains as indicated by the major differences in SLA-DR and CD80/86 expression between PRRSV-infected and non-infected moDCs present in the same microculture.

  6. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Promotes NO Synthesis by Upregulating GCHI Expression under Oxidative Stress Conditions in Sheep Monocytes/Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shoulong; Yu, Kun; Zhang, Baolu; Yao, Yuchang; Wang, Zhixian; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Xiaosheng; Liu, Guoshi; Li, Ning; Liu, Yixun; Lian, Zhengxing

    2015-01-01

    Many groups of Gram-negative bacteria cause diseases that are harmful to sheep. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), which is critical for detecting Gram-negative bacteria by the innate immune system, is activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to initiate inflammatory responses and oxidative stress. Oxidation intermediates are essential activators of oxidative stress, as low levels of free radicals form a stressful oxidative environment that can clear invading pathogens. NO is an oxidation intermediate and its generation is regulated by nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase (GCHI) is the rate-limiting enzyme for tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) synthesis, which is essential for the production of inducible iNOS. Previously, we made vectors to overexpress the sheep TLR4 gene. Herein, first generation (G1) of transgenic sheep was stimulated with LPS in vivo and in vitro, and oxidative stress and GCHI expression were investigated. Oxidative injury caused by TLR4 overexpression was tightly regulated in tissues. However, the transgenic (Tg) group still secreted nitric oxide (NO) when an iNOS inhibitor was added. Furthermore, GCHI expression remained upregulated in both serum and monocytes/macrophages. Thus, overexpression of TLR4 in transgenic sheep might accelerate the clearance of invading microbes through NO generation following LPS stimulation. Additionally, TLR4 overexpression also enhances GCHI activation.

  7. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Promotes NO Synthesis by Upregulating GCHI Expression under Oxidative Stress Conditions in Sheep Monocytes/Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoulong Deng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many groups of Gram-negative bacteria cause diseases that are harmful to sheep. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4, which is critical for detecting Gram-negative bacteria by the innate immune system, is activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS to initiate inflammatory responses and oxidative stress. Oxidation intermediates are essential activators of oxidative stress, as low levels of free radicals form a stressful oxidative environment that can clear invading pathogens. NO is an oxidation intermediate and its generation is regulated by nitric oxide synthase (iNOS. Guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase (GCHI is the rate-limiting enzyme for tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4 synthesis, which is essential for the production of inducible iNOS. Previously, we made vectors to overexpress the sheep TLR4 gene. Herein, first generation (G1 of transgenic sheep was stimulated with LPS in vivo and in vitro, and oxidative stress and GCHI expression were investigated. Oxidative injury caused by TLR4 overexpression was tightly regulated in tissues. However, the transgenic (Tg group still secreted nitric oxide (NO when an iNOS inhibitor was added. Furthermore, GCHI expression remained upregulated in both serum and monocytes/macrophages. Thus, overexpression of TLR4 in transgenic sheep might accelerate the clearance of invading microbes through NO generation following LPS stimulation. Additionally, TLR4 overexpression also enhances GCHI activation.

  8. Decreased CD8+ T cell response to Epstein-Barr virus infected B cells in multiple sclerosis is not due to decreased HLA class I expression on B cells or monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csurhes Peter A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS have a decreased frequency of CD8+ T cells reactive to their own Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infected B cells. We have proposed that this might predispose to the development of MS by allowing EBV-infected autoreactive B cells to accumulate in the central nervous system. The decreased CD8+ T cell response to EBV results from a general CD8+ T cell deficiency and also a decreased proportion of EBV-specific T cells within the total CD8+ T cell population. Because decreased HLA class I expression on monocytes and B cells has been reported in MS and could influence the generation and effector function of EBV-specific CD8+ T cells, the present study was undertaken to measure the expression of HLA molecules on B cells and monocytes in patients with MS. Methods We used flow cytometry to determine the proportions of T cells, natural killer cells, B cells and monocytes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC and to quantify the expression of HLA molecules on T cells, B cells and monocytes of 59 healthy subjects and 62 patients with MS who had not received corticosteroids or immunomodulatory therapy in the previous 3 months. Results The levels of HLA class I and class II molecules expressed on T cells, B cells and monocytes were normal in patients with MS, with the exception of two patients with secondary progressive MS with very low class II expression on B cells. In confirmation of previous studies we also found that the percentage of CD8+ T cells was significantly decreased whereas the percentage of CD4+ T cells and the CD4:CD8 ratio were significantly increased in patients with MS compared to healthy subjects. Conclusions The decreased CD8+ T cell response to EBV-infected B cells in MS patients is not due to decreased HLA class I expression on monocytes or B cells. In a small proportion of patients decreased HLA class II expression on B cells might impair the CD8+ T cell response to EBV by

  9. Interaction between M-CSF and IL-10 on productions of IL-12 and IL-18 and expressions of CD14, CD23, and CD64 by human monocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-hui JI; Ting YAO; Jun-chuan QIN; Shu-kui WANG; Hui-juan WANG; Kun YAO

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To Study the interaction of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) in productions of IL-12 and IL-18 and expressions of CD14, CD23, and CD64 by human monocytes. METHODS:Purified adherent human monocytes were cultured with M-CSF or IL-10 alone, or with M-CSF+IL-10 and 2-3d later, the culture supernatants and cells were separated and collected. IL-12P40 and IL-18 levels in the supernatants were determined by ELISA and the percentages of CD14, CD23, and CD64 positive cells were examined by flow cytometry. RESULTS: (1) IL-10 decreased M-CSF-induced IL-18 levels, while M-CSF further reduced IL-12P40 level in the culture supernatants of IL-10-treated monocytes; (2) IL-10 alone had no effect on the percentage of CD14-positive cells, but further increased the percentage of CD14-positive cells induced by M-CSF; M-CSF alone had no effect on the percentage of CD64-positive cells, but further increased the percentage of CD64-positive cells induced by IL-10; (3) IL-10 decreased the percentage of CD23-positive cells induced by M-CSF.CONCLUSION: Between M-CSF and IL-10, there were antagonistic effects on inducing IL-18 and CD23 expressions by monocytes; there were also synergistic effects on inhibiting IL-12P40 production and inducing CD 14 and CD64 expressions by monocytes.

  10. The Effect of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Vitamin D3 Induced Monocytic Differentiation of U937 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molaeipour, Zahra; Shamsasanjan, Karim; Movassaghpour, Ali Akbari; Akbarzadehlaleh, Parvin; Sabaghi, Fatemeh; Saleh, Mahshid

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are key components of the hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) niche. They control the process of hematopoiesis by secreting regulatory cytokines, growth factors and expression of important cell adhesion molecules for cell-tocell interactions. In this research, we have investigated the effect of bone marrow derived MSCs on monocytic differentiation of U937 cells line. Methods: U937 cells were cultured in both direct co-culture with MSCs and MSCs conditioned medium (C.M) driven. This study used 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3(VitD3) as inductor of monocytic differentiation and U937 cells treated with VitD3 morphology was examined by Wright Giemsa staining. CD14 monocytic differentiation marker was measured by flow cytometry and monocytic gene expression was assessed by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT PCR). Results: The results of flow cytometric analysis showed that CD14 expression of U937 increased. The higher effect of MSCs co-culture on CD14 expression in U937 cells was observed, compared to the conditioned medium. Among ten monocytic related genes which were screened that was observed increase in 5 genes in which CXCR4 and CSF2RA showed significant increase. Conclusion: The results obtained show that MSCs have supportive effect on the monocytic differentiation of U937 cells. However, a distinct mechanism of that remains unclear. PMID:27123414

  11. Loss of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression delays mammary tumorigenesis and reduces localized inflammation in the C3(1)/SV40Tag triple negative breast cancer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranford, Taryn L; Velázquez, Kandy T; Enos, Reilly T; Bader, Jackie E; Carson, Meredith S; Chatzistamou, Ioulia; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Murphy, E Angela

    2017-02-01

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) has been implicated as a major modulator in the progression of mammary tumorigenesis, largely due to its ability to recruit macrophages to the tumor microenvironment. Macrophages are key mediators in the connection between inflammation and cancer progression and have been shown to play an important role in tumorigenesis. Thus, MCP-1 may be a potential therapeutic target in inflammatory and difficult-to-treat cancers such as triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). We examined the effect of MCP-1 depletion on mammary tumorigenesis in a model of TNBC. Tumor measurements were conducted weekly (until 22 weeks of age) and at sacrifice (23 weeks of age) in female C3(1)/SV40Tag and C3(1)/SV40Tag MCP-1 deficient mice to determine tumor numbers and tumorvolumes. Histopathological scoring was performed at 12 weeks of age and 23 weeks of age. Gene expression of macrophage markers and inflammatory mediators were measured in the mammary gland and tumor microenvironment at sacrifice. As expected, MCP-1 depletion resulted in decreased tumorigenesis, indicated by reduced primary tumor volume and multiplicity, and a delay in tumor progression represented by histopathological scoring (12 weeks of age). Deficiency in MCP-1 significantly downregulated expression of macrophage markers in the mammary gland (Mertk and CD64) and the tumor microenvironment (CD64), and also reduced expression of inflammatory cytokines in the mammary gland (TNFα and IL-1β) and the tumor microenvironment (IL-6). These data support the hypothesis that MCP-1 expression contributes to increased tumorigenesis in a model of TNBC via recruitment of macrophages and subsequent increase in inflammatory mediators.

  12. Chemically induced neuronal damage and gliosis: enhanced expression of the proinflammatory chemokine, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, without a corresponding increase in proinflammatory cytokines(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, A R; Benkovic, S A; Miller, D B; O'Callaghan, J P

    2002-01-01

    Enhanced expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines has long been linked to neuronal and glial responses to brain injury. Indeed, inflammation in the brain has been associated with damage that stems from conditions as diverse as infection, multiple sclerosis, trauma, and excitotoxicity. In many of these brain injuries, disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) may allow entry of blood-borne factors that contribute to, or serve as the basis of, brain inflammatory responses. Administration of trimethyltin (TMT) to the rat results in loss of hippocampal neurons and an ensuing gliosis without BBB compromise. We used the TMT damage model to discover the proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines that are expressed in response to neuronal injury. TMT caused pyramidal cell damage within 3 days and a substantial loss of these neurons by 21 days post dosing. Marked microglial activation and astrogliosis were evident over the same time period. The BBB remained intact despite the presence of multiple indicators of TMT-induced neuropathology. TMT caused large increases in whole hippocampal-derived monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 mRNA (1,000%) by day 3 and in MCP-1 (300%) by day 7. The mRNA levels for tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-6, cytokines normally expressed during the earliest stage of inflammation, were not increased up to 21 days post dosing. Lipopolysaccharide, used as a positive control, caused large inductions of cytokine mRNA in liver, as well as an increase in IL-1beta in hippocampus, but it did not result in the induction of astrogliosis. The data suggest that enhanced expression of the proinflammatory cytokines, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6, is not required for neuronal and glial responses to injury and that MCP-1 may serve a signaling function in the damaged CNS that is distinct from its role in proinflammatory events.

  13. Malarial pigment haemozoin, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and LPS do not stimulate expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and production of nitric oxide in immuno-purified human monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceretto Monica

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enhanced production of nitric oxide (NO following upmodulation of the inducible isoform of NO synthase (iNOS by haemozoin (HZ, inflammatory cytokines and LPS may provide protection against Plasmodium falciparum malaria by killing hepatic and blood forms of parasites and inhibiting the cytoadherence of parasitized erythrocytes (RBC to endothelial cells. Monocytes and macrophages are considered to contribute importantly to protective upregulation of iNOS and production of NO. Data obtained with murine phagocytes fed with human HZ and synthetic HZ (sHZ indicate that supplemental treatment of those cells with IFN-gamma elicited significant increases in protein and mRNA expression of iNOS and NO production, providing a potential mechanism linking HZ phagocytosis and increased production of NO. Purpose of this study was to analyse the effect of P. falciparum HZ and sHZ supplemental to treatment with IFN-gamma and/or a stimulatory cytokine-LPS mix on iNOS protein and mRNA expression in immuno-purified human monocytes. Methods Adherent immunopurified human monocytes (purity >85%, and murine phagocytic cell lines RAW 264.7, N11 and ANA1 were fed or not with P. falciparum HZ or sHZ and treated or not with IFN-gamma or a stimulatory cytokine-LPS mix. Production of NO was quantified in supernatants, iNOS protein and mRNA expression were measured after immunoprecipitation and Western blotting and quantitative RT-PCT, respectively. Results Phagocytosis of HZ/sHZ by human monocytes did not increase iNOS protein and mRNA expression and NO production either after stimulation by IFN-gamma or the cytokine-LPS mix. By contrast, in HZ/sHZ-laden murine macrophages, identical treatment with IFN-gamma and the cytokine-LPS mix elicited significant increases in protein and mRNA expression of iNOS and NOS metabolites production, in agreement with literature data. Conclusion Results indicate that human monocytes fed or not with HZ/sHZ were constantly

  14. Differential Oxidative Stress Induced by Dengue Virus in Monocytes from Human Neonates, Adult and Elderly Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Nereida; Mosquera, Jesús; Añez, Germán; Levy, Alegria; Marcucci, Rafael; de Mon, Melchor Alvarez

    2013-01-01

    Changes in immune response during lifespan of man are well known. These changes involve decreased neonatal and elderly immune response. In addition, it has been shown a relationship between immune and oxidative mechanisms, suggesting that altered immune response could be associated to altered oxidative response. Increased expression of nitric oxide (NO) has been documented in dengue and in monocyte cultures infected with different types of dengue virus. However, there is no information about the age-dependent NO oxidative response in humans infected by dengue virus. In this study, monocyte cultures from neonatal, elderly and adult individuals (n = 10 each group) were infected with different dengue virus types (DENV- 1 to 4) and oxidative/antioxidative responses and apoptosis were measured at days 1 and 3 of culture. Increased production of NO, lipid peroxidation and enzymatic and nonenzymatic anti-oxidative responses in dengue infected monocyte cultures were observed. However, neonatal and elderly monocytes had lower values of studied parameters when compared to those in adult-derived cultures. Apoptosis was present in infected monocytes with higher values at day 3 of culture. This reduced oxidant/antioxidant response of neonatal and elderly monocytes could be relevant in the pathogenesis of dengue disease. PMID:24069178

  15. Differential oxidative stress induced by dengue virus in monocytes from human neonates, adult and elderly individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nereida Valero

    Full Text Available Changes in immune response during lifespan of man are well known. These changes involve decreased neonatal and elderly immune response. In addition, it has been shown a relationship between immune and oxidative mechanisms, suggesting that altered immune response could be associated to altered oxidative response. Increased expression of nitric oxide (NO has been documented in dengue and in monocyte cultures infected with different types of dengue virus. However, there is no information about the age-dependent NO oxidative response in humans infected by dengue virus. In this study, monocyte cultures from neonatal, elderly and adult individuals (n = 10 each group were infected with different dengue virus types (DENV- 1 to 4 and oxidative/antioxidative responses and apoptosis were measured at days 1 and 3 of culture. Increased production of NO, lipid peroxidation and enzymatic and nonenzymatic anti-oxidative responses in dengue infected monocyte cultures were observed. However, neonatal and elderly monocytes had lower values of studied parameters when compared to those in adult-derived cultures. Apoptosis was present in infected monocytes with higher values at day 3 of culture. This reduced oxidant/antioxidant response of neonatal and elderly monocytes could be relevant in the pathogenesis of dengue disease.

  16. CXCL1 contributes to β-amyloid-induced transendothelial migration of monocytes in Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bone marrow-derived microglia that originates in part from hematopoietic cells, and more particularly from monocytes preferentially attach to amyloid deposition in brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD. However, the mechanism of monocytes recruited into the amyloid plaques with an accelerated process in AD is unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we reported that monocytes from AD patients express significantly higher chemokine (C-X-C motif ligand 1 (CXCL1 compared to age-matched controls. AD patient's monocytes or CXCL1-overexpressing THP-1 cells had enhanced ability of β-amyloid (Aβ-induced transendothelial migration and Aβ-induced transendothelial migration for AD patient's monocytes or CXCL1-overexpressing THP-1 cells was almost abrogated by anti-CXCL1 antibody. Furthermore, monocytes derived from a transgenic mouse model of AD also expressed significantly higher CXCL1. CD11b⁺CD45(hi population of cells that were recruited from the peripheral blood were markedly bolcked in APP mouse brain by anti-CXCL1 antibody. Accordingly, in response to Aβ, human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC significantly up-regulated CXC chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2 expression, which was the only identified receptor for CXCL1. In addition, a high level expression of CXCR2 in HBMEC significantly promoted the CXCL1-overexpressing THP-1 cells transendothelial migration, which could be was abrogated by anti-CXCR2 antibody. Further examination of possible mechanisms found that CXCL1-overexpressing THP-1 cells induced transendothelial electrical resistance decrease, horseradish peroxidase flux increase, ZO-1 discontinuous and occludin re-distribution from insoluble to soluble fraction through interacting with CXCR2. ROCK inhibitor, Y27632, could block CXCL1-overexpressing THP-1 cells transendothelial migration, whereas other inhibitors had no effects. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present data indicate that monocytes derived from AD

  17. Hyper-activated pro-inflammatory CD16 monocytes correlate with the severity of liver injury and fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Yuan Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Extensive mononuclear cell infiltration is strongly correlated with liver damage in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (CHB infection. Macrophages and infiltrating monocytes also participate in the development of liver damage and fibrosis in animal models. However, little is known regarding the immunopathogenic role of peripheral blood monocytes and intrahepatic macrophages. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The frequencies, phenotypes, and functions of peripheral blood and intrahepatic monocyte/macrophage subsets were analyzed in 110 HBeAg positive CHB patients, including 32 immune tolerant (IT carriers and 78 immune activated (IA patients. Liver biopsies from 20 IA patients undergoing diagnosis were collected for immunohistochemical analysis. IA patients displayed significant increases in peripheral blood monocytes and intrahepatic macrophages as well as CD16(+ subsets, which were closely associated with serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels and the liver histological activity index (HAI scores. In addition, the increased CD16(+ monocytes/macrophages expressed higher levels of the activation marker HLA-DR compared with CD16(- monocytes/macrophages. Furthermore, peripheral blood CD16(+ monocytes preferentially released inflammatory cytokines and hold higher potency in inducing the expansion of Th17 cells. Of note, hepatic neutrophils also positively correlated with HAI scores. CONCLUSIONS: These distinct properties of monocyte/macrophage subpopulations participate in fostering the inflammatory microenvironment and liver damage in CHB patients and further represent a collaborative scenario among different cell types contributing to the pathogenesis of HBV-induced liver disease.

  18. Critical Role for Monocytes/Macrophages in Rapid Progression to AIDS in Pediatric Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Rhesus Macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Chie; Merino, Kristen M; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Wang, Xiaolei; Alvarez, Xavier A; Wakao, Hiroshi; Mori, Kazuyasu; Kim, Woong-Ki; Veazey, Ronald S; Didier, Elizabeth S; Kuroda, Marcelo J

    2017-09-01

    Infant humans and rhesus macaques infected with the human or simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV or SIV), respectively, express higher viral loads and progress more rapidly to AIDS than infected adults. Activated memory CD4(+) T cells in intestinal tissues are major primary target cells for SIV/HIV infection, and massive depletion of these cells is considered a major cause of immunodeficiency. Monocytes and macrophages are important cells of innate immunity and also are targets of HIV/SIV infection. We reported previously that a high peripheral blood monocyte turnover rate was predictive for the onset of disease progression to AIDS in SIV-infected adult macaques. The purpose of this study was to determine if earlier or higher infection of monocytes/macrophages contributes to the more rapid progression to AIDS in infants. We observed that uninfected infant rhesus macaques exhibited higher physiologic baseline monocyte turnover than adults. Early after SIV infection, the monocyte turnover further increased, and it remained high during progression to AIDS. A high percentage of terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase dUTP nick end label (TUNEL)-positive macrophages in the lymph nodes (LNs) and intestine corresponded with an increasing number of macrophages derived from circulating monocytes (bromodeoxyuridine positive [BrdU(+)] CD163(+)), suggesting that the increased blood monocyte turnover was required to rapidly replenish destroyed tissue macrophages. Immunofluorescence analysis further demonstrated that macrophages were a significant portion of the virus-producing cells found in LNs, intestinal tissues, and lungs. The higher baseline monocyte turnover in infant macaques and subsequent macrophage damage by SIV infection may help explain the basis of more rapid disease progression to AIDS in infants.IMPORTANCE HIV infection progresses much more rapidly in pediatric cases than in adults; however, the mechanism for this difference is unclear. Using the rhesus macaque model

  19. Altered Cytokine Gene Expression in Peripheral Blood Monocytes across the Menstrual Cycle in Primary Dysmenorrhea: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongyue; Hong, Min; Duan, Jinao; Liu, Pei; Fan, Xinsheng; Shang, Erxin; Su, Shulan; Guo, Jianming; Qian, Dawei; Tang, Yuping

    2013-01-01

    Primary dysmenorrhea is one of the most common gynecological complaints in young women, but potential peripheral immunologic features underlying this condition remain undefined. In this paper, we compared 84 common cytokine gene expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from six primary dysmenorrheic young women and three unaffected controls on the seventh day before (secretory phase), and the first (menstrual phase) and the fifth (regenerative phase) days of menstruation, using a real-time PCR array assay combined with pattern recognition and gene function annotation methods. Comparisons between dysmenorrhea and normal control groups identified 11 (nine increased and two decreased), 14 (five increased and nine decreased), and 15 (seven increased and eight decreased) genes with ≥2-fold difference in expression (Pmenstrual phase, genes encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL1B, TNF, IL6, and IL8) were up-regulated, and genes encoding TGF-β superfamily members (BMP4, BMP6, GDF5, GDF11, LEFTY2, NODAL, and MSTN) were down-regulated. Functional annotation revealed an excessive inflammatory response and insufficient TGF-β superfamily member signals with anti-inflammatory consequences, which may directly contribute to menstrual pain. In the secretory and regenerative phases, increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and decreased expression of growth factors were also observed. These factors may be involved in the regulation of decidualization, endometrium breakdown and repair, and indirectly exacerbate primary dysmenorrhea. This first study of cytokine gene expression profiles in PBMCs from young primary dysmenorrheic women demonstrates a shift in the balance between expression patterns of pro-inflammatory cytokines and TGF-β superfamily members across the whole menstrual cycle, underlying the peripheral immunologic features of primary dysmenorrhea. PMID:23390521

  20. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1-deficiency impairs the expression of IL-6, IL-1β and G-CSF after transient focal ischemia in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Kolja Strecker

    Full Text Available Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, a chemokine secreted by neurons and astrocytes following stroke is known to aggravate ischemia-related damage. Previous studies revealed that MCP-1-deficient mice develop smaller infarcts and have an improved neurological outcome, whereas mice overexpressing MCP-1 show worsened brain damage and impaired neurological function. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the molecular background of the enhanced recovery in MCP-1-deficient mice after stroke. For this purpose, we (1 performed expression analyses on crucial post-stroke related inflammatory genes in MCP-1-deficient mice compared to wildtype controls, (2 analyzed a possible impact of MCP-1 on astrocyte activation (3 investigated the cellular origin of respective inflammatory cytokines and (4 analyzed the impact of MCP-1 secretion on the migration of both neutrophil granulocytes and T-cells. Here we report that MCP-1-deficiency leads to a shift towards a less inflammatory state following experimental occlusion of the middle cerebral artery including an impaired induction of interleukin-6, interleukin-1β and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor expression as well as a subsequent diminished influx of hematogenous cells. Additionally, MCP-1-deficient mice developed smaller infarcts 36 hours after experimental stroke. Investigations revealed no differences in transcription of tumor necrosis factor-α and astrogliosis 12 and 36 hours after onset of ischemia. These novel results help to understand post ischemic, inflammatory mechanisms and might give further arguments towards therapeutical interventions by modulation of MCP-1 expression in post stroke inflammation.

  1. CD163 levels, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion of monocytes in children with pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas Cetin, Esin; Pur Ozyigit, Leyla; Gelmez, Yusuf Metin; Cakir, Erkan; Gedik, Ahmet Hakan; Deniz, Gunnur

    2017-05-01

    Childhood tuberculosis (TB) comprises an important part of the world's TB burden. Monocytes set up the early phase of infection because of innate immune responses. Understanding the changes in monocyte subsets during multisystem infectious diseases may be important for the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the monocyte phenotype together with the cytokine secretion profiles of children with pulmonary tuberculosis. Thirteen patients with pulmonary TB were enrolled as study group, and 14 healthy subjects as control group. Surface expressions of CD16, CD14, CD62L, CD163, CCR2, and HLA-DR of monocytes were analyzed by flow cytometry. The presence of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10, IL-12, IL-23, and soluble form of CD163 (sCD163) in the antigen- and LPS-stimulated whole blood culture supernatants were detected using ELISA and Luminex. Higher percentages of CD14(++) CD16(+) and CD14(+) CD16(++) monocyte subsets, and CCR2, CD62L and CD163 expression on circulating monocytes in children with pulmonary tuberculosis were obtained. Diminished levels of ESAT-6/CFP-10-induced IL-10 and increased levels of TB-antigen and LPS-stimulated sCD163 were found in childhood with pulmonary TB. High expression of CD14(++) CD16(+) , CD14(+) CD16(++) , CD14(+) CCR2(+) , and CD14(+) CD62L(+) cells in childhood TB, and monocyte-derived cytokines reflected both pro- and anti-inflammatory profiles. Higher sCD163 and CD14(+) CD163(+) monocytes might help physicians in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary TB in children. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2017;52:675-683. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Properties of monocytes generated from haematopoietic CD34(+) stem cells from bone marrow of colon cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stec, Malgorzata; Baran, Jarosław; Szatanek, Rafał; Mytar, Bożenna; Lenart, Marzena; Czupryna, Antoni; Szczepanik, Antoni; Siedlar, Maciej; Zembala, Marek

    2013-04-01

    Monocytes exhibit direct and indirect antitumour activities and may be potentially useful for various forms of adoptive cellular immunotherapy of cancer. However, blood is a limited source of them. This study explored whether monocytes can be obtained from bone marrow haematopoietic CD34(+) stem cells of colon cancer patients, using previously described protocol of expansion and differentiation to monocytes of cord blood-derived CD34(+) haematopoietic progenitors. Data show that in two-step cultures, the yield of cells was increased approximately 200-fold, and among these cells, up to 60 % of CD14(+) monocytes were found. They consisted of two subpopulations: CD14(++)CD16(+) and CD14(+)CD16(-), at approximately 1:1 ratio, that differed in HLA-DR expression, being higher on the former. No differences in expression of costimulatory molecules were observed, as CD80 was not detected, while CD86 expression was comparable. These CD14(+) monocytes showed the ability to present recall antigens (PPD, Candida albicans) and neoantigens expressed on tumour cells and tumour-derived microvesicles (TMV) to autologous CD3(+) T cells isolated from the peripheral blood. Monocytes also efficiently presented the immunodominant HER-2/neu369-377 peptide (KIFGSLAFL), resulting in the generation of specific cytotoxic CD8(+) T lymphocytes (CTL). The CD14(++)CD16(+) subset exhibited enhanced cytotoxicity, though nonsignificant, towards tumour cells in vitro. These observations indicate that generation of monocytes from CD34(+) stem cells of cancer patients is feasible. To our knowledge, it is the first demonstration of such approach that may open a way to obtain autologous monocytes for alternative forms of adaptive and adoptive cellular immunotherapy of cancer.

  3. HIV-1-triggered release of type I IFN by plasmacytoid dendritic cells induces BAFF production in monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Alejandro M; Ouellet, Michel; Tremblay, Michel J

    2015-03-01

    HIV-1 infection leads to numerous B cell abnormalities, including hypergammaglobulinemia, nonspecific B cell activation, nonspecific class switching, increased cell turnover, breakage of tolerance, increased immature/transitional B cells, B cell malignancies, as well as a loss of capacity to generate and maintain memory, all of which contribute to a global impairment of the immune humoral compartment. Several cytokines and soluble factors, which are increased in sera of HIV-1-infected individuals, have been suggested to directly or indirectly contribute to these B cell dysfunctions, and one of these is the B cell-activating factor (BAFF). We report in this study that HIV-1 (X4- and R5-tropic) upregulates BAFF expression and secretion by human monocytes. Moreover, we show that the virus-mediated production of BAFF by monocytes relies on a type I IFN response by a small percentage of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) present in the monocyte cultures. HIV-1-induced type I IFN by pDCs triggers BAFF production in both classical and intermediate monocytes, but not in nonclassical monocytes, which nonetheless display a very strong basal BAFF production. We report also that basal BAFF secretion was higher in monocytes obtained from females compared with those from male donors. This study provides a novel mechanistic explanation for the increased BAFF levels observed during HIV-1 infection and highlights the importance of pDC/monocyte crosstalk to drive BAFF secretion. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  4. Differential expression of HIV-1 interfering factors in monocyte-derived macrophages stimulated with polarizing cytokines or interferons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Viviana Cobos; Booiman, Thijs; de Taeye, Steven W.; van Dort, Karel A.; Rits, Maarten A. N.; Hamann, Jörg; Kootstra, Neeltje A.

    2012-10-01

    HIV-1 replication in macrophages can be regulated by cytokines and infection is restricted in macrophages activated by type I interferons and polarizing cytokines. Here, we observed that the expression levels of the cellular factors Trim5α, CypA, APOBEC3G, SAMHD-1, Trim22, tetherin and TREX-1, and the anti-HIV miRNAs miR-28, miR-150, miR-223 and miR-382 was upregulated by IFN-α and IFN-β in macrophages, which may account for the inhibiting effect on viral replication and the antiviral state of these cells. Expression of these factors was also increased by IFN-γ +/- TNF-α, albeit to a lesser extent; yet, HIV-1 replication in these cells was not restricted at the level of proviral synthesis, indicating that these cellular factors only partially contribute to the observed restriction. IL-4, IL-10 or IL-32 polarization did not affect the expression of cellular factors and miRNAs, suggesting only a limited role for these cellular factors in restricting HIV-1 replication in macrophages.

  5. Survival of malnourished head and neck cancer patients can be predicted by human leukocyte antigen-DR expression and interleukin-6/tumor necrosis factor-alpha response of the monocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bokhorst-de van der Schuer; von Blomberg-van der Flier, B M; Kuik, D J; Scholten, P E; Siroen, M P; Snow, G B; Quak, J J; van Leeuwen, P A

    2000-01-01

    Patients with advanced stages of head and neck cancer are often characterized by malnutrition and by an impaired immune system. Because some of the suppressed immune parameters were shown to be of prognostic importance in trauma and sepsis, we investigated whether these would also correlate with survival in head and neck cancer. Severely malnourished head and neck cancer patients undergoing ablative and reconstructive surgery were followed prospectively and their perioperative immune parameters were related to long-term survival. Forty-nine patients with a preoperative weight loss of more than 10% were followed up for a period of at least 16 months after surgery. Analyses of variance revealed that preoperative human leukocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR) expression on monocytes and endotoxin-induced production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were different between patients who survived and patients who died. Proportional hazards identified a weight loss of more than 12%, the presence of coexistent disease, and an HLA-DR expression on monocytes below the cutoff points (mean fluorescence index < 15, peak channel index < 9) to be of significant influence on survival. In addition to known prognostic parameters such as tumor stage, coexistent disease, and weight loss, the immune parameters HLA-DR expression on monocytes and endotoxin-induced cytokine production may carry prognostic value in cancer patients. Immunomodulating therapies leading to improvement of these parameters might in the future lead to increased options for treatment.

  6. Angiotensin II induces apoptosis of human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells in acute aortic dissection complicated with lung injury patients through modulating the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiyong; Dai, Feifeng; Ren, Wei; Liu, Huagang; Li, Bowen; Chang, Jinxing

    2016-01-01

    Patients with acute aortic dissection (AAD) usually showed acute lung injury (ALI). However, its pathogenesis is still not well defined. Apoptosis of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) is closely related to the alveolus-capillary barrier injury and the increased vascular permeability. In this study, we aim to investigate the human PMVECs (hPMVECs) apoptosis induced by angiotensin II (AngII) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and their potential interaction in the pathogenesis of AAD complicated with ALI. Fifty-eight newly diagnosed AAD, 12 matched healthy individuals were included. Pulmonary tissues of AAD complicated with lung injury were obtained from 2 cadavers to determine the levels of AngII type 1 receptor (AT1-R) and MCP-1. Serum AngII was measured using commercial ELISA kit. H&E staining and immunohistostaining were performed to determine the expression of AT1-R and MCP-1. For the in vitro experiment, hPMVECs were divided into control, AngII group, AngII+Bindarit group and Bindarit group, respectively. Flow cytometry was performed to analyze the apoptosis in each group. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed to determine the mRNA expression of MCP-1. Western blot analysis was performed to evaluate the expression of MCP-1 and apoptosis related protein. Apoptosis of hPMVECs was observed in the lung tissues in the cadavers with AAD complicated with ALI. Besides, the expression of AT1-R and MCP-1 was remarkably elevated. Compared with normal individuals and the non-lung injury AAD patients, the expression of serum AngII was remarkably elevated in AAD patients complicated with ALI. In vitro experiments showed AngII contributed to the apoptosis and elevation of MCP1 in hPMVECs. Besides, it involved in the down-regulation of Bcl-2 protein, and up-regulation of Bax and Caspase-3. Such phenomenon was completely reversed after administration of MCP-1 inhibitor (Bindarit). The production of MCP-1 and cellular

  7. Peripheral monocyte functions and activation in patients with quiescent Crohn's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Schwarzmaier

    Full Text Available Recent developments suggest a causal link between inflammation and impaired bacterial clearance in Crohn's disease (CD due to alterations of intestinal macrophages. Studies suggest that excessive inflammation is the consequence of an underlying immunodeficiency rather than the primary cause of CD pathogenesis. We characterized phenotypic and functional features of peripheral blood monocytes of patients with quiescent CD (n = 18 and healthy controls (n = 19 by analyses of cell surface molecule expression, cell adherence, migration, chemotaxis, phagocytosis, oxidative burst, and cytokine expression and secretion with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS priming. Peripheral blood monocytes of patients with inactive CD showed normal expression of cell surface molecules (CD14, CD16, CD116, adherence to plastic surfaces, spontaneous migration, chemotaxis towards LTB4, phagocytosis of E. coli, and production of reactive oxygen species. Interestingly, peripheral blood monocytes of CD patients secreted higher levels of IL1β (p<.05. Upon LPS priming we found a decreased release of IL10 (p<.05 and higher levels of CCL2 (p<.001 and CCL5 (p<.05. The expression and release of TNFα, IFNγ, IL4, IL6, IL8, IL13, IL17, CXCL9, and CXCL10 were not altered compared to healthy controls. Based on our phenotypic and functional studies, peripheral blood monocytes from CD patients in clinical remission were not impaired compared to healthy controls. Our results highlight that defective innate immune mechanisms in CD seems to play a role in the (inflamed intestinal mucosa rather than in peripheral blood.

  8. Low MT-CO1 in Monocytes and Microvesicles Is Associated With Outcome in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holvoet, Paul; Vanhaverbeke, Maarten; Bloch, Katarzyna; Baatsen, Pieter; Sinnaeve, Peter; Janssens, Stefan

    2016-12-05

    Cytochrome oxidase (COX) IV complex regulates energy production in mitochondria. Impaired COX gene expression is related to obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, but whether it is directly related to the incidence of cardiovascular events is unknown. We investigated whether COX gene expression in monocytes is predictive for cardiovascular events in coronary artery disease patients. To avoid monocyte isolation from fresh blood, we then aimed to validate our findings in monocyte-derived microvesicles isolated from plasma. We enrolled 142 consecutive patients undergoing diagnostic coronary angiography between June 2010 and January 2011 and followed 67 patients with stable coronary artery disease prospectively for at least 3 years. Twenty-two patients experienced a new cardiovascular event (32.8%). Circulating CD14(+) monocytes and microvesicles were isolated with magnetic beads, and COX mRNA levels were measured with quantitative polymerase chain reaction, after normalization with 5 validated house-keeping genes. Patients in the lowest tertile of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase, subunit I (MT-COI) in monocytes at baseline had a higher risk for developing a new event after adjusting for age, sex, (ex)smoking, body mass index, blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, low-density lipoprotein- and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglycerides, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and number of diseased vessels (harzard ratio [HR], 3.95; 95% CI, 1.63-9.57). Patients in the lowest tertile of MT-COI in monocyte-specific microvesicles had also a higher risk of developing a new event (adjusted HR, 5.00; 95% CI, 1.77-14). In the current blinded study, low MT-COI in monocytes of coronary artery disease patients identifies a population at risk for new cardiovascular events. For the first time, we show that signatures in monocyte-specific microvesicles in plasma have similar predictive properties. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart

  9. Enhanced Apoptosis of Monocytes from Complication-Free Juvenile-Onset Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 May Be Ameliorated by TNF-α Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Myśliwska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus type 1 is associated with an enhanced apoptosis of different cells and tissues, accelerating occurrence of diabetic microvascular complications. The aim of our study was to determine spontaneous apoptotic potential of the monocyte subsets in juvenile-onset complication-free diabetes mellitus type 1 and to compare them with the corresponding values of the healthy. Moreover, we wanted to assess effects of TNF-R1 blocking agents and those of general TNF-α blocker (Infliximab on spontaneous apoptosis of monocytes. Sixty randomly selected DM1 patients (14.5 ± 3.2 years and 30 healthy (13.5 ± 2.8 years volunteers were enrolled in the study. Our results indicate that three monocyte subsets are distinguishable in the groups of young diabetic patients and the healthy, similarly to in the blood of adults. DM1 patients were characterized by higher values of apoptotic monocytes than the healthy. The manipulation with drugs inhibiting TNF-R1 expression diminished the pool of CD16+ apoptotic monocytes. Infliximab reduced the apoptotic CD16− cells. In conclusion, diabetes mellitus type 1 is associated with greater apoptosis of three monocyte subsets which may contribute to the development of microvascular complications. TNF-α modifiers appear to ameliorate monocyte apoptosis. They may be useful for controlling excessive monocyte apoptosis in diabetic patients.

  10. Effects of TNF-α on the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and the corresponding signal transduction pathway in dental follicle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-chun BI

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To study the effect of different concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α on the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1(MCP-1 and the corresponding signal transduction pathway in human dental follicle cells.Methods The 5th passage of human dental follicle cells were co-incubated with 0(control group,5,10,25,50 and 100 ng/ml TNF-α,respectively,for 6 hours.The contents of MCP-1 in the supernatant were measured by using sandwich ELISA,and the expression of MCP-1 mRNA was determined by reverses transcription polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR.Furthermore,to determine the corresponding signal transduction pathway,the 5th passage of human dental follicle cells were incubated with 25 μmol/L SB203580 to inhibit p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase(p38MARK,with 50 μmol/L PD98059 to inhibit extracellular signal-regulated kinases(ERK,and with 15 μmol/L SP600125 to inhibit c-Jun N-terminal kinases(JNK for 30min,then incubated with TNF-α(10ng/ml for 6h.MCP-1 mRNA was detected by RT-PCR.Results The results of ELISA revealed that 10-100 ng/ml of TNF-α enhanced MCP-1 secretion(P < 0.05 compared to that in human dental follicle cells without TNF-α treatment.Cells treated with 10-50 ng/ml of TNF-α showed a significant increase of MCP-1 mRNA expression(P < 0.05,and the action was inhibited by SP600125,which was the special inhibitor of c-Jun N-terminal kinase(JNK.Conclusion TNF-α may enhance MCP-1 gene expression and secretion in human dental follicle cells,and the activation of JNK signal transduction pathway is required in this process.

  11. Microbial translocation is associated with increased monocyte activation and dementia in AIDS patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronela Ancuta

    Full Text Available Elevated plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS, an indicator of microbial translocation from the gut, is a likely cause of systemic immune activation in chronic HIV infection. LPS induces monocyte activation and trafficking into brain, which are key mechanisms in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated dementia (HAD. To determine whether high LPS levels are associated with increased monocyte activation and HAD, we obtained peripheral blood samples from AIDS patients and examined plasma LPS by Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL assay, peripheral blood monocytes by FACS, and soluble markers of monocyte activation by ELISA. Purified monocytes were isolated by FACS sorting, and HIV DNA and RNA levels were quantified by real time PCR. Circulating monocytes expressed high levels of the activation markers CD69 and HLA-DR, and harbored low levels of HIV compared to CD4(+ T-cells. High plasma LPS levels were associated with increased plasma sCD14 and LPS-binding protein (LBP levels, and low endotoxin core antibody levels. LPS levels were higher in HAD patients compared to control groups, and were associated with HAD independently of plasma viral load and CD4 counts. LPS levels were higher in AIDS patients using intravenous heroin and/or ethanol, or with Hepatitis C virus (HCV co-infection, compared to control groups. These results suggest a role for elevated LPS levels in driving monocyte activation in AIDS, thereby contributing to the pathogenesis of HAD, and provide evidence that cofactors linked to substance abuse and HCV co-infection influence these processes.

  12. Nicotinamide downregulates gene expression of interleukin-6, interleukin-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and tumour necrosis factor-α gene expression in HaCaT keratinocytes after ultraviolet B irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfrecola, G; Gaudiello, F; Cirillo, T; Fabbrocini, G; Balato, A; Lembo, S

    2013-03-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation has profound effects on human skin, causing sunburn, inflammation, cellular-tissue injury, cell death, and skin cancer. Most of these effects are mediated by a number of cytokines produced by keratinocytes. In this study we investigated whether nicotinamide (NCT), the amide form of vitamin B3, might have a protective function in reducing the expression of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α in UV-irradiated keratinocytes. HaCaT cells were treated with UVB in the presence or absence of NCT, and cytokine mRNA levels were examined by quantitative real-time PCR. NCT significantly downregulated IL-6, IL-10, MCP-1 and TNF-α mRNA expression, whereas it did not exert any significant effect on IL-1β or IL-8 expression. Because of its ability to decrease these cytokine mediators after UV exposure, NCT is a possible therapy to improve or prevent conditions induced or aggravated by UV light.

  13. Cloning of two members of the SIRP alpha family of protein tyrosine phosphatase binding proteins in cattle that are expressed on monocytes and a subpopulation of dendritic cells and which mediate binding to CD4 T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, G P; Parsons, K R; Howard, C J

    1998-01-01

    Recent experimental studies have greatly clarified the function of cell surface molecules in the induction and modulation of T cell responses by antigen-presenting cells (APC). However, the differences in ability to stimulate T cells evident for different types and subpopulations of the same APC, such as dendritic cell subsets, is less well understood. This report details an investigation of an antigen expressed on monocytes that is also expressed on a subset of cattle afferent lymph veiled cells (ALVC). A cDNA library derived from cattle monocytes was screened with monoclonal antibodies (mAb) for expression in COS-7 cells. Using separate mAb for screening, two cDNA were cloned, the sequences of which showed a single long open reading frame encoding a predicted type I glycoprotein of 506 amino acids that contained three immunoglobulin superfamily domains and a long 112-amino acid cytoplasmic tail. We have termed this antigen MyD-1, reflecting its myeloid and dendritic cell distribution. Analysis of the EMBL database revealed that the molecule is a member of the recently described family of signal regulatory proteins (SIRP). The outeremost Ig domain was of the adhesion/receptor I-type, suggesting that MyD-1 might bind to a ligand on another cell. Evidence for this was subsequently obtained by demonstrating that COS-7 cells transfected with MyD-1 cDNA bound CD4 T cells and this binding was blocked by specific mAb. The potential importance of this interaction was supported by the finding that the proliferation of resting memory CD4 T cells to ovalbumin-pulsed monocytes was significantly reduced in the presence of mAb to MyD-1. A role for the molecule in the modulation of the monocyte/dendritic APC response is also predicted from the existence of multiple potential tyrosine phosphorylation sites in the cytoplasmic domain, including the presence of an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) and the observation that the SIRP alpha family members have been

  14. Monocytic HLA DR antigens in schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Daniela; Wagner, Jenny; Matz, Judith; Weidinger, Elif; Obermeier, Michael; Riedel, Michael; Gruber, Rudolf; Schwarz, Markus; Mueller, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    A genetic association of specific human leukocyte antigens (HLA) DR genes and schizophrenia has recently been shown. These HLA play a fundamental role in the control of immune responses. Furthermore infectious agents have been proposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. In this study we investigated the rate of HLA DR positive monocytes in schizophrenic patients compared to controls with a special focus on the adaption to in vitro stimulation with toll-like receptor ligands. Patients with schizophrenia and matched controls were included. For each individual, we evaluated the rate of HLA DR positive monocytes (either incubated at 37 °C or after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide or Poly I:C). We found a significantly higher percentage of schizophrenic patients with elevated HLA DR positive cells (p=0.045) as compared to controls. The adjustment rate from baseline levels of monocytic HLA DR positive cells to stimulation with Poly I:C was significantly lower in schizophrenic patients (p=0.038). The increased monocytic HLA DR in schizophrenic patients and the maladjustment of their monocytic HLA DR levels to an infectious stimulus might be a sign for a disturbed monocytic immune balance in schizophrenic individuals.

  15. Differential and time-dependent expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 mRNA by astrocytes and macrophages in rat brain : Effects of ischemia and peripheral lipopolysaccharide administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gourmala, NG; Buttini, M; Limonta, S; Sauter, A; Boddeke, HWGM

    1997-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates a key role of chemoattractant cytokines in the accumulation of leukocytes in the central nervous system (CNS) during the course of inflammatory processes. Monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1/JE), a member of the beta-chemokine (C-C chemokine) family, functions as a

  16. Monocyte/macrophage lineage commitment and distribution are affected by the lack of regulatory T cells in scurfy mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuljec, Jelena; Cabanski, Maciej; Surdziel, Ewa; Lachmann, Nico; Brennig, Sebastian; Pul, Refik; Jirmo, Adan C; Habener, Anika; Visic, Julia; Dalüge, Kathleen; Hennig, Christian; Moritz, Thomas; Happle, Christine; Hansen, Gesine

    2016-07-01

    Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells play a pivotal role in maintaining immunological tolerance. Loss-of-function mutations in the Foxp3 gene result in multiorgan inflammation known as immunodysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked syndrome in humans and scurfy (Sf) disease in mice. While the impact of missing Treg cells on adaptive immune cells is well documented, their role in regulation of myeloid cells remains unclear. Here we report that Sf mice exhibit an altered composition of stem and progenitor cells, characterized by increased numbers of myeloid precursors and higher efficiency of macrophage generation ex vivo. The proportion of monocytes/macrophages in the bone marrow, blood, and spleen was significantly elevated in Sf mice, which was accompanied with tissue-specific monocyte expression of homing receptor and phagocytic activity. Sf mice displayed high levels of M-CSF and other inflammatory cytokines, including monocyte-recruiting chemokines. Adoptive transfer of WT CD4(+) cells and in vivo neutralization of M-CSF normalized frequencies of monocyte subsets and their progenitors and reduced high levels of monocyte-related cytokines in Sf mice, while Treg cell transfer to RAG2(-/-) mice had no effect on myelopoiesis and monocyte/macrophage counts. Our findings illustrate that deregulated myelopoiesis in Sf mice is mainly caused by the inflammatory reaction resulting from the lack of Treg cells.

  17. Phenolic compounds alone or in combination may be involved in propolis effects on human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Eliza de Oliveira; Conti, Bruno José; Santiago, Karina Basso; Conte, Fernanda Lopes; Oliveira, Lucas Pires Garcia; Hernandes, Rodrigo Tavanelli; Golim, Marjorie de Assis; Sforcin, José Maurício

    2017-01-01

    Propolis is a natural product with a complex chemical composition. Its isolated compounds exert biological activities; however, its synergistic effects are unknown. The involvement of phenolic acids (caffeic - Caf, dihydrocinnamic - Cin and p-coumaric - Cou) alone or in combination was investigated in the action of propolis in human monocytes. Cell viability was analysed by MTT assay; TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 production by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); cell markers expression by flow cytometry; colony-forming units were counted to assess the microbicidal activity; and H2 O2 production was analysed by colorimetric assay. Treatments did not affect monocytes viability. Propolis and combinations containing Caf enhanced TNF-α production by resting cells. Propolis, Cin, Cou and Caf + Cin stimulated IL-6 production. All treatments upregulated IL-10. In LPS-stimulated cells, treatments downregulated IL-6 and maintained TNF-α and IL-10 production. A lower TLR-2 expression was seen than propolis. Caf + Cin enhanced TLR-4 expression. Propolis, Caf and Caf + Cin stimulated H2 O2 production, whereas propolis, Cin, Cou, and Caf + Cin + Cou induced a higher fungicidal activity. Cin and Cin + Cou increased the bactericidal activity of human monocytes. Propolis activated human monocytes, and acids were involved differently in propolis activity. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  18. Differential procoagulant activity of microparticles derived from monocytes, granulocytes, platelets and endothelial cells: impact of active tissue factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shustova, Olga N; Antonova, Olga A; Golubeva, Nina V; Khaspekova, Svetlana G; Yakushkin, Vladimir V; Aksuk, Svetlana A; Alchinova, Irina B; Karganov, Mikhail Y; Mazurov, Alexey V

    2016-12-06

    Microparticles released by activated/apoptotic cells exhibit coagulation activity as they express phosphatidylserine and some of them - tissue factor. We compared procoagulant properties of microparticles from monocytes, granulocytes, platelets and endothelial cells and assessed the impact of tissue factor in observed differences. Microparticles were sedimented (20 000g, 30 min) from the supernatants of activated monocytes, monocytic THP-1 cells, granulocytes, platelets and endothelial cells. Coagulation activity of microparticles was examined using plasma recalcification assay. The size of microparticles was evaluated by dynamic light scattering. Tissue factor activity was measured by its ability to activate factor X. All microparticles significantly accelerated plasma coagulation with the shortest lag times for microparticles derived from monocytes, intermediate - for microparticles from THP-1 cells and endothelial cells, and the longest - for microparticles from granulocytes and platelets. Average diameters of microparticles ranged within 400-600 nm. The largest microparticles were produced by endothelial cells and granulocytes, smaller - by monocytes, and the smallest - by THP-1 cells and platelets. The highest tissue factor activity was detected in microparticles from monocytes, lower activity - in microparticles from endothelial cells and THP-1 cells, and no activity - in microparticles from platelets and granulocytes. Anti-tissue factor antibodies extended coagulation lag times for microparticles from monocytes, endothelial cells and THP-1 cells and equalized them with those for microparticles from platelets and granulocytes. Higher coagulation activity of microparticles from monocytes, THP-1 cells and endothelial cells in comparison with microparticles from platelets and granulocytes is determined mainly by the presence of active tissue factor.

  19. Elevated Atherosclerosis-Related Gene Expression, Monocyte Activation and Microparticle-Release Are Related to Increased Lipoprotein-Associated Oxidative Stress in Familial Hypercholesterolemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjuler Nielsen, Morten; Irvine, Helle; Vedel, Simon

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Animal and in vitro studies have suggested that hypercholesterolemia and increased oxidative stress predisposes to monocyte activation and enhanced accumulation of oxidized LDL cholesterol (oxLDL-C) through a CD36-dependent mechanism. The aim of this study was to investigate the hypoth......OBJECTIVE: Animal and in vitro studies have suggested that hypercholesterolemia and increased oxidative stress predisposes to monocyte activation and enhanced accumulation of oxidized LDL cholesterol (oxLDL-C) through a CD36-dependent mechanism. The aim of this study was to investigate...... in subjects with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), in particular in the presence of Achilles tendon xanthomas (ATX). APPROACH AND RESULTS: We studied thirty FH subjects with and without ATX and twenty-three healthy control subjects. Intima-media thickness (IMT) and Achilles tendon (AT...

  20. Increased Serum CD14 Level Is Associated with Depletion of TNF-α in Monocytes in Migraine Patients during Interictal Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slawomir Michalak

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the levels of circulating CD14 in relation to the expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α in monocytes, and serum levels of TNF-α and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 (MIP-1 in migraine patients. Numerous studies revealed controversial changes in the components of the immune system during attacks and the interictal period in migraine patients. Our study included 40 migraineurs and 39 controls. The levels of TNF-α, MIP-1 and CD14 were measured in peripheral monocytes and in sera with the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA method, and the monocyte expression of TNF-α was also analysed by immunostaining. Serum CD14 concentrations were higher and the expression of TNF-α in monocytes was decreased in migraineurs. The serum MIP-1 level correlated with Verbal Rating Scale (VRS; the MIP-1:CD14 ratio in monocytes correlated with Visual Analogue Scale (VAS; the MIP-1:CD14 ratio correlated with Migraine Severity (MIGSEV-Pain scores; and serum CD14 concentration correlated with migraine duration in years. Increased serum CD14 and depletion of TNF-α in monocytes can orchestrate other components of the immune system during the interictal period.

  1. Increased Serum CD14 Level Is Associated with Depletion of TNF-α in Monocytes in Migraine Patients during Interictal Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Slawomir; Kalinowska-Lyszczarz, Alicja; Wegrzyn, Danuta; Niezgoda, Adam; Losy, Jacek; Osztynowicz, Krystyna; Kozubski, Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the levels of circulating CD14 in relation to the expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in monocytes, and serum levels of TNF-α and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 (MIP-1) in migraine patients. Numerous studies revealed controversial changes in the components of the immune system during attacks and the interictal period in migraine patients. Our study included 40 migraineurs and 39 controls. The levels of TNF-α, MIP-1 and CD14 were measured in peripheral monocytes and in sera with the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method, and the monocyte expression of TNF-α was also analysed by immunostaining. Serum CD14 concentrations were higher and the expression of TNF-α in monocytes was decreased in migraineurs. The serum MIP-1 level correlated with Verbal Rating Scale (VRS); the MIP-1:CD14 ratio in monocytes correlated with Visual Analogue Scale (VAS); the MIP-1:CD14 ratio correlated with Migraine Severity (MIGSEV)-Pain scores; and serum CD14 concentration correlated with migraine duration in years. Increased serum CD14 and depletion of TNF-α in monocytes can orchestrate other components of the immune system during the interictal period. PMID:28208835

  2. Filaria-induced monocyte dysfunction and its reversal following treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semnani, Roshanak Tolouei; Keiser, Paul B; Coulibaly, Yaya I; Keita, Falaye; Diallo, Abdallah A; Traore, Diakaridia; Diallo, Dapa A; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Traore, Sekou F; Kubofcik, Joseph; Klion, Amy D; Nutman, Thomas B

    2006-08-01

    Monocyte dysfunction in filarial infection has been proposed as one mechanism underlying the diminished antigen-specific T-cell response seen in patent lymphatic filariasis. Cytokine/chemokine production and gene expression in monocytes from filaria-infected patients and uninfected healthy donors were assessed unstimulated and in response to stimulation with Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I bacteria plus gamma interferon both before and 8 months following treatment. Monocytes from filaria-infected individuals were studded with intracellular microfilarial antigens. Furthermore, monocytes from these individuals were less capable of producing interleukin-8 (IL-8), Exodus II, MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, and IL-1alpha and preferentially expressed genes involved in apoptosis and adhesion compared with monocytes from uninfected donors. Eight months following treatment with a single dose of ivermectin-albendazole, some of these defects were reversed, with monocyte production of IL-8, IL-1alpha, MIP-1alpha, and IL-10 being comparable to that seen in the uninfected controls. In addition, a marked increase in mRNA expression of genes associated with protein metabolism, particularly heat shock proteins, was seen compared with pretreatment expression. These data suggest that the function and gene expression of monocytes in filaria-infected patients are altered but that this dysfunction is partially reversible following antifilarial treatment.

  3. IL-4/IL-13-dependent and independent expression of miR-124 and its contribution to M2 phenotype of monocytic cells in normal conditions and during allergic inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Veremeyko

    Full Text Available Monocytic cells exhibit a high level of heterogeneity and have two distinct modes of their activation: 1 classical M1 path associated with inflammation and tissue damage, and 2 alternative M2 path. Although it has been demonstrated that M2 macrophages play an important role in the regulation of the allergic immune responses, tissue maintenance and repair, little is known about the mechanisms that determine the M2 phenotype. We have previously shown that miR-124 is expressed in microglia that exhibit the M2 phenotype and overexpression of miR-124 in macrophages resulted in downregulation of a number of M1 markers (MHC class II, CD86 and up-regulation of several M2 markers (Fizz1, Arg1. We further investigated whether the polarization of macrophages towards the M2 phenotype induced miR-124 expression. We found that exposure of cells to IL-4 and IL-13 resulted in the upregulation of miR-124 in macrophages. We also demonstrated that IL-4 induced expression of three miR-124 precursor transcripts with predominant expression of pri-miR-124.3, suggesting regulation of miR-124 expression by IL-4 on a transcriptional level. Expression of miR-124 in microglia did not depend on IL-4 and/or IL-13, whereas expression of miR-124 in lung resident macrophages was IL-4 and IL-13-dependent and was upregulated by systemic administration of IL-4 or during allergic inflammation. Upregulation of several M2 markers (CD206, Ym1 and downregulation of the M1 markers (CD86, iNOS, TNF in M2-polarized macrophages was abrogated by a miR-124 inhibitor, suggesting that this microRNA contributed to the M2 phenotype development and maintenance. Finally we showed that human CD14(+CD16(+ intermediate monocytes, which are found in increased numbers in patients with allergies and bronchial asthma, expressed high levels of miR-124 and exhibited other properties of M2-like cells. Thus, our study suggests that miR-124 serves as a regulator of the M2 polarization in various subsets of

  4. Impact of anti-OX-LDL antibodies on CD36 mRNA expression in monocytes%氧化型低密度脂蛋白抗体对单个核细胞CD36 mRNA表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊; 宫剑滨; 王璟; 张启高; 王立军

    2012-01-01

    目的:通过观察氧化型低密度脂蛋白(OX-LDL)抗体对单个核细胞CD36 mRNA表达的影响,探讨OX-LDL抗体影响泡沫细胞形成的可能机制.方法:U937细胞和新西兰兔外周血单个核细胞分别被分成4组:空白对照组(普通培养基孵育)、OX-LDL刺激组(培养基中添加50μg/L的兔抗人OX-LDL多克隆抗体)、抗体干预组(培养基中添加50 μg/L的兔抗人OX-LDL多克隆抗体及100 μg/L的纯化人OX-LDL)及单纯抗体组(培养基中添加100 μg/L的纯化人OX-LDL),经培养24 h后,利用半定量RT-PCR技术分析CD36的mRNA表达水平.结果:无论在U937细胞或兔单个核细胞中,OX-LDL刺激组及抗体干预组CD36 mRNA的表达量均显著高于对照组,而经抗体干预后,CD36 mRNA表达量在U937细胞和在兔单个核细胞分别降低了约64.80%和35.18%,种属间差异有统计学意义.结论:抗OX-LDL抗体可以抑制单个核细胞CD36抗原的表达,从而抑制泡沫细胞形成过程中OX-LDL向细胞内的聚集.%AIM: To investigate the impact of antibodies to oxidized low-density lipoprotein ( OX-LDL) on CD36 mRNA expression in monocytes and explore the mechanism underlying the impact on the formation of foam cells. METHODS; U937 cells and the monocytes of New Zealand rabbit were respectively cultured in vitro and divided into 4 groups: the control group (cultured in nutrient medium of RPMI1640), the OX-LDL group (with additional OX-LDL of 50 uc/L in nutrient medium), the OX-LDL + Ab-OX-LDL group (with additional OX-LDL of 50 ug/L and Ab-OX-LDL of 100 yg/L in nutrient medium) and the Ab-OX-LDL group (with additional Ab-OX-LDL of 100 ug/L in nutrient medium). After 24-hour culture, the expression of CD36 mRNA was detected by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. RESULTS; The expression of CD36 mRNA, either in the OX-LDL group or in the OX-LDL + Ab-OX-LDL group, was higher than that in the control group. After intervened by Ab-OX-LDL, the expression was respectively down-regulated by 64

  5. Unfractionated heparin suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression in human microvascular endothelial cells by blocking Krüppel-like factor 5 and nuclear factor-κB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xu; Li, Xin; Zheng, Zhen; Liu, Yina; Ma, Xiaochun

    2014-10-01

    Unfractionated heparin (UFH) and low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWH), apart from anticoagulant activities, contain a variety of biological properties such as anti-inflammatory actions possibly affecting sepsis. Chemokines are vital for promoting the movement of circulating leukocytes to the site of infection and are involved in the pathogenesis of sepsis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects and potential mechanisms of UFH on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced chemokine production in human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMECs). HPMECs were pretreated with UFH (0.1 U/ml and 1 U/ml), 15 min prior to stimulation with LPS (10 μg/ml). Cells were cultured under various experimental conditions for 2 h and 6 h for analysis. UFH markedly decreased LPS-induced interleukin (IL)-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) mRNA and protein expression in HPMECs. UFH also attenuated the secretion of these chemokines in culture supernatants. In addition, UFH blocked the chemotactic activities of LPS-stimulated HPMECs supernatants on monocytes migration as expected. UFH inhibited LPS-induced Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF-5) mRNA and protein levels. Concurrently, UFH reduced nuclear factor (NF)-κB nuclear translocation. Importantly, transfection with siRNA targeting KLF-5 reduced NF-κB activation and chemokines expression. These results demonstrate that interfering with KLF-5 mediated NF-κB activation might contribute to the inhibitory effects of chemokines and monocytes migration by UFH in LPS-stimulated HPMECs.

  6. Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty in Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease Does Not Affect Circulating Monocyte Subpopulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Maga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Monocytes are mononuclear cells characterized by distinct morphology and expression of CD14 and CD16 surface receptors. Classical, quiescent monocytes are positive for CD14 (lipopolysaccharide receptor but do not express Fc gamma receptor III (CD16. Intermediate monocytes coexpress CD16 and CD14. Nonclassical monocytes with low expression of CD14 represent mature macrophage-like monocytes. Monocyte behavior in peripheral arterial disease (PAD and during vessel wall directed treatment is not well defined. This observation study aimed at monitoring of acute changes in monocyte subpopulations during percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA in PAD patients. Patients with Rutherford 3 and 4 PAD with no signs of inflammatory process underwent PTA of iliac, femoral, or popliteal segments. Flow cytometry for CD14, CD16, HLA-DR, CD11b, CD11c, and CD45RA antigens allowed characterization of monocyte subpopulations in blood sampled before and after PTA (direct angioplasty catheter sampling. Patients were clinically followed up for 12 months. All 61 enrolled patients completed 12-month follow-up. Target vessel failure occurred in 12 patients. While absolute counts of monocyte were significantly lower after PTA, only subtle monocyte activation after PTA (CD45RA and β-integrins occurred. None of the monocyte parameters correlated with long-term adverse clinical outcome. Changes in absolute monocyte counts and subtle changes towards an activation phenotype after PTA may reflect local cell adhesion phenomenon in patients with Rutherford 3 or 4 peripheral arterial disease.

  7. Lipoteichoic acid from Lactobacillus plantarum inhibits the expression of platelet-activating factor receptor induced by Staphylococcus aureus lipoteichoic acid or Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide in human monocyte-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hangeun; Jung, Bong Jun; Jeong, Jihye; Chun, Honam; Chung, Dae Kyun

    2014-08-01

    Platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR) plays an important role in bacterial infection and inflammation. We examined the effect of the bacterial cell wall components lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) from Lactobacillus plantarum (pLTA) and Staphylococcus aureus (aLTA) on PAFR expression in THP-1, a monocyte-like cell line. LPS and aLTA, but not pLTA, significantly increased PAFR expression, whereas priming with pLTA inhibited LPSmediated or aLTA-mediated PAFR expression. Expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and 4, and CD14 increased with LPS and aLTA treatments, but was inhibited by pLTA pretreatment. Neutralizing antibodies against TLR2, TLR4, and CD14 showed that these receptors were important in LPS-mediated or aLTA-mediated PAFR expression. PAFR expression is mainly regulated by the nuclear factor kappa B signaling pathway. Blocking PAF binding to PAFR using a PAFR inhibitor indicated that LPS-mediated or aLTA-mediated PAF expression affected TNF-α production. In the mouse small intestine, pLTA inhibited PAFR, TLR2, and TLR4 expression that was induced by heat-labile toxin. Our data suggested that pLTA has an anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the expression of PAFR that was induced by pathogenic ligands.

  8. Endothelial microparticles (EMP) bind and activate monocytes: elevated EMP-monocyte conjugates in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jy, Wenche; Minagar, Alireza; Jimenez, Joaquin J; Sheremata, William A; Mauro, Lucia M; Horstman, Lawrence L; Bidot, Carlos; Ahn, Yeon S

    2004-09-01

    Elevated plasma endothelial microparticles (EMP) have been documented in MS during exacerbation. However, the role of EMP in pathogenesis of MS remains unclear. We investigated the formation of EMP-monocyte conjugates (EMP-MoC) and their potential role in transendothelial migration of inflammatory cells in MS. EMP-MoC were assayed in 30 MS patients in exacerbation, 20 in remission and in 35 controls. EMP-leukocyte conjugation was investigated flowcytometrically by employing alpha-CD54 or alpha-CD62E for EMP, and alpha-CD45 for leukocytes. EMP-MoC were characterized by identifying adhesion molecules involved and their effect on monocyte function. In vivo (clinical): EMP-MoC were markedly elevated in exacerbation vs. remission and controls, correlating with presence of GD+ MRI lesions. Free CD54+ EMP were not elevated but free CD62E+ EMP were. In vitro: EMP bound preferentially to monocytes, less to neutrophils, but little to lymphocytes. Bound EMP activated monocytes: CD11b expression increased 50% and migration through cerebral endothelial cell layer increased 2.6-fold. Blockade of CD54 reduced binding by 80%. Most CD54+ EMP bound to monocytes, leaving little free EMP, while CD62+ EMP were found both free and bound. These results demonstrated that phenotypic subsets of EMP interacted differently with monocytes. Based on our observations, EMP may enhance inflammation and increase transendothelial migration of monocytes in MS by binding to and activating monocytes through CD54. EMP-MoC were markedly increased in MS patients in exacerbation compared to remission and may serve as a sensitive marker of MS disease activity.

  9. Monocyte functions in diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, C; Almdal, T; Bennedsen, J

    1982-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the functions of monocytes obtained from 14 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) compared with those of monocytes from healthy individuals. It was found that the total number of circulating monocytes in the 14 diabetic patients was lower than that from...... for the elucidation of concomitant infections in diabetic patients are discussed....

  10. Endotoxin-induced monocytic microparticles have contrasting effects on endothelial inflammatory responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beryl Wen

    Full Text Available Septic shock is a severe disease state characterised by the body's life threatening response to infection. Complex interactions between endothelial cells and circulating monocytes are responsible for microvasculature dysfunction contributing to the pathogenesis of this syndrome. Here, we intended to determine whether microparticles derived from activated monocytes contribute towards inflammatory processes and notably vascular permeability. We found that endotoxin stimulation of human monocytes enhances the release of microparticles of varying phenotypes and mRNA contents. Elevated numbers of LPS-induced monocytic microparticles (mMP expressed CD54 and contained higher levels of transcripts for pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF, IL-6 and IL-8. Using a prothrombin time assay, a greater reduction in plasma coagulation time was observed with LPS-induced mMP than with non-stimulated mMP. Co-incubation of mMP with the human brain endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3 triggered their time-dependent uptake and significantly enhanced endothelial microparticle release. Unexpectedly, mMP also modified signalling pathways by diminishing pSrc (tyr416 expression and promoted endothelial monolayer tightness, as demonstrated by endothelial impedance and permeability assays. Altogether, these data strongly suggest that LPS-induced mMP have contrasting effects on the intercellular communication network and display a dual potential: enhanced pro-inflammatory and procoagulant properties, together with protective function of the endothelium.

  11. TLR7/9-mediated monocytosis and maturation of Gr-1(hi) inflammatory monocytes towards Gr-1(lo) resting monocytes implicated in murine lupus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Raber, Marie-Laure; Baudino, Lucie; Alvarez, Montserrat; van Rooijen, Nico; Nimmerjahn, Falk; Izui, Shozo

    2011-11-01

    Circulating monocytes are divided into two major, phenotypically and functionally distinct subsets: Gr-1(hi) "inflammatory" and Gr-1(lo) "resting" monocytes. One of the unique cellular abnormalities in lupus-prone mice is monocytosis, which is characterized by a selective expansion of Gr-1(lo) monocytes and dependent on the expression of stimulatory IgG Fc receptors (FcγR). We speculated that IgG immune complexes containing nuclear antigens could stimulate Gr-1(hi) monocytes through interaction with FcγRs and then TLR7 and TLR9, thereby promoting the maturation towards Gr-1(lo) monocytes. In the present study, we assessed this hypothesis by analyzing effects of TLR9 or TLR7 agonist on monocytes in vivo. The analysis of various surface markers differentially expressed on both subsets of monocytes in combination with selective depletion of either subset revealed that within 48 h after injection of the TLR9 agonist CpG, approximately one third of Gr-1(hi) monocytes became phenotypically identical to Gr-1(lo) monocytes. In addition, we observed approximately two-fold increases in the total monocyte population 8-24 h after injection of CpG. Moreover, the activation of TLR9 resulted in an increased expression of stimulatory FcγRIV relative to inhibitory FcγRIIB on monocytes, thereby enhancing their responsiveness to IgG immune complexes. Essentially identical results were obtained after stimulation of TLR7 with a synthetic agonist (1V136). Our results indicate that the activation of TLR7 and TLR9 not only induced the maturation of a fraction of Gr-1(hi) monocytes towards Gr-1(lo) monocytes but also promoted the overall generation of monocytes, thereby supporting the critical role of TLR7 and TLR9 for the development of monocytosis in lupus-prone mice.

  12. Granulocyte and monocyte adsorptive apheresis ameliorates sepsis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shuai; Xu, Qingqing; Deng, Bo; Zheng, Yin; Tian, Hongyan; Wang, Li; Ding, Feng

    2017-12-01

    Overwhelming activation of granulocytes and monocytes is central to inflammatory responses during sepsis. Granulocyte and monocyte adsorptive apheresis (GMA) is an extracorporeal leukocyte apheresis device filled with cellulose acetate beads and selectively adsorbs granulocytes and monocytes from the peripheral blood. In this study, septic rats received the GMA treatment for 2 h at 18 h after cecal ligation and puncture. GMA selectively adsorbed activated neutrophils and monocytes from the peripheral blood, reduced serum inflammatory cytokine expression, and seemed to improve organ injuries and animal survival. GMA potentially reduced lung injury by alleviating the infiltration of inflammatory cells and the secretion of cytokines. This study showed that selective granulocyte and monocyte adsorption with cellulose acetate beads might ameliorate cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis and improve survival and organ function.

  13. The membrane expression of Neisseria meningitidis adhesin A (NadA) increases the proimmune effects of MenB OMVs on human macrophages, compared with NadA- OMVs, without further stimulating their proinflammatory activity on circulating monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavano, Regina; Franzoso, Susanna; Cecchini, Paola; Cartocci, Elena; Oriente, Francesca; Aricò, Beatrice; Papini, Emanuele

    2009-07-01

    Hypervirulent MenB causing fatal human infections frequently display the oligomeric-coiled coil adhesin NadA, a 45-kDa intrinsic outer membrane protein implicated in binding to and invasion of respiratory epithelial cells. A recombinant soluble mutant lacking the 10-kDa COOH terminal membrane domain (NadA(Delta351-405)) also activates human monocytes/macrophages/DCs. As NadA is physiologically released during sepsis as part of OMVs, in this study, we tested the hypothesis that NadA(+) OMVs have an enhanced or modified proinflammatory/proimmune action compared with NadA(-) OMVs. To do this we investigated the activity of purified free NadA(Delta351-405) and of OMVs from MenB and Escherichia coli strains, expressing or not full-length NadA. NadA(Delta351-405) stimulated monocytes and macrophages to secrete cytokines (IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, IL-10) and chemokines (IL-8, MIP-1alpha, MCP-1, RANTES), and full-length NadA improved MenB OMV activity, preferentially on macrophages, and only increased cytokine release. NadA(Delta351-405) induced the lymphocyte costimulant CD80 in monocytes and macrophages, and NadA(+) OMVs induced a wider set of molecules supporting antigen presentation (CD80, CD86, HLA-DR, and ICAM-1) more efficiently than NadA(-) OMVs only in macrophages. Moreover, membrane NadA effects, unlike NadA(Delta351-405) ones, were much less IFN-gamma-sensitive. The activity of NadA-positive E. coli OMVs was similar to that of control OMVs. NadA in MenB OMVs acted at adhesin concentrations approximately 10(6) times lower than those required to stimulate cells with free NadA(Delta351-405).

  14. The major surface glycoprotein of Pneumocystis carinii induces release and gene expression of interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor alpha in monocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, T L; Lundgren, Bettina; Levine, S J

    1997-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) may play a central role in host defense and pathogenesis during Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. In order to investigate whether the major surface antigen (MSG) of human P. carinii is capable of eliciting...... with 0.2 to 5 microg of MSG/ml (P protection assay, increases in steady-state mRNA levels for IL-8 and TNF......-alpha were detectable at 4 h. These data show that recognition of MSG by monocytes involves a mannose-mediated mechanism and results in the release of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-8 and TNF-alpha....

  15. Pivotal Role for CD16+ Monocytes in Immune Surveillance of the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waschbisch, Anne; Schröder, Sina; Schraudner, Dana; Sammet, Laura; Weksler, Babette; Melms, Arthur; Pfeifenbring, Sabine; Stadelmann, Christine; Schwab, Stefan; Linker, Ralf A

    2016-02-15

    Monocytes represent a heterogeneous population of primary immune effector cells. At least three different subsets can be distinguished based on expression of the low-affinity FcγRIII: CD14(++)CD16 -: classical monocytes, CD14(++)CD16(+) intermediate monocytes, and CD14(+)CD16 ++: non-classical monocytes. Whereas CD16 -: classical monocytes are considered key players in multiple sclerosis (MS), little is known on CD16(+) monocytes and how they contribute to the disease. In this study, we examined the frequency and phenotype of monocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and brain biopsy material derived from MS patients and controls. Furthermore, we addressed a possible monocyte dysfunction in MS and analyzed migratory properties of monocyte subsets using human brain microvascular endothelial cells. Our ex vivo studies demonstrated that CD16(+) monocyte subpopulations are functional but numerically reduced in the peripheral blood of MS patients. CD16(+) monocytes with an intermediate-like phenotype were found to be enriched in CSF and dominated the CSF monocyte population under noninflammatory conditions. In contrast, an inversed CD16(+) to CD16 -: CSF monocyte ratio was observed in MS patients with relapsing-remitting disease. Newly infiltrating, hematogenous CD16(+) monocytes were detected in a perivascular location within active MS lesions, and CD16(+) monocytes facilitated CD4(+) T cell trafficking in a blood -: brain barrier model. Our findings support an important role of CD16(+) monocytes in the steady-state immune surveillance of the CNS and suggest that CD16(+) monocytes shift to sites of inflammation and contribute to the breakdown of the blood-brain barrier in CNS autoimmune diseases.

  16. On the expressiveness and decidability of higher-order process calculi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanese, Ivan; Perez, Jorge A.; Sangiorgi, Davide; Schmitt, Alan

    2011-01-01

    In higher-order process calculi, the values exchanged in communications may contain processes. A core calculus of higher-order concurrency is studied; it has only the operators necessary to express higher-order communications: input prefix, process output, and parallel composition. By exhibiting a d

  17. Treatment intensification with maraviroc (CCR5 antagonist) leads to declines in CD16-expressing monocytes in cART-suppressed chronic HIV-infected subjects and is associated with improvements in neurocognitive test performance: implications for HIV-associated neurocognitive disease (HAND).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndhlovu, Lishomwa C; Umaki, Tracie; Chew, Glen M; Chow, Dominic C; Agsalda, Melissa; Kallianpur, Kalpana J; Paul, Robert; Zhang, Guangxiang; Ho, Erika; Hanks, Nancy; Nakamoto, Beau; Shiramizu, Bruce T; Shikuma, Cecilia M

    2014-12-01

    HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) continues to be prevalent (30-50%) despite plasma HIV-RNA suppression with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). There is no proven therapy for individuals on suppressive cART with HAND. We have shown that the degree of HIV reservoir burden (HIV DNA) in monocytes appear to be linked to cognitive outcomes. HIV infection of monocytes may therefore be critical in the pathogenesis of HAND. A single arm, open-labeled trial was conducted to examine the effect of maraviroc (MVC) intensification on monocyte inflammation and neuropsychological (NP) performance in 15 HIV subjects on stable 6-month cART with undetectable plasma HIV RNA (10 copies/10(6) cells). MVC was added to their existing cART regimen for 24 weeks. Post-intensification change in monocytes was assessed using multiparametric flow cytometry, monocyte HIV DNA content by PCR, soluble CD163 (sCD163) by an ELISA, and NP performance over 24 weeks. In 12 evaluable subjects, MVC intensification resulted in a decreased proportion of circulating intermediate (median; 3.06% (1.93, 6.45) to 1.05% (0.77, 2.26)) and nonclassical (5.2% (3.8, 7.9) to 3.2% (1.8, 4.8)) CD16-expressing monocytes, a reduction in monocyte HIV DNA content to zero log10 copies/10(6) cells and in levels of sCD163 of 43% by 24 weeks. This was associated with significant improvement in NP performance among six subjects who entered the study with evidence of mild to moderate cognitive impairment. The results of this study suggest that antiretroviral therapy with potency against monocytes may have efficacy against HAND.

  18. The major surface glycoprotein of Pneumocystis carinii induces release and gene expression of interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor alpha in monocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, T L; Lundgren, Bettina; Levine, S J;

    1997-01-01

    with 0.2 to 5 microg of MSG/ml (P TNF-alpha from MSG-stimulated monocytes at 20 h was inhibited by 60 and 86%, respectively, after coincubation with soluble yeast mannan (P = 0.01). With an RNase protection assay, increases in steady-state mRNA levels for IL-8 and TNF......Recent studies suggest that interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) may play a central role in host defense and pathogenesis during Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. In order to investigate whether the major surface antigen (MSG) of human P. carinii is capable of eliciting...... the release of IL-8 and TNF-alpha, human monocytes were cultured in the presence of purified MSG. MSG-stimulated cells released significant amounts of IL-8 within 4 h, and at 20 h, cells stimulated with MSG released 45.5 +/- 9.3 ng of IL-8/ml versus 3.7 +/- 1.1 ng/ml for control cultures (P = 0...

  19. Myosins 1 and 6, myosin light chain kinase, actin and microtubules cooperate during antibody-mediated internalisation and trafficking of membrane-expressed viral antigens in feline infectious peritonitis virus infected monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewerchin, Hannah L; Desmarets, Lowiese M; Noppe, Ytse; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2014-02-12

    Monocytes infected with feline infectious peritonitis virus, a coronavirus, express viral proteins in their plasma membranes. Upon binding of antibodies, these proteins are quickly internalised through a new clathrin- and caveolae-independent internalisation pathway. By doing so, the infected monocytes can escape antibody-dependent cell lysis. In the present study, we investigated which kinases and cytoskeletal proteins are of importance during internalisation and subsequent intracellular transport. The experiments showed that myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and myosin 1 are crucial for the initiation of the internalisation. With co-localisation stainings, it was found that MLCK and myosin 1 co-localise with antigens even before internalisation started. Myosin 6 co-localised with the internalising complexes during passage through the cortical actin, were it might play a role in moving or disintegrating actin filaments, to overcome the actin barrier. One minute after internalisation started, vesicles had passed the cortical actin, co-localised with microtubules and association with myosin 6 was lost. The vesicles were further transported over the microtubules and accumulated at the microtubule organising centre after 10 to 30 min. Intracellular trafficking over microtubules was mediated by MLCK, myosin 1 and a small actin tail. Since inhibiting MLCK with ML-7 was so efficient in blocking the internalisation pathway, this target can be used for the development of a new treatment for FIPV.

  20. Lactic acid delays the inflammatory response of human monocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter, Katrin, E-mail: katrin.peter@ukr.de [Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauß-Allee 11, 93053 Regensburg (Germany); Rehli, Michael, E-mail: michael.rehli@ukr.de [Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauß-Allee 11, 93053 Regensburg (Germany); RCI Regensburg Center for Interventional Immunology, University Hospital Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauß-Allee 11, 93053 Regensburg (Germany); Singer, Katrin, E-mail: katrin.singer@ukr.de [Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauß-Allee 11, 93053 Regensburg (Germany); Renner-Sattler, Kathrin, E-mail: kathrin.renner-sattler@ukr.de [Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauß-Allee 11, 93053 Regensburg (Germany); Kreutz, Marina, E-mail: marina.kreutz@ukr.de [Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauß-Allee 11, 93053 Regensburg (Germany); RCI Regensburg Center for Interventional Immunology, University Hospital Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauß-Allee 11, 93053 Regensburg (Germany)

    2015-02-13

    Lactic acid (LA) accumulates under inflammatory conditions, e.g. in wounds or tumors, and influences local immune cell functions. We previously noted inhibitory effects of LA on glycolysis and TNF secretion of human LPS-stimulated monocytes. Here, we globally analyze the influence of LA on gene expression during monocyte activation. To separate LA-specific from lactate- or pH-effects, monocytes were treated for one or four hours with LPS in the presence of physiological concentrations of LA, sodium lactate (NaL) or acidic pH. Analyses of global gene expression profiles revealed striking effects of LA during the early stimulation phase. Up-regulation of most LPS-induced genes was significantly delayed in the presence of LA, while this inhibitory effect was attenuated in acidified samples and not detected after incubation with NaL. LA targets included genes encoding for important monocyte effector proteins like cytokines (e.g. TNF and IL-23) or chemokines (e.g. CCL2 and CCL7). LA effects were validated for several targets by quantitative RT-PCR and/or ELISA. Further analysis of LPS-signaling pathways revealed that LA delayed the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT) as well as the degradation of IκBα. Consistently, the LPS-induced nuclear accumulation of NFκB was also diminished in response to LA. These results indicate that the broad effect of LA on gene expression and function of human monocytes is at least partially caused by its interference with immediate signal transduction events after activation. This mechanism might contribute to monocyte suppression in the tumor environment. - Highlights: • Lactic acid broadly delays LPS-induced gene expression in human monocytes. • Expression of important monocyte effector molecules is affected by lactic acid. • Interference of lactic acid with TLR signaling causes the delayed gene expression. • The profound effect of lactic acid might contribute to immune suppression in tumors.

  1. Antimicrobial peptide LL-37 along with peptidoglycan drive monocyte polarization toward CD14(high)CD16(+) subset and may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis guttata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Lei; Chen, Wei; Sun, Wen; Li, Ming; Zheng, Renshan; Qian, Qing; Lv, Lianzheng

    2015-01-01

    The human cathelicidin LL-37 peptide is overexpressed in psoriasis and has been demonstrated to be a multifunctional modulator of innate immune response elements, including monocytes. Monocytes, categorized into three populations based on the cell surface expression of CD14 and CD16, are activated in psoriasis guttate and are commonly triggered by streptococcal infections. Peptidoglycan (PGN) is a major cell-wall component of streptococcus, and an increasing number of PGN-containing cells have been detected in psoriasis. Since there are independent reports of both PGN and LL-37 influencing monocytes, we tried to evaluate the effect of human LL-37 on PGN-induced monocyte activity and differentiation and subsequently studied their correlation with the pathogenesis of psoriasis guttate. The results revealed that monocytes from the peripheral blood of healthy individuals resulted in their polarization toward the CD14(high)CD16(+) subset, when cultured with PGN in the presence of the LL-37 peptide. This peptide further induced PGN-driven differentiated monocytes into immature dendritic cells (iDC), as evident by the increased expression of CD1a, CD86, and HLA-DR markers, resulting in the induction of T cell proliferation and Th17 polarization. Furthermore, our data suggested that psoriasis guttata patients have significantly higher percentages of CD14(high)CD16(+) monocytes as well as circulating levels of LL-37, soluble form of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (sTREM-1) levels, and anti-streptolysin O (ASO) levels, as compared to healthy controls. Psoriasis guttata patients also showed a positive correlation between the percentage of CD14(high)CD16(+) monocytes and the serum levels of sTREM-1 as well as the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) scores. Therefore, we concluded that LL-37 in synergy with PGN directs monocyte polarization and differentiation into a proinflammatory phenotype, which might play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis.

  2. Human monocytes/macrophages are a target of Neisseria meningitidis Adhesin A (NadA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzoso, Susanna; Mazzon, Cristina; Sztukowska, Maryta; Cecchini, Paola; Kasic, Tihana; Capecchi, Barbara; Tavano, Regina; Papini, Emanuele

    2008-05-01

    Specific surface proteins of Neisseria meningitidis have been proposed to stimulate leukocytes during tissue invasion and septic shock. In this study, we demonstrate that the adhesin N. meningitidis Adhesin A (NadA) involved in the colonization of the respiratory epithelium by hypervirulent N. meningitidis B strains also binds to and activates human monocytes/macrophages. Expression of NadA on the surface on Escherichia coli does not increase bacterial-monocyte association, but a NadA-positive strain induced a significantly higher amount of TNF-alpha and IL-8 compared with the parental NadA-negative strain, suggesting that NadA has an intrinsic stimulatory action on these cells. Consistently, highly pure, soluble NadA(Delta351-405), a proposed component of an antimeningococcal vaccine, efficiently stimulates monocytes/macrophages to secrete a selected pattern of cytokines and chemotactic factors characterized by high levels of IL-8, IL-6, MCP-1, and MIP-1alpha and low levels of the main vasoactive mediators TNF-alpha and IL-1. NadA(Delta351-405) also inhibited monocyte apoptosis and determined its differentiation into a macrophage-like phenotype.

  3. The major surface glycoprotein of Pneumocystis carinii induces release and gene expression of interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor alpha in monocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, T L; Lundgren, Bettina; Levine, S J

    1997-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) may play a central role in host defense and pathogenesis during Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. In order to investigate whether the major surface antigen (MSG) of human P. carinii is capable of eliciting...... the release of IL-8 and TNF-alpha, human monocytes were cultured in the presence of purified MSG. MSG-stimulated cells released significant amounts of IL-8 within 4 h, and at 20 h, cells stimulated with MSG released 45.5 +/- 9.3 ng of IL-8/ml versus 3.7 +/- 1.1 ng/ml for control cultures (P = 0...... with 0.2 to 5 microg of MSG/ml (P

  4. Vascular Leakage in Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Is Associated with Dengue Infected Monocytes, Monocyte Activation/Exhaustion, and Cytokines Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirichan Chunhakan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The vascular leakage was shown by the increment of hematocrit (Hct, dengue viral infected monocyte, monocyte status, and cytokines production in patients infected with dengue virus. Dengue viral antigens were demonstrated in monocytes (CD14+ from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The increased levels of Hct, interleukin- (IL- 10, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α were detected in dengue fever (DF, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF and dengue shock syndrome (DSS patients as compared with other febrile illnesses (OFIs. The highest levels of Hct and IL-10 were detected in DSS patients as compared with other groups (P<0.05 especially on one day before and after defervescence. The unstimulated and lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- stimulated monocytes from DSS patients showed the significantly decreased of intracellular IL-1β and TNF-α. In addition, the lowest level of mean fluorescence intensity (MFI of CD11b expression on monocytes surface in DSS patients was also demonstrated. Furthermore, the negative correlations between IL-10 levels and intracellular IL-1β and MFI of CD11b expression in unstimulated and LPS-stimulated monocytes were also detected. Nevertheless, not only were the relationships between the prominent IL-10 and the suppression of intracellular monocyte secretion, namely, IL-1β, TNF-α, demonstrated but also the effect of vascular leakage was observed.

  5. 强直性脊柱炎患者外周血单核及T淋巴细胞CD147的表达及意义%Expressions of CD147 in peripheral monocytes and T lymphocytes of patients with ankylosing spondylitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏; 黄志祥; 潘云峰; 张富程; 郑奔容; 邓伟明; 李天旺; 古洁若

    2010-01-01

    mean fluorescence intensities of CD147 in monocytes of AS, RA and HC group were 213.5 ± 37.8, 228.7 ±49.7 and 163.6 ±44.8, and in T lymphocytes 36. 8 ± 10. 1, 40. 2 ± 10. 5 and 28. 3 ± 10. 6 respectively. Both the expression levels of CD147 in monocytes and T lymphocytes of AS patients were slightly lower than those of RA patients. But the differences was not statistically significant(P > 0. 05). Both the CD147 levels in monocytes and T lymphocytes of AS and RA group were significantly higher than those of HC group(P < 0. 05). The expression levels of CD147 mRNA in PBMC of AS and RA group were significantly higher than those of HC group(P < 0. 05)while no significant difference was found between AS and RA group(P > 0. 05). Both the expression levels of CD147 in monocytes and T lymphocytes of AS patients were positively correlated with the patients' erythrocyte sedimentation rate(ESR)and C-reactive protein(CRP). Conclusion The expressions of CD147 in peripheral monocytes and T lymphocytes of AS patients are up-regulated and their levels are positively correlated with patients' ESR and CRP. It implies that CD147 plays critical roles in the pathogenesis and development of AS.

  6. Chloroform extract of aged black garlic attenuates TNF-α-induced ROS generation, VCAM-1 expression, NF-κB activation and adhesiveness for monocytes in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Na; Choi, Young Whan; Kim, Hye Kyung; Park, Jin Kyeong; Kim, Hyo Jin; Kim, Myoung June; Lee, Hee Woo; Kim, Ki-Hyung; Bae, Sun Sik; Kim, Bong Seon; Yoon, Sik

    2011-01-01

    Aged black garlic is a type of fermented garlic (Allium sativum) which has been used in Oriental countries for a long time because of various biological properties of garlic derivatives. The current study explored the potential of the chloroform extract of aged black garlic (CEABG) in attenuating the activities of adhesion molecules in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The study was performed on HUVECs that were pretreated with 30 μg/mL of CEABG before TNF-α treatment. Treatment of HUVECs with CEABG significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. HUVECs treated with CEABG showed markedly suppressed TNF-α-induced mRNA expression of VCAM-1, but little alteration in ICAM-1 and E-selectin mRNA expression. CEABG treatment also significantly decreased the TNF-α-induced cell surface and total protein expression of VCAM-1 without affecting ICAM-1 and E-selectin expression. In addition, treatment of HUVECs with CEABG markedly reduced THP-1 monocyte adhesion to TNF-α-stimulated HUVECs. Furthermore, CEABG significantly inhibited NF-κB transcription factor activation in TNF-α-stimulated HUVECs. The data provide new evidence of the antiinflammatory properties of CEABG that may have a potential therapeutic use for the prevention and treatment of vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis through mechanisms involving the inhibition of VCAM-1 expression and NF-κB activation in vascular endothelial cells.

  7. Impaired migration capacity in monocytes derived from patients with Gaucher disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettman, Noam; Avivi, Irit; Rosenbaum, Hanna; Bisharat, Lina; Katz, Tamar

    2015-08-01

    Gaucher disease (GD) is characterized by glucocerebroside (GC) accumulation due to defective activity of the glucocerebrosidase (GlcCerase) enzyme. Monocytes and macrophages exhibit the highest GlcCerase activity and are most prominently affected by GC engorgement. As GD patients tend to exert various immune system-related changes, this study was designed to investigate potential effects of monocyte dysfunction on these alterations. Monocytes were isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of untreated GD patients and healthy volunteers. Monocyte migration capacity towards SDF1α was assessed. The GD patients exhibited reduced numbers of monocytes and decreased capability of SDF1α-dependent monocyte migration. Evaluation of CXCR4, the SDF1α receptor, revealed reduced expression of surface CXCR4 on GD-derived monocytes, despite similar CXCR4 mRNA transcript levels in the monocytes of healthy volunteers and GD patients. Reduction of surface CXCR4 was accompanied by increased intracellular CXCR4 levels in patient monocytes. This elevated intracellular CXCR4 might reflect significantly increased SDF1α concentrations characterizing patients' serum and the lysosomal impairment of GD, resulting in decreased degradation of CXCR4. Different distributions of CXCR4 expression observed in the two groups explain impaired SDF1α-dependent monocyte migration. Reduced numbers and impaired migration capacity of GD-derived monocytes could contribute to abnormal inflammation and GD-associated immune alterations seen in these patients.

  8. Two-way communication between endometrial stromal cells and monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinkova, Olga; Hansen, Keith A; Winterton, Emily; Mark, Connie J; Eyster, Kathleen M

    2010-02-01

    Immune system cells and cells of the endometrium have long been proposed to interact in both physiological and pathological processes. The current study was undertaken to examine communication between cultured monocytes and endometrial stromal cells and also to assess responses of endometrial stromal cells for treatment with estradiol (E) in the absence and presence of medroxyprogesterone acetate (P). A telomerase-immortalized human endometrial stromal cell (T-HESC) line and the U937 monocyte cell line were used. Telomerase-immortalized human endometrial stromal cells were treated with E +/- P +/- monocyte conditioned medium; U937 were treated +/- T-HESC conditioned medium. Gene expression in response to treatment was examined by DNA microarray. Bidirectional communication, as demonstrated by changes in gene expression, clearly occurred between U937 monocytes and T-HESC.

  9. The role of HIV and monocytes/macrophages in adipose tissue biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikuma, Cecilia M; Gangcuangco, Louie Mar A; Killebrew, Deirdre A; Libutti, Daniel E; Chow, Dominic C; Nakamoto, Beau K; Liang, Chin Yuan; Milne, Cris I P; Ndhlovu, Lishomwa C; Barbour, Jason D; Shiramizu, Bruce T; Gerschenson, Mariana

    2014-02-01

    To assess the role of HIV and monocytes/macrophages in adipose tissue dysregulation. Cross-sectional study in 5 groups: HIV seronegative, HIV+ antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive, HIV+ nonlipoatrophic on zidovudine- and/or stavudine-containing ART, HIV+ lipoatrophic on similar ART, and HIV+ on abacavir- or tenofovir-containing ART. HIV DNA in circulating monocyte subsets was quantitated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Biopsied subcutaneous fat was examined for macrophage content by CD68 staining. Isolated adipocytes and macrophages were cultured and the supernatant assayed for secretory products by Luminex multiplex cytokine technology. Sixty-nine subjects were enrolled. Lipoatrophic subjects had higher median HIV DNA levels (270.5 copies/10 cells) in circulating peripheral CD14CD16 co-expressing monocyte subsets compared with subjects who were ART-naive (25.0 copies), nonlipoatrophic (15.0 copies), or on abacavir/tenofovir (57.5 copies), P adipocytes and adipose macrophage content were marginal. Although adipocyte secretory products were similar, HIV-infected subjects had higher adipose macrophage-derived interleukin (IL)-12p40, IL-6, IL-8, and monocyte inflammatory protein 1 alpha and lower eotaxin and interferon gamma levels than HIV seronegative subjects (P adipose macrophage secretory products were comparable between subjects naive with ART versus those on ART. Circulating HIV-infected and proinflammatory CD14CD16 monocyte subsets contribute to the pathogenesis of HIV-associated lipoatrophy. Among HIV-infected individuals, macrophages, rather than adipocytes, are the primary source of low-grade inflammation in subcutaneous adipose tissue. HIV infection modifies these macrophages to a more proinflammatory phenotype, and these changes are not substantially mitigated by the use of ART.

  10. Infection-induced bystander-apoptosis of monocytes is TNF-alpha-mediated.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Dreschers

    Full Text Available Phagocytosis induced cell death (PICD is crucial for controlling phagocyte effector cells, such as monocytes, at sites of infection, and essentially contributes to termination of inflammation. Here we tested the hypothesis, that during PICD bystander apoptosis of non-phagocyting monocytes occurs, that apoptosis induction is mediated via tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and that TNF-α secretion and -signalling is causal. Monocytes were infected with Escherichia coli (E. coli, expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP, or a pH-sensitive Eos-fluorescent protein (EOS-FP. Monocyte phenotype, phagocytic activity, apoptosis, TNF-receptor (TNFR-1, -2-expression and TNF-α production were analyzed. Apoptosis occured in phagocyting and non-phagocyting, bystander monocytes. Bacterial transport to the phagolysosome was no prerequisite for apoptosis induction, and desensitized monocytes from PICD, as confirmed by EOS-FP expressing E. coli. Co-cultivation with non-infected carboxyfluorescein-succinimidyl-ester- (CFSE- labelled monocytes resulted in significant apoptotic cell death of non-infected bystander monocytes. This process required protein de-novo synthesis and still occurred in a diminished way in the absence of cell-cell contact. E. coli induced a robust TNF-α production, leading to TNF-mediated apoptosis in monocytes. Neutralization with an anti-TNF-α antibody reduced monocyte bystander apoptosis significantly. In contrast to TNFR2, the pro-apoptotic TNFR1 was down-regulated on the monocyte surface, internalized 30 min. p.i. and led to apoptosis predominantly in monocytes without phagocyting bacteria by themselves. Our results suggest, that apoptosis of bystander monocytes occurs after infection with E. coli via internalization of TNFR1, and indicate a relevant role for TNF-α. Modifying monocyte apoptosis in sepsis may be a future therapeutic option.

  11. Immature dendritic cells generated from cryopreserved human monocytes show impaired ability to respond to LPS and to induce allogeneic lymphocyte proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Ferreira Silveira

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells play a key role in the immune system, in the sensing of foreign antigens and triggering of an adaptive immune response. Cryopreservation of human monocytes was investigated to understand its effect on differentiation into immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells (imdDCs, the response to inflammatory stimuli and the ability to induce allogeneic lymphocyte proliferation. Cryopreserved (crp-monocytes were able to differentiate into imdDCs, albeit to a lesser extent than freshly (frh-obtained monocytes. Furthermore, crp-imdDCs had lower rates of maturation and cytokine/chemokine secretion in response to LPS than frh-imdDCs. Lower expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (at 24 and 48 h and higher susceptibility to apoptosis in crp-imdDCs than in fresh cells would account for the impaired maturation and cytokine/chemokine secretion observed. A mixed leukocyte reaction showed that lymphocyte proliferation was lower with crp-imdDCs than with frh-imdDCs. These findings suggested that the source of monocytes used to generate human imdDCs could influence the accuracy of results observed in studies of the immune response to pathogens, lymphocyte activation, vaccination and antigen sensing. It is not always possible to work with freshly isolated monocytes but the possible effects of freezing/thawing on the biology and responsiveness of imdDCs should be taken into account.

  12. Preparations of intravenous immunoglobulins diminish the number and proinflammatory response of CD14+CD16++ monocytes in common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedlar, Maciej; Strach, Magdalena; Bukowska-Strakova, Karolina; Lenart, Marzena; Szaflarska, Anna; Węglarczyk, Kazimierz; Rutkowska, Magdalena; Baj-Krzyworzeka, Monika; Pituch-Noworolska, Anna; Kowalczyk, Danuta; Grodzicki, Tomasz; Ziegler-Heitbrock, Loems; Zembala, Marek

    2011-05-01

    We have studied the effect of intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) on monocyte subpopulations and cytokine production in patients with CVID. The absolute number of CD14(+)CD16(++) monocytes decreased on average 2.5-fold 4h after IVIG and after 20h returned to the baseline. The cytokine level in the supernatants of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) after ex vivo LPS stimulation demonstrated the >2-fold decrease in TNF production 4h after IVIG. The TNF expression, which is higher in the CD14(+)CD16(++) monocytes, was decreased in these cells by IVIG in 4/7 CVID cases. In vitro exposure of the healthy individuals' monocytes to the IVIG preparation resulted in reduced TNF production, which was overcome by blockade of the FcγRIIB in the CD14(+)CD16(++) CD32B(high) monocytes. Our data suggest that reduction in the number of CD14(+)CD16(++) monocytes and the blockade of their cytokine production via triggering CD32B can contribute to the anti-inflammatory action of IVIG.

  13. Vitamin D effects on monocytes' CCL-2, IL6 and CD14 transcription in Addison's disease and HLA susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, A U; Penna-Martinez, M; Meyer, G; Badenhoop, K

    2017-07-29

    Addison's disease is a rare autoimmune disorder leading to adrenal insufficiency and life-long glucocorticoid dependency. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms and vitamin D deficiency predispose to Addison's disease. Aim of the current study was, to investigate potential anti-inflammatory vitamin D effects on monocytes in Addison's disease, focusing on inflammatory CCL-2 and IL6, as well on monocyte CD14 markers. Addison's disease is genetically linked to distinct HLA susceptibility alleles. Therefore we analyzed, whether HLA genotypes differed for vitamin D effects on monocyte markers. CD14(+) monocytes were isolated from Addison's disease patients (AD, n=13) and healthy controls (HC, n=15) and stimulated with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and IL1β as an inflammatory stimulant. Cells were processed for mRNA expression of CCL-2, IL6 and CD14 and DNA samples were genotyped for major histocompatibility class (MHC) class II-encoded HLA- DQA1-DQB1 haplotypes. We found a downregulation of CCL-2 after vitamin D treatment in IL1β-stimulated monocytes both from AD patients and HC (AD p<0.001; HC p<0.0001). CD14 expression however, was upregulated in both HC and AD patients after vitamin D treatment (p<0.001, respectively). HC showed higher CD14 transcription level than AD patients after vitamin D treatment (p=0.04). Compared to IL1β-induced inflammation, HC have increased CD14 levels after vitamin D treatment (p<0.001), whereas the IL1β-induced CD14 expression of AD patients' monocytes did not change after vitamin D treatment (p=0.8). AD patients carrying HLA high-risk haplotypes showed an increased CCL-2 expression after IL1β-induced inflammation compared to intermediate-risk HLA carriers (p=0.05). Also HC monocytes' CD14 transcription after IL1β and vitamin D co-stimulation differed according to HLA risk profile. We show that vitamin D can exert anti-inflammatory effects on AD patients' monocytes which may be modulated by HLA risk genotypes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  14. Differential effects of Th1, monocyte/macrophage and Th2 cytokine mixtures on early gene expression for glial and neural-related molecules in central nervous system mixed glial cell cultures: neurotrophins, growth factors and structural proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedelkoska Liljana

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In multiple sclerosis, inflammatory cells are found in both active and chronic lesions, and it is increasingly clear that cytokines are involved directly and indirectly in both formation and inhibition of lesions. We propose that cytokine mixtures typical of Th1 or Th2 lymphocytes, or monocyte/macrophages each induce unique molecular changes in glial cells. Methods To examine changes in gene expression that might occur in glial cells exposed to the secreted products of immune cells, we have used gene array analysis to assess the early effects of different cytokine mixtures on mixed CNS glia in culture. We compared the effects of cytokines typical of Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes and monocyte/macrophages (M/M on CNS glia after 6 hours of treatment. Results In this paper we focus on changes with potential relevance for neuroprotection and axon/glial interactions. Each mixture of cytokines induced a unique pattern of changes in genes for neurotrophins, growth and maturation factors and related receptors; most notably an alternatively spliced form of trkC was markedly downregulated by Th1 and M/M cytokines, while Th2 cytokines upregulated BDNF. Genes for molecules of potential importance in axon/glial interactions, including cell adhesion molecules, connexins, and some molecules traditionally associated with neurons showed significant changes, while no genes for myelin-associated genes were regulated at this early time point. Unexpectedly, changes occurred in several genes for proteins initially associated with retina, cancer or bone development, and not previously reported in glial cells. Conclusion Each of the three cytokine mixtures induced specific changes in gene expression that could be altered by pharmacologic strategies to promote protection of the central nervous system.

  15. Monocyte functions in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, C; Almdal, T; Bennedsen, J; Rhodes, J M; Kølendorf, K

    1982-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the functions of monocytes obtained from 14 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) compared with those of monocytes from healthy individuals. It was found that the total number of circulating monocytes in the 14 diabetic patients was lower than that from the healthy individuals. Phagocytosis of Candida albicans was decreased in the monocytes from the patients, whereas pinocytosis of acridine and phagocytosis of latex and sheep red blood cells were normal. The chemotactic response towards casein was enhanced. The possible consequences of these findings for the elucidation of concomitant infections in diabetic patients are discussed.

  16. Significance of Expression of Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 in Renal Biopsy Tissue from Immunoglobulin A Nephropathy%IgA肾病患者肾组织单核细胞趋化蛋白-1表达的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓庆; 高进

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨原发性IgA肾病(IgAN)患者肾组织单核细胞趋化蛋白-1(MCP-1)的表达变化.方法 选择经皮肾组织穿刺活检确诊为IgAN的患者40例.根据肾脏病理Lee氏分级(Ⅰ~Ⅴ级)将纳入研究的患者分为2组:A组20例,病理分级为Ⅰ~Ⅲ级;B组20例,病理分级为Ⅳ~Ⅴ级.对照组20例标本选取手术切除的肾肿瘤、肾囊肿患者远离病变组织的正常肾组织.同时将肾组织的肾小管和肾间质按照Katafuchi标准分为无间质病变组21例,轻度间质病变组8例,中度间质病变组19例和重度间质病变组12例.均采用免疫组织化学方法测定其肾组织中MCP-1的表达(以灰度值反映),观察其肾组织切片的染色强度及染色透光度,灰度值大则MCP-1表达少,反之则表达多.结果 根据肾脏病理Lee分级分组,各组灰度值比较:B组灰度值(68.08±2.37)与A组灰度值(74.50±3.27)比较、B组与对照组灰度值(81.98±3.21)比较、A 组与对照组比较,差异均有统计学意义(Pa<0.01);根据Katafuchi标准分组,无间质病变组、轻度间质病变组、中度间质病变组及重度间质病变组灰度值分别为82.03±3.13、76.44±2.01、71.49±1.69、66.54±1.23,各组比较差异均有统计学意义(Pa<0.01).结论 MCP-1可反映原发性IgAN患者肾组织的病理损害程度,且表达水平与肾组织损害程度有关.%objective To explore the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein - 1( MCP - 1) in renal biopsy tissue from IgA nephropathy (IgAN) patients. Methods Forty patients were diagnosed as IgAN by renal biopsy, and they were divided into 2 groups according to Lee classification ( Ⅰ - Ⅴ grade) :group A included 20 cases( Lee Ⅰ - Ⅲ grade) and group B included the other 20 cases( Lee Ⅳ - Ⅴgrade). The control group included 20 patients diagnosed as having normal kidney tissue by renal biopsy, whose kidney tissue came from patients whose renal tumors and renal cysts were removed. In the

  17. Regulation of monocyte cell fate by blood vessels mediated by Notch signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamrekelashvili, Jaba; Giagnorio, Roberto; Jussofie, Jasmin; Soehnlein, Oliver; Duchene, Johan; Briseño, Carlos G; Ramasamy, Saravana K; Krishnasamy, Kashyap; Limbourg, Anne; Kapanadze, Tamar; Ishifune, Chieko; Hinkel, Rabea; Radtke, Freddy; Strobl, Lothar J; Zimber-Strobl, Ursula; Napp, L Christian; Bauersachs, Johann; Haller, Hermann; Yasutomo, Koji; Kupatt, Christian; Murphy, Kenneth M; Adams, Ralf H; Weber, Christian; Limbourg, Florian P

    2016-08-31

    A population of monocytes, known as Ly6C(lo) monocytes, patrol blood vessels by crawling along the vascular endothelium. Here we show that endothelial cells control their origin through Notch signalling. Using combinations of conditional genetic deletion strategies and cell-fate tracking experiments we show that Notch2 regulates conversion of Ly6C(hi) monocytes into Ly6C(lo) monocytes in vivo and in vitro, thereby regulating monocyte cell fate under steady-state conditions. This process is controlled by Notch ligand delta-like 1 (Dll1) expressed by a population of endothelial cells that constitute distinct vascular niches in the bone marrow and spleen in vivo, while culture on recombinant DLL1 induces monocyte conversion in vitro. Thus, blood vessels regulate monocyte conversion, a form of committed myeloid cell fate regulation.

  18. Influence of selective brain cooling on the expression of ICAM-1 mRNA and infiltration of PMNLs and monocytes/macrophages in rats suffering from global brain ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jianping; Xu, Jianguo; Li, Weiyan; Liu, Jian

    2008-12-01

    This study sought to evaluate the effects of selective brain cooling on the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) mRNA and infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) and monocytes/macrophages (MPhi) during global cerebral ischemia/ reperfusion (I/R). Global ischemia of the brain was produced by four-vessel occlusion for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 240 min. Thirty-five SD rats were randomly divided into five groups: group I had no ischemia and reperfusion; groups II, III, IV, and V were subjected to ischemia for 30 min at 37 degrees C and reperfusion for 240 min at 37, 35, 32, and 28 degrees C, respectively. Cerebral tissue samples were taken for pathological examination of the infiltration of PMNLs and MPhi and to detect ICAM-1 mRNA expression by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The expression of ICAM-1 mRNA and infiltration of PMNLs and MPhi increased more markedly in group II than in group I (p cooling, and especially moderate hypothermia (28-32 degrees C), may provide better cerebral protection by markedly inhibiting the expression of ICAM-1 mRNA while decreasing the infiltration of PMNLs and MPhi in the brain.

  19. Thromboxane A2 receptor-mediated release of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) induces expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) by activation of protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuling; Tai, Hsin-Hsiung

    2014-08-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, CCL2) are known to be upregulated in many tumors. Their roles in tumor invasion and metastasis are being uncovered. How they are related to each other and involved in tumor progression remains to be determined. Earlier it was reported that I-BOP-initiated activation of thromboxane A2 receptor (TP) induced the release of MMP-1, MMP-3, and MMP-9 from lung cancer A549 cells overexpressing TPα (A549-TPα). Herein it was found that MMP-1, but not MMP-3 or MMP-9, induced the expression of MCP-1 in A549 cells. Conditioned medium (CM) from I-BOP activated, MMP-1 siRNA pretreated A549-TPα cells induced greatly attenuated expression of MCP-1 in A549 cells indicating that MMP-1 in the CM contributed significantly to the expression of MCP-1. MMP-1 was shown to activate protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) instead of commonly assumed PAR1 to increase the expression of MCP-1 in A549 cells. This conclusion was reached from the following findings: (1) expression of MCP-1 induced by trypsin, a PAR2 agonist, and also PAR2 agonist peptide, was inhibited by a PAR2 antagonist; (2) expression of MCP-1 induced by MMP-1 and by CM from I-BOP activated A549-TPα cells was blocked by a PAR2 antagonist but not by other PAR antagonists; (3) expression of MCP-1 induced by MMP-1 and by CM from I-BOP activated A549-TPα cells was attenuated significantly by pretreatment of cells with PAR2-siRNA. These results suggest that PAR2 is a novel MMP-1 target mediating MMP-1-induced signals in A549 lung cancer cells.

  20. Chicken SLAMF4 (CD244, 2B4), a receptor expressed on thrombocytes, monocytes, NK cells, and subsets of αβ-, γδ- T cells and B cells binds to SLAMF2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Christian; Neulen, Marie-Luise; Viertlboeck, Birgit C; Göbel, Thomas W

    2014-02-01

    The SLAM family of membrane receptors is involved in the regulation of immune responses by controlling cytokines production, cytotoxicity as well as cell development, differentiation and proliferation, but has only been described in chickens, recently. The aim of this study was to characterize the avian homologue to mammalian SLAMF4 (CD244, 2B4), a cell surface molecule which belongs to the SLAM family of membrane receptors. We generated a SLAMF4 specific monoclonal antibody (mab) designated 8C7 and analyzed the SLAMF4 expression on cells isolated from various lymphoid organs. Subsets of αβ and γδ T cells found in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and spleen coexpressed SLAMF4. The expression was restricted to CD8α(+) T cells, whereas CD4(+) T cells and all thymocytes showed little or no reactivity upon staining with the 8C7 mab. Blood and splenic γδ T cells could be further differentiated according to their expression levels of SLAMF4 into two and three subsets, respectively. SLAMF4 was absent from bursal and splenic B cells, however, it was expressed by a distinct fraction of circulating B cells that were characterized by high level expression of Bu1, Ig, and CD40. SLAMF4 was also present on NK cells isolated from intestine of adult chickens or embryonic splenocytes identified by their coexpression of the 28-4 NK cell marker. Moreover, SLAMF4 expression was found on thrombocytes and monocytes. The interaction of SLAMF4 with SLAMF2 was proven by a reporter assay and could be blocked with the 8C7 mab. In conclusion, the avian SLAMF4 expression markedly differs from mammals; it binds to SLAMF2 and will be an important tool to discriminate several γδ T cell subsets. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Disruption of Lipid Raft Function Increases Expression and Secretion of Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Juu-Chin; Chiang, Yu-Ting; Lin, Yu-Chun; Chang, Yu-Tzu; Lu, Chia-Yun; Chen, Tzu-Yu; Yeh, Chia-Shan

    2016-01-01

    The adipocyte is unique in its capacity to store lipids. In addition to triglycerides, the adipocyte stores a significant amount of cholesterol. Moreover, obese adipocytes are characterized by a redistribution of cholesterol with depleted cholesterol in the plasma membrane, suggesting that cholesterol perturbation may play a role in adipocyte dysfunction. We used methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD), a molecule with high affinity for cholesterol, to rapidly deplete cholesterol level in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We tested whether this perturbation altered adipocyte secretion of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), a chemokine that is elevated in obesity and is linked to obesity-associated chronic diseases. Depletion of cholesterol by MβCD increased MCP-1 secretion as well as the mRNA and protein levels, suggesting perturbation at biosynthesis and secretion. Pharmacological inhibition revealed that NF-κB, but not MEK, p38 and JNK, was involved in MβCD-stimulated MCP-1 biosynthesis and secretion in adipocytes. Finally, another cholesterol-binding drug, filipin, also induced MCP-1 secretion without altering membrane cholesterol level. Interestingly, both MβCD and filipin disturbed the integrity of lipid rafts, the membrane microdomains enriched in cholesterol. Thus, the depletion of membrane cholesterol in obese adipocytes may result in dysfunction of lipid rafts, leading to the elevation of proinflammatory signaling and MCP-1 secretion in adipocytes.

  2. Distinct functional programming of human fetal and adult monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krow-Lucal, Elisabeth R; Kim, Charles C; Burt, Trevor D; McCune, Joseph M

    2014-03-20

    Preterm birth affects 1 out of 9 infants in the United States and is the leading cause of long-term neurologic handicap and infant mortality, accounting for 35% of all infant deaths in 2008. Although cytokines including interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-10 (IL-10), IL-6, and IL-1 are produced in response to in utero infection and are strongly associated with preterm labor, little is known about how human fetal immune cells respond to these cytokines. We demonstrate that fetal and adult CD14(+)CD16(-) classical monocytes are distinct in terms of basal transcriptional profiles and in phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) in response to cytokines. Fetal monocytes phosphorylate canonical and noncanonical STATs and respond more strongly to IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-4 than adult monocytes. We demonstrate a higher ratio of SOCS3 to IL-6 receptor in adult monocytes than in fetal monocytes, potentially explaining differences in STAT phosphorylation. Additionally, IFN-γ signaling results in upregulation of antigen presentation and costimulatory machinery in adult, but not fetal, monocytes. These findings represent the first evidence that primary human fetal and adult monocytes are functionally distinct, potentially explaining how these cells respond differentially to cytokines implicated in development, in utero infections, and the pathogenesis of preterm labor.

  3. Expression QTL modules as functional components underlying higher-order phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Bao

    Full Text Available Systems genetics studies often involve the mapping of numerous regulatory relations between genetic loci and expression traits. These regulatory relations form a bipartite network consisting of genetic loci and expression phenotypes. Modular network organizations may arise from the pleiotropic and polygenic regulation of gene expression. Here we analyzed the expression QTL (eQTL networks derived from expression genetic data of yeast and mouse liver and found 65 and 98 modules respectively. Computer simulation result showed that such modules rarely occurred in randomized networks with the same number of nodes and edges and same degree distribution. We also found significant within-module functional coherence. The analysis of genetic overlaps and the evidences from biomedical literature have linked some eQTL modules to physiological phenotypes. Functional coherence within the eQTL modules and genetic overlaps between the modules and physiological phenotypes suggests that eQTL modules may act as functional units underlying the higher-order phenotypes.

  4. Immature monocytes recruited to the ischemic mouse brain differentiate into macrophages with features of alternative activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miró-Mur, Francesc; Pérez-de-Puig, Isabel; Ferrer-Ferrer, Maura; Urra, Xabier; Justicia, Carles; Chamorro, Angel; Planas, Anna M

    2016-03-01

    Acute stroke induces a local inflammatory reaction causing leukocyte infiltration. Circulating monocytes are recruited to the ischemic brain and become tissue macrophages morphologically indistinguishable from reactive microglia. However, monocytes are a heterogeneous population of cells with different functions. Herein, we investigated the infiltration and fate of the monocyte subsets in a mouse model of focal brain ischemia by permanent occlusion of the distal portion of the middle cerebral artery. We separated two main subtypes of CD11b(hi) monocytes according to their expression of the surface markers Ly6C and CD43. Using adoptive transfer of reporter monocytes and monocyte depletion, we identified the pro-inflammatory Ly6C(hi)CD43(lo)CCR2(+) subset as the predominant monocytes recruited to the ischemic tissue. Monocytes were seen in the leptomeninges from where they entered the cortex along the penetrating arterioles. Four days post-ischemia, they had invaded the infarcted core, where they were often located adjacent to blood vessels. At this time, Iba-1(-) and Iba-1(+) cells in the ischemic tissue incorporated BrdU, but BrdU incorporation was rare in the reporter monocytes. The monocyte phenotype progressively changed by down-regulating Ly6C, up-regulating F4/80, expressing low or intermediate levels of Iba-1, and developing macrophage morphology. Moreover, monocytes progressively acquired the expression of typical markers of alternatively activated macrophages, like arginase-1 and YM-1. Collectively, the results show that stroke mobilized immature pro-inflammatory Ly6C(hi)CD43(lo) monocytes that acutely infiltrated the ischemic tissue reaching the core of the lesion. Monocytes differentiated to macrophages with features of alternative activation suggesting possible roles in tissue repair during the sub-acute phase of stroke.

  5. STAT3 activation in monocytes accelerates liver cancer progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Wen-Yong

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 is an important transcription factor ubiquitously expressed in different cell types. STAT3 plays an essential role in cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation. Aberrantly hyper-activated STAT3 signaling in cancer cells and in the tumor microenvironment has been detected in a wide variety of human cancers and is considered an important factor for cancer initiation, development, and progression. However, the role of STAT3 activation in monocytes in the development of HCC has not been well understood. Methods Immunohistochemical analysis of phosphorylated STAT3 was performed on tissue microarray from HCC patients. Using a co-culture system in vivo, HCC cell growth was determined by the MTT assay. In vivo experiments were conducted with mice given diethylinitrosamine (DEN, which induces HCC was used to investigate the role of STAT3 expression in monocytes on tumor growth. Real-time PCR was used to determine the expression of cell proliferation and cell arrest associated genes in the tumor and nontumor tissue from liver. Results Phosphorylated STAT3 was found in human hepatocellular carcinoma tissue samples and was expressed in tumor cells and also in monocytes. Phosphorylated STAT3 expression in monocyte was significantly correlated to advanced clinical stage of HCC and a poor prognosis. Using a co-culture system in vivo, monocytes promoted HCC cell growth via the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway. The STAT3 inhibitor, NSC 74859, significantly suppressed tumor growth in vivo in mice with diethylinitrosamine (DEN-induced HCC. In this animal model, blockade of STAT3 with NSC 74859 induced tumor cell apoptosis, while inhibiting both tumor cells and monocytes proliferation. Furthermore, NSC 74859 treatment suppressed cancer associated inflammation in DEN-induce HCC. Conclusion Our data suggest constitutively activated STAT3 monocytes promote liver tumorigenesis in clinical

  6. Associations of monocyte miRNA levels with different kinds of heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG FAN-fang; WANG Li-li; LONG Juan; JI Jun; YI Wen-ya; LUO Ying

    2016-01-01

    Background Although miRNAs have been shown to associate with a variety of diseases,whether miRNAs in monocyte associate heart failure (HF) has been not well studied.Methods Eight patients with ischemic HF (IHF),8 patients with non-ischemic HF (NIHF) and 8 healthy volunteers were recruited.Clinical characteristics of all participants were collected.Peripheral blood samples were drawn for analysis of miRNA expression in monocytes.Results All participants were male and the participants in IHF group were older and had higher percentage of smoker and diabetes mellitus than in the other two groups (P < 0.05).Serum levels of creatinine and NT-proBNP were significantly higher in IHF patients compared to the other two groups (P < 0.05).More participants in IHF group were treated with ACEI/ARB,beta-blocker and statins.Participants with NYHA grade Ⅲ accounted for 62.5% in IHF group,while participants with NYHA grade Ⅳ accounted for 87.5% in NIHF group.The levels of 11 miRNAs in monocytes were significantly higher in the IHF group,and the levels of 7 miRNAs were significantly increased in the NIHF group.Other differences in miRNAs levels between IHF and NIHF groups were also observed.Conclusion our present study revealed that there are substantial differences in miRNAs between HF patients and healthy volunteer.

  7. Transcriptome analysis of monocyte-HIV interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Huyen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During HIV infection and/or antiretroviral therapy (ART, monocytes and macrophages exhibit a wide range of dysfunctions which contribute significantly to HIV pathogenesis and therapy-associated complications. Nevertheless, the molecular components which contribute to these dysfunctions remain elusive. We therefore applied a parallel approach of genome-wide microarray analysis and focused gene expression profiling on monocytes from patients in different stages of HIV infection and/or ART to further characterise these dysfunctions. Results Processes involved in apoptosis, cell cycle, lipid metabolism, proteasome function, protein trafficking and transcriptional regulation were identified as areas of monocyte dysfunction during HIV infection. Individual genes potentially contributing to these monocyte dysfunctions included several novel factors. One of these is the adipocytokine NAMPT/visfatin, which we show to be capable of inhibiting HIV at an early step in its life cycle. Roughly half of all genes identified were restored to control levels under ART, while the others represented a persistent dysregulation. Additionally, several candidate biomarkers (in particular CCL1 and CYP2C19 for the development of the abacavir hypersensitivity reaction were suggested. Conclusions Previously described areas of monocyte dysfunction during HIV infection were confirmed, and novel themes were identified. Furthermore, individual genes associated with these dysfunctions and with ART-associated disorders were pinpointed. These genes form a useful basis for further functional studies concerning the contribution of monocytes/macrophages to HIV pathogenesis. One such gene, NAMPT/visfatin, represents a possible novel restriction factor for HIV. Background Both macrophages and T lymphocyte subsets express the CD4 receptor and either the CXCR4 and/or the CCR5 coreceptor which confer susceptibility to infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus

  8. Derivation of multipotent progenitors from human circulating CD14+ monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seta, Noriyuki; Kuwana, Masataka

    2010-07-01

    Circulating CD14(+) monocytes are originated from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow and believed to be committed precursors for phagocytes, such as macrophages. Recently, we have reported a primitive cell population termed monocyte-derived multipotential cells (MOMCs), which has a fibroblast-like morphology in culture and a unique phenotype positive for CD14, CD45, CD34, and type I collagen. MOMCs are derived from circulating CD14(+) monocytes, but circulating precursors for MOMCs still remain undetermined. Comparative analysis of gene expression profiles of MOMCs and other monocyte-derived cells has revealed that embryonic stem cell markers, Nanog and Oct-4, are specifically expressed by MOMCs. In vitro generation of MOMCs requires binding to fibronectin and exposure to soluble factors derived from activated platelets. MOMCs contain progenitors with capacity to differentiate into a variety of nonphagocytes, including bone, cartilage, fat, skeletal and cardiac muscle, neuron, and endothelium, indicating that circulating monocytes are more multipotent than previously thought. In addition, MOMCs are capable of promoting ex vivo expansion of human hematopoietic progenitor cells through direct cell-to-cell contact and secretion of a variety of hematopoietic growth factors. These findings obtained from the research on MOMCs indicate that CD14(+) monocytes in circulation are involved in a variety of physiologic functions other than innate and acquired immune responses, such as repair and regeneration of the damaged tissue.

  9. Evaluation of Toll-like, chemokine, and integrin receptors on monocytes and neutrophils from peripheral blood of septic patients and their correlation with clinical outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, S.C.; Baggio-Zappia, G.L.; Brunialti, M.K.C. [Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Hospital São Paulo, Disciplina de Infectologia, Departamento de Medicina, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Disciplina de Infectologia, Departamento de Medicina, Hospital São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Assunçao, M.S.C. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Unidade de Terapia Intensiva, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Unidade de Terapia Intensiva, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Azevedo, L.C.P. [Hospital Sírio Libanês, Unidade de Terapia Intensiva, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Unidade de Terapia Intensiva, Hospital Sírio Libanês, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Machado, F.R. [Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Hospital São Paulo, Disciplina de Anestesiologia, Departamento de Cirurgia, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Disciplina de Anestesiologia, Departamento de Cirurgia, Hospital São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Salomao, R. [Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Hospital São Paulo, Disciplina de Infectologia, Departamento de Medicina, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Disciplina de Infectologia, Departamento de Medicina, Hospital São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-04-11

    Recognition of pathogens is performed by specific receptors in cells of the innate immune system, which may undergo modulation during the continuum of clinical manifestations of sepsis. Monocytes and neutrophils play a key role in host defense by sensing and destroying microorganisms. This study aimed to evaluate the expression of CD14 receptors on monocytes; CD66b and CXCR2 receptors on neutrophils; and TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, TLR9, and CD11b receptors on both cell types of septic patients. Seventy-seven septic patients (SP) and 40 healthy volunteers (HV) were included in the study, and blood samples were collected on day zero (D0) and after 7 days of therapy (D7). Evaluation of the cellular receptors was carried out by flow cytometry. Expression of CD14 on monocytes and of CD11b and CXCR2 on neutrophils from SP was lower than that from HV. Conversely, expression of TLR5 on monocytes and neutrophils was higher in SP compared with HV. Expression of TLR2 on the surface of neutrophils and that of TLR5 on monocytes and neutrophils of SP was lower at D7 than at D0. In addition, SP who survived showed reduced expression of TLR2 and TLR4 on the surface of neutrophils at D7 compared to D0. Expression of CXCR2 for surviving patients was higher at follow-up compared to baseline. We conclude that expression of recognition and cell signaling receptors is differentially regulated between SP and HV depending on the receptor being evaluated.

  10. Career writing : Creative, expressive and reflective approaches to narrative identity formation in students in higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lengelle, R.; Meijers, F.; Poell, R.F.; Post, M.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates whether creative, expressive, and reflective writing contributes to the formation of a narrative career identity that offers students in higher education a sense of meaning and direction. The contents of writing done by students who participated in 2 two-day writing courses b

  11. Higher resting heart rate variability predicts skill in expressing some emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck, Natalie L; Grant, Rosemary C I; Sollers, John J; Booth, Roger J; Consedine, Nathan S

    2016-12-01

    Vagally mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV) is a measure of cardiac vagal tone, and is widely viewed as a physiological index of the capacity to regulate emotions. However, studies have not directly tested whether vmHRV is associated with the ability to facially express emotions. In extending prior work, the current report tested links between resting vmHRV and the objectively assessed ability to facially express emotions, hypothesizing that higher vmHRV would predict greater expressive skill. Eighty healthy women completed self-reported measures, before attending a laboratory session in which vmHRV and the ability to express six emotions in the face were assessed. A repeated measures analysis of variance revealed a marginal main effect for vmHRV on skill overall; individuals with higher resting vmHRV were only better able to deliberately facially express anger and interest. Findings suggest that differences in resting vmHRV are associated with the objectively assessed ability to facially express some, but not all, emotions, with potential implications for health and well-being. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  12. Expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in IgA nephropathy and its significance%IgA 肾病患者肾脏 MCP-1的表达及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱白音; 吴锡信; 麦美芳; 张桦; 李中和; 崔彤霞

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the role of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1(MCP-1) in the mechanism of pro-gression of IgA nephropathy.Methods A total of 34 patients with biopsy proven IgA nephropathy were studied.The ex-pression of MCP-1 in renal tissues were detected by immunohistochemical staining method; the levels of serum creatinine ( Scr) were examined by sarcosine oxidase method;MCP-1 expression in renal tissue in patients with different degree of tu-bulointerstitial lesions and different levels of Scr were compared.Molecular weight of urinary protein were detected by sodi-um dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis( SDS-PAGE) , and were further typed;MCP-1 expression in renal tis-sue in patients with different molecular weight of urinary protein were compared.And the relationship between the MCP-1 expression and the twenty-four-hour urine protein quantitation in patients with IgA nephropathy was analyzed by pearson cor-relation analysis.Results MCP-1 expression was mainly in renal tubular epithelial cells of IgA nephropathy patients, and was in positive correlation to twenty-four-hour urine protein quantitation (r=0.34,P140μmol/L group than Scr≤140μmol/L group (P<0.05), and was significantly higher in 10 kD proteinuria group than 23 kD proteinuria group (P<0.05).Conclusion MCP-1 may play an important role in the progression of IgA nephropathy.Low molecular weight urinary protein such as 10 kD protein may have close relationship with the expression of MCP-1 in renal tissue of IgA nephropathy.%目的:观察IgA肾病患者肾脏单核细胞趋化蛋白-1(MCP-1)表达变化,并探讨其作用。方法用免疫组织化学染色法检测34例同步行肾活检诊断明确的IgA肾病患者肾脏MCP-1表达,用肌氨酸氧化酶法检测血清肌酐( Scr),比较不同程度肾小管间质病变及不同血清肌酐水平患者MCP-1的差异。用SDS-PAGE法检测尿蛋白分子量,并进一步分型,对不同

  13. Transmission of pseudorabies virus from immune-masked blood monocytes to endothelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Van de Walle, Gerlinde; Favoreel, Herman; Nauwynck, Hans; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.; Pensaert, Maurice

    2003-01-01

    Pseudorabies virus (PRV) may cause abortion, even in the presence of vaccination-induced immunity. Blood monocytes are essential to transport the virus in these immune animals, including transport to the pregnant uterus. Infected monocytes express viral proteins on their cell surface. Specific antibodies recognize these proteins and should activate antibody-dependent cell lysis. Previous work showed that addition of PRV-specific polyclonal antibodies to PRV-infected monocytes induced internal...

  14. Phagocytosis via complement or Fc-gamma receptors is compromised in monocytes from type 2 diabetes patients with chronic hyperglycemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca I Restrepo

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes patients (DM2 have a higher risk of tuberculosis (TB that may be attributed to functional defects in their mononuclear phagocytes given the critical role of these cells in Mycobacterium tuberculosis containment. Our previous findings suggest that monocytes from DM2 have reduced association with serum-opsonized M. tuberculosis. To determine if this alteration is due to defects in phagocytosis via complement or Fc-gamma receptors (FcγRs, in this study we evaluated the uptake of sheep red blood cells coated with IgG or complement, respectively, by monocytes from individuals with and without DM2. We found that chronic hyperglycemia was significantly associated with reduced phagocytosis via either receptor by univariable and multivariable analyses. This defect was independent of host serum opsonins and flow cytometry data indicated this was not attributed to reduced expression of these phagocytic receptors on DM2 monocytes. The positive correlation between both pathways (R = 0.64; p = 0.003 indicate that monocytes from individuals with chronic hyperglycemia have a defect in the two predominant phagocytic pathways of these cells. Given that phagocytosis is linked to activation of effector mechanisms for bacterial killing, it is likely that this defect is one factor contributing to the higher susceptibility of DM2 patients to pathogens like M. tuberculosis.

  15. Canine Distemper Virus Infection Leads to an Inhibitory Phenotype of Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells In Vitro with Reduced Expression of Co-Stimulatory Molecules and Increased Interleukin-10 Transcription

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herder, Vanessa; Stein, Veronika M.; Tipold, Andrea; Urhausen, Carola; Günzel-Apel, Anne-Rose; Rohn, Karl; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Beineke, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) exhibits a profound lymphotropism that causes immunosuppression and increased susceptibility of affected dogs to opportunistic infections. Similar to human measles virus, CDV is supposed to inhibit terminal differentiation of dendritic cells (DCs), responsible for disturbed repopulation of lymphoid tissues and diminished antigen presenting function in dogs. In order to testify the hypothesis that CDV-infection leads to an impairment of professional antigen presenting cells, canine DCs have been generated from peripheral blood monocytes in vitro and infected with CDV. Virus infection was confirmed and quantified by transmission electron microscopy, CDV-specific immunofluorescence, and virus titration. Flow cytometric analyses revealed a significant down-regulation of the major histocompatibility complex class II and co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 in CDV-infected DCs, indicative of disturbed antigen presenting capacity. Molecular analyses revealed an increased expression of the immune inhibitory cytokine interleukin-10 in DCs following infection. Results of the present study demonstrate that CDV causes phenotypical changes and altered cytokine expression of DCs, which represent potential mechanisms to evade host immune responses and might contribute to immune dysfunction and virus persistence in canine distemper. PMID:24769532

  16. Canine distemper virus infection leads to an inhibitory phenotype of monocyte-derived dendritic cells in vitro with reduced expression of co-stimulatory molecules and increased interleukin-10 transcription.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visar Qeska

    Full Text Available Canine distemper virus (CDV exhibits a profound lymphotropism that causes immunosuppression and increased susceptibility of affected dogs to opportunistic infections. Similar to human measles virus, CDV is supposed to inhibit terminal differentiation of dendritic cells (DCs, responsible for disturbed repopulation of lymphoid tissues and diminished antigen presenting function in dogs. In order to testify the hypothesis that CDV-infection leads to an impairment of professional antigen presenting cells, canine DCs have been generated from peripheral blood monocytes in vitro and infected with CDV. Virus infection was confirmed and quantified by transmission electron microscopy, CDV-specific immunofluorescence, and virus titration. Flow cytometric analyses revealed a significant down-regulation of the major histocompatibility complex class II and co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 in CDV-infected DCs, indicative of disturbed antigen presenting capacity. Molecular analyses revealed an increased expression of the immune inhibitory cytokine interleukin-10 in DCs following infection. Results of the present study demonstrate that CDV causes phenotypical changes and altered cytokine expression of DCs, which represent potential mechanisms to evade host immune responses and might contribute to immune dysfunction and virus persistence in canine distemper.

  17. Interferon beta and vitamin D synergize to induce immunoregulatory receptors on peripheral blood monocytes of multiple sclerosis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Waschbisch

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin-like transcript (ILT 3 and 4 are inhibitory receptors that modulate immune responses. Their expression has been reported to be affected by interferon, offering a possible mechanism by which this cytokine exerts its therapeutic effect in multiple sclerosis, a condition thought to involve excessive immune activity. To investigate this possibility, we measured expression of ILT3 and ILT4 on immune cells from multiple sclerosis patients, and in post-mortem brain tissue. We also studied the ability of interferon beta, alone or in combination with vitamin D, to induce upregulation of these receptors in vitro, and compared expression levels between interferon-treated and untreated multiple sclerosis patients. In vitro interferon beta treatment led to a robust upregulation of ILT3 and ILT4 on monocytes, and dihydroxyvitamin D3 increased expression of ILT3 but not ILT4. ILT3 was abundant in demyelinating lesions in postmortem brain, and expression on monocytes in the cerebrospinal fluid was higher than in peripheral blood, suggesting that the central nervous system milieu induces ILT3, or that ILT3 positive monocytes preferentially enter the brain. Our data are consistent with involvement of ILT3 and ILT4 in the modulation of immune responsiveness in multiple sclerosis by both interferon and vitamin D.

  18. Cyr61 induces the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 via the integrin ανβ3, FAK, PI3K/Akt, and NF-κB pathways in retinal vascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jian-Jang; Yang, Chang-Hao; Yang, Chung-May; Chen, Muh-Shy

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes causes a number of metabolic and physiological abnormalities in the retina. Many of the molecular and physiological abnormalities that develop during diabetic retinopathy are due to inflammation. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is an important factor involved in diabetic retinopathy. In a previous study, we found that cysteine-rich 61 (Cyr61), an important angiogenic factor, also plays an important role in diabetic retinopathy. In addition to the direct effects of Cyr61, we observed that Cyr61 can induce the expression of MCP-1. However, the mechanism through which this occurs is not completely understood in chorioretinal vascular endothelial cells. We therefore investigated the effects of Cyr61 on MCP-1 expression in this cell type. Cyr61 stimulated the expression of MCP-1 at the mRNA, protein, and secreted protein levels in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Both total MCP-1 levels and secreted MCP-1 levels were attenuated during the response to Cyr61 stimulation by pretreatment with integrin ανβ3-blocking antibodies, a FAK inhibitor (PF573228), a PI3K inhibitor (LY294002), and an Akt inhibitor (A6730). Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed that the above inhibitors suppressed the activation of NF-κB. Additionally, deletion of the NF-κB-binding element in the MCP-1 gene promoter led to a decrease in expression in luciferase reporter assays. These results show that the induction of MCP-1 by Cyr61 is mediated through the activation of the integrin ανβ3, FAK, PI3K/Akt, and IKK/NF-κB pathways in chorioretinal vascular endothelial cells.

  19. The Early Expression of HLA-DR and CD64 Myeloid Markers Is Specifically Compartmentalized in the Blood and Lungs of Patients with Septic Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Skirecki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of reliable biomarkers is key to guide targeted therapies in septic patients. Expression monitoring of monocyte HLA-DR and neutrophil CD64 could fulfill the above need. However, it is unknown whether their expression on circulating cells reflects the status of tissue resident cells. We compared expressions of HLA-DR and CD64 markers in the circulation and airways of septic shock patients and evaluated their outcome prognostic value. The expression of CD64 on neutrophils and HLA-DR on monocytes was analyzed in the peripheral blood and mini-bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cells by flow cytometry. Twenty-seven patients with septic shock were enrolled into the study. The fluorescence intensity of HLA-DR on circulating monocytes was 3.5-fold lower than on the pulmonary monocytes (p=0.01. The expression of CD64 on circulating and airway neutrophils was similar (p=0.47. Only the expression of CD64 on circulating neutrophils was higher in nonsurvivors versus survivors (2.8-fold; p=0.031. Pulmonary monocytes display a higher level of HLA-DR activation compared to peripheral blood monocytes but the expression of neutrophil CD64 is similar on lung and circulating cells. Death in septic patients was effectively predicted by neutrophil CD64 but not monocytic HLA-DR. Prognostic value of cellular activation markers in septic shock appears to strongly depend on their level of compartmentalization.

  20. Endotoxin-induced maturation of monocytes in preterm fetal sheep lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Boris W; Joshi, Shubhada N; Moss, Timothy J M; Newnham, John P; Sindelar, Richard; Jobe, Alan H; Kallapur, Suhas G

    2007-08-01

    The fetal lung normally contains immature monocytes and very few mature macrophages. The chorioamnionitis frequently associated with preterm birth induces monocyte influx into the fetal lung. Previous studies demonstrated that monocytes in the developing lung can mediate lung injury responses that resemble BPD in humans. We hypothesized that chorioamnionitis would induce maturation of immature monocytes in the fetal lung. Groups of three to seven time-mated ewes received saline or 10 mg of endotoxin (Escherichia coli 055:B5) in saline by intra-amniotic injection for intervals from 1 to 14 days before operative delivery at 124 days of gestational age. Monocytic cells from lung tissue were recovered using Percoll gradients. Monocytic cells consistent with macrophages were identified morphologically and by myosin heavy chain class II expression. An increase in macrophages was preceded by induction of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in the lung and subsequent activation of the transcription factor PU.1. The production of IL-6 by monocytes/macrophages in response to endotoxin challenge in vitro increased 7 and 14 days after exposure to intra-amniotic endotoxin. Recombinant TNF-alpha induced IL-6 production by lung monocytic cells exposed to intra-amniotic endotoxin but not in control cells. Monocytic phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils also increased 7 and 14 days after exposure to intra-amniotic endotoxin. Intra-amniotic endotoxin induced lung monocytes to develop into functionally mature cells consistent with macrophages. These findings have implications for lung immune responses after exposure to chorioamnionitis.

  1. Immunomodulation of human monocytes following exposure to Lutzomyia intermedia saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barral Aldina

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sand fly saliva contains potent and complex pharmacologic molecules that are able to modulate the host's hemostatic, inflammatory, and immune systems. In this study, we evaluated the effects of salivary gland sonicate (SGS of Lutzomyia intermedia, the natural vector of Leishmania braziliensis, on monocytes obtained from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC of healthy volunteers. We investigated the effects of sand fly saliva on cytokine production and surface molecule expression of LPS-stimulated human monocytes uninfected or infected with L. braziliensis. Results Pre-treatment of non-infected human monocytes with L. intermedia SGS followed by LPS-stimulation led to a significant decrease in IL-10 production accompanied by a significant increase in CD86, CD80, and HLA-DR expression. Pre-treatment with SGS followed by LPS stimulation and L. braziliensis infection led to a significant increase in TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 production without significant alterations in co-stimulatory molecule expression. However, pre-treatment with L. intermedia SGS did not result in significant changes in the infection rate of human monocytes. Conclusion Our data indicate that L. intermedia saliva is able to modulate monocyte response, and, although this modulation is dissociated from enhanced infection with L. braziliensis, it may be associated with successful parasitism.

  2. Characterization of bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase expressed in male gametophyte of higher plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igawa Tomoko

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC is a critical enzyme catalyzing the β-carboxylation of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP to oxaloacetate, a tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle intermediate. PEPC typically exists as a Class-1 PEPC homotetramer composed of plant-type PEPC (PTPC polypeptides, and two of the subunits were reported to be monoubiquitinated in germinating castor oil seeds. By the large-scale purification of ubiquitin (Ub-related proteins from lily anther, two types of PEPCs, bacterial-type PEPC (BTPC and plant-type PEPC (PTPC, were identified in our study as candidate Ub-related proteins. Until now, there has been no information about the properties of the PEPCs expressed in male reproductive tissues of higher plants. Results Expression analyses showed that lily BTPC (LlBTPC and Arabidopsis BTPC (AtBTPC were significantly expressed in pollen. The fusion protein AtBTPC-Venus localized in the cytoplasm of the vegetative cell (VC. Both LlBTPC and AtBTPC expression initiated after the last mitosis before pollen germination. Lily PTPC (LlPTPC and monoubiquitinated LlPTPC (Ub-LlPTPC remained at constant levels during pollen development. In late bicellular pollen of lily, LlBTPC forms a hetero-octameric Class-2 PEPC complex with LlPTPC to express PEPC activity. Conclusion Our results suggest that an LlBTPC:Ub-LlPTPC:LlPTPC complex is formed in the VC cytoplasm during late pollen development. Both LlBTPC and AtBTPC expression patterns are similar to the patterns of the appearance of storage organelles during pollen development in lily and Arabidopsis, respectively. Therefore, BTPC is thought to accelerate the metabolic flow for the synthesis of storage substances during pollen maturation. Our study provides the first characterization of BTPC in pollen, the male gametophyte of higher plants.

  3. Microglia/monocytes with NG2 expression have no phagocytic function in the cortex after LPS focal injection into the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lie; Xiang, Ping; Guo, Kun; Wang, Anni; Lu, Jia; Tay, Samuel Sam Wah; Jiang, Hua; He, Bei Ping

    2012-09-01

    While OX42(+) microglia/macrophages have been considered as a scavenger in the brain, NG2(+) cells are generally considered as oligodendrocyte progenitor cells or function-unknown glial cells. Recent evidence showed that under some pathological conditions, certain cells have become positive for both anti-NG2 and anti-OX42 antibodies. Our results suggested that some OX42(+) microglia or macrophages were induced to express NG2 proteins 3 and 5 days later after focal injection of lipopolysaccharide into the brain cortex of Sprague-Dawley rats. In consideration of the induction of NG2 expression may associate with gaining or losing functions of microglia/macrophages, we further showed that, while OX42(+) or ED1(+) microglia/macrophages presented active phagocytic function, NG2(+) /OX42(+) cells failed to engulf latex beads. The induced expression of NG2 protein may possibly indicate the functional diversity of activated microglia/macrophages in the brain.

  4. Identification of genes differentially expressed in monocyte-derived dendritic cells with 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 using cDNA arrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈倩云; 郑树森

    2004-01-01

    In order to study the molecular mechanism of the inhibitory effect of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on dendritic cells,experiments were performed using Atlas cDNA expression arrays from Clonetech to identify the differentially expressed genes of dendritic cells by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Analysis ofcDNA arrays revealed changes in the expression of 9 genes,including those involved in DNA binding and transcription, extracellular cell signaling and communication, intracellular transducers, as well as cell adhesions. The results indicated that a multiple molecular network is involved in the inhibitory role of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on dendritic cells. The Atlas Array technology may facilitate the elucidation of complex pharmacological process of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on dendritic cells.

  5. Arctigenin suppresses transforming growth factor-β1-induced expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and the subsequent epithelial-mesenchymal transition through reactive oxygen species-dependent ERK/NF-κB signaling pathway in renal tubular epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, A; Wang, J; Zhu, D; Zhang, X; Pan, R; Wang, R

    2015-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) induces expression of the proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in tubular epithelial cells (TECs) and thereby contributes to the tubular epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which in turn leads to the progression of tubulointerstitial inflammation into tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Exactly how TGF-β1 causes MCP-1 overexpression and subsequent EMT is not well understood. Using human tubular epithelial cultures, we found that TGF-β1 upregulated the expression of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidases 2 and 4 and their regulatory subunits, inducing the production of reactive oxygen species. These reactive species activated a signaling pathway mediated by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), which upregulated expression of MCP-1. Incubating cultures with TGF-β1 was sufficient to induce hallmarks of EMT, such as downregulation of epithelial marker proteins (E-cadherin and zonula occludens-1), induction of mesenchymal marker proteins (α-smooth muscle actin, fibronectin, and vimentin), and elevated cell migration and invasion in an EMT-like manner. Overexpressing MCP-1 in cells exposed to TGF-β1 exacerbated these EMT-like changes. Pretreating cells with the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compound arctigenin (ATG) protected them against these TGF-β1-induced EMT-like changes; the compound worked by inhibiting the ROS/ERK1/2/NF-κB pathway to decrease MCP-1 upregulation. These findings suggest ATG as a new therapeutic candidate to inhibit or even reverse tubular EMT-like changes during progression to tubulointerstitial fibrosis, and they provide the first clues to how ATG may work.

  6. Endogenous epoxygenases are modulators of monocyte/macrophage activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Bystrom

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Arachidonic acid is metabolized through three major metabolic pathways, the cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase and CYP450 enzyme systems. Unlike cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenases, the role of CYP450 epoxygenases in monocyte/macrophage-mediated responses is not known. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: When transfected in vitro, CYP2J2 is an efficient activator of anti-inflammatory pathways through the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR α. Human monocytes and macrophages contain PPARα and here we show they express the epoxygenases CYP2J2 and CYP2C8. Inhibition of constitutive monocyte epoxygenases using the epoxygenase inhibitor SKF525A induces cyclooxygenase (COX-2 expression and activity, and the release of TNFα, and can be reversed by either add back of the endogenous epoxygenase products and PPARα ligand 11,12- epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET or the addition of the selective synthetic PPARα ligand GW7647. In alternatively activated (IL-4-treated monocytes, in contrast to classically activated cells, epoxygenase inhibition decreased TNFα release. Epoxygenases can be pro-inflammatory via superoxide anion production. The suppression of TNFα by SKF525A in the presence of IL-4 was associated with a reduction in superoxide anion generation and reproduced by the superoxide dismutase MnCl(2. Similar to these acute activation studies, in monocyte derived macrophages, epoxygenase inhibition elevates M1 macrophage TNFα mRNA and further decreases M2 macrophage TNFα. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, epoxygenase activity represents an important endogenous pathway which limits monocyte activation. Moreover endogenous epoxygenases are immuno-modulators regulating monocyte/macrophage activation depending on the underlying activation state.

  7. The immune theory of psychiatric diseases : a key role for activated microglia and circulating monocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beumer, Wouter; Gibney, Sinead M.; Drexhage, Roosmarijn C.; Pont-Lezica, Lorena; Doorduin, Janine; Klein, Hans C.; Steiner, Johann; Connor, Thomas J.; Harkin, Andrew; Versnel, Marjan A.; Drexhage, Hemmo A.

    2012-01-01

    This review describes a key role for mononuclear phagocytes in the pathogenesis of major psychiatric disorders. There is accumulating evidence for activation of microglia (histopathology and PET scans) and circulating monocytes (enhanced gene expression of immune genes, an overproduction of monocyte

  8. Increasing the repeating units of ethylene glycol-based dimethacrylates directed toward reduced oxidative stress and co-stimulatory factors expression in human monocytic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Atsushi; Fukumoto, Izumi; Yui, Nobuhiko; Matsumura, Mitsuaki; Miura, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-01

    The ethylene glycol-based dimethacrylates are commonly used in biomaterials and dental restorative materials as a cross-linking agent. In this study, toxic effect of triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) and poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylates (PEG-DMAs) with various ethylene glycol repeating units was investigated in terms of cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, and the expression of co-stimulatory factors in human leukemia cell line (THP-1 cells) to verify the effect of ethylene glycol repeating units. Note that the 1-octanol/water partition coefficient of PEG-based dimethacrylates decreased with increasing the ethylene glycol repeating units, indicating that the hydrophilicity of PEG-DMAs increased with ethylene glycol repeating units. The toxic effect of PEG-DMAs such as cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, and the expression of CD86 in treated THP-1 cells are reduced with increasing the ethylene glycol repeating units in PEG-DMAs. However, the expression of CD54 in treated THP-1 cells was not influenced with the ethylene glycol repeating units and the maximal expression level of CD54 was observed at the concentration range of 2-4 mM for all samples. Accordingly, hydrophilic character of PEG-DMAs with long ethylene glycol chains definitely alleviates the some toxic aspect of PEG-based DMAs. This finding would provide important insight into the design of new biomaterials and dental materials with superior biocompatibility. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. In vitro effects of monophthalates on cytokine expression in the monocytic cell line THP-1 and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from allergic and non-allergic donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glue, C; Millner, A; Bodtger, U

    2002-01-01

    viability was determined by incubating THP-1 cells with a 10-fold dilution series of monophthalates for 24 h. At different points in time cytokine expression (IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-12alpha (p35)) in THP-1 cells incubated with non-toxic concentrations of monophthalate (2-20 microg/ml)+/-LPS (1 microg/ml) were...... determined using Quantitative Competitive RT-PCR. PBMCs from allergics and non-allergics were incubated with monophthalate 220 microg/ml) for up to 48 h and cytokine expression (IL-4, IL-5, IFN-gamma) was measured using real-time PCR. The cytotoxic level of monophthalates is 20-200 microg/ml, depending...... on the individual monophthalate. There seems to be a correlation between increasing side-chain length and toxicity. Monophthalates did not induce changes in cytokine expression in THP-1 cells, though there is an increase when co-incubating with LPS. Cytokine expression in PBMC seems virtually unchanged when co-incubated...

  10. Periodontitis-activated monocytes/macrophages cause aortic inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyajima, Shin-ichi; Naruse, Keiko; Kobayashi, Yasuko; Nakamura, Nobuhisa; Nishikawa, Toru; Adachi, Kei; Suzuki, Yuki; Kikuchi, Takeshi; Mitani, Akio; Mizutani, Makoto; Ohno, Norikazu; Noguchi, Toshihide; Matsubara, Tatsuaki

    2014-01-01

    A relationship between periodontal disease and atherosclerosis has been suggested by epidemiological studies. Ligature-induced experimental periodontitis is an adequate model for clinical periodontitis, which starts from plaque accumulation, followed by inflammation in the periodontal tissue. Here we have demonstrated using a ligature-induced periodontitis model that periodontitis activates monocytes/macrophages, which subsequently circulate in the blood and adhere to vascular endothelial cells without altering the serum TNF-α concentration. Adherent monocytes/macrophages induced NF-κB activation and VCAM-1 expression in the endothelium and increased the expression of the TNF-α signaling cascade in the aorta. Peripheral blood-derived mononuclear cells from rats with experimental periodontitis showed enhanced adhesion and increased NF-κB/VCAM-1 in cultured vascular endothelial cells. Our results suggest that periodontitis triggers the initial pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, inflammation of the vasculature, through activating monocytes/macrophages. PMID:24893991

  11. In vitro stimulation of murine peritoneal monocytes induced by alginates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquali, Paolo; Zalcman, Amy; Murtas, Susanna; Adone, Rosanna; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Marianelli, Cinzia; Cagiola, Monica; Ciuchini, Franco

    2005-08-01

    In this trial we assessed the effect of soluble alginates on murine cells. Mouse peritoneal monocytes were stimulated in vitro with a solution of alginate. The production of TNF-alpha and nitric oxide (NO), the expression of surface molecules CD80 and CD86, and the ability of monocytes to phagocyte bacteria were assessed, in order to evaluate the effect of alginate on cell functionality. We showed that mouse peritoneal monocytes stimulated with alginate produce NO and TNF-alpha. In addition, alginate is able also to increase their phagocytic activity and to a lesser extent also to increase the expression of CD80. Even with different degrees, it implies that alginates per se act directly on immune response, being able to effectively stimulate proinflammatory activity. These findings corroborate the idea that alginates can represent interesting adjuvants to use to increase the efficacy of antigenic stimulation.

  12. Oxytocin enhances attentional bias for neutral and positive expression faces in individuals with higher autistic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Ma, Xiaole; Zhao, Weihua; Luo, Lizhu; Yao, Shuxia; Kendrick, Keith M

    2015-12-01

    There is considerable interest in the potential therapeutic role of the neuropeptide oxytocin in altering attentional bias towards emotional social stimuli in psychiatric disorders. However, it is still unclear whether oxytocin primarily influences attention towards positive or negative valence social stimuli. Here in a double-blind, placebo controlled, between subject design experiment in 60 healthy male subjects we have used the highly sensitive dual-target rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm to investigate whether intranasal oxytocin (40IU) treatment alters attentional bias for emotional faces. Results show that oxytocin improved recognition accuracy of neutral and happy expression faces presented in the second target position (T2) during the period of reduced attentional capacity following prior presentation of a first neutral face target (T1), but had no effect on recognition of negative expression faces (angry, fearful, sad). Oxytocin also had no effect on recognition of non-social stimuli (digits) in this task. Recognition accuracy for neutral faces at T2 was negatively associated with autism spectrum quotient (ASQ) scores in the placebo group, and oxytocin's facilitatory effects were restricted to a sub-group of subjects with higher ASQ scores. Our results therefore indicate that oxytocin primarily enhances the allocation of attentional resources towards faces expressing neutral or positive emotion and does not influence that towards negative emotion ones or non-social stimuli. This effect of oxytocin is strongest in healthy individuals with higher autistic trait scores, thereby providing further support for its potential therapeutic use in autism spectrum disorder.

  13. Dengue-2 infection and the induction of apoptosis in human primary monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Torrentes-Carvalho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Monocytes/macrophages are important targets for dengue virus (DENV replication; they induce inflammatory mediators and are sources of viral dissemination in the initial phase of the disease. Apoptosis is an active process of cellular destruction genetically regulated, in which a complex enzymatic pathway is activated and may be trigged by many viral infections. Since the mechanisms of apoptotic induction in DENV-infected target cells are not yet defined, we investigated the virus-cell interaction using a model of primary human monocyte infection with DENV-2 with the aim of identifying apoptotic markers. Cultures analyzed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy yielded DENV antigen positive cells with rates that peaked at the second day post infection (p.i., decayed afterwards and produced the apoptosis-related cytokines TNF-α and IL-10. Phosphatidylserine, an early marker for apoptosis, was increased at the cell surface and the Fas death receptor was upregulated at the second day p.i. at significantly higher rates in DENV infected cell cultures than controls. However, no detectable changes were observed in the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 in infected cultures. Our data support virus modulation of extrinsic apoptotic factors in the in vitro model of human monocyte DENV-2 infection. DENV may be interfering in activation and death mechanisms by inducing apoptosis in target cells.

  14. Dengue-2 infection and the induction of apoptosis in human primary monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrentes-Carvalho, Amanda; Azeredo, Elzinandes L; Reis, Sonia R I; Miranda, Alessandro S; Gandini, Mariana; Barbosa, Luciana S; Kubelka, Claire F

    2009-12-01

    Monocytes/macrophages are important targets for dengue virus (DENV) replication; they induce inflammatory mediators and are sources of viral dissemination in the initial phase of the disease. Apoptosis is an active process of cellular destruction genetically regulated, in which a complex enzymatic pathway is activated and may be trigged by many viral infections. Since the mechanisms of apoptotic induction in DENV-infected target cells are not yet defined, we investigated the virus-cell interaction using a model of primary human monocyte infection with DENV-2 with the aim of identifying apoptotic markers. Cultures analyzed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy yielded DENV antigen positive cells with rates that peaked at the second day post infection (p.i.), decayed afterwards and produced the apoptosis-related cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-10. Phosphatidylserine, an early marker for apoptosis, was increased at the cell surface and the Fas death receptor was upregulated at the second day p.i. at significantly higher rates in DENV infected cell cultures than controls. However, no detectable changes were observed in the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 in infected cultures. Our data support virus modulation of extrinsic apoptotic factors in the in vitro model of human monocyte DENV-2 infection. DENV may be interfering in activation and death mechanisms by inducing apoptosis in target cells.

  15. Higher expression of Bax in regulatory T cells increases vascular inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zeyu; Song, Jian; Yan, Yan; Huang, Yajue; Cowan, Alan; Wang, Hong; Yang, Xiao-Feng

    2008-05-01

    This study is to examine our hypothesis that CD4+CD25(high)Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) have an interleukin-2 (IL-2) withdrawal-triggered apoptosis pathway, and modulation of Treg apoptosis pathway affects development of vascular inflammation. We found that pro-apoptotic protein Bax upregulation in Tregs is induced by IL-2 withdrawal. Treg apoptosis induced by IL-2 withdrawal is inhibited by a Bax inhibitor, suggesting that highly expressed Bax is functional. To define the role of upregulated Bax in Treg apoptosis, we established a Tregs-specific Bax transgenic mouse model. Enforced expression of Bax in Tregs promotes Treg apoptosis triggered by IL-2 withdrawal and other apoptosis stimuli, suggesting pro-apoptotic role of highly expressed Bax in wild-type Tregs. Finally, higher expression of Bax in Tregs decreases the striking threshold of vascular inflammation due to the failure of suppression of inflammatory cells resulting from Treg apoptosis. These results have demonstrated the proof of principle that the modulation of Tregs apoptosis/survival could be used as a new therapeutic approach for inflammatory cardiovascular diseases.

  16. Diabetic conditions promote binding of monocytes to vascular smooth muscle cells and their subsequent differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Li; Park, Jehyun; Cai, Qiangjun; Lanting, Linda; Reddy, Marpadga A; Natarajan, Rama

    2010-03-01

    Diabetes is associated with significantly accelerated rates of atherosclerosis, key features of which include the presence of excessive macrophage-derived foam cells in the subendothelial space. We examined the hypothesis that enhanced monocyte-vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) interactions leading to subendothelial monocyte retention and differentiation to macrophages under diabetic conditions may be underlying mechanisms. Human aortic VSMCs (HVSMCs) treated with diabetic stimuli high glucose (HG) or S100B, a ligand of the receptor for advanced glycation end products, exhibited significantly increased binding of THP-1 monocytic cells. Diabetic stimuli increased the expression of the adhesive chemokine fractalkine (FKN) in HVSMCs. Pretreatment of HVSMCs with FKN or monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) neutralizing antibodies significantly inhibited monocyte-VSMC binding, whereas monocytes treated with FKN showed enhanced binding to VSMC. Mouse aortic VSMCs (MVSMCs) derived from type 2 diabetic db/db mice exhibited significantly increased FKN levels and binding to mouse WEHI78/24 monocytic cells relative to nondiabetic control db/+ cells. The enhanced monocyte binding in db/db cells was abolished by both FKN and MCP-1 antibodies. Endothelium-denuded aortas from db/db mice and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice also exhibited enhanced FKN expression and monocyte binding, relative to respective controls. Coculture with HVSMCs increased CD36 expression in THP-1 cells, and this was significantly augmented by treatment of HVSMCs with S100B or HG. CD36 mRNA and protein levels were also significantly increased in WEHI78/24 cells after coincubation with db/db MVSMCs relative to control MVSMCs. These results demonstrate that diabetic conditions may accelerate atherosclerosis by inducing key chemokines in the vasculature that promote VSMC-monocyte interactions, subendothelial monocyte retention, and differentiation.

  17. Phagocytosis of haemozoin (malarial pigment enhances metalloproteinase-9 activity in human adherent monocytes: Role of IL-1beta and 15-HETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giribaldi Giuliana

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been shown previously that human monocytes fed with haemozoin (HZ or trophozoite-parasitized RBCs displayed increased matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 enzyme activity and protein/mRNA expression and increased TNF production, and showed higher matrix invasion ability. The present study utilized the same experimental model to analyse the effect of phagocytosis of: HZ, delipidized HZ, beta-haematin (lipid-free synthetic HZ and trophozoites on production of IL-1beta and MMP-9 activity and expression. The second aim was to find out which component of HZ was responsible for the effects. Methods Native HZ freshly isolated from Plasmodium falciparum (Palo Alto strain, Mycoplasma-free, delipidized HZ, beta-haematin (lipid-free synthetic HZ, trophozoites and control meals such as opsonized non-parasitized RBCs and inert latex particles, were fed to human monocytes. The production of IL-1beta by differently fed monocytes, in presence or absence of specific MMP-9 inhibitor or anti-hIL-1beta antibodies, was quantified in supernatants by ELISA. Expression of IL-1beta was analysed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. MMP-9 activity and protein expression were quantified by gelatin zymography and Western blotting. Results Monocytes fed with HZ or trophozoite-parasitized RBCs generated increased amounts of IL-1beta and enhanced enzyme activity (in cell supernatants and protein/mRNA expression (in cell lysates of monocyte MMP-9. The latter appears to be causally related to enhanced IL-1beta production, as enhancement of both expression and enzyme activity were abrogated by anti-hIL-1beta Abs. Upregulation of IL-1beta and MMP-9 were absent in monocytes fed with beta-haematin or delipidized HZ, indicating a role for HZ-attached or HZ-generated lipid components. 15-HETE (15(S,R-hydroxy-6,8,11,13-eicosatetraenoic acid a potent lipoperoxidation derivative generated by HZ from arachidonic acid via haem-catalysis was identified as one mediator

  18. Lactic acid delays the inflammatory response of human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Katrin; Rehli, Michael; Singer, Katrin; Renner-Sattler, Kathrin; Kreutz, Marina

    2015-02-13

    Lactic acid (LA) accumulates under inflammatory conditions, e.g. in wounds or tumors, and influences local immune cell functions. We previously noted inhibitory effects of LA on glycolysis and TNF secretion of human LPS-stimulated monocytes. Here, we globally analyze the influence of LA on gene expression during monocyte activation. To separate LA-specific from lactate- or pH-effects, monocytes were treated for one or four hours with LPS in the presence of physiological concentrations of LA, sodium lactate (NaL) or acidic pH. Analyses of global gene expression profiles revealed striking effects of LA during the early stimulation phase. Up-regulation of most LPS-induced genes was significantly delayed in the presence of LA, while this inhibitory effect was attenuated in acidified samples and not detected after incubation with NaL. LA targets included genes encoding for important monocyte effector proteins like cytokines (e.g. TNF and IL-23) or chemokines (e.g. CCL2 and CCL7). LA effects were validated for several targets by quantitative RT-PCR and/or ELISA. Further analysis of LPS-signaling pathways revealed that LA delayed the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT) as well as the degradation of IκBα. Consistently, the LPS-induced nuclear accumulation of NFκB was also diminished in response to LA. These results indicate that the broad effect of LA on gene expression and function of human monocytes is at least partially caused by its interference with immediate signal transduction events after activation. This mechanism might contribute to monocyte suppression in the tumor environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Inflammatory monocytes mediate early and organ-specific innate defense during systemic candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Lisa Y; Kasahara, Shinji; Kumasaka, Debra K; Knoblaugh, Sue E; Jhingran, Anupam; Hohl, Tobias M

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans is a commensal fungus that can cause systemic disease in patients with breaches in mucosal integrity, indwelling catheters, and defects in phagocyte function. Although circulating human and murine monocytes bind C. albicans and promote inflammation, it remains unclear whether C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2)- and Ly6C-expressing inflammatory monocytes exert a protective or a deleterious function during systemic infection. During murine systemic candidiasis, interruption of CCR2-dependent inflammatory monocyte trafficking into infected kidneys impaired fungal clearance and decreased murine survival. Depletion of CCR2-expressing cells led to uncontrolled fungal growth in the kidneys and brain and demonstrated an essential antifungal role for inflammatory monocytes and their tissue-resident derivatives in the first 48 hours postinfection. Adoptive transfer of purified inflammatory monocytes in depleted hosts reversed the defect in fungal clearance to a substantial extent, indicating a compartmentally and temporally restricted protective function that can be transferred to enhance systemic innate antifungal immunity.

  20. The glial scar-monocyte interplay: a pivotal resolution phase in spinal cord repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravid Shechter

    Full Text Available The inflammatory response in the injured spinal cord, an immune privileged site, has been mainly associated with the poor prognosis. However, recent data demonstrated that, in fact, some leukocytes, namely monocytes, are pivotal for repair due to their alternative anti-inflammatory phenotype. Given the pro-inflammatory milieu within the traumatized spinal cord, known to skew monocytes towards a classical phenotype, a pertinent question is how parenchymal-invading monocytes acquire resolving properties essential for healing, under such unfavorable conditions. In light of the spatial association between resolving (interleukin (IL-10 producing monocytes and the glial scar matrix chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG, in this study we examined the mutual relationship between these two components. By inhibiting the de novo production of CSPG following spinal cord injury, we demonstrated that this extracellular matrix, mainly known for its ability to inhibit axonal growth, serves as a critical template skewing the entering monocytes towards the resolving phenotype. In vitro cell culture studies demonstrated that this matrix alone is sufficient to induce such monocyte polarization. Reciprocal conditional ablation of the monocyte-derived macrophages concentrated at the lesion margins, using diphtheria toxin, revealed that these cells have scar matrix-resolving properties. Replenishment of monocytic cell populations to the ablated mice demonstrated that this extracellular remodeling ability of the infiltrating monocytes requires their expression of the matrix-degrading enzyme, matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13, a property that was found here to be crucial for functional recovery. Altogether, this study demonstrates that the glial scar-matrix, a known obstacle to regeneration, is a critical component skewing the encountering monocytes towards a resolving phenotype. In an apparent feedback loop, monocytes were found to regulate scar resolution. This

  1. Vitamin d-directed rheostatic regulation of monocyte antibacterial responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adams, John S; Ren, Songyang; Liu, Philip T

    2009-01-01

    The active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)(2)D) enhances innate immunity by inducing the cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (hCAP). In monocytes/macrophages, this occurs primarily in response to activation of TLR, that induce expression of the vitamin D receptor and localized...

  2. Expressing First-Order π-Calculus in Higher-Order Calculus of Communicating Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian Xu

    2009-01-01

    In the study of process calculi, encoding between different calculi is an effective way to compare the expressive power of calculi and can shed light on the essence of where the difference lies. Thomsen and Sangiorgi have worked on the higher-order calculi (higher-order Calculus of Communicating Systems (CCS) and higher-order It-calculus, respectively) and the encoding from and to first-order π-calculus. However a fully abstract encoding of first-order π-calculus with higher-order CCS is not available up-today. This is what we intend to settle in this paper. We follow the encoding strategy, first proposed by Thomsen, of translating first-order π-calculus into Plain CHOCS. We show that the encoding strategy is fully abstract with respect to early bisimilarity (first-order π-calculus) and wired bisimilarity (Plain CHOCS) (which is a bisimulation defined on wired processes only sending and receiving wires), that is the core of the encoding strategy. Moreover from the fact that the wired bisimilarity is contained by the well-established context bisimilarity, we secure the soundness of the encoding, with respect to early bisimilarity and context bisimilarity. We use index technique to get around all the technical details to reach these main results of this paper. Finally, we make some discussion on our work and suggest some future work.

  3. Olfactory Impact of Higher Alcohols on Red Wine Fruity Ester Aroma Expression in Model Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameleyre, Margaux; Lytra, Georgia; Tempere, Sophie; Barbe, Jean-Christophe

    2015-11-11

    This study focused on the impact of five higher alcohols on the perception of fruity aroma in red wines. Various aromatic reconstitutions were prepared, consisting of 13 ethyl esters and acetates and 5 higher alcohols, all at the average concentrations found in red wine. These aromatic reconstitutions were prepared in several matrices. Sensory analysis revealed the interesting behavior of certain compounds among the five higher alcohols following their individual addition or omission. The "olfactory threshold" of the fruity pool was evaluated in several matrices: dilute alcohol solution, dilute alcohol solution containing 3-methylbutan-1-ol or butan-1-ol individually, and dilute alcohol solution containing the mixture of five higher alcohols, blended together at various concentrations. The presence of 3-methylbutan-1-ol or butan-1-ol alone led to a significant decrease in the "olfactory threshold" of the fruity reconstitution, whereas the mixture of alcohols raised the olfactory threshold. Sensory profiles highlighted changes in the perception of fruity nuances in the presence of the mixture of higher alcohols, with specific perceptive interactions, including a relevant masking effect on fresh- and jammy-fruit notes of the fruity mixture in both dilute alcohol solution and dearomatized red wine matrices. When either 3-methylbutan-1-ol or butan-1-ol was added to the fruity reconstitution in dilute alcohol solution, an enhancement of butyric notes was reported with 3-methylbutan-1-ol and fresh- and jammy-fruit with butan-1-ol. This study, the first to focus on the impact of higher alcohols on fruity aromatic expression, revealed that these compounds participate, both quantitatively and qualitatively, in masking fruity aroma perception in a model fruity wine mixture.

  4. Hydrodynamic regulation of monocyte inflammatory response to an intracellular pathogen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar J Evani

    Full Text Available Systemic bacterial infections elicit inflammatory response that promotes acute or chronic complications such as sepsis, arthritis or atherosclerosis. Of interest, cells in circulation experience hydrodynamic shear forces, which have been shown to be a potent regulator of cellular function in the vasculature and play an important role in maintaining tissue homeostasis. In this study, we have examined the effect of shear forces due to blood flow in modulating the inflammatory response of cells to infection. Using an in vitro model, we analyzed the effects of physiological levels of shear stress on the inflammatory response of monocytes infected with chlamydia, an intracellular pathogen which causes bronchitis and is implicated in the development of atherosclerosis. We found that chlamydial infection alters the morphology of monocytes and trigger the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-8, IL-1β and IL-6. We also found that the exposure of chlamydia-infected monocytes to short durations of arterial shear stress significantly enhances the secretion of cytokines in a time-dependent manner and the expression of surface adhesion molecule ICAM-1. As a functional consequence, infection and shear stress increased monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells under flow and in the activation and aggregation of platelets. Overall, our study demonstrates that shear stress enhances the inflammatory response of monocytes to infection, suggesting that mechanical forces may contribute to disease pathophysiology. These results provide a novel perspective on our understanding of systemic infection and inflammation.

  5. Prognostic value of preoperative peripheral monocyte count in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Qing-Qi; Fu, Shun-Jun; Zhao, Qiang; Guo, Zhi-Yong; Ji, Fei; Chen, Mao-Gen; Wu, Lin-Wei; He, Xiao-Shun

    2016-07-01

    Prognostic value of peripheral monocyte, as a member of inflammatory cells, was widely being investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of preoperative peripheral blood monocyte count for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients who underwent liver transplantation (LT) and the relationship between monocyte count and tumor-related characteristics. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 101 HCC patients after LT. Preoperative monocyte count and demographic, clinical, and pathologic data were analyzed. The optimal cutoff value of monocyte count was 456/mm(3), with the sensitivity and specificity of 69.4 and 61.5 %, respectively. Elevated preoperative peripheral blood monocyte count was significantly associated with large tumor size. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) (80.9, 70.1, and 53.3 % vs 55.1, 38.7, and 38.7 %, P = 0.007) and overall survival (OS) rates (95.7, 76.6, and 64.8 % vs 72.2, 44.1, and 36.1 %, P = 0.002) of HCC patients in the peripheral blood monocyte count ≤456/mm(3) group were higher than those in the peripheral blood monocyte count >456/mm(3) group. In conclusion, elevated preoperative peripheral blood monocyte count was significantly associated with advanced tumor stage and it can be considered as a prognostic factor for HCC patients after LT.

  6. The expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and RANTES and their significance in the pathogenesis of chronic renal allograft dysfunction%MCP-1、RANTES在慢性移植肾失功肾组织中的表达及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晏强; 罗皓; 邹和群; 眭维国; 王保瑶; 邹贵勉

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨单核细胞趋化蛋白-1(MCP-1)和RANTES在慢性移植肾失功(CRAD)患者移植肾组织中的表达及意义.方法 用免疫组织化学技术和计算机真彩色图像分析系统半定量检测32例慢性移植肾失功患者移植肾组织中MCP-1和RANTES的表达,分析与移植肾间质纤维化/小管萎缩程度及炎性细胞浸润程度之间的关系.结果 慢性移植肾失功患者的移植肾组织中MCP-1和RANTES的表达较正常肾组织中明显增加,并随着间质纤维化/小管萎缩及炎症细胞浸润程度而递增.结论 移植肾组织中MCP-1和RANTES的表达升高与慢性移植肾失功的进展有关.%Objective To in vestige the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-l) and RANTES and their significance in the pathogenesis of chronic renal allograft dy sfunction.Method Immunohistochemical assay and computer-assisted genuine colored image analysis system were used to detect the expression of MCP-l and RANTES in the renal allografts of patients with CARD. The relationship between expression level of mcp-land Rantes and either the grade of inflammatory cell infiltration or interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy in renal allograft was analyzed.Six specimens of healthy renal tissue were used as controls. Results The expressions levels of MCP-l and RANTES were significantly higher in the renal tissues of the patients, compared to normal renal tissues, and the expressions tended to increase with the pathological grades of either inflammatory cell infiltration or interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy in renal allograft tissue.Conclusion The up-regulated expression of MCP-l and Rantes in transplant kidney tissue may have the relationship win the progressive of the chronic renal allograft dysfunction

  7. Monocytes from cystic fibrosis patients are locked in an LPS tolerance state: down-regulation of TREM-1 as putative underlying mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos del Fresno

    Full Text Available Cystic Fibrosis (CF is an inherited pleiotropic disease that results from abnormalities in the gene that codes for the chloride channel, Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR. CF patients are frequently colonized by several pathogens, but the mechanisms that allow colonization in spite of apparently functional immune systems are incompletely understood. In this paper we show that blood peripheral monocytes isolated from CF patients are found in an endotoxin tolerance state, yet this is not due to a deficient TLR activation. On the other hand, levels of the amplifier of inflammatory responses, TREM-1 (Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid cells, are notably down-regulated in monocytes from patients, in comparison to those extracted from healthy volunteers. Furthermore, the soluble form of TREM-1 (sTREM-1 was not detected in the sera of patients. Additionally, and in strict contrast to patients who suffer from Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD, CF monocytes challenged ex vivo with LPS neither up-regulated membrane-anchored TREM-1 nor sTREM-1. Finally, similar levels of PGE(2 expression and p65 translocation into the nucleus were found in both patients and healthy volunteers, thus suggesting that TREM-1 regulation is neither controlled by PGE(2 levels nor by p65 activation in this case. However, PU.1 translocation into the nucleus was significantly higher in CF monocytes than in controls, suggesting a role for this transcription factor in the control of TREM-1 expression. We conclude that down-regulation of TREM-1 expression in cystic fibrosis patients is at least partly responsible for the endotoxin tolerance state in which their monocytes are locked.

  8. TRAIL+ monocytes and monocyte-related cells cause lung damage and thereby increase susceptibility to influenza-Streptococcus pneumoniae coinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Gregory T; Davidson, Sophia; Crotta, Stefania; Branzk, Nora; Papayannopoulos, Venizelos; Wack, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae coinfection is a major cause of influenza-associated mortality; however, the mechanisms underlying pathogenesis or protection remain unclear. Using a clinically relevant mouse model, we identify immune-mediated damage early during coinfection as a new mechanism causing susceptibility. Coinfected CCR2(-/-) mice lacking monocytes and monocyte-derived cells control bacterial invasion better, show reduced epithelial damage and are overall more resistant than wild-type controls. In influenza-infected wild-type lungs, monocytes and monocyte-derived cells are the major cell populations expressing the apoptosis-inducing ligand TRAIL. Accordingly, anti-TRAIL treatment reduces bacterial load and protects against coinfection if administered during viral infection, but not following bacterial exposure. Post-influenza bacterial outgrowth induces a strong proinflammatory cytokine response and massive inflammatory cell infiltrate. Depletion of neutrophils or blockade of TNF-α facilitate bacterial outgrowth, leading to increased mortality, demonstrating that these factors aid bacterial control. We conclude that inflammatory monocytes recruited early, during the viral phase of coinfection, induce TRAIL-mediated lung damage, which facilitates bacterial invasion, while TNF-α and neutrophil responses help control subsequent bacterial outgrowth. We thus identify novel determinants of protection versus pathology in influenza-Streptococcus pneumoniae coinfection.

  9. Dexamethasone Suppresses Oxysterol-Induced Differentiation of Monocytic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghae Son

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxysterol like 27-hydroxycholesterol (27OHChol has been reported to induce differentiation of monocytic cells into a mature dendritic cell phenotype. We examined whether dexamethasone (Dx affects 27OHChol-induced differentiation using THP-1 cells. Treatment of monocytic cells with Dx resulted in almost complete inhibition of transcription and surface expression of CD80, CD83, and CD88 induced by 27OHChol. Elevated surface levels of MHC class I and II molecules induced by 27OHChol were reduced to basal levels by treatment with Dx. A decreased endocytosis ability caused by 27OHChol was recovered by Dx. We also examined effects of Dx on expression of CD molecules involved in atherosclerosis. Increased levels of surface protein and transcription of CD105, CD137, and CD166 by treatment with 27OHChol were significantly inhibited by cotreatment with Dx. These results indicate that Dx inhibits 27OHChol-induced differentiation of monocytic cells into a mature dendritic cell phenotype and expression of CD molecules whose levels are associated with atherosclerosis. In addition, we examined phosphorylation of AKT induced by 27OHChol and effect of Dx, where cotreatment with Dx inhibited the phosphorylation of AKT. The current study reports that Dx regulates oxysterol-mediated dendritic cell differentiation of monocytic cells.

  10. Anti-CD20 B-cell depletion enhances monocyte reactivity in neuroimmunological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hohlfeld Reinhard

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical trials evaluating anti-CD20-mediated B-cell depletion in multiple sclerosis (MS and neuromyelitis optica (NMO generated encouraging results. Our recent studies in the MS model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE attributed clinical benefit to extinction of activated B-cells, but cautioned that depletion of naïve B-cells may be undesirable. We elucidated the regulatory role of un-activated B-cells in EAE and investigated whether anti-CD20 may collaterally diminish regulatory B-cell properties in treatment of neuroimmunological disorders. Methods Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG peptide-immunized C57Bl/6 mice were depleted of B-cells. Functional consequences for regulatory T-cells (Treg and cytokine production of CD11b+ antigen presenting cells (APC were assessed. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 22 patients receiving anti-CD20 and 23 untreated neuroimmunological patients were evaluated for frequencies of B-cells, T-cells and monocytes; monocytic reactivity was determined by TNF-production and expression of signalling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM. Results We observed that EAE-exacerbation upon depletion of un-activated B-cells closely correlated with an enhanced production of pro-inflammatory TNF by CD11b+ APC. Paralleling this pre-clinical finding, anti-CD20 treatment of human neuroimmunological disorders increased the relative frequency of monocytes and accentuated pro-inflammatory monocyte function; when reactivated ex vivo, a higher frequency of monocytes from B-cell depleted patients produced TNF and expressed the activation marker SLAM. Conclusions These data suggest that in neuroimmunological disorders, pro-inflammatory APC activity is controlled by a subset of B-cells which is eliminated concomitantly upon anti-CD20 treatment. While this observation does not conflict with the general concept of B-cell depletion in human autoimmunity, it implies that its safety and

  11. Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) enhances lipopolysaccharide-stimulated tissue factor in human monocytes and monocyte-derived microvesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Julie C; Klein, Thomas W; Goldberger, Bruce A; Sleasman, John W; Mackman, Nigel; Goodenow, Maureen M

    2015-01-01

    Immunomodulatory effects in humans of Δ(9-)Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component of marijuana are controversial. Tissue factor (TF), the activator of the extrinsic coagulation cascade, is increased on circulating activated monocytes and is expressed on microvesicles released from activated monocytes during inflammatory conditions, which perpetuate coagulopathies in a number of diseases. In view of the increased medicinal use of marijuana, effects of THC on human monocytes and monocyte-derived microvesicles activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were investigated. Peak levels of TF procoagulant activity developed in monocytes or microvesicles 6 h following LPS treatment and were unaltered by THC. After 24 h of LPS stimulation, TF activity declined in control-treated or untreated cells and microvesicles, but persisted with THC treatment. Peak TF protein occurred within 6 h of LPS treatment independent of THC; by 24 h, TF protein declined to almost undetectable levels without THC, but was about 4-fold greater with THC. Steady-state TF mRNA levels were similar up to 2 h in the presence of LPS with or without THC, while 10-fold greater TF mRNA levels persisted over 3-24 h with THC treatment. Activation of MAPK or NF-κB pathways was unaltered by THC treatment and inflammatory cytokine IL-6 levels were unchanged. In contrast, TNF and IL-8 levels were enhanced by 20-50 %. THC enhances TF expression in activated monocytes resulting in elevated procoagulant activity. Marijuana use could potentiate coagulopathies in individuals with chronic immune activation such as HIV-1 infection or inflammatory bowel disease.

  12. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 but not tumor necrosis factor-alpha is correlated with monocyte infiltration in mouse lipid lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reckless, Jill; Rubin, Edward M.; Verstuyft, Judy B.; Metcalfe, James C.; Grainger, David J.

    1999-01-11

    The infiltration of monocytes into the vascular wall and their transformation into lipid-laden foam cells characterize early atherogenesis. This focal accumulation of lipids, together with smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration, and the synthesis of extracellular matrix in the intima of large arteries result in the formation of an atherosclerotic plaque. The extent to which the plaque is infiltrated with monocytes appears to be an important determinant of plaque stability. It has been proposed that macrophages secrete an excess of matrix-degrading enzymes over their inhibitors, resulting in conversion of a stable plaque into anunstable plaque that is likely to rupture, resulting in acutemyocardial infarction. Macrophages and T cells constitute {approx}40 percent of the total population of cells in the lipid core region of atherosclerotic plaques. Their recruitment to the lesion may depend on alterations in the adhesive properties of the endothelial surface. Increased endothelial cell permeability and endothelial cell activation are among the earliest changes associated with developing lesions of atherosclerosis. Many of the cell adhesion molecules involved in monocyte recruitment are expressed at low or undetectable levels on normal endothelium but are substantially elevated on the endothelium overlaying atherosclerotic lesions In addition to endothelial cell activation, numerous chemotactic cytokines have also been postulated to be involved in monocyte recruitment. For example, interleukin (IL)-1 and tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) are direct chemoattractants for human monocytes but additionally induce cytoskeletal changes in the endothelium that result in increased permeability. This increased permeability, together with stimulated expression of adhesion molecules such as E-selectin, plays an important part in the local inflammation mediated by TNF-a and IL-1. In addition, a large number of other proinflammatory cytokines, including macrophage

  13. Mitochondrial retrograde regulation tuning fork in nuclear genes expressions of higher plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinghua Yang; Mingfang Zhang; Jingquan Yu

    2008-01-01

    In plant cells, there are three organelles: the nucleus, chloroplast, and mitochondria that store genetic information. The nucleus possesses the majority of genetic information and controls most aspects of organelles gene expression, growth, and development. In return,organdies also send signals back to regulate nuclear gene expression, a process defined as retrograde regulation. The best studies of organelles to nucleus retrograde regulation exist in plant chloroplast-to-nuclear regulation and yeast mitochondria-to-nuclear regulation. In this review, we summarize the recent understanding of mitochondrial retrograde regulation in higher plant, which involves multiple potential signaling pathway in relation to cytoplasmic male-sterility, biotic stress, and abiotie stress. With respect to mitochondrial retrograde regulation signal pathways involved in cytoplasmic male-sterility, we consider that nuclear transcriptional factor genes are the targeted genes regulated by mitoehondria to determine the abnormal reproductive development, and the MAPK signaling pathway may be involved in this regulation in Brassica juncea. When plants suffer biotic and abiotie stress, plant cells will initiate cell death or other events directed toward recovering from stress. During this process, we propose that mitochondria may determine how plant cell responds to a given stress through retrograde regulation. Meanwhile, several transducer molecules have also been discussed here. In particular, thePaepe research group reported that leaf mitochondrial modulated whole cell redox homeostasis, set antioxidant capacity, and determinedstress resistance through altered signaling and diurnal regulation, which is an indication of plant mitochondria with more active function than ever.

  14. Acidosis differently modulates the inflammatory program in monocytes and macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemann, Anne; Wußling, Hanna; Loppnow, Harald; Fu, Hang; Reime, Sarah; Thews, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation, ischemia or the microenvironment of solid tumors is often accompanied by a reduction of extracellular pH (acidosis) that stresses the cells and acts on cellular signaling and transcription. The effect of acidosis on the expression of various inflammatory markers, on functional parameters (migration, phagocytic activity) and on signaling pathways involved was studied in monocytic cells and macrophages. In monocytic cell lines acidosis led to a reduction in expression of most of the inflammatory mediators, namely IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α, MCP-1, COX-2 and osteopontin. In primary human monocytes MCP-1 and TNF-α were reduced but COX-2 and IL-6 were increased. In RAW264.7 macrophage cell line IL-1ß, COX-2 and iNOS expression was increased, whereas MCP-1 was reduced similar to the effect in monocytic cells. For primary human monocyte-derived macrophages the regulation of inflammatory markers by acidosis depended on activation state, except for the acidosis-induced downregulation of MCP-1 and TNF-α. Acidosis affected functional immune cell behavior when looking at phagocytic activity which was increased in a time-dependent manner, but cellular motility was not changed. Neither ERK1/2 nor CREB signaling was stimulated by the reduction of extracellular pH. However, p38 was activated by acidosis in RAW264.7 cells and this activation was critical for the induction of IL-1ß, COX-2 and iNOS expression. In conclusion, acidosis may impede the recruitment of immune cells, but fosters inflammation when macrophages are present by increasing the level of COX-2 and iNOS and by functionally forcing up the phagocytic activity.

  15. Ly6Clow Monocytes Differentiate into Dendritic Cells and Cross-Tolerize T Cells through PDL-11

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, YuFeng; Latchman, Yvette; Elkon, Keith B.

    2009-01-01

    Monocyte-derived dendritic cells are active participants during the immune response against infection, but whether they play a role in maintaining self-tolerance under steady-state conditions is not known. Here we investigated the differentiation of monocytes, their ability to ingest apoptotic cells, and their potential functionality in vivo. We observed that Ly6C (Gr-1)low mature monocytes up-regulate their MHC II level in the spleen, express high levels of PDL-1 (programmed death ligand 1),...

  16. Ursolic acid protects monocytes against metabolic stress-induced priming and dysfunction by preventing the induction of Nox4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L. Ullevig

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: UA protects THP-1 monocytes against dysfunction by suppressing metabolic stress-induced Nox4 expression, thereby preventing the Nox4-dependent dysregulation of redox-sensitive processes, including actin turnover and MAPK-signaling, two key processes that control monocyte migration and adhesion. This study provides a novel mechanism for the anti-inflammatory and athero- and renoprotective properties of UA and suggests that dysfunctional blood monocytes may be primary targets of UA and related compounds.

  17. 单核细胞被诱导表达淋巴管内皮标志物%Monocytes were induced to express the markers of lymphatic endothelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王长明; 田铧; 梁艳红; 于伟; 肖琼; 张肇林

    2009-01-01

    Objective Lymphangiogenesis is thought to be involved in the pathophysiological process such as tumors and inflam-mation. This research looked into the possibihty of the trans-differentiation of mononuclear-macrophages into lymphatic endothelial cells in inflammatory conditions. Methods Fresh monocytes from peripheral blood were collected and cultured in ECM. The cells were next incubated in FN-plated wells or treated with VEGF-C, TNF-α and LPS for 24 hours respectively. Expression of specific markers of lymphatic endothelial cells such as LYVE- 1, Podoplanin and Prox1, and the common markers of endothelial cells such as vWF and eNOS were detected by RT-PCR and immunochemical methods. Results Before the induction, expres-sion of LYVE-1 was positively detected in cultured mononuclear-macrophages, while the expression of vWF, eNOS, Podoplanin, Prox1 was negatively detected. After the induction, the level of expression of Pedoplanin and Prox-1 obviously increased in cul-tured mononuclear-macrophages, yet expression of vWF and eNOS remained negative. Conclusion Mononuclear-macrophages can be induced to express the markers of lymphatic endothelial cells by FN, VEGF-C, TNF-α and LPS.%目的 淋巴管生成存在于肿瘤、炎症等许多疾病的病理生理过程中.本研究旨在探讨单核-巨噬细胞在炎症环境中转分化成淋巴管内皮细胞的可能性.方法取成人新鲜外周血,分离单核细胞,用ECM培养,分别在FN铺板或VEGF-C、TNF-α、LPS刺激下诱导培养24h,用RT-PCR和免疫荧光细胞化学方法检测单核-巨噬细胞对淋巴管内皮特异性标志物LYVE-1、Podoplanin、Prox1及内皮细胞共同标志物vWF、eNOS的基因和蛋白表达.结果在未诱导组,单核-巨噬细胞LYVE-1呈阳性表达,Podoplanin、Prox1、vWF、eNOS表达呈阴性;在FN铺板或VEGF-C、TNF-α、LPS诱导组,单核-巨噬细胞Podoplanin、Prox-1表达阳性,vWF和eNOS表达仍呈阴性.结论 FN、VEGF-C、TNF-α、LPS均能有效刺

  18. IL-4 induces cAMP and cGMP in human monocytic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Dugas

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Human monocytes, preincubated with IFN-γ respond to IL-4 by a cGMP increase through activation of an inducible NO synthase. Here, IL-4 was found to induce an accumulation of cGMP (1 – 3 min and cAMP (20 – 25 min in unstimulated monocytes. This was impaired with NOS inhibitors, but also with EGTA and calcium/calmodulin inhibitors. These results suggest that: (1 IL-4 may stimulate different NOS isoforms in resting and IFN-γ activated monocytes, and (2 cAMP accumulation may be partially dependent on the NO pathway. By RT-PCR, a type III constitutive NOS mRNA was detected in U937 monocytic cells. IL-4 also increased the [Ca2+]i in these cells. Different NOS may thus be expressed in monocytic cells depending on their differentiation and the signals they receive.

  19. Assessment of monocyte to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahit, Demir; Mehmet, Kadri Akboga; Samet, Yilmaz; Hüseyin, Ede

    2017-07-01

    We aimed to investigate the relationships between metabolic syndrome (MS) and monocyte to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (MHR) and lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR). 762 patients (n = 371 MS present and n = 391 MS absent) were enrolled. MHR was significantly higher [13.9 (10.5-18.1) vs 11.1 (8.0-14.8); p MHR [OR: 1.052 (95% CI: 1.018-1.088); p = 0.003] and C-reactive protein [OR: 1.048 (95% CI: 1.032-1.065); p MHR may be novel and useful indicators of MS.

  20. Migration of monocytes after intracerebral injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Miriam; Bechmann, Ingo; Kiwit, Jürgen; Glumm, Jana

    2012-01-01

    Recently, we monitored green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing monocytes after injection at the entorhinal cortex lesion (ECL) site in mice. We followed their migration out of the central nervous system (CNS) along olfactory nerve fibers penetrating the lamina cribrosa, within the nasal mucosa, and their subsequent appearance within the deep cervical lymph nodes (CLN), with numbers peaking at day 7. This is the same route activated T cells use for reaching the CLN, as we have shown before. Interestingly, GFP cells injected into the brain and subsequently found in the CLN exhibited ramified morphologies, which are typical of microglia and dendritic cells. To gain more insight into immunity and regeneration within the CNS we want to monitor injected monocytes using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after labeling with very small superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (VSOP). Due to their small size, nanoparticles have huge potential for magnetic labeling of different cell populations and their MRI tracking in vivo. So far we have verified that incubation with VSOP particles does not alter their migration pattern after ECL.

  1. Study of the Mechanism of Essential Garlic Oil Inhibiting Interleukin-1α-Induced Monocyte Adhesion to Endothelial Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛璐璐; 张薇; 戴云; 臧燕; 黄纯洁

    2001-01-01

    To observe the effects of essential garlic oil (EGO) on vascular cell adhesive molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression of endothelial cells and monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion rate induced by interleukin-1α (IL-1α). Methods: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were isolated by trypsin digestion method and co-cultured with IL-1α or EGO+IL-1α in the absence or presence of U937 monocyte. Monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion rate was examined with reverted microscope. VCAM-1 expression of endothelial cells was measured by ACAS 570 confocal microscope, and the data were presented as mean fluorescent intensity. Results: EGO significantly inhibited IL-1α-induced endothelial expression of VCAM-1, and thus markedly decreased monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion rate. Conclusion: EGO has the effect on antagonizing adhesion of monocyte and vascular endothelial cell, which might be due to its inhibition on adhesive molecular expression on the surface of endothelial cells.

  2. Measurement of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in monocytes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carroll, Tomas P

    2012-02-01

    In mammalian cells, the primary function of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is to synthesize and assemble membrane and secreted proteins. As the main site of protein folding and posttranslational modification in the cell, the ER operates a highly conserved quality control system to ensure only correctly assembled proteins exit the ER and misfolded and unfolded proteins are retained for disposal. Any disruption in the equilibrium of the ER engages a multifaceted intracellular signaling pathway termed the unfolded protein response (UPR) to restore normal conditions in the cell. A variety of pathological conditions can induce activation of the UPR, including neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson\\'s disease, metabolic disorders such as atherosclerosis, and conformational disorders such as cystic fibrosis. Conformational disorders are characterized by mutations that modify the final structure of a protein and any cells that express abnormal protein risk functional impairment. The monocyte is an important and long-lived immune cell and acts as a key immunological orchestrator, dictating the intensity and duration of the host immune response. Monocytes expressing misfolded or unfolded protein may exhibit UPR activation and this can compromise the host immune system. Here, we describe in detail methods and protocols for the examination of UPR activation in peripheral blood monocytes. This guide should provide new investigators to the field with a broad understanding of the tools required to investigate the UPR in the monocyte.

  3. Measurement of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in monocytes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carroll, Tomás P

    2011-01-01

    In mammalian cells, the primary function of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is to synthesize and assemble membrane and secreted proteins. As the main site of protein folding and posttranslational modification in the cell, the ER operates a highly conserved quality control system to ensure only correctly assembled proteins exit the ER and misfolded and unfolded proteins are retained for disposal. Any disruption in the equilibrium of the ER engages a multifaceted intracellular signaling pathway termed the unfolded protein response (UPR) to restore normal conditions in the cell. A variety of pathological conditions can induce activation of the UPR, including neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson\\'s disease, metabolic disorders such as atherosclerosis, and conformational disorders such as cystic fibrosis. Conformational disorders are characterized by mutations that modify the final structure of a protein and any cells that express abnormal protein risk functional impairment. The monocyte is an important and long-lived immune cell and acts as a key immunological orchestrator, dictating the intensity and duration of the host immune response. Monocytes expressing misfolded or unfolded protein may exhibit UPR activation and this can compromise the host immune system. Here, we describe in detail methods and protocols for the examination of UPR activation in peripheral blood monocytes. This guide should provide new investigators to the field with a broad understanding of the tools required to investigate the UPR in the monocyte.

  4. Postprandial apoE isoform and conformational changes associated with VLDL lipolysis products modulate monocyte inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J den Hartigh

    Full Text Available Postprandial hyperlipemia, characterized by increased circulating very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL and circulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS, has been proposed as a mechanism of vascular injury. Our goal was to examine the interactions between postprandial lipoproteins, LPS, and apoE3 and apoE4 on monocyte activation.We showed that apoE3 complexed to phospholipid vesicles attenuates LPS-induced THP-1 monocyte cytokine expression, while apoE4 increases expression. ELISA revealed that apoE3 binds to LPS with higher affinity than apoE4. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy of site-directed spin labels placed on specific amino acids of apoE3 showed that LPS interferes with conformational changes normally associated with lipid binding. Specifically, compared to apoE4, apoE bearing the E3-like R112→Ser mutation displays increased self association when exposed to LPS, consistent with a stronger apoE3-LPS interaction. Additionally, lipolysis of fasting VLDL from normal human donors attenuated LPS-induced TNFα secretion from monocytes to a greater extent than postprandial VLDL, an effect partially reversed by blocking apoE. This effect was reproduced using fasting VLDL lipolysis products from e3/e3 donors, but not from e4/e4 subjects, suggesting that apoE3 on fasting VLDL prevents LPS-induced inflammation more readily than apoE4.Postprandial apoE isoform and conformational changes associated with VLDL dramatically modulate vascular inflammation.

  5. CD16 is indispensable for antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity by human monocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeap, Wei Hseun; Wong, Kok Loon; Shimasaki, Noriko; Teo, Esmeralda Chi Yuan; Quek, Jeffrey Kim Siang; Yong, Hao Xiang; Diong, Colin Phipps; Bertoletti, Antonio; Linn, Yeh Ching; Wong, Siew Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is exerted by immune cells expressing surface Fcγ receptors (FcγRs) against cells coated with antibody, such as virus-infected or transformed cells. CD16, the FcγRIIIA, is essential for ADCC by NK cells, and is also expressed by a subset of human blood monocytes. We found that human CD16− expressing monocytes have a broad spectrum of ADCC capacities and can kill cancer cell lines, primary leukemic cells and hepatitis B virus-infected cells in the presence of specific antibodies. Engagement of CD16 on monocytes by antibody bound to target cells activated β2-integrins and induced TNFα secretion. In turn, this induced TNFR expression on the target cells, making them susceptible to TNFα-mediated cell death. Treatment with TLR agonists, DAMPs or cytokines, such as IFNγ, further enhanced ADCC. Monocytes lacking CD16 did not exert ADCC but acquired this property after CD16 expression was induced by either cytokine stimulation or transient transfection. Notably, CD16+ monocytes from patients with leukemia also exerted potent ADCC. Hence, CD16+ monocytes are important effectors of ADCC, suggesting further developments of this property in the context of cellular therapies for cancer and infectious diseases. PMID:27670158

  6. Regulation of IL-8 promoter activity by verrucarin A in human monocytic THP-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Simmons, Steve O; Pei, Ruoting

    2014-01-01

    Macrocyclic trichothecenes have been frequently detected in fungi in water-damaged buildings and exhibited higher toxicity than the well-studied trichothecenes; however, the mechanism underlying their toxicity has been poorly understood. In this study, transcriptional regulation of the cytokine interleukin (IL)-8 by a macrocyclic trichothecene, verrucarin A (VA), in human monocytic THP-1 cells is reported. Consistent with previous findings, VA was 100-fold more cytotoxic than deoxynivalenol (DON), while ochratoxin A (OA) was not cytotoxic. In cells transduced with the wild-type IL-8 promoter luciferase construct, VA induced a biphasic dose response composed of an upregulation of luciferase expression at low concentrations of 0.01-1 ng/ml and a downregulation at high levels of 10 ng/ml and higher. In contrast, DON induced a sigmoid-shaped dose response with the EC50 of 11.6 ng/ml, while OA did not markedly affect the IL-8 expression. When cells were transduced with IL-8 promoter with a mutation of transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-binding site, VA (1 ng/ml), DON (1000 ng/ml), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α (20 ng/ml)-induced luciferase expression were impaired. In addition, the NF-κB inhibitor caffeic acid phenethyl ester inhibited VA-, DON-, and TNFα-induced luciferase expression. Mutation of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (CEBP) β binding site of the IL-8 promoter affected only DON-, but not VA- and TNFα-induced luciferase expression. Taken together, these results suggested that VA activated IL-8 promoter via an NF-κB-dependent, but not CEBPβ-dependent, pathway in human monocytes.

  7. Increased migration of monocytes in essential hypertension is associated with increased transient receptor potential channel canonical type 3 channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Zhigang; Ni, Yinxing; Chen, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Increased transient receptor potential canonical type 3 (TRPC3) channels have been observed in patients with essential hypertension. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that increased monocyte migration is associated with increased TRPC3 expression. Monocyte migration assay was performed...... of TRPC3 were investigated. We observed an increased fMLP-induced migration of monocytes from hypertensive patients compared with normotensive control subjects (246 ± 14% vs 151 ± 10%). The TNF-α-induced migration of monocytes in patients with essential hypertension was also significantly increased...... compared to normotensive control subjects (221 ± 20% vs 138 ± 18%). In the presence of 2-APB or after siRNA knockdown of TRPC3 the fMLP-induced monocyte migration was significantly blocked. The fMLP-induced changes of cytosolic calcium were significantly increased in monocytes from hypertensive patients...

  8. IL-1 and Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha Each Up-Regulate Both the Expression of IFN-Gamma Receptors and Enhance IFN-Gamma-Induced HLA-DR expression on Human Monocytes and a Human Monocytic Cell Line (THP-1),

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    Demoi stration and partial characterization DR antigen expression in ,itro bi, lymphokines and recoin of the interferon gamma receptor on human...independent pathwkay tit Ma’- class 1f induction in human islet cells by interferon - gamma rophage activation, defined in the SCID mouse. lmnnun~ol

  9. HCV-specific cytokine induction in monocytes of patients with different outcomes of hepatitis C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rainer P. Woitas; Uwe Petersen; Dirk Moshage; Hans H. Brackmann; Bertfried Matz; Tilman Sauerbruch; Ulrich Spengler

    2002-01-01

    AIM: Cytoline release by macrophages critically determinesthe type of immune response to an antigen. Therefore, westudied hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific induction ofinterleukins-1β, -10, -12 ( IL-1β, IL-10, IL-12), and tumornecrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in monocytes.METHODS: Intracellular cytokine expression was studied byflow cytometry in 23 patients with chronic hepatitis C, 14anti-HCV seropooitives without viremia and 11 controls afterstimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells withrecombinant core, NS3, NS4, NSSa and NSSb proteins.RESULTS: Patients with HCV viremia revealed greaterspontaneous expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-10.Furthermore, greater then twofold higher IL-10 expressionwas induced by the HCV antigens in chronic hepatitis C thanin the other two groups ( P< 0.05). In contrast, neither IL-12 nor TNF-α was induced preferentially.CONCLUSION: In chronic hepatitis C antigen-specificcytoline induction in monocytes is apparently shiftedtowards predominant IL-10 induction - not counterbalancedby antiviral type 1 cytolines. This may contribute topersistent viral replication.

  10. Plasma L-cystine/L-glutamate imbalance increases tumor necrosis factor-alpha from CD14+ circulating monocytes in patients with advanced cirrhosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji Kakazu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The innate immune cells can not normally respond to the pathogen in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Previous studies reported that antigen-presenting cells take up L-Cystine (L-Cys and secrete substantial amounts of L-Glutamate (L-Glu via the transport system Xc- (4F2hc+xCT, and that this exchange influences the immune responses. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of the plasma L-Cys/L-Glu imbalance observed in patients with advanced cirrhosis on the function of circulating monocytes. METHODS: We used a serum-free culture medium consistent with the average concentrations of plasma amino acids from patients with advanced cirrhosis (ACM, and examined the function of CD14+ monocytes or THP-1 under ACM that contained 0-300 nmol/mL L-Cys with LPS. In patients with advanced cirrhosis, we actually determined the TNF-alpha and xCT mRNA of monocytes, and evaluated the correlation between the plasma L-Cys/L-Glu ratio and TNF-alpha. RESULTS: The addition of L-Cys significantly increased the production of TNF alpha from monocytes under ACM. Monocytes with LPS and THP-1 expressed xCT and a high level of extracellular L-Cys enhanced L-Cys/L-Glu antiport, and the intracellular GSH/GSSG ratio was decreased. The L-Cys transport was inhibited by excess L-Glu. In patients with advanced cirrhosis (n = 19, the TNF-alpha and xCT mRNA of monocytes were increased according to the Child-Pugh grade. The TNF-alpha mRNA of monocytes was significantly higher in the high L-Cys/L-Glu ratio group than in the low ratio group, and the plasma TNF-alpha was significantly correlated with the L-Cys/L-Glu ratio. CONCLUSIONS: A plasma L-Cys/L-Glu imbalance, which appears in patients with advanced cirrhosis, increased the TNF-alpha from circulating monocytes via increasing the intracellular oxidative stress. These results may reflect the immune abnormality that appears in patients with decompensated cirrhosis.

  11. Pharmacological effects of mitraphylline from Uncaria tomentosa in primary human monocytes: Skew toward M2 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat-de la Paz, S; de la Puerta, R; Fernandez-Arche, A; Quilez, A M; Muriana, F J G; Garcia-Gimenez, M D; Bermudez, B

    2015-07-21

    Uncaria tomentosa (Willdenow ex Roemer & Schultes) DC. (Rubiaceae) is a Peruvian thorny liana, commonly known as "cat׳s claw", and traditionally used in folk medicine to deal with several inflammatory diseases. Mitraphylline (MTP) is the most abundant pentacyclic oxindolic alkaloid (POA) from U. Tomentosa and has been reported to modify the inflammatory response. Herein, we have sought to identify the mechanisms underlying this modulatory effect of MTP on primary human monocytes and its ability to regulate differentiation processes on human primary monocyte and monocyte-derived macrophages. In vitro studies with human primary monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages were performed. Monocytes and M0 macrophages were exposed to MTP (25μM) and LPS (100ng/mL). M0 macrophages were polarized to M1 and M2 phenotypes in the absence or presence of MTP. The activation state of monocytes/macrophages was assessed by flow cytometry, gene expression and protein analysis of different specific markers. In human primary monocytes, the incubation of MTP for 24h reduced the number of classical (CD14(++)CD16(-)) and intermediate (CD14(++)CD16(+)) subsets when compared to untreated or LPS-treated cells. MTP also reduced the chemotactic capacity of human primary monocytes. In addition, MTP promoted the polarization of M0 macrophages toward an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype, the abrogation of the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNFα, IL-6 or IL-1β, as well as the restoration of markers for M2 macrophages in LPS-treated M1 macrophages. Our results suggest that MTP may be a key modulator for regulating the plasticity of monocytes/macrophages and the attenuation of the inflammatory response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Interrelationships between paraoxonase-1 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in the regulation of hepatic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, Jordi; Marsillach, Judit; Rull, Anna; Alonso-Villaverde, Carlos; Joven, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation play a central role in the onset and development of liver diseases irrespective of the agent causing the hepatic impairment. The monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 is intimately involved in the inflammatory reaction and is directly correlated with the degree of hepatic inflammation in patients with chronic liver disease. Recent studies showed that hepatic paraoxonase-1 may counteract the production of the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, thus playing an anti-inflammatory role. The current review summarises experiments suggesting how paraoxonase-1 activity and expression are altered in liver diseases, and their relationships with the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and inflammation.

  13. A Csf1r-EGFP Transgene Provides a Novel Marker for Monocyte Subsets in Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridans, Clare; Davis, Gemma M; Sauter, Kristin A; Lisowski, Zofia M; Corripio-Miyar, Yolanda; Raper, Anna; Lefevre, Lucas; Young, Rachel; McCulloch, Mary E; Lillico, Simon; Milne, Elspeth; Whitelaw, Bruce; Hume, David A

    2016-09-15

    Expression of Csf1r in adults is restricted to cells of the macrophage lineage. Transgenic reporters based upon the Csf1r locus require inclusion of the highly conserved Fms-intronic regulatory element for expression. We have created Csf1r-EGFP transgenic sheep via lentiviral transgenesis of a construct containing elements of the mouse Fms-intronic regulatory element and Csf1r promoter. Committed bone marrow macrophage precursors and blood monocytes express EGFP in these animals. Sheep monocytes were divided into three populations, similar to classical, intermediate, and nonclassical monocytes in humans, based upon CD14 and CD16 expression. All expressed EGFP, with increased levels in the nonclassical subset. Because Csf1r expression coincides with the earliest commitment to the macrophage lineage, Csf1r-EGFP bone marrow provides a tool for studying the earliest events in myelopoiesis using the sheep as a model.

  14. Monocyte matrix metalloproteinase production in Type 2 diabetes and controls – a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies Isabel R

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary plaque rupture may result from localised over expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs within the plaque by infiltrating monocyte – macrophages. As MMP expression can be promoted by the modified lipoproteins, oxidative stress and hyperglycaemia that characterises Type 2 diabetes, we hypothesised that peripheral monocytes in these patients, exposed to these factors in vivo, would demonstrate increased MMP production compared to controls. Methods We examined peripheral venous monocyte expression of MMP and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1 in 18 controls and 22 subjects with Type 2 diabetes and no previous cardiovascular complications. Results No significant difference in MMP-1, 3 or 9 or TIMP-1 production was observed between control and diabetes groups. Conclusions Monocyte MMP-1, 3, and 9, and TIMP-1, production are not abnormal in Type 2 diabetes. This data cannot be extrapolated to monocyte – macrophage behaviour in the vessel wall, but it does suggest MMP and TIMP-1 expression prior to monocyte infiltration and transformation are not abnormal in Type 2 diabetes.

  15. Monocyte-mediated tumoricidal activity via the tumor necrosis factor-related cytokine, TRAIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, T S; Wiley, S R; Kubin, M Z; Sedger, L M; Maliszewski, C R; Fanger, N A

    1999-04-19

    TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) is a molecule that displays potent antitumor activity against selected targets. The results presented here demonstrate that human monocytes rapidly express TRAIL, but not Fas ligand or TNF, after activation with interferon (IFN)-gamma or -alpha and acquire the ability to kill tumor cells. Monocyte-mediated tumor cell apoptosis was TRAIL specific, as it could be inhibited with soluble TRAIL receptor. Moreover, IFN stimulation caused a concomitant loss of TRAIL receptor 2 expression, which coincides with monocyte acquisition of resistance to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. These results define a novel mechanism of monocyte-induced cell cytotoxicity that requires TRAIL, and suggest that TRAIL is a key effector molecule in antitumor activity in vivo.

  16. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is involved in the regulation of hypoxia-stimulated expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) and MCP-5 (Ccl12) in astrocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Mojsilovic-Petrovic Jelena; Callaghan Debbie; Cui Hong; Dean Clare; Stanimirovic Danica B; Zhang Wandong

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Neuroinflammation has been implicated in various brain pathologies characterized by hypoxia and ischemia. Astroglia play an important role in the initiation and propagation of hypoxia/ischemia-induced inflammation by secreting inflammatory chemokines that attract neutrophils and monocytes into the brain. However, triggers of chemokine up-regulation by hypoxia/ischemia in these cells are poorly understood. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a dimeric transcriptional fact...

  17. Monocytes from HIV+ individuals show impaired cholesterol efflux and increased foam cell formation after transendothelial migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    MAISA, Anna; HEARPS, Anna C.; ANGELOVICH, Thomas A.; PEREIRA, Candida F.; ZHOU, Jingling; SHI, Margaret D.Y.; PALMER, Clovis S.; MULLER, William A.; CROWE, Suzanne M.; JAWOROWSKI, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Design HIV+ individuals have an increased risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease which is independent of antiretroviral therapy and traditional risk factors. Monocytes play a central role in the development of atherosclerosis, and HIV-related chronic inflammation and monocyte activation may contribute to increased atherosclerosis, but the mechanisms are unknown. Methods Using an in vitro model of atherosclerotic plaque formation, we measured the transendothelial migration of purified monocytes from age-matched HIV+ and uninfected donors and examined their differentiation into foam cells. Cholesterol efflux and the expression of cholesterol metabolism genes were also assessed. Results Monocytes from HIV+ individuals showed increased foam cell formation compared to controls (18.9% vs 0% respectively, p=0.004) and serum from virologically suppressed HIV+ individuals potentiated foam cell formation by monocytes from both uninfected and HIV+ donors. Plasma TNF levels were increased in HIV+ vs control donors (5.9 vs 3.5 pg/ml, p=0.02) and foam cell formation was inhibited by blocking antibodies to TNF receptors, suggesting a direct effect on monocyte differentiation to foam cells. Monocytes from virologically suppressed HIV+ donors showed impaired cholesterol efflux and decreased expression of key genes regulating cholesterol metabolism, including the cholesterol transporter ABCA1 (p=0.02). Conclusions Monocytes from HIV+ individuals show impaired cholesterol efflux and are primed for foam cell formation following trans-endothelial migration. Factors present in HIV+ serum, including elevated TNF levels, further enhance foam cell formation. The pro-atherogenic phenotype of monocytes persists in virologically suppressed HIV+ individuals and may contribute mechanistically to increased atherosclerosis in this population. PMID:26244384

  18. Differential expression of HLA-DR antigens in subsets of human CFU-GM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, J D; Sabbath, K D; Herrmann, F; Larcom, P; Nichols, K; Kornacki, M; Levine, H; Cannistra, S A

    1985-10-01

    Expression of HLA-DR surface antigens by granulocyte/monocyte colony-forming cells (CFU-GM) may be important in the regulation of proliferation of these cells. Using immunological techniques to enrich for progenitor cells, we investigated the expression of HLA-DR in subsets of CFU-GM. "Early" (day 14) CFU-GM express higher levels of HLA-DR than do "late" (day 7) CFU-GM. Among late CFU-GM, cells destined to form monocyte (alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase-positive) colonies express higher levels of HLA-DR than do CFU-GM destined to form granulocyte (chloroacetate esterase-positive) colonies. Because high-level expression of DR antigen was a marker for monocyte differentiation, we examined several lymphokines for their effects on both DR expression and in vitro commitment to monocyte differentiation by myeloid precursor cells. DR antigen density could be increased by more than twofold over 48 hours upon exposure to gamma-interferon (gamma-IFN), whereas colony-stimulating factors had no effect. This was associated with a dose-dependent inhibition of total CFU-GM number, and a relative, but not absolute, increase in the ratio of monocyte colonies to granulocyte colonies. Similarly, in day 7 suspension cultures of purified myeloid precursor cells, gamma-IFN inhibited cell proliferation and increased the ratio of monocytes to granulocytes. Thus, despite the induction of high levels of HLA-DR antigen on precursor cells (a marker of monocyte commitment), the dominant in vitro effect of gamma-IFN was inhibition of granulocyte differentiation.

  19. Effect of ultraviolet ray on expression of IL6 and IL10mRNA in peripheral blood monocytes of systemic lupus erythematosus cases%紫外线对SLE白介素-6和白介素-10mRNA表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐文英; 郭庆

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨紫外线对系统性红斑狼疮(SLE)患者外周血单个核细胞(PBMC)表达白介素-6(IL-6)、白介素-10(IL-10)mRNA的影响.方法 提取SLE患者及健康对照的PBMC,用不同剂量311nm窄谱中波紫外线(NB-UVB)照射,以实时荧光相对定量聚合酶链反应分析照射前后PBMC IL-6、IL-10mRNA的相对表达.结果 SLE患者中狼疮肾炎(LN)患者PBMC高表达IL-6、IL-10mRNA,与非狼疮肾炎(非LN)患者及正常人差异很大,分别是正常人的(105.44±112.94)倍和(1.82±3.41)倍、(28.41±21.14)倍和(1.17±1.43)倍,其中狼疮肾炎(LN)患者PBMC高表达IL-6、IL-10 mRNA,且与临床中24h尿蛋白定量高度相关(r=0.82,0.87,P<0.05),而非狼疮肾炎系统性红斑狼疮患者与正常人相比,差异无统计学意义(t'=0.43,0.87,P>0.05);在紫外线照射后LN患者PBMC IL-6、IL-10mRNA的表达有升高也有降低,升高组SLE疾病活动指数、抗SSA抗体阳性率以及光敏性发生率明显高于降低组.结论 紫外线可改变SLE患者PBMC表达IL-6、IL-10mRNA,紫外线可能通过此途径影响SLE病情.%Objective To observe the impact of ultraviolet ray on the expression of IL-6, IL-10mRNA of peripheral blood monocytes (PBMC)from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Cases. Methods PBMC were isolated from SLE patients and healthy controls .Then they were irradiated with 311 nm narrow band-ultraviolet ray (NB-UVB)in various dbsages.IL-6,IL-10mRNA expression was measured by real-time quantitative PCR. Results The expression of IL-6, IL-10mRNA in SLE patient was very different. IL-6,IL-10mRNA were highly expressed in PBMC from lupus nephritis (LN),and its expression was highly related with 24-hour urinary protein quantitative (r=0.82,0.87,P0.05). The expression of IL-6,IL-10mRNA in LN could increase or decrease after exposured to ultraviolet ray. But the anti-SSA antibody positive rate, systemic lupus erythematosus activity index (SLEDAI)and photosensitivity in exopression -elevated group

  20. A synthetic peptide derived from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 downregulates the expression and function of chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 in monocytes by activating the 7-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptor FPRL1/LXA4R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, X; Ueda, H; Su, S B; Gong, W; Dunlop, N M; Gao, J L; Murphy, P M; Wang, J M

    1999-08-15

    Because envelope gp120 of various strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) downregulates the expression and function of a variety of chemoattractant receptors through a process of heterologous desensitization, we investigated whether epitopes derived from gp120 could mimic the effect. A synthetic peptide domain, designated F peptide, corresponding to amino acid residues 414-434 in the V4-C4 region of gp120 of the HIV-1 Bru strain, potently reduced monocyte binding and chemotaxis response to macrophage inflammatory protein 1beta (MIP-1beta) and stromal cell-derived factor 1alpha (SDF-1alpha), chemokines that use the receptors CCR5 and CXCR4, respectively. Further study showed that F peptide by itself is an inducer of chemotaxis and calcium mobilization in human monocytes and neutrophils. In cross-desensitization experiments, among the numerous chemoattractants tested, only the bacterial chemotactic peptide fMLF, when used at high concentrations, partially attenuated calcium mobilization induced by F peptide in phagocytes, suggesting that this peptide domain might share a 7-transmembrane, G-protein-coupled receptor with fMLF. By using cells transfected with cDNAs encoding receptors that interact with fMLF, we found that F peptide uses an fMLF receptor variant, FPRL1, as a functional receptor. The activation of monocytes by F peptide resulted in downregulation of the cell surface expression of CCR5 and CXCR4 in a protein kinase C-dependent manner. These results demonstrate that activation of FPRL1 on human moncytes by a peptide domain derived from HIV-1 gp120 could lead to desensitization of cell response to other chemoattractants. This may explain, at least in part, the initial activation of innate immune responses in HIV-1-infected patients followed by immune suppression.

  1. Monocyte-Derived Suppressor Cells in Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochando, Jordi; Conde, Patricia; Bronte, Vincenzo

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are cells of myeloid origin with enhanced suppressive function. They are negative regulators of the immune responses and comprise a heterogeneous mixture of immunosuppressive cells of monocytic (M-MDSC) and granulocytic (G-MDSC) origin. A more recent nomenclature proposes the term "suppressive monocyte derived cells" (suppressive MCs) to define CSF1/CSF2-dependent mouse suppressor cells that develop from common monocyte progenitors (cMoPs) after birth. Here, we review the literature about monocytic-derived cells with demonstrated suppressor function in vitro and in vivo within the context of solid organ transplantation.

  2. 外周血CD14+单核细胞微RNA在结核分枝杆菌潜伏感染和肺结核中的差异表达%Differential expression of microRNA profiles in peripheral blood CD14+ monocytes between latent tuberculosis infection and pulmonary tuberculosis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林巧; 钟红剑; 邹容容; 刘腊香; 郑军; 张国良; 陈心春; 周伯平; 唐瑛

    2015-01-01

    pulmonary tuberculosis patients.Methods Thirty-one patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and 31 patients with LTBI were enrolled from Shenzhen Bao' an Chronic Diseases Prevent and Treatment Hospital and Shenzhen Third People' s Hospital during June 2013 and February 2014.Differentially expressed miRNAs were detected by using a miRNA chip in 6 pulmonary tuberculosis patients and 6 LTBI patients (male 3,female 3),and TaqMan qPCR test was performed to verify the differentially expressed miRNAs in two groups (25 for each).Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the differentially expressed miRNAs in diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis.Target genes of differentially expressed miRNAs were forecasted using miRFocus database,and GO term and KEGG pathway annotation were performed.Results There were 40 differentially expressed miRNAs in CD14 + monocytes between LTBI and pulmonary tuberculosis patients,among which 4 had > 2-fold up-regulation and 36 had > 2-fold down-regulation in pulmonary tuberculosis patients.All differentially expressed miRNAs could be divided into two clusters.TaqMan qPCR test showed that the expression of miR-378 (up-regulated miRNA) in pulmonary tuberculosis patients was 4.17 ± 0.25,which was significantly higher than that in LTBI patients (2.31 ± 0.24,t =5.25,P < 0.01) ; the expression of miR-483-5p (down-regulated miRNA) in pulmonary tuberculosis patients was 1.7l ± 0.16,which was significantly lower than that in LTBI patients (2.97 ± 0.15,t =5.45,P < 0.01).ROC curve analysis showed that the sensitivities and specificities of miR-378 and miR-483-5p in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis were 0.76,0.72 and 0.84,0.76,respectively.Bioinformatic analysis showed that the target genes of miR-378 and miR-483-5p mainly involved in cell proliferation,apoptosis,antigen presentation and signal transduction.Conclusion There are significant differences in miRNA profiles in CD14 + monocytes between LTBI and pulmonary tuberculosis

  3. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) inhibition of monocyte binding by vascular endothelium is associated with sialylation of neural cell adhesion molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curatola, Anna-Maria; Huang, Kui; Naftolin, Frederick

    2012-01-01

    Adhesion of monocytes to vascular endothelium is necessary for atheroma formation. This adhesion requires binding of endothelial neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) to monocyte NCAM. NCAM:NCAM binding is blocked by sialylation of NCAM (polysialylated NCAM; PSA-NCAM). Since estradiol (E2) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) induced PSA-NCAM and decreased monocyte adhesion, in consideration of possible clinical applications we tested whether their prohormone dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has similar effects. (1) DHEA was administered to cultured human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) from men and women. Monocyte binding was assessed using fluorescence-labeled monocytes. (2) HCEACs were incubated with E2, DHT, DHEA alone, or with trilostane, fulvestrant or flutamide. Expression of PSA-NCAM was assessed by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Dehydroepiandrosterone inhibited monocyte adhesion to HCAECs by ≥50% (P DHEA's inhibition of monocyte binding appeared to be gender dependent. The DHEA-induced expression of PSA-NCAM was completely blocked by trilostane. In these preliminary in vitro studies, DHEA increased PSA-NCAM expression and inhibited monocyte binding in an estrogen- and androgen receptor-dependent manner. Dehydroepiandrosteroneappears to act via its end metabolites, E2 and DHT. Dehydroepiandrosterone could furnish clinical prevention against atherogenesis and arteriosclerosis.

  4. Ly6Chi Monocytes and Their Macrophage Descendants Regulate Neutrophil Function and Clearance in Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graubardt, Nadine; Vugman, Milena; Mouhadeb, Odelia; Caliari, Gabriele; Pasmanik-Chor, Metsada; Reuveni, Debby; Zigmond, Ehud; Brazowski, Eli; David, Eyal; Chappell-Maor, Lousie; Jung, Steffen; Varol, Chen

    2017-01-01

    Monocyte-derived macrophages (MoMF) play a pivotal role in the resolution of acetaminophen-induced liver injury (AILI). Timely termination of neutrophil activity and their clearance are essential for liver regeneration following injury. Here, we show that infiltrating Ly6Chi monocytes, their macrophage descendants, and neutrophils spatially and temporally overlap in the centrilobular necrotic areas during the necroinflammatory and resolution phases of AILI. At the necroinflammatory phase, inducible ablation of circulating Ly6Chi monocytes resulted in reduced numbers and fractions of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-producing neutrophils. In alignment with this, neutrophils sorted from monocyte-deficient livers exhibited reduced expression of NADPH oxidase 2. Moreover, human CD14+ monocytes stimulated with lipopolysaccharide or hepatocyte apoptotic bodies directly induced ROS production by cocultured neutrophils. RNA-seq-based transcriptome profiling of neutrophils from Ly6Chi monocyte-deficient versus normal livers revealed 449 genes that were differentially expressed with at least twofold change (p ≤ 0.05). In the absence of Ly6Chi monocytes, neutrophils displayed gene expression alterations associated with decreased innate immune activity and increased cell survival. At the early resolution phase, Ly6Chi monocytes differentiated into ephemeral Ly6Clo MoMF and their absence resulted in significant accumulation of late apoptotic neutrophils. Further gene expression analysis revealed the induced expression of a specific repertoire of bridging molecules and receptors involved with apoptotic cell clearance during the transition from Ly6Chi monocytes to MoMF. Collectively, our findings establish a phase-dependent task division between liver-infiltrating Ly6Chi monocytes and their MoMF descendants with the former regulating innate immune functions and cell survival of neutrophils and the later neutrophil clearance. PMID:28620383

  5. Role of nanostructured gold surfaces on monocyte activation and Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svensson S

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Sara Svensson,1,2 Magnus Forsberg,1,2 Mats Hulander,1,2 Forugh Vazirisani,1,2 Anders Palmquist,1,2 Jukka Lausmaa,2,3 Peter Thomsen,1,2 Margarita Trobos1,21Department of Biomaterials, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; 2BIOMATCELL VINN Excellence Center of Biomaterials and Cell Therapy, Gothenburg, Sweden; 3SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås, SwedenAbstract: The role of material surface properties in the direct interaction with bacteria and the indirect route via host defense cells is not fully understood. Recently, it was suggested that nanostructured implant surfaces possess antimicrobial properties. In the current study, the adhesion and biofilm formation of Staphylococcus epidermidis and human monocyte adhesion and activation were studied separately and in coculture in different in vitro models using smooth gold and well-defined nanostructured gold surfaces. Two polystyrene surfaces were used as controls in the monocyte experiments. Fluorescent viability staining demonstrated a reduction in the viability of S. epidermidis close to the nanostructured gold surface, whereas the smooth gold correlated with more live biofilm. The results were supported by scanning electron microscopy observations, showing higher biofilm tower formations and more mature biofilms on smooth gold compared with nanostructured gold. Unstimulated monocytes on the different substrates demonstrated low activation, reduced gene expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and low cytokine secretion. In contrast, stimulation with opsonized zymosan or opsonized live S. epidermidis for 1 hour significantly increased the production of reactive oxygen species, the gene expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10, as well as the secretion of TNF-α, demonstrating the ability of the cells to elicit a response and actively phagocytose prey. In addition, cells cultured on the smooth

  6. β2-Agonist clenbuterol hinders human monocyte differentiation into dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordani, Luciana; Cuzziol, Noemi; Del Pinto, Tamara; Sanchez, Massimo; Maccari, Sonia; Massimi, Alessia; Pietraforte, Donatella; Viora, Marina

    2015-12-10

    Clenbuterol (CLB) is a beta2-adrenergic agonist commonly used in asthma therapy, but is also a non-steroidal anabolic drug often abused in sport doping practices. Here we evaluated the in vitro impact of CLB on the physiology and function of human monocytes and dendritic cells (DCs), instrumental in the development of immune responses. We demonstrate that CLB inhibits the differentiation of monocytes into DCs and this effect is specific and dependent on β2-adrenergic receptor (AR) activation. We found that CLB treatment reduced the percentage of CD1a(+) immature DCs, while increasing the frequency of monocytes retaining CD14 surface expression. Moreover, CLB inhibited tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) enhanced IL-(interleukin)-10 and IL-6 production. In contrast, CLB did not modulate the phenotypic and functional properties of monocytes and DCs, such as the surface expression of HLA-DR, CD83, CD80 and CD86 molecules, cytokine production, immunostimulatory activity and phagocytic activity. Moreover, we found that CLB did not modulate the activation of NF-kB in DCs. Moreover, we found that the differentiation of monocytes into DCs was associated with a significant decrease of β2-ARs mRNA expression. These results provide new insights on the effect of CLB on monocyte differentiation into DCs. Considering the frequent illegal use of CLB in doping, our work suggests that this drug is potentially harmful to immune responses decreasing the supply of DCs, thus subverting immune surveillance.

  7. Intra-amniotic LPS modulation of TLR signaling in lung and blood monocytes of fetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Boris W; Kallapur, Suhas G; Moss, Timothy J; Nitsos, Ilias; Newnham, John P; Jobe, Alan H

    2009-04-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that intra-uterine exposure to inflammation may prime postnatal immune responses. In fetal sheep, intra-amniotic injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced chorioamnionitis, lung inflammation and maturation, matured lung monocytes to macrophages and initiated systemic tolerance of fetal monocytes to subsequent challenge with LPS. We hypothesized that LPS-mediated chorioamnionitis altered the response of lung and blood monocytes to Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands such as PamCysK4 (TLR2), flagellin (TLR5), and human CpG-DNA (TLR9). Time-mated ewes were given intra-amniotic injections of LPS or saline. Blood and lung monocytes were assessed after 2 days, 7 days and 2 days and 7 days repetitive LPS injections before delivery at 124 days gestational age (term 150 days). Responsiveness of blood and lung monocytes to TLR-ligands in vitro was assessed by interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and hydrogen peroxide. Monocytes from preterm controls had minimal responses. Lipopolysaccharide-mediated chorioamnionitis increased IL-6, TNF- alpha and hydrogen peroxide to all TLR agonists in blood and lung monocytes. Repetitive exposure to antenatal LPS reduced IL-6, TNF- alpha and hydrogen peroxide to TLR-ligands suggesting tolerance. Tolerance to TLR-ligands reduced IL-1 receptor associated kinase-4 expression. Thus, repeated fetal exposure to LPS induced tolerance to other TLR-ligands. These modulations of fetal innate immunity have implications for host defense and injury responses in preterm infants.

  8. Silver nanoparticles impede phorbol myristate acetate-induced monocyte-macrophage differentiation and autophagy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yingying; Wang, Liming; Bai, Ru; Zhang, Tianlu; Chen, Chunying

    2015-09-01

    Monocytes/macrophages are important constituents of the innate immune system. Monocyte-macrophage differentiation is not only crucial for innate immune responses, but is also related to some cardiovascular diseases. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are one of the most widely used nanomaterials because of their broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties. However, the effect of AgNPs on the functions of blood monocytes is scarcely reported. Here, we report the impedance effect of AgNPs on THP-1 monocyte differentiation, and that this effect was mediated by autophagy blockade and lysosomal impairment. Firstly, AgNPs inhibit phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced monocyte differentiation by down-regulating both expression of surface marker CD11b and response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Secondly, autophagy is activated during PMA-induced THP-1 monocyte differentiation, and the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) can inhibit this process. Thirdly, AgNPs block the degradation of the autophagy substrate p62 and induce autophagosome accumulation, which demonstrates the blockade of autophagic flux. Fourthly, lysosomal impairments including alkalization and decrease of lysosomal membrane stability were observed in AgNP-treated THP-1 cells. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the impedance of monocyte-macrophage differentiation by AgNPs is mediated by autophagy blockade and lysosomal dysfunction. Our results suggest that crosstalk exists in different biological effects induced by AgNPs.

  9. Species difference of CD137 ligand signaling in human and murine monocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqiao Tang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stimulation of CD137 ligand on human monocytes has been shown to induce DC differentiation, and these CD137L-DCs are more potent than classical DCs, in stimulating T cell responses in vitro. To allow an in vivo evaluation of the potency of CD137L-DCs in murine models we aimed at generating murine CD137L-DCs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: When stimulated through CD137 ligand murine monocytes responded just as human monocytes with an increased adherence, morphological changes, proliferation and an increase in viable cell numbers. But CD137 ligand signaling did not induce expression of inflammatory cytokines and costimulatory molecules in murine monocytes and these cells had no T cell stimulatory activity. Murine monocytes did not differentiate to inflammatory DCs upon CD137 ligand signaling. Furthermore, while CD137 ligand signaling induces maturation of human immature classical DCs it failed to do so with murine immature classical DCs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data demonstrate that both human and murine monocytes become activated by CD137 ligand signaling but only human and not murine monocytes differentiate to inflammatory DCs.

  10. Glucocorticoids enhance the in vivo migratory response of human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, Mark P; Pioli, Patricia A; Collins, Jane; Barr, Fiona; Metzler, Sara; Sites, Brian D; Guyre, Paul M

    2016-05-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are best known for their potent anti-inflammatory effects. However, an emerging model for glucocorticoid (GC) regulation of in vivo inflammation also includes a delayed, preparatory effect that manifests as enhanced inflammation following exposure to an inflammatory stimulus. When GCs are transiently elevated in vivo following exposure to a stressful event, this model proposes that a subsequent period of increased inflammatory responsiveness is adaptive because it enhances resistance to a subsequent stressor. In the present study, we examined the migratory response of human monocytes/macrophages following transient in vivo exposure to stress-associated concentrations of cortisol. Participants were administered cortisol for 6h to elevate in vivo cortisol levels to approximate those observed during major systemic stress. Monocytes in peripheral blood and macrophages in sterile inflammatory tissue (skin blisters) were studied before and after exposure to cortisol or placebo. We found that exposure to cortisol induced transient upregulation of monocyte mRNA for CCR2, the receptor for monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) as well as for the chemokine receptor CX3CR1. At the same time, mRNA for the transcription factor IκBα was decreased. Monocyte surface expression of CCR2 but not CX3CR1 increased in the first 24h after cortisol exposure. Transient exposure to cortisol also led to an increased number of macrophages and neutrophils in fluid derived from a sterile inflammatory site in vivo. These findings suggest that the delayed, pro-inflammatory effects of cortisol on the human inflammatory responses may include enhanced localization of effector cells at sites of in vivo inflammation.

  11. Lipoapoptosis induced by saturated free fatty acids stimulates monocyte migration: a novel role for Pannexin1 in liver cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Feng; Waldrop, Shar L; Bronk, Steve F; Gores, Gregory J; Davis, Laurie S; Kilic, Gordan

    2015-09-01

    Recruitment of monocytes in the liver is a key pathogenic feature of hepatic inflammation in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Here, we studied migration of human monocytes in response to supernatants obtained from liver cells after inducing lipoapoptosis with saturated free fatty acids (FFA). Lipoapoptotic supernatants stimulated monocyte migration with the magnitude similar to a monocyte chemoattractant protein, CCL2 (MCP-1). Inhibition of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) in liver cells with SP600125 blocked migration of monocytes in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that JNK stimulates release of chemoattractants in lipoapoptosis. Notably, treatment of supernatants with Apyrase to remove ATP potently inhibited migration of THP-1 monocytes and partially blocked migration of primary human monocytes. Inhibition of the CCL2 receptor (CCR2) on THP-1 monocytes with RS102895, a specific CCR2 inhibitor, did not block migration induced by lipoapoptotic supernatants. Consistent with these findings, lipoapoptosis stimulated pathophysiological extracellular ATP (eATP) release that increased supernatant eATP concentration from 5 to ~60 nM. Importantly, inhibition of Panx1 expression in liver cells with short hairpin RNA (shRNA) decreased supernatant eATP concentration and inhibited monocyte migration, indicating that monocyte migration is mediated in part by Panx1-dependent eATP release. Moreover, JNK inhibition decreased supernatant eATP concentration and inhibited Pannexin1 activation, as determined by YoPro-1 uptake in liver cells in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that JNK regulates activation of Panx1 channels, and provide evidence that Pannexin1-dependent pathophysiological eATP release in lipoapoptosis is capable of stimulating migration of human monocytes, and may participate in the recruitment of monocytes in chronic liver injury induced by saturated FFA.

  12. Monocyte human leukocyte antigen-DR transcriptional downregulation by cortisol during septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Tulzo, Yves; Pangault, Celine; Amiot, Laurence; Guilloux, Valérie; Tribut, Olivier; Arvieux, Cédric; Camus, Christophe; Fauchet, Renée; Thomas, Rémi; Drénou, Bernard

    2004-05-15

    Monocyte deactivation has been identified as a major factor of immunosuppression in sepsis and is associated with a loss of surface human leukocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR) expression on circulating monocytes. Using flow cytometry, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, we investigated this phenomenon in septic patients. We confirmed the early loss of monocyte HLA-DR expression in all infected patients and demonstrated that this persistent lowered expression at Day 6 correlated with severity scores, secondary infection, and death. This phenomenon occurred at a transcriptional level via a decrease in the class II transactivator A (CIITA) transcription. Furthermore, these abnormalities correlated with the high cortisol levels observed in sepsis and not with those of other putative factors such as catecholamines or interleukin-10. Finally, in vitro studies evidenced that glucocorticoids decrease HLA-DR expression at a transcriptional level via a decrease in CIITA mRNA levels, mainly by down modulating its isoforms I and III. We conclude that in human sepsis, the loss of HLA-DR expression on circulating monocytes is associated with a poor outcome. We suggest that the high endogenous cortisol level observed in septic shock may be a possible new factor involved in the loss of HLA-DR expression on monocytes via its effect on HLA-DR and CIITA transcription.

  13. Regulation of nutrition-associated receptors in blood monocytes of normal weight and obese humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivovarova, Olga; Hornemann, Silke; Weimer, Sandra; Lu, Ye; Murahovschi, Veronica; Zhuk, Sergei; Seltmann, Anne-Cathrin; Malashicheva, Anna; Kostareva, Anna; Kruse, Michael; Busjahn, Andreas; Rudovich, Natalia; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H

    2015-03-01

    Obesity, type 2 diabetes and associated metabolic diseases are characterized by low-grade systemic inflammation which involves interplay of nutrition and monocyte/macrophage functions. We suggested that some factors such as nutrient components, neuropeptides involved in the control of gastrointestinal functions, and gastrointestinal hormones might influence immune cell functions and in this way contribute to the disease pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the mRNA expression of twelve nutrition-associated receptors in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), isolated monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages and their regulation under the switching from the high-carbohydrate low-fat diet to the low-carbohydrate high-fat (LC/HFD) isocaloric diet in healthy humans. The mRNA expression of receptors for short chain fatty acids (GPR41, GPR43), bile acids (TGR5), incretins (GIPR, GLP1R), cholecystokinin (CCKAR), neuropeptides VIP and PACAP (VIPR1, VIPR2), and neurotensin (NTSR1) was detected in PBMC and monocytes, while GPR41, GPR43, GIPR, TGR5, and VIPR1 were found in macrophages. Correlations of the receptor expression in monocytes with a range of metabolic and inflammatory markers were found. In non-obese subjects, the dietary switch to LC/HFD induced the increase of GPR43 and VIPR1 expression in monocytes. No significant differences of receptor expression between normal weight and moderately obese subjects were found. Our study characterized for the first time the expression pattern of nutrition-associated receptors in human blood monocytes and its dietary-induced changes linking metabolic responses to nutrition with immune functions in health and metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Higher Expression of Proteins in IGF/IR Axes in Colorectal Cancer is Associated with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jing; Li, Cong; Tang, Jie; Yi, Cheng; Liu, Ji-Yan; Qiu, Meng

    2016-10-01

    Preexisting type 2 diabetes mellitus (preDM) increases occurrence and mortality of colorectal cancer (CRC). Insulin growth factor (IGF)/insulin receptor (IR) axes play an important role in the development of both diabetes and CRC. We aimed to explore the characteristics of proteins expression in IGF/IR axes in CRC tissues with preDM. Two hundred fifty CRC patients in West China hospital were included in analysis. Among them, 125 patients had history of diabetes matched by 125 CRC without diabetes at a 1:1 ratio. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expression of proteins in IGF/IR axis. More positive expression of IGF-1, IGF-1R and IR were found in CRC group with diabetes than in non-diabetes group. No difference was detected in the expression of IR substrate-1, IR substrate-2, IGF-2, IGF binding protein 3, and mammalian target of rapamycin between two groups. Multivariate analysis showed that diabetes history was associated with all of the expression of IGF-1, IGF-1R and IR, and higher T staging and lymph node metastasis were respectively independent factors of IGF-1 and IGF-1R expression in CRC patients. Besides, IGF-1 expression was positively associated with IGF-1R and IR expression in all CRC tissues, and the association of IGF-1 and IR expression seemed to be closer in diabetes group than in non-diabetes group. Higher expression of IGF-1, IGF-1R and IR proteins in CRC was associated with diabetes, suggesting IGF-1/IR signaling may play a special part in development of CRC in patients with diabetes.

  15. Impact of individual intravenous iron preparations on the differentiation of monocytes towards macrophages and dendritic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell, Lisa H.; Seiler-Mußler, Sarah; Sellier, Alexander B.; Rotter, Björn; Winter, Peter; Sester, Martina; Fliser, Danilo; Heine, Gunnar H.; Zawada, Adam M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Treatment of iron deficiency with intravenous (i.v.) iron is a first-line strategy to improve anaemia of chronic kidney disease. Previous in vitro experiments demonstrated that different i.v. iron preparations inhibit differentiation of haematopoietic stem cells to monocytes, but their effect on monocyte differentiation to macrophages and mature dendritic cells (mDCs) has not been assessed. We investigated substance-specific effects of iron sucrose (IS), sodium ferric gluconate (SFG), ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) and iron isomaltoside 1000 (IIM) on monocytic differentiation to M1/M2 macrophages and mDCs. Methods Via flow cytometry and microRNA (miRNA) expression analysis, we morphologically and functionally characterized monocyte differentiation to M1/M2 macrophages and mDCs after monocyte stimulation with IS, SFG, FCM and IIM (0.133, 0.266 and 0.533 mg/mL, respectively). To assess potential clinical implications, we compared monocytic phagocytosis capacity in dialysis patients who received either 500 mg IS or IIM. Results Phenotypically, IS and SFG dysregulated the expression of macrophage (e.g. CD40, CD163) and mDC (e.g. CD1c, CD141) surface markers. Functionally, IS and SFG impaired macrophage phagocytosis capacity. Phenotypic and functional alterations were less pronounced with FCM, and virtually absent with IIM. In miRNA expression analysis of mDCs, IS dysregulated miRNAs such as miR-146b-5p and miR-155-5p, which are linked to Toll-like receptor and mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathways. In vivo, IS reduced monocytic phagocytosis capacity within 1 h after infusion, while IIM did not. Conclusions This study demonstrates that less stable i.v. iron preparations specifically affect monocyte differentiation towards macrophages and mDCs. PMID:27190361

  16. A curated compendium of monocyte transcriptome datasets of relevance to human monocyte immunobiology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinchai, Darawan; Boughorbel, Sabri; Presnell, Scott; Quinn, Charlie; Chaussabel, Damien

    2016-01-01

    Systems-scale profiling approaches have become widely used in translational research settings. The resulting accumulation of large-scale datasets in public repositories represents a critical opportunity to promote insight and foster knowledge discovery. However, resources that can serve as an interface between biomedical researchers and such vast and heterogeneous dataset collections are needed in order to fulfill this potential. Recently, we have developed an interactive data browsing and visualization web application, the Gene Expression Browser (GXB). This tool can be used to overlay deep molecular phenotyping data with rich contextual information about analytes, samples and studies along with ancillary clinical or immunological profiling data. In this note, we describe a curated compendium of 93 public datasets generated in the context of human monocyte immunological studies, representing a total of 4,516 transcriptome profiles. Datasets were uploaded to an instance of GXB along with study description and sample annotations. Study samples were arranged in different groups. Ranked gene lists were generated based on relevant group comparisons. This resource is publicly available online at http://monocyte.gxbsidra.org/dm3/landing.gsp.

  17. Generation of novel bone forming cells (monoosteophils from the cathelicidin-derived peptide LL-37 treated monocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifang Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bone generation and maintenance involve osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes which originate from unique precursors and rely on key growth factors for differentiation. However, an incomplete understanding of bone forming cells during wound healing has led to an unfilled clinical need such as nonunion of bone fractures. Since circulating monocytes are often recruited to sites of injury and may differentiate into various cell types including osteoclasts, we investigated the possibility that circulating monocytes in the context of tissue injury may also contribute to bone repair. In particular, we hypothesized that LL-37 (produced from hCAP-18, cathelicidin, which recruits circulating monocytes during injury, may play a role in bone repair. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Treatment of monocytes from blood with LL-37 for 6 days resulted in their differentiation to large adherent cells. Growth of LL-37-differentiated monocytes on osteologic discs reveals bone-like nodule formation by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. In vivo transplantation studies in NOD/SCID mice show that LL-37-differentiated monocytes form bone-like structures similar to endochondral bone formation. Importantly, LL-37-differentiated monocytes are distinct from conventional monocyte-derived osteoclasts, macrophages, and dendritic cells and do not express markers of the mesenchymal stem cells (MSC lineage, distinguishing them from the conventional precursors of osteoblasts. Furthermore, LL-37 differentiated monocytes express intracellular proteins of both the osteoblast and osteoclast lineage including osteocalcin (OC, osteonectin (ON, bone sialoprotein II (BSP II, osteopontin (OP, RANK, RANKL, MMP-9, tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP, and cathepsin K (CK. CONCLUSION: Blood derived monocytes treated with LL-37 can be differentiated into a novel bone forming cell that functions both in vitro and in vivo. We propose the name monoosteophil to indicate their monocyte

  18. Pharm GKB: Leukemia, Monocytic, Acute [PharmGKB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Overview Alternate Names: Synonym Acute Monoblastic Leukemia; Acute Monoblastic Leukemias; Acute... Monocytic Leukemia; Acute Monocytic Leukemias; Acute monoblastic leukaemia; Acute monoblastic leukemia; Acute... monocytic leukaemia; Acute monocytic leukemia, morphology; Acute monocytoid leukemia; Leukemia, Acute... Monoblastic; Leukemia, Acute Monocytic; Leukemia, Monoblastic, Acute; Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute... Schilling-Type Myeloid; Leukemias, Acute Monoblastic; Leukemias, Acute Monocytic; M5a - Acute monoblastic leukaemia; M5a - Acute

  19. Monocyte-targeting supramolecular micellar assemblies: a molecular diagnostic tool for atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Eun Ji; Mlinar, Laurie B; Nord, Kathryn; Sugimoto, Matthew J; Wonder, Emily; Alenghat, Francis J; Fang, Yun; Tirrell, Matthew

    2015-02-18

    Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial inflammatory disease that can progress silently for decades and result in myocardial infarction, stroke, and death. Diagnostic imaging technologies have made great strides to define the degree of atherosclerotic plaque burden through the severity of arterial stenosis. However, current technologies cannot differentiate more lethal "vulnerable plaques," and are not sensitive enough for preventive medicine. Imaging early molecular markers and quantifying the extent of disease progression continues to be a major challenge in the field. To this end, monocyte-targeting, peptide amphiphile micelles (PAMs) are engineered through the incorporation of the chemokine receptor CCR2-binding motif of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and MCP-1 PAMs are evaluated preclinically as diagnostic tools for atherosclerosis. Monocyte-targeting is desirable as the influx of monocytes is a marker of early lesions, accumulation of monocytes is linked to atherosclerosis progression, and rupture-prone plaques have higher numbers of monocytes. MCP-1 PAMs bind to monocytes in vitro, and MCP-1 PAMs detect and discriminate between early- and late-stage atherosclerotic aortas. Moreover, MCP-1 PAMs are found to be eliminated via renal clearance and the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) without adverse side effects. Thus, MCP-1 PAMs are a promising new class of diagnostic agents capable of monitoring the progression of atherosclerosis.

  20. Anti-tumour cytotoxin produced by human monocytes: studies on its mode of action.

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, N.

    1983-01-01

    Human monocytes can be induced to synthesize a cytotoxin which affects certain tumour cell lines. The interaction of monocyte cytotoxin with a susceptible cell line (L929) has been studied to obtain clues to the mode of action of the cytotoxin. The cytotoxin acts directly on the cells rather than on the culture medium and is cytotoxic at higher concentrations and cytostatic at lower concentrations. First signs of cell damage appear about 20 h after contact with the cytotoxin which must be pre...

  1. Molecular responses during cadmium-induced stress in Daphnia magna: Integration of differential gene expression with higher-level effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soetaert, Anneleen [Department of Biology, Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)]. E-mail: anneleen.soetaert@ua.ac.be; Vandenbrouck, Tine [Department of Biology, Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Ven, Karlijn van der [Department of Biology, Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Maras, Marleen [Department of Biology, Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Remortel, Piet van [Department of Mathematics and Informatics, Intelligent Systems Laboratory, University of Antwerp, Middelheimlaan 1, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Blust, Ronny [Department of Biology, Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Coen, Wim M. de [Department of Biology, Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2007-07-20

    DNA microarrays offer great potential in revealing insight into mechanistic toxicity of contaminants. The aim of the present study was (i) to gain insight in concentration- and time-dependent cadmium-induced molecular responses by using a customized Daphnia magna microarray, and (ii) to compare the gene expression profiles with effects at higher levels of biological organization (e.g. total energy budget and growth). Daphnids were exposed to three cadmium concentrations (nominal value of 10, 50, 100 {mu}g/l) for two time intervals (48 and 96 h). In general, dynamic expression patterns were obtained with a clear increase of gene expression changes at higher concentrations and longer exposure duration. Microarray analysis revealed cadmium affected molecular pathways associated with processes such as digestion, oxygen transport, cuticula metabolism and embryo development. These effects were compared with higher-level effects (energy budgets and growth). For instance, next to reduced energy budgets due to a decline in lipid, carbohydrate and protein content, we found an up-regulated expression of genes related to digestive processes (e.g. {alpha}-esterase, cellulase, {alpha}-amylase). Furthermore, cadmium affected the expression of genes coding for proteins involved in molecular pathways associated with immune response, stress response, cell adhesion, visual perception and signal transduction in the present study.

  2. Expression of JMJD2A in infiltrating duct carcinoma was markedly higher than fibroadenoma, and associated with expression of ARHI, p53 and ER in infiltrating duct carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bei-Xu; Li, Jia; Luo, Cheng-Liang; Zhang, Ming-Chang; Li, Hui; Li, Li-Liang; Xu, Hong-Fei; Shen, Yi-Wen; Xue, Ai-Min; Zhao, Zi-Qin

    2013-03-01

    Jumonji Domain Containing 2A (JMJD2A) may be a cancer-associated gene involved in human breast cancer. With a view to investigating expression of JMJD2A in human breast cancer and benign lesion tissues as well as relationship between JMJD2A and tumor related proteins, histological and immunohistochemical analysis, Western blot and quantitative real-time PCR in infiltrating duct carcinoma and fibroadenoma for JMJD2A and immunohistochemical analysis and quantitative real-time PCR in infiltrating duct carcinoma for tumor related proteins (ARHI, p53, ER, PR and CerbB-2) were performed. Histological examination validated the clinical diagnosis. The JMJD2A positive rate of infiltrating duct carcinoma was significantly higher than fibroadenoma by immunohistochemical analysis. The mean optical density of JMJD2A in infiltrating duct carcinoma was higher than fibroadenoma by western blot. JMJD2A mRNA level in infiltrating duct carcinoma was higher than fibroadenoma by quantitative real-time PCR. Spearman correlation analysis revealed that the expression of JMJD2A was associated with ARHI, p53 and ER from immunohistochemical results respectively. Pearson correlation analysis revealed that the expression of JMJD2A was associated with ARHI, p53 and ER from quantitative real-time PCR results respectively. Expression of JMJD2A in infiltrating duct carcinoma was higher, and associated with ARHI, p53 and ER. The results may take JMJD2A as a potential diagnostic and therapeutic target in human breast cancer.

  3. CD11c(hi) Dendritic Cells Regulate Ly-6C(hi) Monocyte Differentiation to Preserve Immune-privileged CNS in Lethal Neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hyoung; Choi, Jin Young; Kim, Seong Bum; Uyangaa, Erdenebelig; Patil, Ajit Mahadev; Han, Young Woo; Park, Sang-Youel; Lee, John Hwa; Kim, Koanhoi; Eo, Seong Kug

    2015-12-02

    Although the roles of dendritic cells (DCs) in adaptive defense have been defined well, the contribution of DCs to T cell-independent innate defense and subsequent neuroimmunopathology in immune-privileged CNS upon infection with neurotropic viruses has not been completely defined. Notably, DC roles in regulating innate CD11b(+)Ly-6C(hi) monocyte functions during neuroinflammation have not yet been addressed. Using selective ablation of CD11c(hi)PDCA-1(int/lo) DCs without alteration in CD11c(int)PDCA-1(hi) plasmacytoid DC number, we found that CD11c(hi) DCs are essential to control neuroinflammation caused by infection with neurotropic Japanese encephalitis virus, through early and increased infiltration of CD11b(+)Ly-6C(hi) monocytes and higher expression of CC chemokines. More interestingly, selective CD11c(hi) DC ablation provided altered differentiation and function of infiltrated CD11b(+)Ly-6C(hi) monocytes in the CNS through Flt3-L and GM-CSF, which was closely associated with severely enhanced neuroinflammation. Furthermore, CD11b(+)Ly-6C(hi) monocytes generated in CD11c(hi) DC-ablated environment had a deleterious rather than protective role during neuroinflammation, and were more quickly recruited into inflamed CNS, depending on CCR2, thereby exacerbating neuroinflammation via enhanced supply of virus from the periphery. Therefore, our data demonstrate that CD11c(hi) DCs provide a critical and unexpected role to preserve the immune-privileged CNS in lethal neuroinflammation via regulating the differentiation, function, and trafficking of CD11b(+)Ly-6C(hi) monocytes.

  4. Galectin-2 induces a proinflammatory, anti-arteriogenic phenotype in monocytes and macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cansu Yıldırım

    Full Text Available Galectin-2 is a monocyte-expressed carbohydrate-binding lectin, for which increased expression is genetically determined and associated with decreased collateral arteriogenesis in obstructive coronary artery disease patients. The inhibiting effect of galectin-2 on arteriogenesis was confirmed in vivo, but the mechanism is largely unknown. In this study we aimed to explore the effects of galectin-2 on monocyte/macrophage phenotype in vitro and vivo, and to identify the receptor by which galectin-2 exerts these effects. We now show that the binding of galectin-2 to different circulating human monocyte subsets is dependent on monocyte surface expression levels of CD14. The high affinity binding is blocked by an anti-CD14 antibody but not by carbohydrates, indicating a specific protein-protein interaction. Galectin-2 binding to human monocytes modulated their transcriptome by inducing proinflammatory cytokines and inhibiting pro-arteriogenic factors, while attenuating monocyte migration. Using specific knock-out mice, we show that galectin-2 acts through the CD14/toll-like receptor (TLR-4 pathway. Furthermore, galectin-2 skews human macrophages to a M1-like proinflammatory phenotype, characterized by a reduced motility and expression of an anti-arteriogenic cytokine/growth factor repertoire. This is accompanied by a switch in surface protein expression to CD40-high and CD206-low (M1. In a murine model we show that galectin-2 administration, known to attenuate arteriogenesis, leads to increased numbers of CD40-positive (M1 and reduced numbers of CD206-positive (M2 macrophages surrounding actively remodeling collateral arteries. In conclusion galectin-2 is the first endogenous CD14/TLR4 ligand that induces a proinflammatory, non-arteriogenic phenotype in monocytes/macrophages. Interference with CD14-Galectin-2 interaction may provide a new intervention strategy to stimulate growth of collateral arteries in genetically compromised cardiovascular

  5. Platelet activation attracts a subpopulation of effector monocytes to sites of Leishmania major infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Ricardo; Zhang, Xia; Cohen, Heather; Debrabant, Alain; Mosser, David M

    2011-06-01

    Leishmania species trigger a brisk inflammatory response and efficiently induce cell-mediated immunity. We examined the mechanisms whereby leukocytes were recruited into lesions after Leishmania major infection of mice. We found that a subpopulation of effector monocytes expressing the granulocyte marker GR1 (Ly6C) is rapidly recruited into lesions, and these monocytes efficiently kill L. major parasites. The recruitment of this subpopulation of monocytes depends on the chemokine receptor CCR2 and the activation of platelets. Activated platelets secrete platelet-derived growth factor, which induces the rapid release of CCL2 from leukocytes and mesenchymal cells. This work points to a new role for platelets in host defense involving the selective recruitment of a subpopulation of effector monocytes from the blood to efficiently kill this intracellular parasite.

  6. Higher cytoplasmic and nuclear poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase expression in familial than in sporadic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauke, Marie-Luise; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Budczies, Jan; Bult, Peter; Prinzler, Judith; Radke, Cornelia; van Krieken, J Han J M; Dietel, Manfred; Denkert, Carsten; Müller, Berit Maria

    2012-10-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP) is a key element of the single-base excision pathway for repair of DNA single-strand breaks. To compare the cytoplasmic and nuclear poly(ADP-ribose) expression between familial (BRCA1, BRCA2, or non BRCA1/2) and sporadic breast cancer, we investigated 39 sporadic and 39 familial breast cancer cases. The two groups were matched for hormone receptor status and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status. Additionally, they were matched by grading with a maximum difference of ±1 degree (e.g., G2 instead of G3). Cytoplasmic PARP (cPARP) expression was significantly higher in familial compared to sporadic breast cancer (P = 0.008, chi-squared test for trends) and a high nuclear PARP expression (nPARP) was significantly more frequently observed in familial breast cancer (64 %) compared with sporadic breast cancer (36 %) (P = 0.005, chi-squared test). The overall PARP expression was significantly higher in familial breast cancer (P = 0.042, chi-squared test). In familial breast cancer, a combination of high cPARP and high nPARP expression is the most common (33 %), whereas in sporadic breast cancer, a combination of low cPARP and intermediate nPARP expression is the most common (39 %). Our results show that the overall PARP expression in familial breast cancer is higher than in sporadic breast cancer which might suggest they might respond better to treatment with PARP inhibitors.

  7. The Role of Persuasive Arguments in Changing Affirmative Action Attitudes and Expressed Behavior in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Fiona A.; Charles, Margaret A.; Nelson, Jacqueline K.

    2008-01-01

    The research reported in this article examined the conditions under which persuasive arguments are most effective in changing university students' attitudes and expressed behavior with respect to affirmative action (AA). The conceptual framework was a model that integrated the theory of reasoned action and the elaboration likelihood model of…

  8. Ability of Ni-containing biomedical alloys to activate monocytes and endothelial cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wataha, J C; Lockwood, P E; Marek, M; Ghazi, M

    1999-06-05

    Nickel-containing alloys commonly are used in medical and dental applications that place them into long-term contact with soft tissues. The release of Ni ions from these alloys is disturbing because of the toxic, immunologic, and carcinogenic effects that have been documented for some Ni compounds. In particular, Ni ions in solution recently have been shown to cause expression of inflammatory mediators, such as interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAMs) from keratinocytes, monocytes, and endothelial cells. However, the ability of the solid alloys themselves to induce these inflammatory effects has not been demonstrated. An in vitro system was used to determine if Ni-containing biomedical alloys could cause secretion of either IL-1beta or TNF-alpha from monocytes or expression of ICAMs on endothelial cells. Pure nickel, titanium, and three biomedical alloys-18-8 stainless steel, NiTi, and Rexillium III-were evaluated. First, it was determined whether or not the alloys or pure metals could cause cytotoxicity to THP-1 human monocytes or human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs) by measuring the succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) activity of the cells. Then, using identical conditions of exposure, the secretion of IL-1beta or TNF-alpha from monocytes or ICAM-1 expression on the HMVECs was determined. Only pure nickel suppressed (by 48% compared to Teflon controls) the SDH activity of the HMVECs or THP-1 monocytes. No alloy or metal caused the HMVECs to express ICAM-1, but the NiTi alloy caused a significant (ANOVA/Tukey) secretion of IL-1beta from the THP-1 monocytes. Secretion of TNF-alpha induced by NiTi was detectable but not statistically significant. The levels of IL-1beta secretion from monocytes were sufficient to induce ICAM-1 expression on HMVECs. The release of Ni from the NiTi was a logical suspect in causing the IL-1beta secretion by monocytes, but its role was not confirmed since other

  9. Space mutagenesis of genetically engineered bacteria expressing recombinant human interferon α1b and screening of higher yielding strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junfeng; Liu, Changting; Liu, Jinyi; Fang, Xiangqun; Xu, Chen; Guo, Yinghua; Chang, De; Su, Longxiang

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the space mutagenesis of genetically engineered bacteria expressing recombinant human interferon α1b. The genetically engineered bacteria expressing the recombinant interferon α1b were sent into outer space on the Chinese Shenzhou VIII spacecraft. After the 17 day space flight, mutant strains that highly expressed the target gene were identified. After a series of screening of spaceflight-treated bacteria and the quantitative comparison of the mutant strains and original strain, we found five strains that showed a significantly higher production of target proteins, compared with the original strain. Our results support the notion that the outer space environment has unique effects on the mutation breeding of microorganisms, including genetically engineered strains. Mutant strains that highly express the target protein could be obtained through spaceflight-induced mutagenesis.

  10. Brugia malayi Microfilariae Induce a Regulatory Monocyte/Macrophage Phenotype That Suppresses Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, Gopinath; Rao, Gopala B.; Lucius, Richard; Srikantam, Aparna; Hartmann, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Background Monocytes and macrophages contribute to the dysfunction of immune responses in human filariasis. During patent infection monocytes encounter microfilariae in the blood, an event that occurs in asymptomatically infected filariasis patients that are immunologically hyporeactive. Aim To determine whether blood microfilariae directly act on blood monocytes and in vitro generated macrophages to induce a regulatory phenotype that interferes with innate and adaptive responses. Methodology and principal findings Monocytes and in vitro generated macrophages from filaria non-endemic normal donors were stimulated in vitro with Brugia malayi microfilarial (Mf) lysate. We could show that monocytes stimulated with Mf lysate develop a defined regulatory phenotype, characterised by expression of the immunoregulatory markers IL-10 and PD-L1. Significantly, this regulatory phenotype was recapitulated in monocytes from Wuchereria bancrofti asymptomatically infected patients but not patients with pathology or endemic normals. Monocytes from non-endemic donors stimulated with Mf lysate directly inhibited CD4+ T cell proliferation and cytokine production (IFN-γ, IL-13 and IL-10). IFN-γ responses were restored by neutralising IL-10 or PD-1. Furthermore, macrophages stimulated with Mf lysate expressed high levels of IL-10 and had suppressed phagocytic abilities. Finally Mf lysate applied during the differentiation of macrophages in vitro interfered with macrophage abilities to respond to subsequent LPS stimulation in a selective manner. Conclusions and significance Conclusively, our study demonstrates that Mf lysate stimulation of monocytes from healthy donors in vitro induces a regulatory phenotype, characterized by expression of PD-L1 and IL-10. This phenotype is directly reflected in monocytes from filarial patients with asymptomatic infection but not patients with pathology or endemic normals. We suggest that suppression of T cell functions typically seen in lymphatic

  11. Brugia malayi microfilariae induce a regulatory monocyte/macrophage phenotype that suppresses innate and adaptive immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noëlle Louise O'Regan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Monocytes and macrophages contribute to the dysfunction of immune responses in human filariasis. During patent infection monocytes encounter microfilariae in the blood, an event that occurs in asymptomatically infected filariasis patients that are immunologically hyporeactive.To determine whether blood microfilariae directly act on blood monocytes and in vitro generated macrophages to induce a regulatory phenotype that interferes with innate and adaptive responses.Monocytes and in vitro generated macrophages from filaria non-endemic normal donors were stimulated in vitro with Brugia malayi microfilarial (Mf lysate. We could show that monocytes stimulated with Mf lysate develop a defined regulatory phenotype, characterised by expression of the immunoregulatory markers IL-10 and PD-L1. Significantly, this regulatory phenotype was recapitulated in monocytes from Wuchereria bancrofti asymptomatically infected patients but not patients with pathology or endemic normals. Monocytes from non-endemic donors stimulated with Mf lysate directly inhibited CD4+ T cell proliferation and cytokine production (IFN-γ, IL-13 and IL-10. IFN-γ responses were restored by neutralising IL-10 or PD-1. Furthermore, macrophages stimulated with Mf lysate expressed high levels of IL-10 and had suppressed phagocytic abilities. Finally Mf lysate applied during the differentiation of macrophages in vitro interfered with macrophage abilities to respond to subsequent LPS stimulation in a selective manner.Conclusively, our study demonstrates that Mf lysate stimulation of monocytes from healthy donors in vitro induces a regulatory phenotype, characterized by expression of PD-L1 and IL-10. This phenotype is directly reflected in monocytes from filarial patients with asymptomatic infection but not patients with pathology or endemic normals. We suggest that suppression of T cell functions typically seen in lymphatic filariasis is caused by microfilaria-modulated monocytes in an IL

  12. Adiponectin Promotes Monocyte-to-Fibroblast Transition in Renal Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Lin, Song-Chang; Chen, Gang; He, Liqun; Hu, Zhaoyong; Chan, Lawrence; Trial, JoAnn; Entman, Mark L.

    2013-01-01

    Bone marrow–derived fibroblasts may contribute substantially to the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis through the excessive production and deposition of extracellular matrix. However, the mechanisms underlying the accumulation and activation of these fibroblasts are not understood. Here, we used a mouse model of tubulointerstitial fibrosis to determine whether adiponectin, which is elevated in CKD and is associated with disease progression, regulates monocyte-to-fibroblast transition and fibroblast activation in injured kidneys. In wild-type mice, the expression of adiponectin and the number of bone marrow–derived fibroblasts in the kidney increased after renal obstruction. In contrast, the obstructed kidneys of adiponectin-knockout mice had fewer bone marrow–derived fibroblasts. Adiponectin deficiency also led to a reduction in the number of myofibroblasts, the expression of profibrotic chemokines and cytokines, and the number of procollagen-expressing M2 macrophages in injured kidneys. Consistent with these findings, adiponectin-deficiency reduced the expression of collagen I and fibronectin. Similar results were observed in wild-type and adiponectin-knockout mice after ischemia-reperfusion injury. In cultured bone marrow–derived monocytes, adiponectin stimulated the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) and extracellular matrix proteins and activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, specific activation of AMPK increased the expression of α-SMA and extracellular matrix proteins, while inhibition of AMPK attenuated these responses. Taken together, these findings identify adiponectin as a critical regulator of monocyte-to-fibroblast transition and renal fibrosis, suggesting that inhibition of adiponectin/AMPK signaling may represent a novel therapeutic target for fibrotic kidney disease. PMID:23833260

  13. Higher intratumor than peritumor expression of DUSP6/MKP-3 is associated with recurrence after curative resection of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Bo; Tan Yunshan; Sun Huichuan; Fan Jia; Tang Zhaoyou; Ji Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Background The MAPK phosphatases (MKPs) are a family of dual-specificity phosphatases (DUSPs) that can dephosphorylate both phosphothreonine and phosphotyrosine residues,thus inactivating MAPK signaling.DUSP6 is a cytoplasmic MKP that can inactivate ERK.DUSP6 has been implicated in the development of some tumors.The aim of this research was to investigate the expression of DUSP6 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the correlation of DUSP6 with mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs),clinicopathological characteristics,and prognosis.Methods Tissues from 305 patients who had undergone hepatectomy for HCC was used in this study.The expression of DUSP6,p-ERK,p-JNK,and p-p38a was determined using tissue microarrays for immunohistochemical analysis.The prognostic value of DUSP6 and other clinicopathological factors were evaluated.Results The expression of DUSP6 was significantly higher in the tumor tissue when compared to the peritumor or normal liver tissue (P <0.001).Tumor DUSP6 expression was significantly associated with disease-free survival (DFS) (P=0.013).Tumor DUSP6 expression was an independent prognostic factor for DFS (Hazard ratio =1.635,P=0.006).Conclusions DUSP6 is over expressed in tumor tissue compared to peritumor or normal liver tissue.Higher expression of DUSP6 in tumor tissue,than in peritumor tissue,is associated with the recurrence after curative resection of HCC,and the relative tumor DUSP6 expression has good power to predict the recurrence of HCC.

  14. Particulate matter air pollution exposure promotes recruitment of monocytes into atherosclerotic plaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatera, Kazuhiro; Hsieh, Joanne; Hogg, James C; Tranfield, Erin; Suzuki, Hisashi; Shih, Chih-Horng; Behzad, Ali R; Vincent, Renaud; van Eeden, Stephan F

    2008-02-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown an association between exposure to ambient particulate air pollution <10 microm in diameter (PM(10)) and increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We previously showed that PM(10) exposure causes progression of atherosclerosis in coronary arteries. We postulate that the recruitment of monocytes from the circulation into atherosclerotic lesions is a key step in this PM(10)-induced acceleration of atherosclerosis. The study objective was to quantify the recruitment of circulating monocytes into vessel walls and the progression of atherosclerotic plaques induced by exposure to PM(10). Female Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits, which naturally develop systemic atherosclerosis, were exposed to PM(10) (EHC-93) or vehicle by intratracheal instillation twice a week for 4 wk. Monocytes, labeled with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) in donors, were transfused to recipient rabbits as whole blood, and the recruitment of BrdU-labeled cells into vessel walls and plaques in recipients was measured by quantitative histological methodology. Exposure to PM(10) caused progression of atherosclerotic lesions in thoracic and abdominal aorta. It also decreased circulating monocyte counts, decreased circulating monocytes expressing high levels of CD31 (platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1) and CD49d (very late antigen-4 alpha-chain), and increased expression of CD54 (ICAM-1) and CD106 (VCAM-1) in plaques. Exposure to PM(10) increased the number of BrdU-labeled monocytes adherent to endothelium over plaques and increased the migration of BrdU-labeled monocytes into plaques and smooth muscle underneath plaques. We conclude that exposure to ambient air pollution particles promotes the recruitment of circulating monocytes into atherosclerotic plaques and speculate that this is a critically important step in the PM(10)-induced progression of atherosclerosis.

  15. Constitutive activity of NF-kappa B in myeloid cells drives pathogenicity of monocytes and macrophages during autoimmune neuroinflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellrichmann Gisa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The NF-κB/REL-family of transcription factors plays a central role in coordinating the expression of a wide variety of genes controlling immune responses including autoimmunity of the central nervous system (CNS. The inactive form of NF-κB consists of a heterodimer which is complexed with its inhibitor, IκB. Conditional knockout-mice for IκBα in myeloid cells (lysMCreIκBαfl/fl have been generated and are characterized by a constitutive activation of NF-κB proteins allowing the study of this transcription factor in myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (MOG-EAE, a well established experimental model for autoimmune demyelination of the CNS. In comparison to controls, lysMCreIκBαfl/fl mice developed a more severe clinical course of EAE. Upon histological analysis on day 15 p.i., there was an over two fold increased infiltration of T-cells and macrophages/microglia. In addition, lysMCreIκBαfl/fl mice displayed an increased expression of the NF-κB dependent factor inducible nitric oxide synthase in inflamed lesions. These changes in the CNS are associated with increased numbers of CD11b positive splenocytes and a higher expression of Ly6c on monocytes in the periphery. Well in accordance with these changes in the myeloid cell compartment, there was an increased production of the monocyte cytokines interleukin(IL-12 p70, IL-6 and IL-1beta in splenocytes. In contrast, production of the T-cell associated cytokines interferon gamma (IFN-gamma and IL-17 was not influenced. In summary, myeloid cell derived NF-κB plays a crucial role in autoimmune inflammation of the CNS and drives a pathogenic role of monocytes and macrophages independently from T-cells.

  16. Maturation Phenotype of Peripheral Blood Monocyte/Macrophage After Stimulation with Lipopolysaccharides in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Fandiño, Oscar A; Hernández-Ruiz, Joselín; López-Vidal, Yolanda; Charúa-Guindic, Luis; Escobedo, Galileo; Schmulson, Max J

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Abnormal immune regulation and increased intestinal permeability augmenting the passage of bacterial molecules that can activate immune cells, such as monocytes/macrophages, have been reported in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The aim was to compare the maturation phenotype of monocytes/macrophages (CD14+) from IBS patients and controls in the presence or absence of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides (LPS), in vitro. Methods Mononuclear cells were isolated from peripheral blood of 20 Rome II-IBS patients and 19 controls and cultured with or without LPS for 72 hours. The maturation phenotype was examined by flow cytometry as follows: M1-Early (CD11c+CD206−), M2-Advanced (CD11c−CD206+CX3CR1+); expression of membrane markers was reported as mean fluorescence intensity (MFI). The Mann-Whitney test was used and significance was set at P < 0.05. Results In CD14+ cells, CD11c expression decreased with vs without LPS both in IBS (MFI: 8766.0 ± 730.2 vs 12 920.0 ± 949.2, P < 0.001) and controls (8233.0 ± 613.9 vs 13 750.0 ± 743.3, P < 0.001). M1-Early cells without LPS, showed lower CD11c expression in IBS than controls (MFI: 11 540.0 ± 537.5 vs 13 860.0 ± 893.7, P = 0.040), while both groups showed less CD11c in response to LPS (P < 0.01). Furthermore, the percentage of “Intermediate” (CD11c+CD206+CX3CR1+) cells without LPS, was higher in IBS than controls (IBS = 9.5 ± 1.5% vs C = 4.9 ± 1.4%, P < 0.001). Finally, fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) expression on M2-Advanced cells was increased when treated with LPS in controls but not in IBS (P < 0.001). Conclusions The initial phase of monocyte/macrophage maturation appears to be more advanced in IBS compared to controls. However, the decreased CX3CR1 in patients with IBS, compared to controls, when stimulated with LPS suggests a state of immune activation in IBS. PMID:28044051

  17. Strategies for psbA gene expression in cyanobacteria, green algae and higher plants: from transcription to PSII repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulo, Paula; Sakurai, Isamu; Aro, Eva-Mari

    2012-01-01

    The Photosystem (PS) II of cyanobacteria, green algae and higher plants is prone to light-induced inactivation, the D1 protein being the primary target of such damage. As a consequence, the D1 protein, encoded by the psbA gene, is degraded and re-synthesized in a multistep process called PSII repair cycle. In cyanobacteria, a small gene family codes for the various, functionally distinct D1 isoforms. In these organisms, the regulation of the psbA gene expression occurs mainly at the level of transcription, but the expression is fine-tuned by regulation of translation elongation. In plants and green algae, the D1 protein is encoded by a single psbA gene located in the chloroplast genome. In chloroplasts of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii the psbA gene expression is strongly regulated by mRNA processing, and particularly at the level of translation initiation. In chloroplasts of higher plants, translation elongation is the prevalent mechanism for regulation of the psbA gene expression. The pre-existing pool of psbA transcripts forms translation initiation complexes in plant chloroplasts even in darkness, while the D1 synthesis can be completed only in the light. Replacement of damaged D1 protein requires also the assistance by a number of auxiliary proteins, which are encoded by the nuclear genome in green algae and higher plants. Nevertheless, many of these chaperones are conserved between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Here, we describe the specific features and fundamental differences of the psbA gene expression and the regeneration of the PSII reaction center protein D1 in cyanobacteria, green algae and higher plants. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Photosystem II.

  18. Abnormal production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines by lupus monocytes in response to apoptotic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Sule

    Full Text Available Monocytes are a key component of the innate immune system involved in the regulation of the adaptive immune response. Previous studies have focused on apoptotic cell clearance abnormalities in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE monocytes. However, whether SLE monocytes might express unique patterns of cytokine secretion in response to apoptotic cells is still unknown. Here, we used monocytes from healthy controls and SLE patients to evaluate the production of TNF-α and TGF-β in response to apoptotic cells. Upon recognition of apoptotic material, monocytes from healthy controls showed prominent TGF-β secretion (mean ± SD: 824.6±144.3 pg/ml and minimal TNF-α production (mean ± SD: 32.6±2.1 pg/ml. In contrast, monocytes from SLE patients had prominent TNF-α production (mean ± SD: 302.2±337.5 pg/ml and diminished TGF-β secretion (mean ± SD: 685.9±615.9 pg/ml, a difference that was statistically significant compared to normal monocytes (p≤10(-6 for TNF-α secretion, and p = 0.0031 for TGF-β, respectively. Interestingly, the unique cytokine response by SLE monocytes was independent of their phagocytic clearance efficiency, opsonizing autoantibodies and disease activity. We further showed that nucleic acids from apoptotic cells play important role in the induction of TNF-α by lupus monocytes. Together, these observations suggest that, in addition to potential clearance defects, monocytes from SLE patients have an abnormal balance in the secretion of anti- and pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to apoptotic cells. Since the abnormal cytokine response to apoptotic material in SLE is not related to disease activity and opsonizing autoantibodies, it is possible that this response might be an intrinsic property of lupus monocytes. The studies focus attention on toll-like receptors (TLRs and their downstream pathways as mediators of this response.

  19. Expression of p-AKT characterizes adenoid cystic carcinomas of head and neck with a higher risk for tumor relapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller-Hermelink Hans-Konrad

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adenoid cystic carcinomas are rare tumors with an indolent clinical course, but frequent local relapses. The identification of tumors with a higher relapse risk seems to be interesting. Hence we investigated parameters of glucose metabolism, which were found associated with poor prognosis in other malignancies. Methods Specimen of 29 patients were investigated immunohistochemically with antibodies against p-AKT, TKTL-1 (transketolase-like 1, M2PK (M2 pyruvate kinase, and GLUT-1. Proliferation was investigated by staining with Ki67. The tumors were located at the major or minor salivary glands. Only the typical cribriform subtype was investigated. The initial tumor stage was pT1 or pT2. Results Expression of p-AKT was significantly (P = 0.036 associated with a higher relapse risk in multivariate analysis. Low expression of M2PK was non-significantly (P = 0.065 predictive for a higher risk. TKTL-1 and GLUT-1 were expressed in the majority of cases, albeit not associated with relapse risk. Conclusion Adenoid cystic carcinomas positive for p-AKT show a higher relapse risk. However, other parameters of glucose metabolism investigated here or proliferation (Ki67 were not predictive in this entity. Our findings demonstrate a possible background for therapeutic approaches targeting the inhibition of PI3K/AKT pathway.

  20. "A Delicate Balance...": Language as a Tool of Identity Expression for Incarcerated Men Pursuing Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Lila

    2014-01-01

    In the course of an initiative to provide higher education to adults in prison, incarcerated men enrolled in an undergraduate degree programme were offered the opportunity to participate in a series of writing workshops. This article examines the products of these workshops, specifically the ways that language chosen by the writers serves as a…