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Sample records for monocyte-derived macrophages mdm

  1. miR-223 is upregulated in monocytes from patients with tuberculosis and regulates function of monocyte-derived macrophages.

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    Liu, Yanhua; Wang, Ruo; Jiang, Jing; Yang, Bingfen; Cao, Zhihong; Cheng, Xiaoxing

    2015-10-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious infectious disease that most commonly affects the lungs. Macrophages are among the first line defenders against establishment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in the lungs. In this study, we found that activation and cytokine production in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) from patients with active TB was impaired. miR-223 expression was significantly elevated in monocytes and MDM from patients with TB compared with healthy controls. To determine the functional role of miR-223 in macrophages, stable miR-223-expressing and miR-223 antisense-expressing U937 cells were established. Compared with empty vector controls, expression of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-12p40 genes was significantly higher in miR-223 antisense-expressing U937 cells, but lower in miR-223-expressing U937 cells. miR-223 can negatively regulate activation of NF-κB by inhibition of p65 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. It is concluded that miR-223 can regulate macrophage function by inhibition of cytokine production and NF-κB activation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Macrophage Activation Mechanisms in Human Monocytic Cell Line-derived Macrophages.

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    Sumiya, Yu; Ishikawa, Mami; Inoue, Takahiro; Inui, Toshio; Kuchiike, Daisuke; Kubo, Kentaro; Uto, Yoshihiro; Nishikata, Takahito

    2015-08-01

    Although the mechanisms of macrophage activation are important for cancer immunotherapy, they are poorly understood. Recently, easy and robust assay systems for assessing the macrophage-activating factor (MAF) using monocytic cell line-derived macrophages were established. Gene-expression profiles of U937- and THP-1-derived macrophages were compared using gene expression microarray analysis and their responses against several MAFs were examined by in vitro experiments. Activated states of these macrophages could not be assigned to a specific sub-type but showed, however, different unique characteristics. The unique of monocytic cell line-derived macrophages could provide clues to understand the activation mechanism of macrophages and, therefore, help to develop effective cancer immunotherapy with MAFs. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  3. Diminished Adherence and/or Ingestion of Virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Monocyte-Derived Macrophages from Patients with Tuberculosis

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    Zabaleta, J.; Arias, M.; Maya, J. R.; García, L. F.

    1998-01-01

    The interaction between the macrophage and Mycobacterium tuberculosis is mediated by a variety of macrophage membrane-associated proteins. Complement receptors have been implicated in the adherence of M. tuberculosis to macrophages. In the present work, the adherence and/or ingestion of M. tuberculosis H37Rv to human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) from patients with tuberculosis (TB) and healthy controls was measured by microscopical examination, [3H]uracil incorporation, and CFU. The adherence and/or ingestion was enhanced by fresh serum and inhibited by heat inactivation, EDTA treatment, and anti-CR1 and anti-CR3 antibodies. Comparison of MDM from TB patients and healthy controls showed that the former exhibited a significantly decreased capacity to adhere and/or ingest M. tuberculosis, as determined by the number of CFU and 3H incorporation. The expression of CR1 (CD35) and CR3 (CD11b/CD18) on MDM from TB patients and healthy controls, as determined by flow cytometry, did not show significant differences. These results suggest that the lower ingestion of M. tuberculosis by MDM from TB patients is not due to defects in complement receptors, and therefore, there might be other molecules involved in the adherence and/or ingestion process that render MDM from TB patients ingest less mycobacteria than those from healthy controls. PMID:9729537

  4. Moderate restriction of macrophage-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 by SAMHD1 in monocyte-derived macrophages.

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    Taya, Kahoru; Nakayama, Emi E; Shioda, Tatsuo

    2014-01-01

    Macrophage-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strains are able to grow to high titers in human monocyte-derived macrophages. However, it was recently reported that cellular protein SAMHD1 restricts HIV-1 replication in human cells of the myeloid lineage, including monocyte-derived macrophages. Here we show that degradation of SAMHD1 in monocyte-derived macrophages was associated with moderately enhanced growth of the macrophage-tropic HIV-1 strain. SAMHD1 degradation was induced by treating target macrophages with vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein-pseudotyped human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) particles containing viral protein X. For undifferentiated monocytes, HIV-2 particle treatment allowed undifferentiated monocytes to be fully permissive for productive infection by the macrophage-tropic HIV-1 strain. In contrast, untreated monocytes were totally resistant to HIV-1 replication. These results indicated that SAMHD1 moderately restricts even a macrophage-tropic HIV-1 strain in monocyte-derived macrophages, whereas the protein potently restricts HIV-1 replication in undifferentiated monocytes.

  5. Mycobacterium leprae upregulates IRGM expression in monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages.

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    Yang, Degang; Chen, Jia; Zhang, Linglin; Cha, Zhanshan; Han, Song; Shi, Weiwei; Ding, Ru; Ma, Lan; Xiao, Hong; Shi, Chao; Jing, Zhichun; Song, Ningjing

    2014-08-01

    Leprosy is caused by the infection of Mycobacterium leprae, which evokes a strong inflammatory response and leads to nerve damage. Immunity-related GTPase family M protein (IRGM) plays critical roles in controlling inflammation. The objective of the study was to investigate whether IRGM is involved in the infection of M. leprae. Levels of IRGM were assessed in M. leprae-infected CD4(+) T cells, monocytes, and monocyte-derived macrophages. Data revealed that both protein and mRNA levels of IRGM were increased in monocytes after M. leprae infection. Interestingly, monocyte-derived macrophages showed more prominent IRGM expression with M. leprae infection, whereas the bacteria did not affect IRGM in CD4(+) T cells. Furthermore, we assessed levels of IRGM in CD4(+) T cells and monocytes from 78 leprosy patients and 40 healthy controls, and observed upregulated protein level of IRGM in the monocytes from leprosy patients. Also, IRGM expression was inversely correlated with the severity of the disease. These findings suggested a close involvement of IRGM in M. leprae infection and indicated a potential mechanism of defending M. leprae infection.

  6. Coxsackievirus B4 Can Infect Human Peripheral Blood-Derived Macrophages

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    Enagnon Kazali Alidjinou

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Beyond acute infections, group B coxsackieviruses (CVB are also reported to play a role in the development of chronic diseases, like type 1 diabetes. The viral pathogenesis mainly relies on the interplay between the viruses and innate immune response in genetically-susceptible individuals. We investigated the interaction between CVB4 and macrophages considered as major players in immune response. Monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM generated with either M-CSF or GM-CSF were inoculated with CVB4, and infection, inflammation, viral replication and persistence were assessed. M-CSF-induced MDM, but not GM-CSF-induced MDM, can be infected by CVB4. In addition, enhancing serum was not needed to infect MDM in contrast with parental monocytes. The expression of viral receptor (CAR mRNA was similar in both M-CSF and GM-CSF MDM. CVB4 induced high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNFα in both MDM populations. CVB4 effectively replicated and persisted in M-CSF MDM, but IFNα was produced in the early phase of infection only. Our results demonstrate that CVB4 can replicate and persist in MDM. Further investigations are required to determine whether the interaction between the virus and MDM plays a role in the pathogenesis of CVB-induced chronic diseases.

  7. Facilitated monocyte-macrophage uptake and tissue distribution of superparmagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles.

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    Arnaud Beduneau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We posit that the same mononuclear phagocytes (MP that serve as target cells and vehicles for a host of microbial infections can be used to improve diagnostics and drug delivery. We also theorize that physical and biological processes such as particle shape, size, coating and opsonization that affect MP clearance of debris and microbes can be harnessed to facilitate uptake of nanoparticles (NP and tissue delivery. METHODS: Monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM were used as vehicles of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO NP and immunoglobulin (IgG or albumin coated SPIO for studies of uptake and distribution. IgG coated SPIO was synthesized by covalent linkage and uptake into monocytes and MDM investigated related to size, time, temperature, concentration, and coatings. SPIO and IgG SPIO were infused intravenously into naïve mice. T(2 measures using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI were used to monitor tissue distribution in animals. RESULTS: Oxidation of dextran on the SPIO surface generated reactive aldehyde groups and permitted covalent linkage to amino groups of murine and human IgG and F(ab'(2 fragments and for Alexa Fluor(R 488 hydroxylamine to form a Schiff base. This labile intermediate was immediately reduced with sodium cyanoborohydride in order to stabilize the NP conjugate. Optical density measurements of the oxidized IgG, F(ab'(2, and/or Alexa Fluor(R 488 SPIO demonstrated approximately 50% coupling yield. IgG-SPIO was found stable at 4 degrees C for a period of 1 month during which size and polydispersity index varied little from 175 nm and 200 nm, respectively. In vitro, NP accumulated readily within monocyte and MDM cytoplasm after IgG-SPIO exposure; whereas, the uptake of native SPIO in monocytes and MDM was 10-fold less. No changes in cell viability were noted for the SPIO-containing monocytes and MDM. Cell morphology was not changed as observed by transmission electron microscopy. Compared to unconjugated

  8. The transcriptome of Legionella pneumophila-infected human monocyte-derived macrophages.

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    Christopher T D Price

    Full Text Available Legionella pneumophila is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that invades and replicates within alveolar macrophages through injection of ∼ 300 effector proteins by its Dot/Icm type IV translocation apparatus. The bona fide F-box protein, AnkB, is a nutritional virulence effector that triggers macrophages to generate a surplus of amino acids, which is essential for intravacuolar proliferation. Therefore, the ankB mutant represents a novel genetic tool to determine the transcriptional response of human monocyte-derived macrophages (hMDMs to actively replicating L. pneumophila.Here, we utilized total human gene microarrays to determine the global transcriptional response of hMDMs to infection by wild type or the ankB mutant of L. pneumophila. The transcriptomes of hMDMs infected with either actively proliferating wild type or non-replicative ankB mutant bacteria were remarkably similar. The transcriptome of infected hMDMs was predominated by up-regulation of inflammatory pathways (IL-10 anti-inflammatory, interferon signaling and amphoterin signaling, anti-apoptosis, and down-regulation of protein synthesis pathways. In addition, L. pneumophila modulated diverse metabolic pathways, particularly those associated with bio-active lipid metabolism, and SLC amino acid transporters expression.Taken together, the hMDM transcriptional response to L. pneumophila is independent of intra-vacuolar replication of the bacteria and primarily involves modulation of the immune response and metabolic as well as nutritional pathways.

  9. In vitro permissiveness of bovine neutrophils and monocyte derived macrophages to Leishmania donovani of Ethiopian isolate.

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    Tasew, Geremew; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Abera, Adugna; Zewude, Aboma; Chanyalew, Menberework; Aseffa, Abraham; Abebe, Markos; Ritter, Uwe; van Zandbergen, Ger; Laskay, Tamás; Tafess, Ketema

    2016-04-18

    Epidemiological studies in Ethiopia have documented that the risk of visceral leishmaniasis (VL, Kala-azar) is higher among people living with domestic animals. The recent report on isolation of Leishmania donovani complex DNA and the detected high prevalence of anti-leishmanial antibodies in the blood of domestic animals further strengthen the potential role of domestic animals in the epidemiology of VL in Ethiopia. In mammalian hosts polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) and macrophages are the key immune cells influencing susceptibility or control of Leishmania infection. Thus to substantiate the possible role of cattle in VL transmission we investigate the permissiveness of bovine PMN and monocyte derived macrophages (MDM) for Leishmania (L.) donovani infection. Whole blood was collected from pure Zebu (Boss indicus) and their cross with Holstein Friesian cattle. L. donovani (MHOM/ET/67/HU3) wild and episomal green fluorescent protein (eGFP) labelled stationary stage promastigotes were co-incubated with whole blood and MDM to determine infection of these cells. Engulfment of promastigotes by the cells and their transformation to amastigote forms in MDM was studied with direct microscopy. Microscopy and flow cytometry were used to measure the infection rate while PCR-RLFP was used to confirm the infecting parasite. L. donovani infected bovine whole blood PMN in the presence of plasma factors and all cellular elements. Morphological examinations of stained cytospin smears revealed that PMN engulfed promastigotes. Similarly, we were able to show that bovine MDM can be infected by L. donovani, which transformed to amastigote forms in the cells. The in vitro infection of bovine PMN and MDM by L. donovani further strengthens the possibility that cattle might serve as source of L. donovani infection for humans.

  10. Phenotypic, functional, and quantitative characterization of canine peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages

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    R Bueno

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The yield as well as phenotypic and functional parameters of canine peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages were analyzed. The cells that remained adherent to Teflon after 10 days of culture had high phagocytic activity when inoculated with Leishmania chagasi. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that more than 80% of cultured cells were positive for the monocyte/macrophage marker CD14.

  11. Regulatory effect of dietary intake of chromium propionate on the response of monocyte-derived macrophages from Holstein cows in mid lactation.

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    Garcia, M; Qu, Y; Scholte, C M; O'Connor, D; Rounds, W; Moyes, K M

    2017-08-01

    Chromium (Cr) has been reported to enhance immune function and improve insulin sensitivity and performance in beef and dairy cattle. However, its effect on bovine macrophage inflammatory and metabolic response is unknown. The objective of this study was to characterize the effect of dietary Cr on the inflammatory and metabolic response of polarized macrophages ex vivo. Twelve primiparous and 16 multiparous healthy Holstein cows in mid lactation (143 ± 37 d in milk) were enrolled in this study. Cows were fed a common total mixed ration once per day that was top-dressed with 200 g of ground corn containing 1 of 2 dietary treatments: control (CTL, no Cr supplementation) or Cr propionate (CrP, 8 mg of Cr/cow per day) for 35 d. At d 1, 17, and 35 of treatment, blood monocytes were isolated and cultured to obtain 3 monocyte-derived macrophage (MDM) phenotypes: M0 (non-polarized), M1 (pro-inflammatory; IFN-γ polarized) and M2 (anti-inflammatory; IL-4 polarized). The experiment was set in a randomized complete block design. Neither dry matter intake nor milk yield was affected by treatment. Plasma concentrations of metabolites and the metabolic and inflammatory response of MDM in spent media were not affected by treatment. Neither the whole blood cell population nor the specific proportion of leukocytes was affected by the main effect of treatment. However, we did observe a trend for fewer circulating neutrophils in cows fed CrP than in cows fed CTL for 35 d, which may be partly attributable to a greater influx of neutrophils into peripheral tissues, a reduced pro-inflammatory response during disease, or both; this warrants future study. Expression of IGFI was increased in MDM-M0, and expression of CXCL11 tended to increase in MDM-M2 from cows fed CrP compared with cows fed CTL. Expression of SLC2A3 also tended to increase in MDM-M2 from cows fed CrP compared with cows fed CTL at 17 d. Our results suggest that CrP has minimal effect on the inflammatory and metabolic

  12. Interaction of Coxiella burnetii Strains of Different Sources and Genotypes with Bovine and Human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages

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    Katharina Sobotta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Most human Q fever infections originate from small ruminants. By contrast, highly prevalent shedding of Coxiella (C. burnetii by bovine milk rarely results in human disease. We hypothesized that primary bovine and human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM represent a suitable in vitro model for the identification of strain-specific virulence properties at the cellular level. Twelve different C. burnetii strains were selected to represent different host species and multiple loci variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA genotypes. Infection efficiency and replication of C. burnetii were monitored by cell culture re-titration and qPCR. Expression of immunoregulatory factors after MDM infection was measured by qRT-PCR and flow cytometry. Invasion, replication and MDM response differed between C. burnetii strains but not between MDMs of the two hosts. Strains isolated from ruminants were less well internalized than isolates from humans and rodents. Internalization of MLVA group I strains was lower compared to other genogroups. Replication efficacy of C. burnetii in MDM ranged from low (MLVA group III to high (MLVA group IV. Infected human and bovine MDM responded with a principal up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-12, and TNF-α. However, MLVA group IV strains induced a pronounced host response whereas infection with group I strains resulted in a milder response. C. burnetii infection marginally affected polarization of MDM. Only one C. burnetii strain of MLVA group IV caused a substantial up-regulation of activation markers (CD40, CD80 on the surface of bovine and human MDM. The study showed that replication of C. burnetii in MDM and the subsequent host cell response is genotype-specific rather than being determined by the host species pointing to a clear distinction in C. burnetii virulence between the genetic groups.

  13. Modulation of the expression of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan in stimulated human monocytes

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    Uhlin-Hansen, L.; Eskeland, T.; Kolset, S.O.

    1989-01-01

    Proteoglycan biosynthesis was studied in human monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) after exposure to typical activators of the monocyte/macrophage system: interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). By morphological examination, both monocytes and MDM were stimulated by these activators. Treatment with IFN-gamma resulted in a slight decrease in the expression of [35S]chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) in both monocytes and MDM, whereas LPS treatment increased the [35S]CSPG expression 1.8 and 2.2 times, respectively. PMA, in contrast, decreased the CSPG expression 0.4 times in monocytes, whereas MDM were stimulated to increase the biosynthesis 1.9 times. An increase in the sulfate density of the chondroitin sulfate chains was evident following differentiation of monocytes into MDM due to the expression of disulfated disaccharide units of the chondroitin sulfate E type (CS-E). However, monocytes exposed to PMA did also express disaccharides of the chondroitin sulfate E type. Furthermore, the expression of CS-E in MDM was increased 2 times following PMA treatment. An inactive phorbol ester, phorbol 12,13-diacetate, did not affect the expression of CS-E in either monocytes or MDM when compared with control cultures, suggesting that protein kinase C-dependent signal pathways may be involved in the regulation of sulfation of CSPG. Exposure to LPS or IFN-gamma did not lead to any changes in the sulfation of the chondroitin sulfate chains

  14. CD14-dependent monocyte isolation enhances phagocytosis of listeria monocytogenes by proinflammatory, GM-CSF-derived macrophages.

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    Caroline Neu

    Full Text Available Macrophages are an important line of defence against invading pathogens. Human macrophages derived by different methods were tested for their suitability as models to investigate Listeria monocytogenes (Lm infection and compared to macrophage-like THP-1 cells. Human primary monocytes were isolated by either positive or negative immunomagnetic selection and differentiated in the presence of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF or macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF into pro- or anti-inflammatory macrophages, respectively. Regardless of the isolation method, GM-CSF-derived macrophages (GM-Mφ stained positive for CD206 and M-CSF-derived macrophages (M-Mφ for CD163. THP-1 cells did not express CD206 or CD163 following incubation with PMA, M- or GM-CSF alone or in combination. Upon infection with Lm, all primary macrophages showed good survival at high multiplicities of infection whereas viability of THP-1 was severely reduced even at lower bacterial numbers. M-Mφ generally showed high phagocytosis of Lm. Strikingly, phagocytosis of Lm by GM-Mφ was markedly influenced by the method used for isolation of monocytes. GM-Mφ derived from negatively isolated monocytes showed low phagocytosis of Lm whereas GM-Mφ generated from positively selected monocytes displayed high phagocytosis of Lm. Moreover, incubation with CD14 antibody was sufficient to enhance phagocytosis of Lm by GM-Mφ generated from negatively isolated monocytes. By contrast, non-specific phagocytosis of latex beads by GM-Mφ was not influenced by treatment with CD14 antibody. Furthermore, phagocytosis of Lactococcus lactis, Escherichia coli, human cytomegalovirus and the protozoan parasite Leishmania major by GM-Mφ was not enhanced upon treatment with CD14 antibody indicating that this effect is specific for Lm. Based on these observations, we propose macrophages derived by ex vivo differentiation of negatively selected human primary monocytes as the most

  15. Analysis of the bovine monocyte-derived macrophage response to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection using RNA-seq

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    Maura E Casey

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Johne’s disease, caused by infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, (MAP, is a chronic intestinal disease of ruminants with serious economic consequences for cattle production in the United States and elsewhere. During infection, MAP bacilli are phagocytosed and subvert host macrophage processes, resulting in subclinical infections that can lead to immunopathology and dissemination of disease. Analysis of the host macrophage transcriptome during infection can therefore shed light on the molecular mechanisms and host-pathogen interplay associated with Johne’s disease. Here we describe results of an in vitro study of the bovine monocyte-derived macrophage (MDM transcriptome response during MAP infection using RNA-seq. MDM were obtained from seven age- and sex-matched Holstein-Friesian cattle and were infected with MAP across a six-hour infection time course with non-infected controls. We observed 245 and 574 differentially expressed genes in MAP-infected versus non-infected control samples (adjusted P value ≤ 0.05 at 2 and 6 hours post-infection, respectively. Functional analyses of these differentially expressed genes, including biological pathway enrichment, highlighted potential functional roles for genes that have not been previously described in the host response to infection with MAP bacilli. In addition, differential expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine genes, such as those associated with the IL-10 signaling pathway, and other immune-related genes that encode proteins involved in the bovine macrophage response to MAP infection emphasize the balance between protective host immunity and bacilli survival and proliferation. Systematic comparisons of RNA-seq gene expression results with Affymetrix® microarray data generated from the same experimental samples also demonstrated that RNA-seq represents a superior technology for studying host transcriptional responses to intracellular infection.

  16. C–C Chemokines Released by Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated Human Macrophages Suppress HIV-1 Infection in Both Macrophages and T Cells

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    Verani, Alessia; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Comar, Manola; Tresoldi, Eleonora; Polo, Simona; Giacca, Mauro; Lusso, Paolo; Siccardi, Antonio G.; Vercelli, Donata

    1997-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) expression in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) infected in vitro is known to be inhibited by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). However, the mechanisms are incompletely understood. We show here that HIV-1 suppression is mediated by soluble factors released by MDM stimulated with physiologically significant concentrations of LPS. LPS-conditioned supernatants from MDM inhibited HIV-1 replication in both MDM and T cells. Depletion of C–C chemokines (RANTES, MIP-1α, and MIP-1β) neutralized the ability of LPS-conditioned supernatants to inhibit HIV-1 replication in MDM. A combination of recombinant C–C chemokines blocked HIV-1 infection as effectively as LPS. Here, we report an inhibitory effect of C–C chemokines on HIV replication in primary macrophages. Our results raise the possibility that monocytes may play a dual role in HIV infection: while representing a reservoir for the virus, they may contribute to the containment of the infection by releasing factors that suppress HIV replication not only in monocytes but also in T lymphocytes. PMID:9120386

  17. Modulation of HIV replication in monocyte derived macrophages (MDM) by steroid hormones.

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    Devadas, Krishnakumar; Biswas, Santanu; Ragupathy, Viswanath; Lee, Sherwin; Dayton, Andrew; Hewlett, Indira

    2018-01-01

    Significant sex specific differences in the progression of HIV/AIDS have been reported. Several studies have implicated steroid hormones in regulating host factor expression and modulating HIV transmission and replication. However, the exact mechanism exerted by steroid hormones estrogen and progesterone in the regulation of HIV-1 replication is still unclear. Results from the current study indicated a dose dependent down regulation of HIV-1 replication in monocyte derived macrophages pre-treated with high concentrations of estrogen or progesterone. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms associated with the down regulation of HIV-1 replication by estrogen and progesterone we used PCR arrays to analyze the expression profile of host genes involved in antiviral responses. Several chemokines, cytokines, transcription factors, interferon stimulated genes and genes involved in type-1 interferon signaling were down regulated in cells infected with HIV-1 pre-treated with high concentrations of estrogen or progesterone compared to untreated HIV-1 infected cells or HIV-1 infected cells treated with low concentrations of estrogen or progesterone. The down regulation of CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11 chemokines and IL-1β, IL-6 cytokines in response to high concentrations of estrogen and progesterone pre-treatment in HIV-1 infected cells was confirmed at the protein level by quantitating chemokine and cytokine concentrations in the culture supernatant. These results demonstrate that a potent anti-inflammatory response is mediated by pre-treatment with high concentrations of estrogen and progesterone. Thus, our study suggests a strong correlation between the down-modulation of anti-viral and pro-inflammatory responses mediated by estrogen and progesterone pre-treatment and the down regulation of HIV-1 replication. These findings may be relevant to clinical observations of sex specific differences in patient populations and point to the need for further investigation.

  18. Monocytes/Macrophages Control Resolution of Transient Inflammatory Pain

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    Willemen, Hanneke L. D. M.; Eijkelkamp, Niels; Carbajal, Anibal Garza; Wang, Huijing; Mack, Matthias; Zijlstra, Jitske; Heijnen, Cobi J.; Kavelaars, Annemieke

    2014-01-01

    Insights into mechanisms governing resolution of inflammatory pain are of great importance for many chronic pain–associated diseases. Here we investigate the role of macrophages/monocytes and the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) in the resolution of transient inflammatory pain. Depletion of mice from peripheral monocytes/macrophages delayed resolution of intraplantar IL-1β- and carrageenan-induced inflammatory hyperalgesia from 1 to 3 days to >1 week. Intrathecal administration of a neutralizing IL-10 antibody also markedly delayed resolution of IL-1β- and carrageenan-induced inflammatory hyperalgesia. Recently, we showed that IL-1β- and carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia is significantly prolonged in LysM-GRK2+/− mice, which have reduced levels of G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) in LysM+ myeloid cells. Here we show that adoptive transfer of wild-type, but not of GRK2+/−, bone marrow-derived monocytes normalizes the resolution of IL-1β-induced hyperalgesia in LysM-GRK2+/− mice. Adoptive transfer of IL-10−/− bone marrow-derived monocytes failed to normalize the duration of IL-1β-induced hyperalgesia in LysM-GRK2+/− mice. Mechanistically, we show that GRK2+/− macrophages produce less IL-10 in vitro. In addition, intrathecal IL-10 administration attenuated IL-1β-induced hyperalgesia in LysM-GRK2+/− mice, whereas it had no effect in wild-type mice. Our data uncover a key role for monocytes/macrophages in promoting resolution of inflammatory hyperalgesia via a mechanism dependent on IL-10 signaling in dorsal root ganglia. Perspective We show that IL-10-producing monocytes/macrophages promote resolution of transient inflammatory hyperalgesia. Additionally, we show that reduced monocyte/macrophage GRK2 impairs resolution of hyperalgesia and reduces IL-10 production. We propose that low GRK2 expression and/or impaired IL-10 production by monocytes/macrophages represent peripheral biomarkers for the risk of developing

  19. CCR2+ Monocyte-Derived Infiltrating Macrophages Are Required for Adverse Cardiac Remodeling During Pressure Overload

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    Bindiya Patel, PhD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Although chronic inflammation is a central feature of heart failure (HF, the immune cell profiles differ with different underlying causes. This suggests that for immunomodulatory therapy in HF to be successful, it needs to be tailored to the specific etiology. Here, the authors demonstrate that monocyte-derived C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2+ macrophages infiltrate the heart early during pressure overload in mice, and that blocking this response either pharmacologically or with antibody-mediated CCR2+ monocyte depletion alleviates late pathological left ventricular remodeling and dysfunction, T-cell expansion, and cardiac fibrosis. Hence, suppression of CCR2+ monocytes/macrophages may be an important immunomodulatory therapeutic target to ameliorate pressure-overload HF. Key Words: cardiac remodeling, heart failure, inflammation, macrophages, T cells

  20. Efficient, long term production of monocyte-derived macrophages from human pluripotent stem cells under partly-defined and fully-defined conditions.

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    Bonnie van Wilgenburg

    Full Text Available Human macrophages are specialised hosts for HIV-1, dengue virus, Leishmania and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Yet macrophage research is hampered by lack of appropriate cell models for modelling infection by these human pathogens, because available myeloid cell lines are, by definition, not terminally differentiated like tissue macrophages. We describe here a method for deriving monocytes and macrophages from human Pluripotent Stem Cells which improves on previously published protocols in that it uses entirely defined, feeder- and serum-free culture conditions and produces very consistent, pure, high yields across both human Embryonic Stem Cell (hESC and multiple human induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (hiPSC lines over time periods of up to one year. Cumulatively, up to ∼3×10(7 monocytes can be harvested per 6-well plate. The monocytes produced are most closely similar to the major blood monocyte (CD14(+, CD16(low, CD163(+. Differentiation with M-CSF produces macrophages that are highly phagocytic, HIV-1-infectable, and upon activation produce a pro-inflammatory cytokine profile similar to blood monocyte-derived macrophages. Macrophages are notoriously hard to genetically manipulate, as they recognise foreign nucleic acids; the lentivector system described here overcomes this, as pluripotent stem cells can be relatively simply genetically manipulated for efficient transgene expression in the differentiated cells, surmounting issues of transgene silencing. Overall, the method we describe here is an efficient, effective, scalable system for the reproducible production and genetic modification of human macrophages, facilitating the interrogation of human macrophage biology.

  1. Establishing porcine monocyte-derived macrophage and dendritic cell systems for studying the interaction with PRRSV-1

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    Helen eSingleton

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Monocyte-derived macrophages (MoMØ and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDC are two model systems well established in human and rodent systems that can be used to study the interaction of pathogens with host cells. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV is known to infect myeloid cells, such as macrophages (MØ and dendritic cells (DC. Therefore, this study aimed to establish systems for the differentiation and characterization of MoMØ and MoDC for subsequent infection with PRRSV-1. M-CSF differentiated monocyte-derived macrophages (MoMØ were stimulated with activators for classical (M1 or alternative (M2 activation. GM-CSF and IL-4 generated monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDC were activated with the well established maturation cocktail containing PAMPs and cytokines. In addition, MoMØ and MoDC were treated with dexamethasone and IL-10, which are known immuno-suppressive reagents. Cells were characterized by morphology, phenotype and function and porcine MØ subsets highlighted some divergence from described human counterparts, while MoDC, appeared more similar to mouse and human DCs. The infection with PRRSV-1 strain Lena demonstrated different replication kinetics between MoMØ and MoDC and within subsets of each cell type. While MoMØ susceptibility was significantly increased by dexamethasone and IL-10 with an accompanying increase in CD163/CD169 expression, MoDC supported only a minimal replication of PRRSV These findings underline the high variability in the susceptibility of porcine myeloid cells towards PRRSV-1 infection.

  2. Periodontitis-activated monocytes/macrophages cause aortic inflammation

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    Miyajima, Shin-ichi; Naruse, Keiko; Kobayashi, Yasuko; Nakamura, Nobuhisa; Nishikawa, Toru; Adachi, Kei; Suzuki, Yuki; Kikuchi, Takeshi; Mitani, Akio; Mizutani, Makoto; Ohno, Norikazu; Noguchi, Toshihide; Matsubara, Tatsuaki

    2014-01-01

    A relationship between periodontal disease and atherosclerosis has been suggested by epidemiological studies. Ligature-induced experimental periodontitis is an adequate model for clinical periodontitis, which starts from plaque accumulation, followed by inflammation in the periodontal tissue. Here we have demonstrated using a ligature-induced periodontitis model that periodontitis activates monocytes/macrophages, which subsequently circulate in the blood and adhere to vascular endothelial cells without altering the serum TNF-α concentration. Adherent monocytes/macrophages induced NF-κB activation and VCAM-1 expression in the endothelium and increased the expression of the TNF-α signaling cascade in the aorta. Peripheral blood-derived mononuclear cells from rats with experimental periodontitis showed enhanced adhesion and increased NF-κB/VCAM-1 in cultured vascular endothelial cells. Our results suggest that periodontitis triggers the initial pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, inflammation of the vasculature, through activating monocytes/macrophages. PMID:24893991

  3. HIV-1 Latency in Monocytes/Macrophages

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    Amit Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 targets CD4+ T cells and cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. HIV pathogenesis is characterized by the depletion of T lymphocytes and by the presence of a population of cells in which latency has been established called the HIV-1 reservoir. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has significantly improved the life of HIV-1 infected patients. However, complete eradication of HIV-1 from infected individuals is not possible without targeting latent sources of infection. HIV-1 establishes latent infection in resting CD4+ T cells and findings indicate that latency can also be established in the cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. Monocyte/macrophage lineage includes among others, monocytes, macrophages and brain resident macrophages. These cells are relatively more resistant to apoptosis induced by HIV-1, thus are important stable hideouts of the virus. Much effort has been made in the direction of eliminating HIV-1 resting CD4+ T-cell reservoirs. However, it is impossible to achieve a cure for HIV-1 without considering these neglected latent reservoirs, the cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. In this review we will describe our current understanding of the mechanism of latency in monocyte/macrophage lineage and how such cells can be specifically eliminated from the infected host.

  4. Death of Monocytes through Oxidative Burst of Macrophages and Neutrophils: Killing in Trans.

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    Viviane Ponath

    Full Text Available Monocytes and their descendants, macrophages, play a key role in the defence against pathogens. They also contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. Therefore, a mechanism maintaining a balance in the monocyte/macrophage population must be postulated. Our previous studies have shown that monocytes are impaired in DNA repair, rendering them vulnerable to genotoxic stress while monocyte-derived macrophages are DNA repair competent and genotoxic stress-resistant. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that monocytes can be selectively killed by reactive oxygen species (ROS produced by activated macrophages. We also wished to know whether monocytes and macrophages are protected against their own ROS produced following activation. To this end, we studied the effect of the ROS burst on DNA integrity, cell death and differentiation potential of monocytes. We show that monocytes, but not macrophages, stimulated for ROS production by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA undergo apoptosis, despite similar levels of initial DNA damage. Following co-cultivation with ROS producing macrophages, monocytes displayed oxidative DNA damage, accumulating DNA single-strand breaks and a high incidence of apoptosis, reducing their ability to give rise to new macrophages. Killing of monocytes by activated macrophages, termed killing in trans, was abolished by ROS scavenging and was also observed in monocytes co-cultivated with ROS producing activated granulocytes. The data revealed that monocytes, which are impaired in the repair of oxidised DNA lesions, are vulnerable to their own ROS and ROS produced by macrophages and granulocytes and support the hypothesis that this is a mechanism regulating the amount of monocytes and macrophages in a ROS-enriched inflammatory environment.

  5. Monocyte Trafficking, Engraftment, and Delivery of Nanoparticles and an Exogenous Gene into the Acutely Inflamed Brain Tissue - Evaluations on Monocyte-Based Delivery System for the Central Nervous System.

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    Hsin-I Tong

    Full Text Available The ability of monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM to travel towards chemotactic gradient, traverse tissue barriers, and accumulate precisely at diseased sites makes them attractive candidates as drug carriers and therapeutic gene delivery vehicles targeting the brain, where treatments are often hampered by the blockade of the blood brain barrier (BBB. This study was designed to fully establish an optimized cell-based delivery system using monocytes and MDM, by evaluating their homing efficiency, engraftment potential, as well as carriage and delivery ability to transport nano-scaled particles and exogenous genes into the brain, following the non-invasive intravenous (IV cell adoptive transfer in an acute neuroinflammation mouse model induced by intracranial injection of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides. We demonstrated that freshly isolated monocytes had superior inflamed-brain homing ability over MDM cultured in the presence of macrophage colony stimulating factor. In addition, brain trafficking of IV infused monocytes was positively correlated with the number of adoptive transferred cells, and could be further enhanced by transient disruption of the BBB with IV administration of Mannitol, Bradykinin or Serotonin right before cell infusion. A small portion of transmigrated cells was detected to differentiate into IBA-1 positive cells with microglia morphology in the brain. Finally, with the use of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles SHP30, the ability of nanoscale agent-carriage monocytes to enter the inflamed brain region was validated. In addition, lentiviral vector DHIV-101 was used to introduce green fluorescent protein (GFP gene into monocytes, and the exogenous GFP gene was detected in the brain at 48 hours following IV infusion of the transduced monocytes. All together, our study has set up the optimized conditions for the more-in-depth tests and development of monocyte-mediated delivery, and our data supported

  6. Activated human mast cells induce LOX-1-specific scavenger receptor expression in human monocyte-derived macrophages.

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    Mervi Alanne-Kinnunen

    Full Text Available Activated mast cells in atherosclerotic lesions degranulate and release bioactive compounds capable of regulating atherogenesis. Here we examined the ability of activated human primary mast cells to regulate the expression of the major scavenger receptors in cultured human primary monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDMs.Components released by immunologically activated human primary mast cells induced a transient expression of lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor (LOX-1 mRNA in HMDMs, while the expression of two other scavenger receptors, MSR1 and CD36, remained unaffected. The LOX-1-inducing secretory components were identified as histamine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β1, which exhibited a synergistic effect on LOX-1 mRNA expression. Histamine induced a transient expression of LOX-1 protein. Mast cell -induced increase in LOX-1 expression was not associated with increased uptake of oxidized LDL by the macrophages.Mast cell-derived histamine, TNF-α, and TGF-β1 act in concert to induce a transient increase in LOX-1 expression in human primary monocyte-derived macrophages. The LOX-1-inducing activity potentially endows mast cells a hitherto unrecognized role in the regulation of innate immune reactions in atherogenesis.

  7. Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Macrophages Share Ontogeny with MYB-Independent Tissue-Resident Macrophages

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    Julian Buchrieser

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Tissue-resident macrophages, such as microglia, Kupffer cells, and Langerhans cells, derive from Myb-independent yolk sac (YS progenitors generated before the emergence of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs. Myb-independent YS-derived resident macrophages self-renew locally, independently of circulating monocytes and HSCs. In contrast, adult blood monocytes, as well as infiltrating, gut, and dermal macrophages, derive from Myb-dependent HSCs. These findings are derived from the mouse, using gene knockouts and lineage tracing, but their applicability to human development has not been formally demonstrated. Here, we use human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs as a tool to model human hematopoietic development. By using a CRISPR-Cas9 knockout strategy, we show that human iPSC-derived monocytes/macrophages develop in an MYB-independent, RUNX1-, and SPI1 (PU.1-dependent fashion. This result makes human iPSC-derived macrophages developmentally related to and a good model for MYB-independent tissue-resident macrophages, such as alveolar and kidney macrophages, microglia, Kupffer cells, and Langerhans cells.

  8. Triglyceride-rich lipoprotein regulates APOB48 receptor gene expression in human THP-1 monocytes and macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, Beatriz; Lopez, Sergio; Varela, Lourdes M; Ortega, Almudena; Pacheco, Yolanda M; Moreda, Wenceslao; Moreno-Luna, Rafael; Abia, Rocio; Muriana, Francisco J G

    2012-02-01

    The postprandial metabolism of dietary fats implies that the production of TG-rich lipoproteins (TRL) contributes to the progression of plaque development. TRL and their remnants cause rapid receptor-mediated monocyte/macrophage lipid engorgement via the cell surface apoB48 receptor (apoB48R). However, the mechanistic basis for apoB48 receptor (APOB48R) regulation by postprandial TRL in monocytes and macrophages is not well established. In this study, we investigated the effects of postprandial TRL from healthy volunteers on the expression of APOB48R mRNA and lipid uptake in human THP-1 monocytes and THP-1-derived macrophages. The expression of APOB48R mRNA was upregulated in THP-1 monocytes, but downregulated in THP-1-derived macrophages when treated with postprandial TRL (P < 0.05), in a dose- and time-dependent manner. TG and free cholesterol were dramatically increased in THP-1-derived macrophages (140 and 50%, respectively; P < 0.05) and in THP-1 monocytes (160 and 95%, respectively; P < 0.05). This lipid accumulation was severely decreased (~50%; P < 0.05) in THP-1-derived macrophages by small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting of APOB48R. Using PPAR and retinoid X receptor (RXR) agonists, antagonists, and siRNA, our data indicate that PPARα, PPARγ, and RXRα are involved in postprandial TRL-induced APOB48R transcriptional regulation. Co-incubation with acyl-CoA synthetase or acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase inhibitors potentiated the effects of postprandial TRL on the expression of APOB48R mRNA in THP-1 monocytes and THP-1-derived macrophages. Our findings collectively suggest that APOB48R represents a molecular target of postprandial TRL via PPAR-dependent pathways in human THP-1 monocytes and macrophages and advance a potentially important link between postprandial metabolism of dietary fats and atherogenesis.

  9. Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1 (MKP-1) in macrophage biology and cardiovascular disease. A redox-regulated master controller of monocyte function and macrophage phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hong Seok; Asmis, Reto

    2017-08-01

    MAPK pathways play a critical role in the activation of monocytes and macrophages by pathogens, signaling molecules and environmental cues and in the regulation of macrophage function and plasticity. MAPK phosphatase 1 (MKP-1) has emerged as the main counter-regulator of MAPK signaling in monocytes and macrophages. Loss of MKP-1 in monocytes and macrophages in response to metabolic stress leads to dysregulation of monocyte adhesion and migration, and gives rise to dysfunctional, proatherogenic monocyte-derived macrophages. Here we review the properties of this redox-regulated dual-specificity MAPK phosphatase and the role of MKP-1 in monocyte and macrophage biology and cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Transcriptomic analysis of monocytes and macrophages derived from CLL patients which display differing abilities to respond to therapeutic antibody immune complexes

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    M. Burgess

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL is the most common adult leukemia. While therapeutic antibodies show clinical activity in CLL patients, resistance inevitably develops resulting in treatment failure. Identifying mechanisms of antibody resistance and methods to reduce resistance would be valuable in managing CLL. Monocyte derived cells (MDCs, also known as nurse like cells (NLCs in CLL [1,2], are known to be crucial components of the CLL microenvironment network and following “maturation” in in vitro culture systems are able to provide support for the survival of the malignant B cells from CLL patients. In addition to their protective role, MDCs are key effector cells in mediating responses to therapeutic antibody therapies [3]. We have determined that macrophages from patients with early stable CLL are able to elicit superior cytotoxic response to therapeutic antibodies than macrophages derived from patients with progressive CLL. We have exploited this unique finding to gain insight into antibody resistance. Thus, we have profiled monocytes on day 0 and MDCs on day 7 from antibody sensitive and antibody resistant CLL patients (GEO accession number GEO: GSE71409. We show that there are no significant differences in transcriptomes from the monocytes or MDCs derived from sensitive or resistant patient samples. However, we show that MDCs acquire an M2-like macrophage transcriptomic signature following 7 days culture regardless of whether they were derived from sensitive or resistant patient samples. Keywords: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Monocyte derived cells, Antibody resistance, Microarray

  11. Chronic Iron Overload Results in Impaired Bacterial Killing of THP-1 Derived Macrophage through the Inhibition of Lysosomal Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Jun-Kai; Wang, Shih-Chung; Ho, Li-Wei; Huang, Shi-Wei; Chang, Shu-Hao; Yang, Rei-Cheng; Ke, Yu-Yuan; Wu, Chun-Ying; Wang, Jiu-Yao; Shieh, Jeng-Jer

    2016-01-01

    Iron is essential for living organisms and the disturbance of iron homeostasis is associated with altered immune function. Additionally, bacterial infections can cause major complications in instances of chronic iron overload, such as patients with transfusion-dependent thalassemia. Monocytes and macrophages play important roles in maintaining systemic iron homoeostasis and in defense against invading pathogens. However, the effect of iron overload on the function of monocytes and macrophages is unclear. We elucidated the effects of chronic iron overload on human monocytic cell line (THP-1) and THP-1 derived macrophages (TDM) by continuously exposing them to high levels of iron (100 μM) to create I-THP-1 and I-TDM, respectively. Our results show that iron overload did not affect morphology or granularity of I-THP-1, but increased the granularity of I-TDM. Bactericidal assays for non-pathogenic E. coli DH5α, JM109 and pathogenic P. aeruginosa all revealed decreased efficiency with increasing iron concentration in I-TDM. The impaired P. aeruginosa killing ability of human primary monocyte derived macrophages (hMDM) was also found when cells are cultured in iron contained medium. Further studies on the bactericidal activity of I-TDM revealed lysosomal dysfunction associated with the inhibition of lysosomal acidification resulting in increasing lysosomal pH, the impairment of post-translational processing of cathepsins (especially cathepsin D), and decreased autophagic flux. These findings may explain the impaired innate immunity of thalassemic patients with chronic iron overload, suggesting the manipulation of lysosomal function as a novel therapeutic approach. PMID:27244448

  12. Glucose transporter expression differs between bovine monocyte and macrophage subsets and is influenced by milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eger, M; Hussen, J; Koy, M; Dänicke, S; Schuberth, H-J; Breves, G

    2016-03-01

    The peripartal period of dairy cows is characterized by negative energy balance and higher incidences of infectious diseases such as mastitis or metritis. With the onset of lactation, milk production is prioritized and large amounts of glucose are transported into the mammary gland. Decreased overall energy availability might impair the function of monocytes acting as key innate immune cells, which give rise to macrophages and dendritic cells and link innate and adaptive immunity. Information on glucose requirements of bovine immune cells is rare. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate glucose transporter expression of the 3 bovine monocyte subsets (classical, intermediate, and nonclassical monocytes) and monocyte-derived macrophages and to identify influences of the peripartal period. Blood samples were either collected from nonpregnant healthy cows or from 16 peripartal German Holstein cows at d -14, +7, and +21 relative to parturition. Quantitative real-time PCR was applied to determine mRNA expression of glucose transporters (GLUT) 1, GLUT3, and GLUT4 in monocyte subsets and monocyte-derived macrophages. The low GLUT1 and GLUT3 expression in nonclassical monocytes was unaltered during differentiation into macrophages, whereas in classical and intermediate monocytes GLUT expression was downregulated. Alternatively activated M2 macrophages consumed more glucose compared with classically activated M1 macrophages. The GLUT4 mRNA was only detectable in unstimulated macrophages. Neither monocytes nor macrophages were insulin responsive. In the peripartum period, monocyte GLUT1 and GLUT3 expression and the GLUT3/GLUT1 ratio were negatively correlated with lactose production. The high-affinity GLUT3 transporter appears to be the predominant glucose transporter on bovine monocytes and macrophages, especially in the peripartal period when blood glucose levels decline. Glucose transporter expression in monocytes is downregulated as a function of lactose production, which

  13. Human CD68 promoter GFP transgenic mice allow analysis of monocyte to macrophage differentiation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Asif J; McNeill, Eileen; Kapellos, Theodore S; Regan-Komito, Daniel; Norman, Sophie; Burd, Sarah; Smart, Nicola; Machemer, Daniel E W; Stylianou, Elena; McShane, Helen; Channon, Keith M; Chawla, Ajay; Greaves, David R

    2014-10-09

    The recruitment of monocytes and their differentiation into macrophages at sites of inflammation are key events in determining the outcome of the inflammatory response and initiating the return to tissue homeostasis. To study monocyte trafficking and macrophage differentiation in vivo, we have generated a novel transgenic reporter mouse expressing a green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the human CD68 promoter. CD68-GFP mice express high levels of GFP in both monocyte and embryo-derived tissue resident macrophages in adult animals. The human CD68 promoter drives GFP expression in all CD115(+) monocytes of adult blood, spleen, and bone marrow; we took advantage of this to directly compare the trafficking of bone marrow-derived CD68-GFP monocytes to that of CX3CR1(GFP) monocytes in vivo using a sterile zymosan peritonitis model. Unlike CX3CR1(GFP) monocytes, which downregulate GFP expression on differentiation into macrophages in this model, CD68-GFP monocytes retain high-level GFP expression for 72 hours after differentiation into macrophages, allowing continued cell tracking during resolution of inflammation. In summary, this novel CD68-GFP transgenic reporter mouse line represents a powerful resource for analyzing monocyte mobilization and monocyte trafficking as well as studying the fate of recruited monocytes in models of acute and chronic inflammation. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.

  14. Nanoparticles as Antituberculosis Drugs Carriers: Effect on Activity Against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisimova, Y.V.; Gelperina, S.I.; Peloquin, C.A.; Heifets, L.B.

    2000-01-01

    This is the first report evaluating the nanoparticle delivery system for three antituberculosis drugs: isoniazid, rifampin, and streptomycin. The typical particle size is 250 nm. We studied accumulation of these drugs in human monocytes as well as their antimicrobial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis residing in human monocyte-derived macrophages. Nanoparticle encapsulation increased the intracellular accumulation (cell-association) of all three tested drugs, but it enhanced the antimicrobial activity of isoniazid and streptomycin only. On the other hand, the activity of encapsulated rifampin against intracellular bacteria was not higher than that of the free drug

  15. Convenience versus Biological Significance: Are PMA-Differentiated THP-1 Cells a Reliable Substitute for Blood-Derived Macrophages When Studying in Vitro Polarization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Serena; De Majo, Federica; Kim, Jieun; Trenti, Annalisa; Trevisi, Lucia; Fadini, Gian Paolo; Bolego, Chiara; Zandstra, Peter W; Cignarella, Andrea; Vitiello, Libero

    2018-01-01

    Human peripheral-blood monocytes are used as an established in vitro system for generating macrophages. For several reasons, monocytic cell lines such as THP-1 have been considered as a possible alternative. In view of their distinct developmental origins and phenotypic attributes, we set out to assess the extent to which human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-differentiated THP-1 cells were overlapping across a variety of responses to activating stimuli. Resting (M0) macrophages were polarized toward M1 or M2 phenotypes by 48-h incubation with LPS (1 μg/ml) and IFN-γ (10 ng/ml) or with IL-4 (20 ng/ml) and IL-13 (5 ng/ml), respectively. At the end of stimulation, MDMs displayed more pronounced changes in marker gene expression than THP-1. Upon assaying an array of 41 cytokines, chemokines and growth factors in conditioned media (CM) using the Luminex technology, secretion of 29 out of the 41 proteins was affected by polarized activation. While in 12 of them THP-1 and MDM showed comparable trends, for the remaining 17 proteins their responses to activating stimuli did markedly differ. Quantitative comparison for selected analytes confirmed this pattern. In terms of phenotypic activation markers, measured by flow cytometry, M1 response was similar but the established MDM M2 marker CD163 was undetectable in THP-1 cells. In a beads-based assay, MDM activation did not induce significant changes, whereas M2 activation of THP-1 decreased phagocytic activity compared to M0 and M1. In further biological activity tests, both MDM and THP-1 CM failed to affect proliferation of mouse myogenic progenitors, whereas they both reduced adipogenic differentiation of mouse fibro-adipogenic progenitor cells (M2 to a lesser extent than M1 and M0). Finally, migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells was enhanced by CM irrespective of cell type and activation state except for M0 CM from MDMs. In summary, PMA-differentiated THP-1

  16. MONOCYTES AND MACROPHAGES IN PREGNANCY AND PREECLAMPSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijke M Faas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is an important complication in pregnancy, characterized byhypertension and proteinuria in the second half of pregnancy. Generalizedactivation of the inflammatory response is thought to play a role in thepathogenesis of preeclampsia. Monocytes may play a central role in thisinflammatory response. Monocytes are short lived cells, that mature in thecirculation and invade into tissues upon an inflammatory stimulus anddevelop into macrophages. Macrophages are abundantly present in theendometrium and play a role in implantation and placentation in normalpregnancy. In preeclampsia, these macrophages appear to be present in largernumbers and are also activated. In the present review we focused on the roleof monocytes and macrophages in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia.

  17. FC-99 ameliorates sepsis-induced liver dysfunction by modulating monocyte/macrophage differentiation via Let-7a related monocytes apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yarong; Zhu, Haiyan; Wang, Haining; Ding, Liang; Xu, Lizhi; Chen, Dai; Shen, Sunan; Hou, Yayi; Dou, Huan

    2018-03-13

    The liver is a vital target for sepsis-related injury, leading to inflammatory pathogenesis, multiple organ dysfunction and high mortality rates. Monocyte-derived macrophage transformations are key events in hepatic inflammation. N 1 -[(4-methoxy)methyl]-4-methyl-1,2-benzenediamine (FC-99) previously displayed therapeutic potential on experimental sepsis. However, the underlying mechanism of this protective effect is still not clear. FC-99 treatment attenuated the liver dysfunction in septic mice that was accompanied with reduced numbers of pro-inflammatory Ly6C hi monocytes in the peripheral blood and CD11b + F4/80 lo monocyte-derived macrophages in the liver. These effects were attributed to the FC-99-induced apoptosis of CD11b + cells. In PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells, FC-99 repressed the expression of CD11b, CD14 and caspase3 and resulted in a high proportion of Annexin V + cells. Moreover, let-7a-5p expression was abrogated upon CLP stimulation in vivo , whereas it was restored by FC-99 treatment. TargetScan analysis and luciferase assays indicated that the anti-apoptotic protein BCL-XL was targeted by let-7a-5p. BCL-XL was inhibited by FC-99 in order to induce monocyte apoptosis, leading to the impaired monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation. Murine acute liver failure was generated by caecal ligation puncture surgery after FC-99 administration; Blood samples and liver tissues were collected to determine the monocyte/macrophage subsets and the induction of apoptosis. Human acute monocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1) cells were pretreated with FC-99 followed by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) stimulation, in order to induce monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation. The target of FC-99 and the mechanistic analyses were conducted by microarrays, qRT-PCR validation, TargetScan algorithms and a luciferase report assay. FC-99 exhibits potential therapeutic effects on CLP-induced liver dysfunction by restoring let-7a-5p levels.

  18. Protein energy malnutrition increases arginase activity in monocytes and macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corware, Karina; Yardley, Vanessa; Mack, Christopher; Schuster, Steffen; Al-Hassi, Hafid; Herath, Shanthi; Bergin, Philip; Modolell, Manuel; Munder, Markus; Müller, Ingrid; Kropf, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    Protein energy malnutrition is commonly associated with immune dysfunctions and is a major factor in susceptibility to infectious diseases. In this study, we evaluated the impact of protein energy malnutrition on the capacity of monocytes and macrophages to upregulate arginase, an enzyme associated with immunosuppression and increased pathogen replication. Our results show that monocytes and macrophages are significantly increased in the bone marrow and blood of mice fed on a protein low diet. No alteration in the capacity of bone marrow derived macrophages isolated from malnourished mice to phagocytose particles, to produce the microbicidal molecule nitric oxide and to kill intracellular Leishmania parasites was detected. However, macrophages and monocytes from malnourished mice express significantly more arginase both in vitro and in vivo. Using an experimental model of visceral leishmaniasis, we show that following protein energy malnutrition, the increased parasite burden measured in the spleen of these mice coincided with increased arginase activity and that macrophages provide a more permissive environment for parasite growth. Taken together, these results identify a novel mechanism in protein energy malnutrition that might contributes to increased susceptibility to infectious diseases by upregulating arginase activity in myeloid cells.

  19. DMPD: Monocyte/macrophage traffic in HIV and SIV encephalitis. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 12960230 Monocyte/macrophage traffic in HIV and SIV encephalitis. Kim WK, Corey S, ...Alvarez X, Williams K. J Leukoc Biol. 2003 Nov;74(5):650-6. Epub 2003 Aug 11. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Monocyte/macrophage... traffic in HIV and SIV encephalitis. PubmedID 12960230 Title Monocyte/macrophage tr

  20. DMPD: Shaping of monocyte and macrophage function by adenosine receptors. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17056121 Shaping of monocyte and macrophage function by adenosine receptors. Hasko ...tml) (.csml) Show Shaping of monocyte and macrophage function by adenosine receptors. PubmedID 17056121 Titl...e Shaping of monocyte and macrophage function by adenosine receptors. Authors Has

  1. Viral infection of human lung macrophages increases PDL1 expression via IFNβ.

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    Karl J Staples

    Full Text Available Lung macrophages are an important defence against respiratory viral infection and recent work has demonstrated that influenza-induced macrophage PDL1 expression in the murine lung leads to rapid modulation of CD8+ T cell responses via the PD1 receptor. This PD1/PDL1 pathway may downregulate acute inflammatory responses to prevent tissue damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of PDL1 regulation by human macrophages in response to viral infection. Ex-vivo viral infection models using influenza and RSV were established in human lung explants, isolated lung macrophages and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM and analysed by flow cytometry and RT-PCR. Incubation of lung explants, lung macrophages and MDM with X31 resulted in mean cellular infection rates of 18%, 18% and 29% respectively. Viral infection significantly increased cell surface expression of PDL1 on explant macrophages, lung macrophages and MDM but not explant epithelial cells. Infected MDM induced IFNγ release from autologous CD8+ T cells, an effect enhanced by PDL1 blockade. We observed increases in PDL1 mRNA and IFNβ mRNA and protein release by MDM in response to influenza infection. Knockdown of IFNβ by siRNA, resulted in a 37.5% reduction in IFNβ gene expression in response to infection, and a significant decrease in PDL1 mRNA. Furthermore, when MDM were incubated with IFNβ, this cytokine caused increased expression of PDL1 mRNA. These data indicate that human macrophage PDL1 expression modulates CD8+ cell IFNγ release in response to virus and that this expression is regulated by autologous IFNβ production.

  2. Distinct Properties of Human M-CSF and GM-CSF Monocyte-Derived Macrophages to Simulate Pathological Lung Conditions In Vitro: Application to Systemic and Inflammatory Disorders with Pulmonary Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescoat, Alain; Ballerie, Alice; Augagneur, Yu; Morzadec, Claudie; Vernhet, Laurent; Fardel, Olivier; Jégo, Patrick; Jouneau, Stéphane; Lecureur, Valérie

    2018-03-17

    Macrophages play a central role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and fibrotic lung diseases. However, alveolar macrophages (AM) are poorly available in humans to perform in vitro studies due to a limited access to broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL). In this study, to identify the best alternative in vitro model for human AM, we compared the phenotype of AM obtained from BAL of patients suffering from three lung diseases (lung cancers, sarcoidosis and Systemic Sclerosis (SSc)-associated interstitial lung disease) to human blood monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) differentiated with M-CSF or GM-CSF. The expression of eight membrane markers was evaluated by flow cytometry. Globally, AM phenotype was closer to GM-CSF MDMs. However, the expression levels of CD163, CD169, CD204, CD64 and CD36 were significantly higher in SSc-ILD than in lung cancers. Considering the expression of CD204 and CD36, the phenotype of SSc-AM was closer to MDMs, from healthy donors or SSc patients, differentiated by M-CSF rather than GM-CSF. The comparative secretion of IL-6 by SSc-MDMs and SSc-AM is concordant with these phenotypic considerations. Altogether, these results support the M-CSF MDM model as a relevant in vitro alternative to simulate AM in fibrotic disorders such as SSc.

  3. Genome-wide association study identifies single nucleotide polymorphism in DYRK1A associated with replication of HIV-1 in monocyte-derived macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiaan M Bol

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 infected macrophages play an important role in rendering resting T cells permissive for infection, in spreading HIV-1 to T cells, and in the pathogenesis of AIDS dementia. During highly active anti-retroviral treatment (HAART, macrophages keep producing virus because tissue penetration of antiretrovirals is suboptimal and the efficacy of some is reduced. Thus, to cure HIV-1 infection with antiretrovirals we will also need to efficiently inhibit viral replication in macrophages. The majority of the current drugs block the action of viral enzymes, whereas there is an abundance of yet unidentified host factors that could be targeted. We here present results from a genome-wide association study identifying novel genetic polymorphisms that affect in vitro HIV-1 replication in macrophages.Monocyte-derived macrophages from 393 blood donors were infected with HIV-1 and viral replication was determined using Gag p24 antigen levels. Genomic DNA from individuals with macrophages that had relatively low (n = 96 or high (n = 96 p24 production was used for SNP genotyping with the Illumina 610 Quad beadchip. A total of 494,656 SNPs that passed quality control were tested for association with HIV-1 replication in macrophages, using linear regression. We found a strong association between in vitro HIV-1 replication in monocyte-derived macrophages and SNP rs12483205 in DYRK1A (p = 2.16 × 10(-5. While the association was not genome-wide significant (p<1 × 10(-7, we could replicate this association using monocyte-derived macrophages from an independent group of 31 individuals (p = 0.0034. Combined analysis of the initial and replication cohort increased the strength of the association (p = 4.84 × 10(-6. In addition, we found this SNP to be associated with HIV-1 disease progression in vivo in two independent cohort studies (p = 0.035 and p = 0.0048.These findings suggest that the kinase DYRK1A is involved in the replication of HIV-1, in vitro in macrophages

  4. Phenotype and Function of CD209+ Bovine Blood Dendritic Cells, Monocyte-Derived-Dendritic Cells and Monocyte-Derived Macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Taek Park

    Full Text Available Phylogenic comparisons of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS of humans and mice demonstrate phenotypic divergence of dendritic cell (DC subsets that play similar roles in innate and adaptive immunity. Although differing in phenotype, DC can be classified into four groups according to ontogeny and function: conventional DC (cDC1 and cDC2, plasmacytoid DC (pDC, and monocyte derived DC (MoDC. DC of Artiodactyla (pigs and ruminants can also be sub-classified using this system, allowing direct functional and phenotypic comparison of MoDC and other DC subsets trafficking in blood (bDC. Because of the high volume of blood collections required to study DC, cattle offer the best opportunity to further our understanding of bDC and MoDC function in an outbred large animal species. As reported here, phenotyping DC using a monoclonal antibody (mAb to CD209 revealed CD209 is expressed on the major myeloid population of DC present in blood and MoDC, providing a phenotypic link between these two subsets. Additionally, the present study demonstrates that CD209 is also expressed on monocyte derived macrophages (MoΦ. Functional analysis revealed each of these populations can take up and process antigens (Ags, present them to CD4 and CD8 T cells, and elicit a T-cell recall response. Thus, bDC, MoDC, and MoΦ pulsed with pathogens or candidate vaccine antigens can be used to study factors that modulate DC-driven T-cell priming and differentiation ex vivo.

  5. Development and characterization of a bovine monocyte-derived macrophage cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monocytes circulate in the blood, and later differentiate into macrophages in the tissues. They are components of the innate arm of the immune response and are one of the first lines of defense again invading pathogens. However, they also serve as host cells for intracellular pathogens such as Mycob...

  6. A distinguishing gene signature shared by tumor-infiltrating Tie2-expressing monocytes, blood "resident" monocytes, and embryonic macrophages suggests common functions and developmental relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucci, Ferdinando; Venneri, Mary Anna; Biziato, Daniela; Nonis, Alessandro; Moi, Davide; Sica, Antonio; Di Serio, Clelia; Naldini, Luigi; De Palma, Michele

    2009-07-23

    We previously showed that Tie2-expressing monocytes (TEMs) have nonredundant proangiogenic activity in tumors. Here, we compared the gene expression profile of tumor-infiltrating TEMs with that of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), spleen-derived Gr1(+)Cd11b(+) neutrophils/myeloid-derived suppressor cells, circulating "inflammatory" and "resident" monocytes, and tumor-derived endothelial cells (ECs) by quantitative polymerase chain reaction-based gene arrays. TEMs sharply differed from ECs and Gr1(+)Cd11b(+) cells but were highly related to TAMs. Nevertheless, several genes were differentially expressed between TEMs and TAMs, highlighting a TEM signature consistent with enhanced proangiogenic/tissue-remodeling activity and lower proinflammatory activity. We validated these findings in models of oncogenesis and transgenic mice expressing a microRNA-regulated Tie2-GFP reporter. Remarkably, resident monocytes and TEMs on one hand, and inflammatory monocytes and TAMs on the other hand, expressed coordinated gene expression profiles, suggesting that the 2 blood monocyte subsets are committed to distinct extravascular fates in the tumor microenvironment. We further showed that a prominent proportion of embryonic/fetal macrophages, which participate in tissue morphogenesis, expressed distinguishing TEM genes. It is tempting to speculate that Tie2(+) embryonic/fetal macrophages, resident blood monocytes, and tumor-infiltrating TEMs represent distinct developmental stages of a TEM lineage committed to execute physiologic proangiogenic and tissue-remodeling programs, which can be co-opted by tumors.

  7. Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in DYRK1A Associated with Replication of HIV-1 in Monocyte-Derived Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bol, Sebastiaan M.; Moerland, Perry D.; Limou, Sophie; van Remmerden, Yvonne; Coulonges, Cédric; van Manen, Daniëlle; Herbeck, Joshua T.; Fellay, Jacques; Sieberer, Margit; Sietzema, Jantine G.; van 't Slot, Ruben; Martinson, Jeremy; Zagury, Jean-François; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; van 't Wout, Angélique B.

    2011-01-01

    Background HIV-1 infected macrophages play an important role in rendering resting T cells permissive for infection, in spreading HIV-1 to T cells, and in the pathogenesis of AIDS dementia. During highly active anti-retroviral treatment (HAART), macrophages keep producing virus because tissue penetration of antiretrovirals is suboptimal and the efficacy of some is reduced. Thus, to cure HIV-1 infection with antiretrovirals we will also need to efficiently inhibit viral replication in macrophages. The majority of the current drugs block the action of viral enzymes, whereas there is an abundance of yet unidentified host factors that could be targeted. We here present results from a genome-wide association study identifying novel genetic polymorphisms that affect in vitro HIV-1 replication in macrophages. Methodology/Principal Findings Monocyte-derived macrophages from 393 blood donors were infected with HIV-1 and viral replication was determined using Gag p24 antigen levels. Genomic DNA from individuals with macrophages that had relatively low (n = 96) or high (n = 96) p24 production was used for SNP genotyping with the Illumina 610 Quad beadchip. A total of 494,656 SNPs that passed quality control were tested for association with HIV-1 replication in macrophages, using linear regression. We found a strong association between in vitro HIV-1 replication in monocyte-derived macrophages and SNP rs12483205 in DYRK1A (p = 2.16×10−5). While the association was not genome-wide significant (p<1×10−7), we could replicate this association using monocyte-derived macrophages from an independent group of 31 individuals (p = 0.0034). Combined analysis of the initial and replication cohort increased the strength of the association (p = 4.84×10−6). In addition, we found this SNP to be associated with HIV-1 disease progression in vivo in two independent cohort studies (p = 0.035 and p = 0.0048). Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that

  8. Alcohol Enhances HIV Infection of Cord Blood Monocyte-Derived Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrogiannis, Dimitrios S.; Wang, Xu; Dai, Min; Li, Jieliang; Wang, Yizhong; Zhou, Yu; Sakarcan, Selin; Peña, Juliet Crystal; Ho, Wenzhe

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol consumption or alcohol abuse is common among pregnant HIV+ women and has been identified as a potential behavioral risk factor for the transmission of HIV. In this study, we examined the impact of alcohol on HIV infection of cord blood monocyte-derived macrophages (CBMDM). We demonstrated that alcohol treatment of CBMDM significantly enhanced HIV infection of CBMDM. Investigation of the mechanisms of alcohol action on HIV demonstrated that alcohol inhibited the expression of several HIV restriction factors, including anti-HIV microRNAs, APOBEC3G and APOBEC3H. Additionally, alcohol also suppressed the expression of IFN regulatory factor 7 (IRF-7) and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I), an intracellular sensor of viral infection. The suppression of these IFN regulatory factors was associated with reduced expression of type I IFN. These experimental findings suggest that maternal alcohol consumption may facilitate HIV infection, promoting vertical transmission of HIV. PMID:25053361

  9. A macrophage activation switch (MAcS)-index for assessment of monocyte/macrophage activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maniecki, Maciej Bogdan; Lauridsen, Mette; Knudsen, Troels Bygum

    2008-01-01

    , simplified by the M1-M2 dichotomy of classically activated (M1), pro-inflammatory cells and alternatively activated (M2), anti-inflammatory cells. Macrophages, however, display a large degree of flexibility and are able to switch between activation states (1). The hemoglobin scavenger receptor CD163...... is expressed exclusively on monocytes and macrophages, and its expression is strongly induced by anti-inflammatory stimuli like IL10 and glucocorticoid, making CD163 an ideal M2 macrophage marker (2). Furthermore a soluble variant of CD163 (sCD163) is shed from the cell surface to plasma by protease mediated.......058-5139) (panti-inflammatory state.   CONCLUSION: We present a CD163-derived macrophage activation switch (MAcS)-index, which seems able to differentiate between (predominantly) pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory macrophage activation. The index needs...

  10. Intracellular glutathione status regulates mouse bone marrow monocyte-derived macrophage differentiation and phagocytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin-Man; Kim, Hyunsoo; Kwon, Soon Bok; Lee, Soo Young; Chung, Sung-Chang; Jeong, Dae-Won; Min, Byung-Moo

    2004-01-01

    Although a redox shift can regulate the development of cells, including proliferation, differentiation, and survival, the role of the glutathione (GSH) redox status in macrophage differentiation remains unclear. In order to elucidate the role of a redox shift, macrophage-like cells were differentiated from the bone marrow-derived monocytes that were treated with a macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF or CSF-1) for 3 days. The macrophagic cells were characterized by a time-dependent increase in three major symptoms: the number of phagocytic cells, the number of adherent cells, and the mRNA expression of c-fms, a M-CSF receptor that is one of the macrophage-specific markers and mediates development signals. Upon M-CSF-driven macrophage differentiation, the GSH/GSSG ratio was significantly lower on day 1 than that observed on day 0 but was constant on days 1-3. To assess the effect of the GSH-depleted and -repleted status on the differentiation and phagocytosis of the macrophages, GSH depletion by BSO, a specific inhibitor of the de novo GSH synthesis, inhibited the formation of the adherent macrophagic cells by the down-regulation of c-fms, but did not affect the phagocytic activity of the macrophages. To the contrary, GSH repletion by the addition of NAC, which is a GSH precursor, or reduced GSH in media had no effect on macrophage differentiation, and led to a decrease in the phagocytic activity. Furthermore, we observed that there is checkpoint that is capable of releasing from the inhibition of the formation of the adherent macrophagic cells according to GSH depletion by BSO. Summarizing, these results indicate that the intracellular GSH status plays an important role in the differentiation and phagocytosis of macrophages

  11. DMPD: The oxidation of lipoproteins by monocytes-macrophages. Biochemical andbiological mechanisms. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 10473535 The oxidation of lipoproteins by monocytes-macrophages. Biochemical andbio.... (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show The oxidation of lipoproteins by monocytes-macrophages. Biochemical and...onocytes-macrophages. Biochemical andbiological mechanisms. Authors Chisolm GM 3rd, Hazen SL, Fox PL, Cathca

  12. Hyperglycemia induces mixed M1/M2 cytokine profile in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moganti, Kondaiah; Li, Feng; Schmuttermaier, Christina; Riemann, Sarah; Klüter, Harald; Gratchev, Alexei; Harmsen, Martin C; Kzhyshkowska, Julia

    2017-10-01

    Hyperglycaemia is a key factor in diabetic pathology. Macrophages are essential regulators of inflammation which can be classified into two major vectors of polarisation: classically activated macrophages (M1) and alternatively activated macrophages (M2). Both types of macrophages play a role in diabetes, where M1 and M2-produced cytokines can have detrimental effects in development of diabetes-associated inflammation and diabetic vascular complications. However, the effect of hyperglycaemia on differentiation and programming of primary human macrophages was not systematically studied. We established a unique model to assess the influence of hyperglycaemia on M1 and M2 differentiation based on primary human monocyte-derived macrophages. The effects of hyperglycaemia on the gene expression and secretion of prototype M1 cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-1beta, and prototype M2 cytokines IL-1Ra and CCL18 were quantified by RT-PCR and ELISA. Hyperglycaemia stimulated production of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-1Ra during macrophage differentiation. The effect of hyperglycaemia on TNF-alpha was acute, while the stimulating effect on IL-1beta and IL-1Ra was constitutive. Expression of CCL18 was supressed in M2 macrophages by hyperglycaemia. However the secreted levels remained to be biologically significant. Our data indicate that hyperglycaemia itself, without additional metabolic factors induces mixed M1/M2 cytokine profile that can support of diabetes-associated inflammation and development of vascular complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Moderate Increase of Indoxyl Sulfate Promotes Monocyte Transition into Profibrotic Macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Barisione

    Full Text Available The uremic toxin Indoxyl-3-sulphate (IS, a ligand of Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR, raises in blood during early renal dysfunction as a consequence of tubular damage, which may be present even when eGFR is normal or only moderately reduced, and promotes cardiovascular damage and monocyte-macrophage activation. We previously found that patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs have higher CD14+CD16+ monocyte frequency and prevalence of moderate chronic kidney disease (CKD than age-matched control subjects. Here we aimed to evaluate the IS levels in plasma from AAA patients and to investigate in vitro the effects of IS concentrations corresponding to mild-to-moderate CKD on monocyte polarization and macrophage differentiation.Free IS plasma levels, monocyte subsets and laboratory parameters were evaluated on blood from AAA patients and eGFR-matched controls. THP-1 monocytes, treated with IS 1, 10, 20 μM were evaluated for CD163 expression, AhR signaling and then induced to differentiate into macrophages by PMA. Their phenotype was evaluated both at the stage of semi-differentiated and fully differentiated macrophages. AAA and control sera were similarly used to treat THP-1 monocytes and the resulting macrophage phenotype was analyzed.IS plasma concentration correlated positively with CD14+CD16+ monocytes and was increased in AAA patients. In THP-1 cells, IS promoted CD163 expression and transition to macrophages with hallmarks of classical (IL-6, CCL2, COX2 and alternative phenotype (IL-10, PPARγ, TGF-β, TIMP-1, via AhR/Nrf2 activation. Analogously, AAA sera induced differentiation of macrophages with enhanced IL-6, MCP1, TGF-β, PPARγ and TIMP-1 expression.IS skews monocyte differentiation toward low-inflammatory, profibrotic macrophages and may contribute to sustain chronic inflammation and maladaptive vascular remodeling.

  14. Tumor-Associated Macrophages Derived from Circulating Inflammatory Monocytes Degrade Collagen through Cellular Uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Daniel Hargbøl; Jürgensen, Henrik Jessen; Siersbæk, Majken Storm

    2017-01-01

    -associated macrophage (TAM)-like cells that degrade collagen in a mannose receptor-dependent manner. Accordingly, mannose-receptor-deficient mice display increased intratumoral collagen. Whole-transcriptome profiling uncovers a distinct extracellular matrix-catabolic signature of these collagen-degrading TAMs. Lineage......-ablation studies reveal that collagen-degrading TAMs originate from circulating CCR2+ monocytes. This study identifies a function of TAMs in altering the tumor microenvironment through endocytic collagen turnover and establishes macrophages as centrally engaged in tumor-associated collagen degradation. Madsen et...

  15. Differential effects of malignant mesothelioma cells on THP-1 monocytes and macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzi, Valerio; Chiurchiù, Valerio; D'Aquilio, Fabiola; Palumbo, Camilla; Tresoldi, Ilaria; Modesti, Andrea; Baldini, Patrizia M

    2009-02-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a highly fatal tumor arising from inner body membranes, whose extensive growth is facilitated by its week immunogenicity and by its ability to blunt the immune response which should arise from the huge mass of leukocytes typically infiltrating this tumor. It has been reported that the inflammatory infiltrate found in MM tissues is characterized by a high prevalence of macrophages. Thus, in this work we evaluated the ability of human MM cells to modulate the inflammatory phenotype of human THP-1 monocytes and macrophages, a widely used in vitro model of monocyte/macrophage differentiation. Furthermore, we tested the hypothesis that the exposure to MM cells could alter the differentiation of THP-1 monocytes favoring the development of alternatively activated, tumor-supporting macrophages. Our data prove for the first time that MM cells can polarize monocytes towards an altered inflammatory phenotype and macrophages towards an immunosuppressive phenotype. Moreover, we demonstrate that monocytes cocultivated with MM cells 'keep a memory' of their encounter with the tumor which influences their differentiation to macrophages. On the whole, we provide evidence that MM cells exert distinct, cell-specific effects on monocytes and macrophages. The thorough characterization of such effects may be of a crucial importance for the rational design of new immunotherapeutic protocols.

  16. A Liver Capsular Network of Monocyte-Derived Macrophages Restricts Hepatic Dissemination of Intraperitoneal Bacteria by Neutrophil Recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierro, Frederic; Evrard, Maximilien; Rizzetto, Simone; Melino, Michelle; Mitchell, Andrew J; Florido, Manuela; Beattie, Lynette; Walters, Shaun B; Tay, Szun Szun; Lu, Bo; Holz, Lauren E; Roediger, Ben; Wong, Yik Chun; Warren, Alessandra; Ritchie, William; McGuffog, Claire; Weninger, Wolfgang; Le Couteur, David G; Ginhoux, Florent; Britton, Warwick J; Heath, William R; Saunders, Bernadette M; McCaughan, Geoffrey W; Luciani, Fabio; MacDonald, Kelli P A; Ng, Lai Guan; Bowen, David G; Bertolino, Patrick

    2017-08-15

    The liver is positioned at the interface between two routes traversed by pathogens in disseminating infection. Whereas blood-borne pathogens are efficiently cleared in hepatic sinusoids by Kupffer cells (KCs), it is unknown how the liver prevents dissemination of peritoneal pathogens accessing its outer membrane. We report here that the hepatic capsule harbors a contiguous cellular network of liver-resident macrophages phenotypically distinct from KCs. These liver capsular macrophages (LCMs) were replenished in the steady state from blood monocytes, unlike KCs that are embryonically derived and self-renewing. LCM numbers increased after weaning in a microbiota-dependent process. LCMs sensed peritoneal bacteria and promoted neutrophil recruitment to the capsule, and their specific ablation resulted in decreased neutrophil recruitment and increased intrahepatic bacterial burden. Thus, the liver contains two separate and non-overlapping niches occupied by distinct resident macrophage populations mediating immunosurveillance at these two pathogen entry points to the liver. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Human monocytes undergo excessive apoptosis following temozolomide activating the ATM/ATR pathway while dendritic cells and macrophages are resistant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Bauer

    Full Text Available Immunodeficiency is a severe therapy-limiting side effect of anticancer chemotherapy resulting from sensitivity of immunocompetent cells to DNA damaging agents. A central role in the immune system is played by monocytes that differentiate into macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs. In this study we compared human monocytes isolated from peripheral blood and cytokine matured macrophages and DCs derived from them and assessed the mechanism of toxicity of the DNA methylating anticancer drug temozolomide (TMZ in these cell populations. We observed that monocytes, but not DCs and macrophages, were highly sensitive to the killing effect of TMZ. Studies on DNA damage and repair revealed that the initial DNA incision was efficient in monocytes while the re-ligation step of base excision repair (BER can not be accomplished, resulting in an accumulation of DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs. Furthermore, monocytes accumulated DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs following TMZ treatment, while DCs and macrophages were able to repair DSBs. Monocytes lack the DNA repair proteins XRCC1, ligase IIIα and PARP-1 whose expression is restored during differentiation into macrophages and DCs following treatment with GM-CSF and GM-CSF plus IL-4, respectively. These proteins play a key role both in BER and DSB repair by B-NHEJ, which explains the accumulation of DNA breaks in monocytes following TMZ treatment. Although TMZ provoked an upregulation of XRCC1 and ligase IIIα, BER was not enhanced likely because PARP-1 was not upregulated. Accordingly, inhibition of PARP-1 did not sensitize monocytes, but monocyte-derived DCs in which strong PARP activation was observed. TMZ induced in monocytes the DNA damage response pathways ATM-Chk2 and ATR-Chk1 resulting in p53 activation. Finally, upon activation of the Fas-receptor and the mitochondrial pathway apoptosis was executed in a caspase-dependent manner. The downregulation of DNA repair in monocytes, resulting in their selective

  18. Oral contraceptives modify DNA methylation and monocyte-derived macrophage function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campesi Ilaria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fertile women may be encouraged to use contraception during clinical trials to avoid potential drug effects on fetuses. However, hormonal contraception interferes with pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and modifies internal milieus. Macrophages depend on the milieu to which they are exposed. Therefore, we assessed whether macrophage function would be affected by the use of combined oral contraceptives (OCs and if this influence depended on the androgenic or non-androgenic properties of progestin. Methods Healthy adult women were enrolled and stratified into two groups: women who did not use OCs (Fs and women treated with OCs (FOCs. FOCs were further stratified as a function of androgenic (FOCA+ and non-androgenic (FOCA- properties of progestins. Routine hematological, biochemical, inflammatory and endothelial dysfunction parameters were measured. Monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs were evaluated for the expression and activity of estrogen receptors and androgen receptors, and release of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα was measured from unstimulated and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated cells. Results As is already known, the use of OCs changed numerous parameters: the number of lymphocytes, iron levels, total iron-binding capacity of transferrin, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, total cholesterol, and C-reactive protein increased, while prothrombin time and alkaline phosphatase decreased. Hormonal levels also varied: cortisol was higher in FOCs, while luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and testosterone were lower in FOCs. Asymmetric dimethylarginine, an index of endothelial function, was lower in FOC than in Fs, as were cysteine and bilirubin. The androgenic properties of progestins affected the activity of OCs: in particular, white blood cell count, hemoglobin, high-density lipoprotein and calcium were higher in FOCA- than in FOCA+, whereas percentage oxygen saturation and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase

  19. DMPD: Differential responses of human monocytes and macrophages to IL-4 and IL-13. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 10534111 Differential responses of human monocytes and macrophages to IL-4 and IL-1...):575-8. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Differential responses of human monocytes and macrophages to IL-...4 and IL-13. PubmedID 10534111 Title Differential responses of human monocytes an

  20. Tolerance of monocytes and macrophages in response to bacterial endotoxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Wiśnik

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Monocytes belong to myeloid effector cells, which constitute the first line of defense against pathogens, also called the nonspecific immune system and play an important role in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. In response to stimulation, monocytes differentiate into macrophages capable of microorganism phagocytosis and secrete factors that play a key role in the regulation of immune responses. However excessive exposure of monocytes/macrophages to the lipopolysaccharide (LPS of Gram negative bacteria leads to the acquisition of immune tolerance by these cells. Such state results from disruption of different biological processes, for example intracellular signaling pathways and is accompanied by a number of disease states (immune, inflammatory or neoplastic conditions. Regulation of monocytes/macrophages activity is controlled by miRNAs, which are involved in the modulation of immune tolerance acquired by these cells. Moreover, the tolerance to endotoxin is conditioned by the posttranscriptional processes and posttranslational epigenetic modifications leading to the impairment of normal immune response for example by alterations in the expression of many genes encoding immune signaling mediators. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview existing knowledge on the modulation of activity of monocytes/macrophages in response to bacterial endotoxin and impaired immune responses.

  1. Induction of autophagy is essential for monocyte-macrophage differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yan; Morgan, Michael J.; Chen, Kun; Choksi, Swati; Liu, Zheng-gang

    2012-01-01

    Monocytes are programmed to undergo apoptosis in the absence of stimulation. Stimuli that promote monocyte-macrophage differentiation not only cause cellular changes, but also prevent the default apoptosis of monocytes. In the present study, we demonstrate that autophagy is induced when monocytes are triggered to differentiate and that the induction of autophagy is pivotal for the survival and differentiation of monocytes. We also show that inhibition of autophagy results in apoptosis of cell...

  2. Heme oxygenase-1 induction alters chemokine regulation and ameliorates human immunodeficiency virus-type-1 infection in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Zhao-Hua; Kumari, Namita; Nekhai, Sergei; Clouse, Kathleen A.; Wahl, Larry M.; Yamada, Kenneth M.; Dhawan, Subhash

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Lipopolysaccharide stimulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) ameliorated HIV-1 infection of primary human macrophages. •The partial protection by HO-1 against HIV infection was associated with induction of chemokines such as MIP1α and MIP1β. •This mechanism explains lipopolysaccharide-stimulated HO-1-mediated inhibition of HIV-1 infection of macrophages. -- Abstract: We have elucidated a putative mechanism for the host resistance against HIV-1 infection of primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We show that LPS-activated MDM both inhibited HIV-1 entry into the cells and were refractory to post-entry productive viral replication. LPS-treated cells were virtually negative for mature virions as revealed by transmission electron microscopy. LPS activation of MDM markedly enhanced the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a potent inducible cytoprotective enzyme. Increased HO-1 expression was accompanied by elevated production of macrophage inflammatory chemokines (MIP1α and MIP1β) by LPS-activated MDM, significantly decreased surface chemokine receptor-5 (CCR-5) expression, and substantially reduced virus replication. Treatment of cells with HO-1 inhibitor SnPP IX (tin protoporphyrin IX) attenuated the LPS-mediated responses, HIV-1 replication and secretion of MIP1α, MIP1β, and LD78β chemokines with little change in surface CCR-5 expression. These results identify a novel role for HO-1 in the modulation of host immune response against HIV infection of MDM

  3. Exposure of Monocytes to Lipoarabinomannan Promotes Their Differentiation into Functionally and Phenotypically Immature Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Chávez-Galán

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipoarabinomannan (LAM is a lipid virulence factor secreted by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb, the etiologic agent of tuberculosis. LAM can be measured in the urine or serum of tuberculosis patients (TB-patients. Circulating monocytes are the precursor cells of alveolar macrophages and might be exposed to LAM in patients with active TB. We speculated that exposing monocytes to LAM could produce phenotypically and functionally immature macrophages. To test our hypothesis, human monocytes were stimulated with LAM (24–120 hours and various readouts were measured. The study showed that when monocytes were exposed to LAM, the frequency of CD68+, CD33+, and CD86+ macrophages decreased, suggesting that monocyte differentiation into mature macrophages was affected. Regarding functionality markers, TLR2+ and TLR4+ macrophages also decreased, but the percentage of MMR+ expression did not change. LAM-exposed monocytes generated macrophages that were less efficient in producing proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IFN-γ; however, their phagocytic capacity was not modified. Taken together, these data indicate that LAM exposure influenced monocyte differentiation and produced poorly functional macrophages with a different phenotype. These results may help us understand how mycobacteria can limit the quality of the innate and adaptive immune responses.

  4. Viral Inhibition of Bacterial Phagocytosis by Human Macrophages: Redundant Role of CD36.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace E Cooper

    Full Text Available Macrophages are essential to maintaining lung homoeostasis and recent work has demonstrated that influenza-infected lung macrophages downregulate their expression of the scavenger receptor CD36. This receptor has also been shown to be involved in phagocytosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae, a primary agent associated with pneumonia secondary to viral infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of CD36 in the effects of viral infection on macrophage phagocytic function. Human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM were exposed to H3N2 X31 influenza virus, M37 respiratory syncytial virus (RSV or UV-irradiated virus. No infection of MDM was seen upon exposure to UV-irradiated virus but incubation with live X31 or M37 resulted in significant levels of viral detection by flow cytometry or RT-PCR respectively. Infection resulted in significantly diminished uptake of S. pneumoniae by MDM and significantly decreased expression of CD36 at both the cell surface and mRNA level. Concurrently, there was a significant increase in IFNβ gene expression in response to infection and we observed a significant decrease in bacterial phagocytosis (p = 0.031 and CD36 gene expression (p = 0.031 by MDM cultured for 24 h in 50IU/ml IFNβ. Knockdown of CD36 by siRNA resulted in decreased phagocytosis, but this was mimicked by transfection reagent alone. When MDM were incubated with CD36 blocking antibodies no effect on phagocytic ability was observed. These data indicate that autologous IFNβ production by virally-infected cells can inhibit bacterial phagocytosis, but that decreased CD36 expression by these cells does not play a major role in this functional deficiency.

  5. [EVALUATION OF THE HUMAN SENSITIVITY TO SMALLPOX VIRUS BY THE PRIMARY CULTURES OF THE MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamedyanskaya, A S; Titova, K A; Sergeev, Al A; Kabanov, A S; Bulychev, L E; Sergeev, Ar A; Galakhova, D O; Nesterov, A E; Nosareva, O V; Shishkina, L N; Taranov, O S; Omigov, V V; Agafonov, A P; Sergeev, A N

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the primary cultures of granulocytes, mononuclear, and monocyte-macrophage cells derived from human blood were performed using variola virus (VARV) in the doses of 0.001-0.021 PFU/cell (plaques-forming units per cell). Positive dynamics of the virus accumulation was observed only in the monocyte-macrophages with maximum values of virus concentration (5.0-5.5 Ig PFU/ml) mainly within six days after the infection. The fact of VARV replication in the monocyte-macrophages was confirmed by the data of electron microscopy. At the same time, virus vaccines when tested in doses 3.3 and 4.2 Ig PFU/ml did not show the ability to reproduce in these human cells. The people sensitivity to VARV as assessed from the data obtained on human monocyte-macrophages corresponded to -1 PFU (taking into account the smooth interaction of the virus in the body to the cells of this type), which is consistent to previously found theoretical data on the virus sensitivity. The human susceptibility to VARV assessed experimentally can be used to predict the adequacy of developed smallpox models (in vivo) based on susceptible animals. This is necessary for reliable assessment of the efficiency of development of drugs for treatment and prophylaxis of the smallpox.

  6. Monocytes/macrophages support mammary tumor invasivity by co-secreting lineage-specific EGFR ligands and a STAT3 activator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlaicu, Philip; Mertins, Philipp; Mayr, Thomas; Widschwendter, Peter; Ataseven, Beyhan; Högel, Bernhard; Eiermann, Wolfgang; Knyazev, Pjotr; Ullrich, Axel

    2013-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) promote malignant progression, yet the repertoire of oncogenic factors secreted by TAM has not been clearly defined. We sought to analyze which EGFR- and STAT3-activating factors are secreted by monocytes/macrophages exposed to tumor cell-secreted factors. Following exposure of primary human monocytes and macrophages to supernatants of a variety of tumor cell lines, we have analyzed transcript and secreted protein levels of EGFR family ligands and of STAT3 activators. To validate our findings, we have analyzed TAM infiltration levels, systemic and local protein levels as well as clinical data of primary breast cancer patients. Primary human monocytes and macrophages respond to tumor cell-derived factors by secreting EGFR- and STAT3-activating ligands, thus inducing two important oncogenic pathways in carcinoma cells. Tumor cell-secreted factors trigger two stereotype secretory profiles in peripheral blood monocytes and differentiated macrophages: monocytes secrete epiregulin (EREG) and oncostatin-M (OSM), while macrophages secrete heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) and OSM. HB-EGF and OSM cooperatively induce tumor cell chemotaxis. HB-EGF and OSM are co-expressed by TAM in breast carcinoma patients, and plasma levels of both ligands correlate strongly. Elevated HB-EGF levels accompany TAM infiltration, tumor growth and dissemination in patients with invasive disease. Our work identifies systemic markers for TAM involvement in cancer progression, with the potential to be developed into molecular targets in cancer therapy

  7. Interleukin 17 receptor A modulates monocyte subsets and macrophage generation in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuwang Ge

    Full Text Available Interleukin (IL-17A signaling via Interleukin 17 receptor A (Il17ra contributes to the inflammatory host response by inducing recruitment of innate immune cells, but also plays a role in homeostatic neutrophilic granulocyte regulation. Monocytes, the other main innate immune cell, have a longer life span and can pursue multiple differentiation pathways towards tissue macrophages. Monocytes are divided into two subpopulations by expression of the Ly6C/Gr1 surface marker in mice. We here investigated the role of Il17ra in monocyte homeostasis and macrophage generation. In Il17ra(-/- and in mixed bone marrow chimeric wt/Il17ra(-/- mice, the concentrations of circulating Il17ra(-/- Gr1(low monocytes were significantly decreased compared to wt cells. Pulmonary, splenic and resident peritoneal Il17ra(-/- macrophages were significantly fewer than of wt origin. Bone marrow progenitor and monocyte numbers were equal, but the proportion of Il17ra(-/- Gr1(low monocytes was already decreased at bone marrow level. After monocyte depletion, initial Gr1(high and Gr1(low monocyte regeneration of Il17ra(-/- and wt cells was very similar. However, Il17ra(-/- Gr1(low counts were not sustained. After labeling with either fluorescent beads or BrdU, Il17ra(-/- Gr1(high monocyte transition to Gr1(low cells was not detectable unlike wt cells. Monocyte recruitment in acute peritonitis, which is known to be largely due to Gr1(high cell migration, was unaffected in an identical environment. Unilateral ureteral obstruction induces a less acute inflammatory and fibrotic kidney injury. Compared to wt cells in the same environment, Il17ra(-/- macrophage accumulation in the kidney was decreased. In the absence of Il17ra on all myeloid cells, renal fibrosis was significantly attenuated. Our data show that Il17ra modulates Gr1(low monocyte counts and suggest defective Gr1(high to Gr1(low monocyte transition as an underlying mechanism. Lack of Il17ra altered homeostatic tissue

  8. Synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules expression by the irradiated human monocyte/macrophage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pons, I.

    1997-09-01

    As lesions induced by ionizing radiations are essentially noticed in organs the functional and structural organisation of which depend on the highly proliferative stem cell pool, the author reports an in-vivo investigation of the effect of a gamma irradiation on the expression and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines par human monocytes/macrophages. In order to study the role of the cell environment in the radiation-induced inflammation, the author studied whether a co-stimulation of monocytes/macrophages by gamma irradiation, or the exposure of co-cultures of monocytes/macrophages and lymphocytes, could modulate the regulation of inflammatory cytokines. The author also studied the modulation of the expression of adhesion molecules mainly expressed by the monocyte/macrophage, and the membrane density of the CD14 receptor after irradiation of monocytes/macrophages during 24 hours, and of totally differentiated macrophages after seven days of culture

  9. Epigenetic Regulation of Monocyte and Macrophage Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksema, Marten A.; de Winther, Menno P. J.

    2016-01-01

    Monocytes and macrophages are key players in tissue homeostasis and immune responses. Epigenetic processes tightly regulate cellular functioning in health and disease. Recent Advances: Recent technical developments have allowed detailed characterizations of the transcriptional circuitry underlying

  10. Histone deacetylases in monocyte/macrophage development, activation and metabolism: refining HDAC targets for inflammatory and infectious diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Das Gupta, Kaustav; Shakespear, Melanie R; Iyer, Abishek; Fairlie, David P; Sweet, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages have central roles in danger detection, inflammation and host defense, and consequently, these cells are intimately linked to most disease processes. Major advances in our understanding of the development and function of macrophages have recently come to light. For example, it is now clear that tissue-resident macrophages can be derived from either blood monocytes or through local proliferation of phagocytes that are originally seeded during embryonic development. Metabolic state ...

  11. Kaempferol impedes IL-32-induced monocyte-macrophage differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Sun-Young; Jeong, Hyun-Ja; Kim, Hyung-Min

    2017-08-25

    Kaempferol possesses a wide range of therapeutic properties, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties. The present study sought to evaluate the effects and possible pharmacological mechanisms of kaempferol on interleukin (IL)-32-induced monocyte-macrophage differentiation. In this study, we performed flow cytometry assay, immunocytochemical staining, quantitative real-time PCR, enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay, caspase-1 assay, and Western blotting to observe the effects and underlying mechanisms of kaempferol using the human monocyte cell line THP-1. The flow cytometry, immunocytochemical staining, and real-time PCR results show that kaempferol attenuated IL-32-induced monocyte differentiation to product macrophage-like cells. Kaempferol decreased the production and mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, in this case thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-8. Furthermore, kaempferol inhibited the IL-32-induced activation of p38 and nuclear factor-κB in a dose-dependent manner in THP-1 cells. Kaempferol also ameliorated the lipopolysaccharide-induced production of the inflammatory mediators TSLP, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-8, and nitric oxide of macrophage-like cells differentiated by IL-32. In brief, our findings may provide new mechanistic insights into the anti-inflammatory effects of kaempferol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The effects of exogenous fatty acids and niacin on human monocyte-macrophage plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat-de la Paz, Sergio; Rodriguez, Dolores; Cardelo, Magdalena P; Naranjo, Maria C; Bermudez, Beatriz; Abia, Rocio; Muriana, Francisco J G; Lopez, Sergio

    2017-08-01

    Macrophage plasticity allows adapting to different environments, having a dual activity in inflammatory-related diseases. Our hypothesis is that the type of dietary fatty acids into human postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs), alone or in combination with niacin (vitamin B3), could modulate the plasticity of monocytes-macrophages. We isolated TRLs at the postprandial peak from blood samples of healthy volunteers after the ingestion of a meal rich in saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) or MUFAs plus omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs). Autologous monocytes isolated at fasting were first induced to differentiate into naïve macrophages. We observed that postprandial TRL-MUFAs, particularly in combination with niacin, enhance competence to monocytes to differentiate and polarise into M2 macrophages. Postprandial TRL-SFAs made polarised macrophages prone to an M1 phenotype. In contrast to dietary SFAs, dietary MUFAs in the meals plus immediate-release niacin primed circulating monocytes for a reduced postprandial pro-inflammatory profile. Our study underlines a role of postprandial TRLs as a metabolic entity in regulating the plasticity of the monocyte-macrophage lineage and also brings an understanding of the mechanisms by which dietary fatty acids are environmental factors fostering the innate immune responsiveness in humans. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Different tumor microenvironments contain functionally distinct subsets of macrophages derived from Ly6C(high) monocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Movahedi, Kiavash; Laoui, Damya; Gysemans, Conny; Baeten, Martijn; Stangé, Geert; van den Bossche, Jan; Mack, Matthias; Pipeleers, Daniel; In't Veld, Peter; de Baetselier, Patrick; van Ginderachter, Jo A.

    2010-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) form a major component of the tumor stroma. However, important concepts such as TAM heterogeneity and the nature of the monocytic TAM precursors remain speculative. Here, we show for the first time that mouse mammary tumors contained functionally distinct subsets

  14. Glycoengineering of therapeutic antibodies enhances monocyte/macrophage-mediated phagocytosis and cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herter, Sylvia; Birk, Martina C; Klein, Christian; Gerdes, Christian; Umana, Pablo; Bacac, Marina

    2014-03-01

    Therapeutic Abs possess several clinically relevant mechanisms of action including perturbation of tumor cell signaling, activation of complement-dependent cytotoxicity, Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), Ab-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP), and induction of adaptive immunity. In view of the important role of phagocytic lineage cells in the mechanism of action of therapeutic Abs, we analyzed FcγR receptor-dependent effector functions of monocytes and macrophages triggered by glycoengineered (GE) Abs (having enhanced FcγRIIIa [CD16a] binding affinity) versus their wild-type (WT) counterparts under different experimental conditions. We first defined the precise FcγR repertoire on classical and nonclassical intermediate monocytes--M1 and M2c macrophage populations. We further show that WT and GE Abs display comparable binding and induce similar effector functions (ADCC and ADCP) in the absence of nonspecific, endogenous IgGs. However, in the presence of these IgGs (i.e., in a situation that more closely mimics physiologic conditions), GE Abs display significantly superior binding and promote stronger monocyte and macrophage activity. These data show that in addition to enhancing CD16a-dependent NK cell cytotoxicity, glycoengineering also enhances monocyte and macrophage phagocytic and cytotoxic activities through enhanced binding to CD16a under conditions that more closely resemble the physiologic setting.

  15. HIV-1 RNAs are Not Part of the Argonaute 2 Associated RNA Interference Pathway in Macrophages.

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    Valentina Vongrad

    Full Text Available MiRNAs and other small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs are key players in post-transcriptional gene regulation. HIV-1 derived small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs have been described in HIV-1 infected cells, but their biological functions still remain to be elucidated. Here, we approached the question whether viral sncRNAs may play a role in the RNA interference (RNAi pathway or whether viral mRNAs are targeted by cellular miRNAs in human monocyte derived macrophages (MDM.The incorporation of viral sncRNAs and/or their target RNAs into RNA-induced silencing complex was investigated using photoactivatable ribonucleoside-induced cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP as well as high-throughput sequencing of RNA isolated by cross-linking immunoprecipitation (HITS-CLIP, which capture Argonaute2-bound miRNAs and their target RNAs. HIV-1 infected monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM were chosen as target cells, as they have previously been shown to express HIV-1 sncRNAs. In addition, we applied small RNA deep sequencing to study differential cellular miRNA expression in HIV-1 infected versus non-infected MDMs.PAR-CLIP and HITS-CLIP data demonstrated the absence of HIV-1 RNAs in Ago2-RISC, although the presence of a multitude of HIV-1 sncRNAs in HIV-1 infected MDMs was confirmed by small RNA sequencing. Small RNA sequencing revealed that 1.4% of all sncRNAs were of HIV-1 origin. However, neither HIV-1 derived sncRNAs nor putative HIV-1 target sequences incorporated into Ago2-RISC were identified suggesting that HIV-1 sncRNAs are not involved in the canonical RNAi pathway nor is HIV-1 targeted by this pathway in HIV-1 infected macrophages.

  16. Adherent Human Alveolar Macrophages Exhibit a Transient Pro-Inflammatory Profile That Confounds Responses to Innate Immune Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Gillian S.; Booth, Helen; Petit, Sarah J.; Potton, Elspeth; Towers, Greg J.; Miller, Robert F.; Chain, Benjamin M.; Noursadeghi, Mahdad

    2012-01-01

    Alveolar macrophages (AM) are thought to have a key role in the immunopathogenesis of respiratory diseases. We sought to test the hypothesis that human AM exhibit an anti-inflammatory bias by making genome-wide comparisons with monocyte derived macrophages (MDM). Adherent AM obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage of patients under investigation for haemoptysis, but found to have no respiratory pathology, were compared to MDM from healthy volunteers by whole genome transcriptional profiling before and after innate immune stimulation. We found that freshly isolated AM exhibited a marked pro-inflammatory transcriptional signature. High levels of basal pro-inflammatory gene expression gave the impression of attenuated responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the RNA analogue, poly IC, but in rested cells pro-inflammatory gene expression declined and transcriptional responsiveness to these stimuli was restored. In comparison to MDM, both freshly isolated and rested AM showed upregulation of MHC class II molecules. In most experimental paradigms ex vivo adherent AM are used immediately after isolation. Therefore, the confounding effects of their pro-inflammatory profile at baseline need careful consideration. Moreover, despite the prevailing view that AM have an anti-inflammatory bias, our data clearly show that they can adopt a striking pro-inflammatory phenotype, and may have greater capacity for presentation of exogenous antigens than MDM. PMID:22768282

  17. Flagella from five Cronobacter species induce pro-inflammatory cytokines in macrophage derivatives from human monocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadnna Cruz-Córdova

    Full Text Available Cronobacter spp. are opportunistic pathogens linked to lie-threatening infections in neonates and contaminated powdered infant formula that has been epidemiologically associated with these cases. Clinical symptoms of Cronobacter include necrotizing enterocolitis, bacteremia, and meningitis. Flagella from C. sakazakii are involved in biofilm formation and its adhesion to epithelial cells. We investigated the role of flagella from C. sakazakii ST1 and ST4, C. malonaticus, C. muytjensii, C. turicensis and C. dublinensis during the activation of cytokines (IL-8, TNF-α, and IL-10 in macrophage derivatives from human monocytes, which has not been extensively studied. The production and identity of flagella from the five Cronobacter species were visualized and recognized with anti-flagella antibodies by immunogold labeling through transmission electron microscopy. Purified flagella were dissociated into monomers in 12% SDS-PAGE Coomassie blue-stained gels showing a band of ∼28 kDa and, in addition, mass spectrometry revealed the presence of several peptides that correspond to flagellin. Flagella (100 ng induced the release of IL-8 (3314-6025 pg/ml, TNF-α (39-359 pg/ml, and IL-10 (2-96 pg/ml, in macrophage isolates from human monocytes and similar results were obtained when flagella were dissociated into monomers. Inhibition assays using three dilutions of anti-flagella antibodies (1∶10, 1∶100, and 1∶200 suppressed the secretion of IL-8, TNF-α, and IL-10 between 95-100% using 100 ng of protein. A transfection assay using 293-hTLR5 cells showed IL-8 release of 197 pg/ml and suppression in the secretion of IL-8 when anti-hTLR5-IgA antibodies were used at different concentrations. These observations suggest that flagella and flagellin are involved in an inflammatory response dependent on TLR5 recognition, which could contribute to the pathogenesis of the bacteria.

  18. Matrix metalloproteinase-12 gene regulation by a PPAR alpha agonist in human monocyte-derived macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souissi, Imen Jguirim; Billiet, Ludivine; Cuaz-Perolin, Clarisse; Slimane, Mohamed-Naceur; Rouis, Mustapha

    2008-01-01

    MMP-12, a macrophage-specific matrix metalloproteinase with large substrate specificity, has been reported to be highly expressed in mice, rabbits and human atherosclerotic lesions. Increased MMP-12 from inflammatory macrophages is associated with several degenerative diseases such as atherosclerosis. In this manuscript, we show that IL-1β, a proinflammatory cytokine found in atherosclerotic plaques, increases both mRNA and protein levels of MMP-12 in human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDM). Since peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), such as PPARα and PPARγ, are expressed in macrophages and because PPAR activation exerts an anti-inflammatory effect on vascular cells, we have investigated the effect of PPARα and γ isoforms on MMP-12 regulation in HMDM. Our results show that MMP-12 expression (mRNA and protein) is down regulated in IL-1β-treated macrophages only in the presence of a specific PPARα agonist, GW647, in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, this inhibitory effect was abolished in IL-1β-stimulated peritoneal macrophages isolated from PPARα -/- mice and treated with the PPARα agonist, GW647. Moreover, reporter gene transfection experiments using different MMP-12 promoter constructs showed a reduction of the promoter activities by ∼ 50% in IL-1β-stimulated PPARα-pre-treated cells. However, MMP-12 promoter analysis did not reveal the presence of a PPRE response element. The IL-1β effect is known to be mediated through the AP-1 binding site. Mutation of the AP-1 site, located at - 81 in the MMP-12 promoter region relative to the transcription start site, followed by transfection analysis, gel shift and ChIP experiments revealed that the inhibitory effect was the consequence of the protein-protein interaction between GW 647-activated PPARα and c-Fos or c-Jun transcription factors, leading to inhibition of their binding to the AP-1 motif. These studies suggest that PPARα agonists may be used therapeutically, not only for lipid

  19. Biochemical and ultrastructural analysis of β-VLDL and AC-LDL metabolism by pigeon monocyte-derived macrophages in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henson, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    It is proposed that monocyte-derived foam cells in atherosclerotic lesions of White Carneau pigeons become lipid-filled through the uptake of lipoproteins including β-migrating very low density lipoproteins (β-VLDL) and acetylated low density lipoproteins (Ac-LDL). Using iodinated forms of the above lipoproteins, specific and saturable receptors for both β-VLDL and Ac-LDL were detected on the surface of White Carneau pigeon monocyte-derived macrophages in culture. Competition studies demonstrated the high degree of binding specificity for 125 I-Ac-LDL. Likewise, binding of 125 I-β-VLDL to its receptor was significantly inhibited by excess β-VLDL, however LDL from both hyper- and normocholesterolemic pigeons were also recognized by the receptor. Upon binding of β-VLDL and Ac-LDL to their respective receptors, the lipoproteins were rapidly internalized and delivered to intracellular sites of degradation. As measured by the amount of 14 C-oleate incorporated into cholesteryl 14 C-oleate, the cholesterole liberated from the degradation of both β-VLDL and Ac-LDL stimulated cholesteryl ester synthesis in the pigeon cells. Using lipoproteins conjugated to colloidal gold of visualization with transmission electron microscopy, a major difference in the binding and uptake properties of β-VLDL-Gold and Ac-LDL-Gold was documented

  20. Functional characterization and phenotypic monitoring of human hematopoietic stem cell expansion and differentiation of monocytes and macrophages by whole-cell mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Vogel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The different facets of macrophages allow them to play distinct roles in tissue homeostasis, tissue repair and in response to infections. Individuals displaying dysregulated macrophage functions are proposed to be prone to inflammatory disorders or infections. However, this being a cause or a consequence of the pathology remains often unclear. In this context, we isolated and expanded CD34+ HSCs from healthy blood donors and derived them into CD14+ myeloid progenitors which were further enriched and differentiated into macrophages. Aiming for a comprehensive phenotypic profiling, we generated whole-cell mass spectrometry (WCMS fingerprints of cell samples collected along the different stages of the differentiation process to build a predictive model using a linear discriminant analysis based on principal components. Through the capacity of the model to accurately predict sample's identity of a validation set, we demonstrate that WCMS profiles obtained from bona fide blood monocytes and respectively derived macrophages mirror profiles obtained from equivalent HSC derivatives. Finally, HSC-derived macrophage functionalities were assessed by quantifying cytokine and chemokine responses to a TLR agonist in a 34-plex luminex assay and by measuring their capacity to phagocytise mycobacteria. These functional read-outs could not discriminate blood monocytes-derived from HSC-derived macrophages. To conclude, we propose that this method opens new avenues to distinguish the impact of human genetics on the dysregulated biological properties of macrophages in pathological conditions.

  1. Galectin-2 induces a proinflammatory, anti-arteriogenic phenotype in monocytes and macrophages.

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    Cansu Yıldırım

    Full Text Available Galectin-2 is a monocyte-expressed carbohydrate-binding lectin, for which increased expression is genetically determined and associated with decreased collateral arteriogenesis in obstructive coronary artery disease patients. The inhibiting effect of galectin-2 on arteriogenesis was confirmed in vivo, but the mechanism is largely unknown. In this study we aimed to explore the effects of galectin-2 on monocyte/macrophage phenotype in vitro and vivo, and to identify the receptor by which galectin-2 exerts these effects. We now show that the binding of galectin-2 to different circulating human monocyte subsets is dependent on monocyte surface expression levels of CD14. The high affinity binding is blocked by an anti-CD14 antibody but not by carbohydrates, indicating a specific protein-protein interaction. Galectin-2 binding to human monocytes modulated their transcriptome by inducing proinflammatory cytokines and inhibiting pro-arteriogenic factors, while attenuating monocyte migration. Using specific knock-out mice, we show that galectin-2 acts through the CD14/toll-like receptor (TLR-4 pathway. Furthermore, galectin-2 skews human macrophages to a M1-like proinflammatory phenotype, characterized by a reduced motility and expression of an anti-arteriogenic cytokine/growth factor repertoire. This is accompanied by a switch in surface protein expression to CD40-high and CD206-low (M1. In a murine model we show that galectin-2 administration, known to attenuate arteriogenesis, leads to increased numbers of CD40-positive (M1 and reduced numbers of CD206-positive (M2 macrophages surrounding actively remodeling collateral arteries. In conclusion galectin-2 is the first endogenous CD14/TLR4 ligand that induces a proinflammatory, non-arteriogenic phenotype in monocytes/macrophages. Interference with CD14-Galectin-2 interaction may provide a new intervention strategy to stimulate growth of collateral arteries in genetically compromised cardiovascular

  2. Radiation effects on cultured human monocytes and on monocyte-derived macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buescher, E.S.; Gallin, J.I.

    1984-01-01

    Prior to administration, leukocyte transfusions are commonly irradiated with up to 5,000 R to eliminate lymphocytes and thereby prevent graft-versus-host disease in the recipient. It has been widely believed that phagocytes are resistant to this irradiation. In a recent report, it was noted that phagocyte oxidative metabolism was compromised during preparation of white cells for transfusion. As part of the effort to examine the basis for this inhibition of phagocyte function during white cell preparation, an assessment was made of the effects of irradiation on the long-lived monocytes that have been shown to persist at inflammatory foci posttransfusion. Human monocytes were irradiated for up to 3 min, receiving 2,500-5,000 R. This irradiation damaged human monocytes, significantly decreasing their in vitro survival for the first 3 wk of culture, and growth as assessed by two-dimensional cell size measurements during the first 2 wk of culture. Despite smaller cell size, total cell protein was significantly increased over time in irradiated cultures. Extracellular release of lysozyme and beta-glucuronidase per cell was not affected by irradiation, but extracellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release was significantly increased after irradiation. Irradiated monocytes killed Listeria monocytogenes at a slower rate than the nonirradiated controls. Thus, the data indicate that irradiation in doses used to prevent graft-versus-host disease in leukocyte transfusion recipients has a deleterious effect on in vitro human monocyte survival and function

  3. Macrophages are related to goblet cell hyperplasia and induce MUC5B but not MUC5AC in human bronchus epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Manuel A; Bercik, Premysl

    2012-06-01

    Airway goblet cell hyperplasia (GCH)--detectable by mucin staining--and abnormal macrophage infiltrate are pathological features present in many chronic respiratory disorders. However, it is unknown if both factors are associated. Using in-vivo and in-vitro models, we investigated whether macrophages are related with GCH and changes in mucin immunophenotypes. Lung sections from Sprague-Dawley rats treated for 48 h with one intra-tracheal dose of PBS or LPS (n=4-6 per group) were immunophenotyped for rat-goblet cells, immune, and proliferation markers. Human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) were pre-treated with or without LPS, immunophenotyped, and their supernatant, as well as cytokines at levels equivalent to supernatant were used to challenge primary culture of normal human bronchus epithelial cells (HBEC) in air-liquid interface, followed by MUC5B and MUC5AC mucin immunostaining. An association between increased bronchiolar goblet cells and terminal-bronchiolar proliferative epithelial cells confirmed the presence of GCH in our LPS rat model, which was related with augmented bronchiolar CD68 macrophage infiltration. The in-vitro experiments have shown that MUC5AC phenotype was inhibited when HBEC were challenged with supernatant from MDM pre-treated with or without LPS. In contrast, TNF-α and interleukin-1β at levels equivalent to supernatant from LPS-treated MDM increased MUC5AC. MUC5B was induced by LPS, supernatant from LPS-treated MDM, a mix of cytokines including TNF-α and TNF-α alone at levels present in supernatant from LPS-treated MDM. We demonstrated that macrophages are related with bronchiolar GCH, and that they induced MUC5B and inhibited MUC5AC in HBEC, suggesting a role for them in the pathogenesis of airway MUC5B-related GCH.

  4. Heterogeneity of Bovine Peripheral Blood Monocytes

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    Jamal Hussen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral blood monocytes of several species can be divided into different subpopulations with distinct phenotypic and functional properties. Herein, we aim at reviewing published work regarding the heterogeneity of the recently characterized bovine monocyte subsets. As the heterogeneity of human blood monocytes was widely studied and reviewed, this work focuses on comparing bovine monocyte subsets with their human counterparts regarding their phenotype, adhesion and migration properties, inflammatory and antimicrobial functions, and their ability to interact with neutrophilic granulocytes. In addition, the differentiation of monocyte subsets into functionally polarized macrophages is discussed. Regarding phenotype and distribution in blood, bovine monocyte subsets share similarities with their human counterparts. However, many functional differences exist between monocyte subsets from the two species. In contrast to their pro-inflammatory functions in human, bovine non-classical monocytes show the lowest phagocytosis and reactive oxygen species generation capacity, an absent ability to produce the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β after inflammasome activation, and do not have a role in the early recruitment of neutrophils into inflamed tissues. Classical and intermediate monocytes of both species also differ in their response toward major monocyte-attracting chemokines (CCL2 and CCL5 and neutrophil degranulation products (DGP in vitro. Such differences between homologous monocyte subsets also extend to the development of monocyte-derived macrophages under the influence of chemokines like CCL5 and neutrophil DGP. Whereas the latter induce the differentiation of M1-polarized macrophages in human, bovine monocyte-derived macrophages develop a mixed M1/M2 macrophage phenotype. Although only a few bovine clinical trials analyzed the correlation between changes in monocyte composition and disease, they suggest that functional differences between

  5. Enhanced alveolar monocytic phagocyte (macrophage) proliferation in tobacco and marijuana smokers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbers, R.G.; Evans, M.J.; Gong, H. Jr.; Tashkin, D.P. (Univ. of California-Los Angeles School of Medicine (USA))

    1991-05-01

    We tested the hypothesis that enhanced cell division accounted for the augmented numbers of monocytic phagocytes with characteristics attributed to alveolar macrophages (AM) found in the lungs of habitual tobacco (T) and marijuana (M) smokers. The monocytic phagocytes, that is, alveolar macrophages, were obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from 12 nonsmoking subjects; 10 subjects who smoked T only (TS); 13 subjects who smoked M only (MS); and 6 smokers of both T and M (MTS). The replication of these cells was determined by measuring the incorporation of ({sup 3}H)thymidine into the DNA of dividing cells and visually counting 2,000 cells on autoradiographically prepared cytocentrifuge cell preparations. This study demonstrated that the number of ({sup 3}H)thymidine-labeled monocytic phagocytes with characteristics of alveolar macrophages from either TS or MS have a higher proliferative index compared to cells (macrophages) from nonsmokers, p less than 0.05 by one-way ANOVA. The total number of BAL macrophages that are in mitosis in TS (17.90 +/- 4.50 labeled AM x 10(3)/ml) or MTS (10.50 +/- 4.20 labeled AM x 10(3)/ml) are 18- and 10-fold greater, respectively, than the number obtained from nonsmokers (1.01 +/- 0.18 labeled AM x 10(3)/ml). Interestingly, the number of ({sup 3}H)thymidine-labeled macrophages from MS (2.90 +/- 0.66 labeled AM x 10(3)/ml) are also greater than the number obtained from nonsmokers, although this is not statistically significant. The stimulus augmenting alveolar macrophage replication is as yet unknown but may likely be found in the T or M smoke.

  6. Enhanced alveolar monocytic phagocyte (macrophage) proliferation in tobacco and marijuana smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbers, R.G.; Evans, M.J.; Gong, H. Jr.; Tashkin, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that enhanced cell division accounted for the augmented numbers of monocytic phagocytes with characteristics attributed to alveolar macrophages (AM) found in the lungs of habitual tobacco (T) and marijuana (M) smokers. The monocytic phagocytes, that is, alveolar macrophages, were obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from 12 nonsmoking subjects; 10 subjects who smoked T only (TS); 13 subjects who smoked M only (MS); and 6 smokers of both T and M (MTS). The replication of these cells was determined by measuring the incorporation of [ 3 H]thymidine into the DNA of dividing cells and visually counting 2,000 cells on autoradiographically prepared cytocentrifuge cell preparations. This study demonstrated that the number of [ 3 H]thymidine-labeled monocytic phagocytes with characteristics of alveolar macrophages from either TS or MS have a higher proliferative index compared to cells (macrophages) from nonsmokers, p less than 0.05 by one-way ANOVA. The total number of BAL macrophages that are in mitosis in TS (17.90 +/- 4.50 labeled AM x 10(3)/ml) or MTS (10.50 +/- 4.20 labeled AM x 10(3)/ml) are 18- and 10-fold greater, respectively, than the number obtained from nonsmokers (1.01 +/- 0.18 labeled AM x 10(3)/ml). Interestingly, the number of [ 3 H]thymidine-labeled macrophages from MS (2.90 +/- 0.66 labeled AM x 10(3)/ml) are also greater than the number obtained from nonsmokers, although this is not statistically significant. The stimulus augmenting alveolar macrophage replication is as yet unknown but may likely be found in the T or M smoke

  7. Tacaribe virus but not junin virus infection induces cytokine release from primary human monocytes and macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Groseth

    Full Text Available The mechanisms underlying the development of disease during arenavirus infection are poorly understood. However, common to all hemorrhagic fever diseases is the involvement of macrophages as primary target cells, suggesting that the immune response in these cells may be of paramount importance during infection. Thus, in order to identify features of the immune response that contribute to arenavirus pathogenesis, we have examined the growth kinetics and cytokine profiles of two closely related New World arenaviruses, the apathogenic Tacaribe virus (TCRV and the hemorrhagic fever-causing Junin virus (JUNV, in primary human monocytes and macrophages. Both viruses grew robustly in VeroE6 cells; however, TCRV titres were decreased by approximately 10 fold compared to JUNV in both monocytes and macrophages. Infection of both monocytes and macrophages with TCRV also resulted in the release of high levels of IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α, while levels of IFN-α, IFN-β and IL-12 were not affected. However, we could show that the presence of these cytokines had no direct effect on growth of either TCRV of JUNV in macrophages. Further analysis also showed that while the production of IL-6 and IL-10 are dependent on viral replication, production of TNF-α also occurs after exposure to UV-inactivated TCRV particles and is thus independent of productive virus infection. Surprisingly, JUNV infection did not have an effect on any of the cytokines examined indicating that, in contrast to other viral hemorrhagic fever viruses, macrophage-derived cytokine production is unlikely to play an active role in contributing to the cytokine dysregulation observed in JUNV infected patients. Rather, these results suggest that an early, controlled immune response by infected macrophages may be critical for the successful control of infection of apathogenic viruses and prevention of subsequent disease, including systemic cytokine dysregulation.

  8. IL-17A influences essential functions of the monocyte/macrophage lineage and is involved in advanced murine and human atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbel, Christian; Akhavanpoor, Mohammadreza; Okuyucu, Deniz; Wangler, Susanne; Dietz, Alex; Zhao, Li; Stellos, Konstantinos; Little, Kristina M; Lasitschka, Felix; Doesch, Andreas; Hakimi, Maani; Dengler, Thomas J; Giese, Thomas; Blessing, Erwin; Katus, Hugo A; Gleissner, Christian A

    2014-11-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease. Lesion progression is primarily mediated by cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. IL-17A is a proinflammatory cytokine, which modulates immune cell trafficking and is involved inflammation in (auto)immune and infectious diseases. But the role of IL-17A still remains controversial. In the current study, we investigated effects of IL-17A on advanced murine and human atherosclerosis, the common disease phenotype in clinical care. The 26-wk-old apolipoprotein E-deficient mice were fed a standard chow diet and treated either with IL-17A mAb (n = 15) or irrelevant Ig (n = 10) for 16 wk. Furthermore, essential mechanisms of IL-17A in atherogenesis were studied in vitro. Inhibition of IL-17A markedly prevented atherosclerotic lesion progression (p = 0.001) by reducing inflammatory burden and cellular infiltration (p = 0.01) and improved lesion stability (p = 0.01). In vitro experiments showed that IL-17A plays a role in chemoattractance, monocyte adhesion, and sensitization of APCs toward pathogen-derived TLR4 ligands. Also, IL-17A induced a unique transcriptome pattern in monocyte-derived macrophages distinct from known macrophage types. Stimulation of human carotid plaque tissue ex vivo with IL-17A induced a proinflammatory milieu and upregulation of molecules expressed by the IL-17A-induced macrophage subtype. In this study, we show that functional blockade of IL-17A prevents atherosclerotic lesion progression and induces plaque stabilization in advanced lesions in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. The underlying mechanisms involve reduced inflammation and distinct effects of IL-17A on monocyte/macrophage lineage. In addition, translational experiments underline the relevance for the human system. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  9. HCMV Displays a Unique Transcriptome of Immunomodulatory Genes in Primary Monocyte-Derived Cell Types.

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    Ellen Van Damme

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV is a betaherpesvirus which rarely presents problems in healthy individuals, yet may result in severe morbidity in immunocompromised patients and in immune-naïve neonates. HCMV has a large 235 kb genome with a coding capacity of at least 165 open reading frames (ORFs. This large genome allows complex gene regulation resulting in different sets of transcripts during lytic and latent infection. While latent virus mainly resides within monocytes and CD34+ progenitor cells, reactivation to lytic infection is driven by differentiation towards terminally differentiated myeloid dendritic cells and macrophages. Consequently, it has been suggested that macrophages and dendritic cells contribute to viral spread in vivo. Thus far only limited knowledge is available on the expression of HCMV genes in terminally differentiated myeloid primary cells and whether or not the virus exhibits a different set of lytic genes in primary cells compared with lytic infection in NHDF fibroblasts. To address these questions, we used Illumina next generation sequencing to determine the HCMV transcriptome in macrophages and dendritic cells during lytic infection and compared it to the transcriptome in NHDF fibroblasts. Here, we demonstrate unique expression profiles in macrophages and dendritic cells which significantly differ from the transcriptome in fibroblasts mainly by modulating the expression of viral transcripts involved in immune modulation, cell tropism and viral spread. In a head to head comparison between macrophages and dendritic cells, we observed that factors involved in viral spread and virion composition are differentially regulated suggesting that the plasticity of the virion facilitates the infection of surrounding cells. Taken together, this study provides the full transcript expression analysis of lytic HCMV genes in monocyte-derived type 1 and type 2 macrophages as well as in monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Thereby

  10. Functional role of monocytes and macrophages for the inflammatory response in acute liver injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning W Zimmermann

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Different etiologies such as drug toxicity, acute viral hepatitis B or acetaminophen poisoning can cause acute liver injury (ALI or even acute liver failure (ALF. Excessive cell death of hepatocytes in the liver is known to result in a strong hepatic inflammation. Experimental murine models of liver injury highlighted the importance of hepatic macrophages, so-called Kupffer cells, for initiating and driving this inflammatory response by releasing proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF, interleukin-6 (IL-6, IL-1-beta or monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1, CCL2 as well as activating other non-parenchymal liver cells, e.g. endothelial or hepatic stellate cells (HSC. Many of these proinflammatory mediators can trigger hepatocytic cell death pathways, e.g. via caspase activation, but also activate protective signaling pathways, e.g. via nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB. Recent studies in mice demonstrated that these macrophage actions largely depend on the recruitment of monocytes into the liver, namely of the inflammatory Ly6c+ (Gr1+ monocyte subset as precursors of tissue macrophages. The chemokine receptor CCR2 and its ligand MCP-1/CCL2 promote monocyte subset infiltration upon liver injury. In contrast, the chemokine receptor CX3CR1 and its ligand fractalkine (CX3CL1 are important negative regulators of monocyte infiltration by controlling their survival and differentiation into functionally diverse macrophage subsets upon injury. The recently identified cellular and molecular pathways for monocyte subset recruitment, macrophage differentiation and interactions with other hepatic cell types in the injured liver may therefore represent interesting novel targets for future therapeutic approaches in ALF.

  11. Hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling requires recruitment of circulating mesenchymal precursors of a monocyte/macrophage lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, Maria G; Brunetti, Jacqueline A; Burke, Danielle L; Carpenter, Todd C; Davie, Neil J; Reeves, John T; Roedersheimer, Mark T; van Rooijen, Nico; Stenmark, Kurt R

    2006-02-01

    Vascular remodeling in chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension includes marked fibroproliferative changes in the pulmonary artery (PA) adventitia. Although resident PA fibroblasts have long been considered the primary contributors to these processes, we tested the hypothesis that hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling requires recruitment of circulating mesenchymal precursors of a monocyte/macrophage lineage, termed fibrocytes. Using two neonatal animal models (rats and calves) of chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension, we demonstrated a dramatic perivascular accumulation of mononuclear cells of a monocyte/macrophage lineage (expressing CD45, CD11b, CD14, CD68, ED1, ED2). Many of these cells produced type I collagen, expressed alpha-smooth muscle actin, and proliferated, thus exhibiting mesenchymal cell characteristics attributed to fibrocytes. The blood-borne origin of these cells was confirmed in experiments wherein circulating monocytes/macrophages of chronically hypoxic rats were in vivo-labeled with DiI fluorochrome via liposome delivery and subsequently identified in the remodeled pulmonary, but not systemic, arterial adventitia. The DiI-labeled cells that appeared in the vessel wall expressed monocyte/macrophage markers and procollagen. Selective depletion of this monocytic cell population, using either clodronate-liposomes or gadolinium chloride, prevented pulmonary adventitial remodeling (ie, production of collagen, fibronectin, and tenascin-C and accumulation of myofibroblasts). We conclude that circulating mesenchymal precursors of a monocyte/macrophage lineage, including fibrocytes, are essential contributors to hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling.

  12. A new and efficient culture method for porcine bone marrow-derived M1- and M2-polarized macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jiye; Scheenstra, Maaike R; van Dijk, Albert; Veldhuizen, Edwin J A; Haagsman, Henk P

    2018-06-01

    Macrophages play an important role in the innate immune system as part of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS). They have a pro-inflammatory signature (M1-polarized macrophages) or anti-inflammatory signature (M2-polarized macrophages) based on expression of surface receptors and secretion of cytokines. However, very little is known about the culture of macrophages from pigs and more specific about the M1 and M2 polarization in vitro. Porcine monocytes or mononuclear bone marrow cells were used to culture M1- and M2-polarized macrophages in the presence of GM-CSF and M-CSF, respectively. Surface receptor expression was measured with flow cytometry and ELISA was used to quantify cytokine secretion in response to LPS and PAM 3 CSK 4 stimulation. Human monocyte-derived macrophages were used as control. Porcine M1- and M2-polarized macrophages were cultured best using porcine GM-CSF and murine M-CSF, respectively. Cultures from bone marrow cells resulted in a higher yield M1- and M2-polarized macrophages which were better comparable to human monocyte-derived macrophages than cultures from porcine monocytes. Porcine M1-polarized macrophages displayed the characteristic fried egg shape morphology, lower CD163 expression and low IL-10 production. Porcine M2-polarized macrophages contained the spindle-like morphology, higher CD163 expression and high IL-10 production. Porcine M1- and M2-polarized macrophages can be most efficiently cultured from mononuclear bone marrow cells using porcine GM-CSF and murine M-CSF. The new culture method facilitates more refined studies of porcine macrophages in vitro, important for both porcine and human health since pigs are increasingly used as model for translational research. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. CD16+ Monocytes and Skewed Macrophage Polarization toward M2 Type Hallmark Heart Transplant Acute Cellular Rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bosch, Thierry P P; Caliskan, Kadir; Kraaij, Marina D; Constantinescu, Alina A; Manintveld, Olivier C; Leenen, Pieter J M; von der Thüsen, Jan H; Clahsen-van Groningen, Marian C; Baan, Carla C; Rowshani, Ajda T

    2017-01-01

    During acute heart transplant rejection, infiltration of lymphocytes and monocytes is followed by endothelial injury and eventually myocardial fibrosis. To date, no information is available on monocyte-macrophage-related cellular shifts and their polarization status during rejection. Here, we aimed to define and correlate monocyte-macrophage endomyocardial tissue profiles obtained at rejection and time points prior to rejection, with corresponding serial blood samples in 25 heart transplant recipients experiencing acute cellular rejection. Additionally, 33 healthy individuals served as control. Using histology, immunohistochemistry, confocal laser scan microscopy, and digital imaging expression of CD14, CD16, CD56, CD68, CD80, and CD163 were explored to define monocyte and macrophage tissue profiles during rejection. Fibrosis was investigated using Sirius Red stainings of rejection, non-rejection, and 1-year biopsies. Expression of co-stimulatory and migration-related molecules on circulating monocytes, and production potential for pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines were studied using flow cytometry. At tissue level, striking CD16+ monocyte infiltration was observed during rejection ( p  rejection compared to barely present CD68+CD80+ M1 macrophages. Rejection was associated with severe fibrosis in 1-year biopsies ( p  rejection status, decreased frequencies of circulating CD16+ monocytes were found in patients compared to healthy individuals. Rejection was reflected by significantly increased CD54 and HLA-DR expression on CD16+ monocytes with retained cytokine production potential. CD16+ monocytes and M2 macrophages hallmark the correlates of heart transplant acute cellular rejection on tissue level and seem to be associated with fibrosis in the long term.

  14. ATP Induces IL-1β Secretion in Neisseria gonorrhoeae-Infected Human Macrophages by a Mechanism Not Related to the NLRP3/ASC/Caspase-1 Axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Killen García

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Ngo has developed multiple immune evasion mechanisms involving the innate and adaptive immune responses. Recent findings have reported that Ngo reduces the IL-1β secretion of infected human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM. Here, we investigate the role of adenosine triphosphate (ATP in production and release of IL-1β in Ngo-infected MDM. We found that the exposure of Ngo-infected MDM to ATP increases IL-1β levels about ten times compared with unexposed Ngo-infected MDM (P0.05 and caspase-1 (CASP1, P>0.05. In addition, ATP was not able to modify caspase-1 activity in Ngo-infected MDM but was able to increase pyroptosis (P>0.01. Notably ATP treatment defined an increase of positive staining for IL-1β with a distinctive intracellular pattern of distribution. Collectively, these data demonstrate that ATP induces IL-1β secretion by a mechanism not related to the NLRP3/ASC/caspase-1 axis and likely is acting at the level of vesicle trafficking or pore formation.

  15. Surface modification of biomaterials based on high-molecular polylactic acid and their effect on inflammatory reactions of primary human monocyte-derived macrophages: perspective for personalized therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankevich, Ksenia S; Gudima, Alexandru; Filimonov, Victor D; Klüter, Harald; Mamontova, Evgeniya M; Tverdokhlebov, Sergei I; Kzhyshkowska, Julia

    2015-06-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA) based implants can cause inflammatory complications. Macrophages are key innate immune cells that control inflammation. To provide higher biocompatibility of PLA-based implants with local innate immune cells their surface properties have to be improved. In our study surface modification technique for high-molecular PLA (MW=1,646,600g/mol) based biomaterials was originally developed and successfully applied. Optimal modification conditions were determined. Treatment of PLA films with toluene/ethanol=3/7 mixture for 10min with subsequent exposure in 0.001M brilliant green dye (BGD) solution allows to entrap approximately 10(-9)mol/cm(2) model biomolecules. The modified PLA film surface was characterized by optical microscopy, SERS, FT-IR, UV and TG/DTA/DSC analysis. Tensile strain of modified films was determined as well. The effect of PLA films modified with BGD on the inflammatory reactions of primary human monocyte-derived macrophages was investigated. We developed in vitro test-system by differentiating primary monocyte-derived macrophages on a coating material. Type 1 and type 2 inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, CCL18) secretion and histological biomarkers (CD206, stabilin-1) expression were analyzed by ELISA and confocal microscopy respectively. BGD-modified materials have improved thermal stability and good mechanical properties. However, BGD modifications induced additional donor-specific inflammatory reactions and suppressed tolerogenic phenotype of macrophages. Therefore, our test-system successfully demonstrated specific immunomodulatory effects of original and modified PLA-based biomaterials, and can be further applied for the examination of improved coatings for implants and identification of patient-specific reactions to implants. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Monocyte to macrophage differentiation-associated (MMD) positively regulates ERK and Akt activation and TNF-α and NO production in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Zheng, Jin; Yin, Dan-Dan; Xiang, Jie; He, Fei; Wang, Yao-Chun; Liang, Liang; Qin, Hong-Yan; Liu, Li; Liang, Ying-Min; Han, Hua

    2012-05-01

    Macrophage activation is modulated by both environmental cues and endogenous programs. In the present study, we investigated the role of a PAQR family protein, monocyte to macrophage differentiation-associated (MMD), in macrophage activation and unveiled its underlying molecular mechanism. Our results showed that while MMD expression could be detected in all tissues examined, its expression level is significantly up-regulated upon monocyte differentiation. Within cells, EGFP-MMD fusion protein could be co-localized to endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, but not lysosomes and cytoplasm. MMD expression is up-regulated in macrophages after LPS stimulation, and this might be modulated by RBP-J, the critical transcription factor of Notch signaling. Overexpression of MMD in macrophages increased the production of TNF-α and NO upon LPS stimulation. We found that MMD overexpression enhanced ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation in macrophages after LPS stimulation. Blocking Erk or Akt by pharmacological agent reduced TNF-α or NO production in MMD-overexpressing macrophages, respectively. These results suggested that MMD modulates TNF-α and NO production in macrophages, and this process might involves Erk or Akt.

  17. cGAS Senses Human Cytomegalovirus and Induces Type I Interferon Responses in Human Monocyte-Derived Cells.

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    Jennifer Paijo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV infections of healthy individuals are mostly unnoticed and result in viral latency. However, HCMV can also cause devastating disease, e.g., upon reactivation in immunocompromised patients. Yet, little is known about human immune cell sensing of DNA-encoded HCMV. Recent studies indicated that during viral infection the cyclic GMP/AMP synthase (cGAS senses cytosolic DNA and catalyzes formation of the cyclic di-nucleotide cGAMP, which triggers stimulator of interferon genes (STING and thus induces antiviral type I interferon (IFN-I responses. We found that plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC as well as monocyte-derived DC and macrophages constitutively expressed cGAS and STING. HCMV infection further induced cGAS, whereas STING expression was only moderately affected. Although pDC expressed particularly high levels of cGAS, and the cGAS/STING axis was functional down-stream of STING, as indicated by IFN-I induction upon synthetic cGAMP treatment, pDC were not susceptible to HCMV infection and mounted IFN-I responses in a TLR9-dependent manner. Conversely, HCMV infected monocyte-derived cells synthesized abundant cGAMP levels that preceded IFN-I production and that correlated with the extent of infection. CRISPR/Cas9- or siRNA-mediated cGAS ablation in monocytic THP-1 cells and primary monocyte-derived cells, respectively, impeded induction of IFN-I responses following HCMV infection. Thus, cGAS is a key sensor of HCMV for IFN-I induction in primary human monocyte-derived DC and macrophages.

  18. Functional relevance of protein glycosylation to the pro-inflammatory effects of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) on monocytes/macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Heng; Yuan, Wei; Liu, Jidong; He, Qing; Ding, Song; Pu, Jun; He, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) is an important pro-inflammatory protein involved in the cellular functions of monocytes/macrophages. We have hypothesized that high-level heterogeneousness of protein glycosylation of EMMPRIN may have functional relevance to its biological effects and affect the inflammatory activity of monocytes/macrophages. The glycosylation patterns of EMMPRIN expressed by monocytes/macrophages (THP-1 cells) in response to different extracellular stimuli were observed, and the structures of different glycosylation forms were identified. After the purification of highly- and less-glycosylated proteins respectively, the impacts of different glycosylation forms on the pro-inflammatory effects of EMMPRIN were examined in various aspects, such as cell adhesion to endothelial cells, cell migrations, cytokine expression, and activation of inflammatory signalling pathway. 1) It was mainly the highly-glycosylated form of EMMPRIN (HG-EMMPRIN) that increased after being exposed to inflammatory signals (PMA and H2O2). 2) Glycosylation of EMMPRIN in monocytes/macrophages led to N-linked-glycans being added to the protein, with the HG form containing complex-type glycans and the less-glycosylated form (LG) the simple type. 3) Only the HG-EMMPRIN but not the LG-EMMPRIN exhibited pro-inflammatory effects and stimulated inflammatory activities of the monocytes/macrophages (i.e., activation of ERK1/2 and NF-κB pathway, enhanced monocyte-endothelium adhesion, cell migration and matrix metalloproteinase -9 expression). Post-transcriptional glycosylation represents an important mechanism that determines the biological effects of EMMPRIN in monocytes/macrophages. Glycosylation of EMMPRIN may serve as a potential target for regulating the inflammatory activities of monocytes/macrophages.

  19. Functional relevance of protein glycosylation to the pro-inflammatory effects of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN on monocytes/macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Ge

    Full Text Available Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN is an important pro-inflammatory protein involved in the cellular functions of monocytes/macrophages. We have hypothesized that high-level heterogeneousness of protein glycosylation of EMMPRIN may have functional relevance to its biological effects and affect the inflammatory activity of monocytes/macrophages.The glycosylation patterns of EMMPRIN expressed by monocytes/macrophages (THP-1 cells in response to different extracellular stimuli were observed, and the structures of different glycosylation forms were identified. After the purification of highly- and less-glycosylated proteins respectively, the impacts of different glycosylation forms on the pro-inflammatory effects of EMMPRIN were examined in various aspects, such as cell adhesion to endothelial cells, cell migrations, cytokine expression, and activation of inflammatory signalling pathway.1 It was mainly the highly-glycosylated form of EMMPRIN (HG-EMMPRIN that increased after being exposed to inflammatory signals (PMA and H2O2. 2 Glycosylation of EMMPRIN in monocytes/macrophages led to N-linked-glycans being added to the protein, with the HG form containing complex-type glycans and the less-glycosylated form (LG the simple type. 3 Only the HG-EMMPRIN but not the LG-EMMPRIN exhibited pro-inflammatory effects and stimulated inflammatory activities of the monocytes/macrophages (i.e., activation of ERK1/2 and NF-κB pathway, enhanced monocyte-endothelium adhesion, cell migration and matrix metalloproteinase -9 expression.Post-transcriptional glycosylation represents an important mechanism that determines the biological effects of EMMPRIN in monocytes/macrophages. Glycosylation of EMMPRIN may serve as a potential target for regulating the inflammatory activities of monocytes/macrophages.

  20. CD16+ Monocytes and Skewed Macrophage Polarization toward M2 Type Hallmark Heart Transplant Acute Cellular Rejection

    OpenAIRE

    van den Bosch, Thierry P. P.; Caliskan, Kadir; Kraaij, Marina D.; Constantinescu, Alina A.; Manintveld, Olivier C.; Leenen, Pieter J. M.; von der Th?sen, Jan H.; Clahsen-van Groningen, Marian C.; Baan, Carla C.; Rowshani, Ajda T.

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: During acute heart transplant rejection, infiltration of lymphocytes and monocytes is followed by endothelial injury and eventually myocardial fibrosis. To date, no information is available on monocyte-macrophage-related cellular shifts and their polarization status during rejection. Here, we aimed to define and correlate monocyte-macrophage endomyocardial tissue profiles obtained at rejection and time points prior to rejection, with corresponding serial blood samples ...

  1. Effect of Triptolide on Functions of Monocytes/ Macrophages in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The number of monocytes/macrophages under the varying conditions was subsequently determined by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay. The supernatants were collected after 24-h culture, and the content of VEGF and VEGF-C in each supernatant measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

  2. Blood and milk polymorphonuclear leukocyte and monocyte/macrophage functions in naturally caprine arthritis encephalitis virus infection in dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Bruna Parapinski; Souza, Fernando Nogueira; Blagitz, Maiara Garcia; Batista, Camila Freitas; Bertagnon, Heloísa Godoi; Diniz, Soraia Araújo; Silva, Marcos Xavier; Haddad, João Paulo Amaral; Della Libera, Alice Maria Melville Paiva

    2017-06-01

    The exact influence of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) infection on blood and milk polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) and monocyte/macrophages of goats remains unclear. Thus, the present study sought to explore the blood and milk PMNL and monocyte/macrophage functions in naturally CAEV-infected goats. The present study used 18 healthy Saanen goats that were segregated according to sera test outcomes into serologically CAEV negative (n=8; 14 halves) and positive (n=10; 14 halves) groups. All milk samples from mammary halves with milk bacteriologically positive outcomes, somatic cell count ≥2×10 6 cellsmL -1 , and abnormal secretions in the strip cup test were excluded. We evaluated the percentage of blood and milk PMNLs and monocyte/macrophages, the viability of PMNLs and monocyte/macrophages, the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the nonopsonized phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli by flow cytometry. In the present study, a higher percentage of milk macrophages (CD14 + ) and milk polymorphonuclear leukocytes undergoing late apoptosis or necrosis (Annexin-V + /Propidium iodide + ) was observed in CAEV-infected goats; we did not find any further alterations in blood and milk PMNL and monocyte/macrophage functions. Thus, regarding our results, the goats naturally infected with CAEV did not reveal pronounced dysfunctions in blood and milk polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Role of Monocyte/Macrophages during HIV/SIV Infection in Adult and Pediatric Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

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    Kristen M. Merino

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Monocytes/macrophages are a diverse group of cells that act as first responders in innate immunity and then as mediators for adaptive immunity to help clear infections. In performing these functions, however, the macrophage inflammatory responses can also contribute to pathogenesis. Various monocyte and tissue macrophage subsets have been associated with inflammatory disorders and tissue pathogeneses such as occur during HIV infection. Non-human primate research of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV has been invaluable in better understanding the pathogenesis of HIV infection. The question of HIV/SIV-infected macrophages serving as a viral reservoir has become significant for achieving a cure. In the rhesus macaque model, SIV-infected macrophages have been shown to promote pathogenesis in several tissues resulting in cardiovascular, metabolic, and neurological diseases. Results from human studies illustrated that alveolar macrophages could be an important HIV reservoir and humanized myeloid-only mice supported productive HIV infection and viral persistence in macrophages during ART treatment. Depletion of CD4+ T cells is considered the primary cause for terminal progression, but it was reported that increasing monocyte turnover was a significantly better predictor in SIV-infected adult macaques. Notably, pediatric cases of HIV/SIV exhibit faster and more severe disease progression than adults, yet neonates have fewer target T cells and generally lack the hallmark CD4+ T cell depletion typical of adult infections. Current data show that the baseline blood monocyte turnover rate was significantly higher in neonatal macaques compared to adults and this remained high with disease progression. In this review, we discuss recent data exploring the contribution of monocytes and macrophages to HIV/SIV infection and progression. Furthermore, we highlight the need to further investigate their role in pediatric cases of infection.

  4. Supernatants from oral epithelial cells and gingival fibroblasts modulate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 promoter activation induced by periodontopathogens in monocytes/macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, O A; Ebersole, J L; Huang, C B

    2010-04-01

    Bacterial and host cell products during coinfections of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1-positive (HIV-1(+)) patients regulate HIV-1 recrudescence in latently infected cells (e.g. T cells, monocytes/macrophages), impacting highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) failure and progression of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. A high frequency of oral opportunistic infections (e.g. periodontitis) in HIV-1(+) patients has been demonstrated; however, their potential to impact HIV-1 exacerbation is unclear. We sought to determine the ability of supernatants derived from oral epithelial cells (OKF4) and human gingival fibroblasts (Gin-4) challenged with periodontal pathogens, to modulate the HIV-1 promoter activation in monocytes/macrophages. BF24 monocytes/macrophages transfected with the HIV-1 promoter driving the expression of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) were stimulated with Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, or Treponema denticola in the presence of supernatants from OKF4 or Gin4 cells either unstimulated or previously pulsed with bacteria. CAT levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and cytokine production was evaluated by Luminex beadlyte assays. OKF4 and Gin4 supernatants enhanced HIV-1 promoter activation particularly related to F. nucleatum challenge. An additive effect was observed in HIV-1 promoter activation when monocytes/macrophages were simultaneously stimulated with gingival cell supernatants and bacterial extracts. OKF4 cells produced higher levels of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukins -6 and -8 in response to F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis. Preincubation of OKF4 supernatants with anti-GM-CSF reduced the additive effect in periodontopathogen-induced HIV-1 promoter activation. These results suggest that soluble mediators produced by gingival resident cells in response to periodontopathogens could contribute to HIV-1 promoter activation in monocytes/macrophages

  5. CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Gene Editing in Human iPSC-Derived Macrophage Reveals Lysosomal Acid Lipase Function in Human Macrophages-Brief Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hanrui; Shi, Jianting; Hachet, Melanie A; Xue, Chenyi; Bauer, Robert C; Jiang, Hongfeng; Li, Wenjun; Tohyama, Junichiro; Millar, John; Billheimer, Jeffrey; Phillips, Michael C; Razani, Babak; Rader, Daniel J; Reilly, Muredach P

    2017-11-01

    To gain mechanistic insights into the role of LIPA (lipase A), the gene encoding LAL (lysosomal acid lipase) protein, in human macrophages. We used CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas9 (CRISPR-associated protein 9) technology to knock out LIPA in human induced pluripotent stem cells and then differentiate to macrophage (human-induced pluripotent stem cells-derived macrophage [IPSDM]) to explore the human macrophage LIPA loss-of-function phenotypes. LIPA was abundantly expressed in monocyte-derived macrophages and was markedly induced on IPSDM differentiation to comparable levels as in human monocyte-derived macrophage. IPSDM with knockout of LIPA ( LIPA -/- ) had barely detectable LAL enzymatic activity. Control and LIPA -/- IPSDM were loaded with [ 3 H]-cholesteryl oleate-labeled AcLDL (acetylated low-density lipoprotein) followed by efflux to apolipoprotein A-I. Efflux of liberated [ 3 H]-cholesterol to apolipoprotein A-I was abolished in LIPA -/- IPSDM, indicating deficiency in LAL-mediated lysosomal cholesteryl ester hydrolysis. In cells loaded with [ 3 H]-cholesterol-labeled AcLDL, [ 3 H]-cholesterol efflux was, however, not different between control and LIPA -/- IPSDM. ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette, subfamily A, member 1) expression was upregulated by AcLDL loading but to a similar extent between control and LIPA -/- IPSDM. In nonlipid loaded state, LIPA -/- IPSDM had high levels of cholesteryl ester mass compared with minute amounts in control IPSDM. Yet, with AcLDL loading, overall cholesteryl ester mass was increased to similar levels in both control and LIPA -/- IPSDM. LIPA -/- did not impact lysosomal apolipoprotein-B degradation or expression of IL1B , IL6 , and CCL5. CONCLUSIONS: LIPA -/- IPSDM reveals macrophage-specific hallmarks of LIPA deficiency. CRISPR/Cas9 and IPSDM provide important tools to study human macrophage biology and more broadly for future studies of disease-associated LIPA genetic variation in human

  6. The Dipeptidyl Peptidases 4, 8, and 9 in Mouse Monocytes and Macrophages: DPP8/9 Inhibition Attenuates M1 Macrophage Activation in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waumans, Yannick; Vliegen, Gwendolyn; Maes, Lynn; Rombouts, Miche; Declerck, Ken; Van Der Veken, Pieter; Vanden Berghe, Wim; De Meyer, Guido R Y; Schrijvers, Dorien; De Meester, Ingrid

    2016-02-01

    Atherosclerosis remains the leading cause of death in Western countries. Dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP) 4 has emerged as a novel target for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis. Family members DPP8 and 9 are abundantly present in macrophage-rich regions of atherosclerotic plaques, and DPP9 inhibition attenuates activation of human M1 macrophages in vitro. Studying this family in a mouse model for atherosclerosis would greatly advance our knowledge regarding their potential as therapeutic targets. We found that DPP4 is downregulated during mouse monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation. DPP8 and 9 expression seems relatively low in mouse monocytes and macrophages. Viability of primary mouse macrophages is unaffected by DPP4 or DPP8/9 inhibition. Importantly, DPP8/9 inhibition attenuates macrophage activation as IL-6 secretion is significantly decreased. Mouse macrophages respond similarly to DPP inhibition, compared to human macrophages. This shows that the mouse could become a valid model species for the study of DPPs as therapeutic targets in atherosclerosis.

  7. Regulation of ICAM-1 in Cells of the Monocyte/Macrophage System in Microgravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Paulsen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cells of the immune system are highly sensitive to altered gravity, and the monocyte as well as the macrophage function is proven to be impaired under microgravity conditions. In our study, we investigated the surface expression of ICAM-1 protein and expression of ICAM-1 mRNA in cells of the monocyte/macrophage system in microgravity during clinostat, parabolic flight, sounding rocket, and orbital experiments. In murine BV-2 microglial cells, we detected a downregulation of ICAM-1 expression in clinorotation experiments and a rapid and reversible downregulation in the microgravity phase of parabolic flight experiments. In contrast, ICAM-1 expression increased in macrophage-like differentiated human U937 cells during the microgravity phase of parabolic flights and in long-term microgravity provided by a 2D clinostat or during the orbital SIMBOX/Shenzhou-8 mission. In nondifferentiated U937 cells, no effect of microgravity on ICAM-1 expression could be observed during parabolic flight experiments. We conclude that disturbed immune function in microgravity could be a consequence of ICAM-1 modulation in the monocyte/macrophage system, which in turn could have a strong impact on the interaction with T lymphocytes and cell migration. Thus, ICAM-1 can be considered as a rapid-reacting and sustained gravity-regulated molecule in mammalian cells.

  8. Active spice-derived components can inhibit inflammatory responses of adipose tissue in obesity by suppressing inflammatory actions of macrophages and release of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 from adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Hae-Mi; Kang, Ji-Hye; Kawada, Teruo; Yoo, Hoon; Sung, Mi-Kyung; Yu, Rina

    2007-02-13

    Inflammation plays a key role in obesity-related pathologies such as cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, and several types of cancer. Obesity-induced inflammation entails the enhancement of the recruitment of macrophages into adipose tissue and the release of various proinflammatory proteins from fat tissue. Therefore, the modulation of inflammatory responses in obesity may be useful for preventing or ameliorating obesity-related pathologies. Some spice-derived components, which are naturally occurring phytochemicals, elicit antiobesity and antiinflammatory properties. In this study, we investigated whether active spice-derived components can be applied to the suppression of obesity-induced inflammatory responses. Mesenteric adipose tissue was isolated from obese mice fed a high-fat diet and cultured to prepare an adipose tissue-conditioned medium. Raw 264.7 macrophages were treated with the adipose tissue-conditioned medium with or without active spice-derived components (i.e., diallyl disulfide, allyl isothiocyanate, piperine, zingerone and curcumin). Chemotaxis assay was performed to measure the degree of macrophage migration. Macrophage activation was estimated by measuring tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), nitric oxide, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) concentrations. The active spice-derived components markedly suppressed the migration of macrophages induced by the mesenteric adipose tissue-conditioned medium in a dose-dependent manner. Among the active spice-derived components studied, allyl isothiocyanate, zingerone, and curcumin significantly inhibited the cellular production of proinflammatory mediators such as TNF-alpha and nitric oxide, and significantly inhibited the release of MCP-1 from 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Our findings suggest that the spice-derived components can suppress obesity-induced inflammatory responses by suppressing adipose tissue macrophage accumulation or activation and inhibiting MCP-1 release from adipocytes

  9. Monocyte/macrophage-derived soluble CD163: A novel biomarker in multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Morten Nørgaard; Abildgaard, Niels; Maniecki, Maciej B

    2014-01-01

    fluids (soluble CD163, sCD163). In this study, we examined serum sCD163 as a biomarker in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. METHODS: Peripheral blood (n = 104) and bone marrow (n = 17) levels of sCD163 were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: At diagnosis, high s......CD163 was associated with higher stage according to the International Staging System (ISS) and with other known prognostic factors in multiple myeloma (creatinine, C-reactive protein, and beta-2 microglobulin). Soluble CD163 decreased upon high-dose treatment, and in a multivariate survival analysis...... in bone marrow samples than in the matched blood samples, which indicate a localized production of sCD163 within the bone marrow microenvironment. CONCLUSIONS: Soluble CD163 was found to be a prognostic marker in patients with multiple myeloma. This may indicate that macrophages and/or monocytes have...

  10. Bone marrow chimeric mice reveal a role for CX₃CR1 in maintenance of the monocyte-derived cell population in the olfactory neuroepithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Jana; Blomster, Linda V; Chinnery, Holly R; Weninger, Wolfgang; Jung, Steffen; McMenamin, Paul G; Ruitenberg, Marc J

    2010-10-01

    Macrophages in the olfactory neuroepithelium are thought to play major roles in tissue homeostasis and repair. However, little information is available at present about possible heterogeneity of these monocyte-derived cells, their turnover rates, and the role of chemokine receptors in this process. To start addressing these issues, this study used Cx₃cr1(gfp) mice, in which the gene sequence for eGFP was knocked into the CX₃CR1 gene locus in the mutant allele. Using neuroepithelial whole-mounts from Cx₃cr1(gfp/+) mice, we show that eGFP(+) cells of monocytic origin are distributed in a loose network throughout this tissue and can be subdivided further into two immunophenotypically distinct subsets based on MHC-II glycoprotein expression. BM chimeric mice were created using Cx₃cr1(gfp/+) donors to investigate turnover of macrophages (and other monocyte-derived cells) in the olfactory neuroepithelium. Our data indicate that the monocyte-derived cell population in the olfactory neuroepithelium is actively replenished by circulating monocytes and under the experimental conditions, completely turned over within 6 months. Transplantation of Cx₃cr1(gfp/gfp) (i.e., CX₃CR1-deficient) BM partially impaired the replenishment process and resulted in an overall decline of the total monocyte-derived cell number in the olfactory epithelium. Interestingly, replenishment of the CD68(low)MHC-II(+) subset appeared minimally affected by CX₃CR1 deficiency. Taken together, the established baseline data about heterogeneity of monocyte-derived cells, their replenishment rates, and the role of CX₃CR1 provide a solid basis to further examine the importance of different monocyte subsets for neuroregeneration at this unique frontier with the external environment.

  11. Unlike PPARγ, PPARα or PPARβ/δ activation does not promote human monocyte differentiation toward alternative macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouhlel, Mohamed Amine; Brozek, John; Derudas, Bruno; Zawadzki, Christophe; Jude, Brigitte; Staels, Bart; Chinetti-Gbaguidi, Giulia

    2009-01-01

    Macrophages adapt their response to micro-environmental signals. While Th1 cytokines promote pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages, Th2 cytokines promote an 'alternative' anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage phenotype. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors expressed in macrophages where they control the inflammatory response. It has been shown that PPARγ promotes the differentiation of monocytes into anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages in humans and mice, while a role for PPARβ/δ in this process has been reported only in mice and no data are available for PPARα. Here, we show that in contrast to PPARγ, expression of PPARα and PPARβ/δ overall does not correlate with the expression of M2 markers in human atherosclerotic lesions, whereas a positive correlation with genes of lipid metabolism exists. Moreover, unlike PPARγ, PPARα or PPARβ/δ activation does not influence human monocyte differentiation into M2 macrophages in vitro. Thus, PPARα and PPARβ/δ do not appear to modulate the alternative differentiation of human macrophages.

  12. Variation in the Early Host-Pathogen Interaction of Bovine Macrophages with Divergent Mycobacterium bovis Strains in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kirsty; Gallagher, Iain J; Johnston, Nicholas; Welsh, Michael; Skuce, Robin; Williams, John L; Glass, Elizabeth J

    2018-03-01

    Bovine tuberculosis has been an escalating animal health issue in the United Kingdom since the 1980s, even though control policies have been in place for over 60 years. The importance of the genetics of the etiological agent, Mycobacterium bovis , in the reemergence of the disease has been largely overlooked. We compared the interaction between bovine monocyte-derived macrophages (bMDM) and two M. bovis strains, AF2122/97 and G18, representing distinct genotypes currently circulating in the United Kingdom. These M. bovis strains exhibited differences in survival and growth in bMDM. Although uptake was similar, the number of viable intracellular AF2122/97 organisms increased rapidly, while G18 growth was constrained for the first 24 h. AF2122/97 infection induced a greater transcriptional response by bMDM than G18 infection with respect to the number of differentially expressed genes and the fold changes measured. AF2122/97 infection induced more bMDM cell death, with characteristics of necrosis and apoptosis, more inflammasome activation, and a greater type I interferon response than G18. In conclusion, the two investigated M. bovis strains interact in significantly different ways with the host macrophage. In contrast to the relatively silent infection by G18, AF2122/97 induces greater signaling to attract other immune cells and induces host cell death, which may promote secondary infections of naive macrophages. These differences may affect early events in the host-pathogen interaction, including granuloma development, which could in turn alter the progression of the disease. Therefore, the potential involvement of M. bovis genotypes in the reemergence of bovine tuberculosis in the United Kingdom warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2018 Jensen et al.

  13. Monocyte galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine-specific C-type lectin receptor stimulant immunotherapy of an experimental glioma. Part 1: stimulatory effects on blood monocytes and monocyte-derived cells of the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushchayev SV

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sergiy V Kushchayev,1 Tejas Sankar,1 Laura L Eggink,4,5 Yevgeniya S Kushchayeva,5 Philip C Wiener,1,5 J Kenneth Hoober,5,6 Jennifer Eschbacher,3 Ruolan Liu,2 Fu-Dong Shi,2 Mohammed G Abdelwahab,4 Adrienne C Scheck,4 Mark C Preul11Neurosurgery Research Laboratory, 2Neuroimmunology Laboratory, 3Department of Pathology, 4Neurooncology Research, Barrow Neurological Institute, St Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, 5School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, 6Susavion Biosciences, Inc, Tempe, AZ, USAObjectives: Immunotherapy with immunostimulants is an attractive therapy against gliomas. C-type lectin receptors specific for galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine (GCLR regulate cellular differentiation, recognition, and trafficking of monocyte-derived cells. A peptide mimetic of GCLR ligands (GCLRP was used to activate blood monocytes and populations of myeloid-derived cells against a murine glioblastoma.Methods: The ability of GCLRP to stimulate phagocytosis by human microglia and monocyte-derived cells of the brain (MDCB isolated from a human glioblastoma was initially assessed in vitro. Induction of activation markers on blood monocytes was assayed by flow cytometry after administration of GCLRP to naive mice. C57BL/6 mice underwent stereotactic intracranial implantation of GL261 glioma cells and were randomized for tumor size by magnetic resonance imaging, which was also used to assess increase in tumor size. Brain tumor tissues were analyzed using flow cytometry, histology, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with respect to tumor, peritumoral area, and contralateral hemisphere regions.Results: GCLRP exhibited strong stimulatory effect on MDCBs and blood monocytes in vitro and in vivo. GCLRP was associated with an increased percentage of precursors of dendritic cells in the blood (P = 0.003, which differentiated into patrolling macrophages in tumoral (P = 0.001 and peritumoral areas (P = 0.04, rather than into dendritic cells

  14. Imatinib and Nilotinib Off-Target Effects on Human NK Cells, Monocytes, and M2 Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellora, Francesca; Dondero, Alessandra; Corrias, Maria Valeria; Casu, Beatrice; Regis, Stefano; Caliendo, Fabio; Moretta, Alessandro; Cazzola, Mario; Elena, Chiara; Vinti, Luciana; Locatelli, Franco; Bottino, Cristina; Castriconi, Roberta

    2017-08-15

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are used in the clinical management of hematological neoplasms. Moreover, in solid tumors such as stage 4 neuroblastomas (NB), imatinib showed benefits that might depend on both on-target and immunological off-target effects. We investigated the effects of imatinib and nilotinib on human NK cells, monocytes, and macrophages. High numbers of monocytes died upon exposure to TKI concentrations similar to those achieved in patients. Conversely, NK cells were highly resistant to the TKI cytotoxic effect, were properly activated by immunostimulatory cytokines, and degranulated in the presence of NB cells. In NB, neither drug reduced the expression of ligands for activating NK receptors or upregulated that of HLA class I, B7-H3, PD-L1, and PD-L2, molecules that might limit NK cell function. Interestingly, TKIs modulated the chemokine receptor repertoire of immune cells. Acting at the transcriptional level, they increased the surface expression of CXCR4, an effect observed also in NK cells and monocytes of patients receiving imatinib for chronic myeloid leukemia. Moreover, TKIs reduced the expression of CXCR3 (in NK cells) and CCR1 (in monocytes). Monocytes also decreased the expression of M-CSFR, and low numbers of cells underwent differentiation toward macrophages. M0 and M2 macrophages were highly resistant to TKIs and maintained their phenotypic and functional characteristics. Importantly, also in the presence of TKIs, the M2 immunosuppressive polarization was reverted by TLR engagement, and M1-oriented macrophages fully activated autologous NK cells. Our results contribute to better interpreting the off-target efficacy of TKIs in tumors and to envisaging strategies aimed at facilitating antitumor immune responses. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  15. In vitro differentiation of human monocytes to macrophages: change of PDE profile and its relationship to suppression of tumour necrosis factor-α release by PDE inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantner, Florian; Kupferschmidt, Rochus; Schudt, Christian; Wendel, Albrecht; Hatzelmann, Armin

    1997-01-01

    During in vitro culture in 10% human AB serum, human peripheral blood monocytes acquire a macrophage-like phenotype. The underlying differentiation was characterized by increased activities of the macrophage marker enzymes unspecific esterase (NaF-insensitive form) and acid phosphatase, as well as by a down-regulation in surface CD14 expression. In parallel, a dramatic change in the phosphodiesterase (PDE) profile became evident within a few days that strongly resembled that previously described for human alveolar macrophages. Whereas PDE1 and PDE3 activities were augmented, PDE4 activity, which represented the major cyclic AMP-hydrolysing activity of peripheral blood monocytes, rapidly declined. Monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages responded to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with the release of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF). In line with the change in CD14 expression, the EC50 value of LPS for induction of TNF release increased from approximately 0.1 ng ml−1 in peripheral blood monocytes to about 2 ng ml−1 in macrophages. Both populations of cells were equally susceptible towards inhibition of TNF release by cyclic AMP elevating agents such as dibutyryl cyclic AMP, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) or forskolin, which all led to a complete abrogation of TNF production in a concentration-dependent manner and which were more efficient than the glucocorticoid dexamethasone. In monocytes, PDE4 selective inhibitors (rolipram, RP73401) suppressed TNF formation by 80%, whereas motapizone, a PDE3 selective compound, exerted a comparatively weak effect (10–15% inhibition). Combined use of PDE3 plus PDE4 inhibitors resulted in an additive effect and fully abrogated LPS-induced TNF release as did the mixed PDE3/4 inhibitor tolafentrine. In monocyte-derived macrophages, neither PDE3- nor PDE4-selective drugs markedly affected TNF generation when used alone (<15% inhibition), whereas in combination, they led to a maximal inhibition of TNF formation by about 40–50

  16. Soluble CD163, a product of monocyte/macrophage activation, is inversely associated with haemoglobin levels in placental malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Lin Lin Chua

    Full Text Available In Plasmodium falciparum malaria, activation of monocytes and macrophages (monocytes/macrophages can result in the production of various inflammatory mediators that contribute to immunopathology. Soluble CD163 (sCD163 is a specific marker of monocyte/macrophage activation typically found at increased levels during various inflammatory conditions and can be associated with poor clinical outcomes. To better understand the relationships between levels of sCD163 and clinical parameters in women with placental malaria, we measured plasma sCD163 levels in maternal peripheral and placental blood compartments at delivery and determined their correlations with birth weight and maternal haemoglobin concentrations. sCD163 levels were negatively correlated with birth weight only in the placental compartment (r = -0.145, p = 0.03 and were inversely correlated with maternal haemoglobin concentrations, both in peripheral blood (r = -0.238, p = 0.0004 and in placental blood (r = -0.259, p = 0.0001. These inverse relationships suggest a potential role for monocyte/macrophage activation in the pathogenesis of malaria in pregnancy, particularly in relation to malaria-associated anaemia.

  17. GM-CSF Monocyte-Derived Cells and Langerhans Cells As Part of the Dendritic Cell Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred B. Lutz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs and macrophages (Mph share many characteristics as components of the innate immune system. The criteria to classify the multitude of subsets within the mononuclear phagocyte system are currently phenotype, ontogeny, transcription patterns, epigenetic adaptations, and function. More recently, ontogenetic, transcriptional, and proteomic research approaches uncovered major developmental differences between Flt3L-dependent conventional DCs as compared with Mphs and monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs, the latter mainly generated in vitro from murine bone marrow-derived DCs (BM-DCs or human CD14+ peripheral blood monocytes. Conversely, in vitro GM-CSF-dependent monocyte-derived Mphs largely resemble MoDCs whereas tissue-resident Mphs show a common embryonic origin from yolk sac and fetal liver with Langerhans cells (LCs. The novel ontogenetic findings opened discussions on the terminology of DCs versus Mphs. Here, we bring forward arguments to facilitate definitions of BM-DCs, MoDCs, and LCs. We propose a group model of terminology for all DC subsets that attempts to encompass both ontogeny and function.

  18. Acute stress reduces wound-induced activation of microbicidal potential of ex vivo isolated human monocyte-derived macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Kuebler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Psychological stress delays wound healing but the precise underlying mechanisms are unclear. Macrophages play an important role in wound healing, in particular by killing microbes. We hypothesized that (a acute psychological stress reduces wound-induced activation of microbicidal potential of human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDM, and (b that these reductions are modulated by stress hormone release. METHODS: Fourty-one healthy men (mean age 35 ± 13 years were randomly assigned to either a stress or stress-control group. While the stress group underwent a standardized short-term psychological stress task after catheter-induced wound infliction, stress-controls did not. Catheter insertion was controlled. Assessing the microbicidal potential, we investigated PMA-activated superoxide anion production by HMDM immediately before and 1, 10 and 60 min after stress/rest. Moreover, plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine and salivary cortisol were repeatedly measured. In subsequent in vitro studies, whole blood was incubated with norepinephrine in the presence or absence of phentolamine (norepinephrine blocker before assessing HMDM microbicidal potential. RESULTS: Compared with stress-controls, HMDM of the stressed subjects displayed decreased superoxide anion-responses after stress (p's <.05. Higher plasma norepinephrine levels statistically mediated lower amounts of superoxide anion-responses (indirect effect 95% CI: 4.14-44.72. Norepinephrine-treated HMDM showed reduced superoxide anion-production (p<.001. This effect was blocked by prior incubation with phentolamine. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that acute psychological stress reduces wound-induced activation of microbicidal potential of HMDM and that this reduction is mediated by norepinephrine. This might have implications for stress-induced impairment in wound healing.

  19. Increased platelet reactivity is associated with circulating platelet-monocyte complexes and macrophages in human atherosclerotic plaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert Rutten

    Full Text Available Platelet reactivity, platelet binding to monocytes and monocyte infiltration play a detrimental role in atherosclerotic plaque progression. We investigated whether platelet reactivity was associated with levels of circulating platelet-monocyte complexes (PMCs and macrophages in human atherosclerotic carotid plaques.Platelet reactivity was determined by measuring platelet P-selectin expression after platelet stimulation with increasing concentrations of adenosine diphosphate (ADP, in two independent cohorts: the Circulating Cells cohort (n = 244 and the Athero-Express cohort (n = 91. Levels of PMCs were assessed by flow cytometry in blood samples of patients who were scheduled for percutaneous coronary intervention (Circulating Cells cohort. Monocyte infiltration was semi-quantitatively determined by histological examination of atherosclerotic carotid plaques collected during carotid endarterectomy (Athero-Express cohort.We found increased platelet reactivity in patients with high PMCs as compared to patients with low PMCs (median (interquartile range: 4153 (1585-11267 area under the curve (AUC vs. 9633 (3580-21565 AUC, P<0.001. Also, we observed increased platelet reactivity in patients with high macrophage levels in atherosclerotic plaques as compared to patients with low macrophage levels in atherosclerotic plaques (mean ± SD; 8969 ± 3485 AUC vs. 7020 ± 3442 AUC, P = 0.02. All associations remained significant after adjustment for age, sex and use of drugs against platelet activation.Platelet reactivity towards ADP is associated with levels of PMCs and macrophages in human atherosclerotic carotid plaques.

  20. Exosomes derived from gastric cancer cells activate NF-κB pathway in macrophages to promote cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lijun; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Bin; Shi, Hui; Yuan, Xiao; Sun, Yaoxiang; Pan, Zhaoji; Qian, Hui; Xu, Wenrong

    2016-09-01

    Exosomes are nano-sized membrane vesicles secreted by both normal and cancer cells. Emerging evidence indicates that cancer cells derived exosomes contribute to cancer progression through the modulation of tumor microenvironment. However, the effects of exosomes derived from gastric cancer cells on macrophages are not well understood. In this study, we investigated the biological role of gastric cancer cells derived exosomes in the activation of macrophages. We demonstrated that gastric cancer cells derived exosomes activated macrophages to express increased levels of proinflammatory factors, which in turn promoted tumor cell proliferation and migration. In addition, gastric cancer cells derived exosomes remarkably upregulated the phosphorylation of NF-κB in macrophages. Inhibiting the activation of NF-κB reversed the upregulation of proinflammatory factors in macrophages and blocked their promoting effects on gastric cancer cells. Moreover, we found that gastric cancer cells derived exosomes could also activate macrophages from human peripheral blood monocytes through the activation of NF-κB. In conclusion, our results suggest that gastric cancer cells derived exosomes stimulate the activation of NF-κB pathway in macrophages to promote cancer progression, which provides a potential therapeutic approach for gastric cancer by interfering with the interaction between exosomes and macrophages in tumor microenvironment.

  1. Differential effects of chronic monocyte depletion on macrophage populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkman, A.; Chang, N.C.; Strausbauch, P.H.; Morahan, P.S.

    1983-01-01

    The administration of the bone-seeking isotope, 89 Sr, to mice results in severe monocytopenia without any apparent effect on the numbers of resident peritoneal macrophages (M luminal diameter). An explanation for this dichotomy was sought by determining whether the residual blood monocytes were still an effective source of M luminal diameter after 89 Sr treatment. Stem cell enumeration showed that a 90% fall in bone marrow macrophage colony-forming cells after 89 Sr was accompanied by a 10-fold rise in splenic M-CFC. Splenectomy performed before 89 Sr treatment, however, resulted in little additional monocytopenia and had no affect on the numbers of resident peritoneal M luminal diameter even when sampling was extended to 31 days, an interval beyond the accepted half-time for peritoneal M luminal diameter. Intraperitoneal injections of thioglycollate or Corynebacterium parvum elicited few or no monocyte-M luminal diameter during respective intervals of 4 and 7 days. Elicitation with thioglycollate was attempted in tritiated thymidine-labeled mice 26 days after 89 Sr. Four days later only a 2-fold increase in labeled peritoneal M luminal diameter was found in the 89 Sr-treated mice compared with a 150-fold increase in the controls. Studies of the ectoenzymes 5'-nucleotidase, alkaline phosphodiesterase I, and leucine aminopeptidase in such elicitation experiments suggested that the observed changes in activities reflected the direct stimulation of resident M luminal diameter rather than monocyte immigration. Overall, the results indicate that treatment with 89 Sr distinguishes two large populations of M luminal diameter on the basis of their dependence on bone marrow. M luminal diameter of inflammation reflect the monocytopenia and are severely and rapidly depleted by such treatment

  2. CD16+ monocytes and skewed macrophage polarization toward M2 type hallmark heart transplant acute cellular rejection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.P.P. van den Bosch (Thierry); K. Caliskan (Kadir); M.D. Kraaij (Marina); A.A. Constantinescu (Alina); O.C. Manintveld (Olivier); P.J. Leenen (Pieter); J. von der Thusen (Jan); M.C. Clahsen-van Groningen (Marian); C.C. Baan (Carla); A.T. Rowshani (Ajda)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: During acute heart transplant rejection, infiltration of lymphocytes and monocytes is followed by endothelial injury and eventually myocardial fibrosis. To date, no information is available on monocyte-macrophage-related cellular shifts and their polarization status during

  3. Insulin regulates multiple signaling pathways leading to monocyte/macrophage chemotaxis into the wound tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Wound healing is a complex process that involves sequential phases that overlap in time and space and affect each other dynamically at the gene and protein levels. We previously showed that insulin accelerates wound healing by stimulating faster and regenerative healing. One of the processes that insulin stimulates is an increase in monocyte/macrophage chemotaxis. In this study, we performed experiments in vivo and in vitro to elucidate the signaling transduction pathways that are involved in insulin-induced monocyte/macrophage chemotaxis. We found that insulin stimulates THP-1 cell chemotaxis in a dose-dependent and insulin receptor-dependent manner. We also show that the kinases PI3K-Akt, SPAK/JNK, and p38 MAPK are key molecules in the insulin-induced signaling pathways that lead to chemoattraction of the THP-1 cell. Furthermore, both PI3K-Akt and SPAK/JNK signaling involve Rac1 activation, an important molecule in regulating cell motility. Indeed, topical application of Rac1 inhibitor at an early stage during the healing process caused delayed and impaired healing even in the presence of insulin. These results delineate cell and molecular mechanisms involved in insulin-induced chemotaxis of monocyte/macrophage, cells that are critical for proper healing.

  4. Micro RNA in Exosomes from HIV-Infected Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William W. Roth

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes are small membrane-bound vesicles secreted by cells that function to shuttle RNA and proteins between cells. To examine the role of exosomal micro RNA (miRNA during the early stage of HIV-1 infection we characterized miRNA in exosomes from HIV-infected macrophages, compared with exosomes from non-infected macrophages. Primary human monocytes from uninfected donors were differentiated to macrophages (MDM which were either mock-infected or infected with the macrophage-tropic HIV-1 BaL strain. Exosomes were recovered from culture media and separated from virus particles by centrifugation on iodixanol density gradients. The low molecular weight RNA fraction was prepared from purified exosomes. After pre-amplification, RNA was hybridized to microarrays containing probes for 1200 miRNA species of known and unknown function. We observed 48 miRNA species in both infected and uninfected MDM exosomes. Additionally, 38 miRNAs were present in infected-cell exosomes but not uninfected-cell exosomes. Of these, 13 miRNAs were upregulated in exosomes from HIV-infected cells, including 4 miRNA species that were increased by more than 10-fold. Though numerous miRNA species have been identified in HIV-infected cells, relatively little is known about miRNA content in exosomes from these cells. In the future, we plan to investigate whether the upregulated miRNA species we identified are increased in exosomes from HIV-1-positive patients.

  5. Isolation of human monocytes by double gradient centrifugation and their differentiation to macrophages in teflon-coated cell culture bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menck, Kerstin; Behme, Daniel; Pantke, Mathias; Reiling, Norbert; Binder, Claudia; Pukrop, Tobias; Klemm, Florian

    2014-09-09

    Human macrophages are involved in a plethora of pathologic processes ranging from infectious diseases to cancer. Thus they pose a valuable tool to understand the underlying mechanisms of these diseases. We therefore present a straightforward protocol for the isolation of human monocytes from buffy coats, followed by a differentiation procedure which results in high macrophage yields. The technique relies mostly on commonly available lab equipment and thus provides a cost and time effective way to obtain large quantities of human macrophages. Briefly, buffy coats from healthy blood donors are subjected to a double density gradient centrifugation to harvest monocytes from the peripheral blood. These monocytes are then cultured in fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) Teflon-coated cell culture bags in the presence of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). The differentiated macrophages can be easily harvested and used for subsequent studies and functional assays. Important methods for quality control and validation of the isolation and differentiation steps will be highlighted within the protocol. In summary, the protocol described here enables scientists to routinely and reproducibly isolate human macrophages without the need for cost intensive tools. Furthermore, disease models can be studied in a syngeneic human system circumventing the use of murine macrophages.

  6. Nicotinamide: a vitamin able to shift macrophage differentiation toward macrophages with restricted inflammatory features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Ronald; Schilling, Erik; Grahnert, Anja; Kölling, Valeen; Dorow, Juliane; Ceglarek, Uta; Sack, Ulrich; Hauschildt, Sunna

    2015-11-01

    The differentiation of human monocytes into macrophages is influenced by environmental signals. Here we asked in how far nicotinamide (NAM), a vitamin B3 derivative known to play a major role in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-mediated signaling events, is able to modulate monocyte differentiation into macrophages developed in the presence of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-MØ) or macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-MØ). We found that GM-MØ undergo biochemical, morphological and functional modifications in response to NAM, whereas M-MØ were hardly affected. GM-MØ exposed to NAM acquired an M-MØ-like structure while the LPS-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and COX-derived eicosanoids were down-regulated. In contrast, NAM had no effect on the production of IL-10 or the cytochrome P450-derived eicosanoids. Administration of NAM enhanced intracellular NAD concentrations; however, it did not prevent the LPS-mediated drain on NAD pools. In search of intracellular molecular targets of NAM known to be involved in LPS-induced cytokine and eicosanoid synthesis, we found NF-κB activity to be diminished. In conclusion, our data show that vitamin B3, when present during the differentiation of monocytes into GM-MØ, interferes with biochemical pathways resulting in strongly reduced pro-inflammatory features. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Macrophage-derived microvesicles promote proliferation and migration of Schwann cell on peripheral nerve repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhan, Chuan, E-mail: zhchuansy@163.com; Ma, Cheng-bin; Yuan, Hong-mou; Cao, Bao-yuan; Zhu, Jia-jun

    2015-12-04

    Background: Macrophages have been implicated in peripheral nerve regeneration. However, whether macrophages-derived microvesicles (MVs) are involved in this process remains unknown. In the present study, the effects of macrophages-derived MVs on proliferation and migration of Schwann cells (SCs) were evaluated in both in vitro and in vivo. Methods: Human monocytic leukaemia cell line (THP-1) was successfully driven to M1 and M2 phenotypes by delivery of either IFN-γ or IL-4, respectively. SCs incubated with M1 or M2 macrophages-derived MVs, the cell migration and proliferation were assessed, and expression levels of nerve growth factor (NGF) and Laminin were measured. A rat model of sciatic nerve was established and the effects of macrophages-derived MVs on nerve regeneration were investigated. Results: M2-derived MVs elevated migration, proliferation, NFG and Laminin protein levels of SCs compared with M1-or M0-derived MVs. The relative expression levels of miR-223 were also increased in M2 macrophages and M2-derived MVs. Transfected M2 macrophages with miR-223 inhibitor then co-incubated with SCs, an inhibition of cell migration and proliferation and a down-regulated levels of NFG and Laminin protein expression were observed. In vivo, M2-derived MVs significantly increased the infiltration and axon number of SCs. Conclusion: M2-derived MVs promoted proliferation and migration of SCs in vitro and in vivo, which provided a therapeutic strategy for nerve regeneration. - Highlights: • M2 macrophages-derived MVs elevated migration and proliferation of SCs. • M2 macrophages-derived MVs up-regulated NFG and Laminin expression of SCs. • MiR-223 expression was increased in M2 macrophages-derived MVs. • MiR-223 inhibitor reduced migration and proliferation of SCs co-incubated with MVs. • MiR-223 inhibitor down-regulated NFG and Laminin levels of SCs co-incubated with MVs.

  8. Histone deacetylases in monocyte/macrophage development, activation and metabolism: refining HDAC targets for inflammatory and infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Gupta, Kaustav; Shakespear, Melanie R; Iyer, Abishek; Fairlie, David P; Sweet, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages have central roles in danger detection, inflammation and host defense, and consequently, these cells are intimately linked to most disease processes. Major advances in our understanding of the development and function of macrophages have recently come to light. For example, it is now clear that tissue-resident macrophages can be derived from either blood monocytes or through local proliferation of phagocytes that are originally seeded during embryonic development. Metabolic state has also emerged as a major control point for macrophage activation phenotypes. Herein, we review recent literature linking the histone deacetylase (HDAC) family of enzymes to macrophage development and activation, particularly in relation to these recent developments. There has been considerable interest in potential therapeutic applications for small molecule inhibitors of HDACs (HDACi), not only for cancer, but also for inflammatory and infectious diseases. However, the enormous range of molecular and cellular processes that are controlled by different HDAC enzymes presents a potential stumbling block to clinical development. We therefore present examples of how classical HDACs control macrophage functions, roles of specific HDACs in these processes and approaches for selective targeting of drugs, such as HDACi, to macrophages. Development of selective inhibitors of macrophage-expressed HDACs and/or selective delivery of pan HDACi to macrophages may provide avenues for enhancing efficacy of HDACi in therapeutic applications, while limiting unwanted side effects.

  9. Consequences of gamma-irradiation on inflammatory cytokine regulation in human monocytes/macrophages; Consequences de l`irradiation gamma sur la regulation des cytokines de l`inflammation dans les monocytes/macrophages humains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pons, I.; Gras, G.; Dormont, D.

    1995-12-31

    Inflammation is a frequent radiation-induced damage, especially after therapeutic irradiation. In this study, we have investigated, the inflammatory cytokine regulation after ionizing irradiation of monocytes/macrophages from four donors. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed, after in vitro 24 h-differentiated monocytes irradiation between 5 to 40 Gy, no induction of interleukin-I{beta} (IL I{beta}), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha} mRNA) expression. Moreover, protein quantitation shows no significant increase of post-irradiation secretion. (author). 6 refs.

  10. Maturation of the viral core enhances the fusion of HIV-1 particles with primary human T cells and monocyte-derived macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Jiyang; Aiken, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    HIV-1 infection requires fusion of viral and cellular membranes in a reaction catalyzed by the viral envelope proteins gp120 and gp41. We recently reported that efficient HIV-1 particle fusion with target cells is linked to maturation of the viral core by an activity of the gp41 cytoplasmic domain. Here, we show that maturation enhances the fusion of a variety of recombinant viruses bearing primary and laboratory-adapted Env proteins with primary human CD4 + T cells. Overall, HIV-1 fusion was more dependent on maturation for viruses bearing X4-tropic envelope proteins than for R5-tropic viruses. Fusion of HIV-1 with monocyte-derived macrophages was also dependent on particle maturation. We conclude that the ability to couple fusion to particle maturation is a common feature of HIV-1 Env proteins and may play an important role during HIV-1 replication in vivo

  11. Cancer Cell-derived Exosomes Induce Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase-dependent Monocyte Survival by Transport of Functional Receptor Tyrosine Kinases*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiao; Ding, Yanping; Liu, Gang; Yang, Xiao; Zhao, Ruifang; Zhang, Yinlong; Zhao, Xiao; Anderson, Gregory J.; Nie, Guangjun

    2016-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) play pivotal roles in cancer initiation and progression. Monocytes, the precursors of TAMs, normally undergo spontaneous apoptosis within 2 days, but can subsist in the inflammatory tumor microenvironment for continuous survival and generation of sufficient TAMs. The mechanisms underlying tumor-driving monocyte survival remain obscure. Here we report that cancer cell-derived exosomes were crucial mediators for monocyte survival in the inflammatory niche. Analysis of the survival-promoting molecules in monocytes revealed that cancer cell-derived exosomes activated Ras and extracellular signal-regulated kinases in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, resulting in the prevention of caspase cleavage. Phosphorylated receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), such as phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2), were abundantly expressed in cancer cell-derived exosomes. Knock-out of EGFR or/and HER-2, or alternatively, inhibitors against their phosphorylation significantly disturbed the exosome-mediated activation of the MAPK pathway, inhibition of caspase cleavage, and increase in survival rate in monocytes. Moreover, the deprived survival-stimulating activity of exosomes due to null expression of EGFR and HER-2 could be restored by activation of another RTK, insulin receptor. Overall, our study uncovered a mechanism of tumor-associated monocyte survival and demonstrated that cancer cell-derived exosomes can stimulate the MAPK pathway in monocytes through transport of functional RTKs, leading to inactivation of apoptosis-related caspases. This work provides insights into the long sought question on monocyte survival prior to formation of plentiful TAMs in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:26895960

  12. Monocyte subsets in blood correlate with obesity related response of macrophages to biomaterials in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.S.A. ter Hoeve-Boersema (Simone); L. Utomo (Lizette); Y. Bayon (Yves); N. Kops (Nicole); E. van der Harst (Erwin); J.F. Lange (Johan); Y.M. Bastiaansen-Jenniskens (Yvonne)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractMacrophages play a key role in the foreign body response. In this study it was investigated whether obesity affects the acute response of macrophages to biomaterials in vitro and whether this response is associated with biomarkers in blood. CD14 + monocytes were isolated from blood from

  13. Monocyte scintigraphy in rheumatoid arthritis: the dynamics of monocyte migration in immune-mediated inflammatory disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogier M Thurlings

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages are principal drivers of synovial inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA, a prototype immune-mediated inflammatory disease. Conceivably, synovial macrophages are continuously replaced by circulating monocytes in RA. Animal studies from the 1960s suggested that macrophage replacement by monocytes is a slow process in chronic inflammatory lesions. Translation of these data into the human condition has been hampered by the lack of available techniques to analyze monocyte migration in man.We developed a technique that enabled us to analyze the migration of labelled autologous monocytes in RA patients using single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT. We isolated CD14+ monocytes by CliniMACS in 8 patients and labeled these with technetium-99m (99mTc-HMPAO. Monocytes were re-infused into the same patient. Using SPECT we calculated that a very small but specific fraction of 3.4 x 10(-3 (0.95-5.1 x 10(-3 % of re-infused monocytes migrated to the inflamed joints, being detectable within one hour after re-infusion.The results indicate monocytes migrate continuously into the inflamed synovial tissue of RA patients, but at a slow macrophage-replacement rate. This suggests that the rapid decrease in synovial macrophages that occurs after antirheumatic treatment might rather be explained by an alteration in macrophage retention than in monocyte influx and that RA might be particularly sensitive to treatments targeting inflammatory cell retention.

  14. Cancer Cell-derived Exosomes Induce Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase-dependent Monocyte Survival by Transport of Functional Receptor Tyrosine Kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiao; Ding, Yanping; Liu, Gang; Yang, Xiao; Zhao, Ruifang; Zhang, Yinlong; Zhao, Xiao; Anderson, Gregory J; Nie, Guangjun

    2016-04-15

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) play pivotal roles in cancer initiation and progression. Monocytes, the precursors of TAMs, normally undergo spontaneous apoptosis within 2 days, but can subsist in the inflammatory tumor microenvironment for continuous survival and generation of sufficient TAMs. The mechanisms underlying tumor-driving monocyte survival remain obscure. Here we report that cancer cell-derived exosomes were crucial mediators for monocyte survival in the inflammatory niche. Analysis of the survival-promoting molecules in monocytes revealed that cancer cell-derived exosomes activated Ras and extracellular signal-regulated kinases in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, resulting in the prevention of caspase cleavage. Phosphorylated receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), such as phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2), were abundantly expressed in cancer cell-derived exosomes. Knock-out of EGFR or/and HER-2, or alternatively, inhibitors against their phosphorylation significantly disturbed the exosome-mediated activation of the MAPK pathway, inhibition of caspase cleavage, and increase in survival rate in monocytes. Moreover, the deprived survival-stimulating activity of exosomes due to null expression of EGFR and HER-2 could be restored by activation of another RTK, insulin receptor. Overall, our study uncovered a mechanism of tumor-associated monocyte survival and demonstrated that cancer cell-derived exosomes can stimulate the MAPK pathway in monocytes through transport of functional RTKs, leading to inactivation of apoptosis-related caspases. This work provides insights into the long sought question on monocyte survival prior to formation of plentiful TAMs in the tumor microenvironment. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Diesel exhaust particle exposure in vitro alters monocyte differentiation and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazia Chaudhuri

    Full Text Available Air pollution by diesel exhaust particles is associated with elevated mortality and increased hospital admissions in individuals with respiratory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. During active inflammation monocytes are recruited to the airways and can replace resident alveolar macrophages. We therefore investigated whether chronic fourteen day exposure to low concentrations of diesel exhaust particles can alter the phenotype and function of monocytes from healthy individuals and those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Monocytes were purified from the blood of healthy individuals and people with a diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Monocyte-derived macrophages were generated in the presence or absence of diesel exhaust particles and their phenotypes studied through investigation of their lifespan, cytokine generation in response to Toll like receptor agonists and heat killed bacteria, and expression of surface markers. Chronic fourteen day exposure of monocyte-derived macrophages to concentrations of diesel exhaust particles >10 µg/ml caused mitochondrial and lysosomal dysfunction, and a gradual loss of cells over time both in healthy and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease individuals. Chronic exposure to lower concentrations of diesel exhaust particles impaired CXCL8 cytokine responses to lipopolysaccharide and heat killed E. coli, and this phenotype was associated with a reduction in CD14 and CD11b expression. Chronic diesel exhaust particle exposure may therefore alter both numbers and function of lung macrophages differentiating from locally recruited monocytes in the lungs of healthy people and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  16. Macrophage mitochondrial oxidative stress promotes atherosclerosis and nuclear factor-κB-mediated inflammation in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Gary Z; Rabinovitch, Peter S; Tabas, Ira

    2014-01-31

    Mitochondrial oxidative stress (mitoOS) has been shown to correlate with the progression of human atherosclerosis. However, definitive cell type-specific causation studies in vivo are lacking, and the molecular mechanisms of potential proatherogenic effects remain to be determined. Our aims were to assess the importance of macrophage mitoOS in atherogenesis and to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. We first validated Western diet-fed Ldlr(-/-) mice as a model of human mitoOS-atherosclerosis association by showing that non-nuclear oxidative DNA damage, a marker of mitoOS in lesional macrophages, correlates with aortic root lesion development. To investigate the importance of macrophage mitoOS, we used a genetic engineering strategy in which the OS suppressor catalase was ectopically expressed in mitochondria (mCAT) in macrophages. MitoOS in lesional macrophages was successfully suppressed in these mice, and this led to a significant reduction in aortic root lesional area. The mCAT lesions had less monocyte-derived cells, less Ly6c(hi) monocyte infiltration into lesions, and lower levels of monocyte chemotactic protein-1. The decrease in lesional monocyte chemotactic protein-1 was associated with the suppression of other markers of inflammation and with decreased phosphorylation of RelA (NF-κB p65), indicating decreased activation of the proinflammatory NF-κB pathway. Using models of mitoOS in cultured macrophages, we showed that mCAT suppressed monocyte chemotactic protein-1 expression by decreasing the activation of the IκB-kinase β-RelA NF-κB pathway. MitoOS in lesional macrophages amplifies atherosclerotic lesion development by promoting NF-κB-mediated entry of monocytes and other inflammatory processes. In view of the mitoOS-atherosclerosis link in human atheromata, these findings reveal a potentially new therapeutic target to prevent the progression of atherosclerosis.

  17. Macrophage models of Gaucher disease for evaluating disease pathogenesis and candidate drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflaki, Elma; Stubblefield, Barbara K; Maniwang, Emerson; Lopez, Grisel; Moaven, Nima; Goldin, Ehud; Marugan, Juan; Patnaik, Samarjit; Dutra, Amalia; Southall, Noel; Zheng, Wei; Tayebi, Nahid; Sidransky, Ellen

    2014-06-11

    Gaucher disease is caused by an inherited deficiency of glucocerebrosidase that manifests with storage of glycolipids in lysosomes, particularly in macrophages. Available cell lines modeling Gaucher disease do not demonstrate lysosomal storage of glycolipids; therefore, we set out to develop two macrophage models of Gaucher disease that exhibit appropriate substrate accumulation. We used these cellular models both to investigate altered macrophage biology in Gaucher disease and to evaluate candidate drugs for its treatment. We generated and characterized monocyte-derived macrophages from 20 patients carrying different Gaucher disease mutations. In addition, we created induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived macrophages from five fibroblast lines taken from patients with type 1 or type 2 Gaucher disease. Macrophages derived from patient monocytes or iPSCs showed reduced glucocerebrosidase activity and increased storage of glucocerebroside and glucosylsphingosine in lysosomes. These macrophages showed efficient phagocytosis of bacteria but reduced production of intracellular reactive oxygen species and impaired chemotaxis. The disease phenotype was reversed with a noninhibitory small-molecule chaperone drug that enhanced glucocerebrosidase activity in the macrophages, reduced glycolipid storage, and normalized chemotaxis and production of reactive oxygen species. Macrophages differentiated from patient monocytes or patient-derived iPSCs provide cellular models that can be used to investigate disease pathogenesis and facilitate drug development. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Performance comparison of two microarray platforms to assess differential gene expression in human monocyte and macrophage cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montalescot Gilles

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study we assessed the respective ability of Affymetrix and Illumina microarray methodologies to answer a relevant biological question, namely the change in gene expression between resting monocytes and macrophages derived from these monocytes. Five RNA samples for each type of cell were hybridized to the two platforms in parallel. In addition, a reference list of differentially expressed genes (DEG was generated from a larger number of hybridizations (mRNA from 86 individuals using the RNG/MRC two-color platform. Results Our results show an important overlap of the Illumina and Affymetrix DEG lists. In addition, more than 70% of the genes in these lists were also present in the reference list. Overall the two platforms had very similar performance in terms of biological significance, evaluated by the presence in the DEG lists of an excess of genes belonging to Gene Ontology (GO categories relevant for the biology of monocytes and macrophages. Our results support the conclusion of the MicroArray Quality Control (MAQC project that the criteria used to constitute the DEG lists strongly influence the degree of concordance among platforms. However the importance of prioritizing genes by magnitude of effect (fold change rather than statistical significance (p-value to enhance cross-platform reproducibility recommended by the MAQC authors was not supported by our data. Conclusion Functional analysis based on GO enrichment demonstrates that the 2 compared technologies delivered very similar results and identified most of the relevant GO categories enriched in the reference list.

  19. Antibody dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) and antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) of breast cancer cells mediated by bispecific antibody, MDX-210.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, M; Wallace, P K; Keler, T; Deo, Y M; Akewanlop, C; Hayes, D F

    1999-02-01

    MDX-210 is a bispecific antibody (BsAb) with specificity for both the proto-oncogene product of HER-2/neu (c-erbB-2) and FcgammaRI (CD64). HER-2/neu is overexpressed in malignant tissue of approximately 30% of patients with breast cancer, and FcgammaRI is expressed on human monocytes, macrophages, and IFN-gamma activated granulocytes. We investigated phagocytosis and cytolysis of cultured human breast cancer cells by human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) mediated by BsAb MDX-210, its partially humanized derivative (MDX-H210), and its parent MoAb 520C9 (anti-HER-2/neu) under various conditions. Purified monocytes were cultured with GM-CSF, M-CSF, or no cytokine for five or six days. Antibody dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) and cytolysis (ADCC) assays were performed with the MDM and HER-2/neu positive target cells (SK-BR-3). ADCP was measured by two-color fluorescence flow cytometry using PKH2 (green fluorescent dye) and phycoerythrin-conjugated (red) monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) against human CD14 and CD11b. ADCC was measured with a non-radioactive LDH detection kit. Both BsAb MDX-210 (via FcgammaRI) and MoAb 520C9 (mouse IgG1, via FcgammaRII) mediated similar levels of ADCP and ADCC. ADCP mediated by BsAb MDX-H210 was identical to that mediated by BsAb MDX-210. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that dual-labeled cells represented true phagocytosis. Both ADCP and ADCC were higher when MDM were pre-incubated with GM-CSF than when incubated with M-CSF. BsAb MDX-210 is as active in vitro as the parent MoAb 520C9 in inducing both phagocytosis and cytolysis of MDM. MDX-210 and its partially humanized derivative, MDX-H210, mediated similar levels of ADCP. GM-CSF appears to superior to M-CSF in inducing MDM-mediated ADCC and ADCP. These studies support the ongoing clinical investigations of BsAb MDX-210 and its partially humanized derivative.

  20. Niacin and its metabolites as master regulators of macrophage activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat-de la Paz, Sergio; Naranjo, M Carmen; Lopez, Sergio; Abia, Rocio; Muriana, Francisco J Garcia; Bermudez, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    Niacin is a broad-spectrum lipid-regulating drug used for clinical therapy of chronic high-grade inflammatory diseases. However, the mechanisms by which either niacin or the byproducts of its catabolism ameliorate these inflammatory diseases are not clear yet. Human circulating monocytes and mature macrophages were used to analyze the effects of niacin and its metabolites (NAM, NUA and 2-Pyr) on oxidative stress, plasticity and inflammatory response by using biochemical, flow cytometry, quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot technologies. Niacin, NAM and 2-Pyr significantly decreased ROS, NO and NOS2 expression in LPS-treated human mature macrophages. Niacin and NAM skewed macrophage polarization toward antiinflammatory M2 macrophage whereas a trend toward proinflammatory M1 macrophage was noted following treatment with NUA. Niacin and NAM also reduced the inflammatory competence of LPS-treated human mature macrophages and promoted bias toward antiinflammatory CD14 + CD16 ++ nonclassical human primary monocytes. This study reveals for the first time that niacin and its metabolites possess antioxidant, reprogramming and antiinflammatory properties on human primary monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages. Our findings imply a new understanding of the mechanisms by which niacin and its metabolites favor a continuous and gradual plasticity process in the human monocyte/macrophage system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Chronic Inhibition of PDE5 Limits Pro-Inflammatory Monocyte-Macrophage Polarization in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Anna Venneri

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is characterized by changes in endothelial cells that alter monocyte recruitment, increase classic (M1-type tissue macrophage infiltration and lead to self-sustained inflammation. Our and other groups recently showed that chronic inhibition of phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5i affects circulating cytokine levels in patients with diabetes; whether PDE5i also affects circulating monocytes and tissue inflammatory cell infiltration remains to be established. Using murine streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetes and in human vitro cell-cell adhesion models we show that chronic hyperglycemia induces changes in myeloid and endothelial cells that alter monocyte recruitment and lead to self-sustained inflammation. Continuous PDE5i with sildenafil (SILD expanded tissue anti-inflammatory TIE2-expressing monocytes (TEMs, which are known to limit inflammation and promote tissue repair. Specifically, SILD: 1 normalizes the frequency of circulating pro-inflammatory monocytes triggered by hyperglycemia (53.7 ± 7.9% of CD11b+Gr-1+ cells in STZ vs. 30.4 ± 8.3% in STZ+SILD and 27.1 ± 1.6% in CTRL, P<0.01; 2 prevents STZ-induced tissue inflammatory infiltration (4-fold increase in F4/80+ macrophages in diabetic vs. control mice by increasing renal and heart anti-inflammatory TEMs (30.9 ± 3.6% in STZ+SILD vs. 6.9 ± 2.7% in STZ, P <0.01, and 11.6 ± 2.9% in CTRL mice; 3 reduces vascular inflammatory proteins (iNOS, COX2, VCAM-1 promoting tissue protection; 4 lowers monocyte adhesion to human endothelial cells in vitro through the TIE2 receptor. All these changes occurred independently from changes of glycemic status. In summary, we demonstrate that circulating renal and cardiac TEMs are defective in chronic hyperglycemia and that SILD normalizes their levels by facilitating the shift from classic (M1-like to alternative (M2-like/TEM macrophage polarization. Restoration of tissue TEMs with PDE5i could represent an additional pharmacological tool to prevent

  2. Thermo-responsive cell culture carrier: Effects on macrophage functionality and detachment efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennert, Knut; Nitschke, Mirko; Wallert, Maria; Keune, Natalie; Raasch, Martin; Lorkowski, Stefan; Mosig, Alexander S

    2017-01-01

    Harvesting cultivated macrophages for tissue engineering purposes by enzymatic digestion of cell adhesion molecules can potentially result in unintended activation, altered function, or behavior of these cells. Thermo-responsive polymer is a promising tool that allows for gentle macrophage detachment without artificial activation prior to subculture within engineered tissue constructs. We therefore characterized different species of thermo-responsive polymers for their suitability as cell substrate and to mediate gentle macrophage detachment by temperature shift. Primary human monocyte- and THP-1-derived macrophages were cultured on thermo-responsive polymers and characterized for phagocytosis and cytokine secretion in response to lipopolysaccharide stimulation. We found that both cell types differentially respond in dependence of culture and stimulation on thermo-responsive polymers. In contrast to THP-1 macrophages, primary monocyte-derived macrophages showed no signs of impaired viability, artificial activation, or altered functionality due to culture on thermo-responsive polymers compared to conventional cell culture. Our study demonstrates that along with commercially available UpCell carriers, two other thermo-responsive polymers based on poly(vinyl methyl ether) blends are attractive candidates for differentiation and gentle detachment of primary monocyte-derived macrophages. In summary, we observed similar functionality and viability of primary monocyte-derived macrophages cultured on thermo-responsive polymers compared to standard cell culture surfaces. While this first generation of custom-made thermo-responsive polymers does not yet outperform standard culture approaches, our results are very promising and provide the basis for exploiting the unique advantages offered by custom-made thermo-responsive polymers to further improve macrophage culture and recovery in the future, including the covalent binding of signaling molecules and the reduction of

  3. TIE2-expressing monocytes/macrophages regulate revascularization of the ischemic limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ashish S; Smith, Alberto; Nucera, Silvia; Biziato, Daniela; Saha, Prakash; Attia, Rizwan Q; Humphries, Julia; Mattock, Katherine; Grover, Steven P; Lyons, Oliver T; Guidotti, Luca G; Siow, Richard; Ivetic, Aleksandar; Egginton, Stuart; Waltham, Matthew; Naldini, Luigi; De Palma, Michele; Modarai, Bijan

    2013-06-01

    A third of patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) will eventually require limb amputation. Therapeutic neovascularization using unselected mononuclear cells to salvage ischemic limbs has produced modest results. The TIE2-expressing monocytes/macrophages (TEMs) are a myeloid cell subset known to be highly angiogenic in tumours. This study aimed to examine the kinetics of TEMs in patients with CLI and whether these cells promote neovascularization of the ischemic limb. Here we show that there are 10-fold more circulating TEMs in CLI patients, and removal of ischemia reduces their numbers to normal levels. TEM numbers in ischemic muscle are two-fold greater than normoxic muscle from the same patient. TEMs from patients with CLI display greater proangiogenic activity than TIE2-negative monocytes in vitro. Using a mouse model of hindlimb ischemia, lentiviral-based Tie2 knockdown in TEMs impaired recovery from ischemia, whereas delivery of mouse macrophages overexpressing TIE2, or human TEMs isolated from CLI patients, rescued limb ischemia. These data suggest that enhancing TEM recruitment to the ischemic muscle may have the potential to improve limb neovascularization in CLI patients. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd on behalf of EMBO.

  4. The Therapeutic Potential of Monocyte/Macrophage Manipulation in the Treatment of Chemotherapy-Induced Painful Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karli Montague

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In cancer treatments a dose-limiting side-effect of chemotherapeutic agents is the development of neuropathic pain, which is poorly managed by clinically available drugs at present. Chemotherapy-induced painful neuropathy (CIPN is a major cause of premature cessation of treatment and so a greater understanding of the underlying mechanisms and the development of novel, more effective therapies, is greatly needed. In some cases, only a weak correlation between chemotherapy-induced pain and neuronal damage is observed both clinically and preclinically. As such, a critical role for non-neuronal cells, such as immune cells, and their communication with neurons in CIPN has recently been appreciated. In this mini-review, we will discuss preclinical evidence for the role of monocytes/macrophages in the periphery in CIPN, with a focus on that which is associated with the chemotherapeutic agents vincristine and paclitaxel. In addition we will discuss the potential mechanisms that regulate monocyte/macrophage–neuron crosstalk in this context. Informed by preclinical data, we will also consider the value of monocytes/macrophages as therapeutic targets for the treatment of CIPN clinically. Approaches that manipulate the signaling pathways discussed in this review show both promise and potential pitfalls. Nonetheless, they are emerging as innovative therapeutic targets with CX3CL1/R1-regulation of monocyte/macrophage–neuron communication currently emerging as a promising front-runner.

  5. Hemoglobin induces monocyte recruitment and CD163-macrophage polarization in abdominal aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubio-Navarro, Alfonso; Amaro Villalobos, Juan Manuel; Lindholt, Jes S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased hemoglobin (Hb) accumulation was reported in abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). CD163 is a macrophage receptor involved in tissue Hb clearance, however its role in AAA has not been reported. We investigated the role of Hb on monocyte recruitment and differentiation towards CD......163 expressing macrophages ex vivo, in vitro and in human AAA. METHODS AND RESULTS: CD163 mRNA and protein expression was significantly higher in human AAA (n=7) vs. healthy wall (n=6). CD163 was predominantly found in adventitia of AAA, coinciding with areas rich in hemosiderin and adjacent...

  6. Macrophage diversity in renal injury and repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ricardo, Sharon D.; van Goor, Harry; Eddy, Allison A.

    Monocyte-derived macrophages can determine the outcome of the immune response and whether this response contributes to tissue repair or mediates tissue destruction. In addition to their important role in immune-mediated renal disease and host defense, macrophages play a fundamental role in tissue

  7. Chronic Inhibition of PDE5 Limits Pro-Inflammatory Monocyte-Macrophage Polarization in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venneri, Mary Anna; Giannetta, Elisa; Panio, Giuseppe; De Gaetano, Rita; Gianfrilli, Daniele; Pofi, Riccardo; Masciarelli, Silvia; Fazi, Francesco; Pellegrini, Manuela; Lenzi, Andrea; Naro, Fabio; Isidori, Andrea M

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is characterized by changes in endothelial cells that alter monocyte recruitment, increase classic (M1-type) tissue macrophage infiltration and lead to self-sustained inflammation. Our and other groups recently showed that chronic inhibition of phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5i) affects circulating cytokine levels in patients with diabetes; whether PDE5i also affects circulating monocytes and tissue inflammatory cell infiltration remains to be established. Using murine streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes and in human vitro cell-cell adhesion models we show that chronic hyperglycemia induces changes in myeloid and endothelial cells that alter monocyte recruitment and lead to self-sustained inflammation. Continuous PDE5i with sildenafil (SILD) expanded tissue anti-inflammatory TIE2-expressing monocytes (TEMs), which are known to limit inflammation and promote tissue repair. Specifically, SILD: 1) normalizes the frequency of circulating pro-inflammatory monocytes triggered by hyperglycemia (53.7 ± 7.9% of CD11b+Gr-1+ cells in STZ vs. 30.4 ± 8.3% in STZ+SILD and 27.1 ± 1.6% in CTRL, PTEMs (30.9 ± 3.6% in STZ+SILD vs. 6.9 ± 2.7% in STZ, P TEMs are defective in chronic hyperglycemia and that SILD normalizes their levels by facilitating the shift from classic (M1-like) to alternative (M2-like)/TEM macrophage polarization. Restoration of tissue TEMs with PDE5i could represent an additional pharmacological tool to prevent end-organ diabetic complications.

  8. Modulation of Human Macrophage Responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Silver Nanoparticles of Different Size and Surface Modification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srijata Sarkar

    Full Text Available Exposure to silver nanoparticles (AgNP used in consumer products carries potential health risks including increased susceptibility to infectious pathogens. Systematic assessments of antimicrobial macrophage immune responses in the context of AgNP exposure are important because uptake of AgNP by macrophages may lead to alterations of innate immune cell functions. In this study we examined the effects of exposure to AgNP with different particle sizes (20 and 110 nm diameters and surface chemistry (citrate or polyvinlypyrrolidone capping on cellular toxicity and innate immune responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb by human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM. Exposures of MDM to AgNP significantly reduced cellular viability, increased IL8 and decreased IL10 mRNA expression. Exposure of M.tb-infected MDM to AgNP suppressed M.tb-induced expression of IL1B, IL10, and TNFA mRNA. Furthermore, M.tb-induced IL-1β, a cytokine critical for host resistance to M.tb, was inhibited by AgNP but not by carbon black particles indicating that the observed immunosuppressive effects of AgNP are particle specific. Suppressive effects of AgNP on the M.tb-induced host immune responses were in part due to AgNP-mediated interferences with the TLR signaling pathways that culminate in the activation of the transcription factor NF-κB. AgNP exposure suppressed M.tb-induced expression of a subset of NF-κB mediated genes (CSF2, CSF3, IFNG, IL1A, IL1B, IL6, IL10, TNFA, NFKB1A. In addition, AgNP exposure increased the expression of HSPA1A mRNA and the corresponding stress-induced Hsp72 protein. Up-regulation of Hsp72 by AgNP can suppress M.tb-induced NF-κB activation and host immune responses. The observed ability of AgNP to modulate infectious pathogen-induced immune responses has important public health implications.

  9. THP-1 monocytes but not macrophages as a potential alternative for CD34+ dendritic cells to identify chemical skin sensitizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrechts, Nathalie; Verstraelen, Sandra; Lodewyckx, Hanne; Felicio, Ana; Hooyberghs, Jef; Witters, Hilda; Tendeloo, Viggo van; Cauwenberge, Paul van; Nelissen, Inge; Heuvel, Rosette van den; Schoeters, Greet

    2009-01-01

    Early detection of the sensitizing potential of chemicals is an emerging issue for chemical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. In our institute, an in vitro classification model for prediction of chemical-induced skin sensitization based on gene expression signatures in human CD34 + progenitor-derived dendritic cells (DC) has been developed. This primary cell model is able to closely mimic the induction phase of sensitization by Langerhans cells in the skin, but it has drawbacks, such as the availability of cord blood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether human in vitro cultured THP-1 monocytes or macrophages display a similar expression profile for 13 predictive gene markers previously identified in DC and whether they also possess a discriminating capacity towards skin sensitizers and non-sensitizers based on these marker genes. To this end, the cell models were exposed to 5 skin sensitizers (ammonium hexachloroplatinate IV, 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, eugenol, para-phenylenediamine, and tetramethylthiuram disulfide) and 5 non-sensitizers (L-glutamic acid, methyl salicylate, sodium dodecyl sulfate, tributyltin chloride, and zinc sulfate) for 6, 10, and 24 h, and mRNA expression of the 13 genes was analyzed using real-time RT-PCR. The transcriptional response of 7 out of 13 genes in THP-1 monocytes was significantly correlated with DC, whereas only 2 out of 13 genes in THP-1 macrophages. After a cross-validation of a discriminant analysis of the gene expression profiles in the THP-1 monocytes, this cell model demonstrated to also have a capacity to distinguish skin sensitizers from non-sensitizers. However, the DC model was superior to the monocyte model for discrimination of (non-)sensitizing chemicals.

  10. Efficacy and safety of granulocyte, monocyte/macrophage adsorptive in pediatric ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruuska, Tarja; Küster, Peter; Grahnquist, Lena

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate efficacy and safety for granulocyte, monocyte apheresis in a population of pediatric patients with ulcerative colitis. METHODS: The ADAPT study was a prospective, open-label, multicenter study in pediatric patients with moderate, active ulcerative colitis with pediatric...... ulcerative colitis activity index (PUCAI) of 35-64. Patients received one weekly apheresis with Adacolumn(®) granulocyte, monocyte/macrophage adsorptive (GMA) apheresis over 5 consecutive weeks, optionally followed by up to 3 additional apheresis treatments over 3 consecutive weeks. The primary endpoint...... mg daily on average from Baseline to week 12. CONCLUSION: Adacolumn(®) GMA apheresis treatment was effective in pediatric patients with moderate active Ulcerative Colitis. No new safety signals were reported. The present data contribute to considering GMA apheresis as a therapeutic option...

  11. Adropin Contributes to Anti-Atherosclerosis by Suppressing Monocyte-Endothelial Cell Adhesion and Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kengo Sato

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Adropin, a peptide hormone expressed in liver and brain, is known to improve insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction. Serum levels of adropin are negatively associated with the severity of coronary artery disease. However, it remains unknown whether adropin could modulate atherogenesis. We assessed the effects of adropin on inflammatory molecule expression and human THP1 monocyte adhesion in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, foam cell formation in THP1 monocyte-derived macrophages, and the migration and proliferation of human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs in vitro and atherogenesis in Apoe−/− mice in vivo. Adropin was expressed in THP1 monocytes, their derived macrophages, HASMCs, and HUVECs. Adropin suppressed tumor necrosis factor α-induced THP1 monocyte adhesion to HUVECs, which was associated with vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 downregulation in HUVECs. Adropin shifted the phenotype to anti-inflammatory M2 rather than pro-inflammatory M1 via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ upregulation during monocyte differentiation into macrophages. Adropin had no significant effects on oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced foam cell formation in macrophages. In HASMCs, adropin suppressed the migration and proliferation without inducing apoptosis via ERK1/2 and Bax downregulation and phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt/Bcl2 upregulation. Chronic administration of adropin to Apoe−/− mice attenuated the development of atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta, with reduced the intra-plaque monocyte/macrophage infiltration and smooth muscle cell content. Thus, adropin could serve as a novel therapeutic target in atherosclerosis and related diseases.

  12. Tumour-cytolytic human monocyte-derived macrophages: a simple and efficient method for the generation and long-term cultivation as non-adherent cells in a serum-free medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streck, R J; Hurley, E L; Epstein, D A; Pauly, J L

    1992-01-01

    We report a simple and efficient culture procedure for the generation of tumour-cytolytic human monocyte-derived macrophages (MAC). In this method, normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, isolated using a conventional Ficoll-Hypaque density gradient procedure, are cultured as a heterogenous leukocyte population in Teflon or other hydrophobic cultureware, in a commercially available serum-free culture medium (M-SFM) that has been formulated specifically for the cultivation and ex vivo stimulation of human monocytes and MAC, and in the absence of exogenous mitogens, antigens, cytokines or other stimulants. This procedure features a negative-selection technique that takes advantage of the differential survival of blood leukocytes. Using the prescribed in vitro conditions, lymphocytes survived relatively poorly, whereas monocytes differentiated in the absence of exogenous stimulants into mature tumour-cytolytic MAC. The MAC were present as non-adherent, single cells that expressed good viability (greater than 95%) for a prolonged period (greater than 60 days). When compared to conventional procedures for generating MAC, the prescribed technique is thought to offer several important advantages in that it: (a) eliminates the tedious and cumbersome monocyte isolation procedures, thus providing a significant savings not only in time and money but also in eliminating repetitive cell manipulations that have often been associated with damage to monocyte morphology and/or function; (b) reduces the loss of monocyte subsets that are not recovered during specific isolation procedures; (c) facilitates harvesting a single cell, non-adherent suspension of immunocompetent MAC suitable for various examinations including analyses defining MAC morphology, cytochemistry, phenotype and function; and (d) eliminates variability and artifacts associated with different sera that are utilised frequently as medium supplements. The utility of the prescribed method is illustrated by the

  13. A fragment of alpha-actinin promotes monocyte/macrophage maturation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luikart, S; Wahl, D; Hinkel, T; Masri, M; Oegema, T

    1999-02-01

    Conditioned media (CM) from cultures of HL-60 myeloid leukemia cells grown on extracellular bone marrow matrix contains a factor that induces macrophage-like maturation of HL-60 cells. This factor was purified from the CM of HL-60 cells grown on bone marrow stroma by ammonium sulfate precipitation, then sequential chromatography on DEAE, affi-gel blue affinity, gel exclusion, and wheat germ affinity columns, followed by C-4 reverse phase HPLC, and SDS-PAGE. The maturation promoting activity of the CM was identified in a single 31 kD protein. Amino acid sequence analysis of four internal tryptic peptides of this protein confirmed significant homology with amino acid residues 48-60, 138-147, 215-220, and 221-236 of human cytoskeletal alpha-actinin. An immunoaffinity purified rabbit polyclonal anti-chicken alpha-actinin inhibited the activity of HL-60 conditioned media. A 27 kD amino-terminal fragment of alpha-actinin produced by thermolysin digestion of chicken gizzard alpha-actinin, but not intact alpha-actinin, had maturation promoting activity on several cell types, including blood monocytes, as measured by lysozyme secretion and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining. We conclude that an extracellular alpha-actinin fragment can promote monocyte/macrophage maturation. This represents the first example of a fragment of a cytoskeletal component, which may be released during tissue remodeling and repair, playing a role in phagocyte maturation.

  14. Haemophilus ducreyi infection induces activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in nonpolarized but not in polarized human macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Katz, Barry P; Bauer, Margaret E; Spinola, Stanley M

    2013-08-01

    Recognition of microbial infection by certain intracellular pattern recognition receptors leads to the formation of a multiprotein complex termed the inflammasome. Inflammasome assembly activates caspase-1 and leads to cleavage and secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and IL-18, which help control many bacterial pathogens. However, excessive inflammation mediated by inflammasome activation can also contribute to immunopathology. Here, we investigated whether Haemophilus ducreyi, a Gram-negative bacterium that causes the genital ulcer disease chancroid, activates inflammasomes in experimentally infected human skin and in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). Although H. ducreyi is predominantly extracellular during human infection, several inflammasome-related components were transcriptionally upregulated in H. ducreyi-infected skin. Infection of MDM with live, but not heat-killed, H. ducreyi induced caspase-1- and caspase-5-dependent processing and secretion of IL-1β. Blockage of H. ducreyi uptake by cytochalasin D significantly reduced the amount of secreted IL-1β. Knocking down the expression of the inflammasome components NLRP3 and ASC abolished IL-1β production. Consistent with NLRP3-dependent inflammasome activation, blocking ATP signaling, K(+) efflux, cathepsin B activity, and lysosomal acidification all inhibited IL-1β secretion. However, inhibition of the production and function of reactive oxygen species did not decrease IL-1β production. Polarization of macrophages to classically activated M1 or alternatively activated M2 cells abrogated IL-1β secretion elicited by H. ducreyi. Our study data indicate that H. ducreyi induces NLRP3 inflammasome activation via multiple mechanisms and suggest that the heterogeneity of macrophages within human lesions may modulate inflammasome activation during human infection.

  15. Ibrutinib modifies the function of monocyte/macrophage population in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorcari, Stefania; Maffei, Rossana; Audrito, Valentina; Martinelli, Silvia; Ten Hacken, Elisa; Zucchini, Patrizia; Grisendi, Giulia; Potenza, Leonardo; Luppi, Mario; Burger, Jan A; Deaglio, Silvia; Marasca, Roberto

    2016-10-04

    In lymphoid organs, nurse-like cells (NLCs) show properties of tumor-associated macrophages, playing a crucial role in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cell survival. Ibrutinib, a potent inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), is able to counteract pro-survival signals in CLL cells. Since the effects on CLL cells have been studied in the last years, less is known about the influence of ibrutinib on NLCs properties. We sought to determine how ibrutinib modifies NLCs functions focusing on the balance between immunosuppressive and inflammatory features. Our data show that ibrutinib targets BTK expressed by NLCs modifying their phenotype and function. Treatment with ibrutinib reduces the phagocytic ability and increases the immunosuppressive profile of NLCs exacerbating the expression of M2 markers. Accordingly, ibrutinib hampers LPS-mediated signaling, decreasing STAT1 phosphorylation, while allows IL-4-mediated STAT6 phosphorylation. In addition, NLCs treated with ibrutinib are able to protect CLL cells from drug-induced apoptosis partially through the secretion of IL-10. Results from patient samples obtained prior and after 1 month of treatment with ibrutinib show an accentuation of CD206, CD11b and Tie2 in the monocytic population in the peripheral blood. Our study provides new insights into the immunomodulatory action of ibrutinib on monocyte/macrophage population in CLL.

  16. Preclinical efficacy of the MDM2 inhibitor RG7112 in MDM2 amplified and TP53 wild-type glioblastomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verreault, Maite; Schmitt, Charlotte; Goldwirt, Lauriane; Pelton, Kristine; Haidar, Samer; Levasseur, Camille; Guehennec, Jeremy; Knoff, David; Labussiere, Marianne; Marie, Yannick; Ligon, Azra H.; Mokhtari, Karima; Hoang-Xuan, Khe; Sanson, Marc; Alexander, Brian M; Wen, Patrick Y.; Delattre, Jean-Yves; Ligon, Keith L.; Idbaih, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Rationale p53 pathway alterations are key molecular events in glioblastoma (GBM). MDM2 inhibitors increase expression and stability of p53 and are presumed to be most efficacious in patients with TP53 wild-type and MDM2-amplified cancers. However, this biomarker hypothesis has not been tested in patients or patient-derived models for GBM. Methods We performed a preclinical evaluation of RG7112 MDM2 inhibitor, across a panel of 36 patient-derived GBM cell lines (PDCLs), each genetically characterized according to their P53 pathway status. We then performed a pharmacokinetic (PK) profiling of RG7112 distribution in mice and evaluated the therapeutic activity of RG7112 in orthotopic and subcutaneous GBM models. Results MDM2-amplified PDCLs were 44 times more sensitive than TP53 mutated lines that showed complete resistance at therapeutically attainable concentrations (avg. IC50 of 0.52 μM vs 21.9 μM). MDM4 amplified PDCLs were highly sensitive but showed intermediate response (avg. IC50 of 1.2 μM), whereas response was heterogeneous in TP53 wild-type PDCLs with normal MDM2/4 levels (avg. IC50 of 7.7 μM). In MDM2-amplified lines, RG7112 restored p53 activity inducing robust p21 expression and apoptosis. PK profiling of RG7112-treated PDCL intracranial xenografts demonstrated that the compound significantly crosses the blood-brain and the blood-tumor barriers. Most importantly, treatment of MDM2-amplified/TP53 wild-type PDCL-derived model (subcutaneous and orthotopic) reduced tumor growth, was cytotoxic, and significantly increased survival. Conclusion These data strongly support development of MDM2 inhibitors for clinical testing in MDM2-amplified GBM patients. Moreover, significant efficacy in a subset of non-MDM2 amplified models suggests that additional markers of response to MDM2 inhibitors must be identified. PMID:26482041

  17. Specific Kv1.3 blockade modulates key cholesterol-metabolism-associated molecules in human macrophages exposed to ox-LDL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Wang, Yan-Fu; Yang, Xiao-Fang; Wang, Zhao-Hui; Lian, Yi-Tian; Yang, Ying; Li, Xiao-Wei; Gao, Xiang; Chen, Jian; Shu, Yan-Wen; Cheng, Long-Xian; Liao, Yu-Hua; Liu, Kun

    2013-01-01

    Cholesterol-metabolism-associated molecules, including scavenger receptor class A (SR-A), lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1), CD36, ACAT1, ABCA1, ABCG1, and scavenger receptor class B type I, can modulate cholesterol metabolism in the transformation from macrophages to foam cells. Voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3 has increasingly been demonstrated to play an important role in the modulation of macrophage function. Here, we investigate the role of Kv1.3 in modulating cholesterol-metabolism-associated molecules in human acute monocytic leukemia cell-derived macrophages (THP-1 macrophages) and human monocyte-derived macrophages exposed to oxidized LDL (ox-LDL). Human Kv1.3 and Kv1.5 channels (hKv1.3 and hKv1.5) are expressed in macrophages and form a heteromultimeric channel. The hKv1.3-E314 antibody that we had generated as a specific hKv1.3 blocker inhibited outward delayed rectifier potassium currents, whereas the hKv1.5-E313 antibody that we had generated as a specific hKv1.5 blocker failed. Accordingly, the hKv1.3-E314 antibody reduced percentage of cholesterol ester and enhanced apoA-I-mediated cholesterol efflux in THP-1 macrophages and human monocyte-derived macrophages exposed to ox-LDL. The hKv1.3-E314 antibody downregulated SR-A, LOX-1, and ACAT1 expression and upregulated ABCA1 expression in THP-1 macrophages and human monocyte-derived macrophages. Our results reveal that specific Kv1.3 blockade represents a novel strategy modulating cholesterol metabolism in macrophages, which benefits the treatment of atherosclerotic lesions.

  18. Different Regulation of Interleukin-1 Production and Activity in Monocytes and Macrophages: Innate Memory as an Endogenous Mechanism of IL-1 Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz P. Madej

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Production and activity of interleukin (IL-1β are kept under strict control in our body, because of its powerful inflammation-promoting capacity. Control of IL-1β production and activity allows IL-1 to exert its defensive activities without causing extensive tissue damage. Monocytes are the major producers of IL-1β during inflammation, but they are also able to produce significant amounts of IL-1 inhibitors such as IL-1Ra and the soluble form of the decoy receptor IL-1R2, in an auto-regulatory feedback loop. Here, we investigated how innate immune memory could modulate production and activity of IL-1β by human primary monocytes and monocyte-derived tissue-like/deactivated macrophages in vitro. Cells were exposed to Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Gram-positive (Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria for 24 h, then allowed to rest, and then re-challenged with the same stimuli. The presence of biologically active IL-1β in cell supernatants was calculated as the ratio between free IL-1β (i.e., the cytokine that is not bound/inhibited by sIL-1R2 and its receptor antagonist IL-1Ra. As expected, we observed that the responsiveness of tissue-like/deactivated macrophages to bacterial stimuli was lower than that of monocytes. After resting and re-stimulation, a memory effect was evident for the production of inflammatory cytokines, whereas production of alarm signals (chemokines was minimally affected. We observed a high variability in the innate memory response among individual donors. This is expected since innate memory largely depends on the previous history of exposure or infections, which is different in different subjects. Overall, innate memory appeared to limit the amount of active IL-1β produced by macrophages in response to a bacterial challenge, while enhancing the responsiveness of monocytes. The functional re-programming of mononuclear phagocytes through modulation of innate memory may provide innovative approaches in the management

  19. Macrophage origin limits functional plasticity in helminth-bacterial co-infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Rückerl

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Rapid reprogramming of the macrophage activation phenotype is considered important in the defense against consecutive infection with diverse infectious agents. However, in the setting of persistent, chronic infection the functional importance of macrophage-intrinsic adaptation to changing environments vs. recruitment of new macrophages remains unclear. Here we show that resident peritoneal macrophages expanded by infection with the nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri altered their activation phenotype in response to infection with Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium in vitro and in vivo. The nematode-expanded resident F4/80high macrophages efficiently upregulated bacterial induced effector molecules (e.g. MHC-II, NOS2 similarly to newly recruited monocyte-derived macrophages. Nonetheless, recruitment of blood monocyte-derived macrophages to Salmonella infection occurred with equal magnitude in co-infected animals and caused displacement of the nematode-expanded, tissue resident-derived macrophages from the peritoneal cavity. Global gene expression analysis revealed that although nematode-expanded resident F4/80high macrophages made an anti-bacterial response, this was muted as compared to newly recruited F4/80low macrophages. However, the F4/80high macrophages adopted unique functional characteristics that included enhanced neutrophil-stimulating chemokine production. Thus, our data provide important evidence that plastic adaptation of MΦ activation does occur in vivo, but that cellular plasticity is outweighed by functional capabilities specific to the tissue origin of the cell.

  20. Novel keto-phospholipids are generated by monocytes and macrophages, detected in cystic fibrosis, and activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Victoria J; Morgan, Alwena H; Lauder, Sarah; Thomas, Christopher P; Brown, Sarah; Freeman, Bruce A; Lloyd, Clare M; Davies, Jane; Bush, Andrew; Levonen, Anna-Liisa; Kansanen, Emilia; Villacorta, Luis; Chen, Y Eugene; Porter, Ned; Garcia-Diaz, Yoel M; Schopfer, Francisco J; O'Donnell, Valerie B

    2012-12-07

    12/15-Lipoxygenases (LOXs) in monocytes and macrophages generate novel phospholipid-esterified eicosanoids. Here, we report the generation of two additional families of related lipids comprising 15-ketoeicosatetraenoic acid (KETE) attached to four phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs). The lipids are generated basally by 15-LOX in IL-4-stimulated monocytes, are elevated on calcium mobilization, and are detected at increased levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from cystic fibrosis patients (3.6 ng/ml of lavage). Murine peritoneal macrophages generate 12-KETE-PEs, which are absent in 12/15-LOX-deficient mice. Inhibition of 15-prostaglandin dehydrogenase prevents their formation from exogenous 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid-PE in human monocytes. Both human and murine cells also generated analogous hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid-PEs. The electrophilic reactivity of KETE-PEs is shown by their Michael addition to glutathione and cysteine. Lastly, both 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid-PE and 15-KETE-PE activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ reporter activity in macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. In summary, we demonstrate novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ-activating oxidized phospholipids generated enzymatically by LOX and 15-prostaglandin dehydrogenase in primary monocytic cells and in a human Th2-related lung disease. The lipids are a new family of bioactive mediators from the 12/15-LOX pathway that may contribute to its known anti-inflammatory actions in vivo.

  1. Intravital live cell triggered imaging system reveals monocyte patrolling and macrophage migration in atherosclerotic arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArdle, Sara; Chodaczek, Grzegorz; Ray, Nilanjan; Ley, Klaus

    2015-02-01

    Intravital multiphoton imaging of arteries is technically challenging because the artery expands with every heartbeat, causing severe motion artifacts. To study leukocyte activity in atherosclerosis, we developed the intravital live cell triggered imaging system (ILTIS). This system implements cardiac triggered acquisition as well as frame selection and image registration algorithms to produce stable movies of myeloid cell movement in atherosclerotic arteries in live mice. To minimize tissue damage, no mechanical stabilization is used and the artery is allowed to expand freely. ILTIS performs multicolor high frame-rate two-dimensional imaging and full-thickness three-dimensional imaging of beating arteries in live mice. The external carotid artery and its branches (superior thyroid and ascending pharyngeal arteries) were developed as a surgically accessible and reliable model of atherosclerosis. We use ILTIS to demonstrate Cx3cr1GFP monocytes patrolling the lumen of atherosclerotic arteries. Additionally, we developed a new reporter mouse (Apoe-/-Cx3cr1GFP/+Cd11cYFP) to image GFP+ and GFP+YFP+ macrophages "dancing on the spot" and YFP+ macrophages migrating within intimal plaque. ILTIS will be helpful to answer pertinent open questions in the field, including monocyte recruitment and transmigration, macrophage and dendritic cell activity, and motion of other immune cells.

  2. Frontline Science: ATF3 is responsible for the inhibition of TNF-α release and the impaired migration of acute ethanol-exposed monocytes and macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chaojie; Meng, Xiaoming; Huang, Cheng; Shen, Chenlin; Li, Jun

    2017-03-01

    Binge drinking represses host innate immunity and leads to a high risk of infection. Acute EtOH-pretreated macrophages exhibit a decreased production of proinflammatory mediators in response to LPS. ATF3 is induced and counter-regulates the LPS/TLR4 inflammatory cascade. Here, we investigated the potential role of ATF3 in LPS tolerance in acute ethanol-pretreated macrophages. We found that there was an inverse correlation between ATF3 and LPS-induced TNF-α production in acute ethanol-pretreated murine monocytes and macrophages. The knockdown of ATF3 attenuated the inhibitory effects of acute ethanol treatment on LPS-induced TNF-α production. Furthermore, ChIP assays and co-IP demonstrated that ATF3, together with HDAC1, negatively modulated the transcription of TNF-α. In binge-drinking mice challenged with LPS, an up-regulation of ATF3 and HDAC1 and a concomitant decrease in TNF-α were observed. Given that HDAC1 was concomitantly induced in acute ethanol-exposed monocytes and macrophages, we used the HDACi TSA or silenced HDAC1 to explore the role of HDAC1 in acute ethanol-treated macrophages. Our results revealed that TSA treatment and HDAC1 knockdown prevented acute ethanol-induced ATF3 expression and the inhibition of TNF-α transcription. These data indicated a dual role for HDAC1 in acute ethanol-induced LPS tolerance. Furthermore, we showed that the induction of ATF3 led to the impaired migration of BM monocytes and macrophages. Overall, we present a novel role for ATF3 in the inhibition of LPS-induced TNF-α and in the impairment of monocyte and macrophage migration. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  3. CD1 molecule expression on human monocytes induced by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasinrerk, W; Baumruker, T; Majdic, O; Knapp, W; Stockinger, H

    1993-01-15

    In this paper we demonstrate that granulocyte-macrophage CSF (GM-CSF) specifically induces the expression of CD1 molecules, CD1a, CD1b and CD1c, upon human monocytes. CD1 molecules appeared upon monocytes on day 1 of stimulation with rGM-CSF, and expression was up-regulated until day 3. Monocytes cultured in the presence of LPS, FMLP, PMA, recombinant granulocyte-CSF, rIFN-gamma, rTNF-alpha, rIL-1 alpha, rIL-1 beta, and rIL-6 remained negative. The induction of CD1 molecules by rGM-CSF was restricted to monocytes, since no such effect was observed upon peripheral blood granulocytes, PBL, and the myeloid cell lines Monomac1, Monomac6, MV4/11, HL60, U937, THP1, KG1, and KG1A. CD1a mRNA was detectable in rGM-CSF-induced monocytes but not in those freshly isolated. SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting analyses of CD1a mAb VIT6 immunoprecipitate from lysate of rGM-CSF-activated monocytes revealed an appropriate CD1a polypeptide band of 49 kDa associated with beta 2-microglobulin. Expression of CD1 molecules on monocytes complements the distribution of these structures on accessory cells, and their specific induction by GM-CSF strengthens the suggestion that CD1 is a family of crucial structures required for interaction between accessory cells and T cells.

  4. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), produced by feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) virus-infected monocytes and macrophages, induces vascular permeability and effusion in cats with FIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Tomomi; Ohyama, Taku; Kokumoto, Aiko; Satoh, Ryoichi; Hohdatsu, Tsutomu

    2011-06-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) causes a fatal disease called FIP in Felidae. The effusion in body cavity is commonly associated with FIP. However, the exact mechanism of accumulation of effusion remains unclear. We investigated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to examine the relationship between VEGF levels and the amounts of effusion in cats with FIP. Furthermore, we examined VEGF production in FIPV-infected monocytes/macrophages, and we used feline vascular endothelial cells to examine vascular permeability induced by the culture supernatant of FIPV-infected macrophages. In cats with FIP, the production of effusion was related with increasing plasma VEGF levels. In FIPV-infected monocytes/macrophages, the production of VEGF was associated with proliferation of virus. Furthermore, the culture supernatant of FIPV-infected macrophages induced hyperpermeability of feline vascular endothelial cells. It was suggested that vascular permeability factors, including VEGF, produced by FIPV-infected monocytes/macrophages might increase the vascular permeability and the amounts of effusion in cats with FIP. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Nrf2-dependent induction of innate host defense via heme oxygenase-1 inhibits Zika virus replication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Hanxia; Falgout, Barry; Takeda, Kazuyo [Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD (United States); Yamada, Kenneth M. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Dhawan, Subhash, E-mail: subhash.dhawan@fda.hhs.gov [Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD (United States)

    2017-03-15

    We identified primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) as vulnerable target cells for Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. We demonstrate dramatic effects of hemin, the natural inducer of the heme catabolic enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), in the reduction of ZIKV replication in vitro. Both LLC-MK2 monkey kidney cells and primary MDM exhibited hemin-induced HO-1 expression with major reductions of >90% in ZIKV replication, with little toxicity to infected cells. Silencing expression of HO-1 or its upstream regulatory gene, nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf2), attenuated hemin-induced suppression of ZIKV infection, suggesting an important role for induction of these intracellular mediators in retarding ZIKV replication. The inverse correlation between hemin-induced HO-1 levels and ZIKV replication provides a potentially useful therapeutic modality based on stimulation of an innate cellular response against Zika virus infection. - Highlights: •Hemin treatment protected monocyte-derived macrophages against Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. •Innate cellular protection against ZIKV infection correlated with Nrf2-dependent HO-1 expression. •Stimulation of innate cellular responses may provide a therapeutic strategy against ZIKV infection.

  6. Nrf2-dependent induction of innate host defense via heme oxygenase-1 inhibits Zika virus replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Hanxia; Falgout, Barry; Takeda, Kazuyo; Yamada, Kenneth M.; Dhawan, Subhash

    2017-01-01

    We identified primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) as vulnerable target cells for Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. We demonstrate dramatic effects of hemin, the natural inducer of the heme catabolic enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), in the reduction of ZIKV replication in vitro. Both LLC-MK2 monkey kidney cells and primary MDM exhibited hemin-induced HO-1 expression with major reductions of >90% in ZIKV replication, with little toxicity to infected cells. Silencing expression of HO-1 or its upstream regulatory gene, nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf2), attenuated hemin-induced suppression of ZIKV infection, suggesting an important role for induction of these intracellular mediators in retarding ZIKV replication. The inverse correlation between hemin-induced HO-1 levels and ZIKV replication provides a potentially useful therapeutic modality based on stimulation of an innate cellular response against Zika virus infection. - Highlights: •Hemin treatment protected monocyte-derived macrophages against Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. •Innate cellular protection against ZIKV infection correlated with Nrf2-dependent HO-1 expression. •Stimulation of innate cellular responses may provide a therapeutic strategy against ZIKV infection.

  7. Specific Kv1.3 blockade modulates key cholesterol-metabolism-associated molecules in human macrophages exposed to ox-LDL[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Wang, Yan-Fu; Yang, Xiao-Fang; Wang, Zhao-Hui; Lian, Yi-Tian; Yang, Ying; Li, Xiao-Wei; Gao, Xiang; Chen, Jian; Shu, Yan-Wen; Cheng, Long-Xian; Liao, Yu-Hua; Liu, Kun

    2013-01-01

    Cholesterol-metabolism-associated molecules, including scavenger receptor class A (SR-A), lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1), CD36, ACAT1, ABCA1, ABCG1, and scavenger receptor class B type I, can modulate cholesterol metabolism in the transformation from macrophages to foam cells. Voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3 has increasingly been demonstrated to play an important role in the modulation of macrophage function. Here, we investigate the role of Kv1.3 in modulating cholesterol-metabolism-associated molecules in human acute monocytic leukemia cell-derived macrophages (THP-1 macrophages) and human monocyte-derived macrophages exposed to oxidized LDL (ox-LDL). Human Kv1.3 and Kv1.5 channels (hKv1.3 and hKv1.5) are expressed in macrophages and form a heteromultimeric channel. The hKv1.3-E314 antibody that we had generated as a specific hKv1.3 blocker inhibited outward delayed rectifier potassium currents, whereas the hKv1.5-E313 antibody that we had generated as a specific hKv1.5 blocker failed. Accordingly, the hKv1.3-E314 antibody reduced percentage of cholesterol ester and enhanced apoA-I-mediated cholesterol efflux in THP-1 macrophages and human monocyte-derived macrophages exposed to ox-LDL. The hKv1.3-E314 antibody downregulated SR-A, LOX-1, and ACAT1 expression and upregulated ABCA1 expression in THP-1 macrophages and human monocyte-derived macrophages. Our results reveal that specific Kv1.3 blockade represents a novel strategy modulating cholesterol metabolism in macrophages, which benefits the treatment of atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:23099443

  8. Identification of Therapeutic Targets of Inflammatory Monocyte Recruitment to Modulate the Allogeneic Injury to Donor Cornea

    OpenAIRE

    Lapp, T.; Zaher, S. S.; Haas, C. T.; Becker, D. L.; Thrasivoulou, C.; Chain, B. M.; Larkin, D. F. P.; Noursadeghi, M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We sought to test the hypothesis that monocytes contribute to the immunopathogenesis of corneal allograft rejection and identify therapeutic targets to inhibit monocyte recruitment. Methods: Monocytes and proinflammatory mediators within anterior chamber samples during corneal graft rejection were quantified by flow cytometry and multiplex protein assays. Lipopolysaccharide or IFN-γ stimulation of monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) was used to generate inflammatory conditioned me...

  9. Stress-Induced Recruitment of Bone Marrow-Derived Monocytes to the Brain Promotes Anxiety-Like Behavior

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    Wohleb, Eric S.; Powell, Nicole D.

    2013-01-01

    Social stress is associated with altered immunity and higher incidence of anxiety-related disorders. Repeated social defeat (RSD) is a murine stressor that primes peripheral myeloid cells, activates microglia, and induces anxiety-like behavior. Here we show that RSD-induced anxiety-like behavior corresponded with an exposure-dependent increase in circulating monocytes (CD11b+/SSClo/Ly6Chi) and brain macrophages (CD11b+/SSClo/CD45hi). Moreover, RSD-induced anxiety-like behavior corresponded with brain region-dependent cytokine and chemokine responses involved with myeloid cell recruitment. Next, LysM-GFP+ and GFP+ bone marrow (BM)-chimeric mice were used to determine the neuroanatomical distribution of peripheral myeloid cells recruited to the brain during RSD. LysM-GFP+ mice showed that RSD increased recruitment of GFP+ macrophages to the brain and increased their presence within the perivascular space (PVS). In addition, RSD promoted recruitment of GFP+ macrophages into the PVS and parenchyma of the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus of GFP+ BM-chimeric mice. Furthermore, mice deficient in chemokine receptors associated with monocyte trafficking [chemokine receptor-2 knockout (CCR2KO) or fractalkine receptor knockout (CX3CR1KO)] failed to recruit macrophages to the brain and did not develop anxiety-like behavior following RSD. Last, RSD-induced macrophage trafficking was prevented in BM-chimeric mice generated with CCR2KO or CX3CR1KO donor cells. These findings indicate that monocyte recruitment to the brain in response to social stress represents a novel cellular mechanism that contributes to the development of anxiety. PMID:23966702

  10. Osteopontin Prevents Monocyte Recirculation and Apoptosis

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    Burdo, Tricia H.; Wood, Malcolm R.; Fox, Howard S.

    2007-01-01

    Cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage have been shown to be the principal targets for productive HIV-1 replication within the central nervous system. In addition, HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD) has been shown to correlate with macrophage abundance in the brain. While increased entry of monocytes into the brain is thought to initiate this process, mechanisms that prevent macrophage egress from the brain and means that prevent macrophage death may also contribute to cell accumulation. We hy...

  11. Xylitol, an anticaries agent, exhibits potent inhibition of inflammatory responses in human THP-1-derived macrophages infected with Porphyromonas gingivalis.

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    Park, Eunjoo; Na, Hee Sam; Kim, Sheon Min; Wallet, Shannon; Cha, Seunghee; Chung, Jin

    2014-06-01

    Xylitol is a well-known anticaries agent and has been used for the prevention and treatment of dental caries. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of xylitol are evaluated for possible use in the prevention and treatment of periodontal infections. Cytokine expression was stimulated in THP-1 (human monocyte cell line)-derived macrophages by live Porphyromonas gingivalis, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a commercial multiplex assay kit were used to determine the effects of xylitol on live P. gingivalis-induced production of cytokine. The effects of xylitol on phagocytosis and the production of nitric oxide were determined using phagocytosis assay, viable cell count, and Griess reagent. The effects of xylitol on P. gingivalis adhesion were determined by immunostaining, and costimulatory molecule expression was examined by flow cytometry. Live P. gingivalis infection increased the production of representative proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin (IL)-1β, in a multiplicity of infection- and time-dependent manner. Live P. gingivalis also enhanced the release of cytokines and chemokines, such as IL-12 p40, eotaxin, interferon γ-induced protein 10, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1. The pretreatment of xylitol significantly inhibited the P. gingivalis-induced cytokines production and nitric oxide production. In addition, xylitol inhibited the attachment of live P. gingivalis on THP-1-derived macrophages. Furthermore, xylitol exerted antiphagocytic activity against both Escherichia coli and P. gingivalis. These findings suggest that xylitol acts as an anti-inflammatory agent in THP-1-derived macrophages infected with live P. gingivalis, which supports its use in periodontitis.

  12. Leptin potentiates Prevotella intermedia lipopolysaccharide-induced production of TNF-alpha in monocyte-derived macrophages.

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    Kim, Sung-Jo

    2010-06-01

    In addition to regulating body weight, leptin is also recognized for its role in the regulation of immune function and inflammation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of leptin on Prevotella (P.) intermedia lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha production in differentiated THP-1 cells, a human monocytic cell line. LPS from P. intermedia ATCC 25611 was prepared by the standard hot phenol-water method. THP-1 cells were incubated in the medium supplemented with phorbol myristate acetate to induce differentiation into macrophage-like cells. The amount of TNF-alpha and interleukin-8 secreted into the culture medium was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). TNF-alpha and Ob-R mRNA expression levels were determined by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis. Leptin enhanced P. intermedia LPS-induced TNF-alpha production in a dose-dependent manner. Leptin modulated P. intermedia LPS-induced TNF-alpha expression predominantly at the transcriptional level. Effect of leptin on P. intermedia LPS-induced TNF-alpha production was not mediated by the leptin receptor. The ability of leptin to enhance P. intermedia LPS-induced TNF-alpha production may be important in the establishment of chronic lesion accompanied by osseous tissue destruction observed in inflammatory periodontal disease.

  13. l-Arginine Uptake by Cationic Amino Acid Transporter Promotes Intra-Macrophage Survival of Leishmania donovani by Enhancing Arginase-Mediated Polyamine Synthesis

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    Abhishek Mandal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The survival of intracellular protozoan parasite, Leishmania donovani, the causative agent of Indian visceral leishmaniasis (VL, depends on the activation status of macrophages. l-Arginine, a semi-essential amino acid plays a crucial regulatory role for activation of macrophages. However, the role of l-arginine transport in VL still remains elusive. In this study, we demonstrated that intra-macrophage survival of L. donovani depends on the availability of extracellular l-arginine. Infection of THP-1-derived macrophage/human monocyte-derived macrophage (hMDM with Leishmania, resulted in upregulation of l-arginine transport. While investigating the involvement of the transporters, we observed that Leishmania survival was greatly impaired when the transporters were blocked either using inhibitor or siRNA-mediated downregulation. CAT-2 was found to be the main isoform associated with l-arginine transport in L. donovani-infected macrophages. l-arginine availability and its transport regulated the host arginase in Leishmania infection. Arginase and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression were reciprocally regulated when assayed using specific inhibitors and siRNA-mediated downregulation. Interestingly, induction of iNOS expression and nitric oxide production were observed in case of inhibition of arginase in infected macrophages. Furthermore, inhibition of l-arginine transport as well as arginase resulted in decreased polyamine production, limiting parasite survival inside macrophages. l-arginine availability and transport regulated Th1/Th2 cytokine levels in case of Leishmania infection. Upregulation of l-arginine transport, induction of host arginase, and enhanced polyamine production were correlated with increased level of IL-10 and decreased level of IL-12 and TNF-α in L. donovani-infected macrophages. Our findings provide clear evidence for targeting the metabolism of l-arginine and l-arginine-metabolizing enzymes as an important

  14. Induction of HO-1 in tissue macrophages and monocytes in fatal falciparum malaria and sepsis

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    Liomba N

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As well as being inducible by haem, haemoxygenase -1 (HO-1 is also induced by interleukin-10 and an anti-inflammatory prostaglandin, 15d PGJ2, the carbon monoxide thus produced mediating the anti-inflammatory effects of these molecules. The cellular distribution of HO-1, by immunohistochemistry, in brain, lung and liver in fatal falciparum malaria, and in sepsis, is reported. Methods Wax sections were stained, at a 1:1000 dilution of primary antibody, for HO-1 in tissues collected during paediatric autopsies in Blantyre, Malawi. These comprised 37 acutely ill comatose patients, 32 of whom were diagnosed clinically as cerebral malaria and the other 5 as bacterial diseases with coma. Another 3 died unexpectedly from an alert state. Other control tissues were from Australian adults. Results Apart from its presence in splenic red pulp macrophages and microhaemorrhages, staining for HO-1 was confined to intravascular monocytes and certain tissue macrophages. Of the 32 clinically diagnosed cerebral malaria cases, 11 (category A cases had negligible histological change in the brain and absence of or scanty intravascular sequestration of parasitized erythrocytes. Of these 11 cases, eight proved at autopsy to have other pathological changes as well, and none of these eight showed HO-1 staining within the brain apart from isolated moderate staining in one case. Two of the three without another pathological diagnosis showed moderate staining of scattered monocytes in brain vessels. Six of these 11 (category A cases exhibited strong lung staining, and the Kupffer cells of nine of them were intensely stained. Of the seven (category B cases with no histological changes in the brain, but appreciable sequestered parasitised erythrocytes present, one was without staining, and the other six showed strongly staining, rare or scattered monocytes in cerebral vessels. All six lung sections not obscured by neutrophils showed strong staining of

  15. F11R is a novel monocyte prognostic biomarker for malignant glioma.

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    Winnie W Pong

    Full Text Available Brain tumors (gliomas contain large populations of infiltrating macrophages and recruited microglia, which in experimental murine glioma models promote tumor formation and progression. Among the barriers to understanding the contributions of these stromal elements to high-grade glioma (glioblastoma; GBM biology is the relative paucity of tools to characterize infiltrating macrophages and resident microglia. In this study, we leveraged multiple RNA analysis platforms to identify new monocyte markers relevant to GBM patient outcome.High-confidence lists of mouse resident microglia- and bone marrow-derived macrophage-specific transcripts were generated using converging RNA-seq and microarray technologies and validated using qRT-PCR and flow cytometry. Expression of select cell surface markers was analyzed in brain-infiltrating macrophages and resident microglia in an induced GBM mouse model, while allogeneic bone marrow transplantation was performed to trace the origins of infiltrating and resident macrophages. Glioma tissue microarrays were examined by immunohistochemistry, and the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO database was queried to determine the prognostic value of identified microglia biomarkers in human GBM.We generated a unique catalog of differentially-expressed bone marrow-derived monocyte and resident microglia transcripts, and demonstrated that brain-infiltrating macrophages acquire F11R expression in GBM and following bone-marrow transplantation. Moreover, mononuclear cell F11R expression positively correlates with human high-grade glioma and additionally serves as a biomarker for GBM patient survival, regardless of GBM molecular subtype.These studies establish F11R as a novel monocyte prognostic marker for GBM critical for defining a subpopulation of stromal cells for future potential therapeutic intervention.

  16. Human mesenchymal stromal cell-secreted lactate induces M2-macrophage differentiation by metabolic reprogramming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civini, Sara; Pacelli, Consiglia; Dieng, Mame Massar; Lemieux, William; Jin, Ping; Bazin, Renée; Patey, Natacha; Marincola, Francesco M.; Moldovan, Florina; Zaouter, Charlotte; Trudeau, Louis-Eric; Benabdhalla, Basma; Louis, Isabelle; Beauséjour, Christian; Stroncek, David; Le Deist, Françoise; Haddad, Elie

    2016-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have been shown to dampen immune response and promote tissue repair, but the underlying mechanisms are still under investigation. Herein, we demonstrate that umbilical cord-derived MSC (UC-MSC) alter the phenotype and function of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) through lactate-mediated metabolic reprogramming. UC-MSC can secrete large quantities of lactate and, when present during monocyte-to-DC differentiation, induce instead the acquisition of M2-macrophage features in terms of morphology, surface markers, migratory properties and antigen presentation capacity. Microarray expression profiling indicates that UC-MSC modify the expression of metabolic-related genes and induce a M2-macrophage expression signature. Importantly, monocyte-derived DC obtained in presence of UC-MSC, polarize naïve allogeneic CD4+ T-cells into Th2 cells. Treatment of UC-MSC with an inhibitor of lactate dehydrogenase strongly decreases lactate concentration in culture supernatant and abrogates the effect on monocyte-to-DC differentiation. Metabolic analysis further revealed that UC-MSC decrease oxidative phosphorylation in differentiating monocytes while strongly increasing the spare respiratory capacity proportional to the amount of secreted lactate. Because both MSC and monocytes are recruited in vivo at the site of tissue damage and inflammation, we propose the local increase of lactate concentration induced by UC-MSC and the consequent enrichment in M2-macrophage generation as a mechanism to achieve immunomodulation. PMID:27070086

  17. The monocytic lineage specific soluble CD163 is a plasma marker of coronary atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aristoteli, Lina Panayiota; Møller, Holger Jon; Bailey, Brian

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: CD163 is a monocyte-macrophage lineage specific scavenger receptor that mediates the uptake and clearance of haptoglobin-haemoglobin complexes, and soluble CD163 (sCD163) is also present in plasma. As atherosclerosis involves infiltration by monocyte-derived macrophages, we investigated...... whether sCD163 may act as a marker of coronary atherosclerosis (CAD). METHODS AND RESULTS: Clinical features were identified and plasma was collected from 147 consecutive patients presenting for coronary angiography. Patients were classified as having CAD+, or being free of CAD- haemodynamically...

  18. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 regulates macrophage cytotoxicity in abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiwei Wang

    Full Text Available AIMS: In abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA, macrophages are detected in the proximity of aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs. We have previously demonstrated in a murine model of AAA that apoptotic SMCs attract monocytes and other leukocytes by producing MCP-1. Here we tested whether infiltrating macrophages also directly contribute to SMC apoptosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using a SMC/RAW264.7 macrophage co-culture system, we demonstrated that MCP-1-primed RAWs caused a significantly higher level of apoptosis in SMCs as compared to control macrophages. Next, we detected an enhanced Fas ligand (FasL mRNA level and membrane FasL protein expression in MCP-1-primed RAWs. Neutralizing FasL blocked SMC apoptosis in the co-culture. In situ proximity ligation assay showed that SMCs exposed to primed macrophages contained higher levels of receptor interacting protein-1 (RIP1/Caspase 8 containing cell death complexes. Silencing RIP1 conferred apoptosis resistance to SMCs. In the mouse elastase injury model of aneurysm, aneurysm induction increased the level of RIP1/Caspase 8 containing complexes in medial SMCs. Moreover, TUNEL-positive SMCs in aneurysmal tissues were frequently surrounded by CD68(+/FasL(+ macrophages. Conversely, elastase-treated arteries from MCP-1 knockout mice display a reduction of both macrophage infiltration and FasL expression, which was accompanied by diminished apoptosis of SMCs. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that MCP-1-primed macrophages are more cytotoxic. MCP-1 appears to modulate macrophage cytotoxicity by increasing the level of membrane bound FasL. Thus, we showed that MCP-1-primed macrophages kill SMCs through a FasL/Fas-Caspase8-RIP1 mediated mechanism.

  19. Infiltrating blood-derived macrophages are vital cells playing an anti-inflammatory role in recovery from spinal cord injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechter, Ravid; London, Anat; Varol, Chen; Raposo, Catarina; Cusimano, Melania; Yovel, Gili; Rolls, Asya; Mack, Matthias; Pluchino, Stefano; Martino, Gianvito; Jung, Steffen; Schwartz, Michal

    2009-07-01

    Although macrophages (MPhi) are known as essential players in wound healing, their contribution to recovery from spinal cord injury (SCI) is a subject of debate. The difficulties in distinguishing between different MPhi subpopulations at the lesion site have further contributed to the controversy and led to the common view of MPhi as functionally homogenous. Given the massive accumulation in the injured spinal cord of activated resident microglia, which are the native immune occupants of the central nervous system (CNS), the recruitment of additional infiltrating monocytes from the peripheral blood seems puzzling. A key question that remains is whether the infiltrating monocyte-derived MPhi contribute to repair, or represent an unavoidable detrimental response. The hypothesis of the current study is that a specific population of infiltrating monocyte-derived MPhi is functionally distinct from the inflammatory resident microglia and is essential for recovery from SCI. We inflicted SCI in adult mice, and tested the effect of infiltrating monocyte-derived MPhi on the recovery process. Adoptive transfer experiments and bone marrow chimeras were used to functionally distinguish between the resident microglia and the infiltrating monocyte-derived MPhi. We followed the infiltration of the monocyte-derived MPhi to the injured site and characterized their spatial distribution and phenotype. Increasing the naïve monocyte pool by either adoptive transfer or CNS-specific vaccination resulted in a higher number of spontaneously recruited cells and improved recovery. Selective ablation of infiltrating monocyte-derived MPhi following SCI while sparing the resident microglia, using either antibody-mediated depletion or conditional ablation by diphtheria toxin, impaired recovery. Reconstitution of the peripheral blood with monocytes resistant to ablation restored the lost motor functions. Importantly, the infiltrating monocyte-derived MPhi displayed a local anti

  20. Microparticles release by adipocytes act as "find-me" signals to promote macrophage migration.

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    Akiko Eguchi

    Full Text Available Macrophage infiltration of adipose tissue during weight gain is a central event leading to the metabolic complications of obesity. However, what are the mechanisms attracting professional phagocytes to obese adipose tissue remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that adipocyte-derived microparticles (MPs are critical "find-me" signals for recruitment of monocytes and macrophages. Supernatants from stressed adipocytes stimulated the attraction of monocyte cells and primary macrophages. The activation of caspase 3 was required for release of these signals. Adipocytes exposed to saturated fatty acids showed marked release of MPs into the supernatant while common genetic mouse models of obesity demonstrate high levels of circulating adipocyte-derived MPs. The release of MPs was highly regulated and dependent on caspase 3 and Rho-associated kinase. Further analysis identified these MPs as a central chemoattractant in vitro and in vivo. In addition, intravenously transplanting circulating MPs from the ob/ob mice lead to activation of monocytes in circulation and adipose tissue of the wild type mice. These data identify adipocyte-derived MPs as novel "find me" signals that contributes to macrophage infiltration associated with obesity.

  1. Activation of farnesoid X receptor downregulates monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in murine macrophage

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    Li, Liangpeng; Zhang, Qian; Peng, Jiahe; Jiang, Chanjui; Zhang, Yan; Shen, Lili; Dong, Jinyu; Wang, Yongchao; Jiang, Yu, E-mail: yujiang0207@163.com

    2015-11-27

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, which plays important roles in bile acids/lipid homeostasis and inflammation. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) contributes to macrophage infiltration into body tissues during inflammation. Here we investigated whether FXR can regulate MCP-1 expression in murine macrophage. FXR activation down regulate MCP-1 mRNA and protein levels in ANA-1 and Raw264.7 cells. Luciferase reporter assay, Gel shift and Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays have revealed that the activated FXR bind to the FXR element located in −738 bp ∼  −723 bp in MCP-1 promoter. These results suggested that FXR may serve as a novel target for regulating MCP-1 levels for the inflammation related diseases therapies. - Highlights: • FXR is expressed in murine macrophage cell line. • FXR down regulates MCP-1 expression. • FXR binds to the DR4 in MCP-1 promoter.

  2. Human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived macrophages and their immunological function in response to tuberculosis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Danping; Ding, Jiongyan; Li, Ouyang; He, Quan; Ke, Minxia; Zhu, Mengyi; Liu, Lili; Ou, Wen-Bin; He, Yulong; Wu, Yuehong

    2018-02-26

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) represent an innovative source for the standardized in vitro generation of macrophages (Mφ). Mφ show great promise in disease pathogenesis, particularly tuberculosis. However, there is no information about human iPS-derived (hiPS) macrophages (hiPS-Mφ) in response to tuberculosis infection. In the present study, macrophages derived from hiPS were established via embryoid body (EB) formation by using feeder-free culture conditions, and the human monocyte cell line THP-1 (THP-1-Mφ) was used as control. iPS-Mφ were characterized by using morphology, Giemsa staining, nonspecific esterase staining (α-NAE), phagocytosis, and surface phenotype. Additionally, after treatment with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) for 24 h, cell apoptosis was detected by using an Annexin V-FITC Apoptosis Detection assay. The production of nitric oxide (NO), expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), activity of apoptosis-related protein cysteine-3 (Caspase-3) and expression of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) were analyzed. With respect to morphology, surface phenotype, and function, the iPS-Mφ closely resembled their counterparts generated in vitro from a human monocyte cell line. iPS-Mφ exhibited the typically morphological characteristics of macrophages, such as round, oval, fusiform and irregular characteristics. The cells were Giemsa-stained-positive, α-NAE-positive, and possessed phagocytic ability. iPS-Mφ express high levels of CD14, CD11b, CD40, CD68, and major histocompatibility complex II (MHC-II). Moreover, with regard to the apoptotic rate, the production of NO, expression of TNF-α, and activity of Caspase-3 and Bcl-2, iPS-Mφ closely resemble that of their counterparts generated in vitro from human monocyte cell line in response to BCG infection. The rate of apoptosis of BCG-treated iPS-Mφ was 37.77 ± 7.94% compared to that of the untreated group at 4.97 ± 1.60% (P immunological function in response to Bacillus Calmette

  3. Modulation of human macrophage activity by Ascaris antigens is dependent on macrophage polarization state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Sara; Nejsum, Peter; Williams, Andrew R.

    2018-01-01

    Parasitic worms (helminths) are known to actively modulate host immune responses and inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate if adult body fluid (ABF) from the helminth Ascaris suum has immunomodulatory effects on different subtypes of human monocyte-derived macrophages (Mɸ) in vitro...

  4. Infiltration Pattern of Blood Monocytes into the Central Nervous System during Experimental Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis.

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    Rafik Menasria

    Full Text Available The kinetics and distribution of infiltrating blood monocytes into the central nervous system and their involvement in the cerebral immune response together with resident macrophages, namely microglia, were evaluated in experimental herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1 encephalitis (HSE. To distinguish microglia from blood monocyte-derived macrophages, chimeras were generated by conditioning C57BL/6 recipient mice with chemotherapy regimen followed by transplantation of bone morrow-derived cells that expressed the green fluorescent protein. Mice were infected intranasally with a sub-lethal dose of HSV-1 (1.2 x 10(6 plaque forming units. Brains were harvested prior to and on days 4, 6, 8 and 10 post-infection for flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry analysis. The amounts of neutrophils (P < 0.05 and "Ly6C hi" inflammatory monocytes (P < 0.001 significantly increased in the CNS compared to non-infected controls on day 6 post-infection, which corresponded to more severe clinical signs of HSE. Levels decreased on day 8 for both leukocytes subpopulations (P < 0.05 for inflammatory monocytes compared to non-infected controls to reach baseline levels on day 10 following infection. The percentage of "Ly6C low" patrolling monocytes significantly increased (P < 0.01 at a later time point (day 8, which correlated with the resolution phase of HSE. Histological analysis demonstrated that blood leukocytes colonized mostly the olfactory bulb and the brainstem, which corresponded to regions where HSV-1 particles were detected. Furthermore, infiltrating cells from the monocytic lineage could differentiate into activated local tissue macrophages that express the microglia marker, ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1. The lack of albumin detection in the brain parenchyma of infected mice showed that the infiltration of blood leukocytes was not necessarily related to a breakdown of the blood-brain barrier but could be the result of a functional recruitment. Thus

  5. Platelet-Derived MRP-14 Induces Monocyte Activation in Patients With Symptomatic Peripheral Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dann, Rebecca; Hadi, Tarik; Montenont, Emilie; Boytard, Ludovic; Alebrahim, Dornaszadat; Feinstein, Jordyn; Allen, Nicole; Simon, Russell; Barone, Krista; Uryu, Kunihiro; Guo, Yu; Rockman, Caron; Ramkhelawon, Bhama; Berger, Jeffrey S

    2018-01-02

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD), a diffuse manifestation of atherothrombosis, is a major cardiovascular threat. Although platelets are primary mediators of atherothrombosis, their role in the pathogenesis of PAD remains unclear. The authors sought to investigate the role of platelets in a cohort of symptomatic PAD. The authors profiled platelet activity, mRNA, and effector roles in patients with symptomatic PAD and in healthy controls. Patients with PAD and carotid artery stenosis were recruited into ongoing studies (NCT02106429 and NCT01897103) investigating platelet activity, platelet RNA, and cardiovascular disease. Platelet RNA sequence profiling mapped a robust up-regulation of myeloid-related protein (MRP)-14 mRNA, a potent calcium binding protein heterodimer, in PAD. Circulating activated platelets were enriched with MRP-14 protein, which augmented the expression of the adhesion mediator, P-selectin, thereby promoting monocyte-platelet aggregates. Electron microscopy confirmed the firm interaction of platelets with monocytes in vitro and colocalization of macrophages with MRP-14 confirmed their cross talk in atherosclerotic manifestations of PAD in vivo. Platelet-derived MRP-14 was channeled to monocytes, thereby fueling their expression of key PAD lesional hallmarks and increasing their directed locomotion, which were both suppressed in the presence of antibody-mediated blockade. Circulating MRP-14 was heightened in the setting of PAD, significantly correlated with PAD severity, and was associated with incident limb events. The authors identified a heightened platelet activity profile and unraveled a novel immunomodulatory effector role of platelet-derived MRP-14 in reprograming monocyte activation in symptomatic PAD. (Platelet Activity in Vascular Surgery and Cardiovascular Events [PACE]; NCT02106429; and Platelet Activity in Vascular Surgery for Thrombosis and Bleeding [PIVOTAL]; NCT01897103). Copyright © 2018 American College of Cardiology Foundation

  6. Glioblastoma-infiltrated innate immune cells resemble M0 macrophage phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrusiewicz, Konrad; Rodriguez, Benjamin; Wei, Jun; Hashimoto, Yuuri; Healy, Luke M.; Maiti, Sourindra N.; Wang, Qianghu; Elakkad, Ahmed; Liebelt, Brandon D.; Yaghi, Nasser K.; Ezhilarasan, Ravesanker; Huang, Neal; Weinberg, Jeffrey S.; Prabhu, Sujit S.; Rao, Ganesh; Sawaya, Raymond; Langford, Lauren A.; Bruner, Janet M.; Fuller, Gregory N.; Bar-Or, Amit; Li, Wei; Colen, Rivka R.; Curran, Michael A.; Bhat, Krishna P.; Antel, Jack P.; Cooper, Laurence J.; Sulman, Erik P.; Heimberger, Amy B.

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastomas are highly infiltrated by diverse immune cells, including microglia, macrophages, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Understanding the mechanisms by which glioblastoma-associated myeloid cells (GAMs) undergo metamorphosis into tumor-supportive cells, characterizing the heterogeneity of immune cell phenotypes within glioblastoma subtypes, and discovering new targets can help the design of new efficient immunotherapies. In this study, we performed a comprehensive battery of immune phenotyping, whole-genome microarray analysis, and microRNA expression profiling of GAMs with matched blood monocytes, healthy donor monocytes, normal brain microglia, nonpolarized M0 macrophages, and polarized M1, M2a, M2c macrophages. Glioblastoma patients had an elevated number of monocytes relative to healthy donors. Among CD11b+ cells, microglia and MDSCs constituted a higher percentage of GAMs than did macrophages. GAM profiling using flow cytometry studies revealed a continuum between the M1- and M2-like phenotype. Contrary to current dogma, GAMs exhibited distinct immunological functions, with the former aligned close to nonpolarized M0 macrophages. PMID:26973881

  7. Age-dependent alterations of monocyte subsets and monocyte-related chemokine pathways in healthy adults

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    Trautwein Christian

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent experimental approaches have unraveled essential migratory and functional differences of monocyte subpopulations in mice. In order to possibly translate these findings into human physiology and pathophysiology, human monocyte subsets need to be carefully revisited in health and disease. In analogy to murine studies, we hypothesized that human monocyte subsets dynamically change during ageing, potentially influencing their functionality and contributing to immunosenescence. Results Circulating monocyte subsets, surface marker and chemokine receptor expression were analyzed in 181 healthy volunteers (median age 42, range 18-88. Unlike the unaffected total leukocyte or total monocyte counts, non-classical CD14+CD16+ monocytes significantly increased with age, but displayed reduced HLA-DR and CX3CR1 surface expression in the elderly. Classical CD14++CD16- monocyte counts did not vary dependent on age. Serum MCP-1 (CCL2, but not MIP1α (CCL3, MIP1β (CCL4 or fractalkine (CX3CL1 concentrations increased with age. Monocyte-derived macrophages from old or young individuals did not differ with respect to cytokine release in vitro at steady state or upon LPS stimulation. Conclusions Our study demonstrates dynamic changes of circulating monocytes during ageing in humans. The expansion of the non-classical CD14+CD16+ subtype, alterations of surface protein and chemokine receptor expression as well as circulating monocyte-related chemokines possibly contribute to the preserved functionality of the monocyte pool throughout adulthood.

  8. Therapeutic potential of regulatory macrophages generated from peritoneal dialysate in adriamycin nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qi; Wang, Yiping; Wang, Changqi; Wang, Xin M; Lee, Vincent W S; Zheng, Guoping; Zhao, Ye; Alexander, Stephen I; Harris, David C H

    2018-04-01

    Cell therapy using macrophages requires large amounts of cells, which are difficult to collect from patients. Patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) discard huge numbers of peritoneal macrophages in dialysate daily. Macrophages can be modulated to become regulatory macrophages, which have shown great promise as a therapeutic strategy in experimental kidney disease and human kidney transplantation. This study aimed to examine the potential of using peritoneal macrophages (PMs) from peritoneal dialysate to treat kidney disease. Monocytes/macrophages accounted for >40% of total peritoneal leukocytes in both patients and mice undergoing PD. PMs from patients and mice undergoing PD were more mature than peripheral monocytes/macrophages, as shown by low expression of C-C motif chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) and morphological changes during in vitro culture. PMs from patients and mice undergoing PD displayed normal macrophage function and could be modulated into a regulatory (M2) phenotype. In vivo, adoptive transfer of peritoneal M2 macrophages derived from PD mice effectively protected against kidney injury in mice with adriamycin nephropathy (AN). Importantly, the transfused peritoneal M2 macrophages maintained their M2 phenotype in kidney of AN mice. In conclusion, PMs derived from patients and mice undergoing PD exhibited conventional macrophage features. Peritoneal M2 macrophages derived from PD mice are able to reduce kidney injury in AN, suggesting that peritoneal macrophages from patients undergoing PD may have the potential for clinical therapeutic application.

  9. Alternatively Activated (M2) Macrophage Phenotype Is Inducible by Endothelin-1 in Cultured Human Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldano, Stefano; Pizzorni, Carmen; Paolino, Sabrina; Trombetta, Amelia Chiara; Montagna, Paola; Brizzolara, Renata; Ruaro, Barbara; Sulli, Alberto; Cutolo, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Alternatively activated (M2) macrophages are phenotypically characterized by the expression of specific markers, mainly macrophage scavenger receptors (CD204 and CD163) and mannose receptor-1 (CD206), and participate in the fibrotic process by over-producing pro-fibrotic molecules, such as transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGFbeta1) and metalloproteinase (MMP)-9. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is implicated in the fibrotic process, exerting its pro-fibrotic effects through the interaction with its receptors (ETA and ETB). The study investigated the possible role of ET-1 in inducing the transition from cultured human macrophages into M2 cells. Cultured human monocytes (THP-1 cell line) were activated into macrophages (M0 macrophages) with phorbol myristate acetate and subsequently maintained in growth medium (M0-controls) or treated with either ET-1 (100nM) or interleukin-4 (IL-4, 10ng/mL, M2 inducer) for 72 hours. Similarly, primary cultures of human peripheral blood monocyte (PBM)-derived macrophages obtained from healthy subjects, were maintained in growth medium (untreated cells) or treated with ET-1 or IL-4 for 6 days. Both M0 and PBM-derived macrophages were pre-treated with ET receptor antagonist (ETA/BRA, bosentan 10-5M) for 1 hour before ET-1 stimulation. Protein and gene expression of CD204, CD206, CD163, TGFbeta1 were analysed by immunocytochemistry, Western blotting and quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Gene expression of interleukin(IL)-10 and macrophage derived chemokine (CCL-22) was evaluated by qRT-PCR. MMP-9 production was investigated by gel zymography. ET-1 significantly increased the expression of M2 phenotype markers CD204, CD206, CD163, IL-10 and CCL-22, and the production of MMP-9 in both cultures of M0 and PBM-derived macrophages compared to M0-controls and untreated cells. In cultured PBM-derived macrophages, ET-1 increased TGFbeta1 protein and gene expression compared to untreated cells. The ET-1-mediated effects were

  10. Transcriptome analysis of monocyte-HIV interactions

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    Tran Huyen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During HIV infection and/or antiretroviral therapy (ART, monocytes and macrophages exhibit a wide range of dysfunctions which contribute significantly to HIV pathogenesis and therapy-associated complications. Nevertheless, the molecular components which contribute to these dysfunctions remain elusive. We therefore applied a parallel approach of genome-wide microarray analysis and focused gene expression profiling on monocytes from patients in different stages of HIV infection and/or ART to further characterise these dysfunctions. Results Processes involved in apoptosis, cell cycle, lipid metabolism, proteasome function, protein trafficking and transcriptional regulation were identified as areas of monocyte dysfunction during HIV infection. Individual genes potentially contributing to these monocyte dysfunctions included several novel factors. One of these is the adipocytokine NAMPT/visfatin, which we show to be capable of inhibiting HIV at an early step in its life cycle. Roughly half of all genes identified were restored to control levels under ART, while the others represented a persistent dysregulation. Additionally, several candidate biomarkers (in particular CCL1 and CYP2C19 for the development of the abacavir hypersensitivity reaction were suggested. Conclusions Previously described areas of monocyte dysfunction during HIV infection were confirmed, and novel themes were identified. Furthermore, individual genes associated with these dysfunctions and with ART-associated disorders were pinpointed. These genes form a useful basis for further functional studies concerning the contribution of monocytes/macrophages to HIV pathogenesis. One such gene, NAMPT/visfatin, represents a possible novel restriction factor for HIV. Background Both macrophages and T lymphocyte subsets express the CD4 receptor and either the CXCR4 and/or the CCR5 coreceptor which confer susceptibility to infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus

  11. Platelet-derived stromal cell-derived factor-1 is required for the transformation of circulating monocytes into multipotential cells.

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    Noriyuki Seta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We previously described a primitive cell population derived from human circulating CD14(+ monocytes, named monocyte-derived multipotential cells (MOMCs, which are capable of differentiating into mesenchymal and endothelial lineages. To generate MOMCs in vitro, monocytes are required to bind to fibronectin and be exposed to soluble factor(s derived from circulating CD14(- cells. The present study was conducted to identify factors that induce MOMC differentiation. METHODS: We cultured CD14(+ monocytes on fibronectin in the presence or absence of platelets, CD14(- peripheral blood mononuclear cells, platelet-conditioned medium, or candidate MOMC differentiation factors. The transformation of monocytes into MOMCs was assessed by the presence of spindle-shaped adherent cells, CD34 expression, and the potential to differentiate in vitro into mesenchymal and endothelial lineages. RESULTS: The presence of platelets or platelet-conditioned medium was required to generate MOMCs from monocytes. A screening of candidate platelet-derived soluble factors identified stromal cell-derived factor (SDF-1 as a requirement for generating MOMCs. Blocking an interaction between SDF-1 and its receptor CXCR4 inhibited MOMC generation, further confirming SDF-1's critical role in this process. Finally, circulating MOMC precursors were found to reside in the CD14(+CXCR4(high cell population. CONCLUSION: The interaction of SDF-1 with CXCR4 is essential for the transformation of circulating monocytes into MOMCs.

  12. GABA and Topiramate Inhibit the Formation of Human Macrophage-Derived Foam Cells by Modulating Cholesterol-Metabolism-Associated Molecules

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    Ying Yang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims: γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA, the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter, acts on GABA receptors to play an important role in the modulation of macrophage functions. The present study examined the effects of GABA and a GABA receptor agonist on modulating cholesterol-metabolism-associated molecules in human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDMs. Methods: ORO stain, HPLC, qRT-PCR, Western blot and EMSA were carried out using HMDMs exposed to ox-LDL with or without GABAergic agents as the experimental model. Results: GABA and topiramate reduced the percentage of cholesterol ester in lipid-laden HMDMs by down-regulating SR-A, CD36 and LOX-1 expression and up-regulating ABCA1, ABCG1 and SR-BI expression in lipid-laden HMDMs. The production of TNF-a was decreased in GABA-and topiramate-treated lipid-laden HMDMs, and levels of interleukin (IL-6 did not change. The activation of two signaling pathways, p38MAPK and NF-γB, was repressed by GABA and topiramate in lipid-laden HMDMs. Conclusion: GABA and topiramate inhibit the formation of human macrophage-derived foam cells and may be a possibility for macrophage targeted therapy of atherosclerotic lesions.

  13. A specific 15-lipoxygenase inhibitor limits the progression and monocyte-macrophage enrichment of hypercholesterolemia-induced atherosclerosis in the rabbit.

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    Bocan, T M; Rosebury, W S; Mueller, S B; Kuchera, S; Welch, K; Daugherty, A; Cornicelli, J A

    1998-02-01

    Oxidant signalling and lipoprotein oxidation may play important roles in atherosclerotic lesion development. Given coincident localization of 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO), stereospecific products of 15-LO and epitopes of modified LDL in atherosclerotic lesions, we hypothesized that inhibition of 15-LO by PD146176, an inhibitor of 15-LO with an IC50 in cells or isolated enzyme of 0.5-0.8 microM, may limit atherosclerotic lesion development through regulation of monocyte-macrophage enrichment. Rabbits exposed to chronic endothelial denudation of the iliac-femoral artery were meal-fed a 0.25% cholesterol (C), 3% peanut oil (PNO), 3% coconut oil (CNO) diet twice daily with and without 175 mg/kg PD146176 for 12 weeks. In a second study, atherosclerotic lesions were pre-established in rabbits through chronic endothelial denudation and meal-fed a 0.5% C, 3% PNO, 3% CNO diet for 9 weeks and a 0% C/fat diet for 6 weeks prior to an 8 week administration of PD146176 at 175 mg/kg, q.d. Plasma total and lipoprotein cholesterol exposure were similar in control and PD146176-treated animals in both studies but PD146176 increased plasma triglyceride exposure 2- to 4-fold. Plasma PD146176 concentrations ranged from 99 to 214 ng/ml at 2 h post-dose. In the progression study, the iliac-femoral monocyte-macrophage area was reduced 71%, cross-sectional lesion area was unchanged and cholesteryl ester (CE) content was reduced 63%. In the regression study, size and macrophage content of iliac-femoral, fibrous plaque-like lesions were decreased 34%, CE content was reduced 19% and gross extent of thoracic aortic lesions were reduced 41%. We conclude that PD146176 can limit monocyte macrophage enrichment of atherosclerotic lesions and can attenuate development of fibrofoamy and fibrous plaque lesions in the absence of changes in plasma total or lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations.

  14. Nucleotide-oligomerizing domain-1 (NOD1) receptor activation induces pro-inflammatory responses and autophagy in human alveolar macrophages.

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    Juárez, Esmeralda; Carranza, Claudia; Hernández-Sánchez, Fernando; Loyola, Elva; Escobedo, Dante; León-Contreras, Juan Carlos; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Torres, Martha; Sada, Eduardo

    2014-09-25

    Nucleotide-binding oligomerizing domain-1 (NOD1) is a cytoplasmic receptor involved in recognizing bacterial peptidoglycan fragments that localize to the cytosol. NOD1 activation triggers inflammation, antimicrobial mechanisms and autophagy in both epithelial cells and murine macrophages. NOD1 mediates intracellular pathogen clearance in the lungs of mice; however, little is known about NOD1's role in human alveolar macrophages (AMs) or its involvement in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. AMs, monocytes (MNs), and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) from healthy subjects were assayed for NOD1 expression. Cells were stimulated with the NOD1 ligand Tri-DAP and cytokine production and autophagy were assessed. Cells were infected with Mtb and treated with Tri-DAP post-infection. CFUs counting determined growth control, and autophagy protein recruitment to pathogen localization sites was analyzed by immunoelectron microscopy. NOD1 was expressed in AMs, MDMs and to a lesser extent MNs. Tri-DAP stimulation induced NOD1 up-regulation and a significant production of IL1β, IL6, IL8, and TNFα in AMs and MDMs; however, the level of NOD1-dependent response in MNs was limited. Autophagy activity determined by expression of proteins Atg9, LC3, IRGM and p62 degradation was induced in a NOD1-dependent manner in AMs and MDMs but not in MNs. Infected AMs could be activated by stimulation with Tri-DAP to control the intracellular growth of Mtb. In addition, recruitment of NOD1 and the autophagy proteins IRGM and LC3 to the Mtb localization site was observed in infected AMs after treatment with Tri-DAP. NOD1 is involved in AM and MDM innate responses, which include proinflammatory cytokines and autophagy, with potential implications in the killing of Mtb in humans.

  15. Elastin-derived peptides promote abdominal aortic aneurysm formation by modulating M1/M2 macrophage polarization1

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    Dale, Matthew A; Xiong, Wanfen; Carson, Jeffrey S; Suh, Melissa K; Karpisek, Andrew D.; Meisinger, Trevor M.; Casale, George P.; Baxter, B. Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a dynamic vascular disease characterized by inflammatory cell invasion and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. Damage to elastin in the ECM results in release of elastin-derived peptides (EDPs), which are chemotactic for inflammatory cells such as monocytes. Their effect on macrophage polarization is less well known. Pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages initially are recruited to sites of injury but, if their effects are prolonged, they can lead to chronic inflammation that prevents normal tissue repair. Conversely, anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages reduce inflammation and aid in wound healing. Thus, a proper M1/M2 ratio is vital for tissue homeostasis. AAA tissue reveals a high M1/M2 ratio where pro-inflammatory cells and their associated markers dominate. In the present study, in vitro treatment of bone marrow-derived macrophages with EDPs induced M1 macrophage polarization. By using C57Bl/6 mice, antibody-mediated neutralization of EDPs reduced aortic dilation, matrix metalloproteinase activity, and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression at early and late time points after aneurysm induction. Furthermore, direct manipulation of the M1/M2 balance altered aortic dilation. Injection of M2 polarized macrophages reduced aortic dilation after aneurysm induction. EDPs promoted a pro-inflammatory environment in aortic tissue by inducing M1 polarization and neutralization of EDPs attenuated aortic dilation. The M1/M2 imbalance is vital to aneurysm formation. PMID:27183603

  16. Macrophages in intestinal homeostasis and inflammation

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    Bain, Calum C; Mowat, Allan McI

    2014-01-01

    The intestine contains the largest pool of macrophages in the body which are essential for maintaining mucosal homeostasis in the face of the microbiota and the constant need for epithelial renewal but are also important components of protective immunity and are involved in the pathology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, defining the biological roles of intestinal macrophages has been impeded by problems in defining the phenotype and origins of different populations of myeloid cells in the mucosa. Here, we discuss how multiple parameters can be used in combination to discriminate between functionally distinct myeloid cells and discuss the roles of macrophages during homeostasis and how these may change when inflammation ensues. We also discuss the evidence that intestinal macrophages do not fit the current paradigm that tissue-resident macrophages are derived from embryonic precursors that self-renew in situ, but require constant replenishment by blood monocytes. We describe our recent work demonstrating that classical monocytes constantly enter the intestinal mucosa and how the environment dictates their subsequent fate. We believe that understanding the factors that drive intestinal macrophage development in the steady state and how these may change in response to pathogens or inflammation could provide important insights into the treatment of IBD. PMID:24942685

  17. Improved gene expression in resting macrophages using an oligopeptide derived from Vpr of human immunodeficiency virus type-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizoguchi, Izuru; Ooe, Yoshihiro; Hoshino, Shigeki; Shimura, Mari; Kasahara, Tadashi; Kano, Shigeyuki; Ohta, Toshiko; Takaku, Fumimaro; Nakayama, Yasuhide; Ishizaka, Yukihito

    2005-01-01

    Vpr, an accessory gene product of human immunodeficiency virus type-1, is thought to transport a viral DNA from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in resting macrophages. Previously, we reported that a peptide encompassing amino acids 52-78 of Vpr (C45D18) promotes the nuclear trafficking of recombinant proteins that are conjugated with C45D18. Here, we present evidence that C45D18, when conjugated with a six-branched cationic polymer of poly(N,N-dimethylaminopropylacrylamide)-block-oligo(4-aminostyrene) (SV: star vector), facilitates gene expression in resting macrophages. Although there was no difference between SV alone and C45D18-SV with respect to gene transduction into growing cells, C45D18-SV resulted in more than 40-fold greater expression of the exogenous gene upon transduction into chemically differentiated macrophages and human quiescent monocyte-derived macrophages. The data suggest that C45D18 contributes to improving the ability of a non-viral vector to transduce macrophages with exogenous genes and we discuss its further application

  18. HIV-1 Resistant CDK2-Knockdown Macrophage-Like Cells Generated from 293T Cell-Derived Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

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    Kuan-Teh Jeang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge in studies of human diseases involving macrophages is low yield and heterogeneity of the primary cells and limited ability of these cells for transfections and genetic manipulations. To address this issue, we developed a simple and efficient three steps method for somatic 293T cells reprogramming into monocytes and macrophage-like cells. First, 293T cells were reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs through a transfection-mediated expression of two factors, Oct-4 and Sox2, resulting in a high yield of iPSC. Second, the obtained iPSC were differentiated into monocytes using IL-3 and M-CSF treatment. And third, monocytes were differentiated into macrophage-like cells in the presence of M-CSF. As an example, we developed HIV-1-resistant macrophage-like cells from 293T cells with knockdown of CDK2, a factor critical for HIV-1 transcription. Our study provides a proof-of-principle approach that can be used to study the role of host cell factors in HIV-1 infection of human macrophages.

  19. MIR144* inhibits antimicrobial responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in human monocytes and macrophages by targeting the autophagy protein DRAM2.

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    Kim, Jin Kyung; Lee, Hye-Mi; Park, Ki-Sun; Shin, Dong-Min; Kim, Tae Sung; Kim, Yi Sak; Suh, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Soo Yeon; Kim, In Soo; Kim, Jin-Man; Son, Ji-Woong; Sohn, Kyung Mok; Jung, Sung Soo; Chung, Chaeuk; Han, Sang-Bae; Yang, Chul-Su; Jo, Eun-Kyeong

    2017-02-01

    Autophagy is an important antimicrobial effector process that defends against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the human pathogen causing tuberculosis (TB). MicroRNAs (miRNAs), endogenous noncoding RNAs, are involved in various biological functions and act as post-transcriptional regulators to target mRNAs. The process by which miRNAs affect antibacterial autophagy and host defense mechanisms against Mtb infections in human monocytes and macrophages is largely uncharacterized. In this study, we show that Mtb significantly induces the expression of MIR144*/hsa-miR-144-5p, which targets the 3'-untranslated region of DRAM2 (DNA damage regulated autophagy modulator 2) in human monocytes and macrophages. Mtb infection downregulated, whereas the autophagy activators upregulated, DRAM2 expression in human monocytes and macrophages by activating AMP-activated protein kinase. In addition, overexpression of MIR144* decreased DRAM2 expression and formation of autophagosomes in human monocytes, whereas inhibition of MIR144* had the opposite effect. Moreover, the levels of MIR144* were elevated, whereas DRAM2 levels were reduced, in human peripheral blood cells and tissues in TB patients, indicating the clinical significance of MIR144* and DRAM2 in human TB. Notably, DRAM2 interacted with BECN1 and UVRAG, essential components of the autophagic machinery, leading to displacement of RUBCN from the BECN1 complex and enhancement of Ptdlns3K activity. Furthermore, MIR144* and DRAM2 were critically involved in phagosomal maturation and enhanced antimicrobial effects against Mtb. Our findings identify a previously unrecognized role of human MIR144* in the inhibition of antibacterial autophagy and the innate host immune response to Mtb. Additionally, these data reveal that DRAM2 is a key coordinator of autophagy activation that enhances antimicrobial activity against Mtb.

  20. Evaluating the Use of Monocytes with a Degradable Polyurethane for Vascular Tissue Regeneration

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    Battiston, Kyle Giovanni

    Monocytes are one of the first cell types present following the implantation of a biomaterial or tissue engineered construct. Depending on the monocyte activation state supported by the biomaterial, monocytes and their derived macrophages (MDMs) can act as positive contributors to tissue regeneration and wound healing, or conversely promote a chronic inflammatory response that leads to fibrous encapsulation and implant rejection. A degradable polar hydrophobic iconic polyurethane (D-PHI) has been shown to reduce pro-inflammatory monocyte/macrophage response compared to tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS), a substrate routinely used for in vitro culture of cells, as well as poly(lactide- co-glycolide) (PLGA), a standard synthetic biodegradable biomaterial in the tissue engineering field. D-PHI has also shown properties suitable for use in a vascular tissue engineering context. In order to understand the mechanism through which D-PHI attenuates pro-inflammatory monocyte response, this thesis investigated the ability of D-PHI to modulate interactions with adsorbed serum proteins and the properties of D-PHI that were important for this activity. D-PHI was shown to regulate protein adsorption in a manner that produced divergent monocyte responses compared to TCPS and PLGA when coated with the serum proteins alpha2-macroglobulin or immunoglobulin G (IgG). In the case of IgG, D-PHI was shown to reduce pro-inflammatory binding site exposure as a function of the material's polar, hydrophobic, and ionic character. Due to the favourable monocyte activation state supported by D-PHI, and the importance of monocytes/macrophages in regulating the response of tissue-specific cell types in vivo, the ability of a D-PHI-stimulated monocyte/macrophage activation state to contribute to modulating the response of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in a vascular tissue engineering context was investigated. D-PHI- stimulated monocytes promoted VSMC growth and migration through biomolecule

  1. The proliferative human monocyte subpopulation contains osteoclast precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lari, Roya; Kitchener, Peter D; Hamilton, John A

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Immediate precursors of bone-resorbing osteoclasts are cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Particularly during clinical conditions showing bone loss, it would appear that osteoclast precursors are mobilized from bone marrow into the circulation prior to entering tissues undergoing such loss. The observed heterogeneity of peripheral blood monocytes has led to the notion that different monocyte subpopulations may have special or restricted functions, including as osteoclast precursors. Methods Human peripheral blood monocytes were sorted based upon their degree of proliferation and cultured in macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF or CSF-1) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa-B ligand (RANKL). Results The monocyte subpopulation that is capable of proliferation gave rise to significantly more multinucleated, bone-resorbing osteoclasts than the bulk of the monocytes. Conclusions Human peripheral blood osteoclast precursors reside in the proliferative monocyte subpopulation. PMID:19222861

  2. Data on sulforaphane treatment mediated suppression of autoreactive, inflammatory M1 macrophages

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    Sanjima Pal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Any chronic, inflammatory, autoimmune disease (e.g. arthritis associated pathogenesis directs uncontrolled accumulation of both soluble forms of collagens in the synovial fluids and M1 macrophages around inflamed tissues. Despite of few studies demonstrating efficiency of Sulforaphane (SFN in suppressing arthritis associated collagen restricted T cells or fibroblasts, its effects on macrophage polarity and plasticity are less understood. Recently, we reported regulation of phenotypic and functional switching by SFN in induced and spontaneously differentiating human monocytes [1]. Here, flow cytometry, western blot and ELISA derived data demonstrated that SFN inhibited in vitro inflammatory responses developed by soluble human collagens (I–IV induced auto-reactive M1 type monocyte/macrophage model.

  3. Methylglyoxal-bis-guanylhydrazone inhibits osteopontin expression and differentiation in cultured human monocytes.

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    Jin, Xia; Xu, Hua; McGrath, Michael S

    2018-01-01

    Monocyte activation and polarization play essential roles in many chronic inflammatory diseases. An imbalance of M1 and M2 macrophage activation (pro-inflammatory and alternatively activated, respectively) is believed to be a key aspect in the etiology of these diseases, thus a therapeutic approach that regulates macrophage activation could be of broad clinical relevance. Methylglyoxal-bis-guanylhydrazone (MGBG), a regulator of polyamine metabolism, has recently been shown to be concentrated in monocytes and macrophages, and interfere with HIV integration into the DNA of these cells in vitro. RNA expression analysis of monocytes from HIV+ and control donors with or without MGBG treatment revealed the only gene to be consistently down regulated by MGBG to be osteopontin (OPN). The elevated expression of this pro-inflammatory cytokine and monocyte chemoattractant is associated with various chronic inflammatory diseases. We demonstrate that MGBG is a potent inhibitor of secreted OPN (sOPN) in cultured monocytes with 50% inhibition achieved at 0.1 μM of the drug. Furthermore, inhibition of OPN RNA transcription in monocyte cultures occurs at similar concentrations of the drug. During differentiation of monocytes into macrophages in vitro, monocytes express cell surface CD16 and the cells undergo limited DNA synthesis as measured by uptake of BrdU. MGBG inhibited both activities at similar doses to those regulating OPN expression. In addition, monocyte treatment with MGBG inhibited differentiation into both M1 and M2 classes of macrophages at non-toxic doses. The inhibition of differentiation and anti-OPN effects of MGBG were specific for monocytes in that differentiated macrophages were nearly resistant to MGBG activities. Thus MGBG may have potential therapeutic utility in reducing or normalizing OPN levels and regulating monocyte activation in diseases that involve chronic inflammation.

  4. Non-linear feedback control of the p53 protein-mdm2 inhibitor system using the derivative-free non-linear Kalman filter.

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    Rigatos, Gerasimos G

    2016-06-01

    It is proven that the model of the p53-mdm2 protein synthesis loop is a differentially flat one and using a diffeomorphism (change of state variables) that is proposed by differential flatness theory it is shown that the protein synthesis model can be transformed into the canonical (Brunovsky) form. This enables the design of a feedback control law that maintains the concentration of the p53 protein at the desirable levels. To estimate the non-measurable elements of the state vector describing the p53-mdm2 system dynamics, the derivative-free non-linear Kalman filter is used. Moreover, to compensate for modelling uncertainties and external disturbances that affect the p53-mdm2 system, the derivative-free non-linear Kalman filter is re-designed as a disturbance observer. The derivative-free non-linear Kalman filter consists of the Kalman filter recursion applied on the linearised equivalent of the protein synthesis model together with an inverse transformation based on differential flatness theory that enables to retrieve estimates for the state variables of the initial non-linear model. The proposed non-linear feedback control and perturbations compensation method for the p53-mdm2 system can result in more efficient chemotherapy schemes where the infusion of medication will be better administered.

  5. Monosodium Urate Crystals Induce Upregulation of NK1.1-Dependent Killing by Macrophages and Support Tumor-Resident NK1.1+ Monocyte/Macrophage Populations in Antitumor Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, Stefanie; Kuhn, Sabine; Ronchese, Franca; Harper, Jacquie L

    2015-12-01

    Macrophages display phenotypic and functional heterogeneity dependent on the changing inflammatory microenvironment. Under some conditions, macrophages can acquire effector functions commonly associated with NK cells. In the current study, we investigated how the endogenous danger signal monosodium urate (MSU) crystals can alter macrophage functions. We report that naive, primary peritoneal macrophages rapidly upregulate the expression of the NK cell-surface marker NK1.1 in response to MSU crystals but not in response to LPS or other urate crystals. NK1.1 upregulation by macrophages was associated with mechanisms including phagocytosis of crystals, NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and autocrine proinflammatory cytokine signaling. Further analysis demonstrated that MSU crystal-activated macrophages exhibited NK cell-like cytotoxic activity against target cells in a perforin/granzyme B-dependent manner. Furthermore, analysis of tumor hemopoietic cell populations showed that effective, MSU-mediated antitumor activity required coadministration with Mycobacterium smegmatis to induce IL-1β production and significant accumulation of monocytes and macrophages (but not granulocytes or dendritic cells) expressing elevated levels of NK1.1. Our findings provide evidence that MSU crystal-activated macrophages have the potential to develop tumoricidal NK cell-like functions that may be exploited to boost antitumor activity in vivo. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  6. Unique proteomic signatures distinguish macrophages and dendritic cells.

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    Lev Becker

    Full Text Available Monocytes differentiate into heterogeneous populations of tissue macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs that regulate inflammation and immunity. Identifying specific populations of myeloid cells in vivo is problematic, however, because only a limited number of proteins have been used to assign cellular phenotype. Using mass spectrometry and bone marrow-derived cells, we provided a global view of the proteomes of M-CSF-derived macrophages, classically and alternatively activated macrophages, and GM-CSF-derived DCs. Remarkably, the expression levels of half the plasma membrane proteins differed significantly in the various populations of cells derived in vitro. Moreover, the membrane proteomes of macrophages and DCs were more distinct than those of classically and alternatively activated macrophages. Hierarchical cluster and dual statistical analyses demonstrated that each cell type exhibited a robust proteomic signature that was unique. To interrogate the phenotype of myeloid cells in vivo, we subjected elicited peritoneal macrophages harvested from wild-type and GM-CSF-deficient mice to mass spectrometric and functional analysis. Unexpectedly, we found that peritoneal macrophages exhibited many features of the DCs generated in vitro. These findings demonstrate that global analysis of the membrane proteome can help define immune cell phenotypes in vivo.

  7. Novel characterization of monocyte-derived cell populations in the meninges and choroid plexus and their rates of replenishment in bone marrow chimeric mice.

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    Chinnery, Holly R; Ruitenberg, Marc J; McMenamin, Paul G

    2010-09-01

    The mouse dura mater, pia mater, and choroid plexus contain resident macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs). These cells participate in immune surveillance, phagocytosis of cellular debris, uptake of antigens from the surrounding cerebrospinal fluid and immune regulation in many pathologic processes. We used Cx3cr1 knock-in, CD11c-eYFP transgenic and bone marrow chimeric mice to characterize the phenotype, density and replenishment rate of monocyte-derived cells in the meninges and choroid plexus and to assess the role of the chemokine receptor CX3CR1 on their number and tissue distribution. Iba-1 major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class II CD169 CD68 macrophages and CD11c putative DCs were identified in meningeal and choroid plexus whole mounts. Comparison of homozygous and heterozygous Cx3cr1 mice did not reveal CX3CR1-dependancy on density, distribution or phenotype of monocyte-derived cells. In turnover studies, wild type lethally irradiated mice were reconstituted with Cx3cr1/-positive bone marrow and were analyzed at 3 days, 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks after transplantation. There was a rapid replenishment of CX3CR1-positive cells in the dura mater (at 4 weeks) and the choroid plexus was fully reconstituted by 8 weeks. These data provide the foundation for future studies on the role of resident macrophages and DCs in conditions such as meningitis, autoimmune inflammatory disease and in therapies involving irradiation and hematopoietic or stem cell transplantation.

  8. IL-34 and CSF-1 display an equivalent macrophage differentiation ability but a different polarization potential.

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    Boulakirba, Sonia; Pfeifer, Anja; Mhaidly, Rana; Obba, Sandrine; Goulard, Michael; Schmitt, Thomas; Chaintreuil, Paul; Calleja, Anne; Furstoss, Nathan; Orange, François; Lacas-Gervais, Sandra; Boyer, Laurent; Marchetti, Sandrine; Verhoeyen, Els; Luciano, Frederic; Robert, Guillaume; Auberger, Patrick; Jacquel, Arnaud

    2018-01-10

    CSF-1 and IL-34 share the CSF-1 receptor and no differences have been reported in the signaling pathways triggered by both ligands in human monocytes. IL-34 promotes the differentiation and survival of monocytes, macrophages and osteoclasts, as CSF-1 does. However, IL-34 binds other receptors, suggesting that differences exist in the effect of both cytokines. In the present study, we compared the differentiation and polarization abilities of human primary monocytes in response to CSF-1 or IL-34. CSF-1R engagement by one or the other ligands leads to AKT and caspase activation and autophagy induction through expression and activation of AMPK and ULK1. As no differences were detected on monocyte differentiation, we investigated the effect of CSF-1 and IL-34 on macrophage polarization into the M1 or M2 phenotype. We highlighted a striking increase in IL-10 and CCL17 secretion in M1 and M2 macrophages derived from IL-34 stimulated monocytes, respectively, compared to CSF-1 stimulated monocytes. Variations in the secretome induced by CSF-1 or IL-34 may account for their different ability to polarize naïve T cells into Th1 cells. In conclusion, our findings indicate that CSF-1 and IL-34 exhibit the same ability to induce human monocyte differentiation but may have a different ability to polarize macrophages.

  9. CFTR-dependent defect in alternatively-activated macrophages in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarique, Abdullah A; Sly, Peter D; Holt, Patrick G; Bosco, Anthony; Ware, Robert S; Logan, Jayden; Bell, Scott C; Wainwright, Claire E; Fantino, Emmanuelle

    2017-07-01

    The role of the macrophages in cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease has been poorly studied. We hypothesized that alternatively activated M2 macrophages are abnormal in CF lung disease. Blood samples were collected from adults (n=13) children (n=27) with CF on admission for acute pulmonary exacerbation and when clinically stable. Monocytes were differentiated into macrophages and polarized into classical (M1) and alternatively-activated (M2) phenotypes, function determined ex-vivo and compared with healthy controls. In the absence of functional cystic fibrosis trans-membrane conductance regulator (CFTR), either naturally in patients with CF or induced with CFTR inhibitors, monocyte-derived macrophages do not respond to IL-13/IL-4, fail to polarize into M2s associated with a post-transcriptional failure to produce and express IL-13Rα1 on the macrophage surface Polarization to the M1 phenotype was unaffected. CFTR-dependent imbalance of macrophage phenotypes and functions could contribute to the exaggerated inflammatory response seen in CF lung disease. Copyright © 2017 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Prion protein induced signaling cascades in monocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krebs, Bjarne; Dorner-Ciossek, Cornelia; Schmalzbauer, Ruediger; Vassallo, Neville; Herms, Jochen; Kretzschmar, Hans A.

    2006-01-01

    Prion proteins play a central role in transmission and pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. The cellular prion protein (PrP C ), whose physiological function remains elusive, is anchored to the surface of a variety of cell types including neurons and cells of the lymphoreticular system. In this study, we investigated the response of a mouse monocyte/macrophage cell line to exposure with PrP C fusion proteins synthesized with a human Fc-tag. PrP C fusion proteins showed an attachment to the surface of monocyte/macrophages in nanomolar concentrations. This was accompanied by an increase of cellular tyrosine phosphorylation as a result of activated signaling pathways. Detailed investigations exhibited activation of downstream pathways through a stimulation with PrP fusion proteins, which include phosphorylation of ERK 1,2 and Akt kinase. Macrophages opsonize and present antigenic structures, contact lymphocytes, and deliver cytokines. The findings reported here may become the basis of understanding the molecular function of PrP C in monocytes and macrophages

  11. Novel insights about the MDM2/MDM4 heterodimer

    OpenAIRE

    Moretti, Fabiola

    2015-01-01

    MDM2 (mouse double minute 2 homolog) and MDM4 (double minute 4 human homolog, also known as MDMX) inhibit the activity of tumor protein p53 (TP53, best known as p53) through their heterodimerization. New evidence indicates that under stress conditions the heterodimer is modified, leading to different activities of the single molecules. In particular, following lethal DNA damage, MDM2 and MDM4 dissociate and MDM4 promotes the stabilization of homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) an...

  12. Evidence That Ly6C(hi) Monocytes are Protective in Acute Ischemic Stroke by Promoting M2 Macrophage Polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hannah X; Broughton, Brad R S; Kim, Hyun Ah; Lee, Seyoung; Drummond, Grant R; Sobey, Christopher G

    2015-07-01

    Ly6C(hi) monocytes are generally thought to exert a proinflammatory role in acute tissue injury, although their impact after injuries to the central nervous system is poorly defined. CC chemokine receptor 2 is expressed on Ly6C(hi) monocytes and plays an essential role in their extravasation and transmigration into the brain after cerebral ischemia. We used a selective CC chemokine receptor 2 antagonist, INCB3344, to assess the effect of Ly6C(hi) monocytes recruited into the brain early after ischemic stroke. Male C57Bl/6J mice underwent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery for 1 hour followed by 23 hours of reperfusion. Mice were administered either vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide/carboxymethylcellulose) or INCB3344 (10, 30 or 100 mg/kg IP) 1 hour before ischemia and at 2 and 6 hours after ischemia. At 24 hours, we assessed functional outcomes, infarct volume, and quantified the immune cells in blood and brain by flow cytometry or immunofluorescence. Gene expression of selected inflammatory markers was assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Ly6C(hi) monocytes were increased 3-fold in the blood and 10-fold in the brain after stroke, and these increases were selectively prevented by INCB3344 in a dose-dependent manner. Mice treated with INCB3344 exhibited markedly worse functional outcomes and larger infarct volumes, in association with reduced M2 polarization and increased peroxynitrite production in macrophages, compared with vehicle-treated mice. Our data suggest that Ly6C(hi) monocytes exert an acute protective effect after ischemic stroke to limit brain injury and functional deficit that involves promotion of M2 macrophage polarization. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Influence of phthalates on cytokine production in monocytes and macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Juliana Frohnert; Bendtzen, Klaus; Boas, Malene

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Phthalates are a group of endocrine disrupting chemicals suspected to influence the immune system. The aim of this systematic review is to summarise the present knowledge on the influence of phthalates on monocyte and macrophage production and secretion of cytokines, an influence which......://www.crd.york.ac.uk/NIHR_PROSPERO, registration number CRD42013004236). In vivo, ex vivo and in vitro studies investigating the influence of phthalates on cytokine mRNA expression and cytokine secretion in animals and humans were included. A total of 11 reports, containing 12 studies, were found eligible for inclusion. In these, a total of four...... different phthalate diesters, six primary metabolites (phthalate monoesters) and seven different cytokines were investigated. Though all studies varied greatly in study design and species sources, four out of five studies that investigated di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate found an increased tumour necrosis factor...

  14. Alveolar macrophage-epithelial cell interaction following exposure to atmospheric particles induces the release of mediators involved in monocyte mobilization and recruitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukae Hiroshi

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies from our laboratory have shown that human alveolar macrophages (AM and bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC exposed to ambient particles (PM10 in vitro increase their production of inflammatory mediators and that supernatants from PM10-exposed cells shorten the transit time of monocytes through the bone marrow and promote their release into the circulation. Methods The present study concerns co-culture of AM and HBEC exposed to PM10 (EHC-93 and the production of mediators involved in monocyte kinetics measured at both the mRNA and protein levels. The experiments were also designed to determine the role of the adhesive interaction between these cells via the intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1 in the production of these mediators. Results AM/HBEC co-cultures exposed to 100 μg/ml of PM10 for 2 or 24 h increased their levels of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, M-CSF, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-1β, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1, interleukin (IL-6 and ICAM-1 mRNA, compared to exposed AM or HBEC mono-cultures, or control non-exposed co-cultures. The levels of GM-CSF, M-CSF, MIP-1β and IL-6 increased in co-cultured supernatants collected after 24 h exposure compared to control cells (p 10-induced increase in co-culture mRNA expression. Conclusion We conclude that an ICAM-1 independent interaction between AM and HBEC, lung cells that process inhaled particles, increases the production and release of mediators that enhance bone marrow turnover of monocytes and their recruitment into tissues. We speculate that this interaction amplifies PM10-induced lung inflammation and contributes to both the pulmonary and systemic morbidity associated with exposure to air pollution.

  15. Inhibition of the differentiation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells by human gingival fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Séguier

    Full Text Available We investigated whether gingival fibroblasts (GFs can modulate the differentiation and/or maturation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs and analyzed soluble factors that may be involved in this immune modulation. Experiments were performed using human monocytes in co-culture with human GFs in Transwell® chambers or using monocyte cultures treated with conditioned media (CM from GFs of four donors. The four CM and supernatants from cell culture were assayed by ELISA for cytokines involved in the differentiation of dendritic cells, such as IL-6, VEGF, TGFβ1, IL-13 and IL-10. The maturation of monocyte-derived DCs induced by LPS in presence of CM was also studied. Cell surface phenotype markers were analyzed by flow cytometry. In co-cultures, GFs inhibited the differentiation of monocyte-derived DCs and the strength of this blockade correlated with the GF/monocyte ratio. Conditioned media from GFs showed similar effects, suggesting the involvement of soluble factors produced by GFs. This inhibition was associated with a lower stimulatory activity in MLR of DCs generated with GFs or its CM. Neutralizing antibodies against IL-6 and VEGF significantly (P<0.05 inhibited the inhibitory effect of CM on the differentiation of monocytes-derived DCs and in a dose dependent manner. Our data suggest that IL-6 is the main factor responsible for the inhibition of DCs differentiation mediated by GFs but that VEGF is also involved and constitutes an additional mechanism.

  16. Decreased inducibility of TNF expression in lipid-loaded macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kallin Bengt

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation and immune responses are considered to be very important in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Lipid accumulation in macrophages of the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis which can influence the inflammatory potential of macrophages. We studied the effects of lipid loading on the regulation of TNF expression in human monocyte-derived macrophages. Results In macrophages incubated with acetylated low density lipoprotein (ac-LDL for 2 days, mRNA expression of TNF in cells stimulated with TNF decreased by 75%. In cell cultures stimulated over night with IL-1β, lipid loading decreased secretion of TNF into culture medium by 48%. These results suggest that lipid accumulation in macrophages makes them less responsive to inflammatory stimuli. Decreased basal activity and inducibility of transcription factor AP-1 was observed in lipid-loaded cells, suggesting a mechanism for the suppression of cytokine expression. NF-κB binding activity and inducibility were only marginally affected by ac-LDL. LDL and ac-LDL did not activate PPARγ. In contrast, oxidized LDL stimulated AP-1 and PPARγ but inhibited NF-κB, indicating that the effects of lipid loading with ac-LDL were not due to oxidation of lipids. Conclusions Accumulation of lipid, mainly cholesterol, results in down-regulation of TNF expression in macrophages. Since monocytes are known to be activated by cell adhesion, these results suggest that foam cells in atherosclerotic plaques may contribute less potently to an inflammatory reaction than newly arrived monocytes/macrophages.

  17. Characterization of monocyte-derived dendritic cells maturated with IFN-alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, I M; Nikolajsen, K; Walter, M R

    2006-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are promising candidates for cancer immunotherapy. These cells can be generated from peripheral blood monocytes cultured with granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-4 (IL-4). In order to obtain full functional capacity, maturation is required......, maturation with IFN-alpha has only a small effect on induction of autologous T-cell stimulatory capacity of the DC. However, an increase in DC allogeneic T-cell stimulatory capacity was observed. These data suggest that IFN-alpha has a potential as a maturation agent used in DC-based cancer vaccine trials...

  18. Mycobacterium leprae alters classical activation of human monocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallows, Dorothy; Peixoto, Blas; Kaplan, Gilla; Manca, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages play a central role in the pathogenesis of leprosy, caused by Mycobacterium leprae. The polarized clinical presentations in leprosy are associated with differential immune activation. In tuberculoid leprosy, macrophages show a classical activation phenotype (M1), while macrophages in lepromatous disease display characteristics of alternative activation (M2). Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination, which protects against leprosy, can promote sustained changes in monocyte response to unrelated pathogens and may preferentially direct monocytes towards an M1 protective phenotype. We previously reported that M. leprae can dampen the response of naïve human monocytes to a strong inducer of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as BCG. Here, we investigated the ability of the pathogen to alter the direction of macrophage polarization and the impact of BCG vaccination on the monocyte response to M. leprae. We show that in vitro exposure of monocytes from healthy donors to M. leprae interferes with subsequent M1 polarization, indicated by lower levels of M1-associated cytokine/chemokines released and reduced expression of M1 cell surface markers. Exposure to M. leprae phenolic glycolipid (PGL) 1, instead of whole bacteria, demonstrated a similar effect on M1 cytokine/chemokine release. In addition, we found that monocytes from 10-week old BCG-vaccinated infants released higher levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β in response to M. leprae compared to those from unvaccinated infants. Exposure to M. leprae has an inhibitory effect on M1 macrophage polarization, likely mediated through PGL-1. By directing monocyte/macrophages preferentially towards M1 activation, BCG vaccination may render the cells more refractory to the inhibitory effects of subsequent M. leprae infection.

  19. Comparative analysis of signature genes in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-infected porcine monocyte-derived dendritic cells at differential activation statuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Activation statuses of monocytic cells, e.g. monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs), are critically important for antiviral immunity. In particular, some devastating viruses, including porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), are capable of directly infecting these cell...

  20. Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor enhances the modulatory effect of cytokines on monocyte-derived multinucleated giant cell formation and fungicidal activity against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Paula Pereira do Nascimento

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Multinucleated giant cells (MGC are cells present in characteristic granulomatous inflammation induced by intracellular infectious agents or foreign materials. The present study evaluated the modulatory effect of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF in association with other cytokines such as interferon-gamma (IFN-γ, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL-10 or transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β1 on the formation of MGC from human peripheral blood monocytes stimulated with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis antigen (PbAg. The generation of MGC was determined by fusion index (FI and the fungicidal activity of these cells was evaluated after 4 h of MGC co-cultured with viable yeast cells of P. brasiliensis strain 18 (Pb18. The results showed that monocytes incubated with PbAg and GM-CSF plus IFN-γ had a significantly higher FI than in all the other cultures, while the addition of IL-10 or TGF-β1 had a suppressive effect on MGC generation. Monocytes incubated with both pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines had a higher induction of foreign body-type MGC rather than Langhans-type MGC. MGC stimulated with PbAg and GM-CSF in association with the other cytokines had increased fungicidal activity and the presence of GM-CSF also partially inhibited the suppressive effects of IL-10 and TGF-β1. Together, these results suggest that GM-CSF is a positive modulator of PbAg-stimulated MGC generation and on the fungicidal activity against Pb18.

  1. Amplification of the spleen macrophage population in malaria: possible role of a factor chemotactic for blood mononuclear cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyler, D.J.; Gallin, J.I.

    1976-01-01

    The mechanism of amplification of the splenic macrophages' population was investigated using mice infected with malaria as a model of an obligate intravascular infection. It was observed that these macrophages derived from blood monocytes rather than by local proliferation in the spleen. A factor, chemotactic for blood mononuclear cells, was present in spleen cells shortly after infection and preceded detectable increases in spleen macrophage number by 48 hours. This factor, in concert with spleen derived macrophage migration inhibition factor, may be important in the amplification of splenic macrophage population in intravascular infections

  2. [Role of Rac1 signaling pathway of azathioprine and peptidoglycan in the regulation of monocyte-macrophage apoptosis in Crohn's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z; Jing, Y; Ran, Y; Zhao, J; Zhou, L; Wang, B M

    2018-04-01

    Objective: To evaluate the changes of macrophages and expression of Rac1 in the inflammatory site of Crohn's disease, and to investigate the effects of 6-thioguanine (6-TG) and peptidoglycan on apoptosis of human peripheral blood monocyte-macrophage by regulating Rac1 signaling pathway. Methods: Ten patients with Crohn's disease and eight healthy controls diagnosed were enrolled at Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital from January 2013 to January 2014. The number of macrophages, apoptosis and expression of Rac1 in the inflammation sites and non-inflammation sites of intestinal mucosa were detected in both patients and controls. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were sorted by CD 14 immunomagnetic beads. The apoptosis of monocytes, expression of Rac1 and related apoptosis signaling molecules were detected in patients treated with peptidoglycan, 6-TG and Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766 and another 15 healthy donors. Results: The number of macrophages and apoptotic cells significantly increased in the inflammatory group of Crohn's disease patients compared with the non-inflammatory group. The expression of PAK1, downstream molecular of Rac1 signaling pathway of macrophages was also significantly higher in the inflammatory group of Crohn's disease patients than that in healthy controls and non-inflammatory group. Compared with control group, anti-apoptotic signals (NF-κB, Bcl-xL and STAT-3) in PBMCs increased in the peptidoglycan group, while slightly decreased in 6-TG group. 6-TG and NSC23766 significantly promoted peptidoglycan-related anti-apoptosis [peptidoglycan group (8.6±3.7)%, peptidoglycan+ 6-TG group (42.0±2.7)%, peptidoglycan+ NSC23766 group (58.5±6.9)%, PRac1 signaling pathway leading to macrophage apoptosis.

  3. Silencing CCR2 in Macrophages Alleviates Adipose Tissue Inflammation and the Associated Metabolic Syndrome in Dietary Obese Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongkil; Chung, Kunho; Choi, Changseon; Beloor, Jagadish; Ullah, Irfan; Kim, Nahyeon; Lee, Kuen Yong; Lee, Sang-Kyung; Kumar, Priti

    2016-01-26

    Adipose tissue macrophage (ATM)-mediated inflammation is a key feature contributing to the adverse metabolic outcomes of dietary obesity. Recruitment of macrophages to obese adipose tissues (AT) can occur through the engagement of CCR2, the receptor for MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1), which is expressed on peripheral monocytes/macrophages. Here, we show that i.p. administration of a rabies virus glycoprotein-derived acetylcholine receptor-binding peptide effectively delivers complexed siRNA into peritoneal macrophages and ATMs in a mouse model of high-fat diet-induced obesity. Treatment with siRNA against CCR2 inhibited macrophage infiltration and accumulation in AT and, therefore, proinflammatory cytokines produced by macrophages. Consequently, the treatment significantly improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity profiles, and also alleviated the associated symptoms of hepatic steatosis and reduced hepatic triglyceride production. These results demonstrate that disruption of macrophage chemotaxis to the AT through cell-targeted gene knockdown strategies can provide a therapeutic intervention for obesity-related metabolic diseases. The study also highlights a siRNA delivery approach for targeting specific monocyte subsets that contribute to obesity-associated inflammation without affecting the function of other tissue-resident macrophages that are essential for host homeostasis and survival.

  4. T3 Regulates a Human Macrophage-Derived TSH-β Splice Variant: Implications for Human Bone Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliram, R; Latif, R; Morshed, S A; Zaidi, M; Davies, T F

    2016-09-01

    TSH and thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) are intimately involved in bone biology. We have previously reported the presence of a murine TSH-β splice variant (TSH-βv) expressed specifically in bone marrow-derived macrophages and that exerted an osteoprotective effect by inducing osteoblastogenesis. To extend this observation and its relevance to human bone biology, we set out to identify and characterize a TSH-β variant in human macrophages. Real-time PCR analyses using human TSH-β-specific primers identified a 364-bp product in macrophages, bone marrow, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells that was sequence verified and was homologous to a human TSH-βv previously reported. We then examined TSH-βv regulation using the THP-1 human monocyte cell line matured into macrophages. After 4 days, 46.1% of the THP-1 cells expressed the macrophage markers CD-14 and macrophage colony-stimulating factor and exhibited typical morphological characteristics of macrophages. Real-time PCR analyses of these cells treated in a dose-dependent manner with T3 showed a 14-fold induction of human TSH-βv mRNA and variant protein. Furthermore, these human TSH-βv-positive cells, induced by T3 exposure, had categorized into both M1 and M2 macrophage phenotypes as evidenced by the expression of macrophage colony-stimulating factor for M1 and CCL-22 for M2. These data indicate that in hyperthyroidism, bone marrow resident macrophages have the potential to exert enhanced osteoprotective effects by oversecreting human TSH-βv, which may exert its local osteoprotective role via osteoblast and osteoclast TSH receptors.

  5. Anthocyanins and phenolic acids from a wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) powder counteract lipid accumulation in THP-1-derived macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Bo', Cristian; Cao, Yi; Roursgaard, Martin

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Blueberries are a rich source of anthocyanins (ACNs) and phenolic acids (PA), which are hypothesized to protect against development of atherosclerosis. The present study examined the effect of an ACN- and PA-rich fractions, obtained from a wild blueberry powder, on the capacity...... to counteract lipid accumulation in macrophages derived from monocytic THP-1 cells. In addition, we tested the capacity of pure ACNs and their metabolites to alter lipid accumulation. METHODS: THP-1-derived macrophages were incubated with fatty acids (500 μM oleic/palmitic acid, 2:1 ratio) and different...... concentrations (from 0.05 to 10 μg mL(-1)) of ACN- and PA-rich fractions, pure ACN standards (malvidin, delphinidin and cyanidin 3-glucoside), and metabolites (syringic, gallic and protocatechuic acids). Lipid accumulation was quantified with the fluorescent dye Nile red. RESULTS: Lipid accumulation was reduced...

  6. The effects of dietary fatty acids on the postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoprotein/apoB48 receptor axis in human monocyte/macrophage cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Lourdes M; Ortega-Gomez, Almudena; Lopez, Sergio; Abia, Rocio; Muriana, Francisco J G; Bermudez, Beatriz

    2013-12-01

    Intestinally produced triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL) play an important role in the progression of atherosclerosis. In this study, we investigated the relevance of monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and saturated fatty acid (SFA) in postprandial TRL in affecting the transcriptional activity of the apolipoprotein-B48 receptor (ApoB48R) and its functionality in human monocyte/macrophage cells. Healthy male volunteers were administered four standardized high-fat meals containing butter, high-palmitic sunflower oil, olive oil (ROO) or a mixture of vegetable and fish oils (50 g/m(2) body surface area) to obtain a panel of postprandial TRL with gradual MUFA oleic acid-to-SFA palmitic acid ratios. The increase in this ratio was linearly associated with a decrease of ApoB48R up-regulation and lipid accumulation in THP-1 and primary monocytes. ApoB48R mRNA levels and intracellular triglycerides were also lower in the monocytes from volunteers after the ingestion of the ROO meal when compared to the ingestion of the butter meal. In THP-1 macrophages, the increase in the MUFA oleic acid-to-SFA palmitic acid ratio in the postprandial TRL was linearly correlated with an increase in ApoB48R down-regulation and a decrease in lipid accumulation. We also revealed that the nuclear receptor transcription factors PPARα, PPARβ/δ, and PPARγ and the PPAR-RXR transcriptional complex were involved in sensing the proportion of MUFA oleic acid and SFA palmitic acid, and these were also involved in adjusting the transcriptional activity of ApoB48R. The results of this study support the notion that MUFA-rich dietary fats may prevent excessive lipid accumulation in monocyte/macrophage cells by targeting the postprandial TRL/ApoB48R axis. © 2013.

  7. NRF2 Signaling Negatively Regulates Phorbol-12-Myristate-13-Acetate (PMA-Induced Differentiation of Human Monocytic U937 Cells into Pro-Inflammatory Macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Gu Song

    Full Text Available Blood monocytes are recruited to injured tissue sites and differentiate into macrophages, which protect against pathogens and repair damaged tissues. Reactive oxygen species (ROS are known to be an important contributor to monocytes' differentiation and macrophages' function. NF-E2-related factor 2 (NRF2, a transcription factor regulating cellular redox homeostasis, is known to be a critical modulator of inflammatory responses. We herein investigated the role of NRF2 in macrophage differentiation using the human monocytic U937 cell line and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA. In U937 cells with NRF2 silencing, PMA-stimulated cell adherence was significantly facilitated when compared to control U937 cells. Both transcript and protein levels for pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukine-1β (IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα were highly elevated in PMA-stimulated NRF2-silenced U937 compared to the control. In addition, PMA-inducible secretion of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1 was significantly high in NRF2-silenced U937. As an underlying mechanism, we showed that NRF2-knockdown U937 retained high levels of cellular ROS and endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress markers expression; and subsequently, PMA-stimulated levels of Ca2+ and PKCα were greater in NRF2-knockdown U937 cells, which caused enhanced nuclear accumulation of nuclear factor-ҡB (NFҡB p50 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK-1/2 phosphorylation. Whereas the treatment of NRF2-silenced U937 cells with pharmacological inhibitors of NFҡB or ERK1/2 largely blocked PMA-induced IL-1β and IL-6 expression, indicating that these pathways are associated with cell differentiation. Taken together, our results suggest that the NRF2 system functions to suppress PMA-stimulated U937 cell differentiation into pro-inflammatory macrophages and provide evidence that the ROS-PKCα-ERK-NFҡB axis is involved in PMA-facilitated differentiation of NRF2-silenced U937

  8. Phenotypic and functional modulation of porcine monocyte-derived ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-08

    Aug 8, 2011 ... monocyte-derived dendritic cells for foot-and-mouth disease virus. Hai-yan Shen1# ... tissues, to migrate to secondary lymphoid organs and to provide the ... innate and adaptive immune responses mentioned earlier led us to ...

  9. Semaphorin7A promotes tumor growth and exerts a pro-angiogenic effect in macrophages of mammary tumor-bearing mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon eGarcia-Areas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Semaphorins, a large family of molecules involved in the axonal guidance and development of the nervous system, have been recently shown to have both angiogenic and anti-angiogenic properties. Specifically, semaphorin 7A (SEMA7A has been reported to have a chemotactic activity in neurogenesis, and to be an immune modulator via it binding to α1β1integrins. Additionally, SEMA7A has been shown to promote chemotaxis of monocytes, inducing them to produce proinflammatory mediators. In this study we explored the role of SEMA7A in the tumoral context. We show that SEMA7A is highly expressed by DA-3 murine mammary tumor cells in comparison to normal mammary cells (EpH4, and that peritoneal macrophages from mammary tumor-bearing mice also express SEMA7A at higher levels compared to peritoneal macrophages derived from normal control mice. We also show that murine macrophages treated with recombinant murine SEMA7A significantly increased their expression of proangiogenic molecules, such as CXCL2/MIP-2. Gene silencing of SEMA7A in peritoneal elicited macrophages from DA-3 tumor-bearing mice resulted in decreased CXCL2 expression. Mice implanted with SEMA7A silenced tumor cells showed decreased angiogenesis in the tumors compared to the wild type tumors. Furthermore, peritoneal elicited macrophages from mice bearing SEMA7A-silenced tumors produce significantly (p< 0.01 lower levels of angiogenic proteins, such as MIP-2, CXCL1 and MMP-9, compared to macrophages from control DA-3 mammary tumors. We postulate that SEMA7A derived from mammary carcinomas may serve as a monocyte chemoattractant and skew monocytes into a pro-tumorigenic phenotype. A putative relationship between tumor-derived SEMA7A and monocytes could prove valuable in establishing new research avenues towards unraveling important tumor-host immune interactions in breast cancer patients.

  10. Drug induced increases in CNS dopamine alter monocyte, macrophage and T cell functions: implications for HAND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskill, Peter J.; Calderon, Tina M.; Coley, Jacqueline S.; Berman, Joan W.

    2013-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) complications resulting from HIV infection remain a major public health problem as individuals live longer due to the success of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). As many as 70% of HIV infected people have HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Many HIV infected individuals abuse drugs, such as cocaine, heroin or methamphetamine, that may be important cofactors in the development of HIV CNS disease. Despite different mechanisms of action, all drugs of abuse increase extracellular dopamine in the CNS. The effects of dopamine on HIV neuropathogenesis are not well understood, and drug induced increases in CNS dopamine may be a common mechanism by which different types of drugs of abuse impact the development of HAND. Monocytes and macrophages are central to HIV infection of the CNS and to HAND. While T cells have not been shown to be a major factor in HIV-associated neuropathogenesis, studies indicate that T cells may play a larger role in the development of HAND in HIV infected drug abusers. Drug induced increases in CNS dopamine may dysregulate functions of, or increase HIV infection in, monocytes, macrophages and T cells in the brain. Thus, characterizing the effects of dopamine on these cells is important for understanding the mechanisms that mediate the development of HAND in drug abusers. PMID:23456305

  11. Systemic T Cells Immunosuppression of Glioma Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes Is Mediated by Monocytic Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Domenis

    Full Text Available A major contributing factor to glioma development and progression is its ability to evade the immune system. Nano-meter sized vesicles, exosomes, secreted by glioma-stem cells (GSC can act as mediators of intercellular communication to promote tumor immune escape. Here, we investigated the immunomodulatory properties of GCS-derived exosomes on different peripheral immune cell populations. Healthy donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs stimulated with anti-CD3, anti-CD28 and IL-2, were treated with GSC-derived exosomes. Phenotypic characterization, cell proliferation, Th1/Th2 cytokine secretion and intracellular cytokine production were analysed by distinguishing among effector T cells, regulatory T cells and monocytes. In unfractionated PBMCs, GSC-derived exosomes inhibited T cell activation (CD25 and CD69 expression, proliferation and Th1 cytokine production, and did not affect cell viability or regulatory T-cell suppression ability. Furthermore, exosomes were able to enhance proliferation of purified CD4+ T cells. In PBMCs culture, glioma-derived exosomes directly promoted IL-10 and arginase-1 production and downregulation of HLA-DR by unstimulated CD14+ monocytic cells, that displayed an immunophenotype resembling that of monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (Mo-MDSCs. Importantly, the removal of CD14+ monocytic cell fraction from PBMCs restored T-cell proliferation. The same results were observed with exosomes purified from plasma of glioblastoma patients. Our results indicate that glioma-derived exosomes suppress T-cell immune response by acting on monocyte maturation rather than on direct interaction with T cells. Selective targeting of Mo-MDSC to treat glioma should be considered with regard to how immune cells allow the acquirement of effector functions and therefore counteracting tumor progression.

  12. M2 polarization enhances silica nanoparticle uptake by macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica eHoppstädter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available While silica nanoparticles have enabled numerous industrial and medical applications, their toxicological safety requires further evaluation. Macrophages are the major cell population responsible for nanoparticle clearance in vivo. The prevailing macrophage phenotype largely depends on the local immune status of the host. Whereas M1-polarized macrophages are considered as pro-inflammatory macrophages involved in host defense, M2 macrophages exhibit anti-inflammatory and wound-healing properties, but also promote tumor growth.We employed different models of M1 and M2 polarization: GM-CSF/LPS/IFN-gamma was used to generate primary human M1 cells and M-CSF/IL-10 to differentiate M2 monocyte-derived macrophages. PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells were polarized towards an M1 type by LPS/IFN-gamma and towards M2 by IL-10. Uptake of fluorescent silica nanoparticles (Ø 26 and 41 nm and microparticles (Ø 1.75 µm was quantified. At the concentration used (50 µg/ml, silica nanoparticles did not influence cell viability as assessed by MTT assay. Nanoparticle uptake was enhanced in M2-polarized primary human monocyte-derived macrophages compared with M1 cells, as shown by flow cytometric and microscopic approaches. In contrast, the uptake of microparticles did not differ between M1 and M2 phenotypes. M2 polarization was also associated with increased nanoparticle uptake in the macrophage-like THP-1 cell line. In accordance, in vivo polarized M2-like primary human tumor-associated macrophages (TAM obtained from lung tumors took up more nanoparticles than M1-like alveolar macrophages isolated from the surrounding lung tissue.In summary, our data indicate that the M2 polarization of macrophages promotes nanoparticle internalization. Therefore, the phenotypical differences between macrophage subsets should be taken into consideration in future investigations on nanosafety, but might also open up therapeutic perspectives allowing to specifically target M2

  13. LL-37 directs macrophage differentiation toward macrophages with a proinflammatory signature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Does, Anne M; Beekhuizen, Henry; Ravensbergen, Bep; Vos, Tim; Ottenhoff, Tom H M; van Dissel, Jaap T; Drijfhout, Jan W; Hiemstra, Pieter S; Nibbering, Peter H

    2010-08-01

    The human cathelicidin LL-37 has broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. It also participates at the interface of innate and adaptive immunity by chemoattracting immune effector cells, modulating the production of a variety of inflammatory mediators by different cell types, and regulating the differentiation of monocytes into dendritic cells. In this study, we investigated the effects of LL-37 on the differentiation of human monocytes into anti-inflammatory macrophages (MPhi-2; driven by M-CSF) versus proinflammatory macrophages (MPhi-1; driven by GM-CSF) as well as on fully differentiated MPhi-1 and MPhi-2. Results revealed that monocytes cultured with M-CSF in the presence of LL-37 resulted in macrophages displaying a proinflammatory signature, namely, low expression of CD163 and little IL-10 and profound IL-12p40 production on LPS stimulation. The effects of LL-37 on M-CSF-driven macrophage differentiation were dose- and time-dependent with maximal effects observed at 10 microg/ml when the peptide was present from the start of the cultures. The peptide enhanced the GM-CSF-driven macrophage differentiation. Exposure of fully differentiated MPhi-2 to LL-37 for 6 d resulted in macrophages that produced less IL-10 and more IL-12p40 on LPS stimulation than control MPhi-2. In contrast, LL-37 had no effect on fully differentiated MPhi-1. Peptide mapping using a set of 16 overlapping 22-mer peptides covering the complete LL-37 sequence revealed that the C-terminal portion of LL-37 is responsible for directing macrophage differentiation. Our results furthermore indicate that the effects of LL-37 on macrophage differentiation required internalization of the peptide. Together, we conclude that LL-37 directs macrophage differentiation toward macrophages with a proinflammatory signature.

  14. Development of ostrich thrombocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages in culture and the control of Toxoplasma gondii reproduction after macrophage activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Farlen J B; Damasceno-Sá, João Cláudio; DaMatta, Renato A

    2016-01-01

    Raising ostriches became an important economic activity after their products became commodities. The health of farm animals is of paramount importance, so assessing basic immunological responses is necessary to better understand health problems. We developed a method to obtain ostrich thrombocytes and macrophages. The thrombocytes died by apoptosis after 48 h in culture, and the macrophages expanded in size and increased the number of acidic compartments. Macrophages were activated by chicken interferon-γ, producing high levels of nitric oxide. Toxoplasma gondii was able to infect these macrophages, and activation controlled parasitic reproduction. T. gondii, however, persisted in these cells, and infection reduced the production of nitric oxide. These results are important for the future assessment of the basic cellular and immunobiology of ostriches and demonstrate T. gondii suppression of nitric oxide production. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  15. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor augments Tie2-expressing monocyte differentiation, angiogenic function, and recruitment in a mouse model of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forget, Mary A; Voorhees, Jeffrey L; Cole, Sara L; Dakhlallah, Duaa; Patterson, Ivory L; Gross, Amy C; Moldovan, Leni; Mo, Xiaokui; Evans, Randall; Marsh, Clay B; Eubank, Tim D

    2014-01-01

    Reports demonstrate the role of M-CSF (CSF1) in tumor progression in mouse models as well as the prognostic value of macrophage numbers in breast cancer patients. Recently, a subset of CD14+ monocytes expressing the Tie2 receptor, once thought to be predominantly expressed on endothelial cells, has been characterized. We hypothesized that increased levels of CSF1 in breast tumors can regulate differentiation of Tie2- monocytes to a Tie2+ phenotype. We treated CD14+ human monocytes with CSF1 and found a significant increase in CD14+/Tie2+ positivity. To understand if CSF1-induced Tie2 expression on these cells improved their migratory ability, we pre-treated CD14+ monocytes with CSF1 and used Boyden chemotaxis chambers to observe enhanced response to angiopoietin-2 (ANG2), the chemotactic ligand for the Tie2 receptor. We found that CSF1 pre-treatment significantly augmented chemotaxis and that Tie2 receptor upregulation was responsible as siRNA targeting Tie2 receptor abrogated this effect. To understand any augmented angiogenic effect produced by treating these cells with CSF1, we cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with conditioned supernatants from CSF1-pre-treated CD14+ monocytes for a tube formation assay. While supernatants from CSF1-pre-treated TEMs increased HUVEC branching, a neutralizing antibody against the CSF1R abrogated this activity, as did siRNA against the Tie2 receptor. To test our hypothesis in vivo, we treated PyMT tumor-bearing mice with CSF1 and observed an expansion in the TEM population relative to total F4/80+ cells, which resulted in increased angiogenesis. Investigation into the mechanism of Tie2 receptor upregulation on CD14+ monocytes by CSF1 revealed a synergistic contribution from the PI3 kinase and HIF pathways as the PI3 kinase inhibitor LY294002, as well as HIF-1α-deficient macrophages differentiated from the bone marrow of HIF-1αfl/fl/LysMcre mice, diminished CSF1-stimulated Tie2 receptor expression.

  16. Silencing CCR2 in Macrophages Alleviates Adipose Tissue Inflammation and the Associated Metabolic Syndrome in Dietary Obese Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongkil Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue macrophage (ATM-mediated inflammation is a key feature contributing to the adverse metabolic outcomes of dietary obesity. Recruitment of macrophages to obese adipose tissues (AT can occur through the engagement of CCR2, the receptor for MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, which is expressed on peripheral monocytes/macrophages. Here, we show that i.p. administration of a rabies virus glycoprotein-derived acetylcholine receptor-binding peptide effectively delivers complexed siRNA into peritoneal macrophages and ATMs in a mouse model of high-fat diet-induced obesity. Treatment with siRNA against CCR2 inhibited macrophage infiltration and accumulation in AT and, therefore, proinflammatory cytokines produced by macrophages. Consequently, the treatment significantly improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity profiles, and also alleviated the associated symptoms of hepatic steatosis and reduced hepatic triglyceride production. These results demonstrate that disruption of macrophage chemotaxis to the AT through cell-targeted gene knockdown strategies can provide a therapeutic intervention for obesity-related metabolic diseases. The study also highlights a siRNA delivery approach for targeting specific monocyte subsets that contribute to obesity-associated inflammation without affecting the function of other tissue-resident macrophages that are essential for host homeostasis and survival.

  17. HCMV Reprogramming of Infected Monocyte Survival and Differentiation: A Goldilocks Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily V. Stevenson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The wide range of disease pathologies seen in multiple organ sites associated with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV infection results from the systemic hematogenous dissemination of the virus, which is mediated predominately by infected monocytes. In addition to their role in viral spread, infected monocytes are also known to play a key role in viral latency and life-long persistence. However, in order to utilize infected monocytes for viral spread and persistence, HCMV must overcome a number of monocyte biological hurdles, including their naturally short lifespan and their inability to support viral gene expression and replication. Our laboratory has shown that HCMV is able to manipulate the biology of infected monocytes in order to overcome these biological hurdles by inducing the survival and differentiation of infected monocytes into long-lived macrophages capable of supporting viral gene expression and replication. In this current review, we describe the unique aspects of how HCMV promotes monocyte survival and differentiation by inducing a “finely-tuned” macrophage cell type following infection. Specifically, we describe the induction of a uniquely polarized macrophage subset from infected monocytes, which we argue is the ideal cellular environment for the initiation of viral gene expression and replication and, ultimately, viral spread and persistence within the infected host.

  18. Maggot secretions skew monocyte-macrophage differentiation away from a pro-inflammatory to a pro-angiogenic type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Plas, Mariena J A; van Dissel, Jaap T; Nibbering, Peter H

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maggots of the blowfly Lucilia sericata are used for the treatment of chronic wounds. Earlier we reported maggot secretions to inhibit pro-inflammatory responses of human monocytes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maggot secretions on the differentiation...... for 18 h. The expression of cell surface molecules and the levels of cytokines, chemokines and growth factors in supernatants were measured. Our results showed secretions to affect monocyte-macrophage differentiation leading to MØ-1 with a partial MØ-2-like morphology but lacking CD163, which...... is characteristic for MØ-2. In response to LPS or LTA, secretions-differentiated MØ-1 produced less pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-12p40 and MIF) than control cells. Similar results were observed for MØ-2 when stimulated with low concentrations of LPS. Furthermore, secretions dose-dependently led to MØ-1...

  19. Training modifies innate immune responses in blood monocytes and in pulmonary alveolar macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frellstedt, Linda; Waldschmidt, Ingrid; Gosset, Philippe; Desmet, Christophe; Pirottin, Dimitri; Bureau, Fabrice; Farnir, Frédéric; Franck, Thierry; Dupuis-Tricaud, Marie-Capucine; Lekeux, Pierre; Art, Tatiana

    2014-07-01

    In humans, strenuous exercise causes increased susceptibility to respiratory infections associated with down-regulated expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and costimulatory and antigen-presenting molecules. Lower airway diseases are also a common problem in sport and racing horses. Because innate immunity plays an essential role in lung defense mechanisms, we assessed the effect of acute exercise and training on innate immune responses in two different compartments. Blood monocytes and pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs) were collected from horses in untrained, moderately trained, intensively trained, and deconditioned states before and after a strenuous exercise test. The cells were analyzed for TLR messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression by real-time PCR in vitro, and cytokine production after in vitro stimulation with TLR ligands was measured by ELISA. Our results showed that training, but not acute exercise, modified the innate immune responses in both compartments. The mRNA expression of TLR3 was down-regulated by training in both cell types, whereas the expression of TLR4 was up-regulated in monocytes. Monocytes treated with LPS and a synthetic diacylated lipoprotein showed increased cytokine secretion in trained and deconditioned subjects, indicating the activation of cells at the systemic level. The production of TNF-α and IFN-β in nonstimulated and stimulated PAMs was decreased in trained and deconditioned horses and might therefore explain the increased susceptibility to respiratory infections. Our study reports a dissociation between the systemic and the lung response to training that is probably implicated in the systemic inflammation and in the pulmonary susceptibility to infection.

  20. Colonic macrophage polarization in homeostasis, inflammation, and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleyard, Caroline B.

    2016-01-01

    Our review focuses on the colonic macrophage, a monocyte-derived, tissue-resident macrophage, and the role it plays in health and disease, specifically in inflammatory conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease and cancer of the colon and rectum. We give special emphasis to macrophage polarization, or phenotype, in these different states. We focus on macrophages because they are one of the most numerous leukocytes in the colon, and because they normally contribute to homeostasis through an anti-inflammatory phenotype. However, in conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, proinflammatory macrophages are increased in the colon and have been linked to disease severity and progression. In colorectal cancer, tumor cells may employ anti-inflammatory macrophages to promote tumor growth and dissemination, whereas proinflammatory macrophages may antagonize tumor growth. Given the key roles that this cell type plays in homeostasis, inflammation, and cancer, the colonic macrophage is an intriguing therapeutic target. As such, potential macrophage-targeting strategies are discussed. PMID:27229123

  1. The effect of short-chain fatty acids on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nastasi, Claudia; Candela, Marco; Bonefeld, Charlotte Menné

    2015-01-01

    negligible effects, while both butyrate and propionate strongly modulated gene expression in both immature and mature human monocyte-derived DC. An Ingenuity pathway analysis based on the differentially expressed genes suggested that propionate and butyrate modulate leukocyte trafficking, as SCFA strongly......The gut microbiota is essential for human health and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of several diseases. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), such as acetate, butyrate and propionate, are end-products of microbial fermentation of macronutrients that distribute systemically via the blood....... The aim of this study was to investigate the transcriptional response of immature and LPS-matured human monocyte-derived DC to SCFA. Our data revealed distinct effects exerted by each individual SCFA on gene expression in human monocyte-derived DC, especially in the mature ones. Acetate only exerted...

  2. Enhanced Inhibitory Effect of Ultra-Fine Granules of Red Ginseng on LPS-induced Cytokine Expression in the Monocyte-Derived Macrophage THP-1 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Yeoul Kim

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Red ginseng is one of the most popular traditional medicines in Korea because its soluble hot-water extract is known to be very effective on enhancing immunity as well as inhibiting inflammation. Recently, we developed a new technique, called the HACgearshift system, which can pulverize red ginseng into the ultra-fine granules ranging from 0.2 to 7.0 μm in size. In this study, the soluble hot-water extract of those ultra-fine granules of red ginseng (URG was investigated and compared to that of the normal-sized granules of red ginseng (RG. The high pressure liquid chromatographic analyses of the soluble hot-water extracts of both URG and RG revealed that URG had about 2-fold higher amounts of the ginsenosides, the biologically active components in red ginseng, than RG did. Using quantitative RT-PCR, cytokine profiling against the Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS in the monocyte-derived macrophage THP-1 cells demonstrated that the URG-treated cells showed a significant reduction in cytokine expression than the RG-treated ones. Transcription expression of the LPS-induced cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TGF-β was significantly inhibited by URG compared to RG. These results suggest that some biologically active and soluble components in red ginseng can be more effectively extracted from URG than RG by standard hot-water extraction.

  3. The continuum of monocyte phenotypes: Experimental evidence and prognostic utility in assessing cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cignarella, Andrea; Tedesco, Serena; Cappellari, Roberta; Fadini, Gian Paolo

    2018-03-30

    The monocyte-macrophage cell lineage represents a major player in innate immunity, and is involved in many physiologic and pathologic conditions. Particularly, monocyte-macrophages play a very important role in atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Monocyte heterogeneity is well recognized but the biologic and clinical meaning of the various monocyte subtypes is not entirely understood. Traditionally, monocytes can be divided in classical, intermediate, and nonclassical based on expression of the surface antigens CD14 and CD16. While macrophage diversity is now well recognized to organize as a continuum, monocyte subsets have long been considered as separated entities. However, mounting evidence obtained by tracking the ontology of human monocytes help clarifying that monocytes mature from classical to nonclassical ones, through an intermediate phenotype. This concept is therefore best depicted as a continuum, whereas the subdivision into discrete CD14/CD16 subsets appears an oversimplification. In this review, we discuss the evidence supporting the existence of a monocyte continuum along with the technical challenges of monocyte characterization. In particular, we describe the advantage of considering monocytes along a continuous distribution for the evaluation of cardiovascular risk. We make the point that small transition along the monocyte continuum better reflects cardiovascular risk than a simplified analysis of discrete monocyte subsets. Recognizing the monocyte continuum can be helpful to model other pathophysiologic conditions where these cells are involved. ©2018 Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  4. Presence of estrogen receptors in human myeloid monocytic cells (THP-1 cell line).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutolo, M; Villaggio, B; Bisso, A; Sulli, A; Coviello, D; Dayer, J M

    2001-01-01

    To test THP-1 cells for the presence of estrogen receptors (ER) since studies have demonstrated in vivo and in vitro, the influence of estrogens on cells involved in immune response (i.e. macrophages), and since it has been demonstrated that human myeloid monocytic THP-1 cells acquire phenotypic and functional macrophage-like features after incubation with several cytokines or pharmacological agents. Stimulation of THP-1 cells with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) to prompt their differentiation into macrophage-like cells and evaluation of the possible induction of ER. The expression of ER was analyzed by immunocytochemical assay, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis. After stimulation by PMA, the human myeloid monocytic THP-1 cells showed the presence of ER, together with markers of monocytic cell differentiation such as CD68, CD54 and HLA-DR. Estrogen effects may be exerted directly through ER on monocytes/macrophages. PMA-treated THP-1 cells may constitute a useful in vitro model to determine the effects of estrogens on macrophage-like cells and their implications in the inflammatory and immune processes.

  5. Dyslipidemic Diet-Induced Monocyte “Priming” and Dysfunction in Non-Human Primates Is Triggered by Elevated Plasma Cholesterol and Accompanied by Altered Histone Acetylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Short

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Monocytes and the recruitment of monocyte-derived macrophages into sites of inflammation play a key role in atherogenesis and other chronic inflammatory diseases linked to cardiometabolic syndrome and obesity. Previous studies from our group have shown that metabolic stress promotes monocyte priming, i.e., enhanced adhesion and accelerated chemotaxis of monocytes in response to chemokines, both in vitro and in dyslipidemic LDLR−/− mice. We also showed that metabolic stress-induced monocyte dysfunction is, at least to a large extent caused by the S-glutathionylation, inactivation, and subsequent degradation of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1. Here, we analyzed the effects of a Western-style, dyslipidemic diet (DD, which was composed of high levels of saturated fat, cholesterol, and simple sugars, on monocyte (dysfunction in non-human primates (NHPs. We found that similar to mice, a DD enhances monocyte chemotaxis in NHP within 4 weeks, occurring concordantly with the onset of hypercholesterolemia but prior to changes in triglycerides, blood glucose, monocytosis, or changes in monocyte subset composition. In addition, we identified transitory decreases in the acetylation of histone H3 at the lysine residues 18 and 23 in metabolically primed monocytes, and we found that monocyte priming was correlated with the acetylation of histone H3 at lysine 27 after an 8-week DD regimen. Our data show that metabolic stress promotes monocyte priming and hyper-chemotactic responses in NHP. The histone modifications accompanying monocyte priming in primates suggest a reprogramming of the epigenetic landscape, which may lead to dysregulated responses and functionalities in macrophages derived from primed monocytes that are recruited to sites of inflammation.

  6. Mechanisms of macrophage accumulation in the lungs of asbestos-exposed subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurzem, J.R.; Saltini, C.; Rom, W.; Winchester, R.J.; Crystal, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    Chronic asbestos exposure is associated with the accumulation of mononuclear phagocytes in the lower respiratory tract. This process can be both protective and injurious, since macrophages can aid in asbestos clearance yet also modulate structural derangements of the alveolar walls. To understand why macrophages accumulate in the lungs of asbestos-exposed persons, 2 possible mechanisms were evaluated using alveolar macrophages from subjects with histories of chronic high exposure to airborne asbestos: enhanced recruitment of blood monocytes to the lung, and an increased rate of replication of macrophages in situ. Monoclonal antibody analysis with antibodies that detect surface antigens on the majority of circulating blood monocytes but only on a minority of mature alveolar macrophages demonstrated that an increased proportion of alveolar macrophages of asbestos workers expressed monocyte lineage antigens, suggesting the presence of young newly recruited macrophages and thus enhanced recruitment. Culture of the alveolar macrophages from these subjects with [ 3 H]thymidine followed by autoradiography demonstrated an increased proportion of alveolar macrophages synthesizing DNA, suggesting the macrophages are replicating at an increased rate in situ. These observations are consistent with the concept that both enhanced recruitment of blood monocytes and increased local proliferation of alveolar macrophages contribute to the accumulation mononuclear phagocytes in the lung of persons with chronic asbestos exposure

  7. Proliferating macrophages prevail in atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Gwendalyn J

    2013-09-01

    Macrophages accumulate in atherosclerotic lesions during the inflammation that is part of atherosclerosis development and progression. A new study in mice indicates that the accumulation of macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques depends on local macrophage proliferation rather than the recruitment of circulating monocytes.

  8. MDM2 Antagonists Counteract Drug-Induced DNA Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna E. Vilgelm

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Antagonists of MDM2-p53 interaction are emerging anti-cancer drugs utilized in clinical trials for malignancies that rarely mutate p53, including melanoma. We discovered that MDM2-p53 antagonists protect DNA from drug-induced damage in melanoma cells and patient-derived xenografts. Among the tested DNA damaging drugs were various inhibitors of Aurora and Polo-like mitotic kinases, as well as traditional chemotherapy. Mitotic kinase inhibition causes mitotic slippage, DNA re-replication, and polyploidy. Here we show that re-replication of the polyploid genome generates replicative stress which leads to DNA damage. MDM2-p53 antagonists relieve replicative stress via the p53-dependent activation of p21 which inhibits DNA replication. Loss of p21 promoted drug-induced DNA damage in melanoma cells and enhanced anti-tumor activity of therapy combining MDM2 antagonist with mitotic kinase inhibitor in mice. In summary, MDM2 antagonists may reduce DNA damaging effects of anti-cancer drugs if they are administered together, while targeting p21 can improve the efficacy of such combinations.

  9. The thyroid hormone triiodothyronine controls macrophage maturation and functions: protective role during inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrotta, Cristiana; Buldorini, Marcella; Assi, Emma; Cazzato, Denise; De Palma, Clara; Clementi, Emilio; Cervia, Davide

    2014-01-01

    The endocrine system participates in regulating macrophage maturation, although little is known about the modulating role of the thyroid hormones. In vitro results demonstrate a negative role of one such hormone, triiodothyronine (T3), in triggering the differentiation of bone marrow-derived monocytes into unpolarized macrophages. T3-induced macrophages displayed a classically activated (M1) signature. A T3-induced M1-priming effect was also observed on polarized macrophages because T3 reverses alternatively activated (M2) activation, whereas it enhances that of M1 cells. In vivo, circulating T3 increased the content of the resident macrophages in the peritoneal cavity, whereas it reduced the content of the recruited monocyte-derived cells. Of interest, T3 significantly protected mice against endotoxemia induced by lipopolysaccharide i.p. injection; in these damaged animals, decreased T3 levels increased the recruited (potentially damaging) cells, whereas restoring T3 levels decreased recruited and increased resident (potentially beneficial) cells. These data suggest that the anti-inflammatory effect of T3 is coupled to the modulation of peritoneal macrophage content, in a context not fully explained by the M1/M2 framework. Thyroid hormone receptor expression analysis and the use of different thyroid hormone receptor antagonists suggest thyroid hormone receptor β1 as the major player mediating T3 effects on macrophages. The novel homeostatic link between thyroid hormones and the pathophysiological role of macrophages opens new perspectives on the interactions between the endocrine and immune systems. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. MDM2-MDM4 molecular interaction investigated by atomic force spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscetti, Ilaria; Teveroni, Emanuela; Moretti, Fabiola; Bizzarri, Anna Rita; Cannistraro, Salvatore

    Murine double minute 2 (MDM2) and 4 (MDM4) are known as the main negative regulators of p53, a tumor suppressor. They are able to form heterodimers that are much more effective in the downregulation of p53. Therefore, the MDM2-MDM4 complex could be a target for promising therapeutic restoration of p53 function. To this aim, a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlining the heterodimerization is needed. The kinetic and thermodynamic characterization of the MDM2-MDM4 complex was performed with two complementary approaches: atomic force spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance. Both techniques revealed an equilibrium dissociation constant (KD ) in the micromolar range for the MDM2-MDM4 heterodimer, similar to related complexes involved in the p53 network. Furthermore, the MDM2-MDM4 complex is characterized by a relatively high free energy, through a single energy barrier, and by a lifetime in the order of tens of seconds. New insights into the MDM2-MDM4 interaction could be highly important for developing innovative anticancer drugs focused on p53 reactivation.

  11. Mycobacterium leprae-Infected Macrophages Preferentially Primed Regulatory T Cell Responses and Was Associated with Lepromatous Leprosy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degang Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The persistence of Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae infection is largely dependent on the types of host immune responses being induced. Macrophage, a crucial modulator of innate and adaptive immune responses, could be directly infected by M. leprae. We therefore postulated that M. leprae-infected macrophages might have altered immune functions.Here, we treated monocyte-derived macrophages with live or killed M. leprae, and examined their activation status and antigen presentation. We found that macrophages treated with live M. leprae showed committed M2-like function, with decreased interleukin 1 beta (IL-1beta, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha and MHC class II molecule expression and elevated IL-10 and CD163 expression. When incubating with naive T cells, macrophages treated with live M. leprae preferentially primed regulatory T (Treg cell responses with elevated FoxP3 and IL-10 expression, while interferon gamma (IFN-gamma expression and CD8+ T cell cytotoxicity were reduced. Chromium release assay also found that live M. leprae-treated macrophages were more resistant to CD8+ T cell-mediated cytotoxicity than sonicated M. leprae-treated monocytes. Ex vivo studies showed that the phenotype and function of monocytes and macrophages had clear differences between L-lep and T-lep patients, consistent with the in vitro findings.Together, our data demonstrate that M. leprae could utilize infected macrophages by two mechanisms: firstly, M. leprae-infected macrophages preferentially primed Treg but not Th1 or cytotoxic T cell responses; secondly, M. leprae-infected macrophages were more effective at evading CD8+ T cell-mediated cytotoxicity.

  12. Mycobacterium leprae-Infected Macrophages Preferentially Primed Regulatory T Cell Responses and Was Associated with Lepromatous Leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Degang; Shui, Tiejun; Miranda, Jake W; Gilson, Danny J; Song, Zhengyu; Chen, Jia; Shi, Chao; Zhu, Jianyu; Yang, Jun; Jing, Zhichun

    2016-01-01

    The persistence of Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae) infection is largely dependent on the types of host immune responses being induced. Macrophage, a crucial modulator of innate and adaptive immune responses, could be directly infected by M. leprae. We therefore postulated that M. leprae-infected macrophages might have altered immune functions. Here, we treated monocyte-derived macrophages with live or killed M. leprae, and examined their activation status and antigen presentation. We found that macrophages treated with live M. leprae showed committed M2-like function, with decreased interleukin 1 beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and MHC class II molecule expression and elevated IL-10 and CD163 expression. When incubating with naive T cells, macrophages treated with live M. leprae preferentially primed regulatory T (Treg) cell responses with elevated FoxP3 and IL-10 expression, while interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) expression and CD8+ T cell cytotoxicity were reduced. Chromium release assay also found that live M. leprae-treated macrophages were more resistant to CD8+ T cell-mediated cytotoxicity than sonicated M. leprae-treated monocytes. Ex vivo studies showed that the phenotype and function of monocytes and macrophages had clear differences between L-lep and T-lep patients, consistent with the in vitro findings. Together, our data demonstrate that M. leprae could utilize infected macrophages by two mechanisms: firstly, M. leprae-infected macrophages preferentially primed Treg but not Th1 or cytotoxic T cell responses; secondly, M. leprae-infected macrophages were more effective at evading CD8+ T cell-mediated cytotoxicity.

  13. The in vitro GcMAF effects on endocannabinoid system transcriptionomics, receptor formation, and cell activity of autism-derived macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Immune system dysregulation is well-recognized in autism and thought to be part of the etiology of this disorder. The endocannabinoid system is a key regulator of the immune system via the cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2R) which is highly expressed on macrophages and microglial cells. We have previously published significant differences in peripheral blood mononuclear cell CB2R gene expression in the autism population. The use of the Gc protein-derived Macrophage Activating Factor (GcMAF), an endogenous glycosylated vitamin D binding protein responsible for macrophage cell activation has demonstrated positive effects in the treatment of autistic children. In this current study, we investigated the in vitro effects of GcMAF treatment on the endocannabinoid system gene expression, as well as cellular activation in blood monocyte-derived macrophages (BMDMs) from autistic patients compared to age-matched healthy developing controls. Methods To achieve these goals, we used biomolecular, biochemical and immunocytochemical methods. Results GcMAF treatment was able to normalize the observed differences in dysregulated gene expression of the endocannabinoid system of the autism group. GcMAF also down-regulated the over-activation of BMDMs from autistic children. Conclusions This study presents the first observations of GcMAF effects on the transcriptionomics of the endocannabinoid system and expression of CB2R protein. These data point to a potential nexus between endocannabinoids, vitamin D and its transporter proteins, and the immune dysregulations observed with autism. PMID:24739187

  14. The in vitro GcMAF effects on endocannabinoid system transcriptionomics, receptor formation, and cell activity of autism-derived macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniscalco, Dario; Bradstreet, James Jeffrey; Cirillo, Alessandra; Antonucci, Nicola

    2014-04-17

    Immune system dysregulation is well-recognized in autism and thought to be part of the etiology of this disorder. The endocannabinoid system is a key regulator of the immune system via the cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2R) which is highly expressed on macrophages and microglial cells. We have previously published significant differences in peripheral blood mononuclear cell CB2R gene expression in the autism population. The use of the Gc protein-derived Macrophage Activating Factor (GcMAF), an endogenous glycosylated vitamin D binding protein responsible for macrophage cell activation has demonstrated positive effects in the treatment of autistic children. In this current study, we investigated the in vitro effects of GcMAF treatment on the endocannabinoid system gene expression, as well as cellular activation in blood monocyte-derived macrophages (BMDMs) from autistic patients compared to age-matched healthy developing controls. To achieve these goals, we used biomolecular, biochemical and immunocytochemical methods. GcMAF treatment was able to normalize the observed differences in dysregulated gene expression of the endocannabinoid system of the autism group. GcMAF also down-regulated the over-activation of BMDMs from autistic children. This study presents the first observations of GcMAF effects on the transcriptionomics of the endocannabinoid system and expression of CB2R protein. These data point to a potential nexus between endocannabinoids, vitamin D and its transporter proteins, and the immune dysregulations observed with autism.

  15. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor augments Tie2-expressing monocyte differentiation, angiogenic function, and recruitment in a mouse model of breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary A Forget

    Full Text Available Reports demonstrate the role of M-CSF (CSF1 in tumor progression in mouse models as well as the prognostic value of macrophage numbers in breast cancer patients. Recently, a subset of CD14+ monocytes expressing the Tie2 receptor, once thought to be predominantly expressed on endothelial cells, has been characterized. We hypothesized that increased levels of CSF1 in breast tumors can regulate differentiation of Tie2- monocytes to a Tie2+ phenotype. We treated CD14+ human monocytes with CSF1 and found a significant increase in CD14+/Tie2+ positivity. To understand if CSF1-induced Tie2 expression on these cells improved their migratory ability, we pre-treated CD14+ monocytes with CSF1 and used Boyden chemotaxis chambers to observe enhanced response to angiopoietin-2 (ANG2, the chemotactic ligand for the Tie2 receptor. We found that CSF1 pre-treatment significantly augmented chemotaxis and that Tie2 receptor upregulation was responsible as siRNA targeting Tie2 receptor abrogated this effect. To understand any augmented angiogenic effect produced by treating these cells with CSF1, we cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs with conditioned supernatants from CSF1-pre-treated CD14+ monocytes for a tube formation assay. While supernatants from CSF1-pre-treated TEMs increased HUVEC branching, a neutralizing antibody against the CSF1R abrogated this activity, as did siRNA against the Tie2 receptor. To test our hypothesis in vivo, we treated PyMT tumor-bearing mice with CSF1 and observed an expansion in the TEM population relative to total F4/80+ cells, which resulted in increased angiogenesis. Investigation into the mechanism of Tie2 receptor upregulation on CD14+ monocytes by CSF1 revealed a synergistic contribution from the PI3 kinase and HIF pathways as the PI3 kinase inhibitor LY294002, as well as HIF-1α-deficient macrophages differentiated from the bone marrow of HIF-1αfl/fl/LysMcre mice, diminished CSF1-stimulated Tie2 receptor

  16. Nonclassical Ly6C− Monocytes Drive the Development of Inflammatory Arthritis in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Misharin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Different subsets and/or polarized phenotypes of monocytes and macrophages may play distinct roles during the development and resolution of inflammation. Here, we demonstrate in a murine model of rheumatoid arthritis that nonclassical Ly6C− monocytes are required for the initiation and progression of sterile joint inflammation. Moreover, nonclassical Ly6C− monocytes differentiate into inflammatory macrophages (M1, which drive disease pathogenesis and display plasticity during the resolution phase. During the development of arthritis, these cells polarize toward an alternatively activated phenotype (M2, promoting the resolution of joint inflammation. The influx of Ly6C− monocytes and their subsequent classical and then alternative activation occurs without changes in synovial tissue-resident macrophages, which express markers of M2 polarization throughout the course of the arthritis and attenuate joint inflammation during the initiation phase. These data suggest that circulating Ly6C− monocytes recruited to the joint upon injury orchestrate the development and resolution of autoimmune joint inflammation.

  17. Induced-Pluripotent-Stem-Cell-Derived Primitive Macrophages Provide a Platform for Modeling Tissue-Resident Macrophage Differentiation and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Kazuyuki; Kozaki, Tatsuya; Lee, Christopher Zhe Wei; Thion, Morgane Sonia; Otsuka, Masayuki; Lim, Shawn; Utami, Kagistia Hana; Fidan, Kerem; Park, Dong Shin; Malleret, Benoit; Chakarov, Svetoslav; See, Peter; Low, Donovan; Low, Gillian; Garcia-Miralles, Marta; Zeng, Ruizhu; Zhang, Jinqiu; Goh, Chi Ching; Gul, Ahmet; Hubert, Sandra; Lee, Bernett; Chen, Jinmiao; Low, Ivy; Shadan, Nurhidaya Binte; Lum, Josephine; Wei, Tay Seok; Mok, Esther; Kawanishi, Shohei; Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Larbi, Anis; Poidinger, Michael; Renia, Laurent; Ng, Lai Guan; Wolf, Yochai; Jung, Steffen; Önder, Tamer; Newell, Evan; Huber, Tara; Ashihara, Eishi; Garel, Sonia; Pouladi, Mahmoud A; Ginhoux, Florent

    2017-07-18

    Tissue macrophages arise during embryogenesis from yolk-sac (YS) progenitors that give rise to primitive YS macrophages. Until recently, it has been impossible to isolate or derive sufficient numbers of YS-derived macrophages for further study, but data now suggest that induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be driven to undergo a process reminiscent of YS-hematopoiesis in vitro. We asked whether iPSC-derived primitive macrophages (iMacs) can terminally differentiate into specialized macrophages with the help of growth factors and organ-specific cues. Co-culturing human or murine iMacs with iPSC-derived neurons promoted differentiation into microglia-like cells in vitro. Furthermore, murine iMacs differentiated in vivo into microglia after injection into the brain and into functional alveolar macrophages after engraftment in the lung. Finally, iPSCs from a patient with familial Mediterranean fever differentiated into iMacs with pro-inflammatory characteristics, mimicking the disease phenotype. Altogether, iMacs constitute a source of tissue-resident macrophage precursors that can be used for biological, pathophysiological, and therapeutic studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Investigating the Role of Surface Materials and Three Dimensional Architecture on In Vitro Differentiation of Porcine Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Sofie Bruun; Mohanty, Soumyaranjan; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Brogaard, Louise; Flagstad, Frederikke Bjergvang; Emnéus, Jenny; Wolff, Anders; Summerfield, Artur; Jungersen, Gregers

    2016-01-01

    In vitro generation of dendritic-like cells through differentiation of peripheral blood monocytes is typically done using two-dimensional polystyrene culture plates. In the process of optimising cell culture techniques, engineers have developed fluidic micro-devises usually manufactured in materials other than polystyrene and applying three-dimensional structures more similar to the in vivo environment. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is an often used polymer for lab-on-a-chip devices but not much is known about the effect of changing the culture surface material from polystyrene to PDMS. In the present study the differentiation of porcine monocytes to monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) was investigated using CD172apos pig blood monocytes stimulated with GM-CSF and IL-4. Monocytes were cultured on surfaces made of two- and three-dimensional polystyrene as well as two- and three-dimensional PDMS and carbonised three-dimensional PDMS. Cells cultured conventionally (on two-dimensional polystyrene) differentiated into moDCs as expected. Interestingly, gene expression of a wide range of cytokines, chemokines, and pattern recognition receptors was influenced by culture surface material and architecture. Distinct clustering of cells, based on similar expression patterns of 46 genes of interest, was seen for cells isolated from two- and three-dimensional polystyrene as well as two- and three-dimensional PDMS. Changing the material from polystyrene to PDMS resulted in cells with expression patterns usually associated with macrophage expression (upregulation of CD163 and downregulation of CD1a, FLT3, LAMP3 and BATF3). However, this was purely based on gene expression level, and no functional assays were included in this study which would be necessary in order to classify the cells as being macrophages. When changing to three-dimensional culture the cells became increasingly activated in terms of IL6, IL8, IL10 and CCR5 gene expression. Further stimulation with LPS resulted

  19. Investigating the Role of Surface Materials and Three Dimensional Architecture on In Vitro Differentiation of Porcine Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie Bruun Hartmann

    Full Text Available In vitro generation of dendritic-like cells through differentiation of peripheral blood monocytes is typically done using two-dimensional polystyrene culture plates. In the process of optimising cell culture techniques, engineers have developed fluidic micro-devises usually manufactured in materials other than polystyrene and applying three-dimensional structures more similar to the in vivo environment. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS is an often used polymer for lab-on-a-chip devices but not much is known about the effect of changing the culture surface material from polystyrene to PDMS. In the present study the differentiation of porcine monocytes to monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs was investigated using CD172apos pig blood monocytes stimulated with GM-CSF and IL-4. Monocytes were cultured on surfaces made of two- and three-dimensional polystyrene as well as two- and three-dimensional PDMS and carbonised three-dimensional PDMS. Cells cultured conventionally (on two-dimensional polystyrene differentiated into moDCs as expected. Interestingly, gene expression of a wide range of cytokines, chemokines, and pattern recognition receptors was influenced by culture surface material and architecture. Distinct clustering of cells, based on similar expression patterns of 46 genes of interest, was seen for cells isolated from two- and three-dimensional polystyrene as well as two- and three-dimensional PDMS. Changing the material from polystyrene to PDMS resulted in cells with expression patterns usually associated with macrophage expression (upregulation of CD163 and downregulation of CD1a, FLT3, LAMP3 and BATF3. However, this was purely based on gene expression level, and no functional assays were included in this study which would be necessary in order to classify the cells as being macrophages. When changing to three-dimensional culture the cells became increasingly activated in terms of IL6, IL8, IL10 and CCR5 gene expression. Further stimulation

  20. Effect of salivary gland adenocarcinoma cell-derived alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase on the bioactivity of macrophage activating factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Takashi; Uematsu, Takashi; Yamaoka, Minoru; Furusawa, Kiyofumi

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (alpha-NaGalase) produced by human salivary gland adenocarcinoma (SGA) cells on the bioactivity of macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF). High exo-alpha-NaGalase activity was detected in the SGA cell line HSG. HSG alpha-NaGalase had both exo- and endo-enzyme activities, cleaving the Gal-GalNAc and GalNAc residues linked to Thr/Ser but not releasing the [NeuAc2-6]GalNac residue. Furthermore, GcMAF enzymatically prepared from the Gc protein enhanced the superoxide-generation capacity and phagocytic activity of monocytes/macrophages. However, GcMAF treated with purified alpha-NaGalase did not exhibit these effects. Thus, HSG possesses the capacity to produce larger quantities of alpha-NaGalase, which inactivates GcMAF produced from Gc protein, resulting in reduced phagocytic activity and superoxide-generation capacity of monocytes/macrophages. The present data strongly suggest that HSG alpha-NaGalase acts as an immunodeficiency factor in cancer patients.

  1. UCLA1 aptamer inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype C primary isolates in macrophages and selection of resistance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mufhandu, Hazel T

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available isolates in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). Of 4 macrophage-tropic isolates tested, 3 were inhibited by UCLA1 in the low nanomolar range (IC80 <29 nM). One isolate that showed reduced susceptibility (<50 nM) to UCLA1 contained mutations in the a5 helix...

  2. Epigenetic pathways in macrophages emerge as novel targets in atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neele, Annette E.; van den Bossche, Jan; Hoeksema, Marten A.; de Winther, Menno P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a lipid-driven chronic inflammatory disorder. Monocytes and macrophages are key immune cells in the development of disease and clinical outcome. It is becoming increasingly clear that epigenetic pathways govern many aspects of monocyte and macrophage differentiation and

  3. Contrasting Effects of Systemic Monocyte/Macrophage and CD4+ T Cell Depletion in a Reversible Ureteral Obstruction Mouse Model of Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee D. Chaves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a reversible UUO model (rUUO, we have demonstrated that C57BL/6 mice are susceptible to development of CKD after obstruction-mediated kidney injury while BALB/c mice are resistant. We hypothesized that selective systemic depletion of subpopulations of inflammatory cells during injury or repair might alter the development of CKD. To investigate the impact of modification of Th-lymphocytes or macrophage responses on development of CKD after rUUO, we used an anti-CD4 antibody (GK1.5 or liposomal clodronate to systemically deplete CD4+ T cells or monocyte/macrophages, respectively, prior to and throughout the rUUO protocol. Flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry confirmed depletion of target cell populations. C57BL/6 mice treated with the GK1.5 antibody to deplete CD4+ T cells had higher BUN levels and delayed recovery from rUUO. Treatment of C57BL/6 mice with liposomal clodronate to deplete monocyte/macrophages led to a relative protection from CKD as assessed by BUN values. Our results demonstrate that modulation of the inflammatory response during injury and repair altered the susceptibility of C57BL/6 mice to development of CKD in our rUUO model.

  4. Loss of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 alters macrophage polarization and reduces NFκB activation in the foreign body response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Laura Beth; Sawyer, Andrew J; Charokopos, Antonios; Skokos, Eleni A; Kyriakides, Themis R

    2015-01-01

    Implantation of biomaterials elicits a foreign body response characterized by fusion of macrophages to form foreign body giant cells and fibrotic encapsulation. Studies of the macrophage polarization involved in this response have suggested that alternative (M2) activation is associated with more favorable outcomes. Here we investigated this process in vivo by implanting mixed cellulose ester filters or polydimethylsiloxane disks in the peritoneal cavity of wild-type (WT) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) knockout mice. We analyzed classical (M1) and alternative (M2) gene expression via quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in both non-adherent cells isolated by lavage and implant-adherent cells. Our results show that macrophages undergo unique activation that displays features of both M1 and M2 polarization including induction of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF), which induces the expression and nuclear translocation of p50 and RelA determined by immunofluorescence and Western blot. Both processes were compromised in fusion-deficient MCP-1 KO macrophages in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, inclusion of BAY 11-7028, an inhibitor of NFκB activation, reduced nuclear translocation of RelA and fusion in WT macrophages. Our studies suggest that peritoneal implants elicit a unique macrophage polarization phenotype leading to induction of TNF and activation of the NFκB pathway. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. The effects of 60Co γ-ray irradiation on the cytoskeleton of mouse peritoneal macrophages and human peripheral blood monocytes in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaomei; Guo Yuhua; Yin Zhiwei; Mao Zijun

    1990-03-01

    The whole mount cell electron microscopy in combination with selective extraction method for preparing cytoskeletal framework was applied. Cy toskeleton prepared by Triton X-100 treatment of mouse peritoneal macrophages and human peripheral blood monocytes appeared in electron microscopy as a highly organized and interconnected three-dimensional matrix of different fibrous elements. Since such cytoskeletons are open membrane-free system, individual fibrous organizations can be identified by specific antibodies. An indirect immunogold procedure using monoclonal anti-tubulin or anti-actin antibodies was applied to visualize tubulin-or actin-containing structures. The three-dimensional visualization of Triton X-100 resistant cytoskeletons had been used to demonstrate that different doses of 60 Co γ-ray caused a distinctive and reproducible alterations of the cytoskeletons of intact mouse peritoneal macrophages and human peripheral blood monocytes in vitro. The results showed that there were some similar alterations with those caused by cytochalasin B and by colchicine. From these observations and other workers' studies, it's likely that 60 Co γ-ray irradiation may inhibit cytoplasmic microtubule and microfilament assembling

  6. Multiple Myeloma Macrophages: Pivotal Players in the Tumor Microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Berardi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor microenvironment is essential for multiple myeloma (MM growth, progression, and drug resistance through provision of survival signals and secretion of growth and proangiogenic factors. This paper examines the importance of macrophages within MM bone marrow (BM microenvironment, referred to as MM-associated macrophages, as a potential niche component that supports tumor plasma cells. These macrophages are derived from peripheral blood monocytes recruited into the tumor. Upon activation by MM plasma cells and mesenchymal stromal cells, macrophages can release growth factors, proteolytic enzymes, cytokines, and inflammatory mediators that promote plasma cell growth and survival. Macrophages promote tumor progression through several mechanisms including angiogenesis, growth, and drug resistance. Indeed, these macrophages are essential for the induction of an angiogenic response through vasculogenic mimicry, and this ability proceeds in step with progression of the plasma cell tumors. Data suggest that macrophages play an important role in the biology and survival of patients with MM, and they may be a target for the MM antivascular management.

  7. MDM2–MDM4 molecular interaction investigated by atomic force spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscetti, Ilaria; Teveroni, Emanuela; Moretti, Fabiola; Bizzarri, Anna Rita; Cannistraro, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Murine double minute 2 (MDM2) and 4 (MDM4) are known as the main negative regulators of p53, a tumor suppressor. They are able to form heterodimers that are much more effective in the downregulation of p53. Therefore, the MDM2–MDM4 complex could be a target for promising therapeutic restoration of p53 function. To this aim, a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlining the heterodimerization is needed. The kinetic and thermodynamic characterization of the MDM2–MDM4 complex was performed with two complementary approaches: atomic force spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance. Both techniques revealed an equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) in the micromolar range for the MDM2–MDM4 heterodimer, similar to related complexes involved in the p53 network. Furthermore, the MDM2–MDM4 complex is characterized by a relatively high free energy, through a single energy barrier, and by a lifetime in the order of tens of seconds. New insights into the MDM2–MDM4 interaction could be highly important for developing innovative anticancer drugs focused on p53 reactivation. PMID:27621617

  8. alpha-MSH and its receptors in regulation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha production by human monocyte/macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taherzadeh, S; Sharma, S; Chhajlani, V; Gantz, I; Rajora, N; Demitri, M T; Kelly, L; Zhao, H; Ichiyama, T; Catania, A; Lipton, J M

    1999-05-01

    The hypothesis that macrophages contain an autocrine circuit based on melanocortin [ACTH and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH)] peptides has major implications for neuroimmunomodulation research and inflammation therapy. To test this hypothesis, cells of the THP-1 human monocyte/macrophage line were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the presence and absence of alpha-MSH. The inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha was inhibited in relation to alpha-MSH concentration. Similar inhibitory effects on TNF-alpha were observed with ACTH peptides that contain the alpha-MSH amino acid sequence and act on melanocortin receptors. Nuclease protection assays indicated that expression of the human melanocortin-1 receptor subtype (hMC-1R) occurs in THP-1 cells; Southern blots of RT-PCR product revealed that additional subtypes, hMC-3R and hMC-5R, also occur. Incubation of resting macrophages with antibody to hMC-1R increased TNF-alpha concentration; the antibody also markedly reduced the inhibitory influence of alpha-MSH on TNF-alpha in macrophages treated with LPS. These results in cells known to produce alpha-MSH at rest and to increase secretion of the peptide when challenged are consistent with an endogenous regulatory circuit based on melanocortin peptides and their receptors. Targeting of this neuroimmunomodulatory circuit in inflammatory diseases in which myelomonocytic cells are prominent should be beneficial.

  9. The Phagocytic Function of Macrophage-Enforcing Innate Immunity and Tissue Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Hirayama

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages are effector cells of the innate immune system that phagocytose bacteria and secrete both pro-inflammatory and antimicrobial mediators. In addition, macrophages play an important role in eliminating diseased and damaged cells through their programmed cell death. Generally, macrophages ingest and degrade dead cells, debris, tumor cells, and foreign materials. They promote homeostasis by responding to internal and external changes within the body, not only as phagocytes, but also through trophic, regulatory, and repair functions. Recent studies demonstrated that macrophages differentiate from hematopoietic stem cell-derived monocytes and embryonic yolk sac macrophages. The latter mainly give rise to tissue macrophages. Macrophages exist in all vertebrate tissues and have dual functions in host protection and tissue injury, which are maintained at a fine balance. Tissue macrophages have heterogeneous phenotypes in different tissue environments. In this review, we focused on the phagocytic function of macrophage-enforcing innate immunity and tissue homeostasis for a better understanding of the role of tissue macrophages in several pathological conditions.

  10. Attenuation of LPS-induced inflammation by ICT, a derivate of icariin, via inhibition of the CD14/TLR4 signaling pathway in human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinfeng; Zhou, Junmin; Chen, Xianghong; Fortenbery, Nicole; Eksioglu, Erika A; Wei, Sheng; Dong, Jingcheng

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of ICT in LPS stimulated human innate immune cells. 3, 5, 7-Trihydroxy-4'-methoxy-8-(3-hydroxy-3- methylbutyl)-flavone (ICT) is a novel derivative of icariin, the major active ingredient of Herba Epimedii, an herb used in traditional Chinese medicine. We previously demonstrated its anti-inflammatory potential in a murine macrophage cell line as well as in mouse models. We measured TNF-α production by ELISA, TLR4/CD14 expression by flow cytometry, and NF-κB and MAPK activation by western blot all in LPS-stimulated PBMC, human monocytes, or THP-1 cells after treatment with ICT. ICT inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α production in THP-1 cells, PBMCs and human monocytes in a dose-dependent manner. ICT treatment resulted in down-regulation of the expression of CD14/TLR4 and attenuated NF-κB and MAPK activation induced by LPS. We illustrate the anti-inflammatory property of ICT in human immune cells, especially in monocytes. These effects were mediated, at least partially, via inhibition of the CD14/TLR4 signaling pathway. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. REGULATION OF TLR/RLR GENE ACTIVITY AND SYNTHESIS OF CYTOKINES DURING PHORBOL MYRISTATE ACETATE (PMA-INDUCED DIFFERENTIATION OF THP-1 MONOCYTES INTO MACROPHAGE-LIKE CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Sokolova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels of TLR/RLR gene expression and production of some cytokines were studied in monocytic THP-1 cell line during its differentiation to mature macrophage-like forms induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA treatment for 1 and 5 days in vitro. For the first time, we have shown high induction levels for the genes that encode signaling immune receptors and transcription factors in response to PMA, as well as inhibitory effects of TLR3, TLR7/TLR8, TLR9-agonists in mature macrophages. The PMAactivated THP-1 macrophage-like cells secreted large quantitities of inflammatory IL-1β and TNFα cytokines into culture medium.

  12. Functional contribution of elevated circulating and hepatic non-classical CD14CD16 monocytes to inflammation and human liver fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning W Zimmermann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Monocyte-derived macrophages critically perpetuate inflammatory responses after liver injury as a prerequisite for organ fibrosis. Experimental murine models identified an essential role for the CCR2-dependent infiltration of classical Gr1/Ly6C(+ monocytes in hepatic fibrosis. Moreover, the monocyte-related chemokine receptors CCR1 and CCR5 were recently recognized as important fibrosis modulators in mice. In humans, monocytes consist of classical CD14(+CD16(- and non-classical CD14(+CD16(+ cells. We aimed at investigating the relevance of monocyte subpopulations for human liver fibrosis, and hypothesized that 'non-classical' monocytes critically exert inflammatory as well as profibrogenic functions in patients during liver disease progression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed circulating monocyte subsets from freshly drawn blood samples of 226 patients with chronic liver disease (CLD and 184 healthy controls by FACS analysis. Circulating monocytes were significantly expanded in CLD-patients compared to controls with a marked increase of the non-classical CD14(+CD16(+ subset that showed an activated phenotype in patients and correlated with proinflammatory cytokines and clinical progression. Correspondingly, CD14(+CD16(+ macrophages massively accumulated in fibrotic/cirrhotic livers, as evidenced by immunofluorescence and FACS. Ligands of monocyte-related chemokine receptors CCR2, CCR1 and CCR5 were expressed at higher levels in fibrotic and cirrhotic livers, while CCL3 and CCL4 were also systemically elevated in CLD-patients. Isolated monocyte/macrophage subpopulations were functionally characterized regarding cytokine/chemokine expression and interactions with primary human hepatic stellate cells (HSC in vitro. CD14(+CD16(+ monocytes released abundant proinflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, CD14(+CD16(+, but not CD14(+CD16(- monocytes could directly activate collagen-producing HSC. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data

  13. MDM2–MDM4 molecular interaction investigated by atomic force spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moscetti I

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ilaria Moscetti,1 Emanuela Teveroni,2,3 Fabiola Moretti,3 Anna Rita Bizzarri,1 Salvatore Cannistraro1 1Biophysics and Nanoscience Centre, Department DEB, Università della Tuscia, Viterbo, Italy; 2Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Università Cattolica di Roma, Roma, Italy; 3Institute of Cell Biology and Neurobiology, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR, Roma, Italy Abstract: Murine double minute 2 (MDM2 and 4 (MDM4 are known as the main negative regulators of p53, a tumor suppressor. They are able to form heterodimers that are much more effective in the downregulation of p53. Therefore, the MDM2–MDM4 complex could be a target for promising therapeutic restoration of p53 function. To this aim, a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlining the heterodimerization is needed. The kinetic and thermodynamic characterization of the MDM2–MDM4 complex was performed with two complementary approaches: atomic force spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance. Both techniques revealed an equilibrium dissociation constant (KD in the micromolar range for the MDM2–MDM4 heterodimer, similar to related complexes involved in the p53 network. Furthermore, the MDM2–MDM4 complex is characterized by a relatively high free energy, through a single energy barrier, and by a lifetime in the order of tens of seconds. New insights into the MDM2–MDM4 interaction could be highly important for developing innovative anticancer drugs focused on p53 reactivation. Keywords: MDM2, MDM4, atomic force spectroscopy, surface plasmon resonance

  14. Hyper-activated pro-inflammatory CD16 monocytes correlate with the severity of liver injury and fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Yuan Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Extensive mononuclear cell infiltration is strongly correlated with liver damage in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (CHB infection. Macrophages and infiltrating monocytes also participate in the development of liver damage and fibrosis in animal models. However, little is known regarding the immunopathogenic role of peripheral blood monocytes and intrahepatic macrophages. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The frequencies, phenotypes, and functions of peripheral blood and intrahepatic monocyte/macrophage subsets were analyzed in 110 HBeAg positive CHB patients, including 32 immune tolerant (IT carriers and 78 immune activated (IA patients. Liver biopsies from 20 IA patients undergoing diagnosis were collected for immunohistochemical analysis. IA patients displayed significant increases in peripheral blood monocytes and intrahepatic macrophages as well as CD16(+ subsets, which were closely associated with serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels and the liver histological activity index (HAI scores. In addition, the increased CD16(+ monocytes/macrophages expressed higher levels of the activation marker HLA-DR compared with CD16(- monocytes/macrophages. Furthermore, peripheral blood CD16(+ monocytes preferentially released inflammatory cytokines and hold higher potency in inducing the expansion of Th17 cells. Of note, hepatic neutrophils also positively correlated with HAI scores. CONCLUSIONS: These distinct properties of monocyte/macrophage subpopulations participate in fostering the inflammatory microenvironment and liver damage in CHB patients and further represent a collaborative scenario among different cell types contributing to the pathogenesis of HBV-induced liver disease.

  15. Effect and possible mechanism of monocyte-derived VEGF on monocyte-endothelial cellular adhesion after electrical burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Qiongfang; Zhao, Chaoli; Ye, Ziqing; Ruan, Jingjing; Xie, Qionghui; Xie, Weiguo

    2015-06-01

    One of the major obstacles in the treatment of severe electrical burns is properly handling the resulting uncontrolled inflammation. Such inflammation often causes secondary injury and necrosis, thus complicating patient outcomes. Vascular endothelial grow factor (VEGF) has emerged as an important mediator for the recruitment of monocytes to the site inflammation. This study was designed to explore the effects and possible mechanism of VEGF on monocyte-endothelial cellular adhesion. To do so, we used a cultured human monocytic cell line (THP-1) that was stimulated with serum derived from rats that had received electrical burns. Serum was obtained from rats that had received electrical burns. Both the VEGF and soluble flt-1 (sflt-1) concentrations of the serum were determined by double-antibody sandwich ELISA. The concentrations of VEGF, sflt-1, and TNF-α obtained from the cell-free cultured supernatant of THP-1 cells that had been exposed to the serum were then determined by double-antibody sandwich ELISA. Serum-stimulated THP-1 cells were added to wells with a monolayer of endothelial cells to detect the level of monocyte-endothelial cells adhesion. Finally, the state of phosphorylation of AKT was determined by Western blotting. Both in vivo and in vitro studies showed that compared to controls, the levels of VEGF were significantly increased after electrical burns. This increased was accompanied by a reduction of sflt-1 levels. Furthermore, the serum of rats that had received electrical burns was able to both activate monocytes to secrete TNF-α and enhance monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion. Treatment with the serum also resulted in an up-regulation of the phosphorylation of AKT, but had no effect on the total levels of AKT. Phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) inhibition decreased the number of THP-1 cells that were adhered to endothelial cells. Finally, sequestering VEGF with sflt-1 was able to reduce the effect on monocyte-endothelial cells adhesion by

  16. CCR8 signaling influences Toll-like receptor 4 responses in human macrophages in inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Martina Kvist; Brange, Charlotte; Rosendahl, Alexander

    2011-12-01

    CCR8 immunity is generally associated with Th2 responses in allergic diseases. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time a pronounced attenuated influx of macrophages in ovalbumin (OVA)-challenged CCR8 knockout mice. To explore whether macrophages in human inflamed lung tissue also were CCR8 positive, human lung tissue from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was evaluated. Indeed, CCR8 expression was pronounced in invading monocytes/macrophages from lungs of patients with Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage IV COPD. Given this expression pattern, the functional role of CCR8 on human macrophages was evaluated in vitro. Human peripheral blood monocytes expressed low levels of CCR8, while macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)-derived human macrophages expressed significantly elevated surface levels of CCR8. Importantly, CCL1 directly regulated the expression of CD18 and CD49b and hence influenced the adhesion capacity of human macrophages. CCL1 drives chemotaxis in M-CSF-derived macrophages, and this could be completely inhibited by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Whereas both CCL1 and LPS monotreatment inhibited spontaneous superoxide release in macrophages, CCL1 significantly induced superoxide release in the presence of LPS in a dose-dependent manner. Finally, CCL1 induced production of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and could inhibit LPS-induced cytokine production in a dose-dependent manner. Our data demonstrate, for the first time, the presence of CCR8 on inflammatory macrophages in human COPD lung tissue. Importantly, the functional data from human macrophages suggest a potential cross talk between the CCR8 and the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathways, both of which are present in COPD patients.

  17. Germline but macrophage-tropic CYBB mutations in kindreds with X-linked predisposition to tuberculous mycobacterial diseases

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Germline mutations in the human CYBB gene, encoding the gp91phox subunit of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase, impair the respiratory burst of phagocytes and result in X-linked chronic granulomatous disease. We report two kindreds in which otherwise healthy male adults show X-linked recessive Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases. These patients harbor mutations in CYBB that profoundly reduce the respiratory burst in monocyte-derived macrophages, but not in monocyte...

  18. Monocyte to macrophage differentiation-associated (MMD) targeted by miR-140-5p regulates tumor growth in non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Weina; He, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Expression of MMD is increased in lung cancer tissues. • Knockdown of MMD inhibits growth of A549 and LLC cells in vitro and in vivo. • MMD is a direct functional target of miR-140-5p. • MiR-140-5p/MMD axis regulates Erk1/2 signaling. - Abstract: Monocyte to macrophage differentiation-associated (MMD) is identified in macrophages as a gene associated with the differentiation from monocytes to macrophages. Recent microarray analysis for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) suggests that MMD is an important signature associated with relapse and survival among patients with NSCLC. Therefore, we speculate that MMD likely plays a role in lung cancer. In this study, we found that the protein level of MMD was increased in lung cancer compared to benign lung tissues, and knockdown of MMD inhibited the growth of A549 and Lewis lung cancer cells (LLC) in vitro and in vivo. Integrated analysis demonstrated that MMD was a direct functional target of miR-140-5p. Furthermore, we found that miR-140-5p/MMD axis could affect the cell proliferation of lung cancer cells by regulating Erk signaling. Together, our results highlight the significance of miR-140-5p/MMD axis in lung cancer, and miR-140-5p/MMD axis could serve as new molecular targets for the therapy against lung cancer

  19. Filarial excretory-secretory products induce human monocytes to produce lymphangiogenic mediators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany Weinkopff

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The nematodes Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia spp. infect over 120 million people worldwide, causing lymphedema, elephantiasis and hydrocele, collectively known as lymphatic filariasis. Most infected individuals appear to be asymptomatic, but many exhibit sub-clinical manifestations including the lymphangiectasia that likely contributes to the development of lymphedema and elephantiasis. As adult worm excretory-secretory products (ES do not directly activate lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC, we investigated the role of monocyte/macrophage-derived soluble factors in the development of filarial lymphatic pathology. We analyzed the production of IL-8, IL-6 and VEGF-A by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from naïve donors following stimulation with filarial ES products. ES-stimulated PBMCs produced significantly more IL-8, IL-6 and VEGF-A compared to cells cultured in medium alone; CD14(+ monocytes appear to be the primary producers of IL-8 and VEGF-A, but not IL-6. Furthermore, IL-8, IL-6 and VEGF-A induced in vitro tubule formation in LEC Matrigel cultures. Matrigel plugs supplemented with IL-8, IL-6, VEGF-A, or with supernatants from ES-stimulated PBMCs and implanted in vivo stimulated lymphangiogenesis. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that monocytes/macrophages exposed to filarial ES products may modulate lymphatic function through the secretion of soluble factors that stimulate the vessel growth associated with the pathogenesis of filarial disease.

  20. Hypoxanthine Derivatives in Experimental Infections

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    Claudio De Simone

    1992-01-01

    ability of ST 789 to increase interleukin-6 production, suggest that monocyte/macrophages are likely to be the main cellular target of the immunomodulating activity of ST 789. Finally, in the presentln vivo study, hypoxanthine derivatives did not enhance the mean survival time of tumour-bearing immunosuppressed mice.

  1. M1 and M2 macrophages derived from THP-1 cells differentially modulate the response of cancer cells to etoposide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genin, Marie; Clement, Francois; Fattaccioli, Antoine; Raes, Martine; Michiels, Carine

    2015-01-01

    Tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) are present in high density in solid tumors. TAMs share many characteristics with alternatively activated macrophages, also called M2. They have been shown to favor tumor development and a role in chemoresistance has also been suggested. Here, we investigated the effects of M2 in comparison to M1 macrophages on cancer cell sensitivity to etoposide. We set up a model of macrophage polarization, starting from THP-1 monocytes differentiated into macrophages using PMA (Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate). Once differentiated (M0 macrophages), they were incubated with IL-4 and IL-13 in order to obtain M2 polarized macrophages or with IFN-gamma and LPS for classical macrophage activation (M1). To mimic the communication between cancer cells and TAMs, M0, M1 or M2 macrophages and HepG2 or A549 cancer cells were co-cultured during respectively 16 (HepG2) or 24 (A549) hours, before etoposide exposure for 24 (HepG2) or 16 (A549) hours. After the incubation, the impact of etoposide on macrophage polarization was studied and cancer cell apoptosis was assessed by western-blot for cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP-1 protein, caspase activity assay and FACS analysis of Annexin V and PI staining. mRNA and protein expression of M1 and M2 markers confirmed the polarization of THP-1-derived macrophages, which provide a new, easy and well-characterized model of polarized human macrophages. Etoposide-induced cancer cell apoptosis was markedly reduced in the presence of THP-1 M2 macrophages, while apoptosis was increased in cells co-cultured with M1 macrophages. On the other hand, etoposide did not influence M1 or M2 polarization. These results evidence for the first time a clear protective effect of M2 on the contrary to M1 macrophages on etoposide-induced cancer cell apoptosis

  2. Quantitative GPCR and ion channel transcriptomics in primary alveolar macrophages and macrophage surrogates

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    Groot-Kormelink Paul J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alveolar macrophages are one of the first lines of defence against invading pathogens and play a central role in modulating both the innate and acquired immune systems. By responding to endogenous stimuli within the lung, alveolar macrophages contribute towards the regulation of the local inflammatory microenvironment, the initiation of wound healing and the pathogenesis of viral and bacterial infections. Despite the availability of protocols for isolating primary alveolar macrophages from the lung these cells remain recalcitrant to expansion in-vitro and therefore surrogate cell types, such as monocyte derived macrophages and phorbol ester-differentiated cell lines (e.g. U937, THP-1, HL60 are frequently used to model macrophage function. Methods The availability of high throughput gene expression technologies for accurate quantification of transcript levels enables the re-evaluation of these surrogate cell types for use as cellular models of the alveolar macrophage. Utilising high-throughput TaqMan arrays and focussing on dynamically regulated families of integral membrane proteins, we explore the similarities and differences in G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR and ion channel expression in alveolar macrophages and their widely used surrogates. Results The complete non-sensory GPCR and ion channel transcriptome is described for primary alveolar macrophages and macrophage surrogates. The expression of numerous GPCRs and ion channels whose expression were hitherto not described in human alveolar macrophages are compared across primary macrophages and commonly used macrophage cell models. Several membrane proteins known to have critical roles in regulating macrophage function, including CXCR6, CCR8 and TRPV4, were found to be highly expressed in macrophages but not expressed in PMA-differentiated surrogates. Conclusions The data described in this report provides insight into the appropriate choice of cell models for

  3. Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Macrophages for Unraveling Human Macrophage Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hanrui; Reilly, Muredach P

    2017-11-01

    Despite a substantial appreciation for the critical role of macrophages in cardiometabolic diseases, understanding of human macrophage biology has been hampered by the lack of reliable and scalable models for cellular and genetic studies. Human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived macrophages (IPSDM), as an unlimited source of subject genotype-specific cells, will undoubtedly play an important role in advancing our understanding of the role of macrophages in human diseases. In this review, we summarize current literature in the differentiation and characterization of IPSDM at phenotypic, functional, and transcriptomic levels. We emphasize the progress in differentiating iPSC to tissue resident macrophages, and in understanding the ontogeny of in vitro differentiated IPSDM that resembles primitive hematopoiesis, rather than adult definitive hematopoiesis. We review the application of IPSDM in modeling both Mendelian genetic disorders and host-pathogen interactions. Finally, we highlighted the potential areas of research using IPSDM in functional validation of coronary artery disease loci in genome-wide association studies, functional genomic analyses, drug testing, and cell therapeutics in cardiovascular diseases. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Monocytes/Macrophages Upregulate the Hyaluronidase HYAL1 and Adapt Its Subcellular Trafficking to Promote Extracellular Residency upon Differentiation into Osteoclasts.

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    Emeline Puissant

    Full Text Available Osteoclasts are giant bone-resorbing cells originating from monocytes/macrophages. During their differentiation, they overexpress two lysosomal enzymes, cathepsin K and TRAP, which are secreted into the resorption lacuna, an acidified sealed area in contact with bone matrix where bone degradation takes place. Here we report that the acid hydrolase HYAL1, a hyaluronidase able to degrade the glycosaminoglycans hyaluronic acid (HA and chondroitin sulfate, is also upregulated upon osteoclastogenesis. The mRNA expression and protein level of HYAL1 are markedly increased in osteoclasts differentiated from RAW264.7 mouse macrophages or primary mouse bone marrow monocytes compared to these precursor cells. As a result, the HYAL1-mediated HA hydrolysis ability of osteoclasts is strongly enhanced. Using subcellular fractionation, we demonstrate that HYAL1 proteins are sorted to the osteoclast lysosomes even though, in contrast to cathepsin K and TRAP, HYAL1 is poorly mannose 6-phosphorylated. We reported previously that macrophages secrete HYAL1 proforms by constitutive secretion, and that these are recaptured by the cell surface mannose receptor, processed in endosomes and sorted to lysosomes. Present work highlights that osteoclasts secrete HYAL1 in two ways, through lysosomal exocytosis and constitutive secretion, and that these cells promote the extracellular residency of HYAL1 through downregulation of the mannose receptor. Interestingly, the expression of the other main hyaluronidase, HYAL2, and of lysosomal exoglycosidases involved in HA degradation, does not increase similarly to HYAL1 upon osteoclastogenesis. Taken together, these findings point out the predominant involvement of HYAL1 in bone HA metabolism and perhaps bone remodeling via the resorption lacuna.

  5. Germline CYBB mutations that selectively affect macrophages in kindreds with X-linked predisposition to tuberculous mycobacterial disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Jacinta; Arias, Andres A; Vogt, Guillaume; Picard, Capucine; Galicia, Lizbeth Blancas; Prando, Carolina; Grant, Audrey V; Marchal, Christophe C; Hubeau, Marjorie; Chapgier, Ariane; de Beaucoudrey, Ludovic; Puel, Anne; Feinberg, Jacqueline; Valinetz, Ethan; Jannière, Lucile; Besse, Céline; Boland, Anne; Brisseau, Jean-Marie; Blanche, Stéphane; Lortholary, Olivier; Fieschi, Claire; Emile, Jean-François; Boisson-Dupuis, Stéphanie; Al-Muhsen, Saleh; Woda, Bruce; Newburger, Peter E; Condino-Neto, Antonio; Dinauer, Mary C; Abel, Laurent; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Germline mutations in CYBB, the human gene encoding the gp91phox subunit of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase, impair the respiratory burst of all types of phagocytes and result in X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). We report here two kindreds in which otherwise healthy male adults developed X-linked recessive Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD) syndromes. These patients had previously unknown mutations in CYBB that resulted in an impaired respiratory burst in monocyte-derived macrophages but not in monocytes or granulocytes. The macrophage-specific functional consequences of the germline mutation resulted from cell-specific impairment in the assembly of the NADPH oxidase. This ‘experiment of nature’ indicates that CYBB is associated with MSMD and demonstrates that the respiratory burst in human macrophages is a crucial mechanism for protective immunity to tuberculous mycobacteria. PMID:21278736

  6. The role of MDM2 and MDM4 in breast cancer development and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, Sue; Vijayakumaran, Reshma; Miranda, Panimaya Jeffreena; Burgess, Andrew; Lim, Elgene; Haupt, Ygal

    2017-02-01

    The major cause of death from breast cancer is not the primary tumour, but relapsing, drug-resistant, metastatic disease. Identifying factors that contribute to aggressive cancer offers important leads for therapy. Inherent defence against carcinogens depends on the individual molecular make-up of each person. Important molecular determinants of these responses are under the control of the mouse double minute (MDM) family: comprised of the proteins MDM2 and MDM4. In normal, healthy adult cells, the MDM family functions to critically regulate measured, cellular responses to stress and subsequent recovery. Proper function of the MDM family is vital for normal breast development, but also for preserving genomic fidelity. The MDM family members are best characterized for their negative regulation of the major tumour suppressor p53 to modulate stress responses. Their impact on other cellular regulators is emerging. Inappropriately elevated protein levels of the MDM family are highly associated with an increased risk of cancer incidence. Exploration of the MDM family members as cancer therapeutic targets is relevant for designing tailored anti-cancer treatments, but successful approaches must strategically consider the impact on both the target cancer and adjacent healthy cells and tissues. This review focuses on recent findings pertaining to the role of the MDM family in normal and malignant breast cells. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Journal of Molecular Cell Biology, IBCB, SIBS, CAS.

  7. Mdm2 Deficiency Suppresses MYCN-Driven Neuroblastoma Tumorigenesis In Vivo

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    Zaowen Chen

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Neuroblastoma is derived from neural crest precursor components of the peripheral sympathetic nervous system and accounts for more than 15% of all pediatric cancer deaths. A clearer understanding of the molecular basis of neuroblastoma is required for novel therapeutic approaches to improve morbidity and mortality. Neuroblastoma is uniformly p53 wild type at diagnosis and must overcome p53-mediated tumor suppression during pathogenesis. Amplification of the MYCN oncogene correlates with the most clinically aggressive form of the cancer, and MDM2, a primary inhibitor of the p53 tumor suppressor, is a direct transcriptional target of, and positively regulated by, both MYCN and MYCC. We hypothesize that MDM2 contributes to MYCN-driven tumorigenesis helping to ameliorate p53-dependent apoptotic oncogenic stress during tumor initiation and progression. To study the interaction of MYCN and MDM2, we generated an Mdm2 haploinsufficient transgenic animal model of neuroblastoma. In Mdm2+/-MYCN transgenics, tumor latency and animal survival are remarkably extended, whereas tumor incidence and growth are reduced. Analysis of the Mdm2/p53 pathway reveals remarkable p53 stabilization counterbalanced by epigenetic silencing of the p19Arf gene in the Mdm2 haploinsufficient tumors. In human neuroblastoma xenograft models, conditional small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of MDM2 in cells expressing wild-type p53 dramatically suppresses tumor growth in a p53-dependent manner. In summary, we provided evidence for a crucial role for direct inhibition of p53 by MDM2 and suppression of the p19ARF/p53 axis in neuroblastoma tumorigenesis, supporting the development of therapies targeting these pathways.

  8. Gomesin acts in the immune system and promotes myeloid differentiation and monocyte/macrophage activation in mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, Marcus V; Dias, Carol C; Barbosa, Christiano M V; Nogueira-Pedro, Amanda; Ribeiro-Filho, Antonio C; Miranda, Antonio; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar J

    2016-11-01

    Due to the cytotoxic effect of antimicrobial peptides (AMP) against several microorganism and tumor cells has been proposed their association with the immune system. However, just a few reports have shown this relationship. In this study, mice were treated with gomesin, a β-hairpin AMP that exhibit high cytotoxicity against bacterial and tumor cells. Different effects in the immune system were observed, such as, decrease of CD3 + in T lymphocytes (Control: 17.7±1.4%; Gomesin: 7.67±1.2%) and in hematopoietic progenitors and increase of hematopoietic stem cell (Control: 0.046±0.004%; Gomesin: 0.067±0.003%), B220 + B lymphocytes (Control: 38.63±1.5%; Gomesin: 47.83±0.48%), and Mac-1 + F4/80 + macrophages (Control: 11.76±3.4%; Gomesin: 27.13±4.0%). Additionally, macrophage increase was accompanied by an increase of macrophage phagocytosis (Control 20.85±1.53; Gomesin 31.32±1 Geometric mean), interleukin 6 (Control: 47.24±1.9ng/mL; Gomesin: 138.68±33.68ng/mL) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (Control: 0.872±0.093ng/mL; Gomesin: 1.83±0.067ng/mL). Thus, this report showed immunomodulatory activity of gomesin in the immune system of mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Targeting of CXCR3+ CD4+ T Cells in Secondary Lymphoid Organs Is Associated with Robust CXCL10 Expression in Monocyte/Macrophage Subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Masayuki; Sato, Hirotaka; Okamura, Tomotaka; Uda, Akihiko; Takeda, Satoshi; Ahmed, Nursarat; Shichino, Shigeyuki; Shiino, Teiichiro; Saito, Yohei; Watanabe, Satoru; Sugimoto, Chie; Kuroda, Marcelo J; Ato, Manabu; Nagai, Yoshiyuki; Izumo, Shuji; Matsushima, Kouji; Miyazawa, Masaaki; Ansari, Aftab A; Villinger, Francois; Mori, Kazuyasu

    2017-07-01

    Glycosylation of Env defines pathogenic properties of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). We previously demonstrated that pathogenic SIVmac239 and a live-attenuated, quintuple deglycosylated Env mutant (Δ5G) virus target CD4 + T cells residing in different tissues during acute infection. SIVmac239 and Δ5G preferentially infected distinct CD4 + T cells in secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) and within the lamina propria of the small intestine, respectively (C. Sugimoto et al., J Virol 86:9323-9336, 2012, https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00948-12). Here, we studied the host responses relevant to SIV targeting of CXCR3 + CCR5 + CD4 + T cells in SLOs. Genome-wide transcriptome analyses revealed that Th1-polarized inflammatory responses, defined by expression of CXCR3 chemokines, were distinctly induced in the SIVmac239-infected animals. Consistent with robust expression of CXCL10, CXCR3 + T cells were depleted from blood in the SIVmac239-infected animals. We also discovered that elevation of CXCL10 expression in blood and SLOs was secondary to the induction of CD14 + CD16 + monocytes and MAC387 + macrophages, respectively. Since the significantly higher levels of SIV infection in SLOs occurred with a massive accumulation of infiltrated MAC387 + macrophages, T cells, dendritic cells (DCs), and residential macrophages near high endothelial venules, the results highlight critical roles of innate/inflammatory responses in SIVmac239 infection. Restricted infection in SLOs by Δ5G also suggests that glycosylation of Env modulates innate/inflammatory responses elicited by cells of monocyte/macrophage/DC lineages. IMPORTANCE We previously demonstrated that a pathogenic SIVmac239 virus and a live-attenuated, deglycosylated mutant Δ5G virus infected distinct CD4 + T cell subsets in SLOs and the small intestine, respectively (C. Sugimoto et al., J Virol 86:9323-9336, 2012, https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00948-12). Accordingly, infections with SIVmac239, but not with Δ5G, deplete CXCR3

  10. CCR8 Signaling Influences Toll-Like Receptor 4 Responses in Human Macrophages in Inflammatory Diseases ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvist Reimer, Martina; Brange, Charlotte; Rosendahl, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    CCR8 immunity is generally associated with Th2 responses in allergic diseases. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time a pronounced attenuated influx of macrophages in ovalbumin (OVA)-challenged CCR8 knockout mice. To explore whether macrophages in human inflamed lung tissue also were CCR8 positive, human lung tissue from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was evaluated. Indeed, CCR8 expression was pronounced in invading monocytes/macrophages from lungs of patients with Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage IV COPD. Given this expression pattern, the functional role of CCR8 on human macrophages was evaluated in vitro. Human peripheral blood monocytes expressed low levels of CCR8, while macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)-derived human macrophages expressed significantly elevated surface levels of CCR8. Importantly, CCL1 directly regulated the expression of CD18 and CD49b and hence influenced the adhesion capacity of human macrophages. CCL1 drives chemotaxis in M-CSF-derived macrophages, and this could be completely inhibited by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Whereas both CCL1 and LPS monotreatment inhibited spontaneous superoxide release in macrophages, CCL1 significantly induced superoxide release in the presence of LPS in a dose-dependent manner. Finally, CCL1 induced production of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and could inhibit LPS-induced cytokine production in a dose-dependent manner. Our data demonstrate, for the first time, the presence of CCR8 on inflammatory macrophages in human COPD lung tissue. Importantly, the functional data from human macrophages suggest a potential cross talk between the CCR8 and the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathways, both of which are present in COPD patients. PMID:21976223

  11. Effects of peritoneal fluid from endometriosis patients on the release of monocyte-specific chemokines by leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Yong-Jin; Lee, Dong-Hyung; Kim, Seung-Chul; Joo, Jong-Kil; Wang, Ji-Won; Jin, Jun-O; Kwak, Jong-Young; Lee, Kyu-Sup

    2011-06-01

    Chemokines have been implicated in the pathological process of endometriosis. We compared the effects of peritoneal fluid obtained from patients with endometriosis (ePF) and controls without endometriosis (cPF) on the release of monocyte-specific CC chemokines such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α) by neutrophils, monocytes, and T cells. Moreover, we evaluated the correlation between the levels of chemokines in ePF and their release by these cells. Cells were obtained from healthy young volunteers and cultured with ePF (n = 12) or cPF (n = 8). The chemokine levels in the ePF and the supernatants of cultured cells with ePF were then measured by ELISA. There was a positive correlation between the levels of MCP-1 and MIP-1α in ePF. The addition of ePF to the cell cultures failed to increase the release of MCP-1, RANTES, and MIP-1α when compared to cPF, but the levels of RANTES in ePF were positively correlated with the release of RANTES by ePF-treated monocytes and T cells. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between the levels of RANTES and MIP-1α released by neutrophils and between the levels of MCP-1 and MIP-1α released by T cells. Finally, the levels of RANTES released by monocyte-derived macrophages and monocytes cultured with ePF were positively correlated. These findings suggest that monocytes, neutrophils, and T cells release differential levels of MCP-1, RANTES, and MIP-1α in response to stimulation with ePF.

  12. Exosome derived from epigallocatechin gallate treated breast cancer cells suppresses tumor growth by inhibiting tumor-associated macrophage infiltration and M2 polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Ji-Young; Lee, Jong-Kuen; Jeon, Yoon-Kyung; Kim, Chul-Woo

    2013-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) play an important role in tumor microenvironment. Particularly, M2 macrophages contribute to tumor progression, depending on the expression of NF-κB. Tumor-derived exosomes can modulate tumor microenvironment by transferring miRNAs to immune cells. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) has well known anti-tumor effects; however, no data are available on the influence of EGCG on communication with cancer cells and TAM. Murine breast cancer cell lines, 4T1, was used for in vivo and ex vivo studies. Exosome was extracted from EGCG-treated 4T1 cells, and the change of miRNAs was screened using microarray. Tumor cells or TAM isolated from murine tumor graft were incubated with exosomes derived from EGCG-treated and/or miR-16 inhibitor-transfected 4T1 cells. Chemokines for monocytes (CSF-1 and CCL-2), cytokines both with high (IL-6 and TGF-β) and low (TNF-α) expression in M2 macrophages, and molecules in NF-κB pathway (IKKα and Iκ-B) were evaluated by RT-qPCR or western blot. EGCG suppressed tumor growth in murine breast cancer model, which was associated with decreased TAM and M2 macrophage infiltration. Expression of chemokine for monocytes (CSF-1 and CCL-2) were low in tumor cells from EGCG-treated mice, and cytokines of TAM was skewed from M2- into M1-like phenotype by EGCG as evidenced by decreased IL-6 and TGF-β and increased TNF-α. Ex vivo incubation of isolated tumor cells with EGCG inhibited the CSF-1 and CCL-2 expression. Ex vivo incubation of TAM with exosomes from EGCG-treated 4T1 cells led to IKKα suppression and concomitant I-κB accumulation; increase of IL-6 and TGF-β; and, decrease of TNF-α. EGCG up-regulated miR-16 in 4T1 cells and in the exosomes. Treatment of tumor cells or TAM with exosomes derived from EGCG-treated and miR-16-knock-downed 4T1 cells restored the above effects on chemokines, cytokines, and NF-κB pathway elicited by EGCG-treated exosomes. Our data demonstrate that EGCG up-regulates miR-16 in

  13. Monocytes of patients with familial hypercholesterolemia show alterations in cholesterol metabolism

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    Soufi Muhidien

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated plasma cholesterol promotes the formation of atherosclerotic lesions in which monocyte-derived lipid-laden macrophages are frequently found. To analyze, if circulating monocytes already show increased lipid content and differences in lipoprotein metabolism, we compared monocytes from patients with Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH with those from healthy individuals. Methods Cholesterol and oxidized cholesterol metabolite serum levels of FH and of healthy, gender/age matched control subjects were measured by combined gas chromatography – mass spectroscopy. Monocytes from patients with FH and from healthy subjects were isolated by antibody-assisted density centrifugation. Gene expression profiles of isolated monocytes were measured using Affymetrix HG-U 133 Plus 2.0 microarrays. We compared monocyte gene expression profiles from FH patients with healthy controls using a Welch T-test with correction for multiple testing (p Results Using microarray analysis we found in FH patients a significant up-regulation of 1,617 genes and a down-regulation of 701 genes compared to monocytes from healthy individuals. These include genes of proteins that are involved in the uptake, biosynthesis, disposition, and cellular efflux of cholesterol. In addition, plasma from FH patients contains elevated amounts of sterols and oxysterols. An increased uptake of oxidized as well as of native LDL by FH monocytes combined with a down-regulation of NPC1 and ABCA1 explains the lipid accumulation observed in these cells. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that circulating FH monocytes show differences in cell physiology that may contribute to the early onset of atherosclerosis in this disease.

  14. HIV/SIV infection primes monocytes and dendritic cells for apoptosis.

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    Mireille Laforge

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Subversion or exacerbation of antigen-presenting cells (APC death modulates host/pathogen equilibrium. We demonstrated during in vitro differentiation of monocyte-derived macrophages and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs that HIV sensitizes the cells to undergo apoptosis in response to TRAIL and FasL, respectively. In addition, we found that HIV-1 increased the levels of pro-apoptotic Bax and Bak molecules and decreased the levels of anti-apoptotic Mcl-1 and FLIP proteins. To assess the relevance of these observations in the context of an experimental model of HIV infection, we investigated the death of APC during pathogenic SIV-infection in rhesus macaques (RMs. We demonstrated increased apoptosis, during the acute phase, of both peripheral blood DCs and monocytes (CD14(+ from SIV(+RMs, associated with a dysregulation in the balance of pro- and anti-apoptotic molecules. Caspase-inhibitor and death receptors antagonists prevented apoptosis of APCs from SIV(+RMs. Furthermore, increased levels of FasL in the sera of pathogenic SIV(+RMs were detected, compared to non-pathogenic SIV infection of African green monkey. We suggest that inappropriate apoptosis of antigen-presenting cells may contribute to dysregulation of cellular immunity early in the process of HIV/SIV infection.

  15. Metformin affects macrophages' phenotype and improves the activity of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and decreases malondialdehyde concentration in a partially AMPK-independent manner in LPS-stimulated human monocytes/macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bułdak, Łukasz; Łabuzek, Krzysztof; Bułdak, Rafał Jakub; Kozłowski, Michał; Machnik, Grzegorz; Liber, Sebastian; Suchy, Dariusz; Duława-Bułdak, Anna; Okopień, Bogusław

    2014-06-01

    Diabetic patients experience accelerated atherosclerosis. Metformin is a cornerstone of the current therapy of type 2 diabetes. Macrophages are the key cells associated with the development of atherosclerotic plaques. Therefore, our aim was to assess the in vitro effects of metformin on macrophages and its influence on the mechanisms involved in the development of atherosclerosis. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained from the group including 16 age-matched healthy non-smoking volunteers aged 18-40 years. Monocytes were further incubated with metformin, LPS and compound C--a pharmacological inhibitor of AMPK. The impact of metformin on oxidative stress markers, antioxidative properties, inflammatory cytokines and phenotypical markers of macrophages was studied. We showed that macrophages treated with metformin expressed less reactive oxygen species (ROS), which resulted from increased antioxidative potential. Furthermore, a reduction in inflammatory cytokines was observed. We also observed a phenotypic shift toward the alternative activation of macrophages that was induced by metformin. All the aforementioned results resulted from AMPK activation, but a residual activity of metformin after AMPK blockade was still noticeable even after inhibition of AMPK by compound C. Authors believe that metformin-based therapy, a cornerstone in diabetes therapy, not only improves the prognosis of diabetics by reducing blood glucose but also by reducing oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokine production and the shift toward alternative activation of macrophages. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  16. The macrophage scavenger receptor CD163

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marianne Jensby; Madsen, Mette; Møller, Holger J

    2006-01-01

    CD163 is the monocyte/macrophage-specific receptor for haptoglobin-hemoglobin (Hp-Hb) complexes. The cytoplasmic tail of human CD163 exists as a short tail variant and two long tail variants. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that all three CD163 variants are subs......CD163 is the monocyte/macrophage-specific receptor for haptoglobin-hemoglobin (Hp-Hb) complexes. The cytoplasmic tail of human CD163 exists as a short tail variant and two long tail variants. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that all three CD163 variants...

  17. A matrix of cholesterol crystals, but not cholesterol alone, primes human monocytes/macrophages for excessive endotoxin-induced production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Role in atherosclerotic inflammation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtzen, Klaus; Christensen, Ole; Nielsen, Claus Henrik

    2014-01-01

    When exposed to small amounts of bacterial endotoxin, matrices of cholesterol crystals, but not cholesterol itself, primed human monocytes/macrophages to a highly augmented (>10-fold) production of inflammatory tumor necrosis factor-α. Priming also sensitized the cells, as 10- to 100-fold lower...

  18. Comparative analysis of signature genes in PRRSV-infected porcine monocyte-derived cells at differential activation statuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Activation statuses of monocytic cells are critically important for antiviral immunity. Devastating viruses like porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are capable of directly infecting these cells, subverting host immunity. Monocyte-derived DCs (mDCs) are major target cells in ...

  19. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells are essential for CD8+ T cell activation and anti-tumor responses after local immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eKuhn

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tumors harbor several populations of dendritic cells with the ability to prime tumor-specific T cells. However, these T cells mostly fail to differentiate into armed effectors and are unable to control tumor growth. We have previously shown that treatment with immunostimulatory agents at the tumor site can activate anti-tumor immune responses, and is associated with the appearance of a population of monocyte-derived dendritic cells in the tumor and tumor-draining lymph node. Here we use dendritic cell or monocyte depletion and monocyte transfer to show that these monocyte-derived dendritic cells are critical to the activation of anti-tumor immune responses. Treatment with the immunostimulatory agents Monosodium Urate crystals and Mycobacterium smegmatis induced the accumulation of monocytes in the draining lymph node, their upregulation of CD11c and MHCII, and expression of iNOS, TNFα and IL12p40. Blocking monocyte entry into the lymph node and tumor through neutralization of the chemokine CCL2 or inhibition of Colony Stimulating Factor-1 receptor signaling prevented the generation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells, the infiltration of tumor-specific T cells into the tumor, and anti-tumor responses. In a reciprocal fashion, monocytes transferred into mice depleted of CD11c+ cells were sufficient to rescue CD8+ T cell priming in lymph node and delay tumor growth. Thus monocytes exposed to the appropriate conditions become powerful activators of tumor-specific CD8+ T cells and anti-tumor immunity.

  20. Virulent and avirulent strains of equine arteritis virus induce different quantities of TNF-α and other proinflammatory cytokines in alveolar and blood-derived equine macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Brian D.; Balasuriya, Udeni B.R.; Watson, Johanna L.; Bosio, Catharine M.; MacKay, Robert J.; MacLachlan, N. James

    2003-01-01

    Equine arteritis virus (EAV) infects endothelial cells (ECs) and macrophages in horses, and many of the clinical manifestations of equine viral arteritis (EVA) reflect vascular injury. To further evaluate the potential role of EAV-induced, macrophage-derived cytokines in the pathogenesis of EVA, we infected cultured equine alveolar macrophages (AMphi), blood monocyte-derived macrophages (BMphi), and pulmonary artery ECs with either a virulent (KY84) or an avirulent (CA95) strain of EAV. EAV infection of equine AMphi, BMphi, and ECs resulted in their activation with increased transcription of genes encoding proinflammatory mediators, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Furthermore, the virulent KY84 strain of EAV induced significantly higher levels of mRNA encoding proinflammatory cytokines in infected AMphi and BMphi than did the avirulent CA95 strain. Treatment of equine ECs with the culture supernatants of EAV-infected AMphi and BMphi also resulted in EC activation with cell surface expression of E-selectin, whereas infection of ECs with purified EAV alone caused only minimal expression of E-selectin. The presence of TNF-α in the culture supernatants of EAV-infected equine AMphi, BMphi, and ECs was confirmed by bioassay, and the virulent KY84 strain of EAV induced significantly more TNF-α in all cell types than did the avirulent CA95 strain. Thus, the data indicate that EAV-induced, macrophage-derived cytokines may contribute to the pathogenesis of EVA in horses, and that the magnitude of the cytokine response of equine AMphi, BMphi, and ECs to EAV infection reflects the virulence of the infecting virus strain

  1. Monocyte Activation in Immunopathology: Cellular Test for Development of Diagnostics and Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina A. Ivanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Several highly prevalent human diseases are associated with immunopathology. Alterations in the immune system are found in such life-threatening disorders as cancer and atherosclerosis. Monocyte activation followed by macrophage polarization is an important step in normal immune response to pathogens and other relevant stimuli. Depending on the nature of the activation signal, macrophages can acquire pro- or anti-inflammatory phenotypes that are characterized by the expression of distinct patterns of secreted cytokines and surface antigens. This process is disturbed in immunopathologies resulting in abnormal monocyte activation and/or bias of macrophage polarization towards one or the other phenotype. Such alterations could be used as important diagnostic markers and also as possible targets for the development of immunomodulating therapy. Recently developed cellular tests are designed to analyze the phenotype and activity of living cells circulating in patient’s bloodstream. Monocyte/macrophage activation test is a successful example of cellular test relevant for atherosclerosis and oncopathology. This test demonstrated changes in macrophage activation in subclinical atherosclerosis and breast cancer and could also be used for screening a panel of natural agents with immunomodulatory activity. Further development of cellular tests will allow broadening the scope of their clinical implication. Such tests may become useful tools for drug research and therapy optimization.

  2. Macrophages are critical effectors of antibody therapies for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiskopf, Kipp; Weissman, Irving L

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages are innate immune cells that derive from circulating monocytes, reside in all tissues, and participate in many states of pathology. Macrophages play a dichotomous role in cancer, where they promote tumor growth but also serve as critical immune effectors of therapeutic antibodies. Macrophages express all classes of Fcγ receptors, and they have immense potential to destroy tumors via the process of antibody-dependent phagocytosis. A number of studies have demonstrated that macrophage phagocytosis is a major mechanism of action of many antibodies approved to treat cancer. Consequently, a number of approaches to augment macrophage responses to therapeutic antibodies are under investigation, including the exploration of new targets and development of antibodies with enhanced functions. For example, the interaction of CD47 with signal-regulatory protein α (SIRPα) serves as a myeloid-specific immune checkpoint that limits the response of macrophages to antibody therapies, and CD47-blocking agents overcome this barrier to augment phagocytosis. The response of macrophages to antibody therapies can also be enhanced with engineered Fc variants, bispecific antibodies, or antibody-drug conjugates. Macrophages have demonstrated success as effectors of cancer immunotherapy, and further investigation will unlock their full potential for the benefit of patients.

  3. Role of Alveolar Macrophages in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Vlahos, Ross; Bozinovski, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Alveolar macrophages (AMs) represent a unique leukocyte population that responds to airborne irritants and microbes. This distinct microenvironment coordinates the maturation of long-lived AMs, which originate from fetal blood monocytes and self-renew through mechanisms dependent on GM-CSF and CSF-1 signaling. Peripheral blood monocytes can also replenish lung macrophages; however, this appears to occur in a stimuli specific manner. In addition to mounting an appropriate immune response durin...

  4. Increase of infiltrating monocytes in the livers of patients with chronic liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rui; Wu, Hongyan; Liu, Yong; Yang, Chenchen; Pan, Zhiyun; Xia, Juan; Xiong, Yali; Wang, Guiyang; Sun, Zhenhua; Chen, Jun; Yan, Xiaomin; Zhang, Zhaoping; Wu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Infiltrating monocytes have been demonstrated to contribute to tissue damage in experimental models of liver injury and fibrosis. However, less is known about monocyte infiltration in the livers of patients with chronic liver diseases (CLD). In the present study, we demonstrated that CD68+ hepatic macrophages and MAC387+ infiltrating monocytes were significantly increased in the livers of CLD patients with different etiologies as compared with normal liver tissue. In addition, CLD patients with higher inflammatory grading scores had more CD68+ macrophages and MAC387+ monocytes infiltration in their livers compared to those with lower scores. Significantly more MAC387+ infiltrating monocytes were found in the liver tissue of CLD patients with higher fibrotic staging scores compared to those with lower scores. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) expression was significantly increased in the livers of CLD patients with different etiologies. MCP-1 staining scores were significantly positively associated with the numbers of MAC387+ infiltrating monocytes in CLD patients. Taken together, our results demonstrate that infiltrating monocytes may play a pathological role in exacerbating chronic liver inflammation and fibrosis in CLD. MCP-1 may be involved in the monocyte infiltration and progression of liver inflammation and fibrosis in CLD.

  5. Small cell lung cancer: Recruitment of macrophages by circulating tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Gerhard; Rath, Barbara; Klameth, Lukas; Hochmair, Maximilan J

    2016-03-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play an important role in tumor progression, suppression of antitumor immunity and dissemination. Blood monocytes infiltrate the tumor region and are primed by local microenvironmental conditions to promote tumor growth and invasion. Although many of the interacting cytokines and factors are known for the tumor-macrophage interactions, the putative contribution of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) is not known so far. These specialized cells are characterized by increased mobility, ability to degrade the extracellular matrix (ECM) and to enter the blood stream and generate secondary lesions which is a leading cause of death for the majority of tumor patients. The first establishment of two permanent CTC lines, namely BHGc7 and 10, from blood samples of advanced stage small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients allowed us to investigate the CTC-immune cell interaction. Cocultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) with CTCs or addition of CTC-conditioned medium (CTC-CM) in vitro resulted in monocyte-macrophage differentiation and appearance of CD14 + , CD163 weak and CD68 + macrophages expressing markers of TAMs. Furthermore, we screened the supernatants of CTC-primed macrophages for presence of approximately 100 cytokines and compared the expression with those induced by the local metastatic SCLC26A cell line. Macrophages recruited by SCLC26A-CM showed expression of osteopontin (OPN), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), IL-8, chitinase3-like 1 (CHI3L1), platelet factor (Pf4), IL-1ra and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) among other minor cytokines/chemokines. In contrast, BHGc7-CM induced marked overexpression of complement factor D (CFD)/adipsin and vitamin D-BP (VDBP), as well as increased secretion of OPN, lipocalin-2 (LCN2), CHI3L1, uPAR, MIP-1 and GDF-15/MIC-1. BHGc10, derived independently from relapsed SCLC, revealed an almost identical pattern with added expression of ENA-78/CXCL5. CMs of the non-tumor HEK293

  6. Macrophage Phenotype and Function in Different Stages of Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabas, Ira; Bornfeldt, Karin E.

    2016-01-01

    The remarkable plasticity and plethora of biological functions performed by macrophages have enticed scientists to study these cells in relation to atherosclerosis for more than 50 years, and major discoveries continue to be made today. It is now understood that macrophages play important roles in all stages of atherosclerosis, from initiation of lesions and lesion expansion, to necrosis leading to rupture and the clinical manifestations of atherosclerosis, to resolution and regression of atherosclerotic lesions. Lesional macrophages are derived primarily from blood monocytes, although recent research has shown that lesional macrophage-like cells can also be derived from smooth muscle cells. Lesional macrophages take on different phenotypes depending on their environment and which intracellular signaling pathways are activated. Rather than a few distinct populations of macrophages, the phenotype of the lesional macrophage is more complex and likely changes during the different phases of atherosclerosis and with the extent of lipid and cholesterol loading, activation by a plethora of receptors, and metabolic state of the cells. These different phenotypes allow the macrophage to engulf lipids, dead cells, and other substances perceived as danger signals; efflux cholesterol to HDL; proliferate and migrate; undergo apoptosis and death; and secrete a large number of inflammatory and pro-resolving molecules. This review article, part of the Compendium on Atherosclerosis, discusses recent advances in our understanding of lesional macrophage phenotype and function in different stages of atherosclerosis. With the increasing understanding of the roles of lesional macrophages, new research areas and treatment strategies are beginning to emerge. PMID:26892964

  7. Inhibition of HIV Expression and Integration in Macrophages by Methylglyoxal-Bis-Guanylhydrazone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xia; McGrath, Michael S; Xu, Hua

    2015-11-01

    Macrophages are a target for infection with HIV and represent one of the viral reservoirs that are relatively resistant to current antiretroviral drugs. Here we demonstrate that methylglyoxal-bis-guanylhydrazone (MGBG), a polyamine analog and potent S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase inhibitor, decreases HIV expression in monocytes and macrophages. MGBG is selectively concentrated by these cells through a mechanism consistent with active transport by the polyamine transporter. Using a macrophage-tropic reporter virus tagged with the enhanced green fluorescent protein, we demonstrate that MGBG decreases the frequency of HIV-infected cells. The effect is dose dependent and correlates with the production of HIV p24 in culture supernatants. This anti-HIV effect was further confirmed using three macrophage-tropic primary HIV isolates. Viral life cycle mapping studies show that MGBG inhibits HIV DNA integration into the cellular DNA in both monocytes and macrophages. Our work demonstrates for the first time the selective concentration of MGBG by monocytes/macrophages, leading to the inhibition of HIV-1 expression and a reduction in proviral load within macrophage cultures. These results suggest that MGBG may be useful in adjunctive macrophage-targeted therapy for HIV infection. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Macrophages inhibit human osteosarcoma cell growth after activation with the bacterial cell wall derivative liposomal muramyl tripeptide in combination with interferon-γ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahl, Jens H W; Kwappenberg, Kitty M C; Varypataki, Eleni M; Santos, Susy J; Kuijjer, Marieke L; Mohamed, Susan; Wijnen, Juul T; van Tol, Maarten J D; Cleton-Jansen, Anne-Marie; Egeler, R Maarten; Jiskoot, Wim; Lankester, Arjan C; Schilham, Marco W

    2014-03-10

    In osteosarcoma, the presence of tumor-infiltrating macrophages positively correlates with patient survival in contrast to the negative effect of tumor-associated macrophages in patients with other tumors. Liposome-encapsulated muramyl tripeptide (L-MTP-PE) has been introduced in the treatment of osteosarcoma patients, which may enhance the potential anti-tumor activity of macrophages. Direct anti-tumor activity of human macrophages against human osteosarcoma cells has not been described so far. Hence, we assessed osteosarcoma cell growth after co-culture with human macrophages. Monocyte-derived M1-like and M2-like macrophages were polarized with LPS + IFN-γ, L-MTP-PE +/- IFN-γ or IL-10 and incubated with osteosarcoma cells. Two days later, viable tumor cell numbers were analyzed. Antibody-dependent effects were investigated using the therapeutic anti-EGFR antibody cetuximab. M1-like macrophages inhibited osteosarcoma cell growth when activated with LPS + IFN-γ. Likewise, stimulation of M1-like macrophages with liposomal muramyl tripeptide (L-MTP-PE) inhibited tumor growth, but only when combined with IFN-γ. Addition of the tumor-reactive anti-EGFR antibody cetuximab did not further improve the anti-tumor activity of activated M1-like macrophages. The inhibition was mediated by supernatants of activated M1-like macrophages, containing TNF-α and IL-1β. However, specific blockage of these cytokines, nitric oxide or reactive oxygen species did not inhibit the anti-tumor effect, suggesting the involvement of other soluble factors released upon macrophage activation. While LPS + IFN-γ-activated M2-like macrophages had low anti-tumor activity, IL-10-polarized M2-like macrophages were able to reduce osteosarcoma cell growth in the presence of the anti-EGFR cetuximab involving antibody-dependent tumor cell phagocytosis. This study demonstrates that human macrophages can be induced to exert direct anti-tumor activity against osteosarcoma cells. Our

  9. Transferrin-derived synthetic peptide induces highly conserved pro-inflammatory responses of macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, George; Belosevic, Miodrag

    2009-02-01

    We examined the induction of macrophage pro-inflammatory responses by transferrin-derived synthetic peptide originally identified following digestion of transferrin from different species (murine, bovine, human N-lobe and goldfish) using elastase. The mass spectrometry analysis of elastase-digested murine transferrin identified a 31 amino acid peptide located in the N2 sub-domain of the transferrin N-lobe, that we named TMAP. TMAP was synthetically produced and shown to induce a number of pro-inflammatory genes by quantitative PCR. TMAP induced chemotaxis, a potent nitric oxide response, and TNF-alpha secretion in different macrophage populations; P338D1 macrophage-like cells, mouse peritoneal macrophages, mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) and goldfish macrophages. The treatment of BMDM cultures with TMAP stimulated the production of nine cytokines and chemokines (IL-6, MCP-5, MIP-1 alpha, MIP-1 gamma, MIP-2, GCSF, KC, VEGF, and RANTES) that was measured using cytokine antibody array and confirmed by Western blot. Our results indicate that transferrin-derived peptide, TMAP, is an immunomodulating molecule capable of inducing pro-inflammatory responses in lower and higher vertebrates.

  10. Calreticulin Release at an Early Stage of Death Modulates the Clearance by Macrophages of Apoptotic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Rim; Tacnet-Delorme, Pascale; Kleman, Jean-Philippe; Millet, Arnaud; Frachet, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Calreticulin (CRT) is a well-known “eat-me” signal harbored by dying cells participating in their recognition by phagocytes. CRT is also recognized to deeply impact the immune response to altered self-cells. In this study, we focus on the role of the newly exposed CRT following cell death induction. We show that if CRT increases at the outer face of the plasma membrane and is well recognized by C1q even when phosphatidylserine is not yet detected, CRT is also released in the surrounding milieu and is able to interact with phagocytes. We observed that exogenous CRT is endocytosed by THP1 macrophages through macropinocytosis and that internalization is associated with a particular phenotype characterized by an increase of cell spreading and migration, an upregulation of CD14, an increase of interleukin-8 release, and a decrease of early apoptotic cell uptake. Importantly, CRT-induced pro-inflammatory phenotype was confirmed on human monocytes-derived macrophages by the overexpression of CD40 and CD274, and we found that monocyte-derived macrophages exposed to CRT display a peculiar polarization notably associated with a downregulation of the histocompatibility complex of class II molecules hampering its description through the classical M1/M2 dichotomy. Altogether our results highlight the role of soluble CRT with strong possible consequences on the macrophage-mediated immune response to dying cell. PMID:28878781

  11. Calreticulin Release at an Early Stage of Death Modulates the Clearance by Macrophages of Apoptotic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rim Osman

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Calreticulin (CRT is a well-known “eat-me” signal harbored by dying cells participating in their recognition by phagocytes. CRT is also recognized to deeply impact the immune response to altered self-cells. In this study, we focus on the role of the newly exposed CRT following cell death induction. We show that if CRT increases at the outer face of the plasma membrane and is well recognized by C1q even when phosphatidylserine is not yet detected, CRT is also released in the surrounding milieu and is able to interact with phagocytes. We observed that exogenous CRT is endocytosed by THP1 macrophages through macropinocytosis and that internalization is associated with a particular phenotype characterized by an increase of cell spreading and migration, an upregulation of CD14, an increase of interleukin-8 release, and a decrease of early apoptotic cell uptake. Importantly, CRT-induced pro-inflammatory phenotype was confirmed on human monocytes-derived macrophages by the overexpression of CD40 and CD274, and we found that monocyte-derived macrophages exposed to CRT display a peculiar polarization notably associated with a downregulation of the histocompatibility complex of class II molecules hampering its description through the classical M1/M2 dichotomy. Altogether our results highlight the role of soluble CRT with strong possible consequences on the macrophage-mediated immune response to dying cell.

  12. Intramacrophage survival of uropathogenic Escherichia coli: Differences between diverse clinical isolates and between mouse and human macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bokil, Nilesh J.; Totsika, Makrina; Carey, Alison J.

    2011-01-01

    assays, CFT073 was able to survive within primary mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) up to 24h post-infection. Three additional well-characterized clinical UPEC isolates associated with distinct UTI symptomatologies displayed variable long-term survival within BMM. UPEC strains UTI89 and VR50...... or initial uptake of bacteria. E. coli UTI89 localized to a Lamp1+ vesicular compartment within BMM. In contrast to survival within mouse BMM, intracellular bacterial loads of VR50 were low in both human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDM) and in human T24 bladder epithelial cells. Collectively, these data...

  13. Susceptibility of bone marrow-derived macrophages to influenza virus infection is dependent on macrophage phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Gillian M; Nicol, Marlynne Q; Dransfield, Ian; Shaw, Darren J; Nash, Anthony A; Dutia, Bernadette M

    2015-10-01

    The role of the macrophage in influenza virus infection is complex. Macrophages are critical for resolution of influenza virus infections but implicated in morbidity and mortality in severe infections. They can be infected with influenza virus and consequently macrophage infection is likely to have an impact on the host immune response. Macrophages display a range of functional phenotypes, from the prototypical pro-inflammatory classically activated cell to alternatively activated anti-inflammatory macrophages involved in immune regulation and wound healing. We were interested in how macrophages of different phenotype respond to influenza virus infection and therefore studied the infection of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) of classical and alternative phenotype in vitro. Our results show that alternatively activated macrophages are more readily infected and killed by the virus than classically activated. Classically activated BMDMs express the pro-inflammatory markers inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and TNF-α, and TNF-α expression was further upregulated following infection. Alternatively activated macrophages express Arginase-1 and CD206; however, following infection, expression of these markers was downregulated whilst expression of iNOS and TNF-α was upregulated. Thus, infection can override the anti-inflammatory state of alternatively activated macrophages. Importantly, however, this results in lower levels of pro-inflammatory markers than those produced by classically activated cells. Our results showed that macrophage phenotype affects the inflammatory macrophage response following infection, and indicated that modulating the macrophage phenotype may provide a route to develop novel strategies to prevent and treat influenza virus infection.

  14. Virus-specific HLA-restricted lysis of herpes simplex virus-infected human monocytes and macrophages mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torpey, D.J. III

    1987-01-01

    Freshly-isolated peripheral blood human monocytes and 5 day in vitro cultured macrophages were infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), labeled with /sup 51/Cr, and used as target cells in a 12-14 hour cell-mediated cytotoxicity assay. Mononuclear leukocytes (MNL) from HSV-1 non-immune individuals, whether unstimulated or stimulated with HSV-1 antigen, did not mediate significant lysis of either target cell. HSV-immune MNL, both freshly-isolated and cultured for 5 days without antigen, demonstrated only low levels of natural killer (NK) cell-mediate lysis. MNL from HSV-immune individuals incubated for 5 days in vitro with HSV-1 antigen mediated significant virus-specific lysis of both target cells. Mean virus-specific lysis of autologous monocytes was 8.5(/+-/2.0)% compared to a three-fold greater virus-specific lysis of autologous macrophages. Greater than 70% of this lytic activity was mediated by Leu-11-negative, T3-positive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Allogeneic target cells lacking a common HLA determinant were not significantly lysed while T8-positive CTL mediated infrequent lysis of target cells sharing a common HLA-A and/or HLA-B determinant. T4-positive lymphocytes were demonstrated to be the predominant cell mediating lysis of autologous target cells and allogeneic target cells sharing both HLA-A and/or HLA-B plus HLA-DR determinants with the CTL; the T4-positive cell was the sole CTL mediator of lysis of allogeneic target cells having a common HLA-DR determinant.

  15. Virus-specific HLA-restricted lysis of herpes simplex virus-infected human monocytes and macrophages mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torpey, D.J. III.

    1987-01-01

    Freshly-isolated peripheral blood human monocytes and 5 day in vitro cultured macrophages were infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), labeled with 51 Cr, and used as target cells in a 12-14 hour cell-mediated cytotoxicity assay. Mononuclear leukocytes (MNL) from HSV-1 non-immune individuals, whether unstimulated or stimulated with HSV-1 antigen, did not mediate significant lysis of either target cell. HSV-immune MNL, both freshly-isolated and cultured for 5 days without antigen, demonstrated only low levels of natural killer (NK) cell-mediate lysis. MNL from HSV-immune individuals incubated for 5 days in vitro with HSV-1 antigen mediated significant virus-specific lysis of both target cells. Mean virus-specific lysis of autologous monocytes was 8.5(/+-/2.0)% compared to a three-fold greater virus-specific lysis of autologous macrophages. Greater than 70% of this lytic activity was mediated by Leu-11-negative, T3-positive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Allogeneic target cells lacking a common HLA determinant were not significantly lysed while T8-positive CTL mediated infrequent lysis of target cells sharing a common HLA-A and/or HLA-B determinant. T4-positive lymphocytes were demonstrated to be the predominant cell mediating lysis of autologous target cells and allogeneic target cells sharing both HLA-A and/or HLA-B plus HLA-DR determinants with the CTL; the T4-positive cell was the sole CTL mediator of lysis of allogeneic target cells having a common HLA-DR determinant

  16. Preparation, characterization, and safety evaluation of poly(lactide-co-glycolide nanoparticles for protein delivery into macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guedj AS

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Anne-Sophie Guedj,1 Arnold J Kell,2 Michael Barnes,2 Sandra Stals,1 David Gonçalves,3 Denis Girard,3 Carole Lavigne11National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB, 2National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON, 3Laboratoire de recherche en inflammation et physiologie des granulocytes, Université du Québec, INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, Laval, QC, CanadaAbstract: Following infection, HIV establishes reservoirs within tissues that are inaccessible to optimal levels of antiviral drugs or within cells where HIV lies latent, thus escaping the action of anti-HIV drugs. Macrophages are a persistent reservoir for HIV and may contribute to the rebound viremia observed after antiretroviral treatment is stopped. In this study, we further investigate the potential of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA-based nanocarriers as a new strategy to enhance penetration of therapeutic molecules into macrophages. We have prepared stable PLGA nanoparticles (NPs and evaluated their capacity to transport an active molecule into the human monocyte/macrophage cell line THP-1 using bovine serum albumin (BSA as a proof-of-concept compound. Intracellular localization of fluorescent BSA molecules encapsulated into PLGA NPs was monitored in live cells using confocal microscopy, and cellular uptake was quantified by flow cytometry. In vitro and in vivo toxicological studies were performed to further determine the safety profile of PLGA NPs including inflammatory effects. The size of the PLGA NPs carrying BSA (PLGA-BSA in culture medium containing 10% serum was ~126 nm in diameter, and they were negatively charged at their surface (zeta potential =-5.6 mV. Our confocal microscopy studies and flow cytometry data showed that these PLGA-BSA NPs are rapidly and efficiently taken up by THP-1 monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs at low doses. We found that PLGA-BSA NPs increased cellular uptake and internalization of the protein in vitro. PLGA

  17. The effect of cytosolic extract of Alternaria aternata fungus on Monocyte-derived dendritic cell maturation and T-lymphocyte polarization in the presence of myelin basic protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loghmanni A

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple Sclerosis (MS is an autoimmune disease with impairment in function of central nervous system. Macrophages and dendritic cells play important roles in alleviating or progression of the disease. These cells can cause inflammation and damage to the myelin of nerve cells by realizing of harmful substances when these cells get matured. We studied the effect of Alternaria alternata extract on maturation of monocyte- derived dendritic cell (modc and T-cell responses in the presence of Myelin Basic Protein (MBP as a laboratory model of multiple sclerosis (MS. The purpose of this study is suitable dendritic cells production for usage in MS immunotherapy.Methods: For this study plastic adherent monocytes were cultured with granulocyte/ macrophage- colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF and interleukin -4 for converting these cells to modc and pulsed with MBP and matured in the presence of monocyte-conditioned medium (MCM in control group and MCM + Alternaria alternata extract in treatment groups. Anti-CD14, anti-CD83, anti-human leukocyte antigen-DR (anti HLA-DR monoclonal antibody were carried out for phenotyping. Autologos T cell responses and cytokine production were evaluated.Results: The results showed that the expression of CD14 decreased and CD83, HLA-DR increased in treatment groups in comparison with control groups. The production amount of IL-10 overcame IL-12 and in T cell the production of cytokines, IL-17 and Interferon-γ (IFN-γ decreased and IL-4 was increased (P<0.05. These effects escalated with increasing of dosage from 50 to 100 (mg/ml (P<0.001.Conclusion: Alternaria alternata extract can cause maturation of MBP-pulsed modc and skewing of T- lymphocyte toward Th2 and thereby can evolve into a new strategy in immunotherapy of MS.

  18. Adipocyte-Macrophage Cross-Talk in Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engin, Ayse Basak

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is characterized by the chronic low-grade activation of the innate immune system. In this respect, macrophage-elicited metabolic inflammation and adipocyte-macrophage interaction has a primary importance in obesity. Large amounts of macrophages are accumulated by different mechanisms in obese adipose tissue. Hypertrophic adipocyte-derived chemotactic monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)/C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) pathway also promotes more macrophage accumulation into the obese adipose tissue. However, increased local extracellular lipid concentrations is a final mechanism for adipose tissue macrophage accumulation. A paracrine loop involving free fatty acids and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) between adipocytes and macrophages establishes a vicious cycle that aggravates inflammatory changes in the adipose tissue. Adipocyte-specific caspase-1 and production of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) by macrophages; both adipocyte and macrophage induction by toll like receptor-4 (TLR4) through nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation; free fatty acid-induced and TLR-mediated activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-related pro-inflammatory pathways in CD11c+ immune cells; are effective in macrophage accumulation and in the development of adipose tissue inflammation. Old adipocytes are removed by macrophages through trogocytosis or sending an "eat me" signal. The obesity-induced changes in adipose tissue macrophage numbers are mainly due to increases in the triple-positive CD11b+ F4/80+ CD11c+ adipose tissue macrophage subpopulation. The ratio of M1-to-M2 macrophages is increased in obesity. Furthermore, hypoxia along with higher concentrations of free fatty acids exacerbates macrophage-mediated inflammation in obesity. The metabolic status of adipocytes is a major determinant of macrophage inflammatory output. Macrophage/adipocyte fatty-acid-binding proteins act at the interface of metabolic and inflammatory pathways. Both macrophages and

  19. Maturation and demise of human primary monocytes by carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nicola, Milena; Mirabile Gattia, Daniele; Traversa, Enrico; Ghibelli, Lina

    2013-06-01

    The possibility of exploiting carbon nanotubes (CNT) in biomedical practices requires thorough analysis of the chemical or bulk effects they may exert on the immune system, the complex network that recognizes and eliminates foreign particles. In particular, the phagocytosing ability of cells belonging to the monocyte/macrophage lineage may render these immune cells an ideal toxicological target of pristine CNT, which may form aggregates of size exceeding monocyte/macrophage phagocytosing plasticity. To shed light on this issue, we analyzed the effects that pristine multi-walled CNT (MWCNT) without metal or biological impurities exert on survival and activation of freshly explanted human peripheral blood monocytes, analyzing in parallel the non-phagocytosing lymphocytes, and using graphite as control carbon material. MWCNT (diameter 10-50 nm, length up to 10 μm) exert two different toxic effects on mononuclear leukocytes: a minor apoptogenic effect (on lymphocytes > monocytes), and a major, apoptosis-independent effect that exclusively and deeply affect monocyte homeostasis. Analysis of monocyte number, adhesion, redox equilibrium, and the differentiation markers CD14 and CD11b reveals that MWCNT cause the selective disappearance of phagocytosis-competent monocytes by mechanisms related to the presence of large nanoparticle aggregates, suggesting phenomena of bulk toxicity possibly consisting of frustrated phagocytosis. At the same time, MWCNT stimulate adhesion of the phagocytosis-incompetent monocytes, and their differentiation toward a peculiar maturation asset. These observations point out novel mechanisms of CNT toxicity, renewing concerns that they may impair the innate immune system deranging the inflammatory responses.

  20. Maturation and demise of human primary monocytes by carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Nicola, Milena, E-mail: milena.de.nicola@uniroma2.it [University of Rome ' Tor Vergata' , Department of Biology (Italy); Mirabile Gattia, Daniele, E-mail: daniele.mirabile@enea.it [UTTMAT, ENEA-C.R. Casaccia (Italy); Traversa, Enrico, E-mail: Enrico.Traversa@kaust.edu.sa [King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Division of Physical Science and Engineering (Saudi Arabia); Ghibelli, Lina, E-mail: ghibelli@uniroma2.it [University of Rome ' Tor Vergata' , Department of Biology (Italy)

    2013-06-15

    The possibility of exploiting carbon nanotubes (CNT) in biomedical practices requires thorough analysis of the chemical or bulk effects they may exert on the immune system, the complex network that recognizes and eliminates foreign particles. In particular, the phagocytosing ability of cells belonging to the monocyte/macrophage lineage may render these immune cells an ideal toxicological target of pristine CNT, which may form aggregates of size exceeding monocyte/macrophage phagocytosing plasticity. To shed light on this issue, we analyzed the effects that pristine multi-walled CNT (MWCNT) without metal or biological impurities exert on survival and activation of freshly explanted human peripheral blood monocytes, analyzing in parallel the non-phagocytosing lymphocytes, and using graphite as control carbon material. MWCNT (diameter 10-50 nm, length up to 10 {mu}m) exert two different toxic effects on mononuclear leukocytes: a minor apoptogenic effect (on lymphocytes > monocytes), and a major, apoptosis-independent effect that exclusively and deeply affect monocyte homeostasis. Analysis of monocyte number, adhesion, redox equilibrium, and the differentiation markers CD14 and CD11b reveals that MWCNT cause the selective disappearance of phagocytosis-competent monocytes by mechanisms related to the presence of large nanoparticle aggregates, suggesting phenomena of bulk toxicity possibly consisting of frustrated phagocytosis. At the same time, MWCNT stimulate adhesion of the phagocytosis-incompetent monocytes, and their differentiation toward a peculiar maturation asset. These observations point out novel mechanisms of CNT toxicity, renewing concerns that they may impair the innate immune system deranging the inflammatory responses.

  1. Maturation and demise of human primary monocytes by carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Nicola, Milena; Mirabile Gattia, Daniele; Traversa, Enrico; Ghibelli, Lina

    2013-01-01

    The possibility of exploiting carbon nanotubes (CNT) in biomedical practices requires thorough analysis of the chemical or bulk effects they may exert on the immune system, the complex network that recognizes and eliminates foreign particles. In particular, the phagocytosing ability of cells belonging to the monocyte/macrophage lineage may render these immune cells an ideal toxicological target of pristine CNT, which may form aggregates of size exceeding monocyte/macrophage phagocytosing plasticity. To shed light on this issue, we analyzed the effects that pristine multi-walled CNT (MWCNT) without metal or biological impurities exert on survival and activation of freshly explanted human peripheral blood monocytes, analyzing in parallel the non-phagocytosing lymphocytes, and using graphite as control carbon material. MWCNT (diameter 10–50 nm, length up to 10 μm) exert two different toxic effects on mononuclear leukocytes: a minor apoptogenic effect (on lymphocytes > monocytes), and a major, apoptosis-independent effect that exclusively and deeply affect monocyte homeostasis. Analysis of monocyte number, adhesion, redox equilibrium, and the differentiation markers CD14 and CD11b reveals that MWCNT cause the selective disappearance of phagocytosis-competent monocytes by mechanisms related to the presence of large nanoparticle aggregates, suggesting phenomena of bulk toxicity possibly consisting of frustrated phagocytosis. At the same time, MWCNT stimulate adhesion of the phagocytosis-incompetent monocytes, and their differentiation toward a peculiar maturation asset. These observations point out novel mechanisms of CNT toxicity, renewing concerns that they may impair the innate immune system deranging the inflammatory responses.

  2. Maturation and demise of human primary monocytes by carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    De Nicola, Milena D.

    2013-05-17

    The possibility of exploiting carbon nanotubes (CNT) in biomedical practices requires thorough analysis of the chemical or bulk effects they may exert on the immune system, the complex network that recognizes and eliminates foreign particles. In particular, the phagocytosing ability of cells belonging to the monocyte/macrophage lineage may render these immune cells an ideal toxicological target of pristine CNT, which may form aggregates of size exceeding monocyte/macrophage phagocytosing plasticity. To shed light on this issue, we analyzed the effects that pristine multi-walled CNT (MWCNT) without metal or biological impurities exert on survival and activation of freshly explanted human peripheral blood monocytes, analyzing in parallel the non-phagocytosing lymphocytes, and using graphite as control carbon material. MWCNT (diameter 10-50 nm, length up to 10 μm) exert two different toxic effects on mononuclear leukocytes: a minor apoptogenic effect (on lymphocytes > monocytes), and a major, apoptosis-independent effect that exclusively and deeply affect monocyte homeostasis. Analysis of monocyte number, adhesion, redox equilibrium, and the differentiation markers CD14 and CD11b reveals that MWCNT cause the selective disappearance of phagocytosis-competent monocytes by mechanisms related to the presence of large nanoparticle aggregates, suggesting phenomena of bulk toxicity possibly consisting of frustrated phagocytosis. At the same time, MWCNT stimulate adhesion of the phagocytosis-incompetent monocytes, and their differentiation toward a peculiar maturation asset. These observations point out novel mechanisms of CNT toxicity, renewing concerns that they may impair the innate immune system deranging the inflammatory responses. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  3. Monocyte-Derived Signals Activate Human Natural Killer Cells in Response to Leishmania Parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messlinger, Helena; Sebald, Heidi; Heger, Lukas; Dudziak, Diana; Bogdan, Christian; Schleicher, Ulrike

    2018-01-01

    Activated natural killer (NK) cells release interferon (IFN)-γ, which is crucial for the control of intracellular pathogens such as Leishmania. In contrast to experimental murine leishmaniasis, the human NK cell response to Leishmania is still poorly characterized. Here, we investigated the interaction of human blood NK cells with promastigotes of different Leishmania species (Leishmania major, Leishmania mexicana, Leishmania infantum, and Leishmania donovani). When peripheral blood mononuclear cells or purified NK cells and monocytes (all derived from healthy blood donors from Germany without a history of leishmaniasis) were exposed to promastigotes, NK cells showed increased surface expression of the activation marker CD69. The extent of this effect varied depending on the Leishmania species; differences between dermotropic and viscerotropic L. infantum strains were not observed. Upregulation of CD69 required direct contact between monocytes and Leishmania and was partly inhibitable by anti-interleukin (IL)-18. Unexpectedly, IL-18 was undetectable in most of the supernatants (SNs) of monocyte/parasite cocultures. Confocal fluorescence microscopy of non-permeabilized cells revealed that Leishmania-infected monocytes trans-presented IL-18 to NK cells. Native, but not heat-treated SNs of monocyte/Leishmania cocultures also induced CD69 on NK cells, indicating the involvement of a soluble heat-labile factor other than IL-18. A role for the NK cell-activating cytokines IL-1β, IL-2, IL-12, IL-15, IL-21, and IFN-α/β was excluded. The increase of CD69 was not paralleled by NK cell IFN-γ production or enhanced cytotoxicity. However, prior exposure of NK cells to Leishmania parasites synergistically increased their IFN-γ release in response to IL-12, which was dependent on endogenous IL-18. CD1c+ dendritic cells were identified as possible source of Leishmania-induced IL-12. Finally, we observed that direct contact between Leishmania and NK cells reduced the

  4. Monocyte-Derived Signals Activate Human Natural Killer Cells in Response to Leishmania Parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Messlinger

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Activated natural killer (NK cells release interferon (IFN-γ, which is crucial for the control of intracellular pathogens such as Leishmania. In contrast to experimental murine leishmaniasis, the human NK cell response to Leishmania is still poorly characterized. Here, we investigated the interaction of human blood NK cells with promastigotes of different Leishmania species (Leishmania major, Leishmania mexicana, Leishmania infantum, and Leishmania donovani. When peripheral blood mononuclear cells or purified NK cells and monocytes (all derived from healthy blood donors from Germany without a history of leishmaniasis were exposed to promastigotes, NK cells showed increased surface expression of the activation marker CD69. The extent of this effect varied depending on the Leishmania species; differences between dermotropic and viscerotropic L. infantum strains were not observed. Upregulation of CD69 required direct contact between monocytes and Leishmania and was partly inhibitable by anti-interleukin (IL-18. Unexpectedly, IL-18 was undetectable in most of the supernatants (SNs of monocyte/parasite cocultures. Confocal fluorescence microscopy of non-permeabilized cells revealed that Leishmania-infected monocytes trans-presented IL-18 to NK cells. Native, but not heat-treated SNs of monocyte/Leishmania cocultures also induced CD69 on NK cells, indicating the involvement of a soluble heat-labile factor other than IL-18. A role for the NK cell-activating cytokines IL-1β, IL-2, IL-12, IL-15, IL-21, and IFN-α/β was excluded. The increase of CD69 was not paralleled by NK cell IFN-γ production or enhanced cytotoxicity. However, prior exposure of NK cells to Leishmania parasites synergistically increased their IFN-γ release in response to IL-12, which was dependent on endogenous IL-18. CD1c+ dendritic cells were identified as possible source of Leishmania-induced IL-12. Finally, we observed that direct contact between Leishmania and NK cells

  5. Plasma level of the macrophage-derived soluble CD163 is increased and positively correlates with severity in Gaucher's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Holger Jon; de Fost, Maaike; Aerts, Hans

    2004-01-01

    Recently, soluble CD163 (sCD163) has been identified as a macrophage/monocyte-specific plasma protein and increased concentrations have been measured in patients with infection and myeloid leukaemia. In the present study we investigated the levels of sCD163 in patients with Gaucher's disease...

  6. Analysis of MDM2 and MDM4 single nucleotide polymorphisms, mRNA splicing and protein expression in retinoblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justina McEvoy

    Full Text Available Retinoblastoma is a childhood cancer of the developing retina that begins in utero and is diagnosed in the first years of life. Biallelic RB1 gene inactivation is the initiating genetic lesion in retinoblastoma. The p53 gene is intact in human retinoblastoma but the pathway is believed to be suppressed by increased expression of MDM4 (MDMX and MDM2. Here we quantify the expression of MDM4 and MDM2 mRNA and protein in human fetal retinae, primary retinoblastomas, retinoblastoma cell lines and several independent orthotopic retinoblastoma xenografts. We found that MDM4 is the major p53 antagonist expressed in retinoblastoma and in the developing human retina. We also discovered that MDM4 protein steady state levels are much higher in retinoblastoma than in human fetal retinae. This increase would not have been predicted based on the mRNA levels. We explored several possible post-transcriptional mechanisms that may contribute to the elevated levels of MDM4 protein. A proportion of MDM4 transcripts are alternatively spliced to produce protein products that are reported to be more stable and oncogenic. We also discovered that a microRNA predicted to target MDM4 (miR191 was downregulated in retinoblastoma relative to human fetal retinae and a subset of samples had somatic mutations that eliminated the miR-191 binding site in the MDM4 mRNA. Taken together, these data suggest that post-transcriptional mechanisms may contribute to stabilization of the MDM4 protein in retinoblastoma.

  7. Association of Canine Osteosarcoma and Monocyte Phenotype and Chemotactic Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuohy, J L; Lascelles, B D X; Griffith, E H; Fogle, J E

    2016-07-01

    Monocytes/macrophages are likely key cells in immune modulation in dogs with osteosarcoma (OSA). Increased peripheral monocyte counts are negatively correlated with shorter disease-free intervals in dogs with OSA. Understanding the monocyte/macrophage's modulatory role in dogs with OSA can direct further studies in immunotherapy development for OSA. That OSA evades the immune response by down-regulating monocyte chemokine receptor expression and migratory function, and suppresses host immune responses. Eighteen dogs with OSA that have not received definitive treatment and 14 healthy age-matched controls Clinical study-expression of peripheral blood monocyte cell surface receptors, monocyte mRNA expression and cytokine secretion, monocyte chemotaxis, and survival were compared between clinical dogs with OSA and healthy control dogs. Cell surface expression of multiple chemokine receptors is significantly down-regulated in peripheral blood monocytes of dogs with OSA. The percentage expression of CCR2 (median 58%, range 2-94%) and CXCR2 expression (median 54%, range 2-92%) was higher in control dogs compared to dogs with OSA (CCR2 median 29%, range 3-45%, P = 0.0006; CXCR2 median 23%, range 0.2-52%, P = 0.0007). Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) (OSA, median 347.36 pg/mL, range 103.4-1268.5; control, 136.23 pg/mL, range 69.93-542.6, P = .04) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) (P = .02) levels are increased in OSA monocyte culture supernatants compared to controls. Peripheral blood monocytes of dogs with OSA exhibit decreased chemotactic function when compared to control dogs (OSA, median 1.2 directed to random migration, range 0.8-1.25; control, 1.6, range of 0.9-1.8, P = .018). Dogs with OSA have decreased monocyte chemokine receptor expression and monocyte chemotaxis, potential mechanisms by which OSA might evade the immune response. Reversal of monocyte dysfunction using immunotherapy could improve survival in dogs with OSA. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of

  8. Targeted blockade in lethal West Nile virus encephalitis indicates a crucial role for very late antigen (VLA-4-dependent recruitment of nitric oxide-producing macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getts Daniel R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Infiltration of Ly6Chi monocytes from the blood is a hallmark of viral encephalitis. In mice with lethal encephalitis caused by West Nile virus (WNV, an emerging neurotropic flavivirus, inhibition of Ly6Chi monocyte trafficking into the brain by anti-very late antigen (VLA-4 integrin antibody blockade at the time of first weight loss and leukocyte influx resulted in long-term survival of up to 60% of infected mice, with subsequent sterilizing immunity. This treatment had no effect on viral titers but appeared to be due to inhibition of Ly6Chi macrophage immigration. Although macrophages isolated from the infected brain induced WNV-specific CD4+ T-cell proliferation, T cells did not directly contribute to pathology, but are likely to be important in viral control, as antibody-mediated T-cell depletion could not reproduce the therapeutic benefit of anti-VLA-4. Instead, 70% of infiltrating inflammatory monocyte-derived macrophages were found to be making nitric oxide (NO. Furthermore, aminoguanidine-mediated inhibition of induced NO synthase activity in infiltrating macrophages significantly prolonged survival, indicating involvement of NO in the immunopathology. These data show for the first time the therapeutic effects of temporally targeting pathogenic NO-producing macrophages during neurotropic viral encephalitis.

  9. Revisiting mouse peritoneal macrophages: heterogeneity, development and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Dos Anjos Cassado

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Tissue macrophages play a crucial role in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis and also contribute to inflammatory and reparatory responses during pathogenic infection and tissue injury. The high heterogeneity of these macrophages is consistent with their adaptation to distinct tissue environments and specialization to develop niche-specific functions. Although peritoneal macrophages are one of best-studied macrophage populations, only recently it was demonstrated the co-existence of two subsets in mouse PerC, which exhibit distinct phenotypes, functions and origins. These macrophage subsets have been classified according to their morphology as LPMs (large peritoneal macrophages and SPMs (small peritoneal macrophages. LPMs, the most abundant subset under steady-state conditions, express high levels of F4/80 and low levels of class II molecules of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC. LPMs appear to be originated from embriogenic precursors, and their maintenance in PerC is regulated by expression of specific transcription factors and tissue-derived signals. Conversely, SPMs, a minor subset in unstimulated PerC, have a F4/80lowMHC-IIhigh phenotype and are generated from bone-marrow-derived myeloid precursors. In response to infectious or inflammatory stimuli, the cellular composition of PerC is dramatically altered, where LPMs disappear and SPMs become the prevalent population together with their precursor, the inflammatory monocyte. SPMs appear to be the major source of inflammatory mediators in PerC during infection whereas LPMs contribute for gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT-independent and retinoic acid-dependent IgA production by peritoneal B-1 cells. In the last years, considerable efforts have been made to broaden our understanding of LPM and SPM origin, transcriptional regulation and functional profile. This review addresses these issues, focusing on the impact of tissue-derived signals and external stimulation in the complex

  10. Deciphering the transcriptional circuitry of microRNA genes expressed during human monocytic differentiation

    KAUST Repository

    Schmeier, Sebastian; MacPherson, Cameron R; Essack, Magbubah; Kaur, Mandeep; Schaefer, Ulf; Suzuki, Harukazu; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Macrophages are immune cells involved in various biological processes including host defence, homeostasis, differentiation, and organogenesis. Disruption of macrophage biology has been linked to increased pathogen infection, inflammation and malignant diseases. Differential gene expression observed in monocytic differentiation is primarily regulated by interacting transcription factors (TFs). Current research suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs) degrade and repress translation of mRNA, but also may target genes involved in differentiation. We focus on getting insights into the transcriptional circuitry regulating miRNA genes expressed during monocytic differentiation. Results: We computationally analysed the transcriptional circuitry of miRNA genes during monocytic differentiation using in vitro time-course expression data for TFs and miRNAs. A set of TF?miRNA associations was derived from predicted TF binding sites in promoter regions of miRNA genes. Time-lagged expression correlation analysis was utilised to evaluate the TF?miRNA associations. Our analysis identified 12 TFs that potentially play a central role in regulating miRNAs throughout the differentiation process. Six of these 12 TFs (ATF2, E2F3, HOXA4, NFE2L1, SP3, and YY1) have not previously been described to be important for monocytic differentiation. The remaining six TFs are CEBPB, CREB1, ELK1, NFE2L2, RUNX1, and USF2. For several miRNAs (miR-21, miR-155, miR-424, and miR-17-92), we show how their inferred transcriptional regulation impacts monocytic differentiation. Conclusions: The study demonstrates that miRNAs and their transcriptional regulatory control are integral molecular mechanisms during differentiation. Furthermore, it is the first study to decipher on a large-scale, how miRNAs are controlled by TFs during human monocytic differentiation. Subsequently, we have identified 12 candidate key controllers of miRNAs during this differentiation process. 2009 Schmeier et al; licensee Bio

  11. Deciphering the transcriptional circuitry of microRNA genes expressed during human monocytic differentiation

    KAUST Repository

    Schmeier, Sebastian

    2009-12-10

    Background: Macrophages are immune cells involved in various biological processes including host defence, homeostasis, differentiation, and organogenesis. Disruption of macrophage biology has been linked to increased pathogen infection, inflammation and malignant diseases. Differential gene expression observed in monocytic differentiation is primarily regulated by interacting transcription factors (TFs). Current research suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs) degrade and repress translation of mRNA, but also may target genes involved in differentiation. We focus on getting insights into the transcriptional circuitry regulating miRNA genes expressed during monocytic differentiation. Results: We computationally analysed the transcriptional circuitry of miRNA genes during monocytic differentiation using in vitro time-course expression data for TFs and miRNAs. A set of TF?miRNA associations was derived from predicted TF binding sites in promoter regions of miRNA genes. Time-lagged expression correlation analysis was utilised to evaluate the TF?miRNA associations. Our analysis identified 12 TFs that potentially play a central role in regulating miRNAs throughout the differentiation process. Six of these 12 TFs (ATF2, E2F3, HOXA4, NFE2L1, SP3, and YY1) have not previously been described to be important for monocytic differentiation. The remaining six TFs are CEBPB, CREB1, ELK1, NFE2L2, RUNX1, and USF2. For several miRNAs (miR-21, miR-155, miR-424, and miR-17-92), we show how their inferred transcriptional regulation impacts monocytic differentiation. Conclusions: The study demonstrates that miRNAs and their transcriptional regulatory control are integral molecular mechanisms during differentiation. Furthermore, it is the first study to decipher on a large-scale, how miRNAs are controlled by TFs during human monocytic differentiation. Subsequently, we have identified 12 candidate key controllers of miRNAs during this differentiation process. 2009 Schmeier et al; licensee Bio

  12. Designing dual inhibitors of Mdm2/MdmX: Unexpected coupling of water with gatekeeper Y100/99.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Xiong An; Verma, Chandra; Sim, Adelene Y L

    2017-08-01

    Mdm2 and MdmX share high structural similarity in their N-terminal domains, yet dual inhibitors are challenging to design due to differences in the conformations of the binding pockets, and notably of the proposed gatekeeper residue, Y100/99. Analysis of crystal structures and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of complexes of Mdm2 and MdmX resulted in the identification of a water molecule with a long residence time that appears to be modulated by the conformation of Y100/99. These observations lead us to speculate that dual inhibitors either (i) stabilize both Mdm2 and MdmX with Y100/99 in the open conformation typically seen in complexes of Mdm2 with p53, or (ii) the dual inhibitors are agnostic to the conformation of Y100/99. The recently developed potent dual inhibitory stapled peptide Atsp7041 appears to be agnostic to the conformation of the gatekeeper residue. Proteins 2017; 85:1493-1506. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Dysregulated Functions of Lung Macrophage Populations in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapellos, Theodore S; Bassler, Kevin; Aschenbrenner, Anna C; Fujii, Wataru; Schultze, Joachim L

    2018-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a diverse respiratory disease characterised by bronchiolitis, small airway obstruction, and emphysema. Innate immune cells play a pivotal role in the disease's progression, and in particular, lung macrophages exploit their prevalence and strategic localisation to orchestrate immune responses. To date, alveolar and interstitial resident macrophages as well as blood monocytes have been described in the lungs of patients with COPD contributing to disease pathology by changes in their functional repertoire. In this review, we summarise recent evidence from human studies and work with animal models of COPD with regard to altered functions of each of these myeloid cell populations. We primarily focus on the dysregulated capacity of alveolar macrophages to secrete proinflammatory mediators and proteases, induce oxidative stress, engulf microbes and apoptotic cells, and express surface and intracellular markers in patients with COPD. In addition, we discuss the differences in the responses between alveolar macrophages and interstitial macrophages/monocytes in the disease and propose how the field should advance to better understand the implications of lung macrophage functions in COPD.

  14. Dysregulated Functions of Lung Macrophage Populations in COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassler, Kevin; Aschenbrenner, Anna C.

    2018-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a diverse respiratory disease characterised by bronchiolitis, small airway obstruction, and emphysema. Innate immune cells play a pivotal role in the disease's progression, and in particular, lung macrophages exploit their prevalence and strategic localisation to orchestrate immune responses. To date, alveolar and interstitial resident macrophages as well as blood monocytes have been described in the lungs of patients with COPD contributing to disease pathology by changes in their functional repertoire. In this review, we summarise recent evidence from human studies and work with animal models of COPD with regard to altered functions of each of these myeloid cell populations. We primarily focus on the dysregulated capacity of alveolar macrophages to secrete proinflammatory mediators and proteases, induce oxidative stress, engulf microbes and apoptotic cells, and express surface and intracellular markers in patients with COPD. In addition, we discuss the differences in the responses between alveolar macrophages and interstitial macrophages/monocytes in the disease and propose how the field should advance to better understand the implications of lung macrophage functions in COPD. PMID:29670919

  15. Tumor associated CD70 expression is involved in promoting tumor migration and macrophage infiltration in GBM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Haitao; Mu, Luyan; Jin, Linchun; Yang, Changlin; Chang, Yifan Emily; Long, Yu; DeLeon, Gabriel; Deleyrolle, Loic; Mitchell, Duane A; Kubilis, Paul S; Lu, Dunyue; Qi, Jiping; Gu, Yunhe; Lin, Zhiguo; Huang, Jianping

    2017-10-01

    Tumor migration/metastasis and immunosuppression are major obstacles in effective cancer therapy. Incidentally, these 2 hurdles usually coexist inside tumors, therefore making therapy significantly more complicated, as both oncogenic mechanisms must be addressed for successful therapeutic intervention. Our recent report highlights that the tumor expression of a TNF family member, CD70, is correlated with poor survival for primary gliomas. In this study, we investigated how CD70 expression by GBM affects the characteristics of tumor cells and the tumor microenvironment. We found that the ablation of CD70 in primary GBM decreased CD44 and SOX2 gene expression, and inhibited tumor migration, growth and the ability to attract monocyte-derived M2 macrophages in vitro. In the tumor microenvironment, CD70 was associated with immune cell infiltrates, such as T cells; myeloid-derived suppressor cells; and monocytes/macrophages based on the RNA-sequencing profile. The CD163+ macrophages were far more abundant than T cells were. This overwhelming level of macrophages was identified only in GBM and not in low-grade gliomas and normal brain specimens, implying their tumor association. CD70 was detected only on tumor cells, not on macrophages, and was highly correlated with CD163 gene expression in primary GBM. Additionally, the co-expression of the CD70 and CD163 genes was found to correlate with decreased survival for patients with primary GBM. Together, these data suggest that CD70 expression is involved in promoting tumor aggressiveness and immunosuppression via tumor-associated macrophage recruitment/activation. Our current efforts to target this molecule using chimeric antigen receptor T cells hold great potential for treating patients with GBM. © 2017 UICC.

  16. Liver macrophages: friend or foe during hepatitis B infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure-Dupuy, Suzanne; Durantel, David; Lucifora, Julie

    2018-05-17

    The Hepatitis B virus chronically infects the liver of 250 million people worldwide. Over the past decades, major advances have been made in the understanding of Hepatitis B virus life cycle in hepatocytes. Beside these parenchymal cells, the liver also contains resident and infiltrating myeloid cells involved in immune responses to pathogens and much less is known about their interplay with Hepatitis B virus. In this review, we summarized and discussed the current knowledge of the role of liver macrophages (including Kupffer cells and liver monocyte-derived macrophages), in HBV infection. While it is still unclear if liver macrophages play a role in the establishment and persistence of HBV infection, several studies disclosed data suggesting that HBV would favour liver macrophage anti-inflammatory phenotypes and thereby increase liver tolerance. In addition, alternatively activated liver macrophages might also play in the long term a key role in hepatitis B associated pathogenesis, especially through the activation of hepatic stellate cells. Therapies aiming at a transient activation of pro-inflammatory liver macrophages should therefore be considered for the treatment of chronic HBV infection. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Macrophage heterogeneity and cholesterol homeostasis: classically-activated macrophages are associated with reduced cholesterol accumulation following treatment with oxidized LDL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Eugene M; Tai, Daven C; Beer, Jennifer L; Hill, John S

    2013-02-01

    Macrophages are centrally involved during atherosclerosis development and are the predominant cell type that accumulates cholesterol in the plaque. Macrophages however, are heterogeneous in nature reflecting a variety of microenvironments and different phenotypes may be more prone to contribute towards atherosclerosis progression. Using primary human monocyte-derived macrophages, we sought to evaluate one aspect of atherogenic potential of different macrophage phenotypes by determining their propensity to associate with and accumulate oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL). Classically-activated macrophages treated simultaneously with interferon γ (IFNγ) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) associated with less oxLDL and accumulated less cholesterol compared to untreated controls. The combined treatment of IFNγ and TNFα reduced the mRNA expression of CD36 and the expression of both cell surface CD36 and macrophage scavenger receptor 1 (MSR1) protein. Under oxLDL loaded conditions, IFNγ and TNFα did not reduce macrophage protein expression of the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-actived receptor γ (PPARγ) which is known to positively regulate CD36 expression. However, macrophages treated with IFNγ attenuated the ability of the PPARγ-specific agonist rosiglitazone from upregulating cell surface CD36 protein expression. Our results demonstrate that the observed reduction of cholesterol accumulation in macrophages treated with IFNγ and TNFα following oxLDL treatment was due at least in part to reduced cell surface CD36 and MSR1 protein expression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The glial scar-monocyte interplay: a pivotal resolution phase in spinal cord repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravid Shechter

    Full Text Available The inflammatory response in the injured spinal cord, an immune privileged site, has been mainly associated with the poor prognosis. However, recent data demonstrated that, in fact, some leukocytes, namely monocytes, are pivotal for repair due to their alternative anti-inflammatory phenotype. Given the pro-inflammatory milieu within the traumatized spinal cord, known to skew monocytes towards a classical phenotype, a pertinent question is how parenchymal-invading monocytes acquire resolving properties essential for healing, under such unfavorable conditions. In light of the spatial association between resolving (interleukin (IL-10 producing monocytes and the glial scar matrix chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG, in this study we examined the mutual relationship between these two components. By inhibiting the de novo production of CSPG following spinal cord injury, we demonstrated that this extracellular matrix, mainly known for its ability to inhibit axonal growth, serves as a critical template skewing the entering monocytes towards the resolving phenotype. In vitro cell culture studies demonstrated that this matrix alone is sufficient to induce such monocyte polarization. Reciprocal conditional ablation of the monocyte-derived macrophages concentrated at the lesion margins, using diphtheria toxin, revealed that these cells have scar matrix-resolving properties. Replenishment of monocytic cell populations to the ablated mice demonstrated that this extracellular remodeling ability of the infiltrating monocytes requires their expression of the matrix-degrading enzyme, matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13, a property that was found here to be crucial for functional recovery. Altogether, this study demonstrates that the glial scar-matrix, a known obstacle to regeneration, is a critical component skewing the encountering monocytes towards a resolving phenotype. In an apparent feedback loop, monocytes were found to regulate scar resolution. This

  19. Cooperation between Monocyte-Derived Cells and Lymphoid Cells in the Acute Response to a Bacterial Lung Pathogen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S Brown

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, a potentially fatal lung infection. Alveolar macrophages support intracellular replication of L. pneumophila, however the contributions of other immune cell types to bacterial killing during infection are unclear. Here, we used recently described methods to characterise the major inflammatory cells in lung after acute respiratory infection of mice with L. pneumophila. We observed that the numbers of alveolar macrophages rapidly decreased after infection coincident with a rapid infiltration of the lung by monocyte-derived cells (MC, which, together with neutrophils, became the dominant inflammatory cells associated with the bacteria. Using mice in which the ability of MC to infiltrate tissues is impaired it was found that MC were required for bacterial clearance and were the major source of IL12. IL12 was needed to induce IFNγ production by lymphoid cells including NK cells, memory T cells, NKT cells and γδ T cells. Memory T cells that produced IFNγ appeared to be circulating effector/memory T cells that infiltrated the lung after infection. IFNγ production by memory T cells was stimulated in an antigen-independent fashion and could effectively clear bacteria from the lung indicating that memory T cells are an important contributor to innate bacterial defence. We also determined that a major function of IFNγ was to stimulate bactericidal activity of MC. On the other hand, neutrophils did not require IFNγ to kill bacteria and alveolar macrophages remained poorly bactericidal even in the presence of IFNγ. This work has revealed a cooperative innate immune circuit between lymphoid cells and MC that combats acute L. pneumophila infection and defines a specific role for IFNγ in anti-bacterial immunity.

  20. Binding of recombinant HIV coat protein gp120 to human monocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finbloom, D.S.; Hoover, D.L.; Meltzer, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    Inasmuch as the exact level of CD4 Ag expression on macrophages is controversial and because HIV may interact with macrophages in a manner different from that on T cells, we analyzed the binding of gp120 to freshly isolated and cultured monocytes. rgp120 was iodinated using the lactoperoxidase method to a sp. act. of 600 Ci/mmol. Highly purified monocytes (greater than 90%) were isolated from the leukapheresed blood of normal volunteers by Ficoll-Hypaque sedimentation followed by countercurrent centrifugal elutriation and cultured 7 days in DMEM supplemented with 1000 U/ml macrophage CSF in 10% human serum. Whereas MOLT/4 cells consistently bound freshly prepared 125I-rgp120 at 80% specificity with 5100 +/- 700 mol/cell, MCSF cultured monocytes bound rgp120 at only 0 to 20% specificity and 420 +/- 200 mol/cell. Most of the radioactivity bound by these cells could not be blocked by the addition of unlabeled rgp120. In contrast, the U937 myeloid cell line bound rgp120 with 50% specificity and about 2500 mol/cell. Whereas the antibody OKT4a (anti-CD4) blocked 80% of the binding on MOLT/4 cells and 50% on U937 cells, binding was only inhibited on the average of 6% on cultured monocytes. When soluble rCD4 was used as an inhibitor, binding to MOLT/4 cells was blocked by 80%. In contrast, binding to cultured monocytes was inhibited by 28%. HIV infectivity was blocked by similar concentrations of OKT4a. These observations suggest that although most binding of gp120 to cultured monocytes is not to the CD4 determinant, several hundred molecules do bind to a CD4-like molecule which promotes virus entry and replication

  1. Biological role of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) on cells of the myeloid lineage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushach, Irina; Zlotnik, Albert

    2016-01-01

    M-CSF and GM-CSF are 2 important cytokines that regulate macrophage numbers and function. Here, we review their known effects on cells of the macrophage-monocyte lineage. Important clues to their function come from their expression patterns. M-CSF exhibits a mostly homeostatic expression pattern, whereas GM-CSF is a product of cells activated during inflammatory or pathologic conditions. Accordingly, M-CSF regulates the numbers of various tissue macrophage and monocyte populations without altering their "activation" status. Conversely, GM-CSF induces activation of monocytes/macrophages and also mediates differentiation to other states that participate in immune responses [i.e., dendritic cells (DCs)]. Further insights into their function have come from analyses of mice deficient in either cytokine. M-CSF signals through its receptor (CSF-1R). Interestingly, mice deficient in CSF-1R expression exhibit a more significant phenotype than mice deficient in M-CSF. This observation was explained by the discovery of a novel cytokine (IL-34) that represents a second ligand of CSF-1R. Information about the function of these ligands/receptor system is still developing, but its complexity is intriguing and strongly suggests that more interesting biology remains to be elucidated. Based on our current knowledge, several therapeutic molecules targeting either the M-CSF or the GM-CSF pathways have been developed and are currently being tested in clinical trials targeting either autoimmune diseases or cancer. It is intriguing to consider how evolution has directed these pathways to develop; their complexity likely mirrors the multiple functions in which cells of the monocyte/macrophage system are involved. PMID:27354413

  2. Red Wine administration to Apolipoprotein E-deficient Mice reduces their Macrophage-derived Extracellular Matrix Atherogenic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIELLE KAPLAN

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteoglycans (PGs from the arterial extracellular matrix (ECM contribute to the trapping of LDL and oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL in the arterial wall, a phenomenon called "lipoprotein retention". Moreover, we have shown that subsequent to their binding to the matrix, LDL and Ox-LDL are taken up by macrophages. Oxidative stress significantly increases macrophage secretion of ECM-PGs, lipoprotein binding to the ECM and the uptake of ECM-retained lipoproteins by macrophages. The aim of the present study was to determine whether red wine administration to atherosclerotic mice would affect their peritoneal macrophage-derived extracellular matrix properties, such as the glycosaminoglycan content and the ability to bind LDL. In addition, we questioned the ability of LDL bound to the mice peritoneal macrophages-derived ECM to be taken up by macrophages. Red wine administration to atherosclerotic mice did not affect the mice peritoneal macrophages-derived ECM glycosaminoglycan content but it significantly reduced the mice peritoneal macrophages-derived ECM ability to bind LDL and the subsequent uptake of ECM-retained LDL by the macrophages. The present study thus clearly demonstrated the inhibitory effect of red wine consumption by E0 mice on their peritoneal macrophage-derived extracellular matrix atherogenic properties.

  3. Unveiling skin macrophage dynamics explains both tattoo persistence and strenuous removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranska, Anna; Shawket, Alaa; Jouve, Mabel; Baratin, Myriam; Malosse, Camille; Voluzan, Odessa; Vu Manh, Thien-Phong; Fiore, Frédéric; Bajénoff, Marc; Benaroch, Philippe; Dalod, Marc; Malissen, Marie; Henri, Sandrine; Malissen, Bernard

    2018-04-02

    Here we describe a new mouse model that exploits the pattern of expression of the high-affinity IgG receptor (CD64) and allows diphtheria toxin (DT)-mediated ablation of tissue-resident macrophages and monocyte-derived cells. We found that the myeloid cells of the ear skin dermis are dominated by DT-sensitive, melanin-laden cells that have been missed in previous studies and correspond to macrophages that have ingested melanosomes from neighboring melanocytes. Those cells have been referred to as melanophages in humans. We also identified melanophages in melanocytic melanoma. Benefiting of our knowledge on melanophage dynamics, we determined the identity, origin, and dynamics of the skin myeloid cells that capture and retain tattoo pigment particles. We showed that they are exclusively made of dermal macrophages. Using the possibility to delete them, we further demonstrated that tattoo pigment particles can undergo successive cycles of capture-release-recapture without any tattoo vanishing. Therefore, congruent with dermal macrophage dynamics, long-term tattoo persistence likely relies on macrophage renewal rather than on macrophage longevity. © 2018 Baranska et al.

  4. Mdm2 and MdmX inhibitors for the treatment of cancer : a patent review (2011-present)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zak, Krzysztof; Pecak, Aleksandra; Rys, Barbara; Wladyka, Benedykt; Doemling, Alexander; Weber, Lutz; Holak, Tad A.; Dubin, Grzegorz

    Introduction: One of the hallmarks of cancer cells is the inactivation of the p53 pathway either due to mutations in the p53 gene or over-expression of negative regulators, Mdm2 and/or MdmX. Pharmacological disruption of the Mdm2/X-p53 interaction to restore p53 activity is an attractive concept,

  5. Active Targeted Macrophage-mediated Delivery of Catalase to Affected Brain Regions in Models of Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuling; Haney, Matthew J; Mahajan, Vivek; Reiner, Benjamin C; Dunaevsky, Anna; Mosley, R Lee; Kabanov, Alexander V; Gendelman, Howard E; Batrakova, Elena V

    2011-09-10

    We previously demonstrated that monocyte-macrophage based drug delivery can be applied to a spectrum of infectious, neoplastic, and degenerative disorders. In particular, bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) loaded with nano formulated catalase, "nanozyme", were shown to attenuate neuro inflammation and nigrostriatal degeneration in rodent models of Parkinson's disease (PD). Nonetheless, the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of BMM-incorporated nanozyme has not been explored. To this end, we now demonstrate that BMM, serving as a "depot" for nanozyme, increased area under the curve(AUC), half-life, and mean residence time in blood circulation of the protein when compared to the nanozyme administered alone. Accordingly, bioavailability of the nanozyme for the brain, spleen, kidney, and liver was substantially increased. Importantly, nanozyme-loaded BMM targeted diseased sites and improved transport across the blood brain barrier. This was seen specifically in affected brain subregions in models of PD. Engaging natural immune cells such as monocyte-macrophages as drug carriers provides a new perspective for therapeutic delivery for PD and also likely a range of other inflammatory and degenerative diseases.

  6. The Clustered, Regularly Interspaced, Short Palindromic Repeats-associated Endonuclease 9 (CRISPR/Cas9)-created MDM2 T309G Mutation Enhances Vitreous-induced Expression of MDM2 and Proliferation and Survival of Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yajian; Ma, Gaoen; Huang, Xionggao; D'Amore, Patricia A; Zhang, Feng; Lei, Hetian

    2016-07-29

    The G309 allele of SNPs in the mouse double minute (MDM2) promoter locus is associated with a higher risk of cancer and proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), but whether SNP G309 contributes to the pathogenesis of PVR is to date unknown. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated endonuclease (Cas) 9 from Streptococcus pyogenes (SpCas9) can be harnessed to manipulate a single or multiple nucleotides in mammalian cells. Here we delivered SpCas9 and guide RNAs using dual adeno-associated virus-derived vectors to target the MDM2 genomic locus together with a homologous repair template for creating the mutation of MDM2 T309G in human primary retinal pigment epithelial (hPRPE) cells whose genotype is MDM2 T309T. The next-generation sequencing results indicated that there was 42.51% MDM2 G309 in the edited hPRPE cells using adeno-associated viral CRISPR/Cas9. Our data showed that vitreous induced an increase in MDM2 and subsequent attenuation of p53 expression in MDM2 T309G hPRPE cells. Furthermore, our experimental results demonstrated that MDM2 T309G in hPRPE cells enhanced vitreous-induced cell proliferation and survival, suggesting that this SNP contributes to the pathogenesis of PVR. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Distinct Upstream Role of Type I IFN Signaling in Hematopoietic Stem Cell-Derived and Epithelial Resident Cells for Concerted Recruitment of Ly-6Chi Monocytes and NK Cells via CCL2-CCL3 Cascade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdenebileg Uyangaa

    Full Text Available Type I interferon (IFN-I-dependent orchestrated mobilization of innate cells in inflamed tissues is believed to play a critical role in controlling replication and CNS-invasion of herpes simplex virus (HSV. However, the crucial regulators and cell populations that are affected by IFN-I to establish the early environment of innate cells in HSV-infected mucosal tissues are largely unknown. Here, we found that IFN-I signaling promoted the differentiation of CCL2-producing Ly-6Chi monocytes and IFN-γ/granzyme B-producing NK cells, whereas deficiency of IFN-I signaling induced Ly-6Clo monocytes producing CXCL1 and CXCL2. More interestingly, recruitment of Ly-6Chi monocytes preceded that of NK cells with the levels peaked at 24 h post-infection in IFN-I-dependent manner, which was kinetically associated with the CCL2-CCL3 cascade response. Early Ly-6Chi monocyte recruitment was governed by CCL2 produced from hematopoietic stem cell (HSC-derived leukocytes, whereas NK cell recruitment predominantly depended on CC chemokines produced by resident epithelial cells. Also, IFN-I signaling in HSC-derived leukocytes appeared to suppress Ly-6Ghi neutrophil recruitment to ameliorate immunopathology. Finally, tissue resident CD11bhiF4/80hi macrophages and CD11chiEpCAM+ dendritic cells appeared to produce initial CCL2 for migration-based self-amplification of early infiltrated Ly-6Chi monocytes upon stimulation by IFN-I produced from infected epithelial cells. Ultimately, these results decipher a detailed IFN-I-dependent pathway that establishes orchestrated mobilization of Ly-6Chi monocytes and NK cells through CCL2-CCL3 cascade response of HSC-derived leukocytes and epithelium-resident cells. Therefore, this cascade response of resident-to-hematopoietic-to-resident cells that drives cytokine-to-chemokine-to-cytokine production to recruit orchestrated innate cells is critical for attenuation of HSV replication in inflamed tissues.

  8. Regulation of alternative macrophage activation in the liver following acetaminophen intoxication by stem cell-derived tyrosine kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, Carol R., E-mail: cgardner@pharmacy.rutgers.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Hankey, Pamela [Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Science, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Mishin, Vladimir; Francis, Mary [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Yu, Shan [Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Science, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Laskin, Debra L. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Stem cell-derived tyrosine kinase (STK) is a transmembrane receptor reported to play a role in macrophage switching from a classically activated/proinflammatory phenotype to an alternatively activated/wound repair phenotype. In the present studies, STK{sup −/−} mice were used to assess the role of STK in acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity as evidence suggests that the pathogenic process involves both of these macrophage subpopulations. In wild type mice, centrilobular hepatic necrosis and increases in serum transaminase levels were observed within 6 h of acetaminophen administration (300 mg/kg, i.p.). Loss of STK resulted in a significant increase in sensitivity of mice to the hepatotoxic effects of acetaminophen and increased mortality, effects independent of its metabolism. This was associated with reduced levels of hepatic glutathione, rapid upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase, and prolonged induction of heme oxygenase-1, suggesting excessive oxidative stress in STK{sup −/−} mice. F4/80, a marker of mature macrophages, was highly expressed on subpopulations of Kupffer cells in livers of wild type, but not STK{sup −/−} mice. Whereas F4/80{sup +} macrophages rapidly declined in the livers of wild type mice following acetaminophen intoxication, they increased in STK{sup −/−} mice. In wild type mice hepatic expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-12, products of classically activated macrophages, increased after acetaminophen administration. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and its receptor, CCR2, as well as IL-10, mediators involved in recruiting and activating anti-inflammatory/wound repair macrophages, also increased in wild type mice after acetaminophen. Loss of STK blunted the effects of acetaminophen on expression of TNFα, IL-1β, IL-12, MCP-1 and CCR2, while expression of IL-10 increased. Hepatic expression of CX3CL1, and its receptor, CX3CR1 also increased in STK{sup −/−} mice

  9. Monocyte matrix metalloproteinase production in Type 2 diabetes and controls – a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies Isabel R

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary plaque rupture may result from localised over expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs within the plaque by infiltrating monocytemacrophages. As MMP expression can be promoted by the modified lipoproteins, oxidative stress and hyperglycaemia that characterises Type 2 diabetes, we hypothesised that peripheral monocytes in these patients, exposed to these factors in vivo, would demonstrate increased MMP production compared to controls. Methods We examined peripheral venous monocyte expression of MMP and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1 in 18 controls and 22 subjects with Type 2 diabetes and no previous cardiovascular complications. Results No significant difference in MMP-1, 3 or 9 or TIMP-1 production was observed between control and diabetes groups. Conclusions Monocyte MMP-1, 3, and 9, and TIMP-1, production are not abnormal in Type 2 diabetes. This data cannot be extrapolated to monocytemacrophage behaviour in the vessel wall, but it does suggest MMP and TIMP-1 expression prior to monocyte infiltration and transformation are not abnormal in Type 2 diabetes.

  10. Expression analysis of G Protein-Coupled Receptors in mouse macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattin, Jane E; Schroder, Kate; Su, Andrew I; Walker, John R; Zhang, Jie; Wiltshire, Tim; Saijo, Kaoru; Glass, Christopher K; Hume, David A; Kellie, Stuart; Sweet, Matthew J

    2008-04-29

    Monocytes and macrophages express an extensive repertoire of G Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) that regulate inflammation and immunity. In this study we performed a systematic micro-array analysis of GPCR expression in primary mouse macrophages to identify family members that are either enriched in macrophages compared to a panel of other cell types, or are regulated by an inflammatory stimulus, the bacterial product lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Several members of the P2RY family had striking expression patterns in macrophages; P2ry6 mRNA was essentially expressed in a macrophage-specific fashion, whilst P2ry1 and P2ry5 mRNA levels were strongly down-regulated by LPS. Expression of several other GPCRs was either restricted to macrophages (e.g. Gpr84) or to both macrophages and neural tissues (e.g. P2ry12, Gpr85). The GPCR repertoire expressed by bone marrow-derived macrophages and thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages had some commonality, but there were also several GPCRs preferentially expressed by either cell population. The constitutive or regulated expression in macrophages of several GPCRs identified in this study has not previously been described. Future studies on such GPCRs and their agonists are likely to provide important insights into macrophage biology, as well as novel inflammatory pathways that could be future targets for drug discovery.

  11. ALV-J infection induces chicken monocyte death accompanied with the production of IL-1β and IL-18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Manman; Feng, Min; Xie, Tingting; Li, Yuanfang; Ruan, Zhuohao; Shi, Meiqing; Liao, Ming; Zhang, Xiquan

    2017-11-21

    Immunosuppression induced by avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) causes serious reproduction problems and secondary infections in chickens. Given that monocytes are important precursors of immune cells including macrophages and dendritic cells, we investigated the fate of chicken monocytes after ALV-J infection. Our results indicated that most monocytes infected with ALV-J including field or laboratory strains could not successfully differentiate into macrophages due to cells death. And cells death was dependent upon viral titer and accompanied with increased IL-1β and IL-18 mRNA levels. In addition, ALV-J infection up-regulated caspase-1 and caspase-3 activity in monocytes. Collectively, we found that ALV-J could cause cell death in chicken monocytes, especially pyroptosis, which may be a significant reason for ALV-J induced immunosuppression.

  12. Crystal structure of Mdm12 and combinatorial reconstitution of Mdm12/Mmm1 ERMES complexes for structural studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AhYoung, Andrew P.; Lu, Brian; Cascio, Duilio; Egea, Pascal F.

    2017-06-01

    Membrane contact sites between organelles serve as molecular hubs for the exchange of metabolites and signals. In yeast, the Endoplasmic Reticulum – Mitochondrion Encounter Structure (ERMES) tethers these two organelles likely to facilitate the non-vesicular exchange of essential phospholipids. Present in Fungi and Amoebas but not in Metazoans, ERMES is composed of five distinct subunits; among those, Mdm12, Mmm1 and Mdm34 each contain an SMP domain functioning as a lipid transfer module. We previously showed that the SMP domains of Mdm12 and Mmm1 form a hetero-tetramer. Here we describe our strategy to diversify the number of Mdm12/Mmm1 complexes suited for structural studies. We use sequence analysis of orthologues combined to protein engineering of disordered regions to guide the design of protein constructs and expand the repertoire of Mdm12/Mmm1 complexes more likely to crystallize. Using this combinatorial approach we report crystals of Mdm12/Mmm1 ERMES complexes currently diffracting to 4.5 Å resolution and a new structure of Mdm12 solved at 4.1 Å resolution. Our structure reveals a monomeric form of Mdm12 with a conformationally dynamic N-terminal β-strand; it differs from a previously reported homodimeric structure where the N-terminal β strands where swapped to promote dimerization. Based on our electron microscopy data, we propose a refined pseudo-atomic model of the Mdm12/Mmm1 complex that agrees with our crystallographic and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) solution data.

  13. Monocytes and macrophages in pregnancy and pre-eclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, Marijke M.; Spaans, Floor; De Vos, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Preeclampsia is an important complication in pregnancy, characterized by hypertension and proteinuria in the second half of pregnancy. Generalized activation of the inflammatory response is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia. Monocytes may play a central role in this

  14. Human macrophage hemoglobin-iron metabolism in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Custer, G.; Balcerzak, S.; Rinehart, J.

    1982-01-01

    An entirely in vitro technique was employed to characterize hemoglobin-iron metabolism by human macrophages obtained by culture of blood monocytes and pulmonary alveolar macrophages. Macrophages phagocytized about three times as many erythrocytes as monocytes and six times as many erythrocytes as pulmonary alveolar macrophages. The rate of subsequent release of 59 Fe to the extracellular transferrin pool was two- to fourfold greater for macrophages as compared to the other two cell types. The kinetics of 59 Fe-transferrin release were characterized by a relatively rapid early phase (hours 1-4) followed by a slow phase (hours 4-72) for all three cell types. Intracellular movement of iron was characterized by a rapid shift from hemoglobin to ferritin that was complete with the onset of the slow phase of extracellular release. A transient increase in 59 Fe associated with an intracellular protein eluting with transferrin was also observed within 1 hour after phagocytosis. The process of hemoglobin-iron release to extracellular transferrin was inhibited at 4 degrees C but was unaffected by inhibitory of protein synthesis, glycolysis, microtubule function, and microfilament function. These data emphasize the rapidity of macrophage hemoglobin iron metabolism, provide a model for characterization of this process in vitro, and in general confirm data obtained utilizing in vivo animal models

  15. Curcumin enhances human macrophage control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiyuan; Oberley-Deegan, Rebecca E; Bai, An; Ovrutsky, Alida R; Kinney, William H; Weaver, Michael; Zhang, Gong; Honda, Jennifer R; Chan, Edward D

    2016-07-01

    With the worldwide emergence of highly drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB), novel agents that have direct antimycobacterial effects or that enhance host immunity are urgently needed. Curcumin is a polyphenol responsible for the bright yellow-orange colour of turmeric, a spice derived from the root of the perennial herb Curcuma longa. Curcumin is a potent inducer of apoptosis-an effector mechanism used by macrophages to kill intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). An in vitro human macrophage infection model was used to determine the effects of curcumin on MTB survival. We found that curcumin enhanced the clearance of MTB in differentiated THP-1 human monocytes and in primary human alveolar macrophages. We also found that curcumin was an inducer of caspase-3-dependent apoptosis and autophagy. Curcumin mediated these anti-MTB cellular functions, in part, via inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB) activation. Curcumin protects against MTB infection in human macrophages. The host-protective role of curcumin against MTB in macrophages needs confirmation in an animal model; if validated, the immunomodulatory anti-TB effects of curcumin would be less prone to drug resistance development. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  16. Tie2 signaling cooperates with TNF to promote the pro-inflammatory activation of human macrophages independently of macrophage functional phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Samuel; Krausz, Sarah; Ambarus, Carmen A; Fernández, Beatriz Malvar; Hartkamp, Linda M; van Es, Inge E; Hamann, Jörg; Baeten, Dominique L; Tak, Paul P; Reedquist, Kris A

    2014-01-01

    Angiopoietin (Ang) -1 and -2 and their receptor Tie2 play critical roles in regulating angiogenic processes during development, homeostasis, tumorigenesis, inflammation and tissue repair. Tie2 signaling is best characterized in endothelial cells, but a subset of human and murine circulating monocytes/macrophages essential to solid tumor formation express Tie2 and display immunosuppressive properties consistent with M2 macrophage polarization. However, we have recently shown that Tie2 is strongly activated in pro-inflammatory macrophages present in rheumatoid arthritis patient synovial tissue. Here we examined the relationship between Tie2 expression and function during human macrophage polarization. Tie2 expression was observed under all polarization conditions, but was highest in IFN-γ and IL-10 -differentiated macrophages. While TNF enhanced expression of a common restricted set of genes involved in angiogenesis and inflammation in GM-CSF, IFN-γ and IL-10 -differentiated macrophages, expression of multiple chemokines and cytokines, including CXCL3, CXCL5, CXCL8, IL6, and IL12B was further augmented in the presence of Ang-1 and Ang-2, via Tie2 activation of JAK/STAT signaling. Conditioned medium from macrophages stimulated with Ang-1 or Ang-2 in combination with TNF, sustained monocyte recruitment. Our findings suggest a general role for Tie2 in cooperatively promoting the inflammatory activation of macrophages, independently of polarization conditions.

  17. Rhinovirus infection induces distinct transcriptome profiles in polarized human macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Charu; Walsh, Megan P; Eder, Breanna N; Metitiri, Ediri E; Popova, Antonia P; Hershenson, Marc B

    2018-05-01

    Infections with rhinovirus (RV) cause asthma exacerbations. Recent studies suggest that macrophages play a role in asthmatic airway inflammation and the innate immune response to RV infection. Macrophages exhibit phenotypes based on surface markers and gene expression. We hypothesized that macrophage polarization state alters gene expression in response to RV infection. Cells were derived from human peripheral blood derived monocytes. M1 and M2 polarization was carried out by using IFN-γ and IL-4, respectively, and RNA was extracted for Affymetrix Human Gene ST2.1 exon arrays. Selected genes were validated by quantitative (q)PCR. Treatment of nonactivated (M0) macrophages with IFN-γ and IL-4 induced the expression of 252 and 153 distinct genes, respectively, including previously-identified M1 and M2 markers. RV infection of M0 macrophages induced upregulation of 232 genes; pathway analysis showed significant overrepresentation of genes involved in IFN-α/β signaling and cytokine signaling in the immune system. RV infection induced differential expression of 195 distinct genes in M1-like macrophages but only seven distinct genes in M2-like-polarized cells. In a secondary analysis, comparison between M0-, RV-infected, and M1-like-polarized, RV-infected macrophages revealed differential expression of 227 genes including those associated with asthma and its exacerbation. qPCR demonstrated increased expression of CCL8, CXCL10, TNFSF10, TNFSF18, IL6, NOD2, and GSDMD and reduced expression of VNN1, AGO1, and AGO2. Together, these data show that, in contrast to M2-like-polarized macrophages, gene expression of M1-like macrophages is highly regulated by RV.

  18. Inflammatory monocytes promote progression of Duchenne muscular dystrophy and can be therapeutically targeted via CCR2

    OpenAIRE

    Mojumdar, Kamalika; Liang, Feng; Giordano, Christian; Lemaire, Christian; Danialou, Gawiyou; Okazaki, Tatsuma; Bourdon, Johanne; Rafei, Moutih; Galipeau, Jacques; Divangahi, Maziar; Petrof, Basil J

    2014-01-01

    Myofiber necrosis and fibrosis are hallmarks of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), leading to lethal weakness of the diaphragm. Macrophages (MPs) are required for successful muscle regeneration, but the role of inflammatory monocyte (MO)-derived MPs in either promoting or mitigating DMD is unclear. We show that DMD (mdx) mouse diaphragms exhibit greatly increased expression of CCR2 and its chemokine ligands, along with inflammatory (Ly6Chigh) MO recruitment and accumulation of CD11bhigh MO-de...

  19. Zinc oxide nanoparticles induce migration and adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells and accelerate foam cell formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Yuka; Tada-Oikawa, Saeko [Graduate School of Regional Innovation Studies, Mie University, Tsu (Japan); Ichihara, Gaku [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Yabata, Masayuki; Izuoka, Kiyora [Graduate School of Regional Innovation Studies, Mie University, Tsu (Japan); Suzuki, Masako; Sakai, Kiyoshi [Nagoya City Public Health Research Institute, Nagoya (Japan); Ichihara, Sahoko, E-mail: saho@gene.mie-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Regional Innovation Studies, Mie University, Tsu (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles are widely used in industry, cosmetics, and biomedicine. However, the effects of exposure to these nanoparticles on the cardiovascular system remain unknown. The present study investigated the effects of nanosized TiO{sub 2} and ZnO particles on the migration and adhesion of monocytes, which are essential processes in atherosclerogenesis, using an in vitro set-up of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human monocytic leukemia cells (THP-1). We also examined the effects of exposure to nanosized metal oxide particles on macrophage cholesterol uptake and foam cell formation. The 16-hour exposure to ZnO particles increased the level of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and induced the migration of THP-1 monocyte mediated by increased MCP-1. Exposure to ZnO particles also induced adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs. Moreover, exposure to ZnO particles, but not TiO{sub 2} particles, upregulated the expression of membrane scavenger receptors of modified LDL and increased cholesterol uptake in THP-1 monocytes/macrophages. In the present study, we found that exposure to ZnO particles increased macrophage cholesterol uptake, which was mediated by an upregulation of membrane scavenger receptors of modified LDL. These results suggest that nanosized ZnO particles could potentially enhance atherosclerogenesis and accelerate foam cell formation. - Highlights: • Effects of metal oxide nanoparticles on foam cell formation were investigated. • Exposure to ZnO nanoparticles induced migration and adhesion of monocytes. • Exposure to ZnO nanoparticles increased macrophage cholesterol uptake. • Expression of membrane scavenger receptors of modified LDL was also increased. • These effects were not observed after exposure to TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles.

  20. Mdm2 Function in Tumorigenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lozano, Guillermina

    1998-01-01

    .... Analysis if the embryos indicate that they are dying by apoptosis. Analysis of mice null for p53 and the presence or absence of the mdm2 gene indicate a longer tumor latency in p53-/-mdm2+/- mice...

  1. Identification of proangiogenic TIE2-expressing monocytes (TEMs) in human peripheral blood and cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Venneri, Mary Anna; De Palma, Michele; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Pucci, Ferdinando; Scielzo, Cristina; Zonari, Erika; Mazzieri, Roberta; Doglioni, Claudio; Naldini, Luigi

    2007-01-01

    Tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells, including tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), have been implicated in tumor progression. We recently described a lineage of mouse monocytes characterized by expression of the Tie2 angiopoietin receptor and required for the vascularization and growth of several tumor models. Here, we report that TIE2 expression in human blood identifies a subset of monocytes distinct from classical inflammatory monocytes and comprised within the less abundant "resident" popul...

  2. The Activin A-Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Axis Contributes to the Transcriptome of GM-CSF-Conditioned Human Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Concha; Bragado, Rafael; Municio, Cristina; Sierra-Filardi, Elena; Alonso, Bárbara; Escribese, María M; Domínguez-Andrés, Jorge; Ardavín, Carlos; Castrillo, Antonio; Vega, Miguel A; Puig-Kröger, Amaya; Corbí, Angel L

    2018-01-01

    GM-CSF promotes the functional maturation of lung alveolar macrophages (A-MØ), whose differentiation is dependent on the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) transcription factor. In fact, blockade of GM-CSF-initiated signaling or deletion of the PPARγ-encoding gene PPARG leads to functionally defective A-MØ and the onset of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. In vitro , macrophages generated in the presence of GM-CSF display potent proinflammatory, immunogenic and tumor growth-limiting activities. Since GM-CSF upregulates PPARγ expression, we hypothesized that PPARγ might contribute to the gene signature and functional profile of human GM-CSF-conditioned macrophages. To verify this hypothesis, PPARγ expression and activity was assessed in human monocyte-derived macrophages generated in the presence of GM-CSF [proinflammatory GM-CSF-conditioned human monocyte-derived macrophages (GM-MØ)] or M-CSF (anti-inflammatory M-MØ), as well as in ex vivo isolated human A-MØ. GM-MØ showed higher PPARγ expression than M-MØ, and the expression of PPARγ in GM-MØ was found to largely depend on activin A. Ligand-induced activation of PPARγ also resulted in distinct transcriptional and functional outcomes in GM-MØ and M-MØ. Moreover, and in the absence of exogenous activating ligands, PPARγ knockdown significantly altered the GM-MØ transcriptome, causing a global upregulation of proinflammatory genes and significantly modulating the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation and migration. Similar effects were observed in ex vivo isolated human A-MØ, where PPARγ silencing led to enhanced expression of genes coding for growth factors and chemokines and downregulation of cell surface pathogen receptors. Therefore, PPARγ shapes the transcriptome of GM-CSF-dependent human macrophages ( in vitro derived GM-MØ and ex vivo isolated A-MØ) in the absence of exogenous activating ligands, and its expression is primarily regulated by activin A

  3. Simulating molecular mechanisms of the MDM2-mediated regulatory interactions: a conformational selection model of the MDM2 lid dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennady M Verkhivker

    Full Text Available Diversity and complexity of MDM2 mechanisms govern its principal function as the cellular antagonist of the p53 tumor suppressor. Structural and biophysical studies have demonstrated that MDM2 binding could be regulated by the dynamics of a pseudo-substrate lid motif. However, these experiments and subsequent computational studies have produced conflicting mechanistic models of MDM2 function and dynamics. We propose a unifying conformational selection model that can reconcile experimental findings and reveal a fundamental role of the lid as a dynamic regulator of MDM2-mediated binding. In this work, structure, dynamics and energetics of apo-MDM2 are studied as a function of posttranslational modifications and length of the lid. We found that the dynamic equilibrium between "closed" and "semi-closed" lid forms may be a fundamental characteristic of MDM2 regulatory interactions, which can be modulated by phosphorylation, phosphomimetic mutation as well as by the lid size. Our results revealed that these factors may regulate p53-MDM2 binding by fine-tuning the thermodynamic equilibrium between preexisting conformational states of apo-MDM2. In agreement with NMR studies, the effect of phosphorylation on MDM2 interactions was more pronounced with the truncated lid variant that favored the thermodynamically dominant closed form. The phosphomimetic mutation S17D may alter the lid dynamics by shifting the thermodynamic equilibrium towards the ensemble of "semi-closed" conformations. The dominant "semi-closed" lid form and weakened dependence on the phosphorylation seen in simulations with the complete lid can provide a rationale for binding of small p53-based mimetics and inhibitors without a direct competition with the lid dynamics. The results suggested that a conformational selection model of preexisting MDM2 states may provide a robust theoretical framework for understanding MDM2 dynamics. Probing biological functions and mechanisms of MDM2

  4. Evaluating the Effects of Cytomegalovirus Glycoprotein B on the Maturation and Function of Monocyte-derived dendritic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsson shariat

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Interaction of cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B with toll-like receptors of dendritic cells leads to early signaling and innate immune responses. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B on the maturation and function of monocyte-derived dendritic cells in treated groups in comparison with control groups. Materials & Methods: Blood samples were taken from 5 healthy volunteers. Following the generation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells on the fifth day of cell culture, half of the immature dendritic cells were treated with cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B, and the rest of them were induced to mature dendritic untreated cells and were used as the control group. The maturation and function of dendritic cells were evaluated in these two groups. Results: The gene expression level of toll-like receptor-4 significantly increased in the group treated with glycoprotein B (p < 0.05, whereas there were no significant differences in the expression rates of CD83, CD86, CD1a, and HLA-DR and the secretion of IL-23 from monocyte-derived dendritic cells between the treated groups and the controls. Conclusion: The increase in the gene expression of toll-like receptor-4 in monocyte-derived dendritic cells treated with cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B showed that cell contact is required to elicit cellular antiviral response and toll-like receptor activation. Thus, it is critical to recognize the viral and cellular determinants of the immune system in order to develop new therapeutic strategies against cytomegalovirus.

  5. Neutrophil Microvesicles from Healthy Control and Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Prevent the Inflammatory Activation of Macrophages

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    Hefin I. Rhys

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Microvesicles (MVs are emerging as a novel means to enact cell-to-cell communication in inflammation. Here, we aimed to ascertain the ability of neutrophil-derived MVs to modulate target cell behaviour, the focus being the macrophage.MVs were generated in response to tumour necrosis factor-α, from healthy control neutrophils or those from rheumatoid arthritis patients. MVs were used to stimulate human monocyte-derived macrophages in vitro, or administered intra-articularly in the K/BxN mouse model of arthritis. A macrophage/fibroblast-like synoviocyte co-culture system was used to study the effects of vesicles on the crosstalk between these cells.We demonstrate a direct role for phosphatidylserine and annexin-A1 exposed by the MVs to counteract classical activation of the macrophages, and promote the release of transforming growth factor-β, respectively. Classically-activated macrophages exposed to neutrophil MVs no longer activated fibroblast-like synoviocytes in subsequent co-culture settings. Finally, intra-articular administration of neutrophil MVs from rheumatoid arthritis patients in arthritic mice affected the phenotype of joint macrophages.Altogether these data, with the identification of specific MV determinants, open new opportunities to modulate on-going inflammation in the synovia – mainly by affecting macrophage polarization and potentially also fibroblast-like synoviocytes - through the delivery of autologous or heterologous MVs produced from neutrophils. Keywords: Neutrophils, Macrophages, Vesicles, Rheumatoid arthritis

  6. Alcohol and cannabinoids differentially affect HIV infection and function of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC

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    Marisela eAgudelo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, alcohol has been known to induce inflammation while cannabinoids have been shown to have an anti-inflammatory role. For instance cannabinoids have been shown to reduce susceptibility to HIV-1 infection and attenuate HIV replication in macrophages. Recently, we demonstrated that alcohol induces cannabinoid receptors and regulates cytokine production by monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC. However, the ability of alcohol and cannabinoids to alter MDDC function during HIV infection has not been clearly elucidated yet. In order to study the potential impact of alcohol and cannabinoids on differentiated MDDC infected with HIV, monocytes were cultured for 7 days with GM-CSF and IL-4, differentiated MDDC were infected with HIV-1Ba-L and treated with EtOH (0.1 and 0.2%, THC (5 and 10 uM, or JWH-015 (5 and 10 uM for 4-7 days. HIV infection of MDDC was confirmed by p24 and Long Terminal Repeats (LTR estimation. MDDC endocytosis assay and cytokine array profiles were measured to investigate the effects of HIV and substances of abuse on MDDC function. Our results show the HIV+EtOH treated MDDC had the highest levels of p24 production and expression when compared with the HIV positive controls and the cannabinoid treated cells. Although both cannabinoids, THC and JWH-015 had lower levels of p24 production and expression, the HIV+JWH-015 treated MDDC had the lowest levels of p24 when compared to the HIV+THC treated cells. In addition, MDDC endocytic function and cytokine production were also differentially altered after alcohol and cannabinoid treatments. Our results show a differential effect of alcohol and cannabinoids, which may provide insights into the divergent inflammatory role of alcohol and cannabinoids to modulate MDDC function in the context of HIV infection.

  7. Neisseria gonorrhoeae Modulates Immunity by Polarizing Human Macrophages to a M2 Profile.

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    María Carolina Ortiz

    Full Text Available Current data suggest that Neisseria gonorrhoeae is able to suppress the protective immune response at different levels, such as B and T lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells. The present report is focused on gonococcus evasion mechanism on macrophages (MФ and its impact in the subsequent immune response. In response to various signals MФ may undergo classical-M1 (M1-MФ or alternative-M2 (M2-MФ activation. Until now there are no reports of the gonococcus effects on human MФ polarization. We assessed the phagocytic ability of monocyte-derived MФ (MDM upon gonococcal infection by immunofluorescence and gentamicin protection experiments. Then, we evaluated cytokine profile and M1/M2 specific-surface markers on MФ challenged with N. gonorrhoeae and their proliferative effect on T cells. Our findings lead us to suggest N. gonorrhoeae stimulates a M2-MФ phenotype in which some of the M2b and none of the M1-MФ-associated markers are induced. Interestingly, N. gonorrhoeae exposure leads to upregulation of a Programmed Death Ligand 1 (PD-L1, widely known as an immunosuppressive molecule. Moreover, functional results showed that N. gonorrhoeae-treated MФ are unable to induce proliferation of human T-cells, suggesting a more likely regulatory phenotype. Taken together, our data show that N. gonorroheae interferes with MФ polarization. This study has important implications for understanding the mechanisms of clearance versus long-term persistence of N. gonorroheae infection and might be applicable for the development of new therapeutic strategies.

  8. Rare MDM4 gene amplification in colorectal cancer: The principle of a mutually exclusive relationship between MDM alteration and TP53 inactivation is not applicable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, Tetsuji; Yoshihara, Mitsuyo; Nakamura, Yoshiyasu; Sekiguchi, Hironobu; Godai, Ten-I; Sugano, Nobuhiro; Tsuchida, Kazuhito; Shiozawa, Manabu; Sakuma, Yuji; Tsuchiya, Eiju; Kameda, Yoichi; Akaike, Makoto; Matsukuma, Shoichi; Miyagi, Yohei

    2011-07-01

    MDM4, a homolog of MDM2, is considered a key negative regulator of p53. Gene amplification of MDM4 has been identified in a variety of tumors. MDM2 or MDM4 gene amplification is only associated with the wild-type TP53 gene in retinoblastomas, thus the amplification of the two genes is mutually exclusive. Previously, we demonstrated that MDM2 amplification and TP53 alteration were not mutually exclusive in colorectal cancer, and we identified a subset of colorectal cancer patients without alterations in either the TP53 or the MDM2 gene. In this study, we investigated the gene amplification status of MDM4 in the same set of colorectal cancer cases. Unexpectedly, MDM4 amplification was rare, detected in only 1.4% (3 out of 211) of colorectal cancer cases. All the three gene-amplified tumors also harbored TP53-inactivating mutations. This contradicts the simple mutually exclusive relationship observed in retinoblastomas. Surprisingly, two of the three MDM4-amplified tumors also demonstrated MDM2 amplification. Paradoxically, the MDM4 protein levels were decreased in the tumor tissue of the gene-amplified cases compared with levels in the matched normal mucosa. We speculate that MDM4 might play a role in colorectal carcinogenesis that is not limited to negative regulation of p53 in combination with MDM2. The functional significance of MDM4 is still unclear and further studies are needed.

  9. Efficient internalization of mesoporous silica particles of different sizes by primary human macrophages without impairment of macrophage clearance of apoptotic or antibody-opsonized target cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witasp, Erika; Kupferschmidt, Natalia; Bengtsson, Linnea; Hultenby, Kjell; Smedman, Christian; Paulie, Staffan; Garcia-Bennett, Alfonso E.; Fadeel, Bengt

    2009-01-01

    Macrophage recognition and ingestion of apoptotic cell corpses, a process referred to as programmed cell clearance, is of considerable importance for the maintenance of tissue homeostasis and in the resolution of inflammation. Moreover, macrophages are the first line of defense against microorganisms and other foreign materials including particles. However, there is sparse information on the mode of uptake of engineered nanomaterials by primary macrophages. In this study, mesoporous silica particles with cubic pore geometries and covalently fluorescein-grafted particles were synthesized through a novel route, and their interactions with primary human monocyte-derived macrophages were assessed. Efficient and active internalization of mesoporous silica particles of different sizes was observed by transmission electron microscopic and flow cytometric analysis and studies using pharmacological inhibitors suggested that uptake occurred through a process of endocytosis. Moreover, uptake of silica particles was independent of serum factors. The silica particles with very high surface areas due to their porous structure did not impair cell viability or function of macrophages, including the ingestion of different classes of apoptotic or opsonized target cells. The current findings are relevant to the development of mesoporous materials for drug delivery and other biomedical applications.

  10. Synergistic targeting of malignant pleural mesothelioma cells by MDM2 inhibitors and TRAIL agonists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urso, Loredana; Biasini, Lorena; Zago, Giulia; Calabrese, Fiorella; Conte, Pier Franco; Ciminale, Vincenzo; Pasello, Giulia

    2017-01-01

    Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM) is a chemoresistant tumor characterized by low rate of p53 mutation and upregulation of Murine Double Minute 2 (MDM2), suggesting that it may be effectively targeted using MDM2 inhibitors. In the present study, we investigated the anticancer activity of the MDM2 inhibitors Nutlin 3a (in vitro) and RG7112 (in vivo), as single agents or in combination with rhTRAIL. In vitro studies were performed using MPM cell lines derived from epithelioid (ZL55, M14K), biphasic (MSTO211H) and sarcomatoid (ZL34) MPMs. In vivo studies were conducted on a sarcomatoid MPM mouse model. In all the cell lines tested (with the exception of ZL55, which carries a biallelic loss-of-function mutation of p53), Nutlin 3a enhanced p21, MDM2 and DR5 expression, and decreased survivin expression. These changes were associated to cell cycle arrest but not to a significant induction of apoptosis. A synergistic pro-apoptotic effect was obtained through the association of rhTRAIL in all the cell lines harboring functional p53. This synergistic interaction of MDM2 inhibitor and TRAIL agonist was confirmed using a mouse preclinical model. Our results suggest that the combined targeting of MDM2 and TRAIL might provide a novel therapeutic option for treatment of MPM patients, particularly in the case of sarcomatoid MPM with MDM2 overexpression and functional inactivation of wild-type p53. PMID:28562336

  11. Classification of M1/M2-polarized human macrophages by label-free hyperspectral reflectance confocal microscopy and multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertani, Francesca R; Mozetic, Pamela; Fioramonti, Marco; Iuliani, Michele; Ribelli, Giulia; Pantano, Francesco; Santini, Daniele; Tonini, Giuseppe; Trombetta, Marcella; Businaro, Luca; Selci, Stefano; Rainer, Alberto

    2017-08-21

    The possibility of detecting and classifying living cells in a label-free and non-invasive manner holds significant theranostic potential. In this work, Hyperspectral Imaging (HSI) has been successfully applied to the analysis of macrophagic polarization, given its central role in several pathological settings, including the regulation of tumour microenvironment. Human monocyte derived macrophages have been investigated using hyperspectral reflectance confocal microscopy, and hyperspectral datasets have been analysed in terms of M1 vs. M2 polarization by Principal Components Analysis (PCA). Following PCA, Linear Discriminant Analysis has been implemented for semi-automatic classification of macrophagic polarization from HSI data. Our results confirm the possibility to perform single-cell-level in vitro classification of M1 vs. M2 macrophages in a non-invasive and label-free manner with a high accuracy (above 98% for cells deriving from the same donor), supporting the idea of applying the technique to the study of complex interacting cellular systems, such in the case of tumour-immunity in vitro models.

  12. Interaction between the macrophage system and IgA immune complexes in IgA nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roccatello, D; Coppo, R; Basolo, B; Martina, G; Rollino, C; Cordonnier, D; Busquet, G; Picciotto, G; Sena, L M; Piccoli, G

    1983-01-01

    In nine patients with IgA nephropathy, the function of the mononuclear phagocyte system was assessed by measuring in vivo clearance of anti-D coated red blood cells (RBC) and in vitro phagocytosis of sensitised RBC by monocytes. A strict correlation was found between in vivo macrophage function and in vitro monocyte phagocytosis. Statistical correlations were also found between in vivo clearance values and IgAIC and C3d values. A defective macrophage and monocyte function affects patients with major signs of clinical activity, highest IgAIC values, signs of complement activation and the most unfavourable clinical course.

  13. Single-Cell RNA-Seq Reveals the Transcriptional Landscape and Heterogeneity of Aortic Macrophages in Murine Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochain, Clément; Vafadarnejad, Ehsan; Arampatzi, Panagiota; Jaroslav, Pelisek; Winkels, Holger; Ley, Klaus; Wolf, Dennis; Saliba, Antoine-Emmanuel; Zernecke, Alma

    2018-03-15

    Rationale: It is assumed that atherosclerotic arteries contain several macrophage subsets endowed with specific functions. The precise identity of these subsets is poorly characterized as they ha ve been defined by the expression of a restricted number of markers. Objective: We have applied single-cell RNA-seq as an unbiased profiling strategy to interrogate and classify aortic macrophage heterogeneity at the single-cell level in atherosclerosis. Methods and Results: We performed single-cell RNA sequencing of total aortic CD45 + cells extracted from the non-diseased (chow fed) and atherosclerotic (11 weeks of high fat diet) aorta of Ldlr -/- mice. Unsupervised clustering singled out 13 distinct aortic cell clusters. Among the myeloid cell populations, Resident-like macrophages with a gene expression profile similar to aortic resident macrophages were found in healthy and diseased aortae, whereas monocytes, monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDC), and two populations of macrophages were almost exclusively detectable in atherosclerotic aortae, comprising Inflammatory macrophages showing enrichment in I l1b , and previously undescribed TREM2 hi macrophages. Differential gene expression and gene ontology enrichment analyses revealed specific gene expression patterns distinguishing these three macrophage subsets and MoDC, and uncovered putative functions of each cell type. Notably, TREM2 hi macrophages appeared to be endowed with specialized functions in lipid metabolism and catabolism, and presented a gene expression signature reminiscent of osteoclasts, suggesting a role in lesion calcification. TREM2 expression was moreover detected in human lesional macrophages. Importantly, these macrophage populations were present also in advanced atherosclerosis and in Apoe -/- aortae, indicating relevance of our findings in different stages of atherosclerosis and mouse models. Conclusions: These data unprecedentedly uncovered the transcriptional landscape and phenotypic

  14. Exercise promotes collateral artery growth mediated by monocytic nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, Stephan H; Millenaar, Dominic N; Werner, Christian; Schuh, Lisa; Degen, Achim; Bettink, Stephanie I; Lipp, Peter; van Rooijen, Nico; Meyer, Tim; Böhm, Michael; Laufs, Ulrich

    2015-08-01

    Collateral artery growth (arteriogenesis) is an important adaptive response to hampered arterial perfusion. It is unknown whether preventive physical exercise before limb ischemia can improve arteriogenesis and modulate mononuclear cell function. This study aimed at investigating the effects of endurance exercise before arterial occlusion on MNC function and collateral artery growth. After 3 weeks of voluntary treadmill exercise, ligation of the right femoral artery was performed in mice. Hindlimb perfusion immediately after surgery did not differ from sedentary mice. However, previous exercise improved perfusion restoration ≤7 days after femoral artery ligation, also when exercise was stopped at ligation. This was accompanied by an accumulation of peri-collateral macrophages and increased expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in hindlimb collateral and in MNC of blood and spleen. Systemic monocyte and macrophage depletion by liposomal clodronate but not splenectomy attenuated exercise-induced perfusion restoration, collateral artery growth, peri-collateral macrophage accumulation, and upregulation of iNOS. iNOS-deficient mice did not show exercise-induced perfusion restoration. Transplantation of bone marrow-derived MNC from iNOS-deficient mice into wild-type animals inhibited exercise-induced collateral artery growth. In contrast to sedentary controls, thrice weekly aerobic exercise training for 6 months in humans increased peripheral blood MNC iNOS expression. Circulating mononuclear cell-derived inducible nitric oxide is an important mediator of exercise-induced collateral artery growth. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. A TNF-Regulated Recombinatorial Macrophage Immune Receptor Implicated in Granuloma Formation in Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streich, Roswita; Breysach, Caroline; Raddatz, Dirk; Oniga, Septimia; Peccerella, Teresa; Findeisen, Peter; Kzhyshkowska, Julia; Gratchev, Alexei; Schweyer, Stefan; Saunders, Bernadette; Wessels, Johannes T.; Möbius, Wiebke; Keane, Joseph; Becker, Heinz; Ganser, Arnold; Neumaier, Michael; Kaminski, Wolfgang E.

    2011-01-01

    Macrophages play a central role in host defense against mycobacterial infection and anti- TNF therapy is associated with granuloma disorganization and reactivation of tuberculosis in humans. Here, we provide evidence for the presence of a T cell receptor (TCR) αβ based recombinatorial immune receptor in subpopulations of human and mouse monocytes and macrophages. In vitro, we find that the macrophage-TCRαβ induces the release of CCL2 and modulates phagocytosis. TNF blockade suppresses macrophage-TCRαβ expression. Infection of macrophages from healthy individuals with mycobacteria triggers formation of clusters that express restricted TCR Vβ repertoires. In vivo, TCRαβ bearing macrophages abundantly accumulate at the inner host-pathogen contact zone of caseous granulomas from patients with lung tuberculosis. In chimeric mouse models, deletion of the variable macrophage-TCRαβ or TNF is associated with structurally compromised granulomas of pulmonary tuberculosis even in the presence of intact T cells. These results uncover a TNF-regulated recombinatorial immune receptor in monocytes/macrophages and demonstrate its implication in granuloma formation in tuberculosis. PMID:22114556

  16. A TNF-regulated recombinatorial macrophage immune receptor implicated in granuloma formation in tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander W Beham

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages play a central role in host defense against mycobacterial infection and anti- TNF therapy is associated with granuloma disorganization and reactivation of tuberculosis in humans. Here, we provide evidence for the presence of a T cell receptor (TCR αβ based recombinatorial immune receptor in subpopulations of human and mouse monocytes and macrophages. In vitro, we find that the macrophage-TCRαβ induces the release of CCL2 and modulates phagocytosis. TNF blockade suppresses macrophage-TCRαβ expression. Infection of macrophages from healthy individuals with mycobacteria triggers formation of clusters that express restricted TCR Vβ repertoires. In vivo, TCRαβ bearing macrophages abundantly accumulate at the inner host-pathogen contact zone of caseous granulomas from patients with lung tuberculosis. In chimeric mouse models, deletion of the variable macrophage-TCRαβ or TNF is associated with structurally compromised granulomas of pulmonary tuberculosis even in the presence of intact T cells. These results uncover a TNF-regulated recombinatorial immune receptor in monocytes/macrophages and demonstrate its implication in granuloma formation in tuberculosis.

  17. The MAPK ERK5, but not ERK1/2, inhibits the progression of monocytic phenotype to the functioning macrophage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xuening [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Rutgers, NJ Medical School, 185 South Orange Ave, Newark, NJ 07103 (United States); Pesakhov, Stella [Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, PO Box 653, 84105 Beer-Sheva (Israel); Harrison, Jonathan S [Department of Medicine, Rutgers, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ 08903 (United States); Kafka, Michael; Danilenko, Michael [Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, PO Box 653, 84105 Beer-Sheva (Israel); Studzinski, George P, E-mail: studzins@njms.rutgers.edu [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Rutgers, NJ Medical School, 185 South Orange Ave, Newark, NJ 07103 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular signaling pathways present targets for pharmacological agents with potential for treatment of neoplastic diseases, with some disease remissions already recorded. However, cellular compensatory mechanisms usually negate the initial success. For instance, attempts to interrupt aberrant signaling downstream of the frequently mutated ras by inhibiting ERK1/2 has shown only limited usefulness for cancer therapy. Here, we examined how ERK5, that overlaps the functions of ERK1/2 in cell proliferation and survival, functions in a manner distinct from ERK1/2 in human AML cells induced to differentiate by 1,25D-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} (1,25D). Using inhibitors of ERK1/2 and of MEK5/ERK5 at concentrations specific for each kinase in HL60 and U937 cells, we observed that selective inhibition of the kinase activity of ERK5, but not of ERK1/2, in the presence of 1,25D resulted in macrophage-like cell morphology and enhancement of phagocytic activity. Importantly, this was associated with increased expression of the macrophage colony stimulating factor receptor (M-CSFR), but was not seen when M-CSFR expression was knocked down. Interestingly, inhibition of ERK1/2 led to activation of ERK5 in these cells. Our results support the hypothesis that ERK5 negatively regulates the expression of M-CSFR, and thus has a restraining function on macrophage differentiation. The addition of pharmacological inhibitors of ERK5 may influence trials of differentiation therapy of AML. - Highlights: • ERK5 has at least some functions in AML cells which are distinct from those of ERK1/2. • ERK5 activity negatively controls the expression of M-CSFR. • ERK5 retards the progression of differentiation from monocyte to functional macrophage.

  18. Transcript and protein analysis reveals better survival skills of monocyte-derived dendritic cells compared to monocytes during oxidative stress.

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    Ilse Van Brussel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dendritic cells (DCs, professional antigen-presenting cells with the unique ability to initiate primary T-cell responses, are present in atherosclerotic lesions where they are exposed to oxidative stress that generates cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS. A large body of evidence indicates that cell death is a major modulating factor of atherogenesis. We examined antioxidant defence systems of human monocyte-derived (moDCs and monocytes in response to oxidative stress. METHODS: Oxidative stress was induced by addition of tertiary-butylhydroperoxide (tert-BHP, 30 min. Cellular responses were evaluated using flow cytometry and confocal live cell imaging (both using 5-(and-6-chloromethyl-2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, CM-H(2DCFDA. Viability was assessed by the neutral red assay. Total RNA was extracted for a PCR profiler array. Five genes were selected for confirmation by Taqman gene expression assays, and by immunoblotting or immunohistochemistry for protein levels. RESULTS: Tert-BHP increased CM-H(2DCFDA fluorescence and caused cell death. Interestingly, all processes occurred more slowly in moDCs than in monocytes. The mRNA profiler array showed more than 2-fold differential expression of 32 oxidative stress-related genes in unstimulated moDCs, including peroxiredoxin-2 (PRDX2, an enzyme reducing hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxides. PRDX2 upregulation was confirmed by Taqman assays, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. Silencing PRDX2 in moDCs by means of siRNA significantly increased CM-DCF fluorescence and cell death upon tert-BHP-stimulation. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that moDCs exhibit higher intracellular antioxidant capacities, making them better equipped to resist oxidative stress than monocytes. Upregulation of PRDX2 is involved in the neutralization of ROS in moDCs. Taken together, this points to better survival skills of DCs in oxidative stress environments, such as atherosclerotic plaques.

  19. Radiation-Induced Thymidine Phosphorylase Upregulation in Rectal Cancer Is Mediated by Tumor-Associated Macrophages by Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 From Cancer Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae-Dong; Li Ge; Song, Kyoung-Sub; Kim, Jin-Man; Kim, Jun-Sang; Kim, Jong-Seok; Yun, Eun-Jin; Park, Jong-Il; Park, Hae-Duck; Hwang, Byung-Doo; Lim, Kyu; Yoon, Wan-Hee

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The mechanisms of thymidine phosphorylase (TP) regulation induced by radiation therapy (XRT) in various tumors are poorly understood. We investigated the effect and mechanisms of preoperative XRT on TP expression in rectal cancer tissues. Methods and Materials: TP expression and CD68 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels in rectal cancer tissues and cancer cell lines were evaluated before and after XRT in Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, enzyme-linked immunoassay, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction studies. Isolated peripheral blood monocytes were used in the study of chemotaxis under the influence of MCP-1 released by irradiated colon cancer cells. Results: Expression of TP was significantly elevated by 9 Gy of XRT in most rectal cancer tissues but not by higher doses of XRT. In keeping with the close correlation of the increase in both TP expression and the number of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), anti-TP immunoreactivity was found in the CD68-positive TAMs and not the neoplastic cells. Expression of MCP-1 was increased in most cases after XRT, and this increase was strongly correlated with TP expression. However, this increase in MCP-1 expression occurred in tumor cells and not stromal cells. The XRT upregulated MCP-1 mRNA and also triggered the release of MCP-1 protein from cultured colon cancer cells. The supernatant of irradiated colon cancer cells showed strong chemotactic activity for monocyte migration, but this activity was completely abolished by neutralizing antibody. Conclusions: Use of XRT induces MCP-1 expression in cancer cells, which causes circulating monocytes to be recruited into TAMs, which then upregulate TP expression in rectal cancer tissues

  20. DMPD: LPS induction of gene expression in human monocytes. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 11257452 LPS induction of gene expression in human monocytes. Guha M, Mackman N. Ce...ll Signal. 2001 Feb;13(2):85-94. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show LPS induction of gene expression in human... monocytes. PubmedID 11257452 Title LPS induction of gene expression in human monocytes. Authors Guha M, Ma

  1. Screening of medicinal plant phytochemicals as natural antagonists of p53-MDM2 interaction to reactivate p53 functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Muhammad; Ashfaq, Usman A; Qasim, Muhammad; Yasmeen, Erum; Ul Qamar, Muhammad T; Anwar, Farooq

    2017-10-01

    In most types of cancer, overexpression of murine double minute 2 (MDM2) often leads to inactivation of p53. The crystal structure of MDM2, with a 109-residue amino-terminal domain, reveals that MDM2 has a core hydrophobic region to which p53 binds as an amphipathic α helix. The interface depends on the steric complementarity between MDM2 and the hydrophobic region of p53. Especially, on p53's triad, amino acids Phe19, Trp23 and Leu26 bind to the MDM2 core. Results from studies suggest that the structural motif of both p53 and MDM2 can be attributed to similarities in the amphipathic α helix. Thus, in the current investigation it is hypothesized that the similarity in the structural motif might be the cause of p53 inactivation by MDM2. Hence, molecular docking and phytochemical screening approaches are appraised to inhibit the hydrophobic cleft of MDM2 and to stop p53-MDM2 interaction, resulting in reactivation of p53 activity. For this purpose, a library of 2295 phytochemicals were screened against p53-MDM2 to find potential candidates. Of these, four phytochemicals including epigallocatechin gallate, alvaradoin M, alvaradoin E and nordihydroguaiaretic acid were found to be potential inhibitors of p53-MDM2 interaction. The screened phytochemicals, derived from natural extracts, may have negligible side effects and can be explored as potent antagonists of p53-MDM2 interactions, resulting in reactivation of the normal transcription of p53.

  2. RORα Induces KLF4-Mediated M2 Polarization in the Liver Macrophages that Protect against Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Hyun Han

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of M1/M2 polarization in liver macrophages is closely associated with the progression of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH; however, the mechanism involved in this process remains unclear. Here, we describe the orphan nuclear receptor retinoic-acid-related orphan receptor α (RORα as a key regulator of M1/M2 polarization in hepatic residential Kupffer cells (KCs and infiltrated monocyte-derived macrophages. RORα enhanced M2 polarization in KCs by inducing the kruppel-like factor 4. M2 polarization was defective in KCs and bone-marrow-derived macrophages of the myeloid-specific RORα null mice, and these mice were susceptible to HFD-induced NASH. We found that IL-10 played an important role in connecting the function of M2 KCs to lipid accumulation and apoptosis in hepatocytes. Importantly, M2 polarization was controlled by a RORα activator, JC1-40, which improved symptoms of NASH. Our results suggest that the M2-promoting effects of RORα in liver macrophages may provide better therapeutic strategies against NASH.

  3. MDM2 beyond cancer: podoptosis, development, inflammation, and tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahim, Martrez; Mulay, Shrikant R; Anders, Hans-Joachim; Thomasova, Dana

    2015-11-01

    Murine double minute (MDM)-2 is an intracellular molecule with diverse biological functions. It was first described to limit p53-mediated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, hence, gain of function mutations are associated with malignancies. This generated a rationale for MDM2 being a potential therapeutic target in cancer therapy. Meanwhile, several additional functions and pathogenic roles of MDM2 have been identified that either enforce therapeutic MDM2 blockade or raise caution about potential side effects. MDM2 is also required for organ development and tissue homeostasis because unopposed p53 activation leads to p53-overactivation-dependent cell death, referred to as podoptosis. Podoptosis is caspase-independent and, therefore, different from apoptosis. The mitogenic role of MDM2 is also needed for wound healing upon tissue injury, while MDM2 inhibition impairs re-epithelialization upon epithelial damage. In addition, MDM2 has p53-independent transcription factor-like effects in nuclear factor-kappa beta (NFκB) activation. Therefore, MDM2 promotes tissue inflammation and MDM2 inhibition has potent anti-inflammatory effects in tissue injury. Here we review the biology of MDM2 in the context of tissue development, homeostasis, and injury and discuss how the divergent roles of MDM2 could be used for certain therapeutic purposes. MDM2 blockade had mostly anti-inflammatory and anti-mitotic effects that can be of additive therapeutic efficacy in inflammatory and hyperproliferative disorders such as certain cancers or lymphoproliferative autoimmunity, such as systemic lupus erythematosus or crescentic glomerulonephritis.

  4. Uptake of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose in human monocyte-macrophages in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deichen, Jan Thiess; Prante, Olaf; Gack, Michaela; Schmiedehausen, Kristin; Kuwert, Torsten

    2003-01-01

    The fact that fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose ([ 18 F]FDG) accumulates in inflammatory lesions as well as in tumours reduces the diagnostic specificity of positron emission tomography (PET) in oncology. The aim of this study was to characterise the uptake of [ 18 F]FDG in isolated human monocyte-macrophages (HMMs) in vitro in comparison with that in human glioblastoma (GLI) and pancreatic carcinoma cells (PAN). The purity of HMM preparations was determined by immunohistochemical staining and their functional integrity was assessed by long-term incubation with iodine-131 acetylated bovine serum albumin. [ 18 F]FDG uptake in HMMs was quantified as percent of whole [ 18 F]FDG activity per well (% ID) or as % ID in relation to total protein mass. [ 18 F]FDG uptake in HMMs significantly increased with culture duration, yielding 7.5%±0.9% (% ID/100 μg) at day 14. Stimulation by lipopolysaccharide further enhanced [ 18 F]FDG uptake in HMMs by a factor of 2. [ 18 F]FDG uptake significantly decreased with increasing glucose concentration in the medium. Radio-thin layer chromatography of intracellular metabolites revealed that [ 18 F]FDG was trapped by HMMs mainly as [ 18 F]FDG-6-phosphate and [ 18 F]FDG-1,6-diphosphate. [ 18 F]FDG uptake was in the range of uptake values measured in GLI and PAN. By accumulating [ 18 F]FDG in a manner analogous to uptake by tumour cells, activated HMMs may contribute to the [ 18 F]FDG uptake values measured by PET in neoplasms. (orig.)

  5. [Macrophage colony stimulating factor enhances non-small cell lung cancer invasion and metastasis by promoting macrophage M2 polarization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y J; Yang, L; Wang, L P; Zhang, Y

    2017-06-23

    Objective: To investigate the key cytokine which polarizes M2 macrophages and promotes invasion and metastasis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: After co-culture with A549 cells in vitro, the proportion of CD14(+) CD163(+) M2 macrophages in monocytes and macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) levels in culture supernatant were detected by flow cytometry, ELISA assay and real-time qPCR, respectively. The effects of CD14(+) CD163(+) M2 macrophages on invasion of A549 cells and angiogenesis of HUVEC cells were measured by transwell assay and tubule formation assay, respectively. The clinical and prognostic significance of M-CSF expression in NSCLC was further analyzed. Results: The percentage of CD14(+) CD163(+) M2 macrophages in monocytes and the concentration of M-CSF in the supernatant followed by co-culture was (12.03±0.46)% and (299.80±73.76)pg/ml, respectively, which were significantly higher than those in control group [(2.80±1.04)% and (43.07±11.22)pg/ml, respectively, P macrophages in vitro . M2 macrophages enhanced the invasion of A549 cells (66 cells/field vs. 26 cells/field) and the angiogenesis of HUVEC cells (22 tubes/field vs. 8 tubes/field). The mRNA expression of M-CSF in stage Ⅰ-Ⅱ patients (16.23±4.83) was significantly lower than that in stage Ⅲ-Ⅳ (53.84±16.08; P macrophages, which can further promote the metastasis and angiogenesis of NSCLC. M-CSF could be used as a potential therapeutic target of NSCLC.

  6. Detection of early atherosclerosis with radiolabeled monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in prediabeteic Zucker rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blankenberg, F.G. [Div. of Pediatric Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Wen, P.; Dai, M.; Zhu, D.; Panchal, S.N.; Valantine, H.A. [Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Tait, J.F. [Dept. of Laboratory Medicine, Univ. of Washington, Seattle (United States); Post, A.M.; Strauss, H.W. [Div. of Nuclear Medicine, Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2001-12-01

    Background: Migration of monocytes into the arterial wall is an early finding of atherosclerosis. Monocytes are attracted to sites of vascular endothelial cell injury, the initiating event in the development of atheromatous disease, by a chemokine known as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Injured vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells selectively secrete MCP-1. Objective: This study was performed to determine if radiolabeled MCP-1 would co-localize at sites of monocyte/macrophage concentration in an experimental model of transplant-induced vasculopathy in diabetic animals. Materials and methods: Hearts from 3-month-old male Zucker rats, heterozygote (Lean) or homozygote (Fat) for the diabetes-associated gene fa, were transplanted into the abdomens of genetically matched recipients. Lean and Fat animals were then fed normal or high-fat diets for 90 days. Results: At 90 days significant increases (P < 0.013) of MCP-1 graft uptake were seen at imaging and confirmed on scintillation gamma well counting studies in Lean (n = 5) and Fat (n = 12) animals, regardless of diet, 400 % and 40 %, above control values, respectively. MCP-1 uptake of native and grafted hearts correlated with increased numbers of perivascular macrophages (P < 0.02), as seen by immunostaining with an antibody specific for macrophages (ED 2). Conclusion: Radiolabeled MCP-1 can detect abnormally increased numbers of perivascular mononuclear cells in native and grafted hearts in prediabetic rats. MCP-1 may be useful in the screening of diabetic children for early atherosclerotic disease. (orig.)

  7. Detection of early atherosclerosis with radiolabeled monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in prediabeteic Zucker rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blankenberg, F.G.; Wen, P.; Dai, M.; Zhu, D.; Panchal, S.N.; Valantine, H.A.; Tait, J.F.; Post, A.M.; Strauss, H.W.

    2001-01-01

    Background: Migration of monocytes into the arterial wall is an early finding of atherosclerosis. Monocytes are attracted to sites of vascular endothelial cell injury, the initiating event in the development of atheromatous disease, by a chemokine known as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Injured vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells selectively secrete MCP-1. Objective: This study was performed to determine if radiolabeled MCP-1 would co-localize at sites of monocyte/macrophage concentration in an experimental model of transplant-induced vasculopathy in diabetic animals. Materials and methods: Hearts from 3-month-old male Zucker rats, heterozygote (Lean) or homozygote (Fat) for the diabetes-associated gene fa, were transplanted into the abdomens of genetically matched recipients. Lean and Fat animals were then fed normal or high-fat diets for 90 days. Results: At 90 days significant increases (P < 0.013) of MCP-1 graft uptake were seen at imaging and confirmed on scintillation gamma well counting studies in Lean (n = 5) and Fat (n = 12) animals, regardless of diet, 400 % and 40 %, above control values, respectively. MCP-1 uptake of native and grafted hearts correlated with increased numbers of perivascular macrophages (P < 0.02), as seen by immunostaining with an antibody specific for macrophages (ED 2). Conclusion: Radiolabeled MCP-1 can detect abnormally increased numbers of perivascular mononuclear cells in native and grafted hearts in prediabetic rats. MCP-1 may be useful in the screening of diabetic children for early atherosclerotic disease. (orig.)

  8. Effect of cigarette smoke on monocyte procoagulant activity: Focus on platelet-derived brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadio, Patrizia; Baldassarre, Damiano; Sandrini, Leonardo; Weksler, Babette B; Tremoli, Elena; Barbieri, Silvia S

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) activates platelets, promotes vascular dysfunction, and enhances Tissue Factor (TF) expression in blood monocytes favoring pro-thrombotic states. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of the family of neurotrophins involved in survival, growth, and maturation of neurons, is released by activated platelets (APLTs) and plays a role in the cardiovascular system. The effect of CS on circulating levels of BDNF is controversial and the function of circulating BDNF in atherothrombosis is not fully understood. Here, we have shown that human platelets, treated with an aqueous extract of CS (CSE), released BDNF in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, incubation of human monocytes with BDNF or with the supernatant of platelets activated with CSE increased TF activity by a Tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB)-dependent mechanism. Finally, comparing serum and plasma samples of 12 male never smokers (NS) and 29 male active smokers (AS) we observed a significant increase in microparticle-associated TF activity (MP-TF) as well as BDNF in AS, while in serum, BDNF behaved oppositely. Taken together these findings suggest that platelet-derived BDNF is involved in the regulation of TF activity and that CS plays a role in this pathway by favoring a pro-atherothrombotic state.

  9. Pharmacological targeting of Mdm2: Rationale and perspectives for radiosensitization; Ciblage pharmacologique de Mdm2: bases biologiques et perspectives de radiosensibilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chargari, C. [Upres EA 27-10, laboratoire de radiobiologie, institut de cancerologie Gustave-Roussy, 114, rue edouard-Vaillant, 94805 Villejuif (France); Service d' oncologie radiotherapie, hopital d' instruction des armees du Val-de-Grace, 74, boulevard de Port-Royal, 75230 Paris cedex 5 (France); Leteur, C.; Ferte, C.; Deberne, M.; Lahon, B.; Rivera, C. [Upres EA 27-10, laboratoire de radiobiologie, institut de cancerologie Gustave-Roussy, 114, rue edouard-Vaillant, 94805 Villejuif (France); Bourhis, J.; Deutsch, E. [Upres EA 27-10, laboratoire de radiobiologie, institut de cancerologie Gustave-Roussy, 114, rue edouard-Vaillant, 94805 Villejuif (France); UMR 1030, universite Paris-Sud 11, 114, rue edouard-Vaillant, 94805 Villejuif (France)

    2011-07-15

    The central role of p53 after exposure to ionizing radiation has been widely demonstrated. Mdm2, the main cellular regulator of p53, is a promising target for radiosensitizing purposes. In this article, we review the most recent data on the pharmacological targeting of Mdm2, with focus on strategies of radiosensitization. Antitumor activity of Mdm2 inhibitors has been related with activation of p53-dependant apoptosis, action on DNA repair systems, and anti-angiogenic activity. Preliminary data suggested a synergic interaction between Mdm2 inhibitors and ionizing radiations. However, no clinical data has been published yet on the pharmacological targeting of Mdm2. Given their new mechanisms of action, these new molecules should be subject to careful clinical assessment. Although promising, these strategies expose to unexpected toxicities. (authors)

  10. HSV-1-induced chemokine expression via IFI16-dependent and IFI16-independent pathways in human monocyte-derived macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søby, Stine; Laursen, Rune R; Østergaard, Lars Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Innate recognition is essential in the antiviral response against infection by herpes simplex virus (HSV). Chemokines are important for control of HSV via recruitment of natural killer cells, T lymphocytes, and antigen-presenting cells. We previously found that early HSV-1......-mediated chemokine responses are not dependent on TLR2 and TLR9 in human macrophages. Here, we investigated the role of the recently identified innate IFN-inducible DNA receptor IFI16 during HSV-1 infection in human macrophages. METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were purified from buffy coats...

  11. Macrophage proinflammatory response to the titanium alloy equipment in dental implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X; Li, H S; Yin, Y; Feng, Y; Tan, X W

    2015-08-07

    Titanium alloy and stainless steel (SS) had been widely used as dental implant materials because of their affinity with epithelial tissue and connective tissue, and good physical, chemical, biological, mechanical properties and processability. We compared the effects of titanium alloy and SS on macrophage cytokine expression as well as their biocompatibility. Mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells were cultured on titanium alloy and SS surfaces. Cells were counted by scanning electron microscopy. A nitride oxide kit was used to detect released nitric oxide by macrophages on the different materials. An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 levels. Scanning electron microscopy revealed fewer macrophages on the surface of titanium alloy (48.2 ± 6.4 x 10(3) cells/cm(2)) than on SS (135 ± 7.3 x 10(3) cells/cm(2)). The nitric oxide content stimulated by titanium alloy was 22.5 mM, which was lower than that stimulated by SS (26.8 mM), but the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.07). The level of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 released was significantly higher in the SS group (OD value = 0.128) than in the titanium alloy group (OD value = 0.081) (P = 0.024). The transforming growth factor-b1 mRNA expression levels in macrophages after stimulation by titanium alloy for 12 and 36 h were significantly higher than that after stimulation by SS (P = 0.31 and 0.25, respectively). Macrophages participate in the inflammatory response by regulating cytokines such as nitric oxide, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and transforming growth factor-b1. There were fewer macrophages and lower inflammation on the titanium alloy surface than on the SS surface. Titanium alloy materials exhibited better biological compatibility than did SS.

  12. The response of macrophages to titanium particles is determined by macrophage polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajarinen, Jukka; Kouri, Vesa-Petteri; Jämsen, Eemeli; Li, Tian-Fang; Mandelin, Jami; Konttinen, Yrjö T

    2013-11-01

    Aseptic loosening of total joint replacements is driven by the reaction of macrophages to foreign body particles released from the implant. It was hypothesized that the macrophages' response to these particles is dependent, in addition to particle characteristics and contaminating biomolecules, on the state of macrophage polarization as determined by the local cytokine microenvironment. To test this hypothesis we differentiated M1 and M2 macrophages from human peripheral blood monocytes and compared their responses to titanium particles using genome-wide microarray analysis and a multiplex cytokine assay. In comparison to non-activated M0 macrophages, the overall chemotactic and inflammatory responses to titanium particles were greatly enhanced in M1 macrophages and effectively suppressed in M2 macrophages. In addition, the genome-wide approach revealed several novel, potentially osteolytic, particle-induced mediators, and signaling pathway analysis suggested the involvement of toll-like and nod-like receptor signaling in particle recognition. It is concluded that the magnitude of foreign body reaction caused by titanium particles is dependent on the state of macrophage polarization. Thus, by limiting the action of M1 polarizing factors, e.g. bacterial biofilm formation, in peri-implant tissues and promoting M2 macrophage polarization by biomaterial solutions or pharmacologically, it might be possible to restrict wear-particle-induced inflammation and osteolysis. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Th1/M1 conversion to Th2/M2 responses in models of inflammation lacking cell death stimulates maturation of monocyte precursors to fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JoAnn eTrial

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We have demonstrated that cardiac fibrosis arises from the differentiation of monocyte-derived fibroblasts. We present here evidence that this process requires sequential Th1 and Th2 induction promoting analogous M1 (classically activated and M2 (alternatively activated macrophage polarity. Our models are 1 mice subjected to daily repetitive ischemia reperfusion (I/R without infarction and 2 the in vitro transmigration of human mononuclear leukocytes through human cardiac microvascular endothelium. In the mouse heart, leukocytes entered after I/R in response to monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 which is the major cytokine induced by this protocol. Monocytes within the heart then differentiated into fibroblasts making collagen while bearing the markers of M2 macrophages. T cells were seen in these hearts as well as in the human heart with cardiomyopathy. In the in vitro model, transmigration of the leukocytes was likewise induced by MCP-1 and some monocytes matured into fibroblasts bearing M2 markers. In this model, the MCP-1 stimulus induced a transient Th1 and M1 response that developed into a predominately Th2 and M2 response. An increase in the Th2 product IL-13 was present in both the human and the mouse models, consistent with its known role in fibrosis. In these simplified models, in which there is no cell death to stimulate an anti-inflammatory response, there is nonetheless a resolution of inflammation enabling a profibrotic environment. This induces the maturation of monocyte precursors into fibroblasts.

  14. TREM2 expression in the human brain: a marker of monocyte recruitment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenhold, Marie; Rakic, Sonja; Classey, John; Brayne, Carol; Ince, Paul G; Nicoll, James A R; Boche, Delphine

    2017-10-07

    Mutation in the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM) 2 gene has been identified as a risk factor for several neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Experimental studies using animal models of AD have highlighted a number of functions associated with TREM2 and its expression by microglial cells. It has therefore been assumed that this is also the case in humans. However, there is very limited information concerning the cellular expression of TREM2 in the human brain. As part of investigations of microglia using post-mortem resources provided by the Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Studies (MRC-CFAS), we immunostained the cerebral cortex of 299 participants for TREM2 using the Sigma antibody HPA010917 and compared with the macrophage/microglial markers Iba1 and CD68. As expected, Iba1 and CD68 labeled microglia and perivascular macrophages. However, in most cases (284/299), the TREM2 antibody labelled monocytes within vascular lumens, but not microglia or perivascular macrophages. In contrast, in 5 out of 6 cases with acute infarcts, TREM2 immunoreaction identified cells within the brain parenchyma interpreted as recruited monocytes. Six cases with old infarcts contained phagocytic foamy macrophages which were CD68-positive but TREM2 negative. Our observations, using the HPA010917 anti-TREM2 antibody, suggest that TREM2 is not expressed by microglia but instead seems to be a marker of recruited monocytes in the human brain. This finding has implications with regards to the role of TREM2 as a risk factor, emphasizing the importance of systemic immune responses in the development and progression of Alzheimer's disease. © 2017 International Society of Neuropathology.

  15. A proteomic screen reveals the mitochondrial outer membrane protein Mdm34p as an essential target of the F-box protein Mdm30p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Kazuhisa; Kito, Keiji; Okada, Satoshi; Ito, Takashi

    2008-10-01

    Ubiquitination plays various critical roles in eukaryotic cellular regulation and is mediated by a cascade of enzymes including ubiquitin protein ligase (E3). The Skp1-Cullin-F-box protein complex comprises the largest E3 family, in each member of which a unique F-box protein binds its targets to define substrate specificity. Although genome sequencing uncovers a growing number of F-box proteins, most of them have remained as "orphans" because of the difficulties in identification of their substrates. To address this issue, we tested a quantitative proteomic approach by combining the stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC), parallel affinity purification (PAP) that we had developed for efficient enrichment of ubiquitinated proteins, and mass spectrometry (MS). We applied this SILAC-PAP-MS approach to compare ubiquitinated proteins between yeast cells with and without over-expressed Mdm30p, an F-box protein implicated in mitochondrial morphology. Consequently, we identified the mitochondrial outer membrane protein Mdm34p as a target of Mdm30p. Furthermore, we found that mitochondrial defects induced by deletion of MDM30 are not only recapitulated by a mutant Mdm34p defective in interaction with Mdm30p but alleviated by ubiquitination-mimicking forms of Mdm34p. These results indicate that Mdm34p is a physiologically important target of Mdm30p.

  16. Exosomes derived from human macrophages suppress endothelial cell migration by controlling integrin trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Doo; Kim, Yeon Hyang; Kim, Doo-Sik

    2014-04-01

    Integrin trafficking, including internalization, recycling, and lysosomal degradation, is crucial for the regulation of cellular functions. Exosomes, nano-sized extracellular vesicles, are believed to play important roles in intercellular communications. This study demonstrates that exosomes released from human macrophages negatively regulate endothelial cell migration through control of integrin trafficking. Macrophage-derived exosomes promote internalization of integrin β1 in primary HUVECs. The internalized integrin β1 persistently accumulates in the perinuclear region and is not recycled back to the plasma membrane. Experimental results indicate that macrophage-derived exosomes stimulate trafficking of internalized integrin β1 to lysosomal compartments with a corresponding decrease in the integrin destined for recycling endosomes, resulting in proteolytic degradation of the integrin. Moreover, ubiquitination of HUVEC integrin β1 is enhanced by the exosomes, and exosome-mediated integrin degradation is blocked by bafilomycin A, a lysosomal degradation inhibitor. Macrophage-derived exosomes were also shown to effectively suppress collagen-induced activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway and HUVEC migration, which are both dependent on integrin β1. These observations provide new insight into the functional significance of exosomes in the regulation of integrin trafficking. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Macrophage and T cell dynamics during the development and disintegration of mycobacterial granulomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egen, Jackson G; Rothfuchs, Antonio Gigliotti; Feng, Carl G; Winter, Nathalie; Sher, Alan; Germain, Ronald N

    2008-02-01

    Granulomas play a key role in host protection against mycobacterial pathogens, with their breakdown contributing to exacerbated disease. To better understand the initiation and maintenance of these structures, we employed both high-resolution multiplex static imaging and intravital multiphoton microscopy of Mycobacterium bovis BCG-induced liver granulomas. We found that Kupffer cells directly capture blood-borne bacteria and subsequently nucleate formation of a nascent granuloma by recruiting both uninfected liver-resident macrophages and blood-derived monocytes. Within the mature granuloma, these myeloid cell populations formed a relatively immobile cellular matrix that interacted with a highly dynamic effector T cell population. The efficient recruitment of these T cells was highly dependent on TNF-alpha-derived signals, which also maintained the granuloma structure through preferential effects on uninfected macrophage populations. By characterizing the migration of both innate and adaptive immune cells throughout the process of granuloma development, these studies provide a new perspective on the cellular events involved in mycobacterial containment and escape.

  18. Robust and highly-efficient differentiation of functional monocytic cells from human pluripotent stem cells under serum- and feeder cell-free conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masakatsu D Yanagimachi

    Full Text Available Monocytic lineage cells (monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells play important roles in immune responses and are involved in various pathological conditions. The development of monocytic cells from human embryonic stem cells (ESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs is of particular interest because it provides an unlimited cell source for clinical application and basic research on disease pathology. Although the methods for monocytic cell differentiation from ESCs/iPSCs using embryonic body or feeder co-culture systems have already been established, these methods depend on the use of xenogeneic materials and, therefore, have a relatively poor-reproducibility. Here, we established a robust and highly-efficient method to differentiate functional monocytic cells from ESCs/iPSCs under serum- and feeder cell-free conditions. This method produced 1.3 × 10(6 ± 0.3 × 10(6 floating monocytes from approximately 30 clusters of ESCs/iPSCs 5-6 times per course of differentiation. Such monocytes could be differentiated into functional macrophages and dendritic cells. This method should be useful for regenerative medicine, disease-specific iPSC studies and drug discovery.

  19. Soybean-derived Bowman-Birk inhibitor inhibits neurotoxicity of LPS-activated macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persidsky Yuri

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, the major component of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria, can activate immune cells including macrophages. Activation of macrophages in the central nervous system (CNS contributes to neuronal injury. Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI, a soybean-derived protease inhibitor, has anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we examined whether BBI has the ability to inhibit LPS-mediated macrophage activation, reducing the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and subsequent neurotoxicity in primary cortical neural cultures. Methods Mixed cortical neural cultures from rat were used as target cells for testing neurotoxicity induced by LPS-treated macrophage supernatant. Neuronal survival was measured using a cell-based ELISA method for expression of the neuronal marker MAP-2. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS production in macrophages was measured via 2', 7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH2DA oxidation. Cytokine expression was determined by quantitative real-time PCR. Results LPS treatment of macrophages induced expression of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α and of ROS. In contrast, BBI pretreatment (1-100 μg/ml of macrophages significantly inhibited LPS-mediated induction of these cytokines and ROS. Further, supernatant from BBI-pretreated and LPS-activated macrophage cultures was found to be less cytotoxic to neurons than that from non-BBI-pretreated and LPS-activated macrophage cultures. BBI, when directly added to the neuronal cultures (1-100 μg/ml, had no protective effect on neurons with or without LPS-activated macrophage supernatant treatment. In addition, BBI (100 μg/ml had no effect on N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA-mediated neurotoxicity. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that BBI, through its anti-inflammatory properties, protects neurons from neurotoxicity mediated by activated macrophages.

  20. Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor Amplification of Interleukin-1β and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Production in THP-1 Human Monocytic Cells Stimulated with Lipopolysaccharide of Oral Microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Baqui, A. A. M. A.; Meiller, Timothy F.; Chon, Jennifer J.; Turng, Been-Foo; Falkler, William A.

    1998-01-01

    Cytokines, including granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), are used to assist in bone marrow recovery during cancer chemotherapy. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) play important roles in inflammatory processes, including exacerbation of periodontal diseases, one of the most common complications in patients who undergo this therapy. A human monocyte cell line (THP-1) was utilized to investigate IL-1β and TNF-α production following GM-CSF suppl...

  1. Alveolar macrophage–derived type I interferons orchestrate innate immunity to RSV through recruitment of antiviral monocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goritzka, Michelle; Makris, Spyridon; Kausar, Fahima; Durant, Lydia R.; Pereira, Catherine; Kumagai, Yutaro; Culley, Fiona J.; Mack, Matthias; Akira, Shizuo

    2015-01-01

    Type I interferons (IFNs) are important for host defense from viral infections, acting to restrict viral production in infected cells and to promote antiviral immune responses. However, the type I IFN system has also been associated with severe lung inflammatory disease in response to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Which cells produce type I IFNs upon RSV infection and how this directs immune responses to the virus, and potentially results in pathological inflammation, is unclear. Here, we show that alveolar macrophages (AMs) are the major source of type I IFNs upon RSV infection in mice. AMs detect RSV via mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS)–coupled retinoic acid–inducible gene 1 (RIG-I)–like receptors (RLRs), and loss of MAVS greatly compromises innate immune restriction of RSV. This is largely attributable to loss of type I IFN–dependent induction of monocyte chemoattractants and subsequent reduced recruitment of inflammatory monocytes (infMo) to the lungs. Notably, the latter have potent antiviral activity and are essential to control infection and lessen disease severity. Thus, infMo recruitment constitutes an important and hitherto underappreciated, cell-extrinsic mechanism of type I IFN–mediated antiviral activity. Dysregulation of this system of host antiviral defense may underlie the development of RSV-induced severe lung inflammation. PMID:25897172

  2. Proteolytic shedding of the macrophage scavenger receptor CD163 in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabriek, Babs O; Møller, Holger J; Vloet, Rianka P M

    2007-01-01

    The scavenger receptor CD163 is selectively expressed on tissue macrophages and human monocytes. CD163 has been implicated to play a role in the clearance of hemoglobin and in the regulation of cytokine production by macrophages. Membrane CD163 can be cleaved by matrix metalloproteinases (MMP...

  3. Characterization of cancer-associated missense mutations in MDM2

    OpenAIRE

    Chauhan, Krishna M.; Ramakrishnan, Gopalakrishnan; Kollareddy, Madhusudhan; Martinez, Luis A.

    2015-01-01

    MDM2 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that binds the N-terminus of p53 and promotes its ubiquitin-dependent degradation. Elevated levels of MDM2 due to overexpression or gene amplification can contribute to tumor development by suppressing p53 activity. Since MDM2 is an oncogene, we explored the possibility that other genetic lesions, namely missense mutations, might alter its activities. We selected mutations in MDM2 that reside in one of the 4 key regions of the protein: p53 binding domain, acidic...

  4. Angiopoietin-2 regulates gene expression in TIE2-expressing monocytes and augments their inherent proangiogenic functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffelt, Seth B; Tal, Andrea O; Scholz, Alexander; De Palma, Michele; Patel, Sunil; Urbich, Carmen; Biswas, Subhra K; Murdoch, Craig; Plate, Karl H; Reiss, Yvonne; Lewis, Claire E

    2010-07-01

    TIE2-expressing monocytes/macrophages (TEM) are a highly proangiogenic subset of myeloid cells in tumors. Here, we show that circulating human TEMs are already preprogrammed in the circulation to be more angiogenic and express higher levels of such proangiogenic genes as matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), VEGFA, COX-2, and WNT5A than TIE2(-) monocytes. Additionally, angiopoietin-2 (ANG-2) markedly enhanced the proangiogenic activity of TEMs and increased their expression of two proangiogenic enzymes: thymidine phosphorylase (TP) and cathepsin B (CTSB). Three "alternatively activated" (or M2-like) macrophage markers were also upregulated by ANG-2 in TEMs: interleukin-10, mannose receptor (MRC1), and CCL17. To investigate the effects of ANG-2 on the phenotype and function of TEMs in tumors, we used a double-transgenic (DT) mouse model in which ANG-2 was specifically overexpressed by endothelial cells. Syngeneic tumors grown in these ANG-2 DT mice were more vascularized and contained greater numbers of TEMs than those in wild-type (WT) mice. In both tumor types, expression of MMP-9 and MRC1 was mainly restricted to tumor TEMs rather than TIE2(-) macrophages. Furthermore, tumor TEMs expressed higher levels of MRC1, TP, and CTSB in ANG-2 DT tumors than WT tumors. Taken together, our data show that although circulating TEMs are innately proangiogenic, exposure to tumor-derived ANG-2 stimulates these cells to exhibit a broader, tumor-promoting phenotype. As such, the ANG-2-TEM axis may represent a new target for antiangiogenic cancer therapies. Copyright 2010 AACR.

  5. Instant XenMobile MDM

    CERN Document Server

    Lakhani, Aamir

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Written in a user friendly style, this guide will get readers up and running with XenMobile MDM.If you want to run your mobile enterprises on XenMobile, or work on a BYOD strategy within your organization, then this is the ideal book for you. XenMobile MDM comprehensively explores how to set up and use XenMobile to provision, secure, and manage mobile devices.

  6. The macrophage-histiocytic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, A

    1971-04-01

    The macrophage-histiocytic system is primarily concerned with the phagocytosis and degradation either of foreign material that enters the organism or of senile and damaged cells belonging to the organism itself. The system includes various kinds of cells with the common ability to process and eventually degrade and digest the ingested material. Two morphological characteristics of these cells are linked to their phagocytic functions: intra-cytoplasmic vacuoles and lysosomes. Although endothelial and fibroblastic cells can ingest particles, it seems that most cells of the macrophage-histiocytic system belong to the monocyte series. The stem cell of the system is still a matter for discussion and the mature cells have attracted a large and confusing array of names. Most of the experimental work with irradiation has involved macrophages of the peritoneal cavity and lymph nodes. It is likely that the other cells of the macrophage-histiocytic system are affected in the same way by irradiation, but this is not certain.

  7. [The effect of isoflurane on the secretion of TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta from LPS-stimulated human peripheral blood monocytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, W; Enzan, K; Masaki, Y; Kayaba, M; Suzuki, M

    1995-07-01

    The cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1 secreted from macrophages/monocytes proved to play important roles in the pathogenesis of endotoxemia, severe pancreatitis and other surgical injuries. However, it is still unclear how inhalational anesthetic agents influence the secretion of these cytokines from macrophages/monocytes. We investigated the effects of isoflurane on TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta secretions from human peripheral blood monocytes stimulated by lipopolysaccharide. TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta secretions increased after LPS stimulation and this increase was inhibited by isoflurane in dose-dependent fashion. The inhibitory action of isoflurane disappeared between 1 and 3 hours after stopping isoflurane inhalation. We concluded that isoflurane could inhibit TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta secretions from peripheral blood monocytes stimulated by LPS in a dose-dependent fashion and that the inhibitory action of isoflurane was reversible.

  8. Role of Alveolar Macrophages in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahos, Ross; Bozinovski, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Alveolar macrophages (AMs) represent a unique leukocyte population that responds to airborne irritants and microbes. This distinct microenvironment coordinates the maturation of long-lived AMs, which originate from fetal blood monocytes and self-renew through mechanisms dependent on GM-CSF and CSF-1 signaling. Peripheral blood monocytes can also replenish lung macrophages; however, this appears to occur in a stimuli specific manner. In addition to mounting an appropriate immune response during infection and injury, AMs actively coordinate the resolution of inflammation through efferocytosis of apoptotic cells. Any perturbation of this process can lead to deleterious responses. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), there is an accumulation of airway macrophages that do not conform to the classic M1/M2 dichotomy. There is also a skewed transcriptome profile that favors expression of wound-healing M2 markers, which is reflective of a deficiency to resolve inflammation. Endogenous mediators that can promote an imbalance in inhibitory M1 vs. healing M2 macrophages are discussed, as they are the plausible mechanisms underlying why AMs fail to effectively resolve inflammation and restore normal lung homeostasis in COPD. PMID:25309536

  9. Human Cord Blood and Bone Marrow CD34+ Cells Generate Macrophages That Support Erythroid Islands.

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    Eyayu Belay

    Full Text Available Recently, we developed a small molecule responsive hyperactive Mpl-based Cell Growth Switch (CGS that drives erythropoiesis associated with macrophages in the absence of exogenous cytokines. Here, we compare the physical, cellular and molecular interaction between the macrophages and erythroid cells in CGS expanded CD34+ cells harvested from cord blood, marrow or G-CSF-mobilized peripheral blood. Results indicated that macrophage based erythroid islands could be generated from cord blood and marrow CD34+ cells but not from G-CSF-mobilized CD34+ cells. Additional studies suggest that the deficiency resides with the G-CSF-mobilized CD34+ derived monocytes. Gene expression and proteomics studies of the in vitro generated erythroid islands detected the expression of erythroblast macrophage protein (EMP, intercellular adhesion molecule 4 (ICAM-4, CD163 and DNASE2. 78% of the erythroblasts in contact with macrophages reached the pre reticulocyte orthochromatic stage of differentiation within 14 days of culture. The addition of conditioned medium from cultures of CD146+ marrow fibroblasts resulted in a 700-fold increase in total cell number and a 90-fold increase in erythroid cell number. This novel CD34+ cell derived erythroid island may serve as a platform to explore the molecular basis of red cell maturation and production under normal, stress and pathological conditions.

  10. The organization and expression of the mdm2 gene

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    Montes De Oca Luna, R.; Tabor, A.D.; Eberspaecher, H. [Univ. of Texas, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    The mdm2 gene encodes a zinc finger protein that negatively regulates p53 function by binding and masking the p53 transcriptional activation domain. Two different promoters control expression of mdm2, one of which is also transactivated by p53. We cloned and characterized the mdm2 gene from a murine 129 library. It contained at least 12 exons and spanned approximately 25 kb of DNA. Sequencing of the mdm2 gene revealed three nucleotide differences that resulted in amino acid substitutions in the previously published mdm2 sequence. Sequences of normal BalbC/J DNA and the original cosmid clone is isolated from the 3T3DM cell line revealed that they are identical, suggesting that the published sequence is in error at these three positions. In addition, we analyzed the expression pattern of mdm2 and found ubiquitous low-level expression throughout embryo development and in adult tissues. Analysis of mRNA from numerous tissues for several mdm2 spliced variants that had been identified in the transformed 3T3DM cell line revealed that these variants could not be detected in the developing embryo or in adult tissues. 25 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Mice with a Mutation in the Mdm2 Gene That Interferes with MDM2/Ribosomal Protein Binding Develop a Defect in Erythropoiesis.

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    Takuya Kamio

    Full Text Available MDM2, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is an important negative regulator of tumor suppressor p53. In turn the Mdm2 gene is a transcriptional target of p53, forming a negative feedback loop that is important in cell cycle control. It has recently become apparent that the ubiquitination of p53 by MDM2 can be inhibited when certain ribosomal proteins, including RPL5 and RPL11, bind to MDM2. This inhibition, and the resulting increase in p53 levels has been proposed to be responsible for the red cell aplasia seen in Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA and in 5q- myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS. DBA and 5q- MDS are associated with inherited (DBA or acquired (5q- MDS haploinsufficiency of ribosomal proteins. A mutation in Mdm2 causing a C305F amino acid substitution blocks the binding of ribosomal proteins. Mice harboring this mutation (Mdm2C305F, retain a normal p53 response to DNA damage, but lack the p53 response to perturbations in ribosome biogenesis. While studying the interaction between RP haploinsufficiency and the Mdm2C305F mutation we noticed that Mdm2C305F homozygous mice had altered hematopoiesis. These mice developed a mild macrocytic anemia with reticulocytosis. In the bone marrow (BM, these mice showed a significant decrease in Ter119hi cells compared to wild type (WT littermates, while no decrease in the number of mature erythroid cells (Ter119hiCD71low was found in the spleen, which showed compensated bone marrow hematopoiesis. In methylcellulose cultures, BFU-E colonies from the mutant mice were slightly reduced in number and there was a significant reduction in CFU-E colony numbers in mutant mice compared with WT controls (p < 0.01. This erythropoietic defect was abrogated by concomitant p53 deficiency (Trp53ko/ko. Further investigation revealed that in Mdm2C305F animals, there was a decrease in Lin-Sca-1+c-Kit+ (LSK cells, accompanied by significant decreases in multipotent progenitor (MPP cells (p < 0.01. Competitive BM repopulation experiments

  12. Macrophage Plasticity in Skeletal Muscle Repair

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    Elena Rigamonti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages are one of the first barriers of host defence against pathogens. Beyond their role in innate immunity, macrophages play increasingly defined roles in orchestrating the healing of various injured tissues. Perturbations of macrophage function and/or activation may result in impaired regeneration and fibrosis deposition as described in several chronic pathological diseases. Heterogeneity and plasticity have been demonstrated to be hallmarks of macrophages. In response to environmental cues they display a proinflammatory (M1 or an alternative anti-inflammatory (M2 phenotype. A lot of evidence demonstrated that after acute injury M1 macrophages infiltrate early to promote the clearance of necrotic debris, whereas M2 macrophages appear later to sustain tissue healing. Whether the sequential presence of two different macrophage populations results from a dynamic shift in macrophage polarization or from the recruitment of new circulating monocytes is a subject of ongoing debate. In this paper, we discuss the current available information about the role that different phenotypes of macrophages plays after injury and during the remodelling phase in different tissue types, with particular attention to the skeletal muscle.

  13. Deficiency of ABCA1 and ABCG1 in Macrophages Increases Inflammation and Accelerates Atherosclerosis in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerterp, Marit; Murphy, Andrew J.; Wang, Mi; Pagler, Tamara A.; Vengrenyuk, Yuliya; Kappus, Mojdeh S.; Gorman, Darren J.; Nagareddy, Prabhakara R.; Zhu, Xuewei; Abramowicz, Sandra; Parks, John S.; Welch, Carrie; Fisher, Edward A.; Wang, Nan; Yvan-Charvet, Laurent; Tall, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Plasma HDL levels are inversely correlated with atherosclerosis. Although it is widely assumed that this is due to the ability of HDL to promote cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells, direct experimental support for this hypothesis is lacking. Objective To assess the role of macrophage cholesterol efflux pathways in atherogenesis. Methods and Results We developed MAC-ABCDKO mice with efficient deletion of the ATP Binding Cassette Transporters A1 and G1 (ABCA1 and ABCG1) in macrophages but not in hematopoietic stem or progenitor populations. MAC-ABCDKO bone marrow (BM) was transplanted into Ldlr-/- recipients. On the chow diet, these mice had similar plasma cholesterol and blood monocyte levels but increased atherosclerosis compared to controls. On the Western type diet (WTD), MAC-ABCDKO BM transplanted Ldlr-/- mice had disproportionate atherosclerosis, considering they also had lower VLDL/LDL cholesterol levels than controls. ABCA1/G1 deficient macrophages in lesions showed increased inflammatory gene expression. Unexpectedly, WTD-fed MAC-ABCDKO BM transplanted Ldlr-/- mice displayed monocytosis and neutrophilia in the absence of HSPC proliferation. Mechanistic studies revealed increased expression of M-CSF and G-CSF in splenic macrophage foam cells, driving BM monocyte and neutrophil production. Conclusion These studies 1) show that macrophage deficiency of ABCA1/G1 is pro-atherogenic likely by promoting plaque inflammation and 2) uncover a novel positive feedback loop in which cholesterol-laden splenic macrophages signal BM progenitors to produce monocytes, with suppression by macrophage cholesterol efflux pathways. PMID:23572498

  14. Cysteamine-mediated clearance of antibiotic-resistant pathogens in human cystic fibrosis macrophages.

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    Chandra L Shrestha

    Full Text Available Members of the Burkholderia cepacia complex are virulent, multi-drug resistant pathogens that survive and replicate intracellularly in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF. We have discovered that B. cenocepacia cannot be cleared from CF macrophages due to defective autophagy, causing continued systemic inflammation and infection. Defective autophagy in CF is mediated through constitutive reactive oxygen species (ROS activation of transglutaminase-2 (TG2, which causes the sequestration (accumulation of essential autophagy initiating proteins. Cysteamine is a TG2 inhibitor and proteostasis regulator with the potential to restore autophagy. Therefore, we sought to examine the impact of cysteamine on CF macrophage autophagy and bacterial killing. Human peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs and alveolar macrophages were isolated from CF and non-CF donors. Macrophages were infected with clinical isolates of relevant CF pathogens. Cysteamine caused direct bacterial growth killing of live B. cenocepacia, B. multivorans, P. aeruginosa and MRSA in the absence of cells. Additionally, B. cenocepacia, B. multivorans, and P. aeruginosa invasion were significantly decreased in CF MDMs treated with cysteamine. Finally, cysteamine decreased TG2, p62, and beclin-1 accumulation in CF, leading to increased Burkholderia uptake into autophagosomes, increased macrophage CFTR expression, and decreased ROS and IL-1β production. Cysteamine has direct anti-bacterial growth killing and improves human CF macrophage autophagy resulting in increased macrophage-mediated bacterial clearance, decreased inflammation, and reduced constitutive ROS production. Thus, cysteamine may be an effective adjunct to antibiotic regimens in CF.

  15. Magnetic Nanoparticles Conjugated with Peptides Derived from Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 as a Tool for Targeting Atherosclerosis

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    Chung-Wei Kao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial inflammatory disease that may progress silently for long period, and it is also widely accepted as the main cause of cardiovascular diseases. To prevent atherosclerotic plaques from generating, imaging early molecular markers and quantifying the extent of disease progression are desired. During inflammation, circulating monocytes leave the bloodstream and migrate into incipient lipid accumulation in the artery wall, following conditioning by local growth factors and proinflammatory cytokines; therefore, monocyte accumulation in the arterial wall can be observed in fatty streaks, rupture-prone plaques, and experimental atherosclerosis. In this work, we synthesized monocyte-targeting iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs, which were incorporated with the peptides derived from the chemokine receptor C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2-binding motif of monocytes chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 as a diagnostic tool for potential atherosclerosis. MCP-1-motif MNPs co-localized with monocytes in in vitro fluorescence imaging. In addition, with MNPs injection in ApoE knockout mice (ApoE KO mice, the well-characterized animal model of atherosclerosis, MNPs were found in specific organs or regions which had monocytes accumulation, especially the aorta of atherosclerosis model mice, through in vivo imaging system (IVIS imaging and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. We also performed Oil Red O staining and Prussian Blue staining to confirm the co-localization of MCP-1-motif MNPs and atherosclerosis. The results showed the promising potential of MCP-1-motif MNPs as a diagnostic agent of atherosclerosis.

  16. Apoptotic death of Listeria monocytogenes-infected human macrophages induced by lactoferricin B, a bovine lactoferrin-derived peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, C; Conte, M P; Ranaldi, S; Penta, M; Valenti, P; Tinari, A; Superti, F; Seganti, L

    2005-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes, an intracellular facultative food-borne pathogen, was reported to induce apoptosis in vitro and in vivo in a variety of cell types with the exception of murine macrophages. These cells represent the predominant compartment of bacterial multiplication and die as a result of necrosis. In this study we showed that human non-activated and IFN-gamma-activated macrophagic-like (THP-1) cells infected with L. monocytogenes, mainly die by necrosis rather than by an apoptotic process. Two natural products derived from bovine milk, lactoferrin and its derivative peptide lactoferricin B, are capable of regulating the fate of infected human macrophages. Bovine lactoferrin treatment of macrophages protects them from L. monocytogenes-induced death whereas lactoferricin B, its derivative peptide, determines a shifting of the equilibrium from necrosis to apoptosis.

  17. miR-148a-3p Mediates Notch Signaling to Promote the Differentiation and M1 Activation of Macrophages

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    Fei Huang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Notch pathway plays critical roles in the differentiation and polarized activation of macrophages; however, the downstream molecular mechanisms underlying Notch activity in macrophages remain elusive. Our previous study has identified a group of microRNAs that mediate Notch signaling to regulate macrophage activation and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs. In this study, we demonstrated that miR-148a-3p functions as a novel downstream molecule of Notch signaling to promote the differentiation of monocytes into macrophages in the presence of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF. Meanwhile, miR-148a-3p promoted M1 and inhibited M2 polarization of macrophages upon Notch activation. Macrophages overexpressing miR-148a-3p exhibited enhanced ability to engulf and kill bacteria, which was mediated by excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Further studies using reporter assay and Western blotting identified Pten as a direct target gene of miR-148a-3p in macrophages. Macrophages overexpressing miR-148a-3p increased their ROS production through the PTEN/AKT pathway, likely to defend against bacterial invasion. Moreover, miR-148a-3p also enhanced M1 macrophage polarization and pro-inflammatory responses through PTEN/AKT-mediated upregulation of NF-κB signaling. In summary, our data establish a novel molecular mechanism by which Notch signaling promotes monocyte differentiation and M1 macrophage activation through miR-148a-3p, and suggest that miR-148a-3p-modified monocytes or macrophages are potential new tools for the treatment of inflammation-related diseases.

  18. PU.1 is essential for CD11c expression in CD8(+/CD8(- lymphoid and monocyte-derived dendritic cells during GM-CSF or FLT3L-induced differentiation.

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    Xue-Jun Zhu

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs regulate innate and acquired immunity through their roles as antigen-presenting cells. Specific subsets of mature DCs, including monocyte-derived and lymphoid-derived DCs, can be distinguished based on distinct immunophenotypes and functional properties. The leukocyte integrin, CD11c, is considered a specific marker for DCs and it is expressed by all DC subsets. We created a strain of mice in which DCs and their progenitors could be lineage traced based on activity of the CD11c proximal promoter. Surprisingly, we observed levels of CD11c promoter activity that were similar in DCs and in other mature leukocytes, including monocytes, granulocytes, and lymphocytes. We sought to identify DNA elements and transcription factors that regulate DC-associated expression of CD11c. The ets transcription factor, PU.1, is a key regulator of DC development, and expression of PU.1 varies in different DC subsets. GM-CSF increased monocyte-derived DCs in mice and from mouse bone marrow cultured in vitro, but it did not increase CD8(+ lymphoid-derived DCs or B220(+ plasmacytoid DCs. FLT3L increased both monocyte-derived DCs and lymphoid-derived DCs from mouse bone marrow cultured in vitro. GM-CSF increased the 5.3 Kb CD11c proximal promoter activity in monocyte-derived DCs and CD8(+ lymphoid-derived DCs, but not in B220(+ plasmacytoid DCs. In contrast, FLT3L increased the CD11c proximal promoter activity in both monocyte-derived DCs and B220(+ plasmacytoid DCs. We used shRNA gene knockdown and chromatin immunoprecipitation to demonstrate that PU.1 is required for the effects of GM-CSF or FLT3L on monocyte-derived DCs. We conclude that both GM-CSF and FLT3L act through PU.1 to activate the 5.3 Kb CD11c proximal promoter in DCs and to induce differentiation of monocyte-derived DCs. We also confirm that the CD11c proximal promoter is not sufficient to direct lineage specificity of CD11c expression, and that additional DNA elements are required

  19. Enhanced interleukin-8 production in THP-1 human monocytic cells by lipopolysaccharide from oral microorganisms and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baqui, A A; Meiller, T F; Falkler, W A

    1999-10-01

    Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) has been used to assist in bone marrow recovery during cancer chemotherapy. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) plays an important role in macrophage mediated inflammatory processes including exacerbation of periodontal diseases, one of the most common complications in GM-CSF receiving cancer patients. The effect of GM-CSF supplementation on IL-8 production was investigated in a human monocyte cell line THP-1, stimulated with lipopolysaccharide extracted from two oral microorganisms, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum. Resting THP-1 cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide (1 microgram/ml) of P. gingivalis or F. nucleatum and/or GM-CSF (50 IU/ml) for varying time periods. The production of IL-8 in THP-1 cells was measured by a solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A very low level of the cytokine IL-8 was produced constitutive in THP-1 cells. Starting from 8 h of treatment and afterwards GM-CSF alone significantly increased IL-8 production in THP-1 cells. Lipopolysaccharide (1 microgram/ml) extracts from either F. nucleatum or P. gingivalis amplified IL-8 production 500-800 times in comparison to resting THP-1 cells. When lipopolysaccharide of F. nucleatum or P. gingivalis was supplemented with 50 IU/ml of GM-CSF, there was a statistically significant enhanced production of IL-8 by THP-1 cells after 1 day to 7 days of treatment as compared with lipopolysaccharide treatment alone. GM-CSF (50 IU/ml) also significantly increased IL-8 production from 2-7 days of treatment of THP-1 cells when supplemented with a positive control, phorbol-12-myristate-13 acetate (PMA), as compared to PMA treatment alone. These investigations using the in vitro THP-1 human