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Sample records for monocyte-derived macrophages electronic

  1. Phenotypic, functional, and quantitative characterization of canine peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages

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    R Bueno

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The yield as well as phenotypic and functional parameters of canine peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages were analyzed. The cells that remained adherent to Teflon after 10 days of culture had high phagocytic activity when inoculated with Leishmania chagasi. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that more than 80% of cultured cells were positive for the monocyte/macrophage marker CD14.

  2. The TLR Expression Pattern on Monocyte-Derived Macrophages for Lipopolysaccharid Stimulation of Calves

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    GUO Yi-jie; ZHAO Guo-Qi; HUO Yong-jiu; Sachi Tana-ka; Hisashi Aso; Takahiro Yamaguchi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, toll-like receptor expression pattern in monocytes-derived macrophages by lipopolysaccharid (LPS) stimulation was examined. Jugular venous blood samples from 4 Japanese calves were obtained and the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated. The PBMC were cultured for 7 d so as to collect monocytes-derived macrophages in Repcell. The PBMC were stimulated by LPS for 24 h and the mRNA expression pattern of TLR and cytokines in monocytes-derived macrophages (Mod-Mφ) was analyzed. Results showed that LPS stimulation of Mod-Mφ could increase the mRNA levels of the genes of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8. In addition, the mRNA levels of the genes of TNF-α and IL-6 in the group of LPS stimulation were most significantly (P<0.01) higher than those in control group and the mRNA levels of TLR1, 3, 5, 8, and 10 were significantly (P<0.05) decreased after LPS stimulation. There was no difference in the mRNA expressions of TLR2, 4, 6, and 7 between the groups of the control and LPS stimulation. Besides, expression of TLR9 was not found. It suggested that monocytes-derived macrophages could respond to LPS and they might take an important role in the innate immunity. The important function of the cells might contribute to better disease treatment.

  3. Nogo-B is associated with cytoskeletal structures in human monocyte-derived macrophages

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    Gredler Viktoria

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The reticulon Nogo-B participates in cellular and immunological processes in murine macrophages. Since leukocytes are an essential part of the immune system in health and disease, we decided to investigate the expression of Nogo-A, Nogo-B and Nogo-C in different human immune cell subpopulations. Furthermore, we analyzed the localization of Nogo-B in human monocyte-derived macrophages by indirect immunofluorescence stainings to gain further insight into its possible function. Findings We describe an association of Nogo-B with cytoskeletal structures and the base of filopodia, but not with focal or podosomal adhesion sites of monocyte-derived macrophages. Nogo-B positive structures are partially co-localized with RhoA staining and Rac1 positive membrane ruffles. Furthermore, Nogo-B is associated with the tubulin network, but not accumulated in the Golgi region. Although Nogo-B is present in the endoplasmic reticulum, it can also be translocated to large cell protrusions or the trailing end of migratory cells, where it is homogenously distributed. Conclusions Two different Nogo-B staining patterns can be distinguished in macrophages: firstly we observed ER-independent Nogo-B localization in cell protrusions and at the trailing end of migrating cells. Secondly, the localization of Nogo-B in actin/RhoA/Rac1 positive regions supports an influence on cytoskeletal organization. To our knowledge this is the first report on Nogo-B expression at the base of filopodia, thus providing further insight into the distribution of this protein.

  4. TNF and PGE2 in human monocyte-derived macrophages infected with Chlamydia trachomatis

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    E. Manor

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, tumour necrosis factor (TNF and interleukin-1 (IL-1 alpha in medium from monocyte derived macrophages (MdM infected with Chlamydia trachomatis (L2/434/Bu or K biovars. TNF and PGE2 were found in both cases while IL-1 alpha was not detected. Both TNF and PGE2 levels were higher in the medium of the MdM infected with K biovars. TNF reached maximum levels 24 h postinfection, and then declined, while PGE2 levels increased continuously during the infection time up to 96 h post-infection. Addition of dexamethasone inhibited production of TNF and PGE2. Inhibition of PGE2 production by indomethacin resulted in increased production of TNF, while addition of PGE2 caused partial inhibition of TNF production from infected MdM.

  5. HIV-1 Vpr induces interferon-stimulated genes in human monocyte-derived macrophages.

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    Muhammad Atif Zahoor

    Full Text Available Macrophages act as reservoirs of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 and play an important role in its transmission to other cells. HIV-1 Vpr is a multi-functional protein involved in HIV-1 replication and pathogenesis; however, its exact role in HIV-1-infected human macrophages remains poorly understood. In this study, we used a microarray approach to explore the effects of HIV-1 Vpr on the transcriptional profile of human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs. More than 500 genes, mainly those involved in the innate immune response, the type I interferon pathway, cytokine production, and signal transduction, were differentially regulated (fold change >2.0 after infection with a recombinant adenovirus expressing HIV-1 Vpr protein. The differential expression profiles of select interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs and genes involved in the innate immune response, including STAT1, IRF7, MX1, MX2, ISG15, ISG20, IFIT1, IFIT2, IFIT3, IFI27, IFI44L, APOBEC3A, DDX58 (RIG-I, TNFSF10 (TRAIL, and RSAD2 (viperin were confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR and were consistent with the microarray data. In addition, at the post-translational level, HIV-1 Vpr induced the phosphorylation of STAT1 at tyrosine 701 in human MDMs. These results demonstrate that HIV-1 Vpr leads to the induction of ISGs and expand the current understanding of the function of Vpr and its role in HIV-1 immune pathogenesis.

  6. The transcriptome of Legionella pneumophila-infected human monocyte-derived macrophages.

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    Christopher T D Price

    Full Text Available Legionella pneumophila is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that invades and replicates within alveolar macrophages through injection of ∼ 300 effector proteins by its Dot/Icm type IV translocation apparatus. The bona fide F-box protein, AnkB, is a nutritional virulence effector that triggers macrophages to generate a surplus of amino acids, which is essential for intravacuolar proliferation. Therefore, the ankB mutant represents a novel genetic tool to determine the transcriptional response of human monocyte-derived macrophages (hMDMs to actively replicating L. pneumophila.Here, we utilized total human gene microarrays to determine the global transcriptional response of hMDMs to infection by wild type or the ankB mutant of L. pneumophila. The transcriptomes of hMDMs infected with either actively proliferating wild type or non-replicative ankB mutant bacteria were remarkably similar. The transcriptome of infected hMDMs was predominated by up-regulation of inflammatory pathways (IL-10 anti-inflammatory, interferon signaling and amphoterin signaling, anti-apoptosis, and down-regulation of protein synthesis pathways. In addition, L. pneumophila modulated diverse metabolic pathways, particularly those associated with bio-active lipid metabolism, and SLC amino acid transporters expression.Taken together, the hMDM transcriptional response to L. pneumophila is independent of intra-vacuolar replication of the bacteria and primarily involves modulation of the immune response and metabolic as well as nutritional pathways.

  7. Transcriptional analysis of diverse strains Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in primary bovine monocyte derived macrophages.

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    Zhu, Xiaochun; Tu, Zheng J; Coussens, Paul M; Kapur, Vivek; Janagama, Harish; Naser, Saleh; Sreevatsan, Srinand

    2008-10-01

    In this study we analyzed the macrophage-induced gene expression of three diverse genotypes of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Using selective capture of transcribed sequences (SCOTS) on three genotypically diverse MAP isolates from cattle, human, and sheep exposed to primary bovine monocyte derived macrophages for 48 h and 120 h we created and sequenced six cDNA libraries. Sequence annotations revealed that the cattle isolate up-regulated 27 and 241 genes; the human isolate up-regulated 22 and 53 genes, and the sheep isolate up-regulated 35 and 358 genes, at the two time points respectively. Thirteen to thirty-three percent of the genes identified did not have any annotated function. Despite variations in the genes identified, the patterns of expression fell into overlapping cellular functions as inferred by pathway analysis. For example, 10-12% of the genes expressed by all three strains at each time point were associated with cell-wall biosynthesis. All three strains of MAP studied up-regulated genes in pathways that combat oxidative stress, metabolic and nutritional starvation, and cell survival. Taken together, this comparative transcriptional analysis suggests that diverse MAP genotypes respond with similar modus operandi for survival in the host.

  8. HIV-1-infected monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages are impaired in their ability to produce superoxide radicals.

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    Howell, A L; Groveman, D S; Wallace, P K; Fanger, M W

    1997-01-01

    Monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages play a key role in immune defense against pathogenic organisms. Superoxide anion production is a key mechanism by which phagocytes kill pathogens. We sought to determine whether human immunodeficiency virus-infected monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages are compromised in their ability to produce the superoxide anion following stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) or after cross-linking the type I Fc receptor for IgG (Fc gamma RI). Fc gamma RI was cross-linked by the binding of monoclonal antibody 197, which reacts with an epitope of Fc gamma RI via its Fc region. Monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages obtained from seronegative donors were infected in vitro with human immunodeficiency virus-1JR-FL and used in effector assays that measured superoxide anion production by the reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium. Reduced nitroblue tetrazolium was measured spectrophotometrically and by microscopy in which the percentage of cells containing intracellular deposits of the dye was assessed. By spectrophotometric measurement, we found that human immunodeficiency virus-infected monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages produced less superoxide anion following either phorbol myristate acetate stimulation or Fc gamma RI cross-linking than uninfected cells from the same donor. Using microscopy we saw no difference in the percentage of infected and uninfected macrophages containing intracellular deposits of nitroblue tetrazolium suggesting that human immunodeficiency virus-infected macrophages produce less superoxide anion on a per cell basis than uninfected macrophages. Activation of human immunodeficiency virus-infected monocytes with interferon-gamma for 72 h prior to stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate or monoclonal antibody 197 increased their ability to reduce nitroblue tetrazolium. These findings suggest that impairment in the production of reactive oxygen intermediates may, in some cases, contribute to

  9. Effect of size of man-made and natural mineral fibers on chemiluminescent response in human monocyte-derived macrophages.

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Fiber size is an important factor in the tumorigenicity of various mineral fibers and asbestos fibers in animal experiments. We examined the time course of the ability to induce lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence (CL) from human monocyte-derived macrophages exposed to Japan Fibrous Material standard reference samples (glass wool, rock wool, micro glass fiber, two types of refractory ceramic fiber, refractory mullite fiber, potassium titanium whisker, silicon carbide whisker, titanium oxide...

  10. The identification of markers of macrophage differentiation in PMA-stimulated THP-1 cells and monocyte-derived macrophages.

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    Marc Daigneault

    Full Text Available Differentiated macrophages are the resident tissue phagocytes and sentinel cells of the innate immune response. The phenotype of mature tissue macrophages represents the composite of environmental and differentiation-dependent imprinting. Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (VD(3 are stimuli commonly used to induce macrophage differentiation in monocytic cell lines but the extent of differentiation in comparison to primary tissue macrophages is unclear. We have compared the phenotype of the promonocytic THP-1 cell line after various protocols of differentiation utilising VD(3 and PMA in comparison to primary human monocytes or monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM. Both stimuli induced changes in cell morphology indicative of differentiation but neither showed differentiation comparable to MDM. In contrast, PMA treatment followed by 5 days resting in culture without PMA (PMAr increased cytoplasmic to nuclear ratio, increased mitochondrial and lysosomal numbers and altered differentiation-dependent cell surface markers in a pattern similar to MDM. Moreover, PMAr cells showed relative resistance to apoptotic stimuli and maintained levels of the differentiation-dependent anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1 similar to MDM. PMAr cells retained a high phagocytic capacity for latex beads, and expressed a cytokine profile that resembled MDM in response to TLR ligands, in particular with marked TLR2 responses. Moreover, both MDM and PMAr retained marked plasticity to stimulus-directed polarization. These findings suggest a modified PMA differentiation protocol can enhance macrophage differentiation of THP-1 cells and identify increased numbers of mitochondria and lysosomes, resistance to apoptosis and the potency of TLR2 responses as important discriminators of the level of macrophage differentiation for transformed cells.

  11. Proteomic alteration of equine monocyte-derived macrophages infected with equine infectious anemia virus.

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    Du, Cheng; Liu, Hai-Fang; Lin, Yue-Zhi; Wang, Xue-Feng; Ma, Jian; Li, Yi-Jing; Wang, Xiaojun; Zhou, Jian-Hua

    2015-06-01

    Similar to the well-studied viruses human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is another member of the Lentivirus genus in the family Retroviridae. Previous studies revealed that interactions between EIAV and the host resulted in viral evolution in pathogenicity and immunogenicity, as well as adaptation to the host. Proteomic analysis has been performed to examine changes in protein expression and/or modification in host cells infected with viruses and has revealed useful information for virus-host interactions. In this study, altered protein expression in equine monocyte-derived macrophages (eMDMs, the principle target cell of EIAV in vivo) infected with the EIAV pathogenic strain EIAV(DLV34) (DLV34) was examined using 2D-LC-MS/MS coupled with the iTRAQ labeling technique. The expression levels of 210 cellular proteins were identified to be significantly upregulated or downregulated by infection with DLV34. Alterations in protein expression were confirmed by examining the mRNA levels of eight selected proteins using quantitative real-time reverse-transcription PCR, and by verifying the levels of ten selected proteins using parallel reaction monitoring (PRM). Further analysis of GO and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG)-Pathway enrichment demonstrated that these differentially expressed proteins are primarily related to the biological processes of oxidative phosphorylation, protein folding, RNA splicing, and ubiquitylation. Our results can facilitate a better understanding of the host response to EIAV infection and the cellular processes required for EIAV replication and pathogenesis. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Establishing porcine monocyte-derived macrophage and dendritic cell systems for studying the interaction with PRRSV-1

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    Helen eSingleton

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Monocyte-derived macrophages (MoMØ and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDC are two model systems well established in human and rodent systems that can be used to study the interaction of pathogens with host cells. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV is known to infect myeloid cells, such as macrophages (MØ and dendritic cells (DC. Therefore, this study aimed to establish systems for the differentiation and characterization of MoMØ and MoDC for subsequent infection with PRRSV-1. M-CSF differentiated monocyte-derived macrophages (MoMØ were stimulated with activators for classical (M1 or alternative (M2 activation. GM-CSF and IL-4 generated monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDC were activated with the well established maturation cocktail containing PAMPs and cytokines. In addition, MoMØ and MoDC were treated with dexamethasone and IL-10, which are known immuno-suppressive reagents. Cells were characterized by morphology, phenotype and function and porcine MØ subsets highlighted some divergence from described human counterparts, while MoDC, appeared more similar to mouse and human DCs. The infection with PRRSV-1 strain Lena demonstrated different replication kinetics between MoMØ and MoDC and within subsets of each cell type. While MoMØ susceptibility was significantly increased by dexamethasone and IL-10 with an accompanying increase in CD163/CD169 expression, MoDC supported only a minimal replication of PRRSV These findings underline the high variability in the susceptibility of porcine myeloid cells towards PRRSV-1 infection.

  13. The impact of telmisartan on angiotensin converting enzyme 2 mRNA expression in monocyte-derived macrophages of diabetic hypertensive patients

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    李永勤

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of telmisartan on the expression of angiotensin converting enzyme 2(ACE2) mRNA in monocyte-derived macrophages of hypertensive patients accompanied with diabetes. Methods 62 essential hypertensive patients accompanied with

  14. Fate mapping reveals that microglia and recruited monocyte-derived macrophages are definitively distinguishable by phenotype in the retina.

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    O'Koren, E G; Mathew, R; Saban, D R

    2016-02-09

    The recent paradigm shift that microglia are yolk sac-derived, not hematopoietic-derived, is reshaping our knowledge about the isolated role of microglia in CNS diseases, including degenerative conditions of the retina. However, unraveling microglial-specific functions has been hindered by phenotypic overlap of microglia with monocyte-derived macrophages. The latter are differentiated from recruited monocytes in neuroinflammation, including retina. Here we demonstrate the use of fate mapping wherein microglia and monocyte-derived cells are endogenously labeled with different fluorescent reporters. Combining this method with 12-color flow cytometry, we show that these two populations are definitively distinguishable by phenotype in retina. We prove that retinal microglia have a unique CD45(lo) CD11c(lo) F4/80(lo) I-A/I-E(-) signature, conserved in the steady state and during retinal injury. The latter was observed in the widely used light-induced retinal degeneration model and corroborated in other models, including whole-body irradiation/bone-marrow transplantation. The literature contains conflicting observations about whether microglia, including in the retina, increase expression of these markers in neuroinflammation. We show that monocyte-derived macrophages have elevated expression of these surface markers, not microglia. Our resolution of such phenotypic differences may serve as a robust way to help characterize isolated roles of these cells in retinal neuroinflammation and possibly elsewhere in CNS.

  15. Effect of cytokines on Siglec-1 and HIV-1 entry in monocyte-derived macrophages: the importance of HIV-1 envelope V1V2 region.

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    Jobe, Ousman; Trinh, Hung V; Kim, Jiae; Alsalmi, Wadad; Tovanabutra, Sodsai; Ehrenberg, Philip K; Peachman, Kristina K; Gao, Guofen; Thomas, Rasmi; Kim, Jerome H; Michael, Nelson L; Alving, Carl R; Rao, Venigalla B; Rao, Mangala

    2016-06-01

    Monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages express relatively low levels of CD4. Despite this, macrophages can be effectively infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Macrophages have a critical role in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission; however, the mechanism or mechanisms of virus infection are poorly understood. We report that growth factors, such as granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and macrophage colony-stimulating factor affect the phenotypic profile and permissiveness of macrophages to human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of monocyte-derived macrophages derived from granulocyte macrophage and macrophage colony-stimulating factors was predominantly facilitated by the sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin-1. The number of sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin receptors on macrophage colony-stimulating factor-derived monocyte-derived macrophages was significantly greater than on granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor-derived monocyte-derived macrophages, and correspondingly, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection was greater in the macrophage colony-stimulating factor-derived monocyte-derived macrophages. Single-genome analysis and quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction revealed that the differences in infectivity was not due to differences in viral fitness or in viral variants with differential infectivity but was due to reduced viral entry into the granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor-derived monocyte-derived macrophages. Anti-sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin, trimeric glycoprotein 145, and scaffolded V1V2 proteins were bound to sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin and significantly reduced human immunodeficiency virus type 1 entry and infection. Furthermore, sialic acid residues present in the V1V2 region of the envelope protein mediated human immunodeficiency virus type 1

  16. Activated human mast cells induce LOX-1-specific scavenger receptor expression in human monocyte-derived macrophages.

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    Mervi Alanne-Kinnunen

    Full Text Available Activated mast cells in atherosclerotic lesions degranulate and release bioactive compounds capable of regulating atherogenesis. Here we examined the ability of activated human primary mast cells to regulate the expression of the major scavenger receptors in cultured human primary monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDMs.Components released by immunologically activated human primary mast cells induced a transient expression of lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor (LOX-1 mRNA in HMDMs, while the expression of two other scavenger receptors, MSR1 and CD36, remained unaffected. The LOX-1-inducing secretory components were identified as histamine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β1, which exhibited a synergistic effect on LOX-1 mRNA expression. Histamine induced a transient expression of LOX-1 protein. Mast cell -induced increase in LOX-1 expression was not associated with increased uptake of oxidized LDL by the macrophages.Mast cell-derived histamine, TNF-α, and TGF-β1 act in concert to induce a transient increase in LOX-1 expression in human primary monocyte-derived macrophages. The LOX-1-inducing activity potentially endows mast cells a hitherto unrecognized role in the regulation of innate immune reactions in atherogenesis.

  17. The effect of low oxygen with and without steady-state hydrogen peroxide on cytokine gene and protein expression of monocyte-derived macrophages - biomed 2011

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    Owegi, H.; Bouwens, M.; Egot-Lemaire, S.; Mueller, S.; Geib, R.W.; Waite, G.N.

    2011-01-01

    An early event during inflammation and infection is the migration of monocytes into tissues where they differentiate into macrophages. Such monocyte-derived macrophages face an unfavorable environment characterized by extremely low oxygen tension and accumulation of reactive oxygen species such as h

  18. High density lipoprotein suppresses lipoprotein associated phospholipase A2 in human monocytes-derived macrophages through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ pathway

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    HAN Guan-ping; REN Jing-yi; QIN Li; SONG Jun-xian; WANG Lan; CHEN Hong

    2012-01-01

    Background Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is mainly secreted by macrophages,serving as a specific marker of atherosclerotic plaque and exerting pro-atherogenic effects.It is known that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) plays an important role against atherosclerosis by inhibiting pro-inflammatory factors,however,the relationship between HDL and Lp-PLA2 remains elusive.Methods In this study,reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR),Western blotting,and a platelet-activating factor (PAF) acetylhydrolase assay were performed to determine the Lp-PLA2 mRNA level,protein expression and activity in human monocyte-derived macrophages upon HDL treatment of different concentrations and durations.To investigate the underlying mechanism of HDL-induced Lp-PLA2 action,pioglitazone,a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-y (PPARy) ligand,was introduced to human monocyte-derived macrophages and mRNA and protein levels of Lp-PLA2,as well as its activity,were determined.Results Lp-PLA2 mRNA levels,protein expression and activity were significantly inhibited in response to HDL treatment in a dose and time dependent manner in human monocyte-derived macrophages.Pioglitazone treatment (1-10 ng/ml) upregulated the Lp-PLA2 mRNA level,protein expression and activity in human monocyte-derived macrophages,while the effects were markedly reversed by HDL.In addition,pioglitazone resulted in a significant increase in PPARY phosphorylation in human monocyte-derived macrophages,which could be inhibited by HDL.Conclusion These findings indicate that HDL suppresses the expression and activity of Lp-PLA2 in human monocyte-derived macrophages,and the underlying mechanisms may be mediated through the PPARY pathway.

  19. Comparative nitric oxide production by LPS-stimulated monocyte-derived macrophages from Ovis canadensis and Ovis aries.

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    Sacco, R E; Waters, W R; Rudolph, K M; Drew, M L

    2006-01-01

    Bighorn sheep are more susceptible to respiratory infection by Mannheimia haemolytica than are domestic sheep. In response to bacterial challenge, macrophages produce a number of molecules that play key roles in the inflammatory response, including highly reactive nitrogen intermediates such as nitric oxide (NO). Supernatants from monocyte-derived macrophages cultured with M. haemolytica LPS were assayed for nitric oxide activity via measurement of the NO metabolite, nitrite. In response to LPS stimulation, bighorn sheep macrophages secreted significantly higher levels of NO compared to levels for non-stimulated macrophages. In contrast, levels of NO produced by domestic sheep macrophages in response to M. haemolytica LPS did not differ from levels detected in non-stimulated cell cultures. Nitrite levels detected in supernatants of LPS-stimulated bighorn macrophage cultures treated with an inducible nitric oxide synthase (INOS) inhibitor, N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine, were similar to that observed in non-stimulated cultures indicating a role for the iNOS pathway.

  20. In vitro generation of monocyte-derived macrophages under serum-free conditions improves their tumor promoting functions.

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    Flora Rey-Giraud

    Full Text Available The tumor promoting role of M2 macrophages has been described in in vivo models and the presence of macrophages in certain tumor types has been linked to a poor clinical outcome. In light of burgeoning activities to clinically develop new therapies targeting tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs, reliable in vitro models faithfully mimicking the tumor promoting functions of TAMs are required. Generation and activation of human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM in vitro, described as M1 or M2 macrophages attributed with tumoricidal or tumor-promoting functions, respectively, has been widely reported using mainly serum containing culture methods. In this study, we compared the properties of macrophages originating from monocytes cultured either in media containing serum together with M-CSF for M2 and GM-CSF for M1 macrophages or in serum-free media supplemented with M-CSF or GM-CSF and cytokines such as IL-4, IL-10 to induce activated M2 or LPS together with IFN-γ to generate activated M1 phenotype. We observed differences in cell morphology as well as increased surface receptor expression levels in serum-containing culture whereas similar or higher cytokine production levels were detected under serum-free culture conditions. More importantly, MDM differentiated under serum-free conditions displayed enhanced tumoricidal activity for M1 and tumor promoting property for M2 macrophages in contrast to MDM differentiated in the presence of serum. Moreover, evaluation of MDM phagocytic activity in serum free condition resulted in greater phagocytic properties of M2 compared to M1. Our data therefore confirm the tumor promoting properties of M2 macrophages in vitro and encourage the targeting of TAMs for cancer therapy.

  1. HIV-1 inhibits phagocytosis and inflammatory cytokine responses of human monocyte-derived macrophages to P. falciparum infected erythrocytes.

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    Louise E Ludlow

    Full Text Available HIV-1 infection increases the risk and severity of malaria by poorly defined mechanisms. We investigated the effect of HIV-1(Ba-L infection of monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM on phagocytosis of opsonised P. falciparum infected erythrocytes (IE and subsequent proinflammatory cytokine secretion. Compared to mock-infected MDM, HIV-1 infection significantly inhibited phagocytosis of IE (median (IQR (10 (0-28 versus (34 (27-108; IE internalised/100 MDM; p = 0.001 and decreased secretion of IL-6 (1,116 (352-3,387 versus 1,552 (889-6,331; pg/mL; p = 0.0078 and IL-1β (16 (7-21 versus 33 (27-65; pg/mL; p = 0.0078. Thus inadequate phagocytosis and cytokine production may contribute to impaired control of malaria in HIV-1 infected individuals.

  2. Characterization of HIV-1 Infection and Innate Sensing in Different Types of Primary Human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages

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    Elisabeth A. Diget

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages play an important role in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV pathogenesis and contribute to establishment of a viral reservoir responsible for continuous virus production and virus transmission to T cells. In this study, we investigated the differences between various monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs generated through different differentiation protocols and evaluated different cellular, immunological, and virological properties. We found that elevated and persistent HIV-1 pWT/BaL replication could be obtained only in MDMs grown in RPMI containing macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF. Interestingly, this MDM type was also most responsive to toll-like receptor stimulation. By contrast, all MDM types were activated to a comparable extent by intracellular DNA, and the macrophage serum-free medium-(Mac-SFM-differentiated MDMs responded strongly to membrane fusion through expression of CXCL10. Finally, we found that HIV infection of RPMI/M-CSF-differentiated MDMs induced low-grade expression of two interferon-stimulated genes in some donors. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that the differentiation protocol used greatly influences the ability of MDMs to activate innate immune reactions and support HIV-1 replication. Paradoxically, the data show that the MDMs with the strongest innate immune response were also the most permissive for HIV-1 replication.

  3. Mycobacterium tuberculosis ESAT6 and CPF10 Induce Adenosine Deaminase 2 mRNA Expression in Monocyte-Derived Macrophages

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    Bae, Mi Jung; Ryu, Suyeon; Kim, Ha-Jeong; Cha, Seung Ick

    2017-01-01

    Background Delayed hypersensitivity plays a large role in the pathogenesis of tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE). Macrophages infected with live Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) increase the levels of adenosine deaminase2 (ADA2) in the pleural fluid of TPE patients. However, it is as yet unclear whether ADA2 can be produced by macrophages when challenged with MTB antigens alone. This study therefore evaluated the levels of ADA2 mRNA expression, using monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) stimulated with MTB antigens. Methods Purified monocytes from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy volunteers were differentiated into macrophages using granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). The MDMs were stimulated with early secretory antigenic target protein 6 (ESAT6) and culture filtrate protein 10 (CFP10). The mRNA expression levels for the cat eye syndrome chromosome region, candidate 1 (CECR1) gene encoding ADA2 were then measured. Results CECR1 mRNA expression levels were significantly higher in MDMs stimulated with ESAT6 and CFP10, than in the unstimulated MDMs. When stimulated with ESAT6, M-CSF-treated MDMs showed more pronounced CECR1 mRNA expression than GM-CSF-treated MDMs. Interferon-γ decreased the ESAT6- and CFP10-induced CECR1 mRNA expression in MDMs. CECR1 mRNA expression levels were positively correlated with mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 10, respectively. Conclusion ADA2 mRNA expression increased when MDMs were stimulated with MTB antigens alone. This partly indicates that pleural fluid ADA levels could increase in patients with culture-negative TPE. Our results may be helpful in improving the understanding of TPE pathogenesis.

  4. Analysis of the bovine monocyte-derived macrophage response to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection using RNA-seq

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    Maura E Casey

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Johne’s disease, caused by infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, (MAP, is a chronic intestinal disease of ruminants with serious economic consequences for cattle production in the United States and elsewhere. During infection, MAP bacilli are phagocytosed and subvert host macrophage processes, resulting in subclinical infections that can lead to immunopathology and dissemination of disease. Analysis of the host macrophage transcriptome during infection can therefore shed light on the molecular mechanisms and host-pathogen interplay associated with Johne’s disease. Here we describe results of an in vitro study of the bovine monocyte-derived macrophage (MDM transcriptome response during MAP infection using RNA-seq. MDM were obtained from seven age- and sex-matched Holstein-Friesian cattle and were infected with MAP across a six-hour infection time course with non-infected controls. We observed 245 and 574 differentially expressed genes in MAP-infected versus non-infected control samples (adjusted P value ≤ 0.05 at 2 and 6 hours post-infection, respectively. Functional analyses of these differentially expressed genes, including biological pathway enrichment, highlighted potential functional roles for genes that have not been previously described in the host response to infection with MAP bacilli. In addition, differential expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine genes, such as those associated with the IL-10 signaling pathway, and other immune-related genes that encode proteins involved in the bovine macrophage response to MAP infection emphasize the balance between protective host immunity and bacilli survival and proliferation. Systematic comparisons of RNA-seq gene expression results with Affymetrix® microarray data generated from the same experimental samples also demonstrated that RNA-seq represents a superior technology for studying host transcriptional responses to intracellular infection.

  5. High resolution preparation of monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM protein fractions for clinical proteomics

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    Olivieri Oliviero

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Macrophages are involved in a number of key physiological processes and complex responses such as inflammatory, immunological, infectious diseases and iron homeostasis. These cells are specialised for iron storage and recycling from senescent erythrocytes so they play a central role in the fine tuning of iron balancing and distribution. The comprehension of the many physiological responses of macrophages implies the study of the related molecular events. To this regard, proteomic analysis, is one of the most powerful tools for the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms, in terms of changes in protein expression levels. Results Our aim was to optimize a protocol for protein fractionation and high resolution mapping using human macrophages for clinical studies. We exploited a fractionation protocol based on the neutral detergent Triton X-114. The 2D maps of the fractions obtained showed high resolution and a good level of purity. Western immunoblotting and mass spectrometry (MS/MS analysis indicated no fraction cross contamination. On 2D-PAGE mini gels (7 × 8 cm we could count more than five hundred protein spots, substantially increasing the resolution and the number of detectable proteins for the macrophage proteome. The fractions were also evaluated, with preliminary experiments, using Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS. Conclusion This relatively simple method allows deep investigation into macrophages proteomics producing discrete and accurate protein fractions, especially membrane-associated and integral proteins. The adapted protocol seems highly suitable for further studies of clinical proteomics, especially for the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms controlling iron homeostasis in normal and disease conditions.

  6. Helminth-induced Ly6Chi monocyte-derived alternatively activated macrophages suppress experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    OpenAIRE

    Terrazas, Cesar; de Dios Ruiz-Rosado, Juan; Stephanie A. Amici; Jablonski, Kyle A.; Martinez-Saucedo, Diana; Lindsay M Webb; Cortado, Hanna; Robledo-Avila, Frank; Oghumu, Steve; Satoskar, Abhay R.; Rodriguez-Sosa, Miriam; Terrazas, Luis I.; Guerau-de-Arellano, Mireia; Partida-Sánchez, Santiago

    2017-01-01

    Helminths cause chronic infections and affect the immune response to unrelated inflammatory diseases. Although helminths have been used therapeutically to ameliorate inflammatory conditions, their anti-inflammatory properties are poorly understood. Alternatively activated macrophages (AAMϕs) have been suggested as the anti-inflammatory effector cells during helminth infections. Here, we define the origin of AAMϕs during infection with Taenia crassiceps, and their disease-modulating activity o...

  7. ALV-J strain SCAU-HN06 induces innate immune responses in chicken primary monocyte-derived macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Min; Dai, Manman; Cao, Weisheng; Tan, Yan; Li, Zhenhui; Shi, Meiqing; Zhang, Xiquan

    2017-01-01

    Avian leucosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) can cause lifelong infection and can escape from the host immune defenses in chickens. Since macrophages act as the important defense line against invading pathogens in host innate immunity, we investigated the function and innate immune responses of chicken primary monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) after ALV-J infection in this study. Our results indicated that ALV-J was stably maintained in MDM cells but that the viral growth rate was significantly lower than that in DF-1 cells. We also found that ALV-J infection significantly increased nitric oxide (NO) production, but had no effect on MDM phagocytic capacity. Interestingly, infection with ALV-J rapidly promoted the expression levels of Myxovirus resistance 1 (Mx) (3 h, 6 h), ISG12 (6 h), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) (3 h, 12 h) at an early infection stage, whereas it sharply decreased the expression of Mx (24 h, 36 h), ISG12 (36 h), and made little change on IL-1β (24 h, 36 h) production at a late infection stage in MDM cells. Moreover, the protein levels of interferon-β (IFN-β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) had sharply increased in infected MDM cells from 3 to 36 h post infection (hpi) of ALV-J. And, the protein level of interleukin-10 (IL-10) was dramatically decreased at 36 hpi in MDM cells infected with ALV-J. These results demonstrate that ALV-J can induce host innate immune responses and we hypothesize that macrophages play an important role in host innate immune attack and ALV-J immune escape.

  8. Evaluation of the cytotoxicity of organic dust components on THP1 monocytes-derived macrophages using high content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramery, Eve; O'Brien, Peter J

    2014-03-01

    Organic dust contains pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) which can induce significant airway diseases following chronic exposure. Mononuclear phagocytes are key protecting cells of the respiratory tract. Several studies have investigated the effects of PAMPs and mainly endotoxins, on cytokine production. However the sublethal cytotoxicity of organic dust components on macrophages has not been tested yet. The novel technology of high content analysis (HCA) is already used to assess subclinical drug-induced toxicity. It combines the capabilities of flow cytometry, intracellular fluorescence probes, and image analysis and enables rapid multiple analyses in large numbers of samples. In this study, HCA was used to investigate the cytotoxicity of the three major PAMPs contained in organic dust, i.e., endotoxin (LPS), peptidoglycan (PGN) and β-glucans (zymosan) on THP-1 monocyte-derived macrophages. LPS was used at concentrations of 0.005, 0.01, 0.02, 0.05, 0.1, and 1 μg/mL; PGN and zymosan were used at concentrations of 1, 5, 10, 50, 100, and 500 μg/mL. Cells were exposed to PAMPs for 24 h. In addition, the oxidative burst and the phagocytic capabilities of the cells were tested. An overlap between PGN intrinsic fluorescence and red/far-red fluorescent dyes occurred, rendering the evaluation of some parameters impossible for PGN. LPS induced sublethal cytotoxicity at the lowest dose (from 50 ng/mL). However, the greatest cytotoxic changes occurred with zymosan. In addition, zymosan, but not LPS, induced phagosome maturation and oxidative burst. Given the fact that β-glucans can be up to 100-fold more concentrated in organic dust than LPS, these results suggest that β-glucans could play a major role in macrophage impairment following heavy dust exposure and will merit further investigation in the near future.

  9. Inhibition of nitric oxide enhances ovine lentivirus replication in monocyte-derived macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Kevin A; Mason, Gary L; DeMartini, James C

    2002-12-01

    Ovine lentivirus (OvLV) also known as maedi-visna virus, infects and replicates primarily in macrophages. This investigation examined the role of nitric oxide in the replication of OvLV in cultured macrophages. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected from OvLV-free sheep and cultured in Teflon coated flasks at a high concentration of lamb serum. The cells were subsequently infected with OvLV strain 85/34. OvLV replication was assessed under different experimental treatments by comparison of reverse transcriptase (RT) activity in culture supernatant. Cultures that were treated with exogenous nitric oxide via S-nitroso-acetylpenicillamine did not have altered levels of RT activity compared to cultures treated with the inactive control compound, acetylpenicillamine. However, blockage of nitric oxide production by treatment with aminoguanidine, a competitive inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), led to a significant rise in RT activity. This rise in RT activity was partially reversed in aminoguanidine treated cultures by L-arginine, the normal substrate for iNOS. Finally, the number of viral antigen producing cells was also quantified after aminoguanidine treatment and found to be significantly higher than untreated cultures. Collectively, these results indicate that nitric oxide is a negative regulator of OvLV replication in macrophages.

  10. Integrated microRNA-mRNA-analysis of human monocyte derived macrophages upon Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis infection.

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    Jutta Sharbati

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many efforts have been made to understand basal mechanisms of mycobacterial infections. Macrophages are the first line of host immune defence to encounter and eradicate mycobacteria. Pathogenic species have evolved different mechanisms to evade host response, e.g. by influencing macrophage apoptotic pathways. However, the underlying molecular regulation is not fully understood. A new layer of eukaryotic regulation of gene expression is constituted by microRNAs. Therefore, we present a comprehensive study for identification of these key regulators and their targets in the context of host macrophage response to mycobacterial infections. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed microRNA as well as mRNA expression analysis of human monocyte derived macrophages infected with several Mycobacterium avium hominissuis strains by means of microarrays as well as quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR. The data revealed the ability of all strains to inhibit apoptosis by transcriptional regulation of BCL2 family members. Accordingly, at 48 h after infection macrophages infected with all M. avium strains showed significantly decreased caspase 3 and 7 activities compared to the controls. Expression of let-7e, miR-29a and miR-886-5p were increased in response to mycobacterial infection at 48 h. The integrated analysis of microRNA and mRNA expression as well as target prediction pointed out regulative networks identifying caspase 3 and 7 as potential targets of let-7e and miR-29a, respectively. Consecutive reporter assays verified the regulation of caspase 3 and 7 by these microRNAs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We show for the first time that mycobacterial infection of human macrophages causes a specific microRNA response. We furthermore outlined a regulatory network of potential interactions between microRNAs and mRNAs. This study provides a theoretical concept for unveiling how distinct mycobacteria could manipulate host cell response

  11. Screening of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Mutants for Attenuation in a Bovine Monocyte-Derived Macrophage Model

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    Elise A Lamont

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination remains a major tool for prevention and progression of Johne’s disease, a chronic enteritis of ruminants worldwide. Currently there is only one licensed vaccine within the United States and two vaccines licensed internationally against Johne’s disease. All licensed vaccines reduce fecal shedding of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP and delay disease progression. However, there are no available vaccines that prevent disease onset. A joint effort by the Johne’s Disease Integrated Program (JDIP, a USDA-funded consortium, and USDA- APHIS/VS sought to identify transposon insertion mutant strains as vaccine candidates in part of a three phase study. The focus of the Phase I study was to evaluate MAP mutant attenuation in a well-defined in vitro bovine monocyte-derived macrophage (MDM model. Attenuation was determined by colony forming unit (CFUs counts and slope estimates. Based on CFU counts alone, the MDM model did not identify any mutant that significantly differed from the wild-type control, MAP K-10. Slope estimates using mixed models approach identified six mutants as being attenuated. These were enrolled in protection studies involving murine and baby goat vaccination-challenge models. MDM based approach identified trends in attenuation but this did not correlate with protection in a natural host model. These results suggest the need for alternative strategies for Johne’s disease vaccine candidate screening and evaluation.

  12. Intestinal Monocyte-Derived Macrophages Control Commensal-Specific Th17 Responses

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    Casandra Panea

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Generation of different CD4 T cell responses to commensal and pathogenic bacteria is crucial for maintaining a healthy gut environment, but the associated cellular mechanisms are poorly understood. Dendritic cells (DCs and macrophages (Mfs integrate microbial signals and direct adaptive immunity. Although the role of DCs in initiating T cell responses is well appreciated, how Mfs contribute to the generation of CD4 T cell responses to intestinal microbes is unclear. Th17 cells are critical for mucosal immune protection and at steady state are induced by commensal bacteria, such as segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB. Here, we examined the roles of mucosal DCs and Mfs in Th17 induction by SFB in vivo. We show that Mfs, and not conventional CD103+ DCs, are essential for the generation of SFB-specific Th17 responses. Thus, Mfs drive mucosal T cell responses to certain commensal bacteria.

  13. Inhibition of HIV-1 replication in human monocyte-derived macrophages by parasite Trypanosoma cruzi.

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    Guadalupe Andreani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage are one of the major targets of HIV-1 infection and serve as reservoirs for viral persistence in vivo. These cells are also the target of the protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, being one of the most important endemic protozoonoses in Latin America. It has been demonstrated in vitro that co-infection with other pathogens can modulate HIV replication. However, no studies at cellular level have suggested an interaction between T. cruzi and HIV-1 to date. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By using a fully replicative wild-type virus, our study showed that T. cruzi inhibits HIV-1 antigen production by nearly 100% (p99% being stronger than HIV-T. cruzi (approximately 90% for BaL and approximately 85% for VSV-G infection. In MDM with established HIV-1 infection, T. cruzi significantly inhibited luciferate activity (p<0.01. By quantifying R-U5 and U5-gag transcripts by real time PCR, our study showed the expression of both transcripts significantly diminished in the presence of trypomastigotes (p<0.05. Thus, T. cruzi inhibits viral post-integration steps, early post-entry steps and entry into MDM. Trypomastigotes also caused a approximately 60-70% decrease of surface CCR5 expression on MDM. Multiplication of T. cruzi inside the MDM does not seem to be required for inhibiting HIV-1 replication since soluble factors secreted by trypomastigotes have shown similar effects. Moreover, the major parasite antigen cruzipain, which is secreted by the trypomastigote form, was able to inhibit viral production in MDM over 90% (p<0.01. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study showed that T. cruzi inhibits HIV-1 replication at several replication stages in macrophages, a major cell target for both pathogens.

  14. Acute stress reduces wound-induced activation of microbicidal potential of ex vivo isolated human monocyte-derived macrophages.

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    Ulrike Kuebler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Psychological stress delays wound healing but the precise underlying mechanisms are unclear. Macrophages play an important role in wound healing, in particular by killing microbes. We hypothesized that (a acute psychological stress reduces wound-induced activation of microbicidal potential of human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDM, and (b that these reductions are modulated by stress hormone release. METHODS: Fourty-one healthy men (mean age 35 ± 13 years were randomly assigned to either a stress or stress-control group. While the stress group underwent a standardized short-term psychological stress task after catheter-induced wound infliction, stress-controls did not. Catheter insertion was controlled. Assessing the microbicidal potential, we investigated PMA-activated superoxide anion production by HMDM immediately before and 1, 10 and 60 min after stress/rest. Moreover, plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine and salivary cortisol were repeatedly measured. In subsequent in vitro studies, whole blood was incubated with norepinephrine in the presence or absence of phentolamine (norepinephrine blocker before assessing HMDM microbicidal potential. RESULTS: Compared with stress-controls, HMDM of the stressed subjects displayed decreased superoxide anion-responses after stress (p's <.05. Higher plasma norepinephrine levels statistically mediated lower amounts of superoxide anion-responses (indirect effect 95% CI: 4.14-44.72. Norepinephrine-treated HMDM showed reduced superoxide anion-production (p<.001. This effect was blocked by prior incubation with phentolamine. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that acute psychological stress reduces wound-induced activation of microbicidal potential of HMDM and that this reduction is mediated by norepinephrine. This might have implications for stress-induced impairment in wound healing.

  15. Helminth-induced Ly6Chi monocyte-derived alternatively activated macrophages suppress experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrazas, Cesar; de Dios Ruiz-Rosado, Juan; Amici, Stephanie A.; Jablonski, Kyle A.; Martinez-Saucedo, Diana; Webb, Lindsay M.; Cortado, Hanna; Robledo-Avila, Frank; Oghumu, Steve; Satoskar, Abhay R.; Rodriguez-Sosa, Miriam; Terrazas, Luis I.; Guerau-de-Arellano, Mireia; Partida-Sánchez, Santiago

    2017-01-01

    Helminths cause chronic infections and affect the immune response to unrelated inflammatory diseases. Although helminths have been used therapeutically to ameliorate inflammatory conditions, their anti-inflammatory properties are poorly understood. Alternatively activated macrophages (AAMϕs) have been suggested as the anti-inflammatory effector cells during helminth infections. Here, we define the origin of AAMϕs during infection with Taenia crassiceps, and their disease-modulating activity on the Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE). Our data show two distinct populations of AAMϕs, based on the expression of PD-L1 and PD-L2 molecules, resulting upon T. crassiceps infection. Adoptive transfer of Ly6C+ monocytes gave rise to PD-L1+/PD-L2+, but not PD-L1+/PD-L2− cells in T. crassiceps-infected mice, demonstrating that the PD-L1+/PD-L2+ subpopulation of AAMϕs originates from blood monocytes. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of PD-L1+/PD-L2+ AAMϕs into EAE induced mice reduced disease incidence, delayed disease onset, and diminished the clinical disability, indicating the critical role of these cells in the regulation of autoimmune disorders. PMID:28094319

  16. Genome-wide association study identifies single nucleotide polymorphism in DYRK1A associated with replication of HIV-1 in monocyte-derived macrophages.

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    Sebastiaan M Bol

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV-1 infected macrophages play an important role in rendering resting T cells permissive for infection, in spreading HIV-1 to T cells, and in the pathogenesis of AIDS dementia. During highly active anti-retroviral treatment (HAART, macrophages keep producing virus because tissue penetration of antiretrovirals is suboptimal and the efficacy of some is reduced. Thus, to cure HIV-1 infection with antiretrovirals we will also need to efficiently inhibit viral replication in macrophages. The majority of the current drugs block the action of viral enzymes, whereas there is an abundance of yet unidentified host factors that could be targeted. We here present results from a genome-wide association study identifying novel genetic polymorphisms that affect in vitro HIV-1 replication in macrophages. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Monocyte-derived macrophages from 393 blood donors were infected with HIV-1 and viral replication was determined using Gag p24 antigen levels. Genomic DNA from individuals with macrophages that had relatively low (n = 96 or high (n = 96 p24 production was used for SNP genotyping with the Illumina 610 Quad beadchip. A total of 494,656 SNPs that passed quality control were tested for association with HIV-1 replication in macrophages, using linear regression. We found a strong association between in vitro HIV-1 replication in monocyte-derived macrophages and SNP rs12483205 in DYRK1A (p = 2.16 × 10(-5. While the association was not genome-wide significant (p<1 × 10(-7, we could replicate this association using monocyte-derived macrophages from an independent group of 31 individuals (p = 0.0034. Combined analysis of the initial and replication cohort increased the strength of the association (p = 4.84 × 10(-6. In addition, we found this SNP to be associated with HIV-1 disease progression in vivo in two independent cohort studies (p = 0.035 and p = 0.0048. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that the kinase

  17. In vitro evidence for the protective role of Sida rhomboidea. Roxb extract against LDL oxidation and oxidized LDL-induced apoptosis in human monocyte-derived macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thounaojam, Menaka C; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Devkar, Ranjisinh V; Ramachandran, A V

    2011-06-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate protective role of S. rhomboidea. Roxb (SR) leaf extract against in vitro low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL) induced macrophage apoptosis. Copper and cell-mediated LDL oxidation, Ox-LDL-induced peroxyl radical generation, mitochondrial activity, and apoptosis in human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDMs) were assessed in presence of SR extract. Results clearly indicated that SR was capable of reducing LDL oxidation and formation of intermediary oxidation products. Also, SR successfully attenuated peroxyl radical formation, mitochondrial dysfunction, nuclear condensation, and apoptosis in Ox-LDL-exposed HMDMs. This scientific report is the first detailed investigation that establishes anti-atherosclerotic potential of SR extract.

  18. Surface modification of biomaterials based on high-molecular polylactic acid and their effect on inflammatory reactions of primary human monocyte-derived macrophages: perspective for personalized therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankevich, Ksenia S; Gudima, Alexandru; Filimonov, Victor D; Klüter, Harald; Mamontova, Evgeniya M; Tverdokhlebov, Sergei I; Kzhyshkowska, Julia

    2015-06-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA) based implants can cause inflammatory complications. Macrophages are key innate immune cells that control inflammation. To provide higher biocompatibility of PLA-based implants with local innate immune cells their surface properties have to be improved. In our study surface modification technique for high-molecular PLA (MW=1,646,600g/mol) based biomaterials was originally developed and successfully applied. Optimal modification conditions were determined. Treatment of PLA films with toluene/ethanol=3/7 mixture for 10min with subsequent exposure in 0.001M brilliant green dye (BGD) solution allows to entrap approximately 10(-9)mol/cm(2) model biomolecules. The modified PLA film surface was characterized by optical microscopy, SERS, FT-IR, UV and TG/DTA/DSC analysis. Tensile strain of modified films was determined as well. The effect of PLA films modified with BGD on the inflammatory reactions of primary human monocyte-derived macrophages was investigated. We developed in vitro test-system by differentiating primary monocyte-derived macrophages on a coating material. Type 1 and type 2 inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, CCL18) secretion and histological biomarkers (CD206, stabilin-1) expression were analyzed by ELISA and confocal microscopy respectively. BGD-modified materials have improved thermal stability and good mechanical properties. However, BGD modifications induced additional donor-specific inflammatory reactions and suppressed tolerogenic phenotype of macrophages. Therefore, our test-system successfully demonstrated specific immunomodulatory effects of original and modified PLA-based biomaterials, and can be further applied for the examination of improved coatings for implants and identification of patient-specific reactions to implants.

  19. Monocytes-derived macrophages mediated stable expression of human brain-derived neurotrophic factor, a novel therapeutic strategy for neuroAIDS.

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    Jing Tong

    Full Text Available HIV-1 associated dementia remains a significant public health burden. Clinical and experimental research has shown that reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF may be a risk factor for neurological complications associated with HIV-1 infection. We are actively testing genetically modified macrophages for their possible use as the cell-based gene delivery vehicle for the central nervous system (CNS. It can be an advantage to use the natural homing/migratory properties of monocyte-derived macrophages to deliver potentially neuroprotective BDNF into the CNS, as a non-invasive manner. Lentiviral-mediated gene transfer of human (hBDNF plasmid was constructed and characterized. Defective lentiviral stocks were generated by transient transfection of 293T cells with lentiviral transfer plasmid together with packaging and envelope plasmids. High titer lentiviral vector stocks were harvested and used to transduce human neuronal cell lines, primary cultures of human peripheral mononocyte-derived macrophages (hMDM and murine myeloid monocyte-derived macrophages (mMDM. These transduced cells were tested for hBDNF expression, stability, and neuroprotective activity. The GenomeLab GeXP Genetic Analysis System was used to evaluate transduced cells for any adverse effects by assessing gene profiles of 24 reference genes. High titer vectors were prepared for efficient transduction of neuronal cell lines, hMDM, and mMDM. Stable secretion of high levels of hBDNF was detected in supernatants of transduced cells using western blot and ELISA. The conditioned media containing hBDNF were shown to be protective to neuronal and monocytic cell lines from TNF-α and HIV-1 Tat mediated cytotoxicity. Lentiviral vector-mediated gene transduction of hMDM and mMDM resulted in high-level, stable expression of the neuroprotective factorBDNF in vitro. These findings form the basis for future research on the potential use of BDNF as a novel therapy for neuroAIDS.

  20. Monocytes-derived macrophages mediated stable expression of human brain-derived neurotrophic factor, a novel therapeutic strategy for neuroAIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jing; Buch, Shilpa; Yao, Honghong; Wu, Chengxiang; Tong, Hsin-I; Wang, Youwei; Lu, Yuanan

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1 associated dementia remains a significant public health burden. Clinical and experimental research has shown that reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may be a risk factor for neurological complications associated with HIV-1 infection. We are actively testing genetically modified macrophages for their possible use as the cell-based gene delivery vehicle for the central nervous system (CNS). It can be an advantage to use the natural homing/migratory properties of monocyte-derived macrophages to deliver potentially neuroprotective BDNF into the CNS, as a non-invasive manner. Lentiviral-mediated gene transfer of human (h)BDNF plasmid was constructed and characterized. Defective lentiviral stocks were generated by transient transfection of 293T cells with lentiviral transfer plasmid together with packaging and envelope plasmids. High titer lentiviral vector stocks were harvested and used to transduce human neuronal cell lines, primary cultures of human peripheral mononocyte-derived macrophages (hMDM) and murine myeloid monocyte-derived macrophages (mMDM). These transduced cells were tested for hBDNF expression, stability, and neuroprotective activity. The GenomeLab GeXP Genetic Analysis System was used to evaluate transduced cells for any adverse effects by assessing gene profiles of 24 reference genes. High titer vectors were prepared for efficient transduction of neuronal cell lines, hMDM, and mMDM. Stable secretion of high levels of hBDNF was detected in supernatants of transduced cells using western blot and ELISA. The conditioned media containing hBDNF were shown to be protective to neuronal and monocytic cell lines from TNF-α and HIV-1 Tat mediated cytotoxicity. Lentiviral vector-mediated gene transduction of hMDM and mMDM resulted in high-level, stable expression of the neuroprotective factorBDNF in vitro. These findings form the basis for future research on the potential use of BDNF as a novel therapy for neuroAIDS.

  1. Efficient, long term production of monocyte-derived macrophages from human pluripotent stem cells under partly-defined and fully-defined conditions.

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    Bonnie van Wilgenburg

    Full Text Available Human macrophages are specialised hosts for HIV-1, dengue virus, Leishmania and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Yet macrophage research is hampered by lack of appropriate cell models for modelling infection by these human pathogens, because available myeloid cell lines are, by definition, not terminally differentiated like tissue macrophages. We describe here a method for deriving monocytes and macrophages from human Pluripotent Stem Cells which improves on previously published protocols in that it uses entirely defined, feeder- and serum-free culture conditions and produces very consistent, pure, high yields across both human Embryonic Stem Cell (hESC and multiple human induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (hiPSC lines over time periods of up to one year. Cumulatively, up to ∼3×10(7 monocytes can be harvested per 6-well plate. The monocytes produced are most closely similar to the major blood monocyte (CD14(+, CD16(low, CD163(+. Differentiation with M-CSF produces macrophages that are highly phagocytic, HIV-1-infectable, and upon activation produce a pro-inflammatory cytokine profile similar to blood monocyte-derived macrophages. Macrophages are notoriously hard to genetically manipulate, as they recognise foreign nucleic acids; the lentivector system described here overcomes this, as pluripotent stem cells can be relatively simply genetically manipulated for efficient transgene expression in the differentiated cells, surmounting issues of transgene silencing. Overall, the method we describe here is an efficient, effective, scalable system for the reproducible production and genetic modification of human macrophages, facilitating the interrogation of human macrophage biology.

  2. Wear particles from studded tires and granite pavement induce pro-inflammatory alterations in human monocyte-derived macrophages: a proteomic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Helen; Lindbom, John; Ghafouri, Bijar; Lindahl, Mats; Tagesson, Christer; Gustafsson, Mats; Ljungman, Anders G

    2011-01-14

    Airborne particulate matter is considered to be one of the environmental contributors to the mortality in cancer, respiratory, and cardiovascular diseases. For future preventive actions, it is of major concern to investigate the toxicity of defined groups of airborne particles and to clarify their pathways in biological tissues. To expand the knowledge beyond general inflammatory markers, this study examined the toxicoproteomic effects on human monocyte derived macrophages after exposure to wear particles generated from the interface of studded tires and a granite-containing pavement. As comparison, the effect of endotoxin was also investigated. The macrophage proteome was separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Detected proteins were quantified, and selected proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry. Among analyzed proteins, seven were significantly decreased and three were increased by exposure to wear particles as compared to unexposed control cells. Endotoxin exposure resulted in significant changes in the expression of six proteins: four decreased and two increased. For example, macrophage capping protein was significantly increased after wear particle exposure only, whereas calgizzarin and galectin-3 were increased by both wear particle and endotoxin exposure. Overall, proteins associated with inflammatory response were increased and proteins involved in cellular functions such as redox balance, anti-inflammatory response, and glycolysis were decreased. Investigating the effects of characterized wear particles on human macrophages with a toxicoproteomic approach has shown to be useful in the search for more detailed information about specific pathways and possible biological markers.

  3. HSV-1-induced chemokine expression via IFI16-dependent and IFI16-independent pathways in human monocyte-derived macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søby, Stine; Laursen, Rune R; Østergaard, Lars Jørgen;

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Innate recognition is essential in the antiviral response against infection by herpes simplex virus (HSV). Chemokines are important for control of HSV via recruitment of natural killer cells, T lymphocytes, and antigen-presenting cells. We previously found that early HSV-1......-mediated chemokine responses are not dependent on TLR2 and TLR9 in human macrophages. Here, we investigated the role of the recently identified innate IFN-inducible DNA receptor IFI16 during HSV-1 infection in human macrophages. METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were purified from buffy coats...... and monocytes were differentiated to macrophages. Macrophages infected with HSV-1 were analyzed using siRNA-mediated knock-down of IFI16 by real-time PCR, ELISA, and Western blotting. RESULTS: We determined that both CXCL10 and CCL3 are induced independent of HSV-1 replication. IFI16 mediates CCL3 m...

  4. Killing of Escherichia coli by Crohn's Disease Monocyte-derived Macrophages and Its Enhancement by Hydroxychloroquine and Vitamin D

    OpenAIRE

    Flanagan, Paul K.; Chiewchengchol, Direkrit; Helen L Wright; Edwards, Steven W.; Alswied, Abdullah; Satsangi, Jack; Subramanian, Sreedhar; Rhodes, Jonathan M.; Campbell, Barry J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD) is associated with defective innate immunity, including impaired neutrophil chemotaxis, and mucosal invasion by bacteria, particularly adherent and invasive Escherichia coli that replicate inside macrophage phagolysosomes. We compared CD and healthy control (HC) macrophages for their abilities to kill E. coli and generate neutrophil chemoattractants and also assessed the effects of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and vitamin D on killing of phagocytosed E. coli.METHO...

  5. Differential expression of HIV-1 interfering factors in monocyte-derived macrophages stimulated with polarizing cytokines or interferons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Viviana Cobos; Booiman, Thijs; de Taeye, Steven W.; van Dort, Karel A.; Rits, Maarten A. N.; Hamann, Jörg; Kootstra, Neeltje A.

    2012-10-01

    HIV-1 replication in macrophages can be regulated by cytokines and infection is restricted in macrophages activated by type I interferons and polarizing cytokines. Here, we observed that the expression levels of the cellular factors Trim5α, CypA, APOBEC3G, SAMHD-1, Trim22, tetherin and TREX-1, and the anti-HIV miRNAs miR-28, miR-150, miR-223 and miR-382 was upregulated by IFN-α and IFN-β in macrophages, which may account for the inhibiting effect on viral replication and the antiviral state of these cells. Expression of these factors was also increased by IFN-γ +/- TNF-α, albeit to a lesser extent; yet, HIV-1 replication in these cells was not restricted at the level of proviral synthesis, indicating that these cellular factors only partially contribute to the observed restriction. IL-4, IL-10 or IL-32 polarization did not affect the expression of cellular factors and miRNAs, suggesting only a limited role for these cellular factors in restricting HIV-1 replication in macrophages.

  6. Transcriptional Response of Bovine Monocyte-Derived Macrophages after the Infection with Different Argentinean Mycobacterium bovis Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Caimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection of bovines with Mycobacterium bovis causes important financial hardship in many countries presenting also a risk for humans. M. bovis is known to be adapted to survive and thrive within the intramacrophage environment. In spite of its relevance, at present the information about macrophage expression patterns is scarce, particularly regarding the bovine host. In this study, transcriptomic analysis was used to detect genes differentially expressed in macrophages derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells at early stages of infection with two Argentinean strains of M. bovis, a virulent and an attenuated strains. The results showed that the number of differentially expressed genes in the cells infected with the virulent strain (5 was significantly lower than those in the cells infected with the attenuated strain (172. Several genes were more strongly expressed in infected macrophages. Among them, we detected encoding transcription factors, anthrax toxin receptor, cell division and apoptosis regulator, ankyrin proteins, cytoskeleton proteins, protein of cell differentiation, and regulators of endocytic traffic of membrane. Quantitative real-time PCR of a selected group of differentially expressed genes confirmed the microarrays results. Altogether, the present results contribute to understanding the mechanisms involved in the early interaction of M. bovis with the bovine macrophage.

  7. Analysis of the human monocyte-derived macrophage transcriptome and response to lipopolysaccharide provides new insights into genetic aetiology of inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, J Kenneth; Arner, Erik; Daub, Carsten; De Hoon, Michiel; Itoh, Masayoshi; Kawaji, Hideya; Lassmann, Timo; Carninci, Piero; Forrest, Alistair R R; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Faulkner, Geoffrey J; Wells, Christine A; Rehli, Michael; Pavli, Paul; Summers, Kim M; Hume, David A

    2017-03-01

    The FANTOM5 consortium utilised cap analysis of gene expression (CAGE) to provide an unprecedented insight into transcriptional regulation in human cells and tissues. In the current study, we have used CAGE-based transcriptional profiling on an extended dense time course of the response of human monocyte-derived macrophages grown in macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF1) to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We propose that this system provides a model for the differentiation and adaptation of monocytes entering the intestinal lamina propria. The response to LPS is shown to be a cascade of successive waves of transient gene expression extending over at least 48 hours, with hundreds of positive and negative regulatory loops. Promoter analysis using motif activity response analysis (MARA) identified some of the transcription factors likely to be responsible for the temporal profile of transcriptional activation. Each LPS-inducible locus was associated with multiple inducible enhancers, and in each case, transient eRNA transcription at multiple sites detected by CAGE preceded the appearance of promoter-associated transcripts. LPS-inducible long non-coding RNAs were commonly associated with clusters of inducible enhancers. We used these data to re-examine the hundreds of loci associated with susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in genome-wide association studies. Loci associated with IBD were strongly and specifically (relative to rheumatoid arthritis and unrelated traits) enriched for promoters that were regulated in monocyte differentiation or activation. Amongst previously-identified IBD susceptibility loci, the vast majority contained at least one promoter that was regulated in CSF1-dependent monocyte-macrophage transitions and/or in response to LPS. On this basis, we concluded that IBD loci are strongly-enriched for monocyte-specific genes, and identified at least 134 additional candidate genes associated with IBD susceptibility from reanalysis

  8. Elevated ARG1 expression in primary monocytes-derived macrophages as a predictor of radiation-induced acute skin toxicities in early breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Karen; Sabri, Siham; Hanson, John; Xu, Yaoxian; Wang, Ying Wayne; Lai, Raymond; Abdulkarim, Bassam S

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) the front-line treatment after surgery for early breast cancer patients is associated with acute skin toxicities in at least 40% of treated patients. Monocyte-derived macrophages are polarized into functionally distinct (M1 or M2) activated phenotypes at injury sites by specific systemic cytokines known to play a key role in the transition between damage and repair in irradiated tissues. The role of M1 and M2 macrophages in RT-induced acute skin toxicities remains to be defined. We investigated the potential value of M1 and M2 macrophages as predictive factors of RT-induced skin toxicities in early breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant RT after lumpectomy. Blood samples collected from patients enrolled in a prospective clinical study (n = 49) were analyzed at baseline and after the first delivered 2Gy RT dose. We designed an ex vivo culture system to differentiate patient blood monocytes into macrophages and treated them with M1 or M2-inducing cytokines before quantitative analysis of their "M1/M2" activation markers, iNOS, Arg1, and TGFß1. Statistical analysis was performed to correlate experimental data to clinical assessment of acute skin toxicity using Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) grade for objective evaluation of skin reactions. Increased ARG1 mRNA significantly correlated with higher grades of erythema, moist desquamation, and CTC grade. Multivariate analysis revealed that increased ARG1 expression in macrophages after a single RT dose was an independent prognostic factor of erythema (p = 0 .032), moist desquamation (p = 0 .027), and CTC grade (p = 0 .056). Interestingly, multivariate analysis of ARG1 mRNA expression in macrophages stimulated with IL-4 also revealed independent prognostic value for predicting acute RT-induced toxicity factors, erythema (p = 0 .069), moist desquamation (p = 0 .037), and CTC grade (p = 0 .046). To conclude, our findings underline for the first time the biological significance of increased ARG1 m

  9. High Intracellular Concentrations of Posaconazole Do Not Impact on Functional Capacities of Human Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils and Monocyte-Derived Macrophages In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farowski, Fedja; Cornely, Oliver A; Hartmann, Pia

    2016-06-01

    Posaconazole is a commonly used antifungal for the prophylaxis and treatment of invasive fungal infections. We previously demonstrated that the intracellular concentration of posaconazole in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) was greatly increased compared to the plasma concentration. As these professional phagocytes are crucial to combat fungal infections, we set out to investigate if and how, beneficial or deleterious, this high loading of intracellular posaconazole impacts the functional capacities of these cells. Here, we show that high intracellular concentrations of posaconazole do not significantly impact PMN and monocyte-derived macrophage function in vitro In particular, killing capacity and cytoskeletal features of PMN, such as migration, are not affected, indicating that these cells serve as vehicles for posaconazole to the site of infection. Moreover, since posaconazole as such slowed the germination of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia, infected neutrophils released less reactive oxygen species (ROS). Based on these findings, we propose that the delivery of posaconazole by neutrophils to the site of Aspergillus species infection warrants control of the pathogen and preservation of tissue integrity at the same time.

  10. Pathogenic prion protein fragment (PrP106–126) promotes human immunodeficiency virus type-1 infection in peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacot, Silvia M.; Feldman, Gerald M.; Yamada, Kenneth M.; Dhawan, Subhash

    2017-01-01

    Transfusion of blood and blood products contaminated with the pathogenic form of prion protein Prpsc, thought to be the causative agent of variant a Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (vCJD), may result in serious consequences in recipients with a compromised immune system, for example, as seen in HIV-1 infection. In the present study, we demonstrate that treatment of peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) with PrP106–126, a synthetic domain of PrPsc that has intrinsic functional activities related to the full-length protein, markedly increased their susceptibility to HIV-1 infection, induced cytokine secretion, and enhanced their migratory behavior in response to N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (fMLP). Live-cell imaging of MDM cultured in the presence of PrP106–126 showed large cell clusters indicative of cellular activation. Tyrosine kinase inhibitor STI-571, protein kinase C inhibitor K252B, and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor olomoucine attenuated PrP106–126-induced altered MDM functions. These findings delineate a previously undefined functional role of PrP106–126-mediated host cell response in promoting HIV-1 pathogenesis. PMID:25589240

  11. Infection of equine monocyte-derived macrophages with an attenuated equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) strain induces a strong resistance to the infection by a virulent EIAV strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian; Wang, Shan-Shan; Lin, Yue-Zhi; Liu, Hai-Fang; Liu, Qiang; Wei, Hua-Mian; Wang, Xue-Feng; Wang, Yu-Hong; Du, Cheng; Kong, Xian-Gang; Zhou, Jian-Hua; Wang, Xiaojun

    2014-08-09

    The Chinese attenuated equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) vaccine has successfully protected millions of equine animals from EIA disease in China. Given that the induction of immune protection results from the interactions between viruses and hosts, a better understanding of the characteristics of vaccine strain infection and host responses would be useful for elucidating the mechanism of the induction of immune protection by the Chinese attenuated EIAV strain. In this study, we demonstrate in equine monocyte-derived macrophages (eMDM) that EIAVFDDV13, a Chinese attenuated EIAV strain, induced a strong resistance to subsequent infection by a pathogenic strain, EIAVUK3. Further experiments indicate that the expression of the soluble EIAV receptor sELR1, Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and interferon β (IFNβ) was up-regulated in eMDM infected with EIAVFDDV13 compared with eMDM infected with EIAVUK3. Stimulating eMDM with poly I:C resulted in similar resistance to EIAV infection as induced by EIAVFDDV13 and was correlated with enhanced TLR3, sELR1 and IFNβ expression. The knock down of TLR3 mRNA significantly impaired poly I:C-stimulated resistance to EIAV, greatly reducing the expression of sELR1 and IFNβ and lowered the level of infection resistance induced by EIAVFDDV13. These results indicate that the induction of restraining infection by EIAVFDDV13 in macrophages is partially mediated through the up-regulated expression of the soluble viral receptor and IFNβ, and that the TLR3 pathway activation plays an important role in the development of an EIAV-resistant intracellular environment.

  12. Global gene expression and systems biology analysis of bovine monocyte-derived macrophages in response to in vitro challenge with Mycobacterium bovis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Magee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis, is a major cause of mortality in global cattle populations. Macrophages are among the first cell types to encounter M. bovis following exposure and the response elicited by these cells is pivotal in determining the outcome of infection. Here, a functional genomics approach was undertaken to investigate global gene expression profiles in bovine monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM purified from seven age-matched non-related females, in response to in vitro challenge with M. bovis (multiplicity of infection 2:1. Total cellular RNA was extracted from non-challenged control and M. bovis-challenged MDM for all animals at intervals of 2 hours, 6 hours and 24 hours post-challenge and prepared for global gene expression analysis using the Affymetrix® GeneChip® Bovine Genome Array. RESULTS: Comparison of M. bovis-challenged MDM gene expression profiles with those from the non-challenged MDM controls at each time point identified 3,064 differentially expressed genes 2 hours post-challenge, with 4,451 and 5,267 differentially expressed genes detected at the 6 hour and 24 hour time points, respectively (adjusted P-value threshold ≤ 0.05. Notably, the number of downregulated genes exceeded the number of upregulated genes in the M. bovis-challenged MDM across all time points; however, the fold-change in expression for the upregulated genes was markedly higher than that for the downregulated genes. Systems analysis revealed enrichment for genes involved in: (1 the inflammatory response; (2 cell signalling pathways, including Toll-like receptors and intracellular pathogen recognition receptors; and (3 apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS: The increased number of downregulated genes is consistent with previous studies showing that M. bovis infection is associated with the repression of host gene expression. The results also support roles for MyD88-independent signalling and intracellular PRRs in

  13. Analysis of the human monocyte-derived macrophage transcriptome and response to lipopolysaccharide provides new insights into genetic aetiology of inflammatory bowel disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Kenneth Baillie

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The FANTOM5 consortium utilised cap analysis of gene expression (CAGE to provide an unprecedented insight into transcriptional regulation in human cells and tissues. In the current study, we have used CAGE-based transcriptional profiling on an extended dense time course of the response of human monocyte-derived macrophages grown in macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF1 to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS. We propose that this system provides a model for the differentiation and adaptation of monocytes entering the intestinal lamina propria. The response to LPS is shown to be a cascade of successive waves of transient gene expression extending over at least 48 hours, with hundreds of positive and negative regulatory loops. Promoter analysis using motif activity response analysis (MARA identified some of the transcription factors likely to be responsible for the temporal profile of transcriptional activation. Each LPS-inducible locus was associated with multiple inducible enhancers, and in each case, transient eRNA transcription at multiple sites detected by CAGE preceded the appearance of promoter-associated transcripts. LPS-inducible long non-coding RNAs were commonly associated with clusters of inducible enhancers. We used these data to re-examine the hundreds of loci associated with susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD in genome-wide association studies. Loci associated with IBD were strongly and specifically (relative to rheumatoid arthritis and unrelated traits enriched for promoters that were regulated in monocyte differentiation or activation. Amongst previously-identified IBD susceptibility loci, the vast majority contained at least one promoter that was regulated in CSF1-dependent monocyte-macrophage transitions and/or in response to LPS. On this basis, we concluded that IBD loci are strongly-enriched for monocyte-specific genes, and identified at least 134 additional candidate genes associated with IBD susceptibility

  14. Analysis of the human monocyte-derived macrophage transcriptome and response to lipopolysaccharide provides new insights into genetic aetiology of inflammatory bowel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arner, Erik; De Hoon, Michiel; Carninci, Piero; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Pavli, Paul; Summers, Kim M.; Hume, David A.

    2017-01-01

    The FANTOM5 consortium utilised cap analysis of gene expression (CAGE) to provide an unprecedented insight into transcriptional regulation in human cells and tissues. In the current study, we have used CAGE-based transcriptional profiling on an extended dense time course of the response of human monocyte-derived macrophages grown in macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF1) to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We propose that this system provides a model for the differentiation and adaptation of monocytes entering the intestinal lamina propria. The response to LPS is shown to be a cascade of successive waves of transient gene expression extending over at least 48 hours, with hundreds of positive and negative regulatory loops. Promoter analysis using motif activity response analysis (MARA) identified some of the transcription factors likely to be responsible for the temporal profile of transcriptional activation. Each LPS-inducible locus was associated with multiple inducible enhancers, and in each case, transient eRNA transcription at multiple sites detected by CAGE preceded the appearance of promoter-associated transcripts. LPS-inducible long non-coding RNAs were commonly associated with clusters of inducible enhancers. We used these data to re-examine the hundreds of loci associated with susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in genome-wide association studies. Loci associated with IBD were strongly and specifically (relative to rheumatoid arthritis and unrelated traits) enriched for promoters that were regulated in monocyte differentiation or activation. Amongst previously-identified IBD susceptibility loci, the vast majority contained at least one promoter that was regulated in CSF1-dependent monocyte-macrophage transitions and/or in response to LPS. On this basis, we concluded that IBD loci are strongly-enriched for monocyte-specific genes, and identified at least 134 additional candidate genes associated with IBD susceptibility from reanalysis

  15. Enhanced Inhibitory Effect of Ultra-Fine Granules of Red Ginseng on LPS-induced Cytokine Expression in the Monocyte-Derived Macrophage THP-1 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Yeoul Kim

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Red ginseng is one of the most popular traditional medicines in Korea because its soluble hot-water extract is known to be very effective on enhancing immunity as well as inhibiting inflammation. Recently, we developed a new technique, called the HACgearshift system, which can pulverize red ginseng into the ultra-fine granules ranging from 0.2 to 7.0 μm in size. In this study, the soluble hot-water extract of those ultra-fine granules of red ginseng (URG was investigated and compared to that of the normal-sized granules of red ginseng (RG. The high pressure liquid chromatographic analyses of the soluble hot-water extracts of both URG and RG revealed that URG had about 2-fold higher amounts of the ginsenosides, the biologically active components in red ginseng, than RG did. Using quantitative RT-PCR, cytokine profiling against the Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS in the monocyte-derived macrophage THP-1 cells demonstrated that the URG-treated cells showed a significant reduction in cytokine expression than the RG-treated ones. Transcription expression of the LPS-induced cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TGF-β was significantly inhibited by URG compared to RG. These results suggest that some biologically active and soluble components in red ginseng can be more effectively extracted from URG than RG by standard hot-water extraction.

  16. Differential intracellular fate of Burkholderia pseudomallei 844 and Burkholderia thailandensis UE5 in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells and macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engering Anneke

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bp is a category B biothreat organism that causes a potentially fatal disease in humans and animals, namely melioidosis. Burkholderia thailandensis (Bt is another naturally occurring species that is very closely related to Bp. However, despite this closely related genotype, Bt is considered avirulent as it does not cause the disease. In the present study, we compared the growth kinetics of B. pseudomallei strain 844 (Bp-844 in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs and macrophages (Mφs, as well as its ability to stimulate host cell responses with those of B. thailandensis strain UE5 (Bt-UE5. Results Primary human MoDCs and Mφs were infected with Bp-844 and its intracellular growth kinetics and ability to induce host cell responses were evaluated. The results were compared with those obtained using the Bt-UE5. In human MoDCs, both bacteria were similar in respect to their ability to survive and replicate intracellularly, induce upregulation of costimulatory molecules and cytokines and bias T helper cell differentiation toward a Th1 phenotype. By contrast, the two bacteria exhibited different growth kinetics in human Mφs, where the intracellular growth of Bt-UE5, but not Bp-844, was significantly suppressed. Moreover, the ability of Mφs to kill Bp-844 was markedly enhanced following stimulation with IFN-γ. Conclusion The data presented showed that while both strains were similar in their ability to survive and replicate in human MoDCs, only Bp-844 could readily replicate in human Mφs. Both bacteria induced similar host cellular responses, particularly with regard to their ability to bias T cell differentiation toward a Th1 phenotype.

  17. Tumour-cytolytic human monocyte-derived macrophages: a simple and efficient method for the generation and long-term cultivation as non-adherent cells in a serum-free medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streck, R J; Hurley, E L; Epstein, D A; Pauly, J L

    1992-01-01

    We report a simple and efficient culture procedure for the generation of tumour-cytolytic human monocyte-derived macrophages (MAC). In this method, normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, isolated using a conventional Ficoll-Hypaque density gradient procedure, are cultured as a heterogenous leukocyte population in Teflon or other hydrophobic cultureware, in a commercially available serum-free culture medium (M-SFM) that has been formulated specifically for the cultivation and ex vivo stimulation of human monocytes and MAC, and in the absence of exogenous mitogens, antigens, cytokines or other stimulants. This procedure features a negative-selection technique that takes advantage of the differential survival of blood leukocytes. Using the prescribed in vitro conditions, lymphocytes survived relatively poorly, whereas monocytes differentiated in the absence of exogenous stimulants into mature tumour-cytolytic MAC. The MAC were present as non-adherent, single cells that expressed good viability (greater than 95%) for a prolonged period (greater than 60 days). When compared to conventional procedures for generating MAC, the prescribed technique is thought to offer several important advantages in that it: (a) eliminates the tedious and cumbersome monocyte isolation procedures, thus providing a significant savings not only in time and money but also in eliminating repetitive cell manipulations that have often been associated with damage to monocyte morphology and/or function; (b) reduces the loss of monocyte subsets that are not recovered during specific isolation procedures; (c) facilitates harvesting a single cell, non-adherent suspension of immunocompetent MAC suitable for various examinations including analyses defining MAC morphology, cytochemistry, phenotype and function; and (d) eliminates variability and artifacts associated with different sera that are utilised frequently as medium supplements. The utility of the prescribed method is illustrated by the

  18. The abcEDCBA-Encoded ABC Transporter and the virB Operon-Encoded Type IV Secretion System of Brucella ovis Are Critical for Intracellular Trafficking and Survival in Ovine Monocyte-Derived Macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auricelio A Macedo

    Full Text Available Brucella ovis infection is associated with epididymitis, orchitis and infertility in rams. Most of the information available on B. ovis and host cell interaction has been generated using murine macrophages or epithelial cell lines, but the interaction between B. ovis and primary ovine macrophages has not been studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the B. ovis abcEDCBA-encoded ABC transporter and the virB operon-encoded Type IV Secretion System (T4SS during intracellular survival of B. ovis in ovine peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages. ΔabcBA and ΔvirB2 mutant strains were unable to survive in the intracellular environment when compared to the WT B. ovis at 48 hours post infection (hpi. In addition, these mutant strains cannot exclude the lysosomal marker LAMP1 from its vacuolar membrane, and their vacuoles do not acquire the endoplasmic reticulum marker calreticulin, which takes place in the WT B. ovis containing vacuole. Higher levels of nitric oxide production were observed in macrophages infected with WT B. ovis at 48 hpi when compared to macrophages infected with the ΔabcBA or ΔvirB2 mutant strains. Conversely, higher levels of reactive oxygen species were detected in macrophages infected with the ΔabcBA or ΔvirB2 mutant strains at 48 hpi when compared to macrophages infected with the WT strain. Our results demonstrate that B. ovis is able to persist and multiply in ovine macrophages, while ΔabcBA and ΔvirB2 mutations prevent intracellular multiplication, favor phagolysosome fusion, and impair maturation of the B. ovis vacuole towards an endoplasmic reticulum-derived compartment.

  19. Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in DYRK1A Associated with Replication of HIV-1 in Monocyte-Derived Macrophages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bol, S.M.; Moerland, P.D.; Limou, S.; van Remmerden, Y.; Coulonges, C.; Manen, D.; Herbeck, J.T.; Fellay, J.; Sieberer, M.; Sietzema, J.G.; van 't Slot, R.; Martinson, J.; Zagury, J.F.; Schuitemaker, H.; van 't Wout, A.B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: HIV-1 infected macrophages play an important role in rendering resting T cells permissive for infection, in spreading HIV-1 to T cells, and in the pathogenesis of AIDS dementia. During highly active anti-retroviral treatment (HAART), macrophages keep producing virus because tissue penetr

  20. Acanthamoeba castellanii Genotype T4 Stimulates the Production of Interleukin-10 as Well as Proinflammatory Cytokines in THP-1 Cells, Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells, and Human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattana, Antonella; Sanna, Manuela; Cano, Antonella; Delogu, Giuseppe; Erre, Giuseppe; Roberts, Craig W; Henriquez, Fiona L; Fiori, Pier Luigi; Cappuccinelli, Piero

    2016-10-01

    Free-living amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba can cause severe and chronic infections in humans, mainly localized in immune privileged sites, such as the brain and the eye. Monocytes/macrophages are thought to be involved in Acanthamoeba infections, but little is known about how these facultative parasites influence their functions. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of Acanthamoeba on human monocytes/macrophages during the early phase of infection. Here, THP-1 cells, primary human monocytes isolated from peripheral blood, and human monocyte-derived macrophages were either coincubated with trophozoites of a clinical isolate of Acanthamoeba (genotype T4) or stimulated with amoeba-derived cell-free conditioned medium. Production of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], interleukin-6 [IL-6], and IL-12), anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10), and chemokine (IL-8) was evaluated at specific hours poststimulation (ranging from 1.5 h to 23 h). We showed that both Acanthamoeba trophozoites and soluble amoebic products induce an early anti-inflammatory monocyte-macrophage phenotype, characterized by significant production of IL-10; furthermore, challenge with either trophozoites or their soluble metabolites stimulate both proinflammatory cytokines and chemokine production, suggesting that this protozoan infection results from the early induction of coexisting, opposed immune responses. Results reported in this paper confirm that the production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines by monocytes and macrophages can play a role in the development of the inflammatory response during Acanthamoeba infections. Furthermore, we demonstrate for the first time that Acanthamoeba stimulates IL-10 production in human innate immune cells, which might both promote the immune evasion of Acanthamoeba and limit the induced inflammatory response.

  1. Acanthamoeba castellanii Genotype T4 Stimulates the Production of Interleukin-10 as Well as Proinflammatory Cytokines in THP-1 Cells, Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells, and Human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Manuela; Cano, Antonella; Delogu, Giuseppe; Erre, Giuseppe; Roberts, Craig W.; Henriquez, Fiona L.; Fiori, Pier Luigi; Cappuccinelli, Piero

    2016-01-01

    Free-living amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba can cause severe and chronic infections in humans, mainly localized in immune privileged sites, such as the brain and the eye. Monocytes/macrophages are thought to be involved in Acanthamoeba infections, but little is known about how these facultative parasites influence their functions. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of Acanthamoeba on human monocytes/macrophages during the early phase of infection. Here, THP-1 cells, primary human monocytes isolated from peripheral blood, and human monocyte-derived macrophages were either coincubated with trophozoites of a clinical isolate of Acanthamoeba (genotype T4) or stimulated with amoeba-derived cell-free conditioned medium. Production of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], interleukin-6 [IL-6], and IL-12), anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10), and chemokine (IL-8) was evaluated at specific hours poststimulation (ranging from 1.5 h to 23 h). We showed that both Acanthamoeba trophozoites and soluble amoebic products induce an early anti-inflammatory monocyte-macrophage phenotype, characterized by significant production of IL-10; furthermore, challenge with either trophozoites or their soluble metabolites stimulate both proinflammatory cytokines and chemokine production, suggesting that this protozoan infection results from the early induction of coexisting, opposed immune responses. Results reported in this paper confirm that the production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines by monocytes and macrophages can play a role in the development of the inflammatory response during Acanthamoeba infections. Furthermore, we demonstrate for the first time that Acanthamoeba stimulates IL-10 production in human innate immune cells, which might both promote the immune evasion of Acanthamoeba and limit the induced inflammatory response. PMID:27481240

  2. Differential regulatory activities of viral protein X for anti-viral efficacy of nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors in monocyte-derived macrophages and activated CD4(+) T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenbaugh, Joseph A; Schader, Susan M; Schinazi, Raymond F; Kim, Baek

    2015-11-01

    Vpx encoded by HIV-2 and SIVsm enhances retroviral reverse transcription in macrophages in vitro by mediating the degradation of the host SAMHD1 protein that hydrolyzes dNTPs and by elevating cellular dNTP levels. Here we employed RT-SHIV constructs (SIV encoding HIV-1 RT) to investigate the contribution of Vpx to the potency of NRTIs, which compete against dNTPs, in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) and activated CD4(+) T cells. Relative to HIV-1, both SIV and RT-SHIV exhibited reduced sensitivities to AZT, 3TC and TDF in MDMs but not in activated CD4(+) T cells. However, when SIV and RT-SHIV constructs not coding for Vpx were utilized, we observed greater sensitivities to all NRTIs tested using activated CD4(+) T cells relative to the Vpx-coding counterparts. This latter phenomenon was observed for AZT only when using MDMs. Our data suggest that Vpx in RT-SHIVs may underestimate the antiviral efficacy of NRTIs in a cell type dependent manner.

  3. Role of HIV-1 subtype C envelope V3 to V5 regions in viral entry, coreceptor utilization and replication efficiency in primary T-lymphocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopalan Sarla

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several subtypes of HIV-1 circulate in infected people worldwide, including subtype B in the United States and subtype C in Africa and India. To understand the biological properties of HIV-1 subtype C, including cellular tropism, virus entry, replication efficiency and cytopathic effects, we reciprocally inserted our previously characterized envelope V3–V5 regions derived from 9 subtype C infected patients from India into a subtype B molecular clone, pNL4-3. Equal amounts of the chimeric viruses were used to infect T-lymphocyte cell lines (A3.01 and MT-2, coreceptor cell lines (U373-MAGI-CCR5/CXCR4, primary blood T-lymphocytes (PBL and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM. Results We found that subtype C envelope V3–V5 region chimeras failed to replicate in T-lymphocyte cell lines but replicated in PBL and MDM. In addition, these chimeras were able to infect U373MAGI-CD4+-CCR5+ but not U373MAGI-CD4+-CXCR4+ cell line, suggesting CCR5 coreceptor utilization and R5 phenotypes. These subtype C chimeras were unable to induce syncytia in MT-2 cells, indicative of non-syncytium inducing (NSI phenotypes. More importantly, the subtype C envelope chimeras replicated at higher levels in PBL and MDM compared with subtype B chimeras and isolates. Furthermore, the higher levels subtype C chimeras replication in PBL and MDM correlated with increased virus entry in U373MAGI-CD4+-CCR5+. Conclusion Taken together, these results suggest that the envelope V3 to V5 regions of subtype C contributed to higher levels of HIV-1 replication compared with subtype B chimeras, which may contribute to higher viral loads and faster disease progression in subtype C infected individuals than other subtypes as well as rapid HIV-1 subtype C spread in India.

  4. Monocyte-Derived Suppressor Cells in Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochando, Jordi; Conde, Patricia; Bronte, Vincenzo

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are cells of myeloid origin with enhanced suppressive function. They are negative regulators of the immune responses and comprise a heterogeneous mixture of immunosuppressive cells of monocytic (M-MDSC) and granulocytic (G-MDSC) origin. A more recent nomenclature proposes the term "suppressive monocyte derived cells" (suppressive MCs) to define CSF1/CSF2-dependent mouse suppressor cells that develop from common monocyte progenitors (cMoPs) after birth. Here, we review the literature about monocytic-derived cells with demonstrated suppressor function in vitro and in vivo within the context of solid organ transplantation.

  5. Sphingosylphosphorylcholine stimulates human monocyte-derived dendritic cell chemotaxis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ha-young LEE; Eun-ha SHIN; Yoe-sik BAE

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of Sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) on human monocyte-derived dendritic cell (DC) chemotaxis. Methods: Human DC were generated from peripheral blood monocytes by culturing them with granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor and interleukin-4. The effect of SPC on the DC chemotactic migration was measured by chemotaxis assay. Intracellular signaling event involved in the SPC-induced DC chemotaxis was investigated with several inhibitors for specific kinase. The expression of the SPC receptors was examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results: We found that SPC induced chemotactic migration in immature DC (iDC) and mature DC (mDC). In terms of SPC-induced signaling events, mitogen activated protein kinase activation and Akt activation in iDC and mDC were stimulated. SPC-induced chemotaxis was mediated by extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase and phosphoino-sitide-3-kinase, but not by calcium in both iDC and mDC. Although mDC express ovarian cancer G protein-coupled receptor 1, but not G protein-coupled receptor 4, iDC do not express any of these receptors. To examine the involvement of sphin-gosine-1-phosphate (SIP) receptors, we checked the effect of an SIP receptor antagonist (VPC23019) on SPC-induced DC chemotaxis. VPC23019 did not affect SPC-induced DC chemotaxis. Conclusion: The results suggest that SPC may play a role in regulating DC trafficking during phagocytosis and the T cell-stimulating phase, and the unique SPC receptor, which is different from SIP receptors, is involved in SPC-induced chemotaxis.

  6. HCMV Displays a Unique Transcriptome of Immunomodulatory Genes in Primary Monocyte-Derived Cell Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Ellen; Thys, Kim; Tuefferd, Marianne; Van Hove, Carl; Aerssens, Jeroen; Van Loock, Marnix

    2016-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a betaherpesvirus which rarely presents problems in healthy individuals, yet may result in severe morbidity in immunocompromised patients and in immune-naïve neonates. HCMV has a large 235 kb genome with a coding capacity of at least 165 open reading frames (ORFs). This large genome allows complex gene regulation resulting in different sets of transcripts during lytic and latent infection. While latent virus mainly resides within monocytes and CD34+ progenitor cells, reactivation to lytic infection is driven by differentiation towards terminally differentiated myeloid dendritic cells and macrophages. Consequently, it has been suggested that macrophages and dendritic cells contribute to viral spread in vivo. Thus far only limited knowledge is available on the expression of HCMV genes in terminally differentiated myeloid primary cells and whether or not the virus exhibits a different set of lytic genes in primary cells compared with lytic infection in NHDF fibroblasts. To address these questions, we used Illumina next generation sequencing to determine the HCMV transcriptome in macrophages and dendritic cells during lytic infection and compared it to the transcriptome in NHDF fibroblasts. Here, we demonstrate unique expression profiles in macrophages and dendritic cells which significantly differ from the transcriptome in fibroblasts mainly by modulating the expression of viral transcripts involved in immune modulation, cell tropism and viral spread. In a head to head comparison between macrophages and dendritic cells, we observed that factors involved in viral spread and virion composition are differentially regulated suggesting that the plasticity of the virion facilitates the infection of surrounding cells. Taken together, this study provides the full transcript expression analysis of lytic HCMV genes in monocyte-derived type 1 and type 2 macrophages as well as in monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Thereby underlining the potential

  7. Human Monocyte-Derived Osteoclasts Are Targeted by Staphylococcal Pore-Forming Toxins and Superantigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacha Flammier

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is the leading cause of bone and joint infections (BJIs. Staphylococcal pathogenesis involves numerous virulence factors including secreted toxins such as pore-forming toxins (PFTs and superantigens. The role of these toxins on BJI outcome is largely unknown. In particular, few studies have examined how osteoclasts, the bone-resorbing cells, respond to exposure to staphylococcal PFTs and superantigens. We investigated the direct impact of recombinant staphylococcal toxins on human primary mature monocyte-derived osteoclasts, in terms of cytotoxicity and cell activation with cell death and bone resorption assays, using macrophages of the corresponding donors as a reference. Monocyte-derived osteoclasts displayed similar toxin susceptibility profiles compared to macrophages. Specifically, we demonstrated that the Panton-Valentine leukocidin, known as one of the most powerful PFT which lyses myeloid cells after binding to the C5a receptor, was able to induce the death of osteoclasts. The archetypal superantigen TSST-1 was not cytotoxic but enhanced the bone resorption activity of osteoclasts, suggesting a novel mechanism by which superantigen-producing S. aureus can accelerate the destruction of bone tissue during BJI. Altogether, our data indicate that the diverse clinical presentations of BJIs could be related, at least partly, to the toxin profiles of S. aureus isolates involved in these severe infections.

  8. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells in bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knijff, EM; Ruwhof, C; de Wit, HJ; Kupka, RW; Vonk, R; Akkerhuis, GW; Nolen, WA; Drexhage, HA

    2006-01-01

    Background: Dendritic cells (DC) are key regulators of the immune system, which is compromised in patients with bipolar disorder. We sought to study monocyte-derived DC in bipolar disorder. Methods: Monocytes purified from blood collected from DSM-IV bipolar disorder outpatients (n = 53, 12 without

  9. cGAS Senses Human Cytomegalovirus and Induces Type I Interferon Responses in Human Monocyte-Derived Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paijo, Jennifer; Döring, Marius; Spanier, Julia; Grabski, Elena; Nooruzzaman, Mohammed; Schmidt, Tobias; Witte, Gregor; Messerle, Martin; Hornung, Veit; Kaever, Volkhard; Kalinke, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections of healthy individuals are mostly unnoticed and result in viral latency. However, HCMV can also cause devastating disease, e.g., upon reactivation in immunocompromised patients. Yet, little is known about human immune cell sensing of DNA-encoded HCMV. Recent studies indicated that during viral infection the cyclic GMP/AMP synthase (cGAS) senses cytosolic DNA and catalyzes formation of the cyclic di-nucleotide cGAMP, which triggers stimulator of interferon genes (STING) and thus induces antiviral type I interferon (IFN-I) responses. We found that plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) as well as monocyte-derived DC and macrophages constitutively expressed cGAS and STING. HCMV infection further induced cGAS, whereas STING expression was only moderately affected. Although pDC expressed particularly high levels of cGAS, and the cGAS/STING axis was functional down-stream of STING, as indicated by IFN-I induction upon synthetic cGAMP treatment, pDC were not susceptible to HCMV infection and mounted IFN-I responses in a TLR9-dependent manner. Conversely, HCMV infected monocyte-derived cells synthesized abundant cGAMP levels that preceded IFN-I production and that correlated with the extent of infection. CRISPR/Cas9- or siRNA-mediated cGAS ablation in monocytic THP-1 cells and primary monocyte-derived cells, respectively, impeded induction of IFN-I responses following HCMV infection. Thus, cGAS is a key sensor of HCMV for IFN-I induction in primary human monocyte-derived DC and macrophages. PMID:27058035

  10. Divergent JAM-C Expression Accelerates Monocyte-Derived Cell Exit from Atherosclerotic Plaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul F Bradfield

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis, caused in part by monocytes in plaques, continues to be a disease that afflicts the modern world. Whilst significant steps have been made in treating this chronic inflammatory disease, questions remain on how to prevent monocyte and macrophage accumulation in atherosclerotic plaques. Junctional Adhesion Molecule C (JAM-C expressed by vascular endothelium directs monocyte transendothelial migration in a unidirectional manner leading to increased inflammation. Here we show that interfering with JAM-C allows reverse-transendothelial migration of monocyte-derived cells, opening the way back out of the inflamed environment. To study the role of JAM-C in plaque regression we used a mouse model of atherosclerosis, and tested the impact of vascular JAM-C expression levels on monocyte reverse transendothelial migration using human cells. Studies in-vitro under inflammatory conditions revealed that overexpression or gene silencing of JAM-C in human endothelium exposed to flow resulted in higher rates of monocyte reverse-transendothelial migration, similar to antibody blockade. We then transplanted atherosclerotic, plaque-containing aortic arches from hyperlipidemic ApoE-/- mice into wild-type normolipidemic recipient mice. JAM-C blockade in the recipients induced greater emigration of monocyte-derived cells and further diminished the size of atherosclerotic plaques. Our findings have shown that JAM-C forms a one-way vascular barrier for leukocyte transendothelial migration only when present at homeostatic copy numbers. We have also shown that blocking JAM-C can reduce the number of atherogenic monocytes/macrophages in plaques by emigration, providing a novel therapeutic strategy for chronic inflammatory pathologies.

  11. Divergent JAM-C Expression Accelerates Monocyte-Derived Cell Exit from Atherosclerotic Plaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradfield, Paul F; Menon, Arjun; Miljkovic-Licina, Marijana; Lee, Boris P; Fischer, Nicolas; Fish, Richard J; Kwak, Brenda; Fisher, Edward A; Imhof, Beat A

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, caused in part by monocytes in plaques, continues to be a disease that afflicts the modern world. Whilst significant steps have been made in treating this chronic inflammatory disease, questions remain on how to prevent monocyte and macrophage accumulation in atherosclerotic plaques. Junctional Adhesion Molecule C (JAM-C) expressed by vascular endothelium directs monocyte transendothelial migration in a unidirectional manner leading to increased inflammation. Here we show that interfering with JAM-C allows reverse-transendothelial migration of monocyte-derived cells, opening the way back out of the inflamed environment. To study the role of JAM-C in plaque regression we used a mouse model of atherosclerosis, and tested the impact of vascular JAM-C expression levels on monocyte reverse transendothelial migration using human cells. Studies in-vitro under inflammatory conditions revealed that overexpression or gene silencing of JAM-C in human endothelium exposed to flow resulted in higher rates of monocyte reverse-transendothelial migration, similar to antibody blockade. We then transplanted atherosclerotic, plaque-containing aortic arches from hyperlipidemic ApoE-/- mice into wild-type normolipidemic recipient mice. JAM-C blockade in the recipients induced greater emigration of monocyte-derived cells and further diminished the size of atherosclerotic plaques. Our findings have shown that JAM-C forms a one-way vascular barrier for leukocyte transendothelial migration only when present at homeostatic copy numbers. We have also shown that blocking JAM-C can reduce the number of atherogenic monocytes/macrophages in plaques by emigration, providing a novel therapeutic strategy for chronic inflammatory pathologies.

  12. Characterization of canine monocyte-derived dendritic cells with phenotypic and functional differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Shan; Chi, Kwan-Hwa; Liao, Kuang-Wen; Liu, Cheng-Chi; Cheng, Chiao-Lei; Lin, Yi-Chun; Cheng, Chiung-Hsiang; Chu, Rea-Min

    2007-07-01

    For therapeutic purposes, large numbers of dendritic cells (DCs) are essential. In this study, we used 2% autologous canine plasma, granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L), and interleukin 4 (IL-4) in generating monocyte-derived DCs from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of dogs. The plasma enriched the population of CD14-positive monocytes by greatly enhancing the efficiency of monocyte adherence, the proportion of adherent cells increasing from 6.6% with 10% fetal bovine serum to 15.3% with 2% autologous canine plasma. Culturing the adherent monocytes for 6 d with human GM-CSF, canine IL-4, and human Flt3L significantly increased the yield of DCs, more than 90% of which were CD14-negative. Because, in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), monocytes that were CD14-positive expressed tumor necrosis factor ac much more than DCs with low levels of CD14, it is important to decrease the numbers of CD14-positive cells in generating monocyte-derived DCs. With flow cytometry and real-time reverse-transcriptase-mediated polymerase chain reaction assays, we found that in canine immature DCs (iDCs) the expression of DLA class II molecules, CD1a, CD11c, CD40, and CD86 was high and the expression of CD80, CD83, and CD14 either low or negative. During maturation (stimulated by LPS), the expression of CDla, CD40, CD83, and CD80 was upregulated. However, the expression of DLA class II molecules, CD11c, and CD86 was not increased in mature DCs. Incubating the iDCs with LPS decreased antigen uptake and increased the cells' immunostimulatory capacity (assessed by the allogeneic mixed-lymphocyte reaction), indicating that LPS accelerates the functional maturation of DCs. This protocol may facilitate the use of DCs in cellular immunotherapy.

  13. Role of neoplastic monocyte-derived fibrocytes in primary myelofibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueso-Ramos, Carlos E.; Newberry, Kate J.; Knez, Liza; Post, Sean M.; Ahn, Jihae; Levine, Ross L.; Kantarjian, Hagop M.

    2016-01-01

    Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) is a fatal neoplastic disease characterized by clonal myeloproliferation and progressive bone marrow (BM) fibrosis thought to be induced by mesenchymal stromal cells stimulated by overproduced growth factors. However, tissue fibrosis in other diseases is associated with monocyte-derived fibrocytes. Therefore, we sought to determine whether fibrocytes play a role in the induction of BM fibrosis in PMF. In this study, we show that BM from patients with PMF harbors an abundance of clonal, neoplastic collagen- and fibronectin-producing fibrocytes. Immunodeficient mice transplanted with myelofibrosis patients’ BM cells developed a lethal myelofibrosis-like phenotype. Treatment of the xenograft mice with the fibrocyte inhibitor serum amyloid P (SAP; pentraxin-2) significantly prolonged survival and slowed the development of BM fibrosis. Collectively, our data suggest that neoplastic fibrocytes contribute to the induction of BM fibrosis in PMF, and inhibiting fibrocyte differentiation with SAP may interfere with this process. PMID:27481130

  14. Intracranial transplantation of monocyte-derived multipotential cells enhances recovery after ischemic stroke in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Hidenori; Suzuki, Shigeaki; Okazaki, Yuka; Suzuki, Norihiro; Kuwana, Masataka

    2012-02-01

    Cell transplantation has emerged as a potential therapy to reduce the neurological deficits caused by ischemic stroke. We previously reported a primitive cell population, monocyte-derived multipotential cells (MOMCs), which can differentiate into mesenchymal, neuronal, and endothelial lineages. In this study, MOMCs and macrophages were prepared from rat peripheral blood and transplanted intracranially into the ischemic core of syngeneic rats that had undergone a left middle cerebral artery occlusion procedure. Neurological deficits, as evaluated by the corner test, were less severe in the MOMC-transplanted rats than in macrophage-transplanted or mock-treated rats. Histological evaluations revealed that the number of microvessels that had formed in the ischemic boundary area by 4 weeks after transplantation was significantly greater in the MOMC-transplanted rats than in the control groups. The blood vessel formation was preceded by the appearance of round CD31(+) cells, which we confirmed were derived from the transplanted MOMCs. Small numbers of bloodvessels incorporating MOMC-derived endothelial cells expressing a mature endothelial marker RECA-1 were detected at 4 weeks after transplantation. In addition, MOMCs expressed a series of angiogenic factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor, angiopoetin-1, and placenta growth factor (PlGF). These findings provide evidence that the intracranial delivery of MOMCs enhances functional recovery by promoting neovascularization in a rat model for ischemic stroke.

  15. CHI3L1 nuclear localization in monocyte derived dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Rosa, Michelino; Tibullo, Daniele; Saccone, Salvatore; Distefano, Gisella; Basile, Maria Sofia; Di Raimondo, Francesco; Malaguarnera, Lucia

    2016-02-01

    Chitinase-3-like-1 protein (CHI3L1) is a glycosyl hydrolase (GH) highly expressed in a variety of inflammatory diseases at infectious and non-infectious etiology. CHI3L1 is produced by a wide variety of cells including monocyte-derived macrophages cell lines such as polarized M1 and M2 type macrophages, osteoclasts and Kupffer cells. In this study we have examined the expression of CHI3L1 during the differentiation and maturation of dendritic cells. Magnetically-isolated peripheral blood monocytes were differentiated toward immature DCs (iDC) and mature DCs (mDCs) through a combination of factors and cytokines. Our result showed, for the first time, that CHI3L1 is expressed during the process of differentiation and maturation of dendritic cells in time dependent manner. Furthermore, the CHI3L1 is evenly distributed in cytoplasm and in the nucleus of both the iDCs and mDCs. These results suggest that CHI3L1 may play crucial role in the DCs immunoresponse.

  16. Inducing Maturation of Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells on Human Epithelial Cell Feeder Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delirezh N

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, dendritic cells (DCs have a special place in cancer treatment strategies and they have been used for tumor immunotherapy as they can induce immune response against tumor cells. Researchers have been trying to generate efficient dendritic cells in vitro; therefore, this research was done to generate them for use in research and tumor immunotherapy. Methods: This study took place at Urmia University in 2010-2011 years. In this study plastic adherent monocytes were incubated with granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF and interleukin-4 (IL-4 for five days. Finally, fully matured and stable DCs were generated by 48 hours of incubation in a monocyte conditioned medium (MCM containing tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and epithelial cells. Phenotypic and functional analysis were carried out by using anti-CD14, anti-CD80, anti-CD86, and anti-CD83 monoclonal antibodies, and by determining their phagocytic activity, mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR and cytokine production, respectively. Results: Dendritic cells were produced with high levels of surface molecule, i.e. of CD80, CD83, CD86, HLA-DR, expression and low levels of CD14 expression. Dendritic cells showed efficient phagocytosis and ability to stimulate T-lymphocytes. Moreover, dendritic cells could secrete high levels of interleukin-12 (IL-12 cytokine which was depictive of their full maturation. Measurement of the produced cytokines showed the generation of type-1 dendritic cells (DC1. Conclusion: Our study showed that skin epithelial cells could induce maturation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs. This feeder layer led to the production of efficient dendritic cells with the ability to be used for tumor immunotherapy.

  17. Galectin-3 Binding Protein Secreted by Breast Cancer Cells Inhibits Monocyte-Derived Fibrocyte Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Michael J V; Roife, David; Gomer, Richard H

    2015-08-15

    To metastasize, tumor cells often need to migrate through a layer of collagen-containing scar tissue which encapsulates the tumor. A key component of scar tissue and fibrosing diseases is the monocyte-derived fibrocyte, a collagen-secreting profibrotic cell. To test the hypothesis that invasive tumor cells may block the formation of the fibrous sheath, we determined whether tumor cells secrete factors that inhibit monocyte-derived fibrocyte differentiation. We found that the human metastatic breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 secretes activity that inhibits human monocyte-derived fibrocyte differentiation, whereas less aggressive breast cancer cell lines secrete less of this activity. Purification indicated that Galectin-3 binding protein (LGALS3BP) is the active factor. Recombinant LGALS3BP inhibits monocyte-derived fibrocyte differentiation, and immunodepletion of LGALS3BP from MDA-MB 231 conditioned media removes the monocyte-derived fibrocyte differentiation-inhibiting activity. LGALS3BP inhibits the differentiation of monocyte-derived fibrocytes from wild-type mouse spleen cells, but not from SIGN-R1(-/-) mouse spleen cells, suggesting that CD209/SIGN-R1 is required for the LGALS3BP effect. Galectin-3 and galectin-1, binding partners of LGALS3BP, potentiate monocyte-derived fibrocyte differentiation. In breast cancer biopsies, increased levels of tumor cell-associated LGALS3BP were observed in regions of the tumor that were invading the surrounding stroma. These findings suggest LGALS3BP and galectin-3 as new targets to treat metastatic cancer and fibrosing diseases.

  18. [Induction of monocyte-derived dendritic cell differentiation by asthmatic serum in a transendothelial trafficking model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lin-fu; Wang, Wen-lu; Li, Hong-yan; Zhang, Ming-shun; Ji, Xiao-hui; He, Shao-heng; Huang, Mao; Yin, Kai-sheng

    2011-03-01

    To explore the effect of asthmatic and healthy serum on differentiation and function of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC) in a transendothelial trafficking model. The sera and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were separated from 12 asthmatic patients and 12 healthy volunteers, and monocytes were selected from PBMC using magnetic beads. The trypsin-digested human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) at passage 2 from 5 healthy lying-in women were used to construct the transendothelial trafficking model under asthmatic or healthy serum, wherein MDDC were identified by silver nitrate staining and scanning electron microscopy. Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activity was determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Flow cytometry, ELISA and mixed leukocyte reaction were relevantly utilized to detect the phenotype, cytokine and T cell proliferation. (1) Monocytes traversed through HUVEC monolayer after 2 h, and reverse-transmigrated to develop into DC 48 h later. (2) The healthy serum stimulated monocytes into immature MDDC with lower CD(14) [(20 ± 5)%] (F = 49.01, P 0.05), higher CD(80) and CD(83) [(49.7 ± 10.2)% and (30.2 ± 6.8)%] (F = 4.01 and 20.68, all P trafficking model, which provides a promising experimental platform for both investigation of immunological mechanisms in asthma and screening of novel anti-asthma drugs in vitro.

  19. Novel characterization of monocyte-derived cell populations in the meninges and choroid plexus and their rates of replenishment in bone marrow chimeric mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnery, Holly R; Ruitenberg, Marc J; McMenamin, Paul G

    2010-09-01

    The mouse dura mater, pia mater, and choroid plexus contain resident macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs). These cells participate in immune surveillance, phagocytosis of cellular debris, uptake of antigens from the surrounding cerebrospinal fluid and immune regulation in many pathologic processes. We used Cx3cr1 knock-in, CD11c-eYFP transgenic and bone marrow chimeric mice to characterize the phenotype, density and replenishment rate of monocyte-derived cells in the meninges and choroid plexus and to assess the role of the chemokine receptor CX3CR1 on their number and tissue distribution. Iba-1 major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class II CD169 CD68 macrophages and CD11c putative DCs were identified in meningeal and choroid plexus whole mounts. Comparison of homozygous and heterozygous Cx3cr1 mice did not reveal CX3CR1-dependancy on density, distribution or phenotype of monocyte-derived cells. In turnover studies, wild type lethally irradiated mice were reconstituted with Cx3cr1/-positive bone marrow and were analyzed at 3 days, 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks after transplantation. There was a rapid replenishment of CX3CR1-positive cells in the dura mater (at 4 weeks) and the choroid plexus was fully reconstituted by 8 weeks. These data provide the foundation for future studies on the role of resident macrophages and DCs in conditions such as meningitis, autoimmune inflammatory disease and in therapies involving irradiation and hematopoietic or stem cell transplantation.

  20. The effect of short-chain fatty acids on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nastasi, Claudia; Candela, Marco; Bonefeld, Charlotte Menné

    2015-01-01

    negligible effects, while both butyrate and propionate strongly modulated gene expression in both immature and mature human monocyte-derived DC. An Ingenuity pathway analysis based on the differentially expressed genes suggested that propionate and butyrate modulate leukocyte trafficking, as SCFA strongly......The gut microbiota is essential for human health and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of several diseases. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), such as acetate, butyrate and propionate, are end-products of microbial fermentation of macronutrients that distribute systemically via the blood....... The aim of this study was to investigate the transcriptional response of immature and LPS-matured human monocyte-derived DC to SCFA. Our data revealed distinct effects exerted by each individual SCFA on gene expression in human monocyte-derived DC, especially in the mature ones. Acetate only exerted...

  1. 萝卜硫素对慢性阻塞性肺疾病患者巨噬细胞Toll样受体4/髓样分化因子88信号通路的影响%Effects of sulforaphane on Toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor 88 pathway of monocyte-derived macrophages from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾晓丽; 刘晓菊; 包海荣; 张艺; 王小虎; 施凯; 庞琪

    2014-01-01

    4 (TLR4)/ myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) pathway and its downstream inflammatory cytokines in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).Methods From Jan.2012 to Mar.2013,thirty-two stable COPD patients and thirty healthy donors (non-COPD group) from the First Hospital of Lanzhou University were recruited.The peripheral blood monocytes were isolated and induced to macrophages (monocyte-derived macrophages,MDMs).The MDMs of COPD patients were divided into a blank control group,a LPS group,a sulforaphane group,a sulforaphane and LPS group (combined group),while the MDMs from the non-COPD group received no drug intervention.The number of cells in each group was 3 ×106.The mRNA and protein expression of TLR4 and MyD88 were measured with real-time PCR and Western blot.The TNF-α and IL-6 levels in the culture supernatant were measured with ELISA.Oneway ANOVA and LSD-t test were used for statistical analysis.Results The levels of mRNA and protein of TLR4 and MyD88 and the contents of TNF-α and IL-6 in the culture supernatant were higher in the blank control group [3.7 ±0.5,1.9±0.4,0.45 ±0.18,1.11 ±0.65,(31 ±4) and (43 ±5) μg/L] than those in the nonCOPDgroup [1.00,1.00,0.26±0.14,0.58±0.40,(19±2) and (29±4) μg/L] (t=2.19-12.11,P <0.05 or P <0.01).After LPS treatment (LPS group),the above parameters [5.5 ± 1.1,3.4 ± 1.6,0.65 ± 0.20,1.66 ± 0.64,(47 ± 4) and (54 ± 5) μg/L] were increased as compared to those in the blank control group (t =2.39-11.9,P < 0.05 or P < 0.01),but after sulforaphane treatment (Sulforaphane group),these parameters [2.2 ± 0.4,1.0 ± 0.6,0.25 ± 0.09,0.62 ± 0.34,(20 ± 3) and (27 ±4) μg/L] were decreased as compared to those in the blank control group (t =2.13-8.46,P < 0.05 or P < 0.01).Similarly,these parameters in the combined group [3.2 ± 0.5,1.5 ± 0.8,0.33 ± 0.11,0.77 ±0.25,(31 ±3) and (33 ±4) μg/L] were also remarkably decreased as compared to those in the LPS group (t =3

  2. Inhibition of the differentiation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells by human gingival fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Séguier

    Full Text Available We investigated whether gingival fibroblasts (GFs can modulate the differentiation and/or maturation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs and analyzed soluble factors that may be involved in this immune modulation. Experiments were performed using human monocytes in co-culture with human GFs in Transwell® chambers or using monocyte cultures treated with conditioned media (CM from GFs of four donors. The four CM and supernatants from cell culture were assayed by ELISA for cytokines involved in the differentiation of dendritic cells, such as IL-6, VEGF, TGFβ1, IL-13 and IL-10. The maturation of monocyte-derived DCs induced by LPS in presence of CM was also studied. Cell surface phenotype markers were analyzed by flow cytometry. In co-cultures, GFs inhibited the differentiation of monocyte-derived DCs and the strength of this blockade correlated with the GF/monocyte ratio. Conditioned media from GFs showed similar effects, suggesting the involvement of soluble factors produced by GFs. This inhibition was associated with a lower stimulatory activity in MLR of DCs generated with GFs or its CM. Neutralizing antibodies against IL-6 and VEGF significantly (P<0.05 inhibited the inhibitory effect of CM on the differentiation of monocytes-derived DCs and in a dose dependent manner. Our data suggest that IL-6 is the main factor responsible for the inhibition of DCs differentiation mediated by GFs but that VEGF is also involved and constitutes an additional mechanism.

  3. Effects of PPAR-γ agonist rosiglitazone on MMP-9 and TIMP-1 expression of monocyte-derived macrophages isolated from patients with acute coronary syndrome%过氧化物酶增殖物激活受体-γ调节体外诱导培养的人巨噬细胞表达基质金属蛋白酶-9及其抑制物-1的作用及机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗玉梅; 万新红; 姜德谦; 旷文勇; 郭洪波; 陈朝霞; 王合金; 谢丽华; 段雯

    2009-01-01

    Objective Coronary arterial plaque rupture and secondary thrombosis are the major pathogenesis of acute coronary syndrome ( ACS) . Metalloprotease ( MMPs) secreted by monocyte/ macrophage was the main predisposing factor of the plaque rupture and peroxisotne proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) is involved in a variety of inflammatory cytokine gene transcriptional regulations. We explored the possible role of PPAR-γ in the regulation of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 expressed by peripheral monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) from patients with ACS. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from 48 patients with ACS and 28 healthy controls and stimulated by macrophage colony-stimulating factor (0. 1 μg/ml for 24 hours) to form MDMs. MDMs were then incubated under various concentrations of rosiglitazone (0, 1, 10, 20 μmol/L) for 48 hours. The concentrations of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 in the supernatant were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, and the mRNA expression of PPAR-γ, MMP-9 by RT-PCR and nuclear factor-KB P65 ( NF-kB P65 ) expression by immunohistochemistry. Results PPAR-γ mRNA expression was significantly lower while NF-kB P65 and MMP-9 expression as well as MMP-9 and TIMP-1 concentrations in supernatant were significantly higher in ACS group than those in control group (all P <0. 05). After rosiglitazone intervention, PPAR-γ mRNA expression was significantly upregulated in both ACS and control groups in a dose-dependent manner. Both the MMP-9 concentration in the supernatant and MMP-9 mRNA expression were reduced post intervention with rosiglitazone in both groups. The TIMP-1 mRNA expression and concentration in supernatant were not affected by rosiglitazone in both groups. Rosiglitazone induced significant downregulation of NF-kB P65 expression in both groups. Conclusion Rosiglitazone intervention may downregulate MMP-9 expression by upregulating PPAR-γ expression, and by downregulaiting NF-kB expression in MDMs isolated from patients

  4. Cooperation between Monocyte-Derived Cells and Lymphoid Cells in the Acute Response to a Bacterial Lung Pathogen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S Brown

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, a potentially fatal lung infection. Alveolar macrophages support intracellular replication of L. pneumophila, however the contributions of other immune cell types to bacterial killing during infection are unclear. Here, we used recently described methods to characterise the major inflammatory cells in lung after acute respiratory infection of mice with L. pneumophila. We observed that the numbers of alveolar macrophages rapidly decreased after infection coincident with a rapid infiltration of the lung by monocyte-derived cells (MC, which, together with neutrophils, became the dominant inflammatory cells associated with the bacteria. Using mice in which the ability of MC to infiltrate tissues is impaired it was found that MC were required for bacterial clearance and were the major source of IL12. IL12 was needed to induce IFNγ production by lymphoid cells including NK cells, memory T cells, NKT cells and γδ T cells. Memory T cells that produced IFNγ appeared to be circulating effector/memory T cells that infiltrated the lung after infection. IFNγ production by memory T cells was stimulated in an antigen-independent fashion and could effectively clear bacteria from the lung indicating that memory T cells are an important contributor to innate bacterial defence. We also determined that a major function of IFNγ was to stimulate bactericidal activity of MC. On the other hand, neutrophils did not require IFNγ to kill bacteria and alveolar macrophages remained poorly bactericidal even in the presence of IFNγ. This work has revealed a cooperative innate immune circuit between lymphoid cells and MC that combats acute L. pneumophila infection and defines a specific role for IFNγ in anti-bacterial immunity.

  5. Cooperation between Monocyte-Derived Cells and Lymphoid Cells in the Acute Response to a Bacterial Lung Pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Andrew S; Yang, Chao; Fung, Ka Yee; Bachem, Annabell; Bourges, Dorothée; Bedoui, Sammy; Hartland, Elizabeth L; van Driel, Ian R

    2016-06-01

    Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, a potentially fatal lung infection. Alveolar macrophages support intracellular replication of L. pneumophila, however the contributions of other immune cell types to bacterial killing during infection are unclear. Here, we used recently described methods to characterise the major inflammatory cells in lung after acute respiratory infection of mice with L. pneumophila. We observed that the numbers of alveolar macrophages rapidly decreased after infection coincident with a rapid infiltration of the lung by monocyte-derived cells (MC), which, together with neutrophils, became the dominant inflammatory cells associated with the bacteria. Using mice in which the ability of MC to infiltrate tissues is impaired it was found that MC were required for bacterial clearance and were the major source of IL12. IL12 was needed to induce IFNγ production by lymphoid cells including NK cells, memory T cells, NKT cells and γδ T cells. Memory T cells that produced IFNγ appeared to be circulating effector/memory T cells that infiltrated the lung after infection. IFNγ production by memory T cells was stimulated in an antigen-independent fashion and could effectively clear bacteria from the lung indicating that memory T cells are an important contributor to innate bacterial defence. We also determined that a major function of IFNγ was to stimulate bactericidal activity of MC. On the other hand, neutrophils did not require IFNγ to kill bacteria and alveolar macrophages remained poorly bactericidal even in the presence of IFNγ. This work has revealed a cooperative innate immune circuit between lymphoid cells and MC that combats acute L. pneumophila infection and defines a specific role for IFNγ in anti-bacterial immunity.

  6. Macrophage diversity in renal injury and repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ricardo, Sharon D.; van Goor, Harry; Eddy, Allison A.

    2008-01-01

    Monocyte-derived macrophages can determine the outcome of the immune response and whether this response contributes to tissue repair or mediates tissue destruction. In addition to their important role in immune-mediated renal disease and host defense, macrophages play a fundamental role in tissue re

  7. A novel in vitro human microglia model: characterization of human monocyte-derived microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etemad, Samar; Zamin, Rasheeda Mohd; Ruitenberg, Marc J; Filgueira, Luis

    2012-07-30

    Microglia are the innate immune cells of the central nervous system. They help maintaining physiological homeostasis and contribute significantly to inflammatory responses in the course of infection, injury and degenerative processes. To date, there is no standardized simple model available to investigate the biology of human microglia. The aim of this study was to establish a new human microglia model. For that purpose, human peripheral blood monocytes were cultured in serum free medium in the presence of M-CSF, GM-CSF, NGF and CCL2 to generate monocyte-derived microglia (M-MG). M-MG were clearly different in morphology, phenotype and function from freshly isolated monocytes, cultured monocytes in the absence of the cytokines and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (M-DC) cultured in the presence of GM-CSF and IL-4. M-MG acquired a ramified morphology with primary and secondary processes. M-MG displayed a comparable phenotype to the human microglia cell line HMC3, expressing very low levels of CD45, CD14 and HLA-DR, CD11b and CD11c; and undetectable levels of CD40, CD80 and CD83, and a distinct pattern of chemokine receptors (positive for CCR1, CCR2, CCR4, CCR5, CXCR1, CXCR3, CX3CR1; negative for CCR6 and CCR7). In comparison with M-DC, M-MG displayed lower T-lymphocyte stimulatory capacity, as well as lower phagocytosis activity. The described protocol for the generation of human monocyte-derived microglia is feasible, well standardized and reliable, as it uses well defined culture medium and recombinant cytokines, but no serum or conditioned medium. This protocol will certainly be very helpful for future studies investigating the biology and pathology of human microglia.

  8. Dysfunctional HDL from HIV+ individuals promotes monocyte-derived foam cell formation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelovich, Thomas A; Hearps, Anna C; Oda, Michael N; Borja, Mark S; Huynh, Diana; Homann, Stefanie; Jaworowski, Anthony; Kelesidis, Theodoros

    2017-09-18

    The role of HDL function in HIV-related atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) is unclear. HDLs isolated from HIV+ [HIV(+)HDL] and HIV-uninfected individuals (HDL) were assessed for HDL function and ability to promote monocyte-derived foam cell formation (MDFCF) (a key event in HIV-related CVD) ex vivo. Using an established in vitro model of atherogenesis and plasma samples from an established cross-sectional study of virologically-suppressed HIV+ males on stable effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) and with low CVD risk (median age: 42 years; n = 10), we explored the impact of native HDL [HIV(+)HDL] on MDFCF. In this exploratory study we selected HIV-HDL known to be dysfunctional based on two independent measures of impaired HDL function: a) antioxidant (high HDLox) b) ability of HDL to release apoA-I [low HDL-apoA-I exchange (HAE %)]. Five healthy males matched by age and race to the HIV+ group were included. Given that oxidation of HDL leads to abnormal HDL function, we also compared proatherogenic effects of HIV-HDL versus chemically-derived HDLox. The ex vivo atherogenesis assay was performed using lipoproteins (purchased or isolated from plasma using ultracentrifugation) and monocytes purified via negative selection from healthy donors. HIV(+)HDL known to have reduced antioxidant function and rate of HDL/ApoAI exchange promoted MDFCF to a greater extent than HDL (33.0% vs 26.2% foam cells; p = 0.015). HDL oxidized in vitro also enhanced foam cell formation as compared to non-oxidized HDL (p HDL in virologically suppressed HIV+ individuals may potentiate atherosclerosis in HIV infection by promoting monocyte-derived foam cell formation.The role of HDL function in HIV-related atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is unclear. HDL isolated from HIV+ [HIV(+)HDL] and HIV-uninfected individuals [HIV(-)HDL] were assessed for HDL function and ability to promote foam cell formation ex vivo. HIV(+)HDL known to have reduced antioxidant function and

  9. A protocol for generation of clinical grade mRNA-transfected monocyte-derived dendritic cells for cancer vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, L J; Gaudernack, G; Saebøe-Larssen, S; Hammerstad, H; Tierens, A; Kvalheim, G

    2003-11-01

    With the aim of producing large quantities of mRNA-transfected monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) to be used as cancer vaccines, a new clinical grade procedure has been developed. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained by leukapheresis were enriched for monocytes by immunomagnetic depletion of CD19+ B cells and CD2+ T cells employing the ISOLEX 300i device. After 5 days of culture of enriched monocytes in gas permeable Teflon bags, using serum-free medium supplemented with granulocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor and interleukin-4 (IL-4), immature DCs were generated. Following transfection with mRNA from three human prostate cancer cell lines (DU145, LNCaP and PC-3), employing a newly developed square wave electroporation procedure, the immature DCs were immediately transferred to Teflon bags and matured for 48 h, using serum-free medium supplemented with IL-1alpha, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and PGE2. The electroporation procedure efficiently transferred mRNA into the DCs with minor effect on the viability of the cells. The generated matured transfected DCs show high expression of the antigens CD83, CD80, CD86 and human leucocyte antigen-DR. Freezing and thawing of the transfected matured DCs had minor effect on cell viability and the phenotype. From 4 x 109 PBMCs, about 1 x 108 transfected matured DCs are produced. The thawed transfected DCs were able to elicit primary T-cell responses in vitro against antigens encoded by the prostate cancer mRNA as shown by enzyme-linked immunospot assay using mock-transfected DCs as control. Based on these results, clinical trials in cancer patients have been initiated.

  10. Leukoreduction system chambers are an efficient, valid, and economic source of functional monocyte-derived dendritic cells and lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Isabell A; Zinser, Elisabeth; Strasser, Erwin; Stein, Marcello F; Dörrie, Jan; Schaft, Niels; Steinkasserer, Alexander; Knippertz, Ilka

    2013-11-01

    The demand for human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs), as well as for primary human B and T lymphocytes for immunological research purposes has been increased in recent years. Classically, these monocytes are isolated from blood, leukapheresis products or buffy coats of healthy donors by plastic adherence of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), followed by stimulation with granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin (IL)-4, while lymphocytes are usually isolated from the non-adherent fraction (NAF) by magnetic cell sorting. However, donor-blood is a limited resource and not every blood bank offers leukapheresis products or buffy coats for laboratory use. Additionally, a leukapheresis is very expensive and also the generation/isolation of cells is time- and cost-intensive. To overcome some of these obstacles, we evaluated if low-cost leukoreduction system chambers (LRSCs), which arise after routine donor plateletpheresis procedures, and are usually discarded, would be an alternative and appropriate source of PBMCs to generate moDCs and to isolate lymphocytes. By analyzing the number and phenotype of immature and mature dendritic cells (DCs), as well as of B and T lymphocytes derived from LRSCs, we found all cells to be of high quantity and quality. Further investigations on DCs comprising transwell migration assays, allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reactions (MLR), cytokine secretion assays, and cytotoxic T cell induction assays revealed high migratory, as well as stimulatory capacity of these cells. In addition, DCs and T cells were efficiently electroporated with mRNA and showed characteristic cytokine production after co-culture, demonstrating LRSCs as an efficient, valid, and economic source for generation of moDCs and lymphocytes for research purposes.

  11. SLAM/SLAM interactions inhibit CD40-induced production of inflammatory cytokines in monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réthi, Bence; Gogolák, Péter; Szatmari, Istvan; Veres, Agota; Erdôs, Erika; Nagy, Laszlo; Rajnavölgyi, Eva; Terhorst, Cox; Lányi, Arpád

    2006-04-01

    Signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM, CD150, or SLAMF1) is a self-ligand receptor on the surface of activated T- and B-lymphocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs). Here we examine the effect of SLAM/SLAM interactions on CD40L-induced CD40 signaling pathways in human DCs. CD40L-expressing L929 cells induced DCs to produce interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and IL-12, which was strongly inhibited by coexpression of SLAM on the surface of the L929 cells. Similarly, transfection of DCs with SLAM strongly reduced CD40L-induced IL-12 production. Furthermore, the negative effect of SLAM/SLAM interactions on CD40L-induced DC activation was also detected in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS-induced IL-12 secretion, however, was not inhibited by SLAM engagement. CD40L-activated DCs affected by exposure to SLAM/SLAM engagement were impaired in their ability to induce differentiation of naive T lymphocytes into interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-producing T-helper 1 (Th1) effector cells. These inhibitory effects were not the result of a general unresponsiveness of DCs to CD40L, as SLAM/SLAM interactions did not prevent CD40L-induced up-regulation of CD83, CD86, or human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ on the surface of DCs. Taken together, the results indicate that SLAM/SLAM interactions inhibit CD40-induced signal transduction in monocyte-derived dendritic cells, an effect that was not detectable in earlier studies using anti-SLAM monoclonal antibodies.

  12. Alcohol and cannabinoids differentially affect HIV infection and function of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisela eAgudelo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, alcohol has been known to induce inflammation while cannabinoids have been shown to have an anti-inflammatory role. For instance cannabinoids have been shown to reduce susceptibility to HIV-1 infection and attenuate HIV replication in macrophages. Recently, we demonstrated that alcohol induces cannabinoid receptors and regulates cytokine production by monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC. However, the ability of alcohol and cannabinoids to alter MDDC function during HIV infection has not been clearly elucidated yet. In order to study the potential impact of alcohol and cannabinoids on differentiated MDDC infected with HIV, monocytes were cultured for 7 days with GM-CSF and IL-4, differentiated MDDC were infected with HIV-1Ba-L and treated with EtOH (0.1 and 0.2%, THC (5 and 10 uM, or JWH-015 (5 and 10 uM for 4-7 days. HIV infection of MDDC was confirmed by p24 and Long Terminal Repeats (LTR estimation. MDDC endocytosis assay and cytokine array profiles were measured to investigate the effects of HIV and substances of abuse on MDDC function. Our results show the HIV+EtOH treated MDDC had the highest levels of p24 production and expression when compared with the HIV positive controls and the cannabinoid treated cells. Although both cannabinoids, THC and JWH-015 had lower levels of p24 production and expression, the HIV+JWH-015 treated MDDC had the lowest levels of p24 when compared to the HIV+THC treated cells. In addition, MDDC endocytic function and cytokine production were also differentially altered after alcohol and cannabinoid treatments. Our results show a differential effect of alcohol and cannabinoids, which may provide insights into the divergent inflammatory role of alcohol and cannabinoids to modulate MDDC function in the context of HIV infection.

  13. Monocyte-derived inflammatory Langerhans cells and dermal dendritic cells mediate psoriasis-like inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Tej Pratap; Zhang, Howard H; Borek, Izabela; Wolf, Peter; Hedrick, Michael N; Singh, Satya P; Kelsall, Brian L; Clausen, Bjorn E; Farber, Joshua M

    2016-12-16

    Dendritic cells (DCs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of psoriasis but the roles for specific DC subsets are not well defined. Here we show that DCs are required for psoriasis-like changes in mouse skin induced by the local injection of IL-23. However, Flt3L-dependent DCs and resident Langerhans cells are dispensable for the inflammation. In epidermis and dermis, the critical DCs are TNF-producing and IL-1β-producing monocyte-derived DCs, including a population of inflammatory Langerhans cells. Depleting Ly6C(hi) blood monocytes reduces DC accumulation and the skin changes induced either by injecting IL-23 or by application of the TLR7 agonist imiquimod. Moreover, we find that IL-23-induced inflammation requires expression of CCR6 by DCs or their precursors, and that CCR6 mediates monocyte trafficking into inflamed skin. Collectively, our results imply that monocyte-derived cells are critical contributors to psoriasis through production of inflammatory cytokines that augment the activation of skin T cells.

  14. Monocyte-derived inflammatory Langerhans cells and dermal dendritic cells mediate psoriasis-like inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Tej Pratap; Zhang, Howard H.; Borek, Izabela; Wolf, Peter; Hedrick, Michael N.; Singh, Satya P.; Kelsall, Brian L.; Clausen, Bjorn E.; Farber, Joshua M.

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of psoriasis but the roles for specific DC subsets are not well defined. Here we show that DCs are required for psoriasis-like changes in mouse skin induced by the local injection of IL-23. However, Flt3L-dependent DCs and resident Langerhans cells are dispensable for the inflammation. In epidermis and dermis, the critical DCs are TNF-producing and IL-1β-producing monocyte-derived DCs, including a population of inflammatory Langerhans cells. Depleting Ly6Chi blood monocytes reduces DC accumulation and the skin changes induced either by injecting IL-23 or by application of the TLR7 agonist imiquimod. Moreover, we find that IL-23-induced inflammation requires expression of CCR6 by DCs or their precursors, and that CCR6 mediates monocyte trafficking into inflamed skin. Collectively, our results imply that monocyte-derived cells are critical contributors to psoriasis through production of inflammatory cytokines that augment the activation of skin T cells. PMID:27982014

  15. Macrophages and mast cells in dystrophic masseter muscle: a light and electron microscopic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S; Mikkelsen, H

    1988-01-01

    Macrophages and mast cells in masseter muscle from normal and dystrophic mice were studied by light and electron microscopy. Acid phosphatase activity and FITC-dextran were used to identify and describe macrophages. Toluidine blue was used as a marker for mast cells. In dystrophic muscle, the num......Macrophages and mast cells in masseter muscle from normal and dystrophic mice were studied by light and electron microscopy. Acid phosphatase activity and FITC-dextran were used to identify and describe macrophages. Toluidine blue was used as a marker for mast cells. In dystrophic muscle...

  16. Isolation of IL-12p70-competent human monocyte-derived dendritic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Jonas Nørskov; Pedersen, Susanne Brix

    2012-01-01

    that moDCs generated under standard conditions develop into two subsets based on CD1a-expression with the CD1a+ moDCs being the main IL-12p70 producers. This has however not been generally accepted, which we show here because the subset described as CD1a-negative does express CD1a, but at a lower level......Diverse methodologies ranging from experimental immunological studies to immunotherapy involve the application of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs). Considerable donor-dependent variations in the moDC production of IL-12p70 affect the outcome of these methodologies. It has been shown...

  17. In vitro interaction of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia with human monocyte-derived dendritic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela eRoscetto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is increasingly identified as an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised, cancer and cystic fibrosis (CF patients. Knowledge on innate immune responses to S. maltophilia and its potential modulation is poor. The present work investigated the ability of 12 clinical S. maltophilia strains (5 from CF patients, 7 from non-CF patients and one environmental strain to survive inside human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs. The effects of the bacteria on maturation of and cytokine secretion by DCs were also measured. S. maltophilia strains presented a high degree of heterogeneity in internalization and intracellular replication efficiencies as well as in the ability of S. maltophilia to interfere with normal DCs maturation. By contrast, all S. maltophilia strains were able to activate DCs, as measured by increase in the expression of surface maturation markers and proinflammatory cytokines secretion.

  18. Macrophage subsets and microglia in multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Along with microglia and monocyte-derived macrophages, macrophages in the perivascular space, choroid plexus, and meninges are the principal effector cells in neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders. These phagocytes are highly heterogeneous cells displaying spatial- and temporal-dependent identities in the healthy, injured, and inflamed CNS. In the last decade, researchers have debated on whether phagocytes subtypes and phenotypes are pathogenic or protective in CNS pathologies. In...

  19. Differentiation and function of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells under the influence of leflunomide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojić-Vukanić Z.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Leflunomide is an immunosuppressive drug effective in experimental models of transplantation and autoimmune diseases and in the treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Having in mind that it has been shown that some other immunosuppressive drugs (glucocorticoids, mycophenolate mofetil, sirolimus etc. impair dendritic cell (DC phenotype and function, we investigated the effect of A77 1726, an active metabolite of leflunomide, on the differentiation and function of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC in vitro. Immature MDDC were generated by cultivating monocytes in medium supplemented with GM-CSF and IL-4. To induce maturation, immature MDDC were cultured for 2 additional days with LPS. A77 1726 (100 μM was added at the beginning of cultivation. Flow cytometric analysis showed that MDDC differentiated in the presence of A77 1726 exhibited an altered phenotype, with a down-regulated surface expression of CD80, CD86, CD54 and CD40 molecules. Furthermore, the continuous presence of A77 1726 during differentiation and maturation prevented successful maturation, judging by the decreased expression of maturation marker CD83, costimulatory and adhesive molecules on A77 1726-treated mature MDDC. In addition, A77 1726-pretreated MDDC exhibited a poor stimulatory capacity of the allogeneic T cells and a low production of IL-10 and IL-18. These data suggest that leflunomide impairs the differentiation, maturation and function of human MDDC in vitro, which is an additional mechanism of its immunosuppressive effect.

  20. Immature monocyte derived dendritic cells gene expression profile in response to Virus-Like Particles stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marincola Francesco M

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have recently developed a candidate HIV-1 vaccine model based on HIV-1 Pr55gag Virus-Like Particles (HIV-VLPs, produced in a baculovirus expression system and presenting a gp120 molecule from an Ugandan HIV-1 isolate of the clade A (HIV-VLPAs. The HIV-VLPAs induce in Balb/c mice systemic and mucosal neutralizing Antibodies as well as cytotoxic T lymphocytes, by intra-peritoneal as well as intra-nasal administration. Moreover, we have recently shown that the baculovirus-expressed HIV-VLPs induce maturation and activation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs which, in turn, produce Th1- and Th2-specific cytokines and stimulate in vitro a primary and secondary response in autologous CD4+ T cells. In the present manuscript, the effects of the baculovirus-expressed HIV-VLPAs on the genomic transcriptional profile of MDDCs obtained from normal healthy donors have been evaluated. The HIV-VLPA stimulation, compared to both PBS and LPS treatment, modulate the expression of genes involved in the morphological and functional changes characterizing the MDDCs activation and maturation. The results of gene profiling analysis here presented are highly informative on the global pattern of gene expression alteration underlying the activation of MDDCs by HIV-VLPAs at the early stages of the immune response and may be extremely helpful for the identification of exclusive activation markers.

  1. PGE2 confers survivin-dependent apoptosis resistance in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratelli, Felicita; Krysan, Kostyantyn; Heuzé-Vourc'h, Nathalie; Zhu, Li; Escuadro, Brian; Sharma, Sherven; Reckamp, Karen; Dohadwala, Mariam; Dubinett, Steven M

    2005-08-01

    Control of apoptosis is fundamental for dendritic cell (DC) homeostasis. Numerous factors maintain DC viability throughout their lifespan, including inhibitor of apoptosis proteins. Among them, survivin is overexpressed in many human malignancies, but its physiological function in normal cells has not been fully delineated. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), also overproduced in several malignancies, has shown to induce proapoptotic and antiapoptotic effects in different cell types, including immune cells. In DC, PGE2 predominantly affects maturation and modulates immune functions. Here, we show that exposure of monocyte-derived DC to PGE2 (10(-5) M) for 72 h significantly increased DC survivin mRNA and protein expression. In contrast, DC, matured with lipopolysaccharide or tumor necrosis factor alpha, did not reveal survivin induction in response to PGE2. Following exposure to apoptotic stimuli, DC treated with PGE2 exhibited an overall increased viability compared with control DC, and this effect was correlated inversely with caspase-3 activation. Moreover, PGE2-treated, survivin-deficient DC demonstrated reduced viability in response to apoptotic stimuli. Further analysis indicated that PGE2 induced DC survivin expression in an E prostanoid (EP)2/EP4 receptor and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase-dependent manner. These findings suggest that PGE2-dependent regulation of survivin is important in modulating apoptosis resistance in human DC.

  2. Phenotype and Function of Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells from Chinese Rhesus Macaques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Houjun Xia; Hongliang Liu; Gaohong Zhang; Yongtang Zheng

    2009-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play a pivotal role in linking the innate immunity and acquired immunity in responses to pathogen. Non-human primates such as Chinese Rhesus Macaque (CRM) are the favorable models for preclinical study of potential therapeutic drugs, vaccines and mechanisms of human diseases. However, the phenotypicai characterization of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs) from CRM has not been elucidated. Monocytes from CRM were cultured with GM-CSF and IL-4 in RPMI-1640. Six days later, these cells were differentiated with typical dendritical morphology. CDllc and DC-SIGN were highly expressed. The immature MDDCs expressed the low levels of CD25, CD80, CD83, moderate CD40, CD86, and high MHC. After stimulation, the mature MDDCs increased expression of mature molecules CD25 and CD83, co-stimulatory molecules such as CD80, CD86 and CD40, and kept a high level of MHC. The capacity of endocytosis decreased with maturation. The mature MDDCs have strong ability of inducing allogeneic T cell proliferation and producing IL-12. In conclusion, we have characterized the phenotype and ultimate function of MDDCs from CRM for the first time. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2009;6(3):159-165.

  3. Environmentally relevant dose of arsenic interferes in functions of human monocytes derived dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahari, Abbas; Salmani, Vahid

    2017-06-05

    Arsenic is a major environmental pollutant and highly hazardous toxin to human health, which well established as carcinogen and immune deregulatory properties. Dendritic cells (DCs) have a pivotal role in cell-mediated immunity for T-cell activation and antigen presentation. In this study, T cell activation, some key functional genes expression, cell stability and phagocytosis capacity of human monocytes derived DCs (MDDCs) were analyzed after in vitro exposure to very low dose of arsenic for 12 and 24h. Arsenic decreased continually phagocytosis capacity of MDDCs. Furthermore, down-regulation of the cell-surface expression of the co-stimulatory molecule CD40 after 24h post treatment with arsenic, confirmed arsenic interferers in the phagocytosis process. Pro inflammatory cytokines, IL1β and TNFα were more expressed in arsenic-treated MDDCs while IL6 transiently was down regulated. In general, our novel findings here strongly suggest that low level of arsenic dysregulates four fundamental immune processes of DCs. Mechanistically; this could explain the observed immunodeficiency activity of Arsenic, and give direction for comprehension the pathogenesis of Arsenic-induced diseases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Carbon nanohorns allow acceleration of osteoblast differentiation via macrophage activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Eri; Miyako, Eijiro; Hanagata, Nobutaka; Ushijima, Natsumi; Sakaguchi, Norihito; Russier, Julie; Yudasaka, Masako; Iijima, Sumio; Bianco, Alberto; Yokoyama, Atsuro

    2016-07-01

    Carbon nanohorns (CNHs), formed by a rolled graphene structure and terminating in a cone, are promising nanomaterials for the development of a variety of biological applications. Here we demonstrate that alkaline phosphatase activity is dramatically increased by coculture of human monocyte derived macrophages (hMDMs) and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in the presence of CNHs. CNHs were mainly localized in the lysosome of macrophages more than in hMSCs during coculturing. At the same time, the amount of Oncostatin M (OSM) in the supernatant was also increased during incubation with CNHs. Oncostatin M (OSM) from activated macrophage has been reported to induce osteoblast differentiation and matrix mineralization through STAT3. These results suggest that the macrophages engulfed CNHs and accelerated the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into the osteoblast via OSM release. We expect that the proof-of-concept on the osteoblast differentiation capacity by CNHs will allow future studies focused on CNHs as ideal therapeutic materials for bone regeneration.Carbon nanohorns (CNHs), formed by a rolled graphene structure and terminating in a cone, are promising nanomaterials for the development of a variety of biological applications. Here we demonstrate that alkaline phosphatase activity is dramatically increased by coculture of human monocyte derived macrophages (hMDMs) and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in the presence of CNHs. CNHs were mainly localized in the lysosome of macrophages more than in hMSCs during coculturing. At the same time, the amount of Oncostatin M (OSM) in the supernatant was also increased during incubation with CNHs. Oncostatin M (OSM) from activated macrophage has been reported to induce osteoblast differentiation and matrix mineralization through STAT3. These results suggest that the macrophages engulfed CNHs and accelerated the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into the osteoblast via OSM release. We expect that the

  5. Evaluating the Effects of Cytomegalovirus Glycoprotein B on the Maturation and Function of Monocyte-derived dendritic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsson shariat

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Interaction of cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B with toll-like receptors of dendritic cells leads to early signaling and innate immune responses. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B on the maturation and function of monocyte-derived dendritic cells in treated groups in comparison with control groups. Materials & Methods: Blood samples were taken from 5 healthy volunteers. Following the generation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells on the fifth day of cell culture, half of the immature dendritic cells were treated with cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B, and the rest of them were induced to mature dendritic untreated cells and were used as the control group. The maturation and function of dendritic cells were evaluated in these two groups. Results: The gene expression level of toll-like receptor-4 significantly increased in the group treated with glycoprotein B (p < 0.05, whereas there were no significant differences in the expression rates of CD83, CD86, CD1a, and HLA-DR and the secretion of IL-23 from monocyte-derived dendritic cells between the treated groups and the controls. Conclusion: The increase in the gene expression of toll-like receptor-4 in monocyte-derived dendritic cells treated with cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B showed that cell contact is required to elicit cellular antiviral response and toll-like receptor activation. Thus, it is critical to recognize the viral and cellular determinants of the immune system in order to develop new therapeutic strategies against cytomegalovirus.

  6. Leukotrienes inhibit early stages of HIV-1 infection in monocyte-derived microglia-like cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertin Jonathan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microglia are one of the main cell types to be productively infected by HIV-1 in the central nervous system (CNS. Leukotriene B4 (LTB4 and cysteinyl-leukotrienes such as LTC4 are some of the proinflammatory molecules produced in infected individuals that contribute to neuroinflammation. We therefore sought to investigate the role of leukotrienes (LTs in HIV-1 infection of microglial cells. Methods To evaluate the role of LTs on HIV-1 infection in the CNS, monocyte-derived microglial-like cells (MDMis were utilized in this study. Leukotriene-treated MDMis were infected with either fully replicative brain-derived HIV-1 isolates (YU2 or R5-tropic luciferase-encoding particles in order to assess viral production and expression. The efficacy of various steps of the replication cycle was evaluated by means of p24 quantification by ELISA, luciferase activity determination and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Results We report in this study that virus replication is reduced upon treatment of MDMis with LTB4 and LTC4. Additional experiments indicate that these proinflammatory molecules alter the pH-independent entry and early post-fusion events of the viral life cycle. Indeed, LT treatment induced a diminution in integrated proviral DNA while reverse-transcribed viral products remained unaffected. Furthermore, decreased C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5 surface expression was observed in LT-treated MDMis. Finally, the effect of LTs on HIV-1 infection in MDMis appears to be mediated partly via a signal transduction pathway involving protein kinase C. Conclusions These data show for the first time that LTs influence microglial cell infection by HIV-1, and may be a factor in the control of viral load in the CNS.

  7. Characterization of a receptor for human monocyte-derived neutrophil chemotactic factor/interleukin-8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grob, P.M.; David, E.; Warren, T.C.; DeLeon, R.P.; Farina, P.R.; Homon, C.A. (Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Ridgefield, CT (USA))

    1990-05-15

    Monocyte-derived neutrophil chemotactic factor/interleukin-8 (MDNCF/IL-8) is an 8,000-dalton protein produced by monocytes which exhibits activity as a chemoattractant for neutrophils with maximal activity achieved at a concentration of 50 ng/ml. This polypeptide has been iodinated by chloramine-T methodology (350 Ci/mM), and specific receptors for MDNCF/IL-8 have been detected on human neutrophils, U937 cells, THP-1 cells, and dimethyl sulfoxide-differentiated HL-60 cells. The binding of MDNCF/IL-8 to human neutrophils is not inhibited by interleukin-1 alpha, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, insulin, or epidermal growth factor. In addition, chemoattractants such as C5a, fMet-Leu-Phe, leukotriene B4, and platelet-activating factor fail to inhibit binding, suggesting that MDNCF/IL-8 utilizes a unique receptor. The receptor for MDNCF/IL-8 is apparently glycosylated since ligand binding is inhibited by the presence of wheat germ agglutinin, a lectin with a binding specificity for N-acetylglucosamine and neuraminic acid. Steady state binding experiments indicate Kd values of 4 and 0.5 nM and receptor numbers of 75,000 and 7,400 for human neutrophils and differentiated HL-60 cells, respectively. 125I-MDNCF/IL-8 bound to human neutrophils is rapidly internalized and subsequently released from cells as trichloroacetic acid-soluble radioactivity. Affinity labeling experiments suggest that the human neutrophil MDNCF/IL-8 receptor exhibits a mass of approximately 58,000 daltons.

  8. Gene expression profiling of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells - Searching for molecular regulators of tolerogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katina eSchinnerling

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability of dendritic cells (DCs to initiate and modulate antigen-specific immune responses has made them attractive targets for immunotherapy. Since DC research in humans is limited by the scarcity of DC populations in the blood circulation, most of our knowledge about DC biology and function has been obtained in vitro from monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs, which can be readily generated in sufficient numbers and are able to differentiate into distinct functional subsets depending on the nature of stimulus. In particular, moDCs with tolerogenic properties (tolDCs possess great therapeutic potential for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Several protocols have been developed to generate tolDCs in vitro, able to reinstruct auto-reactive T cells and to promote regulatory cells. While ligands and soluble mediators, by which DCs shape immune responses, have been vastly studied, the intracellular pathways and transcriptional regulators that govern tolDC differentiation and function are poorly understood. Whole-genome microarrays and proteomics provide useful strategies to dissect the complex molecular processes that promote tolerogenicity. Only few attempts have been made to understand tolDC biology through a global view on ‘omics’ profiles. So far, the identification of a common regulator of tolerogenicity has been hampered by the fact that each protocol, used for tolDC generation, targets distinct signaling pathways. Here we review the progress in understanding the transcriptional regulation of moDC differentiation, with a special focus on tolDCs, and highlight candidate molecules that might be associated with DC tolerogenicity.

  9. Salvianolic acid B suppresses maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells by activating PPARγ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Aijun; Liu, Hongying; Wang, Shijun; Shi, Dazhuo; Xu, Lei; Cheng, Yong; Wang, Keqiang; Chen, Keji; Zou, Yunzeng; Ge, Junbo

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Salvianolic acid B (Sal B), a water-soluble antioxidant derived from a Chinese medicinal herb, is known to be effective in the prevention of atherosclerosis. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the anti-atherosclerotic effect of Sal B might be mediated by suppressing maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (h-monDC). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH h-monDC were derived by incubating purified human monocytes with GM-CSF and IL-4. h-monDC were pre-incubated with or without Sal B and stimulated by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) in the presence or absence of PPARγ siRNA. Expression of h-monDC membrane molecules (CD40, CD86, CD1a, HLA-DR) were analysed by FACS, cytokines were measured by elisa and the TLR4-associated signalling pathway was determined by Western blotting. KEY RESULTS Ox-LDL promoted h-monDC maturation, stimulated CD40, CD86, CD1a, HLA-DR expression and IL-12, IL-10, TNF-α production; and up-regulated TLR4 signalling. These effects were inhibited by Sal B. Sal B also triggered PPARγ activation and promoted PPARγ nuclear translocation, attenuated ox-LDL-induced up-regulation of TLR4 and myeloid differentiation primary-response protein 88 and inhibited the downstream p38-MAPK signalling cascade. Knocking down PPARγ with the corresponding siRNA blocked these effects of Sal B. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Our data suggested that Sal B effectively suppressed maturation of h-monDC induced by ox-LDL through PPARγ activation. PMID:21649636

  10. Leukotrienes inhibit early stages of HIV-1 infection in monocyte-derived microglia-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Jonathan; Barat, Corinne; Bélanger, Dave; Tremblay, Michel J

    2012-03-16

    Microglia are one of the main cell types to be productively infected by HIV-1 in the central nervous system (CNS). Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and cysteinyl-leukotrienes such as LTC4 are some of the proinflammatory molecules produced in infected individuals that contribute to neuroinflammation. We therefore sought to investigate the role of leukotrienes (LTs) in HIV-1 infection of microglial cells. To evaluate the role of LTs on HIV-1 infection in the CNS, monocyte-derived microglial-like cells (MDMis) were utilized in this study. Leukotriene-treated MDMis were infected with either fully replicative brain-derived HIV-1 isolates (YU2) or R5-tropic luciferase-encoding particles in order to assess viral production and expression. The efficacy of various steps of the replication cycle was evaluated by means of p24 quantification by ELISA, luciferase activity determination and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We report in this study that virus replication is reduced upon treatment of MDMis with LTB4 and LTC4. Additional experiments indicate that these proinflammatory molecules alter the pH-independent entry and early post-fusion events of the viral life cycle. Indeed, LT treatment induced a diminution in integrated proviral DNA while reverse-transcribed viral products remained unaffected. Furthermore, decreased C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) surface expression was observed in LT-treated MDMis. Finally, the effect of LTs on HIV-1 infection in MDMis appears to be mediated partly via a signal transduction pathway involving protein kinase C. These data show for the first time that LTs influence microglial cell infection by HIV-1, and may be a factor in the control of viral load in the CNS.

  11. Staphylococcus aureus from atopic dermatitis skin alters cytokine production triggered by monocyte-derived Langerhans cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Kazumasa; Moriwaki, Masaya; Niitsu, Yoshie; Saino, Masachika; Takahagi, Shunsuke; Hisatsune, Junzo; Sugai, Motoyuki; Hide, Michihiro

    2017-08-05

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is one of the most common chronic inflammatory skin diseases. The skin of patients with AD presents as a disbalance of the microbiome with a strong colonization by Staphylococcus aureus, which positively correlates with the severity of the disease. However, the effect of colonized S. aureus on the skin immune system has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study is to explore whether S. aureus isolated from AD skin is able to skew T cell responses via Langerhans cells (LC) as compared to a standard strain of S. aureus and S. epidermidis. We prepared monocyte-derived LC (MoLC) from healthy controls and patients with AD, and stimulated MoLC with a standard strain of S. aureus NCTC8325, S. aureus TF3378 isolated from AD skin, or S. epidermidis. Stimulated MoLC were co-cultured with autologous CD4(pos) T cells and then T cell responses were analyzed by T cell polarization assays, cytokine analysis and real-time PCR. MoLC stimulated by S. aureus TF3378 induced significantly high and rapid proliferation of T cells as compared to those by S. aureus NCTC8325 and S. epidermidis. Cytokine productions from T cells cultured with S. aureus TF3378-stimulated MoLC showed significantly high amounts of IL-2 and less IFN-γ production with imbalanced Th1/Th2 (decreased TBX21/GATA3 ratio) mRNA expression. The T cell proliferation with increased IL-2 production via S. aureus TF3378-stimulated MoLC was diminished by treatment of proteinase K. S. aureus TF3378 on AD skin can skew T cell responses via LC toward imbalanced Th1/Th2 skin immunity. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Neutrophil extracellular traps downregulate lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, Lorena; Bignon, Alexandre; Gueguen, Claire; de Chaisemartin, Luc; Gorges, Roseline; Sandré, Catherine; Mascarell, Laurent; Balabanian, Karl; Kerdine-Römer, Saadia; Pallardy, Marc; Marin-Esteban, Viviana; Chollet-Martin, Sylvie

    2014-12-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) play a central role in inflammation and participate in its control, notably by modulating dendritic cell (DC) functions via soluble mediators or cell-cell contacts. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) released by PMN could play a role in this context. To evaluate NET effects on DC maturation, we developed a model based on monocyte-derived DC (moDC) and calibrated NETs isolated from fresh human PMN. We found that isolated NETs alone had no discernable effect on moDC. In contrast, they downregulated LPS-induced moDC maturation, as shown by decreased surface expression of HLA-DR, CD80, CD83, and CD86, and by downregulated cytokine production (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-12, IL-23), with no increase in the expression of tolerogenic DC genes. Moreover, the presence of NETs during moDC maturation diminished the capacity of these moDC to induce T lymphocyte proliferation in both autologous and allogeneic conditions, and modulated CD4(+) T lymphocyte polarization by promoting the production of Th2 cytokines (IL-5 and IL-13) and reducing that of Th1 and Th17 cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-17). Interestingly, the expression and activities of the lymphoid chemokine receptors CCR7 and CXCR4 on moDC were not altered when moDC matured in the presence of NETs. Together, these findings reveal a new role for NETs in adaptive immune responses, modulating some moDC functions and thereby participating in the control of inflammation.

  13. HIV infection of monocytes-derived dendritic cells inhibits Vγ9Vδ2 T cells functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Sacchi

    Full Text Available DCs act as sentinel cells against incoming pathogens and represent the most potent antigen presenting cells, having the unique capability to prime naïve T cells. In addition to their role in induction of adaptive immune responses, DC are also able to activate innate cells as γδ T cells; in particular, a reciprocal crosstalk between DC and γδ T cells was demonstrated. However, whether HIV infection may alter DC-Vγ9Vδ2 T cells cross-talk was not yet described. To clarify this issue, we cultured activated Vγ9Vδ2 T cells with HIV infected monocyte derived DC (MoDC. After 5 days we evaluated MoDC phenotype, and Vγ9Vδ2 T cells activation and proliferation. In our model, Vγ9Vδ2 T cells were not able to proliferate in response to HIV-infected MoDC, although an up-regulation of CD69 was observed. Upon phosphoantigens stimulation, Vγ9Vδ2 T cells proliferation and cytokine production were inhibited when cultured with HIV-infected MoDC in a cell-contact dependent way. Moreover, HIV-infected MoDC are not able to up-regulate CD86 molecules when cultured with activated Vγ9Vδ2 T cells, compared with uninfected MoDC. Further, activated Vγ9Vδ2 T cells are not able to induce HLA DR up-regulation and CCR5 down-regulation on HIV-infected MoDC. These data indicate that HIV-infected DC alter the capacity of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells to respond to their antigens, pointing out a new mechanisms of induction of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells anergy carried out by HIV, that could contribute to immune evasion.

  14. HIV infection of monocytes-derived dendritic cells inhibits Vγ9Vδ2 T cells functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchi, Alessandra; Rinaldi, Alessandra; Tumino, Nicola; Casetti, Rita; Agrati, Chiara; Turchi, Federica; Bordoni, Veronica; Cimini, Eleonora; Martini, Federico

    2014-01-01

    DCs act as sentinel cells against incoming pathogens and represent the most potent antigen presenting cells, having the unique capability to prime naïve T cells. In addition to their role in induction of adaptive immune responses, DC are also able to activate innate cells as γδ T cells; in particular, a reciprocal crosstalk between DC and γδ T cells was demonstrated. However, whether HIV infection may alter DC-Vγ9Vδ2 T cells cross-talk was not yet described. To clarify this issue, we cultured activated Vγ9Vδ2 T cells with HIV infected monocyte derived DC (MoDC). After 5 days we evaluated MoDC phenotype, and Vγ9Vδ2 T cells activation and proliferation. In our model, Vγ9Vδ2 T cells were not able to proliferate in response to HIV-infected MoDC, although an up-regulation of CD69 was observed. Upon phosphoantigens stimulation, Vγ9Vδ2 T cells proliferation and cytokine production were inhibited when cultured with HIV-infected MoDC in a cell-contact dependent way. Moreover, HIV-infected MoDC are not able to up-regulate CD86 molecules when cultured with activated Vγ9Vδ2 T cells, compared with uninfected MoDC. Further, activated Vγ9Vδ2 T cells are not able to induce HLA DR up-regulation and CCR5 down-regulation on HIV-infected MoDC. These data indicate that HIV-infected DC alter the capacity of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells to respond to their antigens, pointing out a new mechanisms of induction of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells anergy carried out by HIV, that could contribute to immune evasion.

  15. The effect of cytosolic extract of Alternaria aternata fungus on Monocyte-derived dendritic cell maturation and T-lymphocyte polarization in the presence of myelin basic protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loghmanni A

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple Sclerosis (MS is an autoimmune disease with impairment in function of central nervous system. Macrophages and dendritic cells play important roles in alleviating or progression of the disease. These cells can cause inflammation and damage to the myelin of nerve cells by realizing of harmful substances when these cells get matured. We studied the effect of Alternaria alternata extract on maturation of monocyte- derived dendritic cell (modc and T-cell responses in the presence of Myelin Basic Protein (MBP as a laboratory model of multiple sclerosis (MS. The purpose of this study is suitable dendritic cells production for usage in MS immunotherapy.Methods: For this study plastic adherent monocytes were cultured with granulocyte/ macrophage- colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF and interleukin -4 for converting these cells to modc and pulsed with MBP and matured in the presence of monocyte-conditioned medium (MCM in control group and MCM + Alternaria alternata extract in treatment groups. Anti-CD14, anti-CD83, anti-human leukocyte antigen-DR (anti HLA-DR monoclonal antibody were carried out for phenotyping. Autologos T cell responses and cytokine production were evaluated.Results: The results showed that the expression of CD14 decreased and CD83, HLA-DR increased in treatment groups in comparison with control groups. The production amount of IL-10 overcame IL-12 and in T cell the production of cytokines, IL-17 and Interferon-γ (IFN-γ decreased and IL-4 was increased (P<0.05. These effects escalated with increasing of dosage from 50 to 100 (mg/ml (P<0.001.Conclusion: Alternaria alternata extract can cause maturation of MBP-pulsed modc and skewing of T- lymphocyte toward Th2 and thereby can evolve into a new strategy in immunotherapy of MS.

  16. Ameloginins promote an alternatively activated macrophage phenotype in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almqvist, S; Werthen, M; Lyngstadas, SP

    2011-01-01

    Amelogenins are extracellular matrix proteins used for the topical treatment of chronically inflamed tissues. The influence of amelogenins on human monocyte-derived macrophages was studied by measuring the concentrations of cytokines in culture supernatants. The interactions of cells and protein...

  17. Induction of cyclooxygenase-2 expression during HIV-1-infected monocyte-derived macrophage and human brain microvascular endothelial cell interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira, CF; Boven, LA; Middel, J; Verhoef, J; Nottet, HSLM

    2000-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1)-associated dementia (HAD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by HIV infection and replication in brain tissue. HIV-1-infected monocytes overexpress inflammatory molecules that facilitate their entry into the brain. Prostanoids are lipid mediators

  18. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells from HLA-B27+ axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) patients display altered functional capacity and deregulated gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talpin, Alice; Costantino, Félicie; Bonilla, Nelly; Leboime, Ariane; Letourneur, Franck; Jacques, Sébastien; Dumont, Florent; Amraoui, Sonia; Dutertre, Charles-Antoine; Garchon, Henri-Jean; Breban, Maxime; Chiocchia, Gilles

    2014-08-21

    This study aimed to compare the functional capacity and gene expression profile of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MD-DCs) in HLA-B27+ axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) patients and healthy controls. MD-DCs were differentiated with interleukin 4 (IL-4) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) for seven days, starting from purified CD14+ monocytes and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for six and twenty four hours. Their capacity to stimulate allogeneic CD4+ T cells from unrelated healthy donor was tested. Transcriptomic study was performed with Affymetrix HuGene 1.0 ST microarrays. Gene expression levels were compared between patients and controls using a multivariate design under a linear model (LIMMA). Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed for validation of the most striking gene expression differences. The stimulatory capacity of allogeneic CD4+ T cells by MD-DCs from SpA patients was decreased. Transcriptomic analysis revealed 81 genes differentially expressed in MD-DCs between SpA patients and controls (P 1.5). Four selected genes were validated by q ADAMTS15, CITED2, F13A1 and SELL. Expression levels of ADAMTS15 and CITED2, encoding a metallopeptidase and a transcription factor, respectively, were inversely correlated with each other (R = 0.75, P = 0.0003). Furthermore, in silico analysis identified several genes of the Wnt signaling pathway having expression co-regulated with CITED2. This study revealed altered function and gene expression pattern in MD-DCs from HLA-B27+ axial SpA. Co-expression study showed an inverse correlation between ADAMTS15 and CITED2. Moreover, the Wnt signaling pathway appeared as deregulated in SpA MD-DCs, a finding which may be connected to Th17-driven inflammatory responses.

  19. Macrophages, Dendritic Cells, and Regression of Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E. Feig

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is the number one cause of death in the Western world. It results from the interaction between modified lipoproteins and monocyte-derived cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, T cells, and other cellular elements of the arterial wall. This inflammatory process can ultimately lead to the development of complex lesions, or plaques, that protrude into the arterial lumen. Ultimately, plaque rupture and thrombosis can occur leading to the clinical complications of myocardial infarction or stroke. Although each of the cell types plays roles in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, in this review, the focus will be primarily on the monocyte derived cells- macrophages and dendritic cells. The roles of these cell types in atherogenesis will be highlighted. Finally, the mechanisms of atherosclerosis regression as it relates to these cells will be discussed.

  20. Macrophage Responses to Epithelial Dysfunction Promote Lung Fibrosis in Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    niche by monocyte- derived alveolar macrophages. Thus, we were able to overcome the technical issues and use regular shielded bone marrow chimeras for... protocols established and optimized. Major Task 3: Can the adoptive transfer of tissue-resident alveolar macrophages improve chronic stress in the lung...subtask. Since approval of the protocol by IRB and HRPO a total of 45 lung samples were processed , including donor lungs and lungs from patients with

  1. iNKT Cell Emigration out of the Lung Vasculature Requires Neutrophils and Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells in Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanabalasuriar, A; Neupane, A.S; Wang, J; Krummel, M.F; Kubes, P

    2017-01-01

    iNKT cells are a subset of innate T cells that recognize glycolipids presented on CD1d molecules and protect against a variety of bacterial infections including S. pneumoniae. Using lung intravital imaging, we examined the behavior and mechanism of pulmonary iNKT cell activation in response to the potent iNKT cell ligand α-galactosylceramide or during S. pneumoniae infection. In untreated mice the major fraction of iNKT cells resided in the vasculature, but a small critical population resided in the extravascular space in proximity to monocyte-derived DCs. Administration of either α-GalCer or S. pneumoniae, induced CD1d dependent rapid recruitment of neutrophils out of the vasculature. This neutrophil exodus paved the way for extravasation of iNKT cells from the lung vasculature via CCL17. Depletion of monocyte-derived DCs abrogated both the neutrophil and subsequent iNKT cell extravasation. Moreover, impairing iNKT cell migration out of the lung vasculature by blocking CCL17 greatly increased susceptibility to S. pneumoniae infection, suggesting a critical role for the secondary wave of iNKT cells in host defense. PMID:27653688

  2. Azurophil granule proteins constitute the major mycobactericidal proteins in human neutrophils and enhance the killing of mycobacteria in macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prajna Jena

    Full Text Available Pathogenic mycobacteria reside in, and are in turn controlled by, macrophages. However, emerging data suggest that neutrophils also play a critical role in innate immunity to tuberculosis, presumably by their different antibacterial granule proteins. In this study, we purified neutrophil azurophil and specific granules and systematically analyzed the antimycobacterial activity of some purified azurophil and specific granule proteins against M. smegmatis, M. bovis-BCG and M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Using gel overlay and colony forming unit assays we showed that the defensin-depleted azurophil granule proteins (AZP were more active against mycobacteria compared to other granule proteins and cytosolic proteins. The proteins showing antimycobacterial activity were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Electron microscopic studies demonstrate that the AZP disintegrate bacterial cell membrane resulting in killing of mycobacteria. Exogenous addition of AZP to murine macrophage RAW 264.7, THP-1 and peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages significantly reduced the intracellular survival of mycobacteria without exhibiting cytotoxic activity on macrophages. Immunofluorescence studies showed that macrophages actively endocytose neutrophil granular proteins. Treatment with AZP resulted in increase in co-localization of BCG containing phagosomes with lysosomes but not in increase of autophagy. These data demonstrate that neutrophil azurophil proteins may play an important role in controlling intracellular survival of mycobacteria in macrophages.

  3. Azurophil granule proteins constitute the major mycobactericidal proteins in human neutrophils and enhance the killing of mycobacteria in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Prajna; Mohanty, Soumitra; Mohanty, Tirthankar; Kallert, Stephanie; Morgelin, Matthias; Lindstrøm, Thomas; Borregaard, Niels; Stenger, Steffen; Sonawane, Avinash; Sørensen, Ole E

    2012-01-01

    Pathogenic mycobacteria reside in, and are in turn controlled by, macrophages. However, emerging data suggest that neutrophils also play a critical role in innate immunity to tuberculosis, presumably by their different antibacterial granule proteins. In this study, we purified neutrophil azurophil and specific granules and systematically analyzed the antimycobacterial activity of some purified azurophil and specific granule proteins against M. smegmatis, M. bovis-BCG and M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Using gel overlay and colony forming unit assays we showed that the defensin-depleted azurophil granule proteins (AZP) were more active against mycobacteria compared to other granule proteins and cytosolic proteins. The proteins showing antimycobacterial activity were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Electron microscopic studies demonstrate that the AZP disintegrate bacterial cell membrane resulting in killing of mycobacteria. Exogenous addition of AZP to murine macrophage RAW 264.7, THP-1 and peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages significantly reduced the intracellular survival of mycobacteria without exhibiting cytotoxic activity on macrophages. Immunofluorescence studies showed that macrophages actively endocytose neutrophil granular proteins. Treatment with AZP resulted in increase in co-localization of BCG containing phagosomes with lysosomes but not in increase of autophagy. These data demonstrate that neutrophil azurophil proteins may play an important role in controlling intracellular survival of mycobacteria in macrophages.

  4. Characterization of monocyte-derived dendritic cells maturated with IFN-alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, I M; Nikolajsen, K; Walter, M R;

    2006-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are promising candidates for cancer immunotherapy. These cells can be generated from peripheral blood monocytes cultured with granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-4 (IL-4). In order to obtain full functional capacity, maturation is required......, maturation with IFN-alpha has only a small effect on induction of autologous T-cell stimulatory capacity of the DC. However, an increase in DC allogeneic T-cell stimulatory capacity was observed. These data suggest that IFN-alpha has a potential as a maturation agent used in DC-based cancer vaccine trials...

  5. Investigating the Role of Surface Materials and Three Dimensional Architecture on In Vitro Differentiation of Porcine Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie Bruun Hartmann

    Full Text Available In vitro generation of dendritic-like cells through differentiation of peripheral blood monocytes is typically done using two-dimensional polystyrene culture plates. In the process of optimising cell culture techniques, engineers have developed fluidic micro-devises usually manufactured in materials other than polystyrene and applying three-dimensional structures more similar to the in vivo environment. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS is an often used polymer for lab-on-a-chip devices but not much is known about the effect of changing the culture surface material from polystyrene to PDMS. In the present study the differentiation of porcine monocytes to monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs was investigated using CD172apos pig blood monocytes stimulated with GM-CSF and IL-4. Monocytes were cultured on surfaces made of two- and three-dimensional polystyrene as well as two- and three-dimensional PDMS and carbonised three-dimensional PDMS. Cells cultured conventionally (on two-dimensional polystyrene differentiated into moDCs as expected. Interestingly, gene expression of a wide range of cytokines, chemokines, and pattern recognition receptors was influenced by culture surface material and architecture. Distinct clustering of cells, based on similar expression patterns of 46 genes of interest, was seen for cells isolated from two- and three-dimensional polystyrene as well as two- and three-dimensional PDMS. Changing the material from polystyrene to PDMS resulted in cells with expression patterns usually associated with macrophage expression (upregulation of CD163 and downregulation of CD1a, FLT3, LAMP3 and BATF3. However, this was purely based on gene expression level, and no functional assays were included in this study which would be necessary in order to classify the cells as being macrophages. When changing to three-dimensional culture the cells became increasingly activated in terms of IL6, IL8, IL10 and CCR5 gene expression. Further stimulation

  6. Investigating the Role of Surface Materials and Three Dimensional Architecture on In Vitro Differentiation of Porcine Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Sofie Bruun; Mohanty, Soumyaranjan; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Brogaard, Louise; Flagstad, Frederikke Bjergvang; Emnéus, Jenny; Wolff, Anders; Summerfield, Artur; Jungersen, Gregers

    2016-01-01

    In vitro generation of dendritic-like cells through differentiation of peripheral blood monocytes is typically done using two-dimensional polystyrene culture plates. In the process of optimising cell culture techniques, engineers have developed fluidic micro-devises usually manufactured in materials other than polystyrene and applying three-dimensional structures more similar to the in vivo environment. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is an often used polymer for lab-on-a-chip devices but not much is known about the effect of changing the culture surface material from polystyrene to PDMS. In the present study the differentiation of porcine monocytes to monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) was investigated using CD172apos pig blood monocytes stimulated with GM-CSF and IL-4. Monocytes were cultured on surfaces made of two- and three-dimensional polystyrene as well as two- and three-dimensional PDMS and carbonised three-dimensional PDMS. Cells cultured conventionally (on two-dimensional polystyrene) differentiated into moDCs as expected. Interestingly, gene expression of a wide range of cytokines, chemokines, and pattern recognition receptors was influenced by culture surface material and architecture. Distinct clustering of cells, based on similar expression patterns of 46 genes of interest, was seen for cells isolated from two- and three-dimensional polystyrene as well as two- and three-dimensional PDMS. Changing the material from polystyrene to PDMS resulted in cells with expression patterns usually associated with macrophage expression (upregulation of CD163 and downregulation of CD1a, FLT3, LAMP3 and BATF3). However, this was purely based on gene expression level, and no functional assays were included in this study which would be necessary in order to classify the cells as being macrophages. When changing to three-dimensional culture the cells became increasingly activated in terms of IL6, IL8, IL10 and CCR5 gene expression. Further stimulation with LPS resulted

  7. Impaired migration capacity in monocytes derived from patients with Gaucher disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettman, Noam; Avivi, Irit; Rosenbaum, Hanna; Bisharat, Lina; Katz, Tamar

    2015-08-01

    Gaucher disease (GD) is characterized by glucocerebroside (GC) accumulation due to defective activity of the glucocerebrosidase (GlcCerase) enzyme. Monocytes and macrophages exhibit the highest GlcCerase activity and are most prominently affected by GC engorgement. As GD patients tend to exert various immune system-related changes, this study was designed to investigate potential effects of monocyte dysfunction on these alterations. Monocytes were isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of untreated GD patients and healthy volunteers. Monocyte migration capacity towards SDF1α was assessed. The GD patients exhibited reduced numbers of monocytes and decreased capability of SDF1α-dependent monocyte migration. Evaluation of CXCR4, the SDF1α receptor, revealed reduced expression of surface CXCR4 on GD-derived monocytes, despite similar CXCR4 mRNA transcript levels in the monocytes of healthy volunteers and GD patients. Reduction of surface CXCR4 was accompanied by increased intracellular CXCR4 levels in patient monocytes. This elevated intracellular CXCR4 might reflect significantly increased SDF1α concentrations characterizing patients' serum and the lysosomal impairment of GD, resulting in decreased degradation of CXCR4. Different distributions of CXCR4 expression observed in the two groups explain impaired SDF1α-dependent monocyte migration. Reduced numbers and impaired migration capacity of GD-derived monocytes could contribute to abnormal inflammation and GD-associated immune alterations seen in these patients.

  8. Prophylactic vaccines are potent activators of monocyte-derived dendritic cells and drive effective anti-tumor responses in melanoma patients at the cost of toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bol, K.F.; Aarntzen, E.H.J.G.; Pots, J.M.; Olde Nordkamp, M.A.M.; Rakt, M.W.M.M. van de; Scharenborg, N.M.; Boer, A.J. de; Oorschot, T.G.M. van; Croockewit, S.; Blokx, W.A.M.; Oyen, W.J.G.; Boerman, O.C.; Mus, R.D.M.; Rossum, M.M. van; Graaf, C.A.A. van der; Punt, C.J.; Adema, G.J.; Figdor, C.G.; Vries, I.J. de; Schreibelt, G.

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cell (DC)-based immunotherapy is explored worldwide in cancer patients, predominantly with DC matured with pro-inflammatory cytokines and prostaglandin E2. We studied the safety and efficacy of vaccination with monocyte-derived DC matured with a cocktail of prophylactic vaccines that

  9. Use of back-scatter electron signals to visualise cell/nanowires interactions in vitro and in vivo; frustrated phagocytosis of long fibres in macrophages and compartmentalisation in mesothelial cells in vivo

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    Schinwald Anja

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Frustrated phagocytosis has been stated as an important factor in the initiation of an inflammatory response after fibre exposure. The length of fibrous structures has been linked to the potential of fibres to induce adverse health effects for at least 40 years. However, we only recently reported for the first time the threshold length for fibre-induced inflammation in the pleural space and we implicated frustrated phagocytosis in the pro-inflammatory effects of long fibres. This study extends the examination of the threshold value for frustrated phagocytosis using well-defined length classes of silver nanowires (AgNW ranging from 3–28 μm and describes in detail the morphology of frustrated phagocytosis using a novel technique and also describes compartmentalisation of fibres in the pleural space. Methods A novel technique, backscatter scanning electron microscopy (BSE was used to study frustrated phagocytosis since it provides high-contrast detection of nanowires, allowing clear discrimination between the nanofibres and other cellular features. A human monocyte-derived macrophage cell line THP-1 was used to investigate cell-nanowire interaction in vitro and the parietal pleura, the site of fibre retention after inhalation exposure was chosen to visualise the cell- fibre interaction in vivo after direct pleural installation of AgNWs. Results The length cut-off value for frustrated phagocytosis differs in vitro and in vivo. While in vitro frustrated phagocytosis could be observed with fibres ≥14 μm, in vivo studies showed incomplete uptake at a fibre length of ≥10 μm. Recently we showed that inflammation in the pleural space after intrapleural injection of the same nanofibre panel occurs at a length of ≥5 μm. This onset of inflammation does not correlate with the onset of frustrated phagocytosis as shown in this study, leading to the conclusion that intermediate length fibres fully enclosed within macrophages as

  10. Use of carbosilane dendrimer to switch macrophage polarization for the acquisition of antitumor functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perisé-Barrios, Ana J.; Gómez, Rafael; Corbí, Angel L.; de La Mata, Javier; Domínguez-Soto, Angeles; Muñoz-Fernandez, María A.

    2015-02-01

    Tumor microenvironment favors the escape from immunosurveillance by promoting immunosuppression and blunting pro-inflammatory responses. Since most tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) exhibit an M2-like tumor cell growth promoting polarization, we have studied the role of 2G-03NN24 carbosilane dendrimer in M2 macrophage polarization to evaluate the potential application of dendrimers in tumor immunotherapy. We found that the 2G-03NN24 dendrimer decreases LPS-induced IL-10 production from in vitro generated monocyte-derived M2 macrophages, and also switches their gene expression profile towards the acquisition of M1 polarization markers (INHBA, SERPINE1, FLT1, EGLN3 and ALDH1A2) and the loss of M2 polarization-associated markers (EMR1, IGF1, FOLR2 and SLC40A1). Furthermore, 2G-03NN24 dendrimer decreases STAT3 activation. Our results indicate that the 2G-03NN24 dendrimer can be a useful tool for antitumor therapy by virtue of its potential ability to limit the M2-like polarization of TAM.Tumor microenvironment favors the escape from immunosurveillance by promoting immunosuppression and blunting pro-inflammatory responses. Since most tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) exhibit an M2-like tumor cell growth promoting polarization, we have studied the role of 2G-03NN24 carbosilane dendrimer in M2 macrophage polarization to evaluate the potential application of dendrimers in tumor immunotherapy. We found that the 2G-03NN24 dendrimer decreases LPS-induced IL-10 production from in vitro generated monocyte-derived M2 macrophages, and also switches their gene expression profile towards the acquisition of M1 polarization markers (INHBA, SERPINE1, FLT1, EGLN3 and ALDH1A2) and the loss of M2 polarization-associated markers (EMR1, IGF1, FOLR2 and SLC40A1). Furthermore, 2G-03NN24 dendrimer decreases STAT3 activation. Our results indicate that the 2G-03NN24 dendrimer can be a useful tool for antitumor therapy by virtue of its potential ability to limit the M2-like polarization of TAM

  11. Chemoresistance of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells is regulated by IL-17A.

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    Selma Olsson Åkefeldt

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells initiate adaptive immune responses, leading either to control cancer by effector T cells or to exacerbate cancer by regulatory T cells that inhibit IFN-γ-mediated Th1-type response. Dendritic cells can also induce Th17-type immunity, mediated by IL-17A. However, the controversial role of this cytokine in cancer requires further investigations. We generated dendritic cells from peripheral blood monocytes to investigate lifespan, phenotype and chemoresistance of dendritic cells, treated with IL-17A with or without IFN-γ. Studying the expression of Bcl-2 family members, we demonstrated that dendritic cells constitutively express one pro-survival Bcl-2 member: MCL1. Immature dendritic cells were CD40(lowHLADR(low CD1a(+ MCL1(+, did not express CD14, CD68 or BCL2A1, and displayed a short 2-day lifespan. IL-17A-treated DC exhibited a semi-mature (CD40(high HLADR(low pre-M2 (CCL22(+ CD206(+ CD163(+ IL1RN(+ IL-10(- CXCL10(- IL-12(- mixed (CD1a(+ CD14+ CD68(+ macrophage-dendritic cell phenotype. They efficiently exerted mannose receptor-mediated endocytosis and did not produce superoxide anions, in the absence of TLR engagement. Interestingly, IL-17A promoted a long-term survival of dendritic cells, beyond 12 days, that correlated to BCL2A1 induction, a pro-survival Bcl-2 family member. BCL2A1 transcription was activated by NF-κB, downstream of IL-17A transduction. Thus, immature dendritic cells only express MCL1, whereas IL-17A-treated dendritic cells concomitantly expressed two pro-survival Bcl-2 family members: MCL1 and BCL2A1. These latter developed chemoresistance to 11 of the 17 chemotherapy agents tested. However, high doses of either vinblastine or cytarabine decreased MCL1 expression and induced dendritic cell death. When IL-17A is produced in vivo, administration of anti-IL-17A biotherapy may impair dendritic cell survival by targeting BCL2A1 expression. Consequently, depending on the effector or regulatory role of dendritic

  12. Transmission electron microscopy reveals distinct macrophage- and tick cell-specific morphological stages of Ehrlichia chaffeensis.

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    Sarah E Dedonder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ehrlichia chaffeensis is an emerging tick-borne rickettsial pathogen responsible for human monocytic ehrlichiosis. Despite the induction of an active host immune response, the pathogen has evolved to persist in its vertebrate and tick hosts. Understanding how the organism progresses in tick and vertebrate host cells is critical in identifying effective strategies to block the pathogen transmission. Our recent molecular and proteomic studies revealed differences in numerous expressed proteins of the organism during its growth in different host environments. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Transmission electron microscopy analysis was performed to assess morphological changes in the bacterium within macrophages and tick cells. The stages of pathogen progression observed included the attachment of the organism to the host cells, its engulfment and replication within a morulae by binary fission and release of the organisms from infected host cells by complete host cell lysis or by exocytosis. E. chaffeensis grown in tick cells was highly pleomorphic and appears to replicate by both binary fission and filamentous type cell divisions. The presence of Ehrlichia-like inclusions was also observed within the nucleus of both macrophages and tick cells. This observation was confirmed by confocal microscopy and immunoblot analysis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Morphological differences in the pathogen's progression, replication, and processing within macrophages and tick cells provide further evidence that E. chaffeensis employs unique host-cell specific strategies in support of adaptation to vertebrate and tick cell environments.

  13. Electroporated Antigen-Encoding mRNA Is Not a Danger Signal to Human Mature Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells

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    Stefanie Hoyer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For therapeutic cancer vaccination, the adoptive transfer of mRNA-electroporated dendritic cells (DCs is frequently performed, usually with monocyte-derived, cytokine-matured DCs (moDCs. However, DCs are rich in danger-sensing receptors which could recognize the exogenously delivered mRNA and induce DC activation, hence influencing the DCs’ immunogenicity. Therefore, we examined whether electroporation of mRNA with a proper cap and a poly-A tail of at least 64 adenosines had any influence on cocktail-matured moDCs. We used 16 different RNAs, encoding tumor antigens (MelanA, NRAS, BRAF, GNAQ, GNA11, and WT1, and variants thereof. None of those RNAs induced changes in the expression of CD25, CD40, CD83, CD86, and CD70 or the secretion of the cytokines IL-8, IL-6, and TNFα of more than 1.5-fold compared to the control condition, while an mRNA encoding an NF-κB-activation protein as positive control induced massive secretion of the cytokines. To determine whether mRNA electroporation had any effect on the whole transcriptome of the DCs, we performed microarray analyses of DCs of 6 different donors. None of 60,000 probes was significantly different between mock-electroporated DCs and MelanA-transfected DCs. Hence, we conclude that no transcriptional programs were induced within cocktail-matured DCs by electroporation of single tumor-antigen-encoding mRNAs.

  14. In vitro detection of contact allergens: development of an optimized protocol using human peripheral blood monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Hendrik; Spieker, Jochem; Gerlach, Silke; Engels, Ursula; Pape, Wolfgang; Kolbe, Ludger; Schmucker, Robert; Wenck, Horst; Diembeck, Walter; Wittern, Klaus-Peter; Reisinger, Kerstin; Schepky, Andreas G

    2011-02-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a delayed T-cell mediated allergic response associated with relevant social and economic impacts. Animal experiments (e.g. the local lymph node assay) are still supplying most of the data used to assess the sensitization potential of new chemicals. However, the 7th amendment to the EU Cosmetic Directive will introduce a testing ban for cosmetic ingredients after 2013. In vitro alternative methods are thus being actively developed. Although promising results have been obtained with cell lines, their reduced functionality and inherent genomic instability led us to reinvestigate the use of peripheral blood monocyte-derived dendritic cells (PBMDCs) for the establishment of a reliable in vitro sensitization test. To solve the issues associated with the use of primary cells, the culture and exposure conditions (cytokine concentrations, incubation time, readout, pooled vs. single donors and cytotoxicity) were re-assessed and optimized. Here we propose a stable and reproducible protocol based on PBMDCs. This should allow a wider acceptance of PBMDCs as a reliable test system for the detection of human skin sensitizers and the inclusion of this protocol in an integrated testing strategy.

  15. Levamisole enhances immune response by affecting the activation and maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L-Y; Lin, Y-L; Chiang, B-L

    2008-01-01

    Levamisole is a synthetic phenylimidazolthiazole that was first introduced in 1966 as an anti-helmintic agent. Current studies have been focused upon its effect on immune response and on cancer treatment. We examined the molecular mechanisms of levamisole in the activation and maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) and human T cells. Treatment of DC with levamisole increased the presentation of CD80, CD86, CD83 and human leucocyte antigen D-related (HLA-DR) molecules on the cell membrane, as well as the production of interleukin (IL)-12 p40 and IL-10. Levamisole-treated human DC also enhanced T cell activation towards type 1 T helper immune response by inducing interferon-γ secretion. Neutralization with antibodies against Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 inhibited levamisole-induced production of IL-12 p40 and IL-10, suggesting a vital role for TLR-2 in signalling DC upon incubation with levamisole. The inhibition of nuclear factor-κB, extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 or c-Jun N-terminal kinases pathways also prevented the effects of levamisole on DC in producing IL-12 p40 or IL-10. Taken together, levamisole could enhance immune response towards T helper 1 development through the activation of dendritic cells or T cell aspects. PMID:18005262

  16. Immunomodulatory effects of adult Haemonchus contortus excretory/secretory products on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Z U; Knight, J S; Koolaard, J; Simpson, H V; Pernthaner, A

    2015-12-01

    The levels of expression of surface molecules and release of cytokines and chemokines of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells were determined after their exposure to adult H. contortus excretory/secretory (ES) products or a combination of ES products and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Worm products provoked a weak response and only partial maturation of the dendritic cells, consistent with the hyporesponsiveness and more tolerogenic immune environment present in parasitized animals and humans. Co-stimulation with LPS demonstrated that H. contortus secretions, like those of other helminths, contain immunomodulators capable of reducing some aspects of the strong T(H)1/T(H)2 response evoked by bacterial LPS. There were significant reductions in the release of some cytokine/chemokines by LPS-stimulated mdDCs and a trend (although not significant at P < 0.05) for reduced expression levels of CD40, CD80 and HLA-DR. A prominent feature was the variability in responses of dendritic cells from the four donors, even on different days in repeat experiments, suggesting that generalized conclusions may be difficult to make, except in genetically related animals. Such observations may therefore be applicable only to restricted populations. In addition, previous exposure to parasites in a target population for immunomodulatory therapy may be an important factor in assessing the likelihood of adverse reactions or failures in the treatment to worm therapy.

  17. The effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on the functions of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells

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    Wu Wen-Mein

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Propolis, an ancient herbal medicine, has been reported the beneficial effect both in asthma patients and murine model of asthma, but the mechanism was not clearly understood. In this study, the effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE, the most extensively studied components in propolis, on the functions of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs was investigated. Results CAPE significantly inhibited IL-12 p40, IL-12 p70, IL-10 protein expression in mature healthy human MoDCs stimulated by lipopolysaccharides (LPS and IL-12 p40, IL-10, IP-10 stimulated by crude mite extract. CAPE significantly inhibited IL-10 and IP-10 but not IL-12 expression in allergic patients' MoDCs stimulated by crude mite extract. In contrast, the upregulation of costimulatory molecules in mature MoDCs was not suppressed by CAPE. Further, the antigen presenting ability of DCs was not inhibited by CAPE. CAPE inhibited IκBα phosphorylation and NF-κB activation but not mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK family phosphorylation in human MoDCs. Conclusion These results indicated that CAPE inhibited cytokine and chemokine production by MoDCs which might be related to the NF-κB signaling pathway. This study provided a new insight into the mechanism of CAPE in immune response and the rationale for propolis in the treatment of asthma and other allergic disorders.

  18. Indoor pollutant hexabromocyclododecane enhances house dust mite-induced activation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canbaz, Derya; Lebre, M Cristina; Logiantara, Adrian; van Ree, Ronald; van Rijt, Leonie S

    2016-11-01

    The indoor pollutant hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) has been added as flame retardant to many consumer products but detaches and accumulates in house dust. Inhalation of house dust leads to exposure to house dust mite (HDM) allergens in the presence of HBCD. Activation of dendritic cells is crucial in the sensitization to HDM allergens. The current study examined whether exposure to HBCD affected activation/maturation of HDM-exposed human dendritic cells (DC). Human monocyte-derived DC (moDC) were exposed simultaneously to HDM and a concentration range of HBCD (0.1-20 μM) in vitro. HDM exposure of moDC induced expression of co-stimulatory molecule CD80 and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. However, simultaneous exposure of moDC to HBCD and HDM enhanced the expression of antigen presenting molecule HLA-DR, co-stimulatory molecule CD86 and pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 depending on the dose of HBCD. Our results indicate that simultaneous exposure of HDM and HBCD can enhance the antigen presentation and maturation/activation of DC.

  19. Intracellular survival of Clostridium chauvoei in bovine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Prhiscylla Sadanã; Santos, Renato Lima; da Paixão, Tatiane Alves; de Oliveira Bernardes, Laura Cristina; de Macêdo, Auricélio Alves; Gonçalves, Luciana Aramuni; de Oliveira Júnior, Carlos Augusto; Silva, Rodrigo Otávio Silveira; Lobato, Francisco Carlos Faria

    2017-02-01

    Clostridium chauvoei is the etiological agent of blackleg, a severe disease of domestic ruminants, causing myonecrosis and serious toxemia with high mortality. Despite the known importance of this agent, studies evaluating its pathogenesis of blackleg are scarce, and many are based on an unproven hypothesis that states that macrophages are responsible for carrying C. chauvoei spores from the intestines to muscles in the early stages of blackleg. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the survival of C. chauvoei vegetative cells or spores after phagocytosis by a murine macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) and bovine monocyte-derived macrophages and to profile inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine transcripts of bovine macrophages infected with C. chauvoei vegetative cells or spores. Both vegetative cells and spores of C. chauvoei remain viable after internalization by murine and bovine macrophages. Bovine macrophages infected with vegetative cells showed a pro-inflammatory profile, while those infected with spores displayed an anti-inflammatory profile. Together, these results corroborate the classical hypothesis that macrophages may play a role in the early pathogenesis of blackleg. Moreover, this is the first study to evaluate the infection kinetics and cytokine profile of bovine monocyte-derived macrophages infected with a Clostridium species.

  20. Monocyte and Macrophage Plasticity in Tissue Repair and Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Amitava; Sinha, Mithun; Datta, Soma; Abas, Motaz; Chaffee, Scott; Sen, Chandan K.; Roy, Sashwati

    2016-01-01

    Heterogeneity and high versatility are the characteristic features of the cells of monocyte-macrophage lineage. The mononuclear phagocyte system, derived from the bone marrow progenitor cells, is primarily composed of monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. In regenerative tissues, a central role of monocyte-derived macrophages and paracrine factors secreted by these cells is indisputable. Macrophages are highly plastic cells. On the basis of environmental cues and molecular mediators, these cells differentiate to proinflammatory type I macrophage (M1) or anti-inflammatory or proreparative type II macrophage (M2) phenotypes and transdifferentiate into other cell types. Given a central role in tissue repair and regeneration, the review focuses on the heterogeneity of monocytes and macrophages with current known mechanisms of differentiation and plasticity, including microenvironmental cues and molecular mediators, such as noncoding RNAs. PMID:26118749

  1. Effects of titanium(iv) ions on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Erwin Ph; Mhawi, Amir; Clode, Peta; Saunders, Martin; Filgueira, Luis

    2009-03-01

    Orthopaedic metal implants composed of titanium are routinely used in bone fracture repair and for joint replacement therapies. A considerable fraction of implant recipients are unable to benefit due to implant failure resulting from aseptic loosening, while others may experience cutaneous sensitivity to titanium after implantation. An adaptive immune reactivity towards titanium ions, originating from the biocorrosion of the implants, could play a role. As an initiator of the adaptive immune response, dendritic cells (DC) were studied for uptake and characteristics after titanium exposure. Energy filtered transmission electron microscopy showed uptake of titanium(iv) (Ti(iv)) ions by DCs in vitro and co-localisation with phosphorus-rich cell structures of the DC membranes (phospholipids), cytoplasm (ribosomes and phosphorylated proteins) and the nucleus (DNA). DC maturation and function were investigated by measuring cell surface marker expression by flow cytometry. After exposure, DCs showed a decrease in MHC class II (HLA-DR), co-stimulatory molecules (CD40, CD80 & CD86) and chemokine receptors (CCR) 6 and CCR7 but an increase in CCR4 after Ti(iv) treatment. However, Ti(iv) treated DCs had an increased stimulatory capacity towards allogenic lymphocytes. A Ti(iv) concentration dependant increase of IL-12p70 was observed amidst decrease of the other measured cytokines (TGF-β1 and TGF-β2). Hence, Ti(iv) alters DC properties, resulting in an enhanced T lymphocyte reactivity and deviation towards a Th1 type immune response. This effect may be responsible for the inflammatory side effects of titanium implants seen in patients.

  2. Prophylactic vaccines are potent activators of monocyte-derived dendritic cells and drive effective anti-tumor responses in melanoma patients at the cost of toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Bol, Kalijn F.; Aarntzen, Erik H. J. G.; Pots, Jeanette M.; Olde Nordkamp, Michel A. M.; van de Rakt, Mandy W. M. M.; Scharenborg, Nicole M.; de Boer, Annemiek J.; van Oorschot, Tom G. M.; Croockewit, Sandra A. J.; Blokx, Willeke A. M.; Oyen, Wim J. G.; Boerman, Otto C.; Mus, Roel D. M.; van Rossum, Michelle M.; van der Graaf, Chantal A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cell (DC)-based immunotherapy is explored worldwide in cancer patients, predominantly with DC matured with pro-inflammatory cytokines and prostaglandin E2. We studied the safety and efficacy of vaccination with monocyte-derived DC matured with a cocktail of prophylactic vaccines that contain clinical-grade Toll-like receptor ligands (BCG, Typhim, Act-HIB) and prostaglandin E2 (VAC-DC). Stage III and IV melanoma patients were vaccinated via intranodal injection (12 patients) or combi...

  3. Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor affects activation and function of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Ye, Z; Kijlstra, A; Zhou, Y; Yang, P

    2014-08-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is well known for mediating the toxic effects of dioxin-containing pollutants, but has also been shown to be involved in the natural regulation of the immune response. In this study, we investigated the effect of AhR activation by its endogenous ligands 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ) and 2-(1'H-indole-3'-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE) on the differentiation, maturation and function of monocyte-derived DCs in Behçet's disease (BD) patients. In this study, we showed that AhR activation by FICZ and ITE down-regulated the expression of co-stimulatory molecules including human leucocyte antigen D-related (HLA-DR), CD80 and CD86, while it had no effect on the expression of CD83 and CD40 on DCs derived from BD patients and normal controls. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated dendritic cells (DCs) from active BD patients showed a higher level of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-23 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α production. FICZ or ITE significantly inhibited the production of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-23 and TNF-α, but induced IL-10 production by DCs derived from active BD patients and normal controls. FICZ or ITE-treated DCs significantly inhibited the T helper type 17 (Th17) and Th1 cell response. Activation of AhR either by FICZ or ITE inhibits DC differentiation, maturation and function. Further studies are needed to investigate whether manipulation of the AhR pathway may be used to treat BD or other autoimmune diseases.

  4. Differential Activation of Human Monocyte-Derived and Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells by West Nile Virus Generated in Different Host Cells▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Maria Carlan; Guerrero-Plata, Antonieta; Gilfoy, Felicia D.; Garofalo, Roberto P.; Mason, Peter W.

    2007-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play a central role in innate immunity and antiviral responses. In this study, we investigated the production of alpha interferon (IFN-α) and inducible chemokines by human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (mDCs) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) infected with West Nile virus (WNV), an emergent pathogen whose infection can lead to severe cases of encephalitis in the elderly, children, and immunocompromised individuals. Our experiments demonstrated that WNV grown in mammalian cells (WNVVero) was a potent inducer of IFN-α secretion in pDCs and, to a lesser degree, in mDCs. The ability of WNVVero to induce IFN-α in pDCs did not require viral replication and was prevented by the treatment of cells with bafilomycin A1 and chloroquine, suggesting that it was dependent on endosomal Toll-like receptor recognition. On the other hand, IFN-α production in mDCs required viral replication and was associated with the nuclear translocation of IRF3 and viral antigen expression. Strikingly, pDCs failed to produce IFN-α when stimulated with WNV grown in mosquito cells (WNVC7/10), while mDCs responded similarly to WNVVero or WNVC7/10. Moreover, the IFN-dependent chemokine IP-10 was produced in substantial amounts by pDCs in response to WNVVero but not WNVC7/10, while interleukin-8 was produced in greater amounts by mDCs infected with WNVC7/10 than in those infected with WNVVero. These findings suggest that cell-specific mechanisms of WNV recognition leading to the production of type I IFN and inflammatory chemokines by DCs may contribute to both the innate immune response and disease pathogenesis in human infections. PMID:17913823

  5. In vitro interactions of Candida parapsilosis wild type and lipase deficient mutants with human monocyte derived dendritic cells

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    Vágvölgyi Csaba

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Candida parapsilosis typically is a commensal of human skin. However, when host immune defense is compromised or the normal microflora balance is disrupted, C. parapsilosis transforms itself into an opportunistic pathogen. Candida-derived lipase has been identified as potential virulence factor. Even though cellular components of the innate immune response, such as dendritic cells, represent the first line of defense against invading pathogens, little is known about the interaction of these cells with invading C. parapsilosis. Thus, the aim of our study was to assess the function of dendritic cells in fighting C. parapsilosis and to determine the role that C. parapsilosis-derived lipase plays in the interaction with dendritic cells. Results Monocyte-derived immature and mature dendritic cells (iDCs and mDCs, respectively co-cultured with live wild type or lipase deficient C. parapsilosis strains were studied to determine the phagocytic capacity and killing efficiency of host cells. We determined that both iDCs and mDCs efficiently phagocytosed and killed C. parapsilosis, furthermore our results show that the phagocytic and fungicidal activities of both iDCs and mDCs are more potent for lipase deficient compared to wild type yeast cells. In addition, the lipase deficient C. parapsilosis cells induce higher gene expression and protein secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in both DC types relative to the effect of co-culture with wild type yeast cells. Conclusions Our results show that DCs are activated by exposure to C. parapsilosis, as shown by increased phagocytosis, killing and proinflammatory protein secretion. Moreover, these data strongly suggest that C. parapsilosis derived lipase has a protective role during yeast:DC interactions, since lipase production in wt yeast cells decreased the phagocytic capacity and killing efficiency of host cells and downregulated the expression of host effector molecules.

  6. Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) enhances lipopolysaccharide-stimulated tissue factor in human monocytes and monocyte-derived microvesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Julie C; Klein, Thomas W; Goldberger, Bruce A; Sleasman, John W; Mackman, Nigel; Goodenow, Maureen M

    2015-01-01

    Immunomodulatory effects in humans of Δ(9-)Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component of marijuana are controversial. Tissue factor (TF), the activator of the extrinsic coagulation cascade, is increased on circulating activated monocytes and is expressed on microvesicles released from activated monocytes during inflammatory conditions, which perpetuate coagulopathies in a number of diseases. In view of the increased medicinal use of marijuana, effects of THC on human monocytes and monocyte-derived microvesicles activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were investigated. Peak levels of TF procoagulant activity developed in monocytes or microvesicles 6 h following LPS treatment and were unaltered by THC. After 24 h of LPS stimulation, TF activity declined in control-treated or untreated cells and microvesicles, but persisted with THC treatment. Peak TF protein occurred within 6 h of LPS treatment independent of THC; by 24 h, TF protein declined to almost undetectable levels without THC, but was about 4-fold greater with THC. Steady-state TF mRNA levels were similar up to 2 h in the presence of LPS with or without THC, while 10-fold greater TF mRNA levels persisted over 3-24 h with THC treatment. Activation of MAPK or NF-κB pathways was unaltered by THC treatment and inflammatory cytokine IL-6 levels were unchanged. In contrast, TNF and IL-8 levels were enhanced by 20-50 %. THC enhances TF expression in activated monocytes resulting in elevated procoagulant activity. Marijuana use could potentiate coagulopathies in individuals with chronic immune activation such as HIV-1 infection or inflammatory bowel disease.

  7. Expression and regulation of Schlafen (SLFN family members in primary human monocytes, monocyte-derived dendritic cells and T cells

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    Alexander Puck

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schlafen (SLFN/Slfn family members have been investigated for their involvement in fundamental cellular processes including growth regulation, differentiation and control of viral replication. However, most research has been focused on the characterization of Slfns within the murine system or in human cell lines. Since little is known about SLFNs in primary human immune cells, we set out to analyze the expression and regulation of the six human SLFN genes in monocytes, monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs and T cells. Comparison of SLFN gene expression across these three cell types showed high mRNA expression of SLFN11 in monocytes and moDCs and high SLFN5 expression in T cells, indicating functional importance within these cell types. Differentiation of monocytes to moDCs leads to the gradual upregulation of SLFN12L and SLFN13 while SLFN12 levels were decreased by differentiation stimuli. Stimulation of moDCs via human rhinovirus, lipopolysaccharide, or IFN-α lead to strong upregulation of SLFN gene expression, while peptidoglycan poorly stimulated regulation of both SLFNs and the classical interferon-stimulated gene MxA. T cell activation was found to downregulate the expression of SLFN5, SLFN12 and SLFN12L, which was reversible upon addition of exogenous IFN-α. In conclusion, we demonstrate, that SLFN gene upregulation is mainly dependent on autocrine type I interferon signaling in primary human immune cells. Rapid decrease of SLFN expression levels following T cell receptor stimulation indicates a role of SLFNs in the regulation of human T cell quiescence.

  8. M2 polarization enhances silica nanoparticle uptake by macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica eHoppstädter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available While silica nanoparticles have enabled numerous industrial and medical applications, their toxicological safety requires further evaluation. Macrophages are the major cell population responsible for nanoparticle clearance in vivo. The prevailing macrophage phenotype largely depends on the local immune status of the host. Whereas M1-polarized macrophages are considered as pro-inflammatory macrophages involved in host defense, M2 macrophages exhibit anti-inflammatory and wound-healing properties, but also promote tumor growth.We employed different models of M1 and M2 polarization: GM-CSF/LPS/IFN-gamma was used to generate primary human M1 cells and M-CSF/IL-10 to differentiate M2 monocyte-derived macrophages. PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells were polarized towards an M1 type by LPS/IFN-gamma and towards M2 by IL-10. Uptake of fluorescent silica nanoparticles (Ø 26 and 41 nm and microparticles (Ø 1.75 µm was quantified. At the concentration used (50 µg/ml, silica nanoparticles did not influence cell viability as assessed by MTT assay. Nanoparticle uptake was enhanced in M2-polarized primary human monocyte-derived macrophages compared with M1 cells, as shown by flow cytometric and microscopic approaches. In contrast, the uptake of microparticles did not differ between M1 and M2 phenotypes. M2 polarization was also associated with increased nanoparticle uptake in the macrophage-like THP-1 cell line. In accordance, in vivo polarized M2-like primary human tumor-associated macrophages (TAM obtained from lung tumors took up more nanoparticles than M1-like alveolar macrophages isolated from the surrounding lung tissue.In summary, our data indicate that the M2 polarization of macrophages promotes nanoparticle internalization. Therefore, the phenotypical differences between macrophage subsets should be taken into consideration in future investigations on nanosafety, but might also open up therapeutic perspectives allowing to specifically target M2

  9. Comparative analysis of signature genes in PRRSV-infected porcine monocyte-derived dendritic cells at differential activation statuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Activation statuses of monocytic cells including monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) are critically important for antiviral immunity. In particular, some devastating viruses, including porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), are capable of directly infecting these c...

  10. Short Communication: HIV Controller T Cells Effectively Inhibit Viral Replication in Alveolar Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker-Sperling, Victoria E; Merlo, Christian A; Buckheit, Robert W; Lambert, Allison; Tarwater, Patrick; Kirk, Greg D; Drummond, M Bradley; Blankson, Joel N

    Macrophages are targets of HIV-1 infection, and control of viral replication within these cells may be an important component of a T-cell-based vaccine. Although several studies have analyzed the ability of CD8(+) T cells to inhibit viral replication in monocyte-derived macrophages, the effect of T cells on HIV-1-infected tissue macrophages is less clear. We demonstrate here that both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell effectors from HIV controllers are capable of suppressing viral replication in bronchoalveolar lavage-derived alveolar macrophages. These findings have implications for HIV-1 vaccine and eradication strategies.

  11. Sites of inhibition of mitochondrial electron transport in macrophage-injured neoplastic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, D L; Lehninger, A L

    1982-11-01

    Previous work has shown that injury of neoplastic cells by cytotoxic macrophages (CM) in cell culture is accompanied by inhibition of mitochondrial respiration. We have investigated the nature of this inhibition by studying mitochondrial respiration in CM-injured leukemia L1210 cells permeabilized with digitonin. CM-induced injury affects the mitochondrial respiratory chain proper. Complex I (NADH-coenzyme Q reductase) and complex II (succinate-coenzyme Q reductase) are markedly inhibited. In addition a minor inhibition of cytochrome oxidase was found. Electron transport from alpha-glycerophosphate through the respiratory chain to oxygen is unaffected and permeabilized CM-injured L1210 cells oxidizing this substrate exhibit acceptor control. However, glycerophosphate shuttle activity was found not to occur within CM-injured or uninjured L1210 cells in culture hence, alpha-glycerophosphate is apparently unavailable for mitochondrial oxidation in the intact cell. It is concluded that the failure of respiration of intact neoplastic cells injured by CM is caused by the nearly complete inhibition of complexes I and II of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The time courses of CM-induced electron transport inhibition and arrest of L1210 cell division are examined and the possible relationship between these phenomena is discussed.

  12. HIV-1 gp120 activates the STAT3/interleukin-6 axis in primary human monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Cornò, Manuela; Donninelli, Gloria; Varano, Barbara; Da Sacco, Letizia; Masotti, Andrea; Gessani, Sandra

    2014-10-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are fundamental for the initiation of immune responses and are important players in AIDS immunopathogenesis. The modulation of DC functional activities represents a strategic mechanism for HIV-1 to evade immune surveillance. Impairment of DC function may result from bystander effects of HIV-1 envelope proteins independently of direct HIV-1 infection. In this study, we report that exposure of immature monocyte-derived DCs (MDDCs) to HIV-1 R5 gp120 resulted in the CCR5-dependent production of interleukin-6 (IL-6) via mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/NF-κB pathways. IL-6 in turn activated STAT3 by an autocrine loop. Concomitantly, gp120 promoted an early activation of STAT3 that further contributed to IL-6 induction. This activation paralleled a concomitant upregulation of the STAT3 inhibitor PIAS3. Notably, STAT3/IL-6 pathway activation was not affected by the CCR5-specific ligand CCL4. These results identify STAT3 as a key signaling intermediate activated by gp120 in MDDCs and highlight the existence of a virus-induced dysregulation of the IL-6/STAT3 axis. HIV-1 gp120 signaling through STAT3 may provide an explanation for the impairment of DC function observed upon HIV exposure. This study provides new evidence for the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways triggered by HIV-1 gp120 in human DCs in the absence of productive infection, emphasizing a role of aberrant signaling in early virus-host interaction, contributing to viral pathogenesis. We identified STAT3 as a key component in the gp120-mediated signaling cascade involving MAPK and NF-κB components and ultimately leading to IL-6 secretion. STAT3 now is recognized as a key regulator of DC functions. Thus, the identification of this transcription factor as a signaling molecule mediating some of gp120's biological effects unveils a new mechanism by which HIV-1 may deregulate DC functions and contribute to AIDS pathogenesis. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology

  13. Mesenchymal stem cells derived from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs induce immune modulatory profile in monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

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    Fernando de Sá Silva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells have prominent immune modulatory properties, which may have clinical applications; however their major source, bone marrow, is of limited availability. On the other hand, mesenchymal stem cells derived from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs are readily accessible, but their immune regulatory properties have not been completely investigated. This study was designed, therefore, to evaluate the SHEDs influence on DCs differentiation, maturation, ability to activate T cells and to expand CD4(+Foxp3(+ T cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The experiments were based in cellular co-culture during differentiation and maturation of monocyte derived-DCs (moDCs, with, or not, presence of SHEDs. After co-culture with SHEDs, (moDCs presented lower expression of BDCA-1 and CD11c, in comparison to DC cultivated without SHEDs. CD40, CD80, CD83 and CD86 levels were also decreased in mature DCs (mDCs after co-cultivation with SHEDs. To assess the ability of SHEDs-exposed moDCs to modulate T cell responses, the former were separated from SHEDs, and co-cultured with peripheral blood lymphocytes. After 5 days, the proliferation of CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells was evaluated and found to be lower than that induced by moDCs cultivated without SHEDs. In addition, an increase in the proportion of CD4(+Foxp3(+IL-10(+ T cells was observed among cells stimulated by mature moDCs that were previously cultivated with SHEDs. Soluble factors released during co-cultures also showed a reduction in the pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-2, TNF-α and IFN-γ, and an increase in the anti-inflammatory molecule IL-10. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study shows that SHEDs induce an immune regulatory phenotype in moDCs cells, evidenced by changes in maturation and differentiation rates, inhibition of lymphocyte stimulation and ability to expand CD4(+Foxp3(+ T cells. Further characterization and validation of this phenomenon could support the use of SHEDs

  14. PGE2 differentially regulates monocyte-derived dendritic cell cytokine responses depending on receptor usage (EP2/EP4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poloso, Neil J; Urquhart, Paula; Nicolaou, Anna; Wang, Jenny; Woodward, David F

    2013-07-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are central players in coordinating immune responses, both innate and adaptive. While the role of lipid mediators in the immune response has been the subject of many investigations, the precise role of prostaglandins has often been plagued by contradictory studies. In this study, we examined the role of PGE(2) on human DC function. Although studies have suggested that PGE(2) specifically plays a role in DC motility and cytokine release profile, the precise receptor usage and signaling pathways involved remain unclear. In this report we found that irrespective of the human donor, monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs) express three of the four PGE(2) receptor subtypes (EP(2-4)), although only EP(2) and EP(4) were active with respect to cytokine production. Using selective EP receptor antagonists and agonists, we demonstrate that PGE(2) coordinates control of IL-23 release (a promoter of Th17, an autoimmune associated T cell subset) in a dose-dependent manner by differential use of EP(2) and EP(4) receptors in LPS-activated MoDCs. This is in contrast to IL-12, which is dose dependently inhibited by PGE(2) through both receptor subtypes. Low concentrations (∼1-10nM) of PGE(2) promoted IL-23 production via EP(4) receptors, while at higher (>50 nM), but still physiologically relevant concentrations, IL-23 is suppressed by an EP(2) dependent mechanism. These results can be explained by differential regulation of the common subunit, IL-12p40, and IL-23p19, by EP(2) and EP(4). By these means, PGE(2) can act as a regulatory switch of immune responses depending on its concentration in the microenvironment. In addition, we believe these results may also explain why seemingly conflicting biological functions assigned to PGE(2) have been reported in the literature, as the concentration of ligand (PGE(2)) fundamentally alters the nature of the response. This finding also highlights the potential of designing therapeutics which differentially target

  15. Liver macrophages in healthy and diseased liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Zeinab; Knolle, Percy A

    2017-04-01

    Kupffer cells, the largest tissue resident macrophage population, are key for the maintenance of liver integrity and its restoration after injury and infections, as well as the local initiation and resolution of innate and adaptive immunity. These important roles of Kupffer cells were recently identified in healthy and diseased liver revealing diverse functions and phenotypes of hepatic macrophages. High-level phenotypic and genomic analysis revealed that Kupffer cells are not a homogenous population and that the hepatic microenvironment actively shapes both phenotype and function of liver macrophages. Compared to macrophages from other organs, hepatic macrophages bear unique properties that are instrumental for their diverse roles in local immunity as well as liver regeneration. The diverse and, in part, contradictory roles of hepatic macrophages in anti-tumor and inflammatory immune responses as well as regulatory and regenerative processes have been obscured by the lack of appropriate technologies to specifically target or ablate Kupffer cells or monocyte-derived hepatic macrophages. Future studies will need to dissect the exact role of the hepatic macrophages with distinct functional properties linked to their differentiation status and thereby provide insight into the functional plasticity of hepatic macrophages.

  16. Heme oxygenase-1 induction alters chemokine regulation and ameliorates human immunodeficiency virus-type-1 infection in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Zhao-Hua [Division of Monoclonal Antibodies, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD (United States); Kumari, Namita; Nekhai, Sergei [Center for Sickle Cell Disease, Department of Medicine, Howard University, Washington, DC (United States); Clouse, Kathleen A. [Division of Monoclonal Antibodies, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD (United States); Wahl, Larry M. [National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Yamada, Kenneth M. [Laboratory of Cell and Development Biology, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Dhawan, Subhash, E-mail: subhash.dhawan@fda.hhs.gov [Viral Immunology Section, Laboratory of Molecular Virology, Division of Emerging and Transfusion Transmitted Diseases, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2013-06-07

    Highlights: •Lipopolysaccharide stimulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) ameliorated HIV-1 infection of primary human macrophages. •The partial protection by HO-1 against HIV infection was associated with induction of chemokines such as MIP1α and MIP1β. •This mechanism explains lipopolysaccharide-stimulated HO-1-mediated inhibition of HIV-1 infection of macrophages. -- Abstract: We have elucidated a putative mechanism for the host resistance against HIV-1 infection of primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We show that LPS-activated MDM both inhibited HIV-1 entry into the cells and were refractory to post-entry productive viral replication. LPS-treated cells were virtually negative for mature virions as revealed by transmission electron microscopy. LPS activation of MDM markedly enhanced the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a potent inducible cytoprotective enzyme. Increased HO-1 expression was accompanied by elevated production of macrophage inflammatory chemokines (MIP1α and MIP1β) by LPS-activated MDM, significantly decreased surface chemokine receptor-5 (CCR-5) expression, and substantially reduced virus replication. Treatment of cells with HO-1 inhibitor SnPP IX (tin protoporphyrin IX) attenuated the LPS-mediated responses, HIV-1 replication and secretion of MIP1α, MIP1β, and LD78β chemokines with little change in surface CCR-5 expression. These results identify a novel role for HO-1 in the modulation of host immune response against HIV infection of MDM.

  17. Quantitative GPCR and ion channel transcriptomics in primary alveolar macrophages and macrophage surrogates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groot-Kormelink Paul J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alveolar macrophages are one of the first lines of defence against invading pathogens and play a central role in modulating both the innate and acquired immune systems. By responding to endogenous stimuli within the lung, alveolar macrophages contribute towards the regulation of the local inflammatory microenvironment, the initiation of wound healing and the pathogenesis of viral and bacterial infections. Despite the availability of protocols for isolating primary alveolar macrophages from the lung these cells remain recalcitrant to expansion in-vitro and therefore surrogate cell types, such as monocyte derived macrophages and phorbol ester-differentiated cell lines (e.g. U937, THP-1, HL60 are frequently used to model macrophage function. Methods The availability of high throughput gene expression technologies for accurate quantification of transcript levels enables the re-evaluation of these surrogate cell types for use as cellular models of the alveolar macrophage. Utilising high-throughput TaqMan arrays and focussing on dynamically regulated families of integral membrane proteins, we explore the similarities and differences in G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR and ion channel expression in alveolar macrophages and their widely used surrogates. Results The complete non-sensory GPCR and ion channel transcriptome is described for primary alveolar macrophages and macrophage surrogates. The expression of numerous GPCRs and ion channels whose expression were hitherto not described in human alveolar macrophages are compared across primary macrophages and commonly used macrophage cell models. Several membrane proteins known to have critical roles in regulating macrophage function, including CXCR6, CCR8 and TRPV4, were found to be highly expressed in macrophages but not expressed in PMA-differentiated surrogates. Conclusions The data described in this report provides insight into the appropriate choice of cell models for

  18. Monocyte derived dendritic cells generated by IFN-α acquire mature dendritic and natural killer cell properties as shown by gene expression analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Czibere Akos; Winter Meike; Diaz Blanco Elena; Papewalis Claudia; Schott Matthias; Maihöfer Dagmar; Kronenwett Ralf; Safaian Nancy; Korthals Mark; Haas Rainer; Kobbe Guido; Fenk Roland

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Dendritic cell (DC) vaccines can induce antitumor immune responses in patients with malignant diseases, while the most suitable DC culture conditions have not been established yet. In this study we compared monocyte derived human DC from conventional cultures containing GM-CSF and IL-4/TNF-α (IL-4/TNF-DC) with DC generated by the novel protocol using GM-CSF and IFN-α (IFN-DC). Methods To characterise the molecular differences of both DC preparations, gene expression profil...

  19. Human XCR1+ Dendritic Cells Derived In Vitro from CD34+ Progenitors Closely Resemble Blood Dendritic Cells, Including Their Adjuvant Responsiveness, Contrary to Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells

    OpenAIRE

    S. Balan; Ollion, V.; Colletti, N.; Chelbi, R.; Montanana-Sanchis, F.; LIU, H.; Vu Manh, T.-P.; Sanchez, C.; Savoret, J.; Perrot, I.; Doffin, A.-C.; Fossum, E.; Bechlian, D.; Chabannon, C.; Bogen, B

    2014-01-01

    Human monocyte-derived dendritic cell (MoDC) have been used in the clinic with moderately encouraging results. Mouse XCR1+ DC excel at cross-presentation, can be targeted in vivo to induce protective immunity, and share characteristics with XCR1+ human DC. Assessment of the immunoactivation potential of XCR1+ human DC is hindered by their paucity in vivo and by their lack of a well-defined in vitro counterpart. We report in this study a protocol generating both XCR1+ and XCR1− human DC in CD3...

  20. How mouse macrophages sense what is going on

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    Klaus eLey

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages are central to both innate and adaptive immunity. With few exceptions, macrophages are the first cells that sense trouble and respond to disturbances in almost all tissues and organs. They sense their environment, inhibit or kill pathogens, take up apoptotic and necrotic cells, heal tissue damage, and present antigens to T cells. Although the origins [yolk sac versus monocyte-derived] and phenotypes [functions, gene expression profiles, surface markers] of macrophages vary between tissues, they have many receptors in common that are specific to one or a few molecular species. Here, we review the expression and function of almost 200 key macrophage receptors that help the macrophages sense what is going on, including pathogen-derived molecules, the state of the surrounding tissue cells, apoptotic and necrotic cell death, antibodies and immune complexes, altered self molecules, extracellular matrix components, and cytokines including chemokines.

  1. Effects of ischemia on lung macrophages.

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    Aigul Moldobaeva

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis after pulmonary ischemia is initiated by reactive O(2 species and is dependent on CXC chemokine growth factors, and its magnitude is correlated with the number of lavaged macrophages. After complete obstruction of the left pulmonary artery in mice, the left lung is isolated from the peripheral circulation until 5-7 days later, when a new systemic vasculature invades the lung parenchyma. Consequently, this model offers a unique opportunity to study the differentiation and/or proliferation of monocyte-derived cells within the lung. In this study, we questioned whether macrophage subpopulations were differentially expressed and which subset contributed to growth factor release. We characterized the change in number of all macrophages (MHCII(int, CD11C+, alveolar macrophages (MHCII(int, CD11C+, CD11B- and mature lung macrophages (MHCII(int, CD11C+, CD11B+ in left lungs from mice immediately (0 h or 24 h after left pulmonary artery ligation (LPAL. In left lung homogenates, only lung macrophages increased 24 h after LPAL (vs. 0 h; p<0.05. No changes in proliferation were seen in any subset by PCNA expression (0 h vs. 24 h lungs. When the number of monocytic cells was reduced with clodronate liposomes, systemic blood flow to the left lung 14 days after LPAL decreased by 42% (p<0.01 compared to vehicle controls. Furthermore, when alveolar macrophages and lung macrophages were sorted and studied in vitro, only lung macrophages secreted the chemokine MIP-2α (ELISA. These data suggest that ischemic stress within the lung contributes to the differentiation of immature monocytes to lung macrophages within the first 24 h after LPAL. Lung macrophages but not alveolar macrophages increase and secrete the proangiogenic chemokine MIP-2α. Overall, an increase in the number of lung macrophages appears to be critical for neovascularization in the lung, since clodronate treatment decreased their number and attenuated functional angiogenesis.

  2. Comparison of alpha-Type-1 polarizing and standard dendritic cell cytokine cocktail for maturation of therapeutic monocyte-derived dendritic cell preparations from cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trepiakas, Redas; Pedersen, Anders Elm; Met, Ozcan

    2008-01-01

    polarized dendritic cells (alphaDC1) in serum-free medium was published based on maturation of monocyte-derived DCs with TNF-alpha/IL-1-beta/polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly-I:C)/interferon (IFN)-alpha and IFN-gamma. This DC maturation cocktail was described to fulfill the criteria for optimal DC......The current "gold standard" for generation of dendritic cell (DC) used in DC-based cancer vaccine studies is maturation of monocyte-derived DCs with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)/IL-1beta/IL-6 and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)). Recently, a protocol for producing so-called alpha-Type-1...... of alphaDC1 maturation cocktail to a protocol for clinical grade DC generation from cancer patients performed in X-VIVO 15 medium. We showed that alphaDC1 in this protocol induce lower up-regulation of CD83 and several other maturation markers, co-stimulatory molecules and CCR7 together with higher up...

  3. Lentiviral-mediated gene delivery in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells: optimized design and procedures for highly efficient transduction compatible with clinical constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouas, Redouane; Uch, Rathviro; Cleuter, Yvette; Jordier, François; Bagnis, Claude; Mannoni, Patrice; Lewalle, Philippe; Martiat, Philippe; Van den Broeke, Anne

    2002-09-01

    Gene delivery to dendritic cells (DCs) could represent a powerful method of inducing potent, long-lasting immunity. Although recent studies underline the intense interest in lentiviral vector-mediated monocyte-derived DC transduction, efficient gene transfer methods currently require high multiplicities of infection and are not compatible with clinical constraints. We have designed a strategy to optimize the efficiency and clinical relevance of this approach. Initially, using a third generation lentiviral vector expressing green fluorescent protein, we found that modifying the vector design, the DC precursor cell type, and the DC differentiation stage for transduction results in sustained transgene expression in 75-85% of immature DCs (transduction at a multiplicity of infection of 8). This high efficiency was reproducible among different donors irrespective of whether DCs were expanded from fresh or cryopreserved CD14(+) precursors. We then developed procedures that bypass the need for highly concentrated lentiviral preparations and the addition of polybrene to achieve efficient transduction. DCs transduced under these conditions retain their immature phenotype and immunostimulatory potential in both autologous and allogeneic settings. Furthermore, genetically modified DCs maintain their ability to respond to maturation signals and secrete bioactive IL-12, indicating that they are fully functional. Finally, the level of transgene expression is preserved in the therapeutically relevant mature DCs, demonstrating that there is neither promoter-silencing nor loss of transduced cells during maturation. The novel approach described should advance lentiviral-mediated monocyte-derived DC transduction towards a clinical reality.

  4. Treatment with dexamethasone and monophosphoryl lipid A removes disease-associated transcriptional signatures in monocyte-derived dendritic cells from rheumatoid arthritis patients and confers tolerogenic features

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    Paulina Andrea García-González

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tolerogenic dendritic cells (TolDCs are promising tools for therapy of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Here we characterise monocyte-derived TolDCs from RA patients modulated with dexamethasone and activated with monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA, referred to as MPLA-tDCs, in terms of gene expression, phenotype, cytokine profile, migratory properties and T cell-stimulatory capacity, in order to explore their suitability for cellular therapy. MPLA-tDCs derived from RA patients displayed an anti-inflammatory profile with reduced expression of costimulatory molecules and high IL-10/IL-12 ratio, but were capable of migrating towards the lymphoid chemokines CXCL12 and CCL19. These MPLA-tDCs induced hyporesponsiveness of autologous CD4+ T cells specific for synovial antigens in vitro. Global transcriptome analysis confirmed a unique transcriptional profile of MPLA-tDCs and revealed that RA-associated genes, which were upregulated in untreated DCs from RA patients, returned to expression levels of healthy donor-derived DCs after treatment with dexamethasone and MPLA. Thus, monocyte-derived DCs from RA patients have the capacity to develop tolerogenic features at transcriptional as well as at translational level, when modulated with dexamethasone and MPLA, overcoming disease-related effects. Furthermore, the ability of MPLA-tDCs to impair T cell responses to synovial antigens validates their potential as cellular treatment for RA.

  5. Host hindrance to HIV-1 replication in monocytes and macrophages

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    Pancino Gianfranco

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Monocytes and macrophages are targets of HIV-1 infection and play critical roles in multiple aspects of viral pathogenesis. HIV-1 can replicate in blood monocytes, although only a minor proportion of circulating monocytes harbor viral DNA. Resident macrophages in tissues can be infected and function as viral reservoirs. However, their susceptibility to infection, and their capacity to actively replicate the virus, varies greatly depending on the tissue localization and cytokine environment. The susceptibility of monocytes to HIV-1 infection in vitro depends on their differentiation status. Monocytes are refractory to infection and become permissive upon differentiation into macrophages. In addition, the capacity of monocyte-derived macrophages to sustain viral replication varies between individuals. Host determinants regulate HIV-1 replication in monocytes and macrophages, limiting several steps of the viral life-cycle, from viral entry to virus release. Some host factors responsible for HIV-1 restriction are shared with T lymphocytes, but several anti-viral mechanisms are specific to either monocytes or macrophages. Whilst a number of these mechanisms have been identified in monocytes or in monocyte-derived macrophages in vitro, some of them have also been implicated in the regulation of HIV-1 infection in vivo, in particular in the brain and the lung where macrophages are the main cell type infected by HIV-1. This review focuses on cellular factors that have been reported to interfere with HIV-1 infection in monocytes and macrophages, and examines the evidences supporting their role in vivo, highlighting unique aspects of HIV-1 restriction in these two cell types.

  6. Comparative Analysis of the Interaction of Helicobacter pylori with Human Dendritic Cells, Macrophages, and Monocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehlings, Michael; Drobbe, Lea; Moos, Verena; Renner Viveros, Pablo; Hagen, Jana; Beigier-Bompadre, Macarena; Pang, Ervinna; Belogolova, Elena; Churin, Yuri; Schneider, Thomas; Meyer, Thomas F.; Aebischer, Toni

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori may cause chronic gastritis, gastric cancer, or lymphoma. Myeloid antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are most likely involved in the induction and expression of the underlying inflammatory responses. To study the interaction of human APC subsets with H. pylori, we infected monocytes, monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs), and monocyte-derived (classically activated; M1) macrophages with H. pylori and analyzed phenotypic alterations, cytokine secretion, phagocytosis, and immunostimulation. Since we detected CD163+ (alternatively activated; M2) macrophages in gastric biopsy specimens from H. pylori-positive patients, we also included monocyte-derived M2 macrophages in the study. Upon H. pylori infection, monocytes secreted interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-10, and IL-12p40 (partially secreted as IL-23) but not IL-12p70. Infected DCs became activated, as shown by the enhanced expression of CD25, CD80, CD83, PDL-1, and CCR7, and secreted IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, and IL-23. However, infection led to significantly downregulated CD209 and suppressed the constitutive secretion of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF). H. pylori-infected M1 macrophages upregulated CD14 and CD32, downregulated CD11b and HLA-DR, and secreted mainly IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p40, and IL-23. Activation of DCs and M1 macrophages correlated with increased capacity to induce T-cell proliferation and decreased phagocytosis of dextran. M2 macrophages upregulated CD14 and CD206 and secreted IL-10 but produced less of the proinflammatory cytokines than M1 macrophages. Thus, H. pylori affects the functions of human APC subsets differently, which may influence the course and the outcome of H. pylori infection. The suppression of MIF in DCs constitutes a novel immune evasion mechanism exploited by H. pylori. PMID:22615251

  7. The role of macrophages in skin homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanez, Diana A; Lacher, Richard K; Vidyarthi, Aurobind; Colegio, Oscar R

    2017-04-01

    The skin and its appendages comprise the largest and fastest growing organ in the body. It performs multiple tasks and maintains homeostatic control, including the regulation of body temperature and protection from desiccation and from pathogen invasion. The skin can perform its functions with the assistance of different immune cell populations. Monocyte-derived cells are imperative for the completion of these tasks. The comprehensive role of macrophages and Langerhans cells in establishing and maintaining skin homeostasis remains incompletely defined. However, over the past decade, innovations in mouse genetics have allowed for advancements in the field. In this review, we explore different homeostatic roles of macrophages and Langerhans cells, including wound repair, follicle regeneration, salt balance, and cancer regression and progression in the skin. The understanding of the precise functions of myeloid-derived cells in the skin under basal conditions can help develop specific therapies that aid in skin and hair follicle regeneration and cutaneous cancer prevention.

  8. Household air pollution causes dose-dependent inflammation and altered phagocytosis in human macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rylance, Jamie; Fullerton, Duncan G; Scriven, James; Aljurayyan, Abdullah N; Mzinza, David; Barrett, Steve; Wright, Adam K A; Wootton, Daniel G; Glennie, Sarah J; Baple, Katy; Knott, Amy; Mortimer, Kevin; Russell, David G; Heyderman, Robert S; Gordon, Stephen B

    2015-05-01

    Three billion people are exposed to household air pollution from biomass fuel use. Exposure is associated with higher incidence of pneumonia, and possibly tuberculosis. Understanding mechanisms underlying these defects would improve preventive strategies. We used human alveolar macrophages obtained from healthy Malawian adults exposed naturally to household air pollution and compared them with human monocyte-derived macrophages exposed in vitro to respirable-sized particulates. Cellular inflammatory response was assessed by IL-6 and IL-8 production in response to particulate challenge; phagosomal function was tested by uptake and oxidation of fluorescence-labeled beads; ingestion and killing of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Mycobacterium tuberculosis were measured by microscopy and quantitative culture. Particulate ingestion was quantified by digital image analysis. We were able to reproduce the carbon loading of naturally exposed alveolar macrophages by in vitro exposure of monocyte-derived macrophages. Fine carbon black induced IL-8 release from monocyte-derived and alveolar macrophages (P < 0.05) with similar magnitude responses (log10 increases of 0.93 [SEM = 0.2] versus 0.74 [SEM = 0.19], respectively). Phagocytosis of pneumococci and mycobacteria was impaired with higher particulate loading. High particulate loading corresponded with a lower oxidative burst capacity (P = 0.0015). There was no overall effect on killing of M. tuberculosis. Alveolar macrophage function is altered by particulate loading. Our macrophage model is comparable morphologically to the in vivo uptake of particulates. Wood smoke-exposed cells demonstrate reduced phagocytosis, but unaffected mycobacterial killing, suggesting defects related to chronic wood smoke inhalation limited to specific innate immune functions.

  9. SMAC Mimetic BV6 Induces Cell Death in Monocytes and Maturation of Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz, Philipp; Kapp, Markus; Grigoleit, Götz Ulrich; Schmuck, Carsten; Wajant, Harald; Siegmund, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    Background Compounds mimicking the inhibitory effect of SMAC / DIABLO on X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) have been developed with the aim to achieve sensitization for apoptosis of tumor cells resistant due to deregulated XIAP expression. It turned out that SMAC mimetics also have complex effects on the NFκB system and TNF signaling. In view of the overwhelming importance of the NFκB transcription factors in the immune system, we analyzed here the effects of the SMAC mimetic BV6 on immune cells. Principal Findings BV6 induced apoptotic and necrotic cell death in monocytes while T-cells, dendritic cells and macrophages were largely protected against BV6-induced cell death. In immature dendritic cells BV6 treatment resulted in moderate activation of the classical NFκB pathway, but it also diminished the stronger NFκB-inducing effect of TNF and CD40L. Despite its inhibitory effect on TNF- and CD40L signaling, BV6 was able to trigger maturation of immature DCs as indicated by upregulation of CD83, CD86 and IL12. Significance The demonstrated effects of SMAC mimetics on immune cells may complicate the development of tumor therapeutic concepts based on these compounds but also arise the possibility to exploit them for the development of immune stimulatory therapies. PMID:21738708

  10. SMAC mimetic BV6 induces cell death in monocytes and maturation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Müller-Sienerth

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Compounds mimicking the inhibitory effect of SMAC/DIABLO on X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP have been developed with the aim to achieve sensitization for apoptosis of tumor cells resistant due to deregulated XIAP expression. It turned out that SMAC mimetics also have complex effects on the NFκB system and TNF signaling. In view of the overwhelming importance of the NFκB transcription factors in the immune system, we analyzed here the effects of the SMAC mimetic BV6 on immune cells. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: BV6 induced apoptotic and necrotic cell death in monocytes while T-cells, dendritic cells and macrophages were largely protected against BV6-induced cell death. In immature dendritic cells BV6 treatment resulted in moderate activation of the classical NFκB pathway, but it also diminished the stronger NFκB-inducing effect of TNF and CD40L. Despite its inhibitory effect on TNF- and CD40L signaling, BV6 was able to trigger maturation of immature DCs as indicated by upregulation of CD83, CD86 and IL12. SIGNIFICANCE: The demonstrated effects of SMAC mimetics on immune cells may complicate the development of tumor therapeutic concepts based on these compounds but also arise the possibility to exploit them for the development of immune stimulatory therapies.

  11. Prostaglandin E 2 Does Not Modulate CCR7 Expression and Functionality after Differentiation of Blood Monocytes into Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Marc-André Allaire; Bérengère Tanné; Côté, Sandra C.; Nancy Dumais

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) induces C-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CCR7) expression on human monocytes, which stimulates their subsequent migration in response to the CCR7 natural ligands CCL19 and CCL21. In this study, we determined whether PGE2 affects CCR7 expression on macrophages. Flow cytometric analysis and chemotaxis assays were performed on Mono Mac-1-derived macrophage (MDMM-1) as well as unpolarized monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) to determine the C...

  12. Human Macrophage Response to L. (Viannia) panamensis: Microarray Evidence for an Early Inflammatory Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Ricardo; Ettinger, Nicholas A.; Tikhonova, Irina; Alexander, Neal D.; Valderrama, Liliana; Hager, Janet; Wilson, Mary E.; Lin, Aiping; Zhao, Hongyu; Saravia, Nancy G.; McMahon-Pratt, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous findings indicate that susceptibility to Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis infection of monocyte-derived macrophages from patients and asymptomatically infected individuals were associated with the adaptive immune response and clinical outcome. Methodology/Principal Findings To understand the basis for this difference we examined differential gene expression of human monocyte-derived macrophages following exposure to L. (V.) panamensis. Gene activation profiles were determined using macrophages from healthy volunteers cultured with or without stationary phase promastigotes of L. (V.) panamensis. Significant changes in expression (>1.5-fold change; p<0.05; up- or down-regulated) were identified at 0.5, 4 and 24 hours. mRNA abundance profiles varied over time, with the highest level of activation occurring at earlier time points (0.5 and 4 hrs). In contrast to observations for other Leishmania species, most significantly changed mRNAs were up- rather than down-regulated, especially at early time points. Up-regulated transcripts over the first 24 hours belonged to pathways involving eicosanoid metabolism, oxidative stress, activation of PKC through G protein coupled receptors, or mechanism of gene regulation by peroxisome proliferators via PPARα. Additionally, a marked activation of Toll-receptor mediated pathways was observed. Comparison with published microarray data from macrophages infected with L. (Leishmania) chagasi indicate differences in the regulation of genes involved in signaling, motility and the immune response. Conclusions Results show that the early (0.5 to 24 hours) human monocyte-derived macrophage response to L. (Viannia) panamensis is not quiescent, in contrast to published reports examining later response times (48–96 hours). Early macrophage responses are important for the developing cellular response at the site of infection. The kinetics and the mRNA abundance profiles induced by L. (Viannia) panamensis illustrate the

  13. PU.1 is essential for CD11c expression in CD8(+/CD8(- lymphoid and monocyte-derived dendritic cells during GM-CSF or FLT3L-induced differentiation.

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    Xue-Jun Zhu

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs regulate innate and acquired immunity through their roles as antigen-presenting cells. Specific subsets of mature DCs, including monocyte-derived and lymphoid-derived DCs, can be distinguished based on distinct immunophenotypes and functional properties. The leukocyte integrin, CD11c, is considered a specific marker for DCs and it is expressed by all DC subsets. We created a strain of mice in which DCs and their progenitors could be lineage traced based on activity of the CD11c proximal promoter. Surprisingly, we observed levels of CD11c promoter activity that were similar in DCs and in other mature leukocytes, including monocytes, granulocytes, and lymphocytes. We sought to identify DNA elements and transcription factors that regulate DC-associated expression of CD11c. The ets transcription factor, PU.1, is a key regulator of DC development, and expression of PU.1 varies in different DC subsets. GM-CSF increased monocyte-derived DCs in mice and from mouse bone marrow cultured in vitro, but it did not increase CD8(+ lymphoid-derived DCs or B220(+ plasmacytoid DCs. FLT3L increased both monocyte-derived DCs and lymphoid-derived DCs from mouse bone marrow cultured in vitro. GM-CSF increased the 5.3 Kb CD11c proximal promoter activity in monocyte-derived DCs and CD8(+ lymphoid-derived DCs, but not in B220(+ plasmacytoid DCs. In contrast, FLT3L increased the CD11c proximal promoter activity in both monocyte-derived DCs and B220(+ plasmacytoid DCs. We used shRNA gene knockdown and chromatin immunoprecipitation to demonstrate that PU.1 is required for the effects of GM-CSF or FLT3L on monocyte-derived DCs. We conclude that both GM-CSF and FLT3L act through PU.1 to activate the 5.3 Kb CD11c proximal promoter in DCs and to induce differentiation of monocyte-derived DCs. We also confirm that the CD11c proximal promoter is not sufficient to direct lineage specificity of CD11c expression, and that additional DNA elements are required

  14. A novel method to generate monocyte-derived dendritic cells during coculture with HaCaT facilitates detection of weak contact allergens in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frombach, Janna; Sonnenburg, Anna; Krapohl, Björn-Dirk; Zuberbier, Torsten; Stahlmann, Ralf; Schreiner, Maximilian

    2017-01-01

    The in vitro sensitization assay LCSA (Loose-fit Coculture-based Sensitization Assay) has proved reliable for the detection of contact sensitizers in the past. However, the coculture of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) with primary human keratinocytes (KCs) in serum-free medium is relatively complex compared to other sensitization assays which use continuous cell lines. To facilitate high-throughput screening of chemicals, we replaced KCs with the HaCaT cell line under various culture conditions. Coculture of HaCaT with peripheral blood mononuclear cells in serum-supplemented medium leads to generation of CD1a(+)/CD1c(+) DCs after addition of GM-CSF, IL-4, and TGF-β1 (as opposed to CD1a(-)/CD1c(-) DCs which arise in the "classic" LCSA coculture). These cells resemble monocyte-derived DCs generated in monoculture, but, unlike those, they show a marked upregulation CD86 after treatment with contact allergens. All of the nine sensitizers in this study were correctly identified by CD1a(+)/CD1c(+) DCs in coculture with HaCaT. Among the substances were weak contact allergens such as propylparaben (which is false negative in the local lymph node assay in mice) and resorcinol (which was not detected by CD1a(-)/CD1c(-) DCs in the "classic" LCSA). The level of CD86 upregulation on CD1a(+)/CD1c(+) DCs was higher for most allergens compared to CD1a(-)/CD1c(-) DCs, thus improving the assay's discriminatory power. Three out of four non-sensitizers were also correctly assessed by the coculture assay. A false-positive reaction to caprylic (octanoic) acid confirms earlier results that some fatty acids are able to induce CD86 on DC in vitro. In conclusion, change of the LCSA protocol led to reduction of time and cost while even increasing the assay's sensitivity and discriminatory power.

  15. Porphyromonas gingivalis-mediated signaling through TLR4 mediates persistent HIV infection of primary macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosto, Luis M.; Hirnet, Juliane B.; Michaels, Daniel H.; Shaik-Dasthagirisaheb, Yazdani B.; Gibson, Frank C.; Viglianti, Gregory; Henderson, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal infections contribute to HIV-associated co-morbidities in the oral cavity and provide a model to interrogate the dysregulation of macrophage function, inflammatory disease progression, and HIV replication during co-infections. We investigated the effect of Porphyromonas gingivalis on the establishment of HIV infection in monocyte-derived macrophages. HIV replication in macrophages was significantly repressed in the presence of P. gingivalis. This diminished viral replication was due partly to a decrease in the expression of integrated HIV provirus. HIV repression depended upon signaling through TLR4 as knock-down of TLR4 with siRNA rescued HIV expression. Importantly, HIV expression was reactivated upon removal of P. gingivalis. Our observations suggest that exposure of macrophages to Gram-negative bacteria influence the establishment and maintenance of HIV persistence in macrophages through a TLR4-dependent mechanism. PMID:27639573

  16. Chromatic aberration-corrected tilt series transmission electron microscopy of nanoparticles in a whole mount macrophage cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Jinschek, Joerg R; Boothroyd, Chris B; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E; de Jonge, Niels

    2013-08-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in combination with electron tomography is widely used to obtain nanometer scale three-dimensional (3D) structural information about biological samples. However, studies of whole eukaryotic cells are limited in resolution and/or contrast on account of the effect of chromatic aberration of the TEM objective lens on electrons that have been scattered inelastically in the specimen. As a result, 3D information is usually obtained from sections and not from whole cells. Here, we use chromatic aberration-corrected TEM to record bright-field TEM images of nanoparticles in a whole mount macrophage cell. Tilt series of images are used to generate electron tomograms, which are analyzed to assess the spatial resolution that can be achieved for different vertical positions in the specimen. The uptake of gold nanoparticles coated with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is studied. The LDL is found to assemble in clusters. The clusters contain nanoparticles taken up on different days, which are joined without mixing their nanoparticle cargo.

  17. Gallic Acid Is the Major Active Component of Cortex Moutan in Inhibiting Immune Maturation of Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ben Chung Lap; Li, Long Fei; Hu, Shui Qing; Wat, Elaine; Wong, Eric Chun Wai; Zhang, Vanilla Xin; Lau, Clara Bik San; Wong, Chun Kwok; Hon, Kam Lun Ellis; Hui, Patrick Chi Leung; Leung, Ping Chung

    2015-09-10

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a widely prevalent and chronically relapsing inflammatory skin disease. Penta Herbs Formula (PHF) is efficacious in improving the quality of life and reducing topical corticosteroid used in children with AD and one of the active herbs it contains is Cortex Moutan. Recent studies showed that altered functions of dendritic cells (DC) were observed in atopic individuals, suggesting that DC might play a major role in the generation and maintenance of inflammation by their production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Hence, the aims of the present study were to identify the major active component(s) of Cortex Moutan, which might inhibit DC functions and to investigate their possible interactions with conventional corticosteroid on inhibiting the development of DC from monocytes. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDC) culture model coupled with the high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC), high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LCMS) analyses were used. Gallic acid was the major active component from Cortex Moutan which could dose dependently inhibit interleukin (IL)-12 p40 and the functional cluster of differentiation (CD) surface markers CD40, CD80, CD83 and CD86 expression from cytokine cocktail-activated moDC. Gallic acid could also lower the concentration of hydrocortisone required to inhibit the activation of DC.

  18. Different Transcriptional Profiles of Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells Infected with Distinct Strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunzia Sanarico

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze dendritic cells (DCs activation following infection with different mycobacterial strains, we studied the expression profiles of 165 genes of human monocyte-derived DCs infected with H37Rv, a virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB laboratory strain, CMT97, a clinical MTB isolate, Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG, Aventis Pasteur, and BCG Japan, both employed as vaccine against tuberculosis. The analysis of the gene expression reveals that, despite a set of genes similarly modulated, DCs response resulted strain dependent. In particular, H37Rv significantly upregulated EBI3 expression compared with BCG Japan, while it was the only strain that failed to release a significant IL-10 amount. Of note, BCG Japan showed a marked increase in CCR7 and TNF-α expression regarding both MTB strains and it resulted the only strain failing in exponential intracellular growth. Our results suggest that DCs display the ability to elicit a tailored strain-specific immune response.

  19. Prophylactic vaccines are potent activators of monocyte-derived dendritic cells and drive effective anti-tumor responses in melanoma patients at the cost of toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bol, Kalijn F; Aarntzen, Erik H J G; Pots, Jeanette M; Olde Nordkamp, Michel A M; van de Rakt, Mandy W M M; Scharenborg, Nicole M; de Boer, Annemiek J; van Oorschot, Tom G M; Croockewit, Sandra A J; Blokx, Willeke A M; Oyen, Wim J G; Boerman, Otto C; Mus, Roel D M; van Rossum, Michelle M; van der Graaf, Chantal A A; Punt, Cornelis J A; Adema, Gosse J; Figdor, Carl G; de Vries, I Jolanda M; Schreibelt, Gerty

    2016-03-01

    Dendritic cell (DC)-based immunotherapy is explored worldwide in cancer patients, predominantly with DC matured with pro-inflammatory cytokines and prostaglandin E2. We studied the safety and efficacy of vaccination with monocyte-derived DC matured with a cocktail of prophylactic vaccines that contain clinical-grade Toll-like receptor ligands (BCG, Typhim, Act-HIB) and prostaglandin E2 (VAC-DC). Stage III and IV melanoma patients were vaccinated via intranodal injection (12 patients) or combined intradermal/intravenous injection (16 patients) with VAC-DC loaded with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and mRNA encoding tumor antigens gp100 and tyrosinase. Tumor antigen-specific T cell responses were monitored in blood and skin-test infiltrating-lymphocyte cultures. Almost all patients mounted prophylactic vaccine- or KLH-specific immune responses. Both after intranodal injection and after intradermal/intravenous injection, tumor antigen-specific immune responses were detected, which coincide with longer overall survival in stage IV melanoma patients. VAC-DC induce local and systemic CTC grade 2 and 3 toxicity, which is most likely caused by BCG in the maturation cocktail. The side effects were self-limiting or resolved upon a short period of systemic steroid therapy. We conclude that VAC-DC can induce functional tumor-specific responses. Unfortunately, toxicity observed after vaccination precludes the general application of VAC-DC, since in DC maturated with prophylactic vaccines BCG appears to be essential in the maturation cocktail.

  20. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells induce a house dust mite-specific Th2 allergic inflammation in the lung of humanized SCID mice: involvement of CCR7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, Hamida; Lambrecht, Bart N; Pochard, Pierre; Gosset, Philippe; Marquillies, Philippe; Tonnel, André-Bernard; Pestel, Joël

    2002-08-01

    In rodents, airway dendritic cells (DCs) capture inhaled Ag, undergo maturation, and migrate to the draining mediastinal lymph nodes (MLN) to initiate the Ag-specific T cell response. However, the role of human DCs in the pathogenesis of the Th2 cell-mediated disease asthma remains to be clarified. Here, by using SCID mice engrafted with T cells from either house dust mite (HDM)-allergic patients or healthy donors, we show that DCs pulsed with Der p 1, one of the major allergens of HDM, and injected intratracheally into naive animals migrated into the MLN. In the MLN, Der p 1-pulsed DCs from allergic patients induced the proliferation of IL-4-producing CD4(+) T cells, whereas those from healthy donors induced IFN-gamma-secreting cells. In reconstituted human PBMC-reconstituted SCID mice primed with pulsed DCs from allergic patients, repeated exposure to aerosols of HDM induced 1) a strong pulmonary inflammatory reaction rich in T cells and eosinophils, 2) an increase in IL-4 and IL-5 production in the lung lavage fluid, and 3) increased IgE production compared with that in mice primed with unpulsed DCs. All these effects were reduced following in vivo neutralization of the CCR7 ligand secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine. These data in human PBMC-reconstituted SCID mice show that monocyte-derived DCs might play a key role in the pathogenesis of the pulmonary allergic response by inducing Th2 effector function following migration to the MLN.

  1. Gallic Acid Is the Major Active Component of Cortex Moutan in Inhibiting Immune Maturation of Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Chung Lap Chan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a widely prevalent and chronically relapsing inflammatory skin disease. Penta Herbs Formula (PHF is efficacious in improving the quality of life and reducing topical corticosteroid used in children with AD and one of the active herbs it contains is Cortex Moutan. Recent studies showed that altered functions of dendritic cells (DC were observed in atopic individuals, suggesting that DC might play a major role in the generation and maintenance of inflammation by their production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Hence, the aims of the present study were to identify the major active component(s of Cortex Moutan, which might inhibit DC functions and to investigate their possible interactions with conventional corticosteroid on inhibiting the development of DC from monocytes. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDC culture model coupled with the high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC, high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LCMS analyses were used. Gallic acid was the major active component from Cortex Moutan which could dose dependently inhibit interleukin (IL-12 p40 and the functional cluster of differentiation (CD surface markers CD40, CD80, CD83 and CD86 expression from cytokine cocktail-activated moDC. Gallic acid could also lower the concentration of hydrocortisone required to inhibit the activation of DC.

  2. Leishmania mexicana promastigotes down regulate JNK and p-38 MAPK activation: Role in the inhibition of camptothecin-induced apoptosis of monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-González, Jorge; Wilkins-Rodríguez, Arturo; Argueta-Donohué, Jesús; Aguirre-García, Magdalena; Gutiérrez-Kobeh, Laila

    2016-04-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are one of the principal host cells of the obligate intracellular parasite Leishmania. Inhibition of host cell apoptosis is a strategy employed by multiple pathogens to ensure their survival in the infected cell. We have previously shown that the infection of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDC) with Leishmania mexicana inhibits campthotecin-induced apoptosis. Nevertheless, the mechanisms involved in the inhibition of apoptosis of dendritic cells by Leishmania have not been established. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) are key participants in the process of apoptosis and different species of Leishmania have been shown to regulate these kinases. In the present study, we analyzed the effect of L. mexicana promastigotes in the activation of JNK and p38 MAP kinase and their participation in the inhibition of apoptosis. The infection of moDC with L. mexicana promastigotes diminished significantly the phosphorylation of the MAP kinases JNK and p38. The inhibition of both kinases diminished DNA fragmentation, but in a major extent was the reduction of DNA fragmentation when JNK was inhibited. The capacity of L. mexicana promastigotes to diminish MAP kinases activation is probably one of the strategies employed to delay apoptosis induction in the infected moDC and may have implications for Leishmania pathogenesis by favoring the invasion of its host and the persistence of the parasite in the infected cells.

  3. Induction of Th17 Lymphocytes and Treg Cells by Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Capetillo, Lizbeth; Hernández-Castro, Berenice; Monsiváis-Urenda, Adriana; Alvarez-Quiroga, Crisol; Layseca-Espinosa, Esther; Abud-Mendoza, Carlos; Baranda, Lourdes; Urzainqui, Ana; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco; González-Amaro, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) have a key role in the regulation of immune response. We herein explored, in patients with inflammatory diseases, the role of monocyte derived DC's (mo-DCs) on the generation of Th17 and T regulatory (Treg) lymphocytes. Peripheral blood was obtained from thirty-five patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), twelve with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and twenty healthy subjects. Mo-DCs were generated under standard (IL-4/GM-CSF) or tolerogenic (IL-4/GM-CSF plus recombinant P-selectin or PD-1 or IL-10) conditions, and their ability to induce Th17 and Treg lymphocytes was tested. We detected that mo-DCs from patients with RA showed an enhanced release of IL-6 and IL-23 as well as an increased capability to induce Th17 cells. Although mo-DCs from SLE patients also released high levels of IL-6/IL-23, it did not show an increased ability to induce Th17 lymphocytes. In addition, mo-DCs, from patients with RA and SLE generated under the engagement of PSGL-1, showed a defective capability to induce Foxp3+ Treg cells. A similar phenomenon was observed in SLE, when DC's cells were generated under PDL-1 engagement. Our data indicate that DCs from patients with rheumatic inflammatory disease show an aberrant function that may have an important role in the pathogenesis of these conditions. PMID:24288552

  4. Human monocyte-derived insulin-like growth factor-2 enhances the infection of human arterial endothelial cells by Chlamydia pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T M; Campbell, L A; Rosenfeld, M E; Kuo, C C

    2001-05-01

    It has been shown that infection of human endothelial cells by Chlamydia pneumoniae is enhanced by co-culturing endothelial cells with human monocytes and is mediated by monocyte-derived soluble factors. This study was conducted to identify the infectivity-enhancing factor. Serum-free conditioned medium of human monocytic cells was fractionated by ultrafiltration. The enhancing activity was found in the fraction in the molecular mass range between 5000 and 10,000 kDa. Recombinant human insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 or -2, with a molecular mass of 7500 kDa, was added to the culture medium of human endothelial cells for growing C. pneumoniae. Only IGF-2 enhanced C. pneumoniae growth. Pretreatment of the conditioned medium with a monoclonal antibody against IGF-2 blocked the enhancing activity. This suggests that the infectivity-enhancing factor is IGF-2 and that paracrine interactions between monocytes and endothelial cells in vivo can induce secretory products and sustain infection with C. pneumoniae within atherosclerotic lesions.

  5. Human monocyte-derived dendritic cells expressing both chemotactic cytokines IL-8, MCP-1, RANTES and their receptors,and their selective migration to these chemokines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To characterize the mRNA expression of CXC chemokine IL-8, CC chemokine monocyte chemothractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and regulated on activation,normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), and a newly defined DC chemokine DC- CK1 as well as the expression of IL-8 receptor, MCP-1 receptor and RANTES receptor in human monocyte derived dendritic cells (MoDCs).The migratory responsiveness of MoDC to IL-8, MCP-1 and RANTES was alsso studied. Methods In vitro generated MoDCs were obtained by differentiating monocytes in the presence of GM-CSF and IL-4 for 5 days. The time course of RNA expression was analyzed by RT-PCR and migratoly ability was assessed by a micromultiwell chemotaxis chamber assay. Results IL-8, MCP-1, RANTES and their corres ponding receptors were consistently expressed in MoDCs. DC-CK-1 expression was detectable efter 48 hours of differentiation. MoDC selectively migrated in response to MCP-1 and RANTES but not to IL-8 though transcripts of IL-8 receptor were present. Conclusion Because the capacity of dendritic cells to initiate immune responses depends on their specialized migratory and tissue homing properties, the expression of chemokines and their receptors along with the migratory responsiveness to chemokines of MoDC in our study suggests a potential role of chemokines in the interaction between dendritic cells and T cells and the induction of immune responses.

  6. Induction of Th17 Lymphocytes and Treg Cells by Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizbeth Estrada-Capetillo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs have a key role in the regulation of immune response. We herein explored, in patients with inflammatory diseases, the role of monocyte derived DC’s (mo-DCs on the generation of Th17 and T regulatory (Treg lymphocytes. Peripheral blood was obtained from thirty-five patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA, twelve with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, and twenty healthy subjects. Mo-DCs were generated under standard (IL-4/GM-CSF or tolerogenic (IL-4/GM-CSF plus recombinant P-selectin or PD-1 or IL-10 conditions, and their ability to induce Th17 and Treg lymphocytes was tested. We detected that mo-DCs from patients with RA showed an enhanced release of IL-6 and IL-23 as well as an increased capability to induce Th17 cells. Although mo-DCs from SLE patients also released high levels of IL-6/IL-23, it did not show an increased ability to induce Th17 lymphocytes. In addition, mo-DCs, from patients with RA and SLE generated under the engagement of PSGL-1, showed a defective capability to induce Foxp3+ Treg cells. A similar phenomenon was observed in SLE, when DC’s cells were generated under PDL-1 engagement. Our data indicate that DCs from patients with rheumatic inflammatory disease show an aberrant function that may have an important role in the pathogenesis of these conditions.

  7. Dysfunctional CFTR alters the bactericidal activity of human macrophages against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Del Porto

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammation of the lung, as a consequence of persistent bacterial infections by several opportunistic pathogens represents the main cause of mortality and morbidity in cystic fibrosis (CF patients. Mechanisms leading to increased susceptibility to bacterial infections in CF are not completely known, although the involvement of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR in microbicidal functions of macrophages is emerging. Tissue macrophages differentiate in situ from infiltrating monocytes, additionally, mature macrophages from different tissues, although having a number of common activities, exhibit variation in some molecular and cellular functions. In order to highlight possible intrinsic macrophage defects due to CFTR dysfunction, we have focused our attention on in vitro differentiated macrophages from human peripheral blood monocytes. Here we report on the contribution of CFTR in the bactericidal activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa of monocyte derived human macrophages. At first, by real time PCR, immunofluorescence and patch clamp recordings we demonstrated that CFTR is expressed and is mainly localized to surface plasma membranes of human monocyte derived macrophages (MDM where it acts as a cAMP-dependent chloride channel. Next, we evaluated the bactericidal activity of P. aeruginosa infected macrophages from healthy donors and CF patients by antibiotic protection assays. Our results demonstrate that control and CF macrophages do not differ in the phagocytic activity when infected with P. aeruginosa. Rather, although a reduction of intracellular live bacteria was detected in both non-CF and CF cells, the percentage of surviving bacteria was significantly higher in CF cells. These findings further support the role of CFTR in the fundamental functions of innate immune cells including eradication of bacterial infections by macrophages.

  8. Infiltrating blood-derived macrophages are vital cells playing an anti-inflammatory role in recovery from spinal cord injury in mice.

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    Ravid Shechter

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although macrophages (MPhi are known as essential players in wound healing, their contribution to recovery from spinal cord injury (SCI is a subject of debate. The difficulties in distinguishing between different MPhi subpopulations at the lesion site have further contributed to the controversy and led to the common view of MPhi as functionally homogenous. Given the massive accumulation in the injured spinal cord of activated resident microglia, which are the native immune occupants of the central nervous system (CNS, the recruitment of additional infiltrating monocytes from the peripheral blood seems puzzling. A key question that remains is whether the infiltrating monocyte-derived MPhi contribute to repair, or represent an unavoidable detrimental response. The hypothesis of the current study is that a specific population of infiltrating monocyte-derived MPhi is functionally distinct from the inflammatory resident microglia and is essential for recovery from SCI. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We inflicted SCI in adult mice, and tested the effect of infiltrating monocyte-derived MPhi on the recovery process. Adoptive transfer experiments and bone marrow chimeras were used to functionally distinguish between the resident microglia and the infiltrating monocyte-derived MPhi. We followed the infiltration of the monocyte-derived MPhi to the injured site and characterized their spatial distribution and phenotype. Increasing the naïve monocyte pool by either adoptive transfer or CNS-specific vaccination resulted in a higher number of spontaneously recruited cells and improved recovery. Selective ablation of infiltrating monocyte-derived MPhi following SCI while sparing the resident microglia, using either antibody-mediated depletion or conditional ablation by diphtheria toxin, impaired recovery. Reconstitution of the peripheral blood with monocytes resistant to ablation restored the lost motor functions. Importantly, the infiltrating monocyte-derived

  9. Pharmacological effects of mitraphylline from Uncaria tomentosa in primary human monocytes: Skew toward M2 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat-de la Paz, S; de la Puerta, R; Fernandez-Arche, A; Quilez, A M; Muriana, F J G; Garcia-Gimenez, M D; Bermudez, B

    2015-07-21

    Uncaria tomentosa (Willdenow ex Roemer & Schultes) DC. (Rubiaceae) is a Peruvian thorny liana, commonly known as "cat׳s claw", and traditionally used in folk medicine to deal with several inflammatory diseases. Mitraphylline (MTP) is the most abundant pentacyclic oxindolic alkaloid (POA) from U. Tomentosa and has been reported to modify the inflammatory response. Herein, we have sought to identify the mechanisms underlying this modulatory effect of MTP on primary human monocytes and its ability to regulate differentiation processes on human primary monocyte and monocyte-derived macrophages. In vitro studies with human primary monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages were performed. Monocytes and M0 macrophages were exposed to MTP (25μM) and LPS (100ng/mL). M0 macrophages were polarized to M1 and M2 phenotypes in the absence or presence of MTP. The activation state of monocytes/macrophages was assessed by flow cytometry, gene expression and protein analysis of different specific markers. In human primary monocytes, the incubation of MTP for 24h reduced the number of classical (CD14(++)CD16(-)) and intermediate (CD14(++)CD16(+)) subsets when compared to untreated or LPS-treated cells. MTP also reduced the chemotactic capacity of human primary monocytes. In addition, MTP promoted the polarization of M0 macrophages toward an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype, the abrogation of the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNFα, IL-6 or IL-1β, as well as the restoration of markers for M2 macrophages in LPS-treated M1 macrophages. Our results suggest that MTP may be a key modulator for regulating the plasticity of monocytes/macrophages and the attenuation of the inflammatory response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Advanced glycation end products inhibit both infection and transmission in trans of HIV-1 from monocyte-derived dendritic cells to autologous T cells.

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    Nasreddine, Nadine; Borde, Chloé; Gozlan, Joël; Bélec, Laurent; Maréchal, Vincent; Hocini, Hakim

    2011-05-15

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy is associated with carbohydrate metabolic alterations that may lead to diabetes. One consequence of hyperglycemia is the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that are involved in diabetes complications. We investigated the impact of AGEs on the infection of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs) by HIV-1 and the ability of MDDCs to transmit the virus to T cells. We showed that AGEs could inhibit infection of MDDCs with primary R5-tropic HIV-1(Ba-L) by up to 85 ± 9.2% and with primary X4-tropic HIV-1(VN44) by up to 60 ± 8.5%. This inhibitory effect of AGEs was not prevented by a neutralizing anti-receptor for advanced glycation end products (anti-RAGE) Ab, demonstrating a RAGE-independent mechanism. Moreover, AGEs inhibited by 70-80% the transmission in trans of the virus to CD4 T cells. Despite the inhibitory effect of AGEs on both MDDC infection and virus transmission in trans, no inhibition of virus attachment to cell membrane was observed, confirming that attachment and transmission of the virus involve independent mechanisms. The inhibitory effect of AGEs on infection was associated with a RAGE-independent downregulation of CD4 at the cell membrane and by a RAGE-dependent repression of the CXCR4 and CCR5 HIV-1 receptors. AGEs induce the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-12, but not RANTES or MIP-1α, and did not lead to MDDC maturation as demonstrated by the lack of expression of the CD83 molecule. Taken together, our results suggest that AGEs can play an inhibiting role in HIV-1 infection in patients who accumulate circulating AGEs, including patients treated with protease inhibitors that developed diabetes.

  11. Human XCR1+ dendritic cells derived in vitro from CD34+ progenitors closely resemble blood dendritic cells, including their adjuvant responsiveness, contrary to monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

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    Balan, Sreekumar; Ollion, Vincent; Colletti, Nicholas; Chelbi, Rabie; Montanana-Sanchis, Frédéric; Liu, Hong; Vu Manh, Thien-Phong; Sanchez, Cindy; Savoret, Juliette; Perrot, Ivan; Doffin, Anne-Claire; Fossum, Even; Bechlian, Didier; Chabannon, Christian; Bogen, Bjarne; Asselin-Paturel, Carine; Shaw, Michael; Soos, Timothy; Caux, Christophe; Valladeau-Guilemond, Jenny; Dalod, Marc

    2014-08-15

    Human monocyte-derived dendritic cell (MoDC) have been used in the clinic with moderately encouraging results. Mouse XCR1(+) DC excel at cross-presentation, can be targeted in vivo to induce protective immunity, and share characteristics with XCR1(+) human DC. Assessment of the immunoactivation potential of XCR1(+) human DC is hindered by their paucity in vivo and by their lack of a well-defined in vitro counterpart. We report in this study a protocol generating both XCR1(+) and XCR1(-) human DC in CD34(+) progenitor cultures (CD34-DC). Gene expression profiling, phenotypic characterization, and functional studies demonstrated that XCR1(-) CD34-DC are similar to canonical MoDC, whereas XCR1(+) CD34-DC resemble XCR1(+) blood DC (bDC). XCR1(+) DC were strongly activated by polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid but not LPS, and conversely for MoDC. XCR1(+) DC and MoDC expressed strikingly different patterns of molecules involved in inflammation and in cross-talk with NK or T cells. XCR1(+) CD34-DC but not MoDC efficiently cross-presented a cell-associated Ag upon stimulation by polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid or R848, likewise to what was reported for XCR1(+) bDC. Hence, it is feasible to generate high numbers of bona fide XCR1(+) human DC in vitro as a model to decipher the functions of XCR1(+) bDC and as a potential source of XCR1(+) DC for clinical use.

  12. Histamine Regulates Actin Cytoskeleton in Human Toll-like Receptor 4-activated Monocyte-derived Dendritic Cells Tuning CD4+ T Lymphocyte Response.

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    Aldinucci, Alessandra; Bonechi, Elena; Manuelli, Cinzia; Nosi, Daniele; Masini, Emanuela; Passani, Maria Beatrice; Ballerini, Clara

    2016-07-08

    Histamine, a major mediator in allergic diseases, differentially regulates the polarizing ability of dendritic cells after Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation, by not completely explained mechanisms. In this study we investigated the effects of histamine on innate immune reaction during the response of human monocyte-derived DCs (mDCs) to different TLR stimuli: LPS, specific for TLR4, and Pam3Cys, specific for heterodimer molecule TLR1/TLR2. We investigated actin remodeling induced by histamine together with mDCs phenotype, cytokine production, and the stimulatory and polarizing ability of Th0. By confocal microscopy and RT-PCR expression of Rac1/CdC42 Rho GTPases, responsible for actin remodeling, we show that histamine selectively modifies actin cytoskeleton organization induced by TLR4, but not TLR2 and this correlates with increased IL4 production and decreased IFNγ by primed T cells. We also demonstrate that histamine-induced cytoskeleton organization is at least in part mediated by down-regulation of small Rho GTPase CdC42 and the protein target PAK1, but not by down-regulation of Rac1. The presence and relative expression of histamine receptors HR1-4 and TLRs were determined as well. Independently of actin remodeling, histamine down-regulates IL12p70 and CXCL10 production in mDCs after TLR2 and TLR4 stimulation. We also observed a trend of IL10 up-regulation that, despite previous reports, did not reach statistical significance.

  13. Evaluation of the sensitizing potential of antibiotics in vitro using the human cell lines THP-1 and MUTZ-LC and primary monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Katrin; Ott, Hagen; Zwadlo-Klarwasser, Gabriele; Skazik-Voogt, Claudia; Marquardt, Yvonne; Czaja, Katharina; Merk, Hans F; Baron, Jens Malte

    2012-08-01

    Since the 7th amendment to the EU cosmetics directive foresees a complete ban on animal testing, alternative in vitro methods have been established to evaluate the sensitizing potential of small molecular weight compounds. To find out whether these novel in vitro assays are also capable to predict the sensitizing potential of small molecular weight drugs, model compounds such as beta-lactams and sulfonamides - which are the most frequent cause of adverse drug reactions - were co-incubated with THP-1, MUTZ-LC, or primary monocyte-derived dendritic cells for 48 h and subsequent expression of selected marker genes (IL-8, IL-1β, CES1, NQO1, GCLM, PIR and TRIM16) was studied by real time PCR. Benzylpenicillin and phenoxymethylpenicillin were recognized as sensitizing compounds because they are capable to induce the mRNA expression of these genes in moDCs and, except for IL-8, in THP-1 cells but not in MUTZ-LC. Ampicillin stimulated the expression of some marker genes in moDCs and THP-1 cells. SMX did not affect the expression of these genes in THP-1, however, in moDCs, at least PIR was enhanced and there was an increase of the release of IL-8. These data reveal that novel in vitro DC based assays might play a role in the evaluation of the allergenic potential of novel drug compounds, but these systems seem to lack the ability to detect the sensitizing potential of prohaptens that require metabolic activation prior to sensitization and moDCs seem to be superior with regard to the sensitivity compared with THP-1 and MUTZ-3 cell lines.

  14. Engineering monocyte-derived dendritic cells to secrete interferon-α enhances their ability to promote adaptive and innate anti-tumor immune effector functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemen, Yannick; Van den Bergh, Johan M J; Lion, Eva; Anguille, Sébastien; Roelandts, Vicky A E; Van Acker, Heleen H; Heynderickx, Steven D I; Stein, Barbara M H; Peeters, Marc; Figdor, Carl G; Van Tendeloo, Viggo F I; de Vries, I Jolanda; Adema, Gosse J; Berneman, Zwi N; Smits, Evelien L J

    2015-07-01

    Dendritic cell (DC) vaccination has demonstrated potential in clinical trials as a new effective cancer treatment, but objective and durable clinical responses are confined to a minority of patients. Interferon (IFN)-α, a type-I IFN, can bolster anti-tumor immunity by restoring or increasing the function of DCs, T cells and natural killer (NK) cells. Moreover, type-I IFN signaling on DCs was found to be essential in mice for tumor rejection by the innate and adaptive immune system. Targeted delivery of IFN-α by DCs to immune cells could boost the generation of anti-tumor immunity, while avoiding the side effects frequently associated with systemic administration. Naturally circulating plasmacytoid DCs, major producers of type-I IFN, were already shown capable of inducing tumor antigen-specific T cell responses in cancer patients without severe toxicity, but their limited number complicates their use in cancer vaccination. In the present work, we hypothesized that engineering easily generated human monocyte-derived mature DCs to secrete IFN-α using mRNA electroporation enhances their ability to promote adaptive and innate anti-tumor immunity. Our results show that IFN-α mRNA electroporation of DCs significantly increases the stimulation of tumor antigen-specific cytotoxic T cell as well as anti-tumor NK cell effector functions in vitro through high levels of IFN-α secretion. Altogether, our findings mark IFN-α mRNA-electroporated DCs as potent inducers of both adaptive and innate anti-tumor immunity and pave the way for clinical trial evaluation in cancer patients.

  15. Low CCR7-mediated migration of human monocyte derived dendritic cells in response to human respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus.

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    Cyril Le Nouën

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV and, to a lesser extent, human metapneumovirus (HMPV and human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3, can re-infect symptomatically throughout life without significant antigenic change, suggestive of incomplete or short-lived immunity. In contrast, re-infection by influenza A virus (IAV largely depends on antigenic change, suggestive of more complete immunity. Antigen presentation by dendritic cells (DC is critical in initiating the adaptive immune response. Antigen uptake by DC induces maturational changes that include decreased expression of the chemokine receptors CCR1, CCR2, and CCR5 that maintain DC residence in peripheral tissues, and increased expression of CCR7 that mediates the migration of antigen-bearing DC to lymphatic tissue. We stimulated human monocyte-derived DC (MDDC with virus and found that, in contrast to HPIV3 and IAV, HMPV and HRSV did not efficiently decrease CCR1, 2, and 5 expression, and did not efficiently increase CCR7 expression. Consistent with the differences in CCR7 mRNA and protein expression, MDDC stimulated with HRSV or HMPV migrated less efficiently to the CCR7 ligand CCL19 than did IAV-stimulated MDDC. Using GFP-expressing recombinant virus, we showed that the subpopulation of MDDC that was robustly infected with HRSV was particularly inefficient in chemokine receptor modulation. HMPV- or HRSV-stimulated MDDC responded to secondary stimulation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide or with a cocktail of proinflammatory cytokines by increasing CCR7 and decreasing CCR1, 2 and 5 expression, and by more efficient migration to CCL19, suggesting that HMPV and HRSV suboptimally stimulate rather than irreversibly inhibit MDDC migration. This also suggests that the low concentration of proinflammatory cytokines released from HRSV- and HMPV-stimulated MDDC is partly responsible for the low CCR7-mediated migration. We propose that inefficient migration of HRSV- and HMPV-stimulated DC to

  16. Broad antiviral activity of carbohydrate-binding agents against the four serotypes of dengue virus in monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

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    Marijke M F Alen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dendritic cells (DC, present in the skin, are the first target cells of dengue virus (DENV. Dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN is present on DC and recognizes N-glycosylation sites on the E-glycoprotein of DENV. Thus, the DC-SIGN/E-glycoprotein interaction can be considered as an important target for inhibitors of viral replication. We evaluated various carbohydrate-binding agents (CBAs against all four described serotypes of DENV replication in Raji/DC-SIGN(+ cells and in monocyte-derived DC (MDDC. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A dose-dependent anti-DENV activity of the CBAs Hippeastrum hybrid (HHA, Galanthus nivalis (GNA and Urtica dioica (UDA, but not actinohivin (AH was observed against all four DENV serotypes as analyzed by flow cytometry making use of anti-DENV antibodies. Remarkably, the potency of the CBAs against DENV in MDDC cultures was significantly higher (up to 100-fold than in Raji/DC-SIGN(+ cells. Pradimicin-S (PRM-S, a small-size non-peptidic CBA, exerted antiviral activity in MDDC but not in Raji/DC-SIGN(+ cells. The CBAs act at an early step of DENV infection as they bind to the viral envelope of DENV and subsequently prevent virus attachment. Only weak antiviral activity of the CBAs was detected when administered after the virus attachment step. The CBAs were also able to completely prevent the cellular activation and differentiation process of MDDC induced upon DENV infection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The CBAs exerted broad spectrum antiviral activity against the four DENV serotypes, laboratory-adapted viruses and low passage clinical isolates, evaluated in Raji/DC-SIGN(+ cells and in primary MDDC.

  17. Th2 polarization by Der p 1--pulsed monocyte-derived dendritic cells is due to the allergic status of the donors.

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    Hammad, H; Charbonnier, A S; Duez, C; Jacquet, A; Stewart, G A; Tonnel, A B; Pestel, J

    2001-08-15

    The polarization of the immune response toward a Th2 or a Th1 profile can be mediated by dendritic cells (DCs) following antigen presentation and interaction with T cells. Costimulatory molecules such as CD80 and CD86 expressed by DCs, the polarizing cytokine environment during DC--T-cell interaction, and also the nature of the antigen are critical in the orientation of the immune response. In this study, the effect of the cysteine protease Der p 1, one of the major allergens of the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, on these different parameters was evaluated comparatively on monocyte-derived DCs obtained from healthy donors, from pollen-sensitive patients, or from patients sensitive to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Results showed that Der p 1 induced an increase in CD86 expression only on DCs from house dust mite--sensitive patients. This was also associated with a higher capacity to induce T-cell proliferation, a rapid increase in the production of proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor--alpha and interleukin (IL)-1 beta, and the type 2 cytokine IL-10. No changes in the release of IL-12 p70 were induced by Der p 1. Finally, purified T cells from house dust mite-sensitive patients stimulated by autologous Der p 1--pulsed DCs preferentially produced IL-4 rather than interferon-gamma. These effects were abolished in the presence of the inactive precursor of Der p 1 (ProDer p 1). Taken together, these data suggest that DCs from house dust mite--sensitive patients, in contrast to DCs from healthy donors and from pollen-sensitive patients, exposed to Der p 1 play a pivotal role in the enhancement of the Th2 response associated with the allergic reaction developed in response to house dust mite exposure. (Blood. 2001;98:1135-1141)

  18. Th1 disabled function in response to TLR4 stimulation of monocyte-derived DC from patients chronically-infected by hepatitis C virus.

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    Laure Perrin-Cocon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lack of protective antibodies and inefficient cytotoxic responses are characteristics of chronic hepatitis C infection. A defect in dendritic cell (DC function has thus been suspected, but this remains a controversial issue. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Here we show that monocyte-derived DC (MoDC from chronically-infected patients can mature in response to TLR1/2, TLR2/6 or TLR3 ligands. In contrast, when stimulated with the TLR4 ligand LPS, MoDC from patients show a profound defect in inducing IFNgamma secretion by allogeneic T cells. This defect is not due to defective phenotypic maturation or to the presence of HCV-RNA in DC or monocytes but is correlated to reduced IL-12 secretion by DC. Restoration of DC ability to stimulate IFNgamma secretion can be obtained by blocking MEK activation in DC, indicating that MEK/ERK pathway is involved in the Th1 defect of MoDC. Monocytes from HCV patients present increased spontaneous secretion of cytokines and chemokines, especially MIP-1beta. Addition of MIP-1beta on healthy monocytes during differentiation results in DC that have Th1 defect characteristic of MoDC from HCV patients, suggesting that MIP-1beta secretion by HCV monocytes participates in the Th1 defect of DC. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that monocytes from HCV patients are activated in vivo. This interferes with their differentiation into DC, leading to deficient TLR4 signaling in these cells that are enable to induce a Th1 response. This specific defect is linked to the activation of the MEK/ERK pathway.

  19. Comparative analysis of signature genes in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-infected porcine monocyte-derived dendritic cells at differential activation statuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Activation statuses of monocytic cells, e.g. monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs), are critically important for antiviral immunity. In particular, some devastating viruses, including porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), are capable of directly infecting these cell...

  20. 3D correlative light and electron microscopy of cultured cells using serial blockface scanning electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Thomas R.; Burden, Jemima J.; Nkwe, David O.; Pelchen-Matthews, Annegret; Domart, Marie-Charlotte; Durgan, Joanne; Weston, Anne; Jones, Martin L.; Peddie, Christopher J.; Carzaniga, Raffaella; Florey, Oliver; Marsh, Mark; Gutierrez, Maximiliano G.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The processes of life take place in multiple dimensions, but imaging these processes in even three dimensions is challenging. Here, we describe a workflow for 3D correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) of cell monolayers using fluorescence microscopy to identify and follow biological events, combined with serial blockface scanning electron microscopy to analyse the underlying ultrastructure. The workflow encompasses all steps from cell culture to sample processing, imaging strategy, and 3D image processing and analysis. We demonstrate successful application of the workflow to three studies, each aiming to better understand complex and dynamic biological processes, including bacterial and viral infections of cultured cells and formation of entotic cell-in-cell structures commonly observed in tumours. Our workflow revealed new insight into the replicative niche of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in primary human lymphatic endothelial cells, HIV-1 in human monocyte-derived macrophages, and the composition of the entotic vacuole. The broad application of this 3D CLEM technique will make it a useful addition to the correlative imaging toolbox for biomedical research. PMID:27445312

  1. 3D correlative light and electron microscopy of cultured cells using serial blockface scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Matthew R G; Lerner, Thomas R; Burden, Jemima J; Nkwe, David O; Pelchen-Matthews, Annegret; Domart, Marie-Charlotte; Durgan, Joanne; Weston, Anne; Jones, Martin L; Peddie, Christopher J; Carzaniga, Raffaella; Florey, Oliver; Marsh, Mark; Gutierrez, Maximiliano G; Collinson, Lucy M

    2017-01-01

    The processes of life take place in multiple dimensions, but imaging these processes in even three dimensions is challenging. Here, we describe a workflow for 3D correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) of cell monolayers using fluorescence microscopy to identify and follow biological events, combined with serial blockface scanning electron microscopy to analyse the underlying ultrastructure. The workflow encompasses all steps from cell culture to sample processing, imaging strategy, and 3D image processing and analysis. We demonstrate successful application of the workflow to three studies, each aiming to better understand complex and dynamic biological processes, including bacterial and viral infections of cultured cells and formation of entotic cell-in-cell structures commonly observed in tumours. Our workflow revealed new insight into the replicative niche of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in primary human lymphatic endothelial cells, HIV-1 in human monocyte-derived macrophages, and the composition of the entotic vacuole. The broad application of this 3D CLEM technique will make it a useful addition to the correlative imaging toolbox for biomedical research. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Reactive-oxygen-species-mediated P. aeruginosa killing is functional in human cystic fibrosis macrophages.

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    Noemi Cifani

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most common pathogen for chronic lung infection in cystic fibrosis (CF patients. About 80% of adult CF patients have chronic P. aeruginosa infection, which accounts for much of the morbidity and most of the mortality. Both bacterial genetic adaptations and defective innate immune responses contribute to the bacteria persistence. It is well accepted that CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR dysfunction impairs the airways-epithelium-mediated lung defence; however, other innate immune cells also appear to be affected, such as neutrophils and macrophages, which thus contribute to this infectious pathology in the CF lung. In macrophages, the absence of CFTR has been linked to defective P. aeruginosa killing, increased pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion, and reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS production. To learn more about macrophage dysfunction in CF patients, we investigated the generation of the oxidative burst and its impact on bacterial killing in CF macrophages isolated from peripheral blood or lung parenchyma of CF patients, after P. aeruginosa infection. Our data demonstrate that CF macrophages show an oxidative response of similar intensity to that of non-CF macrophages. Intracellular ROS are recognized as one of the earliest microbicidal mechanisms against engulfed pathogens that are activated by macrophages. Accordingly, NADPH inhibition resulted in a significant increase in the intracellular bacteria survival in CF and non-CF macrophages, both as monocyte-derived macrophages and as lung macrophages. These data strongly suggest that the contribution of ROS to P. aeruginosa killing is not affected by CFTR mutations.

  3. Human monocyte-derived dendritic cells from leukoreduction system chambers after plateletpheresis are functional in an in vitro co-culture assay with intestinal epithelial cells.

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    Tiscornia, Inés; Sánchez-Martins, Viviana; Hernández, Ana; Bollati-Fogolín, Mariela

    2012-10-31

    PP as an alternative source of PBMC, to be used in co-culture systems with IEC. The novelty of this protocol is the combination of the blood monocyte source with a simple and fast differentiation method to obtain DC, and their use in a combined culture with IEC and LAB to model microbial-host interaction. Since the initial PP volume is ten times lower than that of BC, the use of PP minimizes biological residue generation and reagent consumption. In addition, monocyte-derived DC from PP were suitable for use in co-culture assays as a first screening step to study the immunomodulatory properties of LAB.

  4. Monocyte derived dendritic cells generated by IFN-α acquire mature dendritic and natural killer cell properties as shown by gene expression analysis

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    Czibere Akos

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dendritic cell (DC vaccines can induce antitumor immune responses in patients with malignant diseases, while the most suitable DC culture conditions have not been established yet. In this study we compared monocyte derived human DC from conventional cultures containing GM-CSF and IL-4/TNF-α (IL-4/TNF-DC with DC generated by the novel protocol using GM-CSF and IFN-α (IFN-DC. Methods To characterise the molecular differences of both DC preparations, gene expression profiling was performed using Affymetrix microarrays. The data were conformed on a protein level by immunophenotyping, and functional tests for T cell stimulation, migration and cytolytic activity were performed. Results Both methods resulted in CD11c+ CD86+ HLA-DR+ cells with a typical DC morphology that could efficiently stimulate T cells. But gene expression profiling revealed two distinct DC populations. Whereas IL-4/TNF-DC showed a higher expression of genes envolved in phagocytosis IFN-DC had higher RNA levels for markers of DC maturity and migration to the lymph nodes like DCLAMP, CCR7 and CD49d. This different orientation of both DC populations was confined by a 2.3 fold greater migration in transwell experiments (p = 0.01. Most interestingly, IFN-DC also showed higher RNA levels for markers of NK cells such as TRAIL, granzymes, KLRs and other NK cell receptors. On a protein level, intracytoplasmatic TRAIL and granzyme B were observed in 90% of IFN-DC. This translated into a cytolytic activity against K562 cells with a median specific lysis of 26% at high effector cell numbers as determined by propidium iodide uptake, whereas IL-4/TNF-DC did not induce any tumor cell lysis (p = 0.006. Thus, IFN-DC combined characteristics of mature DC and natural killer cells. Conclusion Our results suggest that IFN-DC not only stimulate adaptive but also mediate innate antitumor immune responses. Therefore, IFN-DC should be evaluated in clinical vaccination trials. In

  5. Cyclic GMP protects human macrophages against peroxynitrite-induced apoptosis

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    Rossi Adriano G

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nitric oxide (NO can be both pro- and anti-apoptotic in various cell types, including macrophages. This apparent paradox may result from the actions of NO-related species generated in the microenvironment of the cell, for example the formation of peroxynitrite (ONOO-. In this study we have examined the ability of NO and ONOO- to evoke apoptosis in human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMϕ, and investigated whether preconditioning by cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP is able to limit apoptosis in this cell type. Methods Characterisation of the NO-related species generated by (Z-1- [2-(2-aminoethyl-N-(2-ammonioethylamino]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (DETA/NO and 1,2,3,4-oxatriazolium, 5-amino-3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl-, chloride (GEA-3162 was performed by electrochemistry using an isolated NO electrode and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectrometry. Mononuclear cells were isolated from peripheral blood of healthy volunteers and cultured to allow differentiation into MDMϕ. Resultant MDMϕ were treated for 24 h with DETA/NO (100 – 1000 μM or GEA-3162 (10 – 300 μM in the presence or absence of BAY 41–2272 (1 μM, isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX; 1 μM, 1H- [1,2,4]oxadiazolo [4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ; 20 μM or 8-bromo-cGMP (1 mM. Apoptosis in MDMϕ was assessed by flow cytometric analysis of annexin V binding in combination with propidium iodide staining. Results Electrochemistry and EPR revealed that DETA/NO liberated free NO radical, whilst GEA-3162 concomitantly released NO and O2-, and is therefore a ONOO- generator. NO (DETA/NO had no effect on cell viability, but ONOO- (GEA-3162 caused a concentration-dependent induction of apoptosis in MDMϕ. Preconditioning of MDMϕ with NO in combination with the phosphodiesterase inhibitor, 3-Isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX, or the NO-independent stimulator of soluble guanylate cyclase, BAY 41–2272, significantly attenuated ONOO--induced apoptosis in a cGMP-dependent manner

  6. Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor is elevated in alveolar macrophages from sheep naturally infected with maedi-visna virus and stimulates maedi-visna virus replication in macrophages in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z; Harkiss, G D; Hopkins, J; Woodall, C J

    2002-08-01

    Infection by maedi-visna virus, a lentivirus of sheep, leads to chronic inflammatory reactions of various tissues. In this report we have analysed the role of specific cytokines in the disease process. A significant increase in expression of interleukin-6, interleukin-10, granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and transforming growth factor-beta1 mRNA was observed in alveolar macrophages isolated from the lungs of naturally infected animals when compared with lungs of seronegative controls. Levels of GM-CSF mRNA expression in alveolar macrophages correlated with the presence of lung lesions, but there was no correlation of interleukin-10, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and transforming growth factor-beta1 mRNA levels in alveolar macrophages from animals with pulmonary lesions. In vitro investigation showed that GM-CSF in the range 0.1-10 ng/ml induced a significant increase in viral p25 production after 7 days in acutely infected blood monocyte-derived macrophages. The production of p25 peaked between 7 and 14 days exposure to 10 ng/ml of GM-CSF. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that the level of viral DNA in monocyte-derived macrophages was dose-dependent following GM-CSF treatment in the range 0.1-100 ng/ml after 7 days. Viral mRNA expression was also enhanced. These findings indicate a role for GM-CSF in the pathogenesis of lymphoid interstitial pneumonia in infected animals.

  7. Human lung-resident macrophages express CB1 and CB2 receptors whose activation inhibits the release of angiogenic and lymphangiogenic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiano, Rosaria I; Loffredo, Stefania; Borriello, Francesco; Iannotti, Fabio Arturo; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Orlando, Pierangelo; Secondo, Agnese; Granata, Francescopaolo; Lepore, Maria Teresa; Fiorelli, Alfonso; Varricchi, Gilda; Santini, Mario; Triggiani, Massimo; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Marone, Gianni

    2016-04-01

    Macrophages are pivotal effector cells in immune responses and tissue remodeling by producing a wide spectrum of mediators, including angiogenic and lymphangiogenic factors. Activation of cannabinoid receptor types 1 and 2 has been suggested as a new strategy to modulate angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. We investigated whether human lung-resident macrophages express a complete endocannabinoid system by assessing their production of endocannabinoids and expression of cannabinoid receptors. Unstimulated human lung macrophage produce 2-arachidonoylglycerol,N-arachidonoyl-ethanolamine,N-palmitoyl-ethanolamine, and N-oleoyl-ethanolamine. On LPS stimulation, human lung macrophages selectively synthesize 2-arachidonoylglycerol in a calcium-dependent manner. Human lung macrophages express cannabinoid receptor types 1 and 2, and their activation induces ERK1/2 phosphorylation and reactive oxygen species generation. Cannabinoid receptor activation by the specific synthetic agonists ACEA and JWH-133 (but not the endogenous agonist 2-arachidonoylglycerol) markedly inhibits LPS-induced production of vascular endothelial growth factor-A, vascular endothelial growth factor-C, and angiopoietins and modestly affects IL-6 secretion. No significant modulation of TNF-α or IL-8/CXCL8 release was observed. The production of vascular endothelial growth factor-A by human monocyte-derived macrophages is not modulated by activation of cannabinoid receptor types 1 and 2. Given the prominent role of macrophage-assisted vascular remodeling in many tumors, we identified the expression of cannabinoid receptors in lung cancer-associated macrophages. Our results demonstrate that cannabinoid receptor activation selectively inhibits the release of angiogenic and lymphangiogenic factors from human lung macrophage but not from monocyte-derived macrophages. Activation of cannabinoid receptors on tissue-resident macrophages might be a novel strategy to modulate macrophage-assisted vascular remodeling

  8. Identification and characterization of a non-interferon antileishmanial macrophage activating factor (antileishmanial MAF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Niel, A; Zacks, S E; David, J R; Remold, H G; Weiser, W Y

    1988-01-01

    A non-interferon lymphokine elaborated from PHA and Con A-stimulated human T-cell hybridoma, T-CEMA, has been found to activate monocyte-derived macrophages for the intracellular killing of L. donovani (antileishmanial MAF). This T-cell hybridoma derived antileishmanial MAF which has an apparent mw of 65,000 and pI of 5.3-5.6, contains neither antiviral activity nor colony stimulating activity. Furthermore, antileishmanial MAF is not neutralized by anti-MIF, anti-IFN-gamma or anti-GM-CSF antibodies.

  9. Macrophage models of Gaucher disease for evaluating disease pathogenesis and candidate drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflaki, Elma; Stubblefield, Barbara K; Maniwang, Emerson; Lopez, Grisel; Moaven, Nima; Goldin, Ehud; Marugan, Juan; Patnaik, Samarjit; Dutra, Amalia; Southall, Noel; Zheng, Wei; Tayebi, Nahid; Sidransky, Ellen

    2014-06-11

    Gaucher disease is caused by an inherited deficiency of glucocerebrosidase that manifests with storage of glycolipids in lysosomes, particularly in macrophages. Available cell lines modeling Gaucher disease do not demonstrate lysosomal storage of glycolipids; therefore, we set out to develop two macrophage models of Gaucher disease that exhibit appropriate substrate accumulation. We used these cellular models both to investigate altered macrophage biology in Gaucher disease and to evaluate candidate drugs for its treatment. We generated and characterized monocyte-derived macrophages from 20 patients carrying different Gaucher disease mutations. In addition, we created induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived macrophages from five fibroblast lines taken from patients with type 1 or type 2 Gaucher disease. Macrophages derived from patient monocytes or iPSCs showed reduced glucocerebrosidase activity and increased storage of glucocerebroside and glucosylsphingosine in lysosomes. These macrophages showed efficient phagocytosis of bacteria but reduced production of intracellular reactive oxygen species and impaired chemotaxis. The disease phenotype was reversed with a noninhibitory small-molecule chaperone drug that enhanced glucocerebrosidase activity in the macrophages, reduced glycolipid storage, and normalized chemotaxis and production of reactive oxygen species. Macrophages differentiated from patient monocytes or patient-derived iPSCs provide cellular models that can be used to investigate disease pathogenesis and facilitate drug development.

  10. Transcription of innate immunity genes and cytokine secretion by canine macrophages resistant or susceptible to intracellular survival of Leishmania infantum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchetti, Andréia Pereira; da Costa, Luciana Fachini; Romão, Everton de Lima; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; da Paixão, Tatiane Alves; Santos, Renato Lima

    2015-01-15

    In this study we assessed the basal transcription of genes associated with innate immunity (i.e. Nramp1, NOD1, NOD2, TLR1, TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, TLR6, TLR7, and TLR9) in canine monocyte-derived macrophages from Leishmania-free dogs. Additionally, secretion of cytokines (IL-10, IL-12, TNF-α and IFN-γ) and nitric oxide in culture supernatants of macrophages with higher or lower resistance to intracellular survival of Leishmania infantum was also measured. Constitutive transcription of TLR9 and NOD2 were negligible; NOD1, TLR1, and TLR7 had low levels of transcription, whereas Nramp1 and TLR2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 had higher levels of constitutive transcription in canine monocyte-derived macrophages. There were no significant differences in transcription between macrophages with higher or lower resistance to intracellular survival of L. infantum. Secretion of TNF-α was higher in more resistant macrophages (designated as resistant) at 24h after infection when compared to less resistant macrophages (designated as susceptible), as well as the secretion of IFN-γ at 72 h post infection. Secretion of IL-10 was lower in resistant macrophages at 24h after infection. No detectable production of nitric oxide was observed. Interestingly, there was a negative correlation between NOD2 transcript levels and intracellular survival of L. infantum in resistant macrophages. This study demonstrated that decreased intracellular survival of L. infantum in canine macrophages was associated with increased production of TNF-α and IFN-γ and decreased production of IL-10; and that constitutive transcription of Nramp1, TLR and NLR does not interfere in intracellular survival of L. infantum.

  11. Ly6Chi monocyte recruitment is responsible for Th2 associated host-protective macrophage accumulation in liver inflammation due to schistosomiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Nascimento

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of M2 macrophages in the liver, within the context of a strong Th2 response, is a hallmark of infection with the parasitic helminth, Schistosoma mansoni, but the origin of these cells is unclear. To explore this, we examined the relatedness of macrophages to monocytes in this setting. Our data show that both monocyte-derived and resident macrophages are engaged in the response to infection. Infection caused CCR2-dependent increases in numbers of Ly6Chi monocytes in blood and liver and of CX3CR1+ macrophages in diseased liver. Ly6Chi monocytes recovered from liver had the potential to differentiate into macrophages when cultured with M-CSF. Using pulse chase BrdU labeling, we found that most hepatic macrophages in infected mice arose from monocytes. Consistent with this, deletion of monocytes led to the loss of a subpopulation of hepatic CD11chi macrophages that was present in infected but not naïve mice. This was accompanied by a reduction in the size of egg-associated granulomas and significantly exacerbated disease. In addition to the involvement of monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages in hepatic inflammation due to infection, we observed increased incorporation of BrdU and expression of Ki67 and MHC II in resident macrophages, indicating that these cells are participating in the response. Expression of both M2 and M1 marker genes was increased in liver from infected vs. naive mice. The M2 fingerprint in the liver was not accounted for by a single cell type, but rather reflected expression of M2 genes by various cells including macrophages, neutrophils, eosinophils and monocytes. Our data point to monocyte recruitment as the dominant process for increasing macrophage cell numbers in the liver during schistosomiasis.

  12. Macrophages and dendritic cells in the rat meninges and choroid plexus: three-dimensional localisation by environmental scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMenamin, Paul G; Wealthall, Rosamund J; Deverall, Marie; Cooper, Stephanie J; Griffin, Brendan

    2003-09-01

    The present investigation provides novel information on the topographical distribution of macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) in normal meninges and choroid plexus of the rat central nervous system (CNS). Whole-mounts of meninges and choroid plexus of Lewis rats were incubated with various anti-leucocyte monoclonal antibodies and either visualised with gold-conjugated secondary antibody followed by silver enhancement and subsequent examination by environmental scanning electron microscopy or by the use of fluorochromes and confocal microscopy. Large numbers of MHC class II(+) putative DCs were identified on the internal or subarachnoid aspect of dural whole-mounts, on the surface of the cortex (pia/arachnoid) and on the surface of the choroid plexus. Occupation of these sites would allow DCs access to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and therefore allow antigens into the subarachnoid space and ventricles. By contrast, macrophages were less evident at sites exposed to CSF and were more frequently located within the connective tissue of the dura/arachnoid and choroid plexus stroma and also in a sub-pial location. The present data suggest that DC may be strategically located within the CNS to sample CSF-borne antigens. Furthermore, the data suggest that CNS tissue samples collected without careful removal of the meninges may inadvertently be contaminated by DCs and meningeal macrophages.

  13. HISTOCHEMICAL AND ELECTRON-MICROSCOPIC CHARACTERIZATION OF HEPATIC MACROPHAGE SUBFRACTIONS ISOLATED FROM NORMAL AND LIPOSOMAL MURAMYL DIPEPTIDE TREATED RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOEDEMAKERS, RMJ; ATMOSOERODJOBRIGGS, JE; MORSELT, HWM; DAEMEN, T; SCHERPHOF, GL; HARDONK, MJ

    1995-01-01

    Subfractions of the hepatic macrophage population, differing in cell size, were isolated from normal rats and rats treated with liposomal muramyl dipeptide (lipMDP) and analyzed histochemically and by ultrastructural peroxidase cytochemistry. The majority of cells in all subfractions of control rats

  14. Bovine Peripheral Blood Monocyte Derived Dendritic Cell Culture and Identification in Vitro%奶牛外周血树突状细胞体外诱导培养与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹康; 赵倩明; 隋雁南; 封飞飞; 占今舜; 赵国琦

    2016-01-01

    通过粒-巨噬细胞集落刺激因子( GM⁃CSF)和白细胞介素-4( IL⁃4)体外诱导外周血单核细胞为树突状细胞,为利用树突状细胞免疫疗法治疗奶牛乳房炎奠定基础和提供细胞模型。利用淋巴细胞分离液分离获得奶牛外周血单核细胞,在6孔板内培养2h后,弃掉含有大量的T细胞和B细胞上清液,贴壁的基本上是单核细胞,磷酸盐缓冲液清洗5次,加入含有GM⁃CSF和IL⁃4的2 mL培养基进行3 d诱导。之后,从培养基顶部小心吸弃1.4 mL的培养基,然后再补加含有GM⁃CSF和IL⁃4的1.8 mL培养基继续诱导3 d。每天通过显微镜观察细胞形态。第7天经流式检测细胞表面抗原 CD11c、CD14、主要组织相容性复合体Ⅱ( MHCⅡ)、CD40、CD80、CD86的表达。结果表明:1)第2天,一些细胞表面可以生长出刺突并伴随着伪足的生长。第3天,细胞表面的刺突和伪足越来越多。第4、5天,一些带有刺突和伪足的细胞开始聚集和融合。第6天,单核细胞基本被诱导为树突状细胞,细胞表面含有大量清晰可见的刺突和伪足。2)经流式检测,CD14、CD11c、MHCⅡ阳性表达细胞分别占诱导细胞的6.8%、65.0%、75.9%,CD80和CD86阳性表达细胞分别占诱导细胞的2.0%和1.2%。综上所述,采用奶牛外周血单核细胞经体外诱导能够获得一定纯度的奶牛树突状细胞。%This study aimed to induce bovine peripheral blood monocyte derived dendritic cell by granulocyte⁃macrophage colony stimulating factor ( GM⁃CSF) and interleukin⁃4 ( IL⁃4) cytokines, which could lay founda⁃tion and provide cell model for dairy cow mastitis treatment using cell immunotherapy. The bovine peripheral blood monocyte was acquired by lymphocyte separation medium and seeded in 6⁃proe plate to culture for 2 h. Then, suspended cells containing an amount of B and T cells were discarded, and

  15. Effects of age and macrophage lineage on intracellular survival and cytokine induction after infection with Rhodococcus equi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghaus, Londa J; Giguère, Steeve; Sturgill, Tracy L

    2014-07-15

    Rhodococcus equi, a facultative intracellular pathogen of macrophages, causes life-threatening pneumonia in foals and in people with underlying immune deficiencies. As a basis for this study, we hypothesized that macrophage lineage and age would affect intracellular survival of R. equi and cytokine induction after infection. Monocyte-derived and bronchoalveolar macrophages from 10 adult horses and from 10 foals (sampled at 1-3 days, 2 weeks, 1 month, 3 months, and 5 months of age) were infected ex vivo with virulent R. equi. Intracellular R. equi were quantified and mRNA expression of IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 p40, IL-18, IFN-γ, and TNF-α was measured. Intracellular replication of R. equi was significantly (Pequi was significantly (P=0.002) higher in 3-month-old foals than in 3-day old foals, 2-week-old foals, 1-month-old foals, and adult horses. Expression of IL-4 mRNA was significantly higher in monocyte-derived macrophages whereas expression of IL-6, IL-18, and TNF-α was significantly higher in bronchoalveolar macrophages. Induction of IL-1β, IL-10, IL-12 p40, and IL-8 mRNA in bronchoalveolar macrophages of 1-3-day old foals was significantly higher than in older foals or adult horses. Preferential intracellular survival of R. equi in bronchoalveolar macrophages of juvenile horses may play a role in the pulmonary tropism of the pathogen and in the window of age susceptibility to infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Recruitment of CCR6-expressing Th17 cells by CCL20 secreted from plasmin-stimulated macrophages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qun Li; Yves Laumonnier; Tatiana Syrovets; Thomas Simmet

    2013-01-01

    In the present study,monocyte-derived human macrophages were differentiated from buffy coats.Na(i)ve CD4+ T-cells enriched from peripheral blood mononuclear cells using anti-CD4 magnetic beads and the autoMACS separation system were polarized under T-helper 17 (Th17)-promoting conditions for 6 days to get Th17 cells.The frequency of Th17 cell differentiation and the expression of C-C chemokine receptor type 6 (CCR6) on Th17 cells were investigated by flow cytometry.Plasmin-triggered induction of macrophage inflammatory protein-3alpha/C-C chemokine ligand 20 (CCL20) genes in macrophages was assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction,and secreted protein levels were measured by enzymelinked immunosorbent assay.Th17 cell migration induced by CCL20 secreted from plasmin-stimulated macrophages was tested in vitro by chemotaxis using a transwell system.These results demonstrate that plasmin triggers the expression of chemokine CCL20 messenger RNA and the release of CCL20 protein in human monocyte-derived macrophages,which critically depend on the proteolytic activity of plasmin and activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-kappaB signaling pathways.Expression of CCR6 was detected on 87.23 ± 8.6% of Th17 cells in vitro.Similar to chemotaxis triggered by recombinant human CCL20,supernatants collected from plasmin-stimulated macrophage-induced chemotactic migration of Th17 cells,which could be inhibited by an anti-CCL20 neutralizing antibody.These results suggest that plasmin generated in inflamed tissues might elicit production of chemokine CCL20 by human macrophages leading to the recruitmentof CCR6 positive Th17 cells to the inflammatory sites.

  17. Human macrophage responses to clinical isolates from the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex discriminate between ancient and modern lineages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Portevin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine whether there is a correlation between phylogenetic relationship and inflammatory response amongst a panel of clinical isolates representative of the global diversity of the human Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex (MTBC. Measurement of cytokines from infected human peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages revealed a wide variation in the response to different strains. The same pattern of high or low response to individual strains was observed for different pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and was conserved across multiple human donors. Although each major phylogenetic lineage of MTBC included strains inducing a range of cytokine responses, we found that overall inflammatory phenotypes differed significantly across lineages. In particular, comparison of evolutionarily modern lineages demonstrated a significant skewing towards lower early inflammatory response. The differential response to ancient and modern lineages observed using GM-CSF derived macrophages was also observed in autologous monocyte-derived dendritic cells and murine bone marrow-derived macrophages, but not in human unfractionated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We hypothesize that the reduced immune responses to modern lineages contribute to more rapid disease progression and transmission, which might be a selective advantage in the context of expanding human populations. In addition to the lineage effects, the large strain-to-strain variation in innate immune responses elicited by MTBC will need to be considered in tuberculosis vaccine development.

  18. Macrophages from chickens selected for high antibody response produced more nitric oxide and have greater phagocytic capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Marco Cesar Cunegundes; Guillermo, Landi Veivi Costilla; Matta, Marcos Fernando de Rezende; Soares, Sandro Gomes; DaMatta, Renato Augusto

    2011-04-15

    Macrophages are fundamental cells of the innate immune system, which, through phagocytosis and nitric oxide production, eliminate pathogens. The aim of the present study was to determine if macrophages from chicken families divergently selected to high and low antibodies response differ in nitric oxide production and phagocytic capacity. Blood monocytes derived macrophages were activated with lipopolysaccharide and supernatant from chicken spleen lymphocytes cultured with Concanavalin A (containing chicken interferon). Nitric oxide production was evaluated in culture supernatants. Phagocytic capacity of activated and non-activated macrophages was assayed using yeasts and IgY opsonized sheep red blood cells. Activated and non-activated macrophages from the high antibodies response family produced higher nitric oxide levels, internalized more yeast and significantly more opsonized sheep red blood cells than macrophages from the low antibodies response family. Moreover, activated macrophages became more elongated and widely spread. These findings indicate that macrophages from the high antibodies response family were more active suggesting that the differences in antibody response also depend on macrophage function.

  19. System x(c)(-) regulates microglia and macrophage glutamate excitotoxicity in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kigerl, Kristina A; Ankeny, Daniel P; Garg, Sanjay K; Wei, Ping; Guan, Zhen; Lai, Wenmin; McTigue, Dana M; Banerjee, Ruma; Popovich, Phillip G

    2012-01-01

    It is widely believed that microglia and monocyte-derived macrophages (collectively referred to as central nervous system (CNS) macrophages) cause excitotoxicity in the diseased or injured CNS. This view has evolved mostly from in vitro studies showing that neurotoxic concentrations of glutamate are released from CNS macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a potent inflammogen. We hypothesized that excitotoxic killing by CNS macrophages is more rigorously controlled in vivo, requiring both the activation of the glutamate/cystine antiporter (system x(c)(-)) and an increase in extracellular cystine, the substrate that drives glutamate release. Here, we show that non-traumatic microinjection of low-dose LPS into spinal cord gray matter activates CNS macrophages but without causing overt neuropathology. In contrast, neurotoxic inflammation occurs when LPS and cystine are co-injected. Simultaneous injection of NBQX, an antagonist of AMPA glutamate receptors, reduces the neurotoxic effects of LPS+cystine, implicating glutamate as a mediator of neuronal cell death in this model. Surprisingly, neither LPS nor LPS+cystine adversely affects survival of oligodendrocytes or oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Ex vivo analyses show that redox balance in microglia and macrophages is controlled by induction of system x(c)(-) and that high GSH:GSSG ratios predict the neurotoxic potential of these cells. Together, these data indicate that modulation of redox balance in CNS macrophages, perhaps through regulating system x(c)(-), could be a novel approach for attenuating injurious neuroinflammatory cascades.

  20. Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis Recombinant Proteins Modulate Antimycobacterial Functions of Bovine Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannantine, John P; Stabel, Judith R; Laws, Elizabeth; D Cardieri, Maria Clara; Souza, Cleverson D

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) activates the Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) p38 pathway, yet it is unclear which components of M. paratuberculosis are involved in the process. Therefore, a set of 42 M. paratuberculosis recombinant proteins expressed from coding sequences annotated as lipoproteins were screened for their ability to induce IL-10 expression, an indicator of MAPKp38 activation, in bovine monocyte-derived macrophages. A recombinant lipoprotein, designated as MAP3837c, was among a group of 6 proteins that strongly induced IL-10 gene transcription in bovine macrophages, averaging a 3.1-fold increase compared to non-stimulated macrophages. However, a parallel increase in expression of IL-12 and TNF-α was only observed in macrophages exposed to a subset of these 6 proteins. Selected recombinant proteins were further analyzed for their ability to enhance survival of M. avium within bovine macrophages as measured by recovered viable bacteria and nitrite production. All 6 IL-10 inducing MAP recombinant proteins along with M. paratuberculosis cells significantly enhanced phosphorylation of MAPK-p38 in bovine macrophages. Although these proteins are likely not post translationally lipidated in E. coli and thus is a limitation in this study, these results form the foundation of how the protein component of the lipoprotein interacts with the immune system. Collectively, these data reveal M. paratuberculosis proteins that might play a role in MAPK-p38 pathway activation and hence in survival of this organism within bovine macrophages.

  1. Transcriptional immunoresponse of tissue-specific macrophages in swine after infection with African swine fever virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalczyk Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages and cytokines are important in the control of inflammation and regulation of the immune response. However, they can also contribute to immunopathology in the host after viral infection and the regulatory network can be subverted by infectious agents, including viruses, some of which produce cytokine analogues or have mechanisms that inhibit cytokine function. African swine fever virus (ASFV encodes a number of proteins which modulate cytokine and chemokine induction, host transcription factor activation, stress responses, and apoptosis. The aim of this review is to elucidate the mechanisms of immune responses to ASFV in different subpopulations of porcine macrophages. A transcriptional immune response in different resident tissue macrophages following ASFV infection was presented in many publications. ASFV-susceptible porcine macrophages can be of several origins, such as peripheral blood, lungs, bone marrow, etc. blood monocytes, blood macrophages, and lung macrophages have demonstrated a modulation of phenotype. Monocyte-derived macrophages could express surface markers not found on their monocyte precursors. Moreover, they can undergo further differentiation after infection and during inflammation. When viruses infect such cells, immunological activity can be seriously impaired or modified.

  2. Decreased inducibility of TNF expression in lipid-loaded macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kallin Bengt

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation and immune responses are considered to be very important in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Lipid accumulation in macrophages of the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis which can influence the inflammatory potential of macrophages. We studied the effects of lipid loading on the regulation of TNF expression in human monocyte-derived macrophages. Results In macrophages incubated with acetylated low density lipoprotein (ac-LDL for 2 days, mRNA expression of TNF in cells stimulated with TNF decreased by 75%. In cell cultures stimulated over night with IL-1β, lipid loading decreased secretion of TNF into culture medium by 48%. These results suggest that lipid accumulation in macrophages makes them less responsive to inflammatory stimuli. Decreased basal activity and inducibility of transcription factor AP-1 was observed in lipid-loaded cells, suggesting a mechanism for the suppression of cytokine expression. NF-κB binding activity and inducibility were only marginally affected by ac-LDL. LDL and ac-LDL did not activate PPARγ. In contrast, oxidized LDL stimulated AP-1 and PPARγ but inhibited NF-κB, indicating that the effects of lipid loading with ac-LDL were not due to oxidation of lipids. Conclusions Accumulation of lipid, mainly cholesterol, results in down-regulation of TNF expression in macrophages. Since monocytes are known to be activated by cell adhesion, these results suggest that foam cells in atherosclerotic plaques may contribute less potently to an inflammatory reaction than newly arrived monocytes/macrophages.

  3. Macrophages and Iron Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Miguel P; Hamza, Iqbal

    2016-03-15

    Iron is a transition metal that due to its inherent ability to exchange electrons with a variety of molecules is essential to support life. In mammals, iron exists mostly in the form of heme, enclosed within an organic protoporphyrin ring and functioning primarily as a prosthetic group in proteins. Paradoxically, free iron also has the potential to become cytotoxic when electron exchange with oxygen is unrestricted and catalyzes the production of reactive oxygen species. These biological properties demand that iron metabolism is tightly regulated such that iron is available for core biological functions while preventing its cytotoxic effects. Macrophages play a central role in establishing this delicate balance. Here, we review the impact of macrophages on heme-iron metabolism and, reciprocally, how heme-iron modulates macrophage function.

  4. Interleukin-27 is a potent inhibitor of cis HIV-1 replication in monocyte-derived dendritic cells via a type I interferon-independent pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Chen

    Full Text Available IL-27, a member of the IL-12 family of cytokines, plays an important and diverse role in the function of the immune system. Whilst generally recognized as an anti-inflammatory cytokine, in addition IL-27 has been found to have broad anti-viral effects. Recently, IL-27 has been shown to be a potent inhibitor of HIV-1 infection in CD4+ T cells and macrophages. The main objective of this study was to see whether IL-27 has a similar inhibitory effect on HIV-1 replication in dendritic cells (DCs. Monocytes were differentiated into immature DCs (iDCs and mature DCs (mDCs with standard techniques using a combination of GM-CSF, IL-4 and LPS. Following differentiation, iDCs were infected with HIV-1 and co-cultured in the presence or absence of IL-27. IL-27 treated DCs were shown to be highly potent inhibitors of cis HIV-1, particularly of CCR5 tropic strains. Of note, other IL-12 family members (IL-12, IL-23 and IL-35 had no effect on HIV-1 replication. Microarray studies of IL-27 treated DCs showed no up-regulation of Type I (IFN gene expression. Neutralization of the Type-I IFN receptor had no impact on the HIV inhibition. Lastly, IL-27 mediated inhibition was shown to act post-viral entry and prior to completion of reverse transcription. These results show for the first time that IL-27 is a potent inhibitor of cis HIV-1 infection in DCs by a Type I IFN independent mechanism. IL-27 has previously been reported to inhibit HIV-1 replication in CD4+ T cells and macrophages, thus taken together, this cytokine is a potent anti-HIV agent against all major cell types targeted by the HIV-1 virus and may have a therapeutic role in the future.

  5. Effect of in vitro digested cod liver oil of different quality on oxidative, proteomic and inflammatory responses in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and human monocyte-derived dendritic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Karin; Istenič, Katja; Wulff, Tune

    2015-01-01

    digested fresh and oxidised cod liver oils in vitro, monitored the levels of lipid peroxidation products and evaluated oxidative, proteomic and inflammatory responses to the two types of digests in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. RESULTS: Digests of cod liver......BACKGROUND: Upon oxidation of the polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish oil, either before ingestion or, as recently shown, during the gastro-intestinal passage, a cascade of potentially cytotoxic peroxidation products, such as malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal, can form. In this study, we...... oil with 22–53 µmol L−1 malondialdehyde and 0.26–3.7 µmol L−1 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal increased intracellular oxidation and cell energy metabolic activity compared to a digested blank in yeast cells and the influence of digests on mitochondrial protein expression was more pronounced for oxidised cod liver...

  6. Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Induced Polarization of Human Macrophage Orchestrates the Formation and Development of Tuberculous Granulomas In Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zikun Huang

    Full Text Available The tuberculous granuloma is an elaborately organized structure and one of the main histological hallmarks of tuberculosis. Macrophages, which are important immunologic effector and antigen-presenting cells, are the main cell type found in the tuberculous granuloma and have high plasticity. Macrophage polarization during bacterial infection has been elucidated in numerous recent studies; however, macrophage polarization during tuberculous granuloma formation and development has rarely been reported. It remains to be clarified whether differences in the activation status of macrophages affect granuloma formation. In this study, the variation in macrophage polarization during the formation and development of tuberculous granulomas was investigated in both sections of lung tissues from tuberculosis patients and an in vitro tuberculous granuloma model. The roles of macrophage polarization in this process were also investigated. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis infection was found to induce monocyte-derived macrophage polarization. In the in vitro tuberculous granuloma model, macrophage transformation from M1 to M2 was observed over time following M. tuberculosis infection. M2 macrophages were found to predominate in both necrotic and non-necrotic granulomas from tuberculosis patients, while both M1 and M2 polarized macrophages were found in the non-granulomatous lung tissues. Furthermore, it was found that M1 macrophages promote granuloma formation and macrophage bactericidal activity in vitro, while M2 macrophages inhibit these effects. The findings of this study provide insights into the mechanism by which M. tuberculosis circumvents the host immune system as well as a theoretical foundation for the development of novel tuberculosis therapies based on reprogramming macrophage polarization.

  7. Contrasting Roles of Islet Resident Immunoregulatory Macrophages and Dendritic Cells in Experimental Autoimmune Type 1 Diabetes.

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    Thomas B Thornley

    Full Text Available The innate immune system critically shapes diabetogenic adaptive immunity during type 1 diabetes (T1D pathogenesis. While the role of tissue-infiltrating monocyte-derived macrophages in T1D is well established, the role of their tissue-resident counterparts remains undefined. We now demonstrate that islet resident macrophages (IRMs from non-autoimmune mice have an immunoregulatory phenotype and powerfully induce FoxP3+ Tregs in vitro. The immunoregulatory phenotype and function of IRMs is compromised by TLR4 activation in vitro. Moreover, as T1D approaches in NOD mice, the immunoregulatory phenotype of IRMs is diminished as is their relative abundance compared to immunostimulatory DCs. Our findings suggest that maintenance of IRM abundance and their immunoregulatory phenotype may constitute a novel therapeutic strategy to prevent and/or cure T1D.

  8. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) induces M2 polarization of human macrophages via STAT3 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Daisuke; Fujiwara, Yukio; Komohara, Yoshihiro; Mizuta, Hiroshi; Takeya, Motohiro

    2012-08-24

    It is known that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a hormone secreted postprandially from the L-cells of the small intestine and regulates glucose homeostasis. GLP-1 is now used for the treatment of diabetes because of its beneficial role against insulin resistance. The GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is expressed on many cell types, including macrophages, and GLP-1 suppresses the development of atherosclerosis by inhibiting macrophage function. However, there have so far been few studies that have investigated the significance of GLP-1/GLP-1R signaling in macrophage activation. In the present study, we examined the effect of GLP-1 and exenatide, a GLP-1R agonist, on human monocyte-derived macrophage (HMDM) activation. We found that GLP-1 induced signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) activation. Silencing of GLP-1R suppressed the GLP-1-induced STAT3 activation. In addition, alternatively activated (M2) macrophage-related molecules, such as IL-10, CD163, and CD204 in HMDM, were significantly upregulated by GLP-1. Furthermore, the co-culture of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with GLP-1-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages increased the secretion of adiponectin compared to co-culture of the 3T3-L1 adipocytes with untreated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Our results demonstrate that GLP-1 induces macrophage polarization toward the M2 phenotype, which may contribute to the protective effects of GLP-1 against diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.

  9. Endogenous epoxygenases are modulators of monocyte/macrophage activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Bystrom

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Arachidonic acid is metabolized through three major metabolic pathways, the cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase and CYP450 enzyme systems. Unlike cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenases, the role of CYP450 epoxygenases in monocyte/macrophage-mediated responses is not known. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: When transfected in vitro, CYP2J2 is an efficient activator of anti-inflammatory pathways through the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR α. Human monocytes and macrophages contain PPARα and here we show they express the epoxygenases CYP2J2 and CYP2C8. Inhibition of constitutive monocyte epoxygenases using the epoxygenase inhibitor SKF525A induces cyclooxygenase (COX-2 expression and activity, and the release of TNFα, and can be reversed by either add back of the endogenous epoxygenase products and PPARα ligand 11,12- epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET or the addition of the selective synthetic PPARα ligand GW7647. In alternatively activated (IL-4-treated monocytes, in contrast to classically activated cells, epoxygenase inhibition decreased TNFα release. Epoxygenases can be pro-inflammatory via superoxide anion production. The suppression of TNFα by SKF525A in the presence of IL-4 was associated with a reduction in superoxide anion generation and reproduced by the superoxide dismutase MnCl(2. Similar to these acute activation studies, in monocyte derived macrophages, epoxygenase inhibition elevates M1 macrophage TNFα mRNA and further decreases M2 macrophage TNFα. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, epoxygenase activity represents an important endogenous pathway which limits monocyte activation. Moreover endogenous epoxygenases are immuno-modulators regulating monocyte/macrophage activation depending on the underlying activation state.

  10. The Ron Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Regulates Macrophage Heterogeneity and Plays a Protective Role in Diet-Induced Obesity, Atherosclerosis, and Hepatosteatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shan; Allen, Joselyn N; Dey, Adwitia; Zhang, Limin; Balandaram, Gayathri; Kennett, Mary J; Xia, Mingcan; Xiong, Na; Peters, Jeffrey M; Patterson, Andrew; Hankey-Giblin, Pamela A

    2016-07-01

    Obesity is a chronic inflammatory disease mediated in large part by the activation of inflammatory macrophages. This chronic inflammation underlies a whole host of diseases including atherosclerosis, hepatic steatosis, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cancer, among others. Macrophages are generally classified as either inflammatory or alternatively activated. Some tissue-resident macrophages are derived from yolk sac erythromyeloid progenitors and fetal liver progenitors that seed tissues during embryogenesis and have the ability to repopulate through local proliferation. These macrophages tend to be anti-inflammatory in nature and are generally involved in tissue remodeling, repair, and homeostasis. Alternatively, during chronic inflammation induced by obesity, bone marrow monocyte-derived macrophages are recruited to inflamed tissues, where they produce proinflammatory cytokines and exacerbate inflammation. The extent to which these two populations of macrophages are plastic in their phenotype remains controversial. We have demonstrated previously that the Ron receptor tyrosine kinase is expressed on tissue-resident macrophages, where it limits inflammatory macrophage activation and promotes a repair phenotype. In this study, we demonstrate that Ron is expressed in a subpopulation of macrophages during chronic inflammation induced by obesity that exhibit a repair phenotype as determined by the expression of arginase 1. In addition, we demonstrate that the Ron receptor plays a protective role in the progression of diet-induced obesity, hepatosteatosis, and atherosclerosis. These results suggest that altering macrophage heterogeneity in vivo could have the potential to alleviate obesity-associated diseases. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  11. Macrophage-restricted interleukin-10 receptor deficiency, but not IL-10 deficiency, causes severe spontaneous colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigmond, Ehud; Bernshtein, Biana; Friedlander, Gilgi; Walker, Catherine R; Yona, Simon; Kim, Ki-Wook; Brenner, Ori; Krauthgamer, Rita; Varol, Chen; Müller, Werner; Jung, Steffen

    2014-05-15

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a pleiotropic anti-inflammatory cytokine produced and sensed by most hematopoietic cells. Genome-wide association studies and experimental animal models point at a central role of the IL-10 axis in inflammatory bowel diseases. Here we investigated the importance of intestinal macrophage production of IL-10 and their IL-10 exposure, as well as the existence of an IL-10-based autocrine regulatory loop in the gut. Specifically, we generated mice harboring IL-10 or IL-10 receptor (IL-10Rα) mutations in intestinal lamina propria-resident chemokine receptor CX3CR1-expressing macrophages. We found macrophage-derived IL-10 dispensable for gut homeostasis and maintenance of colonic T regulatory cells. In contrast, loss of IL-10 receptor expression impaired the critical conditioning of these monocyte-derived macrophages and resulted in spontaneous development of severe colitis. Collectively, our results highlight IL-10 as a critical homeostatic macrophage-conditioning agent in the colon and define intestinal CX3CR1(hi) macrophages as a decisive factor that determines gut health or inflammation.

  12. Vascular endothelial growth factor enhances macrophage clearance of apoptotic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Samay; Horstmann, Sarah A.; Richens, Tiffany R.; Tanaka, Takeshi; Doe, Jenna M.; Boe, Darren M.; Voelkel, Norbert F.; Taraseviciene-Stewart, Laimute; Janssen, William J.; Lee, Chun G.; Elias, Jack A.; Bratton, Donna; Tuder, Rubin M.; Henson, Peter M.; Vandivier, R. William

    2012-01-01

    Efficient clearance of apoptotic cells from the lung by alveolar macrophages is important for the maintenance of tissue structure and function. Lung tissue from humans with emphysema contains increased numbers of apoptotic cells and decreased levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Mice treated with VEGF receptor inhibitors have increased numbers of apoptotic cells and develop emphysema. We hypothesized that VEGF regulates apoptotic cell clearance by alveolar macrophages (AM) via its interaction with VEGF receptor 1 (VEGF R1). Our data show that the uptake of apoptotic cells by murine AMs and human monocyte-derived macrophages is inhibited by depletion of VEGF and that VEGF activates Rac1. Antibody blockade or pharmacological inhibition of VEGF R1 activity also decreased apoptotic cell uptake ex vivo. Conversely, overexpression of VEGF significantly enhanced apoptotic cell uptake by AMs in vivo. These results indicate that VEGF serves a positive regulatory role via its interaction with VEGF R1 to activate Rac1 and enhance AM apoptotic cell clearance. PMID:22307908

  13. Strong inhibition of TNF-alpha production and inhibition of IL-8 and COX-2 mRNA expression in monocyte-derived macrophages by RWJ 67657, a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, J; Doornbos-van der Meer, B; de Boer, Peter; van Leeuwen, MA; van Rijswijk, Martin; Limburg, PC

    2004-01-01

    In inflammatory processes, the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase ( MAPK) signal transduction route regulates production and expression of cytokines and other inflammatory mediators. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is a pivotal cytokine in rheumatoid arthritis and its production in macroph

  14. Stimulation of PBMC and Monocyte-derived-Macrophages via Toll-Like Receptor (TLRs Activates Innate Immune Pathways in HIV-Infected Patients on Virally-Suppressive Combination Antiretroviral Therapy (cART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Merlini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In HIV-infected cART-treated patients, immune activation and microbial translocation persist and associate with inadequate CD4 recovery and morbidity/mortality. We analyzed whether alterations in the TLR pathway could be responsible for the immune hyper-activation seen in these patients.PBMC/MDM of 28 HIV+ untreated and 35 cART treated patients with HIV-RNA<40cp/mL (20 Full Responders: CD4≥350; 15 Immunological Non Responders:CD4<350 as well as of 16 healthy controls were stimulated with a panel of TLR agonists. We measured: CD4/CD8/CD14/CD38/HLA-DR/Ki67/AnnexV/CD69/TLR4/8 (Flow Cytometry; PBMC expression of 84 TLR pathway genes (qPCR; PBMC/MDM cytokine release (Multiplex; plasma LPS/sCD14 (LAL/ELISA. PBMC/MDM from cART patients responded weakly to LPS stimulation but released high amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines. MDM from these patients were characterized by a reduced expression of HLA-DR+MDM and failed to expand activated HLA-DR+CD38+ T-lymphocytes. PBMC/MDM from cART patients responded more robustly to ssRNA stimulation; this resulted in a significant expansion of activated CD38+CD8 and the release of amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines comparable to those seen in untreated viremic patients. Despite greater constitutive TLR pathway gene expression, PBMC from Immunological Non Responders seemed to up-regulate only type I IFN genes following TLR stimulation, whereas PBMC from Full Responders showed a broader response. Systemic exposure to microbial antigens drives immune activation during cART by triggering TLRs. Bacterial stimulation modifies MDM function/pro-inflammatory profile in cART patients without affecting T-lymphocytes; this suggests translocating bacteria as selective stimulus to chronic innate activation during cART. High constitutive TLR activation is seen in patients lacking CD4 recovery, suggesting an exhausted immune milieu, anergic to further antigen encounters.

  15. Facilitated monocyte-macrophage uptake and tissue distribution of superparmagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Beduneau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We posit that the same mononuclear phagocytes (MP that serve as target cells and vehicles for a host of microbial infections can be used to improve diagnostics and drug delivery. We also theorize that physical and biological processes such as particle shape, size, coating and opsonization that affect MP clearance of debris and microbes can be harnessed to facilitate uptake of nanoparticles (NP and tissue delivery. METHODS: Monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM were used as vehicles of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO NP and immunoglobulin (IgG or albumin coated SPIO for studies of uptake and distribution. IgG coated SPIO was synthesized by covalent linkage and uptake into monocytes and MDM investigated related to size, time, temperature, concentration, and coatings. SPIO and IgG SPIO were infused intravenously into naïve mice. T(2 measures using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI were used to monitor tissue distribution in animals. RESULTS: Oxidation of dextran on the SPIO surface generated reactive aldehyde groups and permitted covalent linkage to amino groups of murine and human IgG and F(ab'(2 fragments and for Alexa Fluor(R 488 hydroxylamine to form a Schiff base. This labile intermediate was immediately reduced with sodium cyanoborohydride in order to stabilize the NP conjugate. Optical density measurements of the oxidized IgG, F(ab'(2, and/or Alexa Fluor(R 488 SPIO demonstrated approximately 50% coupling yield. IgG-SPIO was found stable at 4 degrees C for a period of 1 month during which size and polydispersity index varied little from 175 nm and 200 nm, respectively. In vitro, NP accumulated readily within monocyte and MDM cytoplasm after IgG-SPIO exposure; whereas, the uptake of native SPIO in monocytes and MDM was 10-fold less. No changes in cell viability were noted for the SPIO-containing monocytes and MDM. Cell morphology was not changed as observed by transmission electron microscopy. Compared to unconjugated

  16. Differential Constitutive and Cytokine-Modulated Expression of Human Toll-like Receptors in Primary Neutrophils, Monocytes, and Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Shane O'Mahony, Uyenvy Pham, Ramesh Iyer, Thomas R. Hawn, W. Conrad Liles

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Human Toll-like receptors (TLRs comprise a family of proteins that recognizes pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs and initiates host innate immune responses. Neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages are critical cellular components of the human innate immune system. Proinflammatory cytokines, such as granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF, and interferon-γ (IFN-γ, have been shown to up-regulate microbicidal activity in these effector cells of innate immunity. Currently, the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for these effects are not completely understood. We hypothesized that these cytokines may up-regulate TLR expression as a mechanism to facilitate microbial recognition and augment the innate immune response. Using quantitative realtime rt-PCR technology, we examined constitutive expression of TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, and TLR9 mRNA and the effects of G-CSF, GM-CSF, M-CSF, and IFN-γ on TLR mRNA expression in purified populations of normal human neutrophils, monocytes, and monocyte-derived macrophages. Relative constitutive expression of TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9 was similar in neutrophils and monocytes. Constitutive expression of TLR5 was less in neutrophils compared to monocytes. Constitutive expression of TLR4 was greater and that of TLR9 lower in monocyte-derived macrophages compared to monocytes. Of the cytokines examined, IFN-γ and GM-CSF caused the greatest effects on TLR expression. IFN- γ up-regulated TLR2 and TLR4 in neutrophils and monocytes. GM-CSF up-regulated expression of TLR2 and TLR4 in neutrophils and TLR2 in monocytes. TLR5 was down-regulated by inflammatory cytokines in monocytes. These results suggest a potential role for IFN- γ and/or GM-CSF as therapeutic immunomodulators of the host defense to infection.

  17. Macrophage dynamics are regulated by local macrophage proliferation and monocyte recruitment in injured pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gassen, Naomi; Van Overmeire, Eva; Leuckx, Gunter; Heremans, Yves; De Groef, Sofie; Cai, Ying; Elkrim, Yvon; Gysemans, Conny; Stijlemans, Benoît; Van de Casteele, Mark; De Baetselier, Patrick; De Leu, Nico; Heimberg, Harry; Van Ginderachter, Jo A

    2015-05-01

    Pancreas injury by partial duct ligation (PDL) activates a healing response, encompassing β-cell neogenesis and proliferation. Macrophages (MΦs) were recently shown to promote β-cell proliferation after PDL, but they remain poorly characterized. We assessed myeloid cell diversity and the factors driving myeloid cell dynamics following acute pancreas injury by PDL. In naive and sham-operated pancreas, the myeloid cell compartment consisted mainly of two distinct tissue-resident MΦ types, designated MHC-II(lo) and MHC-II(hi) MΦs, the latter being predominant. MHC-II(lo) and MHC-II(hi) pancreas MΦs differed at the molecular level, with MHC-II(lo) MΦs being more M2-activated. After PDL, there was an early surge of Ly6C(hi) monocyte infiltration in the pancreas, followed by a transient MHC-II(lo) MΦ peak and ultimately a restoration of the MHC-II(hi) MΦ-dominated steady-state equilibrium. These intricate MΦ dynamics in PDL pancreas depended on monocyte recruitment by C-C chemokine receptor 2 and macrophage-colony stimulating factor receptor as well as on macrophage-colony stimulating factor receptor-dependent local MΦ proliferation. Functionally, MHC-II(lo) MΦs were more angiogenic. We further demonstrated that, at least in C-C chemokine receptor 2-KO mice, tissue MΦs, rather than Ly6C(hi) monocyte-derived MΦs, contributed to β-cell proliferation. Together, our study fully characterizes the MΦ subsets in the pancreas and clarifies the complex dynamics of MΦs after PDL injury. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Haemophilus ducreyi-induced interleukin-10 promotes a mixed M1 and M2 activation program in human macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Katz, Barry P; Spinola, Stanley M

    2012-12-01

    During microbial infection, macrophages are polarized to classically activated (M1) or alternatively activated (M2) cells in response to microbial components and host immune mediators. Proper polarization of macrophages is critical for bacterial clearance. To study the role of macrophage polarization during Haemophilus ducreyi infection, we analyzed a panel of macrophage surface markers in skin biopsy specimens of pustules obtained from experimentally infected volunteers. Lesional macrophages expressed markers characteristic of both M1 and M2 polarization. Monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) also expressed a mixed M1 and M2 profile of surface markers and cytokines/chemokines upon infection with H. ducreyi in vitro. Endogenous interleukin 10 (IL-10) produced by infected MDM downregulated and enhanced expression of several M1 and M2 markers, respectively. Bacterial uptake, mediated mainly by class A scavenger receptors, and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling pathways were required for H. ducreyi-induced IL-10 production in MDM. Compared to M1 cells, IL-10-polarized M2 cells displayed enhanced phagocytic activity against H. ducreyi and similar bacterial killing. Thus, IL-10-modulated macrophage polarization may contribute to H. ducreyi clearance during human infection.

  19. Platelet-activating factor increases reactive oxygen species-mediated microbicidal activity of human macrophages infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Arissa Felipe; Morato, Camila Imai; Gomes, Rodrigo Saar; Dorta, Miriam Leandro; de Oliveira, Milton Adriano Pelli; Ribeiro-Dias, Fátima

    2017-09-29

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is produced by macrophages during inflammation and infections. We evaluated whether PAF is able to modulate the infection of human macrophages by Leishmania braziliensis, the main Leishmania sp. in Brazil. Monocyte-derived macrophages were incubated with promastigote forms in absence or presence of exogenous PAF. We observed that the treatment of macrophages with low concentrations of PAF prior to infection increased the phagocytosis of L. braziliensis. More importantly, exogenous PAF reduced the parasitism when it was added before, during or after infection. In addition, treatment with a PAF antagonist (PCA 4248) resulted in a significant increase of macrophage infection in a concentration-dependent manner, suggesting that endogenous PAF is important to control L. braziliensis infection. Mechanistically, while exogenous PAF increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) treatment with PCA 4248 reduced oxidative burst during L. braziliensis infection. The microbicidal effects of exogenous PAF were abolished when macrophages were treated with apocynin, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor. The data show that PAF promotes the production of ROS induced by L. braziliensis, suggesting that this lipid mediator may be relevant to control L. braziliensis infection in human macrophages. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Human macrophages chronically exposed to LPS can be reactivated by stimulation with MDP to acquire an antimicrobial phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Beltrán, Silvia; Torres, Martha; Arellano, Monserrat; Juárez, Esmeralda

    2017-02-21

    Macrophages are important in host defense and can differentiate into functionally distinct subsets named classically (M1) or alternatively (M2) activated. In several inflammatory disorders, macrophages become tolerized to prevent deleterious consequences. This tolerization reduces the ability of macrophages to respond to bacterial components (e.g., LPS) maintaining a low level of inflammation but compromising the ability of macrophages to mount an effective immune response during subsequent pathogen encounters. In this study, we aimed to reactivate human monocyte-derived macrophages chronically exposed to LPS by re-stimulation with muramyl dipeptide (MDP). We observed an undefined profile of cell surface marker expression during endotoxin tolerance and absence of TNFα production. Stimulating macrophages chronically exposed to LPS with LPS+MDP restored TNFα, production together with an increased production of IL1, IL6, IFNγ, IL4, IL5 and IL10. These results suggest that macrophages chronically exposed to LPS possess a mixed M1-M2 phenotype with sufficient antimicrobial and homeostatic potential.

  1. A primary human macrophage-enteroid co-culture model to investigate mucosal gut physiology and host-pathogen interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Gaelle; Baetz, Nicholas W.; Staab, Janet F.; Donowitz, Mark; Kovbasnjuk, Olga; Pasetti, Marcela F.; Zachos, Nicholas C.

    2017-01-01

    Integration of the intestinal epithelium and the mucosal immune system is critical for gut homeostasis. The intestinal epithelium is a functional barrier that secludes luminal content, senses changes in the gut microenvironment, and releases immune regulators that signal underlying immune cells. However, interactions between epithelial and innate immune cells to maintain barrier integrity and prevent infection are complex and poorly understood. We developed and characterized a primary human macrophage-enteroid co-culture model for in-depth studies of epithelial and macrophage interactions. Human intestinal stem cell-derived enteroid monolayers co-cultured with human monocyte-derived macrophages were used to evaluate barrier function, cytokine secretion, and protein expression under basal conditions and following bacterial infection. Macrophages enhanced barrier function and maturity of enteroid monolayers as indicated by increased transepithelial electrical resistance and cell height. Communication between the epithelium and macrophages was demonstrated through morphological changes and cytokine production. Intraepithelial macrophage projections, efficient phagocytosis, and stabilized enteroid barrier function revealed a coordinated response to enterotoxigenic and enteropathogenic E. coli infections. In summary, we have established the first primary human macrophage-enteroid co-culture system, defined conditions that allow for a practical and reproducible culture model, and demonstrated its suitability to study gut physiology and host responses to enteric pathogens. PMID:28345602

  2. A transmission electron microscopic study of microglia/macrophages in the hippocampal cortex and neocortex following chronic exposure to valproate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobaniec-Lotowska, Maria E

    2005-04-01

    In chronic administration of sodium valproate to rats, significant disorders of structural integrity of the hippocampal gyrus and the neocortex of the temporal lobe, observed in the last two stages of the experiment (after 9 and 12 months), coexisted with increased number of microglial cells and, especially after 12 months, with intense phagocytic activity within these cells. At the ultrastructural level, phagocyte microglial cells were hypertrophied with several broadened processes. Their cytoplasm contained rich lysosomal apparatus, numerous lipofuscin-like structures, lipid droplets and multilaminated bodies. The nuclei of these cells were characteristic oval or round and sometimes triangle in shape with dense and highly clumped heterochromatin, distinctly accumulated under nuclear envelope, and sparse euchromatin. Microglia/macrophages were frequently present in a close vicinity of changed neuronal somata and also close to the altered elements of the neuropil pyramidal layer of the cortex. Microglial response may, together with abnormalities in neurones, astroglia and blood-brain barrier, play a significant role in the development of experimental valproate encephalopathy.

  3. HIV-1 RNAs are Not Part of the Argonaute 2 Associated RNA Interference Pathway in Macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Vongrad

    Full Text Available MiRNAs and other small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs are key players in post-transcriptional gene regulation. HIV-1 derived small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs have been described in HIV-1 infected cells, but their biological functions still remain to be elucidated. Here, we approached the question whether viral sncRNAs may play a role in the RNA interference (RNAi pathway or whether viral mRNAs are targeted by cellular miRNAs in human monocyte derived macrophages (MDM.The incorporation of viral sncRNAs and/or their target RNAs into RNA-induced silencing complex was investigated using photoactivatable ribonucleoside-induced cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP as well as high-throughput sequencing of RNA isolated by cross-linking immunoprecipitation (HITS-CLIP, which capture Argonaute2-bound miRNAs and their target RNAs. HIV-1 infected monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM were chosen as target cells, as they have previously been shown to express HIV-1 sncRNAs. In addition, we applied small RNA deep sequencing to study differential cellular miRNA expression in HIV-1 infected versus non-infected MDMs.PAR-CLIP and HITS-CLIP data demonstrated the absence of HIV-1 RNAs in Ago2-RISC, although the presence of a multitude of HIV-1 sncRNAs in HIV-1 infected MDMs was confirmed by small RNA sequencing. Small RNA sequencing revealed that 1.4% of all sncRNAs were of HIV-1 origin. However, neither HIV-1 derived sncRNAs nor putative HIV-1 target sequences incorporated into Ago2-RISC were identified suggesting that HIV-1 sncRNAs are not involved in the canonical RNAi pathway nor is HIV-1 targeted by this pathway in HIV-1 infected macrophages.

  4. Viral infection of human lung macrophages increases PDL1 expression via IFNβ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl J Staples

    Full Text Available Lung macrophages are an important defence against respiratory viral infection and recent work has demonstrated that influenza-induced macrophage PDL1 expression in the murine lung leads to rapid modulation of CD8+ T cell responses via the PD1 receptor. This PD1/PDL1 pathway may downregulate acute inflammatory responses to prevent tissue damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of PDL1 regulation by human macrophages in response to viral infection. Ex-vivo viral infection models using influenza and RSV were established in human lung explants, isolated lung macrophages and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM and analysed by flow cytometry and RT-PCR. Incubation of lung explants, lung macrophages and MDM with X31 resulted in mean cellular infection rates of 18%, 18% and 29% respectively. Viral infection significantly increased cell surface expression of PDL1 on explant macrophages, lung macrophages and MDM but not explant epithelial cells. Infected MDM induced IFNγ release from autologous CD8+ T cells, an effect enhanced by PDL1 blockade. We observed increases in PDL1 mRNA and IFNβ mRNA and protein release by MDM in response to influenza infection. Knockdown of IFNβ by siRNA, resulted in a 37.5% reduction in IFNβ gene expression in response to infection, and a significant decrease in PDL1 mRNA. Furthermore, when MDM were incubated with IFNβ, this cytokine caused increased expression of PDL1 mRNA. These data indicate that human macrophage PDL1 expression modulates CD8+ cell IFNγ release in response to virus and that this expression is regulated by autologous IFNβ production.

  5. Adenosine deaminase acting on RNA-1 (ADAR1 inhibits HIV-1 replication in human alveolar macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Weiden

    Full Text Available While exploring the effects of aerosol IFN-γ treatment in HIV-1/tuberculosis co-infected patients, we observed A to G mutations in HIV-1 envelope sequences derived from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL of aerosol IFN-γ-treated patients and induction of adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1 in the BAL cells. IFN-γ induced ADAR1 expression in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM but not T cells. ADAR1 siRNA knockdown induced HIV-1 expression in BAL cells of four HIV-1 infected patients on antiretroviral therapy. Similar results were obtained in MDM that were HIV-1 infected in vitro. Over-expression of ADAR1 in transformed macrophages inhibited HIV-1 viral replication but not viral transcription measured by nuclear run-on, suggesting that ADAR1 acts post-transcriptionally. The A to G hyper-mutation pattern observed in ADAR1 over-expressing cells in vitro was similar to that found in the lungs of HIV-1 infected patients treated with aerosol IFN-γ suggesting the model accurately represented alveolar macrophages. Together, these results indicate that ADAR1 restricts HIV-1 replication post-transcriptionally in macrophages harboring HIV-1 provirus. ADAR1 may therefore contribute to viral latency in macrophages.

  6. Activation and cytokine profile of monocyte derived dendritic cells in leprosy: in vitro stimulation by sonicated Mycobacterium leprae induces decreased level of IL-12p70 in lepromatous leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Flores Braga

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs play a pivotal role in the connection of innate and adaptive immunity of hosts to mycobacterial infection. Studies on the interaction of monocyte-derived DCs (MO-DCs using Mycobacterium leprae in leprosy patients are rare. The present study demonstrated that the differentiation of MOs to DCs was similar in all forms of leprosy compared to normal healthy individuals. In vitro stimulation of immature MO-DCs with sonicated M. leprae induced variable degrees of DC maturation as determined by the increased expression of HLA-DR, CD40, CD80 and CD86, but not CD83, in all studied groups. The production of different cytokines by the MO-DCs appeared similar in all of the studied groups under similar conditions. However, the production of interleukin (IL-12p70 by MO-DCs from lepromatous (LL leprosy patients after in vitro stimulation with M. lepraewas lower than tuberculoid leprosy patients and healthy individuals, even after CD40 ligation with CD40 ligand-transfected cells. The present cumulative findings suggest that the MO-DCs of LL patients are generally a weak producer of IL-12p70 despite the moderate activating properties ofM. leprae. These results may explain the poor M. leprae-specific cell-mediated immunity in the LL type of leprosy.

  7. Activation and cytokine profile of monocyte derived dendritic cells in leprosy: in vitro stimulation by sonicated Mycobacterium leprae induces decreased level of IL-12p70 in lepromatous leprosy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, André Flores; Moretto, Daniela Ferraz; Gigliotti, Patrícia; Peruchi, Mariela; Vilani-Moreno, Fátima Regina; Campanelli, Ana Paula; Latini, Ana Carla Pereira; Iyer, Anand; Das, Pranab Kumar; de Souza, Vânia Nieto Brito

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play a pivotal role in the connection of innate and adaptive immunity of hosts to mycobacterial infection. Studies on the interaction of monocyte-derived DCs (MO-DCs) using Mycobacterium leprae in leprosy patients are rare. The present study demonstrated that the differentiation of MOs to DCs was similar in all forms of leprosy compared to normal healthy individuals. In vitro stimulation of immature MO-DCs with sonicated M. leprae induced variable degrees of DC maturation as determined by the increased expression of HLA-DR, CD40, CD80 and CD86, but not CD83, in all studied groups. The production of different cytokines by the MO-DCs appeared similar in all of the studied groups under similar conditions. However, the production of interleukin (IL)-12p70 by MO-DCs from lepromatous (LL) leprosy patients after in vitro stimulation with M. leprae was lower than tuberculoid leprosy patients and healthy individuals, even after CD40 ligation with CD40 ligand-transfected cells. The present cumulative findings suggest that the MO-DCs of LL patients are generally a weak producer of IL-12p70 despite the moderate activating properties ofM. leprae. These results may explain the poor M. leprae-specific cell-mediated immunity in the LL type of leprosy. PMID:26222022

  8. Electron microscope study on the relationship between macrophages of the alevolar space and spheroid alveolar epithelial cells on mice after injection of squid-ink (sepia-melanin solution into the trachea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwa,Kiichi

    1977-02-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between alveolar macrophages and spheroid alveolar epithelial cells was studied with the electron microscope after injection of squid-ink solution into the trachea of the mouse. At 20 hours after injection of squid-ink solution slight degeneration was evident in alveolar macrophages with sepia-melanin particles being phagocytized with partial digestion by lysosmes. Furthermore, hardly any changes were seen in mitochondria and inclusion bodies of the spheroid alveolar epithelial cells. In contrast, at one week after injection of squid-ink solution, almost all alveolar macrophages were degenerated with destruction of the ectoplasm in which the ingested sepia-melanin particles were digested by lysosomes into fine particles, and the mitochondria of spheroid alveolar epithelial cells were degenerated and the inclusion bodies were hardly formed. At three weeks after injection of squid-ink solution, alveolar macrophages as well as speroid alveolar epithelial cells showed almost complete recovery of functional structure. As the phagocyte in the alveolar space, neutrophile leucocytes were also observed in addition to the so-called alveolar macrophage.

  9. The in vitro fungicidal activity of human macrophages against Penicillium marneffei is suppressed by dexamethasone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tuan; Chen, Renqiong; Li, Xiqing; Lu, Changming; Xi, Liyan

    2015-09-01

    Penicillium marneffei (P. marneffei) is a pathogenic fungus that can persist in macrophages and cause a life-threatening systemic mycosis in immunocompromised hosts. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying this opportunistic fungal infection, we established the co-culture system of P. marneffei conidia and human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) for investigating the interactions between them. And, we impaired the immune state of MDM by the addition of dexamethasone (DEX). Compared with immunocompetent MDM without DEX treatment in response to P. marneffei, DEX could damage MDM function in initiating the innate immune response through decreasing TNF-α production and the proportion of P. marneffei conidia in mature phagolysosomes, while the red pigment secretion by P. marneffei conidia was promoted by DEX following MDM lysis. Our data provide the evidence that DEX-treated MDM have a low fungicidal activity against P. marneffei that causes penicilliosis in immunocompromised hosts.

  10. Intramacrophage survival of uropathogenic Escherichia coli: Differences between diverse clinical isolates and between mouse and human macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bokil, Nilesh J.; Totsika, Makrina; Carey, Alison J.;

    2011-01-01

    Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) are the primary cause of urinary tract infections. Recent studies have demonstrated that UPEC can invade and replicate within epithelial cells, suggesting that this bacterial pathogen may occupy an intracellular niche within the host. Given that many intracellular...... or initial uptake of bacteria. E. coli UTI89 localized to a Lamp1+ vesicular compartment within BMM. In contrast to survival within mouse BMM, intracellular bacterial loads of VR50 were low in both human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDM) and in human T24 bladder epithelial cells. Collectively, these data......, originally isolated from patients with cystitis and asymptomatic bacteriuria respectively, showed elevated bacterial loads in BMM at 24h post-infection as compared to CFT073 and the asymptomatic bacteriuria strain 83972. These differences did not correlate with differential effects on macrophage survival...

  11. Enhancement of macrophage candidacidal activity by interferon-gamma. Increased phagocytosis, killing, and calcium signal mediated by a decreased number of mannose receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maródi, L; Schreiber, S; Anderson, D C; MacDermott, R P; Korchak, H M; Johnston, R B

    1993-01-01

    In contrast to its macrophage-activating capacity, IFN-gamma downregulates expression of the macrophage mannose receptor (MMR), which mediates uptake of Candida and other microorganisms. We found that IFN-gamma induced a concentration-dependent increase in the capacity of human monocyte-derived macrophages to ingest and kill both opsonized and unopsonized Candida albicans and to release superoxide anion upon stimulation with Candida. Mannan or mannosylated albumin inhibited this activated uptake of unopsonized Candida, but glucan did not. Addition of mAb to complement receptor (CR) 3 did not inhibit ingestion; macrophages that lacked CR3 (leukocyte adhesion defect) showed normal upregulation of ingestion by IFN-gamma. The increased candidacidal activity of IFN-gamma-activated macrophages was associated with reduced expression of MMR by a mean of 79% and decreased pinocytic uptake of 125I-mannosylated BSA by 73%; K(uptake) of pinocytosis was not changed. Exposure of resident macrophages to unopsonized Candida did not elicit a transient increase in intracellular free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i); macrophages activated by IFN-gamma expressed a brisk increase in [Ca2+]i on exposure to Candida. These data suggest that macrophage activation by IFN-gamma can enhance resistance to C. albicans infection in spite of downregulation of the MMR, perhaps through enhanced coupling of the MMR to microbicidal functions. PMID:8390485

  12. Acidosis differently modulates the inflammatory program in monocytes and macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemann, Anne; Wußling, Hanna; Loppnow, Harald; Fu, Hang; Reime, Sarah; Thews, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation, ischemia or the microenvironment of solid tumors is often accompanied by a reduction of extracellular pH (acidosis) that stresses the cells and acts on cellular signaling and transcription. The effect of acidosis on the expression of various inflammatory markers, on functional parameters (migration, phagocytic activity) and on signaling pathways involved was studied in monocytic cells and macrophages. In monocytic cell lines acidosis led to a reduction in expression of most of the inflammatory mediators, namely IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α, MCP-1, COX-2 and osteopontin. In primary human monocytes MCP-1 and TNF-α were reduced but COX-2 and IL-6 were increased. In RAW264.7 macrophage cell line IL-1ß, COX-2 and iNOS expression was increased, whereas MCP-1 was reduced similar to the effect in monocytic cells. For primary human monocyte-derived macrophages the regulation of inflammatory markers by acidosis depended on activation state, except for the acidosis-induced downregulation of MCP-1 and TNF-α. Acidosis affected functional immune cell behavior when looking at phagocytic activity which was increased in a time-dependent manner, but cellular motility was not changed. Neither ERK1/2 nor CREB signaling was stimulated by the reduction of extracellular pH. However, p38 was activated by acidosis in RAW264.7 cells and this activation was critical for the induction of IL-1ß, COX-2 and iNOS expression. In conclusion, acidosis may impede the recruitment of immune cells, but fosters inflammation when macrophages are present by increasing the level of COX-2 and iNOS and by functionally forcing up the phagocytic activity.

  13. Candida albicans Chitin Increases Arginase-1 Activity in Human Macrophages, with an Impact on Macrophage Antimicrobial Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCallum, Donna M.; Brown, Gordon D.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT   The opportunistic human fungal pathogen Candida albicans can cause a variety of diseases, ranging from superficial mucosal infections to life-threatening systemic infections. Phagocytic cells of the innate immune response, such as neutrophils and macrophages, are important first-line responders to an infection and generate reactive oxygen and nitrogen species as part of their protective antimicrobial response. During an infection, host cells generate nitric oxide through the enzyme inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) to kill the invading pathogen. Inside the phagocyte, iNOS competes with the enzyme arginase-1 for a common substrate, the amino acid l-arginine. Several pathogenic species, including bacteria and parasitic protozoans, actively modulate the production of nitric oxide by inducing their own arginases or the host’s arginase activity to prevent the conversion of l-arginine to nitric oxide. We report here that C. albicans blocks nitric oxide production in human-monocyte-derived macrophages by induction of host arginase activity. We further determined that purified chitin (a fungal cell wall polysaccharide) and increased chitin exposure at the fungal cell wall surface induces this host arginase activity. Blocking the C. albicans-induced arginase activity with the arginase-specific substrate inhibitor Nω-hydroxy-nor-arginine (nor-NOHA) or the chitinase inhibitor bisdionin F restored nitric oxide production and increased the efficiency of fungal killing. Moreover, we determined that C. albicans influences macrophage polarization from a classically activated phenotype toward an alternatively activated phenotype, thereby reducing antimicrobial functions and mediating fungal survival. Therefore, C. albicans modulates l-arginine metabolism in macrophages during an infection, potentiating its own survival. PMID:28119468

  14. The membrane-bound ectopeptidase CPM as a marker of macrophage maturation in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehli, M; Krause, S W; Andreesen, R

    2000-01-01

    During terminal maturation of human blood monocytes into macrophages, a multitude of phenotypic and functional changes occurs: cells increase in size, they enhance their capacity for phagocytosis and tumor cytotoxicity but decrease their ability for T-lymphocyte stimulation. The pattern of secreted cytokines is shifted as is the profile of surface antigens. We recently identified carboxypeptidase M (CPM) as a macrophage maturation-associated antigen detected by mAb MAX. 1/MAX. 11. CPM, a phosphoinositol-linked ectopeptidase, is able to process a multitude of different substrates, among them immunologically important peptides like bradykinin, anaphylatoxins and enkephalins. It was previously shown to be expressed in placenta, lung, and kidney. CPM as detected by MAX. 1/11 shows a strong expression on monocyte-derived macrophages in vitro and on macrophages in vivo accompanying T-lymphocyte activation like during allogeneic transplant rejection or allergic alveolitis. In contrast, its expression is suppressed on macrophages by some types of tumor cells. CPM expression seems to correlate with macrophage cytotoxic functions. However, the biological importance of CPM expression in human macrophages in vivo is difficult to predict. A wide range of biologically active peptides are cleaved by CPM, and the relevance of CPM peptide processing during an immune reaction is only poorly understood. The generation and analysis of CPM-deficient animals might improve our understanding of CPM function. Therefore we cloned a cDNA for the murine homologue of CPM. However, expression of mCPM was undetectable in murine primary macrophages and macrophage cell-lines, suggesting that CPM expression and function is not conserved between human and mouse macrophages.

  15. Mycobacterium leprae-Infected Macrophages Preferentially Primed Regulatory T Cell Responses and Was Associated with Lepromatous Leprosy.

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    Degang Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The persistence of Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae infection is largely dependent on the types of host immune responses being induced. Macrophage, a crucial modulator of innate and adaptive immune responses, could be directly infected by M. leprae. We therefore postulated that M. leprae-infected macrophages might have altered immune functions.Here, we treated monocyte-derived macrophages with live or killed M. leprae, and examined their activation status and antigen presentation. We found that macrophages treated with live M. leprae showed committed M2-like function, with decreased interleukin 1 beta (IL-1beta, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha and MHC class II molecule expression and elevated IL-10 and CD163 expression. When incubating with naive T cells, macrophages treated with live M. leprae preferentially primed regulatory T (Treg cell responses with elevated FoxP3 and IL-10 expression, while interferon gamma (IFN-gamma expression and CD8+ T cell cytotoxicity were reduced. Chromium release assay also found that live M. leprae-treated macrophages were more resistant to CD8+ T cell-mediated cytotoxicity than sonicated M. leprae-treated monocytes. Ex vivo studies showed that the phenotype and function of monocytes and macrophages had clear differences between L-lep and T-lep patients, consistent with the in vitro findings.Together, our data demonstrate that M. leprae could utilize infected macrophages by two mechanisms: firstly, M. leprae-infected macrophages preferentially primed Treg but not Th1 or cytotoxic T cell responses; secondly, M. leprae-infected macrophages were more effective at evading CD8+ T cell-mediated cytotoxicity.

  16. Psychedelic N,N-dimethyltryptamine and 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine modulate innate and adaptive inflammatory responses through the sigma-1 receptor of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Attila; Kovacs, Attila; Frecska, Ede; Rajnavolgyi, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The orphan receptor sigma-1 (sigmar-1) is a transmembrane chaperone protein expressed in both the central nervous system and in immune cells. It has been shown to regulate neuronal differentiation and cell survival, and mediates anti-inflammatory responses and immunosuppression in murine in vivo models. Since the details of these findings have not been elucidated so far, we studied the effects of the endogenous sigmar-1 ligands N,N-dimethyltryptamine (NN-DMT), its derivative 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) and the synthetic high affinity sigmar-1 agonist PRE-084 hydrochloride on human primary monocyte-derived dendritic cell (moDCs) activation provoked by LPS, polyI:C or pathogen-derived stimuli to induce inflammatory responses. Co-treatment of moDC with these activators and sigma-1 receptor ligands inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα and the chemokine IL-8, while increased the secretion of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. The T-cell activating capacity of moDCs was also inhibited, and dimethyltryptamines used in combination with E. coli or influenza virus as stimulators decreased the differentiation of moDC-induced Th1 and Th17 inflammatory effector T-cells in a sigmar-1 specific manner as confirmed by gene silencing. Here we demonstrate for the first time the immunomodulatory potential of NN-DMT and 5-MeO-DMT on human moDC functions via sigmar-1 that could be harnessed for the pharmacological treatment of autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammatory conditions of the CNS or peripheral tissues. Our findings also point out a new biological role for dimethyltryptamines, which may act as systemic endogenous regulators of inflammation and immune homeostasis through the sigma-1 receptor.

  17. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells from late gestation cows have an impaired ability to mature in response to E. coli stimulation in a receptor and cytokine-mediated fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, Brianna; Sipka, Anja; Klaessig, Suzanne; Schukken, Ynte

    2015-09-15

    During late gestation the bovine immune system is less capable of eliciting inflammatory responses and eliminating invading pathogens. The maternal immune system is directed toward tolerance in order to prevent fetal rejection due to recognition of paternal antigens. In humans and mice, dendritic cell (DC) populations maintain a tolerogenic phenotype essential in the generation and preservation of maternal immune tolerance throughout pregnancy. However, the primary mechanisms which facilitate maternal immune tolerance involved in bovine gestation remain poorly understood. In order to determine if DC phenotype and function were regulated toward tolerance during bovine gestation, we compared in vitro generated monocyte-derived DC (mo-DC) from monocytes isolated from cows in late gestation (LG) to those from non-pregnant (NP) cows in their ability to mature following stimulation with UV irradiated Escherichia coli. Our results show mo-DC from LG cows have an impaired ability to mature in response to E. coli stimulation in a receptor and cytokine-mediated fashion in comparison to those from NP cows. Specifically, mo-DC from LG cows were unable to upregulate MHC II and maintained high expression of CD14, both indicative of an immature phenotype following E. coli-stimulation. Only mo-DC from LG showed significant increase in IL-10 production and had a significantly lower ratio of production of the Th1-polarizing cytokine IL-12 to regulatory cytokine IL-10 following E. coli stimulation compared to mo-DC from NP cows. Our findings demonstrate mo-DC from LG cows have a stifled capacity to develop a mature phenotype and drive pro-inflammatory Th1-type responses to E. coli stimulation. Results from this study provide insight into DC immune modulation in bovine pregnancy and elucidate host factors which may contribute to the heightened susceptibility to infection in late gestation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. PRRSV-infected monocyte-derived dendritic cells express high levels of SLA-DR and CD80/86 but do not stimulate PRRSV-naïve regulatory T cells to proliferate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Gómez, Irene M; Käser, Tobias; Gómez-Laguna, Jaime; Lamp, Benjamin; Sinn, Leonie; Rümenapf, Till; Carrasco, Librado; Saalmüller, Armin; Gerner, Wilhelm

    2015-05-20

    In vitro generated monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) have frequently been used to study the influence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection on antigen presenting cells. However, obtained results have often been conflicting in regard to expression of co-stimulatory molecules and interaction with T cells. In this study we performed a detailed phenotypic characterisation of PRRSV-infected moDCs and non-infected moDCs. For CD163 and CD169, which are involved in PRRSV-entry into host cells, our results show that prior to infection porcine moDCs express high levels of CD163 but only very low levels for CD169. Following infection with either PRRSV-1 or PRRSV-2 strains after 24 h, PRRSV-nucleoprotein (N-protein)(+) and N-protein(-) moDCs derived from the same microculture were analyzed for expression of swine leukocyte antigen-DR (SLA-DR) and CD80/86. N-protein(+) moDCs consistently expressed higher levels of SLA-DR and CD80/86 compared to N-protein(-) moDCs. We also investigated the influence of PRRSV-infected moDCs on proliferation and frequency of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells present within CD4(+) T cells in in vitro co-cultures. Neither CD3-stimulated nor unstimulated CD4(+) T cells showed differences in regard to proliferation and frequency of Foxp3(+) T cells following co-cultivation with either PRRSV-1 or PRRSV-2 infected moDCs. Our results suggest that a more detailed characterisation of PRRSV-infected moDCs will lead to more consistent results across different laboratories and PRRSV strains as indicated by the major differences in SLA-DR and CD80/86 expression between PRRSV-infected and non-infected moDCs present in the same microculture.

  19. Psychedelic N,N-dimethyltryptamine and 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine modulate innate and adaptive inflammatory responses through the sigma-1 receptor of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Szabo

    Full Text Available The orphan receptor sigma-1 (sigmar-1 is a transmembrane chaperone protein expressed in both the central nervous system and in immune cells. It has been shown to regulate neuronal differentiation and cell survival, and mediates anti-inflammatory responses and immunosuppression in murine in vivo models. Since the details of these findings have not been elucidated so far, we studied the effects of the endogenous sigmar-1 ligands N,N-dimethyltryptamine (NN-DMT, its derivative 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT and the synthetic high affinity sigmar-1 agonist PRE-084 hydrochloride on human primary monocyte-derived dendritic cell (moDCs activation provoked by LPS, polyI:C or pathogen-derived stimuli to induce inflammatory responses. Co-treatment of moDC with these activators and sigma-1 receptor ligands inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα and the chemokine IL-8, while increased the secretion of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. The T-cell activating capacity of moDCs was also inhibited, and dimethyltryptamines used in combination with E. coli or influenza virus as stimulators decreased the differentiation of moDC-induced Th1 and Th17 inflammatory effector T-cells in a sigmar-1 specific manner as confirmed by gene silencing. Here we demonstrate for the first time the immunomodulatory potential of NN-DMT and 5-MeO-DMT on human moDC functions via sigmar-1 that could be harnessed for the pharmacological treatment of autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammatory conditions of the CNS or peripheral tissues. Our findings also point out a new biological role for dimethyltryptamines, which may act as systemic endogenous regulators of inflammation and immune homeostasis through the sigma-1 receptor.

  20. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells exposed to Der p 1 allergen enhance the recruitment of Th2 cells: major involvement of the chemokines TARC/CCL17 and MDC/CCL22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, Hamida; Smits, Hermelijn H; Ratajczak, Céline; Nithiananthan, Asokananthan; Wierenga, Eddy A; Stewart, Geoffrey A; Jacquet, Alain; Tonnel, Andre-Bernard; Pestel, Joël

    2003-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are potent antigen - presenting cells that can orientate the immune response towards a Th1 or a Th2 type. DC produce chemokines that are involved in the recruitment of either Th1 cells, such as IP10 (CXCL10), Th2 cells such as TARC (CCL17) and MDC (CCL22), or non-polarized T cells such as RANTES (CCL5) and MIP-lalpha (CCL3). We investigated whether monocyte-derived DC (MD-DC) generated from healthy donors or from patients sensitive to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dpt) and exposed to the cysteine-protease Der p 1(allergen of Dpt), could upregulate the expression of chemokines involved in type 1 or type 2 T cell recruitment. MD-DC were pulsed with either Der p 1 or with LPS as the control and the chemokines produced were evaluated using ELISA and chemotaxis assays. Der p 1-pulsed DC from allergic patients showed increased TARC (CCL17) and MDC (CCL22) production without modifying IP-10 (CXCL10) release. Der p 1-pulsed DC from healthy donors showed only increased IP-10 (CXCL10) secretion. RANTES (CCL5) and MIP-lalpha (CCL3) production were similarly increased when DC were from healthy or allergic donors. The selective Th2 clone recruitment activity of supernatants from Der p 1-pulsed DC of allergic patients was inhibited by anti-TARC (CCL17) and anti-MDC (CCL22) neutralizing Abs. By using anti-IP10 (CXCL10) blocking Abs, supernatants of Der p 1-pulsed DC from healthy donors were shown to be involved in the recruitment of Th1 cells. These results suggest that in allergic patients exposed to house dust mites, DC may favour the exacerbation of the Th2 response via the increase in type 2 chemokine production. Copyright John Libbey Eurotext 2003.

  1. Single point mutations in the helicase domain of the NS3 protein enhance dengue virus replicative capacity in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells and circumvent the type I interferon response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, G F; Strottmann, D M; de Borba, L; Mansur, D S; Zanchin, N I T; Bordignon, J; dos Santos, C N Duarte

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is the most prevalent arboviral disease worldwide. The outcome of the infection is determined by the interplay of viral and host factors. In the present study, we evaluated the cellular response of human monocyte-derived DCs (mdDCs) infected with recombinant dengue virus type 1 (DV1) strains carrying a single point mutation in the NS3hel protein (L435S or L480S). Both mutated viruses infect and replicate more efficiently and produce more viral progeny in infected mdDCs compared with the parental, non-mutated virus (vBACDV1). Additionally, global gene expression analysis using cDNA microarrays revealed that the mutated DVs induce the up-regulation of the interferon (IFN) signalling and pattern recognition receptor (PRR) canonical pathways in mdDCs. Pronounced production of type I IFN were detected specifically in mdDCs infected with DV1-NS3hel-mutated virus compared with mdDCs infected with the parental virus. In addition, we showed that the type I IFN produced by mdDCs is able to reduce DV1 infection rates, suggesting that cytokine function is effective but not sufficient to mediate viral clearance of DV1-NS3hel-mutated strains. Our results demonstrate that single point mutations in subdomain 2 have important implications for adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity of DV1-NS3hel. Although a direct functional connection between the increased ATPase activity and viral replication still requires further studies, these mutations speed up viral RNA replication and are sufficient to enhance viral replicative capacity in human primary cell infection and circumvent type I IFN activity. This information may have particular relevance for attenuated vaccine protocols designed for DV.

  2. Function of microglia and macrophages in secondary damage after spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Zhou; Xijing He; Yi Ren

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating type of neurological trauma with limited therapeutic op-portunities. The pathophysiology of SCI involves primary and secondary mechanisms of injury. Among all the secondary injury mechanisms, the inlfammatory response is the major contrib-utor and results in expansion of the lesion and further loss of neurologic function. Meanwhile, the inlfammation directly and indirectly dominates the outcomes of SCI, including not only pain and motor dysfunction, but also preventingneuronal regeneration. Microglia and macrophages play very important roles in secondary injury. Microglia reside in spinal parenchyma and survey the microenvironment through the signals of injury or infection. Macrophages are derived from monocytes recruited to injured sites from the peripheral circulation. Activated resident microglia and monocyte-derived macrophages induce and magnify immune and inlfammatory responses not only by means of their secretory moleculesand phagocytosis, but also through their inlfuence on astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and demyelination. In this review, we focus on the roles of mi-croglia and macrophages in secondary injury and how they contribute to the sequelae of SCI.

  3. Regression of atherosclerosis is characterized by broad changes in the plaque macrophage transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E Feig

    Full Text Available We have developed a mouse model of atherosclerotic plaque regression in which an atherosclerotic aortic arch from a hyperlipidemic donor is transplanted into a normolipidemic recipient, resulting in rapid elimination of cholesterol and monocyte-derived macrophage cells (CD68+ from transplanted vessel walls. To gain a comprehensive view of the differences in gene expression patterns in macrophages associated with regressing compared with progressing atherosclerotic plaque, we compared mRNA expression patterns in CD68+ macrophages extracted from plaque in aortic aches transplanted into normolipidemic or into hyperlipidemic recipients. In CD68+ cells from regressing plaque we observed that genes associated with the contractile apparatus responsible for cellular movement (e.g. actin and myosin were up-regulated whereas genes related to cell adhesion (e.g. cadherins, vinculin were down-regulated. In addition, CD68+ cells from regressing plaque were characterized by enhanced expression of genes associated with an anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage phenotype, including arginase I, CD163 and the C-lectin receptor. Our analysis suggests that in regressing plaque CD68+ cells preferentially express genes that reduce cellular adhesion, enhance cellular motility, and overall act to suppress inflammation.

  4. Impaired Functions of Macrophage from Cystic Fibrosis Patients: CD11b, TLR-5 Decrease and sCD14, Inflammatory Cytokines Increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonin-Le Jeune, Karin; Le Jeune, André; Jouneau, Stéphane; Belleguic, Chantal; Roux, Pierre-François; Jaguin, Marie; Dimanche-Boitre, Marie-Thérèse; Lecureur, Valérie; Leclercq, Caroline; Desrues, Benoît; Brinchault, Graziella; Gangneux, Jean-Pierre; Martin-Chouly, Corinne

    2013-01-01

    Background Early in life, cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are infected with microorganisms. The role of macrophages has largely been underestimated in literature, whereas the focus being mostly on neutrophils and epithelial cells. Macrophages may however play a significant role in the initiating stages of this disease, via an inability to act as a suppressor cell. Yet macrophage dysfunction may be the first step in cascade of events leading to chronic inflammation/infection in CF. Moreover, reports have suggested that CFTR contribute to altered inflammatory response in CF by modification of normal macrophage functions. Objectives In order to highlight possible intrinsic macrophage defects due to impaired CFTR, we have studied inflammatory cytokines secretions, recognition of pathogens and phagocytosis in peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages from stable adult CF patients and healthy subjects (non-CF). Results In CF macrophage supernatants, concentrations of sCD14, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-10 were strongly raised. Furthermore expression of CD11b and TLR-5 were sorely decreased on CF macrophages. Beside, no difference was observed for mCD14, CD16, CD64, TLR-4 and TLR1/TLR-2 expressions. Moreover, a strong inhibition of phagocytosis was observed for CF macrophages. Elsewhere CFTR inhibition in non-CF macrophages also led to alterations of phagocytosis function as well as CD11b expression. Conclusions Altogether, these findings demonstrate excessive inflammation in CF macrophages, characterized by overproduction of sCD14 and inflammatory cytokines, with decreased expression of CD11b and TLR-5, and impaired phagocytosis. This leads to altered clearance of pathogens and non-resolution of infection by CF macrophages, thereby inducing an exaggerated pro-inflammatory response. PMID:24098711

  5. Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis Recombinant Proteins Modulate Antimycobacterial Functions of Bovine Macrophages.

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    John P Bannantine

    Full Text Available It has been shown that Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis activates the Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK p38 pathway, yet it is unclear which components of M. paratuberculosis are involved in the process. Therefore, a set of 42 M. paratuberculosis recombinant proteins expressed from coding sequences annotated as lipoproteins were screened for their ability to induce IL-10 expression, an indicator of MAPKp38 activation, in bovine monocyte-derived macrophages. A recombinant lipoprotein, designated as MAP3837c, was among a group of 6 proteins that strongly induced IL-10 gene transcription in bovine macrophages, averaging a 3.1-fold increase compared to non-stimulated macrophages. However, a parallel increase in expression of IL-12 and TNF-α was only observed in macrophages exposed to a subset of these 6 proteins. Selected recombinant proteins were further analyzed for their ability to enhance survival of M. avium within bovine macrophages as measured by recovered viable bacteria and nitrite production. All 6 IL-10 inducing MAP recombinant proteins along with M. paratuberculosis cells significantly enhanced phosphorylation of MAPK-p38 in bovine macrophages. Although these proteins are likely not post translationally lipidated in E. coli and thus is a limitation in this study, these results form the foundation of how the protein component of the lipoprotein interacts with the immune system. Collectively, these data reveal M. paratuberculosis proteins that might play a role in MAPK-p38 pathway activation and hence in survival of this organism within bovine macrophages.

  6. Chitosan drives anti-inflammatory macrophage polarisation and pro-inflammatory dendritic cell stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MI Oliveira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages and dendritic cells (DC share the same precursor and play key roles in immunity. Modulation of their behaviour to achieve an optimal host response towards an implanted device is still a challenge. Here we compare the differentiation process and polarisation of these related cell populations and show that they exhibit different responses to chitosan (Ch, with human monocyte-derived macrophages polarising towards an anti-inflammatory phenotype while their DC counterparts display pro-inflammatory features. Macrophages and DC, whose interactions with biomaterials are frequently analysed using fully differentiated cells, were cultured directly on Ch films, rather than exposed to the polymer after complete differentiation. Ch was the sole stimulating factor and activated both macrophages and DC, without leading to significant T cell proliferation. After 10 d on Ch, macrophages significantly down-regulated expression of pro-inflammatory markers, CD86 and MHCII. Production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, particularly TNF-α, decreased with time for cells cultured on Ch, while anti-inflammatory IL-10 and TGF-β1, significantly increased. Altogether, these results suggest an M2c polarisation. Also, macrophage matrix metalloproteinase activity was augmented and cell motility was stimulated by Ch. Conversely, DC significantly enhanced CD86 expression, reduced IL-10 secretion and increased TNF-α and IL-1β levels. Our findings indicate that cells with a common precursor may display different responses, when challenged by the same biomaterial. Moreover, they help to further comprehend macrophage/DC interactions with Ch and the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory signals associated with implant biomaterials. We propose that an overall pro-inflammatory reaction may hide the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines, likely relevant for tissue repair/regeneration.

  7. Chemical and physical effects on the adhesion, maturation, and survival of monocytes, macrophages, and foreign body giant cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Terry Odell, III

    Injury caused by biomedical device implantation initiates inflammatory and wound healing responses. Cells migrate to the site of injury to degrade bacteria and toxins, create new vasculature, and form new and repair injured tissue. Blood-proteins rapidly adsorb onto the implanted material surface and express adhesive ligands which mediate cell adhesion on the material surface. Monocyte-derived macrophages and multi-nucleated foreign body giant cells adhere to the surface and degrade the surface of the material. Due to the role of macrophage and foreign body giant cell on material biocompatibility and biostability, the effects of surface chemistry, surface topography and specific proteins on the maturation and survival of monocytes, macrophages and foreign body giant cells has been investigated. Novel molecularly designed materials were used to elucidate the dynamic interactions which occur between inflammatory cells, proteins and surfaces. The effect of protein and protein adhesion was investigated using adhesive protein depleted serum conditions on RGD-modified and silane modified surfaces. The effects of surface chemistry were investigated using temperature responsive surfaces of poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) and micropatterned surfaces of N-(2 aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane regions on an interpenetrating polymer network of polyacrylamide and poly(ethylene glycol). The physical effects were investigated using polyimide scaffold materials and polyurethane materials with surface modifying end groups. The depletion of immunoglobulin G caused decreased levels of macrophage adhesion, foreign body giant cell formation and increased levels of apoptosis. The temporal nature of macrophage adhesion was observed with changing effectiveness of adherent cell detachment with time, which correlated to increased expression of beta1 integrin receptors on detached macrophages with time. The limited ability of the micropatterned surface, polyimide scaffold and surface

  8. Recruitment of beneficial M2 macrophages to injured spinal cord is orchestrated by remote brain choroid plexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechter, Ravid; Miller, Omer; Yovel, Gili; Rosenzweig, Neta; London, Anat; Ruckh, Julia; Kim, Ki-Wook; Klein, Eugenia; Kalchenko, Vyacheslav; Bendel, Peter; Lira, Sergio A; Jung, Steffen; Schwartz, Michal

    2013-03-21

    Monocyte-derived macrophages are essential for recovery after spinal cord injury, but their homing mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we show that although of common origin, the homing of proinflammatory (M1) and the "alternatively activated" anti-inflammatory (M2) macrophages to traumatized spinal cord (SC) was distinctly regulated, neither being through breached blood-brain barrier. The M1 macrophages (Ly6c(hi)CX3CR1(lo)) derived from monocytes homed in a CCL2 chemokine-dependent manner through the adjacent SC leptomeninges. The resolving M2 macrophages (Ly6c(lo)CX3CR1(hi)) derived from monocytes trafficked through a remote blood-cerebrospinal-fluid (CSF) barrier, the brain-ventricular choroid plexus (CP), via VCAM-1-VLA-4 adhesion molecules and epithelial CD73 enzyme for extravasation and epithelial transmigration. Blockage of these determinants, or mechanical CSF flow obstruction, inhibited M2 macrophage recruitment and impaired motor-function recovery. The CP, along with the CSF and the central canal, provided an anti-inflammatory supporting milieu, potentially priming the trafficking monocytes. Overall, our finding demonstrates that the route of monocyte entry to central nervous system provides an instructional environment to shape their function.

  9. Monocyte to macrophage differentiation goes along with modulation of the plasmalogen pattern through transcriptional regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Wallner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dysregulation of monocyte-macrophage differentiation is a hallmark of vascular and metabolic diseases and associated with persistent low grade inflammation. Plasmalogens represent ether lipids that play a role in diabesity and previous data show diminished plasmalogen levels in obese subjects. We therefore analyzed transcriptomic and lipidomic changes during monocyte-macrophage differentiation in vitro using a bioinformatic approach. METHODS: Elutriated monocytes from 13 healthy donors were differentiated in vitro to macrophages using rhM-CSF under serum-free conditions. Samples were taken on days 0, 1, 4 and 5 and analyzed for their lipidomic and transcriptomic profiles. RESULTS: Gene expression analysis showed strong regulation of lipidome-related transcripts. Enzymes involved in fatty acid desaturation and elongation were increasingly expressed, peroxisomal and ER stress related genes were induced. Total plasmalogen levels remained unchanged, while the PE plasmalogen species pattern became more similar to circulating granulocytes, showing decreases in PUFA and increases in MUFA. A partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS/DA revealed that PE plasmalogens discriminate the stage of monocyte-derived macrophage differentiation. Partial correlation analysis could predict novel potential key nodes including DOCK1, PDK4, GNPTAB and FAM126A that might be involved in regulating lipid and especially plasmalogen homeostasis during differentiation. An in silico transcription analysis of lipid related regulation revealed known motifs such as PPAR-gamma and KLF4 as well as novel candidates such as NFY, RNF96 and Zinc-finger proteins. CONCLUSION: Monocyte to macrophage differentiation goes along with profound changes in the lipid-related transcriptome. This leads to an induction of fatty-acid desaturation and elongation. In their PE-plasmalogen profile macrophages become more similar to granulocytes than monocytes, indicating terminal

  10. 17β-estradiol protects primary macrophages against HIV infection through induction of interferon-alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasker, Carley; Ding, Jian; Schmolke, Mirco; Rivera-Medina, Amariliz; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Chang, Theresa L

    2014-05-01

    Estrogen has been shown to increase resistance to HIV/SIV transmission by increasing the thickness of the genital epithelium. The immunological role of estrogen in HIV infection of primary target cells is less well characterized. We have found that primary macrophages are a target for anti-HIV activity of 17β-estradiol (E2). E2 did not affect surface expression of CD4 and HIV co-receptors nor HIV attachment to monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). In addition, E2 treatment blocked infection by a co-receptor-independent HIV-1VSV-G pseudotyped virus. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of HIV reverse transcribed DNA products indicated that E2 blocked HIV reverse transcription. E2 upregulated gene expression of interferons (IFNs) in MDMs from multiple donors. However, induction of host restriction factors APOBEC3G, APOBEC3F, or SAMHD1 was not consistent, with exception of APOBEC3A. Anti-HIV activity of E2 was abolished in the presence of IFN-α neutralizing antibody, and was absent in bone marrow-derived macrophages from IFN-α receptor deficient mice. Interestingly, HIV overcame E2-mediated HIV inhibition by suppressing induction of IFNs when MDMs were exposed to HIV before E2 treatment. These results offer a new mechanism of E2 on HIV inhibition. Future studies on the interplay between HIV and E2-mediated innate immune responses will likely provide insights relevant for development of effective strategies for HIV prevention.

  11. Monitoring intra-cellular lipid metabolism in macrophages by Raman- and CARS-microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthäus, Christian; Bergner, Gero; Krafft, Christoph; Dietzek, Benjamin; Lorkowski, Stefan; Popp, Jürgen

    2010-04-01

    Monocyte-derived macrophages play a key role in lipid metabolism in vessel wall tissues. Macrophages can take up lipids by various mechanisms. As phagocytes, macrophages are important for the decomposition of lipid plaques within arterial walls that contribute to arteriosclerosis. Of special interest are uptake dynamics and intra-cellular fate of different individual types of lipids as, for example, fatty acids, triglycerides or free and esterified cholesterol. Here we utilize Raman microscopy to image the metabolism of such lipids and follow subsequent storage or degradation patterns. The combination of optical microscopy with Raman spectroscopy allows visualization at the diffraction limit of the employed laser light and biochemical characterization through the associated spectral information. Relatively long measuring times, due to the weakness of Raman scattering can be overcome by non-linear effects such as coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS). With this contribution we introduce first results to monitor the incorporation of lipid components into individual cells employing Raman and CARS microscopy.

  12. Mechanism involved in interleukin-21-induced phagocytosis in human monocytes and macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallières, F; Girard, D

    2017-02-01

    The interleukin (IL)-21/IL-21 receptor (R) is a promising system to be exploited for the development of therapeutic strategies. Although the biological activities of IL-21 and its cell signalling events have been largely studied in immunocytes, its interaction with human monocytes and macrophages have been neglected. Previously, we reported that IL-21 enhances Fc gamma receptor (FcRγ)-mediated phagocytosis in human monocytes and in human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDM) and identified Syk as a novel molecular target of IL-21. Here, we elucidate further how IL-21 promotes phagocytosis in these cells. Unlike its ability to enhance phagocytosis of opsonized sheep red blood cells (SRBCs), IL-21 did not promote phagocytosis of Escherichia coli and zymosan by monocytes and did not alter the cell surface expression of CD16, CD32 and CD64. In HMDM, IL-21 was found to enhance phagocytosis of zymosan. In addition, we found that IL-21 activates p38, protein kinase B (Akt), signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-1 and STAT-3 in monocytes and HMDM. Using a pharmacological approach, we demonstrate that IL-21 enhances phagocytosis by activating some mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt and Janus kinase (JAK)-STAT pathways. These results obtained in human monocytes and macrophages have to be considered for a better exploitation of the IL-21/IL-21R system for therapeutic purposes. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  13. Elucidation of adhesion-dependent spontaneous apoptosis in macrophages using phase separated PEG/polyurethane films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachman, Angela L.; Page, Jonathan M.; Prabhakar, Gayathri; Guelcher, Scott A.; Sung, Hak-Joon

    2013-01-01

    Circulating monocytes undergo spontaneous apoptosis when there is no activation stimulus, which is critical to population control for proper host response to implants. As activation and apoptosis of monocytes/macrophages are regulated by cell–cell and cell–matrix interactions, their regulatory mechanism was investigated in this study using polyethylene glycol (PEG)-containing polyurethane films in which PEG-rich and polyester-rich domains were phase separated. Human blood monocyte-derived macrophages (HBMs) preferentially adhered to PEG domains (cell–matrix interaction) due to the low molecular weight (600 g mol−1), resulting in increased HBM density (cell–cell interaction). As both cell–cell and cell–matrix interactions were promoted, HBM apoptosis increased, while their activation as measured by phagocytosis, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and matrix metalloproteinase-9 production decreased compared to PEG-free films. When cell seeding density and cell-adhesive gelatin coating on silicone films were controlled, a cooperative role of cell–matrix (adhesion) and cell–cell (density) interactions in inducing HBM apoptosis was observed. Expression of the macrophage adhesion molecule CD11b caused apoptosis in this context, which was mediated by tissue necrosis factor-α signaling but down-regulated by the ROS inhibitor diphenylene iodonium and the anti-inflammatory peptide Ac-SDKP, suggesting a new concept for the design of biomaterials that allows for cell adhesion without excessive inflammatory activation. PMID:23128157

  14. Plasma lipoproteins and monocyte-macrophages in a peroxisome-deficient system: study of a patient with infantile refsum disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, H; Berant, M; Meiron, D; Aizin, A; Oiknine, J; Brook, J G; Aviram, M

    1992-01-01

    Hypocholesterolaemia in infantile Refsum disease (IRD) may link peroxisomes and lipoprotein metabolism. In our patient, plasma cholesterol levels were reduced to 26% and 29% of control in LDL and HDL fractions, respectively. Plasma apolipoproteins B-100 and A-I levels were 52% and 66% of controls, respectively. In the kindred, plasma cholesterol concentration was 61-73% of controls. The HDL-cholesterol/apo A-I ratios were: patient 0.12; kindred 0.17; controls 0.28. Analysis of the IRD patient's lipoprotein revealed compositional abnormalities in all fractions. The patient's LDL demonstrated a substantial reduction in its lipid-to-protein ratio. Alterations in plasma lipoproteins affect their interaction with macrophages. Upon incubation of the patient's LDL with J-774 macrophages, its cellular uptake, measured as cholesterol esterification rate, was only 66% of a control rate. The abnormal LDL of the IRD patient showed also only 25% of control susceptibility to in vitro oxidation. Studies of cellular cholesterol metabolism in the patient's monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) showed 57% increased cholesterol esterification rate in comparison to normal MDM. The possible link between lipoprotein abnormalities and monocyte-macrophage cholesterol metabolism is discussed.

  15. GABA and Topiramate Inhibit the Formation of Human Macrophage-Derived Foam Cells by Modulating Cholesterol-Metabolism-Associated Molecules

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    Ying Yang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims: γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA, the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter, acts on GABA receptors to play an important role in the modulation of macrophage functions. The present study examined the effects of GABA and a GABA receptor agonist on modulating cholesterol-metabolism-associated molecules in human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDMs. Methods: ORO stain, HPLC, qRT-PCR, Western blot and EMSA were carried out using HMDMs exposed to ox-LDL with or without GABAergic agents as the experimental model. Results: GABA and topiramate reduced the percentage of cholesterol ester in lipid-laden HMDMs by down-regulating SR-A, CD36 and LOX-1 expression and up-regulating ABCA1, ABCG1 and SR-BI expression in lipid-laden HMDMs. The production of TNF-a was decreased in GABA-and topiramate-treated lipid-laden HMDMs, and levels of interleukin (IL-6 did not change. The activation of two signaling pathways, p38MAPK and NF-γB, was repressed by GABA and topiramate in lipid-laden HMDMs. Conclusion: GABA and topiramate inhibit the formation of human macrophage-derived foam cells and may be a possibility for macrophage targeted therapy of atherosclerotic lesions.

  16. Classification of M1/M2-polarized human macrophages by label-free hyperspectral reflectance confocal microscopy and multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertani, Francesca R; Mozetic, Pamela; Fioramonti, Marco; Iuliani, Michele; Ribelli, Giulia; Pantano, Francesco; Santini, Daniele; Tonini, Giuseppe; Trombetta, Marcella; Businaro, Luca; Selci, Stefano; Rainer, Alberto

    2017-08-21

    The possibility of detecting and classifying living cells in a label-free and non-invasive manner holds significant theranostic potential. In this work, Hyperspectral Imaging (HSI) has been successfully applied to the analysis of macrophagic polarization, given its central role in several pathological settings, including the regulation of tumour microenvironment. Human monocyte derived macrophages have been investigated using hyperspectral reflectance confocal microscopy, and hyperspectral datasets have been analysed in terms of M1 vs. M2 polarization by Principal Components Analysis (PCA). Following PCA, Linear Discriminant Analysis has been implemented for semi-automatic classification of macrophagic polarization from HSI data. Our results confirm the possibility to perform single-cell-level in vitro classification of M1 vs. M2 macrophages in a non-invasive and label-free manner with a high accuracy (above 98% for cells deriving from the same donor), supporting the idea of applying the technique to the study of complex interacting cellular systems, such in the case of tumour-immunity in vitro models.

  17. HIV-1 assembly in macrophages

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    Benaroch Philippe

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The molecular mechanisms involved in the assembly of newly synthesized Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV particles are poorly understood. Most of the work on HIV-1 assembly has been performed in T cells in which viral particle budding and assembly take place at the plasma membrane. In contrast, few studies have been performed on macrophages, the other major target of HIV-1. Infected macrophages represent a viral reservoir and probably play a key role in HIV-1 physiopathology. Indeed macrophages retain infectious particles for long periods of time, keeping them protected from anti-viral immune response or drug treatments. Here, we present an overview of what is known about HIV-1 assembly in macrophages as compared to T lymphocytes or cell lines. Early electron microscopy studies suggested that viral assembly takes place at the limiting membrane of an intracellular compartment in macrophages and not at the plasma membrane as in T cells. This was first considered as a late endosomal compartment in which viral budding seems to be similar to the process of vesicle release into multi-vesicular bodies. This view was notably supported by a large body of evidence involving the ESCRT (Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport machinery in HIV-1 budding, the observation of viral budding profiles in such compartments by immuno-electron microscopy, and the presence of late endosomal markers associated with macrophage-derived virions. However, this model needs to be revisited as recent data indicate that the viral compartment has a neutral pH and can be connected to the plasma membrane via very thin micro-channels. To date, the exact nature and biogenesis of the HIV assembly compartment in macrophages remains elusive. Many cellular proteins potentially involved in the late phases of HIV-1 cycle have been identified; and, recently, the list has grown rapidly with the publication of four independent genome-wide screens. However, their respective

  18. Intramacrophage survival of uropathogenic Escherichia coli: Differences between diverse clinical isolates and between mouse and human macrophages

    KAUST Repository

    Bokil, Nilesh J.

    2011-11-01

    Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) are the primary cause of urinary tract infections. Recent studies have demonstrated that UPEC can invade and replicate within epithelial cells, suggesting that this bacterial pathogen may occupy an intracellular niche within the host. Given that many intracellular pathogens target macrophages, we assessed the interactions between UPEC and macrophages. Colonization of the mouse bladder by UPEC strain CFT073 resulted in increased expression of myeloid-restricted genes, consistent with the recruitment of inflammatory macrophages to the site of infection. In in vitro assays, CFT073 was able to survive within primary mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) up to 24h post-infection. Three additional well-characterized clinical UPEC isolates associated with distinct UTI symptomatologies displayed variable long-term survival within BMM. UPEC strains UTI89 and VR50, originally isolated from patients with cystitis and asymptomatic bacteriuria respectively, showed elevated bacterial loads in BMM at 24h post-infection as compared to CFT073 and the asymptomatic bacteriuria strain 83972. These differences did not correlate with differential effects on macrophage survival or initial uptake of bacteria. E. coli UTI89 localized to a Lamp1 + vesicular compartment within BMM. In contrast to survival within mouse BMM, intracellular bacterial loads of VR50 were low in both human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDM) and in human T24 bladder epithelial cells. Collectively, these data suggest that some UPEC isolates may subvert macrophage anti-microbial pathways, and that host species differences may impact on intracellular UPEC survival. © 2011 Elsevier GmbH.

  19. Intramacrophage survival of uropathogenic Escherichia coli: differences between diverse clinical isolates and between mouse and human macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokil, Nilesh J; Totsika, Makrina; Carey, Alison J; Stacey, Katryn J; Hancock, Viktoria; Saunders, Bernadette M; Ravasi, Timothy; Ulett, Glen C; Schembri, Mark A; Sweet, Matthew J

    2011-11-01

    Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) are the primary cause of urinary tract infections. Recent studies have demonstrated that UPEC can invade and replicate within epithelial cells, suggesting that this bacterial pathogen may occupy an intracellular niche within the host. Given that many intracellular pathogens target macrophages, we assessed the interactions between UPEC and macrophages. Colonization of the mouse bladder by UPEC strain CFT073 resulted in increased expression of myeloid-restricted genes, consistent with the recruitment of inflammatory macrophages to the site of infection. In in vitro assays, CFT073 was able to survive within primary mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) up to 24h post-infection. Three additional well-characterized clinical UPEC isolates associated with distinct UTI symptomatologies displayed variable long-term survival within BMM. UPEC strains UTI89 and VR50, originally isolated from patients with cystitis and asymptomatic bacteriuria respectively, showed elevated bacterial loads in BMM at 24h post-infection as compared to CFT073 and the asymptomatic bacteriuria strain 83972. These differences did not correlate with differential effects on macrophage survival or initial uptake of bacteria. E. coli UTI89 localized to a Lamp1(+) vesicular compartment within BMM. In contrast to survival within mouse BMM, intracellular bacterial loads of VR50 were low in both human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDM) and in human T24 bladder epithelial cells. Collectively, these data suggest that some UPEC isolates may subvert macrophage anti-microbial pathways, and that host species differences may impact on intracellular UPEC survival.

  20. Effects of beauvericin, enniatin b and moniliformin on human dendritic cells and macrophages: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficheux, A S; Sibiril, Y; Parent-Massin, D

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro effects of emerging mycotoxins beauvericin, enniatin B and moniliformin on human dendritic cells and macrophages. Beauvericin and enniatin B were cytotoxic on these cells. IC50 were equal to 1.0 μM, 2.9 μM and 2.5 μM beauvericin for immature dendritic cells, mature dendritic cells and macrophages, respectively. IC50 were equal to 1.6 μM, 2.6 μM and 2.5 μM for immature dendritic cells, mature dendritic cells and macrophages exposed to enniatin B, respectively. Effects on the differentiation process of monocytes into macrophages or into immature dendritic cells as well as effects on dendritic cells maturation have been studied. The differentiation process of monocytes into immature dendritic cells was not disturbed in the presence of beauvericin. Dendritic cells exposed to beauvericin during the maturation process presented a decrease of CCR7 expression and an increase of IL-10 secretion. Monocytes exposed to beauvericin during the differentiation process into macrophages presented a decrease of endocytosis ability. The differentiation process of monocytes into immature dendritic cells was not disturbed in the presence of enniatin B. Dendritic cells exposed to enniatin B during the maturation process presented a decrease of expression of the maturation makers CD80, CD86 and CCR7 and an increase of IL-10 secretion. Monocytes exposed to enniatin B during the differentiation process into macrophages presented a decrease of endocytosis ability and an increase of CD71. CD1a expression and endocytosis capacity were decreased on immature dendritic cells exposed to moniliformin. Monocytes-derived macrophages exposed to moniliformin during the differentiation process presented a decrease of endocytosis ability, and a decrease of CD71 and HLA-DR expression. According to these results, immunological disorders could be observed on human after ingestion of these alimentary toxins.

  1. Estradiol reduces susceptibility of CD4+ T cells and macrophages to HIV-infection.

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    Marta Rodriguez-Garcia

    Full Text Available The magnitude of the HIV epidemic in women requires urgent efforts to find effective preventive methods. Even though sex hormones have been described to influence HIV infection in epidemiological studies and regulate different immune responses that may affect HIV infection, the direct role that female sex hormones play in altering the susceptibility of target cells to HIV-infection is largely unknown. Here we evaluated the direct effect of 17-β-estradiol (E2 and ethinyl estradiol (EE in HIV-infection of CD4(+ T-cells and macrophages. Purified CD4(+ T-cells and monocyte-derived macrophages were generated in vitro from peripheral blood and infected with R5 and X4 viruses. Treatment of CD4(+ T-cells and macrophages with E2 prior to viral challenge reduced their susceptibility to HIV infection in a dose-dependent manner. Addition of E2 2 h after viral challenge however did not result in reduced infection. In contrast, EE reduced infection in macrophages to a lesser extent than E2 and had no effect on CD4(+ T-cell infection. Reduction of HIV-infection induced by E2 in CD4(+ T-cells was not due to CCR5 down-regulation, but was an entry-mediated mechanism since infection with VSV-G pseudotyped HIV was not modified by E2. In macrophages, despite the lack of an effect of E2 on CCR5 expression, E2-treatment reduced viral entry 2 h after challenge and increased MIP-1β secretion. These results demonstrate the direct effect of E2 on susceptibility of HIV-target cells to infection and indicate that inhibition of target cell infection involves cell-entry related mechanisms.

  2. Dysregulation of macrophage-secreted cathepsin B contributes to HIV-1-linked neuronal apoptosis.

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    Eillen J Rodriguez-Franco

    Full Text Available Chronic HIV infection leads to the development of cognitive impairments, designated as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND. The secretion of soluble neurotoxic factors by HIV-infected macrophages plays a central role in the neuronal dysfunction and cell death associated with HAND. One potentially neurotoxic protein secreted by HIV-1 infected macrophages is cathepsin B. To explore the potential role of cathepsin B in neuronal cell death after HIV infection, we cultured HIV-1(ADA infected human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM and assayed them for expression and activity of cathepsin B and its inhibitors, cystatins B and C. The neurotoxic activity of the secreted cathepsin B was determined by incubating cells from the neuronal cell line SK-N-SH with MDM conditioned media (MCM from HIV-1 infected cultures. We found that HIV-1 infected MDM secreted significantly higher levels of cathepsin B than did uninfected cells. Moreover, the activity of secreted cathepsin B was significantly increased in HIV-infected MDM at the peak of viral production. Incubation of neuronal cells with supernatants from HIV-infected MDM resulted in a significant increase in the numbers of apoptotic neurons, and this increase was reversed by the addition of either the cathepsin B inhibitor CA-074 or a monoclonal antibody to cathepsin B. In situ proximity ligation assays indicated that the increased neurotoxic activity of the cathepsin B secreted by HIV-infected MDM resulted from decreased interactions between the enzyme and its inhibitors, cystatins B and C. Furthermore, preliminary in vivo studies of human post-mortem brain tissue suggested an upregulation of cathepsin B immunoreactivity in the hippocampus and basal ganglia in individuals with HAND. Our results demonstrate that HIV-1 infection upregulates cathepsin B in macrophages, increases cathepsin B activity, and reduces cystatin-cathepsin interactions, contributing to neuronal apoptosis. These findings

  3. Coxiella burnetii Infects Primary Bovine Macrophages and Limits Their Host Cell Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobotta, Katharina; Hillarius, Kirstin; Mager, Marvin; Kerner, Katharina; Heydel, Carsten; Menge, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Although domestic ruminants have long been recognized as the main source of human Q fever, little is known about the lifestyle that the obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacterium Coxiella burnetii adopts in its animal host. Because macrophages are considered natural target cells of the pathogen, we established primary bovine monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) as an in vitro infection model to study reservoir host-pathogen interactions at the cellular level. In addition, bovine alveolar macrophages were included to take cell type peculiarities at a host entry site into account. Cell cultures were inoculated with the virulent strain Nine Mile I (NMI; phase I) or the avirulent strain Nine Mile II (NMII; phase II). Macrophages from both sources internalized NMI and NMII. MDM were particularly permissive for NMI internalization, but NMI and NMII replicated with similar kinetics in these cells. MDM responded to inoculation with a general upregulation of Th1-related cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) early on (3 h postinfection). However, inflammatory responses rapidly declined when C. burnetii replication started. C. burnetii infection inhibited translation and release of IL-1β and vastly failed to stimulate increased expression of activation markers, such as CD40, CD80, CD86, and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. Such capability of limiting proinflammatory responses may help Coxiella to protect itself from clearance by the host immune system. The findings provide the first detailed insight into C. burnetii-macrophage interactions in ruminants and may serve as a basis for assessing the virulence and the host adaptation of C. burnetii strains. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Mycobacterium tuberculosis replicates within necrotic human macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Thomas R.; Repnik, Urska; Herbst, Susanne; Collinson, Lucy M.; Griffiths, Gareth

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis modulation of macrophage cell death is a well-documented phenomenon, but its role during bacterial replication is less characterized. In this study, we investigate the impact of plasma membrane (PM) integrity on bacterial replication in different functional populations of human primary macrophages. We discovered that IFN-γ enhanced bacterial replication in macrophage colony-stimulating factor–differentiated macrophages more than in granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor–differentiated macrophages. We show that permissiveness in the different populations of macrophages to bacterial growth is the result of a differential ability to preserve PM integrity. By combining live-cell imaging, correlative light electron microscopy, and single-cell analysis, we found that after infection, a population of macrophages became necrotic, providing a niche for M. tuberculosis replication before escaping into the extracellular milieu. Thus, in addition to bacterial dissemination, necrotic cells provide first a niche for bacterial replication. Our results are relevant to understanding the environment of M. tuberculosis replication in the host. PMID:28242744

  5. Lentiviral Vpx accessory factor targets VprBP/DCAF1 substrate adaptor for cullin 4 E3 ubiquitin ligase to enable macrophage infection.

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    Smita Srivastava

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Vpx is a small virion-associated adaptor protein encoded by viruses of the HIV-2/SIVsm lineage of primate lentiviruses that enables these viruses to transduce monocyte-derived cells. This probably reflects the ability of Vpx to overcome an as yet uncharacterized block to an early event in the virus life cycle in these cells, but the underlying mechanism has remained elusive. Using biochemical and proteomic approaches, we have found that Vpx protein of the pathogenic SIVmac 239 strain associates with a ternary protein complex comprising DDB1 and VprBP subunits of Cullin 4-based E3 ubiquitin ligase, and DDA1, which has been implicated in the regulation of E3 catalytic activity, and that Vpx participates in the Cullin 4 E3 complex comprising VprBP. We further demonstrate that the ability of SIVmac as well as HIV-2 Vpx to interact with VprBP and its associated Cullin 4 complex is required for efficient reverse transcription of SIVmac RNA genome in primary macrophages. Strikingly, macrophages in which VprBP levels are depleted by RNA interference resist SIVmac infection. Thus, our observations reveal that Vpx interacts with both catalytic and regulatory components of the ubiquitin proteasome system and demonstrate that these interactions are critical for Vpx ability to enable efficient SIVmac replication in primary macrophages. Furthermore, they identify VprBP/DCAF1 substrate receptor for Cullin 4 E3 ubiquitin ligase and its associated protein complex as immediate downstream effector of Vpx for this function. Together, our findings suggest a model in which Vpx usurps VprBP-associated Cullin 4 ubiquitin ligase to enable efficient reverse transcription and thereby overcome a block to lentivirus replication in monocyte-derived cells, and thus provide novel insights into the underlying molecular mechanism.

  6. l-Arginine Uptake by Cationic Amino Acid Transporter Promotes Intra-Macrophage Survival of Leishmania donovani by Enhancing Arginase-Mediated Polyamine Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Abhishek; Das, Sushmita; Kumar, Ajay; Roy, Saptarshi; Verma, Sudha; Ghosh, Ayan Kumar; Singh, Ruby; Abhishek, Kumar; Saini, Savita; Sardar, Abul Hasan; Purkait, Bidyut; Kumar, Ashish; Mandal, Chitra; Das, Pradeep

    2017-01-01

    The survival of intracellular protozoan parasite, Leishmania donovani, the causative agent of Indian visceral leishmaniasis (VL), depends on the activation status of macrophages. l-Arginine, a semi-essential amino acid plays a crucial regulatory role for activation of macrophages. However, the role of l-arginine transport in VL still remains elusive. In this study, we demonstrated that intra-macrophage survival of L. donovani depends on the availability of extracellular l-arginine. Infection of THP-1-derived macrophage/human monocyte-derived macrophage (hMDM) with Leishmania, resulted in upregulation of l-arginine transport. While investigating the involvement of the transporters, we observed that Leishmania survival was greatly impaired when the transporters were blocked either using inhibitor or siRNA-mediated downregulation. CAT-2 was found to be the main isoform associated with l-arginine transport in L. donovani-infected macrophages. l-arginine availability and its transport regulated the host arginase in Leishmania infection. Arginase and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression were reciprocally regulated when assayed using specific inhibitors and siRNA-mediated downregulation. Interestingly, induction of iNOS expression and nitric oxide production were observed in case of inhibition of arginase in infected macrophages. Furthermore, inhibition of l-arginine transport as well as arginase resulted in decreased polyamine production, limiting parasite survival inside macrophages. l-arginine availability and transport regulated Th1/Th2 cytokine levels in case of Leishmania infection. Upregulation of l-arginine transport, induction of host arginase, and enhanced polyamine production were correlated with increased level of IL-10 and decreased level of IL-12 and TNF-α in L. donovani-infected macrophages. Our findings provide clear evidence for targeting the metabolism of l-arginine and l-arginine-metabolizing enzymes as an important therapeutic and

  7. Anti-Inflammatory and Antiapoptotic Responses to Infection: A Common Denominator of Human and Bovine Macrophages Infected with Mycobacterium avium Subsp. paratuberculosis

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    Naiara Abendaño

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map is the causative agent of a chronic intestinal inflammation in ruminants named Johne's disease or paratuberculosis and a possible etiopathological agent of human Crohn's disease (CD. Analysis of macrophage transcriptomes in response to Map infection is expected to provide key missing information in the understanding of the role of this pathogen in establishing an inappropriate and persistent infection in a susceptible host and of the molecular mechanisms that might underlie the early phases of CD. In this paper we summarize transcriptomic studies of human and bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs, and macrophages-like cell lines in vitro infected with Map. Most studies included in this paper consistently reported common gene expression signatures of bovine and human macrophages in response to Map such as enhanced expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and IL-6, which promote bacterial survival. Overexpression of IL-10 could be responsible for the Map-associated reduction in the expression of the proapoptotic TNF-α gene observed in bovine and human macrophages.

  8. Coxsackievirus B4 Can Infect Human Peripheral Blood-Derived Macrophages

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    Enagnon Kazali Alidjinou

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Beyond acute infections, group B coxsackieviruses (CVB are also reported to play a role in the development of chronic diseases, like type 1 diabetes. The viral pathogenesis mainly relies on the interplay between the viruses and innate immune response in genetically-susceptible individuals. We investigated the interaction between CVB4 and macrophages considered as major players in immune response. Monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM generated with either M-CSF or GM-CSF were inoculated with CVB4, and infection, inflammation, viral replication and persistence were assessed. M-CSF-induced MDM, but not GM-CSF-induced MDM, can be infected by CVB4. In addition, enhancing serum was not needed to infect MDM in contrast with parental monocytes. The expression of viral receptor (CAR mRNA was similar in both M-CSF and GM-CSF MDM. CVB4 induced high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNFα in both MDM populations. CVB4 effectively replicated and persisted in M-CSF MDM, but IFNα was produced in the early phase of infection only. Our results demonstrate that CVB4 can replicate and persist in MDM. Further investigations are required to determine whether the interaction between the virus and MDM plays a role in the pathogenesis of CVB-induced chronic diseases.

  9. Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei stimulate differential inflammatory responses from human alveolar type II cells (ATII and macrophages.

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    Richard eLu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Alveolar type II pneumocytes (ATII and alveolar macrophages (AM play a crucial role in the lung’s innate immune response. Burkholderia pseudomallei (BP and Burkholderia mallei (BM are facultative Gram-negative bacilli that cause melioidosis and glanders, respectively. The inhalation of these pathogens can cause lethal disease and death in humans. We sought to compare the pathogenesis of and host responses to BP and BM through contact with human primary ATII cells and monocytes-derived macrophages (MDM. We hypothesized that because BP and BM induce different disease outcomes, each pathogen would induce distinct, unique host immune responses from resident pulmonary cells. Our findings showed that BP adhered readily to ATII cells compared to BM. BP, but not BM, was rapidly internalized by macrophages where it replicated to high numbers. Further, BP induced significantly higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion from ATII cells (IL-6, IL-8 and macrophages (IL-6, TNFα at 6h post-infection compared to BM (p<0.05. Interestingly, BM induced the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, in ATII cells and macrophages at 6h post-infection, with delayed induction of inflammatory cytokines at 24h post-infection. Because BP is flagellated and produces LPS, we confirmed that it stimulated both Toll-like receptor (TLR 4 and TLR5 via NF-κb activation while the non-flagellated BM stimulated only TLR4. These data show the differences in BP and BM pathogenicity in the lung when infecting human ATII cells and macrophages and demonstrate the ability of these pathogens to elicit distinct immune responses from resident lung cells which may open new targets for therapeutic intervention to fight against these pathogens.

  10. Mitochondrial Transfer via Tunneling Nanotubes is an Important Mechanism by Which Mesenchymal Stem Cells Enhance Macrophage Phagocytosis in the In Vitro and In Vivo Models of ARDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Megan V; Morrison, Thomas J; Doherty, Declan F; McAuley, Daniel F; Matthay, Michael A; Kissenpfennig, Adrien; O'Kane, Cecilia M; Krasnodembskaya, Anna D

    2016-08-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have been reported to improve bacterial clearance in preclinical models of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) and sepsis. The mechanism of this effect is not fully elucidated yet. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that the antimicrobial effect of MSC in vivo depends on their modulation of macrophage phagocytic activity which occurs through mitochondrial transfer. We established that selective depletion of alveolar macrophages (AM) with intranasal (IN) administration of liposomal clodronate resulted in complete abrogation of MSC antimicrobial effect in the in vivo model of Escherichia coli pneumonia. Furthermore, we showed that MSC administration was associated with enhanced AM phagocytosis in vivo. We showed that direct coculture of MSC with monocyte-derived macrophages enhanced their phagocytic capacity. By fluorescent imaging and flow cytometry we demonstrated extensive mitochondrial transfer from MSC to macrophages which occurred at least partially through tunneling nanotubes (TNT)-like structures. We also detected that lung macrophages readily acquire MSC mitochondria in vivo, and macrophages which are positive for MSC mitochondria display more pronounced phagocytic activity. Finally, partial inhibition of mitochondrial transfer through blockage of TNT formation by MSC resulted in failure to improve macrophage bioenergetics and complete abrogation of the MSC effect on macrophage phagocytosis in vitro and the antimicrobial effect of MSC in vivo. Collectively, this work for the first time demonstrates that mitochondrial transfer from MSC to innate immune cells leads to enhancement in phagocytic activity and reveals an important novel mechanism for the antimicrobial effect of MSC in ARDS. Stem Cells 2016;34:2210-2223.

  11. Mycobacterium tuberculosis uses host triacylglycerol to accumulate lipid droplets and acquires a dormancy-like phenotype in lipid-loaded macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Jaiyanth; Maamar, Hédia; Deb, Chirajyoti; Sirakova, Tatiana D; Kolattukudy, Pappachan E

    2011-06-01

    Two billion people are latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Mtb-infected macrophages are likely to be sequestered inside the hypoxic environments of the granuloma and differentiate into lipid-loaded macrophages that contain triacylglycerol (TAG)-filled lipid droplets which may provide a fatty acid-rich host environment for Mtb. We report here that human peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages and THP-1 derived macrophages incubated under hypoxia accumulate Oil Red O-staining lipid droplets containing TAG. Inside such hypoxic, lipid-loaded macrophages, nearly half the Mtb population developed phenotypic tolerance to isoniazid, lost acid-fast staining and accumulated intracellular lipid droplets. Dual-isotope labeling of macrophage TAG revealed that Mtb inside the lipid-loaded macrophages imports fatty acids derived from host TAG and incorporates them intact into Mtb TAG. The fatty acid composition of host and Mtb TAG were nearly identical suggesting that Mtb utilizes host TAG to accumulate intracellular TAG. Utilization of host TAG by Mtb for lipid droplet synthesis was confirmed when fluorescent fatty acid-labeled host TAG was utilized to accumulate fluorescent lipid droplets inside the pathogen. Deletion of the Mtb triacylglycerol synthase 1 (tgs1) gene resulted in a drastic decrease but not a complete loss in both radiolabeled and fluorescent TAG accumulation by Mtb suggesting that the TAG that accumulates within Mtb is generated mainly by the incorporation of fatty acids released from host TAG. We show direct evidence for the utilization of the fatty acids from host TAG for lipid metabolism inside Mtb. Taqman real-time PCR measurements revealed that the mycobacterial genes dosR, hspX, icl1, tgs1 and lipY were up-regulated in Mtb within hypoxic lipid loaded macrophages along with other Mtb genes known to be associated with dormancy and lipid metabolism.

  12. An ethyl acetate fraction of Moringa oleifera Lam. Inhibits human macrophage cytokine production induced by cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooltheat, Nateelak; Sranujit, Rungnapa Pankla; Chumark, Pilaipark; Potup, Pachuen; Laytragoon-Lewin, Nongnit; Usuwanthim, Kanchana

    2014-02-18

    Moringa oleifera Lam. (MO) has been reported to harbor anti-oxidation and anti-inflammatory activity and useful in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. However, despite these findings there has been little work done on the effects of MO on immune cellular function. Since macrophages, TNF and related cytokines play an important pathophysiologic role in lung damage induced by cigarette smoke, we examined the effects of MO on cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced cytokine production by human macrophages. An ethyl acetate fraction of MO (MOEF) was prepared from fresh leaves extract of Moringa and shown to consist of high levels of phenolic and antioxidant activities. Human monocyte derived macrophages (MDM) pre-treated with varying concentrations of MOEF showed decreased production of TNF, IL-6 and IL-8 in response to both LPS and CSE. The decrease was evident at both cytokine protein and mRNA levels. Furthermore, the extract inhibited the expression of RelA, a gene implicated in the NF-κB p65 signaling in inflammation. The findings highlight the ability of MOEF to inhibit cytokines (IL-8) which promote the infiltration of neutrophils into the lungs and others (TNF, IL-6) which mediate tissue disease and damage.

  13. An Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Moringa oleifera Lam. Inhibits Human Macrophage Cytokine Production Induced by Cigarette Smoke

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    Nateelak Kooltheat

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera Lam. (MO has been reported to harbor anti-oxidation and anti-inflammatory activity and useful in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. However, despite these findings there has been little work done on the effects of MO on immune cellular function. Since macrophages, TNF and related cytokines play an important pathophysiologic role in lung damage induced by cigarette smoke, we examined the effects of MO on cigarette smoke extract (CSE—induced cytokine production by human macrophages. An ethyl acetate fraction of MO (MOEF was prepared from fresh leaves extract of Moringa and shown to consist of high levels of phenolic and antioxidant activities. Human monocyte derived macrophages (MDM pre-treated with varying concentrations of MOEF showed decreased production of TNF, IL-6 and IL-8 in response to both LPS and CSE. The decrease was evident at both cytokine protein and mRNA levels. Furthermore, the extract inhibited the expression of RelA, a gene implicated in the NF-κB p65 signaling in inflammation. The findings highlight the ability of MOEF to inhibit cytokines (IL-8 which promote the infiltration of neutrophils into the lungs and others (TNF, IL-6 which mediate tissue disease and damage.

  14. Prostaglandin E2 Does Not Modulate CCR7 Expression and Functionality after Differentiation of Blood Monocytes into Macrophages

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    Marc-André Allaire

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we demonstrated that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 induces C-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CCR7 expression on human monocytes, which stimulates their subsequent migration in response to the CCR7 natural ligands CCL19 and CCL21. In this study, we determined whether PGE2 affects CCR7 expression on macrophages. Flow cytometric analysis and chemotaxis assays were performed on Mono Mac-1-derived macrophage (MDMM-1 as well as unpolarized monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs to determine the CCR7 expression and functionality in the presence of PGE2. Data revealed that a MDMM-1 exhibited markedly downregulated CCR7 expression and functionality that were partially restored by treatment with PGE2. In MDMs, we observed a drastic downregulation of CCR7 expression and functionality that were unaffected following PGE2 treatment. Our data indicate that monocyte differentiation induces the loss of CCR7 expression and that PGE2 is unable to modulate CCR7 expression and functionality as shown previously in monocytes.

  15. The replicative restriction of lymphocytotropic isolates of HIV-1 in macrophages is overcome by TGF-beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazdins, J K; Klimkait, T; Woods-Cook, K; Walker, M; Alteri, E; Cox, D; Cerletti, N; Shipman, R; Bilbe, G; McMaster, G

    1992-04-01

    In vitro exposure of human blood monocyte-derived macrophages to T-cell tropic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) isolates fails to establish a productive viral infection. Several studies have shown that such preferential HIV-1 replication in T cells or in mononuclear phagocytes (HIV tropism) may be determined by distinct viral characteristics. In the present study it was demonstrated that transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), a factor known to be produced by platelets, macrophages, and other cells present at a wound site, can act as a mediator in overcoming the lymphocytotropic restriction of several well-characterized viral isolates of HIV-1 (i.e., LAV, Z84, pLAI, NY5). Macrophages infected with these isolates show cytopathic changes comparable to those seen upon infection with the monocytotropic isolate ADA. To achieve this effect with TGF-beta, the factor must be present after the infection period. The emerging virus retains its original cellular tropism. Based on these observations the authors propose a role for TGF-beta in the establishment and progression of HIV infection and disease.

  16. Fcgamma receptor-mediated suppression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication in primary human macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Bercoff, Danielle; David, Annie; Sudry, Hugues; Barré-Sinoussi, Françoise; Pancino, Gianfranco

    2003-04-01

    Permissiveness of monocytes and macrophages to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is modulated by various stimuli. In this study we demonstrate that stimulation of primary monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) through the receptors for the Fc portion of immunoglobulin G (IgG) (FcgammaR) inhibits HIV type 1 (HIV-1) replication. Viral p24 production was decreased by 1.5 to 3 log units in MDM infected with both R5 and X4 HIV-1 strains upon stimulation by immobilized IgG but not upon stimulation by soluble IgG or by F(ab')(2) IgG fragments. Although MDM activation by immobilized IgG induced high levels of macrophage-derived chemokine secretion as well as a sustained down-regulation of CD4 and a transient decrease in CCR5 expression, these factors did not appear to play a major role in the suppression of HIV-1 replication. Single-cycle infection of FcgammaR-stimulated MDM with HIV-1 virions pseudotyped with either HIV-1 R5 or vesicular stomatitis virus G envelopes was inhibited, suggesting a postentry restriction of viral replication. PCR analyses of HIV-1 DNA intermediate replication forms suggested that reverse transcription is not affected by stimulation with immobilized human IgG, at least during the first replication cycle. The accumulation of PCR products corresponding to nuclear unintegrated two-long-terminal-repeat circles and the relative decrease of integrated HIV-1 DNA signals suggest an inhibition of proviral integration. Our data, showing that FcgammaR-mediated activation of MDM is a potent mechanism of HIV-1 suppression, raise the possibility that FcgammaR cross-linking by immune complexes may contribute to the control of viral replication in macrophages.

  17. Macrophages driven to a novel state of activation have anti-inflammatory properties in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brem-Exner, Beate G; Sattler, Christine; Hutchinson, James A; Koehl, Gudrun E; Kronenberg, Katharina; Farkas, Stefan; Inoue, Seiichiro; Blank, Christian; Knechtle, Stuart J; Schlitt, Hans J; Fändrich, Fred; Geissler, Edward K

    2008-01-01

    Recurrent episodes of inflammation underlie numerous pathologies, notably those of inflammatory bowel diseases. In this study, we describe a population of macrophages in a novel state of activation that mitigates colitis in mice. The cells responsible for this effect, called IFN-gamma-stimulated monocyte-derived cells (IFNgamma-MdC), derive from mouse spleen, blood, and bone marrow monocytes and are distinguished from known macrophage populations by mode of generation, cell surface phenotype, and function. IFNgamma-MdC only arise when macrophages are cultivated in the presence of CD40L-expressing CD4+ T cells, M-CSF, and IFN-gamma. IFNgamma-MdC express markers including F4/80, CD11b/c, CD86, and CD274; they are negative for CD4, CD8, Gr1, CD19, CD80, and CD207. Functionally, IFNgamma-MdC are defined by their capacity to enrich cocultured T cell populations for CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory cells; this enrichment, constituting up to 60% or more of residual lymphocytes, is attributed to an expansion, but also to a cell contact and caspase-dependent depletion of activated T cells. In mice, IFNgamma-MdC delivered i.v. traffic to gut-associated peripheral lymphoid tissues, including the mesenteric lymph nodes, Peyer's patches, and colonic mucosa, and promote the clinical and histological resolution of chronic colitis. We conclude that IFNgamma-MdC represent macrophages in a novel state of activation, possessing multiple T cell-suppressive effects with therapeutic potential for the treatment of autoimmune inflammation.

  18. Accessory cells with a veiled morphology and movement pattern generated from monocytes after avoidance of plastic adherence and of NADPH oxidase activation. A comparison with GM-CSF/IL-4-induced monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruwhof, Cindy; Canning, Martha O; Grotenhuis, Kristel; de Wit, Harm J; Florencia, Zenovia Z; de Haan-Meulman, Meeny; Drexhage, Hemmo A

    2002-07-01

    Veiled cells (VC) present in afferent lymph transport antigen from the periphery to the draining lymph nodes. Although VC in lymph form a heterogeneous population, some of the cells clearly belong on morphological grounds to the Langerhans cell (LC)/ dendritic cell (DC) series. Here we show that culturing monocytes for 24 hrs while avoiding plastic adherence (polypropylene tubes) and avoiding the activation of NADPH oxidase (blocking agents) results in the generation of a population of veiled accessory cells. The generated VC were actively moving cells like lymph-borne VC in vivo. The monocyte (mo)-derived VC population existed of CD14(dim/-) and CD14(brighT) cells. Of these the CD14(dim/-) VC were as good in stimulating allogeneic T cell proliferation as immature DC (iDC) obtained after one week of adherent culture of monocytes in granulocyte-macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF)/interleukin (IL)-4. This underscores the accessory cell function of the mo-derived CD14(dim/-) VC. Although the CD14(dim/-)VC had a modest expression of the DC-specific marker CD83 and were positive for S100, expression of the DC-specific markers CD1a, Langerin, DC-SIGN, and DC-LAMP were absent. This indicates that the here generated CD14(dim/-) VC can not be considered as classical LC/DC. It was also impossible to turn the CD14(dim/-) mo-derived VC population into typical DC by culture for one week in GM-CSF/IL-4 or LPS. In fact the cells died tinder such circumstances, gaining some macrophage characteristics before dying. The IL-12 production from mo-derived CD14(dim/-) VC was lower, whereas the production of IL-10 was higher as compared to iDC. Consequently the T cells that were stimulated by these mo-derived VC produced less IFN-gamma as compared with T cells stimulated by iDC. Our data indicate that it is possible to rapidly generate a population of CD14(dim/-) veiled accessory cells from monocytes. The marker pattern and cytokine production of these VC indicate that this

  19. Nanoformulated antiretroviral drug combinations extend drug release and antiretroviral responses in HIV-1-infected macrophages: implications for neuroAIDS therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowacek, Ari S; McMillan, JoEllyn; Miller, Reagan; Anderson, Alec; Rabinow, Barrett; Gendelman, Howard E

    2010-12-01

    We posit that improvements in pharmacokinetics and biodistributions of antiretroviral therapies (ART) for human immunodeficiency virus type one-infected people can be achieved through nanoformulationed drug delivery systems. To this end, we manufactured nanoparticles of atazanavir, efavirenz, and ritonavir (termed nanoART) and treated human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) in combination therapies to assess antiretroviral responses. This resulted in improved drug uptake, release, and antiretroviral efficacy over monotherapy. MDM rapidly, within minutes, ingested nanoART combinations, at equal or similar rates, as individual formulations. Combination nanoART ingested by MDM facilitated individual drug release from 15 to >20 days. These findings are noteworthy as a nanoART cell-mediated drug delivery provides a means to deliver therapeutics to viral sanctuaries, such as the central nervous system during progressive human immunodeficiency virus type one infection. The work brings us yet another step closer to realizing the utility of nanoART for virus-infected people.

  20. Analyzing time-dependent microarray data using independent component analysis derived expression modes from human macrophages infected with F. tularensis holartica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutter, D; Langmann, Th; Ugocsai, P; Moehle, C; Seibold, E; Splettstoesser, W D; Gruber, P; Lang, E W; Schmitz, G

    2009-08-01

    The analysis of large-scale gene expression profiles is still a demanding and extensive task. Modern machine learning and data mining techniques developed in linear algebra, like Independent Component Analysis (ICA), become increasingly popular as appropriate tools for analyzing microarray data. We applied ICA to analyze kinetic gene expression profiles of human monocyte derived macrophages (MDM) from three different donors infected with Francisella tularensis holartica and compared them to more classical methods like hierarchical clustering. Results were compared using a pathway analysis tool, based on the Gene Ontology and the MeSH database. We could show that both methods lead to time-dependent gene regulatory patterns which fit well to known TNFalpha induced immune responses. In comparison, the nonexclusive attribute of ICA results in a more detailed view and a higher resolution in time dependent behavior of the immune response genes. Additionally, we identified NFkappaB as one of the main regulatory genes during response to F. tularensis infection.

  1. Cystatin B and HIV regulate the STAT-1 signaling circuit in HIV-infected and INF-β-treated human macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, L E; Kraiselburd, E; Meléndez, L M

    2016-10-01

    Cystatin B is a cysteine protease inhibitor that induces HIV replication in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). This protein interacts with signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT-1) factor and inhibits the interferon (IFN-β) response in Vero cells by preventing STAT-1 translocation to the nucleus. Cystatin B also decreases the levels of tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT-1 (STAT-1PY). However, the mechanisms of cystatin B regulation on STAT-1 phosphorylation in MDM are unknown. We hypothesized that cystatin B inhibits IFN-β antiviral responses and induces HIV replication in macrophage reservoirs through the inhibition of STAT-1 phosphorylation. Macrophages were transfected with cystatin B siRNA prior to interferon-β treatment or infected with HIV-ADA to determine the effect of cystatin B modulation in STAT-1 localization and activation using immunofluorescence and proximity ligation assays. Cystatin B decreased STAT-1PY and its transportation to the nucleus, while HIV infection retained unphosphorylated STAT (USTAT-1) in the nucleus avoiding its exit to the cytoplasm for eventual phosphorylation. In IFN-β-treated MDM, cystatin B inhibited the nuclear translocation of both, USTAT-1 and STAT-1PY. These results demonstrate that cystatin B interferes with the STAT-1 signaling and IFN-β-antiviral responses perpetuating HIV in macrophage reservoirs.

  2. Alarmin S100A9 Induces Proinflammatory and Catabolic Effects Predominantly in the M1 Macrophages of Human Osteoarthritic Synovium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bosch, Martijn H; Blom, Arjen B; Schelbergen, Rik F; Koenders, Marije I; van de Loo, Fons A; van den Berg, Wim B; Vogl, Thomas; Roth, Johannes; van der Kraan, Peter M; van Lent, Peter L

    2016-10-01

    The alarmins S100A8 and S100A9 have been shown to regulate synovial activation, cartilage damage, and osteophyte formation in osteoarthritis (OA). Here we investigated the effect of S100A9 on the production of proinflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloprotease (MMP) in OA synovium, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-differentiated/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)-differentiated macrophages, and OA fibroblasts. We determined which cell types in the synovium produced S100A8 and S100A9. Further, the production of proinflammatory cytokines and MMP, and the activation of canonical Wnt signaling, was determined in human OA synovium, OA fibroblasts, and monocyte-derived macrophages following stimulation with S100A9. We observed that S100A8 and S100A9 were mainly produced by GM-CSF-differentiated macrophages present in the synovium, and to a lesser extent by M-CSF-differentiated macrophages, but not by fibroblasts. S100A9 stimulation of OA synovial tissue increased the production of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL) 1β, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Additionally, various MMP were upregulated after S100A9 stimulation. Experiments to determine which cell type was responsible for these effects revealed that mainly stimulation of GM-CSF-differentiated macrophages and to a lesser extent M-CSF-differentiated macrophages with S100A9 increased the expression of these proinflammatory cytokines and MMP. In contrast, stimulation of fibroblasts with S100A9 did not affect their expression. Finally, stimulation of GM-CSF-differentiated, but not M-CSF-differentiated macrophages with S100A9 activated canonical Wnt signaling, whereas incubation of OA synovium with the S100A9 inhibitor paquinimod reduced the activation of canonical Wnt signaling. Predominantly mediated by M1-like macrophages, the alarmin S100A9 stimulates the production of proinflammatory and catabolic mediators and activates canonical Wnt signaling in OA

  3. Commensal Bacteria-Induced Inflammasome Activation in Mouse and Human Macrophages Is Dependent on Potassium Efflux but Does Not Require Phagocytosis or Bacterial Viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kejie; Shanmugam, Nanda Kumar N.; Pazos, Michael A.; Hurley, Bryan P.; Cherayil, Bobby J.

    2016-01-01

    Gut commensal bacteria contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease, in part by activating the inflammasome and inducing secretion of interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß). Although much has been learned about inflammasome activation by bacterial pathogens, little is known about how commensals carry out this process. Accordingly, we investigated the mechanism of inflammasome activation by representative commensal bacteria, the Gram-positive Bifidobacterium longum subspecies infantis and the Gram-negative Bacteroides fragilis. B. infantis and B. fragilis induced IL-1ß secretion by primary mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages after overnight incubation. IL-1ß secretion also occurred in response to heat-killed bacteria and was only partly reduced when phagocytosis was inhibited with cytochalasin D. Similar results were obtained with a wild-type immortalized mouse macrophage cell line but neither B. infantis nor B. fragilis induced IL-1ß secretion in a mouse macrophage line lacking the nucleotide-binding/leucine-rich repeat pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. IL-1ß secretion in response to B. infantis and B. fragilis was significantly reduced when the wild-type macrophage line was treated with inhibitors of potassium efflux, either increased extracellular potassium concentrations or the channel blocker ruthenium red. Both live and heat-killed B. infantis and B. fragilis also induced IL-1ß secretion by human macrophages (differentiated THP-1 cells or primary monocyte-derived macrophages) after 4 hours of infection, and the secretion was inhibited by raised extracellular potassium and ruthenium red but not by cytochalasin D. Taken together, our findings indicate that the commensal bacteria B. infantis and B. fragilis activate the NLRP3 inflammasome in both mouse and human macrophages by a mechanism that involves potassium efflux and that does not require bacterial viability or phagocytosis. PMID:27505062

  4. Chamomile Flower, Myrrh, and Coffee Charcoal, Components of a Traditional Herbal Medicinal Product, Diminish Proinflammatory Activation in Human Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissiennon, Cica; Hammoud, Dima; Rodewald, Steffen; Fester, Karin; Goos, Karl-Heinz; Nieber, Karen; Arnhold, Jürgen

    2017-07-01

    A traditional herbal medicinal product, containing myrrh, chamomile flower, and coffee charcoal, has been used in Germany for the relief of gastrointestinal complaints for decades. Clinical studies suggest its use in the maintenance therapy of inflammatory bowel disease. However, the pharmacological mechanisms underlying the clinical effects are not yet fully understood.The present study aims to elucidate immunopharmacological activities of myrrh, chamomile flower, and coffee charcoal by studying the influence of each plant extract on gene expression and protein release of activated human macrophages.The plant extracts effect on gene and protein expression of activated human monocyte-derived macrophages was investigated by microarray gene expression analysis and assessment of the release of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators (TNFα, chemokine CXCL13, and interleukin-10) using an ELISA test system.The extracts of myrrh, chamomile flower, and coffee charcoal influenced gene expression of activated human macrophages within the cytokine/chemokine signaling pathway. Particularly, chemokine gene expression was suppressed. Subsequently, the production of CXCL13 and, to a minor extent, cytokine TNFα was inhibited by all herbal extracts. Chamomile flower and coffee charcoal extracts enhanced interleukin-10 release from activated macrophages. The observed effects on protein release were comparable to the effect of budesonide, which decreased TNFα and CXCL13 and enhanced interleukin-10 release.The components of the herbal medicinal product influence the activity of activated human macrophages on both gene and protein level. The induced alterations within chemokine/cytokine signaling could contribute to a positive effect on the immunological homeostasis, which is disturbed in patients with chronic intestinal inflammation. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Macrophages are required for dendritic cell uptake of respiratory syncytial virus from an infected epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugonna, Kelechi; Bingle, Colin D; Plant, Karen; Wilson, Kirsty; Everard, Mark L

    2014-01-01

    We have previously shown that the respiratory syncytial virus [RSV] can productively infect monocyte derived dendritic cells [MoDC] and remain dormant within the same cells for prolonged periods. It is therefore possible that infected dendritic cells act as a reservoir within the airways of individuals between annual epidemics. In the present study we explored the possibility that sub-epithelial DCs can be infected with RSV from differentiated bronchial epithelium and that in turn RSV from DCs can infect the epithelium. A dual co-culture model was established in which a differentiated primary airway epithelium on an Air Liquid Interface (ALI) was cultured on a transwell insert and MoDCs were subsequently added to the basolateral membrane of the insert. Further experiments were undertaken using a triple co-culture model in which in which macrophages were added to the apical surface of the differentiated epithelium. A modified RSV [rr-RSV] expressing a red fluorescent protein marker of replication was used to infect either the MoDCs or the differentiated epithelium and infection of the reciprocal cell type was assessed using confocal microscopy. Our data shows that primary epithelium became infected when rr-RSV infected MoDCs were introduced onto the basal surface of the transwell insert. MoDCs located beneath the epithelium did not become infected with virus from infected epithelial cells in the dual co-culture model. However when macrophages were present on the apical surface of the primary epithelium infection of the basal MoDCs occurred. Our data suggests that RSV infected dendritic cells readily transmit infection to epithelial cells even when they are located beneath the basal layer. However macrophages appear to be necessary for the transmission of infection from epithelial cells to basal dendritic cells.

  6. Cytokine responses of bovine macrophages to diverse clinical Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis strains

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    Coussens Paul

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP, the causative agent of Johne's disease (JD persistently infects and survives within the host macrophages. While it is established that substantial genotypic variation exists among MAP, evidence for the correlates that associate specific MAP genotypes with clinical or sub-clinical disease phenotypes is presently unknown. Thus we studied strain differences in intracellular MAP survival and host responses in a bovine monocyte derived macrophage (MDM system. Results Intracellular survival studies showed that a bovine MAP isolate (B1018 and a human MAP isolate (Hu6 persisted in relatively higher numbers when compared with a sheep MAP isolate (S7565 at 24-hr, 48-hr and 96-hr post infection (PI. MDMs stimulated with B1018 up-regulated IL-10 at the transcript level and down-regulated TNFα at the protein and transcript levels compared with stimulations by the S7565 and Hu6. MDMs infected with Hu6 showed a down regulatory pattern of IL-10 and TNFα compared to stimulations by S7565. Cells stimulated with B1018 and Hu6 had low levels of matrix metalloprotease-3 (MMP3 and high levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease-1 (TIMP1 at 96-hr PI relative to MDMs stimulated by S7565. Conclusion Taken together, results suggest that the bovine (B1018 and the human (Hu6 MAP isolates lead to anti-inflammatory and anti-invasive pathways in the macrophage environment whereas the sheep (S7565 MAP isolate induces a pro-inflammatory pathway. Thus the infecting strain genotype may play a role in polarizing the host immune responses and dictate the clinicopathological outcomes in this economically important disease.

  7. Glutamine Modulates Macrophage Lipotoxicity

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    Li He

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and diabetes are associated with excessive inflammation and impaired wound healing. Increasing evidence suggests that macrophage dysfunction is responsible for these inflammatory defects. In the setting of excess nutrients, particularly dietary saturated fatty acids (SFAs, activated macrophages develop lysosome dysfunction, which triggers activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and cell death. The molecular pathways that connect lipid stress to lysosome pathology are not well understood, but may represent a viable target for therapy. Glutamine uptake is increased in activated macrophages leading us to hypothesize that in the context of excess lipids glutamine metabolism could overwhelm the mitochondria and promote the accumulation of toxic metabolites. To investigate this question we assessed macrophage lipotoxicity in the absence of glutamine using LPS-activated peritoneal macrophages exposed to the SFA palmitate. We found that glutamine deficiency reduced lipid induced lysosome dysfunction, inflammasome activation, and cell death. Under glutamine deficient conditions mTOR activation was decreased and autophagy was enhanced; however, autophagy was dispensable for the rescue phenotype. Rather, glutamine deficiency prevented the suppressive effect of the SFA palmitate on mitochondrial respiration and this phenotype was associated with protection from macrophage cell death. Together, these findings reveal that crosstalk between activation-induced metabolic reprogramming and the nutrient microenvironment can dramatically alter macrophage responses to inflammatory stimuli.

  8. Transcriptional Regulation of CXCL5 in HIV-1-Infected Macrophages and Its Functional Consequences on CNS Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Debjani; Klamar, Cynthia R; Reinhart, Todd; Ayyavoo, Velpandi

    2015-05-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1)-infected monocytes/macrophages and microglia release increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including ELR+ (containing glutamic acid-leucine-arginine motif) chemokines. To investigate the role of HIV-1 infection on chemokine regulation, monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) from normal donors were infected with HIV-1 and the expression of chemokines and their downstream biological functions were evaluated. Among the tested chemokines, CXCL5 was upregulated significantly both at the mRNA and protein level in the HIV-1-infected MDMs compared with mock-infected cultures. Upregulation of CXCL5 in the HIV-1-infected MDMs is, in part, regulated by increased interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production and phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Functional analyses indicate that HIV-1-induced overexpression of CXCL5 has enhanced the ability to attract neutrophils, as observed by chemotaxis assay. However, exposure of NT2, SH-SY5Y cells, and primary neurons to HIV-1-infected MDM supernatants resulted in cell death that was not rescued by anti-CXCL5 antibody suggesting that CXCL5 does not have direct effect on neuronal death. Together, these results suggest that the increased level of CXCL5 in tissue compartments, including the central nervous system of HIV-1-infected individuals might alter the inflammatory response through the infiltration of neutrophils into tissue compartment, thus causing secondary effects on resident cells.

  9. Neutrophil and Alveolar Macrophage-Mediated Innate Immune Control of Legionella pneumophila Lung Infection via TNF and ROS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Ziltener

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Legionella pneumophila is a facultative intracellular bacterium that lives in aquatic environments where it parasitizes amoeba. However, upon inhalation of contaminated aerosols it can infect and replicate in human alveolar macrophages, which can result in Legionnaires' disease, a severe form of pneumonia. Upon experimental airway infection of mice, L. pneumophila is rapidly controlled by innate immune mechanisms. Here we identified, on a cell-type specific level, the key innate effector functions responsible for rapid control of infection. In addition to the well-characterized NLRC4-NAIP5 flagellin recognition pathway, tumor necrosis factor (TNF and reactive oxygen species (ROS are also essential for effective innate immune control of L. pneumophila. While ROS are essential for the bactericidal activity of neutrophils, alveolar macrophages (AM rely on neutrophil and monocyte-derived TNF signaling via TNFR1 to restrict bacterial replication. This TNF-mediated antibacterial mechanism depends on the acidification of lysosomes and their fusion with L. pneumophila containing vacuoles (LCVs, as well as caspases with a minor contribution from cysteine-type cathepsins or calpains, and is independent of NLRC4, caspase-1, caspase-11 and NOX2. This study highlights the differential utilization of innate effector pathways to curtail intracellular bacterial replication in specific host cells upon L. pneumophila airway infection.

  10. Human macrophages infected with a high burden of ESAT-6-expressing M. tuberculosis undergo caspase-1- and cathepsin B-independent necrosis.

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    Amanda Welin

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb infects lung macrophages, which instead of killing the pathogen can be manipulated by the bacilli, creating an environment suitable for intracellular replication and spread to adjacent cells. The role of host cell death during Mtb infection is debated because the bacilli have been shown to be both anti-apoptotic, keeping the host cell alive to avoid the antimicrobial effects of apoptosis, and pro-necrotic, killing the host macrophage to allow infection of neighboring cells. Since mycobacteria activate the NLRP3 inflammasome in macrophages, we investigated whether Mtb could induce one of the recently described inflammasome-linked cell death modes pyroptosis and pyronecrosis. These are mediated through caspase-1 and cathepsin-B, respectively. Human monocyte-derived macrophages were infected with virulent (H37Rv Mtb at a multiplicity of infection (MOI of 1 or 10. The higher MOI resulted in strongly enhanced release of IL-1β, while a low MOI gave no IL-1β response. The infected macrophages were collected and cell viability in terms of the integrity of DNA, mitochondria and the plasma membrane was determined. We found that infection with H37Rv at MOI 10, but not MOI 1, over two days led to extensive DNA fragmentation, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, loss of plasma membrane integrity, and HMGB1 release. Although we observed plasma membrane permeabilization and IL-1β release from infected cells, the cell death induced by Mtb was not dependent on caspase-1 or cathepsin B. It was, however, dependent on mycobacterial expression of ESAT-6. We conclude that as virulent Mtb reaches a threshold number of bacilli inside the human macrophage, ESAT-6-dependent necrosis occurs, activating caspase-1 in the process.

  11. Genome-wide innate immune responses in HIV-1-infected macrophages are preserved despite attenuation of the NF-kappa B activation pathway.

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    Noursadeghi, Mahdad; Tsang, Jhen; Miller, Robert F; Straschewski, Sarah; Kellam, Paul; Chain, Benjamin M; Katz, David R

    2009-01-01

    Macrophages contribute to HIV-1 infection at many levels. They provide permissive cells at the site of inoculation, augment virus transfer to T cells, generate long-lived viral reservoirs, and cause bystander cell apoptosis. A body of evidence suggests that the role of macrophages in cellular host defense is also compromised by HIV-1 infection. In this respect, macrophages are potent cells of the innate immune system that initiate and regulate wide-ranging immunological responses. This study focuses on the effect of HIV-1 infection on innate immune responses by macrophages at the level of signal transduction, whole genome transcriptional profiling, and cytokine secretion. We show that in an ex vivo model, M-CSF-differentiated monocyte-derived macrophages uniformly infected with replicating CCR5-tropic HIV-1, without cytopathic effect, exhibit selective attenuation of the NF-kappaB activation pathway in response to TLR4 and TLR2 stimulation. However, functional annotation clustering analysis of genome-wide transcriptional responses to LPS stimulation suggests substantial preservation of gene expression changes at the systems level, with modest attenuation of a subset of up-regulated LPS-responsive genes, and no effect on a selection of inflammatory cytokine responses at the protein level. These results extend existing reports of inhibitory interactions between HIV-1 accessory proteins and NF-kappaB signaling pathways, and whole genome expression profiling provides comprehensive assessment of the consequent effects on immune response gene expression. Unexpectedly, our data suggest innate immune responses are broadly preserved with limited exceptions, and pave the way for further study of the complex relationship between HIV-1 and immunological pathways within macrophages.

  12. Pulmonary Macrophages Attenuate Hypoxic Pulmonary Vasoconstriction via β3AR/iNOS Pathway in Rats Exposed to Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia.

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    Hisashi Nagai

    Full Text Available Chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH induces activation of the sympathoadrenal system, which plays a pivotal role in attenuating hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV via central β1-adrenergic receptors (AR (brain and peripheral β2AR (pulmonary arteries. Prolonged hypercatecholemia has been shown to upregulate β3AR. However, the relationship between IH and β3AR in the modification of HPV is unknown. It has been observed that chronic stimulation of β3AR upregulates inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS in cardiomyocytes and that IH exposure causes expression of iNOS in RAW264.7 macrophages. iNOS has been shown to have the ability to dilate pulmonary vessels. Hence, we hypothesized that chronic IH activates β3AR/iNOS signaling in pulmonary macrophages, leading to the promotion of NO secretion and attenuated HPV. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to IH (3-min periods of 4-21% O2 for 8 h/d for 6 weeks. The urinary catecholamine concentrations of IH rats were high compared with those of controls, indicating activation of the sympathoadrenal system following chronic IH. Interestingly, chronic IH induced the migration of circulating monocytes into the lungs and the predominant increase in the number of pro-inflammatory pulmonary macrophages. In these macrophages, both β3AR and iNOS were upregulated and stimulation of the β3AR/iNOS pathway in vitro caused them to promote NO secretion. Furthermore, in vivo synchrotron radiation microangiography showed that HPV was significantly attenuated in IH rats and the attenuated HPV was fully restored by blockade of β3AR/iNOS pathway or depletion of pulmonary macrophages. These results suggest that circulating monocyte-derived pulmonary macrophages attenuate HPV via activation of β3AR/iNOS signaling in chronic IH.

  13. GM-CSF Mouse Bone Marrow Cultures Comprise a Heterogeneous Population of CD11c(+)MHCII(+) Macrophages and Dendritic Cells.

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    Helft, Julie; Böttcher, Jan; Chakravarty, Probir; Zelenay, Santiago; Huotari, Jatta; Schraml, Barbara U; Goubau, Delphine; Reis e Sousa, Caetano

    2015-06-16

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are key players in the immune system. Much of their biology has been elucidated via culture systems in which hematopoietic precursors differentiate into DCs under the aegis of cytokines. A widely used protocol involves the culture of murine bone marrow (BM) cells with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) to generate BM-derived DCs (BMDCs). BMDCs express CD11c and MHC class II (MHCII) molecules and share with DCs isolated from tissues the ability to present exogenous antigens to T cells and to respond to microbial stimuli by undergoing maturation. We demonstrate that CD11c(+)MHCII(+) BMDCs are in fact a heterogeneous group of cells that comprises conventional DCs and monocyte-derived macrophages. DCs and macrophages in GM-CSF cultures both undergo maturation upon stimulation with lipopolysaccharide but respond differentially to the stimulus and remain separable entities. These results have important implications for the interpretation of a vast array of data obtained with DC culture systems.

  14. Macrophage and T-cell gene expression in a model of early infection with the protozoan Leishmania chagasi.

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    Nicholas A Ettinger

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis is a potentially fatal infectious disease caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania infantum/chagasi in the New World, or by L. donovani or L. infantum/chagasi in the Old World. Infection leads to a variety of outcomes ranging from asymptomatic infection to active disease, characterized by fevers, cachexia, hepatosplenomegaly and suppressed immune responses. We reasoned that events occurring during the initial few hours when the parasite encounters cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems are likely to influence the eventual immune response that develops. Therefore, we performed gene expression analysis using Affymetrix U133Plus2 microarray chips to investigate a model of early infection with human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs challenged with wild-type L. chagasi parasites, with or without subsequent co-culture with Leishmania-naïve, autologous T-cells. Microarray data generated from total RNA were analyzed with software from the Bioconductor Project and functional clustering and pathway analysis were performed with DAVID and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA, respectively. Many transcripts were down-regulated by infection in cultures containing macrophages alone, and the pattern indicated a lack of a classically activated phenotype. By contrast, the addition of autologous Leishmania-naïve T cells to infected macrophages resulted in a pattern of gene expression including many markers of type 1 immune cytokine activation (IFN-gamma, IL-6, IL-1alpha, IL-1beta. There was simultaneous up-regulation of a few markers of immune modulation (IL-10 cytokine accumulation; TGF-beta Signaling Pathway. We suggest that the initial encounter between L. chagasi and cells of the innate and adaptive immune system stimulates primarily type 1 immune cytokine responses, despite a lack of classical macrophage activation. This local microenvironment at the site of parasite inoculation may determine the initial course of immune T

  15. Acute exposure to apolipoprotein A1 inhibits macrophage chemotaxis in vitro and monocyte recruitment in vivo

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    Iqbal, Asif J; Barrett, Tessa J; Taylor, Lewis; McNeill, Eileen; Manmadhan, Arun; Recio, Carlota; Carmineri, Alfredo; Brodermann, Maximillian H; White, Gemma E; Cooper, Dianne; DiDonato, Joseph A; Zamanian-Daryoush, Maryam; Hazen, Stanley L; Channon, Keith M

    2016-01-01

    Apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1) is the major protein component of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and has well documented anti-inflammatory properties. To better understand the cellular and molecular basis of the anti-inflammatory actions of apoA1, we explored the effect of acute human apoA1 exposure on the migratory capacity of monocyte-derived cells in vitro and in vivo. Acute (20–60 min) apoA1 treatment induced a substantial (50–90%) reduction in macrophage chemotaxis to a range of chemoattractants. This acute treatment was anti-inflammatory in vivo as shown by pre-treatment of monocytes prior to adoptive transfer into an on-going murine peritonitis model. We find that apoA1 rapidly disrupts membrane lipid rafts, and as a consequence, dampens the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway that coordinates reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and cell migration. Our data strengthen the evidence base for therapeutic apoA1 infusions in situations where reduced monocyte recruitment to sites of inflammation could have beneficial outcomes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15190.001 PMID:27572261

  16. Intracellular survival and persistence of Chlamydia muridarum is determined by macrophage polarization.

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    Eric Gracey

    Full Text Available Macrophages can display a number of distinct phenotypes, known collectively as polarized macrophages. The best defined of these phenotypes are the classically-activated, interferon gamma (IFNγ/LPS induced (M1 and alternatively-activated, IL-4 induced (M2 macrophages. The goal of this study is to characterize macrophage-Chlamydia interactions in the context of macrophage polarization. Here we use Chlamydia muridarum and murine bone-marrow derived macrophages to show Chlamydia does not induce M2 polarization in macrophages as a survival strategy. Unexpectedly, the infection of macrophages was silent with no upregulation of M1 macrophage-associated genes. We further demonstrate that macrophages polarized prior to infection have a differential capacity to control Chlamydia. M1 macrophages harbor up to 40-fold lower inclusion forming units (IFU than non-polarized or M2 polarized macrophages. Gene expression analysis showed an increase in 16sRNA in M2 macrophages with no change in M1 macrophages. Suppressed Chlamydia growth in M1 macrophages correlated with the induction of a bacterial gene expression profile typical of persistence as evident by increased Euo expression and decreased Omp1 and Tal expression. Observations of permissive Chlamydia growth in non-polarized and M2 macrophages and persistence in M1 macrophages were supported through electron microscopy. This work supports the importance of IFNγ in the innate immune response to Chlamydia. However, demonstration that the M1 macrophages, despite an antimicrobial signature, fail to eliminate intracellular Chlamydia supports the notion that host-pathogen co-evolution has yielded a pathogen that can evade cellular defenses against this pathogen, and persist for prolonged periods of time in the host.

  17. Macrophages and dendritic cells express tight junction proteins and exchange particles in an in vitro model of the human airway wall.

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    Blank, Fabian; Wehrli, Marc; Lehmann, Andrea; Baum, Oliver; Gehr, Peter; von Garnier, Christophe; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara M

    2011-01-01

    The human airway epithelium serves as structural and functional barrier against inhaled particulate antigen. Previously, we demonstrated in an in vitro epithelial barrier model that monocyte derived dendritic cells (MDDC) and monocyte derived macrophages (MDM) take up particulate antigen by building a trans-epithelial interacting network. Although the epithelial tight junction (TJ) belt was penetrated by processes of MDDC and MDM, the integrity of the epithelium was not affected. These results brought up two main questions: (1) Do MDM and MDDC exchange particles? (2) Are those cells expressing TJ proteins, which are believed to interact with the TJ belt of the epithelium to preserve the epithelial integrity? The expression of TJ and adherens junction (AJ) mRNA and proteins in MDM and MDDC monocultures was determined by RT-PCR, and immunofluorescence, respectively. Particle uptake and exchange was quantified by flow cytometry and laser scanning microscopy in co-cultures of MDM and MDDC exposed to polystyrene particles (1 μm in diameter). MDM and MDDC constantly expressed TJ and AJ mRNA and proteins. Flow cytometry analysis of MDM and MDDC co-cultures showed increased particle uptake in MDDC while MDM lost particles over time. Quantitative analysis revealed significantly higher particle uptake by MDDC in co-cultures of epithelial cells with MDM and MDDC present, compared to co-cultures containing only epithelial cells and MDDC. We conclude from these findings that MDM and MDDC express TJ and AJ proteins which could help to preserve the epithelial integrity during particle uptake and exchange across the lung epithelium.

  18. Type I interferons and interferon regulatory factors regulate TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL in HIV-1-infected macrophages.

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    Yunlong Huang

    Full Text Available TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL is a member of the TNF family that participates in HIV-1 pathogenesis through the depletion of CD4+ T cells. TRAIL is expressed on the cell membrane of peripheral immune cells and can be cleaved into a soluble, secreted form. The regulation of TRAIL in macrophages during HIV-1 infection is not completely understood. In this study, we investigated the mechanism(s of TRAIL expression in HIV-1-infected macrophages, an important cell type in HIV-1 pathogenesis. A human monocyte-derived macrophage (MDM culture system was infected with macrophage-tropic HIV-1(ADA, HIV-1(JR-FL, or HIV-1(BAL strains. TRAIL, predominantly the membrane-bound form, increased following HIV-1 infection. We found that HIV-1 infection also induced interferon regulatory factor (IRF-1, IRF-7 gene expression and signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 (STAT1 activation. Small interfering RNA knockdown of IRF-1 or IRF-7, but not IRF-3, reduced STAT1 activation and TRAIL expression. Furthermore, the upregulation of IRF-1, IRF-7, TRAIL, and the activation of STAT1 by HIV-1 infection was reduced by the treatment of type I interferon (IFN-neutralizing antibodies. In addition, inhibition of STAT1 by fludarabine abolished IRF-1, IRF-7, and TRAIL upregulation. We conclude that IRF-1, IRF-7, type I IFNs, and STAT1 form a signaling feedback loop that is critical in regulating TRAIL expression in HIV-1-infected macrophages.

  19. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Type 2 Impairs Macrophage Responsiveness to Toll-Like Receptor Ligation with the Exception of Toll-Like Receptor 7.

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    Robert G Schaut

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV is a member of the Flaviviridae family. BVDV isolates are classified into two biotypes based on the development of cytopathic (cp or non-cytopathic (ncp effects in epithelial cell culture. BVDV isolates are further separated into species, BVDV1 and 2, based on genetic differences. Symptoms of BVDV infection range from subclinical to severe, depending on strain virulence, and may involve multiple organ systems and induction of a generalized immunosuppression. During BVDV-induced immune suppression, macrophages, critical to innate immunity, may have altered pathogen recognition receptor (PRR signaling, including signaling through toll-like receptors (TLRs. Comparison of BVDV 2 strains with different biotypes and virulence levels is valuable to determining if there are differences in host macrophage cellular responses between viral phenotypes. The current study demonstrates that cytopathic (cp, noncytopathic (ncp, high (hv or low virulence (lv BVDV2 infection of bovine monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMΦ result in differential expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines compared to uninfected MDMΦ. A hallmark of cp BVDV2 infection is IL-6 production. In response to TLR2 or 4 ligation, as might be observed during secondary bacterial infection, cytokine secretion was markedly decreased in BVDV2-infected MDMΦ, compared to non-infected MDMΦ. Macrophages were hyporesponsive to viral TLR3 or TLR8 ligation. However, TLR7 stimulation of BVDV2-infected MDMΦ induced cytokine secretion, unlike results observed for other TLRs. Together, these data suggest that BVDV2 infection modulated mRNA responses and induced a suppression of proinflammatory cytokine protein responses to TLR ligation in MDMΦ with the exception of TLR7 ligation. It is likely that there are distinct differences in TLR pathways modulated following BVDV2 infection, which have implications for macrophage responses to secondary infections.

  20. Cholesterol enrichment of human monocyte/macrophages induces surface exposure of phosphatidylserine and the release of biologically-active tissue factor-positive microvesicles.

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    Liu, Ming-Lin; Reilly, Michael P; Casasanto, Peter; McKenzie, Steven E; Williams, Kevin Jon

    2007-02-01

    Biologically significant amounts of two procoagulant molecules, phosphatidylserine (PS) and tissue factor (TF), are transported by monocyte/macrophage-derived microvesicles (MVs). Because cellular cholesterol accumulation is an important feature of atherosclerotic vascular disease, we now examined effects of cholesterol enrichment on MV release from human monocytes and macrophages. Cholesterol enrichment of human THP-1 monocytes, alone or in combination with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), tripled their total MV generation, as quantified by flow cytometry based on particle size and PS exposure. The subset of these MVs that were also TF-positive was likewise increased by cellular cholesterol enrichment, and these TF-positive MVs exhibited a striking 10-fold increase in procoagulant activity. Moreover, cholesterol enrichment of primary human monocyte-derived macrophages also increased their total as well as TF-positive MV release, and these TF-positive MVs exhibited a similar 10-fold increase in procoagulant activity. To explore the mechanisms of enhanced MV release, we found that cholesterol enrichment of monocytes caused PS exposure on the cell surface by as early as 2 hours and genomic DNA fragmentation in a minority of cells by 20 hours. Addition of a caspase inhibitor at the beginning of these incubations blunted both cholesterol-induced apoptosis and MV release. Cholesterol enrichment of human monocyte/macrophages induces the generation of highly biologically active, PS-positive MVs, at least in part through induction of apoptosis. Cholesterol-induced monocyte/macrophage MVs, both TF-positive and TF-negative, may be novel contributors to atherothrombosis.

  1. Induction of monocyte-derived dendritic cell differentiation by asthmatic serum in a transendothelial trafficking model%支气管哮喘患者血清对内皮穿越模型中单核细胞分化为树突状细胞的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周林福; 王文璐; 李红岩; 张明顺; 季晓辉; 何韶衡; 黄茂; 殷凯生

    2011-01-01

    新的体外实验平台.%Objective To explore the effect of asthmatic and healthy serum on differentiation and function of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC) in a transendothelial trafficking model. Methods The sera and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were separated from 12 asthmatic patients and 12 healthy volunteers, and monocytes were selected from PBMC using magnetic beads. The trypsin-digested human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) at passage 2 from 5 healthy lying-in women were used to construct the transendothelial trafficking model under asthmatic or healthy serum, wherein MDDC were identified by silver nitrate staining and scanning electron microscopy. Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activity was determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Flow cytometry, ELISA and mixed leukocyte reaction were relevantly utilized to detect the phenotype, cytokine and T cell proliferation. Results ( 1 ) Monocytes traversed through HUVEC monolayer after 2 h, and reverse-transmigrated to develop into DC 48 h later. ( 2 ) The healthy serum stimulated monocytes into immature MDDC with lower CD14 [ ( 20 ±5)%] (F=49.01, P<0.05), and higher HLA-DR, CD80, CD86 and CD83 [(43 ±4)%, (17.9 ±3.5)%, (43 ± 11)% and (6.7 ± 1.8)%, respectively] (F= 10.35 -40.17, all P<0.05) than monocytes did before transmigration at 0 h [ CD14(81 ±6)%, HLA-DR (24 ±5)%, CD80(2. 8 ±2. 0)%,CD86( 14 ±4)% and CD83(0. 9 ±0. 8)%, respectively]. (3) The asthmatic serum stimulated monocytes into mature MDDC, characteristic of dendrites, with similar HLA-DR and CD86 [ ( 55 ± 6 ) % and ( 59 ±12)%] (F=15.29 and 35.97, all P >0.05), higher CD80 and CD83 [(49.7 ± 10.2)% and (30.2 ±6. 8) % ] ( F = 4. 01 and 20. 68, all P < 0. 05), accompanied by increased levels of NF-κB activity, IL-12 p70 and T cell proliferation [ ( 100 ± 11 )%, (568 ±43) ng/L and (2033 ± 198) cpm, respectively] (F=49. 23 - 350. 84, all P < 0. 05 ) relative to the healthy serum-stimulated immature MDDC [ ( 12 ± 3 ) %,(220 ± 35) ng

  2. Canine Distemper Virus Infection Leads to an Inhibitory Phenotype of Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells In Vitro with Reduced Expression of Co-Stimulatory Molecules and Increased Interleukin-10 Transcription

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    Herder, Vanessa; Stein, Veronika M.; Tipold, Andrea; Urhausen, Carola; Günzel-Apel, Anne-Rose; Rohn, Karl; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Beineke, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) exhibits a profound lymphotropism that causes immunosuppression and increased susceptibility of affected dogs to opportunistic infections. Similar to human measles virus, CDV is supposed to inhibit terminal differentiation of dendritic cells (DCs), responsible for disturbed repopulation of lymphoid tissues and diminished antigen presenting function in dogs. In order to testify the hypothesis that CDV-infection leads to an impairment of professional antigen presenting cells, canine DCs have been generated from peripheral blood monocytes in vitro and infected with CDV. Virus infection was confirmed and quantified by transmission electron microscopy, CDV-specific immunofluorescence, and virus titration. Flow cytometric analyses revealed a significant down-regulation of the major histocompatibility complex class II and co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 in CDV-infected DCs, indicative of disturbed antigen presenting capacity. Molecular analyses revealed an increased expression of the immune inhibitory cytokine interleukin-10 in DCs following infection. Results of the present study demonstrate that CDV causes phenotypical changes and altered cytokine expression of DCs, which represent potential mechanisms to evade host immune responses and might contribute to immune dysfunction and virus persistence in canine distemper. PMID:24769532

  3. Canine distemper virus infection leads to an inhibitory phenotype of monocyte-derived dendritic cells in vitro with reduced expression of co-stimulatory molecules and increased interleukin-10 transcription.

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    Visar Qeska

    Full Text Available Canine distemper virus (CDV exhibits a profound lymphotropism that causes immunosuppression and increased susceptibility of affected dogs to opportunistic infections. Similar to human measles virus, CDV is supposed to inhibit terminal differentiation of dendritic cells (DCs, responsible for disturbed repopulation of lymphoid tissues and diminished antigen presenting function in dogs. In order to testify the hypothesis that CDV-infection leads to an impairment of professional antigen presenting cells, canine DCs have been generated from peripheral blood monocytes in vitro and infected with CDV. Virus infection was confirmed and quantified by transmission electron microscopy, CDV-specific immunofluorescence, and virus titration. Flow cytometric analyses revealed a significant down-regulation of the major histocompatibility complex class II and co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 in CDV-infected DCs, indicative of disturbed antigen presenting capacity. Molecular analyses revealed an increased expression of the immune inhibitory cytokine interleukin-10 in DCs following infection. Results of the present study demonstrate that CDV causes phenotypical changes and altered cytokine expression of DCs, which represent potential mechanisms to evade host immune responses and might contribute to immune dysfunction and virus persistence in canine distemper.

  4. The Bacillus anthracis cholesterol-dependent cytolysin, Anthrolysin O, kills human neutrophils, monocytes and macrophages

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    Rest Richard F

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacillus anthracis is an animal and human pathogen whose virulence is characterized by lethal and edema toxin, as well as a poly-glutamic acid capsule. In addition to these well characterized toxins, B. anthracis secretes several proteases and phospholipases, and a newly described toxin of the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (CDC family, Anthrolysin O (ALO. Results In the present studies we show that recombinant ALO (rALO or native ALO, secreted by viable B. anthracis, is lethal to human primary polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs, monocytes, monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs, lymphocytes, THP-1 monocytic human cell line and ME-180, Detroit 562, and A549 epithelial cells by trypan blue exclusion or lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release viability assays. ALO cytotoxicity is dose and time dependent and susceptibility to ALO-mediated lysis differs between cell types. In addition, the viability of monocytes and hMDMs was assayed in the presence of vegetative Sterne strains 7702 (ALO+, UT231 (ALO-, and a complemented strain expressing ALO, UT231 (pUTE544, and was dependent upon the expression of ALO. Cytotoxicity of rALO is seen as low as 0.070 nM in the absence of serum. All direct cytotoxic activity is inhibited by the addition of cholesterol or serum concentration as low as 10%. Conclusion The lethality of rALO and native ALO on human monocytes, neutrophils, macrophages and lymphocytes supports the idea that ALO may represent a previously unidentified virulence factor of B. anthracis. The study of other factors produced by B. anthracis, along with the major anthrax toxins, will lead to a better understanding of this bacterium's pathogenesis, as well as provide information for the development of antitoxin vaccines for treating and preventing anthrax.

  5. Importance of the HIF pathway in cobalt nanoparticle-induced cytotoxicity and inflammation in human macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyga, Agata; Hart, Alister; Tetley, Teresa D

    2015-01-01

    Recent, unexpected high failure rates of metal-on-metal hip implants have reintroduced the issue of cobalt toxicity. An adverse reaction to cobalt ions and cobalt-induced lung injury occurs during environmental exposure and is now strictly controlled. Currently adverse reaction occurs to cobalt nanoparticles during wear and tear of metal-on-metal hip implants of which the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. The putative role of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway in the mechanism of cobalt nanoparticle (Co-NPs) toxicity was examined using the U937 cell line, human alveolar macrophages and monocyte-derived macrophages. Co-NPs (5-20 μg/ml)-induced cytotoxicity (viability ranged from 75% to cobalt ions (Co(II); up to 350 μM) did not. Co-NPs induced HIF-1α stabilization. Addition of ascorbic acid (100 µM) and glutathione (1 mM) both prevented the increased ROS. However, only treatment with ascorbic acid reduced HIF-1α levels and prevented cell death, indicating that a ROS-independent pathway is involved in Co-NPs-induced cytotoxicity. Replenishing intracellular ascorbate, which is crucial in preventing HIF pathway activation, modified Co-induced HIF target gene expression and the inflammatory response, by decreasing interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) mRNA and protein expression. Addition of glutathione had no effect on Co-NPs-induced HIF target gene expression or inflammatory response. Thus, Co-NPs induce the HIF pathway by depleting intracellular ascorbate, leading to HIF stabilization and pathway activation. This suggests a strong, ROS-independent role for HIF activation in Co-NPs-induced cytotoxicity and a possible role for HIF in metal-on-metal hip implant pathology.

  6. [Macrophages in asthma].

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    Medina Avalos, M A; Orea Solano, M

    1997-01-01

    Every time they exist more demonstrations of the paper than performs the line monocytes-macrophage in the patogenesis of the bronchial asthma. The mononuclear phagocytes cells, as the alveolar macrophages, also they can be activated during allergic methods. The monocytes macrophages are possible efficient inductors of the inflammation; this due to the fact that they can secrete inflammatory mediators, between those which are counted the pre-forming granules of peptides, metabolites of oxidation activation, activator of platelets activator and metabolites of the arachidonic acid. The identification of IL-1 in the liquidate of the bronchial ablution of sick asthmatic, as well as the identification of IL-1 in the I bronchioalveolar washing of places of allergens cutaneous prick, supports the activation concept mononuclear of phagocytic cells in allergic sufferings.

  7. Small early gastric cancer with special reference to macrophage infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, R A; Vitullo, P; Modesti, A; Inferrera, C

    1999-04-01

    The authors investigate the tumor-infiltrating cells in small early gastric cancer (EGC) (ultrastructural features and interactions of macrophages with tumor cells and other inflammatory cells. Sections from 20 small EGCs were stained by immunohistochemical methods for CD20, UCHL1, CD4, CD8, and CD68 (electron microscopic examination was used in 6 of the 20). In all of the tumors, CD68-positive macrophages accounted for most tumor-infiltrating cells, with UCHL1-positive T lymphocytes, eosinophils, and neutrophils being the next most frequent. We found only a few CD20-positive B lymphocytes. Electron microscopic analysis revealed macrophages with many phagocytic vesicles, cellular debris, and apoptotic bodies. These morphologic data show that macrophages are actively phagocytic. The tumor cells in contact with macrophages showed no cytopathic changes. These data do not support a macrophage-mediated cancer lysis like the ones reported in some systems in vitro. Contacts among macrophages and other inflammatory cells formed a recurrent ultrastructural hallmark and suggest a communication among varying inflammatory cell types during the precocious host response to gastric neoplasia.

  8. Cell elasticity determines macrophage function.

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    Naimish R Patel

    Full Text Available Macrophages serve to maintain organ homeostasis in response to challenges from injury, inflammation, malignancy, particulate exposure, or infection. Until now, receptor ligation has been understood as being the central mechanism that regulates macrophage function. Using macrophages of different origins and species, we report that macrophage elasticity is a major determinant of innate macrophage function. Macrophage elasticity is modulated not only by classical biologic activators such as LPS and IFN-γ, but to an equal extent by substrate rigidity and substrate stretch. Macrophage elasticity is dependent upon actin polymerization and small rhoGTPase activation, but functional effects of elasticity are not predicted by examination of gene expression profiles alone. Taken together, these data demonstrate an unanticipated role for cell elasticity as a common pathway by which mechanical and biologic factors determine macrophage function.

  9. Haemophilus ducreyi infection induces activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in nonpolarized but not in polarized human macrophages.

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    Li, Wei; Katz, Barry P; Bauer, Margaret E; Spinola, Stanley M

    2013-08-01

    Recognition of microbial infection by certain intracellular pattern recognition receptors leads to the formation of a multiprotein complex termed the inflammasome. Inflammasome assembly activates caspase-1 and leads to cleavage and secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and IL-18, which help control many bacterial pathogens. However, excessive inflammation mediated by inflammasome activation can also contribute to immunopathology. Here, we investigated whether Haemophilus ducreyi, a Gram-negative bacterium that causes the genital ulcer disease chancroid, activates inflammasomes in experimentally infected human skin and in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). Although H. ducreyi is predominantly extracellular during human infection, several inflammasome-related components were transcriptionally upregulated in H. ducreyi-infected skin. Infection of MDM with live, but not heat-killed, H. ducreyi induced caspase-1- and caspase-5-dependent processing and secretion of IL-1β. Blockage of H. ducreyi uptake by cytochalasin D significantly reduced the amount of secreted IL-1β. Knocking down the expression of the inflammasome components NLRP3 and ASC abolished IL-1β production. Consistent with NLRP3-dependent inflammasome activation, blocking ATP signaling, K(+) efflux, cathepsin B activity, and lysosomal acidification all inhibited IL-1β secretion. However, inhibition of the production and function of reactive oxygen species did not decrease IL-1β production. Polarization of macrophages to classically activated M1 or alternatively activated M2 cells abrogated IL-1β secretion elicited by H. ducreyi. Our study data indicate that H. ducreyi induces NLRP3 inflammasome activation via multiple mechanisms and suggest that the heterogeneity of macrophages within human lesions may modulate inflammasome activation during human infection.

  10. Minocycline Effects on IL-6 Concentration in Macrophage and Microglial Cells in a Rat Model of Neuropathic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moini-Zanjani, Taraneh; Ostad, Seyed-Nasser; Labibi, Farzaneh; Ameli, Haleh; Mosaffa, Nariman; Sabetkasaei, Masoumeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence indicates that neuropathic pain pathogenesis is not confined to changes in the activity of neuronal systems but involves interactions between neurons, inflammatory immune and immune-like glial cells. Substances released from immune cells during inflammation play an important role in development and maintenance of neuropathic pain. It has been found that minocycline suppresses the development of neuropathic pain. Here, we evaluated the analgesic effect of minocycline in a chronic constriction injury (CCI) model of neuropathic pain in rat and assessed IL-6 concentration from cultured macrophage and microglia cells. Methods: Male Wistar rat (n=6, 150-200 g) were divided into three different groups: 1) CCI+vehicle, 2) sham+vehicle, and 3) CCI+drug. Minocycline (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg) was injected one hour before surgery and continued daily to day 14 post ligation. Von Frey filaments and acetone, as pain behavioral tests, were used for mechanical allodynia and cold allodynia, respectively. Experiments were performed on day 0 (before surgery) and days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 post -injury. At day 14, rats were killed and monocyte-derived macrophage from right ventricle and microglia from lumbar part of the spinal cord were isolated and cultured in RPMI and Leibovitz’s media, respectively. IL-6 concentration was evaluated in cell culture supernatant after 24 h. Results: Minocycline (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg) attenuated pain behavior, and a decrease in IL-6 concentration was observed in immune cells compared to CCI vehicle-treated animals. Conclusion: Minocycline reduced pain behavior and decreased IL-6 concentration in macrophage and microglial cells. PMID:27221523

  11. Enhancement of NMDA receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents by gp120-treated macrophages: implications for HIV-1-associated neuropathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianming; Hu, Dehui; Xia, Jianxun; Liu, Jianuo; Zhang, Gang; Gendelman, Howard E; Boukli, Nawal M; Xiong, Huangui

    2013-09-01

    A plethora of prior studies has linked HIV-1-infected and immune activated brain mononuclear phagocytes (MP; blood borne macrophages and microglia) to neuronal dysfunction. These are modulated by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists and supporting their relevance for HIV-1-associated nervous system disease. The role of NMDAR subsets in HIV-1-induced neuronal injury, nonetheless, is poorly understood. To this end, we investigated conditioned media from HIV-1gp120-treated human monocyte-derived-macrophages (MDM) for its abilities to affect NMDAR-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSC(NMDAR)) in rat hippocampal slices. Bath application of gp120-treated MDM-conditioned media (MCM) produced an increase of EPSC(NMDAR). In contrast, control (untreated) MCM had limited effects on EPSC(NMDAR). Testing NR2A NMDAR (NR2AR)-mediated EPSC (EPSC(NR2AR)) and NR2B NMDAR (NR2BR)-mediated EPSC (EPSC(NR2BR)) for MCM showed significant increased EPSC(NR2BR) when compared to EPSC(NR2AR) enhancement. When synaptic NR2AR-mediated EPSC was blocked by bath application of MK801 combined with low frequency stimulations, MCM retained its ability to enhance EPSC(NMDAR) evoked by stronger stimulations. This suggested that increase in EPSC(NMDAR) was mediated, in part, through extra-synaptic NR2BR. Further analyses revealed that the soluble factors with low (NR2BR but not NR2AR blockers. Taken together, these results indicate that macrophage secretory products induce neuronal injury through extra-synaptic NR2BRs.

  12. 甲型副伤寒沙门氏菌cdtB亚基的原核表达及对巨噬细胞IL-6、IL-8、TNF-α分泌的影响%Cloning and expression of recombinant Salmonella paratyphi A cytolethal distending toxin proteins and its effect on cytokine production by human monocyte-derived macrophages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鸿鹄; 吴圆圆; 占利; 梅玲玲

    2016-01-01

    目的 研究甲型副伤寒沙门氏菌感染过程中,cdtB对宿主巨噬细胞分泌促炎细胞因子的影响.NF-κB信号通路阻断剂对cdtB诱导的巨噬细胞分泌细胞因子的影响.方法 对甲型副伤寒沙门氏菌cdtB亚基进行原核表达,制备并模型纯化重组蛋白,建立其刺激人THP-1巨噬细胞模型,ELISA检测THP-1分泌IL-6,IL-8和TNF-α等细胞因子.在共培养体系中加入NF-κB信号通路阻断剂,ELISA检测THP-1分泌IL-6,IL-8和TNF-α等细胞因子.结果 成功构建甲型副伤寒沙门氏菌cdtB原核表达系统,表达并纯化重组cdtB蛋白,与空白对照相比,受到cdtB刺激的THP-1细胞上清中的IL-6,IL-8和TNF-α浓度显著上升,而在THP-1细胞培养基中加入NF-κB信号通路阻断剂SN50可以显著抑制重组cdtB诱导的IL-6、IL-8、TNF-α分泌.结论 甲型副伤寒沙门氏菌cdtB能够通过NF-κB信号通路诱导巨噬细胞分泌IL-6、IL-8和TNF-α,在甲型副伤寒相关的炎症反应中发挥促进作用.

  13. Association of TNF-α upregulation of MMP-9 activation in monocyte-derived macrophages with progression of joint damage in patients with rheumatoid arthritis%TNF-α上调单核巨噬细胞MMP-9的活性与类风湿关节炎关节破坏的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢建民; 王好问; 陆才生

    2009-01-01

    目的:探讨TNF-α对单核巨噬细胞基质金属蛋白酶9(MMP-9)的表达与酶活性的影响以及与类风湿关节炎患者关节破坏的关系.方法:用双抗体夹心ELISA法检测类风湿关节炎患者组(RA)和对照组血清和关节滑液中TNF-α、MMP-9的含量,观察MMP-9与X线表现积分(Larsen)的关系.体外将佛波酯(TPA)和不同浓度(0、1、10、20 μg/L)TNF-α共同孵育THP-1细胞24 h后,运用Western blotting方法检测MMP-9蛋白的表达,明胶酶谱法检测MMP-9活性,侵蚀小室法观察分化前后THP-1细胞的侵蚀力.结果:RA患者组血清和关节滑液中TNF-α、MMP-9的水平明显高于对照组(P<0 05),且血清和滑液MMP-9与Larsen积分显著相关(r=0 37和r=0 32,P<0 01);体外细胞实验中,TNF-α上调分化的THP-1中MMP-9的表达和酶活性,并且增强分化的THP-1细胞的侵蚀性,并与TNF-α呈浓度依赖性.结论:TNF-α上调单核巨噬细胞MMP-9表达及活化,增强了炎症细胞的侵蚀力,可能在RA关节破坏机制中起着重要的作用.

  14. HIV-1 Nef impairs key functional activities in human macrophages through CD36 downregulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Olivetta

    Full Text Available Monocytes and macrophages utilize the class A and B scavenger receptors to recognize and perform phagocytosis of invading microbes before a pathogen-specific immune response is generated. HIV-1 Nef protein affects the innate immune system impairing oxidative burst response and phagocytic capacity of macrophages. Our data show that exogenous recombinant myristoylated Nef protein induces a marked CD36 downregulation in monocytes from Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells, in Monocyte-Derived Macrophages (MDMs differentiated by cytokines and in MDMs contained in a mixed culture obtained expanding PBMCs under Human Erythroid Massive Amplification condition. Under the latter culture condition we identify three main populations after 6 days of expansion: lymphocytes (37.8 ± 14.7%, erythroblasts (46.7±6.1% and MDMs (15.7 ± 7.5%. The Nef addition to the cell culture significantly downregulates CD36 expression in MDMs, but not in erythroid cells. Furthermore, CD36 inhibition is highly specific since it does not modify the expression levels of other MDM markers such as CD14, CD11c, CD86, CD68, CD206, Toll-like Receptor 2 and Toll-like Receptor 4. Similar results were obtained in MDMs infected with VSV-G pseudotyped HIV-1-expressing Nef. The reduced CD36 membrane expression is associated with decrease of correspondent CD36 mRNA transcript. Furthermore, Nef-induced CD36 downregulation is linked to both impaired scavenger activity with reduced capability to take up oxidized lipoproteins and to significant decreased phagocytosis of fluorescent beads and GFP-expressing Salmonella tiphymurium. In addition we observed that Nef induces TNF-α release in MDMs. Although these data suggest a possible involvement of TNF-α in mediating Nef activity, our results exclude a possible relationship between Nef-induced TNF-α release and Nef-mediated CD36 downregulation. The present work shows that HIV-1 Nef protein may have a role in the strategies elaborated by HIV-1 to

  15. Crucial role of interferon-gamma and stimulated macrophages in cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroecksnadel, Katharina; Frick, Barbara; Winkler, Christiana; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2006-07-01

    Inflammation and immune activation are crucially involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, markers of inflammation such as fibrinogen, ferritin, C-reactive protein or neopterin are found in patients with vascular diseases, correlating strongly with the extent of disease and predicting disease progression. Neopterin formation by human monocyte-derived macrophages and dendritic cells is induced by the pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon-gamma, which is released by activated T-lymphocytes. Human macrophages are centrally involved in plaque formation, and interferon-gamma and macrophages are also of importance in the development of oxidative stress for antimicrobial and antitumoural defence within the cell-mediated immune response. Interferon-gamma also stimulates the enzyme indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase, which degrades tryptophan to kynurenine. Again, macrophages are the most important cell type executing this enzyme reaction, but also other cells like dendritic cells, endothelial cells or fibroblasts can contribute to the depletion of tryptophan. Likewise, enhanced tryptophan degradation was reported in patients with coronary heart disease and was found to correlate with enhanced neopterin formation. In chronic diseases such as in cardiovascular disease, biochemical reactions induced by interferon-gamma may have detrimental consequences for host cells. In concert with other pro-inflammatory cytokines, interferon-gamma is the most important trigger for the formation and release of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Chronic ROS-production leads to the depletion of antioxidants like vitamin C and E and glutathione, with a consequence that oxidative stress develop. Oxidative stress plays a major role in the atherogenesis and progression of cardiovascular disease, and it may also account for the irreversible oxidation of other oxidation-sensitive substances like B-vitamins (e.g. folic acid and B12). They are essential cofactors in

  16. Transcriptional Regulation and Macrophage Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, David A; Summers, Kim M; Rehli, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Monocytes and macrophages are professional phagocytes that occupy specific niches in every tissue of the body. Their survival, proliferation, and differentiation are controlled by signals from the macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor (CSF-1R) and its two ligands, CSF-1 and interleukin-34. In this review, we address the developmental and transcriptional relationships between hematopoietic progenitor cells, blood monocytes, and tissue macrophages as well as the distinctions from dendritic cells. A huge repertoire of receptors allows monocytes, tissue-resident macrophages, or pathology-associated macrophages to adapt to specific microenvironments. These processes create a broad spectrum of macrophages with different functions and individual effector capacities. The production of large transcriptomic data sets in mouse, human, and other species provides new insights into the mechanisms that underlie macrophage functional plasticity.

  17. The macrophages in rheumatic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laria A

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Antonella Laria, Alfredomaria Lurati , Mariagrazia Marrazza , Daniela Mazzocchi, Katia Angela Re, Magda Scarpellini Rheumatology Unit, Fornaroli Hospital, Magenta, Italy Abstract: Macrophages belong to the innate immune system giving us protection against pathogens. However it is known that they are also involved in rheumatic diseases. Activated macrophages have two different phenotypes related to different stimuli: M1 (classically activated and M2 (alternatively activated. M1 macrophages release high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, reactive nitrogen and oxygen intermediates killing microorganisms and tumor cells; while M2 macrophages are involved in resolution of inflammation through phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils, reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and increased synthesis of mediators important in tissue remodeling, angiogenesis, and wound repair. The role of macrophages in the different rheumatic diseases is different according to their M1/M2 macrophages phenotype. Keywords: macrophage, rheumatic diseases

  18. HIV-1 gp120 signaling through TLR4 modulates innate immune activation in human macrophages and the biology of hepatic stellate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Cornò, Manuela; Cappon, Andrea; Donninelli, Gloria; Varano, Barbara; Marra, Fabio; Gessani, Sandra

    2016-09-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy has significantly improved the prognosis of HIV-infected subjects. However, patients treated long term still manifest increased mortality and, even with undetectable plasma viremia, often experience persistent immune activation. Furthermore, liver-related mortality is now the most common cause of non-AIDS-related death in HIV-infected individuals on highly active antiretroviral therapy through accelerated fibrosis progression. TLRs are the first line of the host response to pathogens and play an important role in human host defense against viruses through sensing of viral structural proteins. Growing evidence points to TLR4 as a key player in chronic immune activation, HIV recognition/replication, and liver fibrosis progression, suggesting that HIV triggering of TLR4 may dictate some aspects of the multifaceted AIDS pathogenesis. In this study, we provide evidence for an interplay between host TLR4 and HIV-1 gp120 in human monocyte-derived macrophages and hepatic stellate cells, leading to intracellular pathways and biologic activities that mediate proinflammatory and profibrogenic signals. Finally, we hypothesize that CCR5 and TLR4 are likely part of a common receptor cluster, as the blocking of CCR5 by specific antagonists impairs the macrophage capacity to produce chemokines in response to LPS. Chronic immune activation and liver fibrosis remain important obstacles for highly active antiretroviral therapy success. Thus, the identification of gp120-TLR4 axis as a novel determinant of immune system and hepatic stellate cell biology opens new perspectives to the management of HIV infection and disease.

  19. HIV infection enhances TRAIL-induced cell death in macrophage by down-regulating decoy receptor expression and generation of reactive oxygen species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Ming Zhu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL could induce apoptosis of HIV-1-infected monocyte-derived macrophage (MDM, but the molecular mechanisms are not well understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By using an HIV-1 Env-pseudotyped virus (HIV-1 PV-infected MDM cell model we demonstrate that HIV-1 PV infection down-regulates the expression of TRAIL decoy receptor 1 (DcR1 and 2 (DcR2, and cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (c-FLIP, but dose not affect the expression of death receptor 4 and 5 (DR4, DR5, and Bcl-2 family members in MDM cells. Furthermore, recombinant soluble TRAIL and an agonistic anti-DR5 antibody, AD5-10, treatment stimulates reactive oxygen species (ROS generation and JNK phosphorylation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: HIV infection facilitates TRIAL-induced cell death in MDM by down-regulating the expression of TRAIL decoy receptors and intracellular c-FLIP. Meanwhile, the agonistic anti-DR5 antibody, AD5-10, induces apoptosis synergistically with TRAIL in HIV-1-infected cells. ROS generation and JNK phosphorylation are involved in this process. These findings potentiate clinical usage of the combination of TRAIL and AD5-10 in eradication of HIV-infected macrophage and AIDS.

  20. Secreted aspartic protease 2 of Candida albicans inactivates factor H and the macrophage factor H-receptors CR3 (CD11b/CD18) and CR4 (CD11c/CD18).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoboda, Eliška; Schneider, Andrea E; Sándor, Noémi; Lermann, Ulrich; Staib, Peter; Kremlitzka, Mariann; Bajtay, Zsuzsa; Barz, Dagmar; Erdei, Anna; Józsi, Mihály

    2015-11-01

    The opportunistic pathogenic yeast Candida albicans employs several mechanisms to interfere with the human complement system. This includes the acquisition of host complement regulators, the release of molecules that scavenge complement proteins or block cellular receptors, and the secretion of proteases that inactivate complement components. Secreted aspartic protease 2 (Sap2) was previously shown to cleave C3b, C4b and C5. C. albicans also recruits the complement inhibitor factor H (FH), but yeast-bound FH can enhance the antifungal activity of human neutrophils via binding to complement receptor type 3 (CR3). In this study, we characterized FH binding to human monocyte-derived macrophages. Inhibition studies with antibodies and siRNA targeting CR3 (CD11b/CD18) and CR4 (CD11c/CD18), as well as analysis of colocalization of FH with these integrins indicated that both function as FH receptors on macrophages. Preincubation of C. albicans yeast cells with FH induced increased production of IL-1β and IL-6 in macrophages. Furthermore, FH enhanced zymosan-induced production of these cytokines. C. albicans Sap2 cleaved FH, diminishing its complement regulatory activity, and Sap2-treatment resulted in less detectable CR3 and CR4 on macrophages. These data show that FH enhances the activation of human macrophages when bound on C. albicans. However, the fungus can inactivate both FH and its receptors on macrophages by secreting Sap2, which may represent an additional means for C. albicans to evade the host innate immune system.

  1. Quantification and localization of M2 macrophages in human kidneys with acute tubular injury

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    Palmer MB

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Matthew B Palmer,1 Alfred A Vichot,2 Lloyd G Cantley,2 Gilbert W Moeckel1 1Department of Pathology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA Abstract: This study addresses for the first time the question whether there is significant macrophage population in human kidney sections from patients with acute tubular injury (ATI. We examined therefore the interstitial macrophage population in human kidney tissue with biopsy-proven diagnosis of ATI, minimal change disease (MCD, and MCD with ATI. Kidney biopsies from patients with the above diagnoses were stained with antibodies directed against CD68 (general macrophage marker, CD163 (M2 marker, and HLA-DR (M1 marker and their respective electron microscopy samples were evaluated for the presence of interstitial macrophages. Our study shows that patients with ATI have significantly increased numbers of interstitial CD68+ macrophages, with an increase in both HLA-DR+ M1 macrophages and CD163+ M2 macrophages as compared to patients with MCD alone. Approximately 75% of macrophages were M2 (CD163+ whereas only 25% were M1 (HLA-DR+. M2 macrophages, which are believed to be critical for wound healing, were found to localize close to the tubular basement membrane of injured proximal tubule cells. Ultra structural examination showed close adherence of macrophages to the basement membrane of injured tubular epithelial cells. We conclude that macrophages accumulate around injured tubules following ATI and exhibit predominantly an M2 phenotype. We further speculate that macrophage-mediated repair may involve physical contact between the M2 macrophage and the injured tubular epithelial cell. Keywords: macrophages, acute kidney injury, CD163, HLA-DR, CD68, electron microscopy

  2. Mycobacteria clumping increase their capacity to damage macrophages

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    Cecilia Brambilla

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The rough morphotypes of non-tuberculous mycobacteria have been associated with the most severe illnesses in humans. This idea is consistent with the fact that Mycobacterium tuberculosis presents a stable rough morphotype. Unlike smooth morphotypes, the bacilli of rough morphotypes grow close together, leaving no spaces among them and forming large aggregates (clumps. Currently, the initial interaction of macrophages with clumps remains unclear. Thus, we infected J774 macrophages with bacterial suspensions of rough morphotypes of Mycobacterium abscessus containing clumps and suspensions of smooth morphotypes, primarily containing isolated bacilli. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy and electron microscopy, we observed clumps of at least 5 rough-morphotype bacilli inside the phagocytic vesicles of macrophages at 3 hours post-infection. These clumps grew within the phagocytic vesicles, killing 100% of the macrophages at 72 hours post-infection, whereas the proliferation of macrophages infected with smooth morphotypes remained unaltered at 96 hours post-infection. Thus, macrophages phagocytose large clumps, exceeding the bactericidal capacities of these cells. Furthermore, proinflammatory cytokines and granuloma-like structures were only produced by macrophages infected with rough morphotypes. Thus, the present study provides a foundation for further studies that consider mycobacterial clumps as virulence factors.

  3. Mycobacteria Clumping Increase Their Capacity to Damage Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Cecilia; Llorens-Fons, Marta; Julián, Esther; Noguera-Ortega, Estela; Tomàs-Martínez, Cristina; Pérez-Trujillo, Miriam; Byrd, Thomas F.; Alcaide, Fernando; Luquin, Marina

    2016-01-01

    The rough morphotypes of non-tuberculous mycobacteria have been associated with the most severe illnesses in humans. This idea is consistent with the fact that Mycobacterium tuberculosis presents a stable rough morphotype. Unlike smooth morphotypes, the bacilli of rough morphotypes grow close together, leaving no spaces among them and forming large aggregates (clumps). Currently, the initial interaction of macrophages with clumps remains unclear. Thus, we infected J774 macrophages with bacterial suspensions of rough morphotypes of M. abscessus containing clumps and suspensions of smooth morphotypes, primarily containing isolated bacilli. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy and electron microscopy, we observed clumps of at least five rough-morphotype bacilli inside the phagocytic vesicles of macrophages at 3 h post-infection. These clumps grew within the phagocytic vesicles, killing 100% of the macrophages at 72 h post-infection, whereas the proliferation of macrophages infected with smooth morphotypes remained unaltered at 96 h post-infection. Thus, macrophages phagocytose large clumps, exceeding the bactericidal capacities of these cells. Furthermore, proinflammatory cytokines and granuloma-like structures were only produced by macrophages infected with rough morphotypes. Thus, the present study provides a foundation for further studies that consider mycobacterial clumps as virulence factors. PMID:27757105

  4. Methamphetamine Enhances HIV-1 Infectivity in Monocyte Derived Dendritic Cells

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The US is currently experiencing an epidemic of methamphetamine (Meth) use as a recreational drug. Recent studies also show a high prevalence of HIV-1 infection among Meth users. We report that Meth enhances HIV-1 infectivity of dendritic cells as measured by multinuclear activation of a galactosidase indicator (MAGI) cell assay, p24 assay, and LTR-RU5 amplification. Meth induces increased HIV-1 infection in association with an increase in the HIV-1 coreceptors, CXCR4 and CCR5, and infection ...

  5. Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis isolates from sheep and goats show reduced persistence in bovine macrophages than cattle, bison, deer and wild boar strains regardless of genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abendaño, Naiara; Sevilla, Iker A; Prieto, José Miguel; Garrido, Joseba M; Juste, Ramon A; Alonso-Hearn, Marta

    2013-05-03

    Assessment of the virulence of isolates of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) exhibiting distinct genotypes and isolated from different hosts may help to clarify the degree to which clinical manifestations of the disease in cattle can be attributed to bacterial or to host factors. The objective of this study was to test the ability of 10 isolates of Map representing distinct genotypes and isolated from domestic (cattle, sheep, and goat), and wildlife animal species (fallow deer, deer, wild boar, and bison) to enter and grow in bovine macrophages. The isolates were previously typed using IS1311 PCR followed by restriction endonuclease analysis into types C, S or B. Intracellular growth of the isolates in a bovine macrophage-like cell line (BoMac) and in primary bovine monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) was evaluated by quantification of CFU numbers in the initial inoculum and inside of the host cells at 2h and 7 d p.i. using an automatic liquid culture system (Bactec MGIT 960). Individual data illustrated that growth was less variable in BoMac than in MDM cells. All the isolates from goat and sheep hosts persisted within BoMac cells in lower CFU numbers than the other tested isolates after 7 days of infection regardless of genotype. In addition, BoMac cells exhibited differential inflammatory, apoptotic and destructive responses when infected with a bovine or an ovine isolate; which correlated with the differential survival of these strains within BoMac cells. Our results indicated that the survival of the tested Map isolates within bovine macrophages is associated with the specific host from which the isolates were initially isolated.

  6. Cold Atmospheric Plasma Inhibits HIV-1 Replication in Macrophages by Targeting Both the Virus and the Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volotskova, Olga; Dubrovsky, Larisa; Keidar, Michael; Bukrinsky, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) is a specific type of partially ionized gas that is less than 104°F at the point of application. It was recently shown that CAP can be used for decontamination and sterilization, as well as anti-cancer treatment. Here, we investigated the effects of CAP on HIV-1 replication in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). We demonstrate that pre-treatment of MDM with CAP reduced levels of CD4 and CCR5, inhibiting virus-cell fusion, viral reverse transcription and integration. In addition, CAP pre-treatment affected cellular factors required for post-entry events, as replication of VSV-G-pseudotyped HIV-1, which by-passes HIV receptor-mediated fusion at the plasma membrane during entry, was also inhibited. Interestingly, virus particles produced by CAP-treated cells had reduced infectivity, suggesting that the inhibitory effect of CAP extended to the second cycle of infection. These results demonstrate that anti-HIV activity of CAP involves the effects on target cells and the virus, and suggest that CAP may be considered for potential application as an anti-HIV treatment. PMID:27783659

  7. Proteomics Analysis Reveals Distinct Corona Composition on Magnetic Nanoparticles with Different Surface Coatings: Implications for Interactions with Primary Human Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Carmen; Pernemalm, Maria; Kohonen, Pekka; Laurent, Sophie; Hultenby, Kjell; Vahter, Marie; Lehtiö, Janne; Toprak, Muhammet S; Fadeel, Bengt

    2015-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have emerged as promising contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. The influence of different surface coatings on the biocompatibility of SPIONs has been addressed, but the potential impact of the so-called corona of adsorbed proteins on the surface of SPIONs on their biological behavior is less well studied. Here, we determined the composition of the plasma protein corona on silica-coated versus dextran-coated SPIONs using mass spectrometry-based proteomics approaches. Notably, gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis revealed distinct protein corona compositions for the two different SPIONs. Relaxivity of silica-coated SPIONs was modulated by the presence of a protein corona. Moreover, the viability of primary human monocyte-derived macrophages was influenced by the protein corona on silica-coated, but not dextran-coated SPIONs, and the protein corona promoted cellular uptake of silica-coated SPIONs, but did not affect internalization of dextran-coated SPIONs.

  8. Proteomics Analysis Reveals Distinct Corona Composition on Magnetic Nanoparticles with Different Surface Coatings: Implications for Interactions with Primary Human Macrophages.

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    Carmen Vogt

    Full Text Available Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs have emerged as promising contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. The influence of different surface coatings on the biocompatibility of SPIONs has been addressed, but the potential impact of the so-called corona of adsorbed proteins on the surface of SPIONs on their biological behavior is less well studied. Here, we determined the composition of the plasma protein corona on silica-coated versus dextran-coated SPIONs using mass spectrometry-based proteomics approaches. Notably, gene ontology (GO enrichment analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway analysis revealed distinct protein corona compositions for the two different SPIONs. Relaxivity of silica-coated SPIONs was modulated by the presence of a protein corona. Moreover, the viability of primary human monocyte-derived macrophages was influenced by the protein corona on silica-coated, but not dextran-coated SPIONs, and the protein corona promoted cellular uptake of silica-coated SPIONs, but did not affect internalization of dextran-coated SPIONs.

  9. Human monocytes undergo excessive apoptosis following temozolomide activating the ATM/ATR pathway while dendritic cells and macrophages are resistant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Bauer

    Full Text Available Immunodeficiency is a severe therapy-limiting side effect of anticancer chemotherapy resulting from sensitivity of immunocompetent cells to DNA damaging agents. A central role in the immune system is played by monocytes that differentiate into macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs. In this study we compared human monocytes isolated from peripheral blood and cytokine matured macrophages and DCs derived from them and assessed the mechanism of toxicity of the DNA methylating anticancer drug temozolomide (TMZ in these cell populations. We observed that monocytes, but not DCs and macrophages, were highly sensitive to the killing effect of TMZ. Studies on DNA damage and repair revealed that the initial DNA incision was efficient in monocytes while the re-ligation step of base excision repair (BER can not be accomplished, resulting in an accumulation of DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs. Furthermore, monocytes accumulated DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs following TMZ treatment, while DCs and macrophages were able to repair DSBs. Monocytes lack the DNA repair proteins XRCC1, ligase IIIα and PARP-1 whose expression is restored during differentiation into macrophages and DCs following treatment with GM-CSF and GM-CSF plus IL-4, respectively. These proteins play a key role both in BER and DSB repair by B-NHEJ, which explains the accumulation of DNA breaks in monocytes following TMZ treatment. Although TMZ provoked an upregulation of XRCC1 and ligase IIIα, BER was not enhanced likely because PARP-1 was not upregulated. Accordingly, inhibition of PARP-1 did not sensitize monocytes, but monocyte-derived DCs in which strong PARP activation was observed. TMZ induced in monocytes the DNA damage response pathways ATM-Chk2 and ATR-Chk1 resulting in p53 activation. Finally, upon activation of the Fas-receptor and the mitochondrial pathway apoptosis was executed in a caspase-dependent manner. The downregulation of DNA repair in monocytes, resulting in their selective

  10. Bioelectric modulation of macrophage polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunmei; Levin, Michael; Kaplan, David L.

    2016-02-01

    Macrophages play a critical role in regulating wound healing and tissue regeneration by changing their polarization state in response to local microenvironmental stimuli. The native roles of polarized macrophages encompass biomaterials and tissue remodeling needs, yet harnessing or directing the polarization response has been largely absent as a potential strategy to exploit in regenerative medicine to date. Recent data have revealed that specific alteration of cells’ resting potential (Vmem) is a powerful tool to direct proliferation and differentiation in a number of complex tissues, such as limb regeneration, craniofacial patterning and tumorigenesis. In this study, we explored the bioelectric modulation of macrophage polarization by targeting ATP sensitive potassium channels (KATP). Glibenclamide (KATP blocker) and pinacidil (KATP opener) treatment not only affect macrophage polarization, but also influence the phenotype of prepolarized macrophages. Furthermore, modulation of cell membrane electrical properties can fine-tune macrophage plasticity. Glibenclamide decreased the secretion and gene expression of selected M1 markers, while pinacidil augmented M1 markers. More interestingly, glibencalmide promoted macrophage alternative activation by enhancing certain M2 markers during M2 polarization. These findings suggest that control of bioelectric properties of macrophages could offer a promising approach to regulate macrophage phenotype as a useful tool in regenerative medicine.

  11. HIV-1 infection induces changes in expression of cellular splicing factors that regulate alternative viral splicing and virus production in macrophages

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    Purcell Damian FJ

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Macrophages are important targets and long-lived reservoirs of HIV-1, which are not cleared of infection by currently available treatments. In the primary monocyte-derived macrophage model of infection, replication is initially productive followed by a decline in virion output over ensuing weeks, coincident with a decrease in the levels of the essential viral transactivator protein Tat. We investigated two possible mechanisms in macrophages for regulation of viral replication, which appears to be primarily regulated at the level of tat mRNA: 1 differential mRNA stability, used by cells and some viruses for the rapid regulation of gene expression and 2 control of HIV-1 alternative splicing, which is essential for optimal viral replication. Results Following termination of transcription at increasing times after infection in macrophages, we found that tat mRNA did indeed decay more rapidly than rev or nef mRNA, but with similar kinetics throughout infection. In addition, tat mRNA decayed at least as rapidly in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Expression of cellular splicing factors in uninfected and infected macrophage cultures from the same donor showed an inverse pattern over time between enhancing factors (members of the SR family of RNA binding proteins and inhibitory factors (members of the hnRNP family. While levels of the SR protein SC35 were greatly up-regulated in the first week or two after infection, hnRNPs of the A/B and H groups were down-regulated. Around the peak of virus production in each culture, SC35 expression declined to levels in uninfected cells or lower, while the hnRNPs increased to control levels or above. We also found evidence for increased cytoplasmic expression of SC35 following long-term infection. Conclusion While no evidence of differential regulation of tat mRNA decay was found in macrophages following HIV-1 infection, changes in the balance of cellular splicing factors which regulate alternative

  12. Macrophage Polarization Modulates FcγR- and CD13-Mediated Phagocytosis and Reactive Oxygen Species Production, Independently of Receptor Membrane Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Coronel, Elizabeth; Ortega, Enrique

    2017-01-01

    In response to microenvironmental cues, macrophages undergo a profound phenotypic transformation acquiring distinct activation phenotypes ranging from pro-inflammatory (M1) to anti-inflammatory (M2). To study how activation phenotype influences phagocytosis and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated by receptors for IgG antibodies (Fcγ receptors) and by CD13, human monocyte-derived macrophages were polarized to distinct phenotypes using IFN-γ (Mϕ-IFN-γ), IL-4 (Mϕ-IL-4), or IL-10 (Mϕ-IL-10). Phenotypically, Mϕ-IFN-γ were characterized as CD14+CD80+CD86+ cells, Mϕ-IL-4 as CD209highCD206+CD11b+CD14low, and Mϕ-IL-10 as CD16+CD163+ cells. Compared to non-polarized macrophages, FcγRI expression increased in Mϕ-IFN-γ and Mϕ-IL-10 and FcγRIII expression increased in Mϕ-IL-10. None of the polarizing cytokines modified FcγRII or CD13 expression. Functionally, we found that cytokine-mediated activation significantly and distinctively affected FcγR- and CD13-mediated phagocytosis and ROS generation. Compared to non-polarized macrophages, FcγRI-, FcγRII-, and CD13-mediated phagocytosis was significantly increased in Mϕ-IL-10 and decreased in Mϕ-IFN-γ, although both cytokines significantly upregulated FcγRI expression. IL-10 also increased phagocytosis of Escherichia coli, showing that the effect of IL-10 on macrophage phagocytosis is not specific for a particular receptor. Interestingly, Mϕ-IL-4, which showed poor FcγR- and CD13-mediated phagocytosis, showed very high phagocytosis of E. coli and zymosan. Coupled with phagocytosis, macrophages produce ROS that contribute to microbial killing. As expected, Mϕ-IFN-γ showed significant production of ROS after FcγRI-, FcγRII-, or CD13-mediated phagocytosis. Unexpectedly, we found that Mϕ-IL-10 can also produce ROS after simultaneous stimulation through several phagocytic receptors, as coaggregation of FcγRI/FcγRII/CD13 induced a belated but significant ROS production. Together, these

  13. Characterization of macrophage-like cells in the external layers of human small and large intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, H B; Rumessen, J J

    1992-01-01

    -DR-positive (expressing the MHC class-II antigen), in contrast to macrophage-like cells in the subserosa and submucosa. Macrophage-like cells in the external muscle layer were mostly acid phosphatase-negative, and at the electron-microscopic level they were found to have features of macrophages: primary lysosomes, coated...... vesicles and pits. However, very few secondary lysosomes were present. Birbeck granules were not observed. It is concluded that in the external muscle layer of human small and large intestine numerous macrophages of a special type are present. It is discussed whether this cell type plays a role...

  14. Ly6Chi Monocytes and Their Macrophage Descendants Regulate Neutrophil Function and Clearance in Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graubardt, Nadine; Vugman, Milena; Mouhadeb, Odelia; Caliari, Gabriele; Pasmanik-Chor, Metsada; Reuveni, Debby; Zigmond, Ehud; Brazowski, Eli; David, Eyal; Chappell-Maor, Lousie; Jung, Steffen; Varol, Chen

    2017-01-01

    Monocyte-derived macrophages (MoMF) play a pivotal role in the resolution of acetaminophen-induced liver injury (AILI). Timely termination of neutrophil activity and their clearance are essential for liver regeneration following injury. Here, we show that infiltrating Ly6Chi monocytes, their macrophage descendants, and neutrophils spatially and temporally overlap in the centrilobular necrotic areas during the necroinflammatory and resolution phases of AILI. At the necroinflammatory phase, inducible ablation of circulating Ly6Chi monocytes resulted in reduced numbers and fractions of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-producing neutrophils. In alignment with this, neutrophils sorted from monocyte-deficient livers exhibited reduced expression of NADPH oxidase 2. Moreover, human CD14+ monocytes stimulated with lipopolysaccharide or hepatocyte apoptotic bodies directly induced ROS production by cocultured neutrophils. RNA-seq-based transcriptome profiling of neutrophils from Ly6Chi monocyte-deficient versus normal livers revealed 449 genes that were differentially expressed with at least twofold change (p ≤ 0.05). In the absence of Ly6Chi monocytes, neutrophils displayed gene expression alterations associated with decreased innate immune activity and increased cell survival. At the early resolution phase, Ly6Chi monocytes differentiated into ephemeral Ly6Clo MoMF and their absence resulted in significant accumulation of late apoptotic neutrophils. Further gene expression analysis revealed the induced expression of a specific repertoire of bridging molecules and receptors involved with apoptotic cell clearance during the transition from Ly6Chi monocytes to MoMF. Collectively, our findings establish a phase-dependent task division between liver-infiltrating Ly6Chi monocytes and their MoMF descendants with the former regulating innate immune functions and cell survival of neutrophils and the later neutrophil clearance. PMID:28620383

  15. Aloe vera downregulates LPS-induced inflammatory cytokine production and expression of NLRP3 inflammasome in human macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budai, Marietta M; Varga, Aliz; Milesz, Sándor; Tőzsér, József; Benkő, Szilvia

    2013-12-01

    Aloe vera has been used in traditional herbal medicine as an immunomodulatory agent inducing anti-inflammatory effects. However, its role on the IL-1β inflammatory cytokine production has not been studied. IL-1β production is strictly regulated both at transcriptional and posttranslational levels through the activity of Nlrp3 inflammasome. In this study we aimed to determine the effect of Aloe vera on the molecular mechanisms of Nlrp3 inflammasome-mediated IL-1β production in LPS-activated human THP-1 cells and monocyte-derived macrophages. Our results show that Aloe vera significantly reduced IL-8, TNFα, IL-6 and IL-1β cytokine production in a dose dependent manner. The inhibitory effect was substantially more pronounced in the primary cells. We found that Aloe vera inhibited the expression of pro-IL-1β, Nlrp3, caspase-1 as well as that of the P2X7 receptor in the LPS-induced primary macrophages. Furthermore, LPS-induced activation of signaling pathways like NF-κB, p38, JNK and ERK were inhibited by Aloe vera in these cells. Altogether, we show for the first time that Aloe vera-mediated strong reduction of IL-1β appears to be the consequence of the reduced expression of both pro-IL-1β as well as Nlrp3 inflammasome components via suppressing specific signal transduction pathways. Furthermore, we show that the expression of the ATP sensor P2X7 receptor is also downregulated by Aloe vera that could also contribute to the attenuated IL-1β cytokine secretion. These results may provide a new therapeutic approach to regulate inflammasome-mediated responses.

  16. Bacteroides fragilis induce necrosis on mice peritoneal macrophages: In vitro and in vivo assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, J.M.B.D., E-mail: jmanya@terra.com.br [Laboratorio de Tecnologia em Cultura de Celulas, UEZO, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Laboratorio de Biologia de Anaerobios, IMPPG, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Seabra, S.H. [Laboratorio de Tecnologia em Cultura de Celulas, UEZO, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Vallim, D.C. [Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Americo, M.A.; Fracallanza, S.E.L. [Laboratorio de Bacteriologia Medica, IMPPG, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Vommaro, R.C. [Laboratorio de Ultra-estrutura Celular Hertha Meyer, IBCCF, UFRJ (Brazil); Domingues, R.M.C.P. [Laboratorio de Biologia de Anaerobios, IMPPG, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2009-10-02

    Bacteroides fragilis is an anaerobic bacteria component of human intestinal microbiota and agent of infections. In the host B. fragilis interacts with macrophages, which produces toxic radicals like NO. The interaction of activated mice peritoneal macrophages with four strains of B. fragilis was evaluated on this study. Previously was shown that such strains could cause metabolic and morphologic alterations related to macrophage death. In this work propidium iodide staining showed the strains inducing macrophage necrosis in that the labeling was evident. Besides nitroblue tetrazolium test showed that B. fragilis stimulates macrophage to produce oxygen radicals. In vivo assays performed in BalbC mice have results similar to those for in vitro tests as well as scanning electron microscopy, which showed the same surface pore-like structures observed in vitro before. The results revealed that B. fragilis strains studied lead to macrophage death by a process similar to necrosis.

  17. SIV Infection of Lung Macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Li

    Full Text Available HIV-1 depletes CD4+ T cells in the blood, lymphatic tissues, gut and lungs. Here we investigated the relationship between depletion and infection of CD4+ T cells in the lung parenchyma. The lungs of 38 Indian rhesus macaques in early to later stages of SIVmac251 infection were examined, and the numbers of CD4+ T cells and macrophages plus the frequency of SIV RNA+ cells were quantified. We showed that SIV infected macrophages in the lung parenchyma, but only in small numbers except in the setting of interstitial inflammation where large numbers of SIV RNA+ macrophages were detected. However, even in this setting, the number of macrophages was not decreased. By contrast, there were few infected CD4+ T cells in lung parenchyma, but CD4+ T cells were nonetheless depleted by unknown mechanisms. The CD4+ T cells in lung parenchyma were depleted even though they were not productively infected, whereas SIV can infect large numbers of macrophages in the setting of interstitial inflammation without depleting them. These observations point to the need for future investigations into mechanisms of CD4+ T cell depletion at this mucosal site, and into mechanisms by which macrophage populations are maintained despite high levels of infection. The large numbers of SIV RNA+ macrophages in lungs in the setting of interstitial inflammation indicates that lung macrophages can be an important source for SIV persistent infection.

  18. Induction of interleukin-10 is dependent on p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in macrophages infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Jun

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV causes reproductive failure and respiratory illness in pigs and usually establishes a persistent infection. Previous studies suggested that interleukin-10 (IL-10 could play a critical role in PRRSV-induced immunosuppression. However, the ability of PRRSV to induce IL-10 in infected cells is controversial. In this study, we further investigated this issue using PRRSV strain CH-1a, which is the first North American genotype strain isolated in China. Results PRRSV strain CH-1a could significantly up-regulate IL-10 production both at mRNA and protein levels in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs, bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs, and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs. However, up-regulation of IL-10 by PRRSV was retarded by specific inhibitors of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK (SB203580 and NF-κB (BAY11-7082. Additionally, p38 MAPK and NF-κB pathways but not ERK1/2 MAPK were actually activated in PRRSV-infected BMDMs as demonstrated by western blot analysis, suggesting that p38 MAPK and NF-κB pathways are involved in the induction of IL-10 by PRRSV infection. Transfection of PAMs and PAM cell line 3D4/21 (CRL-2843 with viral structural genes showed that glycoprotein5 (GP5 could significantly up-regulate IL-10 production, which was dependent on p38 MAPK and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3 activation. We also demonstrated that a full-length glycoprotein was essential for GP5 to induce IL-10 production. Conclusions PRRSV strain CH-1a could significantly up-regulate IL-10 production through p38 MAPK activation.

  19. Vpu serine 52 dependent counteraction of tetherin is required for HIV-1 replication in macrophages, but not in ex vivo human lymphoid tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Specht Anke

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 Vpu protein degrades CD4 and counteracts a restriction factor termed tetherin (CD317; Bst-2 to enhance virion release. It has been suggested that both functions can be genetically separated by mutation of a serine residue at position 52. However, recent data suggest that the S52 phosphorylation site is also important for the ability of Vpu to counteract tetherin. To clarify this issue, we performed a comprehensive analysis of HIV-1 with a mutated casein kinase-II phosphorylation site in Vpu in various cell lines, primary blood lymphocytes (PBL, monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM and ex vivo human lymphoid tissue (HLT. Results We show that mutation of serine 52 to alanine (S52A entirely disrupts Vpu-mediated degradation of CD4 and strongly impairs its ability to antagonize tetherin. Furthermore, casein-kinase II inhibitors blocked the ability of Vpu to degrade tetherin. Overall, Vpu S52A could only overcome low levels of tetherin, and its activity decreased in a manner dependent on the amount of transiently or endogenously expressed tetherin. As a consequence, the S52A Vpu mutant virus was unable to replicate in macrophages, which express high levels of this restriction factor. In contrast, HIV-1 Vpu S52A caused CD4+ T-cell depletion and spread efficiently in ex vivo human lymphoid tissue and PBL, most likely because these cells express comparably low levels of tetherin. Conclusion Our data explain why the effect of the S52A mutation in Vpu on virus release is cell-type dependent and suggest that a reduced ability of Vpu to counteract tetherin impairs HIV-1 replication in macrophages, but not in tissue CD4+ T cells.

  20. Cathelicidin LL-37 induces time-resolved release of LTB4 and TXA2 by human macrophages and triggers eicosanoid generation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Min; Soehnlein, Oliver; Tang, Xiao; van der Does, Anne M; Smedler, Erik; Uhlén, Per; Lindbom, Lennart; Agerberth, Birgitta; Haeggström, Jesper Z

    2014-08-01

    In humans, LL-37 and eicosanoids are important mediators of inflammation and immune responses. Here we report that LL-37 promotes leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and thromboxane A2 (TXA2) generation by human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDMs). LL-37 evokes calcium mobilization apparently via the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R), activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPKs, as well as cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) and 5-lipoxygenase in HMDMs, leading to an early (1 h) release of LTB4. Similarly, TXA2 production at an early time involved the same signaling sequence along an LL-37-P2X7R-cPLA2-cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) axis. However, at later (6-8 h) time points, internalized LL-37 up-regulates COX-2 expression, promoting TXA2 production. Furthermore, intraperitoneal injection of mice with murine cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (mCRAMP) induces significantly higher levels of LTB4 and TXA2 in mouse ascites rich in macrophages. Conversely, cathelicidin-deficient (Cnlp(-/-)) mice produce much less LTB4 and TXB2 in vivo in response to TNF-α compared with control mice. We conclude that LL-37 elicits a biphasic release of eicosanoids in macrophages with early, Ca(2+)-dependent formation of LTB4 and TXA2 followed by a late peak of TXA2, generated via induction of COX-2 by internalized LL-37, thus allowing eicosanoid production in a temporally controlled manner. Moreover, our findings provide evidence that LL-37 is an endogenous regulator of eicosanoid-dependent inflammatory responses in vivo.

  1. A Novel Role for the Receptor of the Complement Cleavage Fragment C5a, C5aR1, in CCR5-Mediated Entry of HIV into Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Fernandez, Maria E; Aliberti, Julio; Groeneweg, Sander; Köhl, Jörg; Chougnet, Claire A

    2016-04-01

    The complement system is an ancient pattern recognition system that becomes activated during all stages of HIV infection. Previous studies have shown that C5a can enhance the infection of monocyte-derived macrophages and T cells indirectly through the production of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and the attraction of dendritic cells. C5a exerts its multiple biologic functions mainly through activation of C5a receptor 1 (C5aR1). Here, we assessed the role of C5aR1 as an enhancer of CCR5-mediated HIV infection. We determined CCR5 and C5aR1 heterodimer formation in myeloid cells and the impact of C5aR1 blockade on HIV entry and genomic integration. C5aR1/CCR5 heterodimer formation was identified by immunoprecipitation and western blotting. THP-1 cells and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) were infected by R5 laboratory strains or HIV pseudotyped for the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) envelope. Levels of integrated HIV were measured by quantitative PCR after targeting of C5aR1 by a C5aR antagonist, neutralizing C5aR1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) or hC5a. C5aR1 was also silenced by specific siRNA prior to viral entry. We found that C5aR1 forms heterodimers with the HIV coreceptor CCR5 in myeloid cells. Targeting C5aR1 significantly decreased integration by R5 viruses but not by VSV-pseudotyped viruses, suggesting that C5aR1 is critical for viral entry. The level of inhibition achieved with C5aR1-blocking reagents was comparable to that of CCR5 antagonists. Mechanistically, C5aR1 targeting decreased CCR5 expression. MDM from CCR5Δ32 homozygous subjects expressed levels of C5aR1 similar to CCR5 WT individuals, suggesting that mere C5aR1 expression is not sufficient for HIV infection. HIV appeared to preferentially enter THP-1 cells expressing high levels of both C5aR1 and CCR5. Targeted reduction of C5aR1 expression in such cells reduced HIV infection by ~50%. Our data thus suggest that C5aR1 acts as an enhancer of CCR5-mediated HIV entry into

  2. DMPD: Macrophage-stimulating protein and RON receptor tyrosine kinase: potentialregulators of macrophage inflammatory activities. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 12472665 Macrophage-stimulating protein and RON receptor tyrosine kinase: potential...:545-53. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Macrophage-stimulating protein and RON receptor tyrosine kinase:... potentialregulators of macrophage inflammatory activities. PubmedID 12472665 Title Macrophage-stimulatin

  3. Aortic endothelial cells regulate proliferation of human monocytes in vitro via a mechanism synergistic with macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Convergence at the cyclin E/p27(Kip1) regulatory checkpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonov, A S; Munn, D H; Kolodgie, F D; Virmani, R; Gerrity, R G

    1997-06-15

    Monocyte-derived macrophages (Mphis) are pivotal participants in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Evidence from both animal and human plaques indicates that local proliferation may contribute to accumulation of lesion Mphis, and the major Mphi growth factor, macrophage colony stimulating factor (MCSF), is present in atherosclerotic plaques. However, most in vitro studies have failed to demonstrate that human monocytes/Mphis possess significant proliferative capacity. We now report that, although human monocytes cultured in isolation showed only limited MCSF-induced proliferation, monocytes cocultured with aortic endothelial cells at identical MCSF concentrations underwent enhanced (up to 40-fold) and prolonged (21 d) proliferation. In contrast with monocytes in isolation, this was optimal at low seeding densities, required endothelial cell contact, and could not be reproduced by coculture with smooth muscle cells. Intimal Mphi isolated from human aortas likewise showed endothelial cell contact-dependent, MCSF-induced proliferation. Consistent with a two-signal mechanism governing Mphi proliferation, the cell cycle regulatory protein, cyclin E, was rapidly upregulated by endothelial cell contact in an MCSFindependent fashion, but MCSF was required for successful downregulation of the cell cycle inhibitory protein p27(Kip1) before cell cycling. Thus endothelial cells and MCSF differentially and synergistically regulate two Mphi genes critical for progression through the cell cycle.

  4. Mycobacterium Avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates induce in vitro granuloma formation and show successful survival phenotype, common anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic responses within ovine macrophages regardless of genotype or host of origin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiara Abendaño

    Full Text Available The analysis of the early macrophage responses, including bacterial growth within macrophages, represents a powerful tool to characterize the virulence of clinical isolates of Mycobcaterium avium susbp. paratuberculosis (Map. The present study represents the first assessment of the intracellular behaviour in ovine monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs of Map isolates representing distinct genotypes (C, S and B, and isolated from cattle, sheep, goat, fallow deer, deer, and wild boar. Intracellular growth and survival of the selected isolates in ovine MDMs was assessed by quantification of CFUs inside of the host cells at 2 h p.i. (day 0 and 7 d p. i. using an automatic liquid culture system (Bactec MGIT 960. Variations in bacterial counts over 7 days from the baseline were small, in a range between 1.63 to 1.05-fold. After 7 d of infection, variations in the estimated log10 CFUs between all the tested isolates were not statistically significant. In addition, ovine MDMs exhibited enhanced anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic and antidestructive responses when infected with two ovine isolates of distinct genotype (C and S or with two C-type isolates from distinct hosts (cattle and sheep; which correlated with the successful survival of these isolates within ovine MDMs. A second objective was to study, based on an in vitro granuloma model, latter stages of the infection by investigating the capacity of two Map isolates from cattle and sheep to trigger formation of microgranulomas. Upon 10 d p.i., both Map isolates were able to induce the formation of granulomas comparable to the granulomas observed in clinical specimens with respect to the cellular components involved. In summary, our results demonstrated that Map isolates from cattle, sheep, goats, deer, fallow-deer and wild boar were able not only to initiate but also to establish a successful infection in ovine macrophages regardless of genotype.

  5. Mycobacterium Avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates induce in vitro granuloma formation and show successful survival phenotype, common anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic responses within ovine macrophages regardless of genotype or host of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abendaño, Naiara; Tyukalova, Lyudmila; Barandika, Jesse F; Balseiro, Ana; Sevilla, Iker A; Garrido, Joseba M; Juste, Ramon A; Alonso-Hearn, Marta

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of the early macrophage responses, including bacterial growth within macrophages, represents a powerful tool to characterize the virulence of clinical isolates of Mycobcaterium avium susbp. paratuberculosis (Map). The present study represents the first assessment of the intracellular behaviour in ovine monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) of Map isolates representing distinct genotypes (C, S and B), and isolated from cattle, sheep, goat, fallow deer, deer, and wild boar. Intracellular growth and survival of the selected isolates in ovine MDMs was assessed by quantification of CFUs inside of the host cells at 2 h p.i. (day 0) and 7 d p. i. using an automatic liquid culture system (Bactec MGIT 960). Variations in bacterial counts over 7 days from the baseline were small, in a range between 1.63 to 1.05-fold. After 7 d of infection, variations in the estimated log10 CFUs between all the tested isolates were not statistically significant. In addition, ovine MDMs exhibited enhanced anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic and antidestructive responses when infected with two ovine isolates of distinct genotype (C and S) or with two C-type isolates from distinct hosts (cattle and sheep); which correlated with the successful survival of these isolates within ovine MDMs. A second objective was to study, based on an in vitro granuloma model, latter stages of the infection by investigating the capacity of two Map isolates from cattle and sheep to trigger formation of microgranulomas. Upon 10 d p.i., both Map isolates were able to induce the formation of granulomas comparable to the granulomas observed in clinical specimens with respect to the cellular components involved. In summary, our results demonstrated that Map isolates from cattle, sheep, goats, deer, fallow-deer and wild boar were able not only to initiate but also to establish a successful infection in ovine macrophages regardless of genotype.

  6. Surface plasma functionalization influences macrophage behavior on carbon nanowalls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ion, Raluca [University of Bucharest, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 91-95 Spl. Independentei, 050095 Bucharest (Romania); Vizireanu, Sorin [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor, PO Box MG-36, 077125, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Stancu, Claudia Elena [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor, PO Box MG-36, 077125, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology (INP Greifswald), Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Luculescu, Catalin [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor, PO Box MG-36, 077125, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Cimpean, Anisoara, E-mail: anisoara.cimpean@bio.unibuc.ro [University of Bucharest, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 91-95 Spl. Independentei, 050095 Bucharest (Romania); Dinescu, Gheorghe [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor, PO Box MG-36, 077125, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania)

    2015-03-01

    The surfaces of carbon nanowall samples as scaffolds for tissue engineering applications were treated with oxygen or nitrogen plasma to improve their wettability and to functionalize their surfaces with different functional groups. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and water contact angle results illustrated the effective conversion of the carbon nanowall surfaces from hydrophobic to hydrophilic and the incorporation of various amounts of carbon, oxygen and nitrogen functional groups during the treatments. The early inflammatory responses elicited by un-treated and modified carbon nanowall surfaces were investigated by quantifying tumor necrosis factor-alpha and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha released by attached RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence studies were employed to investigate the changes in macrophage morphology and adhesive properties, while MTT assay was used to quantify cell proliferation. All samples sustained macrophage adhesion and growth. In addition, nitrogen plasma treatment was more beneficial for cell adhesion in comparison with un-modified carbon nanowall surfaces. Instead, oxygen plasma functionalization led to increased macrophage adhesion and spreading suggesting a more activated phenotype, confirmed by elevated cytokine release. Thus, our findings showed that the chemical surface alterations which occur as a result of plasma treatment, independent of surface wettability, affect macrophage response in vitro. - Highlights: • N{sub 2} and O{sub 2} plasma treatments alter the CNW surface chemistry and wettability. • Cells seeded on CNW scaffolds are viable and metabolically active. • Surface functional groups, independent of surface wettability, affect cell response. • O{sub 2} plasma treatment of CNW leads to a more activated macrophage phenotype.

  7. ATP Induces IL-1β Secretion in Neisseria gonorrhoeae-Infected Human Macrophages by a Mechanism Not Related to the NLRP3/ASC/Caspase-1 Axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Killen García

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Ngo has developed multiple immune evasion mechanisms involving the innate and adaptive immune responses. Recent findings have reported that Ngo reduces the IL-1β secretion of infected human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM. Here, we investigate the role of adenosine triphosphate (ATP in production and release of IL-1β in Ngo-infected MDM. We found that the exposure of Ngo-infected MDM to ATP increases IL-1β levels about ten times compared with unexposed Ngo-infected MDM (P0.05 and caspase-1 (CASP1, P>0.05. In addition, ATP was not able to modify caspase-1 activity in Ngo-infected MDM but was able to increase pyroptosis (P>0.01. Notably ATP treatment defined an increase of positive staining for IL-1β with a distinctive intracellular pattern of distribution. Collectively, these data demonstrate that ATP induces IL-1β secretion by a mechanism not related to the NLRP3/ASC/caspase-1 axis and likely is acting at the level of vesicle trafficking or pore formation.

  8. ATP Induces IL-1β Secretion in Neisseria gonorrhoeae-Infected Human Macrophages by a Mechanism Not Related to the NLRP3/ASC/Caspase-1 Axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Killen; Escobar, Gisselle; Mendoza, Pablo; Beltran, Caroll; Perez, Claudio; Vernal, Rolando; Acuña-Castillo, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Ngo) has developed multiple immune evasion mechanisms involving the innate and adaptive immune responses. Recent findings have reported that Ngo reduces the IL-1β secretion of infected human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). Here, we investigate the role of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in production and release of IL-1β in Ngo-infected MDM. We found that the exposure of Ngo-infected MDM to ATP increases IL-1β levels about ten times compared with unexposed Ngo-infected MDM (P 0.05) and caspase-1 (CASP1, P > 0.05). In addition, ATP was not able to modify caspase-1 activity in Ngo-infected MDM but was able to increase pyroptosis (P > 0.01). Notably ATP treatment defined an increase of positive staining for IL-1β with a distinctive intracellular pattern of distribution. Collectively, these data demonstrate that ATP induces IL-1β secretion by a mechanism not related to the NLRP3/ASC/caspase-1 axis and likely is acting at the level of vesicle trafficking or pore formation. PMID:27803513

  9. DMPD: Monocyte/macrophage traffic in HIV and SIV encephalitis. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 12960230 Monocyte/macrophage traffic in HIV and SIV encephalitis. Kim WK, Corey S, ...Show Monocyte/macrophage traffic in HIV and SIV encephalitis. PubmedID 12960230 Title Monocyte/macrophage traffic

  10. Mapping of the Co-Transcriptomes of UPEC-Infected Macrophages Reveals New Insights into the Molecular Basis of Host-Pathogen Interactions in Human and Mouse

    KAUST Repository

    Mavromatis, Charalampos Harris

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are among the most common infections in humans. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), the main causative agent of UTIs, can invade and replicate within bladder epithelial cells, and recent evidence demonstrated that some UPEC strains also survive within macrophages. To understand the mechanisms of host subversion that enable UPEC to survive within macrophages, and the contribution of macrophages to UPEC-mediated pathology, I performed hostpathogen co-transcriptome analyses using RNA sequencing. I developed an effective computational framework that simultaneously separated, annotated, and quantified the mammalian and bacterial transcriptomes. First, mouse bone morrow-derived macrophages (BMM) were challenged over a 24 h time course with UPEC reference strains, UTI89 (cystitis strain), 83972 and VR50 (asymptomatic bacteriuria strains) that possess contrasting intramacrophage phenotypes. My results showed that BMM responded to the three different UPEC strains with broadly similar gene expression programs. In contrast to the conserved pattern of BMM responses, the transcriptional responses of the different UPEC strains diverged markedly from each other. Hypothesizing that genes upregulated at 24 h post-infection may contribute to intramacrophage survival, I identified UTI89 genes upregulated at this time point, and showed that deletion of one of these genes (pspA) compromised intramacrophage survival of UPEC strain UTI89. Second, human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDM) and BMM were challenged over a 24 h course with the UPEC strain EC958, a globally disseminated, multi-drug resistant strain. My analysis identified extensive divergence in UPEC-regulated orthologous gene expression between HMDM and BMM, and I validated both known and novel genes in the context of differential regulation. On the contrary, the transcriptional response of EC958 showed a broad conservation across both mammalian intramacrophage environments. My study thus

  11. Imaging of macrophage-related lung diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marten, Katharina; Hansell, David M. [Royal Brompton Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2005-04-01

    Macrophage-related pulmonary diseases are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by macrophage accumulation, activation or dysfunction. These conditions include smoking-related interstitial lung diseases, metabolic disorders such as Niemann-Pick or Gaucher disease, and rare primary lung tumors. High-resolution computed tomography abnormalities include pulmonary ground-glass opacification secondary to infiltration by macrophages, centrilobular nodules or interlobular septal thickening reflecting peribronchiolar or septal macrophage accumulation, respectively, emphysema caused by macrophage dysfunction, and honeycombing following macrophage-related lung matrix remodeling. (orig.)

  12. Modulation of Human Macrophage Responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Silver Nanoparticles of Different Size and Surface Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Srijata; Leo, Bey Fen; Carranza, Claudia; Chen, Shu; Rivas-Santiago, Cesar; Porter, Alexandra E.; Ryan, Mary P.; Gow, Andrew; Chung, Kian Fan; Tetley, Teresa D.; Zhang, Junfeng (Jim); Georgopoulos, Panos G.; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela A.; Schwander, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to silver nanoparticles (AgNP) used in consumer products carries potential health risks including increased susceptibility to infectious pathogens. Systematic assessments of antimicrobial macrophage immune responses in the context of AgNP exposure are important because uptake of AgNP by macrophages may lead to alterations of innate immune cell functions. In this study we examined the effects of exposure to AgNP with different particle sizes (20 and 110 nm diameters) and surface chemistry (citrate or polyvinlypyrrolidone capping) on cellular toxicity and innate immune responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) by human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). Exposures of MDM to AgNP significantly reduced cellular viability, increased IL8 and decreased IL10 mRNA expression. Exposure of M.tb-infected MDM to AgNP suppressed M.tb-induced expression of IL1B, IL10, and TNFA mRNA. Furthermore, M.tb-induced IL-1β, a cytokine critical for host resistance to M.tb, was inhibited by AgNP but not by carbon black particles indicating that the observed immunosuppressive effects of AgNP are particle specific. Suppressive effects of AgNP on the M.tb-induced host immune responses were in part due to AgNP-mediated interferences with the TLR signaling pathways that culminate in the activation of the transcription factor NF-κB. AgNP exposure suppressed M.tb-induced expression of a subset of NF-κB mediated genes (CSF2, CSF3, IFNG, IL1A, IL1B, IL6, IL10, TNFA, NFKB1A). In addition, AgNP exposure increased the expression of HSPA1A mRNA and the corresponding stress-induced Hsp72 protein. Up-regulation of Hsp72 by AgNP can suppress M.tb-induced NF-κB activation and host immune responses. The observed ability of AgNP to modulate infectious pathogen-induced immune responses has important public health implications. PMID:26580078

  13. Modulation of Human Macrophage Responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Silver Nanoparticles of Different Size and Surface Modification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srijata Sarkar

    Full Text Available Exposure to silver nanoparticles (AgNP used in consumer products carries potential health risks including increased susceptibility to infectious pathogens. Systematic assessments of antimicrobial macrophage immune responses in the context of AgNP exposure are important because uptake of AgNP by macrophages may lead to alterations of innate immune cell functions. In this study we examined the effects of exposure to AgNP with different particle sizes (20 and 110 nm diameters and surface chemistry (citrate or polyvinlypyrrolidone capping on cellular toxicity and innate immune responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb by human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM. Exposures of MDM to AgNP significantly reduced cellular viability, increased IL8 and decreased IL10 mRNA expression. Exposure of M.tb-infected MDM to AgNP suppressed M.tb-induced expression of IL1B, IL10, and TNFA mRNA. Furthermore, M.tb-induced IL-1β, a cytokine critical for host resistance to M.tb, was inhibited by AgNP but not by carbon black particles indicating that the observed immunosuppressive effects of AgNP are particle specific. Suppressive effects of AgNP on the M.tb-induced host immune responses were in part due to AgNP-mediated interferences with the TLR signaling pathways that culminate in the activation of the transcription factor NF-κB. AgNP exposure suppressed M.tb-induced expression of a subset of NF-κB mediated genes (CSF2, CSF3, IFNG, IL1A, IL1B, IL6, IL10, TNFA, NFKB1A. In addition, AgNP exposure increased the expression of HSPA1A mRNA and the corresponding stress-induced Hsp72 protein. Up-regulation of Hsp72 by AgNP can suppress M.tb-induced NF-κB activation and host immune responses. The observed ability of AgNP to modulate infectious pathogen-induced immune responses has important public health implications.

  14. Fine tuning inflammation at the front door: macrophage complement receptor 3-mediates phagocytosis and immune suppression for Francisella tularensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipan Dai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Complement receptor 3 (CR3, CD11b/CD18 is a major macrophage phagocytic receptor. The biochemical pathways through which CR3 regulates immunologic responses have not been fully characterized. Francisella tularensis is a remarkably infectious, facultative intracellular pathogen of macrophages that causes tularemia. Early evasion of the host immune response contributes to the virulence of F. tularensis and CR3 is an important receptor for its phagocytosis. Here we confirm that efficient attachment and uptake of the highly virulent Type A F. tularensis spp. tularensis strain Schu S4 by human monocyte-derived macrophages (hMDMs requires complement C3 opsonization and CR3. However, despite a>40-fold increase in uptake following C3 opsonization, Schu S4 induces limited pro-inflammatory cytokine production compared with non-opsonized Schu S4 and the low virulent F. novicida. This suggests that engagement of CR3 by opsonized Schu S4 contributes specifically to the immune suppression during and shortly following phagocytosis which we demonstrate by CD11b siRNA knockdown in hMDMs. This immune suppression is concomitant with early inhibition of ERK1/2, p38 MAPK and NF-κB activation. Furthermore, TLR2 siRNA knockdown shows that pro-inflammatory cytokine production and MAPK activation in response to non-opsonized Schu S4 depends on TLR2 signaling providing evidence that CR3-TLR2 crosstalk mediates immune suppression for opsonized Schu S4. Deletion of the CD11b cytoplasmic tail reverses the CR3-mediated decrease in ERK and p38 activation during opsonized Schu-S4 infection. The CR3-mediated signaling pathway involved in this immune suppression includes Lyn kinase and Akt activation, and increased MKP-1, which limits TLR2-mediated pro-inflammatory responses. These data indicate that while the highly virulent F. tularensis uses CR3 for efficient uptake, optimal engagement of this receptor down-regulates TLR2-dependent pro-inflammatory responses by inhibiting

  15. The application of adjuvant autologous antravesical macrophage cell therapy vs. BCG in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer: a multicenter, randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiss Tamas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction While adjuvant immunotherapy with Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG is effective in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (BC, adverse events (AEs are considerable. Monocyte-derived activated killer cells (MAK are discussed as essential in antitumoural immunoresponse, but their application may imply risks. The present trial compared autologous intravesical macrophage cell therapy (BEXIDEM® to BCG in patients after transurethral resection (TURB of BC. Materials and methods This open-label trial included 137 eligible patients with TaG1-3, T1G1-2 plurifocal or unifocal tumours and ≥ 2 occurrences within 24 months and was conducted from June 2004 to March 2007. Median follow-up for patients without recurrence was 12 months. Patients were randomized to BCG or mononuclear cells collected by apheresis after ex vivo cell processing and activation (BEXIDEM. Either arm treatment consisted of 6 weekly instillations and 2 cycles of 3 weekly instillations at months 3 and 6. Toxicity profile (primary endpoint and prophylactic effects (secondary endpoint were assessed. Results Patient characteristics were evenly distributed. Of 73 treated with BCG and 64 with BEXIDEM, 85% vs. 45% experienced AEs and 26% vs. 14% serious AEs (SAE, respectively (p Discussion This initial report of autologous intravesical macrophage cell therapy in BC demonstrates BEXIDEM treatment to be safe. Recurrence rates were significantly lower with BCG however. As the efficacy of BEXIDEM remains uncertain, further data, e.g. marker lesions studies, are warranted. Trial registration The trial has been registered in the ISRCTN registry http://isrctn.org under the registration number ISRCTN35881130.

  16. AN EXAMINATION OF THE CYTOTOXIC EFFECTS OF SILICA ON MACROPHAGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, A. C.; Harington, J. S.; Birbeck, M.

    1966-01-01

    Effects of silica, diamond dust, and carrageenan on mouse macrophages were studied by phase-contrast cine-micrography, electron microscopy, histochemical techniques for lysosomal enzymes and measurements of the release of lysosomal enzymes into the culture medium. All added materials were rapidly taken up into phagosomes, to which lysosomes became attached. In all cases lysosomal enzymes were discharged into the phagosomes to form secondary lysosomes. Within 24 hr most of the silica particles and enzyme had escaped from the secondary lysosomes and lysosomal enzymes were found in the culture media. Most macrophages were killed by this time. With nontoxic particles (diamond dust, aluminium-coated silica, or silica in the presence of the protective agent polyvinyl-pyridine-N-oxide, PVPNO) ingested particles and lysosomal enzymes were retained within the secondary lysosomes for a much longer time, and cytotoxic effects were considerably delayed or absent altogether. It is concluded that silica particles are toxic because they are efficiently taken up by macrophages and can then react relatively rapidly with the membranes surrounding the secondary lysosomes. The particles and lytic enzymes can then escape into the cytoplasm, producing general damage, and thence into the culture medium. It is suggested that hydrogen bonding of silicic acid with lipid and protein constituents of the membrane accounts for the induced permeability. Protective agents such as PVPNO are retamed in lysosomes and preferentially form hydrogen bonds with silicic acid. Carrageenan is demonstrable within macrophages by its metachromatic reaction. It brings about release of enzymes from secondary lysosomes, but much more slowly than does silica. Silica released from killed macrophages is as cytotoxic as the original preparation. It is suggested that repeated cycles of macrophage killing in vivo leads to the mobilization of fibroblasts and fibrogenesis characterizing the disease silicosis. PMID

  17. Research on the Effects of the Fluconazole resistance and Fluconazole susceptible Candida Albicans Strains in RVVC on the Shapes and the Surface Molecules of the Human Peripheral Blood Monocyte-Derived DCs%RVVC白念珠菌氟康唑敏感株和耐药株对外周血DCs分化成熟的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宣晓梅; 刘静; 沈丽; 刘瑞琴; 李艳佳; 刘丽娟; 李英涛; 于亮

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨复发性外阴阴道念珠菌病(RVVC)患者阴道白念珠菌对氟康唑敏感情况及其对人外周血单核细胞源树突状细胞(DCs)形态及表面分子的影响.方法 科玛嘉念珠菌显色培养基及芽管试验分离、鉴定白念珠菌;MIC法判断敏感菌及耐药菌;体外培养正常人外周血单核细胞源DCs,实验组以不同剂量氟康唑敏感菌悬液、耐药菌悬液刺激,对照组以同等剂量标准菌悬液刺激后,倒置显微镜观察细胞形态变化,流式细胞仪检测细胞表面分子的表达.结果 RVVC患者阴道分泌物共分离出白念珠菌108株,其中对氟康唑敏感67株(62.04%),耐药41株(37.96%);各实验组与对照组DCs细胞形态无明显差别.DCs表面分子CD80,CD86表达量均与白念珠菌悬液剂量呈正相关;加入标准菌株悬液的对照组DCs表面分子CD80,CD86表达明显高于同等剂量加入敏感菌悬液和耐药菌悬液的实验组,且加入敏感菌悬液的实验1组DCs表面分子CD80,CD86表达明显高于同等剂量加入耐药菌悬液的实验2组.结论 在一定剂量范围内,白念珠菌可促进DCs表面分子CD80,CD86表达,使DCs进一步成熟,氟康唑敏感菌株优于耐药菌株,但两者均不及标准菌株.%Objective To investigate the effects of the fluconazole resistance and fluconazole susceptible Candida albicans strains in recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis( RVVC) on the Shapes and the Surface Molecules of the Human Peripheral Blood Monocyte-Derived dendritic cells ( DCs ). Methods Candida albicans in RVVC were separated and were judged by the CHROMagar Monilia colouration nutritive medium and the genn-tube-formming tests, and then were judged the fluconazole-resistance or fluconazole-usceptible strains by MIC tests. The dendritic cells were obtained by culture in vitro. Then after they were stimulated by the different doses of Candida albicans including the fluconazole-esistance and fluconazole-usceptible strains

  18. Isolation and culture of murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, John Q; Gordon, Siamon

    2005-01-01

    The two most convenient sources of primary murine macrophages are the bone marrow and the peritoneal cavity. Resident peritoneal macrophages can readily be harvested from mice and purified by adherence to tissue culture plastic. The injection of Bio-Gel polyacrylamide beads or thioglycollate broth into the peritoneal cavity produces an inflammatory response allowing the purification of large numbers of elicited macrophages. The production of an activated macrophage population can be achieved by using Bacillus-Calmette-Guerin as the inflammatory stimulus. Resident bone marrow macrophages can be isolated following enzymatic separation of cells from bone marrow plugs and enrichment on 30% fetal calf serum containing medium or Ficoll-Hypaque gradients. Bone marrow-derived macrophages can be produced by differentiating nonadherent macrophage precursors with medium containing macrophage colony-stimulating factor.

  19. Architecture and regulation of the HIV-1 assembly and holding compartment in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsch, Sonja; Groot, Fedde; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg; Keppler, Oliver T; Sattentau, Quentin J

    2011-08-01

    Productive infection of macrophages is central to HIV-1 pathogenesis. Newly formed virions bud into a tubular membranous compartment that is contiguous with the plasma membrane. However, little is known about the structure of this compartment and its potential regulation by infection. Here we characterized this compartment in macrophages using electron tomography and electron microscopy with stereology. We found an intricate, interconnected membrane network that constitutes a preexisting physiologic structure in macrophages but which expands in size upon HIV-1 infection. Membranes required for this expansion were apparently derived from preexisting pools of plasma membrane. Physical connections between this compartment and the extracellular milieu were frequently made by tube-like structures of insufficient diameter for virion passage. We conclude that HIV-1 induces the expansion of a complex membranous labyrinth in macrophages in which the virus buds and can be retained, with potential consequences for transmission and immune evasion.

  20. Architecture and Regulation of the HIV-1 Assembly and Holding Compartment in Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsch, Sonja; Groot, Fedde; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg; Keppler, Oliver T.; Sattentau, Quentin J.

    2011-01-01

    Productive infection of macrophages is central to HIV-1 pathogenesis. Newly formed virions bud into a tubular membranous compartment that is contiguous with the plasma membrane. However, little is known about the structure of this compartment and its potential regulation by infection. Here we characterized this compartment in macrophages using electron tomography and electron microscopy with stereology. We found an intricate, interconnected membrane network that constitutes a preexisting physiologic structure in macrophages but which expands in size upon HIV-1 infection. Membranes required for this expansion were apparently derived from preexisting pools of plasma membrane. Physical connections between this compartment and the extracellular milieu were frequently made by tube-like structures of insufficient diameter for virion passage. We conclude that HIV-1 induces the expansion of a complex membranous labyrinth in macrophages in which the virus buds and can be retained, with potential consequences for transmission and immune evasion. PMID:21613397

  1. Macrophage responsiveness to light therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, S.; Bolton, P.; Dyson, M.; Harvey, W.; Diamantopoulos, C. (United Medical School, London (England))

    1989-01-01

    Macrophages are a source of many important mediators of wound repair. It was the purpose of this study to see if light could stimulate the release of these mediators. In this study an established macrophage-like cell line (U-937) was used. The cells were exposed in culture to the following wavelengths of light: 660 nm, 820 nm, 870 nm, and 880 nm. The 820-nm source was coherent and polarised, and the others were non-coherent. Twelve hours after exposure the macrophage supernatant was removed and placed on 3T3 fibroblast cultures. Fibroblast proliferation was assessed over a 5-day period. The results showed that 660-nm, 820-nm, and 870-nm wavelengths encouraged the macrophages to release factors that stimulated fibroblast proliferation above the control levels, whereas the 880-nm wavelength either inhibited the release of these factors or encouraged the release of some inhibitory factors of fibroblast proliferation. These results suggest that light at certain wavelengths may be a useful therapeutic agent by providing a means of either stimulating or inhibiting fibroblast proliferation where necessary. At certain wavelengths coherence is not essential.

  2. Involvement of endoplasmic reticulum stress in the necroptosis of microglia/macrophages after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, H; Tang, H-B; Kang, J; Shan, L; Song, H; Zhu, K; Wang, J; Ju, G; Wang, Y-Z

    2015-12-17

    Microglia/macrophages play a crucial role in inflammation after spinal cord injury (SCI). Although extensive studies have been performed on the mechanisms of microglia/macrophage activation and recruitment, how microglia/macrophages are eliminated remains unclear. In the present study, we observed a high-level expression of mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL), a key molecule in the execution of necroptosis, in microglia/macrophages after SCI in mice. In vivo PI-labeling and Necrostatin-1 treatment confirmed the necroptosis of microglia/macrophages. Interestingly, our electronic microscopic (EM) study revealed that MLKL localized not only at the membrane but also on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of necroptotic microglia/macrophages. Furthermore, receptor-interacting protein 3 (RIP3), another necrosome component, was also found on the ER of necroptotic microglia/macrophages. And Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), an ER stress sensor, was up-regulated in MLKL-positive microglia/macrophages after SCI, suggesting a possible link between necroptosis and ER stress. In vitro, oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) stress induced ER stress and necroptosis in microglia. Inhibiting ER stress by 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA) significantly blocked the OGD-induced necroptosis of microglia. In the end, our data showed that, GRP78 and phosphorylated MLKL were co-expressed by the microglia/macrophages in the injured human spinal cord. Taken together, these results suggested that microglia/macrophages undergo an ER-stress involved necroptosis after SCI, implying that ER stress and necroptosis could be manipulated for modulating inflammation post-SCI.

  3. Differential response of macrophages to core-shell Fe3O4@Au nanoparticles and nanostars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wei; Song, Hyon-Min; Wei, Qingshan; Wei, Alexander

    2012-10-01

    Murine RAW 264.7 cells were exposed to spheroidal core-shell Fe3O4@Au nanoparticles (SCS-NPs, ca. 34 nm) or nanostars (NSTs, ca. 100 nm) in the presence of bovine serum albumin, with variable effects observed after macrophagocytosis. Uptake of SCS-NPs caused macrophages to adopt a rounded, amoeboid form, accompanied by an increase in surface detachment. In contrast, the uptake of multibranched NSTs did not induce gross changes in macrophage shape or adhesion, but correlated instead with cell enlargement and signatures of macrophage activation such as TNF-α and ROS. MTT assays indicate a low cytotoxic response to either SCS-NPs or NSTs despite differences in macrophage behavior. These observations show that differences in NP size and shape are sufficient to produce diverse responses in macrophages following uptake.Murine RAW 264.7 cells were exposed to spheroidal core-shell Fe3O4@Au nanoparticles (SCS-NPs, ca. 34 nm) or nanostars (NSTs, ca. 100 nm) in the presence of bovine serum albumin, with variable effects observed after macrophagocytosis. Uptake of SCS-NPs caused macrophages to adopt a rounded, amoeboid form, accompanied by an increase in surface detachment. In contrast, the uptake of multibranched NSTs did not induce gross changes in macrophage shape or adhesion, but correlated instead with cell enlargement and signatures of macrophage activation such as TNF-α and ROS. MTT assays indicate a low cytotoxic response to either SCS-NPs or NSTs despite differences in macrophage behavior. These observations show that differences in NP size and shape are sufficient to produce diverse responses in macrophages following uptake. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Synthetic details, additional TEM images, absorbance spectra, and DLS analysis of SCS-NPs and NSTs, negative and positive control images of ROS imaging, and the effect of magnetic field gradient on ROS production. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr32070c

  4. Urokinase plasminogen activator inhibits HIV virion release from macrophage-differentiated chronically infected cells via activation of RhoA and PKCε.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Graziano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV replication in mononuclear phagocytes is a multi-step process regulated by viral and cellular proteins with the peculiar feature of virion budding and accumulation in intra-cytoplasmic vesicles. Interaction of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA with its cell surface receptor (uPAR has been shown to favor virion accumulation in such sub-cellular compartment in primary monocyte-derived macrophages and chronically infected promonocytic U1 cells differentiated into macrophage-like cells by stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA. By adopting this latter model system, we have here investigated which intracellular signaling pathways were triggered by uPA/uPAR interaction leading the redirection of virion accumulation in intra-cytoplasmic vesicles. RESULTS: uPA induced activation of RhoA, PKCδ and PKCε in PMA-differentiated U1 cells. In the same conditions, RhoA, PKCδ and PKCε modulated uPA-induced cell adhesion and polarization, whereas only RhoA and PKCε were also responsible for the redirection of virions in intracellular vesicles. Distribution of G and F actin revealed that uPA reorganized the cytoskeleton in both adherent and polarized cells. The role of G and F actin isoforms was unveiled by the use of cytochalasin D, a cell-permeable fungal toxin that prevents F actin polymerization. Receptor-independent cytoskeleton remodeling by Cytochalasin D resulted in cell adhesion, polarization and intracellular accumulation of HIV virions similar to the effects gained with uPA. CONCLUSIONS: These findings illustrate the potential contribution of the uPA/uPAR system in the generation and/or maintenance of intra-cytoplasmic vesicles that actively accumulate virions, thus sustaining the presence of HIV reservoirs of macrophage origin. In addition, our observations also provide evidences that pathways controlling cytoskeleton remodeling and activation of PKCε bear relevance for the design of new antiviral strategies aimed

  5. A novel mycobacterial In Vitro infection assay identifies differences of induced macrophage apoptosis between CD4+ and CD8+ T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkwouano, Vanesa; Witkowski, Sven; Rehberg, Nidja; Kalscheuer, Rainer; Nausch, Norman; Mayatepek, Ertan

    2017-01-01

    Macrophages are natural host cells for pathogenic mycobacteria, like Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb). Immune surveillance by T cells and interaction with M.tb infected macrophages is crucial for protection against M.tb reactivation and development of active tuberculosis. Several factors play a role in the control of M.tb infection but reliable biomarkers remain elusive. One major obstacle is the absence of functional in vitro assays which allow concomitant determination of i) mycobacterial eradication; ii) cytotoxic effects on host macrophages; and iii) effector T-cell functions. We established a novel functional in vitro assay based on flow cytometry analysis of monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) infected with a Mycobacterium bovis BCG strain containing a tetracycline inducible live/dead reporter plasmid (LD-BCG). MDM of healthy human donors were generated in vitro and infected with defined LD-BCG numbers. After short-term MDM/LD-BCG co-incubation with autologous effector T cells or in the presence of antibiotics, proportions of MDM containing live or dead LD-BCG were determined by flow cytometry. Concomitant measure of defined numbers of added beads allowed comparison of absolute MDM numbers between samples. Differential effects of T-cell subpopulations on anti-mycobacterial cytotoxicity and on MDM apoptosis were determined. Flow cytometry measure of MDM/LD-BCG treated with rifampicin correlated well with mycobacterial colony forming units and fluorescence microscopy results. Co-culture with pre-activated effector T cells reduced viability of both, LD-BCG and MDM, in a concentration-dependent manner. M.tb protein specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells contributed similarly to anti-mycobacterial cytotoxicity but CD4+ T cells induced higher levels of apoptosis in infected MDMs. This novel assay enables rapid quantification of anti-mycobacterial cytotoxicity and characterization of effector functions. Our functional in vitro assay has the potential to contribute to the

  6. Further characterization of a highly attenuated Yersinia pestis CO92 mutant deleted for the genes encoding Braun lipoprotein and plasminogen activator protease in murine alveolar and primary human macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lier, Christina J; Tiner, Bethany L; Chauhan, Sadhana; Motin, Vladimir L; Fitts, Eric C; Huante, Matthew B; Endsley, Janice J; Ponnusamy, Duraisamy; Sha, Jian; Chopra, Ashok K

    2015-03-01

    We recently characterized the Δlpp Δpla double in-frame deletion mutant of Yersinia pestis CO92 molecularly, biologically, and immunologically. While Braun lipoprotein (Lpp) activates toll-like receptor-2 to initiate an inflammatory cascade, plasminogen activator (Pla) protease facilitates bacterial dissemination in the host. The Δlpp Δpla double mutant was highly attenuated in evoking bubonic and pneumonic plague, was rapidly cleared from mouse organs, and generated humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to provide subsequent protection to mice against a lethal challenge dose of wild-type (WT) CO92. Here, we further characterized the Δlpp Δpla double mutant in two murine macrophage cell lines as well as in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages to gauge its potential as a live-attenuated vaccine candidate. We first demonstrated that the Δpla single and the Δlpp Δpla double mutant were unable to survive efficiently in murine and human macrophages, unlike WT CO92. We observed that the levels of Pla and its associated protease activity were not affected in the Δlpp single mutant, and, likewise, deletion of the pla gene from WT CO92 did not alter Lpp levels. Further, our study revealed that both Lpp and Pla contributed to the intracellular survival of WT CO92 via different mechanisms. Importantly, the ability of the Δlpp Δpla double mutant to be phagocytized by macrophages, to stimulate production of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6, and to activate the nitric oxide killing pathways of the host cells remained unaltered when compared to the WT CO92-infected macrophages. Finally, macrophages infected with either the WT CO92 or the Δlpp Δpla double mutant were equally efficient in their uptake of zymosan particles as determined by flow cytometric analysis. Overall, our data indicated that although the Δlpp Δpla double mutant of Y. pestis CO92 was highly attenuated, it retained the ability to elicit innate and subsequent acquired immune

  7. Identification of polarized macrophage subsets in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Chi, Mai; Laplace-Builhe, Béryl; Travnickova, Jana; Luz-Crawford, Patricia; Tejedor, Gautier; Phan, Quang Tien; Duroux-Richard, Isabelle; Levraud, Jean-Pierre; Kissa, Karima; Lutfalla, Georges; Jorgensen, Christian; Djouad, Farida

    2015-07-08

    While the mammalian macrophage phenotypes have been intensively studied in vitro, the dynamic of their phenotypic polarization has never been investigated in live vertebrates. We used the zebrafish as a live model to identify and trail macrophage subtypes. We generated a transgenic line whose macrophages expressing tumour necrosis factor alpha (tnfa), a key feature of classically activated (M1) macrophages, express fluorescent proteins Tg(mpeg1:mCherryF/tnfa:eGFP-F). Using 4D-confocal microscopy, we showed that both aseptic wounding and Escherichia coli inoculation triggered macrophage recruitment, some of which started to express tnfa. RT-qPCR on Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS)-sorted tnfa(+) and tnfa(-) macrophages showed that they, respectively, expressed M1 and alternatively activated (M2) mammalian markers. Fate tracing of tnfa(+) macrophages during the time-course of inflammation demonstrated that pro-inflammatory macrophages converted into M2-like phenotype during the resolution step. Our results reveal the diversity and plasticity of zebrafish macrophage subsets and underline the similarities with mammalian macrophages proposing a new system to study macrophage functional dynamic.

  8. The Role of Macrophages in Tumor Development

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    Gerben J. van der Bij

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages constitute a large proportion of the immune cell infiltrate, which is present in many tumors. Activation state of macrophages is greatly influenced by their environment, leading to different macrophage subsets with diverse functions. Although previously regarded as potent immune cells that are capable of destroying tumor cells, recent literature focuses on the ability of macrophages to promote tumor development due to secretion of mediators, like growth and angiogenic factors. It is now becoming increasingly clear that a complicated synergistic relationship exists between macrophages and malignant cells whereby tumor cells can affect macrophage phenotype, and vice versa. As such, macrophages and their contribution in cancer development are currently subject of debate.

  9. Macrophages in Tissue Repair, Regeneration, and Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Thomas A; Vannella, Kevin M

    2016-03-15

    Inflammatory monocytes and tissue-resident macrophages are key regulators of tissue repair, regeneration, and fibrosis. After tissue injury, monocytes and macrophages undergo marked phenotypic and functional changes to play critical roles during the initiation, maintenance, and resolution phases of tissue repair. Disturbances in macrophage function can lead to aberrant repair, such that uncontrolled production of inflammatory mediators and growth factors, deficient generation of anti-inflammatory macrophages, or failed communication between macrophages and epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and stem or tissue progenitor cells all contribute to a state of persistent injury, and this could lead to the development of pathological fibrosis. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms that instruct macrophages to adopt pro-inflammatory, pro-wound-healing, pro-fibrotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-fibrotic, pro-resolving, and tissue-regenerating phenotypes after injury, and we highlight how some of these mechanisms and macrophage activation states could be exploited therapeutically.

  10. Alveolar Macrophage Polarisation in Lung Cancer

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    Saleh A. Almatroodi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of alveolar macrophages in lung cancer is multifaceted and conflicting. Alveolar macrophage secretion of proinflammatory cytokines has been found to enhance antitumour functions, cytostasis (inhibition of tumour growth, and cytotoxicity (macrophage-mediated killing. In contrast, protumour functions of alveolar macrophages in lung cancer have also been indicated. Inhibition of antitumour function via secretion of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 as well as reduced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and reduction of mannose receptor expression on alveolar macrophages may contribute to lung cancer progression and metastasis. Alveolar macrophages have also been found to contribute to angiogenesis and tumour growth via the secretion of IL-8 and VEGF. This paper reviews the evidence for a dual role of alveolar macrophages in lung cancer progression.

  11. Simultaneous gene expression profiling in human macrophages infected with Leishmania major parasites using SAGE

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    Smandi Sondos

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leishmania (L are intracellular protozoan parasites that are able to survive and replicate within the harsh and potentially hostile phagolysosomal environment of mammalian mononuclear phagocytes. A complex interplay then takes place between the macrophage (MΦ striving to eliminate the pathogen and the parasite struggling for its own survival. To investigate this host-parasite conflict at the transcriptional level, in the context of monocyte-derived human MΦs (MDM infection by L. major metacyclic promastigotes, the quantitative technique of serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE was used. Results After extracting mRNA from resting human MΦs, Leishmania-infected human MΦs and L. major parasites, three SAGE libraries were constructed and sequenced generating up to 28,173; 57,514 and 33,906 tags respectively (corresponding to 12,946; 23,442 and 9,530 unique tags. Using computational data analysis and direct comparison to 357,888 publicly available experimental human tags, the parasite and the host cell transcriptomes were then simultaneously characterized from the mixed cellular extract, confidently discriminating host from parasite transcripts. This procedure led us to reliably assign 3,814 tags to MΦs' and 3,666 tags to L. major parasites transcripts. We focused on these, showing significant changes in their expression that are likely to be relevant to the pathogenesis of parasite infection: (i human MΦs genes, belonging to key immune response proteins (e.g., IFNγ pathway, S100 and chemokine families and (ii a group of Leishmania genes showing a preferential expression at the parasite's intra-cellular developing stage. Conclusion Dual SAGE transcriptome analysis provided a useful, powerful and accurate approach to discriminating genes of human or parasitic origin in Leishmania-infected human MΦs. The findings presented in this work suggest that the Leishmania parasite modulates key transcripts in human MΦs that may

  12. αEnv-decorated phosphatidylserine liposomes trigger phagocytosis of HIV-virus-like particles in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramatica, Andrea; Petazzi, Roberto A; Lehmann, Maik J; Ziomkowska, Joanna; Herrmann, Andreas; Chiantia, Salvatore

    2014-07-01

    Macrophages represent an important cellular target of HIV-1. Interestingly, they are also believed to play a potential role counteracting its infection. However, HIV-1 is known to impair macrophage immune functions such as antibody-mediated phagocytosis. Here, we present immunoliposomes that can bind HIV-1 virus-like particles (HIV-VLPs) while being specifically phagocytosed by macrophages, thus allowing the co-internalization of HIV-VLPs. These liposomes are decorated with anti-Env antibodies and contain phosphatidylserine (PS). PS mediates liposome internalization by macrophages via a mechanism not affected by HIV-1. Hence, PS-liposomes mimic apoptotic cells and are internalized into the macrophages due to specific recognition, carrying the previously bound HIV-VLPs. With a combination of flow cytometry, confocal live-cell imaging and electron microscopy we demonstrate that the PS-immunoliposomes presented here are able to elicit efficient HIV-VLPs phagocytosis by macrophages and might represent a new nanotechnological approach to enhance HIV-1 antigen presentation and reduce the ongoing inflammation processes. This team of authors demonstrate that specific phosphatidylserin immunoliposomes are able to elicit efficient phagocytosis of HIV-virus-like particle by macrophages and might represent a new nanomedicine approach to enhance HIV-1 antigen presentation and reduce ongoing inflammation processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Exposure to wear particles generated from studded tires and pavement induces inflammatory cytokine release from human macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindbom, John; Gustafsson, Mats; Blomqvist, Göran; Dahl, Andreas; Gudmundsson, Anders; Swietlicki, Erik; Ljungman, Anders G

    2006-04-01

    Health risks associated with exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) have been shown epidemiologically as well as experimentally, pointing to both respiratory and cardiovascular effects. Lately, wear particles generated from traffic have been recognized to be a major contributing source to the overall particle load, especially in the Nordic countries were studded tires are used. In this work, we investigated the inflammatory effect of PM10 generated from the wear of studded tires on two different types of pavement. As comparison, we also investigated PM10 from a traffic-intensive street, a subway station, and diesel exhaust particles (DEP). Human monocyte-derived macrophages, nasal epithelial cells (RPMI 2650), and bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) were exposed to the different types of particles, and the secretion of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-alpha into the culture medium was measured. The results show a significant release of cytokines from macrophages after exposure for all types of particles. When particles generated from asphalt/granite pavement were compared to asphalt/quartzite pavement, the granite pavement had a significantly higher capacity to induce the release of cytokines. The granite pavement particles induced cytokine release at the same magnitude as the street particles did, which was higher than what particles from both a subway station and DEP did. Exposure of epithelial cells to PM10 resulted in a significant increase of TNF-alpha secreted from BEAS-2B cells for all types of particles used (DEP was not tested), and the highest levels were induced by subway particles. None of the particle types were able to evoke detectable cytokine release from RPMI 2650 cells. The results indicate that PM10 generated by the wear of studded tires on the street surface is a large contributor to the cytokine-releasing ability of particles in traffic-intensive areas and that the type of pavement used is important for the level of this contribution

  14. Extracellular vesicles from Leishmania-infected macrophages confer an anti-infection cytokine-production profile to naïve macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Cronemberger-Andrade

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EVs are structures with phospholipid bilayer membranes and 100-1000 nm diameters. These vesicles are released from cells upon activation of surface receptors and/or apoptosis. The production of EVs by dendritic cells, mast cells, macrophages, and B and T lymphocytes has been extensively reported in the literature. EVs may express MHC class II and other membrane surface molecules and carry antigens. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of EVs from Leishmania-infected macrophages as immune modulatory particles.In this work it was shown that BALB/c mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages, either infected in vitro with Leishmania amazonensis or left uninfected, release comparable amounts of 50-300 nm-diameter extracellular vesicles (EVs. The EVs were characterized by flow cytometry and electron microscopy. The incubation of naïve macrophages with these EVs for 48 hours led to a statistically significant increase in the production of the cytokines IL-12, IL-1β, and TNF-α.EVs derived from macrophages infected with L. amazonensis induce other macrophages, which in vivo could be bystander cells, to produce the proinflammatory cytokines IL-12, IL-1β and TNF-α. This could contribute both to modulate the immune system in favor of a Th1 immune response and to the elimination of the Leishmania, leading, therefore, to the control the infection.

  15. Interaction of glucocorticoids with macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werb, Z.; Foley, R.; Munck, A.

    1978-01-01

    The mononuclear phagocyte system plays a central role in mediating host responses in inflammation. Glucocorticoids have anti-inflammatory actions that may be of considerable importance in the therapeutic effects of these agents in chronic inflammation; it is possible that some of these effects are mediated through direct hormonal action on macrophages. Although the site of action of the glucocorticoids on macrophages has not been established, it has been shown that in many other glucocorticoid target systems the effects of glucocorticoids are mediated by specific macromolecular binding proteins, referred to as receptors. In this study we have established that monocytes and macophages contain saturable glucocorticoid-binding proteins, with specificity of binding for cortisol, corticosterone, and related synthetic steroids such as dexamethasone, and that they have dissociation constants for binding within physiological ranges.

  16. Preparation, characterization, and safety evaluation of poly(lactide-co-glycolide nanoparticles for protein delivery into macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guedj AS

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Anne-Sophie Guedj,1 Arnold J Kell,2 Michael Barnes,2 Sandra Stals,1 David Gonçalves,3 Denis Girard,3 Carole Lavigne11National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB, 2National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON, 3Laboratoire de recherche en inflammation et physiologie des granulocytes, Université du Québec, INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, Laval, QC, CanadaAbstract: Following infection, HIV establishes reservoirs within tissues that are inaccessible to optimal levels of antiviral drugs or within cells where HIV lies latent, thus escaping the action of anti-HIV drugs. Macrophages are a persistent reservoir for HIV and may contribute to the rebound viremia observed after antiretroviral treatment is stopped. In this study, we further investigate the potential of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA-based nanocarriers as a new strategy to enhance penetration of therapeutic molecules into macrophages. We have prepared stable PLGA nanoparticles (NPs and evaluated their capacity to transport an active molecule into the human monocyte/macrophage cell line THP-1 using bovine serum albumin (BSA as a proof-of-concept compound. Intracellular localization of fluorescent BSA molecules encapsulated into PLGA NPs was monitored in live cells using confocal microscopy, and cellular uptake was quantified by flow cytometry. In vitro and in vivo toxicological studies were performed to further determine the safety profile of PLGA NPs including inflammatory effects. The size of the PLGA NPs carrying BSA (PLGA-BSA in culture medium containing 10% serum was ~126 nm in diameter, and they were negatively charged at their surface (zeta potential =-5.6 mV. Our confocal microscopy studies and flow cytometry data showed that these PLGA-BSA NPs are rapidly and efficiently taken up by THP-1 monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs at low doses. We found that PLGA-BSA NPs increased cellular uptake and internalization of the protein in vitro. PLGA

  17. Phagocytic uptake of oxidized heme polymer is highly cytotoxic to macrophages.

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    Rohitas Deshmukh

    Full Text Available Apoptosis in macrophages is responsible for immune-depression and pathological effects during malaria. Phagocytosis of PRBC causes induction of apoptosis in macrophages through release of cytosolic factors from infected cells. Heme polymer or β-hematin causes dose-dependent death of macrophages with LC50 of 132 µg/ml and 182 µg/ml respectively. The toxicity of hemin or heme polymer was amplified several folds in the presence of non-toxic concentration of methemoglobin. β-hematin uptake in macrophage through phagocytosis is crucial for enhanced toxicological effects in the presence of methemoglobin. Higher accumulation of β-hematin is observed in macrophages treated with β-hematin along with methemoglobin. Light and scanning electron microscopic observations further confirm accumulation of β-hematin with cellular toxicity. Toxicological potentiation of pro-oxidant molecules toward macrophages depends on generation of H2O2 and independent to release of free iron from pro-oxidant molecules. Methemoglobin oxidizes β-hematin to form oxidized β-hematin (βH* through single electron transfer mechanism. Pre-treatment of reaction mixture with spin-trap Phenyl-N-t-butyl-nitrone dose-dependently reverses the β-hematin toxicity, indicates crucial role of βH* generation with the toxicological potentiation. Acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining and DNA fragmentation analysis indicate that macrophage follows an oxidative stress dependent apoptotic pathway to cause death. In summary, current work highlights mutual co-operation between methemoglobin and different pro-oxidant molecules to enhance toxicity towards macrophages. Hence, methemoglobin peroxidase activity can be probed for subduing cellular toxicity of pro-oxidant molecules and it may in-turn make up for host immune response against the malaria parasite.

  18. Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages (BMM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weischenfeldt, Joachim; Porse, Bo

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTIONBone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) are primary macrophage cells, derived from bone marrow cells in vitro in the presence of growth factors. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) is a lineage-specific growth factor that is responsible for the proliferation and differentiation...... of committed myeloid progenitors into cells of the macrophage/monocyte lineage. Mice lacking functional M-CSF are deficient in macrophages and osteoclasts and suffer from osteopetrosis. In this protocol, bone marrow cells are grown in culture dishes in the presence of M-CSF, which is secreted by L929 cells...... and is used in the form of L929-conditioned medium. Under these conditions, the bone marrow monocyte/macrophage progenitors will proliferate and differentiate into a homogenous population of mature BMMs. The efficiency of the differentiation is assessed using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS...

  19. Dexamethasone palmitate ameliorates macrophages-rich graft-versus-host disease by inhibiting macrophage functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Nishiwaki

    Full Text Available Macrophage infiltration of skin GVHD lesions correlates directly with disease severity, but the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unclear and GVHD with many macrophages is a therapeutic challenge. Here, we characterize the macrophages involved in GVHD and report that dexamethasone palmitate (DP, a liposteroid, can ameliorate such GVHD by inhibiting macrophage functions. We found that host-derived macrophages could exacerbate GVHD in a mouse model through expression of higher levels of pro-inflammatory TNF-α and IFN-γ, and lower levels of anti-inflammatory IL-10 than resident macrophages in mice without GVHD. DP significantly decreased the viability and migration capacity of primary mouse macrophages compared to conventional dexamethasone in vitro. DP treatment on day 7 and day 14 decreased macrophage number, and attenuated GVHD score and subsequent mortality in a murine model. This is the first study to provide evidence that therapy for GVHD should be changed on the basis of infiltrating cell type.

  20. Macrophage-mediated tumor cytotoxicity: role of macrophage surface sialic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, D J

    1983-02-01

    Cell surface sialic acid levels were compared for monocytes and macrophages obtained from normal volunteers and breast cancer patients. Equal quantities of sialic acid were found on the monocytes obtained from normal volunteers and breast cancer patients. Approximately 60% more cell surface sialic acid was found on the macrophages from breast cancer patients than was found on the macrophages from normal volunteers. In order to determine whether cell surface sialic acid had any effect on macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity, macrophages were pretreated with neuraminidase (NANAse) prior to co-cultivation with tumor cells. The normal macrophages, after neuraminidase treatment, no longer retained their ability to kill tumor cells. However, when macrophages from breast cancer patients were treated with NANAse, no difference was observed in the ability of untreated and NANAse treated macrophages to kill tumor cells.

  1. DMPD: Silica binding and toxicity in alveolar macrophages. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18226603 Silica binding and toxicity in alveolar macrophages. Hamilton RF Jr, Thaku...l) Show Silica binding and toxicity in alveolar macrophages. PubmedID 18226603 Title Silica binding and toxicity in alveolar

  2. High-resolution transcriptome of human macrophages.

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    Marc Beyer

    Full Text Available Macrophages are dynamic cells integrating signals from their microenvironment to develop specific functional responses. Although, microarray-based transcriptional profiling has established transcriptional reprogramming as an important mechanism for signal integration and cell function of macrophages, current knowledge on transcriptional regulation of human macrophages is far from complete. To discover novel marker genes, an area of great need particularly in human macrophage biology but also to generate a much more thorough transcriptome of human M1- and M1-like macrophages, we performed RNA sequencing (RNA-seq of human macrophages. Using this approach we can now provide a high-resolution transcriptome profile of human macrophages under classical (M1-like and alternative (M2-like polarization conditions and demonstrate a dynamic range exceeding observations obtained by previous technologies, resulting in a more comprehensive understanding of the transcriptome of human macrophages. Using this approach, we identify important gene clusters so far not appreciated by standard microarray techniques. In addition, we were able to detect differential promoter usage, alternative transcription start sites, and different coding sequences for 57 gene loci in human macrophages. Moreover, this approach led to the identification of novel M1-associated (CD120b, TLR2, SLAMF7 as well as M2-associated (CD1a, CD1b, CD93, CD226 cell surface markers. Taken together, these data support that high-resolution transcriptome profiling of human macrophages by RNA-seq leads to a better understanding of macrophage function and will form the basis for a better characterization of macrophages in human health and disease.

  3. DMPD: Nuclear receptor signaling in macrophages. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 14698033 Nuclear receptor signaling in macrophages. Valledor AF, Ricote M. Biochem ...Pharmacol. 2004 Jan 15;67(2):201-12. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Nuclear receptor signaling in macrop...hages. PubmedID 14698033 Title Nuclear receptor signaling in macrophages. Authors Valledor AF, Ricote M. Pub

  4. DMPD: Cellular signaling in macrophage migration and chemotaxis. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 11073096 Cellular signaling in macrophage migration and chemotaxis. Jones GE. J Leu...koc Biol. 2000 Nov;68(5):593-602. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Cellular signaling in macrophage migration... and chemotaxis. PubmedID 11073096 Title Cellular signaling in macrophage migration and chemotaxis. Autho

  5. DMPD: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor and host innate immune responses tomicrobes. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 14620137 Macrophage migration inhibitory factor and host innate immune responses to...microbes. Calandra T. Scand J Infect Dis. 2003;35(9):573-6. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Macrophage migration... inhibitory factor and host innate immune responses tomicrobes. PubmedID 14620137 Title Macrophage migration

  6. DMPD: Macrophage differentiation and function in health and disease. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18251777 Macrophage differentiation and function in health and disease. Naito M. Pa...thol Int. 2008 Mar;58(3):143-55. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Macrophage differentiation and function in health... and disease. PubmedID 18251777 Title Macrophage differentiation and function in health and disease

  7. DMPD: Shaping of monocyte and macrophage function by adenosine receptors. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17056121 Shaping of monocyte and macrophage function by adenosine receptors. Hasko ...tml) (.csml) Show Shaping of monocyte and macrophage function by adenosine receptors. PubmedID 17056121 Titl...e Shaping of monocyte and macrophage function by adenosine receptors. Authors Has

  8. DMPD: Receptor tyrosine kinases and the regulation of macrophage activation. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 14726496 Receptor tyrosine kinases and the regulation of macrophage activation. Cor...(.csml) Show Receptor tyrosine kinases and the regulation of macrophage activation. PubmedID 14726496 Title ...Receptor tyrosine kinases and the regulation of macrophage activation. Authors Co

  9. DMPD: Macrophage activation by endogenous danger signals. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18161744 Macrophage activation by endogenous danger signals. Zhang X, Mosser DM. J ...Pathol. 2008 Jan;214(2):161-78. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Macrophage activation by endogenous dange...r signals. PubmedID 18161744 Title Macrophage activation by endogenous danger signals. Authors Zhang X, Moss

  10. DMPD: Regulation of endogenous apolipoprotein E secretion by macrophages. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18388328 Regulation of endogenous apolipoprotein E secretion by macrophages. Kockx ...svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Regulation of endogenous apolipoprotein E secretion by macrophages. PubmedID 18388...328 Title Regulation of endogenous apolipoprotein E secretion by macrophages. Aut

  11. DMPD: Iron regulation of hepatic macrophage TNFalpha expression. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 11841920 Iron regulation of hepatic macrophage TNFalpha expression. Tsukamoto H. Fr...ee Radic Biol Med. 2002 Feb 15;32(4):309-13. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Iron regulation of hepatic macrophage TNFalpha expres...sion. PubmedID 11841920 Title Iron regulation of hepatic macrophage TNFalpha express

  12. A role for microRNA-155 modulation in the anti-HIV-1 effects of Toll-like receptor 3 stimulation in macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokul Swaminathan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 infection of macrophages plays a key role in viral pathogenesis and progression to AIDS. Polyinosine-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C; a synthetic analog of dsRNA and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, the ligands for Toll-like receptors (TLR TLR3 and TLR4, respectively, are known to decrease HIV-1 infection in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs, but the mechanism(s are incompletely understood. We found that poly(I:C- and LPS-stimulation of MDMs abrogated infection by CCR5-using, macrophage-tropic HIV-1, and by vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein-pseudotyped HIV-1 virions, while TLR2, TLR7 or TLR9 agonists only partially reduced infection to varying extent. Suppression of infection, or lack thereof, did not correlate with differential effects on CD4 or CCR5 expression, type I interferon induction, or production of pro-inflammatory cytokines or β-chemokines. Integrated pro-viruses were readily detected in unstimulated, TLR7- and TLR9-stimulated cells, but not in TLR3- or TLR4-stimulated MDMs, suggesting the alteration of post-entry, pre-integration event(s. Using microarray analysis and quantitative reverse transcription (RT-PCR, we found increased microRNA (miR-155 levels in MDMs upon TLR3/4- but not TLR7-stimulation, and a miR-155 specific inhibitor (but not a scrambled control partially restored infectivity in poly(I:C-stimulated MDMs. Ectopic miR-155 expression remarkably diminished HIV-1 infection in primary MDMs and cell lines. Furthermore, poly(I:C-stimulation and ectopic miR-155 expression did not alter detection of early viral RT products, but both resulted in an accumulation of late RT products and in undetectable or extremely low levels of integrated pro-viruses and 2-LTR circles. Reduced mRNA and protein levels of several HIV-1 dependency factors involved in trafficking and/or nuclear import of pre-integration complexes (ADAM10, TNPO3, Nup153, LEDGF/p75 were found in poly(I:C-stimulated and miR-155-transfected MDMs, and a

  13. A role for microRNA-155 modulation in the anti-HIV-1 effects of Toll-like receptor 3 stimulation in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Gokul; Rossi, Fiorella; Sierra, Luz-Jeannette; Gupta, Archana; Navas-Martín, Sonia; Martín-García, Julio

    2012-09-01

    HIV-1 infection of macrophages plays a key role in viral pathogenesis and progression to AIDS. Polyinosine-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C); a synthetic analog of dsRNA) and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the ligands for Toll-like receptors (TLR) TLR3 and TLR4, respectively, are known to decrease HIV-1 infection in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs), but the mechanism(s) are incompletely understood. We found that poly(I:C)- and LPS-stimulation of MDMs abrogated infection by CCR5-using, macrophage-tropic HIV-1, and by vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein-pseudotyped HIV-1 virions, while TLR2, TLR7 or TLR9 agonists only partially reduced infection to varying extent. Suppression of infection, or lack thereof, did not correlate with differential effects on CD4 or CCR5 expression, type I interferon induction, or production of pro-inflammatory cytokines or β-chemokines. Integrated pro-viruses were readily detected in unstimulated, TLR7- and TLR9-stimulated cells, but not in TLR3- or TLR4-stimulated MDMs, suggesting the alteration of post-entry, pre-integration event(s). Using microarray analysis and quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, we found increased microRNA (miR)-155 levels in MDMs upon TLR3/4- but not TLR7-stimulation, and a miR-155 specific inhibitor (but not a scrambled control) partially restored infectivity in poly(I:C)-stimulated MDMs. Ectopic miR-155 expression remarkably diminished HIV-1 infection in primary MDMs and cell lines. Furthermore, poly(I:C)-stimulation and ectopic miR-155 expression did not alter detection of early viral RT products, but both resulted in an accumulation of late RT products and in undetectable or extremely low levels of integrated pro-viruses and 2-LTR circles. Reduced mRNA and protein levels of several HIV-1 dependency factors involved in trafficking and/or nuclear import of pre-integration complexes (ADAM10, TNPO3, Nup153, LEDGF/p75) were found in poly(I:C)-stimulated and miR-155-transfected MDMs, and a reporter

  14. Different Regulation of Interleukin-1 Production and Activity in Monocytes and Macrophages: Innate Memory as an Endogenous Mechanism of IL-1 Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz P. Madej

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Production and activity of interleukin (IL-1β are kept under strict control in our body, because of its powerful inflammation-promoting capacity. Control of IL-1β production and activity allows IL-1 to exert its defensive activities without causing extensive tissue damage. Monocytes are the major producers of IL-1β during inflammation, but they are also able to produce significant amounts of IL-1 inhibitors such as IL-1Ra and the soluble form of the decoy receptor IL-1R2, in an auto-regulatory feedback loop. Here, we investigated how innate immune memory could modulate production and activity of IL-1β by human primary monocytes and monocyte-derived tissue-like/deactivated macrophages in vitro. Cells were exposed to Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Gram-positive (Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria for 24 h, then allowed to rest, and then re-challenged with the same stimuli. The presence of biologically active IL-1β in cell supernatants was calculated as the ratio between free IL-1β (i.e., the cytokine that is not bound/inhibited by sIL-1R2 and its receptor antagonist IL-1Ra. As expected, we observed that the responsiveness of tissue-like/deactivated macrophages to bacterial stimuli was lower than that of monocytes. After resting and re-stimulation, a memory effect was evident for the production of inflammatory cytokines, whereas production of alarm signals (chemokines was minimally affected. We observed a high variability in the innate memory response among individual donors. This is expected since innate memory largely depends on the previous history of exposure or infections, which is different in different subjects. Overall, innate memory appeared to limit the amount of active IL-1β produced by macrophages in response to a bacterial challenge, while enhancing the responsiveness of monocytes. The functional re-programming of mononuclear phagocytes through modulation of innate memory may provide innovative approaches in the management

  15. Gallium arsenide exposure impairs processing of particulate antigen by macrophages: modification of the antigen reverses the functional defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Constance B; McCoy, Kathleen L

    2004-06-11

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs), a semiconductor used in the electronics industry, causes systemic immunosuppression in animals. The chemical's impact on macrophages to process the particulate antigen, sheep red blood cells (SRBC), for a T cell response in culture was examined after in vivo exposure of mice. GaAs-exposed splenic macrophages were defective in activating SRBC-primed lymph node T cells that could not be attributed to impaired phagocytosis. Modified forms of SRBC were generated to examine the compromised function of GaAs-exposed macrophages. SRBC were fixed to maintain their particulate nature and subsequently delipidated with detergent. Delipidation of intact SRBC was insufficient to restore normal antigen processing in GaAs-exposed macrophages. However, chemically exposed cells efficiently processed soluble sheep proteins. These findings suggest that the problem may lie in the release of sequestered sheep protein antigens, which then could be effectively cleaved to peptides. Furthermore, opsonization of SRBC with IgG compensated for the macrophage processing defect. The influence of signal transduction and phagocytosis via Fcgamma receptors on improved antigen processing could be dissociated. Immobilized anti-Fcgamma receptor antibody activated macrophages to secrete a chemokine, but did not enhance processing of unmodified SRBC by GaAs-exposed macrophages. Restoration of normal processing of particulate SRBC by chemically exposed macrophages involved phagocytosis through Fcgamma receptors. Hence, initial immune responses may be very sensitive to GaAs exposure, and the chemical's immunosuppression may be averted by opsonized particulate antigens.

  16. The effects of phorbol ester activation and reactive oxygen species scavengers on the macrophage-mediated foreign body reaction to polyurethanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBane, Joanne E; Matheson, Loren A; Santerre, J Paul; Labow, Rosalind S

    2009-12-15

    Phorbol myristate acetate, a protein kinase C activator, inhibited monocyte-derived macrophage (MDM)-mediated degradation of aliphatic (HDI) polycarbonate-based polyurethanes but not degradation of the aromatic polycarbonate-based polyurethane (MDI). The objectives of this study were to determine if reactive oxygen species are involved in the phorbol myristate acetate effect on esterase activity and MDM-mediated polycarbonate-based polyurethane degradation and to find a good marker of material-initiated activation of MDM. The phorbol myristate acetate-dependent effects of the material chemistry on cell activation and degradation were evaluated by adding reactive oxygen species scavengers, catalase plus superoxide dismutase to MDM and assaying possible markers of MDM activation: esterase activity, acid phosphatase activity, and high molecular weight group box 1 protein (HMGB1). All treatments reduced the esterase activity in MDM on HDI but not in MDM on MDI. Acid phosphatase was inhibited in MDM to varying degrees on all surfaces by phorbol myristate acetate or catalase plus superoxide dismutase either alone or together. Secretion of HMGB1 from MDM on HDI431 was higher than MDI; however only secretion from MDM on HDI was inhibited by phorbol myristate acetate. In MDM on HDI, catalase plus superoxide dismutase reduced intracellular HMGB1 levels +/- phorbol myristate acetate; whereas, catalase, superoxide dismutase plus phorbol myristate acetate increased intracellular HMGB1 in MDM on MDI, suggesting that esterase and HMGB1 are more specific markers of activation than acid phosphatase. Manipulation of signaling pathways may provide insight surrounding the mechanism of activation for oxidative and/or hydrolytic degradative pathways in the MDM response to material surface chemistry.

  17. A novel CD14(high) CD16(high) subset of peritoneal macrophages from cirrhotic patients is associated to an increased response to LPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Alcaraz, Antonio José; Tapia-Abellán, Ana; Fernández-Fernández, María Dolores; Tristán-Manzano, María; Hernández-Caselles, Trinidad; Sánchez-Velasco, Eduardo; Miras-López, Manuel; Martínez-Esparza, María; García-Peñarrubia, Pilar

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize monocyte-derived macrophages (M-DM) from blood and ascites of cirrhotic patients comparatively with those obtained from blood of healthy controls. The phenotypic profile based on CD14/CD16 expression was analyzed by flow cytometry. Cells were isolated and stimulated in vitro with LPS and heat killed Candida albicans. Phosphorylation of ERK, c-Jun, p38 MAPK, and PKB/Akt was analyzed by Western blotting. A novel CD14(high)CD16(high) M-DM subpopulation is present in ascites (∼33%). The CD14(++)CD16(+) intermediate subset is increased in the blood of cirrhotic patients (∼from 4% to 11%) and is predominant in ascites (49%), while the classical CD14(++)CD16(-) subpopulation is notably reduced in ascites (18%). Basal hyperactivation of ERK and JNK/c-Jun pathways observed in ascites M-DM correlates with CD14/CD16 high expressing subsets, while PI3K/PKB does it with the CD16 low expressing cells. In vitro LPS treatment highly increases ERK1/2, PKB/Akt and c-Jun phosphorylation, while that of p38 MAPK is decreased in M-DM from ascites compared to control blood M-DM. Stimulation of healthy blood M-DM with LPS and C. albicans induced higher phosphorylation levels of p38 than those from ascites. Regarding cytokines secretion, in vitro activated M-DM from ascites of cirrhotic patients produced significantly higher amounts of IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α, and lower levels of IL-1β and IL-12 than control blood M-DM. In conclusion, a new subpopulation of CD14(high)CD16(high) peritoneal M-DM has been identified in ascites of cirrhotic patients, which is very sensitive to LPS stimulation.

  18. Interferon-alpha mediates restriction of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 replication in primary human macrophages at an early stage of replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly M Cheney

    Full Text Available Type I interferons (IFNα and β are induced directly in response to viral infection, resulting in an antiviral state for the cell. In vitro studies have shown that IFNα is a potent inhibitor of viral replication; however, its role in HIV-1 infection is incompletely understood. In this study we describe the ability of IFNα to restrict HIV-1 infection in primary human macrophages in contrast to peripheral blood mononuclear cells and monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Inhibition to HIV-1 replication in cells pretreated with IFNα occurred at an early stage in the virus life cycle. Late viral events such as budding and subsequent rounds of infection were not affected by IFNα treatment. Analysis of early and late HIV-1 reverse transcripts and integrated proviral DNA confirmed an early post entry role for IFNα. First strand cDNA synthesis was slightly reduced but late and integrated products were severely depleted, suggesting that initiation or the nucleic acid intermediates of reverse transcription are targeted. The depletion of integrated provirus is disproportionally greater than that of viral cDNA synthesis suggesting the possibility of a least an additional later target. A role for either cellular protein APOBEC3G or tetherin in this IFNα mediated restriction has been excluded. Vpu, previously shown by others to rescue a viral budding restriction by tetherin, could not overcome this IFNα induced effect. Determining both the viral determinants and cellular proteins involved may lead to novel therapeutic approaches. Our results add to the understanding of HIV-1 restriction by IFNα.

  19. A broken krebs cycle in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Luke A J

    2015-03-17

    Macrophages undergo metabolic rewiring during polarization but details of this process are unclear. In this issue of Immunity, Jha et al. (2015) report a systems approach for unbiased analysis of cellular metabolism that reveals key metabolites and metabolic pathways required for distinct macrophage polarization states.

  20. The Alternative Faces of Macrophage Generate Osteoclasts

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    N. Lampiasi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of how osteoclasts are generated and whether they can be altered by inflammatory stimuli is a topic of particular interest for osteoclastogenesis. It is known that the monocyte/macrophage lineage gives rise to osteoclasts (OCs by the action of macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB ligand (RANKL, which induce cell differentiation through their receptors, c-fms and RANK, respectively. The multinucleated giant cells (MGCs generated by the engagement of RANK/RANKL are typical OCs. Nevertheless, very few studies have addressed the question of which subset of macrophages generates OCs. Indeed, two main subsets of macrophages are postulated, the inflammatory or classically activated type (M1 and the anti-inflammatory or alternatively activated type (M2. It has been proposed that macrophages can be polarized in vitro towards a predominantly M1 or M2 phenotype with the addition of granulocyte macrophage- (GM- CSF or M-CSF, respectively. Various inflammatory stimuli known to induce macrophage polarization, such as LPS or TNF-α, can alter the type of MGC obtained from RANKL-induced differentiation. This review aims to highlight the role of immune-related stimuli and factors in inducing macrophages towards the osteoclastogenesis choice.

  1. Mycobacteria, metals, and the macrophage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyrolles, Olivier; Wolschendorf, Frank; Mitra, Avishek; Niederweis, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a facultative intracellular pathogen that thrives inside host macrophages. A key trait of M. tuberculosis is to exploit and manipulate metal cation trafficking inside infected macrophages to ensure survival and replication inside the phagosome. Here, we describe the recent fascinating discoveries that the mammalian immune system responds to infections with M. tuberculosis by overloading the phagosome with copper and zinc, two metals which are essential nutrients in small quantities but are toxic in excess. M. tuberculosis has developed multi-faceted resistance mechanisms to protect itself from metal toxicity including control of uptake, sequestration inside the cell, oxidation, and efflux. The host response to infections combines this metal poisoning strategy with nutritional immunity mechanisms that deprive M. tuberculosis from metals such as iron and manganese to prevent bacterial replication. Both immune mechanisms rely on the translocation of metal transporter proteins to the phagosomal membrane during the maturation process of the phagosome. This review summarizes these recent findings and discusses how metal-targeted approaches might complement existing TB chemotherapeutic regimens with novel anti-infective therapies.

  2. Characterization of a postlavage, in situ pulmonary macrophage population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drath, D B; Davies, P; Shorey, J M; Gibran, N S; Simpson, P J; Huber, G L

    1982-04-01

    A postlavage in situ subpopulation of pulmonary macrophages (PM), biochemically distinct from the lavaged population, has recently been isolated from rats. After exhaustive bronchopulmonary lavage to extract the free lung cells, the lungs were excised, homogenized, and filtered, and the resultant cell suspension was allowed to form a monolayer on plastic Petri dishes. Electron microscopic morphometry failed to indicate any morphologic differences in the two populations. The postlavage in situ PM were more active metabolically during phagocytosis of zymosan particles or stimulation by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) than the corresponding lavage population, as evidenced by greater superoxide generation. Macrophages prepared by either method became more avidly phagocytic when incubated with cell-free medium isolated in the preparation of the situ population. Peroxidase, an enzyme absent from the granules of PM separated by lavage techniques, was found in a granule-rich fraction of the in situ macrophage. Catalase activity was found in similar amounts in both supernatants and granule-rich fractions of both populations. The results support the concept of subpopulations of PM and suggest that these subpopulations are distinguished by their biochemical properties and their functional abilities.

  3. Refractory ceramic fibers activate alveolar macrophage eicosanoid and cytokine release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leikauf, G D; Fink, S P; Miller, M L; Lockey, J E; Driscoll, K E

    1995-01-01

    Refractory ceramic fiber has been developed for industrial processes requiring materials with high thermal and mechanical stability. To evaluate the biological activity of this fiber, rat alveolar macrophages were exposed for < or = 24 h to 0-1,000 micrograms/ml of refractory ceramic fiber, crocidolite asbestos, silica (fibrogenic particles), or titanium dioxide (a nonfibrogenic particle), and eicosanoid, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), and lactate dehydrogenase release were measured. Particle dimensions were determined by electron microscopy. Radioactivity coeluting with leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and immunoreactive LTB4 and TNF release increased after refractory ceramic fiber and were similar in magnitude after asbestos but less than after silica. For example, the total [3H]eicosanoid release increased 3.9-fold after refractory ceramic fiber, 4.6-fold after asbestos, and 8.7-fold after silica. Refractory ceramic fiber and asbestos also have similar particle dimensions (diameter, length, and surface area). Inasmuch as macrophage-derived LTB4 and TNF are potent mediators in inflammatory events, including migration and activation of neutrophils, these findings suggest that refractory ceramic fiber can activate macrophages in vitro to release mediators relevant to in vivo findings of inflammation and fibrotic lung disease in laboratory animals.

  4. Warthin-starry Silver Method Showing Particulate Matter in Macrophage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG-GANG LIU

    2008-01-01

    Objective To verify whether Warthin-Starry(WS)silver method could detect the air particulate matter(PM)/dust particles(Ps)located within the macrophages in situ. Methods There were 26 antopsy cases that resulted from cerebral hemorrhage(group A),silicosis(group B),and fetal death during pregnancy(group C).Samples were collected separately and serial sections were prepared from the lungs and lymph nodes and stained with hematoxylin and eosin(HE),WS silver,immunohistochemistry of CD68.Furthermore,ultrathin sections were taken from the WS positive serial sections of groups A and B.Ps were observed under a transmission electron microscope(TEM)and the elements of Ps were measured by X-ray spectrum analysis(X-RSA).Results In both groups A and B,WS staining was positive for the larger and fine Ps,the so called"dust cells",but HE staining Was almost negative for fine Ps.In group C,no larger or fine Ps were found.Immunohistochemical staining of CD68 certified that the"dust cells"containing Ps were macrophages.The results of TEM and X-RSA proved that the structure and elements of Ps belonged to PM indeed.Conclusion WS staining is a better than HE staining in showing the location of PM within macrophages.

  5. The effect of activated alveolar macrophages on experimental lung emphysema development. II. The study of fibroblast and alveolar macrophage co-culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulkowska, M; Wołczyński, S; Sulkowski, S; Sobaniec-Lotowska, M; Chyczewski, L; Sulik, M; Kulikowski, M; Dziecioł, J; Berger, W

    1995-01-01

    The cell-cell interaction between fibroblasts and alveolar macrophages was examined using a co-culture system. Alveolar macrophages (AM) were harvested from the bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) of rats with papain induced lung emphysema. The BCG-vaccine was applied as a macrophage mobilizing and activating agent. The morphological examinations carried out in scanning electron microscope (SEM) as well as the evaluation of the uptake of 3H-thymidine did not show any significant differences between respective co-cultures of fibroblasts and AM isolated both from the lungs of control and experimental animals (treated with BCG or papain, and BCG+papain). However, significant growth were noted in 3H-thymidine uptake between fibroblast cultures done with or without cells isolated from the lungs. The results obtained suggest that AM can promote fibroblast proliferation during the progression of experimental lung emphysema.

  6. A novel hybrid aspirin-NO-releasing compound inhibits TNFalpha release from LPS-activated human monocytes and macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fox Sarah

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cytoprotective nature of nitric oxide (NO led to development of NO-aspirins in the hope of overcoming the gastric side-effects of aspirin. However, the NO moiety gives these hybrids potential for actions further to their aspirin-mediated anti-platelet and anti-inflammatory effects. Having previously shown that novel NO-aspirin hybrids containing a furoxan NO-releasing group have potent anti-platelet effects, here we investigate their anti-inflammatory properties. Here we examine their effects upon TNFα release from lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated human monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages and investigate a potential mechanism of action through effects on LPS-stimulated nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB activation. Methods Peripheral venous blood was drawn from the antecubital fossa of human volunteers. Mononuclear cells were isolated and cultured. The resultant differentiated macrophages were treated with pharmacologically relevant concentrations of either a furoxan-aspirin (B8, B7; 10 μM, their respective furazan NO-free counterparts (B16, B15; 10 μM, aspirin (10 μM, existing nitroaspirin (NCX4016; 10 μM, an NO donor (DEA/NO; 10 μM or dexamethasone (1 μM, in the presence and absence of LPS (10 ng/ml; 4 h. Parallel experiments were conducted on undifferentiated fresh monocytes. Supernatants were assessed by specific ELISA for TNFα release and by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH assay for cell necrosis. To assess NF-κB activation, the effects of the compounds on the loss of cytoplasmic inhibitor of NF-κB, IκBα (assessed by western blotting and nuclear localisation (assessed by immunofluorescence of the p65 subunit of NF-κB were determined. Results B8 significantly reduced TNFα release from LPS-treated macrophages to 36 ± 10% of the LPS control. B8 and B16 significantly inhibited monocyte TNFα release to 28 ± 5, and 49 ± 9% of control, respectively. The B8 effect was equivalent in magnitude to that of

  7. [Molecular mechanisms regulating the activity of macrophages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoprienko, L V

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews modern concepts of the most common types of macrophage activation: classical, alternative, and type II. Molecular mechanisms of induction and regulation of these three types of activation are discussed. Any population of macrophages was shown to change its properties depending on its microenvironment and concrete biological situation (the "functional plasticity of macrophages"). Many intermediate states of macrophages were described along with the most pronounced and well-known activation types (classical activation, alternative activation, and type II activation). These intermediate states are characterized by a variety of combinations of their biological properties, including elements of the three afore mentioned types of activation. Macrophage activity is regulated by a complex network of interrelated cascade mechanisms.

  8. Macrophage serum markers in pneumococcal bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Holger Jon; Moestrup, Søren K; Weis, Nina

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Soluble CD163 (sCD163) is a new macrophage-specific serum marker. This study investigated sCD163 and other markers of macrophage activation (neopterin, ferritin, transcobalamin, and soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor [suPAR]) as prognostic factors in patients with pneumoc......OBJECTIVE: Soluble CD163 (sCD163) is a new macrophage-specific serum marker. This study investigated sCD163 and other markers of macrophage activation (neopterin, ferritin, transcobalamin, and soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor [suPAR]) as prognostic factors in patients...... on the probability of survival when sCD163 and CRP were known (p = .25). CONCLUSIONS: Macrophage marker response in pneumococcal bacteremia was compromised in old age. In patients disease outcome....

  9. Macrophage Polarization in Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Cassetta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages are terminally differentiated cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system that also encompasses dendritic cells, circulating blood monocytes, and committed myeloid progenitor cells in the bone marrow. Both macrophages and their monocytic precursors can change their functional state in response to microenvironmental cues exhibiting a marked heterogeneity. However, there are still uncertainties regarding distinct expression patterns of surface markers that clearly define macrophage subsets, particularly in the case of human macrophages. In addition to their tissue distribution, macrophages can be functionally polarized into M1 (proinflammatory and M2 (alternatively activated as well as regulatory cells in response to both exogenous infections and solid tumors as well as by systems biology approaches.

  10. Changing pattern of the subcellular distribution of erythroblast macrophage protein (Emp) during macrophage differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Shivani; Bala, Shashi; Kumar, Ajay; Hanspal, Manjit

    2007-01-01

    Erythroblast macrophage protein (Emp) mediates the attachment of erythroid cells to macrophages and is required for normal differentiation of both cell lineages. In erythroid cells, Emp is believed to be involved in nuclear extrusion, however, its role in macrophage differentiation is unknown. Information on the changes in the expression level and subcellular distribution of Emp in differentiating macrophages is essential for understanding the function of Emp. Macrophages of varying maturity were examined by immunofluorescence microscopy and biochemical methods. Our data show that Emp is expressed in all stages of maturation, but its localization pattern changes dramatically during maturation: in immature macrophages, a substantial fraction of Emp is associated with the nuclear matrix, whereas in more mature cells, Emp is expressed largely at cell surface. Pulse-chase experiments show that nascent Emp migrates intracellularly from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane more efficiently in mature macrophages than in immature cells. Incubation of erythroid cells with macrophages in culture shows that erythroid cells attach to mature macrophages but not to immature macrophage precursors. Together, our data show that the temporal and spatial expression of Emp correlates with its role in erythroblastic island formation and suggest that Emp may be involved in multiple cellular functions.

  11. Cholesteryl ester hydrolase activity is abolished in HSL-/- macrophages but unchanged in macrophages lacking KIAA1363.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchebner, Marlene; Pfeifer, Thomas; Rathke, Nora; Chandak, Prakash G; Lass, Achim; Schreiber, Renate; Kratzer, Adelheid; Zimmermann, Robert; Sattler, Wolfgang; Koefeler, Harald; Fröhlich, Eleonore; Kostner, Gerhard M; Birner-Gruenberger, Ruth; Chiang, Kyle P; Haemmerle, Guenter; Zechner, Rudolf; Levak-Frank, Sanja; Cravatt, Benjamin; Kratky, Dagmar

    2010-10-01

    Cholesteryl ester (CE) accumulation in macrophages represents a crucial event during foam cell formation, a hallmark of atherogenesis. Here we investigated the role of two previously described CE hydrolases, hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and KIAA1363, in macrophage CE hydrolysis. HSL and KIAA1363 exhibited marked differences in their abilities to hydrolyze CE, triacylglycerol (TG), diacylglycerol (DG), and 2-acetyl monoalkylglycerol ether (AcMAGE), a precursor for biosynthesis of platelet-activating factor (PAF). HSL efficiently cleaved all four substrates, whereas KIAA1363 hydrolyzed only AcMAGE. This contradicts previous studies suggesting that KIAA1363 is a neutral CE hydrolase. Macrophages of KIAA1363(-/-) and wild-type mice exhibited identical neutral CE hydrolase activity, which was almost abolished in tissues and macrophages of HSL(-/-) mice. Conversely, AcMAGE hydrolase activity was diminished in macrophages and some tissues of KIAA1363(-/-) but unchanged in HSL(-/-) mice. CE turnover was unaffected in macrophages lacking KIAA1363 and HSL, whereas cAMP-dependent cholesterol efflux was influenced by HSL but not by KIAA1363. Despite decreased CE hydrolase activities, HSL(-/-) macrophages exhibited CE accumulation similar to wild-type (WT) macrophages. We conclude that additional enzymes must exist that cooperate with HSL to regulate CE levels in macrophages. KIAA1363 affects AcMAGE hydrolase activity but is of minor importance as a direct CE hydrolase in macrophages.

  12. Impaired macrophage autophagy increases the immune response in obese mice by promoting proinflammatory macrophage polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kun; Zhao, Enpeng; Ilyas, Ghulam; Lalazar, Gadi; Lin, Yu; Haseeb, Muhammad; Tanaka, Kathryn E; Czaja, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence that excessive lipid accumulation can decrease cellular levels of autophagy and that autophagy regulates immune responsiveness suggested that impaired macrophage autophagy may promote the increased innate immune activation that underlies obesity. Primary bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) and peritoneal macrophages from high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice had decreased levels of autophagic flux indicating a generalized impairment of macrophage autophagy in obese mice. To assess the effects of decreased macrophage autophagy on inflammation, mice with a Lyz2-Cre-mediated knockout of Atg5 in macrophages were fed a HFD and treated with low-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Knockout mice developed systemic and hepatic inflammation with HFD feeding and LPS. This effect was liver specific as knockout mice did not have increased adipose tissue inflammation. The mechanism by which the loss of autophagy promoted inflammation was through the regulation of macrophage polarization. BMDM and Kupffer cells from knockout mice exhibited abnormalities in polarization with both increased proinflammatory M1 and decreased anti-inflammatory M2 polarization as determined by measures of genes and proteins. The heightened hepatic inflammatory response in HFD-fed, LPS-treated knockout mice led to liver injury without affecting steatosis. These findings demonstrate that autophagy has a critical regulatory function in macrophage polarization that downregulates inflammation. Defects in macrophage autophagy may underlie inflammatory disease states such as the decrease in macrophage autophagy with obesity that leads to hepatic inflammation and the progression to liver injury.

  13. Macrophages and Dendritic Cells: Partners in Atherogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cybulsky, Myron I; Cheong, Cheolho; Robbins, Clinton S

    2016-02-19

    Atherosclerosis is a complex chronic disease. The accumulation of myeloid cells in the arterial intima, including macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs), is a feature of early stages of disease. For decades, it has been known that monocyte recruitment to the intima contributes to the burden of lesion macrophages. Yet, this paradigm may require reevaluation in light of recent advances in understanding of tissue macrophage ontogeny, their capacity for self-renewal, as well as observations that macrophages proliferate throughout atherogenesis and that self-renewal is critical for maintenance of macrophages in advanced lesions. The rate of atherosclerotic lesion formation is profoundly influenced by innate and adaptive immunity, which can be regulated locally within atherosclerotic lesions, as well as in secondary lymphoid organs, the bone marrow and the blood. DCs are important modulators of immunity. Advances in the past decade have cemented our understanding of DC subsets, functions, hematopoietic origin, gene expression patterns, transcription factors critical for differentiation, and provided new tools for study of DC biology. The functions of macrophages and DCs overlap to some extent, thus it is important to reassess the contributions of each of these myeloid cells taking into account strict criteria of cell identification, ontogeny, and determine whether their key roles are within atherosclerotic lesions or secondary lymphoid organs. This review will highlight key aspect of macrophage and DC biology, summarize how these cells participate in different stages of atherogenesis and comment on complexities, controversies, and gaps in knowledge in the field.

  14. HIV-1 Latency in Monocytes/Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 targets CD4+ T cells and cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. HIV pathogenesis is characterized by the depletion of T lymphocytes and by the presence of a population of cells in which latency has been established called the HIV-1 reservoir. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has significantly improved the life of HIV-1 infected patients. However, complete eradication of HIV-1 from infected individuals is not possible without targeting latent sources of infection. HIV-1 establishes latent infection in resting CD4+ T cells and findings indicate that latency can also be established in the cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. Monocyte/macrophage lineage includes among others, monocytes, macrophages and brain resident macrophages. These cells are relatively more resistant to apoptosis induced by HIV-1, thus are important stable hideouts of the virus. Much effort has been made in the direction of eliminating HIV-1 resting CD4+ T-cell reservoirs. However, it is impossible to achieve a cure for HIV-1 without considering these neglected latent reservoirs, the cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. In this review we will describe our current understanding of the mechanism of latency in monocyte/macrophage lineage and how such cells can be specifically eliminated from the infected host.

  15. The Many Alternative Faces of Macrophage Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Hume

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Monocytes and macrophages provide the first line of defense against pathogens. They also initiate acquired immunity by processing and presenting antigens and provide the downstream effector functions. In large gene expression datasets from multiple cells and tissues, it is possible to identify sets of genes that are co-regulated with the transcription factors that regulate them. In macrophages, they include lineage-specific genes, interferon-responsive genes, early inflammatory genes, and those associated with endocytosis. Macrophages enter tissues and alter their function to deal with a wide range of challenges related to development and organogenesis, tissue injury, malignancy, sterile or pathogenic inflammatory stimuli. These stimuli alter gene expression to produce activated macrophages that are better equipped to eliminate the cause of their influx, and to restore homeostasis. Activation or polarization states of macrophages have been classified as classical and alternative or M1 and M2. These proposed states of cells are not supported by large-scale transcriptomic data, including macrophage-associated signatures from large cancer tissue datasets, where the supposed markers do not correlate with other. Individual macrophage cells differ markedly from each other, and change their functions in response to doses and combinations of agonists and time. The most studied macrophage activation response is the transcriptional cascade initiated by the TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS. This response is reviewed herein. The network architecture is conserved across species, but many of the target genes evolve rapidly and differ between mouse and human. There is also considerable divergence in the sets of target genes between mouse strains, between individuals and in other species such as pigs. The data and publication deluge related to macrophage activation requires the development of new analytical tools, and ways of presenting information in an

  16. Macrophages and Uveitis in Experimental Animal Models

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    Salvador Mérida

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resident and infiltrated macrophages play relevant roles in uveitis as effectors of innate immunity and inductors of acquired immunity. They are major effectors of tissue damage in uveitis and are also considered to be potent antigen-presenting cells. In the last few years, experimental animal models of uveitis have enabled us to enhance our understanding of the leading role of macrophages in eye inflammation processes, including macrophage polarization in experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis and the major role of Toll-like receptor 4 in endotoxin-induced uveitis. This improved knowledge should guide advantageous iterative research to establish mechanisms and possible therapeutic targets for human uveitis resolution.

  17. The killing of macrophages by Corynebacterium ulcerans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Elena; Ott, Lisa; Schulze-Luehrmann, Jan; Lührmann, Anja; Wiesmann, Veit; Wittenberg, Thomas; Burkovski, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Corynebacterium ulcerans is an emerging pathogen transmitted by a zoonotic pathway with a very broad host spectrum to humans. Despite rising numbers of infections and potentially fatal outcomes, data on the molecular basis of