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Sample records for monocotyledonous wetland plant

  1. The banana (Musa acuminata) genome and the evolution of monocotyledonous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Hont, Angélique; Denoeud, France; Aury, Jean-Marc; Baurens, Franc-Christophe; Carreel, Françoise; Garsmeur, Olivier; Noel, Benjamin; Bocs, Stéphanie; Droc, Gaëtan; Rouard, Mathieu; Da Silva, Corinne; Jabbari, Kamel; Cardi, Céline; Poulain, Julie; Souquet, Marlène; Labadie, Karine; Jourda, Cyril; Lengellé, Juliette; Rodier-Goud, Marguerite; Alberti, Adriana; Bernard, Maria; Correa, Margot; Ayyampalayam, Saravanaraj; Mckain, Michael R; Leebens-Mack, Jim; Burgess, Diane; Freeling, Mike; Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, Didier; Chabannes, Matthieu; Wicker, Thomas; Panaud, Olivier; Barbosa, Jose; Hribova, Eva; Heslop-Harrison, Pat; Habas, Rémy; Rivallan, Ronan; Francois, Philippe; Poiron, Claire; Kilian, Andrzej; Burthia, Dheema; Jenny, Christophe; Bakry, Frédéric; Brown, Spencer; Guignon, Valentin; Kema, Gert; Dita, Miguel; Waalwijk, Cees; Joseph, Steeve; Dievart, Anne; Jaillon, Olivier; Leclercq, Julie; Argout, Xavier; Lyons, Eric; Almeida, Ana; Jeridi, Mouna; Dolezel, Jaroslav; Roux, Nicolas; Risterucci, Ange-Marie; Weissenbach, Jean; Ruiz, Manuel; Glaszmann, Jean-Christophe; Quétier, Francis; Yahiaoui, Nabila; Wincker, Patrick

    2012-08-09

    Bananas (Musa spp.), including dessert and cooking types, are giant perennial monocotyledonous herbs of the order Zingiberales, a sister group to the well-studied Poales, which include cereals. Bananas are vital for food security in many tropical and subtropical countries and the most popular fruit in industrialized countries. The Musa domestication process started some 7,000 years ago in Southeast Asia. It involved hybridizations between diverse species and subspecies, fostered by human migrations, and selection of diploid and triploid seedless, parthenocarpic hybrids thereafter widely dispersed by vegetative propagation. Half of the current production relies on somaclones derived from a single triploid genotype (Cavendish). Pests and diseases have gradually become adapted, representing an imminent danger for global banana production. Here we describe the draft sequence of the 523-megabase genome of a Musa acuminata doubled-haploid genotype, providing a crucial stepping-stone for genetic improvement of banana. We detected three rounds of whole-genome duplications in the Musa lineage, independently of those previously described in the Poales lineage and the one we detected in the Arecales lineage. This first monocotyledon high-continuity whole-genome sequence reported outside Poales represents an essential bridge for comparative genome analysis in plants. As such, it clarifies commelinid-monocotyledon phylogenetic relationships, reveals Poaceae-specific features and has led to the discovery of conserved non-coding sequences predating monocotyledon-eudicotyledon divergence.

  2. Ethylene Responsive Factors (ERFs in the orchestration of stress responses in monocotyledonous plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjukta eDey

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The APETALA2/Ethylene-Responsive Factor (AP2/ERF superfamily of transcription factors regulates physiological, developmental and stress responses. Most of the AP2/ERF transcription factors belong to the ERF family in both dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants. ERFs are implicated in the responses to both biotic and abiotic stress and occasionally impart multiple stress tolerance. Studies have revealed that ERF gene function is conserved in dicots and monocots. Moreover, successful stress tolerant phenotypes are observed on expression in heterologous systems, making ERFs promising candidates for engineering stress tolerance in plants. In this review, we summarize the role of ERFs in general stress tolerance, including responses to biotic and abiotic stress factors, and endeavor to understand the cascade of ERF regulation resulting in successful signal-to-response translation in monocotyledonous plants.

  3. Wetland plants: biology and ecology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cronk, Julie K; Fennessy, M. Siobhan

    2001-01-01

    Providing a detailed account of the biology and ecology of wetland plants as well as applications of wetland plant science, this book presents a synthesis of studies and reviews from biology, plant...

  4. Cadmium induces hypodermal periderm formation in the roots of the monocotyledonous medicinal plant Merwilla plumbea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, Alexander; Vaculík, Marek; Martinka, Michal; Lišková, Desana; Kulkarni, Manoj G.; Stirk, Wendy A.; Van Staden, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Merwilla plumbea is an important African medicinal plant. As the plants grow in soils contaminated with metals from mining activities, the danger of human intoxication exists. An experiment with plants exposed to cadmium (Cd) was performed to investigate the response of M. plumbea to this heavy metal, its uptake and translocation to plant organs and reaction of root tissues. Methods Plants grown from seeds were cultivated in controlled conditions. Hydroponic cultivation is not suitable for this species as roots do not tolerate aquatic conditions, and additional stress by Cd treatment results in total root growth inhibition and death. After cultivation in perlite the plants exposed to 1 and 5 mg Cd L−1 in half-strength Hoagland's solution were compared with control plants. Growth parameters were evaluated, Cd content was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and root structure was investigated using various staining procedures, including the fluorescent stain Fluorol yellow 088 to detect suberin deposition in cell walls. Key Results The plants exposed to Cd were significantly reduced in growth. Most of the Cd taken up by plants after 4 weeks cultivation was retained in roots, and only a small amount was translocated to bulbs and leaves. In reaction to higher Cd concentrations, roots developed a hypodermal periderm close to the root tip. Cells produced by cork cambium impregnate their cell walls by suberin. Conclusions It is suggested that the hypodermal periderm is developed in young root parts in reaction to Cd toxicity to protect the root from radial uptake of Cd ions. Secondary meristems are usually not present in monocotyledonous species. Another interpretation explaining formation of protective suberized layers as a result of periclinal divisions of the hypodermis is discussed. This process may represent an as yet unknown defence reaction of roots when exposed to elemental stress. PMID:21118841

  5. Embryological features of Tofieldia glutinosa and their bearing on the early diversification of monocotyledonous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Samuel J; Friedman, William E

    2008-08-01

    Although much is known about the vegetative traits associated with early monocot evolution, less is known about the reproductive features of early monocotyledonous lineages. A study was made of the embryology of Tofieldia glutinosa, a member of an early divergent monocot clade (Tofieldiaceae), and aspects of its development were compared with the development of other early divergent monocots in order to gain insight into defining reproductive features of early monocots. Field-collected developing gynoecial tissues of Tofieldia glutinosa were prepared for histological examination. Over 600 ovules were sectioned and studied using brightfield, differential interference contrast, and fluorescence microscopy. High-resolution digital imaging was used to document important stages of megasporogenesis, megagametogenesis and early endosperm development. Development of the female gametophyte in T. glutinosa is of a modified Polygonum-type. At maturity the female gametophyte is seven-celled and 11-nucleate with a standard three-celled egg apparatus, a binucleate central cell (where ultimately, the two polar nuclei will fuse into a diploid secondary nucleus) and three binucleate antipodal cells. The antipodal nuclei persist past fertilization, and the process of double fertilization appears to yield a diploid zygote and triploid primary endosperm cell, as is characteristic of plants with Polygonum-type female gametophytes. Endosperm development is helobial, and free-nuclear growth initially proceeds at equal rates in both the micropylar and chalazal endosperm chambers. The analysis suggests that the shared common ancestor of monocots possessed persistent and proliferating antipodals similar to those found in T. glutinosa and other early-divergent monocots (e.g. Acorus and members of the Araceae). Helobial endosperm among monocots evolved once in the common ancestor of all monocots excluding Acorus. Thus, the analysis further suggests that helobial endosperm in monocots is

  6. 1986 Wetland Plant List Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Wetland Plant List represents the combined efforts of many biologistsworking over the last 10 years to define the wetland flora of the UnitedStates.

  7. The banana (Musa acuminata) genome and the evolution of monocotyledonous plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hont, D' A.; Denoeud, F.; Aury, J.M.; Kema, G.H.J.; Dita Rodriguez, M.A.; Waalwijk, C.

    2012-01-01

    Bananas (Musa spp.), including dessert and cooking types, are giant perennial monocotyledonous herbs of the order Zingiberales, a sister group to the well-studied Poales, which include cereals. Bananas are vital for food security in many tropical and subtropical countries and the most popular fruit

  8. Wetland plants: biology and ecology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cronk, Julie K; Fennessy, M. Siobhan

    2001-01-01

    .... You get a thorough discussion of the range of wetland plant adaptations to life in water or saturated soils, high salt or high sulfur, low light and low carbon dioxide levels, as well as a detailed...

  9. A conserved function for Arabidopsis SUPERMAN in regulating floral-whorl cell proliferation in rice, a monocotyledonous plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, A K; Kushalappa, K; Prasad, K; Vijayraghavan, U

    2000-02-24

    Studies of floral organ development in two dicotyledonous plants, Arabidopsis thaliana and Antirrhinum majus, have shown that three sets of genes (A, B and C) can pattern sepals, petals, stamens and carpels [1] [2]. Mechanisms that define boundaries between these floral whorls are unclear, however. The Arabidopsis gene SUPERMAN (SUP), which encodes a putative transcription factor, maintains the boundary between stamens and carpels [3] [4] [5], possibly by regulating cell proliferation. By overexpressing SUP cDNA in rice, we examined whether its effects on whorl boundaries are conserved in a divergent monocotyledonous species. High-level ectopic SUP expression in transgenic rice resulted in juvenile death or dwarf plants with decreased axillary growth. Plants with lower levels of SUP RNA were vegetatively normal, but the flowers showed ubiquitous ventral carpel expansion. This was often coupled with reduced stamen number, or occurrence of third-whorl stamen-carpel mosaic organs. Additionally, proliferation of second-whorl ventral cells produced adventitious lodicules, and flowers lost the asymmetry that is normally inherent to this whorl. We predict that SUP is a conserved regulator of floral whorl boundaries and that it affects cell proliferation.

  10. Fermentation of the endosperm cell walls of monocotyledon and dicotyledon plant species: The relationship between cell wall characteristics and fermentability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, van H.; Tamminga, S.; Williams, B.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2000-01-01

    Cell walls from the endosperm of four monocotyledons (maize, wheat, rye, and rice) and four dicotyledons (soya bean, lupin, faba bean, and pea) seeds were studied to relate cell wall composition and structure with fermentation characteristics. Cell wall material was isolated from the endosperm of

  11. Fermentation of the endosperm cell walls of monocotyledon and dicotyledon plant species: The relationship between cell wall characteristics and fermentability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, van H.; Tamminga, S.; Williams, B.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2000-01-01

    Cell walls from the endosperm of four monocotyledons (maize, wheat, rye, and rice) and four dicotyledons (soya bean, lupin, faba bean, and pea) seeds were studied to relate cell wall composition and structure with fermentation characteristics. Cell wall material was isolated from the endosperm of th

  12. Nomenclature and the National Wetland Plant List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    The National Wetland Plant List (NWPL) is being revised by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the U.S...Wetland Plant List The National Wetland Plant List (NWPL) is being revised by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service... phylogenies predicated on molecular sequence analyses in combination with morphological char- acteristics and other biological and habitat features. ERDC

  13. Directory of Wetland Plant Vendors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    Pfeiffer, Jr., was the WRP Coordinator at the Directorate of Research and Development, HQUSACE, and Mr. William L. Klesch served as the WRP Technical...150 01 fu to51go5toS151g 0 )0 0 0 0)0 ’ q44l 0 00 0 = a I -q qP ’I-’-" 1 1 Chapter 2 Wetland Plants by Spadies 5 0 0 0 0 VI 0 0 00 P44 IA ON 41 0 11r

  14. Changes in DNA, dry mass and protein content of leaf epidermis nuclei during aging of perennial monocotyledonous plants

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna Kuran

    2014-01-01

    DNA, NYS and DNFB protein contents were measured cytophotometrically using the Feulgen method in the nuclei of the epidermis from. the basal zone of young leaves and from the basal and apical zones of old leaves in two perennial monocotyledonous species, Clivia miniata and Rhoeo discolor. Dry mass was determined interferometrically. It was shown that nuclei with a 2C DNA content dominated in both zones of old leaves, and that a significant percentage of cells with a DNA content below 2C were ...

  15. Caesium-137 soil-to-plant transfer for representative agricultural crops of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants in post-Chernobyl steppe landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramonova, Tatiana; Komissarova, Olga; Turykin, Leonid; Kuzmenkova, Natalia; Belyaev, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986 had a large-scale action on more than 2.3 million hectares agricultural lands in Russia. The area of radioactively contaminated chernozems of semi-arid steppe zone with initial levels of Cs-137 185-555 kBq/m2 in Tula region received the name "Plavsky radioactive hotspot". Nowadays, after the first half-life period of Cs-137 arable chernozems of the region are still polluted with 3-6-fold excess above the radioactive safety standard (126-228 kBq/m2). Therefore, qualitative and quantitative characteristics of Cs-137 soil-to-plant transfer are currently a central problem for land use on the territory. The purpose of the present study was revealing the biological features of Cs-137 root uptake from contaminated arable chernozems by different agricultural crops. The components of a grass mixture growing at the central part of Plavsky radioactive hotspot with typical dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants - galega (Galega orientalis, Fabaceae family) and bromegrass (Bromus inermis, Gramineae family) respectively - were selected for the investigation, that was conducted during the period of harvesting in 2015. An important point was that the other factors influenced on Cs-137 soil-to-plant transfer - the level of soil pollution, soil properties, climatic conditions, vegetative phase, etc. - were equal. So, biological features of Cs-137 root uptake could be estimated the most credible manner. As a whole, general discrimination of Cs-137 root uptake was clearly shown for both agricultural crops. Whereas Cs-137 activity in rhizosphere 30-cm layer of arable chernozem was 371±74 Bq/kg (140±32 kBq/m2), Cs-137 activities in plant biomass were one-two orders of magnitude less, and transfer factor (TF) values (the ratio of the Cs-137 activities in vegetation and in soil) not exceeded 0.11. At the same time bioavailability of Cs-137 for bromegrass was significantly higher than for galega: TFs in total biomass of the

  16. Changes in DNA, dry mass and protein content of leaf epidermis nuclei during aging of perennial monocotyledonous plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Kuran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA, NYS and DNFB protein contents were measured cytophotometrically using the Feulgen method in the nuclei of the epidermis from. the basal zone of young leaves and from the basal and apical zones of old leaves in two perennial monocotyledonous species, Clivia miniata and Rhoeo discolor. Dry mass was determined interferometrically. It was shown that nuclei with a 2C DNA content dominated in both zones of old leaves, and that a significant percentage of cells with a DNA content below 2C were present. The ratio between euchromatin DNA and heterochromatin DNA indicates a greater decrease in euchromatin during aging. Changes in DNA due to real DNA loss are accompanied by decreases in NYS and DNFB stained proteins and a decrease in dry mass content correlated mainly with the decrease in the amount of NYS proteins.

  17. Chrysophanol glycosides from callus cultures of monocotyledonous Kniphofia spp. (Asphodelaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hideyuki; Nishida, Yasuko; Yamazaki, Mie; Nakahara, Keisuke; Michalska-Hartwich, Malgorzata; Furmanowa, Miroslawa; Leistner, Eckhard; Yoshida, Takashi

    2004-10-01

    We established callus cultures of the monocotyledonous plants Kniphofia foliosa and K. tuckii (Asphodelaceae), which produce the anthraquinone derivatives chrysophanol and its glycosides. The minor product chrysophanol 8-O-beta-gentiobioside was fully characterized by spectroscopic analysis and synthesis.

  18. Plant biodiversity changes in Carboniferous tropical wetlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleal, C. J.; Uhl, D.; Cascales-Miñana, B.

    2012-01-01

    Using a combination of species richness, polycohort and constrained cluster analyses, the plant biodiversity of Pennsylvanian (late Carboniferous) tropical wetlands (“coal swamps”) has been investigated in five areas in Western Europe and eastern North America: South Wales, Pennines, Ruhr, Saarland...

  19. Plant microbial fuel cell applied in wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetser, Koen; Liu, Jia; Buisman, Cees; Strik, David

    2015-01-01

    The plant microbial fuel cell (PMFC) has to be applied in wetlands to be able to generate electricity on a large scale. The objective of this PMFC application research is to clarify the differences in electricity generation between a Spartina anglica salt marsh and Phragmites australis peat soil

  20. Diversity of lepidopteran stem borers on monocotyledonous plants in eastern Africa and the islands of Madagascar and Zanzibar revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Ru, B P; Ong'amo, G O; Moyal, P; Ngala, L; Musyoka, B; Abdullah, Z; Cugala, D; Defabachew, B; Haile, T A; Matama, T Kauma; Lada, V Y; Negassi, B; Pallangyo, K; Ravolonandrianina, J; Sidumo, A; Omwega, C O; Schulthess, F; Calatayud, P A; Silvain, J F

    2006-12-01

    Surveys were completed in Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique, Tanzania, Uganda and Zanzibar to assess the lepidopteran stem borer species diversity on wild host plants. A total of 24,674 larvae belonging to 135 species were collected from 75 species of wild host plants belonging to the Poaceae, Cyperaceae and Typhaceae. Amongst them were 44 noctuid species belonging to at least nine genera, 33 crambids, 15 pyralids, 16 Pyraloidea species not yet identified, 25 tortricids and three cossids. The noctuid larvae represented 73.6% of the total number of larvae collected, with 66.3, 3.5 and 3.8% found on Poaceae, Cyperaceae and Typhaceae, respectively. The Crambidae, Pyralidae, Tortricidae and Cossidae represented 19.8, 1.9, 2.5 and 0.1% of the total larvae collected, respectively, with 90.4% of the Crambidae and Pyralidae collected from Poaceae, and 99.7% of the Tortricidae collected from Cyperaceae. The lepidopteran stem borer species diversity in the wild host plants was far more diverse than previously reported.

  1. Gas Transport and Exchange through Wetland Plant Aerenchyma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorrell, Brian Keith; Brix, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Aerenchyma, the large airspaces in aquatic plants, is a rapid gas transport pathway between atmosphere and soil in wetlands. Oxygen transport aerates belowground tissue and oxidizes rhizosphere soil, an important process in wetland biogeochemistry. Most plant O2 transport occurs by diffusion...

  2. Wind and water dispersal of wetland plants across fragmented landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soomers, H.; Karssenberg, D.J.; Soons, M.B.; Verweij, P.A.; Verhoeven, J.T.A.; Wassen, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Biodiversity in wetlands is threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation, of which agricultural activities often are a cause. Dispersal of plant seeds via wind and ditches (water) may contribute to connecting remnant wetland plant populations in modern agricultural landscapes, and help to

  3. Evaluation of selected wetland plants for removal of chromium from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Wastewater from leather processing industries is very complex and leads to water pollution if discharged ... phytoremediation efficiency of selected wetland plant species in subsurface flow (SSF) constructed ... plants and aquatic organisms.

  4. Ridgefield - Wetland Invasive Plant Search and Control 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project would expand survey, control, and monitoring efforts to detect new wetland invasive plant threats and continue reduction of the accumulation of recently...

  5. Ridgefield - Wetland Invasive Plant Search and Control 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project would expand survey, control, and monitoring efforts to detect new wetland invasive plant threats and reduce the accumulation of recently documented...

  6. Gas Transport and Exchange through Wetland Plant Aerenchyma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorrell, Brian Keith; Brix, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Aerenchyma, the large airspaces in aquatic plants, is a rapid gas transport pathway between atmosphere and soil in wetlands. Oxygen transport aerates belowground tissue and oxidizes rhizosphere soil, an important process in wetland biogeochemistry. Most plant O2 transport occurs by diffusion...... such as stirring of solutions. In some species, pressurized gas flows develop in shoots and rhizomes, and their contribution to gas fluxes can be assessed with pressure transducers and flow meters. Other gases produced in wetlands (e.g., CO2, CH4, and N2O) are also transported in aerenchyma. Their fluxes...

  7. Conceptual hierarchical modeling to describe wetland plant community organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, A.M.; Guntenspergen, G.R.; Allen, T.F.H.

    2010-01-01

    Using multivariate analysis, we created a hierarchical modeling process that describes how differently-scaled environmental factors interact to affect wetland-scale plant community organization in a system of small, isolated wetlands on Mount Desert Island, Maine. We followed the procedure: 1) delineate wetland groups using cluster analysis, 2) identify differently scaled environmental gradients using non-metric multidimensional scaling, 3) order gradient hierarchical levels according to spatiotem-poral scale of fluctuation, and 4) assemble hierarchical model using group relationships with ordination axes and post-hoc tests of environmental differences. Using this process, we determined 1) large wetland size and poor surface water chemistry led to the development of shrub fen wetland vegetation, 2) Sphagnum and water chemistry differences affected fen vs. marsh / sedge meadows status within small wetlands, and 3) small-scale hydrologic differences explained transitions between forested vs. non-forested and marsh vs. sedge meadow vegetation. This hierarchical modeling process can help explain how upper level contextual processes constrain biotic community response to lower-level environmental changes. It creates models with more nuanced spatiotemporal complexity than classification and regression tree procedures. Using this process, wetland scientists will be able to generate more generalizable theories of plant community organization, and useful management models. ?? Society of Wetland Scientists 2009.

  8. Model parameters for representative wetland plant functional groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Amber S.; Kiniry, James R.; Mushet, David M.; Smith, Loren M.; McMurry, Scott T.; Attebury, Kelly; Lang, Megan; McCarty, Gregory W.; Shaffer, Jill A.; Effland, William R.; Johnson, Mari-Vaughn V.

    2017-01-01

    Wetlands provide a wide variety of ecosystem services including water quality remediation, biodiversity refugia, groundwater recharge, and floodwater storage. Realistic estimation of ecosystem service benefits associated with wetlands requires reasonable simulation of the hydrology of each site and realistic simulation of the upland and wetland plant growth cycles. Objectives of this study were to quantify leaf area index (LAI), light extinction coefficient (k), and plant nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) concentrations in natural stands of representative plant species for some major plant functional groups in the United States. Functional groups in this study were based on these parameters and plant growth types to enable process-based modeling. We collected data at four locations representing some of the main wetland regions of the United States. At each site, we collected on-the-ground measurements of fraction of light intercepted, LAI, and dry matter within the 2013–2015 growing seasons. Maximum LAI and k variables showed noticeable variations among sites and years, while overall averages and functional group averages give useful estimates for multisite simulation modeling. Variation within each species gives an indication of what can be expected in such natural ecosystems. For P and K, the concentrations from highest to lowest were spikerush (Eleocharis macrostachya), reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), smartweed (Polygonum spp.), cattail (Typha spp.), and hardstem bulrush (Schoenoplectus acutus). Spikerush had the highest N concentration, followed by smartweed, bulrush, reed canary grass, and then cattail. These parameters will be useful for the actual wetland species measured and for the wetland plant functional groups they represent. These parameters and the associated process-based models offer promise as valuable tools for evaluating environmental benefits of wetlands and for evaluating impacts of various agronomic practices in

  9. Examination of oxygen release from plants in constructed wetlands in different stages of wetland plant life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Wu, Haiming; Hu, Zhen; Liang, Shuang; Fan, Jinlin

    2014-01-01

    The quantification of oxygen release by plants in different stages of wetland plant life cycle was made in this study. Results obtained from 1 year measurement in subsurface wetland microcosms demonstrated that oxygen release from Phragmites australis varied from 108.89 to 404.44 mg O₂/m(2)/d during the different periods from budding to dormancy. Plant species, substrate types, and culture solutions had a significant effect on the capacity of oxygen release of wetland plants. Oxygen supply by wetland plants was estimated to potentially support a removal of 300.37 mg COD/m(2)/d or 55.87 mg NH₄-N/m(2)/d. According to oxygen balance analysis, oxygen release by plants could provide 0.43-1.12% of biochemical oxygen demand in typical subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (CWs). This demonstrates that oxygen release of plants may be a potential source for pollutants removal especially in low-loaded CWs. The results make it possible to quantify the role of plants in wastewater purification.

  10. Climate change impact on wetland forest plants of SNR Zasavica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čavlović Dragana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands are among the most vulnerable habitats on the planet. Very complex forest ecosystems are also parts of wetlands. Research and analysis of forest vegetation elements, leads to a conclusion about ecological conditions of wetlands. The aim of the paper is detail forest vegetation study, and analyzing the impact of climate changes on wetland forest vegetations of the strict protection area at the SNR Zasavica Ramsar site. Field research was carried out by using Braun-Blanquet’s Zurich-Montpelier school method. Phytogeographical elements and life forms of plants were determined subsequently, in order to get indicator values of wetland plants. Coupled Regional Climate Model (CRCM, EBU-POM was used for the climate simulations. Exact climatic variables for the site were determined by downscaling method. Climatic variables reference values were taken for the period of 1961-1990, and climate change simulations for the period 2071-2100 (A1B and A2. Indicator values of forest plants taken into consideration were humidity and temperature; therefore, ecological optimums were determined in scales of humidity and temperature. Regional Climate Model shows that there will be a long and intensive dry period in the future, with high temperatures from April till October. Continental winter will be more humid, with higher precipitation, especially in February. Based on the analysis of results it was concluded that wetlands are transitional habitats, also very variable and therefore vulnerable to changes. The changes may lead to the extinction of some plant species.

  11. 77 FR 27210 - Publication of the Final National Wetland Plant List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... Conservation Service (NRCS), is announcing the availability of the final 2012 National Wetland Plant List (NWPL... wetland determinations under the Clean Water Act and the Wetland Conservation Provisions of the Food... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers Publication of the Final National Wetland Plant List AGENCY:...

  12. 76 FR 777 - National Wetland Plant List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... be consulted to verify whether that species occurs in wetlands in adjacent areas before it is assumed... recommended changes and additions to the NWPL. The process will be supported by an interactive Web site...

  13. Plant biodiversity changes in Carboniferous tropical wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleal, C. J.; Uhl, D.; Cascales-Miñana, B.; Thomas, B. A.; Bashforth, A. R.; King, S. C.; Zodrow, E. L.

    2012-08-01

    Using a combination of species richness, polycohort and constrained cluster analyses, the plant biodiversity of Pennsylvanian (late Carboniferous) tropical wetlands ("coal swamps") has been investigated in five areas in Western Europe and eastern North America: South Wales, Pennines, Ruhr, Saarland and Sydney coal basins. In all cases, species richness expansion followed an essentially logistic curve typical of that associated with ecologically closed habitats, with niche saturation being achieved in about three million years. The resulting steady-state ("climax") coal swamp vegetation had a local-scale (within an area of c. 0.1 ha) species diversity in South Wales of 16 ± 7 and Simpson Diversity Indices of 4.53 ± 2.55, which are very similar to values obtained from studies on North American coal swamp vegetation. Landscape diversity (within an area 105 km2) varied between 50 and 100 species in the lower to middle Westphalian Stage, falling to about 40-50 species in the upper Westphalian Stage. Regional-scale diversity (within an area > 105 km2) is difficult to estimate but was at least 120 species. Species turn-over was typically very low, at about 4 species per million years, but there were a number of intervals of more rapid species turn-over in the early Langsettian, late Duckmantian, early Bolsovian and middle Asturian times, which are recognised today as biozonal boundaries. The swamps were mostly subject to ecological stasis during early and middle Westphalian times, although they contracted locally in response to drying of substrates. Later in Westphalian times, however, the swamps were subject to regional-scale changes in composition and aerial extent, probably in response to climate change. The coal swamps had a much lower species diversity compared to modern-day tropical rain forests.

  14. Triclosan removal in wetlands constructed with different aquatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianing; Wang, Jingmin; Zhao, Congcong; Hay, Anthony G; Xie, Huijun; Zhan, Jian

    2015-10-22

    Triclosan (TCS) is widely used in consumer products as an antimicrobial agent. Constructed wetlands have the potential for TCS removal, but knowledge about the relative importance of sediment, plants, and microbes is limited. TCS removal performance was investigated in well-operated constructed wetlands planted with three different types of aquatic plants: emergent Cattail (C-T), submerged Hornwort (H-T), and floating Lemnaminor (L-T). Results showed that the TCS removal efficiencies from water were all greater than 97 %. Maximal TCS adsorption to sediment in the C-T wetland (13.8 ± 0.6 ng/g) was significantly lower than in the H-T wetland (21.0 ± 0.3 ng/g) or the L-T wetland (21.4 ± 0.6 ng/g). The maximal TCS concentrations in plants were 5.7 ± 0.2 and 7.2 ± 0.5 μg/g for H-T and L-T, respectively, and it was below the minimal detection limit (MDL) in C-T. Deep 16S rRNA gene sequencing results revealed that C-T wetland had the highest community richness and diversity. Some bacteria, like beta-Proteobacteria, gamma-Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were detected and might have significant correlations with TCS degradation. Overall, with regard to soils, plants, and microorganism, accumulation in sediment and plants in H-T and L-T was high, while in C-T biodegradation likely played an important role.

  15. National Wetland Plant List Indicator Rating Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    cut grass), Acorus americanus (sweetflag), Carex aquatilis (leafy tussock sedge ), and Toxicodendron vernix (poison sumac). FACW (Facultative Wetland...where water saturates the soils or floods the soil surface at least seasonally. Examples include Carex scoparia (broom sedge ), Aconitum columbianum...Ambrosia artemisifolia (annual ragweed), Betula papyrifera (paper birch), Carex eburnea (bristle-leaf sedge ), Carya ovata (shag-bark hickory), Elymus

  16. Linking plant ecology and long-term hydrology to improve wetland restoration success

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.V. Caldwell; M.J. Vepraskas; J.D. Gregory; R.W. Skaggs; R.L. Huffman

    2011-01-01

    Although millions of dollars are spent restoring wetlands, failures are common, in part because the planted vegetation cannot survive in the restored hydrology. Wetland restoration would be more successful if the hydrologic requirements of wetland plant communities were known so that the most appropriate plants could be selected for the range of projected hydrology at...

  17. AIRBORNE HYPERSPECTRAL IDENTIFICATION OF INVASIVE AND OPPORTUNISTIC WETLANDS PLANT SPECIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coastal wetlands are among the most fragmented and disturbed ecosystems and the Great Lakes are no exception. One possible result is the observed increase in the presence and dominance of invasive and other opportunistic plant species, such as the common reed (Phragmites australi...

  18. Do tropical wetland plants possess a convective gas flow mechanism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dennis Konnerup; Sorrell, Brian Keith; Brix, Hans

    2011-01-01

    in 20 common wetland plants from the Mekong Delta in Vietnam. The diel variation in pressurization in culms and the convective flow and gas composition from stubbles were examined for Eleocharis dulcis, Phragmites vallatoria and Hymenachne acutigluma, and related to light, humidity and air temperature...

  19. Fragmentation and plant dispersal capacity in Dutch wetlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soomers, H.; Wassen, M.J.; Verweij, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Wetlands fulfil important ecological functions as regulators of worldwide water regimes and carbon-, and oxygen cycles (Best et al., 1993) and there biodiversity is often large (Mitsch and Gosselink, 1993). In the Netherlands, plant diversity is especially large in the groundwater dependent, nutrien

  20. Fragmentation and plant dispersal capacity in Dutch wetlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soomers, H.; Wassen, M.J.; Verweij, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Wetlands fulfil important ecological functions as regulators of worldwide water regimes and carbon-, and oxygen cycles (Best et al., 1993) and there biodiversity is often large (Mitsch and Gosselink, 1993). In the Netherlands, plant diversity is especially large in the groundwater dependent,

  1. Contaminant Removal of Domestic Wastewater by Constructed Wetlands: Effects of Plant Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiong Yang; Zhang-He Chen; Jian-Gang Zhao; Bin-He Gu

    2007-01-01

    A comparative study of the efficiency of contaminant removal between five emergent plant species and between vegetated and unvegetated wetlands was conducted in small-scale (2.0 m×1.0 m×0.7 m, length×width×depth) constructed wetlands for domestic wastewater treatment in order to evaluate the decontaminated effects of different wetland plants. There was generally a significant difference in the removal of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP), but no significant difference in the removal of organic matter between vegetated and unvegetated wetlands.Wetlands planted with Canna indica Linn., Pennisetum purpureum Schum., and Phragmites communls Trin. had generally higher removal rates for TN and TP than wetlands planted with other species. Plant growth and fine root (root diameter ≤ 3 mm) biomass were related to removal efficiency. Fine root biomass rather than the mass of the entire root system played an important role in wastewater treatment. Removal efficiency varied with season and plant growth. Wetlands vegetated by P. purpureum significantly outperformed wetlands with other plants in May and June, whereas wetlands vegetated by P. communis and C. indica demonstrated higher removal efficiency from August to December. These findings suggest that abundance of fine roots is an important factor to consider in selecting for highly effective wetland plants. It also suggested that a plant community consisting of multiple plant species with different seasonal growth patterns and root characteristics may be able to enhance wetland performance.

  2. Plant Functions in Wetland and Aquatic Systems: Influence of Intensity and Capacity of Soil Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.D. DeLaune

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Wetland or hydric soils, in addition to excess water and limited air-filled porosity, are characterized by anaerobic or reducing conditions. Wetland plants have developed physiological and morphological adaptations for growing under these conditions. Various methods exist for measuring plant responses to reducing conditions in wetland and aquatic environments, including assessment of radial oxygen transport, cellular enzymatic transformations, changes in root structure, and nutrient uptake. However, a gap exists in quantifying the chemical properties and reducing nature of soil environment in which plant roots are grown. The variation in reducing conditions, oxygen demand, and other associated processes that occur in wetland soils makes it difficult to truly compare the plant responses reported in the literature. This review emphasizes soil-plant interactions in wetlands, drawing attention to the importance of quantifying the intensity and capacity of reduction and/or oxygen demand in wetland soils to allow proper evaluation of wetland plant responses to such conditions.

  3. Wetland Plant Guide for Assessing Habitat Impacts of Real-Time Salinity Management

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn, Nigel W.T.; Feldmann, Sara A.

    2004-01-01

    This wetland plant guide was developed to aid moist soil plant identification and to assist in the mapping of waterfowl and shorebird habitat in the Grassland Water District and surrounding wetland areas. The motivation for this habitat mapping project was a concern that real-time salinity management of wetland drainage might have long-term consequences for wildfowl habitat health -- changes in wetland drawdown schedules might, over the long term, lead to increased soil salinity and othe...

  4. ZINC-INDUCED FACILITATOR-LIKE family in plants: lineage-specific expansion in monocotyledons and conserved genomic and expression features among rice (Oryza sativa paralogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes Karina L

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Duplications are very common in the evolution of plant genomes, explaining the high number of members in plant gene families. New genes born after duplication can undergo pseudogenization, neofunctionalization or subfunctionalization. Rice is a model for functional genomics research, an important crop for human nutrition and a target for biofortification. Increased zinc and iron content in the rice grain could be achieved by manipulation of metal transporters. Here, we describe the ZINC-INDUCED FACILITATOR-LIKE (ZIFL gene family in plants, and characterize the genomic structure and expression of rice paralogs, which are highly affected by segmental duplication. Results Sequences of sixty-eight ZIFL genes, from nine plant species, were comparatively analyzed. Although related to MSF_1 proteins, ZIFL protein sequences consistently grouped separately. Specific ZIFL sequence signatures were identified. Monocots harbor a larger number of ZIFL genes in their genomes than dicots, probably a result of a lineage-specific expansion. The rice ZIFL paralogs were named OsZIFL1 to OsZIFL13 and characterized. The genomic organization of the rice ZIFL genes seems to be highly influenced by segmental and tandem duplications and concerted evolution, as rice genome contains five highly similar ZIFL gene pairs. Most rice ZIFL promoters are enriched for the core sequence of the Fe-deficiency-related box IDE1. Gene expression analyses of different plant organs, growth stages and treatments, both from our qPCR data and from microarray databases, revealed that the duplicated ZIFL gene pairs are mostly co-expressed. Transcripts of OsZIFL4, OsZIFL5, OsZIFL7, and OsZIFL12 accumulate in response to Zn-excess and Fe-deficiency in roots, two stresses with partially overlapping responses. Conclusions We suggest that ZIFL genes have different evolutionary histories in monocot and dicot lineages. In rice, concerted evolution affected ZIFL duplicated genes

  5. Methane dynamics in Northern Wetlands: Significance of vascular plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joabsson, Anna

    2001-09-01

    The studies presented illustrate several different aspects of the impact of vascular plants on methane emissions from northern natural wetlands. The subject has been approached on different scales, ranging from the study of microbial substrates in the vicinity of a single plant root, to an attempt to extrapolate some of the results to the entire northern hemisphere north of 50 meridian. The main overall conclusions from the papers are that vascular plants affect net methane emissions 1) by offering an efficient route of transport to the atmosphere so that methane oxidation in oxic surface soils is avoided, and 2) by being sources of methanogenic substrate. The degree to which vascular wetland plants affect methane emissions seems to be dependent on species-specific differences in both the capacity to act as gas conduits and the exudation of labile carbon compounds to the soil. An intimate coupling between vascular plant production and methane emission was found in an Arctic tundra wetland, although other environmental variables (water table, temperature) also contributed significantly to the explained variation in methane exchange. Studies of vascular plant extidation of organic acids suggest that the available pool of methanogenic substrates is both qualitatively and quantitatively correlated to vascular plant production (photosynthetic rate). On global scales, vascular plant production as a single factor does not seem to be sufficient to explain the majority of variation in methane flux patterns. Based on comparable experiments at five different sites in the northwestern Eurasian and Greenlandic North, we suggest that mean seasonal soil temperature is the best predictor of methane exchange on broad spatial and temporal scales.

  6. Xyloglucans of Monocotyledons Have Diverse Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yves S.Y. Hsieh; Philip J. Harris

    2009-01-01

    Except in the Poaceae, little is known about the structures of the xyloglucans in the primary walls of mono-cotyledons. Xyloglucan structures in a range of monocotyledon species were examined. Wall preparations were isolated, extracted with 6 M sodium hydroxide, and the extracts treated with a xyloglucan-specific endo-(1→4)-β-glucanase prep-aration. The oligosaccharides released were analyzed by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography and by ma-trix-assisted laser-desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Oligosaccharide profiles of the non-commelinid monocotyledons were similar to those of most eudicotyledons, indicating the xyloglucans were fucogalactoxyloglucans, with a XXXG ~a core motif and the fucosylated units XXFG and XLFG. An exception was Lemna minor (Araceae), which yielded no fucosylated oligosaccharides and had both XXXG and XXG_n core motifs. Except for the Arecales (palms) and the Dasypogonaceae, which had fucogalactoxyloglucans, the xyloglucans of the commelinid monocotyledons were structurally different. The Zingiberales and Commelinales had xyloglucans with both XXG_n and XXXG core motifs; small proportions of XXFG units, but no XLFG units, were present. In the Poales, the Poaceae had xyloglucans with a XXG_n core motif and no fucosylated units. In the other Poales families, some had both XXXG and XXG_n core motifs, others had only XXXG; XXFG units were present, but XLFG units were not.

  7. Susceptibility of riparian wetland plants to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudumbi, J B N; Ntwampe, S K O; Muganza, M; Okonkwo, J O

    2014-01-01

    As plants have been shown to accumulate organic compounds from contaminated sediments, there is a potential for long-lasting ecological impact as a result of contaminant accumulation in riparian areas of wetlands, particularly the accumulation of non-biodegradable contaminants such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). In this study, commonly found riparian wetland plants including reeds, i.e., Xanthium strumarium, Phragmites australis, Schoenoplectus corymbosus, Ruppia maritime; Populus canescens, Polygonum salicifolium, Cyperus congestus; Persicaria amphibian, Ficus carica, Artemisia schmidtiana, Eichhornia crassipes, were studied to determine their susceptibility to PFOA accumulation from PFOA contaminated riparian sediment with a known PFOA concentration, using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The bioconcentration factor (BCF) indicated that the plants affinity to PFOA accumulation was; E. crassipes, > P. sali-cifolium, > C. congestus, > P. x canescens, > P. amphibian, > F. carica, > A. schmidtiana, > X. strumarium,> P. australis, > R. maritime, > S. corymbosus. The concentration of PFOA in the plants and/or reeds was in the range 11.7 to 38 ng/g, with a BCF range of 0.05 to 0.37. The highest BCF was observed in sediment for which its core water had a high salinity, total organic carbon and a pH which was near neutral. As the studied plants had a higher affinity for PFOA, the resultant effect is that riparian plants such as E. crassipes, X. strumarium, and P. salicifolium, typified by a fibrous rooting system, which grow closer to the water edge, exacerbate the accumulation of PFOA in riparian wetlands.

  8. Variation characteristics of chlorpyrifos in nonsterile wetland plant hydroponic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuan; Zhou, Qiaohong; Zhang, Liping; Zhang, Yan; Xiao, Enrong; Wu, Zhenbin

    2013-01-01

    Six wetland plants were investigated for their effect on the degradation characteristics of chlorpyrifos in nonsterile hydroponic system at constant temperature of 28 degrees C. The results showed that the removal rates of chlorpyrifos in the water of plant systems were 1.26-5.56% higher than that in the control without plants. Scirpus validus and Typha angustifolia were better than other hygrophytes in elimination of chlorpyrifos. The removal rates of the two systems were up to 88%. Plants of acaulescent group had an advantage over caulescent group in removing chlorpyrifos. Phytoaccumulation of chlorpyrifos was observed, and the order of chlorpyrifos concentration in different plant tissues was root > stem > leaf. It was also found that chlorpyrifos and its metabolite TCP decreased rapidly at the initial step of the experiment.

  9. Coastal Freshwater Wetland Plant Community Response to Seasonal Drought and Flooding in Northwestern Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    In tropical wet-dry climates, seasonal hydrologic cycles drive wetland plant community change and produce distinct seasonal plant assemblages. In this study, we examined the plant community response to seasonal flooding and drought in a large coastal freshwater wetland in northwe...

  10. Wetland Plants of the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    bears three to seven pendulate floral spikes 1 5 to 5 cm long. The two species can be distinguished in the field by the spikes; on slough sedge the...grey-green, round stems can be as much as 3 cm in diameter at the base. A spike bearing about 10 spikelets on short peduncles at the top of the main...and often much branched. Blooming in spring and early summer, unopened flower buds are encased in scaly, gummy coverings. No other salt marsh plant

  11. DISTRIBUTION OF MERCURY IN TYPICAL WETLAND PLANTS IN THE SANJIANG PLAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ru-hai; WANG Qi-chao; WANG Yan; ZHANG Lei; SHAO Zhi-guo

    2003-01-01

    Total mercury concentration of typical wetland plants was analyzed in this paper. There were great differences of total mercury concentration among different plants: moss>hydrophyte>sedge>herbage>shrub. Total mercury concentrations show an increasing trend from vascular plants to bryophytes, and from dry to wet lands. The mercury concentration of wetland plants was higher than that of crops. The wetland soil was the source of mercury in the air close to the ground, so it affected the concentration of mercury in the plant. In different parts of a plant, mer-cury concentration was in the order of: dead stand>root>leaf>stem. Mercury concentration increased at the initial stage and decreased in the end of the growing season. According to the mercury content and biomass, mercury stock of plants was 39.4μg/m2 above ground in Calamagrostis angustifolia wetland and 35.8μg/m2 in Carex lasiocarpa wet-land.

  12. Vegetation survey of Four Mile Creek wetlands. [Savannah River Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehle, C.

    1990-11-01

    A survey of forested wetlands along upper Four Mile Creek was conducted. The region from Road 3 to the creek headwaters was sampled to evaluate the composition of woody and herbaceons plant communities. All sites were found to fall into either the Nyssa sylvatica (Black Gum) -- Persea borbonia (Red Bay) or Nyssa sylvatica -- Acer rubrum (Red Maple) types. These community types are generally species-rich and diverse. Previous studies (Greenwood et al., 1990; Mackey, 1988) demonstrated contaminant stress in areas downslope from the F- and H-Area seepage basins. In the present study there were some indications of contaminant stress. In the wetland near H-Area, shrub basal area, ground cover stratum species richness, and diversity were low. In the area surrounding the F-Area tree kill zone, ground cover stratum cover and shrub basal area were low and ground cover stratum species richness was low. The moderately stressed site at F-Area also showed reduced overstory richness and diversity and reduced ground cover stratum richness. These results could, however, be due to the very high basal area of overstory trees in both stressed F-Area sites that would reduce light availability to understory plants. No threatened or endangered plant species were found in the areas sampled. 40 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. Influences of wetland plants on weathered acidic mine tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoltz, Eva [Department of Botany, Stockholm University, Lilla Frescativaegen 5, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)]. E-mail: eva.stoltz@botan.su.se; Greger, Maria [Department of Botany, Stockholm University, Lilla Frescativaegen 5, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)]. E-mail: maria.greger@botan.su.se

    2006-11-15

    Establishment of Carex rostrata, Eriophorum angustifolium and Phragmites australis on weathered, acidic mine tailings (pH {approx}3) and their effect on pH in tailings were investigated in a field experiment. The amendments, sewage sludge and an ashes-sewage sludge mixture, were used as plant nutrition and their influence on the metal and As concentrations of plant shoots was analysed. An additional experiment was performed in greenhouse with E. angustifolium and sewage sludge as amendments in both weathered and unweathered tailings. After one year, plants grew better in amendments containing ashes in the field, also in those plants the metal and As shoot concentrations were generally lower than in other treatments. After two years, the only surviving plants were found in sewage sludge mixed with ashes. No effect on pH by plants was found in weathered acidic mine tailings in either field- or greenhouse experiment. - Wetland plant establishment on acidic mine tailings may contribute to a reduced metal release and a stabilisation of pH.

  14. Plant Litter Submergence Affects the Water Quality of a Constructed Wetland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pan, Xu; Ping, Yunmei; Cui, Lijuan; Li, Wei; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhou, Jian; Yu, Fei-Hai; Prinzing, Andreas

    2017-01-01

      Plant litter is an indispensable component of constructed wetlands, but how the submergence of plant litter affects their ecosystem functions and services, such as water purification, is still unclear...

  15. Moss and vascular plant indices in Ohio wetlands have similar environmental predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Schumacher, William; Gara, Brian; Adams, Jean V.; Viau, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Mosses and vascular plants have been shown to be reliable indicators of wetland habitat delineation and environmental quality. Knowledge of the best ecological predictors of the quality of wetland moss and vascular plant communities may determine if similar management practices would simultaneously enhance both populations. We used Akaike's Information Criterion to identify models predicting a moss quality assessment index (MQAI) and a vascular plant index of biological integrity based on floristic quality (VIBI-FQ) from 27 emergent and 13 forested wetlands in Ohio, USA. The set of predictors included the six metrics from a wetlands disturbance index (ORAM) and two landscape development intensity indices (LDIs). The best single predictor of MQAI and one of the predictors of VIBI-FQ was an ORAM metric that assesses habitat alteration and disturbance within the wetland, such as mowing, grazing, and agricultural practices. However, the best single predictor of VIBI-FQ was an ORAM metric that assessed wetland vascular plant communities, interspersion, and microtopography. LDIs better predicted MQAI than VIBI-FQ, suggesting that mosses may either respond more rapidly to, or recover more slowly from, anthropogenic disturbance in the surrounding landscape than vascular plants. These results supported previous predictive studies on amphibian indices and metrics and a separate vegetation index, indicating that similar wetland management practices may result in qualitatively the same ecological response for three vastly different wetland biological communities (amphibians, vascular plants, and mosses).

  16. Ornamental plants for micropollutant removal in wetland systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macci, Cristina; Peruzzi, Eleonora; Doni, Serena; Iannelli, Renato; Masciandaro, Grazia

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this paper was to evaluate the efficiency of micropollutant removal, such as Cu, Zn, carbamazepine, and linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS), through the use of a subsurface vertical flow constructed wetland system with ornamental plants. Zantedeschia aethiopica, Canna indica, Carex hirta, Miscanthus sinensis, and Phragmites australis were selected and planted in lysimeters filled up with gravel. The lysimeters were completely saturated with synthetic wastewater (N 280 mg L(-1), P 30 mg L(-1), Cu 3.6 mg L(-1), Zn 9 mg L(-1), carbamazepine 5 μg L(-1), linear alkylbenzene sulfonates 14 mg L(-1)), and the leaching water was collected for analysis after 15, 30, and 60 days in winter-spring and spring-summer periods. Nutrients (N and P) and heavy metals decreased greatly due to both plant activity and adsorption. C. indica and P. australis showed the highest metal content in their tissues and also the greatest carbamazepine and LAS removal. In these plants, the adsorption/degradation processes led to particularly high oxidative stress, as evidenced by the significantly high levels of ascorbate peroxidase activity detected. Conversely, Z. aethiopica was the less efficient plant in metal and organic compound removal and was also less stressed in terms of ascorbate peroxidase activity.

  17. Transplanting native dominant plants to facilitate community development in restored coastal plain wetlands.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Steven, Diane; Sharitz, Rebecca R.

    2007-12-01

    Abstract: Drained depressional wetlands are typically restored by plugging ditches or breaking drainage tiles to allow recovery of natural ponding regimes, while relying on passive recolonization from seed banks and dispersal to establish emergent vegetation. However, in restored depressions of the southeastern United States Coastal Plain, certain characteristic rhizomatous graminoid species may not recolonize because they are dispersal-limited and uncommon or absent in the seed banks of disturbed sites. We tested whether selectively planting such wetland dominants could facilitate restoration by accelerating vegetative cover development and suppressing non-wetland species. In an operational-scale project in a South Carolina forested landscape, drained depressional wetlands were restored in early 2001 by completely removing woody vegetation and plugging surface ditches. After forest removal, tillers of two rhizomatous wetland grasses (Panicum hemitomon, Leersia hexandra) were transplanted into singlespecies blocks in 12 restored depressions that otherwise were revegetating passively. Presence and cover of all plant species appearing in planted plots and unplanted control plots were recorded annually. We analyzed vegetation composition after two and four years, during a severe drought (2002) and after hydrologic recovery (2004). Most grass plantings established successfully, attaining 15%–85% cover in two years. Planted plots had fewer total species and fewer wetland species compared to control plots, but differences were small. Planted plots achieved greater total vegetative cover during the drought and greater combined cover of wetland species in both years. By 2004, planted grasses appeared to reduce cover of non-wetland species in some cases, but wetter hydrologic conditions contributed more strongly to suppression of non-wetland species. Because these two grasses typically form a dominant cover matrix in herbaceous depressions, our results indicated that

  18. Hydrological management for improving nutrient assimilative capacity in plant-dominated wetlands: A modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhihao; Yang, Zhifeng; Yin, Xinan; Cai, Yanpeng; Sun, Tao

    2016-07-15

    Wetland eutrophication is a global environmental problem. Besides reducing pollutant emissions, improving nutrient assimilative capacity in wetlands is also significant for preventing eutrophication. Hydrological management can improve nutrient assimilative capacity in wetlands through physical effects on the dilution capacity of water body and ecological effects on wetland nutrient cycles. The ecological effects are significant while were rarely considered in previous research. This study focused on the ecological effects of hydrological management on two crucial nutrient removal processes, plant uptake and biological denitrification, in plant-dominated wetlands. A dual-objective optimization model for hydrological management was developed to improve wetland nitrogen and phosphorus assimilative capacities, using upstream reservoir release as water regulating measure. The model considered the interactions between ecological processes and hydrological cycles in wetlands, and their joint effects on nutrient assimilative capacity. Baiyangdian Wetland, the largest freshwater wetland in northern China, was chosen as a case study. The results found that the annual total assimilative capacity of nitrogen (phosphorus) was 4754 (493) t under the optimal scheme for upstream reservoir operation. The capacity of nutrient removal during the summer season accounted for over 80% of the annual total removal capacity. It was interesting to find that the relationship between water inflow and nutrient assimilative capacity in a plant-dominated wetland satisfied a dose-response relationship commonly describing the response of an organism to an external stressor in the medical field. It illustrates that a plant-dominated wetland shows similar characteristics to an organism. This study offers a useful tool and some fresh implications for future management of wetland eutrophication prevention.

  19. Wetland Plant Guide for Assessing Habitat Impacts of Real-Time Salinity Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, Nigel W.T.; Feldmann, Sara A.

    2004-10-15

    This wetland plant guide was developed to aid moist soil plant identification and to assist in the mapping of waterfowl and shorebird habitat in the Grassland Water District and surrounding wetland areas. The motivation for this habitat mapping project was a concern that real-time salinity management of wetland drainage might have long-term consequences for wildfowl habitat health--changes in wetland drawdown schedules might, over the long term, lead to increased soil salinity and other conditions unfavorable to propagation of the most desirable moist soil plants. Hence, the implementation of a program to monitor annual changes in the most common moist soil plants might serve as an index of habitat health and sustainability. Our review of the current scientific and popular literature failed to identify a good, comprehensive field guide that could be used to calibrate and verify high resolution remote sensing imagery, that we had started to use to develop maps of wetland moist soil plants in the Grassland Water District. Since completing the guide it has been used to conduct ground truthing field surveys using the California Native Plant Society methodology in 2004. Results of this survey and a previous wetland plant survey in 2003 are published in a companion LBNL publication summarizing 4 years of fieldwork to advance the science of real-time wetland salinity management.

  20. Evaluating trivalent chromium toxicity on wild terrestrial and wetland plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukina, A O; Boutin, C; Rowland, O; Carpenter, D J

    2016-11-01

    Elevated chromium levels in soil from mining can impact the environment, including plants. Mining of chromium is concentrated in South Africa, several Asian countries, and potentially in Northern Ontario, Canada, raising concerns since chromium toxicity to wild plants is poorly understood. In the first experiment, concentration-response tests were conducted to evaluate effects of chromium on terrestrial and wetland plants. Following established guidelines using artificial soil, seeds of 32 species were exposed to chromium (Cr(3+)) at concentrations simulating contamination (0-1000 mg kg(-1)). This study found that low levels of chromium (250 mg kg(-1)) adversely affected the germination of 22% of species (33% of all families), while higher levels (500 and 1000 mg kg(-1)) affected 69% and 94% of species, respectively, from 89% of the families. Secondly, effects on seedbanks were studied using soil collected in Northern Ontario and exposed to Cr(3+) at equivalent concentrations (0-1000 mg kg(-1)). Effects were less severe in the seedbank study with significant differences only observed at 1000 mg kg(-1). Seeds exposed to Cr(3+) during stratification were greatly affected. Seed size was a contributing factor as was possibly the seed coat barrier. This study represents an initial step in understanding Cr(3+) toxicity on wild plants and could form the basis for future risk assessments. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Relationships between Spatial Metrics and Plant Diversity in Constructed Freshwater Wetlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika C Brandt

    Full Text Available The diversity of plant species and their distribution in space are both thought to have important effects on the function of wetland ecosystems. However, knowledge of the relationships between plant species and spatial diversity remains incomplete. In this study, we investigated relationships between spatial pattern and plant species diversity over a five year period following the initial restoration of experimental wetland ecosystems. In 2003, six identical and hydrologically-isolated 0.18 ha wetland "cells" were constructed in former farmland in northeast Ohio. The systems were subjected to planting treatments that resulted in different levels of vascular plant species diversity among cells. Plant species diversity was assessed through annual inventories. Plant spatial pattern was assessed by digitizing low-altitude aerial photographs taken at the same time as the inventories. Diversity metrics derived from the inventories were significantly related to certain spatial metrics derived from the photographs, including cover type diversity and contagion. We found that wetlands with high cover type diversity harbor higher plant species diversity than wetlands with fewer types of patches. We also found significant relationships between plant species diversity and spatial patterning of patch types, but the direction of the effect differed depending on the diversity metric used. Links between diversity and spatial pattern observed in this study suggest that high-resolution aerial imagery may provide wetland scientists with a useful tool for assessing plant diversity.

  2. Relationships between Spatial Metrics and Plant Diversity in Constructed Freshwater Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Jake J.; Allen, George A.; Benzing, David H.

    2015-01-01

    The diversity of plant species and their distribution in space are both thought to have important effects on the function of wetland ecosystems. However, knowledge of the relationships between plant species and spatial diversity remains incomplete. In this study, we investigated relationships between spatial pattern and plant species diversity over a five year period following the initial restoration of experimental wetland ecosystems. In 2003, six identical and hydrologically-isolated 0.18 ha wetland “cells” were constructed in former farmland in northeast Ohio. The systems were subjected to planting treatments that resulted in different levels of vascular plant species diversity among cells. Plant species diversity was assessed through annual inventories. Plant spatial pattern was assessed by digitizing low-altitude aerial photographs taken at the same time as the inventories. Diversity metrics derived from the inventories were significantly related to certain spatial metrics derived from the photographs, including cover type diversity and contagion. We found that wetlands with high cover type diversity harbor higher plant species diversity than wetlands with fewer types of patches. We also found significant relationships between plant species diversity and spatial patterning of patch types, but the direction of the effect differed depending on the diversity metric used. Links between diversity and spatial pattern observed in this study suggest that high-resolution aerial imagery may provide wetland scientists with a useful tool for assessing plant diversity. PMID:26296205

  3. The contribution of plant uptake to nutrient removal by floating treatment wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer-Vlek, H.E.; Verdonschot, P.F.M.; Verdonschot, R.C.M.; Dekkers, T.B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Floating treatment wetlands (FTWs) may provide an appealing alternative to the more conventional (sub) surface flow wetlands to solve problems associated with eutrophication in urban surface waters, because they do not claim additional land area. This study examined the contribution of plant uptake

  4. The contribution of plant uptake to nutrient removal by floating treatment wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer-Vlek, H.E.; Verdonschot, P.F.M.; Verdonschot, R.C.M.; Dekkers, T.B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Floating treatment wetlands (FTWs) may provide an appealing alternative to the more conventional (sub) surface flow wetlands to solve problems associated with eutrophication in urban surface waters, because they do not claim additional land area. This study examined the contribution of plant uptake

  5. Heavy metal pollution in aquatic ecosystems and its phytoremediation using wetland plants: An ecosustainable approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rai, P.K. [Mizoram Central University, Tanhril (India). School for Earth Science & Natural Resource Management

    2008-07-01

    This review addresses the global problem of heavy metal pollution originating from increased industrialization and urbanization and its amelioration by using wetland plants both in a microcosm as well as natural/field condition. This review mentions salient features of wetland ecosystems, their vegetation component, and the pros and cons involved in heavy metal removal. Wetland plants are preferred over other bio-agents due to their low cost, frequent abundance in aquatic ecosystems, and easy handling. Constructed wetlands proved to be effective for the abatement of heavy metal pollution from acid mine drainage; landfill leachate; thermal power; and municipal, agricultural, refinery, and chlor-alkali effluent. the physicochemical properties of wetlands provide many positive attributes for remediating heavy metals. Typha, Phragmites, Eichhornia, Azolla, Lemna, and other aquatic macrophytes are some of the potent wetland plants for heavy metal removal. Biomass disposal problem and seasonal growth of aquatic macrophytes are some limitations in the transfer of phytoremediation technology from the laboratory to the field. However, the disposed biomass of macrophytes may be used for various fruitful applications. An ecosustainable model has been developed through the author's various works, which may ameliorate some of the limitations. The creation of more areas for phytoremediation may also aid in wetlands conservation. Genetic engineering and biodiversity prospecting of endangered wetland plants are important future prospects in this regard.

  6. Pipeline corridors through wetlands - summary of seventeen plant-community studies at ten wetland crossings. Topical report, February 1990--August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dyke, G.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Trinity Christian College, Palos Heights, IL (United States); Shem, L.M.; Wilkey, P.L.; Zimmerman, R.E.; Alsum, S.K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-12-01

    As part of the Gas Research Institute Wetland Corridors Program, Argonne National Laboratory conducted field studies on 10 wetland crossings located in six states to document impacts of natural gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROWS) on 15 wetland plant communities. This study is unique in the number, range, ages, and variety of wetland crossings surveyed and compared. Vegetation data and recorded observations were analyzed to reveal patterns associated with age, installation technology, maintenance practices, and wetland type. This report summarizes the findings of this study. Results revealed that ROWs of pipelines installed according to recent wetland regulations rapidly revegetated with dense and diverse plant communities. The ROW plant communities were similar to those in the adjacent natural areas in species richness, wetland indicator values, and percentages of native species. The ROW plant communities developed from naturally available propagules without fertilization, liming, or artificial seeding. ROWs contributed to increased habitat and plant species diversity in the wetland. There was little evidence that they degrade the wetland by providing avenues for the spread of invasive and normative plant species. Most impacts are temporal in nature, decreasing rapidly during the first several years and more slowly thereafter to the extent permitted by maintenance and other ROW activities.

  7. Spatial distribution patterns of wetland plants in relation to environmental gradient in the Honghe National Nature Reserve, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Demin; LUAN Zhaoqing; GUO Xiaoyu; LOU Yanjing

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying correlation between the spatial patterns of natural wetland plants and environmental gradient gives better understanding of wetland habitats,which is the fundamental for the strategy making on the protection and restoration of natural wetlands.In this study,the spatial patterns of wetland plants and the environmental gradient of wetland habitats were assessed in the Honghe National Nature Reserve (HNNR) in Northeast China,a wetland of international importance on the Ramsar list.Biophysical parameters' values of wetland plants were obtained by field sampling methods,and wetland mapping at the community scale was completed using remote sensing techniques.Digital delineation of the surface water system,hydrological zoning and wetness index were produced by spatial analysis methods in Geographic Information System.An ecological ordination method and two clustering methods were used to quantify the relationship between the spatial distribution patterns of wetland plants and the corresponding environmental gradients.Such quantitative analyses also present the specific diversity of different types of wetland plants based on the environmental attributes of their habitats.With the support from modern geo-information techniques,the experimental results indicate how four ecotypes of wetland plants spatially transit from forest swamp,shrub wetland and meadow into marsh wetland with increasing wetness index and water table.And they also show how wetland spatial distribution patterns are controlled by an environmental gradient of wetness.Another key finding of this research work is that our results present the exact fundamental differences between marsh and non-marsh plants of 11 wetland plant communities within the core study area.Hence,this case study gives a good sample for better understanding of the complex correlation between the spatial patterns of wetland plants and their environmental attributes using advanced digital analysis methods.It is also useful to

  8. Wetland plant communities in the Potchefstroom Municipal Area, North-West, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Cilliers

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands in natural areas in South Africa have been described before, but no literature exists concerning the phyto­sociology of urban wetlands. The objective of this study was to conduct a complete vegetation analysis of the wetlands in the Potchefstroom Municipal Area. Using a numerical classification technique (TWINSPAN as a first approximation, the classification was refined by using Braun-Blanquet procedures. The result is a phytosociological table from which a number of unique plant communities are recognised. These urban wetlands are characterised by a high species diversity, which is unusual for wetlands. Reasons for the high species diversity could be the different types of disturbances occurring in this area. Results of this study can be used to construact more sensible management practises for these wetlands.  

  9. Plant Litter Submergence Affects the Water Quality of a Constructed Wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xu; Ping, Yunmei; Cui, Lijuan; Li, Wei; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhou, Jian; Yu, Fei-Hai; Prinzing, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Plant litter is an indispensable component of constructed wetlands, but how the submergence of plant litter affects their ecosystem functions and services, such as water purification, is still unclear. Moreover, it is also unclear whether the effects of plant litter submergence depend on other factors such as the duration of litter submergence, water source or litter species identity. Here we conducted a greenhouse experiment by submerging the litter of 7 wetland plant species into three types of water substrates and monitoring changes in water nutrient concentrations. Litter submergence affected water quality positively via decreasing the concentration of nitrate nitrogen and negatively via increasing the concentrations of total nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen and total phosphorus. The effects of litter submergence depended on the duration of litter submergence, the water source, the litter species identity, and the plant life form. Different plant species had different effects on the water nutrient concentrations during litter submergence, and the effects of floating plants might be more negative than that of emergent plants. These results are novel evidence of how the submergence of different plant (life form) litter may affect the purification function of constructed wetlands. For water at low eutrophication levels, submerging a relative small amount of plant litter might improve water quality, via benefiting the denitrification process in water. These findings emphasized the management of floating plant litter (a potential removal) during the maintenance of human-controlled wetland ecosystems and provided a potential tool to improve the water quality of constructed wetlands via submerging plant litter of different types.

  10. Variation in tidal wetland plant diversity and composition within and among coastal estuaries: assessing the relative importance of environmental gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Question: Does wetland plant composition vary more by estuarine type (differentiated by the degree of riverine versus oceanic influence) or habitat type within estuaries (defined by US National Wetlands Inventory [NWI] marsh classes)? Location: Oregon estuaries: Netarts Bay, ...

  11. A comparative study on the potential of oxygen release by roots of selected wetland plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Fang; Shen, Gen-xiang; Li, Xue-lian; Li, Huai-zheng; Hu, Hong; Ni, Wu-zhong

    The capacity of root oxygen release by selected wetland plants pre-grown under both nutrient solution and artificial wastewater conditions were determined. The results indicated that the significant differences of root oxygen release by the tested wetland plants existed, and the biochemical process was the main source of root oxygen release as oxygen released by Vetiveria zizanioides L. Nash roots through biochemical process was contributed to 77% and 74% of total root oxygen release under nutrient solution conditions and artificial wastewater conditions, respectively, and that was 72% and 71% of total root oxygen release for Cyperus alternifolius L. It was found that the formation of root plaque with iron oxide was a function of root oxygen release as iron oxide concentration in root plaque was positively correlated to the potential of oxygen released by wetland plant roots with the regression coefficients as 0.874 *( p wetland plants being tolerant to anoxia during wastewater treatment. It was suggested that the potential of root oxygen release could be used as a parameter for selecting wetland plants that can increase oxygen supply to soil or substrate of constructed wetlands and enhance nutrient transformation and removal, and V. zizanioides L. Nash with the highest potential of root oxygen release and higher tolerance to wastewater could be recommended to establish vegetated wetlands for treating nutrient-rich wastewater such as domestic wastewater.

  12. Growth and Contaminant Removal Effect of Several Plants in Constructed Wetlands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-Yun Cheng; Ming-Qiu Liang; Wen-Yin Chen; Xu-Cheng Liu; Zhang-He Chen

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to probe the relation between plant growth and its decontamination effect in constructed wetlands.Four species were studied in the small-scale mono-cuitured constructed wetlands, which were fed with domestic wastewater. Plant growth indexes were correlated with contaminant removal performance of the constructed wetlands. Wetlands planted with Cyperus flabelliformis Rottb. showed the highest growth indexes such as shoot growth, biomass, root activity, root biomass increment, and the highest contaminant removal rates, whereas wetlands planted with Vetiveria zizanioides L. Nash had the lowest growth indexes and the lowest removal rates. Above-ground biomass and total biomass were significantly correlated with ammonia nitrogen removal, and below-ground biomass with soluble reactive phosphorus removal. Photosynthetic rate had higher correlation with nitrogen removal in these species. Root activity and root biomass increment was more correlated with 5 d biochemical oxygen demand removal.Chemical oxygen demand removal had lower correlations with plant growth indexes. All four species had higher removal rates in summer and autumn. The results suggest that the effect of plant growth on contaminant removal in constructed wetlands were different specifically in plants and contaminants.

  13. Influence of different plant species on methane emissions from soil in a restored Swiss wetland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurbir S Bhullar

    Full Text Available Plants are a major factor influencing methane emissions from wetlands, along with environmental parameters such as water table, temperature, pH, nutrients and soil carbon substrate. We conducted a field experiment to study how different plant species influence methane emissions from a wetland in Switzerland. The top 0.5 m of soil at this site had been removed five years earlier, leaving a substrate with very low methanogenic activity. We found a sixfold difference among plant species in their effect on methane emission rates: Molinia caerulea and Lysimachia vulgaris caused low emission rates, whereas Senecio paludosus, Carex flava, Juncus effusus and Typha latifolia caused relatively high rates. Centaurea jacea, Iris sibirica, and Carex davalliana caused intermediate rates. However, we found no effect of either plant biomass or plant functional groups--based on life form or productivity of the habitat--upon methane emission. Emissions were much lower than those usually reported in temperate wetlands, which we attribute to reduced concentrations of labile carbon following topsoil removal. Thus, unlike most wetland sites, methane production in this site was probably fuelled chiefly by root exudation from living plants and from root decay. We conclude that in most wetlands, where concentrations of labile carbon are much higher, these sources account for only a small proportion of the methane emitted. Our study confirms that plant species composition does influence methane emission from wetlands, and should be considered when developing measures to mitigate the greenhouse gas emissions.

  14. Investigation of Metal Uptake and Translocation in Wetland Plants from Urban Coastal Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, H.; Zhang, W.; Qian, Y.; Liu, W.; Yu, L.; Jones, K. W.; Liu, C.; Tappero, R.

    2013-12-01

    This research mainly focused on the use of synchrotron micro XRF technique to study the mechanisms of metal uptake by plants in conjunction with other measurements to provide insight metal concentrations and distributions in the rhizosphere root system. Many urban-industrial areas exhibit environmental degradation. One of the most common issues is sediment metal contamination resulting from past industrial land uses. The wetland ecosystem in urban coastal areas, such as New Jersey, USA, and Shanghai, China, is a unique laboratory for investigating sediment remediation and wetland ecological rehabilitations. Understanding the natural processes that control the mobility of metals in wetland plants is important to understand the metal biochemical cycle. Wetland plants can uptake metals from rhizosphere soils through their root system and store these metals within the plant biomass. The accumulation of metals in wetland plants provides a potential approach for brownfield remediation and wetland restoration. In the rhizosphere, the role of Fe plaque, which forms on the surface of wetland plant roots, has been an issue of debate in controlling metal biogeochemical cycle. It was reported that due to the large specific surface area of iron-oxides for metal sequestration, Fe plaque can provide a reactive substrate to scavenge metals. Several early studies suggest that the Fe plaque serves as a barrier preventing heavy metals from entering plant roots. However, others suggest that Fe plaque is not the main barrier. Therefore, investigation of the natural processes that control the mobility of metals from sediment to wetland plants is a critical step in understanding metal translocation and geochemical cycling in wetlands. In this study we found that metal concentrations and distributions in the root cross section from the epidermis to the vascular cylinder were apparently different. Two clusters of metal distributions were seen with Fe and Pb mainly distributed in the

  15. Carbon storage potential by four macrophytes as affected by planting diversity in a created wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Means, Mary M; Ahn, Changwoo; Korol, Alicia R; Williams, Lisa D

    2016-01-01

    Wetland creation has become a commonplace method for mitigating the loss of natural wetlands. Often mitigation projects fail to restore ecosystem services of the impacted natural wetlands. One of the key ecosystem services of newly created wetlands is carbon accumulation/sequestration, but little is known about how planting diversity (PD) affects the ability of herbaceous wetland plants to store carbon in newly created wetlands. Most mitigation projects involve a planting regime, but PD, which may be critical in establishing biologically diverse and ecologically functioning wetlands, is seldom required. Using a set of 34 mesocosms (∼1 m(2) each), we investigated the effects of planting diversity on carbon storage potential of four native wetland plant species that are commonly planted in created mitigation wetlands in Virginia - Carex vulpinoidea, Eleocharis obtusa, Juncus effusus, and Mimulus ringens. The plants were grown under the four distinctive PD treatments [i.e., monoculture (PD 1) through four different species mixture (PD 4)]. Plant biomass was harvested after two growing seasons and analyzed for tissue carbon content. Competition values (CV) were calculated to understand how the PD treatment affected the competitive ability of plants relative to their biomass production and thus carbon storage potentials. Aboveground biomass ranged from 988 g/m(2) - 1515 g/m(2), being greatest in monocultures, but only when compared to the most diverse mixture (p = 0.021). However, carbon storage potential estimates per mesocosm ranged between 344 g C/m(2) in the most diverse mesocosms (PD 4) to 610 g C/m(2) in monoculture ones with no significant difference (p = 0.089). CV of E. obtusa and C. vulpinoidea showed a declining trend when grown in the most diverse mixtures but J. effusus and M. ringens displayed no difference across the PD gradient (p = 0.910). In monocultures, both M. ringens, and J. effusus appeared to store carbon as biomass more

  16. DNA endoreplication level in endosperm during seed development in three monocotyledonous species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Marciniak

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The DNA content after the Feulgen reaction in the endosperm of three monocotyledonous plant species (Asparagus officinalis, Muscari comosom, Haemanthus kurharinae differing in their 2C DNA content, was cytophotometrically measured. During endosperm development 1-6 endoreplication cycles take place, depending on the species. Differences in nuclear DNA endoreplication dynamics in the tested species are similar to those occurring in root parenchyma, but the endoreplication level in the endosperm is higher.

  17. Heavy metal pollution in aquatic ecosystems and its phytoremediation using wetland plants: an ecosustainable approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Prabhat Kumar

    2008-01-01

    This review addresses the global problem of heavymetal pollution originating from increased industrialization and urbanization and its amelioration by using wetland plants both in a microcosm as well as natural/field condition. Heavymetal contamination in aquatic ecosystems due to discharge of industrial effluents may pose a serious threat to human health. Alkaline precipitation, ion exchange columns, electrochemical removal, filtration, and membrane technologies are the currently available technologies for heavy metal removal. These conventional technologies are not economical and may produce adverse impacts on aquatic ecosystems. Phytoremediation of metals is a cost-effective "green" technology based on the use of specially selected metal-accumulating plants to remove toxic metals from soils and water. Wetland plants are important tools for heavy metal removal. The Ramsar convention, one of the earlier modern global conservation treaties, was adopted at Ramsar, Iran, in 1971 and became effective in 1975. This convention emphasized the wise use of wetlands and their resources. This review mentions salient features of wetland ecosystems, their vegetation component, and the pros and cons involved in heavy metal removal. Wetland plants are preferred over other bio-agents due to their low cost, frequent abundance in aquatic ecosystems, and easy handling. The extensive rhizosphere of wetland plants provides an enriched culture zone for the microbes involved in degradation. The wetland sediment zone provides reducing conditions that are conducive to the metal removal pathway. Constructed wetlands proved to be effective for the abatement of heavymetal pollution from acid mine drainage; landfill leachate; thermal power; and municipal, agricultural, refinery, and chlor-alkali effluent. the physicochemical properties of wetlands provide many positive attributes for remediating heavy metals. Typha, Phragmites, Eichhornia, Azolla, Lemna, and other aquatic macrophytes are some

  18. Diversity of Endophytic Fungi Associated with the Roots of Four Aquatic Plants Inhabiting Two Wetlands in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Young-Hyun; Park, Jong Myong; Park, Jong-Han; Kim, Jong-Guk

    2015-09-01

    A total of 4 aquatic plants, Eleocharis kuroguwai Ohwi, Hydrocharis dubia Backer, Salvinia natans All., and Zizania latifolia Turcz., were sampled from representative two wetlands of South Korea. A total of 38 endophytic fungal strains were isolated from aquatic plants native to the Daepyeong wetland, and 27 strains were isolated from the Jilnal wetland. The internal transcribed spacer regions of fungal isolates were sequenced and a phylogenetic analysis was performed. In addition, endophytic fungal diversity from each wetland and host plant species was deduced. A total of 25 fungal genera were purely isolated, and 16 fungal genera were isolated from each of the two wetlands. Commonly isolated genera from both wetlands were Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Clonostachys, Fusarium, Leptosphaeria, Penicillium, and Talaromyces. This study revealed that fungal diversity varied with environmental conditions and by host plant in representative two wetlands.

  19. Implications of hydrologic variability on the succession of plants in Great Lakes wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Douglas A.

    2004-01-01

    Primary succession of plant communities directed toward a climax is not a typical occurrence in wetlands because these ecological systems are inherently dependent on hydrology, and temporal hydrologic variability often causes reversals or setbacks in succession. Wetlands of the Great Lakes provide good examples for demonstrating the implications of hydrology in driving successional processes and for illustrating potential misinterpretations of apparent successional sequences. Most Great Lakes coastal wetlands follow cyclic patterns in which emergent communities are reduced in area or eliminated by high lake levels and then regenerated from the seed bank during low lake levels. Thus, succession never proceeds for long. Wetlands also develop in ridge and swale terrains in many large embayments of the Great Lakes. These formations contain sequences of wetlands of similar origin but different age that can be several thousand years old, with older wetlands always further from the lake. Analyses of plant communities across a sequence of wetlands at the south end of Lake Michigan showed an apparent successional pattern from submersed to floating to emergent plants as water depth decreased with wetland age. However, paleoecological analyses showed that the observed vegetation changes were driven largely by disturbances associated with increased human settlement in the area. Climate-induced hydrologic changes were also shown to have greater effects on plant-community change than autogenic processes. Other terms, such as zonation, maturation, fluctuations, continuum concept, functional guilds, centrifugal organization, pulse stability, and hump-back models provide additional means of describing organization and changes in vegetation; some of them overlap with succession in describing vegetation processes in Great Lakes wetlands, but each must be used in the proper context with regard to short- and long-term hydrologic variability.

  20. Nitrogen and COD Removal from Septic Tank Wastewater in Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands: Plants Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collison, R S; Grismer, M E

    2015-11-01

    We evaluated subsurface flow (SSF) constructed wetland treatment performance with respect to organics (COD) and nitrogen (ammonium and nitrate) removal from domestic (septic tank) wastewater as affected by the presence of plants, substrate "rock" cation exchange capacity (CEC), laboratory versus field conditions and use of synthetic as compared to actual domestic wastewater. This article considers the effects of plants on constructed wetland treatment in the field. Each constructed wetland system was comprised of two beds (2.6 m long by 0.28 m wide and deep filled with ~18 mm crushed lava rock) separated by an aeration tank connected in series. The lava rock had a porosity of ~47% and a CEC of 4 meq/100 gm. One pair of constructed wetland systems was planted with cattails in May 2008, while an adjacent pair of systems remained un-planted. Collected septic tank or synthesized wastewater was allowed to gravity feed each constructed wetland system and effluent samples were regularly collected and tested for COD and nitrogen species during four time periods spanning November 2008 through June 2009. These effluent concentrations were tested for statistical differences at the 95% level for individual time periods as well as the overall 6-month period. Organics removal from domestic wastewater was 78.8% and 76.1% in the planted and un-planted constructed wetland systems, respectively, while ammonium removal was 94.5% and 90.2%, respectively. Similarly, organics removal from the synthetic wastewater of equivalent strength was 88.8% and 90.1% for planted and un-planted constructed wetland systems, respectively, while ammonium removal was 96.9% and 97.3%, respectively.

  1. A mechanistic model of microbial competition in the rhizosphere of wetland plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslkhodapasand, F.; Mayer, K. U.; Neumann, R. B.

    2014-12-01

    Wetlands are the largest natural source of methane to the atmosphere. Although they cover only 4-6% of earth's surface, wetlands contribute 20-39% of global methane emissions. Hollow aerenchyma tissues inside the roots, stems and leaves of plants represent one of the most important methane emission pathways for wetlands. Up to 90% of the emitted methane can diffuse through these hollow tissues that directly connect the atmosphere to the anoxic soils where methane is generated. Thus, concentrations of methane surrounding plant roots directly impact the amount of methane emitted by wetlands. Methane concentrations are controlled by a variety of microbial processes occurring in the soil around the roots of plants (aka the rhizosphere). The rhizosphere is a microbial hotspot sustained by plant inputs of organic carbon and oxygen; plant roots exude excess organic carbon generated in photosynthesis into the rhizosphere and atmospheric oxygen diffuses down to the rhizosphere through the hollow aerenchyma tissues. This environment supports a variety of microbial communities that compete with each other for available carbon and oxygen, including methanogens, methanotrophs, and heterotrophs. Methanogens ferment organic carbon into methane, a reaction that is inhibited by oxygen; methanotrophs use oxygen to oxidize methane into carbon dioxide; and heterotrophs use oxygen to oxidize organic carbon into carbon dioxide. We are interested in understanding how competition between these communities alters methane concentrations and responds to variations in plant inputs. To this end, we have developed a mechanistic root-scale model that describes microbial competition for organic carbon and oxygen in the rhizosphere of wetland plants. Our results focus on variations in rates of methane production, methane oxidation, heterotrophic respiration, and diffusion of methane into plant roots as a result of changes in carbon and oxygen inputs. The study provides insight into how plant

  2. Effect of wetland management: are lentic wetlands refuges of plant-species diversity in the Andean-Orinoco Piedmont of Colombia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo-Pacheco, Johanna I; Rös, Matthias; Escobar, Federico; Castro-Lima, Francisco; Verdú, José R; López-Iborra, Germán M

    2016-01-01

    Accelerated degradation of the wetlands and fragmentation of surrounding vegetation in the Andean-Orinoco Piedmont are the main threats to diversity and ecological integrity of these ecosystems; however, information on this topic is of limited availability. In this region, we evaluated the value of 37 lentic wetlands as reservoirs of woody and aquatic plants and analyzed diversity and changes in species composition within and among groups defined according to management given by: (1) type (swamps, heronries, rice fields, semi-natural lakes, constructed lakes and fish farms) and (2) origins (natural, mixed and artificial). A total of 506 plant species were recorded: 80% woody and 20% aquatic. Of these, 411 species (81%) were considered species typical of the area (Meta Piedmont distribution). Diversity patterns seem to be driven by high landscape heterogeneity and wetland management. The fish farms presented the highest diversity of woody plants, while swamps ranked highest for aquatic plant diversity. Regarding wetland origin, the artificial systems were the most diverse, but natural wetlands presented the highest diversity of typical species and can therefore be considered representative ecosystems at the regional scale. Our results suggest that lentic wetlands act as refuges for native vegetation of Meta Piedmont forest, hosting 55% of the woody of Piedmont species and 29% of the aquatic species of Orinoco basin. The wetlands showed a high species turnover and the results indicated that small wetlands (mean ± SD: size = 11 ± 18.7 ha), with a small area of surrounding forest (10 ± 8.6 ha) supported high local and regional plant diversity. To ensure long-term conservation of lentic wetlands, it is necessary to develop management and conservation strategies that take both natural and created wetlands into account.

  3. Effect of wetland management: are lentic wetlands refuges of plant-species diversity in the Andean–Orinoco Piedmont of Colombia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna I. Murillo-Pacheco

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Accelerated degradation of the wetlands and fragmentation of surrounding vegetation in the Andean–Orinoco Piedmont are the main threats to diversity and ecological integrity of these ecosystems; however, information on this topic is of limited availability. In this region, we evaluated the value of 37 lentic wetlands as reservoirs of woody and aquatic plants and analyzed diversity and changes in species composition within and among groups defined according to management given by: (1 type (swamps, heronries, rice fields, semi-natural lakes, constructed lakes and fish farms and (2 origins (natural, mixed and artificial. A total of 506 plant species were recorded: 80% woody and 20% aquatic. Of these, 411 species (81% were considered species typical of the area (Meta Piedmont distribution. Diversity patterns seem to be driven by high landscape heterogeneity and wetland management. The fish farms presented the highest diversity of woody plants, while swamps ranked highest for aquatic plant diversity. Regarding wetland origin, the artificial systems were the most diverse, but natural wetlands presented the highest diversity of typical species and can therefore be considered representative ecosystems at the regional scale. Our results suggest that lentic wetlands act as refuges for native vegetation of Meta Piedmont forest, hosting 55% of the woody of Piedmont species and 29% of the aquatic species of Orinoco basin. The wetlands showed a high species turnover and the results indicated that small wetlands (mean ± SD: size = 11 ± 18.7 ha, with a small area of surrounding forest (10 ± 8.6 ha supported high local and regional plant diversity. To ensure long-term conservation of lentic wetlands, it is necessary to develop management and conservation strategies that take both natural and created wetlands into account.

  4. 湿地植物配置浅析%Wetland Plant Configuration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹奕苹; 韩付家

    2014-01-01

    湿地植物作为湿地生态系统的重要组成部分,其配置方式、效果越来越来越受到关注。通过文献分析、实地考察得知:艺术效果与生态效益的双重体现已成为目前湿地植物配置的目标。文章试从湿地的几个重要主体出发,分析湿地植物配置的方法及要点,使湿地功能得到更加有效的发挥。%Wetland plant is an important part of wetland ecosystem. Its configuration mode and effect are paid more and more attention along with the development of era. Both artistic effect and ecological benefit are the important aim of wetland plant configuration obtained from analyzing currently. In addition, this article made a summing up of some methods of wetland plant configuration from several important subjects of the wetland by using literature analysis and field trips, to bring wetland function into playing effectively.

  5. Research on Phosphorus Removal in Artificial Wetlands by Plants and Their Photosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Quan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Urban rainfall runoff pollution has become a major reason for water eutrophication problem in the process of urbanization in China, while phosphorus is a significant restrictive factor that influences primary productivity of freshwater system. It's rather significant to conduct phosphorus control in waste water with engineering measures. This research, based on material balance research of phosphorus in artificial wetlands, HRT (hydraulic retention time and analysis of wetland plant photosynthesis and removal rate of phosphorus, simulates purification of phosphorus in urban runoff sewage by artificial wetland system. Experiment shows that removal rate of total phosphorus in urban runoff sewage by artificial wetland system reaches 42.23%-60.89%, and contribution rate in removal of phosphorus which is assimilated and absorbed by plants is 14.74%; contribution rate in removal of phosphorus which is accumulated and absorbed by substrates is 43.22%; contribution rate in removal of phosphorus which is absorbed by means like microorganisms is 2.93%. Pollutant absorption by substrates is a process of dynamic equilibrium. With extension of HRT, phosphorus removing effect of wetlands present an increasing and then decreasing tendency; Net photosynthetic rate and TP removal rate of canna and reed have significant positive correlation, and correlation coefficients are respectively 0.941(P<0.001 and 0.915(P<0.05. Substrates and plants are main pathways for phosphorus removal of artificial wetlands, covering 95% of the total removing effect.

  6. Plant Litter Submergence Affects the Water Quality of a Constructed Wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lijuan; Li, Wei; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhou, Jian; Yu, Fei-Hai; Prinzing, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Plant litter is an indispensable component of constructed wetlands, but how the submergence of plant litter affects their ecosystem functions and services, such as water purification, is still unclear. Moreover, it is also unclear whether the effects of plant litter submergence depend on other factors such as the duration of litter submergence, water source or litter species identity. Here we conducted a greenhouse experiment by submerging the litter of 7 wetland plant species into three types of water substrates and monitoring changes in water nutrient concentrations. Litter submergence affected water quality positively via decreasing the concentration of nitrate nitrogen and negatively via increasing the concentrations of total nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen and total phosphorus. The effects of litter submergence depended on the duration of litter submergence, the water source, the litter species identity, and the plant life form. Different plant species had different effects on the water nutrient concentrations during litter submergence, and the effects of floating plants might be more negative than that of emergent plants. These results are novel evidence of how the submergence of different plant (life form) litter may affect the purification function of constructed wetlands. For water at low eutrophication levels, submerging a relative small amount of plant litter might improve water quality, via benefiting the denitrification process in water. These findings emphasized the management of floating plant litter (a potential removal) during the maintenance of human-controlled wetland ecosystems and provided a potential tool to improve the water quality of constructed wetlands via submerging plant litter of different types. PMID:28129405

  7. Pipeline Corridors through wetlands -- Impacts on plant communities: Mill Creek Tributary Crossing, Jefferson County, New York, 1992 Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dyke, G.D. [Trinity Christian Coll., Palos Heights, IL (United States). Dept. of Biology; Shem, L.M.; Zimmerman, R.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The goal of the Gas Research Institute Wetland Corridors Program is to identify representative impacts of existing pipelines on the wetlands they traverse. To accomplish this goal, 12 existing wetland crossings were surveyed. These sites varied in elapsed time since pipeline construction, wetland type, pipeline installation techniques, and right-of-way (ROW) management practices. This report presents the results of the survey July 1992, at the Mills Creek tributary crossing, Jefferson County, New York. Data were collected from three wetland communities along the 1991 pipeline and compared with predisturbance data obtained in a June 1991 survey. Within one year after pipeline installation, 50% of the soil surface of the ROW in the scrub-shrub community was covered by emergent vegetation. Average wetland values for the ROW in 1992 were lower than in 1991, indicating that the removal of woody plants resulted in a community composed of species with greater fidelity to wetlands. In the emergent marsh community after one year, the average percentage of surface covered by standing water was greater in the ROW than in the adjacent natural areas. The ROW in the forested wetland community also contained standing water, although none was found in the natural forest areas. The entire study site remains a wetland, with the majority of plant species in all sites being either obligate or facultative wetland species. Weighted and unweighted average wetland indices for each community, using all species, indicated wetland vegetation within the newly established ROW.

  8. Transformation of the monocotyledonous Alstroemeria by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akutsu, M; Ishizaki, T; Sato, H

    2004-03-01

    An efficient procedure is described for the transformation of the monocotyledonous Alstroemeria by Agrobacterium tumefaciens via callus regeneration. Calli derived from ovules were co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens strains EHA101 and LBA4404, which harbored the binary vector plasmids pIG121Hm and pTOK233, respectively. These plasmids contain the beta-glucuronidase gene ( gusA) as a reporter gene and the hygromycin phosphotransferase and neomycin phosphotransferase II ( nptII) genes as selective markers. Inoculated calli were first plated for 4 weeks on medium containing cefotaxime to eliminate bacteria, following which time transformed cells were selected on medium that contained 20 mg/l hygromycin. A histochemical assay for GUS activity revealed that hygromycin-based selection was completed after 8 weeks. The integration of the T-DNA of pIG121Hm and pTOK233 into the genome of the cells was confirmed by PCR analysis. Efficient shoot regeneration from the transformed calli was observed on half-strength MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l naphthaleneacetic acid and 0.5 mg/l benzyladenine after about 5 months of culture. The presence of the gusA and nptII genes in the genomic DNA of regenerated plants was detected by means of PCR and PCR-Southern hybridization, and the expression of these transgenes was verified by reverse transcription-PCR.

  9. Analysis of chemical reaction kinetics of depredating organic pollutants from secondary effluent of wastewater treatment plant in constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Jiang, Dengling; Yang, Yong; Cao, Guoping

    2013-01-01

    Four subsurface constructed wetlands were built to treat the secondary effluent of a wastewater treatment plant in Tangshan, China. The chemical pollutant indexes of chemical oxygen demand (COD) were analyzed to evaluate the removal efficiency of organic pollutants from the secondary effluent of the wastewater treatment plant. In all cases, the subsurface constructed wetlands were efficient in treating organic pollutants. Under the same hydraulic loading condition, the horizontal flow wetlands exhibited better efficiency of COD removal than vertical flow wetlands: the removal rates in horizontal flow wetlands could be maintained at 68.4 ± 2.42% to 92.2 ± 1.61%, compared with 63.8 ± 1.19% to 85.0 ± 1.25% in the vertical flow wetlands. Meanwhile, the chemical reaction kinetics of organic pollutants was analyzed, and the results showed that the degradation courses of the four subsurface wetlands all corresponded with the first order reaction kinetics to a large extent.

  10. SEMI-BATCH OPERATED CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS PLANTED WITH PHRAGMITES AUSTRALIS FOR TREATMENT OF DYEING WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOON-AN ONG

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of present study is to evaluate the using of constructed wetland under semi-batch operation for the treatment of azo dye Acid Orange 7 (AO7 containing wastewater. The emergent plant selected in our study was Phragmites australis. Toxic signs were observed at the Phragmites australis after the addition of AO7 into the wetland reactors but it can adapt to the wastewater as shown in the increase of stem as the operation continue. Our result shows that the artificial aeration and the presence of Phragmites australis had a significant impact on the removal of organic matters, AO7, aromatic amines and NH4-N. The COD removal efficiency in the aerated and non-aerated wetland reactors was 95 and 62%, respectively. The NH4-N removal efficiency in the aerated wetland reactor (86% was significantly higher than the non-aerated wetland reactor (14 %. All wetland reactors show high removal efficiency of AO7 (> 94% but only the aerated wetland reactor perform better in the removal of aromatic amines.

  11. Potential of Root Exudates from Wetland Plants and Their Potential Role for Denitrification and Allelopathic Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhai, Xu

    vary among different Phragmites haplotypes and consequently affect their invasion potential. The studies presented in this dissertation aimed at investigating the quantity and composition of the organic carbon released in root exudates from three common wetland species as affected by temperature...... wetlands. Furthermore, environmental factors such as temperature and light-regime affect the photosynthetic carbon fixation, which continuously influence the compositions and quantity of root exudates released into rhizosphere. Conversely, root exudates from invasive species might contain some phytotoxic...... and light-regime and how the root exudates potentially affect the nitrogen removal by denitrification in constructed wetlands. Also, the studies aimed at further elucidating the potential allelopathic interaction between the plants. The findings of the research suggest that the root exudates from wetland...

  12. Aquatic adventitious roots of the wetland plant Meionectes brownii can photosynthesize

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rich, Sarah Meghan; Ludwig, Martha; Pedersen, Ole

    2011-01-01

    • Many wetland plants produce aquatic adventitious roots from submerged stems. Aquatic roots can form chloroplasts, potentially producing endogenous carbon and oxygen. Here, aquatic root photosynthesis was evaluated in the wetland plant Meionectes brownii, which grows extensive stem-borne aquatic...... m(-3) dissolved CO(2), aquatic roots fix carbon at 0.016 µmol CO(2) g(-1) DM s(-1). Illuminated aquatic roots do not rely on exogenous inputs of O(2). • The photosynthetic ability of aquatic roots presumably offers an advantage to submerged M. brownii as aquatic roots, unlike sediment roots, need...

  13. Mass spectrometry of oil sands naphthenic acids : degradation in OSPW and wetland plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Headley, J. [Environment Canada, Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Water Science and Technology Directorate

    2009-07-01

    This presentation discussed mass spectrometry of oil sands naphthenic acids and the degradation in OSPW and wetland plants. It presented background information on the Athabasca oil sands and naphthenic acids which involve a mixture of alkanes and cycloalkane carboxylic acids with aliphatic side chains. The presentation also discussed mass spectrometry with electrospray operating in negative ion modes. Loop injection, external standard methods and solid phase extraction were reviewed along with improved analysis by removing background ions. Other topics that were presented included hydroponic test systems and wetland plant toxicity, growth and transpiration. It was concluded that dissipation included species containing oxygen, ozone, O{sub 4}, and O{sub 5}. tabs., figs.

  14. A Hardy Plant Facilitates Nitrogen Removal via Microbial Communities in Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands in Winter

    OpenAIRE

    Penghe Wang; Hui Zhang; Jie Zuo; Dehua Zhao; Xiangxu Zou; Zhengjie Zhu; Nasreen Jeelani; Xin Leng; Shuqing An

    2016-01-01

    The plants effect in subsurface flow constructed wetlands (SSF-CWs) is controversial, especially at low temperatures. Consequently, several SSF-CWs planted with Iris pseudacorus (CWI) or Typha orientalis Presl. (CWT) and several unplanted ones (CWC) were set up and fed with secondary effluent of sewage treatment plant during the winter in Eastern China. The 16S rDNA Illumina Miseq sequencing analysis indicated the positive effects of I. pseudacorus on the bacterial community richness and dive...

  15. Planting richness affects the recovery of vegetation and soil processes in constructed wetlands following disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Means, Mary M.; Ahn, Changwoo; Noe, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    The resilience of constructed wetland ecosystems to severe disturbance, such as a mass herbivory eat-out or soil disturbance, remains poorly understood. In this study, we use a controlled mesocosm experiment to examine how original planting diversity affects the ability of constructed freshwater wetlands to recover structurally and functionally after a disturbance (i.e., aboveground harvesting and soil coring). We assessed if the planting richness of macrophyte species influences recovery of constructed wetlands one year after a disturbance. Mesocosms were planted in richness groups with various combinations of either 1, 2, 3, or 4 species (RG 1–4) to create a gradient of richness. Structural wetland traits measured include morphological regrowth of macrophytes, soil bulk density, soil moisture, soil %C, and soil %N. Functional wetland traits measured include above ground biomass production, soil potential denitrification, and soil potential microbial respiration. Total mesocosm cover increased along the gradient of plant richness (43.5% in RG 1 to 84.5% in RG 4) in the growing season after the disturbance, although not all planted individuals recovered. This was largely attributed to the dominance of the obligate annual species. The morphology of each species was affected negatively by the disturbance, producing shorter, and fewer stems than in the years prior to the disturbance, suggesting that the communities had not fully recovered one year after the disturbance. Soil characteristics were almost uniform across the planting richness gradient, but for a few exceptions (%C, C:N, and non-growing season soil moisture were higher slightly in RG 2). Denitrification potential (DEA) increased with increasing planting richness and was influenced by the abundance and quality of soil C. Increased open space in unplanted mesocosms and mesocosms with lower species richness increased labile C, leading to higher C mineralization rates.

  16. Natural attenuation potential of tricholoroethene in wetland plant roots: role of native ammonium-oxidizing microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ke; Struckhoff, Garrett C; Agrawal, Abinash; Shelley, Michael L; Dong, Hailiang

    2015-01-01

    Bench-scale microcosms with wetland plant roots were investigated to characterize the microbial contributions to contaminant degradation of trichloroethene (TCE) with ammonium. The batch system microcosms consisted of a known mass of wetland plant roots in aerobic growth media where the roots provided both an inoculum of root-associated ammonium-oxidizing microorganisms and a microbial habitat. Aqueous growth media, ammonium, and TCE were replaced weekly in batch microcosms while retaining roots and root-associated biomass. Molecular biology results indicated that ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were enriched from wetland plant roots while analysis of contaminant and oxygen concentrations showed that those microorganisms can degrade TCE by aerobic cometabolism. Cometabolism of TCE, at 29 and 46 μg L(-1), was sustainable over the course of 9 weeks, with 20-30 mg L(-1) ammonium-N. However, at 69 μg L(-1) of TCE, ammonium oxidation and TCE cometabolism were completely deactivated in two weeks. This indicated that between 46 and 69 μg L(-1) TCE with 30 mg L(-1) ammonium-N there is a threshold [TCE] below which sustainable cometabolism can be maintained with ammonium as the primary substrate. However, cometabolism-induced microbial deactivation of ammonium oxidation and TCE degradation at 69 μg L(-1) TCE did not result in a lower abundance of the amoA gene in the microcosms, suggesting that the capacity to recover from TCE inhibition was still intact, given time and removal of stress. Our study indicates that microorganisms associated with wetland plant roots can assist in the natural attenuation of TCE in contaminated aquatic environments, such as urban or treatment wetlands, and wetlands impacted by industrial solvents.

  17. Phytoremediation of imazalil and tebuconazole by four emergent wetland plant species in hydroponic medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Tao; Zhang, Yang; Casas, Mònica E; Carvalho, Pedro N; Arias, Carlos A; Bester, Kai; Brix, Hans

    2016-04-01

    Pollution from pesticide residues in aquatic environments is of increasing concern. Imazalil and tebuconazole, two commonly used systemic pesticides, are water contaminants that can be removed by constructed wetlands. However, the phytoremediation capability of emergent wetland plants for imazalil and tebuconazole, especially the removal mechanisms involved, is poorly understood. This study compared the removal of both pesticides by four commonly used wetland plants, Typha latifolia, Phragmites australis, Iris pseudacorus and Juncus effusus, and aimed to understand the removal mechanisms involved. The plants were individually exposed to an initial concentration of 10 mg/L in hydroponic solution. At the end of the 24-day study period, the tebuconazole removal efficiencies were relatively lower (25%-41%) than those for imazalil (46%-96%) for all plant species studied. The removal of imazalil and tebuconazole fit a first-order kinetics model, with the exception of tebuconazole removal in solutions with I. pseudacorus. Changes in the enantiomeric fraction for imazalil and tebuconazole were detected in plant tissue but not in the hydroponic solutions; thus, the translocation and degradation processes were enantioselective in the plants. At the end of the study period, the accumulation of imazalil and tebuconazole in plant tissue was relatively low and constituted 2.8-14.4% of the total spiked pesticide in each vessel. Therefore, the studied plants were able to not only take up the pesticides but also metabolise them.

  18. Effects of acidification on metal accumulation by aquatic plants and invertebrates. 1. Constructed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, P.H.; Camardese, M.B.

    1993-01-01

    The pH of lake water is often inversely correlated with concentrations of trace metals in the water column. Concentrations of Al, Cd, Ca, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, and Zn were compared in water, plants, and aquatic insects from three acidified (pH 5.0) and three nonacidified (pH 6.5) constructed wetlands. Concentrations of Zn in water and bur-reed (Sparganium americanum) were higher in acidified wetlands than in nonacidified wetlands. Floating nonrooted plants contained mean concentrations of Fe, Mg, and Mn that were higher than recommended maximum levels for poultry feed. The mean concentrations of all metals in insects were below recommended maximum levels for poultry feed and below levels that cause toxic effects in wild birds. Smaller than expected increases of metal concentrations in the water of acidified wetlands were probably due to limited mobilization of metals from the sediments and insignificant changes in sedimentation of aqueous metals. Calcium was lower in acidified than in nonacidified wetland water, but the Ca content of insects and bur-reed was not lower. Low concentrations of Ca in aquatic insects from both groups of wetlands indicate that calcium-rich crustaceans and mollusks are probably important to female waterfowl and their young during the spring, when invertebrates make up the majority of the diet. Although toxic effects from metal ingestion seem to be unlikely consequences of wetland acidification, the adverse effect of low pH on the occurrence of crustaceans and mollusks could threaten egg production and development of young.

  19. Reconstruction of different wetland plant habitats of the Pannonian basin system (Neogene, Eastern Austria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, C.C.; Zetter, R. [University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria). Inst. of Palaeontology

    2005-06-01

    Sedimentary and palynofacies analysis, total organic carbon content (TOC), and palynology from a densely sampled, small, lignite-bearing succession of Late Miocene age at Badersdorf, SE Austria, were compared with modern wetland ecologies. From this, six hydrologically controlled palynofacies types and six associated paleo-plant habitats in an ancient wetland system were differentiated. The associated woody and herbaceous hinterland flora also were distinguished. At least four horizons with relatively high fusinite content have been preserved, indicating occurrence of paleo-wildfires in either the wetland or the hinterland. The palynofacies types were used to determine the taphonomic bias of the associated palynomorph assemblages, which, together with a comparison with modern wetland vegetation, led to differentiation of the paleo-plant habitats. The paleo-wetland was dominated mainly by Glyptostrobus-containing vegetation, and comprised clastic swamp forests with woody angiosperms, natural levee forests, fern- and Glyptostrobus-dominated organic swamps, freshwater marshes, and wet prairies. The occurrence of more than 40 herbaceous taxes at this locality indicates that the lowland vegetation was not composed of only different closed-forest types, but also of areas with herbaceous vegetation. The more zonal vegetation of the adjacent hinterland has been interpreted as a mix of Pinaceae and woody angiosperms with patches of more herbaceous xeric layers.

  20. Influence of environment and substrate quality on the decomposition of wetland plant root in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Xuelian; LU Xianguo; TONG Shouzheng; DAI Guohua

    2008-01-01

    The litterbag method was used to study the decomposition of wetland plant root in three wetlands along a water level gradient in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China. These wetlands are Calamagrostis angustifolia ( C.aa), Carex meyeriana (C.ma) and Carex lasiocarpa (C.la). The objective of our study is to evaluate the influence of environment and substrate quality on decomposition rates in the three wetlands. Calico material was used as a standard substrate to evaluate environmental influences. Roots native to each wetland were used to evaluate decomposition dynamics and substrate quality influences. Calico mass loss was statistically different among the three wetlands in the upper soil profile (0-10 cm) and in the lower depth range (10-20 cm). Hydrology, temperature and pH all influence calico decomposition rates in different ways at different depths of the soil profiles. The decomposition rates of native roots declined differentially with the increase of depth in the soil profiles. The mass loss of native roots showed a statistical decrease among the three wetlands in the upper soil profile (0-10 cm) and in the lower depth range (10-20 cm) as C.ma wetland C.aa wetland C.la wetland. Both the C:P ratio and N:P ratio were positively interrelated with decomposition rates. Decomposition rates were negatively related to initial P concentration in all three wetlands, indicating that P concentration seems to be an important factor controlling the fitter loss.

  1. [Diversity of plant in Jiaxing Shijiuyang ecological wetland for drinking water during operation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ya-Qiang; Wei, Hong-Bin; Cheng, Wang-Da; Zhang, Hong-Mei; Wang, Wei-Dong; Yin, Cheng-Qing

    2011-10-01

    The Shijiuyang ecological wetland for drinking water of Jiaxing City, Zhejiang Province is one of the biggest constructed wetlands for water resource protection in China. To ensure a deep understanding of the present status of the wetland vegetation of Shijiuyang ecological wetland which has been run for 2.5 years and provide support for the vegetation management of ecological wetland, systematic investigation was carried out by using plot method and quadrat method in October to November, 2010. The species composition, dynamics of plant diversity and the biomass production during operation were analyzed. Altogether 70 species belonging to 28 families and 62 genera were recorded. Among them, there were 26 wetland plants, 20 mesophytes, 14 emergent, 4 submerged, 6 floating ones. Compared with the preliminary stage, the species numbers of wetland plants increased significantly from 15 species to 70 species. The spatial pattern of riparian species diversity was examined by adopting the Simpson index and Shannon-Wiener index as species diversity indices. The results showed that the riparian species diversity was higher in the west of the Beijiaohe river (Simpson index = 0.468 3, Shannon-Wiener index = 0.835 2) than that in the south of the Dongsheng Road (Simpson index = 0.357 6, Shannon-Wiener index = 0.660 4). The analyses of quantitative characteristics of wetland vegetation showed that the plants in the root-channel purification zone in the south of the Dongsheng Road grew better than those in the west of the Beijiaohe river. With regard to the riparian vegetation, the riparian plants in the west of the Beijiaohe river were more abundant. The mean biomass production (dry weight) in the root-channel purification zone was 1.73 kg x m(-2) and the total area was 9.12 x 10(4) m2, so the total biomass production was estimated to be 157.8 t. In the same way, the mean riparian vegetation biomass production(dry weight) was 0.83 kg x m(-2) and the total vegetation area was 3

  2. Inter-specific variation in salinity effects on germination in Pacific Northwest tidal wetland plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental stressors such as salinity may affect plant germination and early growth, eventually impacting the distribution and abundance of more mature individuals. In a lab study we evaluated germination sensitivity to salinity in 13 tidal wetland species found in the Pacific...

  3. Lead and zinc accumulation and tolerance in populations of six wetland plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, H. [Biology Department and Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Department of Environmental Science and Technology, East China Normal University, Shanghai (China); Ye, Z.H. [Biology Department and Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); School of Life Sciences, Zhongshan (Sun Yat-sen) University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Wong, M.H. [Biology Department and Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.hk

    2006-05-15

    Wetland plants such as Typha latifolia and Phragmites australis have been indicated to show a lack of evolution of metal tolerance in metal-contaminated populations. The aim of the present study is to verify whether other common wetland plants such as Alternanthera philoxeroides and Beckmannia syzigachne, also possess the same characteristics. Lead and zinc tolerances in populations of six species collected from contaminated and clean sites were examined by hydroponics. In general, the contaminated populations did not show higher metal tolerance and accumulation than the controls. Similar growth responses and tolerance indices in the same metal treatment solution between contaminated and control populations suggest that metal tolerance in wetland plants are generally not further evolved by contaminated environment. The reasons may be related to the special root anatomy in wetland plants, the alleviated metal toxicity by the reduced rooting conditions and the relatively high innate metal tolerance in some species. - Populations from metal contaminated sites did not have significantly higher metal tolerance indices.

  4. Modeling methane fluxes in wetlands with gas-transporting plants. 3. Plot scale.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segers, R.; Leffelaar, P.A.

    2001-01-01

    A process model based on kinetic principles was developed for methane fluxes from wetlands with gas-transporting plants and a fluctuating water table. Water dynamics are modeled with the 1-D Richards equation. For temperature a standard diffusion equation is used. The depth-dependent dynamics of met

  5. Nutrient and metal uptake in wetland plants at stormwater detension ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Istenic, Darja; Arias, Carlos Alberto; Brix, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Nutrients and metals were analysed in tissues of various wetland plants growing in stormwater detention ponds in Denmark. Nutrient and metal concentrations in below and aboveground tissues were compared to the concentrations of the adjacent sediment. The results showed accumulation of heavy metal...

  6. The importance of Nyando river wetlands plant resources and agricultural products: A comparative study of papyrus and rice.

    OpenAIRE

    Omollow, Maurice Omondi

    2003-01-01

    This study assessed the community perceptions of the importance of wetland plants, particularly papyrus ( Cyperus papyrus) and compared it with that of agricultural products, mainly rice ( Oryza Sativa ), in the Nyando River Wetlands, Kenya. The goal was to suggest better mechanisms for the sustainable management of the two resources and the wetlands. It was conducted among communities living in NRW area namely Nyando, Lower Nyakach and Kadibo Divisions of Kisumu and Ny ando districts, from A...

  7. Degradation kinetics of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons by methane oxidizers naturally-associated with wetland plant roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, C. L.; Goltz, M. N.; Agrawal, A.

    2014-12-01

    Chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) are common groundwater contaminants that can be removed from the environment by natural attenuation processes. CAH biodegradation can occur in wetland environments by reductive dechlorination as well as oxidation pathways. In particular, CAH oxidation may occur in vegetated wetlands, by microorganisms that are naturally associated with the roots of wetland plants. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the cometabolic degradation kinetics of the CAHs, cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cisDCE), trichloroethene (TCE), and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1TCA), by methane-oxidizing bacteria associated with the roots of a typical wetland plant in soil-free system. Laboratory microcosms with washed live roots investigated aerobic, cometabolic degradation of CAHs by the root-associated methane-oxidizing bacteria at initial aqueous [CH4] ~ 1.9 mg L- 1, and initial aqueous [CAH] ~ 150 μg L- 1; cisDCE and TCE (in the presence of 1,1,1TCA) degraded significantly, with a removal efficiency of approximately 90% and 46%, respectively. 1,1,1TCA degradation was not observed in the presence of active methane oxidizers. The pseudo first-order degradation rate-constants of TCE and cisDCE were 0.12 ± 0.01 and 0.59 ± 0.07 d- 1, respectively, which are comparable to published values. However, their biomass-normalized degradation rate constants obtained in this study were significantly smaller than pure-culture studies, yet they were comparable to values reported for biofilm systems. The study suggests that CAH removal in wetland plant roots may be comparable to processes within biofilms. This has led us to speculate that the active biomass may be on the root surface as a biofilm. The cisDCE and TCE mass losses due to methane oxidizers in this study offer insight into the role of shallow, vegetated wetlands as an environmental sink for such xenobiotic compounds.

  8. Degradation kinetics of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons by methane oxidizers naturally-associated with wetland plant roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, C L; Goltz, M N; Agrawal, A

    2014-12-01

    Chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) are common groundwater contaminants that can be removed from the environment by natural attenuation processes. CAH biodegradation can occur in wetland environments by reductive dechlorination as well as oxidation pathways. In particular, CAH oxidation may occur in vegetated wetlands, by microorganisms that are naturally associated with the roots of wetland plants. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the cometabolic degradation kinetics of the CAHs, cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cisDCE), trichloroethene (TCE), and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1TCA), by methane-oxidizing bacteria associated with the roots of a typical wetland plant in soil-free system. Laboratory microcosms with washed live roots investigated aerobic, cometabolic degradation of CAHs by the root-associated methane-oxidizing bacteria at initial aqueous [CH4] ~1.9mgL(-1), and initial aqueous [CAH] ~150μgL(-1); cisDCE and TCE (in the presence of 1,1,1TCA) degraded significantly, with a removal efficiency of approximately 90% and 46%, respectively. 1,1,1TCA degradation was not observed in the presence of active methane oxidizers. The pseudo first-order degradation rate-constants of TCE and cisDCE were 0.12±0.01 and 0.59±0.07d(-1), respectively, which are comparable to published values. However, their biomass-normalized degradation rate constants obtained in this study were significantly smaller than pure-culture studies, yet they were comparable to values reported for biofilm systems. The study suggests that CAH removal in wetland plant roots may be comparable to processes within biofilms. This has led us to speculate that the active biomass may be on the root surface as a biofilm. The cisDCE and TCE mass losses due to methane oxidizers in this study offer insight into the role of shallow, vegetated wetlands as an environmental sink for such xenobiotic compounds.

  9. Removal of the pharmaceuticals ibuprofen and iohexol by four wetland plant species in hydroponic culture: plant uptake and microbial degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Lv, Tao; Carvalho, Pedro N; Arias, Carlos A; Chen, Zhanghe; Brix, Hans

    2016-02-01

    We aimed at assessing the effects of four wetland plant species commonly used in constructed wetland systems: Typha, Phragmites, Iris and Juncus for removing ibuprofen (IBU) and iohexol (IOH) from spiked culture solution and exploring the mechanisms responsible for the removal. IBU was nearly completely removed by all plant species during the 24-day experiment, whereas the IOH removal varied between 13 and 80 %. Typha and Phragmites were the most efficient in removing IBU and IOH, respectively, with first-order removal rate constants of 0.38 and 0.06 day(-1), respectively. The pharmaceuticals were taken up by the roots and translocated to the aerial tissues. However, at the end of the experiment, plant accumulation constituted only up to 1.1 and 5.7 % of the amount of IBU and IOH spiked initially. The data suggest that the plants mainly function by facilitating pharmaceutical degradation in the rhizosphere through release of root exudates.

  10. Effects of Plant Species on Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Constructed Wetlands Treating Municipal Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukanda Chuersuwan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to quantify emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs, methane (CH4 and Nitrous Oxide (N2, from free water surface constructed wetlands used for domestic wastewater treatment. All constructed wetlands were monoculture and each plot was planted with Phragmites sp., Cyperus sp., or Canna sp. The average CH4 and N2 O emissions were in the range of 5.9-11.2 and 0.9-1.8 g/m2/h, respectively. Seasonal fluctuations of CH4 and N2 O emissions were observed. The highest fluxes of both GHGs occurred during hot rainy season (July-October followed by summer and the lowest found in cool season. The mean of CH4 and N2O emissions from different plants species were significantly different (p<0.05. Average CH4 emissions from constructed wetlands planted with Phragmites sp., Cyperus sp. and Cannasp. were 11.2, 6.0 and 5.9 mg/m2/h, respectively, while mean N2O emissions were 0.9, 1.0 and 1.8 mg/m2/h, respectively. Calculated of Global Warming Potential (GWP found that GWP of CH4 and N2O flux from constructed wetlands planted with Cyperus sp., was the highest (669 mg CO2 equivalent/m2/h, followed by Phragmite sp., (524 mg CO2 equivalent/m2/h and Cannasp., (434 mg CO2 equivalent/mm2/h, respectively. These results suggested that municipal wastewater treatment by constructed wetlands planted with Canna sp. and Phragmite sp., had potential of lower GHGs emissions into the atmosphere and Phragmite sp., provided the highest removal rate of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD.

  11. Comparative quantification of oxygen release by wetland plants: electrode technique and oxygen consumption model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiming; Liu, Jufeng; Zhang, Jian; Li, Cong; Fan, Jinlin; Xu, Xiaoli

    2014-01-01

    Understanding oxygen release by plants is important to the design of constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment. Lab-scale systems planted with Phragmites australis were studied to evaluate the amount of oxygen release by plants using electrode techniques and oxygen consumption model. Oxygen release rate (0.14 g O2/m(2)/day) measured using electrode techniques was much lower than that (3.94-25.20 gO2/m(2)/day) calculated using the oxygen consumption model. The results revealed that oxygen release by plants was significantly influenced by the oxygen demand for the degradation of pollutants, and the oxygen release rate increased with the rising of the concentration of degradable materials in the solution. The summary of the methods in qualifying oxygen release by wetland plants demonstrated that variations existed among different measuring methods and even in the same measuring approach. The results would be helpful for understanding the contribution of plants in constructed wetlands toward actual wastewater treatment.

  12. Plant growth under salinity and inundation stress: implications for sea-level rise on tidal wetland function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change and sea-level rise (SLR) may increase salinity or inundation duration for tidal wetland organisms. To test the effects of these stressors on wetland productivity, we transplanted seedlings of seven common plant species to polyhaline, mesohaline and oligohaline tida...

  13. Finding the harvesting frequency to maximize nutrient removal in a constructed wetland dominated by submerged aquatic plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhofstad, M.J.J.M.; Poelen, M.D.M.; Van Kempen, M.M.L.; Bakker, E.S.; Smolders, A.J.P.

    2017-01-01

    Water quality is still poor in many freshwater ecosystems around the world as a result of anthropogenic nutrient loading. Constructed wetlands can be used to remove excess nutrients. In these wetlands, helophytes or free floating aquatic plants are traditionally used to absorb the nutrients. The

  14. Novel seed adaptations of a monocotyledon seagrass in the wavy sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keryea Soong

    Full Text Available Returning to the sea, just like invasion of land, has occurred in many groups of animals and plants. For flowering plants, traits adapted to the terrestrial environments have to change or adopt a new function to allow the plants to survive and prosper in the sea where water motion tends to rotate and move seeds. In this investigation, how seeds of the seagrass Thalassia hemprichii (Hydrocharitaceae, a common monocotyledon in the Indo-Pacific, adapt to the wavy environment was studied. Mature seeds were collected from Dongsha Atoll in South China Sea. The effects of light qualities on seed germination, the seed morphology, the unipolar distribution of starch granules in the endosperms and growth of root hair-like filamentous cells from basal surface of the seeds were all found to differ from those of terrestrial monocotyledons. Physiologically, germination of the seeds was stimulated by blue light rather than red light. Morphologically, the bell-shaped seeds coupled with the unipolar distribution of starch granules in the enlarged bases helped maintain their upright posture on the tidal seafloor. Growth of root hair-like filamentous cells from the basal surface of the seeds prior to primary root growth served to attach onto sediments, providing leverage and attachment required by the primary roots to insert into sediments. These filamentous cells grasped coral sand but not silicate sand, demonstrating a habitat preference of this species.

  15. Effects of habitat management treatments on plant community composition and biomass in a Montane wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, J.E.; Keough, J.R.; Pyle, W.H.

    2007-01-01

    Grazing and burning are commonly applied practices that can impact the diversity and biomass of wetland plant communities. We evaluated the vegetative response of wetlands and adjacent upland grasslands to four treatment regimes (continuous idle, fall prescribed burning followed by idle, annual fall cattle grazing, and rotation of summer grazing and idle) commonly used by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Our study area was Grays Lake, a large, montane wetland in southeastern Idaho that is bordered by extensive wet meadows. We identified seven plant cover types, representing the transition from dry meadow to deep wetland habitats: mixed deep marsh, spikerush slough, Baltic rush (Juncus balticus), moist meadow, alkali, mesic meadow, and dry meadow. We compared changes in community composition and total aboveground biomass of each plant cover type between 1998, when all units had been idled for three years, and 1999 (1 yr post-treatment) and 2000 (2 yr post-treatment). Analysis using non-metric multidimensional scaling indicated that compositional changes varied among cover types, treatments, and years following treatment. Treatment-related changes in community composition were greatest in mixed deep marsh, Baltic rush, and mesic meadow. In mixed deep marsh and Baltic rush, grazing and associated trampling contributed to changes in the plant community toward more open water and aquatic species and lower dominance of Baltic rush; grazing and trampling also seemed to contribute to increased cover in mesic meadow. Changing hydrological conditions, from multiple years of high water to increasing drought, was an important factor influencing community composition and may have interacted with management treatments. Biomass differed among treatments and between years within cover types. In the wettest cover types, fall burning and grazing rotation treatments had greater negative impact on biomass than the idle treatment, but in drier cover types, summer grazing stimulated

  16. Concepts and Procedures for Updating the National Wetland Plant List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    of water and lack attach- ment to a substrate. Forb: Non-graminoid herbaceous plants. Graminoids: Grasslike plants, including grasses, sedges , and...that obtains all nutrients from non-living organic sources. Scaleleaf: Leaf reduced to small, thin, or flat scale-like structure. Sedge : Grasslike...plants of the family Cyperaceae . Semi-evergreen: Woody plants that are evergreen where the weather is mild but deciduous in colder parts of their range

  17. Freshwater Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides descriptions about freshwater wetlands, such as marshes, swamps, and bogs. Contains three learning activities which deal with unusual wetland plants, the animals and plants in a typical marsh, and the effects of a draught on a swamp. Included are reproducible handouts and worksheets for two of the activities. (TW)

  18. Performance of dryland and wetland plant species on extensive green roofs

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIvor, J. Scott; Ranalli, Melissa A.; Lundholm, Jeremy T.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Green roofs are constructed ecosystems where plants perform valuable services, ameliorating the urban environment through roof temperature reductions and stormwater interception. Plant species differ in functional characteristics that alter ecosystem properties. Plant performance research on extensive green roofs has so far indicated that species adapted to dry conditions perform optimally. However, in moist, humid climates, species typical of wetter soils might have advantages over dryland species. In this study, survival, growth and the performance of thermal and stormwater capture functions of three pairs of dryland and wetland plant species were quantified using an extensive modular green roof system. Methods Seedlings of all six species were germinated in a greenhouse and planted into green roof modules with 6 cm of growing medium. There were 34 treatments consisting of each species in monoculture and all combinations of wet- and dryland species in a randomized block design. Performance measures were survival, vegetation cover and roof surface temperature recorded for each module over two growing seasons, water loss (an estimate of evapotranspiration) in 2007, and albedo and water capture in 2008. Key Results Over two seasons, dryland plants performed better than wetland plants, and increasing the number of dryland species in mixtures tended to improve functioning, although there was no clear effect of species or habitat group diversity. All species had survival rates >75 % after the first winter; however, dryland species had much greater cover, an important indicator of green roof performance. Sibbaldiopsis tridentata was the top performing species in monoculture, and was included in the best treatments. Conclusions Although dryland species outperformed wetland species, planting extensive green roofs with both groups decreased performance only slightly, while increasing diversity and possibly habitat value. This study provides further

  19. Constructing wetlands: measuring and modeling feedbacks of oxidation processes between plants and clay-rich material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saaltink, Rémon; Dekker, Stefan C.; Griffioen, Jasper; Wassen, Martin J.

    2016-04-01

    Interest is growing in using soft sediment as a building material in eco-engineering projects. Wetland construction in the Dutch lake Markermeer is an example: here the option of dredging some of the clay-rich lake-bed sediment and using it to construct 10.000 ha of wetland will soon go under construction. Natural processes will be utilized during and after construction to accelerate ecosystem development. Knowing that plants can eco-engineer their environment via positive or negative biogeochemical plant-soil feedbacks, we conducted a six-month greenhouse experiment to identify the key biogeochemical processes in the mud when Phragmites australis is used as an eco-engineering species. We applied inverse biogeochemical modeling to link observed changes in pore water composition to biogeochemical processes. Two months after transplantation we observed reduced plant growth and shriveling as well as yellowing of foliage. The N:P ratios of plant tissue were low and were affected not by hampered uptake of N but by enhanced uptake of P. Plant analyses revealed high Fe concentrations in the leaves and roots. Sulfate concentrations rose drastically in our experiment due to pyrite oxidation; as reduction of sulfate will decouple Fe-P in reducing conditions, we argue that plant-induced iron toxicity hampered plant growth, forming a negative feedback loop, while simultaneously there was a positive feedback loop, as iron toxicity promotes P mobilization as a result of reduced conditions through root death, thereby stimulating plant growth and regeneration. Given these two feedback mechanisms, we propose that when building wetlands from these mud deposits Fe-tolerant species are used rather than species that thrive in N-limited conditions. The results presented in this study demonstrate the importance of studying the biogeochemical properties of the building material and the feedback mechanisms between plant and soil prior to finalizing the design of the eco-engineering project.

  20. Decreases in ammonia volatilization in response to greater plant diversity in microcosms of constructed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Bin; Ge, Ying; Han, Wenjuan; Fan, Xing; Ren, Yuan; Du, Yuanyuan; Shi, Mengmeng; Chang, Jie

    2016-10-01

    Ammonia volatilization from wastewaters with a high concentration of ammonium is a serious environmental and health problem. Constructed wetlands (CWs) are widely used for treating wastewater, and plant diversity clearly improves some functions of ecosystem such as nitrogen removal. However, whether plant diversity can affect ammonia volatilization from wastewater is still unknown. In this study, we conducted a microcosm experiment with different plant diversity treatments using four plant species. Results showed that, (1) ammonia volatilization decreased with increasing plant species richness; (2) ammonia volatilization from systems containing Rumex japonicus was lower than other systems; and (3) ammonia volatilization was affected more by species composition than species richness. This paper is the first to report that ammonia volatilization is reduced by plant diversity, and that some plant species combinations are important to reduce ammonia volatilization from CWs when treating wastewater.

  1. Role of Plants in a Constructed Wetland: Current and New Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Gross

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of plants in the treatment of effluents by constructed wetland (CW systems is under debate. Here, we review ways in which plants can affect CW processes and suggest two novel functions for plants in CWs. The first is salt phytoremediation by halophytes. We have strong evidence that halophytic plants can reduce wastewater salinity by accumulating salts in their tissues. Our studies have shown that Bassia indica, a halophytic annual, is capable of salt phytoremediation, accumulating sodium to up to 10% of its dry weight. The second novel use of plants in CWs is as phytoindicators of water quality. We demonstrate that accumulation of H2O2, a marker for plant stress, is reduced in the in successive treatment stages, where water quality is improved. It is recommended that monitoring and management of CWs consider the potential of plants as phytoremediators and phytoindicators.

  2. Wonderful Wetlands: An Environmental Education Curriculum Guide for Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King County Parks Div., Redmond, WA.

    This curriculum guide was designed to give teachers, students, and society a better understanding of wetlands in the hope that they learn why wetlands should be valued and preserved. It explores what is meant by wetlands, functions and values of wetlands, wetland activities, and wetland offerings which benefit animal and plant life, recreation,…

  3. [Study on the growth characteristics and root exudates of three wetlands plants at different culture conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Song-Liu; Hu, Hong-Ying; Sun, Ying-Xue; Yang, Jia

    2009-07-15

    Wetland plants are the important component of constructed wetlands and their root exudates provide the interior hydrocarbon for denitrification. In this study, the growth characteristics and root exudates of Canna indica, Zizania caduciflora and Lythrum salicari in different culture conditions were researched. The results showed that the average biomass initial/biomass in 120 days growth of Canna indica, Zizania caduciflora and Lythrum salicari were 9.1, 3.7, and 4.7, respectively. There was a positive correlation between the root exudates and the biomass of plants, but the release rate of root exudates decreased with the biomass increase. The root exudates release rates of unit biomass were 0.92, 0.47, 0.43 mg x (g x d)(-1) for Lythrum salicari, Canna indica and Zizania caduciflora, respectively. And the root exudates of those three plants are mainly organic acids and arylprotein based on the three-dimensional fluorescence spectrum analysis. The results ofthis study also indicate that Canna indiea and Lythrum salicari are befitting wetlands plants.

  4. A preliminary classification of wetland plant communities in north-central Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowardin, L.M.; Johnson, D.H.

    1973-01-01

    A classification of wetland plant communities was developed for a study area in north-central Minnesota in order to analyze data on waterfowl use of habitat that were gathered by radio telemetry. The classification employs features of several earlier classifications in addition to new classes for bogs and lakeshore communities. Brief descriptions are given for each community, and the important plant species are listed. Discriminant function analysis was used for 40 plant species. Seventy-five percent of the stands studied were classified correctly by this technique. Average probabilities of assignment to communities were calculated and helped to identify distinct and poorly defined communities as well as the relationship among communities.

  5. Influences of wetland plants on weathered acidic mine tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eva Stoltz; Maria Greger [Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden). Department of Botany

    2006-11-15

    Establishment of Carex rostrata, Eriophorum angustifolium and Phragmites australis on weathered, acidic mine tailings (pH {approximately} 3) and their effect on pH in tailings were investigated in a field experiment. The amendments, sewage sludge and an ashes-sewage sludge mixture, were used as plant nutrition and their influence on the metal and As concentrations of plant shoots was analysed. An additional experiment was performed in greenhouse with E. angustifolium and sewage sludge as amendments in both weathered and unweathered tailings. After one year, plants grew better in amendments containing ashes in the field, also in those plants the metal and As shoot concentrations were generally lower than in other treatments. After two years, the only surviving plants were found in sewage sludge mixed with ashes. No effect on pH by plants was found in weathered acidic mine tailings in either field- or greenhouse experiment.

  6. Distribution patterns and changes of aquatic plant communities in Napahai Wetland in northwestern Yunnan Plateau,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Derong XIAO; Kun TIAN; Hua YUAN; Yuming YANG; Ningyun LI; Shouguo XU

    2008-01-01

    Using GPS technology and community research methods for plant communities,we investigated the distribution patterns of aquatic plant communities in the high plateaus of the Napahai Wetlands,Yunnan,China,as well as the species changes of plant communities compared with that of 24 years ago since 2005.We found that the types and numbers of aquatic plant communities have changed.Some pollution-tolerant,nutrient-loving plant communities such as Scirpus tabernaemontani,Zizania caduciflora,Myriophyllum spicatum,and Azolla imbricata flourished,while the primary aquatic plant com-munities were reduced or even disappeared.The number of aquatic plant communities were increased from nine to 12 with the addition of two new emergent plant com-munities and one new floating-leaved plant community.The increase in emergent plant communities was signifi-cant.From east to west and from south to north,various types of plant communities were continuously distributed,including floating-leaved plant communities,emergent plant communities and submerged plant communities.The composition of the communities became more com-plicated and the number of accompanying species increased,while the percentage ratio of dominant plant species declined.In 2005,the coverage of emergent plant communities was the largest (528.42 hm2) followed by submerged plant communities (362.50 hm2) and the float-ing-leaf plant communities was the smallest (70.23 hm2).The variations in the distribution of aquatic plant com-munities in the Napahai Wetlands reflect the natural responses to the change of the wetland ecological envir-onment.This study indicates that human disturbances have led to an inward movement of the wetland shoreline,a decrease in water quality and a reduction in wetland habitat.

  7. Wetland Water Cooling Partnership: The Use of Constructed Wetlands to Enhance Thermoelectric Power Plant Cooling and Mitigate the Demand of Surface Water Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apfelbaum, Steven; Duvall, Kenneth; Nelson, Theresa; Mensing, Douglas; Bengtson, Harlan; Eppich, John; Penhallegon, Clayton; Thompson, Ry

    2013-09-30

    Through the Phase I study segment of contract #DE-NT0006644 with the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory, Applied Ecological Services, Inc. and Sterling Energy Services, LLC (the AES/SES Team) explored the use of constructed wetlands to help address stresses on surface water and groundwater resources from thermoelectric power plant cooling and makeup water requirements. The project objectives were crafted to explore and develop implementable water conservation and cooling strategies using constructed wetlands (not existing, naturally occurring wetlands), with the goal of determining if this strategy has the potential to reduce surface water and groundwater withdrawals of thermoelectric power plants throughout the country. Our team’s exploratory work has documented what appears to be a significant and practical potential for augmenting power plant cooling water resources for makeup supply at many, but not all, thermoelectric power plant sites. The intent is to help alleviate stress on existing surface water and groundwater resources through harvesting, storing, polishing and beneficially re-using critical water resources. Through literature review, development of conceptual created wetland plans, and STELLA-based modeling, the AES/SES team has developed heat and water balances for conventional thermoelectric power plants to evaluate wetland size requirements, water use, and comparative cooling technology costs. The ecological literature on organism tolerances to heated waters was used to understand the range of ecological outcomes achievable in created wetlands. This study suggests that wetlands and water harvesting can provide a practical and cost-effective strategy to augment cooling waters for thermoelectric power plants in many geographic settings of the United States, particularly east of the 100th meridian, and in coastal and riverine locations. The study concluded that constructed wetlands can have significant positive

  8. A Study on Effect of Water Background on Canopy Spectral of Wetland Aquatic Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guang; Tang, Peng; Cai Zhan-qing; Wang, Tian-tian; Xu, Jun-feng

    2015-10-01

    Aquatic vegetation is the core of the wetland ecosystem, and it's also the main factor influencing the wetland ecosystem functions. In recent years, satellite remote sensing technology has been widely used in the investigation, classification and protection fields of wetland vegetation resources. Because of its unique growth environment, aquatic vegetation, the canopy spectrum of aquatic vegetation will be affected by water background elements including air-water interface, plankton in the water, sediment content, transparency, water depth, sediment, and the other optically active ingredients. When the remote sensing technology for wetland aquatic vegetation canopy spectral studies, should be considered the growth environment differences between aquatic and terrestrial vegetation. However, previous studies did not get the attention it deserves. This paper choose a typical water plant (Iris tentorium Maxim) as the research object, simulate the growth environment of wetland aquatic plants, use the feature spectrometer measurements the spectral reflectance of Iris tentorium Maxim vegetation canopy under different water depth gradient background (400-2 400 nm). Experimental results show that there is a significant negative correlation between background water depth and Iris canopy reflectance. Visible light band absolute correlation coefficient is above 0.9, near infrared band absolute correlation coefficient is above 0.8. In visible light and near infrared band, with water depth increases, the Iris canopy reflectance decreases obviously. Finally based on the highest correlation band of visible light and near infrared region (505, 717, 1 075 and 2 383 nm) established the linear equation between background water depth and the canopy reflectance, obtained the related parameters.

  9. Wetland Survey of Selected Areas in the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Area of Responsibilty, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosensteel

    1997-01-01

    This document was prepared to summarize wetland surveys performed in the Y- 1 2 Plant area of responsibility in June and July 1994. Wetland surveys were conducted in three areas within the Oak Ridge Y- 12 Plant area of responsibility in June and July 1994: the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) Operable Unit (OU), part of the Bear Creek Valley OU (the upper watershed of Bear Creek from the culvert under Bear Creek Road upstream through the Y-12 West End Environmental Management Area, and the catchment of Bear Creek North Tributary 1), and part of Chestnut Ridge OU 2 (the McCoy Branch area south of Bethel Valley Road). Using the criteria and methods set forth in the Wetlands Delineation Manual, 18 wetland areas were identified in the 3 areas surveyed; these areas were classified according to the system developed by Cowardin. Fourteen wetlands and one wetland/pond area that are associated with disturbed or remnant stream channels and seeps were identified in the UEFPC OU. Three wetlands were identified in the Bear Creek Valley OU portion of the survey area. One wetland was identified in the riparian zone of McCoy Branch in the southern portion of Chestnut Ridge OU 2.

  10. Root porosity and radial oxygen loss related to arsenic tolerance and uptake in wetland plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H. [State Key Laboratory for Bio-control, and School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Ye, Z.H., E-mail: lssyzhh@mail.sysu.edu.c [State Key Laboratory for Bio-control, and School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wei, Z.J. [School of Information and Technology, Guangdong University of Foreign Studies, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Wong, M.H., E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.h [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)

    2011-01-15

    The rates of radial oxygen loss (ROL), root porosity, concentrations of arsenic (As), iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) in shoot and root tissues and on root surfaces, As tolerances, and their relationships in different wetland plants were investigated based on a hydroponic experiment (control, 0.8, 1.6 mg As L{sup -1}) and a soil pot trail (control, 60 mg As kg{sup -1}). The results revealed that wetland plants showed great differences in root porosity (9-64%), rates of ROL (55-1750 mmo1 O{sub 2} kg{sup -1} root d.w. d{sup -1}), As uptake (e.g., 8.8-151 mg kg{sup -1} in shoots in 0.8 mg As L{sup -1} treatment), translocation factor (2.1-47% in 0.8 mg As L{sup -1}) and tolerance (29-106% in 0.8 mg As L{sup -1}). Wetland plants with higher rates of ROL and root porosity tended to form more Fe/Mn plaque, possess higher As tolerance, higher concentrations of As on root surfaces and a lower As translocation factor so decreasing As toxicity. - Research highlights: There is significant correlation between the porosity of roots and rates of ROL. The rates of ROL are significantly correlated with tolerance indices and concentrations of As, Fe, Mn on root surface. The rates of ROL is negatively correlated with As translocation factor. - Wetland plants with high rates of ROL tended to form more Fe plaque on root surfaces and possess higher As tolerance.

  11. Ecological Effects of Roads on the Plant Diversity of Coastal Wetland in the Yellow River Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunzhao Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The 26 sample sites in 7 study plots adjacent to asphalt road and earth road in coastal wetland in the Yellow River Delta were selected to quantify plant diversity using quadrat sampling method in plant bloom phase of July and August 2012. The indice of βT and Jaccard’s coefficient were applied to evaluate the species diversity. The results showed that the plant diversities and alien plants were high in the range of 0–20 m to the road verge. There were more exotics and halophytes in plots of asphalt roadside than that of earth roadside. However, proportion of halophytes in habitats of asphalt roadsides was lower than that of earth roadside. By comparing β-diversity, there were more common species in the asphalt roadsides than that in the earth roadsides. The similarity of plant communities in studied plots of asphalt roadsides and earth roadsides increased with increasing the distance to road verge. The effect range of roads for plant diversity in study region was about 20 m to road verge. Our results indicate that the construction and maintenance of roads in wetland could increase the plant species diversities of communities and risk of alien species invasion.

  12. Methane cycling in alpine wetlands - an interplay of microbial communities and vascular plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberger, Ruth; Cheema, Simrita; Zeyer, Josef

    2014-05-01

    Wetland environments play an important role for the global climate, as they represent a major terrestrial carbon store. These environments are potential sinks for atmospheric carbon due to reduced decomposition rates of plant material in the waterlogged, anoxic subsurface. In contrast, wetlands are also a major source of the highly potent greenhouse gas methane (CH4), which is produced in the anoxic zones through methanogenic archaea (methanogens) degrading organic matter. The CH4 emitted into the pore water diffuses upwards towards the surface, and is partially oxidized in the oxic zones by aerobic methanotrophic bacteria (methanotrophs) before reaching the atmosphere. Nonetheless, global emissions of atmospheric CH4 from natural wetlands are estimated to range from 100 to 230 Tg a-1. Natural wetlands can be found around the globe, and are also common in temperate-cold climates in the Northern hemisphere. Methane release from these environments is influenced by many factors (e.g., vegetation, water table, temperature, pH) and shows high seasonal and spatial variability. To comprehend these variations and further predict potential responses to climate change, the biotic and abiotic processes involved in CH4 turnover need to be understood in detail. Many research projects focus on (sub-)arctic wetland areas, while studies on CH4 emissions from alpine wetlands are scarce, despite similar processes occurring in these different regions. Recently, we conducted a survey of 14 wetlands (i.e., fens vegetated with vascular plants) located in the Swiss Alps, showing CH4 emissions between 74 ± 43 and 711 ± 212 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 (Franchini et al., in press). A detailed study of one fen also revealed that CH4 emission was highest immediately after snowmelt, followed by a decrease in CH4 emission throughout the snow-free period (Liebner et al., 2012). Even though the CH4 cycle is largely driven by microbially mediated processes, vascular plants also play a crucial role in CH4

  13. [Effect of flooding time length on mycorrhizal colonization of three AM fungi in two wetland plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lei-Meng; Wang, Peng-Teng; Wang, Shu-Guang

    2014-01-01

    In order to provide information for elucidating effect of flooding on the formation and function of AM in wetland plants, three AM fungi (Glomus intraradices, Glomus versiforme, Glomus etunicatum) were used to investigate the effects of flooding time length on their colonization in cattail (Typha orientalis) and rice (Oryza sativa L. ). The results showed that the mycorrhizal colonization rate (MCR) presented downtrend with increasing flooding time length. In cattail, MCR of the fungus F3 was higher than those of fungi F1 and F2, but no significant difference in MCR was found between fungi F1 and F2. In rice, the MCRs of fungi F2 and F3 were higher than that of E1. In both plants, the proportional frequency of hyphae was the highest while the proportional frequency of arbuscules and vesicles was very low in all treatments, indicating that hyphal colonization was the main route for AM formation. The proportional frequency of hyphae in cattail increased with the flooding time length, but no significant trend was observed in rice plant. The proportional frequency of arhuscules decreased with the increase of flooding time, and was the highest in the treatment without flooding (treatment IV). The number of spores produced by AM fungi increased with increasing flooding time, and reached the highest in the treatment of long time flooding (treatment I). In the same treatment, the fungus F3 produced more spores than fungi F1 and F2. Changes in wet weight of the two plants showed that AM could increase cattail growth under flooding, hut little effect on rice growth was found. It is concluded that flooding time length significantly affected the mycorrhizal colonization rate and the proportional frequency of colonization. AM could enhance the growth of wetland plant, but this depends on the mycorrhizal dependence of host plant on AM fungi. Therefore, flooding time length should be considered in the inoculation of wetland plants with AM fungi.

  14. Phytoaccumulation of trace elements by wetland plants: 3. Uptake and accumulation of ten trace elements by twelve plant species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, J.H.; Zayed, A.; Zhu, Y.L.; Yu, M.; Terry, N.

    1999-10-01

    Interest is increasing in using wetland plants in constructed wetlands to remove toxic elements from polluted wastewater. To identify those wetland plants that hyperaccumulate trace elements, 12 plant species were tested for their efficiency to bioconcentrate 10 potentially toxic trace elements including As, b, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, and Se. Individual plants were grown under carefully controlled conditions and supplied with 1 mg L{sup {minus}1} of each trace element individually for 10 d. Except B, all elements accumulated to much higher concentrations in roots than in shoots. Highest shoot tissue concentrations (mg kg{sup {minus}1} DW) of the various trace elements were attained by the following species: umbrella plant (Cyperus alternifolius L.) for Mn (198) and Cr (44); water zinnia (Wedelia trilobata Hitchc.) for Cd (148) and Ni (80); smartweed (Polygonum hydropiperoides Michx.) for Cu (95) and Pb (64); water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes L.) for Hg (92), As (34), and Se (39); and mare's tail (hippuris vulgaris L.) for B (1132). Whereas, the following species attained the highest root tissue concentrations (mg kg{sup {minus}1} DW); stripped rush (Baumia rubiginosa) for Mn (1683); parrot's feather (Myriophyllum brasiliense Camb.) for Cd (1426) and Ni (1077); water lettuce for Cu (1038), Hg (1217), and As (177); smartweed for Cr (2980) and Pb (1882); mare's tail for B (1277); and monkey flower (Mimulus guttatus Fisch.) for Se (384). From a phytoremediation perspective, smartweed was probably the best plant species for trace element removal from wastewater due to its faster growth and higher plant density.

  15. Moist Soil Management of Wetland Impoundments for Plants and Invertebrates

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In year’s past an impoundment was drained (a drawdown) when floating-leaved plants covered more than 50% of the water area. Drawdowns encourage beneficial moist soil...

  16. Metal and metalloid removal in constructed wetlands, with emphasis on the importance of plants and standardized measurements: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchand, L., E-mail: lilian.marchand@hotmail.f [UMR BIOGECO INRA 1202, Ecologie des communautes, Universite Bordeaux 1, Bat B8 RDC Est, Avenue des facultes, F-33405 Talence (France); Mench, M. [UMR BIOGECO INRA 1202, Ecologie des communautes, Universite Bordeaux 1, Bat B8 RDC Est, Avenue des facultes, F-33405 Talence (France); Jacob, D.L.; Otte, M.L. [Wet Ecosystem Research Group, Department of Biological Sciences, NDSU Dept. 2715, P.O. Box 6050, Fargo, ND 58108-6050 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    This review integrates knowledge on the removal of metals and metalloids from contaminated waters in constructed wetlands and offers insight into future R and D priorities. Metal removal processes in wetlands are described. Based on 21 papers, the roles and impacts on efficiency of plants in constructed wetlands are discussed. The effects of plant ecotypes and class (monocots, dicots) and of system size on metal removal are addressed. Metal removal rates in wetlands depend on the type of element (Hg > Mn > Fe = Cd > Pb = Cr > Zn = Cu > Al > Ni > As), their ionic forms, substrate conditions, season, and plant species. Standardized procedures and data are lacking for efficiently comparing properties of plants and substrates. We propose a new index, the relative treatment efficiency index (RTEI), to quantify treatment impacts on metal removal in constructed wetlands. Further research is needed on key components, such as effects of differences in plant ecotypes and microbial communities, in order to enhance metal removal efficiency. - A new index, the relative treatment efficiency index (RTEI), to quantify treatment impacts on metal and metalloid removal in constructed wetlands.

  17. Summer dormancy and winter growth: root survival strategy in a perennial monocotyledon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shane, Michael W; McCully, Margaret E; Canny, Martin J; Pate, John S; Ngo, Hai; Mathesius, Ulrike; Cawthray, Gregory R; Lambers, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Here, we tested the alternation of root summer dormancy and winter growth as a critical survival strategy for a long-lived monocotyledon (Restionaceae) adapted to harsh seasonal extremes of Mediterranean southwest Western Australia. Measurements of growth and the results of comparative studies of the physiology, water content, metabolites, osmotic adjustments, and proteomics of the dormant and growing perennial roots of Lyginia barbata (Restionaceae) were assessed in field-grown plants. Formation of dormant roots occurred before the onset of summer extremes. They resumed growth (average 2.3 mm d(-1)) the following winter to eventually reach depths of 2-4 m. Compared with winter-growing roots, summer dormant roots had decreased respiration and protein concentration and c. 70% water content, sustained by sand-sheaths, osmotic adjustment and presumably hydraulic redistribution. Concentrations of compatible solutes (e.g. sucrose and proline) were significantly greater during dormancy, presumably mitigating the effects of heat and drought. Fifteen root proteins showed differential abundance and were correlated with either winter growth or summer dormancy. None matched currently available libraries. The specific features of the root dormancy strategy of L. barbata revealed in this study are likely to be important to understanding similar behaviour in roots of many long-lived monocotyledons, including overwintering and oversummering crop species.

  18. Estimating seed production of common plants in seasonally flooded wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubhan, Murray K.; Fredrickson, Leigh H.

    1992-01-01

    We developed a technique to quickly estimate seed production of common moist-soil plants because previously reported methods were too time consuming to be of value to waterfowl resource managers. Eleven regression equations were developed for 13 plant species in the upper Mississippi Alluvial Valley and the Rio Grande Valley, New Mexico. Estimated time to collect a sample was 1.5 minutes. Easily measured vegetation characteristics such as inflorescence number, inflorescence length, and plant height were used as independent variables to estimate seed mass of known mass samples. Coefficients of determination (R2) ranged from 0.79 for rice flatsedge (Cyperus iria) to 0.96 for smartweeds (Polygonum spp.). The accuracy and precision of equations tested using independent data indicate that the technique can be used to detect changes in seed mass of moist-soil plants in seasonally flooded impoundments. Because of the small sample area per plot used (0.0625 m2) and changes in the density of plants within an impoundment, we recommend that as many samples as economically feasible be collected to reliably estimate seed production.

  19. Nitrogen removal performance in planted and unplanted horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands treating different influent COD/N ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Ding, Yi; Ullman, Jeffrey L; Ambrose, Richard F; Wang, Yuhui; Song, Xinshan; Zhao, Zhimiao

    2016-05-01

    Microcosm horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSSFCWs) were used to examine the impacts of vegetation on nitrogen dynamics treating different influent COD/N ratios (1:1, 4:1, and 8:1). An increase in the COD/N ratio led to increased reductions in NO3 and total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) in planted and unplanted wetlands, but diminished removal of NH4. The HSSFCW planted with Canna indica L. exhibited a significant reduction in NH4 compared to the unplanted system, particularly in the active root zone where NH4 removal performance increased by up to 26 % at the COD/N ratio of 8:1. There was no significant difference in NO3 removal between the planted and unplanted wetlands. TIN removal efficiency in the planted wetland increased with COD/N ratios, which was likely influenced by plant uptake. NH4 reductions were greater in planted wetland at the 20- and 40-cm depths while NO3 reductions were uniformly greater with depth in all cases, but no statistical difference was impacted by depth on TIN removal. These findings show that planting a HSSFCW can provide some benefit in reducing nitrogen loads in effluents, but only when a sufficient carbon source is present.

  20. Greenhouse gas production and efficiency of planted and artificially aerated constructed wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maltais-Landry, Gabriel [Departement des sciences biologiques, Universite de Montreal 90, rue Vincent-D' Indy, Montreal (Ciheam), H2V 2S9 (Canada); Institut de recherche en biologie vegetale, Universite de Montreal 4101, rue Sherbrooke Est, Montreal (Ciheam), H1X 2B2 (Canada)], E-mail: gabriel.maltais-landry@umontreal.ca; Maranger, Roxane [Departement des sciences biologiques, Universite de Montreal 90, rue Vincent-D' Indy, Montreal (Ciheam), H2V 2S9 (Canada)], E-mail: r.maranger@umontreal.ca; Brisson, Jacques [Departement des sciences biologiques, Universite de Montreal 90, rue Vincent-D' Indy, Montreal (Ciheam), H2V 2S9 (Canada); Institut de recherche en biologie vegetale, Universite de Montreal 4101, rue Sherbrooke Est, Montreal (Ciheam), H1X 2B2 (Canada)], E-mail: jacques.brisson@umontreal.ca; Chazarenc, Florent [Institut de recherche en biologie vegetale, Universite de Montreal 4101, rue Sherbrooke Est, Montreal (Ciheam), H1X 2B2 (Canada)

    2009-03-15

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by constructed wetlands (CWs) could mitigate the environmental benefits of nutrient removal in these man-made ecosystems. We studied the effect of 3 different macrophyte species and artificial aeration on the rates of nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}) production in CW mesocosms over three seasons. CW emitted 2-10 times more GHG than natural wetlands. Overall, CH{sub 4} was the most important GHG emitted in unplanted treatments. Oxygen availability through artificial aeration reduced CH{sub 4} fluxes. Plant presence also decreased CH{sub 4} fluxes but favoured CO{sub 2} production. Nitrous oxide had a minor contribution to global warming potential (GWP < 15%). The introduction of oxygen through artificial aeration combined with plant presence, particularly Typha angustifolia, had the overall best performance among the treatments tested in this study, including lowest GWP, greatest nutrient removal, and best hydraulic properties. - Methane is the main greenhouse gas produced in constructed wetlands and oxygen availability is the main factor controlling fluxes.

  1. Woody plant encroachment of grasslands: a comparison of terrestrial and wetland settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saintilan, Neil; Rogers, Kerrylee

    2015-02-01

    A global trend of woody plant encroachment of terrestrial grasslands is co-incident with woody plant encroachment of wetland in freshwater and saline intertidal settings. There are several arguments for considering tree encroachment of wetlands in the context of woody shrub encroachment of grassland biomes. In both cases, delimitation of woody shrubs at regional scales is set by temperature thresholds for poleward extent, and by aridity within temperature limits. Latitudinal expansion has been observed for terrestrial woody shrubs and mangroves, following recent warming, but most expansion and thickening has been due to the occupation of previously water-limited grassland/saltmarsh environments. Increases in atmospheric CO₂, may facilitate the recruitment of trees in terrestrial and wetland settings. Improved water relations, a mechanism that would predict higher soil moisture in grasslands and saltmarshes, and also an enhanced capacity to survive arid conditions, reinforces local mechanisms of change. The expansion of woody shrubs and mangroves provides a negative feedback on elevated atmospheric CO₂ by increasing carbon sequestration in grassland and saltmarsh, and is a significant carbon sink globally. These broad-scale vegetation shifts may represent a new stable state, reinforced by positive feedbacks between global change drivers and endogenic mechanisms of persistence in the landscape.

  2. Internal aeration development and the zonation of plants in wetlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorrell, Brian Keith

    support many species which have root aeration adaptations but are otherwise unspecialised for aquatic life. Permanent standing water is a much greater challenge for plants, and survival here is restricted to species with special adaptations to their oxygen transport physiology such as the development...

  3. Loss of plant biodiversity over a seven-year period in two constructed wetlands in Central New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Miranda A; Fickbohm, Scott; Zhu, Weixing

    2013-05-01

    Since wetland construction projects are becoming more commonplace, meaningful follow-up studies are needed to evaluate how these systems change over time. To that end, the objective of our study was to examine the temporal changes in plant community composition and water chemistry in two constructed wetlands. We investigated two wetland sites that were constructed in 2003 in northern Otsego County, NY, a county that is largely dominated by agriculture. Site 1 was previously an active cow pasture and site 2 was previously a wet meadow surrounded by agricultural fields. No active plant introduction was made during the construction; however, both sites were located in areas with many remnant wetlands and were connected to through-flowing streams. In 2004 (Year 1) and 2010 (Year 7), the plant community composition and nitrogen retention were assessed. We found that both sites experienced site-wide declines in plant species richness, including the loss of upland and facultative upland species and the unanticipated loss of facultative wetland and some obligate species. We propose that high water levels, which, at their maximum depth were >1.5 m deeper than in Year 1, maintained by landowners in the years after the initial survey, may have been responsible for the unexpected loss of wetland species. We also found that site 1 exhibited considerable nitrogen retention in both Year 1 and Year 7; however, N concentrations were low at site 2 in both years.

  4. Influence of plants on the reduction of hexavalent chromium in wetland sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zazo, Juan A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid, 28049 (Spain)], E-mail: juan.zazo@uam.es; Paull, Jeffery S.; Jaffe, Peter R. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2008-11-15

    This work addresses the effect that plants (Typha latifolia and Carex lurida) have on the reduction of Cr(VI) in wetland sediments. Experiments were carried out using tubular microcosms, where chemical species were monitored along the longitudinal flow axis. Cr(VI) removal was enhanced by the presence of plants. This is explained by a decrease in the redox potential promoted by organic root exudates released by plants. Under these conditions sulfate reduction is enhanced, increasing the concentration of sulfide species in the sediment pore water, which reduce Cr(VI). Evapotranspiration induced by plants also contributed to enhance the reduction of Cr(VI) by concentrating all chemical species in the sediment pore water. Both exudates release and evapotranspiration have a diurnal component that affects Cr(VI) reduction. Concentration profiles were fitted to a kinetic model linking sulfide and Cr(VI) concentrations corrected for evapotranspiration. This expression captures both the longitudinal as well as the diurnal Cr(VI) concentration profiles. - The presence of plants enhances the reduction of Cr(VI) in wetland sediments by modifying the governing biogeochemical cycle.

  5. Treatment of domestic wastewater by vertical flow constructed wetland planted with umbrella sedge and Vetiver grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantawanichkul, Suwasa; Sattayapanich, Somsiri; van Dien, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of wastewater treatment by vertical flow constructed wetland systems under different hydraulic loading rates (HLR). The comparison of two types of plants, Cyperus alternifolius (Umbrella sedge) and Vetiveria zizanioides (Vetiver grass), was also conducted. In this study, six circular concrete tanks (diameter 0.8 m) were filled with fine sand and gravel to the depth of 1.23 m. Three tanks were planted with Umbrella sedge and the other three tanks were planted with Vetiver grass. Settled domestic wastewater from Chiang Mai University (chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH4(+)-N and suspended solids (SS) of 127.1, 27.4 and 29.5 mg/L on average, respectively) was intermittently applied for 45 min and rested for 3 h 15 min. The HLR of each tank was controlled at 20, 29 and 40 cm/d. It was found that the removal efficiency of the Umbrella sedge systems was higher than the Vetiver grass systems for every parameter, and the lowest HLR provided the maximum treatment efficiency. The removal efficiency of COD and nitrogen in terms of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) was 76 and 65% at 20 cm/d HLR for Umbrella sedge compared to only 67 and 56% for Vetiver grass. Nitrogen accumulation in plant biomass was also higher in Umbrella sedge than in Vetiver grass in every HLR. Umbrella sedge was thus proved to be a suitable constructed wetland plant in tropical climates.

  6. Physical gills prevent drowning of many wetland insects, spiders and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Ole; Colmer, Timothy D

    2012-03-01

    Insects, spiders and plants risk drowning in their wetland habitats. The slow diffusion of O(2) can cause asphyxiation when underwater, as O(2) supply cannot meet respiratory demands. Some animals and plants have found a common solution to the major challenge: how to breathe underwater with respiratory systems evolved for use in air? Hydrophobic surfaces on their bodies possess gas films that act as a 'physical gill' to collect O(2) when underwater and thus sustain respiration. In aquatic insects, this feature/process has been termed 'plastron respiration'. Here, we demonstrate the similarities in function between underwater respiration of insect (Aphelocheirus aestivalis) plastrons and gas films on leaves of wetland plants (Phalaris arundinacea) and also show the importance of these physical gills by the resulting changes upon their removal. The gas films provide an enlarged gas-water interface to enhance O(2) uptake underwater that is above that if only spiracles (insects) or stomata (plants) provided the gas-phase contact with the water. Body-surface gas films contribute to the survival of many insects, spiders and plants in aquatic and flood-prone environments.

  7. Evapotranspiration from pilot-scale constructed wetlands planted with Phragmites australis in a Mediterranean environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Mirco; Toscano, Attilio

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the results of evapotranspiration (ET) experiments carried out in Southern Italy (Sicily) in a pilot-scale constructed wetland (CW) made of a combination of vegetated (Phragmites australis) and unvegetated sub-surface flow beds. Domestic wastewater from a conventional wastewater treatment plant was used to fill the beds. Microclimate data was gathered from an automatic weather station close to the experimental plant. From June to November 2009 and from April to November 2010, ET values were measured as the amount of water needed to restore the initial volume in the beds after a certain period. Cumulative reference evapotranspiration (ET(0)) was similar to the cumulative ET measured in the beds without vegetation (ET(con)), while the Phragmites ET (ET (phr) ) was significantly higher underlining the effect of the vegetation. The plant coefficient of P. australis (K(p)) was very high (up to 8.5 in August 2009) compared to the typical K(c) for agricultural crops suggesting that the wetland environment was subjected to strong "clothesline" and "oasis" effects. According to the FAO 56 approach, K(p) shows different patterns and values in relation to growth stages correlating significantly to stem density, plant height and total leaves. The mean Water Use Efficiency (WUE) value of P. australis was quite low, about 2.27 g L(-1), probably due to the unlimited water availability and the lack of the plant's physiological adaptations to water conservation. The results provide useful and valid information for estimating ET rates in small-scale constructed wetlands since ET is a relevant issue in arid and semiarid regions. In these areas CW feasibility for wastewater treatment and reuse should also be carefully evaluated for macrophytes in relation to their WUE values.

  8. Relative importance of plant uptake and plant associated denitrification for removal of nitrogen from mine drainage in sub-arctic wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallin, Sara; Hellman, Maria; Choudhury, Maidul I; Ecke, Frauke

    2015-11-15

    Reactive nitrogen (N) species released from undetonated ammonium-nitrate based explosives used in mining or other blasting operations are an emerging environmental problem. Wetlands are frequently used to treat N-contaminated water in temperate climate, but knowledge on plant-microbial interactions and treatment potential in sub-arctic wetlands is limited. Here, we compare the relative importance of plant uptake and denitrification among five plant species commonly occurring in sub-arctic wetlands for removal of N in nitrate-rich mine drainage in northern Sweden. Nitrogen uptake and plant associated potential denitrification activity and genetic potential for denitrification based on quantitative PCR of the denitrification genes nirS, nirK, nosZI and nosZII were determined in plants growing both in situ and cultivated in a growth chamber. The growth chamber and in situ studies generated similar results, suggesting high relevance and applicability of results from growth chamber experiments. We identified denitrification as the dominating pathway for N-removal and abundances of denitrification genes were strong indicators of plant associated denitrification activity. The magnitude and direction of the effect differed among the plant species, with the aquatic moss Drepanocladus fluitans showing exceptionally high ratios between denitrification and uptake rates, compared to the other species. However, to acquire realistic estimates of N-removal potential of specific wetlands and their associated plant species, the total plant biomass needs to be considered. The species-specific plant N-uptake and abundance of denitrification genes on the root or plant surfaces were affected by the presence of other plant species, which show that both multi- and inter-trophic interactions are occurring. Future studies on N-removal potential of wetland plant species should consider how to best exploit these interactions in sub-arctic wetlands.

  9. Use of macrophyte plants, sand & gravel materials in constructed wetlands for greywater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qomariyah, S.; Ramelan, AH; Sobriyah; Setyono, P.

    2017-02-01

    Greywater discharged without any treatments into drainage channels or natural water bodies will lead to environmental degradation and health risk. Local macrophyte plants combined with natural materials of sand and gravel have been used in a system of constructed wetland for the treatment of the greywater. This paper presents the results of some studies of the system carried out in Indonesia, Thailand, and Costa Rica. The studies demonstrate the success of the constructed wetland systems in removing some pollutants of BOD, COD, TSS, pathogen, and detergent. The studies resulted in the treated water in a level of treatment that fulfils the requirement of the local standards for wastewater reuse as irrigation water, fishery, or other outdoor needs.

  10. Plant communities, wetlands and landscapes of the Parque Nacional de Banhine, Moçambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stalmans

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The Parque Nacional de Banhine (Banhine National Park was proclaimed during 1972. It covers 600 000 ha in Moçambique to the east of the Limpopo River. Until recently, this park, originally and popularly known as the ‘Serengeti of Moçambique’, was characterised by neglect and illegal hunting that caused the demise of most of its large wildlife. New initiatives aimed at rehabilitating the park have been launched within the scope of the Greater Limpopo Transfrontier Park. A vegetation map was required as input to its management plan. The major objectives of the study were firstly to understand the environmental determinants of the vegetation, secondly to identify and describe individual plant communities in terms of species composition and structure and thirdly to delineate landscapes in terms of their plant community and wetland make-up, environmental determinants and distribution. A combination of fieldwork and analysis of LANDSAT satellite imagery was used. A total of 115 sample plots were surveyed. Another 222 sample points were briefly assessed from the air to establish the extent of the different landscapes. The ordination results clearly indicate the overriding importance of moisture availability in determining vegetation composition in the Parque Nacional de Banhine. Eleven distinct plant communities were recognised. They are described in terms of their structure, composition and distribution. These plant communities have strong affinities to a number of communities found in the Limpopo National Park to the west. The sandveld community is relatively the most species-rich of all communities. Different combinations of these plant communities can be grouped in five major landscapes, namely the Wetland, Grassland, Mopane, Sandveld and Androstachys landscape. These different landscapes hold six different wetland types as defined by the RAMSAR classification. The landscapes with their individual plant communities and wetland types represent

  11. Plants accumulating heavy metals in the Danube River wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matache, Marius L; Marin, Constantin; Rozylowicz, Laurentiu; Tudorache, Alin

    2013-12-20

    We present herein our results regarding the accumulation of four heavy metals (copper, cadmium, lead, and zinc) in four aquatic species plants (Ceratophyllum demersum, Potamogeton pectinatus, Potamogeton lucens, Potamogeton perfoliatus) collected from the Danube River, South-Western part of Romania and their possible use as indicators of aquatic ecosystems pollution with heavy metals. Elements concentration from the vegetal material was determined through Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry. The species were chosen based on their previous use as bioindicators in aquatic ecosystems and due to the fact they are one of the most frequent aquatic plant species of the Danube River ecosystems within the Iron Gates Natural Park. Highest amounts are recorded for Ceratophyllum demersum (3.52 μg/g for Cd; 22.71 μg/g for Cu; 20.06 μg/g for Pb; 104.23 μg/g for Zn). Among the Potamogeton species, the highest amounts of heavy metals are recorded in Potamogeton perfoliatus (1.88 μg/g for Cd; 13.14 μg/g for Cu; 13.32 μg/g for Pb; 57.96 μg/g for Zn). The sequence for the bioconcentration factors (BCFs) calculated in order to describe the accumulation of the four metals is Cd > Zn > Pb > Cu. Increase of the zinc concentration determines an increase of the cadmium concentration (Spearman rho=0.40, p=0.02). Despite the low ambiental levels of heavy metals, the four aquatic plants have the ability to accumulate significant amounts, which make them useful as biological indicators. BCF value for Ceratophyllum demersum indicated this species as a cadmium hyperaccumulator.

  12. Ecosystem Development after Mangrove Wetland Creation: Plant-Soil Change across a 20-year Chronosequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangrove wetland restoration and creation efforts are increasingly proposed as mechanisms to compensate for mangrove wetland loss. However, ecosystem development and functional equivalence in restored and created mangrove wetlands is poorly understood. We compared a 20-yr chrono...

  13. Purification ability and carbon dioxide flux from surface flow constructed wetlands treating sewage treatment plant effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiming; Lin, Li; Zhang, Jian; Guo, Wenshan; Liang, Shuang; Liu, Hai

    2016-11-01

    In this study, a two-year experiment was carried out to investigate variation of carbon dioxide (CO2) flux from free water surface constructed wetlands (FWS CW) systems treating sewage treatment plant effluent, and treatment performance was also evaluated. The better 74.6-76.6% COD, 92.7-94.4% NH4(+)-N, 60.1-84.7% TN and 49.3-70.7% TP removal efficiencies were achieved in planted CW systems compared with unplanted systems. The planted CW was a net CO2 sink, while the unplanted CW was a net CO2 source in the entire study period. An obvious annual and seasonal variability of CO2 fluxes from different wetland systems was also presented with the average CO2 flux ranging from -592.83mgm(-2)h(-1) to 553.91mgm(-2)h(-1) during 2012-2013. In addition, the net exchange of CO2 between CW systems and the atmosphere was significantly affected by air temperature, and the presence of plants also had the significant effect on total CO2 emissions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Metal and metalloid removal in constructed wetlands, with emphasis on the importance of plants and standardized measurements: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, L; Mench, M; Jacob, D L; Otte, M L

    2010-12-01

    This review integrates knowledge on the removal of metals and metalloids from contaminated waters in constructed wetlands and offers insight into future R&D priorities. Metal removal processes in wetlands are described. Based on 21 papers, the roles and impacts on efficiency of plants in constructed wetlands are discussed. The effects of plant ecotypes and class (monocots, dicots) and of system size on metal removal are addressed. Metal removal rates in wetlands depend on the type of element (Hg > Mn > Fe = Cd > Pb = Cr > Zn = Cu > Al > Ni > As), their ionic forms, substrate conditions, season, and plant species. Standardized procedures and data are lacking for efficiently comparing properties of plants and substrates. We propose a new index, the relative treatment efficiency index (RTEI), to quantify treatment impacts on metal removal in constructed wetlands. Further research is needed on key components, such as effects of differences in plant ecotypes and microbial communities, in order to enhance metal removal efficiency.

  15. Temperature and wetland plant species effects on wastewater treatment and root zone oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Winthrop C; Hook, Paul B; Biederman, Joel A; Stein, Otto R

    2002-01-01

    Constructed wetlands are widely used for wastewater treatment, but there is little information on processes affecting their performance in cold climates, effects of plants on seasonal performance, or plant selection for cold regions. We evaluated the effects of three plant species on seasonal removal of dissolved organic matter (OM) (measured by chemical oxygen demand and dissolved organic carbon) and root zone oxidation status (measured by redox potential [Eh] and sulfate [SO4(2-)]) in subsurface-flow wetland (SSW) microcosms. A series of 20-d incubations of simulated wastewater was conducted during a 28-mo greenhouse study at temperatures from 4 to 24 degrees C. Presence and species of plants strongly affected seasonal differences in OM removal and root zone oxidation. All plants enhanced OM removal compared with unplanted controls, but plant effects and differences among species were much greater at 4 degrees C, during dormancy, than at 24 degrees C, during the growing season. Low temperatures were associated with decreased OM removal in unplanted controls and broadleaf cattail (Typha latifolia L.) microcosms and with increased removal in beaked sedge (Carex rostrata Stokes) and hardstem bulrush [Schoenoplectus acutus (Muhl. ex Bigelow) A. & D. Löve var. acutus] microcosms. Differences in OM removal corresponded to species' apparent abilities to increase root zone oxygen supply. Sedge and bulrush significantly raised Eh values and SO4(2-) concentrations, particularly at 4 degrees C. These results add to evidence that SSWs can be effective in cold climates and suggest that plant species selection may be especially important to optimizing SSW performance in cold climates.

  16. Rhizofiltration of a Heavy metal (lead) containing wastewater using the wetland plant carex pendula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Brijesh K. [Environmental Hydrogeology Group, Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Geosciences, University of Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Department of Civil Engineering, New Delhi (India); Siebel, Maarten A.; Bruggen, Johan J.A. van [Department of Environmental Resources, UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Delft (Netherlands)

    2011-05-15

    Rhizofiltration is a subset technique of phytoremediation which refers to the approach of using plant biomass for removing contaminants, primarily toxic metals, from polluted water. The effective implementation of this in situ remediation technology requires experimental as well as conceptual insight of plant-water interactions that control the extraction of targeted metal from polluted water resources. Therefore, pot and simulation experiments are used in this study to investigate the rhizofiltration of a lead containing wastewater using plants of Carex pendula, a common wetland plant found in Europe. The metal contaminant extraction along with plant growth and water uptake rates from a wastewater having varying Pb concentration is studied experimentally for 2 wk. The temporal distribution of the metal concentration in the wastewater and the accumulated metal in different compartments of C. pendula at the end are analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry. Parameters of the metal uptake kinetics are deduced experimentally for predicting the metal removal by root biomass. Further, mass balance equations coupled with the characterized metal uptake kinetics are used for simulating the metal partitioning from the wastewater to its accumulation in the plant biomass. The simulated metal content in wastewater and plant biomass is compared with the observed data showing a good agreement with the later. Results show that C. pendula accumulates considerable amounts of lead, particularly in root biomass, and can be considered for the cleanup of lead contaminated wastewaters in combination with proper biomass disposal alternatives. Also, the findings can be used for performing further non-hydroponics experiment to mimic the real wetland conditions more closely. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Capacity and mechanisms of ammonium and cadmium sorption on different wetland-plant derived biochars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Xiaoqiang [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Hao, Hulin [Ningbo Raw Water Resource Research Academy, Ningbo (China); Zhang, Changkuan [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); He, Zhenli [Indian River Research and Education Center, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Fort Pierce, FL 34945 (United States); Yang, Xiaoe, E-mail: xyang571@yahoo.com [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between Cd{sup 2+}/NH{sub 4}{sup +} sorption and physicochemical properties of biochars produced from different wetland plants. Biochars from six species of wetland plants (i.e., Canna indica, Pennisetum purpureum Schum, Thalia dealbata, Zizania caduciflora, Phragmites australis and Vetiveria zizanioides) were obtained at 500 °C and characterized, and their sorption for ammonium and cadmium was determined. There were significant differences in elemental composition, functional groups and specific surface area among the biochars derived from different wetland plant species. Sorption of ammonium and cadmium on the biochars could be described by a pseudo second order kinetic model, and the simple Langmuir model fits the isotherm data better than the Freundlich or Temkin model. The C. indica derived biochar had the largest sorption capacity for NH{sub 4}{sup +} and Cd{sup 2+}, with a maximum sorption of 13.35 and 125.8 mg g{sup −1}, respectively. P. purpureum Schum derived biochar had a similar maximum sorption (119.3 mg g{sup −1}) for Cd{sup 2+}. Ammonium sorption was mainly controlled by cation exchange, surface complexation with oxygen-containing functional groups and the formation of magnesium ammonium phosphate compounds, whereas for Cd{sup 2+} sorption, the formation of cadmium phosphate precipitates, cation exchange and binding to oxygen-containing groups were the major possible mechanisms. In addition, the sorption of ammonium and cadmium was not affected by surface area and microporosity of the biochars. - Highlights: • Biochars varied in physicochemical properties and adsorption capacity. • Canna indica derived biochar has a high sorption capacity for Cd{sup 2+}. • NH{sub 4}{sup +} and Cd{sup 2+} sorption on biochars fits a pseudo second order and Langmuir model. • Sorption mechanism is related to complexation, cation exchange and precipitation.

  18. Mapping an invasive plant, Phragmites australis, in coastal wetlands using the EO-1 Hyperion hyperspectral sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengra, B.W.; Johnston, C.A.; Loveland, T.R.

    2007-01-01

    Mapping tools are needed to document the location and extent of Phragmites australis, a tall grass that invades coastal marshes throughout North America, displacing native plant species and degrading wetland habitat. Mapping Phragmites is particularly challenging in the freshwater Great Lakes coastal wetlands due to dynamic lake levels and vegetation diversity. We tested the applicability of Hyperion hyperspectral satellite imagery for mapping Phragmites in wetlands of the west coast of Green Bay in Wisconsin, U.S.A. A reference spectrum created using Hyperion data from several pure Phragmites stands within the image was used with a Spectral Correlation Mapper (SCM) algorithm to create a raster map with values ranging from 0 to 1, where 0 represented the greatest similarity between the reference spectrum and the image spectrum and 1 the least similarity. The final two-class thematic classification predicted monodominant Phragmites covering 3.4% of the study area. Most of this was concentrated in long linear features parallel to the Green Bay shoreline, particularly in areas that had been under water only six years earlier when lake levels were 66??cm higher. An error matrix using spring 2005 field validation points (n = 129) showed good overall accuracy-81.4%. The small size and linear arrangement of Phragmites stands was less than optimal relative to the sensor resolution, and Hyperion's 30??m resolution captured few if any pure pixels. Contemporary Phragmites maps prepared with Hyperion imagery would provide wetland managers with a tool that they currently lack, which could aid attempts to stem the spread of this invasive species. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Predictive occurrence models for coastal wetland plant communities: delineating hydrologic response surfaces with multinomial logistic regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snedden, Gregg A.; Steyer, Gregory D.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding plant community zonation along estuarine stress gradients is critical for effective conservation and restoration of coastal wetland ecosystems. We related the presence of plant community types to estuarine hydrology at 173 sites across coastal Louisiana. Percent relative cover by species was assessed at each site near the end of the growing season in 2008, and hourly water level and salinity were recorded at each site Oct 2007–Sep 2008. Nine plant community types were delineated with k-means clustering, and indicator species were identified for each of the community types with indicator species analysis. An inverse relation between salinity and species diversity was observed. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) effectively segregated the sites across ordination space by community type, and indicated that salinity and tidal amplitude were both important drivers of vegetation composition. Multinomial logistic regression (MLR) and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) were used to predict the probability of occurrence of the nine vegetation communities as a function of salinity and tidal amplitude, and probability surfaces obtained from the MLR model corroborated the CCA results. The weighted kappa statistic, calculated from the confusion matrix of predicted versus actual community types, was 0.7 and indicated good agreement between observed community types and model predictions. Our results suggest that models based on a few key hydrologic variables can be valuable tools for predicting vegetation community development when restoring and managing coastal wetlands.

  20. Nitrous oxide emission from polyculture constructed wetlands: Effect of plant species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yanhua [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, 800 Dong Chuan Road, Min Hang, Shanghai 200240 (China); Inamori, Ryuhei [Faculty of Symbiotic Systems Science, Fukushima University, 1 Kanayagawa, Fukushima 960-1296 (Japan); Kong Hainan [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, 800 Dong Chuan Road, Min Hang, Shanghai 200240 (China)], E-mail: remanda@126.com; Xu Kaiqin [National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan); State Key Laboratory of Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering Science, Wuhan Unviversity, Wuhan 430072 (China); Inamori, Yuhei [Faculty of Symbiotic Systems Science, Fukushima University, 1 Kanayagawa, Fukushima 960-1296 (Japan); Kondo, Takashi [National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan); Zhang Jixiang [School of Economics and Management, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210096 (China)

    2008-03-15

    Loss of nitrogen from the soil-plant system has raised environmental concern. This study assessed the fluxes of nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) in the subsurface flow constructed wetlands (CWs). To better understand the mechanism of N{sub 2}O emission, spatial distribution of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in four kinds of wetlands soil were compared. N{sub 2}O emission data showed large temporal and spatial variation ranging from -5.5 to 32.7 mg N{sub 2}O m{sup -2} d{sup -1}. The highest N{sub 2}O emission occurred in the cell planted with Phragmites australis and Zizania latifolia. Whereas, the lower emission rate were obtained in the cell planted with P. australis and Typha latifolia. These revealed that Z. latifolia stimulated the N{sub 2}O emission. Transportation of more organic matter and oxygen for AOB growth may be the reason. The study of AOB also supported this result, indicating that the root structure of Z. latifolia was favored by AOB for N{sub 2}O formation. - Zizania latifolia has a large contribution to global warming.

  1. Investigation on concentration of elements in wetland sediments and aquatic plants

    OpenAIRE

    H. Janadeleh; A. Hosseini Alhashemi; S.M.B. Nabavi

    2016-01-01

    The major aim of the present study was to investigate element (Fe, Ni, Pb, V, Zn) concentrations in sediment and different tissues of Phragmities australis and Typha latifolia in Hor al-Azim Wetland Southwest Iran. Sampling of sediments and aquatic plants was carried out during spring and summer 2014. Results showed that the mean  concentrations of elements in Phragmities australis  in root and stem-leaf were as follows: Iron:4448 mg/kg, Nickel: 28 mg/kg, Lead:8 mg/kg, Vanadium:10 mg/kg  and ...

  2. Influences of plant type on bacterial and archaeal communities in constructed wetland treating polluted river water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yan; Yi, Hao; Chen, Sili; Zhang, Zhengke; Cui, Kai; Bing, Yongxin; Zhuo, Qiongfang; Li, Bingxin; Xie, Shuguang; Guo, Qingwei

    2016-10-01

    Both bacteria and archaeal communities can play important roles in biogeochemical processes in constructed wetland (CW) system. However, the influence of plant type on microbial community in surface water CW remains unclear. The present study investigated bacterial and archaeal communities in five surface water CW systems with different plant species. The abundance, richness, and diversity of both bacterial and archaeal communities considerably differed in these five CW systems. Compared with the other three CW systems, the CW systems planted with Vetiveria zizanioides or Juncus effusus L. showed much higher bacterial abundance but lower archaeal abundance. Bacteria outnumbered archaea in each CW system. Moreover, the CW systems planted with V. zizanioides or J. effusus L. had relatively lower archaeal but higher bacterial richness and diversity. In each CW system, bacterial community displayed much higher richness and diversity than archaeal community. In addition, a remarkable difference of both bacterial and archaeal community structures was observed in the five studied CW systems. Proteobacteria was the most abundant bacterial group (accounting for 33-60 %). Thaumarchaeota organisms (57 %) predominated in archaeal communities in CW systems planted with V. zizanioides or J. effusus L., while Woesearchaeota (23 or 24 %) and Euryarchaeota (23 or 15 %) were the major archaeal groups in CW systems planted with Cyperus papyrus or Canna indica L. Archaeal community in CW planted with Typha orientalis Presl was mainly composed of unclassified archaea. Therefore, plant type exerted a considerable influence on microbial community in surface water CW system.

  3. Selective depredation of planted hardwood seedlings by wild pigs in a wetland restoration area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, J.J.

    1999-12-17

    Following the planting of several thousand hardwood seedlings in a 69-ha wetland restoration area in west-central South Carolina, wild pigs (Sus scrofa) depredated a large percentage of the young trees. This planting was undertaken as part of a mitigation effort to restore a bottomland hardwood community in the corridor and delta of a third order stream that had been previously impacted by the discharge of heated nuclear reactor effluent. The depredated restoration areas had been pretreated with both herbicide and control burning prior to planting the hardwood seedlings. After discovery of the wild pig damage, these areas were surveyed on foot to assess the magnitude of the depredation on the planted seedling crop. Foraging by the local wild pigs in the pretreatment areas selectively impacted only four of the nine hardwood species used in this restoration effort. Based on the surveys, the remaining five species did not appear to have been impacted at all. A variety of reasons could be used to explain this phenomenon. The pretreatment methodology is thought to have been the primary aspect of the restoration program that initially led the wild pigs to discover the planted seedlings. In addition, it is possible that a combination of other factors associated with odor and taste may have resulted in the selective depredation. Future wetland restoration efforts in areas with wild pigs should consider pretreatment methods and species to be planted. If pretreatment methods and species such as discussed in the present study must be used, then the prior removal of wild pigs from surrounding lands will help prevent depredations by this non-native species.

  4. Plant community, primary productivity, and environmental conditions following wetland re-establishment in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R.L.; Fujii, R.

    2010-01-01

    Wetland restoration can mitigate aerobic decomposition of subsided organic soils, as well as re-establish conditions favorable for carbon storage. Rates of carbon storage result from the balance of inputs and losses, both of which are affected by wetland hydrology. We followed the effect of water depth (25 and 55 cm) on the plant community, primary production, and changes in two re-established wetlands in the Sacramento San-Joaquin River Delta, California for 9 years after flooding to determine how relatively small differences in water depth affect carbon storage rates over time. To estimate annual carbon inputs, plant species cover, standing above- and below-ground plant biomass, and annual biomass turnover rates were measured, and allometric biomass models for Schoenoplectus (Scirpus) acutus and Typha spp., the emergent marsh dominants, were developed. As the wetlands developed, environmental factors, including water temperature, depth, and pH were measured. Emergent marsh vegetation colonized the shallow wetland more rapidly than the deeper wetland. This is important to potential carbon storage because emergent marsh vegetation is more productive, and less labile, than submerged and floating vegetation. Primary production of emergent marsh vegetation ranged from 1.3 to 3.2 kg of carbon per square meter annually; and, mid-season standing live biomass represented about half of the annual primary production. Changes in species composition occurred in both submerged and emergent plant communities as the wetlands matured. Water depth, temperature, and pH were lower in areas with emergent marsh vegetation compared to submerged vegetation, all of which, in turn, can affect carbon cycling and storage rates. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

  5. Nitrogen transformations and retention in planted and artificially aerated constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltais-Landry, Gabriel; Maranger, Roxane; Brisson, Jacques; Chazarenc, Florent

    2009-02-01

    Nitrogen (N) processing in constructed wetlands (CWs) is often variable, and the contribution to N loss and retention by various pathways (nitrification/denitrification, plant uptake and sediment storage) remains unclear. We studied the seasonal variation of the effects of artificial aeration and three different macrophyte species (Phragmites australis, Typha angustifolia and Phalaris arundinacea) on N processing (removal rates, transformations and export) using experimental CW mesocosms. Removal of total nitrogen (TN) was higher in summer and in planted and aerated units, with the highest mean removal in units planted with T. angustifolia. Export of ammonium (NH(4)(+)), a proxy for nitrification limitation, was higher in winter, and in unplanted and non-aerated units. Planted and aerated units had the highest export of oxidized nitrogen (NO(y)), a proxy for reduced denitrification. Redox potential, evapotranspiration (ETP) rates and hydraulic retention times (HRT) were all predictors of TN, NH(4)(+) and NO(y) export, and significantly affected by plants. Denitrification was the main N sink in most treatments accounting for 47-62% of TN removal, while sediment storage was dominant in unplanted non-aerated units and units planted with P. arundinacea. Plant uptake accounted for less than 20% of the removal. Uncertainties about the long-term fate of the N stored in sediments suggest that the fraction attributed to denitrification losses could be underestimated in this study.

  6. Extractor capacity of different plant species cultivated in wetlands used to pig wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Teixeira de Matos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the extracting capacity of different plant species when cultivated in constructed wetlands systems (CWS for the treatment of pig wastewaters (PW. For this, four CWS were constructed with 24.0 m x 1.1 m x 0.7 m, sealed with geomembrana of polyvinyl chloride (PVC and filled with 0.4 m of gravel “zero”. In CWS1, CWS2 and CWS3 were planted cattail (Typha latifolia L., Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart. Griseb. and grass-Tifton 85 (Cynodon dactylon Pers., respectively. In CWS4 was planted Alternanthera on the 1st third, Typha in 2nd third and tifton-85 in the 3rd third of the bed. After passing through a organic filter filled with crushed sugar cane bagasse, the ARS was applied in SACS in a flow of 0.8 m3 d-1, which provided a detention time of 4.8 days. There was a trend to obtain higher extraction of pollutants by plants grown at the beginning of the CWS. The Alternanthera plant species that was presented greater capacity for nutrient extractor, extracting 9.5 and 23% of all total-N and K applied through ARS. Plants extracted small amounts of copper from the ARS. Because of the improved performance of plants, Alternanthera or Tifton-85 grass must be cultivated in CWS for the ARS treatment.

  7. Foliar nitrogen and phosphorus stoichiometry of three wetland plants distributed along an elevation gradient in Dongting Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Gao, Han; Zhu, Lianlian; Xie, Yonghong; Yang, Guishan; Hu, Cong; Chen, Xinsheng; Deng, Zhengmiao

    2017-06-06

    We examined foliar nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) stoichiometry of 3 wetland plants (Phalaris arundinacea, Miscanthus sacchariflorus, and Carex brevicuspis) distributed along an elevation gradient in the Dongting Lake, China, and how this stoichiometry is related to soil physico-chemical characteristics, elevation, and flooding days. Plant and soil samples were collected from 3 lakeshore sites. Total N and P concentrations of plants and six physico-chemical characteristics of the soil were measured, in addition to the elevation and flooding days. P. arundinacea and M. sacchariflorus had higher total N and P concentrations than C. brevicuspis. The foliar N:P ratio decreased with increasing elevation, and only increased with increasing foliar total N concentration. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated that the foliar stoichiometry was primarily regulated by soil water content, followed by soil nutrient concentration. The foliar N and P stoichiometry of the 3 wetland plants was insignificantly correlated with soil total P concentration. However, foliar stoichiometric characteristics and soil total N concentration significantly differed among the 3 species. These results demonstrate that spatial variation of foliar stoichiometry in wetland plants exists along an elevation gradient, with this information being useful for the conservation and management of wetland plants in this lake.

  8. [Selection and purification potential evaluation of woody plant in vertical flow constructed wetlands in the subtropical area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong-Hua; Wu, Xiao-Fu; Hao, Jun; Chen, Ming-Li; Zhu, Guang-Yu

    2014-02-01

    In order to solve the problem that wetland herbaceous plants tend to die during winter in subtropics areas, selection and purification potential evaluation experiments were carried out by introducing into the constructed wetlands 16 species of woody wetland plants. Cluster analysis was performed by including the morphological characteristics, physiological characteristics, as well as nitrogen and phosphorus accumulation of the woody wetland plants. The results indicated that there were significant differences among the tested woody plants in their survival rate, height increase, root length increase and vigor, Chlorophyll content, Superoxide dismutase, Malonaldehyde, Proline, Peroxidase, biomass, average concentration and accumulation of nitrogen and phosphorus. Based on the established evaluation system, the tested plants were clustered into 3 groups. The plants in the 1st group possessing high purification potentials are Nerium oleander and Hibiscus syriacus. Those in the 2nd group possessing moderate purification potentials are Trachycarpus fortune, Llex latifolia Thunb., Gardenia jasminoides, Serissa foetida and Ilex crenatacv Convexa. And those in the 3rd group with low purification potentials are Jasminum udiflorum, Hedera helix, Ligustrum vicaryi, Ligustrum lucidum, Buxus sempervives, Murraya paniculata, Osmanthus fragrans, Mahoniafortune and Photinia serrulata.

  9. Constructed treatment wetland: a study of eight plant species under saline conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomjek, Pantip; Nitisoravut, Suwanchai

    2005-02-01

    A series of investigations was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using constructed treatment wetlands to remove pollutants from saline wastewater. Eight emergent plants; cattail, sedge, water grass, Asia crabgrass, salt meadow cordgrass, kallar grass, vetiver grass and Amazon, were planted in experimental plots and fed with municipal wastewater that was spiked with sodium chloride (NaCl) to simulate a saline concentration of approximately 14-16 mScm-1. All macrophytes were found tolerant under the tested conditions except Amazon and vetiver grass. Nutrient assimilation of salt tolerant species was in the range of 0.006-0.061 and 0.0002-0.0024 gm-2d-1 for nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively. Treatment performances of planted units were found to be 72.4-78.9% for BOD5, 43.2-56.0% for SS, 67.4-76.5% for NH3-N and 28.9-44.9% for TP. The most satisfactory plant growth and nitrogen assimilation were found for cattail (Typha angustifolia) though the plant growth was limited, whereas Asia crabgrass (Digitaria bicornis) was superior for BOD5 removal. Both were evaluated again in a continuous flow constructed wetland system receiving saline feed processing wastewater. A high removal rate regularly occurred in long-term operating conditions. The reduction in BOD5, SS, NH3-N and TP was in the range of 44.4-67.9%, 41.4-70.4%, 18.0-65.3% and 12.2-40.5%, respectively. Asia crabgrass often provided higher removal especially for BOD5 and SS removal. Nutrient enriched wastewater promoted flourishing growth of algae and plankton in the surface flow system, which tended to reduce treatment performance.

  10. Seed atlas of the monocotyledonous genera of the páramo.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melcher, I.M.; Bouman, F.; Cleef, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The dispersal units as seeds and fruits of the monocotyledonous genera in the paramo of equatorial America are described and illustrated with SEM photos. The monocotyledonous genera are mainly of neotropical and to a lesser extent of wide-temperate origin. Wind is the main dispersal vector and

  11. Effect of different plant species in pilot constructed wetlands for wastewater reuse in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Barbagallo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the first results of an experiment carried out in Southern Italy (Sicily on the evapotranspiration (ET and removal in constructed wetlands with five plant species are presented. The pilot plant used for this study is made of twelve horizontal sub-surface flow constructed wetlands (each with a surface area of 4.5 m2 functioning in parallel, and it is used for tertiary treatment of part of the effluents from a conventional municipal wastewater treatment plant (trickling filter. Two beds are unplanted (control while ten beds are planted with five different macrophyte species: Cyperus papyrus, Vetiveria zizanoides, Miscanthus x giganteus, Arundo donax and Phragmites australis (i.e., every specie is planted in two beds to have a replication. The influent flow rate is measured in continuous by an electronic flow meter. The effluent is evaluated by an automatic system that measure the discharged volume for each bed. Physical, chemical and microbiological analyses were carried out on wastewater samples collected at the inlet of CW plant and at the outlet of the twelve beds. An automatic weather station is installed close to the experimental plant, measuring air temperature, wind speed and direction, rainfall, global radiation, relative humidity. This allows to calculate the reference Evapotranspiration (ET0 with the Penman-Monteith formula, while the ET of different plant species is measured through the water balance of the beds. The first results show no great differences in the mean removal performances of the different plant species for TSS, COD and E.coli, ranged from, respectively, 82% to 88%, 60% to 64% and 2.7 to 3.1 Ulog. The average removal efficiency of nutrient (64% for TN; 61 for NH4-N, 31% for PO4-P in the P.australis beds was higher than that other beds. From April to November 2012 ET measured for plant species were completely different from ET0 and ETcontrol, underlining the strong effect of vegetation. The cumulative

  12. Dietary use and conservation concern of edible wetland plants at indo-burma hotspot: a case study from northeast India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh HB

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The wetlands of the North East India fall among the global hotspots of biodiversity. However, they have received very little attention with relation to their intrinsic values to human kind; therefore their conservation is hardly addressed. These wetlands are critical for the sustenance of the tribal communities. Methods Field research was conducted during 2003 to 2006 in seven major wetlands of four districts of Manipur state, Northeast India (viz. Imphal-East, Imphal-West, Thoubal, and Bishnupur. A total of 224 wetland-plant-collectors were interviewed for the use and economics of species using semi-structured questionnaires and interview schedules. Imphal, Bishenpur and Thoubal markets were investigated in detail for influx and consumption pattern of these plants. The collectors were also inquired for medicinal use of wetland species. Nutritive values of 21 species were analyzed in laboratory. The vouchers were collected for all the species and deposited in the CSIR-NEIST (Formerly Regional Research Laboratory, Substation, Lamphelpat, Imphal, Manipur, India. Results We recorded 51 edible wetland species used by indigenous people for food and medicinal purposes. Thirty eight species had high medicinal values and used in the traditional system to treat over 22 diseases. At least 27 species were traded in three markets studied (i.e. Imphal, Thoubal and Bishenpur, involving an annual turnover of 113 tons of wetland edible plants and a gross revenue of Rs. 907, 770/- (US$1 = Rs. 45/-. The Imphal market alone supplies 60% of the total business. Eighty per cent of the above mentioned species are very often used by the community. The community has a general opinion that the availability of 45% species has depleted in recent times, 15 species need consideration for conservation while another 7 species deserved immediate protection measures. The nutrient analysis showed that these species contribute to the dietary balance of tribal

  13. Removal mechanisms and plant species selection by bioaccumulative factors in surface flow constructed wetlands (CWs): In the case of triclosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Congcong; Xie, HuiJun; Xu, Jingtao; Zhang, Jian; Liang, Shuang; Hao, Jingcheng; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Xu, Xiaoli; Wang, Qian; Wang, Jingmin

    2016-03-15

    Plants can bioaccumulate triclosan and bond with microbes and sediments in constructed wetlands (CWs) as well. However, little is known regarding the species-specific removal mechanism of CWs components and the selection of suitable wetland plant species for triclosan disposal. In this work, the use of bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) and biota to sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) for choosing the best triclosan removal plant species was studied in laboratory-scale CWs. By the end of the experiment, over 80% of triclosan was removed and a specie-effect distribution was revealed in CWs with emergent, submerged and floating plants. By mass balance calculation, negative correlation between triclosan concentration in plants and degradation process was observed. The significant correlations between Log BSAFs values and triclosan concentration in plants or degradation contribution made it possible and reasonable in wetland plants selection. Introductions on plant species were provided considering the target removal process or regulation method. This work provided new information on plant species selection in CWs for triclosan removal or its emergency remediation by using bioaccumulative factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Strong potential for endozoochory by waterfowl in a rare, ephemeral wetland plant species, Astragalus contortuplicatus (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ádám Lovas-Kiss

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available It was proposed previously that passive dispersal by migratory aquatic birds explain the widespread distribution of many wetland organisms. Several experimental studies have shown that many widespread wetland plant species can be readily dispersed within the guts of Anatidae. However, it is unclear whether plants with a more restricted distribution are able to disperse via waterbirds. This paper addresses the dispersal ability and germination ecology of the little-known Hungarian milkvetch Astragalus contortuplicatus, which occurs on banks of continental rivers and has a limited and unpredictable distribution. To test whether limited capacity for endozoochory by waterfowl could explain the sporadic appearance of this species, we force-fed ten captive mallards (Anas platyrhynchos with 100 milkvetch seeds each. Droppings were collected for up to 45 h after feeding. Intact and viable seeds were found in the droppings of each mallard, and altogether 24.7% of seeds fed were recovered intact. The proportion of retrieved seeds that germinated (27.0% was significantly higher than that of untreated control seeds (0.5%, but significantly lower than that of mechanically scarified seeds (96.0%. Retrieved seeds that germinated developed into healthy mature plants. Given the average flight velocity of mallards, seeds of A. contortuplicatus may travel up to 1600 km inside the digestive tract of migrating individuals. Our results suggest that avian vectors may be more important for the dispersal of rare higher plants (especially those with a hard seed-coat than hitherto considered. Moreover, they suggest that rarity does not necessarily indicate limited dispersal ability, and may instead be explained by specific habitat requirements.

  15. A Synthesis of Environmental and Plant Community Data for Tidal Wetland Restoration Planning in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Borde, Amy B.; Cullinan, Valerie I.

    2013-12-01

    This report reanalyzes and synthesizes previously existing environmental and plant community data collected by PNNL at 55 tidal wetlands and 3 newly restored sites in the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE) between 2005 and 2011. Whereas data were originally collected for various research or monitoring objectives of five studies, the intent of this report is to provide only information that will have direct utility in planning tidal wetland restoration projects. Therefore, for this report, all tidal wetland data on plants and the physical environment, which were originally developed and reported by separate studies, were tabulated and reanalyzed as a whole. The geographic scope of the data collected in this report is from Bonneville Lock and Dam to the mouth of the Columbia River

  16. Why are wetlands important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetlands are among the most productive ecosystems in the world, comparable to rain forests and coral reefs. An immense variety of species of microbes, plants, insects, amphibians, reptiles, birds, fish, and mammals can be part of a wetland ecosystem.

  17. Uptake and Bioaccumulation of Pentachlorophenol by Emergent Wetland Plant Phragmites australis (Common Reed) in Cadmium Co-contaminated Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechmi, Nejla; Ben Aissa, Nadhira; Abdenaceur, Hassen; Jedidi, Naceur

    2015-01-01

    Despite many studies on phytoremediation of soils contaminated with either heavy metals or organics, little information is available on the effectiveness of phytoremediation of co-occurring metal and organic pollutants especially by using wetland species. Phragmites australis is a common wetland plant and its potential for phytoremediation of cadmium pentachlorophenol (Cd-PCP) co-contaminated soil was investigated. A greenhouse study was executed to elucidate the effects of Cd (0, 10, and 20 mg kg(-1)) without or with PCP (0, 50, and 250 mg kg(-1)) on the growth of the wetland plant P. australis and its uptake, accumulation and removal of pollutant from soils. After 75 days, plant biomass was significantly influenced by interaction of Cd and PCP and the effect of Cd on plant growth being stronger than that of PCP. Coexistence of PCP at low level lessened Cd toxicity to plants, resulting in improved plant growth and increased Cd accumulation in plant tissues. The dissipation of PCP in soils was significantly influenced by interactions of Cd, PCP and plant presence or absence. As an evaluation of soil biological activities after remediation soil enzyme was measured.

  18. Modeling the Effect of Plants and Peat on Evapotranspiration in Constructed Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Chazarenc

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Evapotranspiration (ET in constructed wetlands (CWs represents a major factor affecting hydrodynamics and treatment performances. The presence of high ET was shown to improve global treatment performances, however ET is affected by a wide range of parameters including plant development and CWs age. Our study aimed at modelling the effect of plants and peat on ET in CWs; since we hypothesized peat could behave like the presence of accumulated organic matter in old CWs. Treatment performances, hydraulic behaviour, and ET rates were measured in eight 1 m2 CWs mesocosm (1 unplanted, 1 unplanted with peat, 2 planted with Phragmites australis, 2 planted with Typha latifolia and 2 planted with Phragmites australis with peat. Two models were built using first order kinetics to simulate COD and TKN removal with ET as an input. The effect of peat was positive on ET and was related to the better growth conditions it offered to macrophytes. Removal efficiency in pilot units with larger ET was higher for TKN. On average, results show for COD a k20 value of 0.88 d-1 and 0.36 d-1 for TKN. We hypothesized that the main effect of ET was to concentrate effluent, thus enhancing degradation rates.

  19. Uptake and translocation of Ti from nanoparticles in crops and wetland plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Donna L; Borchardt, Joshua D; Navaratnam, Leelaruban; Otte, Marinus L; Bezbaruah, Achintya N

    2013-01-01

    Bioavailability of engineered metal nanoparticles affects uptake in plants, impacts on ecosystems, and phytoremediation. We studied uptake and translocation of Ti in plants when the main source of this metal was TiO2 nanoparticles. Two crops (Phaseolus vulgaris (bean) and Triticum aestivum (wheat)), a wetland species (Rumex crispus, curly dock), and the floating aquatic plant (Elodea canadensis, Canadian waterweed), were grown in nutrient solutions with TiO2 nanoparticles (0, 6, 18 mmol Ti L(-1) for P. vulgaris, T. aestivum, and R. crispus; and 0 and 12 mmol Ti L(-1) for E. canadensis). Also examined in E. canadensis was the influence of TiO2 nanoparticles upon the uptake of Fe, Mn, and Mg, and the influence of P on Ti uptake. For the rooted plants, exposure to TiO2 nanoparticles did not affect biomass production, but significantly increased root Ti sorption and uptake. R. crispus showed translocation of Ti into the shoots. E. canadensis also showed significant uptake of Ti, P in the nutrient solution significantly decreased Ti uptake, and the uptake patterns of Mn and Mg were altered. Ti from nano-Ti was bioavailable to plants, thus showing the potential for cycling in ecosystems and for phytoremediation, particularly where water is the main carrier.

  20. Carbon gas fluxes in re-established wetlands on organic soils differ relative to plant community and hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robin L.

    2011-01-01

    We measured CO2 and CH4 fluxes for 6 years following permanent flooding of an agriculturally managed organic soil at two water depths (~25 and ~55 cm standing water) in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, California, as part of research studying C dynamics in re-established wetlands. Flooding rapidly reduced gaseous C losses, and radiocarbon data showed that this, in part, was due to reduced oxidation of "old" C preserved in the organic soils. Both CO2 and CH4 emissions from the water surface increased during the first few growing seasons, concomitant with emergent marsh establishment, and thereafter appeared to stabilize according to plant communities. Areas of emergent marsh vegetation in the shallower wetland had greater net CO2 influx (-485 mg Cm-1 h-1), and lower CH4 emissions (11.5 mg Cm-2 h-1), than in the deeper wetland (-381 and 14.1 mg Cm-2 h-1, respectively). Areas with submerged and floating vegetation in the deeper wetland had CH4 emissions similar to emergent vegetation (11.9 and 12.6 mg Cm-2 h-1, respectively), despite lower net CO2 influx (-102 gC m-2 h-1). Measurements of plant moderated net CO2 influx and CH4 efflux indicated greatest potential reduction of greenhouse gases in the more shallowly flooded wetland.

  1. A comparative study of five horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands using different plant species for domestic wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaseñor Camacho, J; De Lucas Martínez, A; Gómez Gómez, R; Mena Sanz, J

    2007-12-01

    This project studied domestic wastewater treatment by horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF) constructed wetlands (CW) and compared the effect of four different plant species on the operating conditions, dissolved oxygen (DO), and redox potential (ORP), and their efficiency on pollutants removal. Five HSSF CWs were fed for 10 months with low loaded synthetic domestic wastewater, using theoretical hydraulic residence time of 7.6 days. The plant species under study were the following: Phragmites australis (CW1), Lythrum salicaria (CW3), Cladium mariscus (CW4) and Iris pseudacorus (CW5). CW2 was not planted and this was used as control. Qualitative measurements determined a greater growth of Lythrum salicaria and Iris pseudacorus than the others. Dissolved oxygen concentrations were very low in the entire bulk liquid of all the CWs. Also ORP values were very similar in all wetlands, dealing with facultative anaerobic environments. All planted wetlands improved pollutants removal compared with the unplanted control wetland. The performances in terms of COD, TN, TP and SO4(2-) removal obtained by the different CWs were in the ranges 80-90%, 35-55%, 15-40% and 45-60% respectively. Lythrum salicaria and Iris pseudacorus, which exhibited greater growth, were always the most efficient species that improved not only nutrients plant uptake but also other microbial removal processes probably due to a higher aeration potential, such as nitrification or aerobic respiration. Sulphate reduction was the most important mechanism for COD removal. Cladium mariscus, an autochthonous plant that grows in the south-central Iberian Peninsula, was less efficient than Lythrum salicaria and Iris pseudacorus, but improved the unplanted wetland wastewater efficiency.

  2. Pipeline corridors through wetlands - impacts on plant communities: Cassadaga Creek Tributary Crossing, Gerry Township, Chautauqua County, New York. Topical report, August 1992--November 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shem, L.M.; Van Dyke, G.D.; Zimmerman, R.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The goal of the Gas Research Institute Wetland Corridors Program is to document impacts of existing pipelines on the wetlands they traverse. To accomplish this goal, 12 existing wetland crossings were surveyed. These sites varied in elapsed time since pipeline construction, wetland type, pipeline installation techniques, and right-of-way (ROW) management practices. This report presents the results of a survey conducted over the period of August 3-4, 1992, at the Cassadaga wetlands crossing in Gerry Township, Chautauqua County, New York. The pipeline at this site was installed during February and March 1981. After completion of pipeline installation, the ROW was fertilized, mulched, and seeded with annual ryegrass. Two adjacent sites were surveyed in this study: a forested wetland and an emergent wetlands Eleven years after pipeline installation, the ROW at both sites supported diverse vegetative communities. Although devoid of large woody species, the ROW within the forested wetland had a dense vegetative cover. The ROW within the emergent wetland had a slightly less dense and more diverse vegetative community compared with that in the adjacent natural areas (NAs). The ROW within the emergent wetland also had a large number of introduced species that were not present in the adjacent NAs. The ROW, with its emergent marsh plant community, provided habitat diversity within the forested wetlands Because the ROW contained species not found within the adjacent NAs, overall species diversity was increased.

  3. Early life history responses of tidal wetland plants to sea-level rise and salinization in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change is likely to alter the spatial distribution of abiotic gradients in estuaries, potentially increasing stress in tidal wetland plants. Using field and lab manipulations, we examined inter-specific variation in responses to elevated salinity and inundation in the Ore...

  4. Uranium fate in wetland mesocosms: Effects of plants at two iron loadings with different pH values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small-scale continuous flow wetland mesocosms (~0.8 L) were used to evaluate how plant roots under different iron loadings affect uranium (U) mobility. When significant concentrations of ferrous iron (Fe) were present at circumneutral pH values, U concentrations in root exposed ...

  5. Variation in species-level plant functional traits over wetland indicator status categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy-Sulentic, Miles E.; Kolb, Thomas E.; Merritt, David M.; Palmquist, Emily C.; Ralston, Barbara E.; Sarr, Daniel A.

    2017-01-01

    Wetland indicator status (WIS) describes the habitat affinity of plant species and is used in wetland delineations and resource inventories. Understanding how species-level functional traits vary across WIS categories may improve designations, elucidate mechanisms of adaptation, and explain habitat optima and niche. We investigated differences in species-level traits of riparian flora across WIS categories, extending their application to indicate hydrologic habitat. We measured or compiled data on specific leaf area (SLA), stem specific gravity (SSG), seed mass, and mature height of 110 plant species that occur along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona. Additionally, we measured leaf δ13C, δ15N, % carbon, % nitrogen, and C/N ratio of 56 species with C3 photosynthesis. We asked the following: (i) How do species-level traits vary over WIS categories? (ii) Does the pattern differ between herbaceous and woody species? (iii) How well do multivariate traits define WIS categories? (iv) Which traits are correlated? The largest trait differences among WIS categories for herbaceous species occurred for SSG, seed mass, % leaf carbon and height, and for woody species occurred for height, SSG, and δ13C. SSG increased and height decreased with habitat aridity for both woody and herbaceous species. The δ13C and hence water use efficiency of woody species increased with habitat aridity. Water use efficiency of herbaceous species increased with habitat aridity via greater occurrence of C4 grasses. Multivariate trait assemblages differed among WIS categories. Over all species, SLA was correlated with height, δ13C, % leaf N, and C/N; height was correlated with SSG and % leaf C; SSG was correlated with % leaf C. Adaptations of both herbaceous and woody riparian species to wet, frequently inundated habitats include low-density stem tissue. Adaptations to drier habitats in the riparian zone include short, high-density cavitation-resistant stem tissue, and high water use

  6. Investigating the efficiency and kinetic coefficients of nutrient removal in the subsurface artificial wetland of Yazd wastewater treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Farzadkia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Investigating the performance of naturally operated treatment plants may be due to the fact that they cannot be operated as desired, or that they should be modified to achieve good performance e.g. for nutrients removal. The advantage of kinetic coefficient determination is that the model can be adjusted to fit data and then used for analyzing alternatives to improve the process. This study investigates the efficiency of subsurface artificial wetland and determines its kinetic coefficients for nutrient removal. Methods: The present study investigated the kinetics of biological reactions that occurred in subsurface wetland to remove wastewater nutrient. Samples were taken from 3 locations of wetlands for 6 months. The nutrient content was determined through measuring Total Kjehldahl Nitrogen (TKN, ammonium, nitrate, and phosphate values. Results: Average levels for TKN, ammonium, nitrate, and phosphate in effluent of control wetland were 41.15, 23.59, 1.735, and 6.43 mg/L, and in wetland with reeds were 28.91, 19.99, 1.49 and 5.63 mg/L, respectively. First-order, second-order, and Stover-Kincannon models were applied and analyzed using statistical parameters obtained from the models (Umax, KB. Conclusion: The nutrients removal at Yazd wastewater treatment plant was remarkable, and the presence of reeds in wetland beds was not very efficient in improving system performance. Other more efficient plants are suggested to be evaluated in the system. Stover-Kincannon kinetic model provided predictions having the closest relationship with actual data obtained from the field.

  7. Plants + soil/wetland microbes: Food crop systems that also clean air and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Mark; Wolverton, B. C.

    2011-02-01

    The limitations that will govern bioregenerative life support applications in space, especially volume and weight, make multi-purpose systems advantageous. This paper outlines two systems which utilize plants and associated microbial communities of root or growth medium to both produce food crops and clean air and water. Underlying these approaches are the large numbers and metabolic diversity of microbes associated with roots and found in either soil or other suitable growth media. Biogeochemical cycles have microbial links and the ability of microbes to metabolize virtually all trace gases, whether of technogenic or biogenic origin, has long been established. Wetland plants and the rootzone microbes of wetland soils/media also been extensively researched for their ability to purify wastewaters of a great number of potential water pollutants, from nutrients like N and P, to heavy metals and a range of complex industrial pollutants. There is a growing body of research on the ability of higher plants to purify air and water. Associated benefits of these approaches is that by utilizing natural ecological processes, the cleansing of air and water can be done with little or no energy inputs. Soil and rootzone microorganisms respond to changing pollutant types by an increase of the types of organisms with the capacity to use these compounds. Thus living systems have an adaptive capacity as long as the starting populations are sufficiently diverse. Tightly sealed environments, from office buildings to spacecraft, can have hundreds or even thousands of potential air pollutants, depending on the materials and equipment enclosed. Human waste products carry a plethora of microbes which are readily used in the process of converting its organic load to forms that can be utilized by green plants. Having endogenous means of responding to changing air and water quality conditions represents safety factors as these systems operate without the need for human intervention. We review

  8. Temperature, plant species and residence time effects on nitrogen removal in model treatment wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, C R; Stein, O R; Hook, P B; Burr, M D; Parker, A E; Hafla, E C

    2013-01-01

    Total nitrogen (TN) removal in treatment wetlands (TWs) is challenging due to nitrogen cycle complexity and the variation of influent nitrogen species. Plant species, season, temperature and hydraulic loading most likely influence root zone oxygenation and appurtenant nitrogen removal, especially for ammonium-rich wastewater. Nitrogen data were collected from two experiments utilizing batch-loaded (3-, 6-, 9- and 20-day residence times), sub-surface TWs monitored for at least one year during which temperature was varied between 4 and 24 °C. Synthetic wastewater containing 17 mg/l N as NH4 and 27 mg/l amino-N, 450 mg/l chemical oxygen demand (COD), and 13 mg/l SO4-S was applied to four replicates of Carex utriculata, Schoenoplectus acutus and Typha latifolia and unplanted controls. Plant presence and species had a greater effect on TN removal than temperature or residence time. Planted columns achieved approximately twice the nitrogen removal of unplanted controls (40-95% versus 20-50% removal) regardless of season and temperature. TWs planted with Carex outperformed both Typha and Schoenoplectus and demonstrated less temperature dependency. TN removal with Carex was excellent at all temperatures and residence times; Schoenoplectus and Typha TN removal improved at longer residence times. Reductions in TN were not accompanied by increases in NO3, which was consistently below 1 mg/l N.

  9. A Hardy Plant Facilitates Nitrogen Removal via Microbial Communities in Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands in Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Penghe; Zhang, Hui; Zuo, Jie; Zhao, Dehua; Zou, Xiangxu; Zhu, Zhengjie; Jeelani, Nasreen; Leng, Xin; An, Shuqing

    2016-09-01

    The plants effect in subsurface flow constructed wetlands (SSF-CWs) is controversial, especially at low temperatures. Consequently, several SSF-CWs planted with Iris pseudacorus (CWI) or Typha orientalis Presl. (CWT) and several unplanted ones (CWC) were set up and fed with secondary effluent of sewage treatment plant during the winter in Eastern China. The 16S rDNA Illumina Miseq sequencing analysis indicated the positive effects of I. pseudacorus on the bacterial community richness and diversity in the substrate. Moreover, the community compositions of the bacteria involved with denitrification presented a significant difference in the three systems. Additionally, higher relative abundances of nitrifying bacteria (0.4140%, 0.2402% and 0.4318% for Nitrosomonas, Nitrosospira and Nitrospira, respectively) were recorded in CWI compared with CWT (0.2074%, 0.0648% and 0.0181%, respectively) and CWC (0.3013%, 0.1107% and 0.1185%, respectively). Meanwhile, the average removal rates of NH4+-N and TN in CWI showed a prominent advantage compared to CWC, but no distinct advantage was found in CWT. The hardy plant I. pseudacorus, which still had active root oxygen release in cold temperatures, positively affected the abundance of nitrifying bacteria in the substrate, and accordingly was supposed to contribute to a comparatively high nitrogen removal efficiency of the system during the winter.

  10. A Hardy Plant Facilitates Nitrogen Removal via Microbial Communities in Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands in Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Penghe; Zhang, Hui; Zuo, Jie; Zhao, Dehua; Zou, Xiangxu; Zhu, Zhengjie; Jeelani, Nasreen; Leng, Xin; An, Shuqing

    2016-01-01

    The plants effect in subsurface flow constructed wetlands (SSF-CWs) is controversial, especially at low temperatures. Consequently, several SSF-CWs planted with Iris pseudacorus (CWI) or Typha orientalis Presl. (CWT) and several unplanted ones (CWC) were set up and fed with secondary effluent of sewage treatment plant during the winter in Eastern China. The 16S rDNA Illumina Miseq sequencing analysis indicated the positive effects of I. pseudacorus on the bacterial community richness and diversity in the substrate. Moreover, the community compositions of the bacteria involved with denitrification presented a significant difference in the three systems. Additionally, higher relative abundances of nitrifying bacteria (0.4140%, 0.2402% and 0.4318% for Nitrosomonas, Nitrosospira and Nitrospira, respectively) were recorded in CWI compared with CWT (0.2074%, 0.0648% and 0.0181%, respectively) and CWC (0.3013%, 0.1107% and 0.1185%, respectively). Meanwhile, the average removal rates of NH4+-N and TN in CWI showed a prominent advantage compared to CWC, but no distinct advantage was found in CWT. The hardy plant I. pseudacorus, which still had active root oxygen release in cold temperatures, positively affected the abundance of nitrifying bacteria in the substrate, and accordingly was supposed to contribute to a comparatively high nitrogen removal efficiency of the system during the winter. PMID:27646687

  11. Enhancement of surface flow constructed wetlands performance at low temperature through seasonal plant collocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Sun, Haimeng; Wang, Wengang; Hu, Zhen; Yin, Xiaole; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Fan, Jinlin

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, a novel seasonal plant collocation system (SPCS), specifically the Potamogeton crispus and Phragmites australis series system, was investigated to enhance the performance of surface flow constructed wetlands (SFCWs) at low temperature. Results of a year-round experiment showed that SPCS conquered the adverse effect of low temperature and achieved sustainable nutrients removal. In addition, during winter, removal efficiencies of NH4-N, TP, COD, and TN in SPCS were 18.1%, 17.6%, 10.1% and 5.2% higher than that in the control, respectively. P. crispus and P. australis complemented each other in terms of plant growth and plant uptake during the experiment period. Furthermore, it emerged that P. crispus could increase the quantity of ammonia oxidizing bacteria by 10.2%, due to its high oxygen enrichment ability. It is suggested that seasonal plant collocation has a promising future in SFCWs of areas being affected by climate change, e.g. northern China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of cyclic phytoremediation with different wetland plants on municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, Mudassar; Irshad, Muhammad; Fawad, Muhammad; Ali, Zeshan; Eneji, A Egrinya; Aurangzeb, Naureen; Mohammad, Ashiq; Ali, Barkat

    2014-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a promising cleanup technology for contaminated soils, groundwater, and wastewater that is both low-tech and low-cost. The objective of this study was to investigate the ameliorative effect of phytoremediation on municipal wastewater (MWW). For this purpose, a phytoremediation garden was established using different aquatic plants species [Pistia stratiotes, Eichhornia crassipess, Hydrocotyle umbellatta, Lemna minor, Tyhpa latifolia, and Scirpus acutus] in seven earthen pond systems (P1-P7) for the cyclic treatment of MWW. The physico-chemical analysis of MWW was carried out before and after the cyclic phytoremediation. Results showed that pH, EC and turbidity of MWW were reduced by 5.5%, 33.7%, and 93.1%, respectively after treatment (from P1 to P7). Treatment system also reduced total dissolved solids (TDS) by 35.2%, Cl by 61%, HCO3 by 29.2%, hardness by 45.7%, Ca by 32.3% and Mg by 55.9%. Nitrate concentration was reduced by 77.6% but SO4 was enhanced slightly. An ameliorative combined effect of wetland plants namely L. minor, T. latifolia, and S. acutus on MWW was noticed. Sequential phytoremediation with a mixture of plants was more effective than that relying only on a single plant species.

  13. A study on the phytoaccumulation of waste elements in wetland plants of a Ramsar site in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Soumya; Chetia, Mridul; Singh, Lokendra; Chattopadhyay, Buddhadeb; Datta, Siddhartha; Mukhopadhyay, S K

    2011-07-01

    Some wetland plant species are adapted to growing in the areas of higher metal concentrations. Use of such vegetation in remediation of soil and water contaminated with heavy metals is a promising cost-effective alternative to the more established treatment methods. Throughout the year, composite industrial effluents bringing various kinds of heavy metals contaminate our study site, the East Calcutta Wetlands, a Ramsar site at the eastern fringe of Kolkata city (formerly Calcutta), India. In the present study, possible measures for remediation of contaminated soil and water (with elements namely, Ca, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn, and Fe) of the ecosystem had been investigated. Ten common regional wetland plant species were selected to study their efficiency and diversity in metal uptake and accumulation. Results showed that Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) had the highest total Cr concentration (6,601 ± 33 mg kg( -1) dw). The extent of accumulation of various elements in ten common wetland plants of the study sites was: Pb (4.4-57 mg kg( -1) dw), Cu (6.2-39 mg kg( -1) dw), Zn (59-364 mg kg( -1) dw), Mn (87-376 mg kg( -1) dw), Fe (188-8,625 mg kg( -1) dw), Ca (969-3,756 mg kg( -1) dw), and Cr (27-660 mg kg( -1) dw) indicating an uptake gradient of elements by plants as Ca>Fe>Mn>Cr>Zn>Cu>Pb. The present study indicates the importance of identification and efficiency of metal uptake and accumulation capabilities by plants in relation to their applications in remediation of a contaminated East Calcutta Wetland ecosystem.

  14. Regression analysis of growth responses to water depth in three wetland plant species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorrell, Brian K; Tanner, Chris C; Brix, Hans

    2012-01-01

    ) differing in depth preferences in wetlands, using non-linear and quantile regression analyses to establish how flooding tolerance can explain field zonation. Methodology Plants were established for 8 months in outdoor cultures in waterlogged soil without standing water, and then randomly allocated to water...... depths from 0 – 0.5 m. Morphological and growth responses to depth were followed for 54 days before harvest, and then analysed by repeated measures analysis of covariance, and non-linear and quantile regression analysis (QRA), to compare flooding tolerances. Principal results Growth responses to depth...... differed between the three species, and were non-linear. P. tenax growth rapidly decreased in standing water > 0.25 m depth, C. secta growth increased initially with depth but then decreased at depths > 0.30 m, accompanied by increased shoot height and decreased shoot density, and T. orientalis...

  15. Effectiveness of Rice Agricultural Waste, Microbes and Wetland Plants in the Removal of Reactive Black-5 Azo Dye in Microcosm Constructed Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Beenish; Jabeen, Madeeha; Khalid, Azeem; Aziz, Irfan; Christy, Ann D

    2015-01-01

    Azo dyes are commonly generated as effluent pollutants by dye using industries, causing contamination of surface and ground water. Various strategies are employed to treat such wastewater; however, a multi-faceted treatment strategy could be more effective for complete removal of azo dyes from industrial effluent than any single treatment. In the present study, rice husk material was used as a substratum in two constructed wetlands (CWs) and augmented with microorganisms in the presence of wetland plants to effectively treat dye-polluted water. To evaluate the efficiency of each process the study was divided into three levels, i.e., adsorption of dye onto the substratum, phytoremediation within the CW and then bioremediation along with the previous two processes in the augmented CW. The adsorption process was helpful in removing 50% dye in presence of rice husk while 80% in presence of rice husk biocahr. Augmentation of microorganisms in CW systems has improved dye removal efficiency to 90%. Similarly presence of microorganisms enhanced removal of total nitrogen (68% 0 and Total phosphorus (75%). A significant improvement in plant growth was also observed by measuring plant height, number of leaves and leave area. These findings suggest the use of agricultural waste as part of a CW substratum can provide enhanced removal of textile dyes.

  16. Pipeline corridors through wetlands - impacts on plant communities: Deep Creek and Brandy Branch crossings, Nassau County, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shem, L.M.; Van Dyke, G.D.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1994-12-01

    The goal of the Gas Research Institute Wetland Corridors Program is to document impacts of existing pipelines on the wetlands they traverse. To accomplish this goal, 12 existing wetland crossings were surveyed. These sites varied in elapsed time since pipeline construction, wetland type, pipeline installation techniques, and right-of-way (ROW) management practices. This report presents the results of surveys conducted July 14-18, 1992, at the Deep Creek and the Brandy Branch crossings of a pipeline installed during May 1991 in Nassau County, Florida. Both floodplains supported bottomland hardwood forests. The pipeline at the Deep Creek crossing was installed by means of horizontal directional drilling after the ROW had been clear-cut, while the pipeline at the Brandy Branch crossing was installed by means of conventional open trenching. Neither site was seeded or fertilized. At the time of sampling, a dense vegetative community, made up primarily of native perennial herbaceous species, occupied the ROW within the Deep Creek floodplain. The Brandy Branch ROW was vegetated by a less dense stand of primarily native perennial herbaceous plants. Plant diversity was also lower at the Brandy Branch crossing than at the Deep Creek crossing. The results suggest that some of the differences in plant communities are related to the more hydric conditions at the Brandy Branch floodplain.

  17. [Selection of winter plant species for wetlands constructed as sewage treatment systems and evaluation of their wastewater purification potentials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong-hua; Wu, Xiao-fu; Chen, Ming-li; Jiang, Li-juan; Li, Ke-lin; Lei, Dian; Wang, Hai-bin

    2010-08-01

    In order to establish an evaluation system for selection of winter wetland plants possessing high wastewater purification potentials in subtropics areas, designed sewage treatment experiments were carried out by introducing into the constructed wetlands 25 species of winter wetland plants. Cluster analysis was performed by including harmful environment-resistant enzyme and substrate enzyme activities into the commonly applied plant screening and assessment indexes system. The obtained results indicated that there were significant differences among the tested winter plants in their root length and vigor, leaf malonaldehyde (MDA), biomass, average nitrogen and phosphorus concentration and uptake, and urease and phosphoric acid enzyme activities in the root areas. Based on the established evaluation system, the tested plants were clustered into 3 groups. The plants in the 1st group possessing high purification potentials are Oenanthe javanica, Brassicacapestris, Juncus effusu, Saxifragaceae, Iris pseudoacorus, Osmanthus fragrans and Iris ensata; those in the 2nd group possessing moderate purification potentials are Brassica oleracea var acephala, Calendula officinalis, Aucuba japonica, Ligustrum lucidu, Beta vulgaris, Rhododendron simsii and Ilex latifolia; and those in the 3rd group with low purification potentials are Brassica oleracea var acephala, Calistephus chinensis, Rosa chinensis, Antirrhinums, Liriope palatyphylla, Zephyranthes candida, Fatshedera lizei, Petunia hybrida, Ilex quihoui, Dianthus caryophyllus and Loropetalum chinensis.

  18. Archaeal rhizosphere communities differ between the native and invasive lines of the wetland plant phragmites australis (common reed) in a Chesapeake Bay subestuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phragmites australis, a common wetland plant species worldwide, is best known in North America as persistent invasive species. Only in recent decades was a native line, Phragmites australis subsp. americanus, confirmed in North American wetlands. This study investigated whether the two lines suppo...

  19. [Development characteristics of aquatic plants in a constructed wetland for treating urban drinking water source at its initial operation stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Ma, Xin-Tang; Zhou, Lan; Zhou, Qing-Yuan; Wang, Zhong-Qiong; Wang, Wei-Dong; Yin, Cheng-Qing

    2011-08-01

    The development characteristics and improvement measures of aquatic plants were studied in Shijiuyang Constructed Wetland (SCW) at its initial operation stage. SCW was a large-scale wetland aiming to help relieve the source water pollution in Jiaxing City. A checklist of vascular plants in SCW was built, and species composition, life forms, biomass and association distributions were examined. Our objectives were to examine the diversity and community structure of aquatic plants in SCW at its initial operation stage, and to find out the possible hydrophyte improvement measures. The survey results showed that there were 49 vascular plant species belonging to 41 genera, 25 families in SCW, which greatly exceeded the artificially transplanted 13 species. The life forms of present aquatic plants in SCW were dominated by hygrophilous plants (20 species) and emerged plants (17 species), which accounted for 75.5% of the total number of aquatic plants. The aquatic plants transplanted artificially were dominated by emerged plants (accounted for 69.2%), while those naturally developed were predominated by hygrophilous plants (accounted for 47.2%). The horizontal distribution of aquatic plant community in SCW was mixed in the form of mosaics, which made up typical association complex. Except association Aeschynomene indica L., the dominant species of other associations were all those transplanted artificially. The naturally grown species scattered throughout the SCW and only occupied a small percentage. A marked difference was detected on the species and species richness of aquatic plants in different regions of SCW. Biomass of aquatic plant associations in SCW was 167.7 t. SCW has shown a trend of succession heading for quick increase of plant diversity at the primary operation stage. This trend provides a good material base for the future stable community of aquatic plants in SCW. According to the current status of aquatic plants, some suggestions were put forward on the

  20. Responses to water depth and clipping of twenty−three plant species in an Indian monsoonal wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Beth A.; van der Valk, Arnold; Davis, Craig B.

    2015-01-01

    Responses of species to disturbances give insights into how species might respond to future wetland changes. In this study, species of monsoonal wetlands belonging to various functional types (graminoid and non−graminoid emergents, submersed aquatic, floating−leaved aquatic) varied in their growth responses to water depth and harvesting. We tested the effects of water depth (moist soil, flooded) and clipping (unclipped, and clipped) on the biomass and longevity of twenty−three dominant plant species of monsoonal wetlands in the Keoladeo National Park, India in a controlled experiment. With respect to total biomass and survival, six species responded positively to flooding and twelve species responded negatively to clipping. Responses to flooding and clipping, however, sometimes interacted. Individualistic responses of species to water levels and clipping regimes were apparent; species within a functional group did not always respond similarly. Therefore, detailed information on the individualistic responses of species may be needed to predict the vegetation composition of post−disturbance wetlands. In particular, as demands for fresh water increase around the world, studies of life history constraints and responses to hydrological changes will aid wetland managers in developing strategies to conserve biodiversity.

  1. EXOTIC AND INVASIVE AQUATIC PLANTS IN GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS: DISTRIBUTION AND RELATION TO WATERSHED LAND USE AND PLANT RICHNESS AND COVER

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript provides previously unavailable information to researchers and managers concerning exotic plants in the Great Lakes...This work arises out of our broader efforts to describe biota - habitat relationships in coastal wetlands, and as such falls under Aquatic Stresso...

  2. Removal efficiencies of constructed wetland and efficacy of plant on treating benzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencio Ballesteros, Jr.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Leaking underground petroleum storage poses human and environmental health risks as it contaminates the soil and the groundwater. Of the many contaminants, benzene – a major constituent of gasoline, is of primary concern. It is an identified carcinogen with a permissible limit set at a low level of 0.005 mg L−1. This poses technical and regulatory challenge to remediation of contaminated sites. Various specialized treatment methods are available, but despite of the high removal efficiencies of sophisticated treatments, the residual level still poses health risks. Thus, additional alternative ways that are cost effective and require minimum technical expertise are necessary, and a constructed wetland (CW is a potential alternative. This study evaluates the performance of a surface flow type CW for the removal of benzene from the contaminated water. It further determines the efficacy of a common reed plant Phragmites karka in treating benzene. Planted and unplanted CW were acclimated with benzene for 16 wk and tested for an 8-d hydraulic retention time at benzene levels of 66 and 45 mg L−1. Results indicate that the planted CW performed better and gave reliable and stable results.

  3. Levels of heavy metals in wetland and marine vascular plants and their biomonitoring potential: A comparative assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, Giuseppe; Borg, Joseph A; Di Martino, Vincenzo

    2017-01-15

    The present study investigated the levels of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in the seagrasses Posidonia oceanica and Cymodocea nodosa, and in the wetland macrophytes Phragmites australis, Arundo donax, Typha domingensis, Apium nodiflorum, and Nasturtium officinale. Results showed that the bioaccumulation capacity from sediments, translocation, total levels in plant tissues, and bioindication of metals in sediments, are generally species-specific. In particular, the patterns of metals in the aquatic plants studied were overall independent of ecology (coasts vs wetlands), biomass, anatomy (rhizomatous vs non rhizomatous plants), and life form (hemicrytophytes vs hydrophytes). However, marine phanerogams and wetland macrophytes shared some characteristics such as high levels of heavy metals in their below-ground organs, similar capacity of element translocation in the rhizosphere, compartmentalization of metals in the different plant organs, and potential as bioindicators of Cu, Mn and Zn levels in the substratum. In particular, the present findings indicate that, despite ecological and morphological similarities, different plant species tend to respond differently to exposure to heavy metals. Furthermore, this seems to result from the species individual ability to accumulate and detoxify the various metals rather than being attributed to differences in their ecological and morpho-anatomical characteristics.

  4. Biosorption and growth inhibition of wetland plants in water contaminated with a mixture of arsenic and heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soyoung [Department of Ocean Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Daeseok; Kim, Youngyun; Lee, Suk Mo; Chung, Yonghyun; Sung, Kijune [Department of Ecological Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    The potential of wetland plants as an onsite biosorbent and a biomonitor for combined pollution of arsenic and four heavy metals from non-point sources was investigated in this study. Ceratophyllum demersum, Hydrilla verticillata, Hydrocharis dubia, and Salvinia natans were exposed to a water containing mixture of As, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn. Growth inhibition and biosorption potential of the wetland plants in artificially contaminated conditions were studied. These contaminants significantly reduced the growth of the plants. The tested wetland plants accumulated appreciable amounts of the contaminants in the following order: Pb>Cr>Cu>Zn>As. H. verticillata showed distinct visual change and a high biosorption factor (BSF) rank for As and heavy metals among the plants used in the study. As an unspecific collector of contaminants, it might be useful as a biomonitor and biosorbent in the As and heavy metal-contaminated aquatic system. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Composting plant leachate treatment by a pilot-scale, three-stage, horizontal flow constructed wetland in central Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshoodeh, Reza; Alavi, Nadali; Paydary, Pooya

    2017-09-02

    Handling and treatment of composting leachate is difficult and poses major burdens on composting facilities. The main goal of this study was to evaluate usage of a three-stage, constructed wetland to treat leachate produced in Isfahan composting facility. A pilot-scale, three-stage, subsurface, horizontal flow constructed wetland, planted with vetiver with a flow rate of 24 L/day and a 15-day hydraulic retention time, was used. Removal of organic matter, ammonia, nitrate, total nitrogen, suspended solids, and several heavy metals from Isfahan composting facility leachate was monitored over a 3-month period. Constructed wetland system was capable of efficiently removing BOD5 (87.3%), COD (74.5%), ammonia (91.5%), nitrate (87.9%), total nitrogen (87.8%), total suspended solids (85.5%), and heavy metals (ranging from 70 to 90%) from the composting leachate. High contaminant removal efficiencies were achieved, but effluent still failed to meet Iranian standards for treated wastewater. This study shows that although a three-stage horizontal flow constructed wetland planted with vetiver cannot be used alone to treat Isfahan composting facility leachate, but it has the potential to be used as a leachate pre-treatment step, along with another complementary method.

  6. Evaluation of clogging in planted and unplanted horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands: solids accumulation and hydraulic conductivity reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paoli, André Cordeiro; von Sperling, Marcos

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the behaviour of two horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland units regarding solids build up and clogging of the filter medium. In order to analyse the causes of this process, which is considered the major operational problem of constructed wetlands, studies were carried out to characterize accumulated solids and hydraulic conductivity at specific points of the beds of two wetlands (planted with Typha latifolia and unplanted units) receiving effluent from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating sanitary sewage (population equivalent of 50 inhabitants each unit). The experiments were performed after the units were operating for 2 years and 4 months. This study presents comparative results related to the quantification and characterization of accumulated solids and hydraulic conductivity along the length and width of the filter beds. Approximately 80% of the solids found were inorganic (fixed). Near the inlet end, the rate interstitial solids/attached solids was 5.0, while in the outlet end it was reduced to 1.5. Hydraulic conductivity was lower near the inlet of the units (as expected) and, by comparing the planted wetland with the unplanted, the hydraulic conductivity was lower in the former, resulting in larger undesired surface flow.

  7. Plant Species Discrimination in a Tropical Wetland Using In Situ Hyperspectral Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Prospere

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the use of full-range (400–2,500 nm hyperspectral data obtained by sampling foliar reflectances to discriminate 46 plant species in a tropical wetland in Jamaica. A total of 47 spectral variables, including derivative spectra, spectral vegetation indices, spectral position variables, normalized spectra and spectral absorption features, were used for classifying the 46 species. The Mann–Whitney U-test, paired one-way ANOVA, principal component analysis (PCA, random forest (RF and a wrapper approach with a support vector machine were used as feature selection methods. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA, an artificial neural network (ANN and a generalized linear model fitted with elastic net penalties (GLMnet were then used for species separation. For comparison, the RF classifier (denoted as RFa was also used to separate the species by using all reflectance spectra and spectral indices, respectively, without applying any feature selection. The RFa classifier was able to achieve 91.8% and 84.8% accuracy with importance-ranked spectral indices and reflectance spectra, respectively. The GLMnet classifier produced the lowest overall accuracies for feature-selected reflectance spectra data (52–77% when compared with the LDA and ANN methods. However, when feature-selected spectral indices were used, the GLMnet produced overall accuracies ranging from 79 to 88%, which were the highest among the three classifiers that used feature-selected data. A total of 12 species recorded a 100% producer accuracy, but with spectral indices, and an additional 8 species had perfect producer accuracies, regardless of the input features. The results of this study suggest that the GLMnet classifier can be used, particularly on feature-selected spectral indices, to discern vegetation in wetlands. However, it might be more efficient to use RFa without feature-selected variables, especially for spectral indices.

  8. Dynamics of Zn in an urban wetland soil-plant system: Coupling isotopic and EXAFS approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucour, Anne-Marie; Bedell, Jean-Philippe; Queyron, Marine; Magnin, Valérie; Testemale, Denis; Sarret, Géraldine

    2015-07-01

    heavy Zn from the soil to cell wall remains and release of light Zn to the soil. Overall, this study provides a complete overview of Zn cycling in an urban wetland soil-plant system, and describes several changes in Zn speciation with Zn isotopic fractionation processes in a complex system.

  9. Changes in plant biomass and nutrient removal over 3 years in a constructed wetland in Cairns, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenway, M; Woolley, A

    2001-01-01

    The surface flow wetland in Cairns, Australia consists of 3 linear channels each 65 m long. Channels 1 and 2 are 5 m wide and Channel 3 is 15 m wide. The wetland was constructed in 1994 and band planted with emergent macrophyte species and alternating open water sections. The wetland was monitored for plant growth and nutrient removal until 1997. During that period HRT was 16 days in Channel 1 and 10 days in Channels 2 and 3; mass loading rates were 2.4 kg Total N and 2.0 kg Total P ha(-1) d(-1) in Channel 1 and 3.7 kg TN and 3.3 kg TP ha(-1) d(-1) in Channels 2 and 3. The aim of this work was to determine the proportion of nutrient removal that could be attributed to direct uptake by macrophytes and incorporated into plant biomass. Over the 3 year monitoring period reduction in total mass of nutrients was: Channel 1: 26% P, 85% N; Channel 2: 28% P, 87% N; Channel 3: 21% P, 81% N. Percentage reduction of FRP (Filterable Reactive Phosphorus) was similar to TP; NOx removal was 97-98%. Mass removal rates for TN and TP were higher in Channels 2 and 3 despite greater nutrient loading rates and shorter detention times. Total FRP removal was 23 kg P in Channel 1, 33 kg P in Channel 2 and 70 kg P in Channel 3 of which plant biomass accounted for 65%, 44% and 47% respectively. Total nitrogen removal was 92 kg in Channel 1,154 kg in Channel 2 and 386 kg in Channel 3 of which plant biomass accounted for 47%, 27% and 27% respectively. Thus, in this tropical surface flow wetland supporting a mixture of emergent macrophytes and floating duckweed, vegetation is an important mechanism for direct nutrient removal.

  10. Red mud (RM)-Induced enhancement of iron plaque formation reduces arsenic and metal accumulation in two wetland plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J X; Guo, Q J; Yang, J; Zhou, X Y; Ren, H Y; Zhang, H Z; Xu, R X; Wang, X D; Peters, M; Zhu, G X; Wei, R F; Tian, L Y; Han, X K

    2016-01-01

    Human activities have resulted in arsenic (As) and heavy metals accumulation in paddy soils in China. Phytoremediation has been suggested as an effective and low-cost method to clean up contaminated soils. A combined soil-sand pot experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of red mud (RM) supply on iron plaque formation and As and heavy metal accumulation in two wetland plant species (Cyperus alternifolius Rottb., Echinodorus amazonicus Rataj), using As and heavy metals polluted paddy soil combined with three rates of RM application (0, 2%, 5%). The results showed that RM supply significantly decreased As and heavy metals accumulation in shoots of the two plants due to the decrease of As and heavy metal availability and the enhancement of the formation of iron plaque on the root surface and in the rhizosphere. Both wetland plants supplied with RM tended to have more Fe plaque, higher As and heavy metals on roots and in their rhizospheres, and were more tolerant of As and heavy metal toxicity. The results suggest that RM-induced enhancement of the formation of iron plaque on the root surface and in the rhizosphere of wetland plants may be significant for remediation of soils contaminated with As and heavy metals.

  11. Effects of diesel and kerosene on germination and growth of coastal wetland plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kee Dae

    2014-11-01

    This study aims to investigate effects of diesel and kerosene on seed germination and seedling growth among coastal wetland plants to select species that can be used for the restoration and revegetation of oil-polluted habitats. Tests on 51 species were performed in Petri dishes containing 0 %, 6 %, 12 %, and 18 % diesel, 20 %, 40 %, and 60 % kerosene; each treatment combination was replicated five times with 20 seeds in each Petri dish. All dishes were held in a growth chamber with 20°C day of 12 h/15°C night of 12 h in 80 % humidity for 20 days for calculating the germination percentage, seedling weight, and seedling vitality. The germination percentage of Rumex stenophyllus decreased significantly in diesel and kerosene treatments. The weights of seedlings treated with diesel and kerosene either increased or decreased in comparison with controls depending on the species. Vitality percentage values were high for seedlings of Chenopodium ficifolium. Thus, herbaceous plant responses to oil treatments are species-specific.

  12. Sulfate removal and sulfur transformation in constructed wetlands: The roles of filling material and plant biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Wen, Yue; Zhou, Qi; Huang, Jingang; Vymazal, Jan; Kuschk, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Sulfate in effluent is a challenging issue for wastewater reuse around the world. In this study, sulfur (S) removal and transformation in five batch constructed wetlands (CWs) treating secondary effluent were investigated. The results showed that the presence of the plant cattail (Typha latifolia) had little effect on sulfate removal, while the carbon-rich litter it generated greatly improved sulfate removal, but with limited sulfide accumulation in the pore-water. After sulfate removal, most of the S was deposited with the valence states S (-II) and S (0) on the iron-rich gravel surface, and acid volatile sulfide was the main S sink in the litter-added CWs. High-throughput pyrosequencing revealed that sulfate-reducing bacteria (i.e. Desulfobacter) and sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (i.e. Thiobacillus) were dominant in the litter-added CWs, which led to a sustainable S cycle between sulfate and sulfide. Overall, this study suggests that recycling plant litter and iron-rich filling material in CWs gives an opportunity to utilize the S in the wastewater as both an electron acceptor for sulfate reduction and as an electron donor for nitrate reduction coupled with sulfide oxidation. This leads to the simultaneous removal of sulfate, nitrate, and organics without discharging toxic sulfide into the receiving water body. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. CAN PALYNOLOGY CONTRIBUTE TO PLANT DIVERSITY CONSERVATION ACTIVITIES? THE WETLAND PLANTS IN SOUTHERN PO PLAIN AS A CASE STUDY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Buldrini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The vegetation of the Po Plain has long been modified by natural and human factors. The present plant landscape is almost entirely anthropogenic. Many hydro-hygrophilous species, quite common until a few decades ago, are now very rare and in danger of extinction, so conservation programmes are necessary for their protection and maintenance. It is known that the former vegetation can be reconstructed thanks to palynological data, but assessing the real presence of a given species is not always possible. This work aims to understand whether palynology can give information about the presence and identification of hydro-hygrophilous species, supporting the classical flora analyses commonly conducted on herbarium data. In some cases, these species are well characterized from a morphopalynological and phytogeographical viewpoint: the plant occurrence may be suggested even by pollen findings in surface-samples. Discovering the presence of some of these species by pollen morphotypes offers a real opportunity to gear the reintroduction/reinforcing programmes, but ecological analysis will obviously be essential to ascertain the real suitability of the chosen sites, according to the ecological requirements of the species. Our analysis refers to wetlands of the southern Po plain within the Modena Province, where detailed palynological data about present and historical local flora were available.

  14. [Impacts of human disturbance on the species composition of higher plants in the wetlands around Dianchi Lake, Yunnan Province of Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xi-Xi; Wu, Zhao-Lu; Luo, Kang; Ding, Hong-Bo; Zhang, Hai-Yan

    2013-09-01

    Introducing higher plants to build semi-natural wetland ecosystem is one of the key approaches to restore the wetlands and lakes that suffered from serious pollution and destruction. Based on the investigation data from 128 quadrats at 26 sampling sites in the wetlands around Dianchi Lake in December 2011-October 2012, and in combining with the references published in the 1960s, this paper discussed the impacts of human activities on the species composition of higher plants in the wetlands around the Lake. In 2012, there were 299 species of 88 families in the wetlands, of which, 181 species were native species, and 118 species were alien ones (including 32 invasive species). Of the 42 species of hydrophytes in the total species, 13 species were alien ones (including 2 invasive species). In comparing with the species data recorded in the 1960s, 232 plants were newly recorded and 43 species disappeared in 2012. Aquatic plants changed obviously. The decreased species were 2 submerged plants, 2 floating plants, and 5 floating leaved plants, and the increased species were 8 emergent plants. Fourteen community types were identified by cluster analysis, of which, the main communities were those dominated by alien species including Pistia stratiotes and Alternanthera philoxeroides. As compared with the data in the 1960s, the plant communities dominated by native species such as Ottelia acuminate and Vallisneria natans were not found presently. Therefore, in the practice of introducing higher plants to restore the degraded wetlands and lakes, it would be necessary to scientifically and appropriately select and blend plant species to avoid the wetland degradation by human activities.

  15. Aquatic Plants Planting Design of Pingtian Lake Wetland Park%平天湖湿地公园水生植物种植设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘妍

    2012-01-01

    依据湿地生态系统稳定发展的原则,在保证最小程度破坏当地原有植被的基础上,通过查阅资料和调查研究,从水生植物配置的角度,总结出平天湖湿地公园水生植物选择的依据和适当建议,以期为公园水生植物的选择提供思路.%Based on the principles of the steady development of wetland ecosystem to guarantee the minimal damage to native vegetation, the basis and suggestions on the choice of aquatic plants in Pingtian Lake Wetland Park were summarized from the perspective of aquatic plants configuration, with the aim to provide basis for the selection of aquatic plants in parks.

  16. Effect of dissimilatory iron and sulfate reduction on arsenic dynamics in the wetland rhizosphere and its bioaccumulation in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, P. R.; Zhang, Z.; Moon, H. S.; Myneni, S.

    2015-12-01

    The mobility of arsenic in soils is linked to biogeochemical redox processes. The presence of wetland plants in riparian wetlands has a significant impact on the biogeochemical dynamics of the soil/sediment-redoxcline due to the release of root exudates and root turnover and oxygen transfer from the roots into the surrounding sediment. Micro-environmental redox conditions in the rhizosphere affect As, Fe, and S speciation as well as Fe(III) plaque deposition, which affects arsenic transport and uptake by plants. To investigate the dynamics of As coupled to S and Fe cycling in wetlands, mesocosms were operated in a greenhouse under various conditions (high and low Fe, high and low sulfate, with plant and without plants) for four months. Results show that the presence of plants, high Fe, and high SO42- levels enhanced As sequestration in these soils. We hypothesize that this compounding effect is because plants release biodegradable organic carbon, which is used by microorganism to reduce ferrihydrite and SO42- to generate FeS, FeS2, and/or orpiment (As2S3). Over the concentration range studied, As immobilization in soil and uptake by Scirpus actus was mainly controlled by SO42- rather than Fe levels. Under high sulfate levels, As immobilization in soil increased by 50% and As concentrations in plant roots increased by 97%, whereas no significant changes in plant As levels were seen for varying Fe concentrations. More than 80% of As was sequestrated in soils rather than plant uptake. Pore water As speciation analyses indicate that 20% more As(V) was reduced to As(III) under high sulfate as than low sulfate levels and that low Fe was more favorable to the As dissimilatory reduction. More dissimilatory arsenate-respiring bacteria (DARB) under high sulfate were confirmed by quantitative PCR. Arsenic distribution in plant leafs and roots after 30 days of exposure to As was analyzed via Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence analyses. The uptake of As by plants was distributed

  17. Effects of chlorimuron ethyl on terrestrial and wetland plants: Levels of, and time to recovery following sublethal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, David; Boutin, Céline; Allison, Jane E

    2013-01-01

    Current pesticide registration guidelines call for short-term testing of plants; long-term effects on vegetative parts and reproduction remain untested. The aims of our study were to determine level of recovery and recovery times for plants exposed to the sulfonylurea herbicide chlorimuron ethyl using data collected from single species, dose-response greenhouse experiments. The nine terrestrial and eight wetland species tested showed variable levels of recovery and recovery timeframes. Many species (six terrestrial and five wetland) were vegetatively stunted at sublethal doses and were reproductively impaired. Full recovery did not occur at all doses and maximum recovery times varied from 3 to 15 weeks in this controlled environment. In a complex community, affected species may be displaced by tolerant species, through interspecific competition, before they fully recover. It is plausible that individual populations could be diminished or eliminated through reduced seedbank inputs (annuals and perennials) and asexual reproduction (perennials).

  18. Spatial pattern of a plant community in a wetland ecosystem in a semi-arid region in northwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kebin ZHANG; Rui LI; Yunfang LIU; Baitian WANG; Xiaohui YANG; Ruiping HOU

    2008-01-01

    The spatial distribution characteristics of plant communities in a wetland-dry grassland ecosystem in arid and semi-arid regions in northwestern China and the main factors affecting the distribution pattern were studied. The Siertan wetland in the Haba Lake Nature Reserve was the study area. Four transect lines, each about 1 km long, were set up in the growing season along the biotope gradient in four directions: east, northeast, west and northwest. Attributes measured include frequency of occurrence, height, density, coverage, biomass and envir-onmental soil factors. The data were analyzed using a two-way indicative species analysis (TWINSPAN), detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) and Spear-man correlation coefficients. On this basis, the vegetation in the Siertan wetland was classified into three types and 14 associations. The first vegetation type was halophytic marsh vegetation, mainly distributed in the wetland zone. This type largely contains halophyte and hygric plants and its representative association is Phragmites communis + Kalidiumfoliatum. The second type was meadow vegeta-tion, distributed in the ecotone. The meadow vegetation species are mainly mesophytic and their representative association is Nitraria tangutorum+ Pennisetum flacci-dum. The third vegetation type is grassland vegetation, which mainly consists of mesophytic and xerophytes, dis-tributed in the arid grassland zone. The representative association of the third vegetation type is the association of Anaeurolepidium secalium + Saussurea runcinata. Correlation analysis between the axes of DCA and envir-onmental soil factors shows that soil moisture content, organic matter, soil salt content and total nitrogen are the main environmental factors affecting the pattern of vegetation distribution along the biotope gradients from wetland to arid grassland. Other factors affecting the vegetation are microtopography and grazing pressure. Additionally, we have reported modifications and

  19. Effect of dissimilatory iron and sulfate reduction on Arsenic dynamics in the wetland rhizosphere and its bioaccumulation in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheyun; Moon, Hee Sun; Myneni, Satish; Jaffe, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Arsenic (As) pollution in water soil and sediments is of worldwide concern due to its ecological toxicity and chronic effects on human health. Wetlands are at the interface between ground and surface waters and because of their unique biogeochemical dynamics could be promising location for arsenic immobilization. However, the nature of biogeochemical reactions of As in wetlands are complex and not well understood. The dynamics of As in wetland sediments are closely linked to the redox cycling of Fe and S, both of which are affected by water-table fluctuations and wetland plants activity that are typical in such environments. Little is not known about redox cycling of Fe or S and their effects on As speciation, biogeochemical dynamics, and bioaccumulation in the wetland rhizosphere and plants. To gain further insights into these processes, twelve mesocosms were set up and planted with wetland plants (Scirpus actus), six were submerged in a tray (reactor) with ~ 170 mM SO4-2 and six in a tray with ~ 350 uM SO4-2 and two levels of ferrihydrite in the soil for each SO4-2 treatment. Each mesocosm was sealed and the only contact with the solution in the reactor was via the surface of the mesocosm. The mesocosms were run for 1.5 months to establish the plants, after which 50μM Na2HAsO4·7H2O was added to the reactors. Water in the reactors was constantly recirculated to make the solution homogeneous. The reactors were run for 4 months and monitored regularly for dissolved species, and were then dismantled. Results show that the presence of plants, high Fe, and high SO42- levels enhanced As sequestration in the soil. We hypothesize that the reason for this compounding effect is that plants release easily biodegradable organic carbon, which is used by microorganism to reduce ferrihydrite and SO42- to generate FeS or FeS2. More As is then sequestrated via sorption or co-precipitation on FeS or FeS2. Analysis of As in plant tissue showed that As uptake by Scirpus actus was

  20. Effects of plant roots on the hydraulic performance during the clogging process in mesocosm vertical flow constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, G F; Zhao, Z W; Kong, J; Guo, R; Zeng, Y T; Zhao, L F; Zhu, Q D

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of plant roots (Typha angustifolia roots) on the hydraulic performance during the clogging process from the perspective of time and space distributions in mesocosm vertical flow-constructed wetlands with coarse sand matrix. For this purpose, a pair of lab-scale experiments was conducted to compare planted and unplanted systems by measuring the effective porosity and hydraulic conductivity of the substrate within different operation periods. Furthermore, the flow pattern of the clogging process in the planted and unplanted wetland systems were evaluated by their hydraulic performance (e.g., mean residence time, short circuiting, volumetric efficiency, number of continuously stirred tank reactors, and hydraulic efficiency factor) in salt tracer experiments. The results showed that the flow conditions would change in different clogging stages, which indicated that plants played different roles related to time and space. In the early clogging stages, plant roots restricted the flow of water, while in the middle and later clogging stages, especially the later stage, growing roots opened new pore spaces in the substrate. The roots played an important role in affecting the hydraulic performance in the upper layer (0-30 cm) where the sand matrix had a larger root volume fraction. Finally, the causes of the controversy over plant roots' effects on clogging were discussed. The results helped further understand the effects of plant roots on hydraulic performance during the clogging process.

  1. Effect of Nitrogen and Phosphorus on Tissue Nutrition and Biomass of Freshwater Wetland Plant in Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Zhiguo; YAN Baixing; HE Yan; ZHAI Jinliang; SONG Changchun

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen (4, 10, 20 and 40g/m2) and phosphorus (1.2, 4.8 and 9.6g/m2) were applied to tanks to evaluating the effects of N and P additions on plant tissue nutrition and the biomass of two freshwater wetland plants in the Sanjiang Plain of Northeast China, namely Carex lasiocarpa and Carex meyeriana. For C. lasiocarpa, the total N concentration (TN) of plant tissues under the treatment of 10g/m2 was lower compared with the other N treatments. Initially, C.lasiocarpa exhibited a significant increase of biomass as compared with the control value, reaching the maximum of 31.20±4.01 g/tank under the treatment of 10g/m2, and then dropped to 18.02±1.53g/tank under the treatment of 40g/m2.For C. meyeriana, TN generally increased with increasing amount of N applied. High N applied produced more aboveground biomass than low N applied. C. meyeriana, as the accompanying species, can adapt itself to the wetland enriched by N, and it may replace C. lasiocarpa as the dominant species of wetland. The total P concentration (TP) in tissues of C. lasiocarpa increased with P addition. The aboveground biomass of C. lasiocarpa increased with P addition,and it changed from 18.77±3.29g/tank to 46.03±3.95g/tank. However, TP of tissue may accelerate the C. meyeriana development under the treatment of 1.2g/m2. P accumulation contributes to the dominance of C. lasiocarpa but limits the production of C. meyeriana, and the latter may disappear gradually from the wetland enriched by P. Increased input of N and P might have an influence on wetland plant community composition and structure, so the effects of nutrient inputs and accumulation should be considered to protect the freshwater wetland.

  2. Native herbaceous plant species with potential use in phytoremediation of heavy metals, spotlight on wetlands - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyuela Leguizamo, Mayerly Alexandra; Fernández Gómez, Wilmar Darío; Sarmiento, Martha Cecilia Gutiérrez

    2017-02-01

    Soil, air and water pollution caused by the mobility and solubility of heavy metals significantly damages the environment, human health, plants and animals. One common in situ method used for the decontamination of heavy metals is phytoremediation. This usually involves the use of exotic species. However, these species may exhibit invasive behavior, thereby, affect the environmental and ecological dynamics of the ecosystem into which they are introduced. This paper focuses on some native herbaceous plant species reported on the wetlands of Bogota, Colombia, with potential use in phytoremediation of heavy metals. To do that, the authors identified and searched a bibliography based on key words related to heavy metal decontamination. In addition, authors gathered and analyzed relevant information that allowed the comprehension of the phytoremediation process. This paper suggests the study of 41 native or endemic species regarding their behavior towards heavy metal contamination. From a survey of herbaceous plants reported in Bogota, native and endemic species that belong to predominant families in heavy metal accumulation processes were selected. Although found in Colombian's wetlands, these can also be found worldwide. Therefore, they are of great interest due to their global presence and their potential for use in phytoremediation. The current research about the development of phytoremediation focuses on the identification of new herbaceous species able to decontaminate substratum polluted with heavy metals to contribute with the investigation of the ecology and environment of the nature's remnants in urban wetland ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Roles for root iron plaque in sequestration and uptake of heavy metals and metalloids in aquatic and wetland plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Rudra D; Tripathi, Preeti; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Kumar, Amit; Mishra, Aradhana; Chauhan, Puneet S; Norton, Gareth J; Nautiyal, Chandra S

    2014-10-01

    Toxic metal(loid) contamination of soil and sediment poses long term risk to soil and human health through plant-human or plant-animal-human food chain pathways. Iron plaque (IP) formation is frequent in aquatic and wetland plant species and is responsible for the sequestration of various metal(loids). The presence of IP may act as a buffer or barrier and may thus enhance or reduce the uptake of potentially phytotoxic metals and metalloids by plants. If IP acts as a barrier, then low IP producing macrophytes/aquatic plants may be better accumulators of toxic metals and may find use in constructed wetlands for remediation of pollutants, while high IP forming edible plant species could be safer for human consumption. Conversely, if IP acts as a buffer for mineral nutrients and toxic elements then those cultivars may be rich in nutrients, but may also cause toxicity. However, an ecotoxicological risk is also inevitable if IP rich macrophyte roots containing heavy metals are consumed by herbivores. In this review, we summarize the current understanding about the role of IP in metal and metalloid sequestration, uptake, and transport. Furthermore, we will address the role of root IP in Oryza sativa for arsenic (As) sequestration leading to lower grain As translocation, reducing the risk of human exposure.

  4. Comparison of carbon balance in Mediterranean pilot constructed wetlands vegetated with different C4 plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbera, Antonio C; Borin, Maurizio; Cirelli, Giuseppe L; Toscano, Attilio; Maucieri, Carmelo

    2015-02-01

    This study investigates carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions and carbon (C) budgets in a horizontal subsurface flow pilot-plant constructed wetland (CW) with beds vegetated with Cyperus papyrus L., Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty, and Mischantus × giganteus Greef et Deu in the Mediterranean basin (Sicily) during the 1st year of plant growing season. At the end of the vegetative season, M. giganteus showed the higher biomass accumulation (7.4 kg m(-2)) followed by C. zizanioides (5.3 kg m(-2)) and C. papyrus (1.8 kg m(-2)). Significantly higher emissions of CO2 were detected in the summer, while CH4 emissions were maximum during spring. Cumulative CO2 emissions by C. papyrus and C. zizanioides during the monitoring period showed similar trends with final values of about 775 and 1,074 g m(-2), respectively, whereas M. giganteus emitted 3,395 g m(-2). Cumulative CH4 bed emission showed different trends for the three C4 plant species in which total gas release during the study period was for C. papyrus 12.0 g m(-2) and ten times higher for M. giganteus, while C. zizanioides bed showed the greatest CH4 cumulative emission with 240.3 g m(-2). The wastewater organic carbon abatement determined different C flux in the atmosphere. Gas fluxes were influenced both by plant species and monitored months with an average C-emitted-to-C-removed ratio for C. zizanioides, C. papyrus, and M. giganteus of 0.3, 0.5, and 0.9, respectively. The growing season C balances were positive for all vegetated beds with the highest C sequestered in the bed with M. giganteus (4.26 kg m(-2)) followed by C. zizanioides (3.78 kg m(-2)) and C. papyrus (1.89 kg m(-2)). To our knowledge, this is the first paper that presents preliminary results on CO2 and CH4 emissions from CWs vegetated with C4 plant species in Mediterranean basin during vegetative growth.

  5. Ecophysiology of wetland plant roots: A modelling comparison of aeration in relation to species distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrell, B.K.; Mendelssohn, I.A.; McKee, K.L.; Woods, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the potential for inter-specific differences in root aeration to determine wetland plant distribution in nature. We compared aeration in species that differ in the type of sediment and depth of water they colonize. Differences in root anatomy, structure and physiology were applied to aeration models that predicted the maximum possible aerobic lengths and development of anoxic zones in primary adventitious roots. Differences in anatomy and metabolism that provided higher axial fluxes of oxygen allowed deeper root growth in species that favour more reducing sediments and deeper water. Modelling identified factors that affected growth in anoxic soils through their effects on aeration. These included lateral root formation, which occurred at the expense of extension of the primary root because of the additional respiratory demand they imposed, reducing oxygen fluxes to the tip and stele, and the development of stelar anoxia. However, changes in sediment oxygen demand had little detectable effect on aeration in the primary roots due to their low wall permeability and high surface impedance, but appeared to reduce internal oxygen availability by accelerating loss from laterals. The development of pressurized convective gas flow in shoots and rhizomes was also found to be important in assisting root aeration, as it maintained higher basal oxygen concentrations at the rhizome-root junctions in species growing into deep water. (C) 2000 Annals of Botany Company.

  6. Coliform bacteria removal from sewage in constructed wetlands planted with Mentha aquatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelar, Fabiana F; de Matos, Antonio T; de Matos, Mateus P; Borges, Alisson C

    2014-08-01

    The present study evaluated the performance of the species Mentha aquatica in constructed wetlands of horizontal subsurface flow (CW-HSSF) with regard to the removal of coliforms bacteria in an effluent from the primary treatment of sewage as well as to obtain adjustment parameters of the bacterial decay kinetic model along the length of the CW-HSSF. Therefore, four CW-HSSFs measuring 24.0 m x 1.0 m x 0.35 m were built and filled with number 0 gravel as the support medium to a height of 0.20m. Two of the CW-HSSFs were planted with the species M. aquatica, while the other two remained uncultivated. Cultivation of M. aquatica in CW-HSSF resulted in total coliforms (TC) and Escherichia coli (EC) removals from 0.9 to 1.3 log units greater than those obtained in the uncultivated experimental plots, for the hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 4.5 and 6.0 days. For HRT ranged from 1.5 to 6.0 days, the highest removal efficiencies in counts of TC and EC were obtained when using longer HRT. The mathematical models evaluated showed good fit to average counts of TC and EC highlighting the modified first-order kinetic model with the inclusion of the power parameter in the HRT variable.

  7. Measuring bulrush culm relationships to estimate plant biomass within a southern California treatment wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Joan S. (Thullen); Cade, Brian S.; Sartoris, James J.

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of emergent vegetation biomass can be time consuming and labor intensive. To establish a less onerous, yet accurate method, for determining emergent plant biomass than by direct measurements we collected vegetation data over a six-year period and modeled biomass using easily obtained variables: culm (stem) diameter, culm height and culm density. From 1998 through 2005, we collected emergent vegetation samples (Schoenoplectus californicus andSchoenoplectus acutus) at a constructed treatment wetland in San Jacinto, California during spring and fall. Various statistical models were run on the data to determine the strongest relationships. We found that the nonlinear relationship: CB=β0DHβ110ε, where CB was dry culm biomass (g m−2), DH was density of culms × average height of culms in a plot, and β0 and β1 were parameters to estimate, proved to be the best fit for predicting dried-live above-ground biomass of the two Schoenoplectus species. The random error distribution, ε, was either assumed to be normally distributed for mean regression estimates or assumed to be an unspecified continuous distribution for quantile regression estimates.

  8. Denitrification potential and organic matter as affected by vegetation community, wetland age, and plant introduction in created wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Maria E; Mitsch, William J

    2007-01-01

    Denitrification potential (DP) and organic matter (OM) in soils were compared in three different vegetation communities-emergent macrophyte, open water, and forested edge-in two 10-yr-old created riverine wetlands. Organic matter, cold water-extractable organic matter (CWEOM), anaerobic mineralizable carbon (AnMC), and DP varied significantly (Pwetland development, mean DP increased 25-fold in the surface layer (from 0.002 to 0.053 mg N h-1 kg-1); OM content more than doubled to 90.80+/-19.22 g kg-1, and CWEOM and HWEOM increased 2.5 and 2.7 times respectively from 1993 (prewetland conditions) to 2004. Humic acids were the most abundant form of OM in 2004 and 1993 samples. Significant (P<0.05) positive relationships between DP and OM, CWEOM, and AnMC were found in the surface layer; in the 9- to 18-cm layer, significant positive relationships were found between DP and CWEOM and AnMC.

  9. Treatment of high-strength wastewater in tropical constructed wetlands planted with Sesbania sesban: Horizontal subsurface flow versus vertical downflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dan, Truong Hoang; Quang, Le Nhat; Chiem, Nguyen Huu;

    2011-01-01

    controls. Direct plant uptake constituted only up to 8% of the total-N removal and 2% of the P removal at the lowest loading rate, and was quantitatively of low importance compared to other removal processes. The significant effects of plants were therefore related more to their indirect effects...... subsurface flow system and a saturated vertical downflow system was established with planted and unplanted beds to assess the effects of system design and presence of plants on treatment performance. The systems were loaded with a mixture of domestic and pig farm wastewater at three hydraulic loading rates...... of 80, 160 and 320mmd-1. The S. sesban plants grew very well in the constructed wetland systems and produced 17.2-20.2kgdry matterm-2year-1 with a high nitrogen content. Mass removal rates and removal rate constants increased with loading rate, but at 320mmd-1 the effluent quality was unacceptable...

  10. Remote-Sensed Monitoring of Dominant Plant Species Distribution and Dynamics at Jiuduansha Wetland in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenpeng Lin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Spartina alterniflora is one of the most hazardous invasive plant species in China. Monitoring the changes in dominant plant species can help identify the invasion mechanisms of S. alterniflora, thereby providing scientific guidelines on managing or controlling the spreading of this invasive species at Jiuduansha Wetland in Shanghai, China. However, because of the complex terrain and the inaccessibility of tidal wetlands, it is very difficult to conduct field experiments on a large scale in this wetland. Hence, remote sensing plays an important role in monitoring the dynamics of plant species and its distribution on both spatial and temporal scales. In this study, based on multi-spectral and high resolution (<10 m remote sensing images and field observational data, we analyzed spectral characteristics of four dominant plant species at different green-up phenophases. Based on the difference in spectral characteristics, a decision tree classification was built for identifying the distribution of these plant species. The results indicated that the overall classification accuracy for plant species was 87.17%, and the Kappa Coefficient was 0.81, implying that our classification method could effectively identify the four plant species. We found that the area of Phragmites australi showed an increasing trend from 1997 to 2004 and from 2004 to 2012, with an annual spreading rate of 33.77% and 31.92%, respectively. The area of Scirpus mariqueter displayed an increasing trend from 1997 to 2004 (12.16% per year and a decreasing trend from 2004 to 2012 (−7.05% per year. S. alterniflora has the biggest area (3302.20 ha as compared to other species, accounting for 51% of total vegetated area at the study region in 2012. It showed an increasing trend from 1997 to 2004 and from 2004 to 2012, with an annual spreading rate of 130.63% and 28.11%, respectively. As a result, the native species P. australi was surrounded and the habitats of S. mariqueter were

  11. N-fixing trees in wetland restoration plantings: effects on nitrogensupply and soil microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, XuePing; Yang, JunNa; Zhu, XiE; Liang, Xia; Lei, YanRu; He, ChiQuan

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the impact of an exotic Frankia nodulated tree (Alnus trabeculosa) on soil nitrogen content, soil microbial composition, and the abundance of N turnover-related functional microorganism community, we compared the community structure and abundance of key functional genes (nifH, bacterial/archaeal amoA, and nosZ) in the rhizosphere and nonrhizosphere of monoculture of Phragmites australis and A.trabeculosa-P.australis mixed communities by MiSeq Illumina sequencing and real-time PCR, respectively. The introduction of Frankia nodulated tree to recover degraded wetland was effective in the accumulation of soil organic carbon and nitrogen, which was the key factor to impact on the bacterial community composition revealed by canonical correspondence analysis. Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria were the dominant bacterial phylums while seven rare phyla appeared the most phylogenetically different among the investigated soil of two vegetations, including Chlorobi, Cyanobacteria, OD1, OP11, TM6, TM7, and GN02. The gene copy numbers of nifH were ranged from 2.28 × 10(8) to 2.96 × 10(9) copies g(-1) dry soil in the wetland, and which were significantly higher in soil samples from P. australis than that from A.trabeculosa. While the abundance of nosZ in both rhizosphere and nonrhizosphere soils of A.trabeculosa-P.australis mixed communities was significantly lower compared with P.australis monoculture. The potential nitrification (PNA) (0.15-0.41 mg NOx-N kg(-1) dry soil d(-1)) in the rhizosphere of A. trabeculosa was significantly higher than that of P. australis, and the soil denitrification enzyme activity (DEA) (0.42-0.90 nmol N2O-N g(-1) dry soil h(-1)) was lower in the mixed community compared with monoculture of P. australis. The introduced planting of Frankia nodulated tree effectively accumulated soil organic carbon and nitrogen and reduce the relative abundance and activity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria and denitrification bacteria.

  12. Investigation on concentration of elements in wetland sediments and aquatic plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Janadeleh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The major aim of the present study was to investigate element (Fe, Ni, Pb, V, Zn concentrations in sediment and different tissues of Phragmities australis and Typha latifolia in Hor al-Azim Wetland Southwest Iran. Sampling of sediments and aquatic plants was carried out during spring and summer 2014. Results showed that the mean  concentrations of elements in Phragmities australis  in root and stem-leaf were as follows: Iron:4448 mg/kg, Nickel: 28 mg/kg, Lead:8 mg/kg, Vanadium:10 mg/kg  and Zinc 15.5 mg/kg in root and: Fe:645 mg/kg, Ni:15 mg/kg, Pb:4 mg/kg, V:4 mg/kg and Zinc 16 mg/kg respectively. Also, the mean concentrations of Fe, Ni, Pb, V and Zn in roots of Typha latifolia were 8696 mg/kg, 34 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, 19 mg/kg and 27 mg/kg respectively. The mean concentrations of Fe, Ni, V, Pb, Zn in stem-leaves of Typha latifolia were as follows: 321 mg/kg, 3 mg/kg, 7 mg/kg, 2 mg/kg and 14 mg/kg respectively. The mean concentrations of Fe, Ni, V, Pb and zinc were as: 40991 mg/kg, 65 mg/kg, 60 mg/kg, 31 mg/kg, 60 mg/kg respectively in surface sediment of study area. Concentration pattern of elements in sediment were as: Fe>Ni>Zn>V>Pb. The highest concentration of elements in the plant was seen in the roots. Also, Typha latifolia can uptake more concentration of elements than Phragmities australis. Based on the enrichment factor, Ni in summer had the highest EF values among the elements studied and it has a moderate enrichment.

  13. Bioavailability of cadmium adsorbed on various oxides minerals to wetland plant species Phragmites australis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang He, E-mail: he.wangworld@yahoo.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Jia Yongfeng, E-mail: yongfeng.jia@iae.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Wang Shaofeng [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Zhu Huijie; Wu Xing [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2009-08-15

    The bioavailability of heavy metals strongly depends on their speciation in the environment. The effect of different chemical speciations of cadmium ions (i.e. adsorbed on different oxide minerals) on its bioavailability to wetland plant Phragmites australis was studied. Goethite, magnetite, gibbsite, alumina, and manganese oxide were chosen as representatives of metal (hydr)oxides commonly present in sediment. The cultivar system with Hoagland solution as nutrition supply, and single metal oxide with adsorbed Cd as contaminant was applied to study Cd accumulation by P. australis. The bioaccumulation degree in root after the 45-day treatment followed the order: Al(OH){sub 3} > Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} > Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} > MnO{sub 2} > FeOOH. The concentration of Cd in stem and leaf followed a similar order although it was considerably lower than that in root. Low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs), acetic acid, malic acid and citric acid were used to evaluate the desorbability of Cd from different oxides, which can be indicative of Cd-oxide bonding strength and Cd bioavailability. Desorption of Cd by acetic acid and malic acid followed the order: Al(OH){sub 3} > Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} > Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} > FeOOH > MnO{sub 2}, while by citric acid: Al(OH){sub 3} {>=} Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} > Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} > FeOOH > MnO{sub 2}. This was consistent with the Cd accumulation degree in the plant. Cd adsorbed on Al(OH){sub 3} was the most easily desorbable species and most bioavailable to P. australis among the oxide minerals, whereas MnO{sub 2} adsorbed Cd was least desorbable by LMWOAs hence constituted the least bioavailable Cd species adsorbed on the oxide minerals.

  14. Application of subsurface vertical flow constructed wetlands to reject water treatment in dairy wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowski, Wojciech; Karolinczak, Beata; Gajewska, Magdalena; Wojciechowska, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the effects of applying subsurface vertical flow constructed wetlands (SS VF) for the treatment of reject water generated in the process of aerobic sewage sludge stabilization in the biggest dairy wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Poland. Two SS VF beds were built: bed (A) with 0.65 m depth and bed (B) with 1.0 m depth, planted with reeds. Beds were fed with reject water with hydraulic load of 0.1 m d(-1) in order to establish the differences in treatment efficiency. During an eight-months research period, a high removal efficiency of predominant pollutants was shown: BOD5 88.1% (A) and 90.5% (B); COD 84.5% (A) and 87.5% (B); TSS 87.6% (A) and 91.9% (B); TKN 82.4% (A) and 76.5% (B); N-NH4(+) 89.2% (A) and 85.7% (B); TP 30.2% (A) and 40.6% (B). There were not statistically significant differences in the removal efficiencies between bed (B) with 1.0 m depth and bed (A) with 0.65 m depth. The research indicated that SS VF beds could be successfully applied to reject water treatment in dairy WWTPs. The study proved that the use of SS VF beds in full scale in dairy WWTPs would result in a significant decrease in pollutants' load in reject water. In the analyzed case, decreasing the load of ammonia nitrogen was of greatest importance, as it constituted 58% of the total load treated in dairy WWTP and posed a hazard to the stability of the treatment process.

  15. Behaviour of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in constructed wetland compartments: Influent, effluent, pore water, substrate and plant roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijosa-Valsero, María; Reyes-Contreras, Carolina; Domínguez, Carmen; Bécares, Eloy; Bayona, Josep M

    2016-02-01

    Seven mesocosm-scale constructed wetlands (CWs) with different design configurations, dealing with primary-treated urban wastewater, were assessed for the concentration, distribution and fate of ten pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) [ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, salicylic acid, caffeine, carbamazepine, methyl dihydrojasmonate, galaxolide and tonalide] and eight of their transformation products (TPs). Apart from influent and effluent, various CW compartments were analysed, namely, substrate, plant roots and pore water. PPCP content in pore water depended on the specific CW configuration. Macrophytes can take up PPCPs through their roots. Ibuprofen, salicylic acid, caffeine, methyl dihydrojasmonate, galaxolide and tonalide were present on the root surface with a predominance of galaxolide and caffeine in all the planted systems. Naproxen, ibuprofen, salicylic acid, methyl dihydrojasmonate, galaxolide and tonalide were uptaken by the roots. In order to better understand the removal processes, biomass measurement and biodegradability studies through the characterization of internal-external isomeric linear alkylbenzenes present on the gravel bed were performed. Three TPs namely, ibuprofen-amide, 3-ethylbenzophenone and 4-hydroxy-diclofenac were identified for the first time in wetland pore water and effluent water, which suggests de novo formation (they were not present in the influent). Conversely, O-desmethyl-naproxen was degraded through the wetland passage since it was detected in the influent but not in the subsequent treatment stages. Biodegradation pathways are therefore suggested for most of the studied PPCPs in the assessed CWs.

  16. Role of C3 plant species on carbon dioxide and methane emissions in Mediterranean constructed wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Maucieri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available C3 plant species are widely used to vegetate constructed wetlands (CW, but so far no information is available on their effect on CW CO2(eq balance in the Mediterranean climate. The aim of this research was to study carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4 emissions and CO2(eq budgets of CW horizontal sub-surface flow pilot-plant beds vegetated with Arundo donax L. and Phragmites australis (Cav. Trin. ex Steud. compared with an unvegetated bed in Sicily. The highest total plant biomass production was measured in the bed vegetated with A. donax (17.0 kg m–2, whereas P. australis produced 7.6 kg m–2. CO2 and CH4 emissions and showed significant correlation with average air temperature and solar radiation for each bed. The CO2 emission values ranged from 0.8±0.1 g m–2 d–1, for the unvegetated bed in April, to 24.9±0.6 g m–2 d–1 for the bed with P. australis in August. The average CO2 emissions of the whole monitored period were 15.5±7.2, 15.1±7.1 and 3.6±2.4 g m–2 d–1 for A. donax, P. australis and unvegetated beds respectively. The CH4 fluxes differed significantly over the monitored seasons, with the highest median value being measured during spring (0.963 g m–2 d–1. No statistical differences were found for CH4 flux among the studied beds. Cumulative estimated CH4 emissions during the study period (from April to December were 159.5, 134.1 and 114.7 g m–2 for A. donax, P. australis and unvegetated beds respectively. CO2(eq balance showed that the two vegetated beds act as CO2(eq sinks, while the unvegetated bed, as expected, acts as a CO2(eq source. Considering only the above-ground plant biomass in the CO2(eq budgets, P. australis and A. donax determined uptakes of 1.30 and 8.35 kg CO2(eq m–2 respectively.

  17. The invasive wetland plant Alternanthera philoxeroides shows a higher tolerance to waterlogging than its native Congener Alternanthera sessilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Chen

    Full Text Available Plant invasion is one of the major threats to natural ecosystems. Phenotypic plasticity is considered to be important for promoting plant invasiveness. High tolerance of stress can also increase survival of invasive plants in adverse habitats. Limited growth and conservation of carbohydrate are considered to increase tolerance of flooding in plants. However, few studies have examined whether invasive species shows a higher phenotypic plasticity in response to waterlogging or a higher tolerance of waterlogging (lower plasticity than native species. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to compare the growth and morphological and physiological responses to waterlogging of the invasive, clonal, wetland species Alternanthera philoxeroides with those of its co-occurring, native, congeneric, clonal species Alternanthera sessilis. Plants of A. philoxeroides and A. sessilis were subjected to three treatments (control, 0 and 60 cm waterlogging. Both A. philoxeroides and A. sessilis survived all treatments. Overall growth was lower in A. philoxeroides than in A. sessilis, but waterlogging negatively affected the growth of A. philoxeroides less strongly than that of A. sessilis. Alternanthera philoxeroides thus showed less sensitivity of growth traits (lower plasticity and higher waterlogging tolerance. Moreover, the photosynthetic capacity of A. philoxeroides was higher than that of A. sessilis during waterlogging. Alternanthera philoxeroides also had higher total non-structural and non-soluble carbohydrate concentrations than A. sessilis at the end of treatments. Our results suggest that higher tolerance to waterlogging and higher photosynthetic capacity may partly explain the invasion success of A. philoxeroides in wetlands.

  18. The inhibition and adaptability of four wetland plant species to high concentration of ammonia wastewater and nitrogen removal efficiency in constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuhui; Wang, Junfeng; Zhao, Xiaoxiang; Song, Xinshan; Gong, Juan

    2016-02-01

    Four plant species, Typha orientalis, Scirpus validus, Canna indica and Iris tectorum were selected to assess their physiological response and effects on nitrogen and COD removal to high total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) in constructed wetlands. Results showed that high TAN caused decreased relative growth rate, net photosynthetic rate, and leaf transpiration. C. indica and T. orientalis showed higher TAN adaptability than S. validus and I. tectorum. Below TAN of 200 mg L(-1), growth of C. indica and T. orientalis was less affected or even stimulated at TAN range 100-200 mg L(-1). However, S. validus and I. tectorum was obviously suppressed when TAN was above 100 mg L(-1). High TAN generated obvious oxidative stress showing increased proline and malondialdehyde contents, and superoxide dismutase was inhibited. It indicated that the threshold for plant self-bioremediation against high TAN was 200 mg L(-1). What's more, planted CWs showed higher nitrogen and COD removal. Removal rate of C. indica and T. orientalis was higher than S. validus and I. tectorum.

  19. Response of Plant Height, Species Richness and Aboveground Biomass to Flooding Gradient along Vegetation Zones in Floodplain Wetlands, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yanjing; Pan, Yanwen; Gao, Chuanyu; Jiang, Ming; Lu, Xianguo; Xu, Y Jun

    2016-01-01

    Flooding regime changes resulting from natural and human activity have been projected to affect wetland plant community structures and functions. It is therefore important to conduct investigations across a range of flooding gradients to assess the impact of flooding depth on wetland vegetation. We conducted this study to identify the pattern of plant height, species richness and aboveground biomass variation along the flooding gradient in floodplain wetlands located in Northeast China. We found that the response of dominant species height to the flooding gradient depends on specific species, i.e., a quadratic response for Carex lasiocarpa, a negative correlation for Calamagrostis angustifolia, and no response for Carex appendiculata. Species richness showed an intermediate effect along the vegetation zone from marsh to wet meadow while aboveground biomass increased. When the communities were analysed separately, only the water table depth had significant impact on species richness for two Carex communities and no variable for C. angustifolia community, while height of dominant species influenced aboveground biomass. When the three above-mentioned communities were grouped together, variations in species richness were mainly determined by community type, water table depth and community mean height, while variations in aboveground biomass were driven by community type and the height of dominant species. These findings indicate that if habitat drying of these herbaceous wetlands in this region continues, then two Carex marshes would be replaced gradually by C. angustifolia wet meadow in the near future. This will lead to a reduction in biodiversity and an increase in productivity and carbon budget. Meanwhile, functional traits must be considered, and should be a focus of attention in future studies on the species diversity and ecosystem function in this region.

  20. Ecological classification of wetland plant associations in the Lahontan Valley, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In response to concerns regarding the conservation and management of wetland biodiversity within the Lahontan Valley, The Nature Conservancy, in cooperation with the...

  1. Plant traits in response to raising groundwater levels in wetland restoration: evidence from three case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodegom, van P.M.; Grootjans, A.P.; Sorrell, B.K.; Bekker, R.M.; Bakker, C.; Ozinga, W.A.

    2006-01-01

    Question: Is raising groundwater tables successful as a wetland restoration strategy? Location: Kennemer dunes, The Netherlands; Moksloot dunes, The Netherlands and Bullock Creek fen, New Zealand. Methods: Generalizations were made by analysing soil dynamics and the responsiveness of integrative pla

  2. Plant traits in response to raising groundwater levels in wetland restoration : evidence from three case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodegom, P.M. van; Grootjans, A.P.; Sorrell, B.K.; Bekker, R.M.; Bakker, C.; Ozinga, W.A.; Middleton, B.

    2006-01-01

    Question: Is raising groundwater tables successful as a wetland restoration strategy? Location: Kennemer dunes, The Netherlands; Moksloot dunes, The Netherlands and Bullock Creek fen, New Zealand. Methods: Generalizations were made by analysing soil dynamics and the responsiveness of integrative pla

  3. Water management can reinforce plant competition in salt-affected semi-arid wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coletti, Janaine Z.; Vogwill, Ryan; Hipsey, Matthew R.

    2017-09-01

    The diversity of vegetation in semi-arid, ephemeral wetlands is determined by niche availability and species competition, both of which are influenced by changes in water availability and salinity. Here, we hypothesise that ignoring physiological differences and competition between species when managing wetland hydrologic regimes can lead to a decrease in vegetation diversity, even when the overall wetland carrying capacity is improved. Using an ecohydrological model capable of resolving water-vegetation-salt feedbacks, we investigate why water surface and groundwater management interventions to combat vegetation decline have been more beneficial to Casuarina obesa than to Melaleuca strobophylla, the co-dominant tree species in Lake Toolibin, a salt-affected wetland in Western Australia. The simulations reveal that in trying to reduce the negative effect of salinity, the management interventions have created an environment favouring C. obesa by intensifying the climate-induced trend that the wetland has been experiencing of lower water availability and higher root-zone salinity. By testing alternative scenarios, we show that interventions that improve M. strobophylla biomass are possible by promoting hydrologic conditions that are less specific to the niche requirements of C. obesa. Modelling uncertainties were explored via a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm. Overall, the study demonstrates the importance of including species differentiation and competition in ecohydrological models that form the basis for wetland management.

  4. Wetland eco-engineering: measuring and modeling feedbacks of oxidation processes between plants and clay-rich material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saaltink, Rémon; Dekker, Stefan C.; Griffioen, Jasper; Wassen, Martin J.

    2016-09-01

    Interest is growing in using soft sediment as a foundation in eco-engineering projects. Wetland construction in the Dutch lake Markermeer is an example: here, dredging some of the clay-rich lake-bed sediment and using it to construct wetland will soon begin. Natural processes will be utilized during and after construction to accelerate ecosystem development. Knowing that plants can eco-engineer their environment via positive or negative biogeochemical plant-soil feedbacks, we conducted a 6-month greenhouse experiment to identify the key biogeochemical processes in the mud when Phragmites australis is used as an eco-engineering species. We applied inverse biogeochemical modeling to link observed changes in pore water composition to biogeochemical processes. Two months after transplantation we observed reduced plant growth and shriveling and yellowing of foliage. The N : P ratios of the plant tissue were low, and these were affected not by hampered uptake of N but by enhanced uptake of P. Subsequent analyses revealed high Fe concentrations in the leaves and roots. Sulfate concentrations rose drastically in our experiment due to pyrite oxidation; as reduction of sulfate will decouple Fe-P in reducing conditions, we argue that plant-induced iron toxicity hampered plant growth, forming a negative feedback loop, while simultaneously there was a positive feedback loop, as iron toxicity promotes P mobilization as a result of reduced conditions through root death, thereby stimulating plant growth and regeneration. Given these two feedback mechanisms, we propose the use of Fe-tolerant species rather than species that thrive in N-limited conditions. The results presented in this study demonstrate the importance of studying the biogeochemical properties of the situated sediment and the feedback mechanisms between plant and soil prior to finalizing the design of the eco-engineering project.

  5. Heavy metals in water, sediments and wetland plants in an aquatic ecosystem of tropical industrial region, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Prabhat Kumar

    2009-11-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Fe, Pb, Zn, Hg, Ni, and Cd) and macronutrients (Mn) were measured in industrial effluents, water, bottom sediments, and wetland plants from a reservoir, Govind Ballabh (G.B.) Pant Sagar, in Singrauli Industrial region, India. The discharge point of a thermal power plant, a coal mine, and chlor-alkali effluent into the G.B. Pant Sagar were selected as sampling sites with one reference site in order to compare the findings. The concentrations of heavy metals in filtered water, sieved sediment samples (0.4-63 microm), and wetland plants were determined with particle-induced X-ray emission. The collected plants were Aponogeton natans, L. Engl. & Krause, Cyperus rotundus, L., Hydrilla verticillata, (L.f.) Royle, Ipomoea aquatica, Forssk., Marsilea quadrifolia, L., Potamogeton pectinatus, L., Eichhornia crassipes, (Mart.) Solms Monogr., Lemna minor, L., Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleid. Linnaea, Azolla pinnata, R.Br., Vallisneria spiralis, L., and Polygonum amphibium, L. In general, metal concentration showed a significant positive correlation between industrial effluent, lake water, and lake sediment (p macrophytes for pollution monitoring.

  6. Removal of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) using a combined system involving TiO2 photocatalysis and wetland plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Ka Lai; Man, Yu Bon; Tam, Nora Fung Yee; Liang, Yan; Wong, Ming Hung

    2017-01-15

    There is a rising concern about the capability of sewage treatment works in treating emerging chemicals, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). A combined photocatalysis (TiO2 and visible light) and constructed wetland system (planted with Oryza sativa (rice cultivar: Hefengzhan) and Phragmites australis (common reed)) was designed to study PBDEs removal efficiencies. After the pre-treatment in TiO2 suspension, the artificially BDE-209 spiked sewage (78.2 and 782nmol/L) was discharged into the sub-surface flow constructed wetland tanks planted with rice and common reed, respectively. The treated sewage, soil, plant roots, shoots, rice grains and hulls were collected and analyzed for PBDEs by GC-MS. The removals of BDE-209 in the combined systems (93.6±2.19% (78.2nmol/L) and 92.1±1.11% (782nmol/L)) were significantly higher than those in the photocatalytic systems (56.3±5.78% (78.2nmol/L) and 54.7±9.47% (782nmol/L)), which could be explained by the enhanced biodegradability of PBDEs in photocatalysis, led to its better dissipation by rice plants. Therefore, this combined system might help to degrade BDE-209 in the wastewater effluent, reducing its potential entry into aquatic food chains.

  7. Enhanced arsenic removals through plant interactions in subsurface-flow constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhakant, Chatchawal; Koottatep, Thammarat; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

    2009-02-01

    Arsenic (As) removal in pilot-scale subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (CWs) was investigated by comparing between CW units with vetiver grasses (CWplanted) and CW units without vetiver grasses (CWunplanted) in order to determine the roles of vetiver grasses affecting As removal. Based on the data obtained from 147 days of experiment, it is apparent that CWplanted units could remove As significantly higher than those of CWunplanted units with approximately 7-14%. Although analysis of As mass balance in CW units revealed that only 0.5-1.0% of total As was found in vetiver grasses, the As retained within bed of the CWplanted units (23.6-29.7 g) was higher than those in the CWunplanted units (21.3-26.8 g) at the end of the experiment, illustrating the effect of vetiver grasses on As accumulation in the CW units. Determination of As in different fractions in the CW bed suggested that the main mechanism of As retention was due mainly to As entrapment into the porous of bed materials (50-57% of total fraction), this mechanism is likely not affected by the presence of vetiver grasses. However, fraction of As-bound in organic matters that could be released from plant roots decomposition indicated the increase adsorption capacity of CW bed. In addition, organic sulfides produced from their root decomposition could help remove As through the precipitation/co-precipitation process. Under reducing condition in those CWplanted units, As could be leached out in the form of iron and manganese-bound complexes.

  8. Virulence of oomycete pathogens from Phragmites australis-invaded and noninvaded soils to seedlings of wetland plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Ellen V; Karp, Mary Ann; Nelson, Eric B

    2015-06-01

    Soil pathogens affect plant community structure and function through negative plant-soil feedbacks that may contribute to the invasiveness of non-native plant species. Our understanding of these pathogen-induced soil feedbacks has relied largely on observations of the collective impact of the soil biota on plant populations, with few observations of accompanying changes in populations of specific soil pathogens and their impacts on invasive and noninvasive species. As a result, the roles of specific soil pathogens in plant invasions remain unknown. In this study, we examine the diversity and virulence of soil oomycete pathogens in freshwater wetland soils invaded by non-native Phragmites australis (European common reed) to better understand the potential for soil pathogen communities to impact a range of native and non-native species and influence invasiveness. We isolated oomycetes from four sites over a 2-year period, collecting nearly 500 isolates belonging to 36 different species. These sites were dominated by species of Pythium, many of which decreased seedling survival of a range of native and invasive plants. Despite any clear host specialization, many of the Pythium species were differentially virulent to the native and non-native plant species tested. Isolates from invaded and noninvaded soils were equally virulent to given individual plant species, and no apparent differences in susceptibility were observed between the collective groups of native and non-native plant species.

  9. Removal of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes from domestic sewage by constructed wetlands: Effect of flow configuration and plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Ying, Guang-Guo; Wei, Xiao-Dong; Liu, You-Sheng; Liu, Shuang-Shuang; Hu, Li-Xin; He, Liang-Ying; Chen, Zhi-Feng; Chen, Fan-Rong; Yang, Yong-Qiang

    2016-11-15

    This study aims to investigate the removal of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in raw domestic wastewater by various mesocosm-scale constructed wetlands (CWs) with different flow configurations or plant species including the constructed wetland with or without plant. Six mesocosm-scale CWs with three flow types (surface flow, horizontal subsurface flow and vertical subsurface flow) and two plant species (Thaliadealbata Fraser and Iris tectorum Maxim) were set up in the outdoor. 8 antibiotics including erythromycin-H2O (ETM-H2O), monensin (MON), clarithromycin (CTM), leucomycin (LCM), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), trimethoprim (TMP), sulfamethazine (SMZ) and sulfapyridine (SPD) and 12 genes including three sulfonamide resistance genes (sul1, sul2 and sul3), four tetracycline resistance genes (tetG, tetM, tetO and tetX), two macrolide resistance genes (ermB and ermC), two chloramphenicol resistance genes (cmlA and floR) and 16S rRNA (bacteria) were determined in different matrices (water, particle, substrate and plant phases) from the mesocosm-scale systems. The aqueous removal efficiencies of total antibiotics ranged from 75.8 to 98.6%, while those of total ARGs varied between 63.9 and 84.0% by the mesocosm-scale CWs. The presence of plants was beneficial to the removal of pollutants, and the subsurface flow CWs had higher pollutant removal than the surface flow CWs, especially for antibiotics. According to the mass balance analysis, the masses of all detected antibiotics during the operation period were 247,000, 4920-10,600, 0.05-0.41 and 3500-60,000μg in influent, substrate, plant and effluent of the mesocosm-scale CWs. In the CWs, biodegradation, substrate adsorption and plant uptake all played certain roles in reducing the loadings of nutrients, antibiotics and ARGs, but biodegradation was the most important process in the removal of these pollutants.

  10. Wetland biogeochemistry and ecological risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Junhong; Huang, Laibin; Gao, Haifeng; Zhang, Guangliang

    2017-02-01

    Wetlands are an important ecotone between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and can provide great ecological service functions. Soils/sediments are one of the important components of wetland ecosystems, which support wetland plants and microorganisms and influence wetland productivity. Moreover, wetland soils/sediments serve as sources, sinks and transfers of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and chemical contaminants such as heavy metals. In natural wetland ecosystems, wetland soils/sediments play a great role in improving water quality as these chemical elements can be retained in wetland soils/sediments for a long time. Moreover, the biogeochemical processes of the abovementioned elements in wetland soils/sediments can drive wetland evolution and development, and their changes will considerably affect wetland ecosystem health. Therefore, a better understanding of wetland soil biogeochemistry will contribute to improving wetland ecological service functions.

  11. Feasibility of constructed wetland planted with Leersia hexandra Swartz for removing Cr, Cu and Ni from electroplating wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Shao-Hong; Zhang, Xue-Hong; Liu, Jie; Zhu, Yi-Nian; Gu, Chen

    2014-01-01

    As a low-cost treatment technology for effluent, the constructed wetlands can be applied to remove the heavy metals from wastewater. Leersia hexandra Swartz is a metal-accumulating hygrophyte with great potential to remove heavy metal from water. In this study, two pilot-scale constructed wetlands planted with L. hexandra (CWL) were set up in greenhouse to treat electroplating wastewater containing Cr, Cu and Ni. The treatment performance of CWL under different hydraulic loading rates (HLR) and initial metal concentrations were also evaluated. The results showed that CWL significantly reduced the concentrations of Cr, Cu and Ni in wastewater by 84.4%, 97.1% and 94.3%, respectively. High HLR decreased the removal efficiencies of Cr, Cu and Ni; however, the heavy metal concentrations in effluent met Emission Standard of Pollutants for Electroplating in China (ESPE) at HLR less than 0.3 m3/m2 d. For the influent of 5 mg/L Cr, 10 mg/L Cu and 8 mg/L Ni, effluent concentrations were below maximum allowable concentrations in ESPE, indicating that the removal of Cr, Cu and Ni by CWL was feasible at considerably high influent metal concentrations. Mass balance showed that the primary sink for the retention of contaminants within the constructed wetland system was the sediment, which accounted for 59.5%, 83.5%, and 73.9% of the Cr, Cu and Ni, respectively. The data from the pilot wetlands support the view that CWL could be used to successfully remove Cr, Cu and Ni from electroplating wastewater.

  12. A contribution to understanding the structure of amphivasal secondary bundles in monocotyledons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Jura-Morawiec

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Secondary growth of monocotyledonous plants is connected with the activity of the monocot cambium that accumulates most of the derivatives inner to the cambial cylinder. These derivatives differentiate into (a secondary bundles with the amphivasal arrangement, i.e. xylem composed of tracheids surrounds the phloem cells and (b the parenchymatous secondary conjunctive tissue in which the bundles are embedded. The amphivasal secondary bundles differ in the arrangement of xylem cells as visible on single cross sections through the secondary body of the monocots. Apart from the bundles with typical ring of tracheids also the bundles where tracheids do not quite surround the phloem are present. We aimed to elucidate the cross sectional anatomy of the amphivasal secondary bundles with the use of the serial sectioning method which allowed us to follow very precisely the bundle structure along its length. The studies were carried out with the samples of secondary tissues collected from the stem of Dracaena draco L. growing in the greenhouses of the Polish Academy of Sciences Botanical Garden – CBDC in Powsin and the Adam Mickiewicz University Botanical Garden. The material was fixed in a mixture of glycerol and ethanol (1:1; v/v, dehydrated stepwise with graded ethanol series and finally embedded in epon resin. Afterwards, the material was sectioned with microtome into continuous series of thin (3 μm sections, stained with PAS/toluidine blue and examined under the light microscope. The results, described in details in Jura‑Morawiec & Wiland-Szymańska (2014, revealed novel facts about tracheids arrangement. Each amphivasal bundle is composed of sectors where tracheids form a ring as well as of such where tracheids are separated by vascular parenchyma cells. We hypothesize that strands of vascular parenchyma cells locally separating the tracheids enable radial transport of assimilates from sieve elements of the bundle towards the sink tissues, e

  13. Wetland craft plants in KwaZulu-Natal: an ecological review of har­vesting impacts and implications for sustainable utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Traynor

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa, wetland plants have been used for centuries and they continue to be harvested for subsistence and commercial purposes. Fibres for crafts are collected by cutting the aboveground parts. KwaZulu-Natal is one of the major basket-producing regions in southern Africa and at least twenty-two species of wetland plants are harvested for crafts. A literature review of the harvested species revealed that the impacts of cutting have only been extensively investigated for Phragmites australis (Cav. Steud. and Juncus kraussii Hochst. The review suggested that, where plants display strong seasonal aboveground productivity patterns, cutting should take place after shoot senescence and before new shoot emergence to minimize damage to plants. Cutting in the short term could increase the density of green stems. However, in the long term in  Phragmites australis, it may deplete the rhizome reserves and reduce the density of useable (longer and thicker culms.The opportunity for sustainable harvests was investigated by considering the geographic distribution, whether species are habitat specific or not, and local population sizes of the craft plants. Juncus kraussii is of the greatest conservation concern.Ecologically sustainable wetland plant harv esting could contribute to the wise use of wetlands, an approach promoted nationally and internationally.

  14. Wetland craft plants in KwaZulu-Natal: an ecological review of har­vesting impacts and implications for sustainable utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Traynor

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa, wetland plants have been used for centuries and they continue to be harvested for subsistence and commercial purposes. Fibres for crafts are collected by cutting the aboveground parts. KwaZulu-Natal is one of the major basket-producing regions in southern Africa and at least twenty-two species of wetland plants are harvested for crafts. A literature review of the harvested species revealed that the impacts of cutting have only been extensively investigated for Phragmites australis (Cav. Steud. and Juncus kraussii Hochst. The review suggested that, where plants display strong seasonal aboveground productivity patterns, cutting should take place after shoot senescence and before new shoot emergence to minimize damage to plants. Cutting in the short term could increase the density of green stems. However, in the long term in  Phragmites australis, it may deplete the rhizome reserves and reduce the density of useable (longer and thicker culms.The opportunity for sustainable harvests was investigated by considering the geographic distribution, whether species are habitat specific or not, and local population sizes of the craft plants. Juncus kraussii is of the greatest conservation concern.Ecologically sustainable wetland plant harv esting could contribute to the wise use of wetlands, an approach promoted nationally and internationally.

  15. Spectroscopic Evidence of Uranium Immobilization in Acidic Wetlands by Natural Organic Matter and Plant Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biogeochemistry of uranium in wetlands plays important roles in U immobilization in storage ponds of U mining and processing facilities but has not been well understood. The objective of this work was to study molecular mechanisms responsible for high U retention by Savannah Ri...

  16. Transplanting native dominant plants to facilitate community development in restored coastal plain wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane De Steven; Rebecca R. Sharitz

    2007-01-01

    Drained depressional wetlands are typically restored by plugging ditches or breaking drainage tiles to allow recovery of natural ponding regimes, while relying on passive recolonization from seed banks and dispersal to establish emergent vegetation. However, in restored depressions of the southeastern United States Coastal Plain, certain characteristic rhizomatous...

  17. Potential of Root Exudates from Wetland Plants and Their Potential Role for Denitrification and Allelopathic Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhai, Xu

    chemicals to suppress the growth of native species. Phragmites australis is recognized as the most invasive species in wetland ecosystems in North America, and allelopathy has been reported to be involved in the invasion success of the introduced exotic P. australis. The composition of the root exudates may...

  18. Linking a Large-Watershed Hydrogeochemical Model to a Wetland Community-Ecosystem Model to Estimate Plant Invasion Risk in the Coastal Great Lakes Region, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, W. S.; Bourgeau-Chavez, L. L.; Elgersma, K. J.; French, N. H. F.; Goldberg, D. E.; Hart, S.; Hyndman, D. W.; Kendall, A. D.; Martin, S. L.; Martina, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    In the Laurentian Great Lakes region of the Upper Midwest, USA, agricultural and urban land uses together with high N deposition are contributing to elevated flows of N in rivers and groundwater to coastal wetlands. The functioning of coastal wetlands, which provide a vital link between land and water, are imperative to maintaining the health of the entire Great Lakes Basin. Elevated N inflows are believed to facilitate the spread of large-stature invasive plants (cattails and Phragmites) that reduce biodiversity and have complex effects on other ecosystem services including wetland N retention and C accretion. We enhanced the ILHM (Integrated Landscape Hydrology Model) to simulate the effects of land use on N flows in streams, rivers, and groundwater throughout the Lower Peninsula of Michigan. We used the hydroperiods and N loading rates simulated by ILHM as inputs to the Mondrian model of wetland community-ecosystem processes to estimate invasion risk and other ecosystem services in coastal wetlands around the Michigan coast. Our linked models produced threshold behavior in the success of invasive plants in response to N loading, with the threshold ranging from ca. 8 to 12 g N/m2 y, depending on hydroperiod. Plant invasions increased wetland productivity 3-fold over historically oligotrophic native communities, decreased biodiversity but slightly increased wetland N retention. Regardless of invasion, elevated N loading resulted in significantly enhanced rates of C accretion, providing an important region-wide mechanism of C storage. The linked models predicted a general pattern of greater invasion risk in the southern basins of lakes Michigan and Huron relative to northern areas. The basic mechanisms of invasion have been partially validated in our field mesocosms constructed for this project. The general regional patterns of increased invasion risk have been validated through our field campaigns and remote sensing conducted for this project.

  19. Plant-mediated CH4 transport and C gas dynamics quantified in-situ in a Phalaris arundinacea-dominant wetland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Askær; Elberling, Bo; Friborg, Thomas;

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Northern peatland methane (CH4) budgets are important for global CH4 emissions. This study aims to determine the ecosystem CH4 budget and specifically to quantify the importance of Phalaris arundinacea by using different chamber techniques in a temperate wetland. Annually, roughly 70...... passive. Thus, diurnal variations are less important in contrast to wetland vascular plants facilitating convective gas flow. Despite of plant-dominant CH4 transport, net CH4 fluxes were low (–0.005–0.016 µmol m-2 s-1) and annually less than 1% of the annual C-CO2 assimilation. This is considered a result...... of an effective root zone oxygenation resulting in increased CH4 oxidation in the rhizosphere at high water levels. This study shows that although CH4, having a global warming potential 25 times greater than CO2, is emitted from this P. arundinacea wetland, less than 9% of the C sequestered counterbalances the CH...

  20. Pipeline corridors through wetlands - impact on plant communities: Mill Creek Tributary Crossing, Jefferson County, New York, 1991 survey. Topical report, June 1991--April 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dyke, G.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Trinity Christian College, Palos Heights, IL (United States); Shem, L.M.; Zimmerman, R.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The goal of the Gas Research Institute Wetland Corridors Program is to document impacts of existing pipelines on the wetlands they traverse. To accomplish this goal, 12 existing wetland crossings were surveyed. These sites varied in elapsed time since pipeline construction, wetland type, pipeline installation techniques, and right-of-way (ROW) management practices. This report presents the results of a survey conducted in June 1991 at the Mill Creek tributary crossing, Jefferson County, New York. One pipeline had been installed through the wetland in 1966, and another was scheduled to be installed later in 1991. Data were collected along the existing pipeline ROW and also along the planned ROW for use as baseline data in future studies. Four separate communities were surveyed. A scrub-shrub wetland and a forested wetland were sampled along the existing ROW where the planned pipeline was to be installed. A mixed vegetation community was sampled along the existing ROW, west of where the planned pipeline would joint the ROW. A marsh community was sampled along the route of the planned pipeline. All plant species found on the ROW of the scrub-shrub community were also present in the adjacent natural areas. The vegetation on the ROW of the forested wetland community also consisted mostly of species found in the adjacent natural areas. In the mixed vegetation community, a small drainage channel present on the ROW, possibly resulting from the pipeline construction, provided habitat for a number of obligate species not found in other areas of this community. Differences noted among different areas of this community were also attributed to slight variations in elevation.

  1. Pipeline corridors through wetlands - impact on plant communities: Mill Creek Tributary Crossing, Jefferson County, New York, 1991 survey. Topical report, June 1991--April 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dyke, G.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Trinity Christian College, Palos Heights, IL (United States); Shem, L.M.; Zimmerman, R.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The goal of the Gas Research Institute Wetland Corridors Program is to document impacts of existing pipelines on the wetlands they traverse. To accomplish this goal, 12 existing wetland crossings were surveyed. These sites varied in elapsed time since pipeline construction, wetland type, pipeline installation techniques, and right-of-way (ROW) management practices. This report presents the results of a survey conducted in June 1991 at the Mill Creek tributary crossing, Jefferson County, New York. One pipeline had been installed through the wetland in 1966, and another was scheduled to be installed later in 1991. Data were collected along the existing pipeline ROW and also along the planned ROW for use as baseline data in future studies. Four separate communities were surveyed. A scrub-shrub wetland and a forested wetland were sampled along the existing ROW where the planned pipeline was to be installed. A mixed vegetation community was sampled along the existing ROW, west of where the planned pipeline would joint the ROW. A marsh community was sampled along the route of the planned pipeline. All plant species found on the ROW of the scrub-shrub community were also present in the adjacent natural areas. The vegetation on the ROW of the forested wetland community also consisted mostly of species found in the adjacent natural areas. In the mixed vegetation community, a small drainage channel present on the ROW, possibly resulting from the pipeline construction, provided habitat for a number of obligate species not found in other areas of this community. Differences noted among different areas of this community were also attributed to slight variations in elevation.

  2. Trifurcatia flabellata n. gen. n. sp., a putative monocotyledon angiosperm from the Lower Cretaceous Crato Formation (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mohr

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lower Cretaceous Crato Formation (northeast Brazil contains plant remains, here described as Trifurcatia flabellata n. gen. and n. sp., consisting of shoot fragments with jointed trifurcate axes, each axis bearing a single amplexicaul serrate leaf at the apex. The leaves show a flabellate acrodromous to parallelodromous venation pattern, with several primary, secondary and higher order cross-veins. This very unique fossil taxon shares many characters with monocots. However, this fossil taxon exhibits additional features which point to a partly reduced, and specialized plant, which probably enabled this plant to grow in (seasonally dry, even salty environments. In der unterkretazischen Cratoformation (Nordostbrasilien sind Pflanzenfossilien erhalten, die hier als Trifurcatia flabellata n. gen. n. sp. beschrieben werden. Sie bestehen aus trifurcaten Achsen, mit einem apikalen amplexicaulen fächerförmigen serraten Blatt. Diese Blätter zeigen eine flabellate bis acrodrome-paralellodrome Aderung mit Haupt- und Nebenadern und transversale Adern 3. Ordnung. Diese Merkmale sind typisch für Monocotyledone. Allerdings weist dieses Taxon einige Merkmale auf, die weder bei rezenten noch fossilen Monocotyledonen beobachtet werden. Sie müssen als besondere Anpassungen an einen (saisonal trockenen und vielleicht übersalzenen Lebensraum dieser Pflanze interpretiert werden. doi:10.1002/mmng.20020050121

  3. Plant species diversity of wetland ecosystem in an arid and semi-arid region in northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Rui; LIU Yunfang; ZHANG Kebin

    2007-01-01

    In order to study the changes of plant species diversity along the biotope gradient and its influencing factors in a wetland-add grassland ecosystem in the add and semi-arid regions of northwest China,four transect lines were set along the biotope gradient in four directions:east,northeast,west and northwest,and altogether 123 sample plots were investigated on species composition,density,foliage cover,height and biomass (calculated in fresh weight).The whole study area was divided into the Wetland zone,the ecotone and the arid grassland zone in terms of habitat characteristics and vegetation types.In this paper,we analyzed and compared the species diversity in the ecotone of a wetland-dry grassland ecosystem in Yanchi County,Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region,with the help of biodiversity software BioDiversity Pro and statistical software Microcal Origin,as well as the combined measurement of species diversity indices.The results revealed distinct differences between those three vegetation zones along each transect line.The ecotone had the highest richness indices (R) and comprehensive diversity indices (Y),reflecting the edge effect.The greatest evenness indices (E) were found in the add grassland zones.This result agreed with the phenomenon of desertification reversion,vegetation restoration and dominant communities' formation.As for the four transect lines,the east and the northeast scored higher in each diversity index than the others due to less human disturbance,gentler topography uplift and more intercepted materials and energies.The highest Simpson index value was found in the northeast transect line,which was 39.9% higher than the lowest in the Northwest.

  4. Plant species diversity reduces N2O but not CH4 emissions from constructed wetlands under high nitrogen levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wenjuan; Shi, Mengmeng; Chang, Jie; Ren, Yuan; Xu, Ronghua; Zhang, Chongbang; Ge, Ying

    2017-02-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) have been widely used for treating wastewater. CWs also are the sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) due to high pollutant load. It has been reported that plant species diversity can enhance nitrogen (N) removal efficiency in CWs for treating wastewater. However, the influence of plant species diversity on GHG emissions from CWs in habitats with high N levels still lack research. This study established four species richness levels (1, 2, 3, 4) and 15 species compositions by using 75 simulated vertical flow CWs microcosms to investigate the effects of plant species diversity on the GHG emissions and N removal efficiency of CWs with a high N level. Results showed plant species richness reduced nitrous oxide (N2O) emission and N (NO3(-)-N, NH4(+)-N, and TIN) concentrations in wastewater, but had no effect on methane (CH4) emission. Especially, among the 15 compositions of plant species, the four-species mixture emitted the lowest N2O and had under-depletion of N (DminTIN CWs for treating wastewater with a high N level.

  5. Performance evaluation of integrated treatment plant of trickling filter and constructed wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harikumar P.S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A system consisting of trickling filter followed by a vertical intermittent flow constructed wetland system under laboratory condition was evaluated for the treatment of domestic wastewater. The system was able to produce final effluents with low concentrations of both organic and nutrients. Mean effluent concentrations were,respectively: BOD: 22.22mg/L;COD:64.58mg/L;SS:27.63mg/L;NH4-N:0.62mg/L;P:1.72mg/L. The study shows that the integrated treatment system of trickling filter and vertical intermittent flow constructed wetlands can be effectively used a treatment option for a treatment with positive attributes of conceptual simplicity and lesser energy consumption.

  6. Ecological profiles of wetland plant species in the northern Apennines (N. Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello TOMASELLI

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen selected species occurring in the wetlands of the northern Apennines were studied by the ecological profile method. By this method, it is possible to identify the ecological factors mostly influencing species distribution within a particular vegetation. Moreover, it is possible to evaluate both ecological amplitude and ecological preferences of species. Ecological profiles were built for three factors (altitude, pH and electrical conductivity from a data set of 265 phytosociological relevés, used for altitude, and from a set of 92 measures, carried out in selected sites, for idrochemical variables. By numerical classification, based on chord distance and minimum variance, the ecological species groups for each factor were individuated. Subsequently, they were ordered by correspondence analysis for detecting relationships between ecological groups and classes of factors. By applying a goodness-of-fit test to ecological profiles, the species significantly deviating from uniformity were detected. They can be regarded as indicators for the corresponding ecological factor. We found seven indicator species for altitude (Carex nigra, C. rostrata, Juncus filiformis, J. alpino-articulatus, Eriophorum latifolium, E. angustifolium and Warnstorfia exannulata, four indicator species for electrical conductivity (Campylium stellatum, Carex tumidicarpa, Eriophorum latifolium and Juncus alpino-articulatus and one indicator species for pH (Sphagnum capillifolium. The ecological profiles of the wetland species in the northern Apennines were compared with those reported in literature for the same species from the Alps (namely Dolomites. In this way, a certain degree of ecological shift in several wetland species of the northern Apennines was documented. For altitude, it is possible to explain the shift considering the reduced elevational amplitude of northern Apennine wetlands with respect to those of the Alps. For pH, Sphagnum capillifolium occurs in

  7. Uranium Immobilization in an Iron-Rich Rhizosphere of a Native Wetland Plant from the Savannah River Site under Reducing Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hypothesis of this study was that iron plaque formed on the roots of wetland plants and their rhizospheres create environmental conditions favorable for iron reducing bacteria that promote the in situ immobilization of uranium. Greenhouse microcosm studies were conducted usin...

  8. Underwater photosynthesis and respiration in leaves of submerged wetland plants: gas films improve CO2 and O2 exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colmer, Timothy David; Pedersen, Ole

    2007-01-01

    Many wetland plants have gas films on submerged leaf surfaces. We tested the hypotheses that leaf gas films enhance CO(2) uptake for net photosynthesis (P(N)) during light periods, and enhance O(2) uptake for respiration during dark periods. Leaves of four wetland species that form gas films......, and two species that do not, were used. Gas films were also experimentally removed by brushing with 0.05% (v/v) Triton X. Net O(2) production in light, or O(2) consumption in darkness, was measured at various CO(2) and O(2) concentrations. When gas films were removed, O(2) uptake in darkness was already...... diffusion-limited at 20.6 kPa (critical O(2) pressure for respiration, COP(R)>/= 284 mmol O(2) m(-3)), whereas for some leaves with gas films, O(2) uptake declined only at approx. 4 kPa (COP(R) 54 mmol O(2) m(-3)). Gas films also improved CO(2) uptake so that, during light periods, underwater P...

  9. Landscape object-based analysis of wetland plant functional types: the effects of spatial scale, vegetation classes and classifier methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dronova, I.; Gong, P.; Wang, L.; Clinton, N.; Fu, W.; Qi, S.

    2011-12-01

    Remote sensing-based vegetation classifications representing plant function such as photosynthesis and productivity are challenging in wetlands with complex cover and difficult field access. Recent advances in object-based image analysis (OBIA) and machine-learning algorithms offer new classification tools; however, few comparisons of different algorithms and spatial scales have been discussed to date. We applied OBIA to delineate wetland plant functional types (PFTs) for Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake in China and Ramsar wetland conservation site, from 30-m Landsat TM scene at the peak of spring growing season. We targeted major PFTs (C3 grasses, C3 forbs and different types of C4 grasses and aquatic vegetation) that are both key players in system's biogeochemical cycles and critical providers of waterbird habitat. Classification results were compared among: a) several object segmentation scales (with average object sizes 900-9000 m2); b) several families of statistical classifiers (including Bayesian, Logistic, Neural Network, Decision Trees and Support Vector Machines) and c) two hierarchical levels of vegetation classification, a generalized 3-class set and more detailed 6-class set. We found that classification benefited from object-based approach which allowed including object shape, texture and context descriptors in classification. While a number of classifiers achieved high accuracy at the finest pixel-equivalent segmentation scale, the highest accuracies and best agreement among algorithms occurred at coarser object scales. No single classifier was consistently superior across all scales, although selected algorithms of Neural Network, Logistic and K-Nearest Neighbors families frequently provided the best discrimination of classes at different scales. The choice of vegetation categories also affected classification accuracy. The 6-class set allowed for higher individual class accuracies but lower overall accuracies than the 3-class set because

  10. Restoring Wetlands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    FERTILE LAND:The Qixing River Wetland in Heilongjiang Province was recently named a wetland of international importance at the Sixth Asian Wetland Symposium held in Wuxi City, east China’s Jiangsu Province, on October 13

  11. Dynamic Patterns, Parameters, and Climatic Response of CO2 Exchange of Agricultural Crops: Monocotyledons VS. Dicotyledons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmanov, T. G.; Wylie, B. K.; Howard, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    Net CO2 exchange data from long-term flux tower measurements in monocotyledonous (wheat, maize) and dicotyledonous (soybeans, alfalfa, peas, peanuts) crops were partitioned into photosynthesis (P) and respiration (R) using the light-soil temperature-VPD response method. Analysis of the resulting time series of P and R revealed patterns of temporal and phenological dynamics in these plant groups. We established differences in ranges and dynamic patterns of P and R as well as CO2 exchange parameters (quantum yield, photosynthetic capacity, respiration rate, light-use efficiency, curvature of the VPD response). Weekly P and R data combined with remotely sensed 7-day eMODIS NDVI allow identification of the quasi-linear relationships between P, R, and NDVI, as well as estimation of parameters of NDVI response (start of the growing season, duration of the linearity period, slope of NDVI response). While the linear-like patterns occur early in the season, later the flux response to NDVI becomes less pronounced, and for the whole season the flux-NDVI relationship assumes a hysteresis-like pattern. Introduction of VPD and soil moisture limitation as well as phenological controls (growing degree days) leads to more flexible models for P and R in relation to NDVI and on-site drivers. These models allow mapping of the cropland CO2 exchange at regional and larger scales (e.g., the Great Plains). Significant relationships of the crop GPP to the seasonally integrated NDVI were also established, providing an opportunity for mapping of crop productivity using geographically distributed historic NDVI data. On the other hand, long time series (6 to 12 years and longer) of weekly P and R data lead to models of annual photosynthesis and respiration in response to climatic factors that may be used for prognostic purposes. We developed a model of maize GPP on the Great Plains in relation to the sum of temperatures above 5 °C and the hydrologic year precipitation. The model describes 75

  12. Monocotyledons in Particleboard Production: Adhesives, Additives, and Surface Modification of Reed Canary Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Trischler

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As a supplier to the furniture industry, the particleboard industry is searching for opportunities to reduce costs, weight, and formaldehyde emissions. One such opportunity is to use monocotyledons such as straw and hemp, as well as grasses like reed canary grass. A major problem when using reed canary grass or other monocotyledons in combination with wood is the difference in their surface properties, leading to poor reactivity and wettability with adhesives such as melamine urea formaldehyde. To this end, either the surface of the particles must be modified in some way, or different adhesives must be used. The purpose of this paper is to present adhesives, surfactants, coupling agents, and pre-treatment methods that can be used in combination with monocotyledons to improve compatibility with wood. Some of the methods have been tested on reed canary grass. The results show a wide range of strength values for the joint between wood and untreated or pre-treated reed canary grass glued with different adhesives, with and without a surfactant and a coupling agent. Isocyanate-based adhesives provided relatively strong bonds, and polyvinyl acetate, acryl, and epoxy adhesives were also effective. The most effective method was pre-treatment followed by adhesives in combination with a coupling agent.

  13. Constructed Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    these systems can improve water quality, engineers and scientists construct systems that replicate the functions of natural wetlands. Constructed wetlands are treatment systems that use natural processes

  14. Retention and mitigation of metals in sediment, soil, water, and plant of a newly constructed root-channel wetland (China) from slightly polluted source water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baoling; Wang, Yu; Wang, Weidong

    2014-01-01

    Constructed root-channel wetland (CRCW) is a term for pre-pond/wetland/post-pond complexes, where the wetland includes plant-bed/ditch landscape and root-channel structure. Source water out of pre-ponds flows through alternate small ditches and plant beds with root-channels via a big ditch under hydraulic regulation. Then source water flows into post-ponds to finish final polishing. This article aims to explore the potential of components of a pilot CRCW in China on mitigating metals in micro-polluted source water during its initial operation stage. We investigated six heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Pb) in surface sediment, plant-bed subsurface soil, water, and aquatic plants during 2012-2013. Monitoring results showed that pond/ditch sediments and plant-bed soil retained a significant amount of Cr, Ni, and Zn with 93.1%, 72.4%, and 57.5% samples showing contamination factor above limit 1 respectively. Remarkably the high values of metal enrichment factor (EF) occurred in root-channel zones. Water monitoring results indicated that Ni, Zn, and Pb were removed by 78.5% (66.7%), 57.6% (59.6%), and 26.0% (7.5%) in east (west) wetland respectively. Mass balance estimation revealed that heavy metal mass in the pond/ditch sediments accounted for 63.30% and that in plant-bed soil 36.67%, while plant uptake occupied only 0.03%. The heavy metal accretion flux in sediments was 0.41 - 211.08 μg · cm(-2) · a(-1), less than that in plant-bed soil (0.73 - 543.94 μg · cm(-2) · a(-1)). The 1.83 ha wetland has retained about 86.18 kg total heavy metals within 494 days after operation. This pilot case study proves that constructed root-channel wetland can reduce the potential ecological risk of purified raw water and provide a new and effective method for the removal of heavy metals from drinking water sources.

  15. Pipeline corridors through wetlands - impacts on plant communities: Bayou Grand Cane, De Soto Parish, Louisiana. Topical report, August 1991--July 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shem, L.M.; Zimmerman, R.E.; Hayes, D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Van Dyke, G.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Trinity Christian College, Palos Heights, IL (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The goal of the Gas Research Institute Wetland Corridors Program is to document impacts of existing pipeline on the wetlands they traverse. To accomplish this goal, 12 existing wetland crossings were surveyed. These sites varied in elapsed time since pipeline construction, wetland type, pipeline installation techniques, and night of-way (ROW) management practices. This report presents the results of a survey conducted over the period of August 12-13, 1991, at the Bayou Grand Cane crossing in De Soto Parish, Louisiana, where a pipeline constructed three years prior to the survey crosses the bayou through mature bottomland hardwoods. The sit was not seeded or fertilized after construction activities. At the time of sampling, a dense herb stratum (composed of mostly native species) covered the 20-m-wide ROW, except within drainage channels. As a result of the creation of the ROW, new habitat was created, plant diversity increased, and forest habitat became fragmented. The ROW must be maintained at an early stage of succession to allow access to the pipeline however, impacts to the wetland were minimized by decreasing the width of the ROW to 20 m and recreating the drainage channels across the ROW. The canopy trees on the ROW`s edge shaded part of the ROW, which helped to minimize the effects of the ROW.

  16. National Wetlands Inventory - Wetlands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the extent, approximate location and type of wetlands and deepwater habitats in the United States and its Territories. These data delineate...

  17. National Wetlands Inventory - Wetlands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the extent, approximate location and type of wetlands and deepwater habitats in the United States and its Territories. These data delineate...

  18. Wetland Plant Physiology Exhibits Controls on Carbon Sequestration Processes in a Restored Temperate Peatland of California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windham-Myers, L.; Byrd, K. B.; Khanna, S.; Miller, R.; Anderson, F.

    2011-12-01

    Wetland soils, especially peatlands, serve as the leading long-term sink of carbon (C) in the terrestrial biosphere, representing ~5% of global terrestrial ecosystem acreage but ~25% of total stored terrestrial organic C. While inhibition of microbial respiration rates is a necessary component of peat formation, plant processes regulate gross and net organic matter production (GPP and NPP) and microbial respiration in the rhizosphere. Recent work in a 14-year-old, 6-ha experimental wetland complex in the California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta has documented that continuous flooding at 25 cm depth can generate peat growth averaging 1 kg C m-2 y-1, and elevation gains approaching 4 cm y-1, 40-fold greater than historic rates tied to mean sea level rise (1mm y-1). To determine macrophyte controls on organic matter production and respiration in emergent marsh habitats, plant physiological processes were examined for 3 dominant species: hardstem bulrush (Schoenoplectus acutus), narrowleaf and broadleaf cattail (Typha angustifolia and T. latifolia). Leaf-level photosynthetic rates (GPP) were collected monthly with a LiCor 6400XT in May-September of 2010 and 2011 across a gradient of water residence time. GPP, stomatal conductance, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), relative humidity and leaf temperatures were assessed from pre-dawn to solar-noon to assess light-use (LUE) and water-use efficiency (WUE) for carbon assimilation (A). CO2 levels (Ci) were regulated to generate A-Ci curves, indicating leaf capacity to assimilate recycled CO2. Porewater acetate concentrations and live root concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde were assayed seasonally in 2011 as relative indices of fermentative respiration. Plant species distribution, NPP and leaf-area indices (LAI) were calculated using allometric relationships, and used to scale-up leaf-level GPP estimates, as well as to ground-truth high-resolution CIR imagery, to compare NDVIs with recent hyperspectral data

  19. Ribosomal DNA and Plastid Markers Used to Sample Fungal and Plant Communities from Wetland Soils Reveals Complementary Biotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Teresita M.; Shokralla, Shadi; Baird, Donald; Golding, G. Brian; Hajibabaei, Mehrdad

    2016-01-01

    Though the use of metagenomic methods to sample below-ground fungal communities is common, the use of similar methods to sample plants from their underground structures is not. In this study we use high throughput sequencing of the ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase large subunit (rbcL) plastid marker to study the plant community as well as the internal transcribed spacer and large subunit ribosomal DNA (rDNA) markers to investigate the fungal community from two wetland sites. Observed community richness and composition varied by marker. The two rDNA markers detected complementary sets of fungal taxa and total fungal composition clustered according to primer rather than by site. The composition of the most abundant plants, however, clustered according to sites as expected. We suggest that future studies consider using multiple genetic markers, ideally generated from different primer sets, to detect a more taxonomically diverse suite of taxa compared with what can be detected by any single marker alone. Conclusions drawn from the presence of even the most frequently observed taxa should be made with caution without corroborating lines of evidence. PMID:26731732

  20. Potential for CSO treatment with horizontal flow constructed wetlands: influence of hydraulic load, plant presence and loading frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisoeiro, J; Galvão, A; Ferreira, F; Matos, J

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed at analysing the performance of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (CWs) to treat combined sewer overflow (CSO). Four horizontal subsurface flow CWs, organized in two groups (A and B) each with a planted (Phragmites australis) and a non-planted bed, were loaded with simulated CSO, with group B receiving twice the hydraulic load of group A. Beds were monitored for pH, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, redox potential, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS) and enterococci. Porosity variations were also estimated. Monitoring was conducted during spring and wintertime, with regular and irregular loading frequencies. Results showed an average treatment efficiency of 90-100 % for TSS, 60-90 % for COD and 2-6 log for enterococci. Removal rates were especially relevant in the first 24 h for COD and TSS. TSS and enterococci removal did not exhibit the influence of macrophytes or the applied hydraulic load while COD's removal efficiency was lower in the higher load group and in planted beds.

  1. Reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) by wetland plants: Potential for in situ heavy metal detoxification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lytle, C.M.; Qian, J.H.; Hansen, D.; Zayed, A.; Terry, N. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Plant and Microbial Biology; Lytle, F.W. [The EXAFS Co., Pioche, NV (United States); Yang, N. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1998-10-15

    Reduction of heavy metals in situ by plants may be a useful detoxification mechanism for phytoremediation. Using X-ray spectroscopy, the authors show that Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth), supplied with Cr(VI) in nutrient culture, accumulated nontoxic Cr(III) in root and shoot tissues. The reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) appeared to occur in the fine lateral roots. The Cr(III) was subsequently translocated to leaf tissues. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure of Cr in leaf and petiole differed when compared to Cr in roots. In roots, Cr(III) was hydrated by water, but in petiole and more so in leaf, a portion of the Cr(III) may be bound to oxalate ligands. This suggests that E. crassipes detoxified Cr(VI) upon root uptake and transported a portion of the detoxified Cr to leaf tissues. Cr-rich crystalline structures were observed on the leaf surface. The chemical species of Cr in other plants, collected from wetlands that contained Cr(VI)-contaminated wastewater, was also found to be Cr(III). The authors propose that this plant-based reduction of Cr(VI) by E. crassipes has the potential to be used for the in situ detoxification of Cr(VI)-contaminated wastestreams.

  2. Research progress in the preparation of fuel ethanol from artificial wetland plants%人工湿地植物制备燃料乙醇研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小玲; 赵亚芳; 林燕; 王欣泽; 孔海南

    2013-01-01

    In recent years,due to the lack of oil resources,the way of using lignocellulose to produce ethanol has attracted more and more attention. Wetland plants were considered as a research object. Using artificial wetland plants to produce fuel ethanol,not only can reduce the gas of harmful emissions,alleviate the lack of grain crops raw materials,but also can reduce the accumulation of wetland plants which could lead to secondary pollution. However,it is extremely difficult to produce ethanol directly from lignocellulose,due to the low rate of ethanol production,the expensive cellulase and the not well developed lignocellulose pretreatment process. This paper is to discuss the stain resistance and decontamination,appropriate allocation and multipurpose use of artificial wetland plants together with the existing problems when wetland plants are chosen. Key process was analyzed regarding the active ingredient of artificial wetland plants and other lignocellulose when fuel ethanol is produced via the pretreatment and hydrolysis effects of artificial wetland plants and other lignocellulose. The feasibility for the preparation of fuel ethanol from artificial wetland plants was discussed,and the future research development trend is prospected. At last,it can be concluded that wetland plants can replace grain crops fermentation to produce ethanol.%近年来,石油资源短缺,利用木质纤维素制备燃料乙醇越来越受到重视,本文以人工湿地植物为研究对象,利用人工湿地植物制备燃料乙醇,可以减少有害气体的排放、缓解粮食原材料的紧缺、减少植物处理不当产生的二次污染。但同时存在乙醇产率低、纤维素酶价格贵、木质纤维素预处理过程不成熟等问题。本文首先从人工湿地植物的抗性及去污能力、种间合理搭配及综合利用价值三方面入手,论述了在选择人工湿地植物时应注意的问题。其次重点分析了人工湿地植物及其它木

  3. Influence of different plant species on methane emissions from soil in a restored Swiss wetland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bhullar, Gurbir S; Edwards, Peter J; Olde Venterink, Harry

    2014-01-01

    .... Centaurea jacea, Iris sibirica, and Carex davalliana caused intermediate rates. However, we found no effect of either plant biomass or plant functional groups--based on life form or productivity of the habitat...

  4. Characterization of a Brome mosaic virus strain and its use as a vector for gene silencing in monocotyledonous hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xin Shun; Schneider, William L; Chaluvadi, Srinivasa Rao; Mian, M A Rouf; Nelson, Richard S

    2006-11-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is used to analyze gene function in dicotyledonous plants but less so in monocotyledonous plants (particularly rice and corn), partially due to the limited number of virus expression vectors available. Here, we report the cloning and modification for VIGS of a virus from Festuca arundinacea Schreb. (tall fescue) that caused systemic mosaic symptoms on barley, rice, and a specific cultivar of maize (Va35) under greenhouse conditions. Through sequencing, the virus was determined to be a strain of Brome mosaic virus (BMV). The virus was named F-BMV (F for Festuca), and genetic determinants that controlled the systemic infection of rice were mapped to RNAs 1 and 2 of the tripartite genome. cDNA from RNA 3 of the Russian strain of BMV (R-BMV) was modified to accept inserts from foreign genes. Coinoculation of RNAs 1 and 2 from F-BMV and RNA 3 from R-BMV expressing a portion of a plant gene to leaves of barley, rice, and maize plants resulted in visual silencing-like phenotypes. The visual phenotypes were correlated with decreased target host transcript levels in the corresponding leaves. The VIGS visual phenotype varied from maintained during silencing of actin 1 transcript expression to transient with incomplete penetration through affected tissue during silencing of phytoene desaturase expression. F-BMV RNA 3 was modified to allow greater accumulation of virus while minimizing virus pathogenicity. The modified vector C-BMV(A/G) (C for chimeric) was shown to be useful for VIGS. These BMV vectors will be useful for analysis of gene function in rice and maize for which no VIGS system is reported.

  5. Silica in invasive wetland plant species of lagoons, Côte d'Ivoire: Spatio-temporal patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    José-mathieu Koné, Yéfanlan; Schoelynck, Jonas

    2017-04-01

    Tropical wetlands are known to accumulate a large quantity of Biogenic Silica (BSi) produced by wetland plant species (Struyf et al., 2015), and approximately 70-80% of the total supply of Dissolved Si (DSi) to the coastal zone occurs in (sub) tropical river systems (Jennerjahn et al. 2006). However, the data at these latitudes are limited. Here, we present the BSi concentration from eleven invasive macrophyte species randomly collected in three small ( 800ha) lagoons of Côte d'Ivoire during 12 months. Our data showed a large spatio-temporal variability of BSi in the three lagoons with no consistent trends. In general, the BSi concentrations obtained were high and values ranged from 0 to 54 mg g-1 through the entire sampling period, with the highest values found in Acroceras zizaniodes (emergent species of Poaceae). In general, free floating species had significantly less BSi than emergent species (P<0.0001) which corroborates with the earlier findings of Schoelynck and Struyf (2016). However, the concentrations of BSi found in Salvinia molesta (a free floating species of fern, Salviniaceae) at the young stage were similar to those found in the emergent species. Based on yearly averages, highest BSi values were observed in Kodjoboué lagoon, and the lowest in the Ono lagoon that is 80% covered by macrophytes. Moreover, the dissolved silica (DSi) concentrations were systematically higher in Ono Lagoon than in Kodjoboué Lagoon. We conclude that in an eutrophic system Si accumulating in aquatic macrophytes is not related to Si availability but to other environmental factors. Jennerjahn, T.C., Knoppers, B.A., de Souze, W.F.L., Brunskill, G.J., Silva, E.I.L., Adi, S. et al., 2006. Factors controlling dissolved silica in tropical rivers. In: Ittekot, V. (ed) The silicon cycle. Island Press, Washington, D. C, pp 29-51 Schoelynck J and Struyf E, 2016. Silicon in aquatic vegetation. Functional Ecology. 30: 1323-1330. Struyf, E., Mosimane, K., Van Pelt, D., Murray

  6. FGD liner experiments with wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsch, W.J.; Ahn, C.; Wolfe, W.E.

    1999-07-01

    The construction of artificial wetlands for wastewater treatment often requires impermeable liners not only to protect groundwater resources but also to ensure that there is adequate water in the wetland to support appropriate aquatic life, particularly wetland vegetation. Liners or relatively impervious site soils are very important to the success of constructed treatment wetlands in areas where ground water levels are typically close to the ground surface. This study, carried out at the Olentangy River Wetland Research Park, investigated the use of FGD material from sulfur scrubbers as a possible liner material for constructed wetlands. While several studies have investigated the use of FGD material to line ponds, no studies have investigated the use of this material as a liner for constructed wetlands. They used experimental mesocosms to see the effect of FGD liner materials in constructed wetlands on water quality and on wetland plant growth. This paper presents the results of nutrient analyses and physicochemical investigation of leachate and surface outflow water samples collected from the mesocosms. Plant growth and biomass of wetland vegetation are also included in this paper. First two year results are reported by Ahn et al. (1998, 1999). The overall goal of this study is the identification of advantages and disadvantages of using FGD by-product as an artificial liner in constructed wetlands.

  7. Accumulation of Metals and Boron in Phragmites australis Planted in Constructed Wetlands Polishing Real Electroplating Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sochacki, Adam; Guy, Bernard; Faure, Olivier; Surmacz-Górska, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    The concentration of metals (Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn) and B were determined in the above- and belowground biomass of Phragmites australis collected from the microcosm constructed wetland system used for the polishing of real electroplating wastewater. Translocation factor and bioconcentration factor were determined. Pearson correlation test was used to determine correlation between metal concentration in substrate and above- and belowground parts of Phragmites australis. The obtained results suggested that Phragmites australis did not play a major role as an accumulator of metals. It was observed also that the substrate could have exerted an effect on the translocation of Ni, Cu, Zn and Mn. The analysed concentrations of metals and B in biomass were in the range or even below the concentrations reported in the literature with the exception of Ni. The aboveground biomass was found suitable as a composting input in terms of metals concentrations.

  8. Patterns of activities of root phosphomonoesterase and phosphodiesterase in wetland plants as a function of macrophyte species and ambient phosphorus regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejmánková, Eliska; Sirová, Dagmara; Carlson, Emily

    2011-06-01

    Phosphorus (P)-limited plants produce higher amounts of root phosphatases, but research has mostly focused on phosphomonoesterases (PMEs). Because phosphate diesters can form a significant proportion of organic P in wetlands, we aimed to determine whether wetland plants produce both root PMEs and root phosphodiesterases (PDEs), and, if so, what factors influence activities of these enzymes. We measured the activities of root PMEs and PDEs colorimetrically in a wide range of macrophytes from natural and P-enriched wetlands. Hydrolyzable P in sediments was analyzed using commercially available PMEs and PDEs. In all species, both root PMEs and PDEs were always present, and their activities were closely correlated. Sedges and broadleaved emergents had the highest activity of both enzymes, while those of floating-leaved plants were the lowest. Redundancy analysis revealed close association between root enzymes and the proportion of monoesterase- and diesterase-hydrolyzable dissolved unreactive P. Both enzymes were positively correlated with root tissue N : P ratio. Both plant and sediment traits were important when explaining differences in enzyme activities. Although the activities are related to ambient P regime, the relationship was not close enough to use root enzymes as reliable predictors of dissolved unreactive P that is hydrolyzed by sediment phosphomono- and diesterases.

  9. Distribution and Drivers of a Widespread, Invasive Wetland Grass, Phragmites australis, in Great Salt Lake Wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Arin Lexine

    2014-01-01

    Non-native invasive plant species can often have negative effects on native ecosystems, such as altered nutrient cycling, decreased habitat for wildlife, and outcompeting native plants. Around the Great Salt Lake (GSL), Utah, the invasive wetland grass Phragmites australis has become abundant in wetlands around the lake. Phragmites is replacing many native wetland plants provide important waterfowl habitat around the GSL. For successful management of Phragmites in GSL wetlands, it is importan...

  10. 北京翠湖湿地维管束植物多样性及保护对策%Diversity of Vascular Plants in Cuihu Wetland in Beijing and Its Conservation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳龙

    2012-01-01

    结合北京地区湿地植物相关研究和翠湖湿地维管束植物调查结果,对翠湖湿地的维管束植物进行分类、整理和分析.结果显示:翠湖湿地有维管束植物306种,隶属76科228属,占北京市维管束植物总数的17.1%.翠湖湿地分布有多种国家级和北京市级重点保护野生植物,如野大豆Glycine soja,芡实Euryale ferox、茭白 Zizania latifolia、花蔺Butomus umbellatus等.翠湖湿地还统计到外来和入侵植物共计13种,如豚草Ambrosia rtemisiifolia、凤眼莲Eichhornia crassipes等.翠湖湿地维管束植物多样性丰富,需加强植物多样性保护和管理以及科普教育.%Based on a survey of vascular plants in Cuihu Wetland and relevant studies of wetland plants in Beijing area, the vascular plants in Cuihu Wetland were classified, documented and analyzed. Results showed that there were 306 species of vascular plants in Cuihu Wetland, belonging to 76 families and 228 genera, accounting for 17.1% of the total number of vascular plants in Beijing. A variety of wild plants with national and municipal priorities for protection were found in the wetland, e.g. Glycine Soja, Euryale ferox, Zizania latifolia and Butomus umbellatus. 13 species of invasive alien plants were found in the wetland, e.g. Ambrosia artemisiifolia and Eichhomia crassipes. Growing in the wetland, there were 11 species which are the most typical wetland plants in Beijing, However, other 3 typical wetland plant species of Potamogeton pectinatus, Potamogeton panormitanus and Fimbristylis bisumbellata were not found in the wetland. The diversity of vascular plants in Cuihu Wetland is rich. Conservation and management of plant diversity and science education need to be further strengthened.

  11. Using LIDAR and Quickbird Data to Model Plant Production and Quantify Uncertainties Associated with Wetland Detection and Land Cover Generalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Bruce D.; Bolstad, Paul V.; Naesset, Erik; Anderson, Ryan S.; Garrigues, Sebastian; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Nickeson, Jaime; Davis, Kenneth J.

    2009-01-01

    Spatiotemporal data from satellite remote sensing and surface meteorology networks have made it possible to continuously monitor global plant production, and to identify global trends associated with land cover/use and climate change. Gross primary production (GPP) and net primary production (NPP) are routinely derived from the MOderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard satellites Terra and Aqua, and estimates generally agree with independent measurements at validation sites across the globe. However, the accuracy of GPP and NPP estimates in some regions may be limited by the quality of model input variables and heterogeneity at fine spatial scales. We developed new methods for deriving model inputs (i.e., land cover, leaf area, and photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by plant canopies) from airborne laser altimetry (LiDAR) and Quickbird multispectral data at resolutions ranging from about 30 m to 1 km. In addition, LiDAR-derived biomass was used as a means for computing carbon-use efficiency. Spatial variables were used with temporal data from ground-based monitoring stations to compute a six-year GPP and NPP time series for a 3600 ha study site in the Great Lakes region of North America. Model results compared favorably with independent observations from a 400 m flux tower and a process-based ecosystem model (BIOME-BGC), but only after removing vapor pressure deficit as a constraint on photosynthesis from the MODIS global algorithm. Fine resolution inputs captured more of the spatial variability, but estimates were similar to coarse-resolution data when integrated across the entire vegetation structure, composition, and conversion efficiencies were similar to upland plant communities. Plant productivity estimates were noticeably improved using LiDAR-derived variables, while uncertainties associated with land cover generalizations and wetlands in this largely forested landscape were considered less important.

  12. Using LIDAR and Quickbird Data to Model Plant Production and Quantify Uncertainties Associated with Wetland Detection and Land Cover Generalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Bruce D.; Bolstad, Paul V.; Naesset, Erik; Anderson, Ryan S.; Garrigues, Sebastian; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Nickeson, Jaime; Davis, Kenneth J.

    2009-01-01

    Spatiotemporal data from satellite remote sensing and surface meteorology networks have made it possible to continuously monitor global plant production, and to identify global trends associated with land cover/use and climate change. Gross primary production (GPP) and net primary production (NPP) are routinely derived from the MOderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard satellites Terra and Aqua, and estimates generally agree with independent measurements at validation sites across the globe. However, the accuracy of GPP and NPP estimates in some regions may be limited by the quality of model input variables and heterogeneity at fine spatial scales. We developed new methods for deriving model inputs (i.e., land cover, leaf area, and photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by plant canopies) from airborne laser altimetry (LiDAR) and Quickbird multispectral data at resolutions ranging from about 30 m to 1 km. In addition, LiDAR-derived biomass was used as a means for computing carbon-use efficiency. Spatial variables were used with temporal data from ground-based monitoring stations to compute a six-year GPP and NPP time series for a 3600 ha study site in the Great Lakes region of North America. Model results compared favorably with independent observations from a 400 m flux tower and a process-based ecosystem model (BIOME-BGC), but only after removing vapor pressure deficit as a constraint on photosynthesis from the MODIS global algorithm. Fine resolution inputs captured more of the spatial variability, but estimates were similar to coarse-resolution data when integrated across the entire vegetation structure, composition, and conversion efficiencies were similar to upland plant communities. Plant productivity estimates were noticeably improved using LiDAR-derived variables, while uncertainties associated with land cover generalizations and wetlands in this largely forested landscape were considered less important.

  13. Bacterial community variation and microbial mechanism of triclosan (TCS) removal by constructed wetlands with different types of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Congcong; Xie, HuiJun; Xu, Jingtao; Xu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Jian; Hu, Zhen; Liu, Cui; Liang, Shuang; Wang, Qian; Wang, Jingmin

    2015-02-01

    Triclosan (TCS) is a broad-spectrum synthetic antimicrobial agent that is toxic to microbes and other aquatic organisms. Constructed wetlands (CWs) are now popular in TCS removal. However, knowledge on the effects of TCS on the bacterial community and microbial removal mechanism in CWs is lacking. The effects of TCS (60 μg L(-1)) on bacterial communities in batch-loaded CWs with emergent (Typha angustifolia), submerged (Hydrilla verticillata), and floating plant (Salvinia natans) were analyzed by 454 pyrosequencing technology. After six periods of experiment, the TCS removal efficiencies were over 90% in CWs, and negative effects of TCS on bacterial community richness and diversity were observed. Moreover, plant species effect existed. Bacterial strains that contributed to TCS biodegradation in CWs were successfully identified. In TCS-treated T. angustifolia and H. verticillata CWs, beta-Proteobacteria increased by 16.63% and 18.20%, respectively. In TCS-treated S. natans CWs, delta- and gamma-Proteobacteria and Sphingobacteria increased by 9.36%, 19.49%, and 31.37%, respectively, and could relate to TCS biodegradation. TCS affected the development of certain bacteria, and eventually, the bacterial community structures in CWs. This research provided ecologically relevant information on bacterial community and microbial removal mechanism in CWs under TCS treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Wastewater treatment using integrated anaerobic baffled reactor and Bio-rack wetland planted with Phragmites sp. and Typha sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi, Shervin; Akbarzadeh, Abbas; Woo, Kwang-Sung; Valipour, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the potential use of anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) followed by Bio-rack wetland planted with Phragmites sp. and Typha sp. for treating domestic wastewater generated by small communities (751 mg COD/L, 500 SCOD mg/L, 348 mg BOD5/L). Two parallel laboratory-scale models showed that the process planted with Phragmites sp. and Typha sp. are capable of removing COD by 87% & 86%, SCOD by 90% & 88%, BOD5 by 93% & 92%, TSS by 88% & 86%, TN by 79% & 77%, PO4-P by 21% & 14% at an overall HRT of 21 (843 g COD/m(3)/day & 392 g BOD5/m(3)/day) and 27 (622 g COD/m(3)/day & 302 g BOD5/m(3)/day) hours, respectively. Microbial analysis indicated a high reduction in the MPN of total coliform and TVC as high as 99% at the outlet end of the processes. The vegetated system using Phragmites sp. showed significantly greater (p Phragmites sp. indicated a higher relative growth rate (3.92%) than Typha sp. (0.90%). Microorganisms immobilized on the surface of the Bio-rack media (mean TVC: 2.33 × 10(7) cfu/cm(2)) were isolated, identified and observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). This study illustrated that the present integrated processes could be an ideal approach for promoting a sustainable decentralization, however, Phragmites sp. would be more efficient rather than Typha sp.

  15. Dietary use and conservation concern of edible wetland plants at indo-burma hotspot: a case study from northeast India

    OpenAIRE

    Singh HB; Kanjilal PB; Kotoky R; Roshnibala S; Sundriyal M; Jain A; Sundriyal RC

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The wetlands of the North East India fall among the global hotspots of biodiversity. However, they have received very little attention with relation to their intrinsic values to human kind; therefore their conservation is hardly addressed. These wetlands are critical for the sustenance of the tribal communities. Methods Field research was conducted during 2003 to 2006 in seven major wetlands of four districts of Manipur state, Northeast India (viz. Imphal-East, Imphal-West...

  16. Risk Management of Alien Plants in Xixi Wetland%西溪湿地外来植物及其风险管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪丽华; 陈博君; 季梦成; 何云核

    2011-01-01

    采用经典分类及群落学研究疗法,通过实地调查和资料分析,对西溪湿地外来植物,特别是外来入侵植物的种类、生境、危害程度等进行了研究.结果表明:西溪湿地现有外来种子植物97科234属328种,其中被了植物91科220属311种.菊科、禾本科和蔷薇科等14科所含属种是该地外来植物的主要组成部分,菊科、禾本科占绝对优势;菊科外来植物在外来种中所占比例大,且危害较重.景观改造、湿地植物园引种是西溪湿地外来植物种类大量增加的主要原因.西溪湿地现有外来入侵植物共27科55属71种,原产地为美洲的48种,占总种数的67.6I%;原产地为欧洲的9种,占12.68%.外来入侵植物以一年生或二年生草本居多,有52种,占总种数的73.24%,落叶灌木仅1种(占1.41%).提出西溪湿地外来植物的编目、监测和数字化管理的建议,并建议将美丽飞蓬,南美天胡荽、再力花和黄菖蒲等4种外来植物列入中国外来入侵植物名录.%A survey was conducted though field investgation and literaturereview to study alien plant species,particularly invasive plants theirhabitats and damages in xixi wetland using traditional classification ofphytocoenology method. The result indicated that there were 328 species and varieties, 234 genera and 97 families of seed plants in Xixi wetland, among which 311 species, 220 genera and 91 families were Angiosperm. Plants of 14 families including Compositae, Gramineae and Rosaceae constituted the majority of alien plants in the wetlands, and plants of Compositae and Gramineae constituted a predominant majority. Especially the plants of Compositae accounted for a large proportion of the alien plants, which caused more serious damage. Two main causes for an obvious increase of alien species were landscape reconstruction and plant introduction in wetland botanical garden. There were 71 species and varieties, 55 genera and 21 families of alien invasive plants

  17. Swine Farm Wastewater Treatment by Constructed Wetland Planted with Vetiver Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supaporn Pongthornpruek

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the pollutant removal efficiencies in swine farm wastewater with Vetiveria zizanioides (L. Nash (Sri Lanka ecotype in a surface flow constructed wetland (SFCW. The SFCW units were set up to 3 treatments at 10, 15 and 30 cm water levels to find the proper depth for vetiver grass in wastewater treatment. The water quality indicator such as pH, temperature (T, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD, total kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN, total phosphorus (TP and heavy metals (Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn were analyzed and compared with terms of removal efficiency. The 30 cm water depth has a better removal efficiency of organic substance treatment (BOD and COD. The BOD, COD, TKN and TP removal efficiency had no statistically significant differences between the water depths. TP has the best removal efficiency with average 95.18-96.53%. The treatment of heavy metals such as Cu, Pb, Fe and Zn with vetiver grass in different water depths was showed no statistical significance since it can reduce only a small number of these metals. However, the results showed that the effluent from all the treatment units contained averages of BOD, COD, TKN and pH that followed Thailand’s swine wastewater quality standard.

  18. Molybdenum(VI) removal by using constructed wetlands with different filter media and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, J J; Xu, S G; Zhang, Y M; Han, C W

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy and capacity of vertical-flow wetland filters on molybdenum (Mo) removal from wastewater was examined, employing reed (Phragmites australis) and cattail (Typha latifolia) as well as different adsorption granular media. Humus, cinder, modified cinder, as well as pyrite were used as filter media. A synthetic effluent with different concentrations of Mo(VI) at different hydraulic retention times was used for simulating Mo leached mine wastewater. Laboratory experiments showed that the equilibrium adsorption data were in agreement with the Langmuir isotherm model, and the maximum Mo(VI) adsorption capacities of modified cinder and pyrite were 10.01 and 6.25 mg/g, respectively. Mo(VI) removal in F5 (combination substrates of pyrite and cinder) was found to be more stable and effective than that of F1 (conventional gravel and soil filter media) during the 14-week experiment. Most of the Mo(VI) was retained in the 10-20 cm of the substrate, and adsorbed by the modified cinder and pyrite. The largest fraction of Mo(VI) retained was the water-soluble fraction on the surface of the pyrite. Cattail was more suitable for Mo(VI) absorption than reed, but the bioaccumulation accounted for a very small portion of the total removal.

  19. Wetland eco-engineering: Measuring and modeling feedbacks of oxidation processes between plants and clay-rich material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saaltink, R.; Dekker, S.C.; Griffioen, J.; Wassen, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Interest is growing in using soft sediment as a foundation in eco-engineering projects. Wetland construction in the Dutch lake Markermeer is an example: here, dredging some of the clay-rich lake-bed sediment and using it to construct wetland will soon begin. Natural processes will be utilized during

  20. Wetland eco-engineering: measuring and modeling feedbacks of oxidation processes between plants and clay-rich material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saaltink, R.M.; Dekker, S.C.; Griffioen, J.; Wassen, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Interest is growing in using soft sediment as a foundation in eco-engineering projects. Wetland construction in the Dutch lake Markermeer is an example: here, dredging some of the clay-rich lake-bed sediment and using it to construct wetland will soon begin. Natural processes will be utilized during

  1. HYPERSPECTRAL REMOTE SENSING, GPS, AND GIS APPLICATIONS IN OPPORTUNISTIC PLANT SPECIES MONITORING OF GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coastal wetlands of the Laurentian Great Lakes (LGL) are among the most fragmented and disturbed ecosystems of the world, with a long history of human-induced disturbance. LGL wetlands have undergone losses in the biological diversity that coincides with an increase in the presen...

  2. Rhizofiltration of a Heavy Metal (Lead) Containing Wastewater Using the Wetland Plant Carex pendula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yadav, B.K.; Siebel, M.A.; Van Bruggen, J.J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Rhizofiltration is a subset technique of phytoremediation which refers to the approach of using plant biomass for removing contaminants, primarily toxic metals, from polluted water. The effective implementation of this in situ remediation technology requires experimental as well as conceptual

  3. Electricity from wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetser, Koen; Dieleman, Kim; Buisman, Cees; Strik, David

    2017-01-01

    Application of the plant microbial fuel cell (PMFC) in wetlands should be invisible without excavation of the soil. The preferred design is a tubular design with the anode directly between the plant roots and an oxygen reducing biocathode inside the tube. Oxygen should be passively supplied to the c

  4. A review of plant-pharmaceutical interactions: from uptake and effects in crop plants to phytoremediation in constructed wetlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, Pedro N; Basto, M Clara P; Almeida, C Marisa R;

    2014-01-01

    the potential impact of veterinary and human pharmaceuticals on arable land. However, plant uptake as well as phytotoxicity data are scarcely studied. Simultaneously, phytoremediation as a tool for pharmaceutical removal from soils, sediments and water is starting to be researched, with promising results...... and biosolids, accelerates the introduction of these compounds into arable lands and crops. Despite the low concentrations of pharmaceuticals usually found, the continuous introduction into the environment from different pathways makes them 'pseudo-persistent'. Several reviews have been published regarding....... This review gives an in-depth overview of the phytotoxicity of pharmaceuticals, their uptake and their removal by plants. The aim of the current work was to map the present knowledge concerning pharmaceutical interactions with plants in terms of uptake and the use of plant-based systems for phytoremediation...

  5. Modeling Plant Uptake of Metal in Constructed Wetlands Supported by Experimentally Derived Uptake Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-12-01

    stress to a system and could eventually induce chronic effects such as decreased species diversity and biomass , altered biogeochemical nutrient...erosion Remove accumulated solids in forebay and near outlet Clean pretreatment devices; clean forebay once every five years or when sediment exceeds...Sagua la Grande river basin near a chlor- alkali plant and other industrial plants differed by location. Highest concentrations were found in the zone

  6. Treatment of industrial wastewater with two-stage constructed wetlands planted with Typha latifolia and Phragmites australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calheiros, Cristina S C; Rangel, António O S S; Castro, Paula M L

    2009-07-01

    Industrial wastewater treatment comprises several processes to fulfill the discharge permits or to enable the reuse of wastewater. For tannery wastewater, constructed wetlands (CWs) may be an interesting treatment option. Two-stage series of horizontal subsurface flow CWs with Phragmites australis (UP series) and Typha latifolia (UT series) provided high removal of organics from tannery wastewater, up to 88% of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD(5)) (from an inlet of 420 to 1000 mg L(-1)) and 92% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (from an inlet of 808 to 2449 mg L(-1)), and of other contaminants, such as nitrogen, operating at hydraulic retention times of 2, 5 and 7 days. No significant (P<0.05) differences in performance were found between both the series. Overall mass removals of up to 1294 kg COD ha(-1)d(-1) and 529 kg BOD(5)ha(-1)d(-1) were achieved for a loading ranging from 242 to 1925 kg COD ha(-1)d(-1) and from 126 to 900 kg BOD(5)ha(-1)d(-1). Plants were resilient to the conditions imposed, however P. australis exceeded T. latifolia in terms of propagation.

  7. Effect of reversal of the flow direction on hydrodynamic characteristics and plants cultivated in constructed wetland systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheila Corrêa Ferres Baptestini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of reversal of the flow direction, when used the surface flow as an operating criteria, on hydrodynamic characteristics and plants grown in horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetland systems (HSF-CWs. For this purpose, six HSF-CWs were used: two non-cultivated (HSF-CWs 1 and 4, two cultivated with Tifton 85 grass (Cynodon spp. (HSF-CWs 2 and 5 and two cultivated with Alternanthera (Alternanthera philoxeroides (HSF-CWs 3 and 6. It was made a reversal in the flow direction of the HSF-CWs 1, 2 and 3. The reversal of the wastewater flow direction was performed when the superficial flow of the wastewater applied (SF reached 50% of the length of the HSF-CWs. There was a single reversal for each system, on different dates. Reversing the flow direction promoted distinction on the dry matter yield of Tifton 85 grass. This was not observed in HSF-CWs cultivated with Alternanthera. The reversal of the wastewater flow direction promoted, in principle, the extinction of the SF advance in the HSF-CWs, but did not prevent its return. Waiting for the SF to reach 50% of the length was not the best criterion for reversing the flow direction.

  8. Neotropical coastal wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Karen L.; Batzer, Darold P.; Baldwin, Andrew H.

    2012-01-01

    The Neotropical region, which includes the tropical Americas, is one of the world's eight biogeographic zones. It contains some of the most diverse and unique wetlands in the world, some of which are still relatively undisturbed by humans. This chapter focuses on the northern segment of the Neotropics (south Florida, the Caribbean islands, Mexico, and Central America), an area that spans a latitudinal gradient from about 7 N to 29 N and 60 W to 112 W. Examples of coastal wetlands in this realm include the Everglades (Florida, USA), Ten Thousand Islands (Florida, USA), Laguna de Terminos (Mexico), Twin Cays (Belize), and Zapata Swamp (Cuba). Coastal wetlands are dominated by mangroves, which will be emphasized here, but also include freshwater swamps and marshes, saline marshes, and seagrass beds. The aim of this chapter is to provide a broad overview of Neotropical coastal wetlands of the North American continent, with an emphasis on mangroves, since this is the dominant vegetation type and because in-depth coverage of all wetland types is impossible here. Instead, the goal is to describe the environmental settings, plant and animal communities, key ecological controls, and some conservation concerns, with specific examples. Because this book deals with wetlands of North America, this chapter excludes coastal wetlands of South America. However, much of the information is applicable to mangrove, marsh, and seagrass communities of other tropicaI regions.

  9. 邢台市湿地维管植物区系研究%Study on the Flora of Vascular Plants in Wetland of Xingtai City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓丽; 王峰; 武宇红

    2013-01-01

    According to the preliminary investigation and research,there were 225 species of vascular plants belonging to 116 genera of 38 families in wetland of Xingtai city; among which Gramineae,Cyperaceae,Polygonaceae,Asteraceae,Potamogetonaceae,Labiatae and Polygonum L.,Potamogeton L.,Cyperus L.,Carex L.,Scirpus L.contained more species.The flora did not only share the commonness of wetlands plant distributed over the world,but also had the typical temperate nature of plants in this zone,while its uniqueness was not obvious.The main life form was marsh-wetland plants,while floatingleaved plants and floating plants were less.%经初步调查和研究分析,邢台市湿地维管植物有225种,隶属于38科116属.其中禾本科、莎草科、蓼科、菊科、眼子菜科、唇形科以及蓼属、眼子菜属、莎草属、苔草属、藨草属等所含种类较多.该区系既具有世界湿地植物地理分布的共性,同时也具有该地带植物典型的温带性质,但其特有性不明显.生活型以沼生-湿生植物为主,浮叶植物和漂浮植物较少.

  10. A set of 100 chloroplast DNA primer pairs to study population genetics and phylogeny in monocotyledons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Scarcelli

    Full Text Available Chloroplast DNA sequences are of great interest for population genetics and phylogenetic studies. However, only a small set of markers are commonly used. Most of them have been designed for amplification in a large range of Angiosperms and are located in the Large Single Copy (LSC. Here we developed a new set of 100 primer pairs optimized for amplification in Monocotyledons. Primer pairs amplify coding (exon and non-coding regions (intron and intergenic spacer. They span the different chloroplast regions: 72 are located in the LSC, 13 in the Small Single Copy (SSC and 15 in the Inverted Repeat region (IR. Amplification and sequencing were tested in 13 species of Monocotyledons: Dioscorea abyssinica, D. praehensilis, D. rotundata, D. dumetorum, D. bulbifera, Trichopus sempervirens (Dioscoreaceae, Phoenix canariensis, P. dactylifera, Astrocaryum scopatum, A. murumuru, Ceroxylon echinulatum (Arecaceae, Digitaria excilis and Pennisetum glaucum (Poaceae. The diversity found in Dioscorea, Digitaria and Pennisetum mainly corresponded to Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP while the diversity found in Arecaceae also comprises Variable Number Tandem Repeat (VNTR. We observed that the most variable loci (rps15-ycf1, rpl32-ccsA, ndhF-rpl32, ndhG-ndhI and ccsA are located in the SSC. Through the analysis of the genetic structure of a wild-cultivated species complex in Dioscorea, we demonstrated that this new set of primers is of great interest for population genetics and we anticipate that it will also be useful for phylogeny and bar-coding studies.

  11. Improving low-temperature performance of surface flow constructed wetlands using Potamogeton crispus L. plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jinlin; Zhang, Jian; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Yin, Xiaole

    2016-10-01

    In this study, enhanced organics and nitrogen removal efficiency in SFCWs by different submerged plants for polluted river water treatment under cold temperature was evaluated. High average removal efficiencies of COD (92.45%), NH4(+)-N (93.70%) and TN (55.62%) were achieved in experimental SFCWs with Potamogeton crispus compared with SFCWs with other plants. SFCWs with underground Phragmites australis root also presented better performance than the unplanted systems, indicating its positive role of contamination removal in winter. The results of this study indicated SFCWs with hardy submerged plant P. crispus could be a more effective and sustainable strategy for removing organics and nitrogen in shallow nutrient enriched river water ecosystems under cold climate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of P addition on plant C:N:P stoichiometry in an N-limited temperate wetland of Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Rong; Chen, Hui-Min; Zhang, Xin-Hou; Shi, Fu-Xi; Song, Chang-Chun

    2016-07-15

    Phosphorus (P) enrichment induced by anthropogenic activities results in modified plant nutrient status, which potentially alters the stoichiometry of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and P in plants. However, how increased P availability changes plant C:N:P stoichiometry at different hierarchical scales is unclear in N-limited ecosystems. In this study, we conducted a four-level P addition experiment (0, 1.2, 4.8, and 9.6gPm(-)(2)year(-1)) to elucidate the effect of P enrichment on plant C:N:P stoichiometric ratios at both the species and community levels in a freshwater wetland in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China. We found that species- and community-level plant C:N:P stoichiometry responded consistently to six years of P addition, although there was a shift in species dominance. Phosphorus addition increased plant N and P concentrations and thus decreased C:N, C:P, and N:P ratios irrespective of the P addition levels. These similar change trends at different scales resulted from the identical responses of plant N and P concentrations in different species to P addition. Moreover, plant N concentration exhibited an increasing trend with increasing P addition levels, whereas plant C:N ratio showed a declining trend. At the community level, P addition at the rates of 1.2, 4.8, and 9.6gPm(-2)year(-1) decreased the C:N ratio by 24%, 27%, and 34%; decreased the C:P ratio by 33%, 35%, and 38%; and decreased the N:P ratio by 12%, 10%, and 6%, respectively. Our results indicate that the stoichiometric responses to P addition are scale-independent, and suggest that altered plant C:N:P stoichiometry induced by P enrichment would stimulate organic matter decomposition and accelerate nutrient cycles in N-limited temperate freshwater wetlands.

  13. North Dakota Wetlands Discovery Guide. Photocopy Booklet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Nancy J., Ed.; And Others

    This booklet contains games and activities that can be photocopied for classroom use. Activities include Wetland Terminology, Putting on the Map, Erosional Forces, Water in...Water out, Who Lives Here?, Wetlands in Disguise, Dichotomous Plant Game, Algae Survey, Conducting an Algal Survey, Water Quality Indicators Guide, Farming Wetlands, Wetlands…

  14. North Dakota Wetlands Discovery Guide. Photocopy Booklet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Nancy J., Ed.; And Others

    This booklet contains games and activities that can be photocopied for classroom use. Activities include Wetland Terminology, Putting on the Map, Erosional Forces, Water in...Water out, Who Lives Here?, Wetlands in Disguise, Dichotomous Plant Game, Algae Survey, Conducting an Algal Survey, Water Quality Indicators Guide, Farming Wetlands, Wetlands…

  15. Rhizofiltration of a Heavy Metal (Lead) Containing Wastewater Using the Wetland Plant Carex pendula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yadav, B.K.; Siebel, M.A.; Van Bruggen, J.J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Rhizofiltration is a subset technique of phytoremediation which refers to the approach of using plant biomass for removing contaminants, primarily toxic metals, from polluted water. The effective implementation of this in situ remediation technology requires experimental as well as conceptual insigh

  16. Rhizofiltration of a Heavy Metal (Lead) Containing Wastewater Using the Wetland Plant Carex pendula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yadav, B.K.; Siebel, M.A.; Van Bruggen, J.J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Rhizofiltration is a subset technique of phytoremediation which refers to the approach of using plant biomass for removing contaminants, primarily toxic metals, from polluted water. The effective implementation of this in situ remediation technology requires experimental as well as conceptual insigh

  17. Response of an invasive native wetland plant to environmental flows: implications for managing regulated floodplain ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivian, Lyndsey M; Marshall, David J; Godfree, Robert C

    2014-01-01

    The natural flow regimes of rivers underpin the health and function of floodplain ecosystems. However, infrastructure development and the over-extraction of water has led to the alteration of natural flow regimes, resulting in the degradation of river and floodplain habitats globally. In many catchments, including Australia's Murray-Darling Basin, environmental flows are seen as a potentially useful tool to restore natural flow regimes and manage the degradation of rivers and their associated floodplains. In this paper, we investigated whether environmental flows can assist in controlling an invasive native floodplain plant in Barmah Forest, south-eastern Australia. We experimentally quantified the effects of different environmental flow scenarios, including a shallow (20 cm) and deeper (50 cm) flood of different durations (12 and 20 weeks), as well as drought and soil-saturated conditions, on the growth and survival of seedlings of Juncus ingens, a native emergent macrophyte that has become invasive in some areas of Barmah Forest following river regulation and alteration of natural flow regimes. Three height classes of J. ingens (33 cm, 17 cm and 12 cm) were included in the experiment to explicitly test for relationships between treatments, plant survival and growth, and plant height. We found that seedling mortality occurred in the drought treatment and in the 20-week flood treatments of both depths; however, mortality rates in the flood treatments depended on initial plant height, with medium and short plants (initial heights of ≤17 cm) exhibiting the highest mortality rates. Both the 20 cm and 50 cm flood treatments of only 12 weeks duration were insufficient to cause mortality in any of the height classes; indeed, shoots of plants in the 20 cm flood treatment were able to elongate through the water surface at rapid rates. Our findings have important implications for management of Barmah Forest and floodplain ecosystems elsewhere, as it demonstrates

  18. 植物入侵对城市湿地生态系统中本地植物的影响%The Impacts of Plant Invasion on the Native Plants in Urban Wetland Ecosystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琼; 宋垚彬; 蒋跃平; 林金昌; 董鸣

    2014-01-01

    城市湿地不仅有着重要的生态和经济价值,同时还服务于城市居民的人文、审美需求等社会和文化的各个方面。然而随着经济全球一体化的发展,外来植物入侵对城市湿地生态环境和物种多样性已构成不可避免的威胁。城市湿地入侵植物对城市湿地生态系统中本地植物个体适合度、生理特性、种群遗传结构、种群数量、群落种间关系、本地植物多样性以及本地植物所处的生境等多方面造成严重影响。因此,应根据城市湿地本地植物遭受的影响,加强对城市湿地外来入侵植物的有效管理及对退化城市湿地生态系统的修复。%Urban wetlands are of important values in terms of urban ecology and economy ,and also in social and cultural aspects .However ,due to economic globalization and rapid urbanization ,exotic plants seriously threaten urban wetland ecosystems and species diversity .The invasive plants have serious impacts on the native plants in urban wetlands ,including individual fitness , physiological characters , population genetic structure , population size , interspecies relations , species diversity and habitats of the native plants .Therefore ,it should enhance efficient management of invasive plants in urban wetlands and restore the degraded urban wetland ecosystems according to the impacts that the native plants in urban wetland ecosystems suffer .

  19. Levels of trace elements in wetland waters and possible risk for plants: a case study of the Palo Laziale wood (central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Barbieri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Palo Laziale wood represents one of the few remaining examples of Mediterranean wetland and it was identified as a Site of Community Importance (SCI according to the European Commission Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC. This paper reports levels of trace elements in wetland waters and possible risk for plants. Eight water points were sampled from private wells and analysed to investigate the distribution and enrichment of heavy metals in groundwater. In particular, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As and Pb were analysed during four sampling events (from October 2010 to July 2011. The results obtained show similar temporal variation of elements. Mn, Cu, Zn and As show major values during December, while Fe present major value during March. Pb concentration shows a peak during March, probably due a failure in water pipes.

  20. Management of wetlands for wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew J. Gray,; Heath M. Hagy,; J. Andrew Nyman,; Stafford, Joshua D.

    2013-01-01

    Wetlands are highly productive ecosystems that provide habitat for a diversity of wildlife species and afford various ecosystem services. Managing wetlands effectively requires an understanding of basic ecosystem processes, animal and plant life history strategies, and principles of wildlife management. Management techniques that are used differ depending on target species, coastal versus interior wetlands, and available infrastructure, resources, and management objectives. Ideally, wetlands are managed as a complex, with many successional stages and hydroperiods represented in close proximity. Managing wetland wildlife typically involves manipulating water levels and vegetation in the wetland, and providing an upland buffer. Commonly, levees and water control structures are used to manipulate wetland hydrology in combination with other management techniques (e.g., disking, burning, herbicide application) to create desired plant and wildlife responses. In the United States, several conservation programs are available to assist landowners in developing wetland management infrastructure on their property. Managing wetlands to increase habitat quality for wildlife is critical, considering this ecosystem is one of the most imperiled in the world.

  1. Phytoremediation potential of Cd and Zn by wetland plants, Colocasia esculenta L. Schott., Cyperus malaccensis Lam. and Typha angustifolia L. grown in hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chayapan, P; Kruatrachue, M; Meetam, M; Pokethitiyook, P

    2015-09-01

    Cadmium and zinc phytoremediation potential of wetland plants, Colocasia esculenta, Cyperus malaccensis, and Typha angustifolia, was investigated. Plants were grown for 15 days in nutrient solutions containing various concentrations of Cd (0, 5, 10, 20, 50 mg l(-1)) and Zn (0, 10, 20, 50, 100 mg l(-1)). T angustifolia was tolerant to both metals as indicated by high RGR when grown in 50 mg I(-1) Cd and 100 mg I(-1) Zn solutions. All these plants accumulated more metals in their underground parts and > 100 mg kg(-1) in their aboveground with TF values 10,000 mg kg(-1) in its aboveground parts with TF > 1. T angustifolia exhibited highest biomass production and highest Cd and Zn uptake, confirming that this plant is a suitable candidate for treating of Cd contaminated soil/sediments.

  2. Salinity Tolerance of the Hygrophilous Plant Species in the Wetlands of the South of the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco GOMEZ MERCADO

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to evaluate (or to study or to gain information about with the salinity tolerance of the hygrophilous plantspecies recorded along the River Guadiamar (SW of the Iberian Peninsula and in four sublittoral wetlands of the bay of Almería (SEof the Iberian Peninsula. The first of these wetlands is an Atlantic-type open wetland. The other four wetlands in Almería are closedlagoon-like wetlands. The data of each species are given and grouped in categories defined by tolerance range. The results obtained forthe species found in the two sites are then compared. The salinity conditions of the soils of these two types of wetlands are also comparedto discover any possible cause for differentiation. Finally, the different units of measurement of salinity available and some conversionmodels for them will be discussed. As a result of the present data and analysis, the study proposes a model to estimate total dissolved saltsfrom electrical conductivity.

  3. Field application of a planted fixed bed reactor (PFR) for support media and rhizosphere investigation using undisturbed samples from full-scale constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, A B; Vasconcellos, G R; von Sperling, M; Kuschk, P; Kappelmeyer, U; Vasel, J L

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a novel method for investigations on undisturbed samples from full-scale horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (HSSFCW). The planted fixed bed reactor (PFR), developed at the Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research (UFZ), is a universal test unit for planted soil filters that reproduces the operational conditions of a constructed wetland (CW) system in laboratory scale. The present research proposes modifications on the PFR original configuration in order to allow its operation in field conditions. A mobile device to obtain undisturbed samples from real-scale HSSFCW was also developed. The experimental setting is presented with two possible operational configurations. The first allows the removal and replacement of undisturbed samples in the CW bed for laboratory investigations, guaranteeing sample integrity with a mobile device. The second allows the continuous operation of the PFR and undisturbed samples as a fraction of the support media, reproducing the same environmental conditions outside the real-scale system. Investigations on the hydrodynamics of the adapted PFR were carried out with saline tracer tests, validating the proposed adaptation. Six adapted PFR units were installed next to full-scale HSSFCW beds and fed with interstitial liquid pumped from two regions of planted and unplanted support media. Fourteen points were monitored along the system, covering carbon fractions, nitrogen and sulfate. The results indicate the method as a promising tool for investigations on CW support media, rhizosphere and open space for studies on CW modeling, respirometry, kinetic parameters, microbial communities, redox potential and plant influence on HSSFCW.

  4. Livestock as a potential biological control agent for an invasive wetland plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R. Silliman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Invasive species threaten biodiversity and incur costs exceeding billions of US$. Eradication efforts, however, are nearly always unsuccessful. Throughout much of North America, land managers have used expensive, and ultimately ineffective, techniques to combat invasive Phragmites australis in marshes. Here, we reveal that Phragmites may potentially be controlled by employing an affordable measure from its native European range: livestock grazing. Experimental field tests demonstrate that rotational goat grazing (where goats have no choice but to graze Phragmites can reduce Phragmites cover from 100 to 20% and that cows and horses also readily consume this plant. These results, combined with the fact that Europeans have suppressed Phragmites through seasonal livestock grazing for 6,000 years, suggest Phragmites management can shift to include more economical and effective top-down control strategies. More generally, these findings support an emerging paradigm shift in conservation from high-cost eradication to economically sustainable control of dominant invasive species.

  5. [Seasonal dynamics of nitrogen- and phosphorus absorption efficiency of wetland plants in Minjiang River estuary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Long; Zeng, Cong-Sheng; Zhang, Lin-Hai; Wang, Wei-Qi; Lin, Yan; Ai, Jin-Quan

    2009-06-01

    Taking the native Phragmites australis and invasive Spartina alterniflora in Minjiang River estuary as test objectives, this paper studied the seasonal dynamics of their biomass and nitrogen- and phosphorus absorption efficiency. A typical single-peak curve was presented for the seasonal dynamics of aboveground biomass and nitrogen- and phosphorus absorption efficiency of the two species. P. australis had the maximum aboveground biomass (2195.33 g X m(-2)) in summer, while S. alterniflora had it (3670.02 g X m(-2)) in autumn. The total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) contents of P. australis reached the peak (21.06 g x m(-2) of TN and 1.12 g x m(-2) of TP) in summer and in autumn, respectively, while those of S. alterniflora all reached the peak (26.76 g x m(-2) of TN and 3.23 g x m(-2) of TP) in autumn. Both of the two species had a higher absorption efficiency in TN than in TP (P absorption efficiency of TN and TP than P. australis (P nitrogen- and phosphorus absorption efficiency of the plants.

  6. A survey of the wetlands and floodplains of the borrow area and wetland/shorebird complex for the remedial action at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Lonkhuyzen, R.; Yin, S.; Hlohowskyj, I.

    1995-02-01

    The US Department of Energy is conducting cleanup operations at the Weldon Spring site, St. Charles, Missouri, that will include development of a 77-ha (191-acre) soil borrow area. Eight wetlands, including riverine and palustrine emergent wetland types and totaling 0.9 ha (2.2 acres), will be eliminated during excavation of the borrow area. A 23-ha (57-acre) wetland/shorebird complex will be created at the Busch Conservation Area. The complex will include 2 ha (5 acres) of palustrine emergent wetland as mitigation for wetland losses in the borrow area.

  7. Comparative evaluation of pilot scale horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands and plant root mats for treating groundwater contaminated with benzene and MTBE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongbing; Kuschk, Peter; Reiche, Nils; Borsdorf, Helko; Kästner, Matthias; Köser, Heinz

    2012-03-30

    In order to evaluate technology options for the treatment of groundwater contaminated with benzene and MTBE in constructed wetlands (CWs), a scarcely applied plant root mat system and two horizontal subsurface-flow (HSSF) CWs were investigated. The inflow load of benzene and MTBE were 188-522 and 31-90 mg d(-1)m(-2), respectively. Higher removal efficiencies were obtained during summer in all systems. The benzene removal efficiencies were 0-33%, 24-100% and 22-100% in the unplanted HSSF-CW, planted HSSF-CW and the plant root mat, respectively; the MTBE removal efficiencies amounted to 0-33%, 16-93% and 8-93% in the unplanted HSSF-CW, planted HSSF-CW and the plant root mat, respectively. The volatilisation rates in the plant root mat amounted to 7.24 and 2.32 mg d(-1)m(-2) for benzene and MTBE, which is equivalent to 3.0% and 15.2% of the total removal. The volatilisation rates in the HSSF-CW reached 2.59 and 1.07 mg d(-1)m(-2), corresponding to 1.1% and 6.1% of the total removal of benzene and MTBE, respectively. The results indicate that plant root mats are an interesting option for the treatment of waters polluted with benzene and MTBE under moderate temperatures conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Rising sea level, temperature, and precipitation impact plant and ecosystem responses to elevated CO2 on a Chesapeake Bay wetland: review of a 28-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Bert G

    2014-11-01

    An ongoing field study of the effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on a brackish wetland on Chesapeake Bay, started in 1987, is unique as the longest continually running investigation of the effects of elevated CO2 on an ecosystem. Since the beginning of the study, atmospheric CO2 increased 18%, sea level rose 20 cm, and growing season temperature varied with approximately the same range as predicted for global warming in the 21st century. This review looks back at this study for clues about how the effects of rising sea level, temperature, and precipitation interact with high atmospheric CO2 to alter the physiology of C3 and C4 photosynthetic species, carbon assimilation, evapotranspiration, plant and ecosystem nitrogen, and distribution of plant communities in this brackish wetland. Rising sea level caused a shift to higher elevations in the Scirpus olneyi C3 populations on the wetland, displacing the Spartina patens C4 populations. Elevated CO2 stimulated carbon assimilation in the Scirpus C3 species measured by increased shoot and root density and biomass, net ecosystem production, dissolved organic and inorganic carbon, and methane production. But elevated CO2 also decreased biomass of the grass, S. patens C4. The elevated CO2 treatment reduced tissue nitrogen concentration in shoots, roots, and total canopy nitrogen, which was associated with reduced ecosystem respiration. Net ecosystem production was mediated by precipitation through soil salinity: high salinity reduced the CO2 effect on net ecosystem production, which was zero in years of severe drought. The elevated CO2 stimulation of shoot density in the Scirpus C3 species was sustained throughout the 28 years of the study. Results from this study suggest that rising CO2 can add substantial amounts of carbon to ecosystems through stimulation of carbon assimilation, increased root exudates to supply nitrogen fixation, reduced dark respiration, and improved water and nitrogen use efficiency.

  9. Wetland Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Marilyn

    1994-01-01

    Examines what wetland conservation means to different groups of Louisiana's coastal residents. Describes coastal resources, reasons for their deterioration, conservation efforts, and the impact of a public perception that conservation of wetlands is closely tied to conservation of the existing lifestyle. (LZ)

  10. Wetland Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter discusses the state of the science in wetland hydrology by touching upon the major hydraulic and hydrologic processes in these complex ecosystems, their measurement/estimation techniques, and modeling methods. It starts with the definition of wetlands, their benefit...

  11. Wetland InSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wdowinski, S.; Kim, S.; Amelung, F.; Dixon, T.

    2006-12-01

    Wetlands are transition zones where the flow of water, the nutrient cycling, and the sun energy meet to produce a unique and very productive ecosystem. They provide critical habitat for a wide variety of plant and animal species, including the larval stages of many ocean fish. Wetlands also have a valuable economical importance, as they filter nutrients and pollutants from fresh water used by human and provide aquatic habitats for outdoor recreation, tourism, and fishing. Globally, many such regions are under severe environmental stress, mainly from urban development, pollution, and rising sea level. However, there is increasing recognition of the importance of these habitats, and mitigation and restoration activities have begun in a few regions. A key element in wetlands conservation, management, and restoration involves monitoring its hydrologic system, as the entire ecosystem depends on its water supply. Heretofore, hydrologic monitoring of wetlands are conducted by stage (water level) stations, which provide good temporal resolution, but suffer from poor spatial resolution, as stage station are typically distributed several, or even tens of kilometers, from one another. Wetland application of InSAR provides the needed high spatial resolution hydrological observations, complementing the high temporal resolution terrestrial observations. Although conventional wisdom suggests that interferometry does not work in vegetated areas, several studies have shown that both L- and C-band interferograms with short acquisition intervals (1-105 days) can maintain excellent coherence over wetlands. In this study we explore the usage of InSAR for detecting water level changes in various wetland environments around the world, including the Everglades (south Florida), Louisiana Coast (southern US), Chesapeake Bay (eastern US), Pantanal (Brazil), Okavango Delta (Botswana), and Lena Delta (Siberia). Our main study area is the Everglades wetland (south Florida), which is covered by

  12. Animal-plant-microbe interactions: direct and indirect effects of swan foraging behavior modulate methane cycling in temperate shallow wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodelier, P.L.E.; Stomp, M.; Santamaria, L.; Klaassen, M.R.J.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    2006-01-01

    Wetlands are among the most important ecosystems on Earth both in terms of productivity and biodiversity, but also as a source of the greenhouse gas CH4. Microbial processes catalyzing nutrient recycling and CH4 production are controlled by sediment physico-chemistry, which is in turn affected by

  13. Animal-plant-microbe interactions: direct and indirect effects of swan foraging behaviour modulate methane cycling in temperate shallow wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodelier, P.L.E.; Stomp, M.; Santamaria, L.; Klaassen, M.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    2006-01-01

    Wetlands are among the most important ecosystems on Earth both in terms of productivity and biodiversity, but also as a source of the greenhouse gas CH4. Microbial processes catalyzing nutrient recycling and CH4 production are controlled by sediment physico-chemistry, which is in turn affected by

  14. ENDOMYCORRHIZAL COLONIZATION OF DASIPHORA FLORIBUNDA, A NATIVE PLANT OF CALCAREOUS WETLANDS IN EASTERN NEW YORK STATE, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The extent of endomycorrhizal colonization of Dasiphora floribunda was measured in 8 calcareous wetlands in eastern New York State, USA. Environmental parameters (pH, conductivity, water-table depth, soil moisture, soil organic matter, soil NH4 , soil available P, and porewater ...

  15. Ecobiophysical Aspects on Nanosilver Biogenerated from Citrus reticulata Peels, as Potential Biopesticide for Controlling Pathogens and Wetland Plants in Aquatic Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Elisabeta Barbinta-Patrascu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a considerable interest was paid to ecological strategies in management of plant diseases and plant growth. Metallic nanoparticles (MNPs gained considerable interest as alternative to pesticides due to their interesting properties. Green synthesis of MNPs using plant extracts is very advantageous taking into account the fact that plants are easily available and eco-friendly and possess many phytocompounds that help in bioreduction of metal ions. In this research work, we phytosynthesized AgNPs from aqueous extract of Citrus reticulata peels, with high antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal potential. These “green” AgNPs were characterized by modern biophysical methods (absorption and FTIR spectroscopy, AFM, and zeta potential measurements. The nanobioimpact of Citrus-based AgNPs on four invasive wetland plants, Cattail (Typha latifolia, Flowering-rush (Butomus umbellatus, Duckweed (Lemna minor, and Water-pepper (Polygonum hydropiper, was studied by absorption spectroscopy, by monitoring the spectral signature of chlorophyll. The invasive plants exhibited different behavior under AgNP stress. Deep insights were obtained from experiments conducted on biomimetic membranes marked with chlorophyll a. Our results pointed out the potential use of Citrus-based AgNPs as alternative in controlling pathogens in aqueous media and in management of aquatic weeds growth.

  16. Spatial patterns of composition in tidal wetland plant and algal assemblages in Oregon: Implications for wetland vulnerability to sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plants and algae mediate important ecosystem processes in coastal marshes and swamps. These assemblages are structured in part by estuarine environmental gradients such as tidal elevation and salinity. Such gradients are likely to change with sea-level rise (SLR) due to global cl...

  17. Feasibility Experiments in Application of Woody Plants as Constructed Wetland Plants%木本植物作为人工湿地植物的可行性试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵珊; 张军; 陈沉; 周军; 甘一萍; 马可

    2012-01-01

    Water-bloom is easy to break out in scenic water which utilizes reclaimed water as source water. Constructed wetland is a common bioremediation technology for reclaimed water reuse in landscape. There were some disadvantages in constructed wetland, such as plants weren t harvested caused by insufficient operating cost, and amount of nutrients absorbed by plants was small. Pilot test was carried out in the hybrid willow (S.matsudana Koidz) and yellow iris (Iris wilsonii) in R&D center in Beijing Drainage Group. Combined with previous researches, the results show that: hybrid willow (S.matsudana Koidz) grew well in constructed wetland; removed total of nitrogen is 10.8 g/m2, of phosphorus is 1.89 g/m2. This effect is better than traditional wetland plants. Therefore, hybrid willow is an excellent wetland plant. In the future, aim to upgrading wetlands effectiveness and reducing operating costs, woody plants with economic value is a research direction in constructed wetland.%景观水体的一个主要问题是水体富营养化将导致水华的暴发,并导致水体透明度下降,溶解氧降低,水生植物和鱼类大量死亡.为了防止水华爆发,人工湿地技术常被应用于景观水体水质维护之中,但其存在运行操作费用不足而导致的传统湿地植物到了秋季无人收割,和植物吸收营养盐总量较小等问题.因此,该课题通过中试研究,进行某良种柳树(S.matsudana Koidz)和黄花鸢尾(Iris wilsonii)的对比试验,并结合前人的研究成果,得出的结论为:该柳树的茎叶部一年中可去除氮的总量为10.8 g/m2,去除磷的总量为1.89 g/m2,在去除总量上比传统湿地植物具有明显优势,并且收割下来的柳树可作为生物质能源或造纸原料,能部分弥补湿地的运行费用,是一种很有潜力的湿地植物.未来,从保障湿地的运行效果和解决运行费用的角度来讲,具有经济价值的木本植物是湿地研究的一个方向.

  18. A Review of Wetland Remote Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Meng; Li, Jing; Sheng, Chunlei; Xu, Jiawei; Wu, Li

    2017-04-05

    Wetlands are some of the most important ecosystems on Earth. They play a key role in alleviating floods and filtering polluted water and also provide habitats for many plants and animals. Wetlands also interact with climate change. Over the past 50 years, wetlands have been polluted and declined dramatically as land cover has changed in some regions. Remote sensing has been the most useful tool to acquire spatial and temporal information about wetlands. In this paper, seven types of sensors were reviewed: aerial photos coarse-resolution, medium-resolution, high-resolution, hyperspectral imagery, radar, and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data. This study also discusses the advantage of each sensor for wetland research. Wetland research themes reviewed in this paper include wetland classification, habitat or biodiversity, biomass estimation, plant leaf chemistry, water quality, mangrove forest, and sea level rise. This study also gives an overview of the methods used in wetland research such as supervised and unsupervised classification and decision tree and object-based classification. Finally, this paper provides some advice on future wetland remote sensing. To our knowledge, this paper is the most comprehensive and detailed review of wetland remote sensing and it will be a good reference for wetland researchers.

  19. A Review of Wetland Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Meng; Li, Jing; Sheng, Chunlei; Xu, Jiawei; Wu, Li

    2017-01-01

    Wetlands are some of the most important ecosystems on Earth. They play a key role in alleviating floods and filtering polluted water and also provide habitats for many plants and animals. Wetlands also interact with climate change. Over the past 50 years, wetlands have been polluted and declined dramatically as land cover has changed in some regions. Remote sensing has been the most useful tool to acquire spatial and temporal information about wetlands. In this paper, seven types of sensors were reviewed: aerial photos coarse-resolution, medium-resolution, high-resolution, hyperspectral imagery, radar, and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data. This study also discusses the advantage of each sensor for wetland research. Wetland research themes reviewed in this paper include wetland classification, habitat or biodiversity, biomass estimation, plant leaf chemistry, water quality, mangrove forest, and sea level rise. This study also gives an overview of the methods used in wetland research such as supervised and unsupervised classification and decision tree and object-based classification. Finally, this paper provides some advice on future wetland remote sensing. To our knowledge, this paper is the most comprehensive and detailed review of wetland remote sensing and it will be a good reference for wetland researchers. PMID:28379174

  20. Nutrient removal through autumn harvest of Phragmites australis and Thypha latifolia shoots in relation to nutrient loading in a wetland system used for polishing sewage treatment plant effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toet, Sylvia; Bouwman, Meike; Cevaal, Annechien; Verhoeven, Jos T A

    2005-01-01

    The efficacy and feasibility of annual harvesting of Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia shoots in autumn for nutrient removal was evaluated in a wetland system used for polishing sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent. Aboveground biomass and nutrient dynamics nutrient removal through harvest were studied in parallel ditches with stands of Phragmites or Typha that were mown in October during two successive years. The inflow rate of STP effluent to the ditches was experimentally varied, resulting in pairs of ditches with mean hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 0.3, 0.8, 2.3, and 9.3 days, corresponding to N and P mass loading rates of 122-4190 g N m(-2) yr(-1) and 28.3-994 g P m(-2) yr(-1). Nitrogen and P removal efficiency by harvest of Phragmites and Typha shoots in October increased with increasing HRT, despite the opposite HRT effect on N and P standing stocks. This removal through harvest appeared to be useful in treatment wetlands with N and P mass loading rates lower than approximately 120 g N m(-2) yr(-1) and 30 g P m(-2) yr(-1), corresponding to a HRT of roughly 9 days in the ditches of this wetland system. At the HRT of 9.3 days, the annual mass input to the ditches was reduced through the harvest by 7.0-11% and 4.5 -9.2% for N and P, respectively. At the higher nutrient mass loading rates, the nutrient removal through harvest was insignificant compared to the mass inputs. The vitality of Phragmites and Typha, measured as maximum aboveground biomass, was not affected by the annual cutting of the shoots in autumn over two years. The Typha stands yielded higher N and P removal efficiencies through shoot harvest than the Phragmites stands, which was largely the result of lower decreases in N and P standing stocks between August and October. This difference in nutrient standing stocks between the two species was caused by a combined effect of greater decreases in nutrient concentrations largely due to higher nutrient retranslocation efficiencies of

  1. National Wetlands Inventory Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Linear wetland features (including selected streams, ditches, and narrow wetland bodies) mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The National...

  2. Using LiDAR and quickbird data to model plant production and quantify uncertainties associated with wetland detection and land cover generalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, B.D.; Bolstad, P.V.; Naesset, E.; Anderson, R. Scott; Garrigues, S.; Morisette, J.T.; Nickeson, J.; Davis, K.J.

    2009-01-01

    Spatiotemporal data from satellite remote sensing and surface meteorology networks have made it possible to continuously monitor global plant production, and to identify global trends associated with land cover/use and climate change. Gross primary production (GPP) and net primary production (NPP) are routinely derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard satellites Terra and Aqua, and estimates generally agree with independent measurements at validation sites across the globe. However, the accuracy of GPP and NPP estimates in some regions may be limited by the quality of model input variables and heterogeneity at fine spatial scales. We developed new methods for deriving model inputs (i.e., land cover, leaf area, and photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by plant canopies) from airborne laser altimetry (LiDAR) and Quickbird multispectral data at resolutions ranging from about 30??m to 1??km. In addition, LiDAR-derived biomass was used as a means for computing carbon-use efficiency. Spatial variables were used with temporal data from ground-based monitoring stations to compute a six-year GPP and NPP time series for a 3600??ha study site in the Great Lakes region of North America. Model results compared favorably with independent observations from a 400??m flux tower and a process-based ecosystem model (BIOME-BGC), but only after removing vapor pressure deficit as a constraint on photosynthesis from the MODIS global algorithm. Fine-resolution inputs captured more of the spatial variability, but estimates were similar to coarse-resolution data when integrated across the entire landscape. Failure to account for wetlands had little impact on landscape-scale estimates, because vegetation structure, composition, and conversion efficiencies were similar to upland plant communities. Plant productivity estimates were noticeably improved using LiDAR-derived variables, while uncertainties associated with land cover generalizations and

  3. 河流性湿地公园植物景观设计初探--以陕西千湖国家湿地公园为例%Plant Landscape Design for River Wetland Park:a Case Study of Qianhu Lake National Wetland Park in Shaanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新兵; 王荣; 何婧; 梁振山

    2016-01-01

    以河流性湿地陕西千湖国家湿地公园为例,介绍了湿地公园植物景观配置中存在的问题,阐明了公园植物景观设计的原则。介绍了保护保育区、科普宣教展示区和湿地休闲区植物景观规划设计方法,以期为湿地公园植物的保护与恢复、植物景观规划营建提供有益的参考。%The river wetland, Shaanxi Qianhu lake national wetland park, was taken as a case study to analyze problems existing in the deployment of wetland landscape plants, and to describe principles for designing plant landscape of the park. Methods of plant landscape design were introduced for the protection and conservation area, the science education and exhibition area, and the recreation area, in order to provide a useful basis for rehabilitation and conservation, and plant landscape planning and construction for wetland parks.

  4. Meristematic activity of the Endodermis and the Pericycle in the primary thickening in monocotyledons: considerations on the "PTM"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanuza L. de Menezes

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new interpretation for primary thickening in monocotyledons. The anatomy of the vegetative organs of the following species was examined: Cephalostemon riedelianus (Rapataceae, Cyperus papyrus (Cyperaceae, Lagenocarpus rigidus, L. junciformis (Cyperaceae, Echinodorus paniculatus (Alismataceae and Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae. The endodermis with meristematic activity was observed in the root of all the species, in the stem of Cyperus, Cephalostemum and Lagenocarpus rigidus, and in the leaf trace of Cyperus and leaf of Echinodorus. Considering the continuity of tissues through the root, stem and leaf, the authors conclude that in the stem the pericycle remains active throughout the life of the plant as the generator of the vascular tissue. The "Primary Thickening Meristem" is in fact the pericycle plus the endodermis and its derivatives (or only the pericycle. Close to the stem apex, the assemblage of seems to be a unique meristem, giving rise to the inner cortex and vascular tissues.A proposta deste trabalho é mostrar uma nova interpretação do meristema de espessamento primário em monocotiledôneas. Anatomia dos órgãos vegetativos das seguintes espécies foi examinada: Cephalostemon riedelianus (Rapataceae, Cyperus papyrus (Cyperaceae, Lagenocarpus rigidus, L. Junciformis (Cyperaceae, Echinodorus paniculatus (Alismataceae and Zingiberofficinale (Zingiberaceae. A atividade meristemática da endoderme foi observada nas raizes de todas as espécies, no caule de Cyperus, Cephalostemum e Lagenocarpus rigidus, e no traço foliar de Cyperus e folha de Echinodorus. Considerando a continuidade dos tecidos através da raiz, caule e folha, as autoras concluem que no caule o periciclo permanece ativo durante a vida da planta, como um gerador de tecidos vasculares. O "Meristema de Espessamento Primário" é o periciclo em fase meristemática, juntamente com a endoderme e suas derivadas (ou apenas o periciclo. Próximo ao

  5. Aquatic herbivores facilitate the emission of methane from wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Dingemans, B.J.J.; Bakker, E.S.; Bodelier, P. L. E.

    2011-01-01

    Wetlands are significant sources of atmospheric methane. Methane produced by microbes enters roots and escapes to the atmosphere through the shoots of emergent wetland plants. Herbivorous birds graze on helophytes, but their effect on methane emission remains unknown. We hypothesized that grazing on shoots of wetland plants can modulate methane emission from wetlands. Diffusive methane emission was monitored inside and outside bird exclosures, using static flux chambers placed over whole vege...

  6. Effects of sediment removal on vegetation communities in Rainwater Basin playa wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beas, Benjamin J; Smith, Loren M; LaGrange, Theodore G; Stutheit, Randy

    2013-10-15

    Sedimentation from cultivated agricultural land use has altered the natural hydrologic regimes of depressional wetlands in the Great Plains. These alterations can negatively affect native wetland plant communities. Our objective was to determine if restored wetlands are developing plant communities similar to reference wetland conditions following hydrologic restoration. For this study, hydrology was restored via sediment removal. Thirty-four playa wetlands in reference, restored, and agricultural condition within the Rainwater Basin Region of Nebraska were sampled in 2008 and 2009. In 2008, reference and restored wetlands had higher species richness and more native, annual, and perennial species than agricultural wetlands. Restored wetlands had similar exotic species richness compared to reference and agricultural wetlands; however, reference wetlands contained more than agricultural wetlands. Restored wetlands proportion of exotics was 3.5 and 2 times less than agricultural wetlands and reference wetlands respectively. In 2009, reference and restored wetlands had higher species richness, more perennial species, and more native species than agricultural wetlands. Restored wetlands contained a greater number and proportion of annuals than reference and agricultural wetlands. Canonical Correspondence Analysis showed that reference, restored, and agricultural wetlands are dominated by different plant species and guilds. Restored wetland plant communities do not appear to be acting as intermediates between reference and agricultural wetland conditions or on a trajectory to reach reference conditions. This may be attributed to differing seed bank communities between reference and restored wetlands, dispersal limitations of perennial plant guilds associated with reference wetland conditions, and/or management activities may be preventing restored wetlands from reaching reference status. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Utilizing NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Data to Determine Ideal Planting Locations for Wetland Tree Species in St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reahard, Ross; Arguelles, Maria; Strong, Emma; Ewing, Michael; Kelly, Chelsey

    2012-01-01

    St. Bernard Parish, in southeast Louisiana, is rapidly losing coastal forests and wetlands due to a combination of natural and anthropogenic disturbances (e.g. subsidence, saltwater intrusion, low sedimentation, nutrient deficiency, herbivory, canal dredging, levee construction, spread of invasive species, etc.). After Hurricane Katrina severely impacted the area in 2005, multiple Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) have worked not only on rebuilding destroyed dwellings, but on rebuilding the ecosystems that once protected the citizens of St. Bernard Parish. Volunteer groups, NGOs, and government entities often work separately and independently of each other and use different sets of information to choose the best planting sites for coastal forests. Using NASA EOS, NRCS soil surveys, and ancillary road and canal data in conjunction with ground truthing, the team created maps of optimal planting sites for several species of wetland trees to aid in unifying these organizations, who share a common goal, under one plan. The methodology for this project created a comprehensive Geographic Information System (GIS) to help identify suitable planting sites in St. Bernard Parish. This included supplementing existing elevation data using LIDAR data and classifying existing land cover in the study area from ASTER multispectral satellite data. Low altitude AVIRIS hyperspectral imagery was used to assess the health of vegetation over an area near the intersection of the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet Canal (MRGO) and Bayou la Loutre. Historic extent of coastal forests was mapped using aerial photos from USGS collected between 1952 and 1956. The final products demonstrated the utility of combining NASA EOS with other geospatial data in assessing, monitoring, and restoring of coastal ecosystems in Louisiana. This methodology also provides a useful template for other ecological forecasting and coastal restoration applications.

  8. Evaluating the effect of plant population densities and nitrogen application on the leaf area index of maize in a reclaimed wetland in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njuguna Catherine Waithira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Maize is the main staple food in Kenya with over 90% of Kenyans relying on it. While the annual national consumption is increasing, the production of this crop has been on the decline in the last two decades. Maize production in Kenya fell by 33.4% in 2013 with Nyeri among the counties said to be grappling with the production of this crop. Land pressure is one of the major causes of decreased availability of food as well as soil depletion and encroachment upon fragile ecosystems such as wetlands. Nitrogen is a key nutrient in the production of maize, and its deficiency is a major factor limiting its production. This study investigated the effect of N application at 120 kg N/ha and maize density on the Leaf Area Index in reclaimed wetland soils in an experimental set-up comprising a randomized complete block design with three replications. The research was carried out in Nyeri County, Kenya. Leaf Area Index (LAI was determined using the given SunScan formula. Measurements were done continuously until crop physiological maturity. Results indicated that the leaf area index increased with nitrogen application and reduced with spacing for most treatments. There were no significant differences between the two methods (Copy Method and SunScan. Leaf Area Index (LAI was high in treatments containing nitrogen and high plant density. It was concluded that high plant density gives high LAI. 50 cm * 12.5 cm (-N and 50 cm * 12.5 cm (+N are the recommended plant densities for the site.

  9. Restoring Wetlands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG HAIRONG

    2011-01-01

    Watching flocks of waterfowl taking off and landing in the large expanse of wetland near his home is a favorite pastime of Li Qiwen a middle-aged primary school teacher in Weichang Township,Luobei County in Heilongjiang Province.The wetland is home to hundreds of species of birds,including rare white storks and red-crowned cranes,as well as more common geese and ducks.

  10. What Makes a Wetland a Wetland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides descriptions of and activities about various kinds of wetlands. Contains seven learning activities ranging from creating wetland scenes with picture cutouts to actually exploring a wetland. Includes reproducible handouts and worksheets for several of the activities. (TW)

  11. USGS research on Florida's isolated freshwater wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Arturo E.; Haag, Kim H.; Lee, Terrie M.; Metz, Patricia A.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has studied wetland hydrology and its effects on wetland health and ecology in Florida since the 1990s. USGS wetland studies in Florida and other parts of the Nation provide resource managers with tools to assess current conditions and regional trends in wetland resources. Wetland hydrologists in the USGS Florida Water Science Center (FLWSC) have completed a number of interdisciplinary studies assessing the hydrology, ecology, and water quality of wetlands. These studies have expanded the understanding of wetland hydrology, ecology, and related processes including: (1) the effects of cyclical changes in rainfall and the influence of evapotranspiration; (2) surface-water flow, infiltration, groundwater movement, and groundwater and surfacewater interactions; (3) the effects of water quality and soil type; (4) the unique biogeochemical components of wetlands required to maintain ecosystem functions; (5) the effects of land use and other human activities; (6) the influences of algae, plants, and invertebrates on environmental processes; and (7) the effects of seasonal variations in animal communities that inhabit or visit Florida wetlands and how wetland function responds to changes in the plant community.

  12. CONVISO® SMART – a new solution to control monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous weeds in ALStolerant sugar beets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balgheim, Natalie

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available CONVISO SMART is a new system to control monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous weeds in ALS-inhibitor tolerant sugar beets. This system consists of an ALS-inhibiting herbicide and a sugar beet variety which is tolerant against the complementary herbicide due to classic breeding mechanisms. The herbicide CONVISO is a combination of the two active ingredients foramsulfuron and thiencarbazonemethyl. Whereas foramsulfuron is the leaf active compound, thiencarbazone-methyl is leaf as well as soil active. The product will be formulated as an oily dispersion (OD. The registration was requested with an application rate of 1 x 1 l/ha or 2 x 0.5 l/ha in ALS-inhibitor tolerant sugar beets. Application should be done from BBCH 10 – 14 of the weeds, especially of Chenopodium album as well as from BBCH 12 – 18 of the sugar beet. The estimated introduction of this system on the German market will be 2018. CONVISO is well active against the most important weeds in sugar beets, including Polygonum and Chenopodium species. Furthermore several difficult to control weeds as Aethusa cynapium and Mercurialis annua will be controlled by CONVISO. The addition of special herbicides to control those difficult weeds will no longer be necessary. The tolerance of the variety against CONVISO is very strong, which will be shown by the results of the weed free selectivity trials. Due to the high tolerance of the variety against CONVISO and the not occurring of negative herbicide effects, the full yield potential can be utilized.

  13. Virginia ESI: Wetlands (Wetland Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the coastal wetlands for Virginia, classified according to the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI)...

  14. 衡水湖湿地植被的种群生态位研究%Study on Niche Characteristics of Plant Populations in Hengshui Lake Wetland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志鹏; 李峰; 王晓超

    2014-01-01

    在衡水湖5个样地对1个乔木群落以及4个草本群落开展生态位宽度和生态位重叠指数研究.其结果表明:广生态位型的5个植物种火炬树(Rhus typhina)、柽柳(Tamarix chinensis)、芦苇(Phragmites communies)、茵陈蒿(Artemisia capillaries)和碱蓬(Suaeda glauca)其生态位宽度比较大,BL和 B(SW)i两个指数都是外来入侵种火炬树最大,当地土著种芦苇次之,这反映了以上物种的地位和作用;存在生态位重叠的物种对占75.6%,即各物种对资源的共享趋势比较明显;但衡水湖高度的异质化生境且最大生态位宽度种火炬树为外来入侵种,共同造成了当地宽生态位物种间生态位重叠值不高的特点.%This study focused on plant niche breadth index and niche overlap index in 5 sample sites (1 forest and 4 herbosa) of Hengshuihu wetlands. The result shows that the niche breadths of five widespread species (Rhus typhina, Tamarix chinensis, Phragmites communies, Artemisia capillaries, and Suaeda glauca) are larger. The values of BL and B(SW)i indicate that Rhus typhina is the biggest and Phragmites communies is the second. The results show that both Rhus typhina and Phragmites communies are very important in Hengshui Lake wetland. The niche overlap rate of species is 75.6%, indicating that the trend that different species share the same resource is obvious. But the habitats in Hengshui Lake wetland are highly heterogeneous, and Rhus typhina with the maximum niche breadth is an invasive plant. This has caused the low niche overlap value among wide niche species.

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions from coastal freshwater wetlands in Veracruz Mexico: Effect of plant community and seasonal dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Muñiz, José Luis; Hernández, María E.; Moreno-Casasola, Patricia

    2015-04-01

    Wetlands play an important role in modulating atmospheric concentrations of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs), such as methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Despite the fact that ∼30% of wetlands in the world occur in tropical latitudes, little is known about GHG emissions from these ecosystems and the variables that control such emissions. We investigated the CH4, N2O and CO2 emissions in tropical freshwater marshes (FM) and swamps (FS) on the coastal plain of Veracruz, Mexico. GHGs were measured every two months using the closed chamber technique from April 2010 to February 2012 (CH4 and N2O) and during the last year for CO2. The ranges of the emissions were 20-2000 mg C-CH4 m-2 d-1, -2-16 mg N-N2O m-2 d-1 and 0.5-18 g C-CO2 m-2d-1. There were not significant differences in the emissions between FM and FS (P = 0.314, 0.528 and 0.213 for CH4, N2O, and CO2, respectively). However, significant differences (P 364 mg m-2 d-1) than during dry season (<150 mg m-2 d-1). The opposite was observed for CO2 emissions, during dry season, wetland soils were more aerobic and CO2 fluxes increased (FM: 11 ± 2, FS: 12 ± 1 g m-2 d-1). N-N2O emissions (FM: 1.5 ± 0.96, FS: 2.4 ± 0.9 mg m-2 d-1) were similar during different climatic season (P = 0.056). Based on the global warming potential, CH4 was the main contributor to total GHGs emission during the rainy and windy seasons (75-93%), while CO2 was predominant during the dry season (79.6%) and N2O contributed with less than 7% in the three seasons. Water level and redox potential were found to be main factors influencing GHG emissions in these wetlands.

  16. Study on the Characteristics of Alien Invasive Plants of Wetland in Yunnan%云南湿地外来入侵植物特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨忠兴; 陶晶; 郑进烜

    2014-01-01

    通过对云南湿地外来入侵植物的实地调查,确定云南湿地外来入侵植物共有70种,隶属于24科54属;来源于5大洲,其中来源于美洲的植物种类最多,共47种,占67.1%;入侵途径以人为传入为主,占95.7%。按水分生态类型分,以中生植物为主;按生活型分,以草本为主;按繁殖方式分,以种子繁殖为主,但以无性繁殖为主的入侵物种扩散速度快,危害性大。外来入侵植物在云南省16个地州(市)129个县(区)的湿地均有分布,其中全省范围分布的有43种,占61.5%。%Based on the field survey of invasive plant of wetland in Yunnan province , it was found out that there were 70 alien invasive plants belonging to 54 genera, 24 families.They originated from 5 continents, and 47 spe-cies (67.1%) were from the American Continent .The invasive route were mainly introduced by human , account-ing for 95.7 %, and most of alien invasive plants were hygrophytes according to water ecotype , and were herbs according to life-form and were seed propagation according to reproduction type .The alien invasive plants by asexual reproduction expanded very fast which caused higher damages .The alien invasive plants were widely distributed in the wetland of 129 counties of 16 prefectures or municipalities in Yunnan , among of which 43 species ( 61.5 %) were distributed in the whole province .

  17. Aquatic Plant Resources in Cuihu Wetland Park and Their Protection and Management%翠湖湿地公园水生植物资源及其保护与管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓光

    2012-01-01

    翠湖湿地公园是北京市唯一一家国家级城市湿地公园.2009-2012年水生植物资源调查结果显示:翠湖湿地公园有水生植物52种,隶属于24科37属;其中挺水植物物种最多,其次是沉水植物和浮叶植物,漂浮植物种类最少.在这些水生植物中,不仅包括北方湿地的典型植物物种,而且还具有重点保护的珍贵稀有物种,如莲、芡实、茭白、花蔺、黑三棱等,以及急需得到保护的狸藻和水鳖.根据湿地植物类型应采取相应的管理和保护措施,保持翠湖湿地公园生态系统的健康.%Cuihu Wetland Park is the only national urban wetland park in Beijing. The survey on aquatic plant resources carried out during 2009-2012 showed that there were 52 aquatic plant species in the Wetland Park, belonging to 24 families and 37 genera. Among them emergent plants had the largest number of species, followed by submerged plants and floating leaf plants, and floating plants had the smallest number of species. These aquatic plants contain not only the typical species of northern wetlands, but also the rare and precious species with priority for protection, such as Nelumbo mwifera, Euryale ferox, Zizania latifolia, Butomus umbellatus, Spardanium Stoloniferum, and Utricularia vulgaris and Hydrocharis dubia that are in urgent needs for protection. Management and protection measures corresponding to different types of wetland plants should be taken according to the local conditions in order to maintain ecosystem health of Cuihu Wetland Park.

  18. Phytoremediation potential and ecological and phenological changes of native pioneer plants from weathered oil spill-impacted sites at tropical wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma-Cruz, Felipe de J; Pérez-Vargas, Josefina; Rivera Casado, Noemí Araceli; Gómez Guzmán, Octavio; Calva-Calva, Graciano

    2016-08-01

    Pioneer native plant species from weathered oil spill-affected sites were selected to study their potential for phytoremediation on the basis of their ecological and phenological changes during the phytoremediation process. Experiments were conducted in field and in greenhouse. In field, native plants from aged oil spill-impacted sites with up 400 g of weathered petroleum hydrocarbons per kilogram soil were selected. In the impacted sites, the principal dominant plant species with potential for hydrocarbons removal were Cyperus laxus, Cyperus esculentus, and Ludwigia peploides. In greenhouse, the phenology of the selected plant species was drastically affected by the hydrocarbons level above 325 g total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) per kilogram soil after 2 years of phytoremediation of soils from the aged oil spill-impacted sites. From the phytoremediation treatments, a mix-culture of C. laxus, C. esculentus, and L. peploides in soil containing 325 g TPH/kg soil, from which 20.3 % were polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and 34.2 % were asphaltenes (ASF), was able to remove up 93 % of the TPH, while in unvegetated soil the TPH removal was 12.6 %. Furthermore, evaluation of the biodiversity and life forms of plant species in the impacted sites showed that phytoremediation with C. esculentus, alone or in a mix-culture with C. laxus and L. peploides, reduces the TPH to such extent that the native plant community was progressively reestablished by replacing the cultivated species resulting in the ecological recovery of the affected soil. These results demonstrate that native Cyperus species from weathered oil spill-affected sites, specifically C. esculentus and C. laxus, alone or in a mix-culture, have particular potential for phytoremediation of soils from tropical wetlands contaminated with weathered oil hydrocarbons.

  19. Albuquerque's constructed wetland pilot project for wastewater polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Marcus; Shannon M. House; Nathan A. Bowles; Robert T. Sekiya; J. Steven Glass

    1999-01-01

    The City of Albuquerque has funded the Constructed Wetland Pilot Project (CWPP) since 1995 at the City's Southside Water Reclamation Plant (SWRP). Results from CWPP and other wetland treatment projects indicate that appropriately designed surface-flow wetlands could increase the cost-efficiencies of wastewater treatment, as well as help the City meet present and...

  20. Effects of Amendments on Growth and Uptake of Cd and Zn by Wetland Plants, Typha angustifolia and Colocasia esculenta from Contaminated Sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chayapan, P; Kruatrachue, M; Meetam, M; Pokethitiyook, P

    2015-01-01

    A pot study was conducted to compare the effects of amendments (CaHPO4 and cow manure) on growth and uptake of Cd and Zn from contaminated sediments by two wetland plant species, Typha angustifolia and Colocasia esculenta. Contaminated sediments (Cd 33.2 mg kg(-1) and Zn 363 mg kg(-1)) were collected from Mae Tao basin, Mae Sot district, Tak province, Thailand. The experiment consisted of 4 treatments: control (uncontaminated sediment), Cd/Zn, Cd/Zn + 5% CaHPO4, and Cd/Zn + 10% cow manure. Plants were grown for 3 months in the greenhouse. The addition of CaHPO4 resulted in the highest relative growth rate (RGR) and highest Cd accumulation in both T. angustifolia and C. esculenta while the lowest RGR was found in C. esculenta grown in the cow manure treatment. Both plant species had higher concentrations of metals (Cd, Zn) in their belowground parts. None of the amendments affected Zn accumulation. C. esculenta exhibited the highest uptake of both Cd and Zn. The results clearly demonstrated the phytoremediation potential of C. esculenta and the enhancement of this potential by CaHPO4 amendment.

  1. Nitrogen transformation intensity in wetland plant rhizosphere area at low temperature%低温域湿地植物根际氮转化强度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄娟; 李稹; 张健; 朱砺之; 崔明勋; 李卓宪

    2011-01-01

    在低温条件下(0 ~15℃),对菖蒲、芦苇、香蒲等10种湿地植物根际土壤的氮转化强度进行对比分析.结果表明,湿地植物根际氨化、反硝化作用强度随温度下降而逐渐降低,硝化作用强度在10℃左右出现大幅下降;低温域植物根际反硝化作用强度明显高于硝化作用强度;植物种类对根际土壤氨化、硝化作用强度影响较大,其中香蒲氨化作用强度最大(0.85 mg/( kg·h))、慈姑硝化作用强度最大(0.21 mg/(kg·h));植物种类对反硝化作用强度及pH值无明显影响.通过综合评价,低温域香蒲、千屈菜、芦苇根际氮转化强度较强,可作为提高湿地冬季脱氮率的优选耐寒植物.%Nitrogen transformation intensity in rhizosphere soil of ten different wetland plants, such as acorus calamus, phragmites australis and typha orientalis, at low temperatures(0 to 15 ℃) are compared in this paper. The results indicated that: intensity of ammonification and denitrification decrease with decreasing temperature; nitrification intensity decrease sharply while the temperature is under 10 ℃; denitrification intensity is obviously higher than nitrification intensity in plants rhizosphere; the difference of plant species has great impact on ammonification and nitrification intensity; typha orientalis has the strongest ammonification which is 0. 85 mg/(kg ·h) , while sagittaria sagittifolia has the strongest nitrification which is 0. 21 mg/( kg · H) ; plant species has no obvious effect on denitrification and pH in rhizosphere soil. After the comprehensive assessment, typha orientalis, lythrum salicaria and phragmites australis are selected out for nitrogen removal in wetlands at low temperature because of their stronger nitrogen transformation strength in rhizosphere soil.

  2. Ecohydraulics and Estuarine Wetland Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, J. F.; Howe, A.; Saintilan, N.; Spencer, J.

    2004-12-01

    The hydraulics or water flow in wetlands is known to be a key factor influencing ecosystem development in estuarine wetland environments. The relationship is indirect, with the hydraulics of wetlands influencing a host of factors including soil salinity, waterlogging, sediment transport, sediment chemistry, vegetation dispersal and growth and nutrient availability and cycling. The relationship is also not one way, with the hydraulics of wetlands being influenced by plant and animal activity. Understanding these complex interactions is fundamental for the adequate management of estuarine wetlands. Listed as a Wetland of International Importance under the 1971 Ramsar Convention, the Hunter River estuary is regarded as the most significant site for migratory shorebirds in New South Wales, Australia. Over the past 20 years, the number of migratory shorebirds in the estuary has sharply declined from 8,000 to 4,000 approx. Alteration of bird habitat is believed to be one of the reasons for this alarming trend. In 2004 we started a three-year program to investigate the links between hydraulics, sediment, benthic invertebrates, vegetation and migratory shorebird habitat in the estuary. During the first year we have focused on a highly disturbed part of the Hunter estuary wetlands located on Ash Island. The area is one of the major roosting sites in the estuary and is characterized by a complex hydraulic regime due to a restricted tidal interchange with the Hunter River and the presence of infrastructure for the maintenance of power lines (i.e., roads, bridges, culverts). Salt marshes, mudflat and mangroves are the dominant vegetation types. The monitoring program includes measurements of water levels, salinity, discharge, velocity, turbulence, sediment transport and deposition, plant species and density, soil composition and benthic invertebrates coordinated with observations of bird habitat utilization on a number of locations throughout the wetland and for different flow

  3. Influence of Different Plant Species on Methane Emissions from Soil in a Restored Swiss Wetland: e89588

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gurbir S Bhullar; Peter J Edwards; Harry Olde Venterink

    2014-01-01

    .... Centaurea jacea, Iris sibirica, and Carex davalliana caused intermediate rates. However, we found no effect of either plant biomass or plant functional groups - based on life form or productivity of the habitat...

  4. Wetland restoration, flood pulsing, and disturbance dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Beth A.

    1999-01-01

    While it is generally accepted that flood pulsing and disturbance dynamics are critical to wetland viability, there is as yet no consensus among those responsible for wetland restoration about how best to plan for those phenomena or even whether it is really necessary to do so at all. In this groundbreaking book, Dr. Beth Middleton draws upon the latest research from around the world to build a strong case for making flood pulsing and disturbance dynamics integral to the wetland restoration planning process.While the initial chapters of the book are devoted to laying the conceptual foundations, most of the coverage is concerned with demonstrating the practical implications for wetland restoration and management of the latest ecological theory and research. It includes a fascinating case history section in which Dr. Middleton explores the restoration models used in five major North American, European, Australian, African, and Asian wetland projects, and analyzes their relative success from the perspective of flood pulsing and disturbance dynamics planning.Wetland Restoration also features a wealth of practical information useful to all those involved in wetland restoration and management, including: * A compendium of water level tolerances, seed germination, seedling recruitment, adult survival rates, and other key traits of wetland plant species * A bibliography of 1,200 articles and monographs covering all aspects of wetland restoration * A comprehensive directory of wetland restoration ftp sites worldwide * An extensive glossary of essential terms

  5. Evaluation of Wetland Hydrology in Formerly Irrigated Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    ER D C/ EL T R- 17 -1 3 Wetlands Regulatory Assistance Program Evaluation of Wetland Hydrology in Formerly Irrigated Areas En vi ro nm...EL TR-17-13 July 2017 Evaluation of Wetland Hydrology in Formerly Irrigated Areas Jacob F. Berkowitz, Jason P. Pietroski, and Steven J. Currie...of hydrology , and the distribution of plant communities. As a result, the identification of wetlands in irrigated areas remains challenging. The

  6. 中国湿地维管植物外来种现状分析%Analysis on the present status of wetland alien vascular plants in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪绅裕; 曾庆昌; 陶文琴; 杨礼香; 陈健辉; 王厚麟

    2014-01-01

    There are 1 942 species of generalized wetland vascular plants belonging to 177 families and 703 ge-nus in China .Among them, 185 species belonging to 54 families and 112 genus and about 9.53% are alien. Among the alien wetland species , there are 8 species classified as invasive alien species in China , all from A-merica.Spartina alterniflora, Eichhornia crassipes, and Alternanthera philoxeroides are typical wetland plants , the other 5 species listed as Mikania micrantha, Wedelia trilobata, Sorghum halepense, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, and A.trifida have higher adaptive ability to wetland habitats .Most of the alien species about 56.22%are from America.Asteraceae has 17 genus and 21 species, Echinodorus has 14 species for the largest family and genus , respectively .There are only 10 species of tree types .Hydrophytes have 115 species for about 65.71% in herbs.To ensure the ecological safety , ecological effect risk assessments should be taken before introducing the cultivated species .%中国有广义的湿地维管植物177科703属1942种,其中185种(54科112属)为外来种,占9.53%.外来湿地植物中,有8种为中国外来入侵种,全部产自美洲,其中3种为典型的湿地植物,即互花米草( Spartina al-terniflora)、水葫芦( Eichhornia crassipes)和空心莲子草( Alternanthera philoxeroides),另5种菊科植物薇甘菊( Mi-kania micrantha)、三裂叶蟛蜞菊( Wedelia trilobata)、假高粱( Sorghum halepense)、豚草( Ambrosia artemisiifolia)和三裂叶豚草( A.trifida)的生态适应性强,可在湿地生长.源自美洲的104种,占56.22%为最多.菊科17属21种为最多,以刺果泽泻属( Echinodorus)的14种为最多.木本植物仅10种;草本植物中,以水生植物115种占65.71%为最多.为保障生态安全,对人为引种的外来湿地植物,应加强生态影响风险性评价.

  7. Phytolith production in wetland plants of the Hangzhou Xixi Wetlands ecosystem%杭州西溪湿地植物植硅体产生及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李自民; 宋照亮; 李蓓蕾; 蔡彦彬

    2013-01-01

    Phytoliths,also referred to as plant opal,are silicified features that form as a result of biomineralization within plants and plays an important role in terrestrial biogeochemical cycles of carbon and silicon.This study selected 18 different plant species at the Xixi Wetlands in Zhejiang Province,to determine the phytolith content and its production flux using microwave,Walkley-Black digestion,and a correlation analysis.The main purpose of this study is to provide scientific reference for understanding the role of phytoliths in biogeochemical cycles of silicon and carbon.Results showed strong variation in phytolith content among the 18 plants:Cortaderia selloana(7.7%),Setaria viridis (7.6%),Digitaria ternata(6.9%),and Phragmites australis (6.6%)were higher than Salvinia natans (1.3%),Halerpestes cymbalaria(1.1%),and Canna indica L.(1.0%).A positive correlation between phytolith content and total SiO2 in the 18 plants(R2=0.663 3,P<0.01)was also found.Phytolith production flux was 4.48-129.92 g ·m-2·a-1; phytolith sequestration of atmospheric CO2 was 0.16-1.03 g·m-2·a-1; and the phytolith sequestration rate of atmospheric CO2 was 8.29 t·a-1.So,it is very important to improve the flux of aboveground plant phytolith production in wetlands ecosystems by selecting a plant with high-phytolith (silicon)content and high-ANPP (aboveground net primary production)yields for the plant Phragmites australis.%在浙江杭州西溪湿地选取18种植物,运用微波消解和Walkley-Black消解相结合的方法,研究了温地生态系统中不同植物植硅体质量分数及其产生通量变化特征,为沼泽湿地生态系统植硅体碳汇调控提供科学依据.研究结果表明:①18种植物植硅体质量分数有较大的差异(P<0.05),其中蒲苇Cortaderia selloana(7.69%),狗尾草Setaria viridis (7.56%),三数马唐Digitaria ternata(6.88%)和芦苇Phragmites australis (6.60%)等植硅体质量分数较高,槐叶萍Salvinia natans(1

  8. 人工湿地植物床-沟壕系统水质净化效果%Water Treatment Efficiency of Constructed Wetland Plant-Bed/Ditch Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪仲琼; 张荣斌; 陈庆华; 魏宏斌; 王为东

    2012-01-01

    Shijiuyang constructed wetland(SJY-CW) in Jiaxing City adopted plant-bed/ditch systems originated from the natural landscape as its major functioning unit.The constructed root channel technology(CRCT) is the core technique applied within the plant-bed/ditch systems.Monitoring results demonstrated that the wetland had the capability of improving water quality indexes by one rank grade according to the national environmental quality standards for surface water(GB 3838-2002).In order to optimize the water quality improvement function of plant-bed/ditch systems and CRCT,a pilot project in SJY-CW was constructed from May to October,2010.The project contained 16 independent experimental cells.Orthogonal test design was applied to probe into the effects of constructed root channel layers,plant species combination,and reinforced physical substrates on promoting the water quality amelioration efficiency of the plant-bed/ditch systems.Comprehensively considering water treatment effects,construction difficulty,and construction and maintenance cost,the recommended optimal ways are as follows.Plant straws were preferably paved under subsurface zones by two layers with a gap of 20-30 cm.The preferable plant combination was reed(Phragmites australis) plus wild rice(Zizania caduciflora).Calcite might be applied as alternative reinforced media in some suitable sites of plant-bed/ditch systems.Water treatment effects were compared between pilot project and the whole wetland area of SJY-CW.The results showed that the reinforced pilot project exhibited higher treatment efficiency for nutrients than SJY-CW itself.The removal rates of total nitrogen,total phosphorus,and ammonia nitrogen were increased by about 20%-40% in the pilot project.This suggested that SJY-CW could release its vast water treatment potential by means of increasing water flux through the subsurface root channel zones of plant beds.Therefore,some adjustment and control measures could be proposed to maintain the

  9. Root-Induced Changes of pH, Eh, Fe(Ⅱ) and Fractions of Pb and Zn in Rhizosphere Soils of Four Wetland Plants with Different Radial Oxygen Losses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jun-Xing; LIU Yong; YE Zhi-Hong

    2012-01-01

    A rhizobox experiment was conducted to compare iron (Fe) oxidation and changes of pH,redox potential (Eh) and fractions of zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils of four emergent-rooted wetland plants (Echinodorus macrophyllus,Eleocharis geniculata,Hydrocotyle vulgaris and Veronica serpyllifolia) with different radial oxygen loss (ROL) from roots.The results indicated that all these wetland plants decreased pH and concentration of Fe(Ⅱ) but increased the Eh in the rhizosphere soils.Pb and Zn were transformed from unstable fractions to more stable fractions in the rhizosphere soils,so decreasing their potential metal mobility factors (MF).Among the four plants,E.macrophyllus,with the highest ROL and root biomass,possessed the greatest ability in formation of Fe plaque and in the reduction of heavy metal MFs in the rhizosphere soil.Wetland plants,with higher ROLs and root biomass,may thus be effective in decreasing potential long-term heavy metal bioavailabilities.

  10. Coastal Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Area Cooperative Educational Services, New Haven, CT. Environmental Education Center.

    This material includes student guide sheets, reference materials, and tape script for the audio-tutorial unit on Inland Wetlands. A set of 35mm slides and an audio tape are used with the materials. The material is designed for use with Connecticut schools, but it can be adapted to other localities. The unit materials emphasize the structure,…

  11. Urban wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Salm, N.; Bellmann, C.; Hoeijmakers, S.

    2014-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0533 Innovation & Sustainability. This is a manual meant for designers who are interested in water purifications within the boundaries of a project, presenting constructed wetlands. It is a guide to quickly provide you with project relevant

  12. [Estimating total nitrogen content in reclaimed water based on hyperspectral reflectance information from emergent plants: a case study of Mencheng Lake Wetland Park in Beijing, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Gong, Zhao-ning; Zhao, Wen-ji

    2014-12-01

    Hyperspectral reflectance information is a crucial method to detect total nitrogen content in plant leaves, meanwhile, vegetation nitrogen content has a strong relationship with nitrogen in water. Taking Mencheng Lake Wetland Park supplied with reclaimed water as study area, the vegetation hyperspectral data (Phragmites australis and Typha angustifolia), and the content of total nitrogen in water were detected to investigate the feasibility of estimating total nitrogen content in reclaimed water based on hyperspectral reflectance information from emergent plants. We established simple linear regression model, stepwise multiple linear regression model and partial least square regression model based on four hyperspectral indices (spectral indices, normalized difference indices, trilateral parameters, absorption feature parameters), respectively. The accuracy of these models was coefficient of determination (R2) and root mean square error (RMSE). The results showed that stepwise multiple linear regression model and partial least square regression model predicted more accurately than simple linear regression model, and the accuracy of prediction models based on P. australis reflectance spectra was higher than those on T. angustifolia. Partial least square regression model was the most useful explorative tool for unraveling the relationship between spectral reflectance of P. australis and total nitrogen content in water with R2 of 0.854 and RMSE of 0.647. 500-700 nm was the best band range for detecting water total nitrogen content. The reflectance ratio of green peak and red valley could be effectively predicted by the absorption feature parameters.

  13. THEORY AND METHOD FOR WETLAND BOUNDARY DELINEATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the subjectivity of wetland boundary criteria and their causes at present, this paper suggested that, under the condition that the mechanism of wetland formation process has not been understood,"black box" method of System Theory can be used to delineate wetland boundaries scientifically. After analyzing the difference of system construction among aquatic habitats, wetlands and uplands, the lower limit of rooted plants was chosen as the lower boundary criterion of wetlands. Because soil diagnostic horizon is the result of the long-term interaction among all environments, and it is less responsive than vegetation to short-term change, soil diagnostic horizon was chosen as the indicator to delineate wetland upper boundary, which lies at the thinning-out point of soil diagnostic horizon. Case study indicated that it was feasible using the lower limit of rooted plants and the thinning-out point of soil diagnostic horizon as criteria to delineate the lower and upper boundaries of wetland. In the study area, the thinning-out line of albic horizon was coincident with the 55.74m contour line, the maximum horizonerror was less than lm, and the maximum vertical error less than 0.04m. The problem on wetland definition always arises on the boundaries. Having delineated wetland boundaries, wetlands can be defined as follows: wetlands are the transitional zones between uplands and deepwater habitats, they are a kind of azonal complex that are inundated or saturated by surface or ground water, with the lower boundary lying at the lower limit of rooted plants, and the upper boundary at the thinning-out line of upland soil diagnostic horizon.

  14. Defining Hydrophytes for Wetland Identification and Delineation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Engineers); Norman Melvin and Michelle Schuman (U.S. Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service); Mary Butterwick and Bill...Corps of Engineers Wetlands Delineation Manual (Environmental Laboratory 1987) “Large plants (macrophytes), such as aquatic mosses , liverworts

  15. Oxygenation of the Root Zone and TCE Remediation: A Plant Model of Rhizosphere Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    photosynthetic, and eukaryotic organisms. There are four main plant groups: bryophytes, seedless vascular plants, gymnosperms, and angiosperms . The 28... angiosperms , or flowering plants, are the dominant group of plants on land, and are divided into two classes: the monocotyledons (monocots), and

  16. Flora characteristics of Chenier Wetland in Bohai Bay and biogeographic relations with adjacent wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanyun; Lu, Zhaohua; Liu, Jingtao; Hu, Shugang

    2017-01-01

    A key step towards the restoration of heavily disturbed fragile coastal wetland ecosystems is determining the composition and characteristics of the plant communities involved. This study determined and characterized the community of higher plants in the Chenier wetland of Bohai Bay using a combination of field surveys, quadrat approaches, and multivariate statistical analyses. This community was then compared to other adjacent wetlands (Tianjin, Qinhuangdao, Laizhouwan, Jiaozhouwan, and Yellow River Delta wetland) located near the Huanghai and Bohai Seas using principal coordinate analysis (PCoA). Results showed a total of 56 higher plant species belonging to 52 genera from 20 families in Chenier wetland, the majority of which were dicotyledons. Single-species families were predominant, while larger families, including Gramineae, Compositae, Leguminosae, and Chenopodiaceae contained a higher number of species (each⩾6 species). Cosmopolitan species were also dominant with apparent intrazonality. Abundance (number of species) of temperate species was twice that of tropical taxa. Species number of perennial herbs, such as Gramineae and Compositae, was generally higher. Plant diversity in the Chenier wetland, based on the Shannon-Wiener index, was observed to be between the Qinhuangdao and Laizhouwan indices, while no significant difference was found in other wetlands using the Simpson index. Despite these slight differences in diversity, PCoA based on species abundance and composition of the wetland flora suggest that the Bohai Chenier community was highly similar to the coastal wetlands in Tianjin and Laizhouwan, further suggesting that these two wetlands could be important breeding grounds and resources for the restoration of the plant ecosystem in the Chenier wetland.

  17. National Wetlands Inventory Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Wetland point features (typically wetlands that are too small to be as area features at the data scale) mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The...

  18. National Wetlands Inventory Polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Wetland area features mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The National Wetlands Inventory is a national program sponsored by the US Fish and...

  19. Comparative analysis of element concentrations and translocation in three wetland congener plants: Typha domingensis, Typha latifolia and Typha angustifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, Giuseppe; Cirelli, Giuseppe Luigi

    2017-09-01

    This study analyzed the concentrations and distributions of Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in three different cattail species growing spontaneously in a natural wetland subject to municipal wastewater and metal contamination. The cattail species included Typha domingensis, T. latifolia and T. angustifolia. Results showed that all Typha species have similar element concentrations in roots, rhizomes and leaves, and similar element mobility from sediments to roots and from roots to leaves. This study corroborated three patterns of Typha species growing in metal contaminated environments: high tolerance to toxic conditions, bulk element concentrations in roots, and restricted element translocation from roots to leaves. This study showed that three different Typha species respond similarly to metal inputs under the same polluting field conditions. Given their similar metal content and similar biomass size, our results suggest that T. domingensis, T. latifolia and T. angustifolia may have comparable capacity of phytoremediation. High element uptake and large biomass make Typha species some of the best species for phytoremediation of metal contaminated environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Estimating temporal trend in the presence of spatial complexity: A Bayesian hierarchical model for a wetland plant population undergoing restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodhouse, T.J.; Irvine, K.M.; Vierling, K.T.; Vierling, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring programs that evaluate restoration and inform adaptive management are important for addressing environmental degradation. These efforts may be well served by spatially explicit hierarchical approaches to modeling because of unavoidable spatial structure inherited from past land use patterns and other factors. We developed Bayesian hierarchical models to estimate trends from annual density counts observed in a spatially structured wetland forb (Camassia quamash [camas]) population following the cessation of grazing and mowing on the study area, and in a separate reference population of camas. The restoration site was bisected by roads and drainage ditches, resulting in distinct subpopulations ("zones") with different land use histories. We modeled this spatial structure by fitting zone-specific intercepts and slopes. We allowed spatial covariance parameters in the model to vary by zone, as in stratified kriging, accommodating anisotropy and improving computation and biological interpretation. Trend estimates provided evidence of a positive effect of passive restoration, and the strength of evidence was influenced by the amount of spatial structure in the model. Allowing trends to vary among zones and accounting for topographic heterogeneity increased precision of trend estimates. Accounting for spatial autocorrelation shifted parameter coefficients in ways that varied among zones depending on strength of statistical shrinkage, autocorrelation and topographic heterogeneity-a phenomenon not widely described. Spatially explicit estimates of trend from hierarchical models will generally be more useful to land managers than pooled regional estimates and provide more realistic assessments of uncertainty. The ability to grapple with historical contingency is an appealing benefit of this approach.

  1. Kansas Playa Wetlands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This digital dataset provides information about the distribution, areal extent, and morphometry of playa wetlands throughout western Kansas. Playa wetlands were...

  2. 中国鸭绿江口滨海湿地植物多样性分析%Plant Diversity in Yalu River Estuary Wetland in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘利; 张梅

    2012-01-01

    Plant diversity in the wetland around the Yalu River estuary was studied by route,sample plot survey and cluster analysis.It was found that there were abundant and various plant species in this area.The majority were angiosperms and dicotyledonous plants,appearing as remarkable dominant family.The single-species and few-species genera of angiosperm were rich,showing some relict phenomenon.The distribution types were various and complex with a long history,but short of endemic genera and species.The obvious dominance of temperate elements and plentiful tropical elements show that the flora in this area had close genetic relationship with tropical flora,indicating characteristics of plant crossing.It is proposed that the plant diversity in this area should be protected so as to make a good habitat environment for migratory bird and region ecological security.%通过线路、样地调查法及聚类分析等研究方法,对鸭绿江口湿地的植物多样性进行分析。得出以下结论:该地区植物种类丰富多样,以被子植物、双子叶植物为主,优势科现象明显,单种属和少种属占据比率较高,表现出一定残遗性;区系分布类型多样,来源较广泛,具有一定古老性,但特有属、种匮乏;区系温带属性明显,热带成分也比较丰富,说明本区与热带植物区系亲缘关系较高,显示出过渡性,建议应加强植物多样性的保护与管理,减少干扰与破坏,为保护候鸟迁徙地和区域生态安全提供良好环境。

  3. Treatment of a sulfate-rich groundwater contaminated with perchloroethene in a hydroponic plant root mat filter and a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland at pilot-scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongbing; Kuschk, Peter; Paschke, Heidrun; Kästner, Matthias; Müller, Jochen A; Köser, Heinz

    2014-12-01

    A hydroponic plant root mat filter (HPRMF) was compared over 7months with a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland (HSSF CW) regarding the removal of perchloroethene (PCE) (about 2 mg L(-1)) from a sulfate- (850 mg L(-1)) and ammonia-rich (50 mg L(-1)) groundwater with a low TOC content. At a mean area specific inflow PCE load of 56 mg m(-2)d(-1), after 4m from inlet, the mean PCE removal during summer time reached 97% in the HPRMF and almost 100% in the HSSF CW. Within the first 2m in the HSSF CW metabolites like dichloroethenes, vinyl chloride and ethene accumulated, their concentrations decreased further along the flow path. Moreover, the tidal operation (a 7-d cycle) in the HSSFCW decreased the accumulation of PCE metabolites within the first 1m of the bed. The carcinogenic degradation metabolite vinyl chloride was not detected in the HPRMF. The smaller accumulation of the degradation metabolites in the HPRMF correlated with its higher redox potential. It can be concluded from this study that HPRMF appears an interesting alternative for special water treatment tasks and that tidal operation will show some positive effects on the removal of the accumulated PCE metabolites in HSSF CW. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Application of divided convective-dispersive transport model to simulate conservative transport processes in planted horizontal sub-surface flow constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, Ernő; Klincsik, Mihály

    2015-11-01

    We have created a divided convective-dispersive transport (D-CDT) model that can be used to provide an accurate simulation of conservative transport processes in planted horizontal sub-surface flow constructed wetlands filled with coarse gravel (HSFCW-C). This model makes a fitted response curve from the sum of two independent CDT curves, which show the contributions of the main and side streams. The analytical solutions of both CDT curves are inverse Gaussian distribution functions. We used Fréchet distribution to provide a fast optimization mathematical procedure. As a result of our detailed analysis, we concluded that the most important role in the fast upward part of the tracer response curve is played by the main stream, with high porous velocity and dispersion. This gives the first inverse Gaussian distribution function. The side stream shows slower transport processes in the micro-porous system, and this shows the impact of back-mixing and dead zones, too. The significance of this new model is that it can simulate transport processes in this kind of systems more accurately than the conventionally used convective-dispersive transport (CDT) model. The calculated velocity and dispersion coefficients with the D-CDT model gave differences of 24-54% (of velocity) and 22-308% (of dispersion coeff.) from the conventional CDT model, and were closer to actual hydraulic behaviour.

  5. Analysis of conservative tracer measurement results using the Frechet distribution at planted horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands filled with coarse gravel and showing the effect of clogging processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, Ernő; Klincsik, Mihály

    2015-11-01

    A mathematical process, developed in Maple environment, has been successful in decreasing the error of measurement results and in the precise calculation of the moments of corrected tracer functions. It was proved that with this process, the measured tracer results of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands filled with coarse gravel (HSFCW-C) can be fitted more accurately than with the conventionally used distribution functions (Gaussian, Lognormal, Fick (Inverse Gaussian) and Gamma). This statement is true only for the planted HSFCW-Cs. The analysis of unplanted HSFCW-Cs needs more research. The result of the analysis shows that the conventional solutions (completely stirred series tank reactor (CSTR) model and convection-dispersion transport (CDT) model) cannot describe these types of transport processes with sufficient accuracy. These outcomes can help in developing better process descriptions of very difficult transport processes in HSFCW-Cs. Furthermore, a new mathematical process can be developed for the calculation of real hydraulic residence time (HRT) and dispersion coefficient values. The presented method can be generalized to other kinds of hydraulic environments.

  6. 10种湿地水生经济植物综合评价%Comprehensive Evaluation on Ten Kinds of Aquatic Economic Plants in Wetlands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊汉锋; 彭有轩; 孙海元; 史玉虎; 吴翠

    2009-01-01

    选取了6个评价因子,采用实地调查分析和层次分析方法对长江流域的10种湿地水生经济植物进行了经济功能和生态功能的综合评价.结果表明:综合效益最好的是莲藕,其次为茭白、藜蒿、水芹、芡实、荸荠、菱角、芦苇、水稻,综合效益最差的是芋头;实际测定值与单因子权重排序一致.%Six evaluation factors were chosen. The economic and ecological functions of ten aquatic economic plants in wetlands of Yangtze River Basin were evaluated comprehensively by adopting the methods of field survey and Analytical Hierarchy Process. The results showed that Nelumbo nucifeya Gaertn had the best comprehensive benefit, followed by Zizania latifolia, Artemisia selengensis Turcz, Oenanthe javanica, Euryale ferox Salisb, Eleocharis dulcis, Trapa bicornis, Phragmites australis, Oryza sativa and Colocasia esculenta . The rank of actual measured value was in accordance with weight of single factor.

  7. Responses to flooding of plant water relations and leaf gas exchange in tropical tolerant trees of a black-water wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, A

    2013-01-01

    This review summarizes the research on physiological responses to flooding of trees in the seasonal black-water wetland of the Mapire River in Venezuela. Inter-annual variability was found during 8 years of sampling, in spite of which a general picture emerged of increased stomatal conductance (gs) and photosynthetic rate (PN) during the flooded period to values as high as or higher than in plants in drained wet soil. Models explaining the initial inhibitory responses and the acclimation to flooding are proposed. In the inhibitory phase of flooding, hypoxia generated by flooding causes a decrease in root water absorption and stomatal closure. An increase with flooding in xylem water potential (ψ) suggests that flooding does not cause water deficit. The PN decreases due to changes in relative stomatal and non-stomatal limitations to photosynthesis; an increase in the latter is due to reduced chlorophyll and total soluble protein content. Total non-structural carbohydrates (TNC) accumulate in leaves but their content begins to decrease during the acclimatized phase at full flooding, coinciding with the resumption of high gs and PN. The reversal of the diminution in gs is associated, in some but not all species, to the growth of adventitious roots. The occurrence of morpho-anatomical and biochemical adaptations which improve oxygen supply would cause the acclimation, including increased water absorption by the roots, increased rubisco and chlorophyll contents and ultimately increased PN. Therefore, trees would perform as if flooding did not signify a stress to their physiology.

  8. Responses to flooding of plant water relations and leaf gas exchange in tropical tolerant trees of a black-water wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana eHerrera

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the research on physiological responses to flooding of trees in the seasonal black-water wetland of the Mapire River in Venezuela. Inter-annual variability was found during eight years of sampling, in spite of which a general picture emerged of increased stomatal conductance (gs and photosynthetic rate (PN during the flooded period to values as high as or higher than in plants in drained wet soil. Models explaining the initial inhibitory responses and the acclimation to flooding are proposed. In the inhibitory phase of flooding, hypoxia generated by flooding causes a decrease in root water absorption and stomatal closure. An increase with flooding in xylem water potential ( suggests that flooding does not cause water deficit. The PN decreases due to changes in relative stomatal and non-stomatal limitations to photosynthesis; an increase in the latter is due to reduced chlorophyll and total soluble protein content. Total non-structural carbohydrates accumulate in leaves but their content begins to decrease during the acclimatized phase at full flooding, coinciding with the resumption of high gs and PN. The reversal of the diminution in gs is associated, in some but not all species, to the growth of adventitious roots. The occurrence of morpho-anatomical and biochemical adaptations which improve oxygen supply would cause the acclimation, including increased water absorption by the roots, increased rubisco and chlorophyll contents and ultimately increased PN. Therefore, trees would perform as if flooding did not signify a stress to their physiology.

  9. 人工湿地植物生物质资源能源化利用潜力评估%Assessment of Constructed Wetland Plant Biomass for Energy Utilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何明雄; 胡启春; 罗安靖; 茆灿泉; 祝其丽; 潘科; 李清

    2011-01-01

    通过测定不同人工湿地植物的纤维素组分和热值,并采用NaOH -酶解工艺研究不同人工湿地植物水解液组分,对在人工湿地技术体系中起重要作用的湿地植物能源化利用潜力进行系统评估.结果显示,15种人工湿地植物的纤维素含量在19.78%~36.9%之间,半纤维素含量在4.51%~19.67%之间,木质素含量在10.79%~20.47%之间,具有与玉米秸秆相当的热值,其热值在14.002~17.839 MJ/kg之间.在NaOH -酶解工艺条件下,不同人工湿地植物水解液中存在5种糖类组分,主要为葡萄糖和木糖.研究表明,人工湿地植物是一种较好的生物质资源,可通过生物质固体成型燃料技术、沼气技术和燃料乙醇技术加以利用,进而建立人工湿地植物牛物质资源能源化藕联利用模式.%Different constructed wetland plants were systematically assessed for energy utilization by measuring their cellulosic contents, caloricvalues and hydrolyzate of NaOH-cellulase pretreatment. The results showed that the cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin contents of the fifteen different constructed wetland plants were 19.78% to 36.9%, 4.51% to 19.67% and 10.79% to 20.47%, respectively. All wetland plants used in this study showed the same thermal value (ranged from 14.002 to 17.839 MJ/kg) as corn stover. Among the five types of sugar existed in the hydrolyzate, glucose and xylose were the main components. The results indicated that the constructed wetland plant could be used as one of suitable raw material resources for biomass briquette fuel, biogas and bioethanol production, and the coupled mode of constructed wetland plant biomass and bioenergy also could be constructed in the future. Fig 2, Tab 2, Ref 22

  10. Analyzing the ecosystem carbon and hydrologic characteristics of forested wetland using a biogeochemical process model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianbo Cui; Changsheng Li; Carl Trettin

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive biogeochemical model, Wetland-DNDC, was applied to analyze the carbon and hydrologic characteristics of forested wetland ecosystem at Minnesota (MN) and Florida (FL) sites. The model simulates the flows of carbon, energy, and water in forested wetlands. Modeled carbon dynamics depends on physiological plant factors, the size of plant pools,...

  11. Pretreatment methods for aquatic plant biomass as carbon sources for potential use in treating eutrophic water in subsurface-flow constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiang-Feng; Liu, Xin; Shang, Jia-Jia; Feng, Yi; Liu, Jia; Lu, Li-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Plant biomass is usually added to constructed wetlands (CW) to enhance denitrification. In this study, we investigated effects of different pretreatments on two common external plant carbon sources, cattail and reed litter. We determined the average ratio of chemical oxygen demand (COD) to total nitrogen (TN), designated as C/N, in water samples after addition of litter subjected to various pretreatments. The C/N in the water samples ranged from 4.8 to 6.4 after addition of NaOH-pretreated cattail litter, which was four to six times greater than that of water from the Yapu River and 3.84-39.15% higher than that of systems that received untreated cattail litter. The C/N of systems that received H(2)SO(4)-pretreated carbon sources varied from 1.7 to 3.6. These two methods resulted in TN and total phosphorus (TP) levels lower than those in river water. The C/N was 1.4-1.7 after addition of CH(3)COOH-pretreated reed litter, which was 34.87-53.83% higher than that of river water. The C/N was 2.5 in systems that received mild alkali/oxidation-pretreated reeds, which was 30.59% higher than that of systems that received non-pretreated reeds. The residue rates of cattail and reed litter subjected to various pretreatments were greater than 60%. Our results showed that NaOH, H(2)SO(4), and mild alkali/oxidation pretreatments were useful to rapidly improve the C/N of river water and enhance denitrification.

  12. The dynamics of low-chlorinated benzenes in a pilot-scale constructed wetland and a hydroponic plant root mat treating sulfate-rich groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongbing; Kuschk, Peter; Paschke, Heidrun; Kästner, Matthias; Köser, Heinz

    2015-03-01

    A rarely used hydroponic plant root mat filter (PRMF, of 6 m(2)) and a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland (HSSF CW, of 6 m(2)), operating in continuous flow and discontinuous outflow flushing modes, were investigated for treating sulfate-rich and organic carbon-lean groundwater contaminated with monochlorobenzene (MCB); 1,2-dichlorobenzene (1,2-DCB); 1,4-dichlorobenzene (1,4-DCB); and 2-chlorotoluene. Whereas the mean inflow loads ranged from 1 to 247 mg m(-2) days(-1), the range of mean inflow concentrations of the chlorobenzenes recorded over a period of 7 months was within 0.04 and 8 mg L(-1). A hydraulic surface loading rate of 30 L m(-2) days(-1) was obtained in both systems. The mean load removal efficiencies were found to vary between 87 and 93 % in the PRMF after a flow path of 4 m, while the removal efficiencies were found to range between 46 and 70 % and 71 to 73 % in the HSSF CW operating in a continuous flow mode and a discontinuous outflow flushing mode, respectively. Seasonal variations in the removal efficiencies were observed for all low-chlorinated hydrocarbons both in the PRMF and the HSSF CW, whereby the highest removal efficiencies were reached during the summer months. Sulfide formation occurred in the organic carbon-lean groundwater particularly in summer, which is probably due to the plant-derived organic carbon that fostered the microbial dissimilatory sulfate reduction. Higher redox potential in water was observed in the PRMF. In conclusion, the PRMF could be an option for the treatment of water contaminated with compounds which in particular need oxic conditions for their microbial degradation, such as in the case of low-chlorinated benzenes.

  13. Determination of the health of Lunyangwa wetland using Wetland Classification and Risk Assessment Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanda, Elijah M. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Msilimba, Golden

    2016-04-01

    Wetlands are major sources of various ecological goods and services including storage and distribution of water in space and time which help in ensuring the availability of surface and groundwater throughout the year. However, there still remains a poor understanding of the range of values of water quality parameters that occur in wetlands either in its impacted state or under natural conditions. It was thus imperative to determine the health of Lunyangwa wetland in Mzuzu City in Malawi in order to classify and determine its state. This study used the Escom's Wetland Classification and Risk Assessment Index Field Guide to determine the overall characteristics of Lunyangwa wetland and to calculate its combined Wetland Index Score. Data on site information, field measurements (i.e. EC, pH, temperature and DO) and physical characteristics of Lunyangwa wetland were collected from March, 2013 to February, 2014. Results indicate that Lunyangwa wetland is a largely open water zone which is dominated by free-floating plants on the water surface, beneath surface and emergent in substrate. Furthermore, the wetland can be classified as of a C ecological category (score = 60-80%), which has been moderately modified with moderate risks of the losses and changes occurring in the natural habitat and biota in the wetland. It was observed that the moderate modification and risk were largely because of industrial, agricultural, urban/social catchment stressors on the wetland. This study recommends an integrated and sustainable management approach coupled with continuous monitoring and evaluation of the health of the wetland for all stakeholders in Mzuzu City. This would help to maintain the health of Lunyangwa wetland which is currently at risk of being further modified due to the identified catchment stressors.

  14. ERTS-1 investigation of wetlands ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. R. (Principal Investigator); Carter, V.; Mcginness, J.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Data from aircraft can be used for large scale mapping where detailed information is necessary, whereas Landsat-1 data are useful for rapid mapping of gross wetland boundaries and vegetative composition and assessment of seasonal change plant community composition such as high and low growth forms of Spartina alterniflora, Juncus roemarianus, and Spartina cynosuroides. Spoil disposal and wetland ditching activities may also be defined. Wetland interpretation is affected by tidal stage; drainage patterns are more easily detected at periods of low water. Species discrimination is easier at periods of high water during the growing season; upper wetland boundaries in fresh water tidal marshes are more easily delineated during the winter months when marsh vegetation is largely dead or dormant. Fresh water discharges from coastal streams may be inferred from the species composition of contiguous wetlands.

  15. Progress in Research of Chinese Wetland Parks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yichuan; LI Dongsheng; WANG Shanshan

    2008-01-01

    There has been a rapid development in the construction of wetland parks in China in recent years. This paper discussed the progress in the research of Chinese wetland parks that covered the aspects of wetland resources, landscape and enviroment. The function of wetland parks, the evaluation of landscape and the exploiting of resources; the landscape concept and landscape planning and design; the plant environment, the water environment and the recreation environment were all reviewed. The research of Chinese wetland parks started later but developed rapidly, having remarkable achievements in practice and functional studies, and there are still some shortcomings in the researches to be improved. At last, the key points which should be researched urgently in the future were discussed.

  16. Diversities of Vascular Plant Species in Zhangye National Wetland Park%张掖国家湿地公园维管植物多样性初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩多红; 任玉成; 王恩军; 李丽; 张青升; 孙良海

    2013-01-01

      利用野外调查法,对张掖国家湿地公园的维管植物多样性进行了研究。结果表明:张掖国家湿地公园共有维管植物251种,其中蕨类植物3种,裸子植物7种,被子植物241种,隶属于72科165属。湿地具有种类丰富、多样性高等特征。%The diversity of vascular plant species in Zhangye National Wetland Park is described by field survey method. The results show that there are 251 vascular plant species in Zhangye National Wetland Park. Among them, there are 3 ferns, 7 gymnosperms and 241 angiosperms, belonging to 165 genera, 72 families. The Wetland has the characteristics of rich species and great diversity.

  17. Plant Landscape Design of Fish-like Mouth Wetland Park in Nanjing%南京河西鱼嘴湿地公园植物景观规划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹航南; 周忠胜; 张文豹; 吴俊宏; 金雅琴

    2015-01-01

    以南京河西鱼嘴湿地公园为例,介绍公园景观规划的原则和功能定位,阐明植物景观构成要素的营建方法。分别从公园的重点区域植物景观营造、植物物种配置等方面分析该公园湿地植被恢复的设计思想,并对公园景观改造中地形地貌的设计、水系设计进行了探讨。%Taken Fish-like Mouth Wetland Park in Nanjing river-west for example,this paper introduced the function position of landscape planning on the park,and illustrated the construction method of plant landscape ele-ments.Besides,plants landscape planning,species disposition in two aspects proposed new design strategy of ur-ban wetland park.Meanwhile,topography design and water system design in the process of landscape renovation were discussed.The article provided the theory and technique reference for wetland restoration and ecological re-building along the Yangtze River.

  18. 若干双子叶与单子叶植物细胞壁果胶结构单糖组成特征研究%Comparison of pectin structural monosaccharides in cell wall of dicotyledon and monocotyledon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程小乔; 李科; 陈雪梅; 蒋湘宁; 盖颖

    2012-01-01

    To study the angiosperm pectin monosaccharide components and content in primary cell wall as well as its relation with plants’ systematics between dicotyledon and monocotyledon,gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry ( GC / MS) was performed to detect the pectin monosaccharide components and content in 22 angiosperms and the data were analyzed by principal component analysis ( PCA ) ,Student’s test and Shannon-Weiner index analysis. Seven monosaccharides were found in angiosperm pectin including xylose,rhamnose,fucose,arabinose,galactose,glucose and mannose. The pectin was particularly rich in rhamnose,arabinose and galactose,but with little fucose and mannose. Five pectin monosaccharides were screened from 22 plants by PCA,and they were xylose,arabinose,rhamnose,galactose,and glucose respectively. Two-dimensional chart and Student’s test showed that the significantly different content of xylose or galactose in pectin could provide a reference for distinguishing class dicotyledon from class monocotyledon ( P 〈 0. 01 ) . The Shannon-Wiener index showed the more diversities of monosaccharide in dicotyledon than monocotyledon ( P 〈 0. 01) . Taken together,the different content of pectin monosaccharide could provide a reference for the angiosperms’ systematics between dicotyledon and monocotyledon.%为了系统研究被子植物初生壁果胶结构单糖的组成成分及其与被子植物两纲分类的关系,结合单糖单一环式的衍生化方法,采用GC/MS测定22种被子植物初生壁果胶中单糖组分及含量,并对测得的结果进行主成分、t检验和香农一威纳指数分析。结果表明:被子植物细胞壁果胶由木糖、鼠李糖、岩藻糖、阿拉伯糖、半乳糖、葡萄糖、甘露糖7种单糖组成,其中鼠李糖、阿拉伯糖和半乳糖含量较高;岩藻糖和甘露糖含量极少。主成分分析筛选出决定22种被子植物间糖含量差异的5种果胶单糖分别为:木糖、阿拉伯糖

  19. The complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of Butomus umbellatus--a member of an early branching lineage of monocotyledons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca, Argelia; Petersen, Gitte; Seberg, Ole

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the evolution of mitochondrial genomes in the early branching lineages of the monocotyledons, i.e., the Acorales and Alismatales, we are sequencing complete genomes from a suite of key taxa. As a starting point the present paper describes the mitochondrial genome of Butomus umbellatus (Butomaceae) based on next-generation sequencing data. The genome was assembled into a circular molecule, 450,826 bp in length. Coding sequences cover only 8.2% of the genome and include 28 protein coding genes, four rRNA genes, and 12 tRNA genes. Some of the tRNA genes and a 16S rRNA gene are transferred from the plastid genome. However, the total amount of recognized plastid sequences in the mitochondrial genome is only 1.5% and the amount of DNA transferred from the nucleus is also low. RNA editing is abundant and a total of 557 edited sites are predicted in the protein coding genes. Compared to the 40 angiosperm mitochondrial genomes sequenced to date, the GC content of the Butomus genome is uniquely high (49.1%). The overall similarity between the mitochondrial genomes of Butomus and Spirodela (Araceae), the closest relative yet sequenced, is low (less than 20%), and the two genomes differ in size by a factor 2. Gene order is also largely unconserved. However, based on its phylogenetic position within the core alismatids Butomus will serve as a good reference point for subsequent studies in the early branching lineages of the monocotyledons.

  20. Iron Mineralogy and Uranium-Binding Environment in the Rhizosphere of a Wetland Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetlands mitigate the migration of groundwater contaminants through a series of biogeochemical gradients that enhance multiple contaminant-binding processes. The hypothesis of this study was that wetland plant roots contribute organic carbon and release O2 within the ...

  1. Structural and functional loss in restored wetland ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Mateos, David; Power, Mary E; Comín, Francisco A; Yockteng, Roxana

    2012-01-01

    Wetlands are among the most productive and economically valuable ecosystems in the world. However, because of human activities, over half of the wetland ecosystems existing in North America, Europe, Australia, and China in the early 20th century have been lost. Ecological restoration to recover critical ecosystem services has been widely attempted, but the degree of actual recovery of ecosystem functioning and structure from these efforts remains uncertain. Our results from a meta-analysis of 621 wetland sites from throughout the world show that even a century after restoration efforts, biological structure (driven mostly by plant assemblages), and biogeochemical functioning (driven primarily by the storage of carbon in wetland soils), remained on average 26% and 23% lower, respectively, than in reference sites. Either recovery has been very slow, or postdisturbance systems have moved towards alternative states that differ from reference conditions. We also found significant effects of environmental settings on the rate and degree of recovery. Large wetland areas (>100 ha) and wetlands restored in warm (temperate and tropical) climates recovered more rapidly than smaller wetlands and wetlands restored in cold climates. Also, wetlands experiencing more (riverine and tidal) hydrologic exchange recovered more rapidly than depressional wetlands. Restoration performance is limited: current restoration practice fails to recover original levels of wetland ecosystem functions, even after many decades. If restoration as currently practiced is used to justify further degradation, global loss of wetland ecosystem function and structure will spread.

  2. Characteristics of water and wetland plants of the water reservoirs in the UMCS Botanical Garden in Lublin, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Dąbrowska

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compile an inventory and determine the ecological characteristics of the spontaneous flora of the restored water reservoirs and their wet banks in the western part of Lublin in the years 1997–2013. The study objects are small reservoirs located at the UMCS Botanical Garden in the Czechówka River valley. These ponds are subjected to strong anthropogenic pressure. 68 plant species from 33 families and 58 genera were recorded in the flora of the ponds and their wet banks. An important feature of the described water bodies is the large proportion of native species (94% of the flora. Cryptophytes and hemicryptophytes as well as biological groups combining the features of hemicryptophytes and cryptophytes are the predominant life forms. Perennials account for 80% of the flora. The ponds and their wet banks are inhabited by 25 medicinal and 19 bee forage plants.

  3. Resource Management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation. Volume 28, Wetlands on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, M. [Science Applications International Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pounds, Larry [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1991-12-01

    A survey of wetlands on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) was conducted in 1990. Wetlands occurring on ORR were identified using National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) maps and field surveys. More than 120 sites were visited and 90 wetlands were identified. Wetland types on ORR included emergent communities in shallow embayments on reservoirs, emergent and aquatic communities in ponds, forested wetland on low ground along major creeks, and wet meadows and marshes associated with streams and seeps. Vascular plant species occurring on sites visited were inventoried, and 57 species were added to the checklist of vascular plants on ORR. Three species listed as rare in Tennessee were discovered on ORR during the wetlands survey. The survey provided an intensive ground truth of the wetlands identified by NWI and offered an indication of wetlands that the NWI remote sensing techniques did not detect.

  4. Pipeline corridors through wetlands -- Impacts on plant communities: Little Timber Creek Crossing, Gloucester County, New Jersey. Topical report, August 1991--January 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shem, L.M.; Zimmerman, R.E.; Alsum, S.K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Center for Environmental Restoration Systems; Van Dyke, G.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Center for Environmental Restoration Systems]|[Trinity Christian Coll., Palos Heights, IL (United States). Dept. of Biology

    1994-12-01

    The goal of the Gas Research Institute Wetland Corridors Program is to document impacts of existing pipelines on the wetlands they traverse. To accomplish this goal, 12 existing wetland crossings were surveyed. These sites varied in elapsed time since pipeline construction, wetland type, pipeline installation techniques, and right-of-way (ROW) management practices. This report presents results of a survey conducted over the period of August 5--7, 1991, at the Little Timber Creek crossing in Gloucester County, New Jersey, where three pipelines, constructed in 1950, 1960, and 1990, cross the creek and associated wetlands. The old side of the ROW, created by the installation of the 1960 pipeline, was designed to contain a raised peat bed over the 1950 pipeline and an open-water ditch over the 1960 pipeline. The new portion of the ROW, created by installation of the 1990 pipeline, has an open-water ditch over the pipeline (resulting from settling of the backfill) and a raised peat bed (resulting from rebound of compacted peat). Both the old and new ROWs contain dense stands of herbs; the vegetation on the old ROW was more similar to that in the adjacent natural area than was vegetation in the new ROW. The ROW increased species and habitat diversity in the wetlands. It may contribute to the spread of purple loosestrife and affect species sensitive to habitat fragmentation.

  5. Ohio Uses Wetlands Program Development Grants to Protect Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wetland water quality standards require the use of ORAM score to determine wetland quality. OEPA has also used these tools to evaluate wetland mitigation projects, develop performance standards for wetland mitigation banks and In Lieu Fee programs an.

  6. Growth response and tissue accumulation trends of herbaceous wetland plant species exposed to elevated aqueous mercury levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Jonathan M; Gambrell, Robert P; Hester, Mark W

    2010-08-01

    The impacts of elevated aqueous mercury levels (0, 2, and 4 ppm) on the growth status and mercury tissue concentrations of Eleocharis parvula, Saururus cernuus, Juncus effuses, Typha latifolia, and Panicum hemitomon were determined. Both short-term (net CO2 assimilation) and long-term (biomass) indicators of plant growth status suggest that Eleocharis parvula, Saururus cernuus, and Juncus effuses were relatively unimpacted by elevated mercury levels, whereas Typha latifolia and Panicum hemitomon were somewhat impacted at elevated mercury levels. Eleocharis parvula, Panicum hemitomon, and Typha latifolia generally had the greatest overall belowground tissue concentrations of mercury (2 ppm treatment: 7.21, 7.32, and 9.64 ppm respectively; 4 ppm treatment: 16.23, 18.23, and 13.98 ppm, respectively) and aboveground tissue concentrations of mercury (2 ppm treatment: 0.01, 0.04, 0.02; 4 ppm treatment: 0.26; 0.11; 0.17 ppm, respectively). However, the species investigated in this study demonstrated lower levels of mercury accumulation into tissues when compared with similar investigations of other aquatic plants, suggesting that the above species are not optimal for phytoremediation efforts.

  7. 鄱阳湖南矶湿地植物群落分布特征研究%Research on the Characteristics of Plant Communities in the Poyang Nanji Wetlands, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张全军; 于秀波; 胡斌华

    2013-01-01

    湿地植物群落是湿地生态系统的重要组分,是湿地生态系统的主要初级生产者,维持和承载着湿地生态系统各种各样的物理过程和生物功能,其结构、功能和生态特征能综合反映湿地生态环境的基本特点和功能特性.湖泊湿地水位波动及其带来的环境梯度变化对湿地植物群落的影响是生态学中的重要问题之一.本研究通过2010年10月到2012年2月在鄱阳湖南矶湿地设置57个固定样方开展植物群落的高度、植物种类、数量,优势种高度及植物的物候学特征逐月观测,研究了鄱阳湖南矶湿地植物群落生长发育过程以及植物群落时空变化特征,并且对这些特征的可能形成原因以及其和鄱阳湖水位波动的关系等进行了探讨.结果认为,受鄱阳湖水位周期性波动和湿地植物自身特性等因素的影响,鄱阳湖南矶湿地植物群落生长、发育、繁殖等过程都与鄱阳湖水位波动密切相关;植物群落空间上沿距湖岸的远近、高程和水位梯度呈现出明显的环带状分布或弧状分布格局;时间上表现出明显的季相变化特征.%Wetland plants are an important component of wetland ecosystems. Ecological characteristics of wetland plant communities can comprehensively reflect the basic structure, functioning, and health status of an ecosystem. Most of previous research in the Poyang Nanji Wetlands has only qualitatively described responses of wetland plants to fluctuations in lake water levels. Quantitative studies in that ecosystem are still rare. In this paper, we report on quantitative studies that were conducted in the wetlands from October 2010 to February 2012. We conducted monthly surveys of spatial variations in, and distributions of plant community characteristics, and correlated such characteristics with fluctuations in lake water levels. Fifty-seven fixed quadrats at 3 Sub-lakes in the Poyang Wetlands were used. The surveys included

  8. Tree and tree-like species of Mexico: gymnosperms, monocotyledons, and tree ferns

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Ricker; Héctor M. Hernández

    2010-01-01

    Trees or tree-like plants are defined here broadly as perennial, self-supporting plants with an adult height of at least 5 m (without ascending leaves or inflorescences), and with 1 or several erect stems with a diameter of at least 10 cm. We present an updated list of all Mexican tree species under that definition in the Gymnospermae (86 species, 38% endemic to Mexico), Monocotyledonae (75 species, 55% endemic), and Pteridophyta (9 species, none endemic). The list contains a total of 170 spe...

  9. Aquatic herbivores facilitate the emission of methane from wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingemans, Bas J J; Bakker, Elisabeth S; Bodelier, Paul L E

    2011-05-01

    Wetlands are significant sources of atmospheric methane. Methane produced by microbes enters roots and escapes to the atmosphere through the shoots of emergent wetland plants. Herbivorous birds graze on helophytes, but their effect on methane emission remains unknown. We hypothesized that grazing on shoots of wetland plants can modulate methane emission from wetlands. Diffusive methane emission was monitored inside and outside bird exclosures, using static flux chambers placed over whole vegetation and over single shoots. Both methods showed significantly higher methane release from grazed vegetation. Surface-based diffusive methane emission from grazed plots was up to five times higher compared to exclosures. The absence of an effect on methane-cycling microbial processes indicated that this modulating effect acts on the gas transport by the plants. Modulation of methane emission by animal-plant-microbe interactions deserves further attention considering the increasing bird populations and changes in wetland vegetation as a consequence of changing land use and climate change.

  10. 江苏盐城滩涂湿地植物区系及植物资源研究%Research on flora and plant resources on beach wetland of Yancheng Jiangsu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱莹; 孔磊; 张霄; 王庆亚

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of the economy, man-made destruction and environmental problems are increasingly prominent, these have brought tremendous challenge to protect the biodiversity.The coastal beach wetland of Yancheng is one of the areas rich in biological diversity of our country.This paper mainly researched on the beach wetland, including the variety, quantity, height, densi-ty, coverage and crown diameter in different quadrats.The plant list of Yancheng beach wetland with relevant material was made.The results showed that there are 688 species in 391 genera and 114 families of vascular plants in beach wetland of Yancheng Jiangsu.The plants of Gramineae, Compositae, Cyperaceae and Leguminosae are dominant families in this area.The main plant life forms of the flo-ra are these four types of tree, herbaceous, shrub and liana..The geographical components of the flora on beach wetland are diverse, dominating by the world distribution, pan tropic distribution and north temperate distribution.In levels of family and genera distribution types, the transition from pan tropic zone to temperate zone is distinct.The plant resources on beach wetland are abundant.Plants like Tamarix chinensis, Suaeda glauca, Suaeda salsa, Spartina anglica, Limonium sinense, Apocynum venetum and Artemisia capillaries are of great value to be developed.%通过野外实地调查,运用了样方结合样线法、特殊地区重点调查法及GPS定位等方法,对该地区的植物区系和植物资源进行分析研究以达到对植物多样性保护和植物资源合理利用的目的。结果表明江苏盐城滩涂湿地共有维管植物114科391属688种,其中被子植物104科377属668种,占据绝对优势,其中禾本科、菊科、莎草科、豆科等为该区的优势科。该区植物的生活型主要有乔木、草本、灌木、藤本4种类型,其中草本植物以81.10%,占绝对的优势。植物区系地理成分主要以世界分布、泛热带分布

  11. Experiences with Constructed Wetland Systems in Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kim Youngchul; Hwang Gilson; Lee Jin-Woo; Park Je-Chul; Kim Dong-Sup; Kang Min-Gi; Chang In-Soung

    2006-01-01

    In spite of the low temperature during the winter season and the high land environment, the wetland treatment system is gaining popularity in Korea because of its lower construction cost and simplicity in operation and maintenance.Many different types of wetland treatment systems have been built during the last 10 years, among which the free water surface wetland has been predominant. Most of the large-scale systems are government projects for improving the water quality of the streams flowing into the estuary dikes and reservoirs. The covering plants used in this system are different in different areas but cattails and reeds or their combinations are common. Constructed wetlands in Korea can be characterized by their shallow depths and short hydraulic residence times. There is no established flow pattern and configuration rules for constructing wetlands, but many efforts have been made with a view to improving their ecological function. Flow control is the most difficult problem in designing a riverbed or riparian wetland. There have been scores of flow rate control devices developed for wetlands, but none of them guarantee wetlands' safety against flooding. In earlier wetland construction, the building materials were mainly soil. Recently, strong and durable building materials such as rocks, gravel beds, concrete and steel are used at vulnerable places to protect them from erosion. Our investigation indicated that the wetland system would be an appropriate technology because it is not only cheaper to construct, but also requires less maintenance work. However, we suffer from the reduced effectiveness in performance during the winter. We need to evaluate the partial treatment accomplished during 6 to 7 months per year.

  12. Study on Invasive Plants in Dongting Lake Wetlands%洞庭湖湿地的外来入侵植物研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯志勇; 谢永宏; 陈心胜; 李旭; 李峰; 潘瑛; 邓正苗

    2011-01-01

    Based on the field survey during 2007-2011, the species composition, distribution, origin, life forms, invasive habitats, introduction paths, and damage extent of invasive plants in Dongting Lake wetlands were investigated. A total of 43 invasive species, belonging to 34 genera and 19 families, were recorded. Composite and Amaranthaceae are the most common family, consisting of 7 and 6 species respectively. Harmful species included Populus deltoids, Populus euramevicana, A Iternanthera philoxeroides. Daucus carota, Centella asiatica, Eichhornia crassipes, Phytolacca A mericana, Phytolacca Americana, Pistia stratiotes. Among the invasive species, 86% were herbs, 62.8% were distributed in flood control bank or roadside and 55.8% were originated from America. These invasive plants were introduced by intentional (48.8% ) or unconscious (37.2%) human activities.%2007-2011年间通过对洞庭湖湿地大面积实地踏察,对外来植物的种类、分布、来源、生活型、入侵生境、引入途径以及危害程度进行了统计分析.研究表明,该湿地有外来入侵植物19科34属43种,以菊科和苋科植物最常见,分别有7种和6种.危害较大的有美洲杨树(Populus deltoides)、意大利杨(Populus euramevicana)、空心莲子草(Alternanthera philoxeroides)、野胡萝卜(Daucus carota)、积雪草(Centella asiatica)、凤眼莲(Eichhomia crassipes)、垂序商陆(Phytolacca A mericana)、五叶地锦(Phytolacca Americana)和大藻(Pistia stratiotes)等.外来入侵植物以草本植物为主,占总数的86%.入侵种主要分布于防洪大堤及路边,占总数的62.8%.外来入侵种主要来源于美洲,占55.8%.入侵途径主要是通过人类有意(48.8%)或无意引入(37.2%).

  13. Opportunities, Challenges and Prospects of Utilization of Plant Biomass for Energy in Constructed Wetland%人工湿地植物能源化利用的机遇、挑战与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冬; 欧阳琰; 林乃峰; 葛滢; 常杰; 邹长新

    2013-01-01

    综合概述了利用人工湿地植物进行能源化再生产的方式、优势、存在问题和发展趋势。人工湿地植物具有生长不需额外施肥、较高的生物量、物种多样化等优势,是一种较好的生物质资源,可通过生物质固体成型燃料技术、沼气技术和燃料乙醇技术加以利用,进而建立人工湿地植物生物质能源化利用模式,实现应对能源挑战、进行污水处理和强化环境保护三者的有机统一。%A review was conducted on models of production, strengths, existing problems and development trend in using wetland plants for energy production. The plants grown in constructed wetland are advantageous due to no need for extra fertilization, high biomass production, and high species diversity, they can be used as one of the suitable raw material resources for biomass briquette fuel, biogas and bioethanol production. Models of using plant biomass for bioenergy production will be developed to achieve the harmonization among energy need, wastewater treatment and environmental protection.

  14. 水生植物在人工湿地处理农村生活污水中的应用研究%The Application of Aquatic Plants in Constructed Wetland System for Treatment of Rural Domestic Sewage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴亮; 孙莉英

    2014-01-01

    选择芦苇(Dried reeds)、美人蕉(Canna)、香蒲(Bulrush)三种常见水生植物作为人工湿地植物,研究了它们对农村生活污水中主要污染物的去除能力。试验结果表明:三种水生植物均生长良好;当污水停留时间(HRT )为7 d时,对污水中COD、T P、T N、N H3-N与浊度的去除率,芦苇分别为65.3%、84.5%、55.3%、77.2%和83.5%,美人蕉分别为81.3%、77.3%、83.2%、90.3%和83.7%,香蒲分别为74.3%、68.3%、74.9%、88.9%和89.2%,出水水质基本达到城镇污水处理厂污染物排放标准(GB18918-2002)的要求。%Three kinds of common aquatic plants ,Dried reeds ,Canna and Bulrush as the constructed wetland plants ,have been cho-sen .Their purification ability of the main pollutants in rural domestic sewage has been studied .The results show that three kinds of plants all grow well .When the water retention time (HRT) is seven days ,the removal rates of COD ,TP ,TN ,NH3-Nand turbidi-ty in Dried reeds wetland are 65 .3% ,84 .5% ,55 .3% ,77 .2% and 83 .5% ,respectively .In Canna wetland ,the removal rates of COD ,TP ,TN ,NH3-N and turbidity are 81 .3% ,77 .3% ,83 .2% ,90 .3% and 83 .7% ,respectively .And those in Bulrush wet-land are 74 .3% ,68 .3% ,74 .9% ,88 .9% and 89 .2% ,respectively .The indicators of the final effluent basically reach the require-ments of the discharge standard of pollutants for municipal wastewater treatment plants (GB 18918-2002) .

  15. Carbon sequestration in two created riverine wetlands in the midwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Blanca; Mitsch, William J

    2013-07-01

    Wetlands have the ability to accumulate significant amounts of carbon (C) and thus could provide an effective approach to mitigate greenhouse gas accumulation in the atmosphere. Wetland hydrology, age, and management can affect primary productivity, decomposition, and ultimately C sequestration in riverine wetlands, but these aspects of wetland biogeochemistry have not been adequately investigated, especially in created wetlands. In this study we investigate the ability of created freshwater wetlands to sequester C by determining the sediment accretion and soil C accumulation of two 15-yr-old created wetlands in central Ohio-one planted and one naturally colonized. We measured the amount of sediment and soil C accumulated over the parent material and found that these created wetlands accumulated an average of 242 g C m yr, 70% more than a similar natural wetland in the region and 26% more than the rate estimated for these same wetlands 5 yr before this study. The C sequestration of the naturally colonized wetland was 22% higher than that of the planted wetland (267 ± 17 vs. 219 ± 15 g C m yr, respectively). Soil C accrual accounted for 66% of the aboveground net primary productivity on average. Open water communities had the highest C accumulation rates in both wetlands. This study shows that created wetlands can be natural, cost-effective tools to sequester C to mitigate the effect of greenhouse gas emissions.

  16. Percent Wetland Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  17. Percent Wetland Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  18. VSWI Wetlands Advisory Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset represents the DEC Wetlands Program's Advisory layer. This layer makes the most up-to-date, non-jurisdictional, wetlands mapping avaiable to the public...

  19. Artesian Wetlands Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Artesian Wetlands Survey includes data on the wetlands in the San Luis Valley in Colorado. Data recorded includes location, area of influence, area inundated,...

  20. Wetland Program Pilot Grants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Wetland Grant Database (WGD) houses grant data for Wetland Program Development Grants (created by EPA in 1990 under the Clean Water Act Section 104(b)(3)...

  1. Improving wetland mapping techniques

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Mapping wetland extent, structure and invasives using radar imagery. Acquiring optical, thermal, LIDAR, and RADAR images and analysis for improved wetland mapping,...

  2. Modoc wetlands study plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Study plan for Modoc Wetlands Study: An assessment of the probable responses of selected wildlife to wetlands management on the Modoc National Forest.

  3. Nevada Test Site Wetlands Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. J. Hansen

    1997-05-01

    This report identifies 16 Nevada Test Site (NTS) natural water sources that may be classified by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) as jurisdictional wetlands and identifies eight water sources that may be classified as waters of the United States. These water sources are rare, localized habitats on the NTS that are important to regional wildlife and to isolated populations of water tolerant plants and aquatic organisms. No field investigations on the NTS have been conducted in the past to identify those natural water sources which would be protected as rare habitats and which may fall under regulatory authority of the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1997. This report identifies and summarizes previous studies of NTS natural water sources, and identifies the current DOE management practices related to the protection of NTS wetlands. This report also presents management goals specific for NTS wetlands that incorporate the intent of existing wetlands legislation, the principles of ecosystem management, and the interests of regional land managers and other stakeholders.

  4. IRON REDUCTASE SYSTEMS ON THE PLANT PLASMA-MEMBRANE - A REVIEW

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MOOG, PR; BRUGGEMANN, W

    1994-01-01

    Higher plant roots, leaf mesophyll tissue, protoplasts as well as green algae are able to reduce extra-cellular ferricyanide and ferric chelates. In roots of dicotyledonous and nongraminaceous, monocotyledonous plants, the rate of ferric reduction is increased by iron deficiency. This reduction is

  5. IRON REDUCTASE SYSTEMS ON THE PLANT PLASMA-MEMBRANE - A REVIEW

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MOOG, PR; BRUGGEMANN, W

    1994-01-01

    Higher plant roots, leaf mesophyll tissue, protoplasts as well as green algae are able to reduce extra-cellular ferricyanide and ferric chelates. In roots of dicotyledonous and nongraminaceous, monocotyledonous plants, the rate of ferric reduction is increased by iron deficiency. This reduction is a

  6. Wetlands and infectious diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Robert H. Zimmerman

    2001-01-01

    There is a historical association between wetlands and infectious disease that has led to the modification of wetlands to prevent disease. At the same time there has been the development of water resources projects that increase the risk of disease. The demand for more water development projects and the increased pressure to make natural wetlands economically beneficial creates the need for an ecological approach to wetland management and health assessment. The environmental and health intera...

  7. Redeeming the Weeping Wetland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Renowned as the"Kidneys of the Earth,"wetlands are one of the three major ecosystems of the planet,along with forests and seas.With 10 percent of the world’s wetlands,China ranks number one in terms of the area of wetlands in Asia,and fourth in the world.China’s wetlands are abundant in type(containing all-natural and man-made types listed in the Convention

  8. 洞庭湖湿地8种优势植物对镉的富集特征%Cadmium enrichment characteristics of eight dominant plant species in Dongting Lake wetland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董萌; 赵运林; 库文珍; 庹瑞锐; 戴枚斌; 易合成

    2011-01-01

    针对洞庭湖湿地土壤Cd污染严重的现状,对湖区滨岸带8种优势植物的Cd富集特征及其修复效果进行了分析.结果表明,蒌蒿(Artemisia selengensis)对Cd表现出显著的富集特征,对Cd污染的修复效果好,是洞庭湖土壤Cd污染的理想修复材料;南艾蒿(Artemisia verlotorum)对Cd污染具有较好的修复效果,可作为湿地土壤Cd污染修复的备选材料;芦苇(Phragmites australis)和南荻(Miscanthus lutarioriparius)植株的根部对Cd的积累量较高,具有良好的稳定修复效果,且由于二者地上部生物量大、能被连续刈割的特点,对洞庭湖湿地Cd污染治理起到一定的促进作用.%Aiming at the present serious situation of soil Cd pollution in Dongting Lake wetland, this paper analyzed the Cd enrichment characteristics and remediation effects of eight dominant plant species growing in Dongting Lake area. Among the eight dominant plants, Artemisia selen-gensis presented a notable capacity to absorb Cd from lake soil, and had good effect in the remediation of Cd pollution, being an ideal plant for the bioremediation of Cd-poiluted soil in Dongting Lake wetland. A. Verlotorum had acceptable effect in the remediation of Cd pollution, being able to be selected as a potential candidate for the bioremediation of wetland soil Cd pollution. Phrag-mites australis and Miscanthus lutarioriparius had higher Cd accumulation in their roots, being a-vailable for the Cd enrichment, and their higher aboveground biomass, which could be harvested every year, could also play a positive role in controlling the Cd pollution in Dongting Lake wetland.

  9. Does prescribed fire benefit wetland vegetation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, C.; Bounds, D.L.; Ruby, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of fire on wetland vegetation in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States are poorly known, despite the historical use of fire by federal, state, and private landowners in the Chesapeake Bay Region. Prescribed fire is widely used by land managers to promote vegetation that is beneficial to migratory waterfowl, muskrats, and other native wildlife and to reduce competition from less desirable plant species. We compared vegetative response to two fire rotations, annual burns and 3-year burns, and two control sites, Control 1 and Control 2. We tested the effects of fire within six tidal marsh wetlands at Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge and Fishing Bay Wildlife Management Area in Maryland. We examined changes in total live biomass (all species), total stem density, litter, and changes in live biomass and stem density of four dominant wetland plant species (11 variables). Our results suggest that annual prescribed fires will decrease the accumulation of litter, increase the biomass and stem densities of some wetland plants generally considered less desirable for wildlife, and have little or no effect on other wetland plants previously thought to benefit from fire. ?? 2011 US Government.

  10. Mechanism of quizalofop-ethyl selectivity in monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruizzo, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) susceptibility to quizalofop-ethyl herbicide was investigated under field and greenhouse conditions. Yield of cucumber cultivars was significantly reduced under field conditions with a single or repeat application of the ethyl ester of quizalofop at 0.14 or 0.28 kg ai/ha. Under greenhouse conditions, quialofop-ethyl significantly suppressed cucumber plant fresh weight with or without the presence of an adjuvant. Enhancement of herbicide activity was directly related to concentration of adjuvant. Microliter droplet application of quizalofop-ethyl at a 10/sup -3/ M concentration, inhibited the relative growth (RGR) and net assimilation rate (NAR) of the treated cucumber leaf 45% and 52%, respectively. Expression of herbicidal injury was localized on the treated leaf with no visible symptoms observed on adjacent leaves. Radiolabeled /sup 14/C-quizalofop-ethyl was applied to leaves of cucumber and corn (Zea mays L.) to compare translocation patterns between two susceptible plant species and relate this information to the observed selectivity of the herbicide. Cucumber autoradiographs showed minimal translocation of /sup 14/C-quizalofop-ethyl 192 hours after treatment. In contrast, corn autoradiographs showed both apoplastic and symplastic transport of quizalofop-ethyl 3 and 24 hours after treatment. Quantification of /sup 14/C in cucumber revealed 96% of absorbed /sup 14/C was confined to the treated leaf after 192h of exposure.

  11. Wetland features and landscape context predict the risk of wetland habitat loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutzwiller, Kevin J; Flather, Curtis H

    2011-04-01

    Wetlands generally provide significant ecosystem services and function as important harbors of biodiversity. To ensure that these habitats are conserved, an efficient means of identifying wetlands at risk of conversion is needed, especially in the southern United States where the rate of wetland loss has been highest in recent decades. We used multivariate adaptive regression splines to develop a model to predict the risk of wetland habitat loss as a function of wetland features and landscape context. Fates of wetland habitats from 1992 to 1997 were obtained from the National Resources Inventory for the U.S. Forest Service's Southern Region, and land-cover data were obtained from the National Land Cover Data. We randomly selected 70% of our 40 617 observations to build the model (n = 28 432), and randomly divided the remaining 30% of the data into five Test data sets (n = 2437 each). The wetland and landscape variables that were important in the model, and their relative contributions to the model's predictive ability (100 = largest, 0 = smallest), were land-cover/ land-use of the surrounding landscape (100.0), size and proximity of development patches within 570 m (39.5), land ownership (39.1), road density within 570 m (37.5), percent woody and herbaceous wetland cover within 570 m (27.8), size and proximity of development patches within 5130 m (25.7), percent grasslands/herbaceous plants and pasture/hay cover within 5130 m (21.7), wetland type (21.2), and percent woody and herbaceous wetland cover within 1710 m (16.6). For the five Test data sets, Kappa statistics (0.40, 0.50, 0.52, 0.55, 0.56; P < 0.0001), area-under-the-receiver-operating-curve (AUC) statistics (0.78, 0.82, 0.83, 0.83, 0.84; P < 0.0001), and percent correct prediction of wetland habitat loss (69.1, 80.4, 81.7, 82.3, 83.1) indicated the model generally had substantial predictive ability across the South. Policy analysts and land-use planners can use the model and associated maps to prioritize

  12. Relationship between the natural abundance of soil nitrogen isotopes and condition in North Dakota wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    A statewide condition assessment of North Dakota wetlands in the summer of 2011 was conducted as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s National Wetland Condition Assessment (NWCA). Two other wetland condition assessments, the Index of Plant Community Integrity (IPCI...

  13. Management and uses of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertsn. in Thai wetlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La-ongsri, W.; Trisonthi, C.; Balslev, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    Management and use of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.-the lotus plant-was studied in 58 wetlands distributed throughout Thailand. Although traditionally harvested in extractive systems depending on natural wetlands, N. nucifera is now increasingly being managed. Two hundred eighty informants mentioned 20...... related to the abundance of wetlands and natural stand in those regions, and maybe also cultural differences...

  14. Wetlands in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Wetlands are shallow marine waters and wet areas in cluding rivers, lakes and marshes. According to scientists, even reservoirs and paddy fields fall into the category. Wetlands are classified into over 40 types but accounts for only 6% of the earth's total land area. Human beings inhabit by water and grass because wetlands provide us with water and wet soil.

  15. Study on the Purification Effects of Constructed Wetland Plants in NH4+-N Disposal in Living Wastewater%人工湿地园林植物对生活污水中氨氮净化效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁敏; 郭振; 李东和

    2012-01-01

    The study on the species selection of wetland plants and the purification effects of the wetland plants is the key to ecological wastewater treatment technology. The purification effects of different wetland plants in different residence time and their synergy in NH4~-N disposal in living wastewater are studied by adopting the surface flow wetland system which is closest to the natural wetlands, through three repeated randomized block field experimental designs, through the variance analysis of two-factor equilibrium of the randomized block with Origin software, and through multiple comparisons and analysis and the test of significant differences with Minitab software. The results show that within the residence time of 1 day, 3 days and 5 days, the purification effects of different plant species and their combinations in NH4*-N disposal are significantly different, and that the NH/-N purification rate of the combination of Arundo donax, Typha orientalis and Canna generate is highest. Within the residence time of 1 day and 3 days, the NH4+-N purification rate of the combination of Phragmites australis and Arundo donax is lowest. Within the residence time of 5 days, the NH4+-N purification rate of Phragmites australis is lowest. The best plant combination in purifying NH4+-N is that of Arundo donax, Typha orientalis and Canna generalis, followed by that of Arundo donax and Typha orientalis or that of Phragmites australis, Typha orientalis and Canna generalis. The best plant species in purifying NH4+-N is Typha orientalis, followed by Arundo donax.%本实验采取了最接近自然湿地表面流的人工湿地系统,通过3次重复的随机区组田间实验设计,采用Origin软件进行随机区组双因素平衡方差分析,采用Minitab软件进行多重比较分析和差异显著性检验,研究了污水不同停留时间和不同人工湿地植物及其协同作用对生活污水中氨氮(NH4+-N)的净化效果.结果表明:停留时间1d、3d、5d时,不同

  16. Aquatic herbivores facilitate the emission of methane from wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingemans, B.J.J.; Bakker, E.S.; Bodelier, P.L.E.

    2011-01-01

    Wetlands are significant sources of atmospheric methane. Methane produced by microbes enters roots and escapes to the atmosphere through the shoots of emergent wetland plants. Herbivorous birds graze on helophytes, but their effect on methane emission remains unknown. We hypothesized that grazing on

  17. Distribution of clonal growth traits among wetland habitats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sosnova, Monika; van Diggelen, Rudy; Macek, Petr; Klimesova, Jitka

    2011-01-01

    Clonality resulting from the growth of specialized organs is common among plants in wetland habitats. We hypothesize that different wetland habitats select for different attributes of clonal traits. This hypothesis is based on studies of individual species but has not been previously tested at the l

  18. Aquatic herbivores facilitate the emission of methane from wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingemans, B.J.J.; Bakker, E.S.; Bodelier, P.L.E.

    2011-01-01

    Wetlands are significant sources of atmospheric methane. Methane produced by microbes enters roots and escapes to the atmosphere through the shoots of emergent wetland plants. Herbivorous birds graze on helophytes, but their effect on methane emission remains unknown. We hypothesized that grazing on

  19. Evaluation of two hybrid poplar clones as constructed wetland plant species for treating saline water high in boron and selenium, or waters only high in boron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetland mesocosms were constructed to assess two salt- and B-tolerant hybrid poplar clones (Populus trichocarpa ×P. deltoides×P. nigra '345-1' and '347-14') for treating saline water high in boron (B) and selenium (Se). In addition, a hydroponic experiment was performed to test the B tolerance and B...

  20. Vegetation community composition in wetlands created following oil sand mining in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Marie-Claude; Foote, Lee; Ciborowski, Jan J H

    2016-05-01

    Reclaiming wetlands following open pit mining for industrial oil sand extraction is challenging due to the physical and chemical conditions of the post-mined landscape. The aim of our study was to examine and compare the influence of oil sands process water (OSPW) and material (fine fluid tails or FFT) on the plant community composition of created wetlands. Compared to created-unamended and natural wetlands, the created wetlands amended with OSPW and/or FFT (created-tailings wetlands) had significantly higher water salinity, conductivity, dissolved oxygen concentration and lower oxidative-reductive potential. Water chemistry parameters of created-unamended did not differ significantly from those of natural wetlands. The sediment of created wetlands had significantly less moisture, total nitrogen, and organic content than the natural wetlands. The application of OSPW/FFT in created wetlands will likely lead to initial vegetation composition atypical of natural regional wetlands. For the objective of reclaiming vegetation composition to the status of natural regional wetlands, unamended wetlands were the best reclamation option, based on the physical and chemical parameters measured. Despite being the favored reclamation option, created-unamended wetlands' physical and chemical characteristics remain atypical of natural wetlands. Most significantly, the basin morphometry of created wetlands was significantly different from that of naturally-formed wetlands in the region, and this appears to partly explain difference in vegetation composition. We also demonstrate that species richness alone is not a useful measure in wetland monitoring. Instead, plant community composition is a better indicator of wetland conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 基于去污效果和气候适应性的湿地植物筛选研究%Wetland plant screening based on the purification effect and climate adaptability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏小红; 汤晓玉; 顾新娇; 王文国; 何明雄; 胡启春

    2013-01-01

    通过模拟垂直潜流人工湿地系统,在对菖蒲(Acorus calamus)、芦竹(Arundo donax)、茭白(Zizania lati folia)、旱伞草(Cyperus alterni folius)和再力花(Thalia dealbata)5种湿地植物的去污能力进行分析的基础上,利用最大熵(MAXENT)模型对它们在中国西南地区的适生区和分布的气候影响因子进行了综合分析.结果表明,5种湿地植物都有较高的去污能力,且不同植物的去污能力存在一定差异,对氮、磷去除效果较好的为旱伞草,茭白、再力花和菖蒲次之,芦竹较差;旱伞草在中国西南地区有着广泛的适生区,并可以越冬,是一种去污能力较好并可以全年使用的人工湿地植物.菖蒲、茭白、再力花也有较强的去污能力和气候适应能力,但是过冬效果相对较差,在西南地区大部分区域的春、夏、秋季适用于人工湿地栽种.芦竹虽然在西南地区适生区较广,但它在淹水环境中的去污能力相对较弱,可以适当地应用于人工湿地周边的湿生环境中.%Through the simulation of vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland system,the decontamination capability of Acorus calamus,Arundo donax,Zizania lati folia,Cyperus alterni folius and Thalia dealbata were studied.MAXENT model was employed to analyze potential distribution area of the 5 wetland plants in Southwestern China and the main climate impact factors that influencing their distribution.The results showed that all the 5 wetland plants presented perfect water purification efficiency,however their contaminant removal capacity had some differences.Cyperus alternifolius,which has wide range of potential distribution in Southwestern China,had the best removal capacity and was able to live through the winter,thereby it was regarded as a preferable wetland plant that can be used through the whole year.Acorus calamus,Zizania latifolia and Thalia dealbata also had good removal capacity and climate adaptability,but they had poor

  2. Options for water-level control in developed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, J. R.; Laubhan, M. K.; Reid, F. A.; Wortham, J. S.; Fredrickson, L. H.

    1993-01-01

    Wetland habitats in the United States currently are lost at a rate of 260,000 acres/year (105,218 ha/year). Consequently, water birds concentrate in fewer and smaller areas. Such concentrations may deplete food supplies and influence behavior, physiology, and survival. Continued losses increase the importance of sound management of the remaining wetlands because water birds depend on them. Human activities modified the natural hydrology of most remaining wetlands in the conterminous United States, and such hydrologic alterations frequently reduce wetland productivity. The restoration of original wetland functions and productivity often requires the development of water distribution and discharge systems to emulate natural hydrologic regimes. Construction of levees and correct placement of control structures and water-delivery and water-discharge systems are necessary to (1) create soil and water conditions for the germination of desirable plants, (2) control nuisance vegetation, (3) promote the production of invertebrates, and (4) make foods available for wildlife that depends of wetlands (Leaflets 13.2.1 and 13.4.6). This paper provides basic guidelines for the design of wetlands that benefit wildlife. If biological considerations are not incorporated into such designs, the capability of managing wetlands for water birds is reduced and costs often are greater. Although we address the development of palustrine wetlands in migration and wintering areas, many of the discussed principles are applicable to the development of other wetland types and in other locations.

  3. Importance of Hydrology, Soil and Vegetation in Wetland Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiao-bing; Elizabeth J.Johnson; Peter L.M.Veneman; XING Baos-han

    2003-01-01

    Wetlands, one of the most productive systems in the biosphere are a unique ecosystem. They occur in landscapes that favor the ponding or slow runoff of surface water, discharge of ground water, or both. Wetlands are not only important for maintaining plant and animal diversity, but also for balancing global carbon budget via sequestrating or releasing CO2 from/into atmosphere depending on their management. Therefore, it is imperative to understand how wetlands form and function, then we can better manage, utilize, and protect these unique ecosystems. Hydrie soils,hydrophytic vegetation, and wetland hydrology are the three main parameters of wetlands. These parameters are interrelated with each other which jointly influence the development and functions of wetland ecosystems. The objective of this paper was to report the current understanding of wetlands and provide future research directions. The paper will first focus on aspects of hydrology research in wetlands, and then shift to soil hydrosequence and wetland vegetation to better understand processes, structure, and function of wetlands, and conclude with some possible future research directions.

  4. Wetlands in the ecological risk assessment process: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saban, L.B. [Roy F. Weston, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In the past few years, the ecological risk assessment (ERA) process as outlined in the EPA document Framework for Ecological Risk Assessment has been successfully used to assess risk to birds, mammals, aquatic organisms, plants, and to a limited extent, reptiles and amphibians, but has only recently been applied to wetlands. Due to the unique role that wetlands play in the environment as sources and sinks for nutrients, sediment retention, high productivity, habitat transition zones, aquifer recharge, high diversity and richness of biota, and aesthetic value, it is important to consider the entire wetland system in the ERA process. Because nearly sixty percent of Superfund sites are located in or near wetlands, a comprehensive approach is proposed to evaluate potential risks to flora and fauna in these wetland environments. Using the delineation and functional assessment techniques developed by wetland scientists, an estuarine wetland in western Washington was evaluated within the scope of ERA`S. The ERA was applied to the wetland using functional assessments as an integral part of the problem formulation phase of the risk assessment process. Applying the ERA process to wetlands enhances the functional assessment process and helps to define critical elements to evaluate within wetland systems. The results of this risk assessment help to define patches within a landscape that are potentially at risk and how to prioritize remedial actions.

  5. Ecological and Landscape Drivers of Neonicotinoid Insecticide Detections and Concentrations in Canada's Prairie Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, Anson R; Michel, Nicole L; Headley, John V; Peru, Kerry M; Morrissey, Christy A

    2015-07-21

    Neonicotinoids are commonly used seed treatments on Canada's major prairie crops. Transported via surface and subsurface runoff into wetlands, their ultimate aquatic fate remains largely unknown. Biotic and abiotic wetland characteristics likely affect neonicotinoid presence and environmental persistence, but concentrations vary widely between wetlands that appear ecologically (e.g., plant composition) and physically (e.g., depth) similar for reasons that remain unclear. We conducted intensive surveys of 238 wetlands, and documented 59 wetland (e.g., dominant plant species) and landscape (e.g., surrounding crop) characteristics as part of a novel rapid wetland assessment system. We used boosted regression tree (BRT) analysis to predict both probability of neonicotinoid analytical detection and concentration. BRT models effectively predicted the deviance in neonicotinoid detection (62.4%) and concentration (74.7%) from 21 and 23 variables, respectively. Detection was best explained by shallow marsh plant species identity (34.8%) and surrounding crop (13.9%). Neonicotinoid concentration was best explained by shallow marsh plant species identity (14.9%) and wetland depth (14.2%). Our research revealed that plant composition is a key indicator and/or driver of neonicotinoid presence and concentration in Prairie wetlands. We recommend wetland buffers consisting of diverse native vegetation be retained or restored to minimize neonicotinoid transport and retention in wetlands, thereby limiting their potential effects on wetland-dependent organisms.

  6. Disturbance metrics predict a wetland Vegetation Index of Biotic Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Mack, John; Adams, Jean V.; Gara, Brian; Micacchion, Mick

    2013-01-01

    Indices of biological integrity of wetlands based on vascular plants (VIBIs) have been developed in many areas in the USA. Knowledge of the best predictors of VIBIs would enable management agencies to make better decisions regarding mitigation site selection and performance monitoring criteria. We use a novel statistical technique to develop predictive models for an established index of wetland vegetation integrity (Ohio VIBI), using as independent variables 20 indices and metrics of habitat quality, wetland disturbance, and buffer area land use from 149 wetlands in Ohio, USA. For emergent and forest wetlands, predictive models explained 61% and 54% of the variability, respectively, in Ohio VIBI scores. In both cases the most important predictor of Ohio VIBI score was a metric that assessed habitat alteration and development in the wetland. Of secondary importance as a predictor was a metric that assessed microtopography, interspersion, and quality of vegetation communities in the wetland. Metrics and indices assessing disturbance and land use of the buffer area were generally poor predictors of Ohio VIBI scores. Our results suggest that vegetation integrity of emergent and forest wetlands could be most directly enhanced by minimizing substrate and habitat disturbance within the wetland. Such efforts could include reducing or eliminating any practices that disturb the soil profile, such as nutrient enrichment from adjacent farm land, mowing, grazing, or cutting or removing woody plants.

  7. Distribution and the Correlativety of Plant Nutrient Element in Carex lasiocarpa Wetland%毛果苔草湿地植物营养元素分布及其相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何池全

    2002-01-01

    The distribution of nutrient was different for different dominant plant species in C.lasiocarpa wetland ecosystem.The distribution of nutrient was also different for different plant components in Carex lasiocarpa.The gross nutrient element distribution for N,P,K,Ca,Mg,Cu and Fe in C.lasiocarpa was in order of:redicula>rhizoma>spike>blade>sheath>inflorescence.But this rule for the gross nutrient element distribution of Zn and Mn was not obvious.The seasonal dynamic trends of nutrient element contents in dead stand were decreaseing.The liberation of general elements N,P,K and microelement Mn were continuous,and with monotone downtrend;the liberation rate of microelement Cu,Zn,Fe were faster than other elemnts,while the trend for Ca was all through incremental.There were different degrees of correlativity among different nutrient elements in C. Lasiocarpa.

  8. 唐宋时期湖州平原菱的种植与湿地农业开发%The Planting of Water Chestnut and Wetland Agriculture Development in the Huzhou Plain in the Tang-Song Dynasties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晴

    2012-01-01

    The water chestnut was planted popularly in the Huzhou Plain in the Tang-Song Dynasties. There was a broad stretch of wetland in the late Tang and early Song Dynasties, at the same time Form. Trapa spp. was banded in some of the shallow lakes and meres. After history came to the period of Southern Song Dy- nasty, many meres were enclosed, the land were changed to farmland instead. Meanwhile water chestnut was planted in the specialized ponls. The planting area of water chestnuts were expanded in the Huzhou Plain, and many cultivated species were selected. People used water chestnut to fish and to protect the embankments. In brief, the wetland exploitation in the Huzhou Plain was always connected with the planting of water chestnuts.%唐宋时期江南地区湖州平原区中存在着大面积的湖沼湿地,菱是这个区域中典型水生植被之一。唐末至宋初人类活动对本地区湖沼湿地的干扰较少,湿地生境中存在着大面积菱的野生植物群落,宋以后随着太湖地区水体资源的开发与集约化利用程度的加强,湖州平原中人工栽培菱的面积扩大,出现了众多的栽培菱品种。南宋时期人们利用许多技术措施对菱进行了广泛的栽培,湖州平原湿地农业开发进程中始终伴随着水生植物菱的种植。

  9. The National Wetland Plant List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Sandmat Chamaesyce humistrata (Engelm. ex Gray) Small FACW FAC FAC FACW FACW Spreading Sandmat Chamaesyce hypericifolia (L.) Millsp. FACU FACU FACU...Thoroughwort Eupatorium serotinum Michx. FAC FAC FAC FAC FAC Late-Flowering Thoroughwort Euphorbia commutata Engelm. ex Gray FACU FACU FACU UPL...UPL Tinted Woodland Spurge Euphorbia curtisii Engelm. FAC FAC Curtis’ Spurge Euphorbia cyathophora Murr. FACU UPL FACU UPL UPL FACU FACU

  10. Strategy and scenario for wetland conservation in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monjit Paul

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands are the most important ecosystems for the organisms in Animal Kingdom (including human beings and Plant Kingdom. There are about hundred species of flora in and around Indian Wetlands. They include Sagittaria montividensis, Cryptocoryne ciliata, Cyperus spp., Acrostichum aureum, Ipomoea aquatica, etc. They are also the habitats of several mammals like the marsh mongoose, small Indian mongoose, palm civet and the small Indian civet. Endangered species like the Indian mud turtle have also been found in the wetlands. Certain species of birds also visit the wetlands. Prominent ones are grebe, coot, darter, shag, cormorant, teals, egrets, jacanas, snipes, tern, eagle, sand piper, gulls, rails and kingfishers. The wetlands are important for production of foods and human safety. The East Kolkata wetlands with their garbage farms and fishponds have provided the city with three facilities, i.e., food, sanitation and livelihood. They also provide ecological security to the city of Kolkata. Over the past few years, wetlands have come under severe threat. With the population explosion, some of the largest fish farms have been converted from pisiculture to paddy cultivation. Industries also empty their wastewater effluent without treatment to the channels flowing eastward and these ultimately land up in the wetlands. This has caused substantial amount of deposits of metal in the canal sludge and made the wastewater incapable for the consumption by the fishes and the plants grown in the wetland. Nevertheless, due to urbanization or human interference, the wetland and its unique ecosystem biodiversity are in danger. After Ramsar Convention, 1971, different acts have been passed in India for conservation of wetlands, along with conducting general awareness program for the local people by the government, conducting different programs, management of wetlands, and research by the government, NGOs and other institutions.

  11. 模拟人工湿地植物混种对氮去除及温室气体排放的影响%Effect of plant mixture on nitrogen removal and greenhouse gases emission in simulated constructed wetlands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩文娟; 朱佳宁; 李丹; 刘阳; 吴建之; 葛滢; 常杰

    2014-01-01

    To study the effects of plant diversity on ecosystem functions in constructed wetlands,simulated constructed wetlands with monoculture and mixture of two plant species were established.There was no significant difference in effluent ammonium (NH+4-N)and nitrate (NO-3-N)concentration and greenhouse gas emission rate between monoculture and mixture systems.Sub-strate total inorgnic N (TIN)accumulation in the monoculture system is significant higher than that in mixture system.Plant bio-mass (aboveground,belowground and total)and nitrogen accumulation (aboveground and total)in monoture system are signifi-cant lower than those in mixculture system.Based on the mass balance method,plant uptake has a less contribution rate to the TIN removal in monoculture system than that in mixture system,while denitrification and substrate sequestration has a greater contribution rate than that in mixculture system.This study provided a basis for species assembling in constructed wetlands to improve high nutrient removal efficiency and decrease greenhouse gases emission.%为探究植物多样性对人工湿地生态系统功能的影响,在模拟人工湿地试验系统中配置的两种植物物种单种和混种处理方案。结果表明:单种系统的出水硝态氮(NO-3-N)和铵态氮(NH+4-N)及温室气体排放与混种系统无显著差异;单种系统基质无机氮积累量显著高于混种系统;单种系统生物量(地上、地下和总量)及氮积累量(地上和总量)显著低于混种系统;根据物质平衡法,单种系统植物吸收对系统氮去除的贡献显著低于混种系统,反硝化作用却显著高于混种系统,基质存留的总无机氮(TIN)也显著高于混种系统(P<0.05)。

  12. Freshwater Wetlands: A Citizen's Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catskill Center for Conservation and Development, Inc., Hobart, NY.

    The purpose of this "primer" for the general public is to describe the general characteristics of wetlands and how wetland alteration adversely affects the well-being of humans. Particular emphasis is placed on wetlands in New York State and the northeast. Topics discussed include wetland values, destruction of wetlands, the costs of wetland…

  13. Freshwater Wetlands: A Citizen's Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catskill Center for Conservation and Development, Inc., Hobart, NY.

    The purpose of this "primer" for the general public is to describe the general characteristics of wetlands and how wetland alteration adversely affects the well-being of humans. Particular emphasis is placed on wetlands in New York State and the northeast. Topics discussed include wetland values, destruction of wetlands, the costs of…

  14. Freshwater Wetlands: A Citizen's Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catskill Center for Conservation and Development, Inc., Hobart, NY.

    The purpose of this "primer" for the general public is to describe the general characteristics of wetlands and how wetland alteration adversely affects the well-being of humans. Particular emphasis is placed on wetlands in New York State and the northeast. Topics discussed include wetland values, destruction of wetlands, the costs of…

  15. Discrimination of corn from monocotyledonous weeds with ultraviolet (UV) induced fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panneton, Bernard; Guillaume, Serge; Samson, Guy; Roger, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    In production agriculture, savings in herbicides can be achieved if weeds can be discriminated from crop, allowing the targeting of weed control to weed-infested areas only. Previous studies demonstrated the potential of ultraviolet (UV) induced fluorescence to discriminate corn from weeds and recently, robust models have been obtained for the discrimination between monocots (including corn) and dicots. Here, we developed a new approach to achieve robust discrimination of monocot weeds from corn. To this end, four corn hybrids (Elite 60T05, Monsanto DKC 26-78, Pioneer 39Y85 (RR), and Syngenta N2555 (Bt, LL)) and four monocot weeds (Digitaria ischaemum (Schreb.) I, Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv., Panicum capillare (L.), and Setaria glauca (L.) Beauv.) were grown either in a greenhouse or in a growth cabinet and UV (327 nm) induced fluorescence spectra (400 to 755 nm) were measured under controlled or uncontrolled ambient light intensity and temperature. This resulted in three contrasting data sets suitable for testing the robustness of discrimination models. In the blue-green region (400 to 550 nm), the shape of the spectra did not contain any useful information for discrimination. Therefore, the integral of the blue-green region (415 to 455 nm) was used as a normalizing factor for the red fluorescence intensity (670 to 755 nm). The shape of the normalized red fluorescence spectra did not contribute to the discrimination and in the end, only the integral of the normalized red fluorescence intensity was left as a single discriminant variable. Applying a threshold on this variable minimizing the classification error resulted in calibration errors ranging from 14.2% to 15.8%, but this threshold varied largely between data sets. Therefore, to achieve robustness, a model calibration scheme was developed based on the collection of a calibration data set from 75 corn plants. From this set, a new threshold can be estimated as the 85% quantile on the cumulative frequency

  16. 梅州城市湿地外来入侵植物现状及防治对策%Alien Invasive Plants and Their Control in Urban Wetlands of Meizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾兰华; 杨礼文; 俞万源; 李海山; 欧先交

    2013-01-01

    通过实地调查和文献检索,对梅州城市湿地外来入侵植物的组成、生活型、危害程度、原产地、入侵途径等进行了分析。结果表明:梅州城市湿地主要外来入侵植物有16科29属33种,其中菊科植物的数量最多,占入侵植物总数的27.3%;生活型以草本植物为主;有10种入侵植物给当地生态环境带来严重危害;原产地以美洲为主;引入途径主要以人为有意或无意引入为主。在分析城市湿地外来入侵植物现状的基础上,提出了建立入侵植物生态风险评估系统、加强入境检疫、加强地区合作、提高公众防范意识、有效防控和变害为宝等对策,为城市生态及经济的可持续发展提供参考。%The composition, life forms, damage degrees, original districts and invasive routes of alien invasive plant species in urban wetlands of Meizhou City are analyzed in this paper based on our field survey and literature review. The results show that 33 species from 16 families and 29 genera of alien invasive plant species are distributed in the urban wetlands of Meizhou. The Asteraceous plants are the most in number and take up 27.3%of the total species. Herbaceous plant is the dominant life form. In addition, there are 10 species that have caused high degree of threat to the local ecological environment. Most of the alien invasive plant species originally were from the Americas and were introduced intentionally or unintentionally by human beings. On the basis of the research, the strategies for controlling the alien invasive plants are proposed, such as establishing ecological risk evaluating system, enhancing entry quarantine, enhancing regional cooperation, increasing public awareness, effectively preventing and controlling the alien invasive plants, and transforming harmful plants into useful ones, etc. The results of this paper will provide reference for sustainable development of urban ecology and economy of the

  17. Colorado wetlands initiative : 1997-2000 : Protecting Colorado's wetlands resource

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Colorado Wetlands Initiative is an endeavor to protect wetlands and wetland-dependent wildlife through the use of voluntary, incentive-based mechanisms. It is a...

  18. First Report of Plant Regeneration via Somatic Embryogenesis from Shoot Apex-derived Callus of Hedychium muluense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plants were successfully regenerated via somatic embryogenesis from shoot apex-derived callus of Hedychium muluense R.M. Smith, an important monocotyledonous ornamental ginger plant. Callus was induced on a modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 9.05 µM 2-4, D and 4.6µM kinetin. ...

  19. Biological control of weeds release sites : Kulm Wetland Management District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Table of release sites of insects for biological control of invasive plants at Kulm Wetland Management District (WMD). Insects were released on Kulm WMD to...

  20. Lakeshore Wetland Construction in Dianchi Lake:Technology of Planting Humidogene Arbor%滇池湖滨带湿生乔木湿地构建技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈静; 孔德平; 范亦农; 李杰; 杨发昌; 赵琳娜; 陈彦君

    2012-01-01

    采用以草本植物为主构建的湖滨湿地存在的主要问题是挺水植物繁殖速度快,生物量大,如每年不及时对死亡植株进行收割,会加快湖泊淤积速度,对湖泊水体造成二次污染;大面积湿地挺水植物的管护和收割,势必造成湿地管理强度和费用大幅提高.针对上述问题,文章重点介绍了在滇池草海湖滨带中以湿生乔木植物代替草本挺水植物的湖滨湿地构建技术现场试验研究成果,在湖滨带基底修复的基础上,选择垂柳、滇杨、中山杉、水杉、池杉和竹子等湿生植物开展现场试验,研究结果推荐适应能力较强、成活率较高和景观效果好的垂柳、中山杉为滇池湖滨带湿生乔木湿地构建的主要树种,为受损湖泊湖滨带生态修复提供借鉴.%In construction of lakeshore wetlands in Dianchi Lake, emergent aquatic plants, mostly herbaceous plant featuring fast growing, has been planted massively, however, which ought to be cut every year, otherwise the dead plant in great amount, with high biomass, brought about secondary pollution. The plant-cutting involving cumbersome and time-consuming work added in workload and cost in managing the wetland. Experiments were thus conducted to develop a technology of planting arbor trees in the lakeshore which would substitute for the existing herbaceous plant. With the preparatory ground work along the lakeside done, trees like weeping willow, Yunnan poplar, Zhongshan cedar, metasequoia, taxodium and bamboo were planed on trial, among which weeping willow and Zhongshan cedar have been selected as the fittest due to their strong viability, as well as their better visual effect for lakeshore landscape.

  1. Comparative analysis of the base compositions of the pre-mRNA 3' cleaved-off region and the mRNA 3' untranslated region relative to the genomic base composition in animals and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiu-Qing

    2014-01-01

    The precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) three-prime cleaved-off region (3'COR) and the mRNA three-prime untranslated region (3'UTR) play critical roles in regulating gene expression. The differences in base composition between these regions and the corresponding genomes are still largely uncharacterized in animals and plants. In this study, the base compositions of non-redundant 3'CORs and 3'UTRs were compared with the corresponding whole genomes of eleven animals, four dicotyledonous plants, and three monocotyledonous (cereal) plants. Among the four bases (A, C, G, and U for adenine, cytosine, guanine, and uracil, respectively), U (which corresponds to T, for thymine, in DNA) was the most frequent, A the second most frequent, G the third most frequent, and C the least frequent in most of the species in both the 3'COR and 3'UTR regions. In comparison with the whole genomes, in both regions the U content was usually the most overrepresented (particularly in the monocotyledonous plants), and the C content was the most underrepresented. The order obtained for the species groups, when ranked from high to low according to the U contents in the 3'COR and 3'UTR was as follows: dicotyledonous plants, monocotyledonous plants, non-mammal animals, and mammals. In contrast, the genomic T content was highest in dicotyledonous plants, lowest in monocotyledonous plants, and intermediate in animals. These results suggest the following: 1) there is a mechanism operating in both animals and plants which is biased toward U and against C in the 3'COR and 3'UTR; 2) the 3'UTR and 3'COR, as functional units, minimized the difference between dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants, while the dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous genomes evolved into two extreme groups in terms of base composition.

  2. Wetlands & Deepwater Habitats - Montana Wetland and Riparian Framework - Map Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Montana Wetland and Riparian Framework represents the extent, type, and approximate location of wetlands, riparian areas, and deepwater habitats in Montana....

  3. 杭州西溪湿地植物生物量和有机碳季节变化及碳的积累%The Seasonal Changes of Plant Biomass & Organic Carbon and Carbon Accumulation in Xixi Wetland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢长永; 陈波; 徐同凯

    2015-01-01

    对西溪湿地3个样带中植物群落生物量和有机碳含量的季节动态进行了研究,同时分析了3个样带植物群落有机碳的积累量.结果表明:植物从春季(4月)进入生长季后,其地上生物量逐渐增加,10月份达到最大,表现为芦苇带>芦苇混交带>香蒲带,地下生物量也呈增加趋势.3个样带中植物各器官有机碳含量差异极显著,并表现出季节变化特征,叶片有机碳含量在7月达到最大,芦苇混交带和芦苇带植物茎有机碳含量在10月达到峰值.3个样带植物各器官有机碳积累量不同,表现为芦苇带>香蒲带>芦苇混交带.可见,芦苇群落是西溪湿地固碳的主要功能植被类型,同国内其它湿地相比,西溪湿地的固碳潜力巨大.%The seasonal dynamics of biomass and organic carbon content as well as organic carbon accumulation in the three plant communities in Xixi wetland are studied in the paper .The results show that plant biomass gradually increases since spring ,and reaches the peak in October . The aboveground biomass is ranked in decreasing order as Phragmites australis zone > Phragmites australis mixed zone> Typha orientalis zone ,the underground biomass also increases .The organic carbon content in different organs of the three communities shows the remarked difference (P Typha orientalis zone>Phragmites australis mixed zone .The paper suggests Phragmites australis community is the main functional plant for carbon storage in Xixi wetland ,and there is a huge potential for carbon storage in Xixi wetland .

  4. Negative effects of excessive soil phosphorus on floristic quality in Ohio wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Schumacher, William; Gara, Brian; Monteith, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Excessive soil nutrients, often from agricultural runoff, have been shown to negatively impact some aspects of wetland plant communities. We measured plant-available phosphorus (Mehlich-3: MeP) in soil samples, and assessed the vascular plant community and habitat degradation at 27 emergent and 13 forested wetlands in Ohio, USA. We tested two hypotheses: (1) that an index of vegetation biological integrity based on floristic quality was lower in wetlands with higher concentrations of MeP in the soil, and (2) that higher concentrations of MeP occurred in wetlands with more habitat degradation (i.e., lower quality), as estimated by a rapid assessment method. Hypothesis (1) was supported for emergent, but not for forested wetlands. Hypothesis (2) was marginally supported (P = 0.09) for emergent, but not supported for forested wetlands. The results indicate that the effect of concentration of phosphorus in wetland soils and the quality of plant species assemblages in wetlands is more complex than shown in site-specific studies and may depend in part on degree of disturbance in the surrounding watershed and dominant wetland vegetation type. Woody plants in forested wetlands are typically longer lived than herbaceous species in the understory and emergent wetlands, and may persist despite high inputs of phosphorus. Further, the forested wetlands were typically surrounded by a wide band of forest vegetation, which may provide a barrier against sedimentation and the associated phosphorus inputs to the wetland interior. Our results indicate that inferences about soil nutrient conditions made from rapid assessment methods for assessing wetland habitat condition may not be reliable.

  5. Negative effects of excessive soil phosphorus on floristic quality in Ohio wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapanian, Martin A; Schumacher, William; Gara, Brian; Monteith, Steven E

    2016-05-01

    Excessive soil nutrients, often from agricultural runoff, have been shown to negatively impact some aspects of wetland plant communities. We measured plant-available phosphorus (Mehlich-3: MeP) in soil samples, and assessed the vascular plant community and habitat degradation at 27 emergent and 13 forested wetlands in Ohio, USA. We tested two hypotheses: (1) that an index of vegetation biological integrity based on floristic quality was lower in wetlands with higher concentrations of MeP in the soil, and (2) that higher concentrations of MeP occurred in wetlands with more habitat degradation (i.e., lower quality), as estimated by a rapid assessment method. Hypothesis (1) was supported for emergent, but not for forested wetlands. Hypothesis (2) was marginally supported (P=0.09) for emergent, but not supported for forested wetlands. The results indicate that the effect of concentration of phosphorus in wetland soils and the quality of plant species assemblages in wetlands is more complex than shown in site-specific studies and may depend in part on degree of disturbance in the surrounding watershed and dominant wetland vegetation type. Woody plants in forested wetlands are typically longer lived than herbaceous species in the understory and emergent wetlands, and may persist despite high inputs of phosphorus. Further, the forested wetlands were typically surrounded by a wide band of forest vegetation, which may provide a barrier against sedimentation and the associated phosphorus inputs to the wetland interior. Our results indicate that inferences about soil nutrient conditions made from rapid assessment methods for assessing wetland habitat condition may not be reliable.

  6. Urea transformation of wetland microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorén, Ann-Karin

    2007-02-01

    Transformation of urea to ammonium is an important link in the nitrogen cycle in soil and water. Although microbial nitrogen transformations, such as nitrification and denitrification, are well studied in freshwater sediment and epiphytic biofilm in shallow waters, information about urea transformation in these environments is scarce. In this study, urea transformation of sedimentary, planktonic, and epiphytic microbial communities was quantified and urea transformation of epiphytic biofilms associated with three different common wetland macrophyte species is compared. The microbial communities were collected from a constructed wetland in October 2002 and urea transformation was quantified in the laboratory at in situ temperature (12 degrees C) with the use of the 14C-urea tracer method, which measures the release of 14CO2 as a direct result of urease activity. It was found that the urea transformation was 100 times higher in sediment (12-22 mmol urea-N m(-2) day(-1)) compared with the epiphytic activity on the surfaces of the submerged plant Elodea canadensis (0.1-0.2 mmol urea-N m(-2) day(-1)). The epiphytic activity of leaves of Typha latifolia was lower (0.001-0.03 mmol urea-N m(-2) day(-1)), while urea transformation was negligible in the water column and on the submerged leaves of the emergent plant Phragmites australis. However, because this wetland was dominated by dense beds of the submerged macrophyte E. canadensis, this plant provided a large surface area for epiphytic microbial activity-in the range of 23-33 m2 of plant surfaces per square meter of wetland. Thus, in the wetland system scale at the existing plant distribution and density, the submerged plant community had the potential to transform 2-7 mmol urea-N m(-2) day(-1) and was in the same magnitude as the urea transformation in the sediment.

  7. [Problems and countermeasures in the application of constructed wetlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin-Lou; Chen, Qin; Xu, Lian-Huang

    2013-01-01

    Constructed wetlands as a wastewater eco-treatment technology are developed in recent decades. It combines sewage treatment with the eco-environment in an efficient way. It treats the sewage effectively, and meanwhile beautifies the environment, creates ecological landscape, and brings benefits to the environment and economics. The unique advantages of constructed wetlands have attracted intensive attention since developed. Constructed wetlands are widely used in treatment of domestic sewage, industrial wastewater, and wastewater from mining and petroleum production. However, many problems are found in the practical application of constructed wetland, e. g. they are vulnerable to changes in climatic conditions and temperature, their substrates are easily saturated and plugged, they are readily affected by plant species, they often occupy large areas, and there are other problems including irrational management, non-standard design, and a single function of ecological service. These problems to a certain extent influence the efficiency of constructed wetlands in wastewater treatment, shorten the life of the artificial wetland, and hinder the application of artificial wetland. The review presents correlation analysis and countermeasures for these problems, in order to improve the efficiency of constructed wetland in wastewater treatment, and provide reference for the application and promotion of artificial wetland.

  8. Relating groundwater to seasonal wetlands in southeastern Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalbeck, J.D.; Reed, D.M.; Hunt, R.J.; Lambert, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    Historically, drier types of wetlands have been difficult to characterize and are not well researched. Nonetheless, they are considered to reflect the precipitation history with little, if any, regard for possible relation to groundwater. Two seasonal coastal wetland types (wet prairie, sedge meadow) were investigated during three growing seasons at three sites in the Lake Michigan Basin, Wisconsin, USA. The six seasonal wetlands were characterized using standard soil and vegetation techniques and groundwater measurements from the shallow and deep systems. They all met wetland hydrology criteria (e.g., water within 30 cm of land surface for 5% of the growing season) during the early portion of the growing season despite the lack of appreciable regional groundwater discharge into the wetland root zones. Although root-zone duration analyses did not fit a lognormal distribution previously noted in groundwater-dominated wetlands, they were able to discriminate between the plant communities and showed that wet prairie communities had shorter durations of continuous soil saturation than sedge meadow communities. These results demonstrate that the relative rates of groundwater outflows can be important for wetland hydrology and resulting wetland type. Thus, regional stresses to the shallow groundwater system such as pumping or low Great Lake levels can be expected to affect even drier wetland types. ?? Springer-Verlag 2008.

  9. Scoping Agriculture, Wetland Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture is identified as the main cause of wetland degradation and loss. Using a drivers, pressures, state changes, impacts and responses (DPSIR) framework to analyze 90 cases drawn from all parts of the world and all wetland types, this report assesses the character of agriculture - wetlands interactions (AWIs) and their impacts in socio-economic and ecosystem services terms. The report is a technical framework that is used to scope out the relevance and nature of AWIs, identify response...

  10. Wetland vegetation and nutrient retention in Nakivubo and Kirinya wetlands in the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugisha, P.; Kansiime, F.; Mucunguzi, P.; Kateyo, E.

    Wetlands form an important part of the catchment area of the African Great Lakes and protect water resources therein. One of the most important functions is the retention of nutrients from the inflowing water from the catchment, by wetland plants which store them in their phytomass. An assessment of the capacity in storing nutrients by dominant plants ( Cyeprus papyrus, Miscanthus violaceus, Phragmites mauritianus and Colocasia C. esculenta), of Nakivubo and Kirinya wetlands at the shores of Lake Victoria in Uganda, was studied through the determination of phytomass production and nutrient concentration in the plant parts at different stages of growth. The above ground phytomass production increased rapidly during the exponential growth for C. papyrus and P. mauritianus. In all the dominant plants, nitrogen concentration was highest in juvenile plants and decreased with increasing age. The most pronounced nitrogen level occurred in the young umbels of C. papyrus during the first month of growth with total nitrogen content of 1.95% DW which dropped to 0.62% DW after the fifth month in Nakivubo wetland. Corms (tubers) of yams had the highest nitrogen content in Kirinya and Nakivubo wetlands exhibiting respective values of 4.8% DW and 3.7% DW. There is a close relationship between nutrient content and increase in phytomass. In Nakivubo and Kirinya wetlands, the rapid increase in phytomass during the third and fourth month corresponded with high nutrient levels. Since plants store significant amounts of nitrogen during their growth, periodic harvesting of above ground plant parts can remove significant amounts of nutrients (during the first five months of growth) from the wastewater flowing into the two wetlands. Wetland plant species with high phytomass productivity and well developed root systems and ability to withstand flooding are the best in nutrient removal.

  11. EXPLORING MICROBIAL IRON OXIDATION IN WETLAND SOILS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; Den Oudsten, F.; Meima-Franke, M.; Vollrath, S.; Muyzer, G.; Bodelier, P.L.E.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    The release of oxygen by the roots of wetland plants creates suboxic conditions that may favour the growth of iron-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB). Given their importance in iron cycling, little is known about the diversity or distribution of these bacteria. This is largely due to the lack of efficient me

  12. MANUAL - CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS TREATMENT OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constructed wetlands are man-made wastewater treatment systems. They usually have one or more cells less than 1 meter deep and are planted with aquatic greenery. Water outlet structures control the flow of wastewater through the system to keep detention times and water levels at ...

  13. Use of created cattail ( Typha) wetlands in mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobberteen, Ross A.; Nickerson, Norton H.

    1991-11-01

    In order to balance pressures for land-use development with protection of wetland resources, artificial wetlands have been constructed in an effort to replace lost ecosystems. Despite its regulatory appeal and prominent role in current mitigation strategies, it is unclear whether or not created systems actually compensate for lost wetland resources. Mitigation predictions that rely on artificial wetlands must be analyzed critically in terms of their efficacy. Destruction of wetlands due to burial by coal fly ash at a municipal landfill in Danvers, Massachusetts, USA, provided an opportunity to compare resulting growth of created cattail ( Typha) marshes with natural wetland areas. Once the appropriate cattail species was identified for growth under disturbed landfill conditions, two types of artificial wetlands were constructed. The two systems differed in their hydrologic attributes: while one had a surface water flow characteristic of most cattail wetlands, the second system mimicked soil and water conditions found in naturally occurring floating cattail marshes. Comparison of plant growth measurements for two years from the artificial systems with published values for natural cattail marshes revealed similar structure and growth patterns. Experiments are now in progress to investigate the ability of created cattail marshes to remove and accumulate heavy metals from polluted landfill leachate. Research of the type reported here must be pursued aggressively in order to document the performance of artificial wetlands in terms of plant structure and wetland functions. Such research should allow us to start to evaluate whether artificial systems actually compensate for lost wetlands by performing similar functions and providing the concomitant public benefits.

  14. Effects of Environmental Conditions on an Urban Wetland's Methane Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naor Azrieli, L.; Morin, T. H.; Bohrer, G.; Schafer, K. V.; Brooker, M.; Mitsch, W. J.

    2013-12-01

    Methane emissions from wetlands are the largest natural source of uncertainty in the global methane (CH4) budget. Wetlands are highly productive ecosystems with a large carbon sequestration potential. While wetlands are a net sink for carbon dioxide, they also release methane, a potent greenhouse gas. To effectively develop wetland management techniques, it is important to properly calculate the carbon budget of wetlands by understand the driving factors of methane fluxes. We constructed an eddy flux covariance system in the Olentangy River Wetland Research Park, a series of created and restored wetland in Columbus Ohio. Through the use of high frequency open path infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) sensors, we have continuously monitored the methane fluxes associated with the wetland since May 2011. To account for the heterogeneous landscape surrounding the tower, a footprint analysis was used to isolate data originating from within the wetland. Continuous measurements of the meteorological and environmental conditions at the wetlands coinciding with the flux measurements allow the interactions between methane fluxes and the climate and ecological forcing to be studied. The wintertime daily cycle of methane peaks around midday indicating a typical diurnal pattern in cold months. In the summer, the peak shifts to earlier in the day and also includes a daily peak occurring at approximately 10 AM. We believe this peak is associated with the onset of photosynthesis in Typha latifolia flushing methane from the plant's air filled tissue. Correlations with methane fluxes include latent heat flux, soil temperature, and incoming radiation. The connection to radiation may be further evidence of plant activity as a driver of methane fluxes. Higher methane fluxes corresponding with higher soil temperature indicates that warmer days stimulate the methanogenic consortium. Further analysis will focus on separating the methane fluxes into emissions from different terrain types within

  15. Vegetation of natural and artificial shorelines in Upper Klamath Basin’s fringe wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Andrew M.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Hamilton, Andy S.

    2013-01-01

    The Upper Klamath Basin (UKB) in northern California and southern Oregon supports large hypereutrophic lakes surrounded by natural and artificial shorelines. Lake shorelines contain fringe wetlands that provide key ecological services to the people of this region. These wetlands also provide a context for drawing inferences about how differing wetland types and wave exposure contribute to the vegetative assemblages in lake-fringe wetlands. Here, we summarize how elevation profiles and vegetation richness vary as a function of wave exposure and wetland type. Our results show that levee wetland shorelines are 4X steeper and support fewer species than other wetland types. We also summarize the occurrence probability of the five common wetland plant species that represent the overwhelming majority of the diversity of these wetlands. In brief, the occurrence probability of the culturally significant Nuphar lutea spp. polysepala and the invasive Phalaris arundinacea in wave exposed and sheltered sites varies based on wetland type. The occurrence probability for P. arundinacea was greatest in exposed portions of deltaic shorelines, but these trends were reversed on levees where the occurrence probability was greater in sheltered sites. The widespread Schoenoplectus acutus var. acutus occurred throughout all wetland and exposure type combinations but had a higher probability of occurrence in wave exposed sites. Results from this work will add to our current understanding of how wetland shoreline profiles interact with wave exposure to influence the occurrence probability of the dominant vegetative species in UKB’s shoreline wetlands.

  16. Microbial diversity and carbon cycling in San Francisco Bay wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theroux, Susanna [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Hartman, Wyatt [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; He, Shaomei [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Tringe, Susannah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.

    2014-03-21

    Wetland restoration efforts in San Francisco Bay aim to rebuild habitat for endangered species and provide an effective carbon storage solution, reversing land subsidence caused by a century of industrial and agricultural development. However, the benefits of carbon sequestration may be negated by increased methane production in newly constructed wetlands, making these wetlands net greenhouse gas (GHG) sources to the atmosphere. We investigated the effects of wetland restoration on below-ground microbial communities responsible for GHG cycling in a suite of historic and restored wetlands in SF Bay. Using DNA and RNA sequencing, coupled with real-time GHG monitoring, we profiled the diversity and metabolic potential of wetland soil microbial communities. The wetland soils harbor diverse communities of bacteria and archaea whose membership varies with sampling location, proximity to plant roots and sampling depth. Our results also highlight the dramatic differences in GHG production between historic and restored wetlands and allow us to link microbial community composition and GHG cycling with key environmental variables including salinity, soil carbon and plant species.

  17. Ecosystem function in oil sands wetlands : rates of detrital decomposition, moss growth, and microbial respiration in oilsands wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wytrykush, C. [Windsor Univ., ON (Canada); Hornung, J. [Petro-Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    A study was conducted in which leaf litter breakdown and biomass accrual in 31 reference and oilsands affected (OS