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Sample records for monocot hydrilla verticillata

  1. Captive bubble and sessile drop surface characterization of a submerged aquatic plant, Hydrilla verticillata

    Science.gov (United States)

    The surface energy parameters of the invasive aquatic weed, Hydrilla verticillata, were determined using contact angle measurements using two different methods. The abaxial and adaxial surfaces of the leaves and stem were characterized for the weed while submerged in water using captive air and octa...

  2. Life cycle assessment of nutrient remediation and bioenergy production potential from the harvest of hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jason M; Wilkie, Ann C

    2010-12-01

    Hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata) is one of the world's most problematic invasive aquatic plants. Although management of hydrilla overgrowth has often been based on use of chemical herbicides, issues such as the emergence of herbicide-resistant hydrilla biotypes and the need for in situ nutrient remediation strategies have together raised interest in the use of harvester machines as an alternative management approach. Using a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach, we calculated a range of net energy and economic benefits associated with hydrilla harvests and the utilization of biomass for biogas and compost production. Base case scenarios that used moderate data assumptions showed net energy benefit ratios (NEBRs) of 1.54 for biogas production and 1.32 for compost production pathways. NEBRs for these respective pathways rose to 2.11 and 2.68 when labor was excluded as a fossil fuel input. Base case biogas and compost production scenarios respectively showed a monetary benefit cost ratio (BCR) of 1.79 and 1.83. Moreover, very high NEBRs (3.94 for biogas; 6.37 for compost) and BCRs (>11 for both biogas and compost) were found for optimistic scenarios in which waterways were assumed to have high hydrilla biomass density, high nutrient content in biomass, and high priority for nutrient remediation. Energy and economic returns were largely decoupled, with biogas and fertilizer providing the bulk of output energy, while nutrient remediation and herbicide avoidance dominated the economic output calculations. Based on these results, we conclude that hydrilla harvest is likely a suitable and cost-effective management program for many nutrient-impaired waters. Additional research is needed to determine how hydrilla harvesting programs may be most effectively implemented in conjunction with fish and wildlife enhancement objectives.

  3. An extract of Hydrilla verticillata and associated epiphytes induces avian vacuolar myelinopathy in laboratory mallards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Faith E; Twiner, Michael J; Leighfield, Tod A; Wilde, Susan B; Van Dolah, Frances M; Fischer, John R; Bowerman, William W

    2009-08-01

    Avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM) is a neurological disease affecting bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), American coots (Fulica americana), waterfowl, and other birds in the southeastern United States. The cause of the disease is unknown, but is thought to be a naturally produced toxin. AVM is associated with aquatic macrophytes, most frequently hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata), and researchers have linked the disease to an epiphytic cyanobacterial species associated with the macrophytes. The goal of this study was to develop an extraction protocol for separating the putative toxin from a hydrilla-cyanobacterial matrix. Hydrilla samples were collected from an AVM-affected reservoir (J. Strom Thurmond Lake, SC) and confirmed to contain the etiologic agent by mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) bioassay. These samples were then extracted using a solvent series of increasing polarity: hexanes, acetone, and methanol. Control hydrilla samples from a reference reservoir with no history of AVM (Lake Marion, SC) were extracted in parallel. Resulting extracts were administered to mallards by oral gavage. Our findings indicate that the methanol extracts of hydrilla collected from the AVM-affected site induced the disease in laboratory mallards. This study provides the first data documenting for an "extractable" AVM-inducing agent.

  4. Interspecific competition effects on phosphorus accumulation by Hydrilla verticillata and Vallisneria natans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiufeng Zhang; Zhengwen Liu

    2011-01-01

    The competition between submersed plants has been recognized as an important factor influencing the structure of plant communities in shallow lakes.The ability of different species to take up and store nutrients from the surrounding ambience varies,and hence plant community structure might be expected to affect the cycling of nutrients in lake ecosystems.In this study,the uptake of phosphorus by Hydrilla verticillata and Vallisneria natans was studied and compared in monoculture and competitive mixed-culture plantings.Results showed that for both studied species the phosphorus concentrations of different tissues and of whole plants was unaffected by competition.However,the quantity of phosphorus accumulated by whole plants of H.verticillata was significantly higher in mixture culture than in monoculture,while that of V.natans was lower in the mixed culture.The results indicated that H.verticillata has a competitive advantage over V.natant,when the two species are grown in competition,and is able to accumulate a greater quantity of phosphorus.

  5. Experimental feeding of Hydrilla verticillata colonized by stigonematales cyanobacteria induces vacuolar myelinopathy in painted turtles (Chrysemys picta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert D Mercurio

    Full Text Available Vacuolar myelinopathy (VM is a neurologic disease primarily found in birds that occurs when wildlife ingest submerged aquatic vegetation colonized by an uncharacterized toxin-producing cyanobacterium (hereafter "UCB" for "uncharacterized cyanobacterium". Turtles are among the closest extant relatives of birds and many species directly and/or indirectly consume aquatic vegetation. However, it is unknown whether turtles can develop VM. We conducted a feeding trial to determine whether painted turtles (Chrysemys picta would develop VM after feeding on Hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata, colonized by the UCB (Hydrilla is the most common "host" of UCB. We hypothesized turtles fed Hydrilla colonized by the UCB would exhibit neurologic impairment and vacuolation of nervous tissues, whereas turtles fed Hydrilla free of the UCB would not. The ability of Hydrilla colonized by the UCB to cause VM (hereafter, "toxicity" was verified by feeding it to domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus or necropsy of field collected American coots (Fulica americana captured at the site of Hydrilla collections. We randomly assigned ten wild-caught turtles into toxic or non-toxic Hydrilla feeding groups and delivered the diets for up to 97 days. Between days 82 and 89, all turtles fed toxic Hydrilla displayed physical and/or neurologic impairment. Histologic examination of the brain and spinal cord revealed vacuolations in all treatment turtles. None of the control turtles exhibited neurologic impairment or had detectable brain or spinal cord vacuolations. This is the first evidence that freshwater turtles can become neurologically impaired and develop vacuolations after consuming toxic Hydrilla colonized with the UCB. The southeastern United States, where outbreaks of VM occur regularly and where vegetation colonized by the UCB is common, is also a global hotspot of freshwater turtle diversity. Our results suggest that further investigations into the effect of the

  6. Experimental feeding of Hydrilla verticillata colonized by stigonematales cyanobacteria induces vacuolar myelinopathy in painted turtles (Chrysemys picta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, Albert D; Hernandez, Sonia M; Maerz, John C; Yabsley, Michael J; Ellis, Angela E; Coleman, Amanda L; Shelnutt, Leslie M; Fischer, John R; Wilde, Susan B

    2014-01-01

    Vacuolar myelinopathy (VM) is a neurologic disease primarily found in birds that occurs when wildlife ingest submerged aquatic vegetation colonized by an uncharacterized toxin-producing cyanobacterium (hereafter "UCB" for "uncharacterized cyanobacterium"). Turtles are among the closest extant relatives of birds and many species directly and/or indirectly consume aquatic vegetation. However, it is unknown whether turtles can develop VM. We conducted a feeding trial to determine whether painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) would develop VM after feeding on Hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata), colonized by the UCB (Hydrilla is the most common "host" of UCB). We hypothesized turtles fed Hydrilla colonized by the UCB would exhibit neurologic impairment and vacuolation of nervous tissues, whereas turtles fed Hydrilla free of the UCB would not. The ability of Hydrilla colonized by the UCB to cause VM (hereafter, "toxicity") was verified by feeding it to domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) or necropsy of field collected American coots (Fulica americana) captured at the site of Hydrilla collections. We randomly assigned ten wild-caught turtles into toxic or non-toxic Hydrilla feeding groups and delivered the diets for up to 97 days. Between days 82 and 89, all turtles fed toxic Hydrilla displayed physical and/or neurologic impairment. Histologic examination of the brain and spinal cord revealed vacuolations in all treatment turtles. None of the control turtles exhibited neurologic impairment or had detectable brain or spinal cord vacuolations. This is the first evidence that freshwater turtles can become neurologically impaired and develop vacuolations after consuming toxic Hydrilla colonized with the UCB. The southeastern United States, where outbreaks of VM occur regularly and where vegetation colonized by the UCB is common, is also a global hotspot of freshwater turtle diversity. Our results suggest that further investigations into the effect of the putative UCB toxin

  7. A CO2-flux mechanism operating via pH-polarity in Hydrilla verticillata leaves with C-3 and C-4 photosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ginkel, LC; Bowes, G; Reiskind, JB; Prins, HBA

    2001-01-01

    The aquatic angiosperm Hydrilla verticillata lacks Kranz anatomy, but has an inducible, C-4-based, CO2 concentrating mechanism (CCM) that concentrates CO2 in the chloroplasts. Both C-3 and C-4 Hydrilla leaves showed light-dependent pH polarity that was suppressed by high dissolved inorganic carbon (

  8. A social analysis of the bioinvasions of Dreissena polymorpha in Spain and Hydrilla verticillata in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binimelis, Rosa; Monterroso, Iliana; Rodríguez-Labajos, Beatriz

    2007-10-01

    Human agency plays a key role in the processes of biological invasions. This comprises not only the human role in the configuration of driving forces or in the perception of the impacts, but also the conceptualization of alien species themselves as an environmental problem. This paper examines different stakeholders' positions in bioinvasion processes at different scales, and it looks at their relevance for the management of invasive species. It compares two cases: the invasion process of Dreissena polymorpha in the Ebro River in Spain and the case of Hydrilla verticillata in Lake Izabal, Guatemala. Our results are structured according to impacts and to management options. The discussion focuses on the relevance of incorporating the different stakeholders' interests and values in the analysis and management of biological invasions. Although social analysis of stakeholders' positions is necessary in order to foster management actions, it also reveals conflicts on the relevant criteria and on the very definition of invasive species.

  9. A Social Analysis of the Bioinvasions of Dreissena polymorpha in Spain and Hydrilla verticillata in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binimelis, Rosa; Monterroso, Iliana; Rodríguez-Labajos, Beatriz

    2007-10-01

    Human agency plays a key role in the processes of biological invasions. This comprises not only the human role in the configuration of driving forces or in the perception of the impacts, but also the conceptualization of alien species themselves as an environmental problem. This paper examines different stakeholders’ positions in bioinvasion processes at different scales, and it looks at their relevance for the management of invasive species. It compares two cases: the invasion process of Dreissena polymorpha in the Ebro River in Spain and the case of Hydrilla verticillata in Lake Izabal, Guatemala. Our results are structured according to impacts and to management options. The discussion focuses on the relevance of incorporating the different stakeholders’ interests and values in the analysis and management of biological invasions. Although social analysis of stakeholders’ positions is necessary in order to foster management actions, it also reveals conflicts on the relevant criteria and on the very definition of invasive species.

  10. Effects of chitosan on growth of an aquatic plant (Hydrilla verticillata) in polluted waters with different chemical oxygen demands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Qiu-jin; NIAN Yue-gang; JIN Xiang-can; YAN Chang-zhou; LIU Jin; Jiang Gao-ming

    2007-01-01

    Effects of chitosan on a submersed plant, Hydrilla verticillata, were investigated. Results indicated that H. verticillata could prevent ultrastructure phytotoxicities and oxidativereaction from polluted water with high chemical oxygen demand (COD). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in H. verticillata treated with 0.1% chitosan in wastewater increased with high COD (980 mg/L) and decreased with low COD (63 mg/L), respectively. Ultrastructural analysis showed that the stroma and grana of chloroplast basically remained normal. However, plant cells from the control experiment (untreated with chitosan) were vacuolated and the cell interval increased. The relict of protoplast moved to the center, with cells tending to disjoint. Our findings indicate that wastewater with high COD concentration can cause a substantial damage to submersed plant, nevertheless, chitosan probably could alleviate the membrane lipid peroxidization and ultrastructure phytotoxicities, and protect plant cells from stress of high COD concentration polluted water.

  11. Application of ADM1 for modeling of biogas production from anaerobic digestion of Hydrilla verticillata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojuan; Chen, Zhihua; Wang, Xun; Huo, Chan; Hu, Zhiquan; Xiao, Bo; Hu, Mian

    2016-07-01

    The present study focused on the application of anaerobic digestion model no. 1 (ADM1) to simulate biogas production from Hydrilla verticillata. Model simulation was carried out by implementing ADM1 in AQUASIM 2.0 software. Sensitivity analysis was used to select the most sensitive parameters for estimation using the absolute-relative sensitivity function. Among all the kinetic parameters, disintegration constant (kdis), hydrolysis constant of protein (khyd_pr), Monod maximum specific substrate uptake rate (km_aa, km_ac, km_h2) and half-saturation constants (Ks_aa, Ks_ac) affect biogas production significantly, which were optimized by fitting of the model equations to the data obtained from batch experiments. The ADM1 model after parameter estimation was able to well predict the experimental results of daily biogas production and biogas composition. The simulation results of evolution of organic acids, bacteria concentrations and inhibition effects also helped to get insight into the reaction mechanisms. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. New methods for the analysis of invasion processes: multi-criteria evaluation of the invasion of Hydrilla verticillata in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterroso, I; Binimelis, R; Rodríguez-Labajos, B

    2011-03-01

    The study described in this article incorporates stakeholders' views on aquatic invasion processes and combines expert analysis with information from field work into an evaluation exercise. Management scenarios are designed based on available technical data and stakeholders' perceptions. These scenarios are evaluated using the Social Multi-Criteria Evaluation framework employing the NAIADE model. Two evaluations are carried out, technical and social. Social acceptance of different management scenarios, distribution of costs and benefits, and attribution of responsibility are discussed. The case study was carried out on Lake Izabal, a body of water connected to the Caribbean Sea in Northeastern Guatemala. In 2000, local fishermen reported the presence of an alien species in the lake, the macrophyte Hydrilla verticillata. Two years later, this alien species was established around the entire lakeshore, damaging the ecosystem, endangering native species and the subsistence of local inhabitants through impacts on transportation, fishing practices, and tourism.

  13. The Ontogeny of Hydrilla verticillata(L.f.)Royle%黑藻早期个体发育的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玫; 王臣; 刘鸣远

    2007-01-01

    对黑藻(Hydrilla verticillata)个体发育中的胚胎发育(从合子到种子胚)和种苗发育(从种子到种苗)进行了研究.发现沉水植物黑藻与挺水植物泽泻(Alisma orientale)在胚柄只有1~2个细胞、种子胚苗端发达根端未分化、萌发后根端始分化、分生区之上产生根环与下胚轴毛、初生根短命等特点上基本相同,并对这些特点进行了讨论.

  14. Evaluation of peroxidase as a biochemical indicator of toxic chemical exposure in the aquatic plant Hydrilla verticillata, Royle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byl, T.D.; Sutton, H.D.; Klaine, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    Laboratory bioassays were conducted to determine the utility of peroxidase (POD) activity as a biochemical indicator of contaminant exposure in the aquatic plant Hydrilla verticillata, Royle. The plants were exposed to anthracene, sulfometuron methyl (Oust??), Cd2+, Cr6+, Cu2+, Mn2+, and Se4+ in concentration factors of 10. POD was extracted and measured by spectrophotometric assay. There was a significant increase in POD activity after a 5-d exposure to each of the chemicals at 1 mg/L. The optimum pH for POD activity after exposure to the chemicals was 5.5 to 6.0. The increase in POD was found to be dose dependent for each of the chemicals. The lowest concentration of chemical to induce a significant POD increase was 0.01 mg/L for anthracene, Oust, Cd, Cr, and Cu; 0.1 mg/L for Se; and 1.0 mg/L for Mn.Laboratory bioassays were conducted to determine the utility of peroxidase (POD) activity as a biochemical indicator of contaminant exposure in the aquatic plant Hydrilla verticillata, Royle. The plants were exposed to anthracene, sulfometuron methyl (Oust), Cd2+, Cr6+, Cu2+, Mn2+, and Se4+ in concentration factors of 10. POD was extracted and measured by spectrophotometric assay. There was a significant increase in POD activity after a 5-d exposure to each of the chemicals at 1 mg/L. The optimum pH for POD activity after exposure to the chemicals was 5.5 to 6.0. The increase in POD was found to be dose dependent for each of the chemicals. The lowest concentration of chemical to induce a significant POD increase was 0.01 mg/L for anthracene, Oust, Cd, Cr, and Cu: 0.1 mg/L for Se; and 1.0 mg/L for Mn.

  15. Mass-Rearing Hydrellia Pakistanae Deonier and H. balciunasi Bock for the Management of Hydrilla verticillata

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    provided on rearing methods, releases, and associated costs. BACKGROUND: Hydrilla, family Hydrocharitaceae, is an exotic submersed macrophyte that...amount of topped-out, contiguous hydrilla was noted, as was the location within the reservoir (cove, boat lane, etc.). Sites containing large...as Berlese extraction with the same methods previously mentioned to monitor rearing pond numbers. Generally, two or three sites per reservoir were

  16. Evaluation of uranium removal by Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle from low level nuclear waste under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Sudhakar; Bhainsa, K C

    2016-02-01

    The present study evaluated uranium (U) removal ability and tolerance to low level nuclear waste (LLNW) of an aquatic weed Hydrilla verticillata. Plants were screened for growth in 10%-50% waste treatments up to 3 d. Treatments of 20% and 50% waste imposed increasing toxicity with duration assessed in terms of change in fresh weight and in the levels of photosynthetic pigments and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. U concentration, however, did not show a progressive increase and was about 42 μg g(-1) dw from 20% to 50% waste at 3 d. This suggested that a saturation stage was reached with respect to U removal due to increasing toxicity. However, in another experiment with 10% waste and 10% waste+10 ppm U treatments, plants showed an increase in U concentration with the maximum level approaching 426 μg g(-1) dw at 3 d without showing any toxicity as compared to that at 20% and 50% waste treatments. Hence, plants possessed significant potential to take up U and toxicity of LLNW limited their U removal ability. This implies that the use of Hydrilla plants for U removal from LLNW is feasible at low concentrations and would require repeated harvesting at short intervals.

  17. Phytochelatins and antioxidant systems respond differentially during arsenite and arsenate stress in Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, S; Mishra, S; Tripathi, R D; Dwivedi, S; Trivedi, P K; Tandon, P K

    2007-04-15

    Serious contamination of aquatic systems by arsenic (As) in different parts of the world calls for the development of an in situ cost-effective phytoremediation technology. In the present investigation, plants of Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle were exposed to various concentrations of arsenate (As(V)) (0-250 microM) and arsenite (AsIII) (0-25 microM) and analyzed for accumulation responses vis-à-vis biochemical changes. Total As accumulation was found to be higher in plants exposed to AsIII (315 microg g(-1) dw at 25 microM) compared to As(V) (205 microg g(-1) dw at 250 microM) after 7 d of treatment. Plants tolerated low concentrations of As(III) and As(V) by detoxifying the metalloid through augmented synthesis of thiols such as phytochelatins and through increased activity of antioxidant enzymes. While As(V) predominantly stimulated antioxidant enzyme activity, As(III) primarily caused enhanced levels of thiols. The maximum amount of As chelated by PCs was found to be about 39% in plants exposed to As(III) (at 10 microM) and 35% in As(V) exposed plants (at 50 microM) after 4 d. Only the respective highest concentrations of As(III) (25 microM) and As(V) (250 microM) proved toxic for normal plant growth after prolonged treatment. Thus, H. verticillata forms a promising candidate for the phytoremediation of As contaminated water.

  18. The phylogeographic structure of Hydrilla verticillata (Hydrocharitaceae) in China and its implications for the biogeographic history of this worldwide-distributed submerged macrophyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinning; Yu, Dan; Xu, Xinwei

    2015-05-24

    Aquatic vascular plants are a distinctive group, differing from terrestrial plants in their growth forms and habitats. Among the various aquatic plant life forms, the evolutionary processes of freshwater submerged species are most likely distinct due to their exclusive occurrence in the discrete and patchy aquatic habitats. Using the chloroplast trnL-F region sequence data, we investigated the phylogeographic structure of a submerged macrophyte, Hydrilla verticillata, the single species in the genus Hydrilla, throughout China, in addition to combined sample data from other countries to reveal the colonisation and diversification processes of this species throughout the world. We sequenced 681 individuals from 123 sampling locations throughout China and identified a significant phylogeographic structure (NST > GST, p China indicates that China is most likely the centre of Hydrilla genetic diversity. The worldwide distribution of Hydrilla is due to recent vicariance and dispersal events that occurred in different clades during the Pleistocene. Our findings also provide useful information for the management of invasive Hydrilla in North America.

  19. Biological Control Agents of Hydrilla Verticillata; Final Report on Surveys in East Africa, 1981-1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    eastern arm of the Rift Valley are mainly "soda" lakes (Magadi, Elmenteita, Nakuru, and Bogoria ), which are too saline to support aquatic macrophytes...J.A Lakes Magadi, Elmenteita, Nakuru, Bogoria , Turkana - no hydrilla Soda lakes of eastern Rift. First four too saline to support any submerged...inued). distribution in Uganda ( Lake Kioga), Rwanda ( Lake Bulera and Mukungwa River), and Burundi ( Lake Tanganyika). In Kenya, despite an intensive

  20. Field Surveys to Identify Biocontrol Agents of Hydrilla verticillata from June - September 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    recreational uses, out-competes native vegetation, acts as a breeding ground for mosquitoes , and destroys fish and wildlife habitats. Hydrilla is...1 Invasion Biology and Biocontrol Lab, Wuhan Botanical Institute, CAS ERDC/TN APCRP-BC-36 July 2015 3 named previously as Bagous sp. 3 and...Continued exploration will be conducted in Guangxi Province to find new agents. ERDC/TN APCRP-BC-36 July 2015 9 Rearing, biology , and host

  1. Packed-bed column biosorption of chromium(VI) and nickel(II) onto Fenton modified Hydrilla verticillata dried biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ashutosh; Tripathi, Brahma Dutt; Rai, Ashwani Kumar

    2016-10-01

    The present study represents the first attempt to investigate the biosorption potential of Fenton modified Hydrilla verticillata dried biomass (FMB) in removing chromium(VI) and nickel(II) ions from wastewater using up-flow packed-bed column reactor. Effects of different packed-bed column parameters such as bed height, flow rate, influent metal ion concentration and particle size were examined. The outcome of the column experiments illustrated that highest bed height (25cm); lowest flow rate (10mLmin(-1)), lowest influent metal concentration (5mgL(-1)) and smallest particle size range (0.25-0.50mm) are favourable for biosorption. The maximum biosorption capacity of FMB for chromium(VI) and nickel(II) removal were estimated to be 89.32 and 87.18mgg(-1) respectively. The breakthrough curves were analyzed using Bed Depth Service Time (BDST) and Thomas models. The experimental results obtained agree to both the models. Column regeneration experiments were also carried out using 0.1M HNO3. Results revealed good reusability of FMB during ten cycles of sorption and desorption. Performance of FMB-packed column in treating secondary effluent was also tested under identical experimental conditions. Results demonstrated significant reduction in chromium(VI) and nickel(II) ions concentration after the biosorption process.

  2. Removal of Organochlorine Pesticides by Hydrilla verticillata%黑藻对有机氯农药去除特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迟杰; 张雷; 吴万秀

    2011-01-01

    The potential function of hydrophytes for field bioremediation has been more and more concerned. In this work, a common hydrophyte, Hydrilla verticillata was selected to investigate its ability to remove α-HCH, γ-HCH and p,p'-DDT. The results showed that the biodegradation of α-HCH, γ-HCH and p,p'-DDT by Hydrilla verticillata followed first-order kinetics, and biodegradation rate constants were 0.086, 0.103 d-1 and 0.077 d-1, respectively. The bioconcentration factors of α-HCH, γ-HCH and p,p'-DDT by Hydrilla verticillata were significantly higher than 1, and in the order of p,p'-DDT>γ-HCH>α-HCH, α-HCH, γ-HCH and p,p'-DDT were mainly enriched in leaf. p,p'-DDD, the anaerobic product of p,p'-DDT, was detected in the experiment samples.%水生植物在水体污染修复中所起的作用越来越受到关注.采用室内培养方法,选取常见水生植物黑藻对α-HCH、γ-HCH和p,p′-DDT的去除特性进行了研究.结果表明,黑藻对α-HCH、γ-HCH和p,p′-DDT的降解符合一级反应动力学,降解速率常数分别为0.086、0.103 d-1和0.077 d-1;α-HCH、γ-HCH和p,p′-DDT在黑藻中的富集系数均显著大于1,顺序为p,p′-DDT>γ-HCH>α-HCH,主要富集在叶中;实验样品中均检出有p,p′-DDT的厌氧降解产物p,p′-DDD生成.

  3. Induction of phytochelatins in hydrilla verticillata (l.f.) Royle under cadmium stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, R.D.; Rai, U.N.; Gupta, M. [National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow (India)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    Plants tolerate Cd by sequestering them through synthesizing phytochelatins with the general structure (t-Glu-cys)n-gly where n= 2-11 depending upon the species from which these peptides are isolated. Recent biochemical evidence suggests that these peptides are synthesized via posttranslationally activated, metal-dependent enzymatic pathways from the precursor glutathione. However, most of these studies are confined to terrestrial species and only a few studies have been made on higher aquatic plants. Recently H. verticillata and other aquatic higher plants have been reported to be hyperaccumulators of Cd and have demonstrated the ability to remove many toxic metals, including Cd, from wastewater. It is hypothesized that cadmium hyperaccumulating ability of the macrophyte is associated with induction of the metal chelating peptides, the phytochelatins (PCs), to copeup with high cellular Cd levels. In view of this, it was considered worthwhile to examine the induction of phytochelatins and changes in levels of glutathione and related metabolites in H. verticillata under Cd stress.

  4. Redox state and energetic equilibrium determine the magnitude of stress in Hydrilla verticillata upon exposure to arsenate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Sudhakar; Suprasanna, Penna; D'Souza, Stanislaus Francis

    2011-10-01

    Arsenic (As) is a potential hazard to plants' health, however the mechanisms of its toxicity are yet to be properly understood. To determine the impact of redox state and energetic in stress imposition, plants of Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle, which are known to be potential accumulator of As, were exposed to 100 and 500 μM arsenate (AsV) for 4 to 96 h. Plants demonstrated significant As accumulation with the maximum being at 500 μM after 96 h (568 μg g(-1) dry weight, dw). The accumulation of As led to a significant increase in the level of reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, carbonyl, malondialdehyde, and percentage of DNA degradation. In addition, the activity of pro-oxidant enzymes like NADPH oxidase and ascorbate oxidase also showed significant increases. These parameters collectively indicated oxidative stress, which in turn caused an increase in percentage of cell death. These negative effects were seemingly linked to an altered energetic and redox equilibrium [analyzed in terms of ATP/ADP, NADH/NAD, NADPH/NADP, reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione, and ascorbate/dehydroascobate ratios]. Although there was significant increase in the levels of phytochelatins, the As chelating ligands, a large amount of As was presumably present as free ion particularly at 500 μM AsV, which supposedly produced toxic responses. In conclusion, the study demonstrated that the magnitude of disturbance to redox and energetic equilibrium of plants upon AsV exposure determines the extent of toxicity to plants.

  5. Copper-induced oxidative stress and responses of antioxidants and phytochelatins in Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Sudhakar; Mishra, Seema; Tripathi, Rudra D; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Gupta, Dharmendra K

    2006-12-30

    Copper, though essential, is potentially toxic heavy metal at supraoptimal level and has widespread contamination. The present investigation was carried out to study the responses induced by lower as well as higher doses of copper (0.1-25 microM) in an aquatic macrophyte, Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle for a period of 1-7 days. The plants accumulated copper in high amount with a maximum of 770 microg g(-1) dw on day 7 at 25 microM. Biomass and photosynthetic pigments showed less alteration up to 1 microM while at higher concentrations, significant decline occurred. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content and electrical conductivity (EC) also showed sharp increase at higher concentrations indicating oxidative stress. In response to copper exposure, plants showed significant induction of proteins and enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR), however, only up to moderate exposures. Total non-protein thiols (NP-SH) and cysteine levels increased significantly up to 5 microM copper exposure while at 25 microM, their level declined drastically. Reduced glutathione (GSH) showed decrease at all concentrations while oxidized glutathione (GSSG) simultaneously increased. Phytochelatins (PCs) were also induced significantly at studied concentrations of 1 and 5 microM on day 4 in comparison to control. However, copper chelation depicted by PC-SH to copper ratio was found to be low (6.5% at 1 microM and 2.4% at 5 microM) suggesting that PCs play only a part in integrated mechanisms of copper homeostasis and detoxification. Tolerant response of plants to moderate copper exposures and high accumulation potential warrants their suitability for remediation of moderately copper polluted water bodies.

  6. Arsenic, Zinc, and Aluminium Removal from Gold Mine Wastewater Effluents and Accumulation by Submerged Aquatic Plants (Cabomba piauhyensis, Egeria densa, and Hydrilla verticillata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Farid Abu Bakar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of three submerged aquatic plant species (Cabomba piauhyensis, Egeria densa, and Hydrilla verticillata to be used for As, Al, and Zn phytoremediation was tested. The plants were exposed for 14 days under hydroponic conditions to mine waste water effluents in order to assess the suitability of the aquatic plants to remediate elevated multi-metals concentrations in mine waste water. The results show that the E. densa and H. verticillata are able to accumulate high amount of arsenic (95.2% and zinc (93.7% and resulted in a decrease of arsenic and zinc in the ambient water. On the other hand, C. piauhyensis shows remarkable aluminium accumulation in plant biomass (83.8% compared to the other tested plants. The ability of these plants to accumulate the studied metals and survive throughout the experiment demonstrates the potential of these plants to remediate metal enriched water especially for mine drainage effluent. Among the three tested aquatic plants, H. verticillata was found to be the most applicable (84.5% and suitable plant species to phytoremediate elevated metals and metalloid in mine related waste water.

  7. Phytotoxicity and accumulation of zinc oxide nanoparticles on the aquatic plants Hydrilla verticillata and Phragmites Australis: leaf-type-dependent responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Uhram; Lee, Sunryung

    2016-05-01

    The phytotoxicity and accumulation of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on aquatic plant Hydrilla verticillata and Phragmites australis were investigated using mesocosms. The percentage of dissolved Zn in the ZnO NP treatment solutions was measured along with plant shoot growth, antioxidant enzyme activity, chlorophyll content, and Zn content. The dissolution rate of ZnO NPs in Hoagland solution was inversely related to the concentration. The submerged aquatic plant H. verticillata, growth was reduced during the early stages of the experiment when exposed to the highest ZnO NP concentration (1000 mg/L), whereas the emerged aquatic plant P. australis began to show significantly reduced growth after a few weeks. The measurements of chlorophyll content, antioxidant enzyme activity, and Zn accumulation showed that P. australis was adversely affected by NPs and absorbed more Zn than H. verticillata. The results indicated that physiological differences among aquatic plants, such as whether they use leaves or roots for nutrient and water uptake, led to differences in nanoparticle toxicity. Overall, High ZnO NP concentrations caused significant phytotoxicity on aquatic plants, and low concentrations caused unpredictable phytotoxicity. Therefore, the use and disposal of zinc oxide nanoparticles should be carefully monitored.

  8. Arsenic, zinc, and aluminium removal from gold mine wastewater effluents and accumulation by submerged aquatic plants (Cabomba piauhyensis, Egeria densa, and Hydrilla verticillata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Bakar, Ahmad Farid; Yusoff, Ismail; Fatt, Ng Tham; Othman, Faridah; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel

    2013-01-01

    The potential of three submerged aquatic plant species (Cabomba piauhyensis, Egeria densa, and Hydrilla verticillata) to be used for As, Al, and Zn phytoremediation was tested. The plants were exposed for 14 days under hydroponic conditions to mine waste water effluents in order to assess the suitability of the aquatic plants to remediate elevated multi-metals concentrations in mine waste water. The results show that the E. densa and H. verticillata are able to accumulate high amount of arsenic (95.2%) and zinc (93.7%) and resulted in a decrease of arsenic and zinc in the ambient water. On the other hand, C. piauhyensis shows remarkable aluminium accumulation in plant biomass (83.8%) compared to the other tested plants. The ability of these plants to accumulate the studied metals and survive throughout the experiment demonstrates the potential of these plants to remediate metal enriched water especially for mine drainage effluent. Among the three tested aquatic plants, H. verticillata was found to be the most applicable (84.5%) and suitable plant species to phytoremediate elevated metals and metalloid in mine related waste water.

  9. Surveys for Biological Control Agents of Hydrilla verticillata in the People’s Republic of China in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    monoecious hydrilla is widely recognized as a relatively recent introduction. It was first discovered in Delaware in 1976 (Steward et al. 1984) and has...UNCLASSIFIED c. THIS PAGE UNCLASSIFIED 54 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (include area code) Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std . 239.18

  10. Elaboración de abono orgánico a partir de plantas acuáticas: Elodea (Hydrilla verticillata) y Jacinto o Lirio de agua (Eichhornia crassipes), procedentes del Lago de Coatepeque y Lago de Güija

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes de Cabrales, Cecilia Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    El presente estudio tiene por finalidad elaborar un abono orgánico bajo la técnica de compostaje, conocida como proceso de descomposición aeróbica. Se realizaron tres formulaciones de abono a partir de las plantas acuáticas Elodea (Hydrilla verticillata) y Jacinto de agua (Eichhornia crassipes) en las siguientes proporciones: Elodea 100%, Jacinto de agua 100% y mezcla de ambas en una proporción de 50:50. A los abonos obtenidos se les realizaron análisis químico con la finalidad de cuantificar...

  11. Integrated role of ROS and Ca(+2) in blue light-induced chloroplast avoidance movement in leaves of Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Arkajo; Kar, Rup Kumar

    2016-11-01

    Directional chloroplast photorelocation is a major physio-biochemical mechanism that allows these organelles to realign themselves intracellularly in response to the intensity of the incident light as an adaptive response. Signaling processes involved in blue light (BL)-dependent chloroplast movements were investigated in Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle leaves. Treatments with antagonists of actin filaments [2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA)] and microtubules (oryzalin) revealed that actin filaments, but not microtubules, play a pivotal role in chloroplast movement. Involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in controlling chloroplast avoidance movement has been demonstrated, as exogenous H2O2 not only accelerated chloroplast avoidance but also could induce chloroplast avoidance even in weak blue light (WBL). Further support came from experiments with different ROS scavengers, i.e., dimethylthiourea (DMTU), KI, and CuCl2, which inhibited chloroplast avoidance, and from ROS localization using specific stains. Such avoidance was also partially inhibited by ZnCl2, an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase (NOX) as well as 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU), a photosynthetic electron transport chain (ETC) inhibitor at PS II. However, methyl viologen (MV), a PS I ETC inhibitor, rather accelerated avoidance response. Exogenous calcium (Ca(+2)) induced avoidance even in WBL while inhibited chloroplast accumulation partially. On the other hand, chloroplast movements (both accumulation and avoidance) were blocked by Ca(+2) antagonists, La(3+) (inhibitor of plasma membrane Ca(+2) channel) and ethylene glycol-bis(2-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA, Ca(+2) chelator) while LiCl that affects Ca(+2) release from endosomal compartments did not show any effect. A model on integrated role of ROS and Ca(+2) (influx from apolastic space) in actin-mediated chloroplast avoidance has been proposed.

  12. The Comparative Study on Photosynthesis of Hydrilla verticillata and Vallisneria natans in the Different Depth%黑藻与苦草在不同水深下光合作用的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    经博翰; 袁龙义

    2014-01-01

    Chosen the Wagouzi site with abundant submerged population in the Honghu Lake as a sampling region, the difference of photosynthesis of submerged macrophytes Hydrilla verticillata( L. f. )Royle and vallisneria natans ( Lour. )Hara which are high resistance and obsorption to the dirty water in Honghu Lake was designed to research their response in the 100 cm and 50 cm water depth by Diving-PAM apparatus. The results showed that the value of External Transfer Rate(ETR)of Hydrilla verticillata and vallisneria natans separately approached to 25. 1 μmol· m-2 · s-1 and 10 . 1 μmol · m-2 · s-1 when the value of Photosynthetic Active Radiation( PAR )was stable for 342 μmol·m-2 · s-1 under the condition of 100 cm water depth. With the PAr intensity gradually becoming strong,ETr of Hydrilla verticillata reached its peak 21. 76 μmol·m-2 ·s-1 when the PAr value was 219 μmol· m-2 ·s-1 ,as well as ETr of vallisneria natans reached its peak 12. 65 μmol·m-2 ·s-1 when the PAr value was 515 μmol·m-2 ·s-1 . On the other hand,the value of ETr of Hydrilla verticillata and vallisneria natans separately approached to 26. 2 μmol·m-2 ·s-1 and 11. 9 μmol·m-2 ·s-1 when the value of PAr was stable for 515 μmol· m-2 ·s-1 under the condition of 50 cm water depth. With the PAr intensity gradually becoming strong,ETr of Hydrilla verticillata reached its peak 25. 27 μmol·m-2 ·s-1 when the PAr value was 219 μmol·m-2 ·s-1 ,as well as ETr of vallisneria natans reached its peak 4. 80 μmol·m-2 ·s-1 when the PAr value was 1 042 μmol· m-2 ·s-1 . In summary,no matter in 100 cm or 50 cm water depth condition,photosynthesis intensity of Hydrilla verticillata is stronger than that of vallisneria natans.%以沉水植物较为丰富的洪湖凹沟子作为采样区域,利用水下调制荧光仪研究洪湖常见的2种高耐污、高吸污水鳖科沉水植物黑藻( Hydrilla verticillata( L. f.)Royle)与苦草( vallisneria natans( Lour

  13. EFFECT OF LIGHT INTENSITY, TEMPERATURE, TOTAL NITROGEN CONCENTRATION AND THEIR INTERACTION ON HYDRILLA VERTICILLATA%光强、温度、总氮浓度对黑藻生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱丹婷; 乔宁宁; 李铭红; 陈攀

    2011-01-01

    为寻求沉水植物生长的主效环境因子,探求富营养化水体沉水植物的衰亡机理并选择治理富营养化的先锋植物,实验选择长江中下游常见沉水植物种黑藻(Hydrilla verticillata),利用正交试验设计,通过室内静态模拟实验研究三种主要环境因子光照强度、温度、总氮浓度及其互作对黑藻断枝生长的影响.结果表明:光照强度和温度为影响黑藻生长的主效环境因子,并且光强与温度的交互作用对黑藻生长有较为显著的影响,具体表现为黑藻的生长指标(株高、生物量、分枝数)、光合指标(叶绿素a+b浓度、叶绿素a/b、叶绿体总色素含量)和生理活性指标(根活力、可溶性糖含量、MDA含量)的变化均与这两个环境因子及其互作呈显著相关;总氮浓度的变化对黑藻生长影响不大,在2-8 mg/L的总氮浓度下,黑藻均可以正常生长.根据本实验黑藻生长指标、光合色素含量以及生理活性在不同环境因子组合的变化结果可知,黑藻在5320-12000 lx光照强度、20℃-30℃、4-8 mg/L水体总氮浓度的条件下生长良好,故推测黑藻可作为春夏季富营养化水体中恢复和重建沉水植被的先锋工具种.%With the strengthening of freshwater eutrophication, the original aquatic vegetation gradually reduced and even disappeared, resulting in the well-functional grass type water degraded to algae-based water. Submerged plant is a key factor for the construction of stable and well-functioning freshwater ecosystems. Therefore, restoration and reconstruction of submerged plants is very important for prevention and control of eutrophication. The growth and development, decline and extinction of submerged plants are closely related with environmental factors due to their aquatic characteristics. In this study, we aim to explore the effects of light intensity, temperature, total nitrogen concentration and their interactions on the growth and development

  14. 两种沉水植物黑藻和伊乐藻的种间竞争%INTER-SPECIFIC COMPETITION BETWEEN TWO SUBMERGED MACROPHYTES, ELODEA NUTTALLII AND HYDRILLA VERTICILLATA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许经伟; 李伟; 刘贵华; 张利静; 刘文治

    2007-01-01

    采用取代系列实验方法,主要从竞争期的长短出发,研究了黑藻(Hydrilla verticillata)和伊乐藻(Elodea nuttallii)的种间竞争关系,并考查了在不同底质(土壤)肥力下两者种间竞争能力的变化情况.实验发现,伊乐藻由于具有较强的耐寒能力,在冬春时空竞争方面占有明显的优势,从而在周年实验中表现出较强的竞争优势,取代黑藻生长.而在短期实验中,黑藻由于可在水面生长形成较上位的冠层的特性,与伊乐藻相比在水体上层空间占领和阳光获取方面具有一定的优势,因此造成两种间竞争的不平衡,竞争偏利于黑藻,且这种优势随底质(土壤)肥力的增加而有所增强,但并没有明显取代现象的发生,两物种可以在混合种群中共存.

  15. Combining Plant Pathogenic Fungi and the Leaf-Mining Fly, Hydrellia pakistanae, Increases Damage to Hydrilla

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Four fungal species, F71PJ Acremonium sp., F531 Cylindrocarpon sp., F542, Botrytis sp., and F964 Fusarium culmorum [Wm. G. Sm.] Sacc. were recovered from hydrilla [ Hydrilla verticillata (L. f.) Royle] shoots or from soil and water surrounding hydrilla growing in ponds and lakes in Florida and shown to be capable of killing hydrilla in a bioassay. The isolates were tested singly and in combination with the leaf-mining fly, Hydrellia pakistanae ...

  16. 沉水植物轮叶黑藻附生细菌对双酚A的降解能力研究%Degradation of bisphenol A by the epiphytic bacteria of submerged macrophytes Hydrilla verticillata (L. f.) Royle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国森; 王玉; 庄晓瑾; 杨劭; 蒋金辉

    2016-01-01

    Epiphytic bacteria of submerged macrophytes may have the capability in biodegradation and/or biotransformation of bisphenol A (BPA) in water column, therefore affect the fate of such environmental pollutant. In this research,Hydrilla verticillata(L. f.) Royle was selected and their attached BPA degrading epiphytic bacteria attached were isolated. Among the 22bacteria strains, the BPA removal rates were from 11.46% to 25.06% with the inoculum density at 1×10-8cell/mL and culture at 37℃ for 72h. The most effective bacteria strains, B12, B14and B23 were identified asLysinibacillus sp.,Brevibacterium sp. andOchrobactrum sp., respectively, according to the results of 16S rDNA sequencing and morphological, physiological and biochemical tests. But aseptic seedlings ofH. verticillata significantly decreased their BPA removal rates after the addition with B12, B14and B23 (P<0.05). Natural seedlings of such species surprisingly increased about 5% in BPA removal after partially removing their epiphyte with physical methods. All the results indicated that epiphytic bacteria of submerged plant can remove BPA, although their contributions (about 23%) are less than the host plants in the submerged macrophytes-epiphyte associations.%沉水植物附生细菌可能具有降解转化水体中双酚 A(BPA)能力从而影响该污染物在环境中的归趋.以轮叶黑藻为代表,分离筛选其BPA降解附生菌,结果共获得22株,在接种量为1×108个/mL,37℃下72h对BPA的去除率为11.46%~25.06%.选择降解率最高的3株细菌B12、B14和B23,采用16S rDNA鉴定,结合生理生化反应和形态观察,3株细菌分别为属于Lysinibacillus sp.(杆菌属),Brevibacterium sp.(短杆菌属)和Ochrobactrum sp.(苍白杆菌属).将3株菌株添加至轮叶黑藻无菌苗体系中,发现BPA去除率显著下降(P<0.05).物理去除部分野生轮叶黑藻表面部分附生细菌后,BPA去除率反而上升(约5%).综合本研究结果,沉水植物附生细菌具有降

  17. Eficácia do diquat no controle de Hydrilla verticillata, Egeria densa e Egeria najas e toxicidade aguda para o Guaru (Phallocerus caudimaculatus, em condições de laboratório Efficacy of diquat in the control of Hydrylla verticillata, Egeria densa and Egeria najas and its acute toxicity to Phallocerus caudimaculatus, under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N.P. Henares

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, as macrófitas aquáticas submersas, Egeria densa e Egeria najas, têm causado prejuízos aos usos múltiplos da água. Hydrilla verticillata foi recentemente introduzida, mas tem histórico como planta problemática nos EUA, no México e na Austrália. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as suscetibilidades relativas dessas três macrófitas aquáticas ao diquat e os riscos da utilização desse herbicida para o guaru (Phallocerus caudimaculatus. Para isso, foram instalados ensaios em condições de laboratório, a fim de avaliar a suscetibilidade relativa das três macrófitas por meio da manutenção de ponteiros dessas plantas em soluções contendo 0,0; 0,2; 0,4; 0,8; e 1,6 mg L-1 de diquat (Reward® por 14 dias. A avaliação foi realizada pela variação do acúmulo de matéria fresca e do comprimento dos ponteiros no período de exposição ao herbicida. H. verticillata mostrou maior sensibilidade ao diquat em comparação com as duas macrófitas do gênero Egeria, mesmo em baixas concentrações do herbicida. Nas maiores concentrações, E. densa mostrou maior sensibilidade que E. najas. O risco da aplicação do diquat para P. caudimaculatus foi estimado pela toxicidade aguda. Alevinos de P. caudimaculatus de 0,4 ± 0,2 mg foram expostos a soluções de 0,0; 1,0; 5,0; 10,0; 15,0; 20,0; 25,0; e 30,0 mg L-1 de diquat. A concentração letal de 50% (CL(I (50;96h do diquat estimada para P. caudimaculatus foi de 7,17 mg L-1. Para P. caudimaculatus, a toxicidade aguda foi superior à concentração recomendada para o controle de macrófitas aquáticas submersas, indicando risco muito baixo para esse peixe.In Brazil, the submerged plants Egeria densa and Egeria najas have caused damage to multiple uses of water. Hydrilla verticillata has been recently introduced, but it has a history as a problem plant in the U.S., Mexico and Australia. The objectives of this work were to assess the relative susceptibilities of these three

  18. La descontaminación de las aguas del lago Izabal en Guatemala a través de la extracción de la planta Hydrilla verticillata (L.F Royle y su uso como sustrato alternativo para la producción de plántulas de chile pimiento en invernadero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Dimitri Santos Castillo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizaron las principales propiedades físicas, químicas y biológicas de sustratos elaborados a base de residuos de hydrilla verticillata y su efecto sobre la germinación y desarrollo durante la fase de plántula de semillas de chile pimiento (variedad tropical irazú mejorado. Al analizar los resultados obtenidos tales como agua fácilmente aprovechable, capacidad de aereación, PH, porciento de germinación, germinación acumulada ( 24 DDS, altura de la planta (cm, diámetro del tallo (cm, peso fresco de la parte aérea y sistema radical (g, materia seca de la parte aérea y radical ( % , todo ello 50 días después de siembra (50 DDS, se obtiene que el mejor tratamiento bajo las condiciones y metodologías utilizadas es el N0 12 (H30-85-15, o sea, 85% de hydrilla con 30 días de compostaje + 15 % de perlita y se recomienda como sustituto alternativo del sustrato comercial (turba de sphagnum para la producción de plántulas de chile pimiento en pilones y con ello dar uso productivo a esta planta contaminante de los lagos de Guatemala.

  19. Effects of arsenic speciation on the phytochelatins (PCs) synthesis by Hydrilla verticillata%不同形态砷对黑藻植物络合素合成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红梅; 王宏镔; 王海娟; 宋雁辉; 钟正燕

    2012-01-01

    采用反相高效液相色谱(RP-HPLC)法,研究了水培条件下3种形态砷[三价砷As(Ⅲ)、五价砷As(Ⅴ)和二甲基砷(DMA)]的5个处理浓度(0、0.3、1.0、3.0和5.0 mg·L-1)对黑藻(Hydrilla venicillata(L.f.)Royle)砷吸收和植物络合素(PCs)合成的影响.结果表明:黑藻对As表现出明显的吸收和富集效应,低浓度As能促进黑藻生长,对As (Ⅲ)的吸收显著高于As(Ⅴ)和DMA;As(Ⅲ)和As(Ⅴ)处理显著诱导了谷胱甘肽(GSH)、PC2和PC4的合成,且与黑藻体内As含量呈显著正相关(P<0.05);PCs对DMA处理不敏感,只有在0.3 mg·L-1下能合成PCs;在As( Ⅲ)处理下,GSH和PC2的合成随As(Ⅲ)浓度的增加呈先增加后减少的趋势,而PC4的合成却随As(Ⅲ)浓度的增加而增加;在As(Ⅴ)处理下,GSH的合成随As(Ⅴ)浓度的增加呈先增加后减少的趋势,而PG2和PC4的合成则随As(Ⅴ)浓度的增加而增加;在3种形态As的不同浓度处理中PC3的合成很少,只在0.3 mg·L-1下有少量合成.研究结果表明,PCs对As( Ⅲ)和As(Ⅴ)的胁迫较敏感,可选择性地作为这2种形态砷胁迫下黑藻的生物标记物.%A hydroponie experiment was conducted to study the effects of different arsenic species [As(III), As(V), and DMA] at five concentrations (0, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0 mg· L-1) on the arsenic uptake and phytochelatins (PCs) synthesis by Hydrilla verticillaia. The PCs contents were identified by reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography ( RP-HPLC). H. vertkillata had an obvious arsenic uptake and accumulation. Low concentrations arsenic promoted the growth of H. veniciilata, and the uptake of As( III) by H. vertkillata was significantly higher than that of As(V) or DMA. As(III) and As(V) promoted the synthesis of GSH, PC2, and PC4 significantly, and the synthesis was significantly positively correlated with the arsenic concentration in H. venkillala (P<0.05). DMA had little effects on the synthesis of PCs, with a detectable synthesis

  20. Exploration for Natural Enemies of Hydrilla verticillata in Eastern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    to Lake Baringo fol- lowed by Lake Naivasha bef6rb returning to Nairobi. Habitats Examined 25. The types of habitats surveyed were (a) rivers, (b... Lake Baringo , Baringo Silted and mud Typha sp. Province, Kenya brown from erosion Lake Naivasha, Photozone 1.5 m, mud Cyperus papyrus, Nakuru...consisted of two phasesi (a)a-vide survey through Tanzania and Kenya, followed by +*r’an intense survey of Lake Tanganyika, including a preliminary study

  1. Genetic Relationships among Invasive Hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata L.f. Royle) Biotypes in the US and Their Implications for Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    1 US Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS. 2 Department of Biology , Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, TX. Report...2011). Experimental crosses have revealed that female dioecious plants in Florida are potentially fertile and can produce viable seed when pollinated by...Ecology Letters 13:145-153. Harms, N. E., Grodowitz, M. J. 2011. Overwintering biology of Hydrellia pakistanae, a biological control agent of

  2. Competition Between Hydrilla verticillata and Vallisneria americana Under Different Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    interesting that this occurred only under the low fertility condition, since it has been suggested that foliar uptake and translocation of solution K to...ill. ; 28 cm. - (Technical report ; A-94-1 ) Includes bibliographic references. 1. Plant biomass. 2. Plant competition. 3. Fertilization of plants. I...of canopy-forming submersed aquatic plants, provide a habitat that is generally detrimental to fish and other desirable aquatic organisms (Newroth

  3. Surveys for Pathogens of Monoecious Hydrilla

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    purpose of the study presented herein was to survey some known populations of monoecious hydrilla and isolate potential fungal pathogens. MATERIALS ...sporulating species herein noted as dematiaceous (dark mycelium ) or moniliaceous (hyaline mycelium ) Ascomycetes (Table 1). The majority of the species

  4. Surveys for Pathogens of Monoecious Hydrilla 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    hypothesized that the growth and reproductive habits were adaptations to northern climates, which suggests a temperate origin of the plant that was...it was only mildly pathogenic; but when it was inoculated onto plants that were endophyte-infected, the stressed plants usually died. These...Netherland, and Zack Banks for collecting monoecious hydrilla samples. Thanks also go to Michael Grodowitz and Lynde Dodd for reviewing the manuscript

  5. Genome Size Dynamics and Evolution in Monocots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilia J. Leitch

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Monocot genomic diversity includes striking variation at many levels. This paper compares various genomic characters (e.g., range of chromosome numbers and ploidy levels, occurrence of endopolyploidy, GC content, chromosome packaging and organization, genome size between monocots and the remaining angiosperms to discern just how distinctive monocot genomes are. One of the most notable features of monocots is their wide range and diversity of genome sizes, including the species with the largest genome so far reported in plants. This genomic character is analysed in greater detail, within a phylogenetic context. By surveying available genome size and chromosome data it is apparent that different monocot orders follow distinctive modes of genome size and chromosome evolution. Further insights into genome size-evolution and dynamics were obtained using statistical modelling approaches to reconstruct the ancestral genome size at key nodes across the monocot phylogenetic tree. Such approaches reveal that while the ancestral genome size of all monocots was small (1C=1.9 pg, there have been several major increases and decreases during monocot evolution. In addition, notable increases in the rates of genome size-evolution were found in Asparagales and Poales compared with other monocot lineages.

  6. Surveys for Pathogens of Monoecious Hydrilla in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    2013, monoecious hydrilla was collected in the field from Strom Thurmond Reservoir in South Carolina/ Georgia , Lake Guntersville in Alabama, and Lake...Gainesville, Florida where monoecious hydrilla plants collected in Missouri, Kansas, South Carolina/ Georgia (Strom Thurmond Reservoir), and North...species” was plated onto Potato Carrot Agar (PCA; Dhingra and Sinclair 1995) and PDA and incubated at 25 oC under a grow light (plant aquarium wide

  7. Transcript profiling of a novel plant meristem, the monocot cambium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew Zinkgraf; Suzanne Gerttula; Andrew Groover

    2017-01-01

    While monocots lack the ability to produce a vascular cambium or woody growth, some monocot lineages evolved a novel lateral meristem, the monocot cambium, which supports secondary radial growth of stems. In contrast to the vascular cambium found in woody angiosperm and gymnosperm species, the monocot cambium produces secondary vascular bundles, which have an...

  8. Spectral signatures of hydrilla from a tank and field setting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alfonso BLANCO; John J.QU; William E.ROPER

    2012-01-01

    The invasion of hydrilla in many waterways has caused significant problems resulting in high maintenance costs for eradicating this invasive aquatic weed.Present identification methods employed for detecting hydrilla invasions such as aerial photography and videos are difficult,costly,and time consuming.Remote sensing has been used for assessing wetlands and other aquatic vegetation,but very little information is available for detecting hydrilla invasions in coastal estuaries and other water bodies.The objective of this study is to construct a library of spectral signatures for identifying and classifying hydrilla invasions.Spectral signatures of hydrilla were collected from an experimental tank and field locations in a coastal estuary in the upper Chesapeake Bay.These measurements collected from the experimental tank,resulted in spectral signatures with an average peak surface reflectance in the near-infrared (NIR) region of 16% at a wavelength of 818 nm.However,the spectral measurements,collected in the estuary,resulted in a very different spectral signature with two surface reflectance peaks of 6% at wavelengths of 725 nm and 818 nm.The difference in spectral signatures between sites are a result of the components in the water column in the estuary because of increased turbidity (e.g.,nutrients,dissolved matter and suspended matter),and canopy being lower (submerged) in the water column.Spectral signatures of hydrilla observed in the tank and the field had similar characteristics with low reflectance in visible region of the spectrum from 400 to 700 nm,but high in the NIR region from 700 to 900 nm.

  9. TIR-NBS-LRR genes are rare in monocots: evidence from diverse monocot orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarr D Ellen K

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant resistance (R gene products recognize pathogen effector molecules. Many R genes code for proteins containing nucleotide binding site (NBS and C-terminal leucine-rich repeat (LRR domains. NBS-LRR proteins can be divided into two groups, TIR-NBS-LRR and non-TIR-NBS-LRR, based on the structure of the N-terminal domain. Although both classes are clearly present in gymnosperms and eudicots, only non-TIR sequences have been found consistently in monocots. Since most studies in monocots have been limited to agriculturally important grasses, it is difficult to draw conclusions. The purpose of our study was to look for evidence of these sequences in additional monocot orders. Findings Using degenerate PCR, we amplified NBS sequences from four monocot species (C. blanda, D. marginata, S. trifasciata, and Spathiphyllum sp., a gymnosperm (C. revoluta and a eudicot (C. canephora. We successfully amplified TIR-NBS-LRR sequences from dicot and gymnosperm DNA, but not from monocot DNA. Using databases, we obtained NBS sequences from additional monocots, magnoliids and basal angiosperms. TIR-type sequences were not present in monocot or magnoliid sequences, but were present in the basal angiosperms. Phylogenetic analysis supported a single TIR clade and multiple non-TIR clades. Conclusion We were unable to find monocot TIR-NBS-LRR sequences by PCR amplification or database searches. In contrast to previous studies, our results represent five monocot orders (Poales, Zingiberales, Arecales, Asparagales, and Alismatales. Our results establish the presence of TIR-NBS-LRR sequences in basal angiosperms and suggest that although these sequences were present in early land plants, they have been reduced significantly in monocots and magnoliids.

  10. Transcript profiling of a novel plant meristem, the monocot cambium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinkgraf, Matthew; Gerttula, Suzanne; Groover, Andrew

    2017-06-01

    While monocots lack the ability to produce a vascular cambium or woody growth, some monocot lineages evolved a novel lateral meristem, the monocot cambium, which supports secondary radial growth of stems. In contrast to the vascular cambium found in woody angiosperm and gymnosperm species, the monocot cambium produces secondary vascular bundles, which have an amphivasal organization of tracheids encircling a central strand of phloem. Currently there is no information concerning the molecular genetic basis of the development or evolution of the monocot cambium. Here we report high-quality transcriptomes for monocot cambium and early derivative tissues in two monocot genera, Yucca and Cordyline. Monocot cambium transcript profiles were compared to those of vascular cambia and secondary xylem tissues of two forest tree species, Populus trichocarpa and Eucalyptus grandis. Monocot cambium transcript levels showed that there are extensive overlaps between the regulation of monocot cambia and vascular cambia. Candidate regulatory genes that vary between the monocot and vascular cambia were also identified, and included members of the KANADI and CLE families involved in polarity and cell-cell signaling, respectively. We suggest that the monocot cambium may have evolved in part through reactivation of genetic mechanisms involved in vascular cambium regulation. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  11. Overseas Surveys (1981-1983) for Insects to Control Hydrilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    several treatments usually required during the growing season, only high priority waters can be effectively managed. Taxonomy Identification difficulties...11. Hydrilla has been recognized as a separate species of plant since the early days of taxonomy . According to Cook and Luond’s (1982) synonomy...Order Tanaidacea Tanaids Philippines 5 LUZ32Z1, LUZ832Z2 Total 105 Glass Mollusca Order Gastropoda (Snails) Ampullariidae Burma 3 BUR82204 Malaysia I

  12. Optimal treatment increased the seed germination of Salvia verticillata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALALEH KHAKPOOR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Most seeds of the medicinal species are variable regarding their ecological compatibility with environmental conditions. Therefore, identifying the ecophysiological factors that affect dormancy and create optimal conditions for seed germination of medicinal plants is necessary for their culture and production. To evaluate the effect of different treatments on seed germination of medicinal species of Salvia verticillata, collected in the summer of 2010 in Eastern Azarbaijan, we have performed completely randomized experimental tests with 4 replications. The experimental design of treatment prior to growth included: scrape the skin with sandpaper, treatment with 500 ppm gibberellic acid for 24 and 48 h, treatment with citric acid for 10, 20 and 30 minutes, chilling for 2 and 4 weeks, treatment with warm water at 70°C and control treatment. Results showed that the effect of different treatments was significant on seed germination percent of the medicinal plant Salvia verticillata. Scrape the skin with sandpaper, citric acid treatment for 10, 20 and 30 minutes, and gibberellic acid treatment for 24 hours, increased the germination percentage compared to the control treatment. The most positive impact was observed on the dormancy breaking and germination of medicinal species Salvia verticillata.

  13. Extensins in graminaceous monocots and dicots compared

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kieliszewski, M.; Lamport, D.T.A.

    1987-04-01

    Is the cellulose-extensin warp-weft model of primary cell wall organization generally applicable, or restricted to dicots. Although wall-bound hydroxyproline is usually a quantitative measure of extensin content, it is not definitive at low hyp levels typical of graminaceous monocots. Therefore the authors searched for putative soluble extensins ionically-bound to the cell wall of maize cell suspension cultures. Fractionation of AlCl/sub 3/ eluates on cellex-P, Cellex-E, and Superose-6 gave two HRGPs CEV and CE1 which compositionally resembled extensins rather than the arabinogalactan HRGPs. CEV and CE1 did not react with Yariv's antigen, but did cross-react with antibodies raised against tomato extensin. A tryptic peptide map of CEV gave some major peptides enriched in hydroxyproline and proline residues, indicating peptide periodicity. TEM of the low-angle shadowed protein gave flexuous rodlike molecules of 80 nm contour length. This is the best evidence to date for extensin in monocots.

  14. Phytofabrication of silver nanoparticles by using aquatic plant Hydrilla verticilata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHENDRA RAI

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Sable N, Gaikwad S, Bonde S, Gade A, Rai M. 2012. Phytofabrication of silver nanoparticles by using aquatic plant Hydrilla verticilata. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 45-49. In the context of current drive to developed new green technology in nanomaterials, synthesis of nanoparticles is of considerable importance. There has been considerable work done in the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology during the last decade due to the introduction of various protocols for the synthesis of nanoparticles by using plants and microorganisms. Here we firstly report the extracellular phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs using aquatic plants Hydrilla verticilata. The characterization of the phytosynthesized Ag-NPs was done with the help of UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR, Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA, Zeta potential and SEM. The SEM micrograph revealed the synthesis of polydispersed spherical nanoparticles, with the average size of 65.55 nm. The phytofabricated Ag-NPs can be used in the field of medicine and agriculture, due to their antimicrobial potential.

  15. Cytotoxic activity of the essential oil of Salvia verticillata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Khosravi Dehaghi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Salvia is one of the largest genera of  Lamiaceae family. Several species of this genus are perfumed and wealthy in essential oils. Some of them are used in industry, pharmacy and aromatherapy. They have shown different biological effects such as antibacterial and antioxidant activity. For the present study, Salvia verticillata L. was collected from Shahrestanak, Mazandaran, Iran. Hydrodistilled essential oil from the aerial parts of this plant was obtained with a Clevenger type  apparatus  and was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Moreover, the cytotoxic activity of the essential oil was investigated against HT-29 (colon adenocarcinoma, Caco-2 (colorectal adenocarcinoma, T-47D (breast ductal carcinoma and NIH-3T3 (Swiss mouse embryo fibroblast cell lines by MTT test. 59 components were characterized from the oil with trans-caryophyllene (24.40%, β-phellandrene (9.08%, α-humulene (8.61%, bicyclogermacrene (6.32%, spathulenol (5.89% and β-pinene (5.00% as the major constituents. These compounds represented 97.67% of the essential oil and included monoterpenes (34.83% and sesquiterpens (61.84%. The results of the cytotoxicity assay demonstrated that the essential oil of S. verticillata showed higher cytotoxic effect on Caco-2 cell line.

  16. Do global diversity patterns of vertebrates reflect those of monocots?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynsey McInnes

    Full Text Available Few studies of global diversity gradients in plants exist, largely because the data are not available for all species involved. Instead, most global studies have focussed on vertebrates, as these taxa have historically been associated with the most complete data. Here, we address this shortfall by first investigating global diversity gradients in monocots, a morphologically and functionally diverse clade representing a quarter of flowering plant diversity, and then assessing congruence between monocot and vertebrate diversity patterns. To do this, we create a new dataset that merges biome-level associations for all monocot genera with country-level associations for almost all ∼70,000 species. We then assess the evidence for direct versus indirect effects of this plant diversity on vertebrate diversity using a combination of linear regression and structural equation modelling (SEM. Finally, we also calculate overlap of diversity hotspots for monocots and each vertebrate taxon. Monocots follow a latitudinal gradient although with pockets of extra-tropical diversity, mirroring patterns in vertebrates. Monocot diversity is positively associated with vertebrate diversity, but the strength of correlation varies depending on the clades being compared. Monocot diversity explains marginal amounts of variance (<10% after environmental factors have been accounted for. However, correlations remain among model residuals, and SEMs apparently reveal some direct effects of monocot richness. Our results suggest that collinear responses to environmental gradients are behind much of the congruence observed, but that there is some evidence for direct effects of producer diversity on consumer diversity. Much remains to be done before broad-scale diversity gradients among taxa are fully explained. Our dataset of monocot distributions will aid in this endeavour.

  17. Final Critical Habitat for Schiedea verticillata from the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Schiedea verticillata known historically from the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands...

  18. Cercosporoid fungi (Mycosphaerellaceae) 3. Species on monocots (Poaceae, true grasses)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braun, Uwe; Crous, Pedro W; Nakashima, Chiharu

    The third part of a series of monographic treatments of cercosporoid fungi (formerly Cercospora s. lat., Mycosphaerellaceae, Ascomycota) continues with a treatment of taxa on monocots (Liliopsida; Equisetopsida, Magnoliidae, Lilianae), covering asexual and holomorph species with mycosphaerella-like

  19. Molecular basis of development in petaloid monocot flowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Bo; Frederiksen, Signe; Skipper, Martin

    2006-01-01

    -class genes and at least two copies of A-class genes: one is expressed in floral meristems, the other in inflorescence meristems. In monocots and non-core eudicots the validity of the ABC model is under discussion. Generally, more than one functional copy is found of at least one of the B-class genes. The A......-class genes apparently are expressed in meristems of both flower and inflorescence. Morphologically petaloid stamens and styles are well known within the petaloid monocots, whereas the phenomenon is rare in core eudicots. A simple model based on the extra copies of B-class genes can explain the molecular...

  20. PERIANTH DEVELOPMENT IN THE BASAL MONOCOT TRIGLOCHIN MARITIMA (JUNCAGINACEAE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buzgo, Matyas; Soltis, Douglas E.; Soltis, Pamela S.;

    2006-01-01

    Basal monocots exhibit considerable variation in inflorescence and floral structure. In some cases, such as Triglochin maritima, it is not clear whether the lateral and terminal structures of the inflores- cence are flowers or pseudanthia, or where the limits between flowers and inflorescence lie...

  1. The role of auxin transporters in monocots development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eBalzan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Auxin is a key regulator of plant growth and development, orchestrating cell division, elongation and differentiation, embryonic development, root and stem tropisms, apical dominance and transition to flowering. Auxin levels are higher in undifferentiated cell populations and decrease following organ initiation and tissue differentiation. This differential auxin distribution is achieved by polar auxin transport (PAT mediated by auxin transport proteins. There are 4 major families of auxin transporters in plants: PINs, ABCBs, AUX/LAXs and PILS. These families include proteins located at the plasma membrane (PM or at the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER, which participate in auxin influx, efflux or both, from the apoplast into the cell or from the cytosol into the ER compartment. Auxin transporters have been largely studied in the dicotyledon model species Arabidopsis, but there is increasing evidence of their role in auxin regulated development in monocotyledon species. In monocots, families of auxin transporters are enlarged and often include duplicated genes and proteins with high sequence similarity. Some of these proteins underwent sub- and neo-functionalization with substantial modification to their structure and expression in organs such as adventitious roots, panicles, tassels and ears. Most of the present information on monocot auxin transporters function derives from studies conducted in rice, maize, sorghum and Brachypodium using pharmacological applications (PAT inhibitors or down-/up-regulation (over-expression and RNAi of candidate genes. Gene expression studies and comparison of predicted protein structures have also increased our knowledge of the role of PAT in monocots. However, knockout mutants and functional characterization of single genes are still scarce and the future availability of such resources will prove crucial to elucidate the role of auxin transporters in monocot development.

  2. Antibacterial activity of lichen Usnea rubrotincta, Ramalina dumeticola, and Cladonia verticillata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekaran, Saranyapiriya; Rajan, Vinoshene Pillai; Samsudin, Mohd. Wahid; Din, Laily; Ramanathan, Surash; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran

    2015-09-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the antibacterial activity of extract and chemical constituents of Usnea rubrotincta, Ramalina dumeticola and Cladonia verticillata. Extracts of U. rubrotincta and R. dumeticola showed promising antibacterial activity against gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The lowest value of MIC (15.63 μg/mL) was observed for the acetone extract of U. rubrotincta against B. subtilis. While extract of C. verticillata was neither active against gram positive nor gram negative bacteria at the highest tested concentration of 500 μg/m. This is the first evaluation of antibacterial activity of lichens found in Malaysia and to our knowledge, this is the first report of antibacterial

  3. Morphogenic Regulators Baby boom and Wuschel Improve Monocot Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Keith; Wu, Emily; Wang, Ning; Hoerster, George; Hastings, Craig; Cho, Myeong-Je; Scelonge, Chris; Lenderts, Brian; Chamberlin, Mark; Cushatt, Josh; Wang, Lijuan; Ryan, Larisa; Khan, Tanveer; Chow-Yiu, Julia; Hua, Wei; Yu, Maryanne; Banh, Jenny; Bao, Zhongmeng; Brink, Kent; Igo, Elizabeth; Rudrappa, Bhojaraja; Shamseer, P M; Bruce, Wes; Newman, Lisa; Shen, Bo; Zheng, Peizhong; Bidney, Dennis; Falco, S Carl; RegisterIII, James C; Zhao, Zuo-Yu; Xu, Deping; Jones, Todd J; Gordon-Kamm, William James

    2016-09-06

    While transformation of the major monocot crops is currently possible, the process typically remains confined to one or two genotypes per species, often with poor agronomics, and efficiencies that place these methods beyond the reach of most academic laboratories. Here, we report a transformation approach involving overexpression of the maize (Zea mays) Baby boom (Bbm) and maize Wuschel2 (Wus2) genes, which produced high transformation frequencies in numerous previously non-transformable maize inbred lines. For example, the Pioneer inbred PHH5G is recalcitrant to biolistic and Agrobacterium transformation. However, when Bbm and Wus2 were expressed, transgenic calli were recovered from over 40% of the starting explants, with most producing healthy, fertile plants. Another limitation for many monocots is the intensive labor and greenhouse space required to supply immature embryos for transformation. This problem could be alleviated by using alternative target tissues that could be supplied consistently with automated preparation. As a major step toward this objective, we transformed Bbm and Wus2 directly into either embryo slices from mature seed or leaf segments from seedlings in a variety of Pioneer inbred lines, routinely recovering healthy, fertile T0 plants. Finally, we demonstrated that the maize Bbm and Wus2 genes stimulate transformation in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) immature embryos, sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) callus, and indica rice (Oryza sativa var. indica) callus. {copyright, serif} 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  4. Motif content comparison between monocot and dicot species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matyas Cserhati

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available While a number of DNA sequence motifs have been functionally characterized, the full repertoire of motifs in an organism (the motifome is yet to be characterized. The present study wishes to widen the scope of motif content analysis in different monocot and dicot species that include both rice species, Brachypodium, corn, wheat as monocots and Arabidopsis, Lotus japonica, Medicago truncatula, and Populus tremula as dicots. All possible existing motifs were analyzed in different regions of genomes such as were found in different sets of sequences in these species: the whole genome, core proximal and distal promoters, 5′ and 3′ UTRs, and the 1st introns. Due to the increased number of species involved in this study compared to previous works, species relationships were analyzed based on the similarity of common motif content. Certain secondary structure elements were inferred in the genomes of these species as well as new unknown motifs. The distribution of 20 motifs common to the studied species were found to have a significantly larger occurrence within the promoters and 3′ UTRs of genes, both being regulatory regions. Motifs common to the promoter regions of japonica rice, Brachypodium, and corn were also found in a number of orthologous and paralogous genes. Some of our motifs were found to be complementary to miRNA elements in Brachypodium distachyon and japonica rice.

  5. Cercosporoid fungi (Mycosphaerellaceae) 3. Species on monocots (Poaceae, true grasses).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Uwe; Crous, Pedro W; Nakashima, Chiharu

    2015-06-01

    The third part of a series of monographic treatments of cercosporoid fungi (formerly Cercospora s. lat., Mycosphaerellaceae, Ascomycota) continues with a treatment of taxa on monocots (Liliopsida; Equisetopsida, Magnoliidae, Lilianae), covering asexual and holomorph species with mycosphaerella-like sexual morphs on true grasses (Poaceae), which were excluded from the second part. The species concerned are keyed out, alphabetically listed, described, illustrated and supplemented by references to previously published descriptions, illustrations, and exsiccatae. A key to the recognised genera and a discussion of taxonomically relevant characters was published in the first part of this series. Several species are lecto- or neotypified. The following taxonomic novelties are introduced: Cercospora barretoana comb. nov., C. cymbopogonicola nom. nov., Cladosporium elymi comb. nov., Passalora agrostidicola sp. nov., P. brachyelytri comb. nov., and P. dichanthii-annulati comb. nov.

  6. Verticillosides A-M: Polyoxygenated pregnane glycosides from Asclepias verticillata L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Juan J; Binns, Franklin; Kindscher, Kelly; Timmermann, Barbara N

    2012-06-01

    As part of our ongoing effort to explore the chemical diversity of plants of the United States Midwest region, the isolation and identification of 13 pregnane glycosides named verticillosides A-M from Asclepias verticillata L. are reported. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by various spectroscopic techniques, including 1D and 2D NMR, IR, UV, and HRMS. The cytotoxicity of the isolates was evaluated against paired breast cell lines Hs578T (cancer) and Hs578Bst (normal), however, no significant growth inhibition was observed.

  7. Correlation of Biomicroscopic Findings with Confocal Microscopy in Eyes with Amiodarone-Induced Cornea Verticillata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Kaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the correlation between biomicroscopic and confocal microscopic findings in eyes with amiodarone-induced cornea verticillata. Materials and Methods: Sixteen eyes of 8 patients with amiodarone-induced cornea verticillata were evaluated. Eyes with keratopathy were staged according to Orlando slit-lamp microscopy classification. Confocal laser-scanning microscopy was performed by Rostock cornea modulated to HRT II (Heidelberg Engineering GmbH, Heidelberg, Germany, and staging was done according to Falke’s classification that is based on the degree of epithelial basal cell deposit accumulation. The relation between biomicroscopic staging and corneal involvement detected on confocal microscopy was assessed by Spearman correlation analysis. Results: The mean age of the 8 patients (5 male, 3 female was 63.1±7.2 (50 to 69 years. The mean duration of drug treatment was 12.1±11.8 (3 to 36 months, and the mean drug treatment dose was 312.5±223.2 (100 to 800 mg/day. At the time of examination, 50% of the patients had already given up the treatment at a mean of 29.5±15.8 (6 to 40 months ago, whereas the other 50% were still on amiodarone therapy. Hyper-reflecting deposits were observed in the basal epithelium, anterior-, mid-and deep-stroma, and in the endothelium on confocal microscopic examination. Correlation was detected between biomicroscopic and confocal microscopic stages (r=0.770, p<0.001. Frequency of detecting deposits in the stroma and endothelium was found to be increasing as the biomicroscopic stage increased (r=0.844; p<0.001 and r=0.551; p<0.01, respectively. Conclusion: In amiodarone-induced cornea verticillata, correlated results were detected between biomicroscopic and confocal microscopic staging. Therefore, in clinics where confocal microscopy is not available, biomicroscopic staging can be used as a guiding parameter in eyes with amiodarone-induced cornea verticillata. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 63-67

  8. A trnI_CAU triplication event in the complete chloroplast genome of Paris verticillata M.Bieb. (Melanthiaceae, Liliales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Hoang Dang Khoa; Kim, Jung Sung; Kim, Joo-Hwan

    2014-06-19

    The chloroplast is an essential plant organelle responsible for photosynthesis. Gene duplication, relocation, and loss in the chloroplast genome (cpDNA) are useful for exploring the evolution and phylogeny of plant species. In this study, the complete chloroplast genome of Paris verticillata was sequenced using the 454 sequencing system and Sanger sequencing method to trace the evolutionary pattern in the tribe Parideae of the family Melanthiaceae (Liliales). The circular double-stranded cpDNA of P. verticillata (157,379 bp) consists of two inverted repeat regions each of 28,373 bp, a large single copy of 82,726 bp, and a small single copy of 17,907 bp. Gene content and order are generally similar to the previously reported cpDNA sequences within the order Liliales. However, we found that trnI_CAU was triplicated in P. verticillata. In addition, cemA is suspected to be a pseudogene due to the presence of internal stop codons created by poly(A) insertion and single small CA repeats. Such changes were not found in previously examined cpDNAs of the Melanthiaceae or other families of the Liliales, suggesting that such features are unique to the tribe Parideae of Melanthiaceae. The characteristics of P. verticillata cpDNA will provide useful information for uncovering the evolution within Paris and for further research of plastid genome evolution and phylogenetic studies in Liliales.

  9. Wetland dicots and monocots differ in colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and dark septate endophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weishampel, Peter A; Bedford, Barbara L

    2006-10-01

    As an initial step towards evaluating whether mycorrhizas influence composition and diversity in calcareous fen plant communities, we surveyed root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and dark septate endophytic fungi (DSE) in 67 plant species in three different fens in central New York State (USA). We found colonization by AMF and DSE in most plant species at all three sites, with the type and extent of colonization differing between monocots and dicots. On average, AMF colonization was higher in dicots (58+/-3%, mean+/-SE) than in monocots (13+/-4%) but DSE colonization followed the opposite trend (24+/-3% in monocots and 9+/-1% in dicots). In sedges and cattails, two monocot families that are often abundant in fens and other wetlands, AMF colonization was usually very low (<10%) in five species and completely absent in seven others. However, DSE colonization in these species was frequently observed. Responses of wetland plants to AMF and DSE are poorly understood, but in the fen communities surveyed, dicots appear to be in a better position to respond to AMF than many of these more abundant monocots (e.g., sedges and cattails). In contrast, these monocots may be more likely to respond to DSE. Future work directed towards understanding the response of these wetland plants to AMF and DSE should provide insight into the roles these fungal symbionts play in influencing diversity in fen plant communities.

  10. DNA barcoding of the Lemnaceae, a family of aquatic monocots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Wenqin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the aquatic monocot family Lemnaceae (commonly called duckweeds represent the smallest and fastest growing flowering plants. Their highly reduced morphology and infrequent flowering result in a dearth of characters for distinguishing between the nearly 38 species that exhibit these tiny, closely-related and often morphologically similar features within the same family of plants. Results We developed a simple and rapid DNA-based molecular identification system for the Lemnaceae based on sequence polymorphisms. We compared the barcoding potential of the seven plastid-markers proposed by the CBOL (Consortium for the Barcode of Life plant-working group to discriminate species within the land plants in 97 accessions representing 31 species from the family of Lemnaceae. A Lemnaceae-specific set of PCR and sequencing primers were designed for four plastid coding genes (rpoB, rpoC1, rbcL and matK and three noncoding spacers (atpF-atpH, psbK-psbI and trnH-psbA based on the Lemna minor chloroplast genome sequence. We assessed the ease of amplification and sequencing for these markers, examined the extent of the barcoding gap between intra- and inter-specific variation by pairwise distances, evaluated successful identifications based on direct sequence comparison of the "best close match" and the construction of a phylogenetic tree. Conclusions Based on its reliable amplification, straightforward sequence alignment, and rates of DNA variation between species and within species, we propose that the atpF-atpH noncoding spacer could serve as a universal DNA barcoding marker for species-level identification of duckweeds.

  11. Dynamics and evolution of the inverted repeat-large single copy junctions in the chloroplast genomes of monocots

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    Wu Chun-Lin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various expansions or contractions of inverted repeats (IRs in chloroplast genomes led to fluxes in the IR-LSC (large single copy junctions. Previous studies revealed that some monocot IRs contain a trnH-rps19 gene cluster, and it has been speculated that this may be an evidence of a duplication event prior to the divergence of monocot lineages. Therefore, we compared the organizations of genes flanking two IR-LSC junctions in 123 angiosperm representatives to uncover the evolutionary dynamics of IR-LSC junctions in basal angiosperms and monocots. Results The organizations of genes flanking IR-LSC junctions in angiosperms can be classified into three types. Generally each IR of monocots contains a trnH-rps19 gene cluster near the IR-LSC junctions, which differs from those in non-monocot angiosperms. Moreover, IRs expanded more progressively in monocots than in non-monocot angiosperms. IR-LSC junctions commonly occurred at polyA tract or A-rich regions in angiosperms. Our RT-PCR assays indicate that in monocot IRA the trnH-rps19 gene cluster is regulated by two opposing promoters, S10A and psbA. Conclusion Two hypotheses are proposed to account for the evolution of IR expansions in monocots. Based on our observations, the inclusion of a trnH-rps19 cluster in majority of monocot IRs could be reasonably explained by the hypothesis that a DSB event first occurred at IRB and led to the expansion of IRs to trnH, followed by a successive DSB event within IRA and lead to the expansion of IRs to rps19 or to rpl22 so far. This implies that the duplication of trnH-rps19 gene cluster was prior to the diversification of extant monocot lineages. The duplicated trnH genes in the IRB of most monocots and non-monocot angiosperms have distinct fates, which are likely regulated by different expression levels of S10A and S10B promoters. Further study is needed to unravel the evolutionary significance of IR expansion in more recently diverged

  12. Novel GLA Deletion in a Cypriot Female Presenting with Cornea Verticillata

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    Theodoros Georgiou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder resulting from a deficiency of the hydrolytic enzyme α-galactosidase A (α-Gal-A. It is characterized by progressive lysosomal accumulation of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3 and multisystem pathology, affecting the skin, nervous and cerebrovascular systems, kidneys, and heart. Heterozygous females typically exhibit milder symptoms and a later age of onset than males. Rarely, they may be relatively asymptomatic throughout a normal life span or may have symptoms as severe as those observed in males with the classic phenotype. We report on a 17-year-old female in whom cornea verticillata was found during a routine ophthalmological examination but with no other clinical symptoms. Leucocyte α-galactosidase activity was within the overlap range between Fabry heterozygotes and normal controls. Sanger sequencing of the GLA gene failed to reveal any pathogenic variants. Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA analysis revealed a deletion of exon 7. Using a long-range PCR walking approach, we managed to identify the deletion breakpoints. The deletion spans 1182 bp, with its 5′ end located within exon 6 of the GLA gene and its 3′ end located 612 bp downstream of exon 7. This finding represents a novel deletion identified in the first reported Cypriot female carrier of Fabry disease.

  13. Evaluation of Monocot and Eudicot Divergence Using the Sugarcane Transcriptome1[w

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincentz, Michel; Cara, Frank A.A.; Okura, Vagner K.; da Silva, Felipe R.; Pedrosa, Guilherme L.; Hemerly, Adriana S.; Capella, Adriana N.; Marins, Mozart; Ferreira, Paulo C.; França, Suzelei C.; Grivet, Laurent; Vettore, Andre L.; Kemper, Edson L.; Burnquist, Willian L.; Targon, Maria L.P.; Siqueira, Walter J.; Kuramae, Eiko E.; Marino, Celso L.; Camargo, Luis E.A.; Carrer, Helaine; Coutinho, Luis L.; Furlan, Luiz R.; Lemos, Manoel V.F.; Nunes, Luiz R.; Gomes, Suely L.; Santelli, Roberto V.; Goldman, Maria H.; Bacci, Maurício; Giglioti, Eder A.; Thiemann, Otávio H.; Silva, Flávio H.; Van Sluys, Marie-Anne; Nobrega, Francisco G.; Arruda, Paulo; Menck, Carlos F.M.

    2004-01-01

    Over 40,000 sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) consensus sequences assembled from 237,954 expressed sequence tags were compared with the protein and DNA sequences from other angiosperms, including the genomes of Arabidopsis and rice (Oryza sativa). Approximately two-thirds of the sugarcane transcriptome have similar sequences in Arabidopsis. These sequences may represent a core set of proteins or protein domains that are conserved among monocots and eudicots and probably encode for essential angiosperm functions. The remaining sequences represent putative monocot-specific genetic material, one-half of which were found only in sugarcane. These monocot-specific cDNAs represent either novelties or, in many cases, fast-evolving sequences that diverged substantially from their eudicot homologs. The wide comparative genome analysis presented here provides information on the evolutionary changes that underlie the divergence of monocots and eudicots. Our comparative analysis also led to the identification of several not yet annotated putative genes and possible gene loss events in Arabidopsis. PMID:15020759

  14. Long branch attraction, taxon sampling, and the earliest angiosperms: Amborella or monocots?

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    Rice Danny W

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous studies, using in aggregate some 28 genes, have achieved a consensus in recognizing three groups of plants, including Amborella, as comprising the basal-most grade of all other angiosperms. A major exception is the recent study by Goremykin et al. (2003; Mol. Biol. Evol. 20:1499–1505, whose analyses of 61 genes from 13 sequenced chloroplast genomes of land plants nearly always found 100% support for monocots as the deepest angiosperms relative to Amborella, Calycanthus, and eudicots. We hypothesized that this conflict reflects a misrooting of angiosperms resulting from inadequate taxon sampling, inappropriate phylogenetic methodology, and rapid evolution in the grass lineage used to represent monocots. Results We used two main approaches to test this hypothesis. First, we sequenced a large number of chloroplast genes from the monocot Acorus and added these plus previously sequenced Acorus genes to the Goremykin et al. (2003 dataset in order to explore the effects of altered monocot sampling under the same analytical conditions used in their study. With Acorus alone representing monocots, strongly supported Amborella-sister trees were obtained in all maximum likelihood and parsimony analyses, and in some distance-based analyses. Trees with both Acorus and grasses gave either a well-supported Amborella-sister topology or else a highly unlikely topology with 100% support for grasses-sister and paraphyly of monocots (i.e., Acorus sister to "dicots" rather than to grasses. Second, we reanalyzed the Goremykin et al. (2003 dataset focusing on methods designed to account for rate heterogeneity. These analyses supported an Amborella-sister hypothesis, with bootstrap support values often conflicting strongly with cognate analyses performed without allowing for rate heterogeneity. In addition, we carried out a limited set of analyses that included the chloroplast genome of Nymphaea, whose position as a basal angiosperm was

  15. Long branch attraction, taxon sampling, and the earliest angiosperms: Amborella or monocots?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanović, Saša; Rice, Danny W; Palmer, Jeffrey D

    2004-01-01

    Background Numerous studies, using in aggregate some 28 genes, have achieved a consensus in recognizing three groups of plants, including Amborella, as comprising the basal-most grade of all other angiosperms. A major exception is the recent study by Goremykin et al. (2003; Mol. Biol. Evol. 20:1499–1505), whose analyses of 61 genes from 13 sequenced chloroplast genomes of land plants nearly always found 100% support for monocots as the deepest angiosperms relative to Amborella, Calycanthus, and eudicots. We hypothesized that this conflict reflects a misrooting of angiosperms resulting from inadequate taxon sampling, inappropriate phylogenetic methodology, and rapid evolution in the grass lineage used to represent monocots. Results We used two main approaches to test this hypothesis. First, we sequenced a large number of chloroplast genes from the monocot Acorus and added these plus previously sequenced Acorus genes to the Goremykin et al. (2003) dataset in order to explore the effects of altered monocot sampling under the same analytical conditions used in their study. With Acorus alone representing monocots, strongly supported Amborella-sister trees were obtained in all maximum likelihood and parsimony analyses, and in some distance-based analyses. Trees with both Acorus and grasses gave either a well-supported Amborella-sister topology or else a highly unlikely topology with 100% support for grasses-sister and paraphyly of monocots (i.e., Acorus sister to "dicots" rather than to grasses). Second, we reanalyzed the Goremykin et al. (2003) dataset focusing on methods designed to account for rate heterogeneity. These analyses supported an Amborella-sister hypothesis, with bootstrap support values often conflicting strongly with cognate analyses performed without allowing for rate heterogeneity. In addition, we carried out a limited set of analyses that included the chloroplast genome of Nymphaea, whose position as a basal angiosperm was also, and very recently

  16. Bayesian phylogeny of sucrose transporters: Ancient origins, differential expansion and convergent evolution in monocots and dicots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duo ePeng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Sucrose transporters (SUTs are essential for the export and efficient movement of sucrose from source leaves to sink organs in plants. The angiosperm SUT family was previously classified into three or four distinct groups, Types I, II (subgroup IIB and III, with dicot-specific Type I and monocot-specific Type IIB functioning in phloem loading. To shed light on the underlying drivers of SUT evolution, Bayesian phylogenetic inference was undertaken using 41 sequenced plant genomes, including seven basal lineages at key evolutionary junctures. Our analysis supports four phylogenetically and structurally distinct SUT subfamilies, originating from two ancient groups (AG1 and AG2 that diverged early during terrestrial colonization. In both AG1 and AG2, multiple intron acquisition events in the progenitor vascular plant established the gene structures of modern SUTs. Tonoplastic Type III and plasmalemmal Type II represent evolutionarily conserved descendants of AG1 and AG2, respectively. Type I and Type IIB were previously thought to evolve after the dicot-monocot split. We show, however, that divergence of Type I from Type III SUT predated basal angiosperms, likely associated with evolution of vascular cambium and phloem transport. Type I SUT was subsequently lost in monocots along with vascular cambium, and independent evolution of Type IIB coincided with modified monocot vasculature. Both Type I and Type IIB underwent lineage-specific expansion. In multiple unrelated taxa, the newly-derived SUTs exhibit biased expression in reproductive tissues, suggesting a functional link between phloem loading and reproductive fitness. Convergent evolution of Type I and Type IIB for SUT function in phloem loading and reproductive organs supports the idea that differential vascular development in dicots and monocots is a strong driver for SUT family evolution in angiosperms.

  17. Genome-wide computational prediction and analysis of core promoter elements across plant monocots and dicots.

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    Sunita Kumari

    Full Text Available Transcription initiation, essential to gene expression regulation, involves recruitment of basal transcription factors to the core promoter elements (CPEs. The distribution of currently known CPEs across plant genomes is largely unknown. This is the first large scale genome-wide report on the computational prediction of CPEs across eight plant genomes to help better understand the transcription initiation complex assembly. The distribution of thirteen known CPEs across four monocots (Brachypodium distachyon, Oryza sativa ssp. japonica, Sorghum bicolor, Zea mays and four dicots (Arabidopsis thaliana, Populus trichocarpa, Vitis vinifera, Glycine max reveals the structural organization of the core promoter in relation to the TATA-box as well as with respect to other CPEs. The distribution of known CPE motifs with respect to transcription start site (TSS exhibited positional conservation within monocots and dicots with slight differences across all eight genomes. Further, a more refined subset of annotated genes based on orthologs of the model monocot (O. sativa ssp. japonica and dicot (A. thaliana genomes supported the positional distribution of these thirteen known CPEs. DNA free energy profiles provided evidence that the structural properties of promoter regions are distinctly different from that of the non-regulatory genome sequence. It also showed that monocot core promoters have lower DNA free energy than dicot core promoters. The comparison of monocot and dicot promoter sequences highlights both the similarities and differences in the core promoter architecture irrespective of the species-specific nucleotide bias. This study will be useful for future work related to genome annotation projects and can inspire research efforts aimed to better understand regulatory mechanisms of transcription.

  18. Research Progress and Perspectives of Nitrogen Fixing Bacterium, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, in Monocot Plants

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    N. Eskin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a nitrogen fixing bacterium originally found in monocotyledon sugarcane plants in which the bacterium actively fixes atmosphere nitrogen and provides significant amounts of nitrogen to plants. This bacterium mainly colonizes intercellular spaces within the roots and stems of plants and does not require the formation of the complex root organ like nodule. The bacterium is less plant/crop specific and indeed G. diazotrophicus has been found in a number of unrelated plant species. Importantly, as the bacterium was of monocot plant origin, there exists a possibility that the nitrogen fixation feature of the bacterium may be used in many other monocot crops. This paper reviews and updates the research progress of G. diazotrophicus for the past 25 years but focuses on the recent research development.

  19. Anatomy and histochemistry of the vegetative organs of Cissus verticillata: a native medicinal plant of the Brazilian Amazon

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    Andréia B. de Oliveira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to carry out an anatomical and histochemical analysis of the vegetative organs of Cissus verticillata (L. Nicolson & C.E. Jarvis, Vitaceae, to contribute for the attest the taxonomic identity of the medicinal plant. Samples from root, stem, leaf and tendril were cleared, dissociated and processed according to the usual methodology for observation under light and scanning electron microscopes. Histochemical tests were performed in order to identify polysaccharides, phenolic and lipid compounds. The C. verticillata root is typically protostelic, and the stem is eustelic with collateral bundles. The tendril presents structural organization similar to the stem, suggesting a common origin for both. The petiole has an epidermis with ornamented cuticle; the cortex is composed of collenchyma and parenchyma, and the vascular tissues are arranged in collateral bundles. The leaf blade is amphistomatic with non-glandular and glandular trichomes, and the mesophyll is dorsiventral. The identification of the idioblasts as secretion site of the phenolic compounds, mucilage and terpenoids as being responsible for the potential activity of the plant is of fundamental importance for future bioprospecting research on this species.

  20. Cloning and CharaCterization of theStrictosidine-β-D-glucosidase(SGD)Gene from Rauvolfia verticillata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongxuan XU; Kai CHANG; Lili MA; Yue ZHENG; Xiaoqiang LIU

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to clone Scrictosidine-~-D-glucosidase (SGD) gene from Rauvolfia verticillata and analyze its characteristics. [Method] The full- length cDNA of SGD was cloned from R. verticillata with RACE technique. Then the expression levels in different tissues were analyzed with quantitative RT-PCR and the bioinformatic characteristics were also predicted. [Result] The full-length cDNA of RvSGD was 1 856 bp, containing a 1 608 bp CDS that encoded 536 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 61.0 kDa and an isoelectric point of 6.16. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that RvSGD shared high similarity with SGDs from Cantharanthus roseus and Rauvolfia serpentina at the amino acids; three conserved catalytic sites His-161, Glu-207 and Glu-419 were also presented in RvSGD. Quan- titative RT-PCR showed that expression level of RvSGD was the highest in barks, followed by old leaves, roots, tender leaves and tender stems. [Conclusion] The pre- sent study helps to understand more about the functions of the SGD gene at the level of molecular genetics, and provides new targets for molecular regulation of TIAs biosynthesis.

  1. Comparative analysis of ABCB1 reveals novel structural and functional conservation between monocots and dicots

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    Amandeep Kaur Dhaliwal

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Phytohormone auxin plays a critical role in modulating plant architecture by creating a gradient regulated via its transporters such as ATP-binding cassette (ABC B1. Except for Arabidopsis and maize, where it was shown to interrupt auxin transport, ABCB1’s presence, structure and function in crop species is not known. Here we describe the structural and putative functional organization of ABCB1 among monocots relative to that of dicots. Identified from various plant species following specific and stringent criteria, ZmABCB1’s ‘true’ orthologs sequence identity ranged from 56-90% at the DNA and 75-91% at the predicted amino acid (aa level. Relative to ZmABCB1, the size of genomic copies ranged from -27 to +1.5% and aa from -7.7 to +0.6%. With the average gene size being similar (5.8 kb in monocots and 5.7 kb in dicots, dicots have about triple the number of introns with an average size of 194 bp (total 1743 bp compared to 556 bp (total 1667 bp in monocots. The intron-exon junctions across species were however conserved. N-termini of the predicted proteins were highly variable: in monocots due to mismatches and small deletions of 1-13 aa compared to large, species-specific deletions of up to 77 aa in dicots. The species- family-, and group- specific conserved motifs were identified in the N-terminus and linker regions of protein, possibly responsible for the specific functions. The near-identical conserved motifs of Nucleotide Binding Domains (NBDs in two halves of the protein showed subtle aa changes possibly favoring ATP binding to the N-terminus. Predicted 3-D protein structures showed remarkable similarity with each other and for the residues involved in auxin binding.

  2. In tropical lowland rain forests monocots have tougher leaves than dicots, and include a new kind of tough leaf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominy, N.J.; Grubb, P.J.; Jackson, R.V.

    2008-01-01

    -tolerant or gap-demanding species were considered. Conclusions: It is predicted that monocots will be found to experience lower rates of herbivory by invertebrates than dicots. The tough monocot leaves include both stiff leaves containing relatively little water at saturation (e.g. palms), and leaves which lack...... stiffness, are rich in water at saturation and roll readily during dry weather or even in bright sun around midday (e.g. gingers, heliconias and marants). Monocot leaves also show that it is possible for leaves to be notably tough throughout the expansion phase of development, something never recorded...... for dicots. The need to broaden the botanist's mental picture of a ‘tough leaf' is emphasized.   Key words: Dicots, fracture toughness, herbivory, leaves, monocots, punch strength, tropical rain forest  ...

  3. Similar genetic switch systems might integrate the floral inductive pathways in dicots and monocots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C.H.; Jensen, C.S.; Petersen, K.

    2004-01-01

    A recent paper by Million Tadege et A shows that a SOC1-like gene from rice, OsSOC1, can complement the Arabidopsis soc1 mutant, and that ectopic expression of the Arabidopsis floral repressor FLC in rice delays flowering and up-regulation of OsSOC1 These findings, together with the identificatio...... of the wheat vernalization VRN1 locus as an AP1 homologue, suggest that related genetic switch systems control floral transition in dicots and monocots but that they are based on different MADS-box transcription factors....

  4. Secoiridoids and other chemotaxonomically relevant compounds in Pedicularis: phytochemical analysis and comparison of Pedicularis rostratocapitata Crantz and Pedicularis verticillata L. from Dolomites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, Alessandro; Frezza, Claudio; Sciubba, Fabio; Foddai, Sebastiano; Serafini, Mauro; Nicoletti, Marcello; Bianco, Armandodoriano

    2016-08-01

    We compared the respective metabolite patterns of two Pedicularis species from Dolomites. Seven phenylethanoid glycosides, i.e., verbascoside (1), echinacoside (2), angoroside A (3), cistantubuloside B1 (4), wiedemannioside C (5), campneoside II (11) and cistantubuloside C1 (12), together with several iridoid glucosides as aucubin (6), euphroside (7), monomelittoside (8), mussaenosidic acid (9) and 8-epiloganic acid (13) were identified. Pedicularis verticillata showed also the presence of greatly unexpected secoiridoids, ligustroside (14) and excelside B (15), very rare compounds in Lamiales. Both PhGs and iridoids are considered of taxonomical relevance in the Asteridae and their occurrence in Pedicularis was discussed. In particular, the exclusive presence of several compounds such as 8-epiloganic acid (13), campneoside II (11), cistantubuloside C1 (12), ligustroside (14) and excelside B (15) in Pedicularis rostratocapitata, and angoroside A (3), cistantubuloside B1 (4) and wiedemannioside C (5) in P. verticillata could be considered specific markers for the two botanical entities.

  5. Chromosome studies in the aquatic monocots of Myanmar: A brief review with additional records

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    Yu Ito

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Myanmar (Burma constitutes a significant component of the Indo-Myanmar biodiversity hotspot, with elements of the Indian, the Indochina, and the Sino-Japanese floristic regions, yet thus far only a few reliable sources of the country's flora have been available. As a part of a contribution for the floristic inventory of Myanmar, since it is important in a floristic survey to obtain as much information as possible, in addition to previous two reports, here we present three more chromosome counts in the aquatic monocots of Myanmar: Limnocharis flava with 2n = 20, Sagittaria trifolia with 2n = 22 (Alismataceae, and Potamogeton distinctus × P. nodosus with 2n = 52 (Potamogetonaceae; the third one is new to science. A brief review of cytological researches in the floristic regions' 45 non-hybrid aquatic monocots plus well investigated two inter-specific hybrids that are recorded in Myanmar is given, indicating that the further works with a focus on species in Myanmar that has infra-specific chromosome variation in the floristic regions will address the precise evolutionary history of the aquatic flora of Myanmar.

  6. Chromosome studies in the aquatic monocots of Myanmar: A brief review with additional records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yu; Tanaka, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Myanmar (Burma) constitutes a significant component of the Indo-Myanmar biodiversity hotspot, with elements of the Indian, the Indochina, and the Sino-Japanese floristic regions, yet thus far only a few reliable sources of the country's flora have been available. As a part of a contribution for the floristic inventory of Myanmar, since it is important in a floristic survey to obtain as much information as possible, in addition to previous two reports, here we present three more chromosome counts in the aquatic monocots of Myanmar: Limnocharisflava with 2n = 20, Sagittariatrifolia with 2n = 22 (Alismataceae), and Potamogetondistinctus × Potamogetonnodosus with 2n = 52 (Potamogetonaceae); the third one is new to science. A brief review of cytological researches in the floristic regions' 45 non-hybrid aquatic monocots plus well investigated two inter-specific hybrids that are recorded in Myanmar is given, indicating that the further works with a focus on species in Myanmar that has infra-specific chromosome variation in the floristic regions will address the precise evolutionary history of the aquatic flora of Myanmar.

  7. KNOX1 genes regulate lignin deposition and composition in monocots and dicots.

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    Brad T Townsley

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant secondary cell walls are deposited mostly in vascular tissues such as xylem vessels, tracheids, and fibers. These cell walls are composed of a complex matrix of compounds including cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Lignin functions primarily to maintain the structural and mechanical integrity of both the transport vessel and the entire plant itself. Since lignin has been identified as a major source of biomass for biofuels, regulation of secondary cell wall biosynthesis has been a topic of much recent investigation. Biosynthesis and patterning of lignin involves many developmental and environmental cues including evolutionarily conserved transcriptional regulatory modules and hormonal signals. Here, we investigate the role of the class I KNOX genes and gibberellic acid in the lignin biosynthetic pathway in a representative monocot and a representative eudicot. Knotted1 overexpressing mutant plants showed a reduction in lignin content in both maize and tobacco. Expression of four key lignin biosynthesis genes was analyzed and revealed that KNOX1 genes regulate at least two steps in the lignin biosynthesis pathway. The negative regulation of lignin both in a monocot and a eudicot by the maize Kn1 gene suggests that lignin biosynthesis may be preserved across large phylogenetic distances. The evolutionary implications of regulation of lignification across divergent species are discussed.

  8. Diversification of the RAB Guanosine Triphosphatase Family in Dicots and Monocots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    RAB guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) are key regulators of vesicle trafficking and are essential to the growth and development of all eukaryotic cells. During evolution, the RAB family has expanded in different patterns to facilitate distinct cellular, developmental and physiological adaptations. Yeast has only 11 family members, whereas mammalian RABs have expanded to 18 RAB subfamilies. Plant RABs have diversified primarily by duplicating members within a single subfamily. Plant RABs are divided into eight subfamilies, corresponding to mammalian RAB1, RAB2, RAB5, RAB6,RAB7, RAB8, RAB11 and RAB18. Functional diversification of these is exemplified by the RAB11s, orthologs of which are partitioned into unique cell compartments in plants where they function to transport vesicles during localized tip growth.Similarly, the RAB2 family in grasses is likely involved in vesicle secretion associated with wall expansion, as determined by analysis of over-expression mutants. We propose that dicots and monocots have also diverged in their RAB profiles to accommodate unique cellular functions between the two groups. Here we present a bioinformatics analysis comparing the RAB sub-families of rice, maize and Arabidopsis. These results will guide future functional studies to test for the role of diversification of subfamilies unique to monocots compared to dicots.

  9. Enhanced Agrobacterium-mediated transformation efficiencies in monocot cells is associated with attenuated defense responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wan-Jun; Dewey, Ralph E; Boss, Wendy; Phillippy, Brian Q; Qu, Rongda

    2013-02-01

    Plant defense responses can lead to altered metabolism and even cell death at the sites of Agrobacterium infection, and thus lower transformation frequencies. In this report, we demonstrate that the utilization of culture conditions associated with an attenuation of defense responses in monocot plant cells led to highly improved Agrobacterium-mediated transformation efficiencies in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). The removal of myo-inositol from the callus culture media in combination with a cold shock pretreatment and the addition of L-Gln prior to and during Agrobacterium-infection resulted in about 84 % of the treated calluses being stably transformed. The omission of myo-inositol from the callus culture media was associated with the failure of certain pathogenesis related genes to be induced after Agrobacterium infection. The addition of a cold shock and supplemental Gln appeared to have synergistic effects on infection and transformation efficiencies. Nearly 60 % of the stably transformed calluses regenerated into green plantlets. Calluses cultured on media lacking myo-inositol also displayed profound physiological and biochemical changes compared to ones cultured on standard growth media, such as reduced lignin within the cell walls, increased starch and inositol hexaphosphate accumulation, enhanced Agrobacterium binding to the cell surface, and less H(2)O(2) production after Agrobacterium infection. Furthermore, the cold treatment greatly reduced callus browning after infection. The simple modifications described in this report may have broad application for improving genetic transformation of recalcitrant monocot species.

  10. Monocot leaves are eaten less than dicot leaves in tropical lowland rain forests: correlations with toughness and leaf presentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grubb, P.J.; Jackson, R.V.; Barberis, I.M.

    2008-01-01

    : At six sites on four continents, estimates were made of lamina area loss from the four most recently mature leaves of focal monocots and of the nearest dicot shoot. Measurements of leaf mass per unit area, and the concentrations of water and nitrogen were made for many of the species. In Panama...... of leaf mass per unit area, or concentrations of water or nitrogen. At only one site was the increase in loss from first to fourth mature leaf significant (also large and the same in monocots and dicots), but the losses sustained during expansion were much smaller in the monocots. In the leaf-cutter ant...... insects in tropical lowland rain forest, and that the relative importance varies widely with species. The difficulties of establishing unequivocally the roles of leaf toughness and leaf folding or rolling in a given case are discussed. Key words: anti-herbivore defences, dicots, herbivory, leaf folding...

  11. Determinação de massa fresca, massa seca, água e cinzas totais de folhas de Cissus verticillata (L. Nicolson & C. E. Jarvis subsp. verticillata e avaliação do processo de secagem em estufa com ventilação forçada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. BRAGA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Cissus verticillata (L. Nicolson & C. E. Jarvis subsp. verticillata (Vitaceae é conhecida popularmente como insulina vegetal, cortina japonesa, uva-brava, anil trepador e cipó-pucá e utilizada na medicina popular na forma de chá das folhas no tratamento da diabetes, como antiinflamatório, antiepilético, antihipertensivo, antitérmico, antireumático, antigripal e contra infecções respiratórias. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os teores de massa fresca, massa seca, percentual de água e percentual de cinzas totais, visando melhoria das condições de secagem, armazenamento, dispensação e uso pela população. As folhas da espécie foram coletadas no bairro Antônio Dias, Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Foram selecionadas, lavadas e secas em estufa com ventilação forçada à 45ºC e determinou-se as cinzas totais e perda por dessecação (através do método gravimétrico, ambos de acordo com a Farmacopéia Brasileira. Os resultados mostraram que as folhas de C. verticillata subsp. verticillata possuem alto teor de água. O processo de secagem em estufa de ventilação forçada, a temperatura de 45ºC, foi eficaz, proporcionando folhas com 11,47% de umidade e 17,99% de cinzas totais. Palavras-chave: Cissus verticillata; insulina vegetal; qualidade; gravimetria.

  12. Conserved Subgroups and Developmental Regulation in the Monocot rop Gene Family1[w

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Todd M.; Vejlupkova, Zuzana; Sharma, Yogesh K.; Arthur, Kirstin M.; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Albright, Carol A.; Meeley, Robert B.; Duvick, Jon P.; Quatrano, Ralph S.; Fowler, John E.

    2003-01-01

    Rop small GTPases are plant-specific signaling proteins with roles in pollen and vegetative cell growth, abscisic acid signal transduction, stress responses, and pathogen resistance. We have characterized the rop family in the monocots maize (Zea mays) and rice (Oryza sativa). The maize genome contains at least nine expressed rops, and the fully sequenced rice genome has seven. Based on phylogenetic analyses of all available Rops, the family can be subdivided into four groups that predate the divergence of monocots and dicots; at least three have been maintained in both lineages. However, the Rop family has evolved differently in the two lineages, with each exhibiting apparent expansion in different groups. These analyses, together with genetic mapping and identification of conserved non-coding sequences, predict orthology for specific rice and maize rops. We also identified consensus protein sequence elements specific to each Rop group. A survey of ROP-mRNA expression in maize, based on multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and a massively parallel signature sequencing database, showed significant spatial and temporal overlap of the nine transcripts, with high levels of all nine in tissues in which cells are actively dividing and expanding. However, only a subset of rops was highly expressed in mature leaves and pollen. Intriguingly, the grouping of maize rops based on hierarchical clustering of expression profiles was remarkably similar to that obtained by phylogenetic analysis. We hypothesize that the Rop groups represent classes with distinct functions, which are specified by the unique protein sequence elements in each group and by their distinct expression patterns. PMID:14605221

  13. Evaluation of the antimicrobial efficacy of Minthostachys verticillata essential oil and limonene against Streptococcus uberis strains isolated from bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montironi, Ivana D; Cariddi, Laura N; Reinoso, Elina B

    Bovine mastitis is a disease that causes great economic losses per year, being Streptococcus uberis the main environmental pathogen involved. The aim of the present study was to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of Minthostachys verticillata essential oil and limonene for S. uberis strains isolated from bovine mastitis. In addition, the effect of MIC on biofilm formation was analyzed. MIC values for the essential oil ranged from 14.3 to 114.5mg/ml (1.56-12.5%v/v) and MBC between 114.5 and 229mg/ml (12.5-25%v/v). MICs for limonene ranged from 3.3 to 52.5mg/ml (0.39-6.25%v/v) and MBC was 210mg/ml (25%v/v). Both compounds showed antibacterial activity and affected the biofilm formation of most of the strains tested. In conclusion, these compounds could be used as an alternative and/or complementary therapy for bovine mastitis caused by S. uberis. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Mechanisms underlying the long-term survival of the monocot Dracaena marginata under drought conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupa, Radek; Plichta, Roman; Paschová, Zuzana; Nadezhdina, Nadezhda; Gebauer, Roman

    2017-09-01

    Efficient water management is essential for the survival of vascular plants under drought stress. While interrelations among drought stress, plant anatomy and physiological functions have been described in woody dicots, similar research is very limited for non-palm arborescent and shrubby monocots despite their generally high drought tolerance. In this study, potted transplants of Dracaena marginata Lam. in primary growth stage were exposed to several short- and long-term drought periods. Continuous measurements of sap flow and stem diameter, the evaluation of capacitance and leaf conductance, the quantification of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC), and organ-specific anatomical analyses were performed to reveal the mechanisms promoting plant resistance to limited soil moisture. The plants showed sensitive stomata regulation in the face of drying soil, but only intermediate resistance to water loss through cuticular transpiration. The water losses were compensated by water release from stem characterized by densely interconnected, parenchyma-rich ground tissue and considerable hydraulic capacitance. Our results suggest that the high concentration of osmotically active NSC in aboveground organs combined with the production of root pressures supported water uptake and the restoration of depleted reserves after watering. The described anatomical features and physiological mechanisms impart D. marginata with high resistance to irregular watering and long-term water scarcity. These findings should help to improve predictions with respect to the impacts of droughts on this plant group. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Lower Miocene plant assemblage with coastal-marsh herbaceous monocots from the Vienna Basin (Slovakia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvaček, Zlatko; Teodoridis, Vasilis; Kováčová, Marianna; Schlögl, Ján; Sitár, Viliam

    2014-06-01

    A new plant assemblage of Cerová-Lieskové from Lower Miocene (Karpatian) deposits in the Vienna Basin (western Slovakia) is preserved in a relatively deep, upper-slope marine environment. Depositional conditions with high sedimentation rates allowed exceptional preservation of plant remains. The plant assemblage consists of (1) conifers represented by foliage of Pinus hepios and Tetraclinis salicornioides, a seed cone of Pinus cf. ornata, and by pollen of the Cupressaceae, Pinaceae, Pinus sp. and Cathaya sp., and (2) angiosperms represented by Cinnamomum polymorphum, Platanus neptuni, Potamogeton sp. and lauroid foliage, by pollen of Liquidambar sp., Engelhardia sp. and Craigia sp., and in particular by infructescences (so far interpreted as belonging to cereal ears). We validate genus and species assignments of the infructescences: they belong to Palaeotriticum Sitár, including P. mockii Sitár and P. carpaticum Sitár, and probably represent herbaceous monocots that inhabited coastal marshes, similar to the living grass Spartina. Similar infructescences occur in the Lower and Middle Miocene deposits of the Carpathian Foredeep (Slup in Moravia), Tunjice Hills (Žale in Slovenia), and probably also in the Swiss Molasse (Lausanne). This plant assemblage demonstrates that the paleovegetation was represented by evergreen woodland with pines and grasses in undergrowth, similar to vegetation inhabiting coastal brackish marshes today. It also indicates subtropical climatic conditions in the Vienna Basin (central Paratethys), similar to those implied by other coeval plant assemblages from Central Europe

  16. CRISPR/Cas9-Based Multiplex Genome Editing in Monocot and Dicot Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xingliang; Liu, Yao-Guang

    2016-07-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9-mediated genome targeting system has been applied to a variety of organisms, including plants. Compared to other genome-targeting technologies such as zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), the CRISPR/Cas9 system is easier to use and has much higher editing efficiency. In addition, multiple "single guide RNAs" (sgRNAs) with different target sequences can be designed to direct the Cas9 protein to multiple genomic sites for simultaneous multiplex editing. Here, we present a procedure for highly efficient multiplex genome targeting in monocot and dicot plants using a versatile and robust CRISPR/Cas9 vector system, emphasizing the construction of binary constructs with multiple sgRNA expression cassettes in one round of cloning using Golden Gate ligation. We also describe the genotyping of targeted mutations in transgenic plants by direct Sanger sequencing followed by decoding of superimposed sequencing chromatograms containing biallelic or heterozygous mutations using the Web-based tool DSDecode. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  17. Lower Miocene plant assemblage with coastal-marsh herbaceous monocots from the Vienna Basin (Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvaček Zlatko

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A new plant assemblage of Cerová-Lieskové from Lower Miocene (Karpatian deposits in the Vienna Basin (western Slovakia is preserved in a relatively deep, upper-slope marine environment. Depositional conditions with high sedimentation rates allowed exceptional preservation of plant remains. The plant assemblage consists of (1 conifers represented by foliage of Pinus hepios and Tetraclinis salicornioides, a seed cone of Pinus cf. ornata, and by pollen of the Cupressaceae, Pinaceae, Pinus sp. and Cathaya sp., and (2 angiosperms represented by Cinnamomum polymorphum, Platanus neptuni, Potamogeton sp. and lauroid foliage, by pollen of Liquidambar sp., Engelhardia sp. and Craigia sp., and in particular by infructescences (so far interpreted as belonging to cereal ears. We validate genus and species assignments of the infructescences: they belong to Palaeotriticum Sitár, including P. mockii Sitár and P. carpaticum Sitár, and probably represent herbaceous monocots that inhabited coastal marshes, similar to the living grass Spartina. Similar infructescences occur in the Lower and Middle Miocene deposits of the Carpathian Foredeep (Slup in Moravia, Tunjice Hills (Žale in Slovenia, and probably also in the Swiss Molasse (Lausanne. This plant assemblage demonstrates that the paleovegetation was represented by evergreen woodland with pines and grasses in undergrowth, similar to vegetation inhabiting coastal brackish marshes today. It also indicates subtropical climatic conditions in the Vienna Basin (central Paratethys, similar to those implied by other coeval plant assemblages from Central Europe

  18. Functional conservation of the meiotic genes SDS and RCK in male meiosis in the monocot rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Chang; Hong Ma; Hong-Wei Xue

    2009-01-01

    The Arabidopsis SDS (SOLO DANCERS) and RCK (ROCK-N-ROLLERS) genes are important for male meiosis, but it is still unknown whether they represent conserved functions in plants. We have performed phylogenetic analy-ses of SDS and RCK and their respective homologs, and identified their putative orthologs in poplar and rice. Quan-titative real-time RT-PCR analysis indicated that rice SDS and RCK are expressed preferentially in young flowers, and transgenic RNAi rice lines with reduced expression of these genes exhibited normal vegetative development, but showed significantly reduced fertility with partially sterile flowers and defective pollens. SDS deficiency also caused a decrease in pollen amounts. Further cytological examination of male meiocytes revealed that the SDS deficiency led to defects in homolog interaction and bivalent formation in meiotic prophase I, and RCK deficiency resulted in defec-tive meiotic crossover formation. These results indicate that rice SDS and RCK genes have similar functions to their Arabidopsis orthologs. Because rice and Arabidopsis, respectively, are members of monocots and eudicots, two largest groups of flowering plants, our results suggest that the functions of SDS and RCK are likely conserved in flowering plants.

  19. Rice Brittleness Mutants: A Way to Open the 'Black Box' of Monocot Cell Wall Biosynthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baocai Zhang; Yihua Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Rice is a model organism for studying the mechanism of cell wall biosynthesis and remolding in Gramineae.Mechanical strength is an important agronomy trait of rice(Oryza sativa L.)plants that affects crop lodging and grain yield.As a prominent physical property of cell walls,mechanical strength reflects upon the structure of different wall polymers and how they interact.Studies on the mechanisms that regulate the mechanical strength therefore consequently results in uncovering the genes functioning in cell wall biosynthesis and remodeling.Our group focuses on the study of isolation of brittle culm(bc)mutants and characterization of their corresponding genes.To date,several bc mutants have been reported.The identified genes have covered several pathways of cell wall biosynthesis,revealing many secrets of monocot cell wall biosynthesis.Here,we review the progress achieved in this research field and also highlight the perspectives in expectancy.All of those lend new insights into mechanisms of cell wall formation and are helpful for harnessing the waste rice straws for biofuel production.

  20. Systematic Comparisons of Orthologous Selenocysteine Methyltransferase and Homocysteine Methyltransferase Genes from Seven Monocots Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-yong ZHAO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Identifying and manipulating genes underlying selenium metabolism could be helpful for increasing selenium content in crop grain, which is an important way to overcome diseases resulted from selenium deficiency. A reciprocal smallest distance algorithm (RSD approach was applied using two experimentally confirmed Homocysteine S-Methyltransferases genes (HMT1 and HMT2 and a putative Selenocysteine Methyltransferase (SMT from dicots plant Arabidopsis thaliana, to explore their orthologs in seven sequenced diploid monocot species: Oryza sativa, Zea mays, Sorghum bicolor, Brachypodium distachyon, Hordeum vulgare, Aegilops tauschii (the D-genome donor of common wheat and Triticum urartu (the A-genome donor of common wheat. HMT1 was apparently diverged from HMT2 and most of SMT orthologs were the same with that of HMT2 in this study, leading to the hypothesis that SMT and HMT originate from one common ancestor gene. Identifying orthologs provide candidates for further experimental confirmation; also it could be helpful in designing primers to clone SMT or HMT orthologs in other crops.

  1. Contractile roots in succulent monocots: convergence, divergence and adaptation to limited rainfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Gretchen B; Brinton, Erin K; Garrett, Tadao Y

    2008-08-01

    Contractile roots (CRs) that pull shoots further down in the soil are a possible example of convergent evolution in two monocot families, the Agavaceae and the Asphodelaceae. The association between CRs, water uptake and habitat aridity was investigated for agaves, yuccas and aloes by assessing the occurrence of CRs and the amount of root contraction for glasshouse-grown plants with respect to mean annual rainfall of their native habitats. Structural features of CRs as well as root hydraulic conductance were compared with those of non-contractile roots (NCRs). CRs occurred in 55% of the 73 species examined, including 64% of the agaves and 85% of the yuccas, but in none of the aloes despite the occurrence of CRs in related genera. The phylogenetic distribution of CRs was consistent with multiple acquisitions or losses of the trait. The amount of root contraction showed a highly significant negative relationship with mean annual rainfall, although other environmental factors may also be important. Radial hydraulic conductance of the basal (contractile) zone exceeded that of the midroot zone for CRs; for NCRs, the opposite was true. Thus, CRs in the species examined may provide a mechanism for greater water uptake near the soil surface in regions with limited rainfall.

  2. Structural Comparison, Substrate Specificity, and Inhibitor Binding of AGPase Small Subunit from Monocot and Dicot: Present Insight and Future Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishore Sarma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase is the first rate limiting enzyme of starch biosynthesis pathway and has been exploited as the target for greater starch yield in several plants. The structure-function analysis and substrate binding specificity of AGPase have provided enormous potential for understanding the role of specific amino acid or motifs responsible for allosteric regulation and catalytic mechanisms, which facilitate the engineering of AGPases. We report the three-dimensional structure, substrate, and inhibitor binding specificity of AGPase small subunit from different monocot and dicot crop plants. Both monocot and dicot subunits were found to exploit similar interactions with the substrate and inhibitor molecule as in the case of their closest homologue potato tuber AGPase small subunit. Comparative sequence and structural analysis followed by molecular docking and electrostatic surface potential analysis reveal that rearrangements of secondary structure elements, substrate, and inhibitor binding residues are strongly conserved and follow common folding pattern and orientation within monocot and dicot displaying a similar mode of allosteric regulation and catalytic mechanism. The results from this study along with site-directed mutagenesis complemented by molecular dynamics simulation will shed more light on increasing the starch content of crop plants to ensure the food security worldwide.

  3. Genomic analysis of NAC transcription factors in banana (Musa acuminata) and definition of NAC orthologous groups for monocots and dicots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenci, Albero; Guignon, Valentin; Roux, Nicolas; Rouard, Mathieu

    2014-05-01

    Identifying the molecular mechanisms underlying tolerance to abiotic stresses is important in crop breeding. A comprehensive understanding of the gene families associated with drought tolerance is therefore highly relevant. NAC transcription factors form a large plant-specific gene family involved in the regulation of tissue development and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The main goal of this study was to set up a framework of orthologous groups determined by an expert sequence comparison of NAC genes from both monocots and dicots. In order to clarify the orthologous relationships among NAC genes of different species, we performed an in-depth comparative study of four divergent taxa, in dicots and monocots, whose genomes have already been completely sequenced: Arabidopsis thaliana, Vitis vinifera, Musa acuminata and Oryza sativa. Due to independent evolution, NAC copy number is highly variable in these plant genomes. Based on an expert NAC sequence comparison, we propose forty orthologous groups of NAC sequences that were probably derived from an ancestor gene present in the most recent common ancestor of dicots and monocots. These orthologous groups provide a curated resource for large-scale protein sequence annotation of NAC transcription factors. The established orthology relationships also provide a useful reference for NAC function studies in newly sequenced genomes such as M. acuminata and other plant species.

  4. sparse inflorescence1 encodes a monocot-specific YUCCA-like gene required for vegetative and reproductive development in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallavotti, Andrea; Barazesh, Solmaz; Malcomber, Simon; Hall, Darren; Jackson, David; Schmidt, Robert J; McSteen, Paula

    2008-09-30

    The plant growth hormone auxin plays a critical role in the initiation of lateral organs and meristems. Here, we identify and characterize a mutant, sparse inflorescence1 (spi1), which has defects in the initiation of axillary meristems and lateral organs during vegetative and inflorescence development in maize. Positional cloning shows that spi1 encodes a flavin monooxygenase similar to the YUCCA (YUC) genes of Arabidopsis, which are involved in local auxin biosynthesis in various plant tissues. In Arabidopsis, loss of function of single members of the YUC family has no obvious effect, but in maize the mutation of a single yuc locus causes severe developmental defects. Phylogenetic analysis of the different members of the YUC family in moss, monocot, and eudicot species shows that there have been independent expansions of the family in monocots and eudicots. spi1 belongs to a monocot-specific clade, within which the role of individual YUC genes has diversified. These observations, together with expression and functional data, suggest that spi1 has evolved a dominant role in auxin biosynthesis that is essential for normal maize inflorescence development. Analysis of the interaction between spi1 and genes regulating auxin transport indicate that auxin transport and biosynthesis function synergistically to regulate the formation of axillary meristems and lateral organs in maize.

  5. Preliminary Testing of Mycoleptodiscus terrestris Formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    submersed macrophyte , Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle (hydrilla). BACKGROUND: As herbicide resistance becomes an increasing problem worldwide...Mycoleptodiscus terrestris, as a biocontrol agent for the management of Myriophyllum spicatum in Lake Guntersville Reservoir . Technical Report A-96-4

  6. Using Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Technologies to Detect and Map Two Aquatic Macrophytes

    OpenAIRE

    Everitt, J.H.; Yang, C.; Escobar, D.E.; Webster, C.F.; Lonard, R.I.; Davis, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the light reflectance characteristics ofwaterhyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mort.) Solms] and hydrilla [Hydrilla verticillata (L.F.) Royle] and the application of airborned videography with global positioning system (GPS) and geographic information system (GIS) technologies for distinguishing and mapping the distribution of these two aquatic weeds in waterways of southern Texas. Field reflectance measurements made at several locations showed that waterhyacinth generall...

  7. 萝芙木中化学成分的研究%Chemical constituents of Rauvolfia verticillata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪博; 李文静; 赵春杰

    2012-01-01

    为研究夹竹桃科植物萝芙术的化学成分及药理活性,通过硅胶、凝胶LH-20、反相开口柱等色谱方法进行分离纯化.根据化合物的理化性质和波谱数据鉴定化学结构,从氯仿层提取物中分离得到3个吲哚类生物碱和1个吖啶酮类生物碱,分别鉴定为萝芙碱B(1)、山德维辛碱(2)、萝尼生(3)和7—羟基—吖啶酮(4).化合物1为新化合物,属于吲哚类生物碱.化合物4是吖啶酮类生物碱,为首次从萝芙木属植物中分离得到的化合物类型.本文对化合物4这一新类型的生物碱做了生物活性研究,以发掘萝芙木除降压以外其他的药理活性.%The study on the Rauvolfia verticillata (Lour.) Baill., which belongs to Apocynaeeae, was carried out to look for its chemical constituents and pharmacological activity. The isolation and purification were performed by chromatography on silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and ODS (octadecyl silane) open column. The structures of obtained compounds were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral analysis. Three indole alkaloids and one acridone alkaloid were isolated from chloroform layer extract and identified as ajmalicine B (1), sandwicine (2), raunescine (3) and 7-hydroxynoracronycine (4) separately. Ajmalicine B (1) is a new compound belonging to indole alkaloid. Compound 4 as an acridone alkaloid was a new type compound isolated from Rauvolfia genus for the first time. We also did some biological activity research on the new type compound (4) to explore other pharmacological activities in addition to antihypertensive activity.

  8. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Effects of Organic Amendments to Sediment on Freshwater Macrophyte Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    The growth of three submersed macrophyte species (Myriophyllum spicatum, Hyjdri11a verticillata, and Elodea canadensis) and three partially emergent... Elodea canadensis Rich. in Michx; and Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Caspary. Nomenclature follows Godfrey and Wooten (1979, 1981). The first two species

  9. Identification and characterization of NF-Y transcription factor families in the monocot model plant Brachypodium distachyon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuanghe Cao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nuclear Factor Y (NF-Y is a heterotrimeric transcription factor composed of NF-YA, NF-YB and NF-YC proteins. Using the dicot plant model system Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis, NF-Y were previously shown to control a variety of agronomically important traits, including drought tolerance, flowering time, and seed development. The aim of the current research was to identify and characterize NF-Y families in the emerging monocot model plant Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium with the long term goal of assisting in the translation of known dicot NF-Y functions to the grasses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified, annotated, and further characterized 7 NF-YA, 17 NF-YB, and 12 NF-YC proteins in Brachypodium (BdNF-Y. By examining phylogenetic relationships, orthology predictions, and tissue-specific expression patterns for all 36 BdNF-Y, we proposed numerous examples of likely functional conservation between dicots and monocots. To test one of these orthology predictions, we demonstrated that a BdNF-YB with predicted orthology to Arabidopsis floral-promoting NF-Y proteins can rescue a late flowering Arabidopsis mutant. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The Brachypodium genome encodes a similar complement of NF-Y to other sequenced angiosperms. Information regarding NF-Y phylogenetic relationships, predicted orthologies, and expression patterns can facilitate their study in the grasses. The current data serves as an entry point for translating many NF-Y functions from dicots to the genetically tractable monocot model system Brachypodium. In turn, studies of NF-Y function in Brachypodium promise to be more readily translatable to the agriculturally important grasses.

  10. Pollen dispersal in fragmented populations of the dioecious wind-pollinated tree, Allocasuarina verticillata (drooping sheoak, drooping she-oak; Allocasuarinaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Broadhurst

    Full Text Available Vegetation clearing, land modification and agricultural intensification have impacted on many ecological communities around the world. Understanding how species respond to fragmentation and the scales over which functionality is retained, can be critical for managing biodiversity in agricultural landscapes. Allocasuarina verticillata (drooping sheoak, drooping she-oak is a dioecious, wind-pollinated and -dispersed species with key conservation values across southeastern Australia. But vegetation clearing associated with agricultural expansion has reduced the abundance and spatial distribution of this species in many regions. Spatial genetic structure, relatedness among trees, pollen dispersal and mating patterns were examined in fragmented A. verticillata populations selected to represent the types of remnants that now characterise this species. Short scale spatial genetic structure (5-25 m and relatedness among trees were observed in most populations. Unexpectedly, the two male trees closest to each female did not have a reproductive advantage accounting for only 4-15% of the seed produced in larger populations. Biparental inbreeding was also generally low (<4% with limited evidence of seed crop domination by some male trees. More male trees contributed to seed crops in linear remnants (mean 17 compared to those from patch remnants (mean 11.3 which may reflect differences in pollen dispersal within the two remnant types. On average, pollen travels ~100 m irrespective of remnant type but was also detected to have dispersed as far as 1 km in open landscapes. Low biparental inbreeding, limited reproductive assurance for near-neighbour and probably related males and variability in the distances over which females sample pollen pools suggest that some mechanism to prevent matings between relatives exists in this species.

  11. OsWRKY22, a monocot WRKY gene, plays a role in the resistance response to blast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbruscato, Pamela; Nepusz, Tamás; Mizzi, Luca; Del Corvo, Marcello; Morandini, Piero; Fumasoni, Irene; Michel, Corinne; Paccanaro, Alberto; Guiderdoni, Emmanuel; Schaffrath, Ulrich; Morel, Jean-Benoît; Piffanelli, Pietro; Faivre-Rampant, Odile

    2012-10-01

    With the aim of identifying novel regulators of host and nonhost resistance to fungi in rice, we carried out a systematic mutant screen of mutagenized lines. Two mutant wrky22 knockout lines revealed clear-cut enhanced susceptibility to both virulent and avirulent Magnaporthe oryzae strains and altered cellular responses to nonhost Magnaporthe grisea and Blumeria graminis fungi. In addition, the analysis of the pathogen responses of 24 overexpressor OsWRKY22 lines revealed enhanced resistance phenotypes on infection with virulent M. oryzae strain, confirming that OsWRKY22 is involved in rice resistance to blast. Bioinformatic analyses determined that the OsWRKY22 gene belongs to a well-defined cluster of monocot-specific WRKYs. The co-regulatory analysis revealed no significant co-regulation of OsWRKY22 with a representative panel of OsWRKYs, supporting its unique role in a series of transcriptional responses. In contrast, inquiring a subset of biotic stress-related Affymetrix data, a large number of resistance and defence-related genes were found to be putatively co-expressed with OsWRKY22. Taken together, all gathered experimental evidence places the monocot-specific OsWRKY22 gene at the convergence point of signal transduction circuits in response to both host and nonhost fungi encountering rice plants.

  12. A high throughput barley stripe mosaic virus vector for virus induced gene silencing in monocots and dicots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Yuan

    Full Text Available Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV is a single-stranded RNA virus with three genome components designated alpha, beta, and gamma. BSMV vectors have previously been shown to be efficient virus induced gene silencing (VIGS vehicles in barley and wheat and have provided important information about host genes functioning during pathogenesis as well as various aspects of genes functioning in development. To permit more effective use of BSMV VIGS for functional genomics experiments, we have developed an Agrobacterium delivery system for BSMV and have coupled this with a ligation independent cloning (LIC strategy to mediate efficient cloning of host genes. Infiltrated Nicotiana benthamiana leaves provided excellent sources of virus for secondary BSMV infections and VIGS in cereals. The Agro/LIC BSMV VIGS vectors were able to function in high efficiency down regulation of phytoene desaturase (PDS, magnesium chelatase subunit H (ChlH, and plastid transketolase (TK gene silencing in N. benthamiana and in the monocots, wheat, barley, and the model grass, Brachypodium distachyon. Suppression of an Arabidopsis orthologue cloned from wheat (TaPMR5 also interfered with wheat powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici infections in a manner similar to that of the A. thaliana PMR5 loss-of-function allele. These results imply that the PMR5 gene has maintained similar functions across monocot and dicot families. Our BSMV VIGS system provides substantial advantages in expense, cloning efficiency, ease of manipulation and ability to apply VIGS for high throughput genomics studies.

  13. The phylogenetically-related pattern recognition receptors EFR and XA21 recruit similar immune signaling components in monocots and dicots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Holton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During plant immunity, surface-localized pattern recognition receptors (PRRs recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs. The transfer of PRRs between plant species is a promising strategy for engineering broad-spectrum disease resistance. Thus, there is a great interest in understanding the mechanisms of PRR-mediated resistance across different plant species. Two well-characterized plant PRRs are the leucine-rich repeat receptor kinases (LRR-RKs EFR and XA21 from Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis and rice, respectively. Interestingly, despite being evolutionary distant, EFR and XA21 are phylogenetically closely related and are both members of the sub-family XII of LRR-RKs that contains numerous potential PRRs. Here, we compared the ability of these related PRRs to engage immune signaling across the monocots-dicots taxonomic divide. Using chimera between Arabidopsis EFR and rice XA21, we show that the kinase domain of the rice XA21 is functional in triggering elf18-induced signaling and quantitative immunity to the bacteria Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pto DC3000 and Agrobacterium tumefaciens in Arabidopsis. Furthermore, the EFR:XA21 chimera associates dynamically in a ligand-dependent manner with known components of the EFR complex. Conversely, EFR associates with Arabidopsis orthologues of rice XA21-interacting proteins, which appear to be involved in EFR-mediated signaling and immunity in Arabidopsis. Our work indicates the overall functional conservation of immune components acting downstream of distinct LRR-RK-type PRRs between monocots and dicots.

  14. Comparative genomics of multiple strains of Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis, a potential model pathogen of both monocots and dicots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis F Sarris

    Full Text Available Comparative genomics of closely related pathogens that differ in host range can provide insights into mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions and host adaptation. Furthermore, sequencing of multiple strains with the same host range reveals information concerning pathogen diversity and the molecular basis of virulence. Here we present a comparative analysis of draft genome sequences for four strains of Pseudomonas cannabina pathovar alisalensis (Pcal, which is pathogenic on a range of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. These draft genome sequences provide a foundation for understanding host range evolution across the monocot-dicot divide. Like other phytopathogenic pseudomonads, Pcal strains harboured a hrp/hrc gene cluster that codes for a type III secretion system. Phylogenetic analysis based on the hrp/hrc cluster genes/proteins, suggests localized recombination and functional divergence within the hrp/hrc cluster. Despite significant conservation of overall genetic content across Pcal genomes, comparison of type III effector repertoires reinforced previous molecular data suggesting the existence of two distinct lineages within this pathovar. Furthermore, all Pcal strains analyzed harbored two distinct genomic islands predicted to code for type VI secretion systems (T6SSs. While one of these systems was orthologous to known P. syringae T6SSs, the other more closely resembled a T6SS found within P. aeruginosa. In summary, our study provides a foundation to unravel Pcal adaptation to both monocot and dicot hosts and provides genetic insights into the mechanisms underlying pathogenicity.

  15. Characterization of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. NAC transcription factors suggests conserved functions compared to both monocots and dicots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregersen Per L

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The NAC transcription factor family is involved in the regulation of traits in both monocots and dicots of high agronomic importance. Understanding the precise functions of the NAC genes can be of utmost importance for the improvement of cereal crop plants through plant breeding. For the cereal crop plant barley (Hordeum vulgare L. only a few NAC genes have so far been investigated. Results Through searches in publicly available barley sequence databases we have obtained a list of 48 barley NAC genes (HvNACs with 43 of them representing full-length coding sequences. Phylogenetic comparisons to Brachypodium, rice, and Arabidopsis NAC proteins indicate that the barley NAC family includes members from all of the eight NAC subfamilies, although by comparison to these species a number of HvNACs still remains to be identified. Using qRT-PCR we investigated the expression profiles of 46 HvNACs across eight barley tissues (young flag leaf, senescing flag leaf, young ear, old ear, milk grain, late dough grain, roots, and developing stem and two hormone treatments (abscisic acid and methyl jasmonate. Conclusions Comparisons of expression profiles of selected barley NAC genes with the published functions of closely related NAC genes from other plant species, including both monocots and dicots, suggest conserved functions in the areas of secondary cell wall biosynthesis, leaf senescence, root development, seed development, and hormone regulated stress responses.

  16. Enhancement of innate immune system in monocot rice by transferring the dicotyledonous elongation factor Tu receptor EFR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fen Lu; Huiqin Wang; Shanzhi Wang; Wendi Jiang; Changlin Shan; Bin Li; Jun Yang; Shiyong Zhang; Wenxian Sun

    2015-01-01

    The elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) receptor (EFR) in cruciferous plants specifical y recognizes the N-terminal acetylated elf18 region of bacterial EF-Tu and thereby activates plant immunity. It has been demonstrated that Arabidopsis EFR confers broad-spectrum bacterial resistance in the EFR transgenic solanaceous plants. Here, the transgenic rice plants (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica cv. Zhonghua 17) and cel cultures with constitutive expression of AtEFR were developed to investigate whether AtEFR senses EF-Tu and thus enhances bacterial resistance in the monocot plants. We demonstrated that the Xanthomonas oryzae-derived elf18 peptide induced oxidative burst and mitogen-activated protein kinase activa-tion in the AtEFR transgenic rice cel s and plants, respectively. Pathogenesis-related genes, such as OsPBZ1, were upregulated dramatical y in transgenic rice plant and cel lines in response to elf18 stimulation. Importantly, pretreatment with elf18 trig-gered strong resistance to X. oryzae pv. oryzae in the transgenic plants, which was largely dependent on the AtEFR expression level. These plants also exhibited enhanced resistance to rice bacterial brown stripe, but not to rice fungal blast. Col ectively, the results indicate that the rice plants with heterologous expression of AtEFR recognize bacterial EF-Tu and exhibit enhanced broad-spectrum bacterial disease resistance and that pattern recognition receptor-mediated immunity may be manipulated across the two plant classes, dicots and monocots.

  17. Diversification of genes encoding granule-bound starch synthase in monocots and dicots is marked by multiple genome-wide duplication events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Cheng

    Full Text Available Starch is one of the major components of cereals, tubers, and fruits. Genes encoding granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS, which is responsible for amylose synthesis, have been extensively studied in cereals but little is known about them in fruits. Due to their low copy gene number, GBSS genes have been used to study plant phylogenetic and evolutionary relationships. In this study, GBSS genes have been isolated and characterized in three fruit trees, including apple, peach, and orange. Moreover, a comprehensive evolutionary study of GBSS genes has also been conducted between both monocots and eudicots. Results have revealed that genomic structures of GBSS genes in plants are conserved, suggesting they all have evolved from a common ancestor. In addition, the GBSS gene in an ancestral angiosperm must have undergone genome duplication ∼251 million years ago (MYA to generate two families, GBSSI and GBSSII. Both GBSSI and GBSSII are found in monocots; however, GBSSI is absent in eudicots. The ancestral GBSSII must have undergone further divergence when monocots and eudicots split ∼165 MYA. This is consistent with expression profiles of GBSS genes, wherein these profiles are more similar to those of GBSSII in eudicots than to those of GBSSI genes in monocots. In dicots, GBSSII must have undergone further divergence when rosids and asterids split from each other ∼126 MYA. Taken together, these findings suggest that it is GBSSII rather than GBSSI of monocots that have orthologous relationships with GBSS genes of eudicots. Moreover, diversification of GBSS genes is mainly associated with genome-wide duplication events throughout the evolutionary course of history of monocots and eudicots.

  18. A Phylogeny of the Monocots, as Inferred from rbcL and atpA Sequence Variation, and a Comparison of Methods for Calculating Jackknife and Bootstrap Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Jerrold I.; Stevenson, Dennis W.; Petersen, Gitte;

    2004-01-01

    A phylogenetic analysis of the monocots was conducted on the basis of nucleotide sequence variation in two genes (atpA, encoded in the mitochondrial genome, and rbcL, encoded in the plastid genome). The taxon sample of 218 angiosperm terminals included 177 monocots and 41 dicots. Among the major ...

  19. Nuevas citas de monocotiledóneas adventicias para la Argentina New records of adventitious monocots for Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio A. Hurrell

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo incluye cinco nuevos registros de monocotiledóneas adventicias para la Argentina: Aloe ciliaris Haw. (Asphodelaceae, Aspidistra elatior Blume (Convallariaceae, Sansevieria trifasciata Prain (Dracaenaceae, Phormium tenax J. R. Forst. & G. Forst. (Hemerocallidaceae y Ornithogalum arabicum L. (Hyacinthaceae, pertenecientes al orden Asparagales. También incluye una evaluación del estado actual de estas especies, en relación al proceso de naturalización: escapadas de cultivo ocasionales, naturalizadas.This paper includes five new records of adventitious monocots for Argentina: Aloe ciliaris Haw. (Asphodelaceae, Aspidistra elatior Blume (Convallariaceae, Sansevieria trifasciata Prain (Dracaenaceae, Phormium tenax J. R. Forst. & G. Forst. (Hemerocallidaceae and Ornithogalum arabicum L. (Hyacinthaceae, belonging to order Asparagales. Also includes an evaluation of its status in the naturalization process: casual alien, naturalized.

  20. Gene duplication and an accelerated evolutionary rate in 11S globulin genes are associated with higher protein synthesis in dicots as compared to monocots

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    Li Chun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seed storage proteins are a major source of dietary protein, and the content of such proteins determines both the quantity and quality of crop yield. Significantly, examination of the protein content in the seeds of crop plants shows a distinct difference between monocots and dicots. Thus, it is expected that there are different evolutionary patterns in the genes underlying protein synthesis in the seeds of these two groups of plants. Results Gene duplication, evolutionary rate and positive selection of a major gene family of seed storage proteins (the 11S globulin genes, were compared in dicots and monocots. The results, obtained from five species in each group, show more gene duplications, a higher evolutionary rate and positive selections of this gene family in dicots, which are rich in 11S globulins, but not in the monocots. Conclusion Our findings provide evidence to support the suggestion that gene duplication and an accelerated evolutionary rate may be associated with higher protein synthesis in dicots as compared to monocots.

  1. Lumichrome and riboflavin are two novel symbiotic signals eliciting developmental changes in both monocot and dicot plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Dapare Dakora

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lumichrome and riboflavin are novel molecules from rhizobial exudates that stimulate plant growth. Developmental changes elicited by lumichrome at very low nanomolar concentrations (5 nM include early initiation of trifoliate leaves, expansion of unifoliate and trifoliate leaves, increased stem elongation and leaf area, and consequently greater biomass accumulation in monocots and dicots. However, higher lumichrome concentration (50 nM depressed root development and reduced growth of unifoliate and second trifoliate leaves. Applying either 10 nM lumichrome, 10 nM ABA, or 10 ml of infective rhizobial cells (0.2 OD600 to roots of monocots and dicots for 44 h produced identical effects, which included decreased stomatal conductance and leaf transpiration in Bambara groundnut, soybean and maize, increased stomatal conductance and transpiration in cowpea and lupin, and elevated root respiration in maize (19% by rhizobia and 20% by lumichrome. Extracellular exudation of lumichrome, riboflavin and IAA was greater in N2-fixing rhizobia than non-fixing bacteria, indicating their role as symbiotic signals. Xylem concentration of lumichrome in cowpea and soybean was greater in plants inoculated with infective rhizobia and treated with lumichrome (61.2 µmol lumichrome.ml-1 sap, followed by uninoculated plants receiving lumichrome (41.12 µmol lumichrome.ml-1 sap, and lowest in uninoculated, lumichrome-free plants (26.8 µmol lumichrome.ml-1 sap. Overall, soybean showed greater xylem concentration of lumichrome and a correspondingly increased accumulation in leaves relative to cowpea. As a result, soybean exhibited dramatic developmental changes than cowpea. Taken together, lumichrome and riboflavin secreted by soil rhizobia function as environmental cues for sensing stress. The fact that exogenous application of ABA to plant roots caused the same effect as lumichrome on stomatal functioning suggests molecular cross-talk in plant response to environmental

  2. Structural characterization and molecular identification of arbuscular mycorrhiza morphotypes of Alzatea verticillata (Alzateaceae), a prominent tree in the tropical mountain rain forest of South Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Adela; Haug, Ingeborg; Oberwinkler, Franz; Kottke, Ingrid

    2007-10-01

    The vast majority of the highly diverse trees in the tropical mountain rain forest of South Ecuador form arbuscular mycorrhizas, and previous molecular investigations revealed a high diversity of fungi. In this study, we present a first trial to link fungal DNA-sequences with defined morphotypes characterized on the basis of partly new mycelial features obtained from field material of one tree species, Alzatea verticillata. Fine roots were halved lengthwise to study the mycelium anatomy on one half and to obtain fungal nuclear rDNA coding for the small subunit rRNA of Glomeromycota from the other half. Light microscopy revealed conspicuously large amounts of mycelium attaching to the surface of the rootlets. The mycelium formed fine- or large-branched appressoria-like plates, vesicles of regular or irregular shape, and very fine, multibranched structures ensheathed by septate hyphae. These previously undescribed features of the supraradical mycelia combined with intraradical mycelium structures were used for distinguishing of four main morphogroups and subordinate 14 morphotypes. DNA sequences of Glomus group A, Acaulospora and Gigaspora, were obtained and linked to three morphogroups. Two sequence types within Glomus group A could be tentatively associated to subordinate morphotypes.

  3. Inductive effect of the leaf mixture extract of Aloe buettneri, Justicia insularis, Dicliptera verticillata and Hibiscus macranthus on in vitro production of estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telefo, P B; Moundipa, P F; Tchouanguep, F M

    2004-04-01

    In the course of a preliminary clarification of the mechanisms of the leaf mixture extract of Aloe buettneri, Justicia insularis, Dicliptera verticillata and Hibiscus macranthus, locally used to regulate the menstrual cycle and to treat dysmenorrhea or cases of infertility in women, pieces of proestrus rat ovary were incubated in the presence of increasing concentration of the plant extract and/or human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG). The in vitro production of estradiol and progesterone by ovarian cells of proestrus rat was significantly increased in the presence of various concentration of hCG (P < 0.05). The different concentration of the plant extract increased the production of estradiol by twofold. In addition, the in vitro production of estradiol by ovarian cells increased by 13-fold when they were incubated with hCG (0.1 IU/ml) and a concentration of 130 microg/ml of the plant extract. These results clearly attest the direct effects of some chemical components of the leaf mixture of the plants on ovarian steroidogenesis.

  4. Structural variations among monocot emergent and amphibious species from lakes of the semi-arid region of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KRB Leite

    Full Text Available Temporary lakes are common in the semi-arid region of the State of Bahia and form water mirrors in the rainy season. In this period, various vegetal species appear having different life forms adapted to the seasonality conditions of the rainfall regime. This work surveyed the adaptive anatomical structures of some emergent and amphibious monocot species occurring in these lakes. We studied the anatomy of roots, rhizomes, leaves and scapes of Cyperus odoratus, Oxycaryum cubense, Pycreus macrostachyos (Cyperaceae - amphibious species; and of Echinodorus grandiflorus (Alismataceae, Eichhornia paniculata (Pontederiaceae and Habenaria repens (Orchidaceae - emergent species. The anatomical features of the dermal, fundamental and vascular systems confirming the tendency of the adaptive convergence of these plants to temporary lacustrine the environment include: single layered epidermal cells with a thin cuticle layer in the aerial organs; the presence of air canals in all the organs; few or no supporting tissues; and less numerous conducting elements and thinner cell walls in the xylem. The reduction of the supporting tissues, the number of stomata, which can even be absent, and the number of conducting elements and the degree of cell wall lignification in the xylem of the emergent species is more accentuated than that of the amphibious species. The pattern of distribution of aerenchyma in the roots of the studied species was considered important to distinguish between amphibious and emergent life forms.

  5. Transcriptome analysis during somatic embryogenesis of the tropical monocot Elaeis guineensis: evidence for conserved gene functions in early development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsiang-Chun; Morcillo, Fabienne; Dussert, Stéphane; Tranchant-Dubreuil, Christine; Tregear, James W; Tranbarger, Timothy John

    2009-05-01

    With the aim of understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying somatic embryogenesis (SE) in oil palm, we examined transcriptome changes that occur when embryogenic suspension cells are initiated to develop somatic embryos. Two reciprocal suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) libraries were constructed from oil palm embryogenic cell suspensions: one in which embryo development was blocked by the presence of the synthetic auxin analogue 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D: ) in the medium (proliferation library); and another in which cells were stimulated to form embryos by the removal of 2,4-D: from the medium (initiation library). A total of 1867 Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) consisting of 1567 potential unigenes were assembled from the two libraries. Functional annotation indicated that 928 of the ESTs correspond to proteins that have either no similarity to sequences in public databases or are of unknown function. Gene Ontology (GO) terms assigned to the two EST populations give clues to the underlying molecular functions, biological processes and cellular components involved in the initiation of embryo development. Macroarrays were used for transcript profiling the ESTs during SE. Hierarchical cluster analysis of differential transcript accumulation revealed 4 distinct profiles containing a total of 192 statistically significant developmentally regulated transcripts. Similarities and differences between the global results obtained with in vitro systems from dicots, monocots and gymnosperms will be discussed.

  6. Efficient, Antibiotic Marker-Free Transformation of a Dicot and a Monocot Crop with Glutamate 1-Semialdehyde Aminotransferase Selectable Marker Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferradini, Nicoletta; Giancaspro, Angelica; Nicolia, Alessandro; Gadaleta, Agata; Veronesi, Fabio; Rosellini, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic-free, efficient in vitro selection in plant genetic engineering can improve risk perception and speed up pre-market scrutiny of genetically modified crops. We provide a protocol for genetic transformation of two important crops, durum wheat and alfalfa, using a bacterial and a plant-derived selectable marker gene encoding mutated, gabaculine-insensitive glutamate 1-semialdehyde aminotransferase (GSA) enzymes. These methods can potentially be applied, with minor adaptations, to many other monocot and dicot crop plants.

  7. A Robust CRISPR/Cas9 System for Convenient, High-Efficiency Multiplex Genome Editing in Monocot and Dicot Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xingliang; Zhang, Qunyu; Zhu, Qinlong; Liu, Wei; Chen, Yan; Qiu, Rong; Wang, Bin; Yang, Zhongfang; Li, Heying; Lin, Yuru; Xie, Yongyao; Shen, Rongxin; Chen, Shuifu; Wang, Zhi; Chen, Yuanling; Guo, Jingxin; Chen, Letian; Zhao, Xiucai; Dong, Zhicheng; Liu, Yao-Guang

    2015-08-01

    CRISPR/Cas9 genome targeting systems have been applied to a variety of species. However, most CRISPR/Cas9 systems reported for plants can only modify one or a few target sites. Here, we report a robust CRISPR/Cas9 vector system, utilizing a plant codon optimized Cas9 gene, for convenient and high-efficiency multiplex genome editing in monocot and dicot plants. We designed PCR-based procedures to rapidly generate multiple sgRNA expression cassettes, which can be assembled into the binary CRISPR/Cas9 vectors in one round of cloning by Golden Gate ligation or Gibson Assembly. With this system, we edited 46 target sites in rice with an average 85.4% rate of mutation, mostly in biallelic and homozygous status. We reasoned that about 16% of the homozygous mutations in rice were generated through the non-homologous end-joining mechanism followed by homologous recombination-based repair. We also obtained uniform biallelic, heterozygous, homozygous, and chimeric mutations in Arabidopsis T1 plants. The targeted mutations in both rice and Arabidopsis were heritable. We provide examples of loss-of-function gene mutations in T0 rice and T1 Arabidopsis plants by simultaneous targeting of multiple (up to eight) members of a gene family, multiple genes in a biosynthetic pathway, or multiple sites in a single gene. This system has provided a versatile toolbox for studying functions of multiple genes and gene families in plants for basic research and genetic improvement. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Photosynthetic pigment concentrations, gas exchange and vegetative growth for selected monocots and dicots treated with two contrasting coal fly ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunusa, I.A.M.; Burchett, M.D.; Manoharan, V.; DeSilva, D.L.; Eamus, D.; Skilbeck, C.G. [University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Dept. of Environmental Science

    2009-07-15

    There is uncertainty as to the rates of coal fly ash needed for optimum physiological processes and growth. In the current study we tested the hyothesis that photosynthetic pigments concentrations and CO{sub 2} assimilation (A) are more sensitive than dry weights in plants grown on media amended with coal fly ash. We applied the Terrestrial Plant Growth Test (Guideline 208) protocols of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to monocots (barley (Hordeum vulgare) and ryegrass (Secale cereale)) and dicots (canola (Brasica napus), radish (Raphanus sativus), field peas (Pisum sativum), and lucerne (Medicago sativa)) on media amended with fly ashes derived from semi-bituminous (gray ash) or lignite (red ash) coals at rates of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10, or 20 Mg ha(-1). The red ash had higher elemental concentrations and salinity than the gray ash. Fly ash addition had no significant effect on germination by any of the six species. At moderate rates ({<=}10 Mg ha{sup -1}) both ashes increased (P < 0.05) growth rates and concentrations of chlorophylls a and b, but reduced carotenoid concentrations. Addition of either ash increased A in radish and transpiration in barley. Growth rates and final dry weights were reduced for all of the six test species when addition rates exceeded 10 Mg ha{sup -1} for gray ash and 5 Mg ha{sup -1} for red ash. We concluded that plant dry weights, rather than pigment concentrations and/or instantaneous rates of photosynthesis, are more consistent for assessing subsequent growth in plants supplied with fly ash.

  9. Final Environmental Assessment: For the M270 Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS) Expanded Training Use Areas at Avon Park Air Force Range, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-10

    panther Puma concolor coryi E E Florida black bear Ursus americanus floridans N T Reptiles and Amphibians Eastern indigo snake Drymarchon corais...hyacinth Eugenia uniflora Surinam cherry Hydrilla verticillata Hydrilla Hymenachne amplexicaulis West Indian marsh grass Imperata cylindrica Cogon grass...garnoti) are some amphibian and reptile species that occur within the built up areas of APAFR (U.S. Navy, 2004). Sub-tropical bird species noted to

  10. Transcriptome Analysis of Cell Wall and NAC Domain Transcription Factor Genes during Elaeis guineensis Fruit Ripening: Evidence for Widespread Conservation within Monocot and Eudicot Lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranbarger, Timothy J; Fooyontphanich, Kim; Roongsattham, Peerapat; Pizot, Maxime; Collin, Myriam; Jantasuriyarat, Chatchawan; Suraninpong, Potjamarn; Tragoonrung, Somvong; Dussert, Stéphane; Verdeil, Jean-Luc; Morcillo, Fabienne

    2017-01-01

    The oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), a monocotyledonous species in the family Arecaceae, has an extraordinarily oil rich fleshy mesocarp, and presents an original model to examine the ripening processes and regulation in this particular monocot fruit. Histochemical analysis and cell parameter measurements revealed cell wall and middle lamella expansion and degradation during ripening and in response to ethylene. Cell wall related transcript profiles suggest a transition from synthesis to degradation is under transcriptional control during ripening, in particular a switch from cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin synthesis to hydrolysis and degradation. The data provide evidence for the transcriptional activation of expansin, polygalacturonase, mannosidase, beta-galactosidase, and xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase proteins in the ripening oil palm mesocarp, suggesting widespread conservation of these activities during ripening for monocotyledonous and eudicotyledonous fruit types. Profiling of the most abundant oil palm polygalacturonase (EgPG4) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO) transcripts during development and in response to ethylene demonstrated both are sensitive markers of ethylene production and inducible gene expression during mesocarp ripening, and provide evidence for a conserved regulatory module between ethylene and cell wall pectin degradation. A comprehensive analysis of NAC transcription factors confirmed at least 10 transcripts from diverse NAC domain clades are expressed in the mesocarp during ripening, four of which are induced by ethylene treatment, with the two most inducible (EgNAC6 and EgNAC7) phylogenetically similar to the tomato NAC-NOR master-ripening regulator. Overall, the results provide evidence that despite the phylogenetic distance of the oil palm within the family Arecaceae from the most extensively studied monocot banana fruit, it appears ripening of divergent monocot and eudicot fruit lineages are

  11. Temporal and spatial expression of polygalacturonase gene family members reveals divergent regulation during fleshy fruit ripening and abscission in the monocot species oil palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roongsattham Peerapat

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell separation that occurs during fleshy fruit abscission and dry fruit dehiscence facilitates seed dispersal, the final stage of plant reproductive development. While our understanding of the evolutionary context of cell separation is limited mainly to the eudicot model systems tomato and Arabidopsis, less is known about the mechanisms underlying fruit abscission in crop species, monocots in particular. The polygalacturonase (PG multigene family encodes enzymes involved in the depolymerisation of pectin homogalacturonan within the primary cell wall and middle lamella. PG activity is commonly found in the separation layers during organ abscission and dehiscence, however, little is known about how this gene family has diverged since the separation of monocot and eudicots and the consequence of this divergence on the abscission process. Results The objective of the current study was to identify PGs responsible for the high activity previously observed in the abscission zone (AZ during fruit shedding of the tropical monocot oil palm, and to analyze PG gene expression during oil palm fruit ripening and abscission. We identified 14 transcripts that encode PGs, all of which are expressed in the base of the oil palm fruit. The accumulation of five PG transcripts increase, four decrease and five do not change during ethylene treatments that induce cell separation. One PG transcript (EgPG4 is the most highly induced in the fruit base, with a 700–5000 fold increase during the ethylene treatment. In situ hybridization experiments indicate that the EgPG4 transcript increases preferentially in the AZ cell layers in the base of the fruit in response to ethylene prior to cell separation. Conclusions The expression pattern of EgPG4 is consistent with the temporal and spatial requirements for cell separation to occur during oil palm fruit shedding. The sequence diversity of PGs and the complexity of their expression in the oil palm fruit

  12. Characterization of a 65 kDa NIF in the nuclear matrix of the monocot Allium cepa that interacts with nuclear spectrin-like proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Munive, Clara; Blumenthal, Sonal S D; de la Espina, Susana Moreno Díaz

    2012-01-01

    Plant cells have a well organized nucleus and nuclear matrix, but lack orthologues of the main structural components of the metazoan nuclear matrix. Although data is limited, most plant nuclear structural proteins are coiled-coil proteins, such as the NIFs (nuclear intermediate filaments) in Pisum sativum that cross-react with anti-intermediate filament and anti-lamin antibodies, form filaments 6-12 nm in diameter in vitro, and may play the role of lamins. We have investigated the conservation and features of NIFs in a monocot species, Allium cepa, and compared them with onion lamin-like proteins. Polyclonal antisera against the pea 65 kDa NIF were used in 1D and 2D Western blots, ICM (imunofluorescence confocal microscopy) and IEM (immunoelectron microscopy). Their presence in the nuclear matrix was analysed by differential extraction of nuclei, and their association with structural spectrin-like proteins by co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization in ICM. NIF is a conserved structural component of the nucleus and its matrix in monocots with Mr and pI values similar to those of pea 65 kDa NIF, which localized to the nuclear envelope, perichromatin domains and foci, and to the nuclear matrix, interacting directly with structural nuclear spectrin-like proteins. Its similarities with some of the proteins described as onion lamin-like proteins suggest that they are highly related or perhaps the same proteins.

  13. Roothairless5, which functions in maize (Zea mays L.) root hair initiation and elongation encodes a monocot-specific NADPH oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, Josefine; Liu, Sanzhen; Wen, Tsui-Jung; Paschold, Anja; Marcon, Caroline; Tang, Ho Man; Li, Delin; Li, Li; Meeley, Robert B; Sakai, Hajime; Bruce, Wesley; Schnable, Patrick S; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2014-09-01

    Root hairs are instrumental for nutrient uptake in monocot cereals. The maize (Zea mays L.) roothairless5 (rth5) mutant displays defects in root hair initiation and elongation manifested by a reduced density and length of root hairs. Map-based cloning revealed that the rth5 gene encodes a monocot-specific NADPH oxidase. RNA-Seq, in situ hybridization and qRT-PCR experiments demonstrated that the rth5 gene displays preferential expression in root hairs but also accumulates to low levels in other tissues. Immunolocalization detected RTH5 proteins in the epidermis of the elongation and differentiation zone of primary roots. Because superoxide and hydrogen peroxide levels are reduced in the tips of growing rth5 mutant root hairs as compared with wild-type, and Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is known to be involved in tip growth, we hypothesize that the RTH5 protein is responsible for establishing the high levels of ROS in the tips of growing root hairs required for elongation. Consistent with this hypothesis, a comparative RNA-Seq analysis of 6-day-old rth5 versus wild-type primary roots revealed significant over-representation of only two gene ontology (GO) classes related to the biological functions (i.e. oxidation/reduction and carbohydrate metabolism) among 893 differentially expressed genes (FDR <5%). Within these two classes the subgroups 'response to oxidative stress' and 'cellulose biosynthesis' were most prominently represented.

  14. Biological Studies of Bagous Hydrillae

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    garis L. cultivated beans Raphanus sativus L. cultivated radish Sedum sp. introduced, ornamental Sesuvium portulacastrum (L.)L. native Appencix A...watermelon Matsum. & Nakai var. lanatus Citrus sp. cultivated citrus Crassula argentea Thunb. introduced, ornamental Cucumis sativus L. cultivated cucumber

  15. 污水处理中温度对黑藻生长的影响(英文)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to study the influence of temperature on the growth of Hydrilla verticillata in the wastewater treatment process.[Method] By using the single factor experiment design,four temperatures which were 5,15,25 and 35 ℃ were set.The growth situation of H.verticillata under the different temperatures was observed in the treatment process of domestic sewerage.[Result] H.verticillata grew luxuriantly at 35 and 25 ℃.Via the cultivation of 15 days,the plant length,branch number,root numbe...

  16. Virus-Induced Gene Silencing in the Culinary Ginger (Zingiber officinale): An Effective Mechanism for Down-Regulating Gene Expression in Tropical Monocots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tanya Renner; Jennifer Bragga; Heather E. Driscoll; Juliana Cho; Andrew O. Jackson; Chelsea D. Specht

    2009-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has been shown to be effective for transient knockdown of gene expres-sion in plants to analyze the effects of specific genes in development and stress-related responses. VlGS is well established for studies of model systems and crops within the Solanaceae, Brassicaceae, Leguminaceae, and Poaceae, but only recently has been applied to plants residing outside these families. Here, we have demonstrated that barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) can infect two species within the Zingiberaceae, and that BSMV-VlGS can be applied to specifically down-regulate phytoene desaturase in the culinary ginger Zingiber officinale. These results suggest that extension of BSMV-VIGS to monocots other than cereals has the potential for directed genetic analyses of many important temperate and tropical crop species.

  17. Discovery of Linear Cyclotides in Monocot Plant Panicum laxum of Poaceae Family Provides New Insights into Evolution and Distribution of Cyclotides in Plants*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Giang Kien Truc; Lian, Yilong; Pang, Edmund Weng Hou; Nguyen, Phuong Quoc Thuc; Tran, Tuan Dinh; Tam, James P.

    2013-01-01

    Cyclotides are disulfide-rich macrocyclic peptides that display a wide range of bioactivities and represent an important group of plant defense peptide biologics. A few linear variants of cyclotides have recently been identified. They share a high sequence homology with cyclotides but are biosynthetically unable to cyclize from their precursors. All hitherto reported cyclotides and their acyclic variants were isolated from dicot plants of the Rubiaceae, Violaceae, Cucurbitaceae, and recently the Fabaceae and Solanaceae families. Although several cyclotide-like genes in the Poaceae family were known from the data mining of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) nucleotide database, their expression at the protein level has yet to be proven. Here, we report the discovery and characterization of nine novel linear cyclotides, designated as panitides L1–9, from the Panicum laxum of the Poaceae family and provide the first evidence of linear cyclotides at the protein level in a monocot plant. Disulfide mapping of panitide L3 showed that it possesses a cystine knot arrangement similar to cyclotides. Several panitides were shown to be active against Escherichia coli and cytotoxic to HeLa cells. They also displayed a high stability against heat and proteolytic degradation. Oxidative folding of the disulfide-reduced panitide L1 showed that it can fold efficiently into its native form. The presence of linear cyclotides in both dicots and monocots suggests their ancient origin and existence before the divergence of these two groups of flowering plants. Moreover, the Poaceae family contains many important food crops, and our discovery may open up new avenues of research using cyclotides and their acyclic variants in crop protection. PMID:23195955

  18. Lack of S-RNase-Based Gametophytic Self-Incompatibility in Orchids Suggests That This System Evolved after the Monocot-Eudicot Split

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Ce Niu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Self-incompatibility (SI is found in approximately 40% of flowering plant species and at least 100 families. Although orchids belong to the largest angiosperm family, only 10% of orchid species present SI and have gametophytic SI (GSI. Furthermore, a majority (72% of Dendrobium species, which constitute one of the largest Orchidaceae genera, show SI and have GSI. However, nothing is known about the molecular mechanism of GSI. The S-determinants of GSI have been well characterized at the molecular level in Solanaceae, Rosaceae, and Plantaginaceae, which use an S-ribonuclease (S-RNase-based system. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that Orchidaceae uses a similar S-RNase to those described in Rosaceae, Solanaceae, and Plantaginaceae SI species. In this study, two SI species (Dendrobium longicornu and D. chrysanthum were identified using fluorescence microscopy. Then, the S-RNase- and SLF-interacting SKP1-like1 (SSK1-like genes present in their transcriptomes and the genomes of Phalaenopsis equestris, D. catenatum, Vanilla shenzhenica, and Apostasia shenzhenica were investigated. Sequence, phylogenetic, and tissue-specific expression analyses revealed that none of the genes identified was an S-determinant, suggesting that Orchidaceae might have a novel SI mechanism. The results also suggested that RNase-based GSI might have evolved after the split of monocotyledons (monocots and dicotyledons (dicots but before the split of Asteridae and Rosidae. This is also the first study to investigate S-RNase-based GSI in monocots. However, studies on gene identification, differential expression, and segregation analyses in controlled crosses are needed to further evaluate the genes with high expression levels in GSI tissues.

  19. Phylogenetic and comparative gene expression analysis of barley (Hordeum vulgare WRKY transcription factor family reveals putatively retained functions between monocots and dicots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansson Christer

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background WRKY proteins belong to the WRKY-GCM1 superfamily of zinc finger transcription factors that have been subject to a large plant-specific diversification. For the cereal crop barley (Hordeum vulgare, three different WRKY proteins have been characterized so far as regulators in sucrose signaling, pathogen defense, and in response to cold and drought. However, their phylogenetic relationship remained unresolved. Results In this study, we used available sequence information to identify a minimum number of 45 barley WRKY transcription factor (HvWRKY genes. According to their structural features, the HvWRKY factors were classified into the previously defined polyphyletic WRKY subgroups 1 to 3. Furthermore, we could assign putative orthologs of the HvWRKY proteins in Arabidopsis and rice. While in most cases clades of orthologous proteins were formed within each group or subgroup, other clades were composed of paralogous proteins for the grasses and Arabidopsis only, which is indicative of specific gene radiation events. To gain insight into their putative functions, we examined expression profiles of WRKY genes from publicly available microarray data resources and found group specific expression patterns. While putative orthologs of the HvWRKY transcription factors have been inferred from phylogenetic sequence analysis, we performed a comparative expression analysis of WRKY genes in Arabidopsis and barley. Indeed, highly correlative expression profiles were found between some of the putative orthologs. Conclusion HvWRKY genes have not only undergone radiation in monocot or dicot species, but exhibit evolutionary traits specific to grasses. HvWRKY proteins exhibited not only sequence similarities between orthologs with Arabidopsis, but also relatedness in their expression patterns. This correlative expression is indicative for a putative conserved function of related WRKY proteins in monocot and dicot species.

  20. Elodea canadensis under N and CO2 limitation : Adaptive changes in Rubisco and PEPCase activity in a bicarbonate user

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ginkel, LC; Schutz, [No Value; Prins, HBA

    2000-01-01

    Diffusion of CO2 in water is 10,000 times slower than in air. Because of this photosynthesis in submerged aquatic macrophytes is often limited by CO2 availability. Elodea canadensis shows HCO3- utilization under conditions of CO2 limitation. A closely related species, Hydrilla verticillata, which al

  1. Isolation and comparative analysis of the wheat TaPT2 promoter: identification in silico of new putative regulatory motifs conserved between monocots and dicots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittarelli, A; Milla, L; Vargas, F; Morales, A; Neupert, C; Meisel, L A; Salvo-G, H; Peñaloza, E; Muñoz, G; Corcuera, L J; Silva, H

    2007-01-01

    Phosphorus deficiency is one of the major nutrient stresses affecting plant growth. Plants respond to phosphate (Pi) deficiency through multiple strategies, including the synthesis of high-affinity Pi transporters. In this study, the expression pattern of one putative wheat high-affinity phosphate transporter, TaPT2, was examined in roots and leaves under Pi-deficient conditions. TaPT2 transcript levels increased in roots of Pi-starved plants. A 579 bp fragment of the TaPT2 promoter is sufficient to drive the expression of the GUS reporter gene specifically in roots of Pi-deprived wheat. This TaPT2 promoter fragment was also able to drive expression of the GUS reporter gene in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana, under similar growth conditions. Conserved regions and candidate regulatory motifs were detected by comparing this promoter with Pi transporter promoters from barley, rice, and Arabidopsis. Altogether, these results indicate that there are conserved cis-acting elements and trans-acting factors that enable the TaPT2 promoter to be regulated in a tissue-specific and Pi-dependent fashion in both monocots and dicots.

  2. Characterization of tobacco expressing functional oat phytochrome. Domains responsible for the rapid degradation of Pfr are conserved between monocots and dicots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherry, J.R.; Vierstra, R.D. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States)); Hershey, H.P. (E.I.du Pont de Nemours and Co., Wilmington, DE (United States))

    1991-07-01

    Constitutive expression of a chimeric oat phytochrome gene in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) results in the accumulation of a functional 124-kilodalton photoreceptor that markedly alters the phenotype of light-grown tobacco. Here, we provide a detailed phenotypic and biochemical characterization of homozygous tobacco expressing high levels of oat phytochrome. Phenotypic changes include a substantial inhibition of stem elongation, decreased apical dominance, increased leaf chlorophyll content, and delayed leaf senescence. Oat phytochrome synthesized in tobacco is indistinguishable from that present in etiolated oats, having photoreversible difference spectrum maxima at 665 and 730 nanometers, exhibiting negligible dark reversion of phytochrome - far red-absorbing from (Pfr) to phytochrome - red-absorbing form (Pr), and existing as a dimer with an apparent size of approximately 300 kilodaltons. Heterodimers between the oat and tobacco chromoproteins were detected. Endogenous tobacco phytochrome and transgenically expressed oat phytochrome are rapidly degraded in vivo upon photoconversion of Pr to Pfr. Breakdown of both oat and tobacco Pfr is associated with the accumulation of ubiquitin-phytochrome conjugates, suggesting that degradation occurs via the ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic pathway. This result indicates that the factors responsible for selective recognition of Pfr by the ubiquitin pathway are conserved between monocot and dicot phytochromes. More broadly, it demonstrates that the domains(s) within a plant protein responsible for its selective breakdown can be recognized by the degradation machinery of heterologous species.

  3. Large-Scale Gene Disruption in Magnaporthe oryzae Identifies MC69, a Secreted Protein Required for Infection by Monocot and Dicot Fungal Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Hiromasa; Fujisawa, Shizuko; Mitsuoka, Chikako; Ito, Akiko; Hirabuchi, Akiko; Ikeda, Kyoko; Irieda, Hiroki; Yoshino, Kae; Yoshida, Kentaro; Matsumura, Hideo; Tosa, Yukio; Win, Joe; Kamoun, Sophien; Takano, Yoshitaka; Terauchi, Ryohei

    2012-01-01

    To search for virulence effector genes of the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, we carried out a large-scale targeted disruption of genes for 78 putative secreted proteins that are expressed during the early stages of infection of M. oryzae. Disruption of the majority of genes did not affect growth, conidiation, or pathogenicity of M. oryzae. One exception was the gene MC69. The mc69 mutant showed a severe reduction in blast symptoms on rice and barley, indicating the importance of MC69 for pathogenicity of M. oryzae. The mc69 mutant did not exhibit changes in saprophytic growth and conidiation. Microscopic analysis of infection behavior in the mc69 mutant revealed that MC69 is dispensable for appressorium formation. However, mc69 mutant failed to develop invasive hyphae after appressorium formation in rice leaf sheath, indicating a critical role of MC69 in interaction with host plants. MC69 encodes a hypothetical 54 amino acids protein with a signal peptide. Live-cell imaging suggested that fluorescently labeled MC69 was not translocated into rice cytoplasm. Site-directed mutagenesis of two conserved cysteine residues (Cys36 and Cys46) in the mature MC69 impaired function of MC69 without affecting its secretion, suggesting the importance of the disulfide bond in MC69 pathogenicity function. Furthermore, deletion of the MC69 orthologous gene reduced pathogenicity of the cucumber anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum orbiculare on both cucumber and Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. We conclude that MC69 is a secreted pathogenicity protein commonly required for infection of two different plant pathogenic fungi, M. oryzae and C. orbiculare pathogenic on monocot and dicot plants, respectively. PMID:22589729

  4. Large-scale gene disruption in Magnaporthe oryzae identifies MC69, a secreted protein required for infection by monocot and dicot fungal pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromasa Saitoh

    Full Text Available To search for virulence effector genes of the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, we carried out a large-scale targeted disruption of genes for 78 putative secreted proteins that are expressed during the early stages of infection of M. oryzae. Disruption of the majority of genes did not affect growth, conidiation, or pathogenicity of M. oryzae. One exception was the gene MC69. The mc69 mutant showed a severe reduction in blast symptoms on rice and barley, indicating the importance of MC69 for pathogenicity of M. oryzae. The mc69 mutant did not exhibit changes in saprophytic growth and conidiation. Microscopic analysis of infection behavior in the mc69 mutant revealed that MC69 is dispensable for appressorium formation. However, mc69 mutant failed to develop invasive hyphae after appressorium formation in rice leaf sheath, indicating a critical role of MC69 in interaction with host plants. MC69 encodes a hypothetical 54 amino acids protein with a signal peptide. Live-cell imaging suggested that fluorescently labeled MC69 was not translocated into rice cytoplasm. Site-directed mutagenesis of two conserved cysteine residues (Cys36 and Cys46 in the mature MC69 impaired function of MC69 without affecting its secretion, suggesting the importance of the disulfide bond in MC69 pathogenicity function. Furthermore, deletion of the MC69 orthologous gene reduced pathogenicity of the cucumber anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum orbiculare on both cucumber and Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. We conclude that MC69 is a secreted pathogenicity protein commonly required for infection of two different plant pathogenic fungi, M. oryzae and C. orbiculare pathogenic on monocot and dicot plants, respectively.

  5. Expression conservation within the circadian clock of a monocot: natural variation at barley Ppd-H1 affects circadian expression of flowering time genes, but not clock orthologs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campoli Chiara

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The circadian clock is an endogenous mechanism that coordinates biological processes with daily changes in the environment. In plants, circadian rhythms contribute to both agricultural productivity and evolutionary fitness. In barley, the photoperiod response regulator and flowering-time gene Ppd-H1 is orthologous to the Arabidopsis core-clock gene PRR7. However, relatively little is known about the role of Ppd-H1 and other components of the circadian clock in temperate crop species. In this study, we identified barley clock orthologs and tested the effects of natural genetic variation at Ppd-H1 on diurnal and circadian expression of clock and output genes from the photoperiod-response pathway. Results Barley clock orthologs HvCCA1, HvGI, HvPRR1, HvPRR37 (Ppd-H1, HvPRR73, HvPRR59 and HvPRR95 showed a high level of sequence similarity and conservation of diurnal and circadian expression patterns, when compared to Arabidopsis. The natural mutation at Ppd-H1 did not affect diurnal or circadian cycling of barley clock genes. However, the Ppd-H1 mutant was found to be arrhythmic under free-running conditions for the photoperiod-response genes HvCO1, HvCO2, and the MADS-box transcription factor and vernalization responsive gene Vrn-H1. Conclusion We suggest that the described eudicot clock is largely conserved in the monocot barley. However, genetic differentiation within gene families and differences in the function of Ppd-H1 suggest evolutionary modification in the angiosperm clock. Our data indicates that natural variation at Ppd-H1 does not affect the expression level of clock genes, but controls photoperiodic output genes. Circadian control of Vrn-H1 in barley suggests that this vernalization responsive gene is also controlled by the photoperiod-response pathway. Structural and functional characterization of the barley circadian clock will set the basis for future studies of the adaptive significance of the circadian clock in

  6. Expression conservation within the circadian clock of a monocot: natural variation at barley Ppd-H1 affects circadian expression of flowering time genes, but not clock orthologs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campoli, Chiara; Shtaya, Munqez; Davis, Seth J; von Korff, Maria

    2012-06-21

    The circadian clock is an endogenous mechanism that coordinates biological processes with daily changes in the environment. In plants, circadian rhythms contribute to both agricultural productivity and evolutionary fitness. In barley, the photoperiod response regulator and flowering-time gene Ppd-H1 is orthologous to the Arabidopsis core-clock gene PRR7. However, relatively little is known about the role of Ppd-H1 and other components of the circadian clock in temperate crop species. In this study, we identified barley clock orthologs and tested the effects of natural genetic variation at Ppd-H1 on diurnal and circadian expression of clock and output genes from the photoperiod-response pathway. Barley clock orthologs HvCCA1, HvGI, HvPRR1, HvPRR37 (Ppd-H1), HvPRR73, HvPRR59 and HvPRR95 showed a high level of sequence similarity and conservation of diurnal and circadian expression patterns, when compared to Arabidopsis. The natural mutation at Ppd-H1 did not affect diurnal or circadian cycling of barley clock genes. However, the Ppd-H1 mutant was found to be arrhythmic under free-running conditions for the photoperiod-response genes HvCO1, HvCO2, and the MADS-box transcription factor and vernalization responsive gene Vrn-H1. We suggest that the described eudicot clock is largely conserved in the monocot barley. However, genetic differentiation within gene families and differences in the function of Ppd-H1 suggest evolutionary modification in the angiosperm clock. Our data indicates that natural variation at Ppd-H1 does not affect the expression level of clock genes, but controls photoperiodic output genes. Circadian control of Vrn-H1 in barley suggests that this vernalization responsive gene is also controlled by the photoperiod-response pathway. Structural and functional characterization of the barley circadian clock will set the basis for future studies of the adaptive significance of the circadian clock in Triticeae species.

  7. Temporal trends and effects of diversity on occurrence of exotic macrophytes in a large reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaz, Sidinei Magela; Carvalho, Priscilla; Mormul, Roger Paulo; Ferreira, Fernando Alves; Silveira, Márcio José; Michelan, Thaísa Sala

    2009-09-01

    Two exotic invasive macrophyte species (the emergent Urochloa subquadripara - tenner-grass - and the submersed Hydrilla verticillata - hydrilla) were investigated in a large sub-tropical reservoir. We analyzed their occurrences over an extended period and tested the hypothesis that macrophyte richness decreases their invasibility. The alternative hypothesis that the occurrence of these exotics is affected by fetch and underwater radiation (important determinants of macrophyte assemblage composition in this reservoir) was also tested. Incidence data (presence/absence) was obtained over 9.5 years at 235 stations. Logistic regression was applied to test whether the likelihood of occurrence of these two species was affected by macrophyte richness, fetch or underwater radiation. Tenner-grass was recorded at a high frequency and quickly recovered from disturbances caused by water drawdown. In contrast, H. verticillata was first recorded in 3 sites in January 2007, but it spread quickly, reaching 30.5% of the sites 19 months later. The main channel of the Paraná River was the main source of propagules for this species. The likelihood of occurrence of tenner-grass was positively affected by macrophyte richness but negatively affected by fetch. Thus, wave disturbance is probably more important than diversity in preventing invasion by this species. Hydrilla, by contrast, was negatively affected by macrophyte richness and positively affected by fetch and underwater radiation. Although this result might indicate that macrophyte diversity prevents hydrilla invasion, this is probably not true because hydrilla colonized deeper sites where few species of plant exist. Resistance to disturbances caused by water drawdown (tenner-grass) and waves (hydrilla) as well as persistency of tenner-grass and fast spread of hydrilla make these exotic species a cause for concern because of their potential impacts on water uses and maintenance of diversity.

  8. 气候变化和种子萌发特性对轮叶马先蒿种群扩张的影响%Impacts of climatic changes as well as seed germination characteristics on the population expansion of Pedicularis verticillata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋晓琳; 李爱荣; 管开云

    2013-01-01

    轮叶马先蒿(Pedicularis verticillata)是一种根部半寄生性杂草,在新疆巴音布鲁克草原迅速蔓延,严重危害了当地畜牧业的利用和发展。通过分析巴音布鲁克草原近30年的气候变化并结合轮叶马先蒿种子的萌发特性和传播特点,探讨气候因素对近些年来轮叶马先蒿种群在巴音布鲁克草原迅速扩张的影响。结果显示:1)1980-2010年新疆巴音布鲁克草原轮叶马先蒿生长季内的日平均温,最高温,最低温均表现出增高趋势,且气候倾向率在0.3℃(10 a)左右;此外马先蒿生长季内的有效积温和年积温也有显著的增长,增幅分别为48.755℃(10 a)和61.469℃(10 a);生长季内的平均降雨量和年均降水量也出现了明显的增多,每10年的增幅在20 mm以上;说明巴音布鲁克草原的气候朝着“暖湿化”的方向发展。2)轮叶马先蒿种子具有循环休眠的现象,属条件休眠状态。而这个状态主要受温度条件的变化所影响,萌发率随温度升高而显著提高。室温储藏和赤霉素处理下轮叶马先蒿种子在3/16℃和5/20℃这2个变温条件下萌发率最高,可达50%以上;而湿冷层积处理中种子的萌发率虽然也表现为随温度的升高而提高,但5/20℃时的最大萌发率仅为(44.44±2.94)%。3)巴音布鲁克草原气候的“暖湿化”变化有利于轮叶马先蒿种子的萌发和扩散,这可能是导致轮叶马先蒿在巴音布鲁克草原迅速蔓延的主要原因之一。%Pedicularis verticillata is a kind of root hemiparasite, which has recently been expanding in Bayanbulak Grassland of Xinjiang, and reducing productivity of grassland. Hence, threatening the utilization and development of local animal husbandry industry. In this research, we focused on the patterns of climatic change in past 30 years and the effect of temperature on seed germination. We then analyzed the reasons for population

  9. Species and biogeochemical cycles of organic phosphorus in sediments from a river with different aquatic plants located in Huaihe River Watershed, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, He Zhong; Pan, Wei; Ren, Li Jun; Liu, Eeng Feng; Shen, Ji; Geng, Qi Fang; An, Shu Qing

    2015-01-01

    The results of phosphorus fractionation in the sediments from a contaminated river containing different aquatic plants, analyzed by solution 31P-NMR for Organic Phosphorus, showed that the concentration of Inorganic Phosphorus dominated in all species and Organic Phosphorus accounted for over 20% of Total Phosphorus. In general, orthophosphate was dominant in all the sampling sites. The proportion of Organic Phosphorus accounting for the Total Phosphorus in the sediments with different plant decreased in the following order: Paspalum distichum>Typha orientalis>Hydrilla verticillata. Phosphorus-accumulation ability of Paspalum distichum was obviously stronger than Typha orientalis and Hydrilla verticillata. The Organic Phosphorus was in aquatic plants dominated by humic-associated P (Hu-P), which converted to Inorganic Ohosphorus more significantly in submerged plants than in emerged plants. The sediment dominated by Paspalum distichum abundantly accumulated Organic Phosphorus in the orthophosphate monoester fraction. The degradation and mineralization of orthophosphate monoester was the important source of high Inorganic Phosphorus concentration and net primary productivity in Suoxu River. The Organic Phosphorus derived from Typha orientalis and Hydrilla verticillata was dramatically converted to Inorganic Phosphorus when the environmental factors varied.

  10. Evaluation of butachlor for control of some submerged macrophytes along with its impact on biotic components of freshwater system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chattopadhyay, S. Adhikari, S. P. Adhikary, S. Ayyappan

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, the efficacy of the herbicide butachlor, (N-butoxymethyl-2 chloro-21, 61 diethyl acetanilide was tested against few common submerged macrophytes namely Hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata (L. Royale, Najas (Najas minor All., Nechamandra (Nechamandra alternifolia (Roxb. Thwaites and Ottelia (Ottelia alismoides (L. Pers. of freshwater fish ponds. Almost complete decay of Hydrilla, Nechamandra and Ottelia was achieved at 7.5 L of active ingredient/ha/m butachlor within 15 days while the herbicide showed no negative effect on Najas. However at the same concentration of butachlor, total mortality of zooplankton and water fern Azolla (Azolla caroliniana Lamarck occurred within seven days. In case of few freshwater fish species like Rohu (Labeo rohita, Channa (Channa punctatus, Anabas (Anabas testitudineus and Heteropneustes (Heteropneustes fossilis, total mortality occurred upto 90 days after application of the same dose of butachlor but fish survived beyond 120 days of herbicide application indicating degradation of the herbicides.

  11. 水生植物的生态敏感度研究%Ecological Sensitivity of Aquatic Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏文; Paul; K.Chien

    2001-01-01

    Throughy the study on the ecological effects of Cd and Zn onseveral aquatic plants,the ecological sensitivity of 5 species is determined.The results show that according to critical time when plants are injured by Cd and Zn,the order for ecological sensitivity of 5 species is:Nymphoides peltatum>Hydrilla verticillata>Potamogeton malaianus>Spirodela polyrhiza>Alternanthera philoxeroides.The results also show that on basis of catalase activity of aquatic plants,the order for ecological sensitivity of 5 species is:Alternanthera philoxeroides>Spirodela polyrhiza≈Potamogeton malaianus>Hydrilla verticillata>Nymphoides peltatum.It is evident that the pollution-durablty Potamogeton malaianus is higher than for Nymphoides peltatum and Hydrilla verticillata,pollution-sensible species

  12. Spatial variation in photosynthetic CO(2) carbon and oxygen isotope discrimination along leaves of the monocot triticale (Triticum × Secale) relates to mesophyll conductance and the Péclet effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Naomi; Cousins, Asaph; Tu, Kevin P; Barbour, Margaret M

    2011-09-01

    Carbon and oxygen isotope discrimination of CO(2) during photosynthesis (Δ(13)C(obs) and Δ(18)O(obs)) were measured along a monocot leaf, triticale (Triticum × Secale). Both Δ(13)C(obs) and Δ(18)O(obs) increased towards the leaf tip. While this was expected for Δ(18)O(obs) , because of progressive enrichment of leaf water associated with the Péclet effect, the result was surprising for Δ(13) C(obs). To explore parameters determining this pattern, we measured activities of key photosynthetic enzymes [ribulose bis-phosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) and carbonic anhydrase) as well as maximum carboxylation and electron transport rates (V(cmax) and J(max)) along the leaf. Patterns in leaf internal anatomy along the leaf were also quantified. Mesophyll conductance (g(m)) is known to have a strong influence on Δ(13)C(obs) , so we used three commonly used estimation methods to quantify variation in g(m) along the leaf. Variation in Δ(13)C(obs) was correlated with g(m) and chloroplast surface area facing the intercellular air space, but unrelated to photosynthetic enzyme activity. The observed variation could cause errors at higher scales if the appropriate portion of a leaf is not chosen for leaf-level measurements and model parameterization. Our study shows that one-third of the way from the base of the leaf represents the most appropriate portion to enclose in the leaf chamber. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. 不同水生植物对水体中氮磷吸收去除效果的试验%Experiment of Absorption and Removal Efficiency for Nitrogen and Phosphorus with Several Different Hydrophytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏小东; 李艳; 原金海; 贾云

    2014-01-01

    研究了狐尾藻、水蕴草、轮叶黑藻、长叶久冠和铜线草等水生植物吸收水体中N、P的能力。结果表明狐尾藻、水蕴草、轮叶黑藻和长叶久冠对水体中的氮磷有较强的去除能力,且植物对水体中氮磷的去除率与植物质量之间呈相关关系;同时狐尾藻、水蕴草、轮叶黑藻和长叶久冠均有较好的环境适应性,而铜线草的环境适应性较差。由此推断可以利用狐尾藻、水蕴草、轮叶黑藻和长叶久冠水生植物在生态塘污水处理系统中构建水生植物系统来处理生活污水。%Several hydrophytes named Myriophyllum Verticillatum,Elodea densa (Planch. )Casp. ,Hydrilla Verticillata,Echinodorus Uruguayensis and Paspalum pospaloides(Michx. )Scribn were used to investigate the ability of removal of nitrogen and phosphor in the sewage. The results show that Myriophyllum Verticillatum,Elodea densa (Planch. )Casp. ,Hydrilla Verticillata and Echinodorus Uruguayensis have a remarkable effect on removal of N and P,and the removal rates of hydrophytes on N and P have correlation to weight of hydrophytes. Myriophyllum Verticillatum, Elodea densa (Planch. ) Casp. , Hydrilla Verticillata and Echinodorus Uruguayensis have good environment adaptability,by which hydrophytes-based treatment system for ecological pond sewage treatment system can be constructed.

  14. Does mechanical disturbance affect the performance and species composition of submerged macrophyte communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Xu, Ying-Shou; Huang, Lin; Xue, Wei; Sun, Gong-Qi; Zhang, Ming-Xiang; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2014-01-01

    Submerged macrophyte communities are frequently subjected to disturbance of various frequency and strength. However, there is still little experimental evidence on how mechanical disturbance affects the performance and species composition of such plant communities. In a greenhouse experiment, we constructed wetland communities consisting of five co-occurring clonal submerged macrophyte species (Hydrilla verticillata, Elodea canadensis, Ceratophyllum demersum, Chara fragilis, and Myriophyllum spicatum) and subjected these communities to three mechanical disturbance regimes (no, moderate and strong disturbance). Strong mechanical disturbance greatly decreased overall biomass, number of shoot nodes and total shoot length, and increased species diversity (evenness) of the total community. It also substantially decreased the growth of the most abundant species (H. verticillata), but did not affect growth of the other four species. Our data reveal that strong disturbance can have different effects on different submerged macrophyte species and thus alters the performance and species composition of submerged macrophyte communities. PMID:24811826

  15. STUDY OF AQUATIC ANGIOSPERMIC PLANTS OF ANAND CITY, GUJARAT, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. PATEL1 AND N. K. PATEL2

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the taxonomic study of Aquatic Angiosperms growing throughout the Anand city. The plants are listed along with their brief taxonomic account of each species with current nomenclature, vernacular name, family and uses. The  collected plants are systematically observed during present work, During my study I observed various aquatic angiospermic plants such as   Ceratophyllum demersum, Colocasia esculenta, Eichhornia crassipes, Ipomoea aquatica, Nymphoides indicum, Ludwigia repens, Polygonum orientale, Typha elephantina, Lemna perpusilla, Spirodella polyrrhiza, Xanthium indicum, Phyllanthus reticulatus, Cynodon dactylon, Hydrilla verticillata were very common. Whereas Nymphaea nouchali, Polygonum barbatum, Scirpus articulatus were very rare in the study area.

  16. Chromium accumulation in submerged aquatic plants treated with tannery effluent at Kanpur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Kiran; Gaumat, Sumati; Mishra, Kumkum

    2011-09-01

    Aquatic macrophytes have been widely studied because of their capability of absorbing contaminants from water and their subsequent use in biomonitoring. This study presents a comparison of Cr accumulating potential of submerged aquatic plants viz Vallisneria spiralis and Hydrilla verticillata. These plants were treated with various concentrations of treated tannery effluent collected from UASB, Jajmau, Kanpur under repeated exposure in controlled laboratory conditions in order to assess their maximum bioaccumulation potential. The maximum accumulation of 385.6 and 201.6 microg g(-1) dry weight was found in roots of V. spiralis and the whole plants of H. verticillata, respectively at 100% concentration after 9th day of effluent exposure. The chlorophyll and protein content of both species decreased with increase in effluent concentration and duration. At highest concentration and duration a maximum reduction of 67.4 and 62.66% in total chlorophyll content, 9.97 and 4.66% in carotenoid content and 62.66 and 59.36% in protein content was found in V. spiralis and H. verticillata respectively. Anatomical studies in both V. spiralis and H. verticillata was carried out to assess the effects of metal accumulation within the plants. Changes in the anatomical structures of both plants exhibits the capacity of these species to act as indicator of effluent toxicity. The high accumulation potential of Cr by both plants revealed their capability to remove pollutants from effluent.

  17. Establishing Research and Management Priorities for Monoecious Hydrilla

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    between the biotypes were successful and variations of these early tests are in use today (Ryan et al. 1991; Madeira et al. 2004; Rybicki et al. 2013...Management Society awarded a graduate student stipend to Dr. Rob Richardson at North Carolina State University (NCSU) to evaluate the phenology and...optimal treatment timing require additional information on tuber sprouting dynamics (e.g. plant phenology information described above would provide

  18. Suitability of aquatic biomass from Lake Toba (North Sumatra, Indonesia) for energy generation by combustion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunerová, A.; Roubík, H.; Herák, D.

    2017-09-01

    Several aquatic plant species were identified as aquatic pollution of Lake Toba, North Sumatra (Indonesia); specifically, water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes and aquatic weeds Hydrilla verticillata and Myriophyllum spicatum due to their high biomass yield which causes impenetrable mats at the bottom and surface of the lake. That complicates other vegetation growth and utilization of water areas for fishing or recreation. In attempt to clean the lake and prevent plants expansion, great amount of plants populations are removed from water but subsequent efficient utilization of such aquatic biomass is not ensured. Present research investigated energy potential of aquatic biomass originated from mentioned aquatic plants from Lake Toba and its possible utilization for energy production by direct combustion. Performed chemical analysis contained from determination of moisture, ash and volatile matter contents and calorific values. Evaluation of results proved highest suitability and energy potential of Eichhornia crassipes with gross calorific value (GCV) 16.31 MJ·kg–1, followed by Hydrilla verticillata with GCV 15.24 MJ·kg–1. Samples of Myriophyllum spicatum exhibited unsatisfactory results due to its low GCV (11.27 MJ·kg–1) in combination with high ash content (36.99%) which indicates complications during combustion, thus, low energy production efficiency and overall unsuitability for combustion purposes.

  19. Habitat selection by three littoral zone fishes: effects of predation pressure, plant density and macrophyte type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chick, J.H.; McIvor, C.C.

    1997-01-01

    We conducted laboratory experiments which demonstrated that three littoral zone fishes differentially selected among three macrophytes when seeking refuge from predation. In the presence of a predator (a juvenile Micropterus salmoides), mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki), sailfin mollies (Poecilia latipinna). and dollar sunfish (Lepomis marginatus) displayed ferential use of four tank areas containing patches of either Hydrilla verticillata, Potamogeton illinoensis, Panicum hemitomon, or no plants. Patterns habitat selection, and the consistency of these patterns among replicates, differed among the three fishes and among three plant-density treatments - natural (each macrophyte presented at its mean field density), equal (all three macrophytes at the same density), and control (no plants). Selection for H. verticillata by mosquitofish was significant for both the equal and natural treatments, and thus was not caused by differences in plant density alone. Sailfin mollies displayed significant selection for H. verticillata only in the natural plant-density treatments. Dollar sunfish showed less consistent habitat selection than either mosquitofish or sailfin mollies. Significant habitat selection was not found in the absence of a predator, and there was no evidence for lection among the tank areas in control treatments. Patterns of habitat selection by the three fishes in our laboratory study corresponded to observed habitat use in Lake Okeechobee.

  20. Effects of competitive interactions of different life forms submersed plants on biomass allocation in shallow lakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiu-feng

    2010-01-01

    Plant competition has been recognized as one of the most important factors influencing the structure and function of lake ecosystems.Competition from plants of dissimilar growth form may have profound effects on shallow lakes.An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of competitive interactions of submersed plants with dissimilar growth forms on the biomass allocations.Hydrilla verticillata and Vallisneria natans were selected and were planted in a single-species monoculture and a mixed-species pattern.Results showed that the growth of Ⅴ.natans was significantly affected by the H.verticillata and caused a sharp reduction of biomass,but the root:shoot ratio of Ⅴ.natans was not affected significantly and there was a minimal increase in mixture: while for H.verticillata,the biomass and the root:shoot ratio were not significantly changed by the competitive interactions of Ⅴ.natans,there was minimal increase qf biomass and minimal decrease of the root:shoot ratio.These results may indicate that the phant which candevelop a dense mat or canopy at the water surface would be a stronger competitor relative to the plant that dependsmore on light availability near the sediment.

  1. Field and laboratory evaluation of the influence of copper-diquat on apple snails in southern Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winger, P.V.; Imlay, M.J.; McMillan, W.E.; Martin, T.W.; Takekawa, Jean E.; Johnson, W.W.

    1984-01-01

    The recent decline of apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) populations in canals surrounding Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge in southern Florida coincided with the use of copper-diquat for the control of the aquatic weed hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata). Field and laboratory studies were designed to assess the effects of copper-diquat on apple snails, which are the primary food of the endangered snail kite Rostrhamus sociabilis (formerly known as the Everglade kite). Acute toxicities (96-h LC50 values) of Cutrine-Plus and Komeen (chelated formulations of copper) to immature apple snails were 22 and 24 μg/L, respectively. Diquat was toxic at a concentration of 1,800 μg/L and did not increase the toxicity of copper when the chemicals were used in combination. Evaluation of field samples indicated that copper concentrations were higher in detritus than in water, plants and mud, and that there was a gradient of copper concentration from the canal to the interior, the highest residues being in samples from the canal. Copper associated with detritus (up to 150 μg/g) had no effect on growth or survival of apple snails in field cage and tank studies. Also, field applications of copper-diquat to hydrilla had no effect on survival of caged adult and immature snails. Copper from field applications was rapidly taken out of solution by plants and organic material in the water and subsequently incorporated into the bottom detritus. Although the effects of repeated applications of copper-diquat and high body burdens of copper (accumulated during exposure to herbicidal treatment) on survival and reproduction of apple snails are not known, the information available indicates that treatment of hydrilla with copper-diquat was probably not responsible for the decline in the apple snail population. Application at recommended rates should pose no threat to these snails in the organically rich waters of southern Florida.

  2. Biosynthesis, elicitation and roles of monocot terpenoid phytoalexins

    Science.gov (United States)

    A long standing goal in plant defense research is to optimize the protective function of biochemicals that impede pathogen and pest attack. Nearly 40 years ago pathogen-inducible non-volatile diterpenoids were described in rice and demonstrated to function as potent antimicrobial phytoalexins. Using...

  3. Ecology of rare water plant communities in lakes of north-eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Jabłońska

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Habitat studies were conducted on three rare plant communities dominated by Nuphar pumila, Nymphaea candida and Hydrilla verticillata in lakes of north-eastern Poland. The comparison of habitat properties of these three types of phytocoenoses with those of Nuphar lutea common in the area under study was also performed. It was demonstrated that the plant communities studied were ecologically distinct. The habitats of the phytocoenoses of N. pumila differed most significantly from those of the other phytocoenoses. They often inhabited softer waters poor in Mg2+, dissolved SiO2, but rich in total Fe, PO43−, NO3−, and were associated with acidic substrates containing lower levels of Ca2+ and Na+, but greater amounts of total Fe and NO3−. The differences in the habitats of H. verticillata and N. candida phytocoenoses were most pronounced in the case of four properties of water: Na+, K+, Cl−, and Mg+. Their values were lower in waters of the H. verticillata phytocoenoses. The habitats of all the three types of rare phytocoenoses differed considerably from those of N. lutea. The most significant differences were found between the N. lutea and N. pumila phytocoenoses and the smallest differences were between the patches of N. lutea and N. candida. The properties of water were more important in differentiating the habitats of the phytocoenoses studied than the substrate properties. Due to alkalization and increase in water hardness in the lakes studied the stands of N. pumila are among the most threatened. The patches of N. candida and H. verticillata, which occur in waters with a wider range of hardness and tolerating a slight increase in trophy, can still continue to persist in the lakes for a long time.

  4. Do Amplitudes of Water Level Fluctuations Affect the Growth and Community Structure of Submerged Macrophytes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mo-Zhu; Liu, Zheng-Yuan; Luo, Fang-Li; Lei, Guang-Chun; Li, Hong-Li

    2016-01-01

    Submerged macrophytes are subjected to potential mechanical stresses associated with fluctuating water levels in natural conditions. However, few experimental studies have been conducted to further understand the effects of water level fluctuating amplitude on submerged macrophyte species and their assemblages or communities. We designed a controlled experiment to investigate the responses of three submerged macrophyte species (Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum and Elodea nuttallii) and their combinations in communities to three amplitudes (static, ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm) of water level fluctuations. Results showed that water level fluctuating amplitude had little effects on the community performance and the three tested species responded differently. H. verticillata exhibited more growth in static water and it was negatively affected by either of the water level fluctuations amplitude, however, growth parameters of H. verticillata in two fluctuating water level treatments (i.e., ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm) were not significantly different. On the other hand, the growth of C. demersum was not significantly correlated with different amplitude treatments. However, it became more abundant when water levels fluctuated. E. nuttallii was inhibited by the two fluctuating water level treatments, and was less in growth parameters compared to the other species especially in water level fluctuating conditions. The inherent differences in the adaptive capabilities of the tested species indicate that C. demersum or other species with similar responses may be dominant species to restore submerged macrophyte communities with great fluctuating water levels. Otherwise, H. verticillata, E. nuttallii or other species with similar responses could be considered for constructing the community in static water conditions.

  5. [Bioremediation efficiency of applying Daphnia magna and submerged plants: a case study in Dishui Lake of Shanghai, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Yuan-Zi; He, Wen-Hui; Luo, Kun; Wang, Yang-Yang; Zhang, Yin-Jiang; Tian, Qian-Tao; He, Pei-Min

    2010-02-01

    From April 2007 to January 2008, a bioremediation experiment was conducted in a diversion channel of D-port pilot area of Dishui Lake (the channel length is 950 m, and its water volume is 10000 m3). Daphnia magna was first introduced to filter the high biomass of phytoplankton and other particulate organic matter, and then, five submerged plant species Elodea canadensis, Vallisneria spiralis, Hydrilla verticillata, Potamogeton lucens, and Potamogeton crispus were transplanted. Water samples were collected monthly to monitor the water quality and to investigate the bioremediation efficiency. Ten months monitoring data showed that in the remediation area, the water body's total nitrogen (TN), ammonium nitrogen (NH4(+)-N), nitrate nitrogen (NO3(-)-N), nitrite nitrogen (NO2(-)-N), total phosphorus (TP), and reactive phosphate (PO4(3-)-P) concentrations and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were significantly lower (P study demonstrated the effectiveness of introducing D. magna and transplanting submerged plants in improving the water quality of Dishui Lake.

  6. Non-contact intracellular binding of chloroplasts in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuchao; Xin, Hongbao; Liu, Xiaoshuai; Li, Baojun

    2015-06-01

    Non-contact intracellular binding and controllable manipulation of chloroplasts in vivo was demonstrated using an optical fiber probe. Launching a 980-nm laser beam into a fiber, which was placed about 3 μm above the surface of a living plant (Hydrilla verticillata) leaf, enabled stable binding of different numbers of chloroplasts, as well as their arrangement into one-dimensional chains and two-dimensional arrays inside the leaf without damaging the chloroplasts. Additionally, the formed chloroplast chains were controllably transported inside the living cells. The optical force exerted on the chloroplasts was calculated to explain the experimental results. This method provides a flexible method for studying intracellular organelle interaction with highly organized organelle-organelle contact in vivo in a non-contact manner.

  7. Bioenergy potential of eight common aquatic weeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasi, S.A.; Nipaney, P.C.; Schaumberg, G.D. (Pondicherry (Central) Univ. (IN). Salim Ali School of Ecology)

    1990-01-01

    Eight common aquatic weeds Salvinia molesta, Hydrilla verticillata, Nymphaea stellata, Azolla pinnata, Ceratopteris sp. Scirpus sp. Cyperus sp, and Utricularia reticulata were digested anaerobically to produce methane. The carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio, carbon to phosphorus (C/P) ratio, and the volatile solids (VS) content of the weeds varied widely. No trend between these factors and the methane yield was discernable; the possible reasons are discussed. The energy potential of the weeds per unit area of the weed crop was worked out. Natural stands of salvinia, such as the one employed in the present investigation, would yield energy (methane) of the order of 10{sup 8} Kcal/ha/yr. (author).

  8. Heavy metal induced DNA changes in aquatic macrophytes: Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis and identification of sequence characterized amplified region marker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meetu Gupta; Neera Bhalla Sarin

    2009-01-01

    Plants have been used as good bio-indicators and genetic toxicity of environmental pollution in recent years. In this study, aquatic plants Hydrilla verticillata and Ceratophyllum demersum treated with 10 mol/L Cd, 5 mol/L Hg, and 20 mol/L Cu for 96 h, showed changes in chlorophyll, protein content, and in DNA profiles. The changes in DNA profiles included variation in band intensity, presence or absence of certain bands and even appearance of new bands. Genomic template stability test performed for the qualitative measurement of changes in randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles, showed significant effect at the given concentration of metals. Cloning and sequencing of bands suggested that these markers although may not be homologous to any known gene but its conversion as a sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker is useful in detecting the effects of genotoxin agents.

  9. The distribution of submersed aquatic vegetation and water lettuce in the fresh and oligohaline tidal Potomac River, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Sarah Hunter; Rybicki, Nancy B.; Schenk, Edward R.

    2015-01-01

    Surveys documenting the composition of species of submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV) have been conducted in the Potomac River for decades. These surveys can help managers assess the proportion of native and exotic plants in the river or can be used to determine relationships between native and exotic plants, environmental conditions, and wildlife. SAV coverage increased from 2005 to 2007 throughout the fresh and oligohaline study area. The 2007 survey documented here determined that eleven species of SAV were present. The abundance of the exotic species Hydrilla verticillata (hydrilla) was relatively low, and species diversity was relatively high compared to previous years. The survey also revealed a new population of the invasive, floating aquatic plant Pistia stratiotes (water lettuce). In 2007, water lettuce, the latest exotic aquatic plant to be found in the fresh to oligohaline portion of the Potomac River, was most abundant in Mattawoman Creek, Charles County, Maryland. However, it was not observed in the fresh to oligohaline portion of the Potomac River in the summer of 2008. An understanding of the distribution of SAV species and factors governing the abundance of native and invasive aquatic species is enhanced by long-term surveys.

  10. Bacterial community variation and microbial mechanism of triclosan (TCS) removal by constructed wetlands with different types of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Congcong; Xie, HuiJun; Xu, Jingtao; Xu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Jian; Hu, Zhen; Liu, Cui; Liang, Shuang; Wang, Qian; Wang, Jingmin

    2015-02-01

    Triclosan (TCS) is a broad-spectrum synthetic antimicrobial agent that is toxic to microbes and other aquatic organisms. Constructed wetlands (CWs) are now popular in TCS removal. However, knowledge on the effects of TCS on the bacterial community and microbial removal mechanism in CWs is lacking. The effects of TCS (60 μg L(-1)) on bacterial communities in batch-loaded CWs with emergent (Typha angustifolia), submerged (Hydrilla verticillata), and floating plant (Salvinia natans) were analyzed by 454 pyrosequencing technology. After six periods of experiment, the TCS removal efficiencies were over 90% in CWs, and negative effects of TCS on bacterial community richness and diversity were observed. Moreover, plant species effect existed. Bacterial strains that contributed to TCS biodegradation in CWs were successfully identified. In TCS-treated T. angustifolia and H. verticillata CWs, beta-Proteobacteria increased by 16.63% and 18.20%, respectively. In TCS-treated S. natans CWs, delta- and gamma-Proteobacteria and Sphingobacteria increased by 9.36%, 19.49%, and 31.37%, respectively, and could relate to TCS biodegradation. TCS affected the development of certain bacteria, and eventually, the bacterial community structures in CWs. This research provided ecologically relevant information on bacterial community and microbial removal mechanism in CWs under TCS treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Biosorption and growth inhibition of wetland plants in water contaminated with a mixture of arsenic and heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soyoung [Department of Ocean Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Daeseok; Kim, Youngyun; Lee, Suk Mo; Chung, Yonghyun; Sung, Kijune [Department of Ecological Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    The potential of wetland plants as an onsite biosorbent and a biomonitor for combined pollution of arsenic and four heavy metals from non-point sources was investigated in this study. Ceratophyllum demersum, Hydrilla verticillata, Hydrocharis dubia, and Salvinia natans were exposed to a water containing mixture of As, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn. Growth inhibition and biosorption potential of the wetland plants in artificially contaminated conditions were studied. These contaminants significantly reduced the growth of the plants. The tested wetland plants accumulated appreciable amounts of the contaminants in the following order: Pb>Cr>Cu>Zn>As. H. verticillata showed distinct visual change and a high biosorption factor (BSF) rank for As and heavy metals among the plants used in the study. As an unspecific collector of contaminants, it might be useful as a biomonitor and biosorbent in the As and heavy metal-contaminated aquatic system. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Evaluation of the Environmental DNA Method for Estimating Distribution and Biomass of Submerged Aquatic Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuhashi, Saeko; Doi, Hideyuki; Fujiwara, Ayaka; Watanabe, Sonoko; Minamoto, Toshifumi

    2016-01-01

    The environmental DNA (eDNA) method has increasingly been recognized as a powerful tool for monitoring aquatic animal species; however, its application for monitoring aquatic plants is limited. To evaluate eDNA analysis for estimating the distribution of aquatic plants, we compared its estimated distributions with eDNA analysis, visual observation, and past distribution records for the submerged species Hydrilla verticillata. Moreover, we conducted aquarium experiments using H. verticillata and Egeria densa and analyzed the relationships between eDNA concentrations and plant biomass to investigate the potential for biomass estimation. The occurrences estimated by eDNA analysis closely corresponded to past distribution records, and eDNA detections were more frequent than visual observations, indicating that the method is potentially more sensitive. The results of the aquarium experiments showed a positive relationship between plant biomass and eDNA concentration; however, the relationship was not always significant. The eDNA concentration peaked within three days of the start of the experiment in most cases, suggesting that plants do not release constant amounts of DNA. These results showed that eDNA analysis can be used for distribution surveys, and has the potential to estimate the biomass of aquatic plants.

  13. Accumulation of microcystin congeners in different aquatic plants and crops--a case study from lake Amatitlán, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Oliva, Claudia Suseth; Contardo-Jara, Valeska; Block, Tobias; Pflugmacher, Stephan

    2014-04-01

    Microcystins (MCs) fate in natural environments can lead to its transfer into aquatic organisms, e.g. aquatic plants. Moreover, lakes in several countries sustain agriculture activities posing a serious health threat for the public. The case of Lake Amatitlán in Guatemala, was addressed to better understand MCs accumulation of four aquatic plants (Polygonum portoricensis, Eichhornia crassipes, Typha sp. and Hydrilla verticillata) coexisting with Microcystis aeruginosa blooms. These findings were further corroborated with an uptake/accumulation laboratory study. Finally crop products (Solanum lycopersicum and Capsicum annuum) irrigated with lake water were also evaluated for MCs. The obtained results suggest that Lake Amatitlán is highly contaminated with MCs (intra- and extracellular 1931 and 90 µg/L, respectively). In fruits of S. lycopersicum and C. annuum a concentration of 1.16 and 1.03 µg/kg dry weight (DW), respectively could be detected. All four aquatic plants showed a high MCs uptake capacity based on obtained bioconcentration factors (BCF) 165, 18, 16 and 11, respectively. These results were further corroborated in a laboratory study with 30 percent of total MCs taken up by H. verticillata within just 7 days. Additionally it was evidenced that all plants accumulated more MC-LR than other MCs congeners. Monitoring of crop products irrigated with lake water needs further consideration.

  14. Vegetative Propagule Pressure and Water Depth Affect Biomass and Evenness of Submerged Macrophyte Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Li; Wang, Yong-Yang; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Pu; Zhang, Ming-Xiang; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2015-01-01

    Vegetative propagule pressure may affect the establishment and structure of aquatic plant communities that are commonly dominated by plants capable of clonal growth. We experimentally constructed aquatic communities consisting of four submerged macrophytes (Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum, Elodea nuttallii and Myriophyllum spicatum) with three levels of vegetative propagule pressure (4, 8 and 16 shoot fragments for communities in each pot) and two levels of water depth (30 cm and 70 cm). Increasing vegetative propagule pressure and decreasing water level significantly increased the growth of the submerged macrophyte communities, suggesting that propagule pressure and water depth should be considered when utilizing vegetative propagules to re-establish submerged macrophyte communities in degraded aquatic ecosystems. However, increasing vegetative propagule pressure and decreasing water level significantly decreased evenness of the submerged macrophyte communities because they markedly increased the dominance of H. verticillata and E. nuttallii, but had little impact on that of C. demersum and M. spicatum. Thus, effects of vegetative propagule pressure and water depth are species-specific and increasing vegetative propagule pressure under lower water level can facilitate the establishment success of submerged macrophyte communities.

  15. Epiphytic bacterial communities on two common submerged macrophytes in Taihu Lake: diversity and host-specificity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Dan; REN Lijuan; WU Qinglong

    2012-01-01

    Leaves of terrestrial and aquatic plants are home to a wide diversity of bacterial species.However,the diversity and variability of epiphytic bacteria on their submerged plant hosts remains poorly understood.We investigated the diversity and composition of epiphytic bacteria from two common submerged macrophytes:Vallisneria natans and Hydrilla verticillata in Taihu Lake,Jiangsu,China,using methods of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (T-RFLP) and clone library analyses targeted at bacterial 16S rRNA genes.The results show that:(1) the libraries of the two waterweeds contain wide phylogenetic distribution of bacteria,and that the sequences of the two libraries can be separated into 93 OTUs (at 97% similar value); (2) Betaproteobacteria,including Burkholderiales,was the most abundant bacterial group on both plants.Cyanobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were the second largest groups on V.natans and H.verticillata,respectively.Both clone libraries included some sequences related to those of methanotrophs and nitrogen-fixing bacteria; (3) Cluster analysis of the T-RFLP profiles showed two distinct clusters corresponding to the two plant populations.Both ANOSIM of the T-RFLPdata and Libshuff analysis of the two clone libraries indicated a significant difference in epiphytic bacterial communities between the two plants.Therefore,the epiphytic bacterial communities on submerged macrophytes appear to be diverse and host-specific,which may aid in understanding the ecological functions of submerged macrophytes in general.

  16. STUDY ON THE PHYSIOLOGY OF ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION AND THE EFFECT OF HEATING ON THE MALATHION RESIDUE ANALYZED USING THE RADIOTRACER METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razak Achmad Hamzah

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine, the comparison of absorption by aquatic plants Hydrilla verticillata and Waterhyacinth (Eichhomia crassipes of malathion insecticide residues in water and comparison of malathion concentrationin tissues of fish fed with of contaminated water plants (Water hyacinth with tissues of fish, which was not fedcontaminated water plant. The effect of heating the contaminated fish tissue, on its level in tissues of rats that consumeit. For the first experiment (aquarium filled with 3 litre of water + H. verticillata 100 gr + Water hyacinth 100 gr + 20uci 14C-labeled malathion; for the second experiment (the first aquarium filled with 3 litre of water + 30 tails ofgoldfish + 20 uci 14C-labeled malathion; second aquarium filled with 3 litre of water + Water hyacinth 100 gr + 30 tailof goldfist + 20 uci 14C –labeled malathion. For the third experiment (most of contaminated fish tissue in the secondexperiment was dried at room temperature and then given to 30 mice and partly heated and then given to another 30mice. Malathion levels were then analyzed by using a liquid scintillation counter LSC-753 (Aloka. The results of alltreatments were compared using the Student t-test. It can be concluded, H. verticillata was more efficient compared tothe enceng gondok in absorbing the insecticide malathion residues in water; malathion concentration in the tissues offish fed Water hyacinth was higher than those of fish not fed Water hyacinth; contaminated fish tissue residues ofmalathion, although be heated, can not be lowered significantly, levels in the tissue.

  17. Combining ALS-Inhibiting Herbicides with the Fungal Pathogen Mycoleptodiscus terrestris for Control of Hydrilla

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    response to adverse environmental conditions. In fermentation , microsclerotia that develop in the broth medium as nutrients, particularly carbon and...these cases, recovery rates may have been delayed. Thirdly, Mt can produce secondary inoculum in the form of spores. The exact timing of this event

  18. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Moneoecious hydrilla in the Potomac River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    omy 24:29-96. Pulich, W. M., Jr. 1982. Edaphic factors related to shoalgrass ( Halodule Wrightii Aschers.) production. Botanica Marina 25:467-475...dwelling organisms. The best available data concerning the benthic macroinvertebrate fauna of the freshwater tidal portion of the Potomac were...oxygenators in rivers. Water Research 2:243-248. Egglishaw, H. J. 1964. The distributional relationship between the bottom fauna and plant detritus in

  19. 不同磷营养水平对2种沉水植物在Cd·Zn复合污染下的影响%Effects of Different Phosphorus Concentrations on Two Submerged Plants under Combined Pollution of Cd, Zn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧; 王超; 王沛芳; 薛艳

    2011-01-01

    [目的]揭示富营养化和重金属污染共同存在时对沉水植物的影响,为水生生态系统的健康评价和治理提供理论依据和手段.[方法]比较研究了不同磷营养水平对Cd、Zn复合污染下伊乐藻(Elodea nuttallii)、黑藻(Hydrilla verticillata)2种沉水植物叶绿素含量和叶绿素a/b比值、MDA含量、GSH含量、POD活性、CAT活性等生理生化指标的影响.[结果]随着培养时间延长,2种植物的叶绿素含量基本呈下降趋势,MDA含量呈先上升后下降趋势,POD活性及可溶性蛋白含量呈先下降后上升趋势,GSH呈缓慢上升趋势,当不存在磷水平时CAT活性无明显变化;但是黑藻比伊乐藻对胁迫更敏感,并且耐性优于伊乐藻.[结论]不同磷营养水平对受重金属胁迫植物的影响不一样,其中低磷水平(0.05 mg/L)可在一定程度上级解重金属的毒害,与重金属产生拮抗作用;而高磷水平(5 mg/L)则加重了重金属对植物的伤害,产生协同作用.%[ Objective ] The aim was to reveal effects of eutrophication on two kinds of submerged plant under heavy metal contamination, thus to provide theoretical basis for health evaluation and treatment measures of aquatic ecosystems. [ Method ] The effects of different phosphorus levels on the chlorophyll contents and a/b values of Elodea nuttallii and Hydrilla verticillata were compared and investigated. [ Result ] With the culture time prolonging, the chlorophyll contents of the two kinds of plant showed a general decreasing tendency ; MDA content was first increased and then decreased; POD activity and soluble protein content were furst decreased and then increased; GSH showed a slow upward trend; there was no significant change in CAT activity when no phosphorus existed; in addition, Elodea nuttallii had better sensitivity and tolerance to the stress than Hydrilla verticillata. [ Conclusion ] Effects of different phosphorus levels on the plants under heavy metal stress differed

  20. The Distribution of Submersed Aquatic Vegetation in the Fresh and Oligohaline Tidal Potomac River, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybicki, Nancy B.; Justiniano-Velez, Erika M.; Schenk, Edward R.; Baldizar, Julie M.; Hunter, Sarah E.

    2008-01-01

    Submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV) is a critical component of the Potomac River ecosystem. Though SAV provides important habitat for fauna and stabilizes bottom sediment, very dense beds may restrict recreational and commercial navigation. Exotic species of SAV are managed by the Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments Potomac Aquatic Plant Management Program (PAPMP). Selected beds of primarily exotic SAV species that limit navigation are harvested mechanically. The program began in 1986 when approximately 40 acres of plants were harvested from 18 sites (Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments 1987). Monitoring efforts are an effective means of quantifying the distribution and abundance of the exotic species, Hydrilla verticillata (hydrilla) and other SAV species. These annual surveys provide a basis for identifying large-scale changes and trends throughout the ecosystem and allow managers to evaluate the effectiveness of resource management policies based on a reliable scientific foundation (Rybicki and Landwehr, 2007). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has monitored the distribution and composition of SAV beds in the fresh and oligohaline (salinity 0.5 to 5) tidal Potomac River since 1978 using transect sampling (1978 to 1981, 1985 to 1987, and 2002) and shoreline surveys (1983 to 2005). The Government of the District of Columbia has monitored the portion of the Potomac and Anacostia Rivers within Washington DC since 1998 (Rottman, 1999; Ryan, 2005, 2006). The species of SAV observed in beds in the tidal Potomac River are incorporated into the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS) annual report on SAV distribution in Chesapeake Bay. The VIMS report and methods are available at http://www.vims.edu/bio/sav (Orth et al., 2006). Additional publications concerning SAV distribution in the Potomac River can be found at http://water.usgs.gov/nrp/proj.bib/sav/wethome.htm.

  1. 上海后滩湿地沉水植物群落系统对底泥的生态修复效应%On the effects of the submerged macrophyte community systems on the sedimentary restoration of Shanghai Houtan wetland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董悦; 霍姮翠; 谢文博; 杜佳沐; 罗思亭; 王聪; 张饮江

    2013-01-01

    利用5种不同沉水植物群落系统对中国2010上海世博区后滩湿地底泥进行生态修复,于2009年8月-2010年8月对沉水植物覆盖度与生物量,以及底泥有机质(0M)、总氮(TN)、总磷(TP)的分布与变化进行动态监测.结果表明:沉水植物群落覆盖度、生物量有明显的季节变化,总体呈升高趋势,且与底泥OM、TN、TP呈正相关;底泥经修复后,OM质量分数、TN和TP质量比分别比背景值降低61.9%~79.7%、78.7%~ 83.9%、32.3%~42.7%;底泥有机指数从Ⅳ级(有机污染)降至Ⅱ级(较清洁),降低了水体富营养化的风险;2010年8月各净化区沉水植物群落数量特征均高于2009年8月,l区的伊乐藻(Elodea nuttallii)、狐尾藻(Myriophyllumverticillatum)、轮叶黑藻(Hydrilla verticillata)、金鱼藻(Ceratophyllum demersum L.)群落以及2区的苦草(Vallisneria natans(Lour.) Hara)、金鱼藻(Ceratophyllum demersum L.)、轮叶黑藻(Hydrilla verticillata)对营养物的去除效果较其他净化区显著;底泥OM质量分数、TN质量比在垂直的0~30 cm内分布较一致,TP质量比在0~15 cm内降低,在15 ~ 30 cm内升高.研究表明,后滩湿地沉水植物群落系统对底泥营养盐修复效果明显,沉水植物群落逐渐趋于稳定,具有一定可持续性.

  2. Contractile roots in succulent monocots: convergence, divergence and adaptation to limited rainfall

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    NORTH, GRETCHEN B; BRINTON, ERIN K; GARRETT, TADAO Y

    2008-01-01

    .... The association between CRs, water uptake and habitat aridity was investigated for agaves, yuccas and aloes by assessing the occurrence of CRs and the amount of root contraction for glasshouse...

  3. Analysis of ABCB phosphoglycoproteins (PGPs) and their contribution to monocot biomass, structural stability, and productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Angus Stuart [Purdue University

    2014-09-23

    Efforts to manipulate production of plant secondary cell walls to improve the quality of biofuel feedstocks are currently limited by an inability to regulate the transport of small molecule components out of the cell. Plant ABCB p-glycoproteins are a small family of plasma membrane organic molecule transporters that have become primary targets for this effort, as they can potentially be harnessed to control the export of aromatic compounds and organic acids. However, unlike promiscuous mammalian ABCBs that function in multidrug resistance, all plant ABCB proteins characterized to date exhibit relatively narrow substrate specificity. Although ABCBs exhibit a highly conserved architecture, efforts to modify ABCB activity have been hampered by a lack of structural information largely because an eukaryotic ABCB protein crystal structure has yet to be obtained. Structure/ function analyses have been further impeded by the lack of a common heterologous expression system that can be used to characterize recombinant ABCB proteins, as many cannot be functionally expressed in S. cereviseae or other systems where proteins with analogous function can be readily knocked out. Using experimentally-determined plant ABCB substrate affinities and the crystal structure of the bacterial Sav1866 “half” ABC transporter, we have developed sequence/structure models for ABCBs that provide a testable context for mutational analysis of plant ABCB transporters. We have also developed a flexible heterologous expression system in Schizosaccharomyces pombe in which all endogenous ABC transporters have been knocked out. The effectiveness of this system for transport studies has been demonstrated by the successful functional expression all of the known PIN, AUX/LAX and ABCB auxin transporters. Our central hypothesis is that the domains of the ABCB proteins that we have identified as substrate docking sites and regulators of transport directionality can be altered or swapped to alter the transport characteristics of the proteins. We propose to combine computer modelling, mutational analyses, and complementation of well characterized Arabidopsis abcb4,14,and 19 mutants to elucidate ABCB function. The long term objective of this project is to enhance ABCB transport of cell wall components, to manipulate the direction of ABCB substrate transport, and, ultimately, to produce “designer” ABC transporters that can be used to modify plant feedstock quality.

  4. A comparative study of monocot and dicot root development in normal /earth/ and hypogravity /space/ environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, R. D.; Galston, A. W.

    1982-01-01

    The anatomy and fine structure of roots from oat and mung bean seedlings grown under hypogravity conditions aboard NASA's Space Shuttle were examined and compared to those of roots from ground control plants grown under similar conditions. Oat roots from both sets of plants exhibited normal tissue organization and ultrastructural features, with the exception of cortex cell mitochondria, which characteristically showed a 'swollen' morphology. Flight-grown mung bean roots differed significantly from the controls in that root cap cells were somewhat disorganized and degraded in appearance, especially at the cap periphery. At the EM level, these cells exhibited a loss organelle integrity and a condensed cytoplasm. The potential significance of this finding for the putative gravity-sensing cap cells were noted.

  5. Reproductive Biology and Prospects for Conservation of Caldesia parnassifolia (Alismataceae)--A Threatened Monocot in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gituru Wahiti Robert; Wang Qing-feng; Wang Yong; Guo You-hao

    2003-01-01

    Caldesia parnassifolia (Bassi ex Linn.) Parl. in China has declined in number in recent years and is increasingly faced with the risk of extirpation arising from anthropogenic changes associated with rapid urbanization and expansion of both agriculture and infrastructure. To aid in provision of the data needed for effective conservation of the species, studies on the habitat, pollination ecology, and breeding system of C. parnassifolia were carried out on natural populations occurring in Southeastern China. Flowering in the study populations extended for more than eighty days beginning in early summer. Floral anthesis occurred in the morning hours and proceeded rapidly, lasting about 45 min. Flowers lasted ca. 8 h. Caldesia parnassifolia is self-compatible; however autogamy resulted in lower seed set than geitonogamy and xenogamy as well as free pollination. The data on pollen/ ovule (P∶O) ratio is consistent with a partially selfing and outcrossing mating system. Interpopulational crosses yielded similar seed set to within-population crosses. Agamospermy did not occur in the study populations. Propagation is achieved through seeds as well as through turions which commonly occur in the inflorescences. Flies (Insecta; Diptera) were the most frequent visitors to the flowers of C. parnassifolia; however bees (Insecta; Hymenoptera) composed a larger proportion of effective pollinators. The Syrphidae species Sphaerophoria indiana (Bigot) presents evidence of oligolectic foraging behavior. Recommendations are made on the immediate steps necessary for conservation of Caldesia species in China.

  6. Reproductive Biology and Prospects for Conservation of Caldesia parnassifolia (Alismataceae)--A Threatened Monocot in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gituru; Wahiti; Robert; Wang; Qing-fent; 等

    2003-01-01

    Caldesia parnassifolia (Bassi ex Linn.) Parl. in China has declined in number in recent years and is increasingly faced with the risk of extirpation arising from anthropogenic changes associated with rapid urbanization and expansion of both agriculture and infrastructure. To aid in provision of the data needed for effective conservation of the species, studies on the habitat, pollination ecology, and breeding system of C.parnassifolia were carried out on natural populations occurring in Southeastern China. Flowering in the study populations extended for more than eighty days beginning in early summer. Floral anthesis occurred in the morning hours and proceeded rapidly, lasting about 45 min. Flowers lasted ca.8h. Caldesia parnassifolia is self-compatible; however autogamy resulted in lower seed set than geitonogamy and xenogamy as well as free pollination. The data on pollen/ovule (P:O) ratio is consistent with a partially selfing and outcrossing mating system. Interpopulational crosses yielded similar seed set to within-population crosses. Agamospermy did not occur in the study populations. Propagation is achieved through seeds as well as through turions which commonly occur in the inflorescences. Flies (Insecta; Diptera) were the most frequent visitors to the flowers of C.parnassifolia; however bees (Insecta;Hymenoptera )composed a larger proportion of effective pollinators. The Syrphidae species Sphaerophoria indiana (Bigot) presents evidence of oligolectic foraging behavior. Recommendations are made on the immediate steps necessary for conservation of Caldesia species in China.

  7. pORE: a modular binary vector series suited for both monocot and dicot plant transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutu, Catherine; Brandle, James; Brown, Dan; Brown, Kirk; Miki, Brian; Simmonds, John; Hegedus, Dwayne D

    2007-12-01

    We present a series of 14 binary vectors suitable for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of dicotyledonous plants and adaptable for biolistic transformation of monocotyledonous plants. The vector size has been minimized by eliminating all non-essential elements from the vector backbone and T-DNA regions while maintaining the ability to replicate independently. The smallest of the vector series is 6.3 kb and possesses an extensive multiple cloning site with 21 unique restriction endonuclease sites that are compatible with common cloning, protein expression, yeast two-hybrid and other binary vectors. The T-DNA region was engineered using a synthetic designer oligonucleotide resulting in an entirely modular system whereby any vector element can be independently exchanged. The high copy number ColE1 origin of replication has been included to enhance plasmid yield in Escherichia coli. FRT recombination sites flank the selectable marker cassette regions and allow for in planta excision by FLP recombinase. The pORE series consists of three basic types; an 'open' set for general plant transformation, a 'reporter' set for promoter analysis and an 'expression' set for constitutive expression of transgenes. The sets comprise various combinations of promoters (P (HPL), P (ENTCUP2) and P (TAPADH)), selectable markers (nptII and pat) and reporter genes (gusA and smgfp).

  8. Perianth development in the basal monocot Triglochin maritima (Juncaginaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buzgo, Matyas; Soltis, Douglas E.; Soltis, Pamela S.

    2006-01-01

    . To address these questions, morphological studies were carried out, and the results show that in T. maritima both terminal and lateral structures are flowers, not pseudanthia. The terminal flower of T. maritima develops from the apical inflorescence meristem, suggesting that the apical meristem identity...

  9. Genome-wide computational prediction and analysis of core promoter elements across plant monocots and dicots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transcription initiation, essential to gene expression regulation, involves recruitment of basal transcription factors to the core promoter elements (CPEs). The distribution of currently known CPEs across plant genomes is largely unknown. This is the first large scale genome-wide report on the compu...

  10. Studies on sustainability of simulated constructed wetland system for treatment of urban waste: Design and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, A K; Bankoti, N S; Rai, U N

    2016-03-15

    New system configurations and wide range of treatability make constructed wetland (CW) as an eco-sustainable on-site approach of waste management. Keeping this view into consideration, a novel configured three-stage simulated CW was designed to study its performance efficiency and relative importance of plants and substrate in purification processes. Two species of submerged plant i.e., Potamogeton crispus and Hydrilla verticillata were selected for this study. After 6 months of establishment, operation and maintenance of simulated wetland, enhanced reduction in physicochemical parameters was observed, which was maximum in the planted CW. The percentage removal (%) of the pollutants in three-stage mesocosms was; conductivity (60.42%), TDS (67.27%), TSS (86.10%), BOD (87.81%), NO3-N (81.28%) and PO4-P (83.54%) at 72 h of retention time. Submerged macrophyte used in simulated wetlands showed a significant time dependent accumulation of toxic metals (p ≤ 0.05). P. crispus accumulated the highest Mn (86.36 μg g(-1) dw) in its tissue followed by Cr (54.16 μg g(-1) dw), Pb (31.56 μg g(-1) dw), Zn (28.06 μg g(-1) dw) and Cu (25.76 μg g(-1) dw), respectively. In the case of H. verticillata, it was Zn (45.29), Mn (42.64), Pb (22.62), Cu (18.09) and Cr (16.31 μg g(-1) dw). Thus, results suggest that the application of simulated CW tackles the water pollution problem more efficiently and could be exploited in small community level as alternative and cost effective tools of phytoremediation.

  11. The growth of three submerged plants in different polluted water and its impact on water quality%3种沉水植物在不同污染水体中的生长及其对水质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴旻; 赵群芬

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, three submerged plants (goldfish algae(Ceratophyllum demersum L.), bitter grass(Hydrilla verticillata)and hydrilla(Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara)) were chosen as the research object and placed in different polluted water to explore different submerged plant’s purification effect on the water quality by monitoring water’s total nitrogen, total phosphorus. chlorophyll a content, and pH, etc. At the same time, based on the total nitrogen and total phosphorus content in plant and superoxide enzyme (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), the growth of the plants in different polluted water was researched. The results showed that the purification effects of different submerged plants have a significant difference on different polluted water, and the stress of different polluted water on the physical growth of submerged plant also has different effects.%以金鱼藻(Ceratophyllum demersum L.)、苦草(Hydrilla verticillata)、黑藻(Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara)3种沉水植物作为研究对象,分别将其放置于不同污染水体中培养,通过监测水体总氮、总磷、叶绿素a含量和pH值等,探究不同沉水植物对水质的净化效果;同时通过对植物体内总氮、总磷含量以及超氧化物酶(SOD)、丙二醛(MDA)的变化,研究植物在不同污染水体中的生长情况。结果表明,不同沉水植物对不同污染水体的净水效果有着显著差异,不同污染水体的胁迫作用对沉水植物本身的生理生长也有着不同的影响。综合所研究的沉水植物的净水优势以及在不同污染水体中的适应情况,筛选出在各种污染水体中的优势种,归纳总结出生态修复组合的方案。

  12. Biological and Host Range Studies with Bagous affinis, An Indian Weevil that Destroys Hydrilla Tubers. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-12-01

    of Entomology and Nematology Institute of Food and Agriculture Services University of Florida Gainesville, FL 32606 Final report Approved for public...FL 32614-7100 Department of Entomology and Nematology , Institute of Food and Agriculture Services, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32606 9

  13. Water quality effects of two aquatic macrophytes on eutrophic water from Lake Dianchi Caohai%两种水生植物对滇池草海富营养化水体水质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王智; 张志勇; 张君倩; 闻学政; 王岩; 刘海琴; 严少华

    2013-01-01

    The water quality effects of two typical aquatic macrophytes, Eichhornia crassipes and Hydrilla verticillata, on the eutrophic water from Lake Dianchi Caohai were investigated by a series of microcosm experiments. The assimilation of nitrogen and phosphorus from microcosm by E. crassipes were 109% and 17% higher than that by H. verticillata, respectively. The leves of dissovle oxygen and pH in the E. crassipes treatments were significantly reduced, and electric conduction and redox potential were significantly increased comparing with the control. However, the results of H. verticillata treatments were opposive to E. crassipes treatments. During the experiment, the concentrations of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) in treatments were significantly lower than that in control. With the same biomass of two aquatic plants used at the beginning of the experiment, the concentrations of TN, TP and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) in H. verticillata treatments were significantly lower than that in E. crassipes treatments in the early stage of the experiment, but the results were reversed in the late stage of the experiment. After aquatic macrophytes harvest, concentrations of TN and TP could maintain the levels of which before harvest; Chl-a concentrations in E. crassipes treatments could also maintain the level of which before harvest, but in H. verticillata treatments, Chl-a concentrations showed a significant increase.%通过模拟实验,比较了2种典型水生植物水葫芦和轮叶黑藻对滇池草海富营养化水体水质的影响.结果表明,在实验过程中,水葫芦同化吸收的氮、磷量分别比轮叶黑藻所同化吸收的量高109%和17%.在水生植物采收前,水葫芦处理组水体DO和pH值显著性低于对照组,电导率(EC)和氧化还原电位(Eh)显著性高于对照组,与轮叶黑藻处理组结果相反.水葫芦和轮叶黑藻处理组水体TN和TP浓度均显著低于对照组;相同初始种养量的情况下,试验初

  14. Eutrophication increases methane emission to the atmosphere in tropical lagoons: insights from two Ivory Coast sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    José-mathieu Koné, Yéfanlan; Vieira Borges, Alberto

    2017-04-01

    Eutrophication increases methane emission to the atmosphere in tropical lagoons: insights from two Ivory Coast sites. Y J M Koné (1) & A.V. Borges (2) (1) Centre de recherches océanologiques (CRO) d'Abidjan, (Ivory Coast) (2) University of Liège, Chemical Oceanography Unit, Liège, Belgium (Belgium) Eutrophication is a worldwide environmental problem and a definitive solution is far from being achieved, despite the large number of studies documenting its causes. In small aquatic ecosystems, excessive growth of macrophytes is a well known undesirable consequence of eutrophication. When these plants die and sink to the bottom the decomposing biomass depletes oxygen content in the water column thus leading to anoxia promoting methane (CH4) production. Here, we reported the CH4 data obtained during six campaigns covering the annual cycle in two small lagoons of Ivory Coast (Ono, Kodjoboué) that are contrasted in the degree of eutrophication and the corresponding coverage of macrophytes (e.g. Echinochloa pyramidalis, Eichhornia crassipes, Hydrilla verticillata). Our data showed a high spatio-temporal variability of CH4 within the lagoons and between the two systems, with CH4 concentrations in surface waters ranging between 80 to 74,604 nmol L-1. The highest CH4 concentration values were observed in the eutrophic Ono lagoon that is covered by 80% of macrophytes, suggesting that lagoons dominated by macrophytes are significant sources of CH4 toward the atmosphere.

  15. Physico-chemical assessment of paper mill effluent and its heavy metal remediation using aquatic macrophytes--a case study at JK Paper mill, Rayagada, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Swayamprabha; Mohanty, Monalisa; Pradhan, Chinmay; Patra, Hemanta Kumar; Das, Ritarani; Sahoo, Santilata

    2013-05-01

    The present investigation aims to assess the phytoremediation potential of six aquatic macrophytes, viz. Eichhornia crassipes, Hydrilla verticillata, Jussiaea repens, Lemna minor, Pistia stratiotes and Trapa natans grown in paper mill effluent of JK Paper mill of Rayagada, Orissa, for remediation of heavy metals. The experiment was designed in pot culture experiments. Assessment of physico-chemical parameters of paper mill effluent showed significant decrease in pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, chlorine, sulphur, biological and chemical oxygen demand after growth of macrophytes for 20 days. Phytoremediation ability of these aquatic macrophytic species for copper (Cu) and mercury (Hg) was indicated by assessing the decrease in the levels of heavy metals from effluent water. Maximum reduction (66.5 %) in Hg content of untreated paper mill effluent was observed using L. minor followed by T. natans (64.8 %). L. minor showed highest reduction (71.4 %) of Cu content from effluent water followed by E. crassipes (63.6 %). Phytoextraction potential of L. minor was remarkable for Hg and Cu, and bioaccumulation was evident from bioconcentration factor values, i.e. 0.59 and 0.70, respectively. The present phytoremediation approach was considered more effective than conventional chemical treatment method for removing toxic contaminants from paper mill effluent.

  16. Anaerobic decomposition of a native and an exotic submersed macrophyte in two tropical reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WA Chiba de Castro

    Full Text Available Some aquatic plants have fast metabolism and growth, even at sub-optimal conditions, and become dominant in lentic environments such as large reservoirs, altering the nutrient cycle and impairing their environmental quality. There is great need in the knowledge impact processes of invasive species in aquatic environments, among the major, those related to the decomposition. This study evaluated the anaerobic decomposition of invasive submerged macrophytes Egeria densa Planch, native, and Hydrilla verticillata (L.f. Royle, exotic in Porto Primavera and Jupiá reservoirs, Paraná basin. We evaluated the decay of organic matter, humification degree of the leached material, electrical conductivity and pH of the decomposition process. Mathematical models were utilised to describe the decomposition patterns over time. Both species showed the same heterogeneous pattern of decay of organic matter and carbon mineralisation. The models of carbon mineralisation, compared with the experimentally obtained data presented were adequate. Both species show no significant differences in the decomposition processes. Incubations of both species presented rapid t ½ for POC mineralisation and low DOC mineralisation.

  17. Concentrations of heavy metals and aquatic macrophytes of Govind Ballabh Pant Sagar an anthropogenic lake affected by coal mining effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Virendra Kumar; Upadhyay, Alka Rani; Pandey, Sudhir Kumar; Tripathi, B D

    2008-06-01

    Five heavy metals Cu, Cd, Mn, Pb and Hg were found in high concentration from three sampling sites located in Asia's largest anthropogenic lake Govind Ballabh Pant GBP Sagar. Concentrations of these heavy metals were measured in Water, bottom sediment and in different parts of the aquatic macrophytes collected from the reservoir. Plants collected from the lake were Eichhornia crassipes, Azolla pinnata, Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrrhiza, Potamogeton pectinatus, Marsilea quadrifolia, Pistia stratiotes, Ipomea aquqtica, Potamogeton crispus, Hydrilla verticillata and Aponogeton natans. These plants have shown the high concentrations of Cu, Cd, Mn, Pb and Hg in their different parts due to bioaccumulation. In general plant roots exhibited higher concentrations of heavy metals than corresponding sediments. A comparison between different morphological tissues of the sampled plants revealed the metal concentration in following order roots > leaves. Analyses of bottom sediment indicated the higher concentrations of Cd, Mn, Cu and Pb. Strong positive correlations were obtained between the metals in water and in plants as well as between metal in sediment and in plants. Indicating the potential of these plants for pollution monitoring of these metals.

  18. Heavy metals in water, sediments and wetland plants in an aquatic ecosystem of tropical industrial region, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Prabhat Kumar

    2009-11-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Fe, Pb, Zn, Hg, Ni, and Cd) and macronutrients (Mn) were measured in industrial effluents, water, bottom sediments, and wetland plants from a reservoir, Govind Ballabh (G.B.) Pant Sagar, in Singrauli Industrial region, India. The discharge point of a thermal power plant, a coal mine, and chlor-alkali effluent into the G.B. Pant Sagar were selected as sampling sites with one reference site in order to compare the findings. The concentrations of heavy metals in filtered water, sieved sediment samples (0.4-63 microm), and wetland plants were determined with particle-induced X-ray emission. The collected plants were Aponogeton natans, L. Engl. & Krause, Cyperus rotundus, L., Hydrilla verticillata, (L.f.) Royle, Ipomoea aquatica, Forssk., Marsilea quadrifolia, L., Potamogeton pectinatus, L., Eichhornia crassipes, (Mart.) Solms Monogr., Lemna minor, L., Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleid. Linnaea, Azolla pinnata, R.Br., Vallisneria spiralis, L., and Polygonum amphibium, L. In general, metal concentration showed a significant positive correlation between industrial effluent, lake water, and lake sediment (p macrophytes for pollution monitoring.

  19. Opportunities for Phytoremediation and Bioindication of Arsenic Contaminated Water Using a Submerged Aquatic Plant:Vallisneria natans (lour.) Hara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoliang; Liu, Xingmei; Brookes, Philip C; Xu, Jianming

    2015-01-01

    The identification of plants with high arsenic hyperaccumulating efficiency from water is required to ensure the successful application of phytoremediation technology. Five dominant submerged plant species (Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara., Potamageton crispus L., Myriophyllum spicatum L., Ceratophyllum demersum L. and Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle) in China were used to determine their potential to remove As from contaminated water. V. natans had the highest accumulation of As among them. The characteristics of As accumulation, transformation and the effect of phosphate on As accumulation in V. natans were then further studied. The growth of V. natans was not inhibited even when the As concentration reached 2.0 mg L(-1). After 21 d of As treatment, the bioconcentration factor (BCF) reached 1300. The As concentration in the environment and exposure time are major factors controlling the As concentration in V. natans. After being absorbed, As(V) is efficiently reduced to As(III) in plants. The synthesis of non-enzymic antioxidants may play an important role under As stress and increase As detoxication. In addition, As(V) uptake by V. natans was negatively correlated with phosphate (P) uptake when P was sufficiently supplied. As(V) is probably taken up via P transporters in V. natans.

  20. Applicability of drinking water treatment residue for lake restoration in relation to metal/metalloid risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Nannan; Wang, Changhui; Pei, Yuansheng; Jiang, Helong

    2016-12-01

    Drinking water treatment residue (DWTR), a byproduct generated during potable water production, exhibits a high potential for recycling to control eutrophication. However, this beneficial recycling is hampered by unclear metal/metalloid pollution risks related to DWTR. In this study, the pollution risks of Al, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, and Zn due to DWTR application were first evaluated for lake water based on human health risk assessment models and comparison of regulatory standards. The risks of DWTR were also evaluated for sediments on the basis of toxicity characteristics leaching procedure and fractionation in relation to risk assessment code. Variations in the biological behaviors of metal/metalloid in sediments caused by DWTR were assessed using Chironomus plumosus larvae and Hydrilla verticillata. Kinetic luminescent bacteria test (using Aliivibrio fischeri) was conducted to analyze the possibility of acute and chronic detrimental effects of sediment with DWTR application. According to the obtained results, we identify a potential undesirable effect of DWTR related to Fe and Mn (typically under anaerobic conditions); roughly present a dosage threshold calculation model; and recommend a procedure for DWTR prescreening to ensure safe application. Overall, managed DWTR application is necessary for successful eutrophication control.

  1. Enhancement of nitrate removal at the sediment-water interface by carbon addition plus vertical mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuechu; He, Shengbing; Zhang, Yueping; Huang, Xiaobo; Huang, Yingying; Chen, Danyue; Huang, Xiaochen; Tang, Jianwu

    2015-10-01

    Wetlands and ponds are frequently used to remove nitrate from effluents or runoffs. However, the efficiency of this approach is limited. Based on the assumption that introducing vertical mixing to water column plus carbon addition would benefit the diffusion across the sediment-water interface, we conducted simulation experiments to identify a method for enhancing nitrate removal. The results suggested that the sediment-water interface has a great potential for nitrate removal, and the potential can be activated after several days of acclimation. Adding additional carbon plus mixing significantly increases the nitrate removal capacity, and the removal of total nitrogen (TN) and nitrate-nitrogen (NO3(-)-N) is well fitted to a first-order reaction model. Adding Hydrilla verticillata debris as a carbon source increased nitrate removal, whereas adding Eichhornia crassipe decreased it. Adding ethanol plus mixing greatly improved the removal performance, with the removal rate of NO3(-)-N and TN reaching 15.0-16.5 g m(-2) d(-1). The feasibility of this enhancement method was further confirmed with a wetland microcosm, and the NO3(-)-N removal rate maintained at 10.0-12.0 g m(-2) d(-1) at a hydraulic loading rate of 0.5 m d(-1).

  2. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 May 2009-31 July 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almany, Glenn R; DE Arruda, Maurício P; Arthofer, Wolfgang; Atallah, Z K; Beissinger, Steven R; Berumen, Michael L; Bogdanowicz, S M; Brown, S D; Bruford, Michael W; Burdine, C; Busch, Jeremiah W; Campbell, Nathan R; Carey, D; Carstens, Bryan C; Chu, K H; Cubeta, Marc A; Cuda, J P; Cui, Zhaoxia; Datnoff, L E; Dávila, J A; Davis, Emily S; Davis, R M; Diekmann, Onno E; Eizirik, Eduardo; Fargallo, J A; Fernandes, Fabiano; Fukuda, Hideo; Gale, L R; Gallagher, Elizabeth; Gao, Yongqiang; Girard, Philippe; Godhe, Anna; Gonçalves, Evonnildo C; Gouveia, Licinia; Grajczyk, Amber M; Grose, M J; Gu, Zhifeng; Halldén, Christer; Härnström, Karolina; Hemmingsen, Amanda H; Holmes, Gerald; Huang, C H; Huang, Chuan-Chin; Hudman, S P; Jones, Geoffrey P; Kanetis, Loukas; Karunasagar, Iddya; Karunasagar, Indrani; Keyghobadi, Nusha; Klosterman, S J; Klug, Page E; Koch, J; Koopman, Margaret M; Köppler, Kirsten; Koshimizu, Eriko; Krumböck, Susanne; Kubisiak, T; Landis, J B; Lasta, Mario L; Lee, Chow-Yang; Li, Qianqian; Li, Shou-Hsien; Lin, Rong-Chien; Liu, M; Liu, Na; Liu, W C; Liu, Yuan; Loiseau, A; Luan, Weisha; Maruthachalam, K K; McCormick, Helen M; Mellick, Rohan; Monnahan, P J; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Murray, Tomás E; Narum, Shawn R; Neufeld, Katie; De Nova, P J G; Ojiambo, Peter S; Okamoto, Nobuaki; Othman, Ahmad Sofiman; Overholt, W A; Pardini, Renata; Paterson, Ian G; Patty, Olivia A; Paxton, Robert J; Planes, Serge; Porter, Carolyn; Pratchett, Morgan S; Püttker, Thomas; Rasic, Gordana; Rasool, Bilal; Rey, O; Riegler, Markus; Riehl, C; Roberts, John M K; Roberts, P D; Rochel, Elisabeth; Roe, Kevin J; Rossetto, Maurizio; Ruzzante, Daniel E; Sakamoto, Takashi; Saravanan, V; Sarturi, Cladinara Roberts; Schmidt, Anke; Schneider, Maria Paula Cruz; Schuler, Hannes; Serb, Jeanne M; Serrão, Ester T A; Shi, Yaohua; Silva, Artur; Sin, Y W; Sommer, Simone; Stauffer, Christian; Strüssmann, Carlos Augusto; Subbarao, K V; Syms, Craig; Tan, Feng; Tejedor, Eugenio Daniel; Thorrold, Simon R; Trigiano, Robert N; Trucco, María I; Tsuchiya-Jerep, Mirian Tieko Nunes; Vergara, P; Van De Vliet, Mirjam S; Wadl, Phillip A; Wang, Aimin; Wang, Hongxia; Wang, R X; Wang, Xinwang; Wang, Yan; Weeks, Andrew R; Wei, Fuwen; Werner, William J; Wiley, E O; Williams, D A; Wilkins, Richard J; Wisely, Samantha M; With, Kimberly A; Wu, Danhua; Yao, Cheng-Te; Yau, Cynthia; Yeap, Beng-Keok; Zhai, Bao-Ping; Zhan, Xiangjiang; Zhang, Guo-Yan; Zhang, S Y; Zhao, Ru; Zhu, Lifeng

    2009-11-01

    This article documents the addition of 512 microsatellite marker loci and nine pairs of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Alcippe morrisonia morrisonia, Bashania fangiana, Bashania fargesii, Chaetodon vagabundus, Colletes floralis, Coluber constrictor flaviventris, Coptotermes gestroi, Crotophaga major, Cyprinella lutrensis, Danaus plexippus, Fagus grandifolia, Falco tinnunculus, Fletcherimyia fletcheri, Hydrilla verticillata, Laterallus jamaicensis coturniculus, Leavenworthia alabamica, Marmosops incanus, Miichthys miiuy, Nasua nasua, Noturus exilis, Odontesthes bonariensis, Quadrula fragosa, Pinctada maxima, Pseudaletia separata, Pseudoperonospora cubensis, Podocarpus elatus, Portunus trituberculatus, Rhagoletis cerasi, Rhinella schneideri, Sarracenia alata, Skeletonema marinoi, Sminthurus viridis, Syngnathus abaster, Uroteuthis (Photololigo) chinensis, Verticillium dahliae, Wasmannia auropunctata, and Zygochlamys patagonica. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Chaetodon baronessa, Falco columbarius, Falco eleonorae, Falco naumanni, Falco peregrinus, Falco subbuteo, Didelphis aurita, Gracilinanus microtarsus, Marmosops paulensis, Monodelphis Americana, Odontesthes hatcheri, Podocarpus grayi, Podocarpus lawrencei, Podocarpus smithii, Portunus pelagicus, Syngnathus acus, Syngnathus typhle,Uroteuthis (Photololigo) edulis, Uroteuthis (Photololigo) duvauceli and Verticillium albo-atrum. This article also documents the addition of nine sequencing primer pairs and sixteen allele specific primers or probes for Oncorhynchus mykiss and Oncorhynchus tshawytscha; these primers and assays were cross-tested in both species.

  3. Mesohaline submerged aquatic vegetation survey along the U.S. gulf of Mexico coast, 2001 and 2002: A salinity gradient approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, J.H.; Carter, J.; Merino, S.L.

    2009-01-01

    Distribution of marine submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV; i.e., seagrass) in the northern Gulf of Mexico coast has been documented, but there are nonmarine submersed or SAV species occurring in estuarine salinities that have not been extensively reported. We sampled 276 SAV beds along the gulf coast in Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas in 2001 and 2002 in oligohaline to polyhaline (0 to 36 parts per thousand) waters to determine estuarine SAV species distribution and identify mesohaline SAV communities. A total of 20 SAV and algal species was identified and habitat characteristics such as salinity, water depth, pH, conductivity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, and sediment composition were collected. Fourteen SAV species occurred two or more times in our samples. The most frequently occurring species was Ruppia maritima L. (n = 148), occurring in over half of SAV beds sampled. Eleocharis sp. (n = 47), characterized with an emergent rather than submerged growth form, was a common genus in the SAV beds sampled. A common marine species was Halodule wrightii Asch. (n = 36). Nonindigenous species Myriophyllum spicatum L. (n = 31) and Hydrilla verticillata (L. f.) Royle (n = 6) were present only in oligohaline water. Analyzing species occurrence and environmental characteristics using canonical correspondence and two-way indicator species analysis, we identify five species assemblages distinguished primarily by salinity and depth. Our survey increases awareness of nonmarine SAV as a natural resource in the gulf, and provides baseline data for future research. ?? 2009 by the Marine Environmental Sciences Consortium of Alabama.

  4. Dark/light modulation of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity in plants from different photosynthetic categories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vu, J.C.V.; Allen, L.H. Jr.; Bowes, G.

    1984-11-01

    Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBPCase) from several plants had substantially greater activity in extracts from light-exposed leaves than dark leaves, even when the extracts were incubated in vitro with saturating HCO/sub 3//sup -/ and Mg/sup 2 +/ concentrations. This occurred in Glycine max, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nicotiana tabacum, Panicum bisulcatum, and P. hylaeicum (C/sub 3/); P. maximum (C/sub 4/ phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase); P. milioides (C/sub 3//C/sub 4/); and Bromelia pinguin and Ananas comosus (Crassulacean acid metabolism). Little or no difference between light and dark leaf extracts of RuBPCase was observed in Triticum aestivum (C/sub 3/); P. miliaceum (C/sub 4/ NAD malic enzyme); Zea mays and Sorghum bicolor (C/sub 4/ NADP malic enzyme); Moricandia arvensis (C/sub 3//C/sub 4/); and Hydrilla verticillata (submersed aquatic macrophyte). It is concluded that, in many plants, especially Crassulacean acid metabolism and C/sub 3/ species, a large fraction of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in the dark is in an inactivatable state that cannot respond to CO/sub 2/ and Mg/sup 2 +/ activation, but which can be converted to an activatable state upon exposure of the leaf to light. 16 references, 2 tables.

  5. Dark/Light Modulation of Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase Activity in Plants from Different Photosynthetic Categories 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, J. Cu V.; Allen, Leon H.; Bowes, George

    1984-01-01

    Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBPCase) from several plants had substantially greater activity in extracts from lightexposed leaves than dark leaves, even when the extracts were incubated in vitro with saturating HCO3− and Mg2+ concentrations. This occurred in Glycine max, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nicotiana tabacum, Panicum bisulcatum, and P. hylaeicum (C3); P. maximum (C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase); P. milioides (C3/C4); and Bromelia pinguin and Ananas comosus (Crassulacean acid metabolism). Little or no difference between light and dark leaf extracts of RuBPCase was observed in Triticum aestivum (C3); P. miliaceum (C4 NAD malic enzyme); Zea mays and Sorghum bicolor (C4 NADP malic enzyme); Moricandia arvensis (C3/C4); and Hydrilla verticillata (submersed aquatic macrophyte). It is concluded that, in many plants, especially Crassulacean acid metabolism and C3 species, a large fraction of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in the dark is in an inactivatable state that cannot respond to CO2 and Mg2+ activation, but which can be converted to an activatable state upon exposure of the leaf to light. PMID:16663937

  6. Dark/Light modulation of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity in plants from different photosynthetic categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, J C; Allen, L H; Bowes, G

    1984-11-01

    Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBPCase) from several plants had substantially greater activity in extracts from lightexposed leaves than dark leaves, even when the extracts were incubated in vitro with saturating HCO(3) (-) and Mg(2+) concentrations. This occurred in Glycine max, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nicotiana tabacum, Panicum bisulcatum, and P. hylaeicum (C(3)); P. maximum (C(4) phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase); P. milioides (C(3)/C(4)); and Bromelia pinguin and Ananas comosus (Crassulacean acid metabolism). Little or no difference between light and dark leaf extracts of RuBPCase was observed in Triticum aestivum (C(3)); P. miliaceum (C(4) NAD malic enzyme); Zea mays and Sorghum bicolor (C(4) NADP malic enzyme); Moricandia arvensis (C(3)/C(4)); and Hydrilla verticillata (submersed aquatic macrophyte). It is concluded that, in many plants, especially Crassulacean acid metabolism and C(3) species, a large fraction of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in the dark is in an inactivatable state that cannot respond to CO(2) and Mg(2+) activation, but which can be converted to an activatable state upon exposure of the leaf to light.

  7. Screening of native plants and algae growing on fly-ash affected areas near National Thermal Power Corporation, Tanda, Uttar Pradesh, India for accumulation of toxic heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, S; Srivastava, S; Mishra, S; Dixit, B; Kumar, A; Tripathi, R D

    2008-10-30

    The present investigation was carried out to screen native plants growing in fly-ash (FA) contaminated areas near National Thermal Power Corporation, Tanda, Uttar Pradesh, India with a view to using them for the eco-restoration of the area. A total number of 17 plants (9 aquatic, 6 terrestrial and 2 algal species) were collected and screened for heavy metal (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mo, B, Si, Al, Cr, Pb, Cd, Hg and As) accumulation. Differential accumulation of various heavy metals by different species of plants was observed. Hydrilla verticillata was found to be the most efficient metal accumulator among 9 aquatic plants, Eclipta alba among 6 terrestrial plants and Phormedium papyraceum between 2 algal species. In general, the maximum levels of most metals were found in terrestrial plants while the lowest in algal species. However, translocation of the metals from root to shoot was found to be higher in aquatic plants than terrestrial ones. These results suggest that various aquatic, terrestrial and algal species of plants may be used in a synergistic way to remediate and restore the FA contaminated areas.

  8. Purification and Influence of Submerged Plants on Water Quality of Landscape Water Body Supplied by Reclaimed Water%沉水植物对再生水景观水体水质变化的影响和净化效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐志嫱; 刘维; 赵洁; 刘玉玲

    2012-01-01

    This research is to investigate the eutrophication change and water quality improvement by submerged plants in a landscape pond supplied by reclaimed water.An artificial lake of Xi'an was chosen to monitor the water quality at different locations and periods.An outdoor study was carried out to research the effects of nutrient removal by Elodea canadensis and Hydrilla verticillata in reclaimed water.The results showed that concentrations of ammonia nitrogen(NH+4-N) and total nitrogen(TN) were clearly lower than the open water area,and the water was in low eutrophication state in the area with submerged plants,mainly located at the edge of the lake.Elodea canadensis and Hydrilla verticillata showed a perfect effect for reclaimed water quality.The removal rates of Elodea canadensis of CODCr,TN and TP were 38.55%~57.54%,43.13%~51.81% and 61.76%~77.45% respectively,that were superior to Hydrilla verticillata's.Elodea canadensis had inhibitory effect on algae,and chlorophyll a kept in 20 μg/L level during long time.It was suggested that Elodea canadensis should be used as the pioneer plants for restoration of landscape water body supplied by reclaimed water in the northwest area.%为揭示沉水植物对以再生水作为水源的景观水体富营养化变化趋势的影响和对水体水质的维持和改善作用,对西安市一个再生水景观水体开展了不同区域和不同季节的水质监测试验,并采用室外玻璃缸装置研究伊乐藻和轮叶黑藻对再生水中氮、磷等营养盐的去除效果。结果表明:有沉水植物生长的区域氨氮、总氮浓度明显低于主湖区,且水质能够维持在低富营养化状态。伊乐藻和轮叶黑藻对再生水水质具有良好的改善作用,且伊乐藻优于轮叶黑藻。伊乐藻对再生水中CODCr、氮、磷的去除率分别为38.55%~57.54%,43.13%~51.81%和61.76%~77.45%,可使水体中叶绿素a含量维持在20μg/L左右,对藻类具有较好的抑制作

  9. Comparative proteomic analysis of developing rhizomes of the ancient vascular plant Equisetum hyemale and different monocot species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvato, Fernanda; Balbuena, Tiago S; Nelson, William; Rao, R Shyama Prasad; He, Ruifeng; Soderlund, Carol A; Gang, David R; Thelen, Jay J

    2015-04-01

    The rhizome is responsible for the invasiveness and competitiveness of many plants with great economic and agricultural impact worldwide. Besides its value as an invasive organ, the rhizome plays a role in the establishment and massive growth of forage, providing biomass for biofuel production. Despite these features, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that contribute to rhizome growth, development, and function in plants. In this work, we characterized the proteome of rhizome apical tips and elongation zones from different species using a GeLC-MS/MS (one-dimensional electrophoresis in combination with liquid chromatography coupled online with tandem mass spectrometry) spectral-counting proteomics strategy. Five rhizomatous grasses and an ancient species were compared to study the protein regulation in rhizomes. An average of 2200 rhizome proteins per species were confidently identified and quantified. Rhizome-characteristic proteins showed similar functional distributions across all species analyzed. The over-representation of proteins associated with central roles in cellular, metabolic, and developmental processes indicated accelerated metabolism in growing rhizomes. Moreover, 61 rhizome-characteristic proteins appeared to be regulated similarly among analyzed plants. In addition, 36 showed conserved regulation between rhizome apical tips and elongation zones across species. These proteins were preferentially expressed in rhizome tissues regardless of the species analyzed, making them interesting candidates for more detailed investigative studies about their roles in rhizome development.

  10. Comparative Analysis of Benzoxazinoid Biosynthesis in Monocots and Dicots: Independent Recruitment of Stabilization and Activation Functions[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Regina; Rattei, Thomas; Haslbeck, Martin; Schwab, Wilfried; Gierl, Alfons; Frey, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Benzoxazinoids represent preformed protective and allelophatic compounds that are found in a multitude of species of the family Poaceae (Gramineae) and occur sporadically in single species of phylogenetically unrelated dicots. Stabilization by glucosylation and activation by hydrolysis is essential for the function of these plant defense compounds. We isolated and functionally characterized from the dicot larkspur (Consolida orientalis) the benzoxazinoid-specific UDP-glucosyltransferase and β-glucosidase that catalyze the enzymatic functions required to avoid autotoxicity and allow activation upon challenge by herbivore and pathogen attack. A phylogenetic comparison of these enzymes with their counterparts in the grasses indicates convergent evolution by repeated recruitment from homologous but not orthologous genes. The data reveal a great evolutionary flexibility in recruitment of these essential functions of secondary plant metabolism. PMID:22415274

  11. Tomato Cf resistance proteins mediate recognition of cognate homologous effectors from fungi pathogenic on diots and monocots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stergiopoulos, I.; Burg, van den H.A.; Ökmen, B.; Beenen, H.G.; Liere, van S.; Kema, G.H.J.; Wit, de P.J.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Most fungal effectors characterized so far are species-specific and facilitate virulence on a particular host plant. During infection of its host tomato, Cladosporium fulvum secretes effectors that function as virulence factors in the absence of cognate Cf resistance proteins and induce

  12. Cellular and Pectin Dynamics during Abscission Zone Development and Ripe Fruit Abscission of the Monocot Oil Palm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roongsattham, Peerapat; Morcillo, Fabienne; Fooyontphanich, Kim; Jantasuriyarat, Chatchawan; Tragoonrung, Somvong; Amblard, Philippe; Collin, Myriam; Mouille, Gregory; Verdeil, Jean-Luc; Tranbarger, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    The oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) fruit primary abscission zone (AZ) is a multi-cell layered boundary region between the pedicel (P) and mesocarp (M) tissues. To examine the cellular processes that occur during the development and function of the AZ cell layers, we employed multiple histological and immunohistochemical methods combined with confocal, electron and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy approaches. During early fruit development and differentiation of the AZ, the orientation of cell divisions in the AZ was periclinal compared with anticlinal divisions in the P and M. AZ cell wall width increased earlier during development suggesting cell wall assembly occurred more rapidly in the AZ than the adjacent P and M tissues. The developing fruit AZ contain numerous intra-AZ cell layer plasmodesmata (PD), but very few inter-AZ cell layer PD. In the AZ of ripening fruit, PD were less frequent, wider, and mainly intra-AZ cell layer localized. Furthermore, DAPI staining revealed nuclei are located adjacent to PD and are remarkably aligned within AZ layer cells, and remain aligned and intact after cell separation. The polarized accumulation of ribosomes, rough endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, and vesicles suggested active secretion at the tip of AZ cells occurred during development which may contribute to the striated cell wall patterns in the AZ cell layers. AZ cells accumulated intracellular pectin during development, which appear to be released and/or degraded during cell separation. The signal for the JIM5 epitope, that recognizes low methylesterified and un-methylesterified homogalacturonan (HG), increased in the AZ layer cell walls prior to separation and dramatically increased on the separated AZ cell surfaces. Finally, FT-IR microspectroscopy analysis indicated a decrease in methylesterified HG occurred in AZ cell walls during separation, which may partially explain an increase in the JIM5 epitope signal. The results obtained through a multi-imaging approach allow an integrated view of the dynamic developmental processes that occur in a multi-layered boundary AZ and provide evidence for distinct regulatory mechanisms that underlie oil palm fruit AZ development and function. PMID:27200017

  13. The avoidance and aggregative movements of mesophyll chloroplasts in C(4) monocots in response to blue light and abscisic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maai, Eri; Shimada, Shouu; Yamada, Masahiro; Sugiyama, Tatsuo; Miyake, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Mitsutaka

    2011-05-01

    In C(4) plants, mesophyll (M) chloroplasts are randomly distributed along the cell walls, whereas bundle sheath chloroplasts are located in either a centripetal or centrifugal position. It was reported previously that only M chloroplasts aggregatively redistribute to the bundle sheath side in response to extremely strong light or environmental stresses. The aggregative movement of M chloroplasts is also induced in a light-dependent fashion upon incubation with abscisic acid (ABA). The involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and red/blue light in the aggregative movement of M chloroplasts are examined here in two distinct subtypes of C(4) plants, finger millet and maize. Exogenously applied hydrogen peroxide or ROS scavengers could not change the response patterns of M chloroplast movement to light and ABA. Blue light irradiation essentially induced the rearrangement of M chloroplasts along the sides of anticlinal walls, parallel to the direction of the incident light, which is analogous to the avoidance movement of C(3) chloroplasts. In the presence of ABA, most of the M chloroplasts showed the aggregative movement in response to blue light but not red light. Together these results suggest that ROS are not involved in signal transduction for the aggregative movement, and ABA can shift the blue light-induced avoidance movement of C(4)-M chloroplasts to the aggregative movement.

  14. Tomato Cf resistance proteins mediate recognition of cognate homologous effectors from fungi pathogenic on diots and monocots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stergiopoulos, I.; Burg, van den H.A.; Ökmen, B.; Beenen, H.G.; Liere, van S.; Kema, G.H.J.; Wit, de P.J.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Most fungal effectors characterized so far are species-specific and facilitate virulence on a particular host plant. During infection of its host tomato, Cladosporium fulvum secretes effectors that function as virulence factors in the absence of cognate Cf resistance proteins and induce effector-tri

  15. Testing the reliability of standard and complementary DNA barcodes for the monocot subfamily Alooideae from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daru, Barnabas H; van der Bank, Michelle; Bello, Abubakar; Yessoufou, Kowiyou

    2016-11-23

    Although a standard DNA barcode has been identified for plants, it does not always provide species-level specimen identifications for investigating important ecological questions. In this study, we assessed the species-level discriminatory power of standard (rbcLa + matK) and complementary barcodes (ITS1 and trnH-psbA) within the subfamily Alooideae (Asphodelaceae), a large and recent plant radiation, whose species are important in horticulture yet are threatened. Alooideae has its centre of endemism in southern Africa, with some outlier species occurring elsewhere in Africa and Madagascar. We sampled 360 specimens representing 235 species within all 11 genera of the subfamily. With three distance-based methods, all markers performed poorly for our combined data set, with the highest proportion of correct species-level specimen identifications (30%) found for ITS1. However, when performance was assessed across genera, the discriminatory power varied from 0% for all single markers and combinations in Gasteria to 63% in Haworthiopsis, again for ITS1, suggesting that DNA barcoding success may be related to the evolutionary history of the lineage considered. Although ITS1 could be a good barcode for Haworthiopsis, the generally poor performance of all markers suggests that Alooideae remains a challenge. As species boundaries within Alooideae remain controversial, we call for continued search for suitable markers or the use of genomics approaches to further explore species discrimination in the group.

  16. U.S. Department of Agriculture/Corps of Engineers Cooperative Aquatic Plant Control Research. Annual Report for FY 1981. Biological and Chemical Control Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    aed" the Melt s lraefed voraciously on alligatorweed 16 Mandalay , Burma (14-15 July) In the Mandalay -Sagaing area I searched for hydrilla and...hydrilla is not present in flooded areas. There are patches of hydrilla in the moat surrounding Mandalay Fort. This hydrilla also shows little...pressure. The most common aquatic plant in Mandalay Moat is coontail, Ceratophyllum sp. Bangkok, Thailand (16-22 July) In Bangkok I discussed project goals

  17. Effects of submerged plants on growth performance and non-specific immunity of Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis)%沉水植物对中华绒螯蟹生长和非特异性免疫力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙丽萍; 宋学宏; 朱金荣; 孟祥雨; 张磊磊

    2012-01-01

    从东太湖采集伊乐藻(Elodea canadensis)、金鱼藻(Ceratophyllum demersum)、轮叶黑藻(Hydrilla verticillata)、苦草(Vallisneria natans)、马来眼子菜(Potamogeton malaianus)5种沉水植物分别制成干粉.在基础饲料中添加15%的干粉形成5种不同的配合饲料,分别饲喂体重为(9.37±0.15)g的中华绒螯蟹(Eriocheir sinensis)60 d,分析沉水植物对中华绒螯蟹生长和非特异性免疫力的影响.结果显示:马来眼子菜组的中华绒螯蟹平均增重率显著低于对照组(P<0.05),饲料系数显著高于对照组(P<0.05),其余4种沉水植物组的平均增重率和饲料系数与对照组无显著差异(P>0.05);各组成活率、肥满度及肝体比差异不显著(P>0.05).沉水植物各组的蟹血清超氧化物歧化酶活力显著高于对照组(P<0.05);与对照组相比,轮叶黑藻组、伊乐藻组和苦草组的中华绒螯蟹血清溶菌酶活性显著升高(P<0.05),金鱼藻组和马来眼子菜组则差异不显著(P>0.05);除马来眼子菜组降低外,其余4种沉水植物组中华绒螯蟹对嗜水气单胞菌的抵抗力强于对照组.因此,除马来眼子菜以外的4种沉水植物对中华绒螯蟹的生长性能无明显的促进作用,但可在一定程度上提高其非特异性免疫力.%The five submerged plants, Elodea canadensis, Ceratophyllum demersum, Hydrilla verticillata, Vallisneria na-tans and Potamogeton malaianus, were collected in East Lake Taihu, and made into dry powders. The dry powders were then incorporated into a basal diet by 15% , respectively, to obtain 5 different mixed diets, and were used to feed Chinese mitten crab ( Eriocheir sinensis ) weighing ( 9. 37 ± 0. 15 ) g for 60 days. The effects of these submerged plants on growth performance and non-specific immunity of Chinese mitten crab were examined. The results showed that the average weight gain rate ( WGR) of Chinese mitten crab in P. Malaianus fed group was significantly lower than

  18. Expanded Simulation Models "Version 3.0" for Growth of the Submerged Aquatic Plants American Wildcelery, Sago Pondweed, Hydrilla, and Eurasian Watermilfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    descriptions of the vegetation responses to daily changes in current velocity and epiphyte shading, and accommodation of daily changes in water level...in current velocity, and epiphyte shading, or to combinations of factors. Once the vegetation is lost from a given locale, increased sediment...responses to changes in current velocity and light attenuation by epiphytes and allow only annual changes in water level. These versions are available

  19. Biomonitoring of selected freshwater macrophytes to assess lake trace element contamination: a case study of Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita N. KUMAR

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A biomonitoring study was carried out at Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary, a proposed Ramsar site, Gujarat State, India, to ascertain the degree of trace element contamination. The study focused on assessment of trace element contamination in certain aquatic macrophytes to be used as biomonitors, in comparison with the sediments (abiotic monitor for heavy metal pollution. Good information was provided by analyzing roots, stems and leaves of native aquatic plants (biomonitors represented by eight species: Bergia odorata, Hydrilla verticillata, Ipomoea aquatica, Najas graminea, Nelumbo nucifera, Phragmites karka, Typha angustata and Vellisnaria spiralis, alongwith surface sediments and water, were analyzed for Cd, Co, Cu, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn contamination. The highest concentrations of the trace elements were measured in Ipomoea aquatica and the lowest in Bergia odorata. Based on the concentration and toxicity status observed in the lake's vegetation, the six metals are arranged in the following decreasing order: Zn > Cu > Ni > Co > Pb > Cd. Compared with the standard, normal and critical toxicity range in plants, the detected values of Cd and Pb falls within normal range, while that of Co, Ni and Cu were within the critical range. However, Zn showed the highest concentration and alarming toxicity levels, which is considered as one of the most hazardous pollutants in Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary. Certain aquatic macrophytes species are also proposed as biomonitors for the investigated heavy metal pollutants. Such result was significant in the plant species such as Ipomoea aquatica and Phragmites karka, which are the two most useful species in biomonitoring studies due to their ability to accumulate elements in high concentration in the roots and their availability throughout the year. The results showed the significant difference in accumulation rate of some metals like Zn, Cu and Ni in different plant organs, which showed more accumulation in root than

  20. Bioavailable phosphorus (P) reduction is less than mobile P immobilization in lake sediment for eutrophication control by inactivating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changhui; He, Rui; Wu, Yu; Lürling, Miquel; Cai, Haiyuan; Jiang, He-Long; Liu, Xin

    2017-02-01

    Phosphorus (P) immobilization by inactivating agents in the sediment of eutrophic lakes to reduce immediately available P in lake water is often crucial for mitigating nuisance eutrophication symptoms, such as cyanobacterial blooms. Macrophytes and phytoplankton, however, can directly utilize P from the sediment for growth. Accordingly, a comprehensive analysis of the P bioavailability in lake sediment amended with two promising P-inactivation agents, namely Phoslock(®) and drinking water treatment residue (DWTR), was investigated in both short- and long-term studies (20 and 180 d). Phosphorus-availability was assessed using six chemical extraction methods and Hydrilla verticillata and Microcystis aeruginosa growth tests. The results showed that Phoslock(®) and DWTR significantly reduced mobile P (NH4Cl and Na2S2O4/NaHCO3 extractable P) in lake sediment, while P bioavailability that was assessed by different methods showed considerable deviations. Interestingly, appropriate bioavailable P chemical extraction methods were determined based on linear correlation analysis, and further comparison indicated that reduction of bioavailable P by DWTR (P) and Phoslock(®) (P) were clearly less than the mobile P immobilization (>75%) at recommended dosages, which was probably caused by the capability of macrophyte and cyanobacteria to utilize various fractions of P (except the residual P) in amended sediment under proper illumination. Therefore, DWTR and Phoslock(®) can effectively reduce P release from lake sediment, but the potential bioavailable P may pose uncertainties for eutrophication control in lakes that typically have regular sediment re-suspension. Overall, an evaluation of the bioavailable P pool in the lake ecosystem should be essential for successful lake geo-engineering.

  1. Cultivation of macroscopic marine algae and freshwater aquatic weeds. Progress report, May 1-December 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryther, J. H.

    1979-01-01

    Studies were continued during 1977 to 1978 on the growth and yields in culture of the red seaweed Gracilaria tikvahiae. Partial control of epiphytes was achieved by nutrient removal, shading, and/or biological agents. For the first time, a single clone of the alga was grown continuously throughout the year without replacement. Yields in large (2600 1) aluminum tanks averaged 21.4 g dry weight/m/sup 2/.day, equivalent to 31 tons/acre.year (15.5 ash-free dry wt tons/acre.year). Growth of Gracilaria and other seaweeds in Vexar-mesh baskets in natural habitats and in the oceanic waters of a power plant cooling water intake canal were unsuccessful. Productivity of the freshwater macrophytes Lemna minor (common duckweed), Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth), and Hydrilla verticillata have now been measured throughout the year with mean yields of 3.7, 24.2 and 4.2 g dry weight/m/sup 2/.day (5.4, 35.3, and 6.1 dry tons/acre.year) respectively. Yields of duckweed and water hyacinths in the Harbor Branch Foundation culture units have averaged roughly three times those of the same species growing in highly-eutrophic natural environments. The yields of several other species of freshwater plants were investigated. Only the pennywort (Hydrocotyle umbellata) appears to approach the productivity of water hyacinth on the basis of preliminary measurements. Chopped water hyacinths and unprocessed Gracilaria have both been successfully fermented to methane in anaerobic digesters and the liquid digester residues recycled to produce more of the same plants.

  2. Assessment of Wetland Water Quality and Avian Diversity of a Human-Modified Floodplain Wetland on River Yamuna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upma MANRAL

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Okhla Bird Sanctuary (OBS is an Important Bird Area, which comes under the protected area network of Uttar Pradesh with one-third area lying in the state of Delhi (India. OBS has widest flood plains along the Delhi stretch of river Yamuna and is important in conserving the ecological wealth of floodplains of the river. Rapid urbanization and industrialization and discharge of untreated wastewater into the river have resulted in deteriorated water quality. The present study focused on assessment of water quality, aquatic flora and avifaunal diversity in the OBS. Water quality was analyzed following methods of APHA. For vegetation analysis, sub-merged and free-floating plants were scooped up from five randomly selected sites. Total bird counts were conducted for water birds and species richness, evenness and Shannon-Weaver species diversity indices were calculated. Results indicate that the organic load is very high in the wetland as evident from low levels of dissolved oxygen (2.26 ± 1.62 mg/l and high Biological and Chemical Oxygen Demands (15.20 ± 3.75 mg/l, 44.60 ± 12.07 mg/l. Nine species of free-floating and submerged plants were recorded; Hydrilla verticillata, Vallisneria spiralis, Azolla pinnata and Ceratophyllum demersum dominated both deep and shallow water areas. 52 species of waterbirds including four near-threatened species viz., Anhinga melanogaster, Mycteria leucocephala, Threskiornis melanocephalus and Aythya nyroca were recorded. OBS provides opportunities for conservation in a metropolitan area, thus, appropriate measures should be taken to maintain its ecological integrity.

  3. Influences of chemical components of water extracts from submerged macrophyte leaves on the growth of three common epiphytic algae%沉水植物浸提液组分对三种常见附植藻类生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪海婷; 谢冬; 周恒杰; 安树青

    2015-01-01

    采用长江中下游湖泊典型沉水植物乡土种轮叶黑藻(Hydrilla verticillata)、穗状狐尾藻(Myriophyllum spicatum)和外来种伊乐藻(Elodea nuttallii)、水盾草(Cabomba caroliniana)叶片浸提液的组分:N-苯基-2-萘胺(4种沉水植物均有)、苯丙酮(伊乐藻特有)和苯并呋喃(水盾草特有),研究不同物质种类及浓度对3种附植藻类:普通小球藻(Chlorella vulgaris)、斜生栅藻(Scenedesmus obliqnus)和四尾栅藻(S.quadricanda)的相对生长率、藻细胞浓度、叶绿素含量等生长指标的影响.结果表明:3种物质均显著降低斜生栅藻和普通小球藻的细胞浓度以及叶绿素含量,对四尾栅藻生长的抑制较弱.3种附植藻类生长指标对不同物质浓度及处理时间的响应存在显著差异,呈现低浓度促进、高浓度抑制现象,随时间推移藻类显示出明显的生长趋势.物质作用效果:苯丙酮>苯并呋喃>N-苯基-2-萘胺,表明外来种沉水植物叶片浸提液中特有物质具有较强的抑藻效应.

  4. Effects of leaf extracts from two kinds of submerged macrophytes on the growth and community composition of epiphytic algae living on native macrophyte species%两类沉水植物浸提液对乡土种叶附植藻类生长与群落组成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪海婷; 谢冬; 周恒杰; 安树青

    2013-01-01

    将外来种沉水植物伊乐藻(Elodea nuttallii)、聚叶狐尾藻(Myriophyllum aquaticum)分别与其同科(或同属)的乡土种沉水植物轮叶黑藻(Hydrilla verticillata)、穗状狐尾藻(Myriophyllum spicatum)进行对比,分析了两种乡土沉水植物叶表面附植藻类的群落组成与结构特征,采用植物浸提液法研究不同浓度(0.5和2 mg·mL-1)的叶片浸提液对乡土种叶附植藻类生长和群落组成的影响.结果表明:两种外来沉水植物较乡土种具有更强的抑藻效应,且在高浓度下更显著;4种沉水植物浸提液均降低乡土种叶附植藻类的细胞总数,对群落物种丰富度和多样性的影响总体呈“低浓度促进、高浓度抑制”,且外来种的抑制更显著,其浸提液使得附植藻类群落组成结构趋于简单化;植物鲜样制备的浸提液较植物干样制备的浸提液具有更强的化感抑藻作用.

  5. The effects of Bellamya sp. on the growth of two submerged macrophytes in Lake Taihu%太湖环棱螺对两种常见沉水植物生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白秀玲; 谷孝鸿; 张钰

    2007-01-01

    环棱螺(Bellamya sp.)是太湖常见的一类软体动物.本研究通过室内实验,探讨环棱螺对轮叶黑藻(Hydrilla verticillata Royle)和伊乐藻(Elodea nuttalli ST John)生长的影响及水体营养盐含量的变化.结果表明,三种处理情况下,单位质量伊乐藻增加的数量分别为:H组0.475 g,L组0.106 g,C组0.021 g,单位质量轮叶黑藻增加的数量分别为:H组0.704 g,L组0.663 g,C组0.478 g.从实验前后两种沉水植物的长度和分蘖数变化来看,H组最高,L组与C组分别次之,所以不论生物量、长度还是分蘖数的变化量,与环棱螺共存的伊乐藻和轮叶黑藻的变化都高于对照组中两种沉水植物的变化.环棱螺新陈代谢促进水体中溶解态氮磷含量增加,三种情况下水生植物的初级生产力都相当,由此可推测环棱螺通过新陈代谢,一定程度上促进了两种沉水植物的生长.

  6. Influence of temperature on the growth and nutrient removal of five submerged macrophytes%温度对五种沉水植物生长和营养去除效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫志强; 刘黾; 吴小业; 刘燕; 潘美婷; 王嘉华; 蔡丽桃; 李秋宇; 陈章和

    2014-01-01

    研究温度对黑藻(Hydrilla verticillata)、伊乐藻(Elodea canadensis)、狐尾藻(Myriophyllum spicatum)、苦草(Vallisneria spiralis)和竹叶眼子菜(Potamogeton malaianus)在霍格兰氏水培条件下的生长和营养去除效果的影响.结果表明:温度对五种沉水植物的生长有显著影响.除苦草的最适生长温度为30℃外,其余四种植物的最适生长温度为20℃.五种植物的生长速度有显著性差异,以伊乐藻、竹叶眼子菜、黑藻生长较快.对TP和CODcr的去除率随温度的升高而升高,对NH4-N的去除率除竹叶眼子菜外,呈单峰曲线,去除率最适温度为25℃.五种沉水植物对TP的去除率通常差异不显著;竹叶眼子菜对NH4-N去除率显著低于其他植物(p<0.05),而对CODcr的去除率显著高于其他植物(p<0.05).

  7. Cultivation of macroscopic marine algae and freshwater aquatic weeds. Progress report, May 1, 1978-September 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryther, J.H.

    1980-04-01

    Studies were continued during 1977-1978 on the growth and yields in culture of the red seaweed Gracilaria tikvahiae. Partial control of epiphytes was achieved by nutrient removal, shading, and/or biological agents. For the first time, a single clone of the alga was grown continuously throughout the year without replacement. Yields in large (2600 1) aluminum tanks averaged 21.4 g dry weight/m/sup 2/.day, equivalent to 31 tons/acre.year (15.5 ash-free dry wt tons/acre.year). Growth of gracilaria and other seaweeds in Vexar-mesh baskets in natural habitats and in the oceanic waters of a power plant cooling water intake canal were unsuccessful. Productivity of the freshwater macrophytes Lemna minor (common duckweed), Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth), and Hydrilla verticillata have now been measured throughout the year with mean yields of 3.7, 24.2 and 4.2 g dry weight/m/sup 2/.day (5.4, 35.3, and 6.1 dry tons/acre.year) respectively. Yields of duckweed and water hyacinths in the Harbor Branch Foundation culture units have averaged roughly three times those of the same species growing in highly-eutrophic natural environments. Chopped water hyacinths and unprocessed Gracilaria have both been successfully fermented to methane in anaerobic digesters and the liquid digester residues recycled to produce more of the same plants. A preliminary budget for recycled nitrogen has been determined for water hyacinths. Productivity of both water hyacinths and Gracilaria has been calculated from nitrate-nitrogen assimilation and good agreement with measured yields was obtained.

  8. Improvements in the use of aquatic herbicides and establishment of future research directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getsinger, K.D.; Netherland, M.D.; Grue, C.E.; Koschnick, T.J.

    2008-01-01

    Peer-reviewed literature over the past 20 years identifies significant changes and improvements in chemical control strategies used to manage nuisance submersed vegetation. The invasive exotic plants hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata L.f. Royle) and Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.) continue to spread and remain the plant species of greatest concern for aquatic resource managers at the national scale. Emerging exotic weeds of regional concern such as egeria (Egeria densa Planch.), curlyleaf pondweed (Potamogeton crispus L.), and hygrophila (Hygrophila polysperma (Roxb.) T. Anders), as well as native plants such as variable watermilfoil (Myriophyllum heterophyllum Michx), and cabomba (Cabomba caroliniana Gray) are invasive outside their home ranges. In addition, there is always the threat of new plant introductions such as African elodea (Lagarosiphon major (Ridley) Moss) or narrow-leaf anacharis (Egeria najas Planchon). The registration of the bleaching herbicide fluridone in the mid 1980s for whole-lake and large-scale management stimulated numerous lines of research involving reduction of use rates, plant selectivity, residue monitoring, and impacts on fisheries. In addition to numerous advances, the specificity of fluridone for a single plant enzyme led to the first documented case of herbicide resistance in aquatic plant management. The resistance of hydrilla to fluridone has stimulated a renewed interest by industry and others in the registration of alternative modes of action for aquatic use. These newer chemistries tend to be enzyme-specific compounds with favorable non-target toxicity profiles. Registration efforts have been facilitated by increased cooperation between key federal government agencies that have aquatic weed control and research responsibilities, and regulators within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). We reviewed past and current research efforts to identify areas in need of further investigation and to establish

  9. Attempts to reproduce vacuolar myelinopathy in domestic swine and chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-Weis, Lynn A; Gerhold, Richard W; Fischer, John R

    2004-07-01

    Avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM) was first recognized as a cause of bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) mortality in 1994 in Arkansas (USA) and has since caused over 90 bald eagle and numerous American coot (Fulica americana) mortalities in five southeastern states. The cause of AVM remains undetermined but is suspected to be a biotoxin. Naturally occurring AVM has been limited to wild waterbirds, raptors, and one species of shorebird, and has been reproduced experimentally in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis). In this study, chickens and swine were evaluated for susceptibility to vacuolar myelinopathy with the intent of developing animal models for research and to identify specific tissues in affected coots that contain the causative agent. Additionally, submerged, aquatic vegetation, primarily hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata), and associated material collected from a reservoir during an AVM outbreak was fed to chickens in an effort to reproduce the disease. In two separate experiments, six 4-wk-old leghorn chickens and ten 5-wk-old leghorn chickens were fed coot tissues. In a third experiment, five 3-mo-old domestic swine and one red-tailed hawk, serving as a positive control, were fed coot tissues. In these experiments, treatment animals received tissues (brain, fat, intestinal tract, kidney, liver, and/or muscle) from coots with AVM lesions collected at a lake during an AVM outbreak. Negative control chickens and one pig received tissues from coots without AVM lesions that had been collected at a lake where AVM has never been documented. In a fourth experiment, eight 3-wk-old leghorn chickens were fed aquatic vegetation material. Four chickens received material from the same lake from which coots with AVM lesions were collected for the previous experiments, and four control chickens were fed material from the lake where AVM has never been documented. Blood was collected and physical and neurologic exams were conducted on animals before and once per week

  10. 3种沉水植物对夏季高温强光照环境的生理响应%Physiological Response of Three Submerged Macrophytes to the High Temperature and Light Intensity of Summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚林; 高园园; 于丹; 刘春花

    2015-01-01

    Invasion by exotic species has become a global problem,adversely affecting the environment,economy and even human health in the areas invaded.Elodea nuttallii and Egeria densa,belonging to Hydrocharitaceae,are two exotic submerged macrophytes species in China that display a strong invasive tendency.It has been reported that E.nuttallii and E.densa are both adapted to low temperature and light intensity.Thus,we investigated the physiological response of three Hydrocharitaceae species to the high temperature and light intensity of summer,in-cluding the two exotic species (E.nuttallii and E.densa)and one native species (Hydrilla verticillata).The stud-y was designed to explore the effects of high temperature and light intensity on the invasiveness of the two exotic macrophytes.In August 2014,all test plants were placed in the natural summer condition of high temperature and light intensity,which provided the experimental treatment.The physiological response was measured by determining photosynthetic (total chlorophyll content and the maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm))and antioxidant (ma-londialdehyde and proline content)parameters.The physiological traits were measured on day 0,3,6,9,12,15 of the treatment.Results show that high temperature and light intensity significantly affected the physiology of all three species,especially photosynthesis.Furthermore,long term high temperature and light intensity increased the impact.From day 1 to day 3,when the temperature rose to 31℃,the total chlorophyll content of E.nuttallii and the Fv/Fm of the three macrophytes were significantly lower than their initial levels (P <0.05).From day 4 to day 6,the temperature remained at 32℃ and the total chlorophyll content and the Fv/Fm of the three macrophytes were significantly lower than their initial levels (P <0.05).Moreover,the MDA content of E.nuttallii and E.densa was significantly higher than the initial level (P <0.05).During the entire experiment,the total chlorophyll con

  11. Gene loss rather than gene gain is associated with a host jump from monocots to dicots in the Smut Fungus Melanopsichium pennsylvanicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rahul; Mishra, Bagdevi; Runge, Fabian; Thines, Marco

    2014-07-24

    Smut fungi are well-suited to investigate the ecology and evolution of plant pathogens, as they are strictly biotrophic, yet cultivable on media. Here we report the genome sequence of Melanopsichium pennsylvanicum, closely related to Ustilago maydis and other Poaceae-infecting smuts, but parasitic to a dicot plant. To explore the evolutionary patterns resulting from host adaptation after this huge host jump, the genome of Me. pennsylvanicum was sequenced and compared with the genomes of U. maydis, Sporisorium reilianum, and U. hordei. Although all four genomes had a similar completeness in CEGMA (Core Eukaryotic Genes Mapping Approach) analysis, gene absence was highest in Me. pennsylvanicum, and most pronounced in putative secreted proteins, which are often considered as effector candidates. In contrast, the amount of private genes was similar among the species, highlighting that gene loss rather than gene gain is the hallmark of adaptation after the host jump to the dicot host. Our analyses revealed a trend of putative effectors to be next to another putative effector, but the majority of these are not in clusters and thus the focus on pathogenicity clusters might not be appropriate for all smut genomes. Positive selection studies revealed that Me. pennsylvanicum has the highest number and proportion of genes under positive selection. In general, putative effectors showed a higher proportion of positively selected genes than noneffector candidates. The 248 putative secreted effectors found in all four smut genomes might constitute a core set needed for pathogenicity, whereas those 92 that are found in all grass-parasitic smuts but have no ortholog in Me. pennsylvanicum might constitute a set of effectors important for successful colonization of grass hosts.

  12. Global history of the ancient monocot family Araceae inferred with models accounting for past continental positions and previous ranges based on fossils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauheimer, Lars; Metzler, Dirk; Renner, Susanne S

    2012-09-01

    The family Araceae (3790 species, 117 genera) has one of the oldest fossil records among angiosperms. Ecologically, members of this family range from free-floating aquatics (Pistia and Lemna) to tropical epiphytes. Here, we infer some of the macroevolutionary processes that have led to the worldwide range of this family and test how the inclusion of fossil (formerly occupied) geographical ranges affects biogeographical reconstructions. Using a complete genus-level phylogeny from plastid sequences and outgroups representing the 13 other Alismatales families, we estimate divergence times by applying different clock models and reconstruct range shifts under different models of past continental connectivity, with or without the incorporation of fossil locations. Araceae began to diversify in the Early Cretaceous (when the breakup of Pangea was in its final stages), and all eight subfamilies existed before the K/T boundary. Early lineages persist in Laurasia, with several relatively recent entries into Africa, South America, South-East Asia and Australia. Water-associated habitats appear to be ancestral in the family, and DNA substitution rates are especially high in free-floating Araceae. Past distributions inferred when fossils are included differ in nontrivial ways from those without fossils. Our complete genus-level time-scale for the Araceae may prove to be useful for ecological and physiological studies.

  13. Plant growth-promoting bacterium Acinetobacter calcoaceticus P23 increases the chlorophyll content of the monocot Lemna minor (duckweed) and the dicot Lactuca sativa (lettuce).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Wakako; Sugawara, Masayuki; Miwa, Kyoko; Morikawa, Masaaki

    2014-07-01

    Acinetobacter calcoaceticus P23 is a plant growth-promoting bacterium that was isolated from the surface of duckweed (Lemna aoukikusa). The bacterium was observed to colonize on the plant surfaces and increase the chlorophyll content of not only the monocotyledon Lemna minor but also the dicotyledon Lactuca sativa in a hydroponic culture. This effect on the Lactuca sativa was significant in nutrient-poor (×1/100 dilution of H2 medium) and not nutrient-rich (×1 or ×1/10 dilutions of H2 medium) conditions. Strain P23 has the potential to play a part in the future development of fertilizers and energy-saving hydroponic agricultural technologies. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. SUPPRESSOR OF APICAL DOMINANCE1 of Sporisorium reilianum changes inflorescence branching at early stages in di- and monocot plants and induces fruit abortion in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drechsler, Frank; Schwinges, Patrick; Schirawski, Jan

    2016-05-03

    sporisorium reilianum f. sp. zeae is a biotrophic smut fungus that infects maize (Zea mays). Among others, the fungus-plant interaction is governed by secreted fungal effector proteins. The effector SUPPRESSOR OF APICAL DOMINANCE1 (SAD1) changes the development of female inflorescences and induces outgrowth of subapical ears in S. reilianum-infected maize. When stably expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana as a GFP-SAD1 fusion protein, SAD1 induces earlier inflorescence branching and abortion of siliques. Absence of typical hormone-dependent phenotypes in other parts of the transgenic A. thaliana plants expressing GFP-SAD1 hint to a hormone-independent induction of bud outgrowth by SAD1. Silique abortion and bud outgrowth are also known to be controlled by carbon source concentration and by stress-induced molecules, making these factors interesting potential SAD1 targets.

  15. Anoxia tolerance in the aquatic monocot Potamogeton pectinatus absence of oxygen stimulates elongation in association with an unusually large pasteur effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, J E; Ratcliffe, R G; Jackson, M B

    2000-08-01

    Elongation by stems of overwintered tubers of Potamogeton pectinatus (L.) is strongly promoted over several days by oxygen-free conditions. Characteristics of the respiration underpinning this unusual response were examined. Anaerobic plants produced ethanol and CO(2) in approximately equimolar amounts, indicating that glycolysis coupled to alcoholic fermentation was the principal CO(2)-producing respiratory pathway. Rates of CO(2) evolution by aerobic and anaerobic whole plants (shoot and tuber) were similar, suggesting a rate of glycolysis three times that of aerobic plants, i.e. a strong Pasteur effect. In the shoot alone, anaerobic CO(2) production was twice the aerobic rate indicating a 6-fold increase in the rate of glycolysis in this tissue. Anoxic stems contained more sucrose at a stronger concentration than slower-growing aerobic stems or anaerobic leaves, demonstrating that sugar supply to the site of most rapid growth exceeded demand in the absence of oxygen. Concentrations of potentially toxic acetaldehyde in the external medium were small (approximately 0.2 mol m(-3)) during anoxia and on return to aerated conditions. Lactic acid was undetectable under anaerobic conditions and in vivo (31)P-NMR analysis of shoots revealed a cytoplasmic acidification of only

  16. Phytotoxical effect of Lepidium draba L. extracts on the germination and growth of monocot (Zea mays L.) and dicot (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Yusuf; Aksakal, Ozkan; Sunar, Serap; Erturk, Filiz Aygun; Bozari, Sedat; Agar, Guleray; Erez, Mehmet Emre; Battal, Peyami

    2015-03-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed to determine phytotoxic potentials of white top (Lepidium draba) methanol extracts (root, stem and leaf) on germination and early growth of corn (Zea mays) and redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus). Furthermore, the effects of different methanol extracts of L. draba on the phytohormone (indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellic acid (GA), abscisic acid (ABA) and zeatin) levels of corn and redroot pigweed were investigated. It was observed that all concentrations of methanol extracts of root, stem and leaf of L. draba inhibited germination, radicle and plumule elongation when compared with the respective controls. Besides this, the degree of inhibition was increased in concert with increasing concentrations of extracts used. On the other hand, phytohormone levels changed with the application of different extract concentrations. Comparing with the control, the GA levels significantly decreased while the ABA levels increased in all the application groups. Zeatin and IAA levels showed changes depending upon the applied extracts and concentrations.

  17. Aquatic macrophytes in the large, sub-tropical Itaipu Reservoir, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mormul, Roger Paulo; Ferreira, Fernando Alves; Michelan, Thaisa Sala; Carvalho, Priscilla; Silveira, Marcio José; Thomaz, Sidinei Magela

    2010-12-01

    In the last three decades, rapid assessment surveys have become an important approach for measuring aquatic ecosystem biodiversity. These methods can be used to detect anthropogenic impacts and recognize local or global species extinctions. We present a floristic survey of the aquatic macrophytes along the Brazilian margin of the Itaipu Reservoir conducted in 2008 and compare this with a floristic survey conducted ten years earlier. We used ordination analysis to determine whether assemblage composition differed among reservoir arms. Macrophyte species were sampled in each of the 235 sampling stations using a boat, which was positioned inside three places of each macrophyte stand to record species and search for small plants. We also collected submerged plants using a rake with the boat moving at constant velocity for ten minutes. We assigned individual macrophyte species to life form and identified representative species for each life form. A total of 87 macrophyte taxa were identified. The "emergent" life forms contained the highest number of species, followed by "rooted submerged" life forms. The extensive survey of macrophytes undertaken in September 2008 recorded more species than a survey conducted between 1995 and 1998. This could be due to changes in water physico-chemistry, disturbances due to water drawdown and the long period between surveys, which may have allowed natural colonization by other species. Additionally, differences in the classification systems and taxonomic resolution used in the surveys may account for differences in the number of species recorded. Assemblage composition varied among the arms and was affected by underwater radiation (as measured using a Secchi disk) and fetch. Five non-native species were found. Two of these non-native species (Urochloa subquadripara and Hydrilla verticillata) are of special concern because they have a high frequency of occurrence and occupy large marginal areas of the reservoir. Future surveys should be

  18. Removal and tolerance of 4 submerged plants to nitrogen and phosphorus in reclaimed water%4种沉水植物对再生水中氮磷的去除速率和耐受范围

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐志嫱; 刘维; 苏振铎; 高杨

    2015-01-01

    [目的]研究4种沉水植物对再生水中氮、磷的去除速率和耐受范围,为以再生水作为补水的景观水体沉水植物的选择提供依据.[方法]以野外选取的伊乐藻(Elodea canadensis)、罗氏轮叶黑藻(Hydrilla verticillata)、菹草(Potamogeton crispus)和金鱼藻(Ceratophyllum demersum)4种沉水植物作为供试材料,设置含不同质量浓度TN和TP的再生水,测定有这4种沉水植物的再生水体中TN和TP质量浓度的变化,构建TN和TP质量浓度与培养时间的回归方程,并在回归方程的基础上,研究4种沉水植物对再生水中的氮、磷的去除规律.[结果]在有4种沉水植物的再生水体中,TN和TP质量浓度均随着培养时间的延长呈负指数衰减变化,沉水植物的净化能力不仅与其种类有关,而且与TN和TP初始质量浓度相关.罗氏轮叶黑藻对TN的去除能力最强,金鱼藻最低;伊乐藻对TP的去除能力最强,金鱼藻最小.菹草对氮素的耐受范围较宽,金鱼藻最窄;伊乐藻对磷素的耐受范围最宽,金鱼藻较窄.[结论]当再生水体中TN初始质量浓度为5~15 mg/L、TP初始质量浓度为0.5~1.5 mg/L时,罗氏轮叶黑藻和伊乐藻对氮磷营养盐的去除速率较高,可作为维持和改善再生水景观水体水质的先锋植物.

  19. 5种沉水植物对斜生栅藻的化感作用%Allelopathic effect of five submerged macrophytes on Senedesmus obliquus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫志强; 宋本如; 刘黾; 刘燕; 吴小业; 李洁珊; 林燕珍; 冯翊果; 陈章和

    2015-01-01

    为了解不同湿地植物和不同处理方式下化感作用的差异,在实验室条件下,研究5种常见的沉水植物黑藻(Hydrilla verticillata)、伊乐藻(Elodea nuttallii)、狐尾藻(Myriophyllum spicatum)、苦草(Vallisneria natans)和皇冠草(Echinodorus amazonicus)与斜生栅藻(Scenedesmus obliquus)共培养以及用这5种植物的种植水、浸提液培养斜生栅藻时藻细胞数量及叶绿素a浓度的变化.结果显示,5种植物与斜生栅藻共培养时抑藻效果最明显(1.6×108 cellsL-1),其斜生栅藻细胞数量显著低于种植水(6.2×108 cells L-1)和浸提液组(4.5×108 cells L-1) (P< 0.05),但5种植物间的差异不显著;除黑藻外,其他4种植物的浸提液培养斜生栅藻时均表现出对斜生栅藻明显的抑制效果,斜生栅藻的相对生长率显著低于对照组和黑藻组(P<0.05);5种植物的种植水培养斜生栅藻时则表现出相对较弱的抑藻效果,且植物间差异不显著.本研究表明,沉水植物对藻类的化感作用因不同植物和不同处理而有着显著不同.

  20. Ecological Effects of Exotic and Native Aquatic Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    ponds (α=0.05). ..............................................72 Figure 58. Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) counts were highest in hydrilla ponds...Anax Odonata Dragonflies & damselflies Baetidae Callibaetis Ephemeroptera Mayflies Caenidae Caenis Notonectidae Buenoa Belastomatidae...nificantly smaller and in poorer condition in the latter. Numbers of ERDC/EL TR-09-10 74 bluegills were low in hydrilla ponds. Odonata November Pond

  1. Aquatic macrophytes in the large, sub-tropical Itaipu Reservoir, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Paulo Mormul

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last three decades, rapid assessment surveys have become an important approach for measuring aquatic ecosystem biodiversity. These methods can be used to detect anthropogenic impacts and recognize local or global species extinctions. We present a floristic survey of the aquatic macrophytes along the Brazilian margin of the Itaipu Reservoir conducted in 2008 and compare this with a floristic survey conducted ten years earlier. We used ordination analysis to determine whether assemblage composition differed among reservoir arms. Macrophyte species were sampled in each of the 235 sampling stations using a boat, which was positioned inside three places of each macrophyte stand to record species and search for small plants. We also collected submerged plants using a rake with the boat moving at constant velocity for ten minutes. We assigned individual macrophyte species to life form and identified representative species for each life form. A total of 87 macrophyte taxa were identified. The "emergent" life forms contained the highest number of species, followed by "rooted submerged" life forms. The extensive survey of macrophytes undertaken in September 2008 recorded more species than a survey conducted between 1995 and 1998. This could be due to changes in water physico-chemistry, disturbances due to water drawdown and the long period between surveys, which may have allowed natural colonization by other species. Additionally, differences in the classification systems and taxonomic resolution used in the surveys may account for differences in the number of species recorded. Assemblage composition varied among the arms and was affected by underwater radiation (as measured using a Secchi disk and fetch. Five non-native species were found. Two of these non-native species (Urochloa subquadripara and Hydrilla verticillata are of special concern because they have a high frequency of occurrence and occupy large marginal areas of the reservoir. Future

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DDIS-10-0000 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DDIS-10-0000 ref|YP_203357.1| cytochrome c oxidase subunit 3 [Mortierella vert...icillata] gb|AAW51694.1| cytochrome c oxidase subunit 3 [Mortierella verticillata] YP_203357.1 1e-25 43% ...

  3. Overexpression of the Synthetic Chimeric Native-T-phylloplanin-GFP Genes Optimized for Monocot and Dicot Plants Renders Enhanced Resistance to Blue Mold Disease in Tobacco (N. tabacum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak K. Sahoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the natural plant resistance and to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of phylloplanin against blue mold, we have expressed a synthetic chimeric native-phylloplanin-GFP protein fusion in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum cv. KY14, a cultivar that is highly susceptible to infection by Peronospora tabacina. The coding sequence of the tobacco phylloplanin gene along with its native signal peptide was fused with GFP at the carboxy terminus. The synthetic chimeric gene (native-phylloplanin-GFP was placed between the modified Mirabilis mosaic virus full-length transcript promoter with duplicated enhancer domains and the terminator sequence from the rbcSE9 gene. The chimeric gene, expressed in transgenic tobacco, was stably inherited in successive plant generations as shown by molecular characterization, GFP quantification, and confocal fluorescent microscopy. Transgenic plants were morphologically similar to wild-type plants and showed no deleterious effects due to transgene expression. Blue mold-sensitivity assays of tobacco lines were performed by applying P. tabacina sporangia to the upper leaf surface. Transgenic lines expressing the fused synthetic native-phyllopanin-GFP gene in the leaf apoplast showed resistance to infection. Our results demonstrate that in vivo expression of a synthetic fused native-phylloplanin-GFP gene in plants can potentially achieve natural protection against microbial plant pathogens, including P. tabacina in tobacco.

  4. Biological Control of Aquatic Plants with Pathogenic Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    been found thus far in nature or under arti- ficial treatments of uredia- bearing leaves of waterhyacinth in labora- tory. In the absence of knowledge...of these bacteria on healthy hydrilla. D5 Table DI Description of Seven Isolated Bacteria Grown on NA Plates Isolate 1 White, gummy , some slime...6 White, very slow growth, myceloid 7 Pink, some slime, gummy , slow growth, myceloid Table D2 Visual Comparison of Hydrilla Sprigs Three Weeks After

  5. 采煤沉陷区苦草的生物学特性及其竞争机制%Biological traits and competition mechanism of Vallisneria natans in the mining subsidence area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉云; 万阳; 田焕新; 刘靓靓; 周忠泽

    2015-01-01

    采煤活动所致的动态沉陷湿地具有动态性、高潜水位和生态脆弱性等特点,探明此类人工重构湿地的水生植物群落的生物学特性及其竞争机制,有助于为采煤沉陷区湿地水生植物群落修复提供科学依据.本研究以淮南潘集区人工构建的苦草群落(Ass.Vallisneria natans)为倒,采用样方调查法,研究苦草的生物学特性及其与其他水生植物的竞争机制.结果表明,1)沉陷区苦草的生物学特性与浅水湖泊较一致.主要表现在苦草的繁殖方式、传粉方式、生活史方面,但研究区苦草以有性繁殖为主.2)沉陷区苦草能与以种子萌发形成的水烛群丛(Ass.Typha angustifolia)共生,但生物量低;在与形成两年以上的水烛群丛竞争中处于劣势,在水烛群丛盖度达到90%时苦草逐渐消失.3)沉陷区苦草在与浮叶植物莕菜群丛(Ass.Nymphoides peltatum)、苹群丛(Ass.Marsilea quadrifolia)竞争中处于弱势,其盖度、株高、生物量等指标都明显下降.4)沉陷区苦草在与沉水植物竹叶眼子菜群丛(Ass.Potamogeton malaianus)竞争中处于劣势,苦草与沉水植物黑藻群丛(Ass.Hydrilla verticillata)、狐尾藻群丛(Ass.Myrioph yllum verticillatum)、大茨藻群丛(Ass.Najas marina)、金鱼藻群丛(Ass.Ceratophyllum demersum)占据不同水层空间,种间竞争不强烈,能较好地共存.总之,苦草较之于相似生长型的植物具有较明显的竞争优势,对于具有不同生活型,尤其是挺水植物和浮叶植物,处于竞争劣势.

  6. 连续可调式沉水植物网床对河道水质的修复%Bioremediation of river water quality by consecutively adjustable submerged vegetation net

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴海龙; 霍元子; 邵留; 王阳阳; 于克锋; 何培民; 温文科

    2012-01-01

    A series of consecutively adjustable submerged vegetation nets were constructed in a polluted shallow river with a length of about 200 m and nearby the water resource protection area of Taihu Lake in East China, forming an aquatic vegetation consisted of submerged plant species Ca-bomba caroliniana, Vallisneria natans, Elodea nuttallii, Hydrilla verticillata, and Potamogeton cris-pus. The water quality indices including total nitrogen (TN), ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N) , nitrite nitrogen (NO2--N) , nitrate nitrogen (NO3--N) , total phosphorus (TP) , and phosphate (PO43-P) were monitored, and the bioremediation effect of the vegetation nets was evaluated. After setting up the vegetation nets, the Secchi depth (SD) of the river changed from 0.5 m to 1.7-1.8 m, and the TN and TP concentrations 15 and 20 days after the nets constructed decreased by 35. 6% and 66.3% , and 29.4% and 63. 2% , respectively. After five months, the concentrations of NH4+ -N, NO2--N, NO3--N, TN, TP, and PO43-P decreased by 92. 4% , 76. 8% , 72. 7% , 73.9% , 90. 5% , and 92. 0% , respectively. This study showed that consecutively adjustable submerged vegetation net could be a potential approach for treating polluted river waters, particularly for the bioremediation of polluted small landscape shallow water bodies.%在太湖贡湖水源保护区陆域的一条长约200 m的污染河道内构建了一系列连续可调式沉水植物网床,形成了以菊花草、苦草、伊乐藻、轮叶黑藻和菹草等沉水植物构成的水生植物群落;跟踪监测了总氮(TN)、铵态氮(NH4 +-N)、亚硝态氮(NO2--N)、硝态氮(NO3--N)、总磷(TP)和磷酸盐(PO43--P)等水质指标,分析沉水植物网床引导沉水植被恢复对污染河道的水质修复效果.结果表明:沉水植被网床构建后,水体透明度显著升高,由修复前的0.5m提高到1.7 ~1.8 m;在沉水植被网床构建后的第5天和第20天,TN和TP的削减率分别为35.6%、66.3%和29.4%、63.2%;5

  7. Study on Application of Daphnia magna and Submerged Vegetation to Remediation of Landscape Water%食藻虫引导的沉水植被修复景观水体的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏哲韬; 史惠祥; 李遥

    2011-01-01

    A field test of bioremediation of eutrophic water by Daphnia magna and submerged vegetation was conducted in Xixi wetland. Domesticated Daphnia magna was introduced into the water body of restoration area to ingest cyanobacteria and other phytoplanktons, and subsequently, submerged plants, such as Vallisneria, Hydrilla verticillata, Elodea canadensis and Potamogeton pectinatus were transplanted. From September 2010 to February 2011, water samples were monitored to investigate bioremediation efficiency and stability. The experiment data show that compared with the control area, Chl-a, TN, N03- -N, NH4+ -N, TP, PO43- -P and CODMn in the water body of restoration area are decreased by 45.6% , 68.8% , 97.6% , 71.5% , 65.7% , 68.5% and 67.4% respectively, DO is increased by 88.3% , and Secchi depth (SD) reaches over 2.0 m. Overall, the water quality meets the II to HI criteria specified in the national surface water quality standard. In March 2011, the inferior V water was introduced into the restoration area to test the effectiveness of the established experiment system. The results show that after one month, all the water-quality indices are significantly lower compared with the control area (P <0.01), TN, TP and CODMn are reduced by 78.2% , 50% and 43.7% , the DO is increased by 22.4% , and the SD reaches 1.5 m.%在西溪湿地进行了食藻虫引导沉水植被生态修复富营养化水体的现场试验.在修复区水体中引入经过驯化的食藻虫来滤食蓝藻等浮游藻类,然后移植苦草、轮叶黑藻、伊乐藻、龙须眼子菜等沉水植物.于2010年9月-2011年2月,对水体的水质指标进行了逐月监测,分析对西溪湿地水体的净化效果及其稳定性.结果表明:修复区水体的叶绿素a、TN、NO3- -N、NH4+ -N、TP、PO43- -P和CODMn浓度相比于对照区分别低45.6%、68.8%、97.6%、71.5%、65.7%、68.5%和67.4%,DO增加了88.3%,水体透明度达到2.0m以上,水质达到国家地

  8. Plant structure in crop production: considerations on application of FSPM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.; Evers, J.B.

    2013-01-01

    Cereals, potato and glasshouse cut rose, representing monocot annuals, vegetative propagated dicot annual and woody perennials, have different structural development. ‘Bud break’, initiating tillering (monocots) and branching (dicots) is a key process determining plant structure. Plant population de

  9. Main: TRANSINITMONOCOTS [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TRANSINITMONOCOTS S000202 3-May-1998 (last modified) kehi Context sequence of trans...lational initiation codon in monocots; R=A/G; M=A/C; Translation; Initiation; monocots; RMNAUGGC ...

  10. Virginia Coast Reserve 2007 Remote Sensing Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    Chenopodium ambrosiode Helianthemum canadense Allium canadense Crataegus viridis Hibiscus moscheutos Ambrosia artemisiifoli Cynodon dactylon... laevigata Galium pilosum Mitchella Repens Cenchrus tribuloides Galium tinctorium Mollugo Verticillata 13 Genus Species Genus Species Genus

  11. Occurrence of green alga Ernodesmisverticillata (Kuetzing) Boergesen at Malvan (Maharashtra coast)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Agadi, V.V.

    The occurrence of Ernodesmis verticillata belonging to Chlorophyta has been recorded for the first time from Malvan, along the Maharashtra Coast. The general distribution, habit and habitat of this species are given. During the recent survey...

  12. Fumigant toxicity of five essential oils rich in ketones against Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky)

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera, J. M.; M.P Zunino; Y Massuh; R.P Pizzollito; J.S Dambolena; N.A Gañan; Zygadlo, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    Essential oils (EOs) and individual compounds act as fumigants against insects found in stored products. In fumigant assays, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky adults were treated with essential oils derived from Aphyllocladus decussatus Hieron, Aloysia polystachya Griseb, Minthostachys verticillata Griseb Epling and Tagetes minuta L , which are rich in ketones and their major components: a- thujone, R-carvone, S-carvone, (-) menthone, R (+) pulegone and E-Z- ocimenone. M. verticillata oil was th...

  13. Bioassay of Plant Growth Regulator Activity on Aquatic Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    found at 7.5 pg 2 (data not shown). Presumed toxic effects such as brittleness and an increased red pigmentation kpresumably anthocyanins ) £-I were...more than 50 percent over untreated controls (Table 1). As described above, these hydrilla segments were red in color , and it was apparent that they

  14. Introduced aquatic plants and algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-native aquatic plants such as waterhyacinth and hydrilla severely impair the uses of aquatic resources including recreational faculties (lakes, reservoirs, rivers) as well as timely delivery of irrigation water for agriculture. Costs associated with impacts and management of all types of aquatic...

  15. Final Environmental Assessment for the Installation of a Range Safety Lighting System at Avon Park Air Force Range, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Sterna antillarum N T Mammals Florida panther Puma concolor coryi E E Florida black bear Ursus americanus floridans N T Reptiles and Amphibians ...Casuarina glauca Australian pine Dioscorea bulbifera Air potato Eichhornia crassipes Water hyacinth Eugenia uniflora Surinam cherry Hydrilla...Cuban treefrog (Osteophilus septentrionalis), Cuban brown anole (Anole sagrei) and the Indo-Pacific gecko (Hemidactylus garnoti) are some amphibian and

  16. 斧头湖水生植物多样性及群落演替研究%DIVERSITY VARIATION AND COMMUNITY SUCCESSION OF AQUATIC MACROPHYTES IN LAKE FUTOU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李中强; 任慧; 郝孟曦; 张萌; 徐军

    2012-01-01

    Due to extensive human activities, habitat loss and segmentation induce destruction and disappearance of aquatic plants in the shallow lakes. These activities cause secondary extinctions of aquatic animals, leading to loss of biodiversity in lakes and animal reproduction. Lake Futou, locates in southeastern Hubei Province, China, has the same functions, such as irrigation and aquaculture, as other shallow lakes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. However, in recent 50 years, human disturbances, including reclamation, damming and over-fishing, have caused accelerated loss of diversity of aquatic plants. This worsened the ecosystem faction and seriously affected the productivity of aquatic resources and the quality of species. Thus, the aims of the this study were to understand the succession of aquatic plants in Lake Futou in recent decades and to comprehend the reasons associated with exploitation and utilization of resources in this lake. In order to investigate the aquatic plant diversity in Lake Futou, the species and community diversity were studied using field investigation in 2009, and the topology were analysed by geographical information system technique with ARC/INFO. Based on the results obtained from field investigation and previous studies, species diversity variations and succession of aquatic macrophytes community in Lake Futou from 1988 to 2009 were investigated and the reasons between the changes and some controlling factors were analyzed. The results showed that there were some variations on the number of species and dominant species of aquatic plants. Some species that were sensitive to disturbances such as Nymphaea stellata disappeared and some dominant species such as Potamogeton maackianus, Vallisneria denseserrulata and Hydrilla verticillata became sub-dominant species or accompanying species from 1988 to 2009. In addition, the introduced species such as Elodea nuttalli occurred in Lake Futou and became dominant species

  17. Embryological features of Tofieldia glutinosa and their bearing on the early diversification of monocotyledonous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Samuel J; Friedman, William E

    2008-08-01

    Although much is known about the vegetative traits associated with early monocot evolution, less is known about the reproductive features of early monocotyledonous lineages. A study was made of the embryology of Tofieldia glutinosa, a member of an early divergent monocot clade (Tofieldiaceae), and aspects of its development were compared with the development of other early divergent monocots in order to gain insight into defining reproductive features of early monocots. Field-collected developing gynoecial tissues of Tofieldia glutinosa were prepared for histological examination. Over 600 ovules were sectioned and studied using brightfield, differential interference contrast, and fluorescence microscopy. High-resolution digital imaging was used to document important stages of megasporogenesis, megagametogenesis and early endosperm development. Development of the female gametophyte in T. glutinosa is of a modified Polygonum-type. At maturity the female gametophyte is seven-celled and 11-nucleate with a standard three-celled egg apparatus, a binucleate central cell (where ultimately, the two polar nuclei will fuse into a diploid secondary nucleus) and three binucleate antipodal cells. The antipodal nuclei persist past fertilization, and the process of double fertilization appears to yield a diploid zygote and triploid primary endosperm cell, as is characteristic of plants with Polygonum-type female gametophytes. Endosperm development is helobial, and free-nuclear growth initially proceeds at equal rates in both the micropylar and chalazal endosperm chambers. The analysis suggests that the shared common ancestor of monocots possessed persistent and proliferating antipodals similar to those found in T. glutinosa and other early-divergent monocots (e.g. Acorus and members of the Araceae). Helobial endosperm among monocots evolved once in the common ancestor of all monocots excluding Acorus. Thus, the analysis further suggests that helobial endosperm in monocots is

  18. Monitoring Invasive Aquatic Vegetation in Lake Okeechobee, Florida, Using NDVI Derived from Modis Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Kate; Brozen, Madeline; Malik, Sadaf; Maki, Angela

    2009-01-01

    Lake Okeechobee, located in southern Florida, encompasses approximately 1,700 sq km and is a vital part of the Lake Okeechobee and Everglades ecosystem. Major cyanobacterial blooms have been documented in Lake Okeechobee since the 1970s and have continued to plague the ecosystem. Similarly, hydrilla, water hyacinth, and water lettuce have been documented in the lake and continue to threaten the ecosystem by their rapid growth. This study examines invasive aquatic vegetation occurrence through the use of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) calculated on MOD09 surface reflectance imagery. Occurrence during 2008 was analyzed using the Time Series Product Tool (TSPT), a MATLAB-based program developed at John C. Stennis Space Center. This project tracked spatial and temporal variability of cyanobacterial blooms, and overgrowth of water lettuce, water hyacinth, and hydrilla. In addition, this study presents an application of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data to assist in water quality management.

  19. Environmental Factors Influencing Blooms of a Neurotoxic Stigonematalan Cyanobacterium Responsible for Avian Vacuolar Myelinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    killing waterbirds and raptors , to an epiphytic cyanobacterium which grows primarily on nonindigenous submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). Water- birds...intramyelinic edema, in the organisms’ CNS tissue, most commonly the brain (Thomas et al. 1998). AVM-afflicted birds display erratic behavior ; clinical symptoms... feeding trials. Gavage trials with a methanol extract of the hydrilla-UCB demonstrated that extract would cause clinical symptoms and AVM lesions in

  20. Point Intercept and Surface Observation GPS (SOG): A Comparison of Survey Methods - Lake Gaston, NC/VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    coverage by hydrilla was greater than 50% (littoral zone approximately 5,000 acres, Madsen 2007). Scientific name Common name Exotic/native Whole lake...vegetation in the lake. Scientific name Common name Monospecific acres Total acres Native emergent Echinodorus cordifolius creeping burhead...0.001 0.001 Eleocharis macrostachya flatstem spikerush 0.002 0.002 E. quadrangulata squarestem spikerush 2.66 7.21 Hibiscus spp. mallow 0.06 0.27

  1. Apparent Herbivory and Indigenous Pathogens of Invasive Flowering Rush (Butomus umbellatus L.) in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    hand or with a garden trowel. Though flowering rush spreads vegetatively and produces extensive underground rhizome systems, for the purposes of this...the Great Smoky Mountains National Park in 2004 (Baird et al. 2007). Both F. oxysporum and Phoma have broad host ranges, which may limit their...is dubious, considering that the majority of them have been tested on other plant species (hydrilla and Eurasian watermilfoil) with little success

  2. Incidence and Management Costs of Freshwater Aquatic Nuisance Species at Projects Operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    the occurrence of ANS impacts (Yes or No) from freshwater algae, large aquatic plants, fish , zebra mussels, Asiatic clams, water fleas, crayfish...investment in research and development, especially for nuisance aquatic plants, fresh- water clams, and certain invasive fish species. Even so, aggregate...water hyacinths, hydrilla, common reed, sea lamprey, and the zebra mussel are especially notorious for their costly impacts on freshwater services

  3. 伊乐藻的利用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨清心

    1988-01-01

    伊乐藻(Elodea nuttallii)原产美洲,是一种速生高产的沉水高等植物,与我国淡水水域中分布的黑藻(Hydrilla verticilata)苦草(Vallisneria spiralis)同属水鳖科(Hydrocharitaceae),是草食性鱼类的优良饲料,又有净化水质的作用。

  4. La familia Valoniaceae (Chlorophyta en el estado de Bahía, Brasil: aspectos morfológicos y de distribución The family Valoniaceae (Chlorophyta in the state of Bahia, Brazil: morphological aspects and geographical distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aigara Miranda Alves

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo contempla el estudio morfológico y de distribución de las especies de Valoniaceae presentes en la costa del Estado de Bahía, Brasil. Se analizaron en el estudio especímenes de herbario y muestras recolectadas entre 1994 y 2010 en un total de 29 localidades. Se recolectaron cuatro especies: Valonia aegagropila, V. macrophysa, V. ventricosay Ernodesmis verticillata, siendo esta última una nueva adición a la flora de macroalgas del Estado. Para la costa brasileña se documenta por la primera vez talos fértiles de E. verticillata y la presencia de cristales de sílice y carbonato de calcio en las células de los taxones estudiados. Se presentan descripciones, ilustraciones y datos de distribución geográfica para cada especie a lo largo de la costa brasileña, asi como comentarios de otras especies relacionadas. Valonia aegagropila presentó una amplia distribución a lo largo de la costa, V. macrophysa y V. ventricosa, se registraron desde la Bahía de Todos los Santos hasta las Islas Abrolhos, mientras que E. verticillata ocurrió aisladamente en las Islas de Itaparica y Madre de Deus, ambas en la Bahía de Todos los Santos.The present paper included morphological and geographical distribution aspects of the Valoniaceae species occurring in the littoral of Bahía , Brazil. Specimens from vouchers of herbaria and material collected at 29 sites between 1994 and 2010 were analyzed. Four species were identified: Valonia aegagropila, V. macrophysa, V. ventricosa and Ernodesmis verticillata, the latter is a new record for the marine algae of Bahía state. Fertile thalli of E. verticillata and the presence of silica and calcium carbonate crystals into their cells were documented for the first time for the Brazilian coast. Detailed descriptions, illustrations and geographical distribution data for each species through the brazilian coast, as well as, discussion with related taxa are presented. Valonia aegagropila showed a wide

  5. Environ: E00674 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00674 Bolboschoenus fluviatilis tuber Crude drug Bolboschoenus fluviatilis [TAX:388563] Cyperaceae... (sedge family) Bolboschoenus fluviatilis tuber (dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Cyperaceae (sedge family) E00674 Bolboschoenus fluviatilis tuber ...

  6. Environ: E00439 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Alpinetin, Cardamomin Alpinia katsumadai, Alpinia [TAX:94326] Zingiberaceae (ginger family) Alpinia katsuma...dai mature seed (dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Zingiberaceae (ginger family) E00439 Alpinia katsumadai seed ...

  7. Environ: E00253 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00253 Tritici semen Wheat seed Shobaku Crude drug Carbohydrate, Wheat starch [DR:D... (grass family) Triticum aestivum seed Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Poaceae (grass family) E00253 Tritici semen ...

  8. Environ: E00655 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00655 Curcuma aeruginosa tuberous root Crude drug Curcuma aeruginosa [TAX:136205] ...Zingiberaceae (ginger family) Curcuma aeruginosa tuberous root Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Zingiberaceae (ginger family) E00655 Curcuma aeruginosa tuberous root ...

  9. Environ: E00719 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00719 Palmarosa oil (India) Essential oil Geraniol [CPD:C01500], Geranyl acetate [...R:br08321] Monocot plants Poaceae (grass family) E00719 Palmarosa oil (India) CAS: 8014-19-5 ...

  10. 7a-hydroxfriedelan-3one-26-OL-29-OIC acid and other constituents from Pileostegia Viburnoids VAR. Glabrescens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The preliminary phytotoxic evaluations of a n-BuOH extract from traditional Chinese medicinal plant Pileostegia viburnoides var. glabrescens showed herbicidal activity against dicot Lactuca sativa (lettuce) and monocot Agrostis stolonifera (bentgrass). In order to identify the phytotoxic constituent...

  11. Environ: E00284 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available fficinale [TAX:142615], Dendrobium nobile [TAX:94219] Ruscaceae (lily-of-the-valley family) Dendrobium stem ...Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Ruscaceae (lily-of-the-valley family) E00284 Dendrobium ...

  12. On the Basket Stinkhorn Mushroom Phallus merulinus (Phallaceae in Mangalore, Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.R. Sridhar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Basket Stinkhorm Mushroom Phallus merulinus is reported from the monocot debris of Mangalore University Arbortum. Its occurrence, growth and characteristics are compared with other Phallus spp.

  13. Environ: E00614 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00614 Dioscorea nipponica root Crude drug Dioscorea nipponica [TAX:64700] Dioscore...aceae (yam family) Dioscorea nipponica root Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Dioscoreaceae (yam family) E00614 Dioscorea nipponica root ...

  14. Environ: E00354 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00354 Trachycarpus fortunei leaf Crude drug Trachycarpus fortunei [TAX:14027] Arec...aceae (palm family) Trachycarpus fortunei leaf Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Arecaceae (palm family) E00354 Trachycarpus fortunei leaf ...

  15. Environ: E00652 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00652 Curcuma wenyujin rhizome Crude drug Curcuma wenyujin [TAX:136221] Zingiberac...eae (ginger family) Curcuma wenyujin rhizome Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Zingiberaceae (ginger family) E00652 Curcuma wenyujin rhizome ...

  16. Drug: D06775 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available y: 5100 Ruscaceae (lily-of-the-valley family) Ophiopogon tuber Major component: Ophiopogonin [CPD:C17041 C17... Monocot plants Ruscaceae (lily-of-the-valley family) D06775 Ophiopogon tuber PubChem: 47208426 ...

  17. Environ: E00292 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00292 Dayflower Crude drug Commelina communis [TAX:4744] Commelinaceae (spiderwort... family) Commelina communis whole herb Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Commelinaceae (spiderwort family) E00292 Dayflower ...

  18. Environ: E00484 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00484 Lophatherum gracile herb Crude drug Lophatherum gracile [TAX:29683] Poaceae (grass family) Lophatheru...m gracile herb (dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Poaceae (grass family) E00484 Lophatherum gracile herb ...

  19. Environ: E00654 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00654 Curcuma tuberous root Crude drug Curcuma [TAX:99568] Zingiberaceae (ginger family) Curcuma tuber...ous root Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Zingiberaceae (ginger family) E00654 Curcuma tuberous root ...

  20. Environ: E00347 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00347 Allium leaf sheath Crude drug Allyl sulfide Allium fistulosum [TAX:35875] Liliaceae (lily family) All...ium leaf sheath Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Liliaceae (lily family) E00347 Allium leaf sheath ...

  1. Environ: E00581 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00581 Typhonium giganteum corm Crude drug Typhonium giganteum [TAX:227256] Araceae (arum family) Typhonium giganteum corm Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Araceae (arum family) E00581 Typhonium giganteum corm ...

  2. Environ: E00409 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00409 Pleione pseudobulb Crude drug Pleione [TAX:141751] Orchidaceae (orchid famil...y) Pleione pseudobulb (dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Orchidaceae (orchid family) E00409 Pleione pseudobulb ...

  3. Environ: E00616 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00616 Allium macrostemon bulb Crude drug Allium macrostemon [TAX:91198] Liliaceae ...(lily family) Allium macrostemon bulb (dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Liliaceae (lily family) E00616 Allium macrostemon bulb ...

  4. Environ: E00316 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00316 Curculigo rhizome Crude drug Curculigo orchioides [TAX:4675] Hypoxidaceae (c...urculigo family) Curculigo rhizome Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Hypoxidaceae (curculigo family) E00316 Curculigo rhizome ...

  5. Tomato ABSCISIC ACID STRESS RIPENING (ASR) Gene Family Revisited: e107117

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ido Golan; Pia Guadalupe Dominguez; Zvia Konrad; Doron Shkolnik-Inbar; Fernando Carrari; Dudy Bar-Zvi

    2014-01-01

      Tomato ABSCISIC ACID RIPENING 1 (ASR1) was the first cloned plant ASR gene. ASR orthologs were then cloned from a large number of monocot, dicot and gymnosperm plants, where they are mostly involved in response to abiotic...

  6. Environ: E00739 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [TAX:100532], Dracaena [TAX:39502] Asparagaceae (asparagus family) Dracaena ombet, Dracaena cinnabari, Drac...aena draco resin Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Asparagaceae (asparagus family) E00739 Dracaena resin ...

  7. Drug: D06761 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available asphodeloides [TAX:59045] Same as: E00131 Therapeutic category: 5100 Agavaceae (agave...marrhera rhizome Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Agavaceae (agave family) D06761 Anemarrhena rhizome PubChem: 47208412 ...

  8. Environ: E00658 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00658 Curcuma kwangsiensis rhizome Crude drug Curcuma kwangsiensis [TAX:136216] Zi...ngiberaceae (ginger family) Curcuma kwangsiensis rhizome Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Zingiberaceae (ginger family) E00658 Curcuma kwangsiensis rhizome ...

  9. Environ: E00596 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00596 Tulipa edulis bulb Crude drug Tulipa edulis, Tulipa [TAX:13305] Liliaceae (l...ily family) Tulipa edulis bulb (dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Liliaceae (lily family) E00596 Tulipa edulis bulb ...

  10. Environ: E00615 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00615 Scilla scilloides bulb Crude drug Scilla scilloides [TAX:49652] Liliaceae (l...ily family) Scilla scilloides bulb (dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Liliaceae (lily family) E00615 Scilla scilloides bulb ...

  11. Environ: E00250 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00250 Koi (JP16) Saccharum granorum Malt extract Crude drug Maltose [CPD:C00208], ... added with Malt Extract Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Poaceae (grass family) E00250 Saccharum granorum ...

  12. Environ: E00353 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00353 Kaempferia galanga rhizome Crude drug Kaempferia galanga [TAX:97750] Zingibe...raceae (ginger family) Kaempferia galanga rhizome Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Zingiberaceae (ginger family) E00353 Kaempferia galanga rhizome ...

  13. Hostplant change and paleoclimatic events explain diversification shifts in skipper butterflies (Family: Hesperiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Ranjit Kumar; Warren, Andrew D; Collins, Steve C; Kodandaramaiah, Ullasa

    2017-08-02

    Skippers (Family: Hesperiidae) are a large group of butterflies with ca. 4000 species under 567 genera. The lack of a time-calibrated higher-level phylogeny of the group has precluded understanding of its evolutionary past. We here use a 10-gene dataset to reconstruct the most comprehensive time-calibrated phylogeny of the group, and explore factors that affected the diversification of these butterflies. Ancestral state reconstructions show that the early hesperiid lineages utilized dicots as larval hostplants. The ability to feed on monocots evolved once at the K-Pg boundary (ca. 65 million years ago (Mya)), and allowed monocot-feeders to diversify much faster on average than dicot-feeders. The increased diversification rate of the monocot-feeding clade is specifically attributed to rate shifts in two of its descendant lineages. The first rate shift, a four-fold increase compared to background rates, happened ca. 50 Mya, soon after the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum, in a lineage of the subfamily Hesperiinae that mostly fed on forest monocots. The second rate shift happened ca. 40 Mya in a grass-feeding lineage of Hesperiinae when open-habitat grasslands appeared in the Neotropics owing to gradual cooling of the atmospheric temperature. The evolution of monocot feeding strongly influenced diversification of skippers. We hypothesize that although monocot feeding was an intrinsic trait that allowed exploration of novel niches, the lack of extensive availability of monocots comprised an extrinsic limitation for niche exploration. The shifts in diversification rate coincided with paleoclimatic events during which grasses and forest monocots were diversified.

  14. Is there evidence of optimisation for carbon efficiency in plant proteomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovic, B; Seoighe, C; Alqurashi, M; Gehring, C

    2011-11-01

    Flowering plants, angiosperms, can be divided into two major clades, monocots and dicots, and while differences in amino acid composition in different species from the two clades have been reported, a systematic analysis of amino acid content and distribution remains outstanding. Here, we show that monocot and dicot proteins have developed distinct amino acid content. In Arabidopsis thaliana and poplar, as in the ancestral moss Physcomitrella patens, the average mass per amino acid appears to be independent of protein length, while in the monocots rice, maize and sorghum, shorter proteins tend to be made of lighter amino acids. An examination of the elemental content of these proteomes reveals that the difference between monocot and dicot proteins can be largely attributed to their different carbon signatures. In monocots, the shorter proteins, which comprise the majority of all proteins, are made of amino acids with less carbon, while the nitrogen content is unchanged in both monocots and dicots. We hypothesise that this signature could be the result of carbon use and energy optimisation in fast-growing annual Poaceae (grasses).

  15. Is there evidence of optimisation for carbon efficiency in plant proteomes?

    KAUST Repository

    Jankovic, Boris R.

    2011-07-25

    Flowering plants, angiosperms, can be divided into two major clades, monocots and dicots, and while differences in amino acid composition in different species from the two clades have been reported, a systematic analysis of amino acid content and distribution remains outstanding. Here, we show that monocot and dicot proteins have developed distinct amino acid content. In Arabidopsis thaliana and poplar, as in the ancestral moss Physcomitrella patens, the average mass per amino acid appears to be independent of protein length, while in the monocots rice, maize and sorghum, shorter proteins tend to be made of lighter amino acids. An examination of the elemental content of these proteomes reveals that the difference between monocot and dicot proteins can be largely attributed to their different carbon signatures. In monocots, the shorter proteins, which comprise the majority of all proteins, are made of amino acids with less carbon, while the nitrogen content is unchanged in both monocots and dicots. We hypothesise that this signature could be the result of carbon use and energy optimisation in fast-growing annual Poaceae (grasses). © 2011 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  16. Occurrence of fig wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) in Ficus caria and F. microcarpa in Hatay, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Doğanlar, Mikdat

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on fig wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea), considering that only 2 fig wasp species, Blastophaga psenes (L.) and Philotrypesis caricae (L.) (new record) are associated with Ficus carica in Turkey. Five fig wasps species, namely Eupristina verticillata Waterston, Walkerella microcarpae Boucek, Odontofroggatia ishii Wiebes, Philotrypesis taiwanensis Chen, and Philotrypesis emeryi Grandi were found on Ficus microcarpa (L.), which is an Asian fig tree, and has been ornamentally ...

  17. Comparisons of host mitochondrial, nuclear and endosymbiont bacterial genes reveal cryptic fig wasp species and the effects of Wolbachia on host mtDNA evolution and diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Gui

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Figs and fig-pollinating wasp species usually display a highly specific one-to-one association. However, more and more studies have revealed that the "one-to-one" rule has been broken. Co-pollinators have been reported, but we do not yet know how they evolve. They may evolve from insect speciation induced or facilitated by Wolbachia which can manipulate host reproduction and induce reproductive isolation. In addition, Wolbachia can affect host mitochondrial DNA evolution, because of the linkage between Wolbachia and associated mitochondrial haplotypes, and thus confound host phylogeny based on mtDNA. Previous research has shown that fig wasps have the highest incidence of Wolbachia infection in all insect taxa, and Wolbachia may have great influence on fig wasp biology. Therefore, we look forward to understanding the influence of Wolbachia on mitochondrial DNA evolution and speciation in fig wasps. Results We surveyed 76 pollinator wasp specimens from nine Ficus microcarpa trees each growing at a different location in Hainan and Fujian Provinces, China. We found that all wasps were morphologically identified as Eupristina verticillata, but diverged into three clades with 4.22-5.28% mtDNA divergence and 2.29-20.72% nuclear gene divergence. We also found very strong concordance between E. verticillata clades and Wolbachia infection status, and the predicted effects of Wolbachia on both mtDNA diversity and evolution by decreasing mitochondrial haplotypes. Conclusions Our study reveals that the pollinating wasp E. verticillata on F. microcarpa has diverged into three cryptic species, and Wolbachia may have a role in this divergence. The results also indicate that Wolbachia strains infecting E. verticillata have likely resulted in selective sweeps on host mitochondrial DNA.

  18. Occurrence of fig wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) in Ficus caria and F. microcarpa in Hatay, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Doğanlar, Mikdat

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on fig wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea), considering that only 2 fig wasp species, Blastophaga psenes (L.) and Philotrypesis caricae (L.) (new record) are associated with Ficus carica in Turkey. Five fig wasps species, namely Eupristina verticillata Waterston, Walkerella microcarpae Boucek, Odontofroggatia ishii Wiebes, Philotrypesis taiwanensis Chen, and Philotrypesis emeryi Grandi were found on Ficus microcarpa (L.), which is an Asian fig tree, and has been ornamentally ...

  19. New occurrence of non-pollinating fig wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) in Ficus microcarpa in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Farache, Fernando H.A.; Ó,Vanessa T. do; Rodrigo A. S. Pereira

    2009-01-01

    Ficus microcarpa is an Asian fig tree that is ornamentally cultivated. The specific pollinator, Eupristina verticillata Waterston, and the non-pollinators Walkerella microcarpae Bouček and Philotrypesis emeryi Grandi, have been reported associated to F. microcarpa in Brazil. In here we report for the first time the occurrence of Odontofroggatia ishii Wiebes and Philotrypesis taiwanensis Chen et al in F. microcarpa in Brazil. Our results suggest that P. taiwanensis and O. ishii represent ...

  20. Environ: E00144 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00144 Fritillaria bulb (JP16) Crude drug Peimine [CPD:C10830], Peiminine [CPD:C108...08], Zhebeinine [CPD:C17881], Fritillarine [CPD:C10808], Peiminoside [CPD:C17882], (Fritilline | Verticillin...e), Apoverticine, Peimiphine, Peimidine, Peimitidine, Peiminoside, Fritimine Fritillaria verticillata [TAX:5...9070] Same as: D06774 Liliaceae (lily family) Fritillaria bulb Major component: P

  1. Caulerpa (Chlorophyta, Caulerpales) from the Kenyan coast

    OpenAIRE

    Coppejans, E.; Beeckman, T.

    1990-01-01

    In view of preparing a Flora of the Seaweeds from Kenya, material is collected yearly by the authors since 1985. Twelve species of Caulerpa have been collected so far, some including several varieties: C. brachypus, C. cupressoides, C. elongata, C. fastigiata, C. lentillifera, C. mexicana, C. racemosa (with several var.), C. scalpelliformis, C. serrulata, C. sertularioides, C. taxifolia, C. verticillata. An identification key is provided, the different species are described and illustrated (e...

  2. Marine algae of Papua New Guinea (Madang Prov.) 2. A revised and completed list of Caulerpa (Chlorophyta—Caulerpales)

    OpenAIRE

    Coppejans, E.

    1992-01-01

    The study of marine macroalgae collected in N Papua New Guinea in 1980, 1986, 1988 and 1990 resulted in 14 species (29 entities) of Caulerpa: C. biserrulata, C. cupressoides (5 ecads), c. elongata (2 ecads), C. filicoides var. andamanensis, C. lentillifera, C. manorensis, C. microphysa, C. opposita, C. racemosa (8 ecads), C. serrulata (3 ecads), C. sertularioides, C. taxifolia (2 ecads), C. verticillata, and C. webbiana ecad disticha. An identification key is added.

  3. Ash characteristics and plant nutrients in some aquatic biomasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masto, Reginald; Pandit, Ankita; George, Joshy; Mukhopadhyay, Sangeeta; Selvi, Vetrivel; Ram, Lal

    2016-04-01

    Aquatic biomasses are explored as potential fuel source for direct combustion because of their faster growth and no land requirement. The energy density and the ash characteristics of the aquatic biomasses are to be evaluated for their suitability for energy extraction. In the study, four aquatic plant samples namely Eichornia crassipes, Hydrilla verticilleta, Lemna minor, Spirogyra spp were collected from a pond in Digwadih Campus of Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research, Dhanbad. The biomasses were air dried, powdered and ashed at different temperatures. Volatile C was relatively lower in Spirogyra and Hydrilla (53 %) than Eichornia (62.6 %) or Lemna (59.7 %), whereas fixed C was higher for Eichornia and Lemna (about 10 %) and lower for Hydrilla (1 %). Ultimate analysis showed that the carbon content was in the order Eichornia > Lemna > Spirogyra > Hydrilla. The IR spectra of each raw biomass is compared to their respective ashes obtained at different temperatures (500-900°C). With increase in ashing temperature from 500-900°C there is gradual breakdown of the cellulosic structure hence, peaks around 2900-2800cm-1 caused by aliphatic C-H vibration tends to disappear slowly in ash. More number of peaks appears at lower wavenumbers in ashes of all the biomass samples indicating towards increased percentage of inorganic ion species. Considerable enrichment of SiO2 is validated with prominent peaks at 1100-900 cm-1 in all the ashes. Lemna and Spirogyra has a similar ash composition (Si > Al > Ca > K), whereas, Ca was higher in Hydrilla (Si > Ca > K > Al). Eichornia (Si > K > Ca > Al) has higher K and Ca than Al. SiO2 and Al2O3 were higher in Spirogyra, while SiO2 and CaO in Eichornia and Hydrilla. K first increased from 500-700/800⁰C, and then decreased from 800-900⁰C. Cl is lost slowly in ash from 500-700/800⁰C and then by a drastic reduction from 800-900⁰C. S is enhanced in ash at all temperatures although the change is quite small. Most of the Cl

  4. Keep on growing: building and patterning leaves in the grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael W; Hake, Sarah

    2016-02-01

    Monocot leaves have unique features that arise early in their development. Maturing leaves protectively enclose younger leaves and the meristem, the pool of founder cells from which a leaf emerges. Through the maturation process, proximal sheath and distal blade tissues differentiate and are separated by the ligule and auricle structures. Here we review current research focusing on the contribution of gene regulatory factors and phytohormones on the patterning and differentiation of monocot leaves primarily focusing on research in the grasses (Poaceae). The 10000 members of the grasses include the true grain cereals (wheat, rice, maize, etc.), biofuel crops such as sugarcane, pasture grasses, and bamboo. They are the most studied of the monocots due to their tremendous agricultural and agronomic importance.

  5. Early remote laser detection of vegetation damage caused by certain environmental stress factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappelle, Emmett W.; Mcmurtrey, James E., III

    1989-01-01

    The fluorescence spectra of plants excited with a pulsed nitrogen laser beam emitting at 337 nm were found to be related to plant type, as well as with changes in the physiology of the plant as the result of various kinds of environmental stress. The plant types which were studied included herbaceous dicots, monocots, hardwoods, and conifers. These plant types could be identified on the basis of differences in either the number of fluorescent bands, or the relative intensity of the bands. The dicots and monocots had fluorescent maxima at 440, 685, and 740 nm. The monocots could be distinguished from the dicots by virtue of having a much higher 440 nm/685 nm ratio. Hardwoods and conifers had an additional fluorescence band at 525 nm, but healthy conifers did not have a band at 685 nm.

  6. Genome-wide distribution and organization of microsatellites in plants: an insight into marker development in Brachypodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonah, Humira; Deshmukh, Rupesh K; Sharma, Anshul; Singh, Vinay P; Gupta, Deepak K; Gacche, Raju N; Rana, Jai C; Singh, Nagendra K; Sharma, Tilak R

    2011-01-01

    Plant genomes are complex and contain large amounts of repetitive DNA including microsatellites that are distributed across entire genomes. Whole genome sequences of several monocot and dicot plants that are available in the public domain provide an opportunity to study the origin, distribution and evolution of microsatellites, and also facilitate the development of new molecular markers. In the present investigation, a genome-wide analysis of microsatellite distribution in monocots (Brachypodium, sorghum and rice) and dicots (Arabidopsis, Medicago and Populus) was performed. A total of 797,863 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified in the whole genome sequences of six plant species. Characterization of these SSRs revealed that mono-nucleotide repeats were the most abundant repeats, and that the frequency of repeats decreased with increase in motif length both in monocots and dicots. However, the frequency of SSRs was higher in dicots than in monocots both for nuclear and chloroplast genomes. Interestingly, GC-rich repeats were the dominant repeats only in monocots, with the majority of them being present in the coding region. These coding GC-rich repeats were found to be involved in different biological processes, predominantly binding activities. In addition, a set of 22,879 SSR markers that were validated by e-PCR were developed and mapped on different chromosomes in Brachypodium for the first time, with a frequency of 101 SSR markers per Mb. Experimental validation of 55 markers showed successful amplification of 80% SSR markers in 16 Brachypodium accessions. An online database 'BraMi' (Brachypodium microsatellite markers) of these genome-wide SSR markers was developed and made available in the public domain. The observed differential patterns of SSR marker distribution would be useful for studying microsatellite evolution in a monocot-dicot system. SSR markers developed in this study would be helpful for genomic studies in Brachypodium and related

  7. Genome-wide distribution and organization of microsatellites in plants: an insight into marker development in Brachypodium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humira Sonah

    Full Text Available Plant genomes are complex and contain large amounts of repetitive DNA including microsatellites that are distributed across entire genomes. Whole genome sequences of several monocot and dicot plants that are available in the public domain provide an opportunity to study the origin, distribution and evolution of microsatellites, and also facilitate the development of new molecular markers. In the present investigation, a genome-wide analysis of microsatellite distribution in monocots (Brachypodium, sorghum and rice and dicots (Arabidopsis, Medicago and Populus was performed. A total of 797,863 simple sequence repeats (SSRs were identified in the whole genome sequences of six plant species. Characterization of these SSRs revealed that mono-nucleotide repeats were the most abundant repeats, and that the frequency of repeats decreased with increase in motif length both in monocots and dicots. However, the frequency of SSRs was higher in dicots than in monocots both for nuclear and chloroplast genomes. Interestingly, GC-rich repeats were the dominant repeats only in monocots, with the majority of them being present in the coding region. These coding GC-rich repeats were found to be involved in different biological processes, predominantly binding activities. In addition, a set of 22,879 SSR markers that were validated by e-PCR were developed and mapped on different chromosomes in Brachypodium for the first time, with a frequency of 101 SSR markers per Mb. Experimental validation of 55 markers showed successful amplification of 80% SSR markers in 16 Brachypodium accessions. An online database 'BraMi' (Brachypodium microsatellite markers of these genome-wide SSR markers was developed and made available in the public domain. The observed differential patterns of SSR marker distribution would be useful for studying microsatellite evolution in a monocot-dicot system. SSR markers developed in this study would be helpful for genomic studies in Brachypodium

  8. Spray boom for selectively spraying a herbicidal composition onto dicots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    There is provided a method and spray boom for discriminating cereal crop (monocot) and weeds (dicots). The spray boom includes means for digitally recording an image of a selected area to be treated by a nozzle on the spray boom, whereby a plant material is identified based on a segmentation...... procedure; and means for detecting the edges and estimating the angles of the edges of the leaves so as to discriminate between dicots and monocots; and means for activating one or more of the spray nozzles in response to detected dicots so as to selectively apply the herbicidal composition onto the sensed...... area containing the dicots....

  9. New occurrence of non-pollinating fig wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) in Ficus microcarpa in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farache, Fernando H A; O, Vanessa T do; Pereira, Rodrigo A S

    2009-01-01

    Ficus microcarpa is an Asian fig tree that is ornamentally cultivated. The specific pollinator, Eupristina verticillata Waterston, and the non-pollinators Walkerella microcarpae Boucek and Philotrypesis emeryi Grandi, have been reported associated to F. microcarpa in Brazil. In here we report for the first time the occurrence of Odontofroggatia ishii Wiebes and Philotrypesis taiwanensis Chen et al in F. microcarpa in Brazil. Our results suggest that P. taiwanensis and O. ishii represent a recent influx of these wasps into Brazil. Considering that approximately 20 fig wasp species are associated with F. microcarpa in its native area, novel occurrences can be reported in the future in Brazil.

  10. Techos verdes y el confort térmico en Angostillo, Veracruz, México.

    OpenAIRE

    Beltrán Melgarejo, Abraham

    2013-01-01

    Se diseñó un prototipo de techo verde con enredaderas tropicales y se evaluó el confort térmico brindado por éste en viviendas de una zona rural tropical. Con base en entrevistas a viveristas de la región centro de Veracruz y un recorrido de campo, se preseleccionaron cinco especies Mandevilla sanderi, Solandra maxima, Passiflora edulis, Thunbergia alata y Cissus verticillata. Se evaluó la adaptabilidad de éstas al ambiente sobre techos modelo en condiciones de campo, midiendo sus tasas de cr...

  11. Screening for antimicrobial activity of crude drug extracts and pure natural products from Mexican medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, A; Hernandez, L; Pereda-Miranda, R; Mata, R

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary antimicrobial screening against Candida albicans and selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria of methanol extracts prepared from eight Mexican medicinal plants, noted for their antiseptic properties, was conducted. The significant activity exhibited for extracts of Ratibida latipalearis, Teloxys graveolens, Dodonaea viscosa, Hyptis albida, H. pectinata, H. Suaveolens and H. verticillata tends to support their traditional use as anti-infective agents. Only the extract of Hintonia latiflora was inactive. The antimicrobial activities of 44 pure natural compounds and two derivatives were determined. Of these, only 23 compounds were effective in inhibiting the growth of the tested organisms (MIC less than or equal to 100 micrograms/ml).

  12. Environmental Assessment. Construction and Maintenance of Wastewater Pipelines and Lift Stations and Installation of Fiber Optic Conduit at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Aristida stricta  Wiregrass  Open Longleaf Pine Woods  X  Asclepias humistrata  Pinelands  Milkweed   Maintained ROW  X  Asclepias verticillata  Whorled... Milkweed   Maintained ROW  X  Bidens mitis  Cut Leaf Beggars Ticks  Wetlands Along Spring Runs  X  Bignonia capreolata  Cross Vine  Mesic Mixed Forest

  13. Validation of Setaria (L. P. Beauv Species based on Palyonological and Anatomical Techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul nazir

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In present study external morphology, leaf epidermal anatomy and pollen structureof three species of genus Setaria(Poaceaeviz., S. glauca, S. verticillata and S. viridiswere studied. The major emphasis was on the importance of palyno-anatomical characters used as an aid in plant systematics. Light microscopy (LM and scanning electron microscopy (SEMwere used to study leaf epidermal anatomy and pollen structure.Palyno-anatomical analysis of genus Setaria shows variations within the species. It is stated that the study based on classical and modern approaches is very useful for systematic delimitation of problematic taxa like Setaria.

  14. Adsorption of Arsenite by Six Submerged Plants from Nansi Lake, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibin Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nansi Lake is the largest and the most important freshwater lake in north China for the South-North Water Transfer Project. Due to long-time and large-scale fish farming of history, the excess fish food and excretion usually release pentavalent arsenic, which is converted into trivalent arsenic (As (III in the lake sediment and released into lake water. Adsorption of arsenite using six submerged plants (Mimulicalyx rosulatus, Potamogeton maackianus, Hydrilla, Watermifoil, Pteris vittata, and Potamogeton crispus as adsorbing materials was investigated. The experimental data obtained have been analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models and the pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and intraparticle diffusion kinetics models. According to the results, the As (III equilibrium data agreed well with the Freundlich isotherm model. The adsorption capacity of the plants was in the following order: Potamogeton crispus > Pteris vittata > Potamogeton maackianus > Mimulicalyx rosulatus > Hydrilla > Watermifoil. The sorption system with the six submerged plants was better described by pseudo-second-order than by first-order kinetics. Moreover, the adsorption with Potamogeton crispus could follow intraparticle diffusion (IPD model. The initial adsorption and rate of IPD using Potamogeton crispus and Pteris vittata were higher than those using other plants studied.

  15. Domestic Wastewater Treatment Miniplan of Institution Using a Combination of “Conetray Cascade Aerator” Technology and Biofilter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naniek Ratni Juliardi A.R

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia, the contamination from domestic wastewater is becoming the greatest pollutant and reaches up to 85% that goes into the body of water. This might worsen the river water quality. To anticipate this condition, there should be some way out, by making use of wastewater as a source of energy. One of those systems is by employing Cone-tray Cascade Aerator combined with Biofilter by using Hydrilla plant which can be used as an alternative of waste water treatment for both domestic and institutional scale. This research was aimed at determining the system capability of aeration combined with biofilter by using hydrilla plant to reduce or eliminate the pollutant load of BOD, COD, and TSS. This research was conducted in a continuous stream of water at 200L/hour. The result showed that the best system of Conetray Cascade Aerator combined with biofilter could reduce BOD as much as 69,11%, COD at 61,14%, and TSS at 65,45%.

  16. Mechanical harvesting of aquatic plants. Report 3. Evaluation of the Limnos System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.L.

    1984-05-01

    The Limnos Mechanical Harvesting System consists of a separate cutter machine; a harvester, which includes a gathering and conveyor pickup unit and a processor; and two transport tank barges. System operational tests were conducted on the Withlacoochee River in central Florida during the summer of 1979. Plants harvested were primarily topped-out hydrilla with small amounts of waterhyacinth. Productivity of the cutter unit was evaluated separately and in conjunction with the harvester. Tests were conducted with the harvester with the tank barges to remove the plant material from the water and also without the barges, which allowed the processed plant materials to be discharged directly into the water body. High productivity of the harvester in dense hydrilla (and water-hyacinth mixtures) required reducing the width of cut of the plant material or using 18-ft cuts at two depths (3 and 6 ft). This procedure limited the mass of material that had to be handled by the harvester. Several potential areas requiring additional research were identified as a result of these tests: improved procedures for evaluating mechanical harvesting machines, and possible improvements to the Limnos harvester system to allow higher productivity. 5 figures, 4 tables.

  17. Natural Setting and Vegetation of the Florida Panhandle. An Account of the Environments and Plant Communities of Northern Florida, West of the Suwannee River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    flatwoods). An increase in sedges ( Cyperaceae ) accounts for part of that increase, and much of the rest comes from miscellaneous monocot families (e.g...Grass- Sedge Seepage Bogs ....................... 378 6. Grass- Sedge Savannahs .......................... 379 33. ACID SWAMP SYSTEM... sedge . Survival was high on humus or ash derived from pine straw, oak leaves, or broomsedge. These results accentuate the need for fire to prepare

  18. Drug: D06719 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ], (+)-Camphor [CPD:C00808] Cyperus rotundus [TAX:512623] Same as: E00091 Therapeutic category: 5100 Cyperaceae...ng Qi D06719 Cyperus rhizome; Powdered cyperus rhizome; Xianghu Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Cyperaceae (sedge family) D06719 Cyperus rhizome PubChem: 47208370 ...

  19. Environ: E00653 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00653 Curcuma wenyujin tuberous root Crude drug Curcuma wenyujin [TAX:136221] Zingiber...aceae (ginger family) Curcuma wenyujin tuberous root Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Zingiberaceae (ginger family) E00653 Curcuma wenyujin tuberous root ...

  20. Environ: E00437 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00437 Alpinia galanga fruit Alpiniae galangae fructus Crude drug Alpinia galanga [TAX:94327] Zingiber...aceae (ginger family) Alpinia galanga fruit (dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Zingiberaceae (ginger family) E00437 Alpinia galanga fruit ...

  1. Environ: E00785 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00785 Saw palmetto Medicinal herb Sitosterol [CPD:C01753], Stigmasterol [CPD:C0544...oa repens [TAX:4722] Arecaceae Saw palmetto fruit Medicinal herbs [BR:br08322] Monocot plants Arecaceae (palm family) E00785 Saw palmetto ...

  2. Environ: E00830 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00830 Lemon grass Medicinal herb Citral [CPD:C01499 C09847], Myrcene [CPD:C06074],... Flavonoid [CPD:C01579] Cymbopogon citratus [TAX:66014] Poaceae Lemon grass leaves Major component: Citral [CPD:C01499 C09847] Medici...nal herbs [BR:br08322] Monocot plants Poaceae (grass family) E00830 Lemon grass ...

  3. Environ: E00329 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00329 Corn silk Crude drug; Medicinal herb Sitosterol [CPD:C01753], Stigmasterol [...nocot plants Poaceae (grass family) E00329 Corn silk Medicinal herbs [BR:br08322] Monocot plants Poaceae (grass family) E00329 Corn silk ...

  4. Environ: E00766 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00766 Oats Medicinal herb Gramine [CPD:C08304], Avenacoside [CPD:C08887 C08888], b...:C00034], Zinc [CPD:C00038] Avena sativa [TAX:4498] Poaceae oats aerial part Medicinal herbs [BR:br08322] Monocot plants Poaceae (grass family) E00766 Oats ...

  5. Environ: E00651 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00651 Curcuma longa tuberous root Crude drug Curcuma longa [TAX:136217] Zingiberaceae (ginger family) Curcu...ma longa tuberous root Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Zingiberaceae (ginger family) E00651 Curcuma longa tuberous root ...

  6. Durable broad-spectrum powdery mildew resistance in pea er1 plants is conferred by natural loss-of-function mutations in PsMLO1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Humphry, M.; Reinstädler, A.; Ivanov, S.; Bisseling, T.; Panstruga, R.

    2011-01-01

    Loss-of-function alleles of plant-specific MLO (Mildew Resistance Locus O) genes confer broad-spectrum powdery mildew resistance in monocot (barley) and dicot (Arabidopsis thaliana, tomato) plants. Recessively inherited powdery mildew resistance in pea (Pisum sativum) er1 plants is, in many aspects,

  7. Environ: E00314 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00314 Blackberry lily root Crude drug Iridin [CPD:C10465], Irigenin [CPD:C17957], ...944] Iridaceae (iris family) Blackberry lily root Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Iridaceae (iris family) E00314 Blackberry lily root ...

  8. Environ: E00417 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00417 Phragmites communis rhizome and stem Pharagmitis rhizoma Crude drug Asparagi...ne [CPD:C16438], Protein [CPD:C00017] Phragmites communis [TAX:29695] Poaceae (grass family) Phragmites comm...unis rhizome and stem (dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Poaceae (grass family) E00417 Phragmites communis rhizome and stem ...

  9. A survey of root pressure in 53 Asian species of bamboo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusheng Wang; Xinli Tian; Yulong Ding; Xianchong Wan; M. T. Tyree

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Root pressure is a potentially important mechanism for dissolving embolisms in previously cavitated vessels, but the occurrence of root pressure is not a universal property in plants. Material and methods. We suggest that root pressure might be more common in monocots than dicots because in dicots, cambial growth...

  10. Environ: E00371 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00371 Dioscorea bulbifera tuber Crude drug Dioscorea bulbifera [TAX:35874], Rodger...sia aesculifolia, Rodgersia [TAX:23263] Dioscoreaceae (yam family) Dioscorea bulbifera tuber (x-section, dri...ed) Others: Saxifragaceae (saxifrage family) Rodgersia aesculifolia rhizome Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Dioscoreaceae (yam family) E00371 Dioscorea bulbifera tuber ...

  11. Drug: D06810 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ianum, Polygonatum cyrtonema [TAX:195526], Polygonatum [TAX:16195] Same as: E00176 Ruscaceae (lily-of-the-valle...nishing Ying D06810 Polygonatum rhizome Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Ruscaceae (lily-of-the-valley family) D06810 Polygonatum rhizome PubChem: 47208461 ...

  12. Regulated Expression of an Isopentenyltransferase Gene (IPT) in Peanut Significantly Improves Drought Tolerance and Increases Yield Under Field Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isopentenyltransferase (IPT) is a critical enzyme in the cytokinin biosynthetic pathway. The expression of IPT under the control of a maturation- and stress-induced promoter was shown to delay stress-induced plant senescence that resulted in an enhanced drought tolerance in both monocot and dicot p...

  13. The Ethiopian Flora Project: A springboard to other projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demissew, Sebsebe; Brochmann, Christian; Kelbessa, Ensermu;

    2011-01-01

    The account reviews and analyses the scietific projects derived from activities in connection with the Ethiopian Flora Project, including the [Ethiopian] Monocot Project, the Afro-alpine "Sky-island" project, the Vegetation and Ecological Conditions of Plantations Project, the Fire Ecology Projec...

  14. Environ: E00410 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00410 Homalomena rhizome Homalonemae rhizoma Crude drug Homalomena aff. Sagittaefolia, Homalomena... [TAX:174172] Araceae (arum family) Homalomena aff. sagittaefolia or assortative plants rhizo...me (dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Araceae (arum family) E00410 Homalomena rhizome ...

  15. Comparative analysis of contextual bias around the translation initiation sites in plant genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Paras; Rangan, Latha; Ramesh, T Venkata; Gupta, Mudit

    2016-09-07

    Nucleotide distribution around translation initiation site (TIS) is thought to play an important role in determining translation efficiency. Kozak in vertebrates and later Joshi et al. in plants identified context sequence having a key role in translation efficiency, but a great variation regarding this context sequence has been observed among different taxa. The present study aims to refine the context sequence around initiation codon in plants and addresses the sampling error problem by using complete genomes of 7 monocots and 7 dicots separately. Besides positions -3 and +4, significant conservation at -2 and +5 positions was also found and nucleotide bias at the latter two positions was shown to directly influence translation efficiency in the taxon studied. About 1.8% (monocots) and 2.4% (dicots) of the total sequences fit the context sequence from positions -3 to +5, which might be indicative of lower number of housekeeping genes in the transcriptome. A three base periodicity was observed in 5' UTR and CDS of monocots and only in CDS of dicots as confirmed against random occurrence and annotation errors. Deterministic enrichment of GCNAUGGC in monocots, AANAUGGC in dicots and GCNAUGGC in plants around TIS was also established (where AUG denotes the start codon), which can serve as an arbiter of putative TIS with efficient translation in plants.

  16. Environ: E00583 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00583 Dioscorea septemloba, Dioscorea futschauensis rhizome Crude drug Dioscorea s...eptemloba [TAX:64701], Dioscorea futschauensis [TAX:374971] Dioscoreaceae (yam family) Dioscorea septemloba, Dioscore...a futschauensis rhizome Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Dioscoreaceae (yam family) E00583 Dioscorea septemloba, Dioscorea futschauensis rhizome ...

  17. Drug: D06730 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available bin [CPD:C17449] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06730 Smilax rhizome (J...izome; Smilax rhizome Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Smilacaceae (catbrier famly) D06730 Smilax rhizome PubChem: 47208381 ...

  18. MicroRNA-mediated regulation of flower development in grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoczynska, Aleksandra; Szweykowska-Kulinska, Zofia

    2016-01-01

    Flower structure in grasses is very unique. There are no petals or sepals like in eudicots but instead flowers develop bract-like structures - palea and lemma. Reproductive organs are enclosed by round lodicule that not only protects reproductive organs but also plays an important role during flower opening. The first genetic model for floral organ development was proposed 25 years ago and it was based on the research on model eudicots. Since then, studies have been carried out to answer the question whether this model could be applicable in the case of monocots. Genes from all classes found in eudicots have been also identified in genomes of such monocots like rice, maize or barley. What's more, it seems that miRNA-mediated regulation of floral organ genes that was observed in the case of Arabidopsis thaliana also takes place in monocots. MiRNA172, miRNA159, miRNA171 and miRNA396 regulate expression of floral organ identity genes in barley, rice and maize, affecting various features of the flower structure, ranging from formation of lemma and palea to the development of reproductive organs. A model of floral development in grasses and its genetic regulation is not yet fully characterized. Further studies on both, the model eudicots and grasses, are needed to unravel this topic. This review provides general overview of genetic model of flower organ identity specification in monocots and it's miRNA-mediated regulation.

  19. Compositional gradients in Gramineae genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Wang, Jun; Tao, Lin

    2002-01-01

    In this study, we describe a property of Gramineae genes, and perhaps all monocot genes, that is not observed in eudicot genes. Along the direction of transcription, beginning at the junction of the 5'-UTR and the coding region, there are gradients in GC content, codon usage, and amino-acid usage...

  20. Seasonal diet changes in elephant and impala in mopane woodland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kos, M.; Hoetmer, A.J.; Pretorius, Y.; Boer, de W.F.; Knegt, de H.J.; Grant, C.C.; Kohi, E.; Page, B.; Peel, M.; Slotow, R.; Waal, van der C.; Wieren, van S.E.; Prins, H.H.T.; Langevelde, van F.

    2012-01-01

    Elephant and impala as intermediate feeders, having a mixed diet of grass and browse, respond to seasonal fluctuations of forage quality by changing their diet composition. We tested the hypotheses that (1) the decrease in forage quality is accompanied by a change in diet from more monocots in the w

  1. Pilot Sequencing of Onion Genomic DNA Reveals Fragments of Transposable Elements, Low Gene Densities, and Significant Gene Enrichment After Methyl Filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onion (Allium cepa) is a diploid (2n=2x=16) monocot with one of the largest nuclear genomes among cultivated plants, over 6 and 16 times that of maize and rice, respectively. In this study, we sequenced onion BACs to estimate gene densities and investigate the nature and distribution of repetitive ...

  2. Evaluation of onion germplasm for resistance to Iris yellow spot (Iris yellow spot virus) and onion thrips, Thrips tabaci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is the most economically important monocot outside of the grasses. This important crop suffers severe damage from onion thrips (Thrips tabaci), a cosmopolitan and polyphagous insect pest. In addition to direct feeding damages, onion thrips has emerged as the principal vector o...

  3. Environ: E00444 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00444 Allium tuberosum seed Allii tuberosi semen Crude drug Allium tuberosum [TAX:...4683] Liliaceae (lily family) Allium tuberosum mature seed (dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Liliaceae (lily family) E00444 Allium tuberosum seed ...

  4. Environ: E00462 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00462 Iris pallasii seed Iridis semen Crude drug Fatty oil Iris pallasii [TAX:198820] Iridaceae (ir...is family) Iris pallasii mature seed (dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Iridaceae (iris family) E00462 Iris pallasii seed ...

  5. Environ: E00294 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00294 Agglomerative substance of Bamboo Crude drug Bambusa textilis [TAX:318051] P...oaceae (grass family) Bambusa agglomerative substance (dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Poaceae (grass family) E00294 Agglomerative substance of Bamboo ...

  6. Environ: E00275 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00275 Sparganium tuber Crude drug Sparganium stoloniferum [TAX:203643], Sparganium simplex, Spa...rganium stenophyllum, Sparganium [TAX:4729] Sparganiaceae (bur-reed family) Sparganium stoloniferum, Spa...rganium simplex, Sparganium stenophyllum tuber removed cortex (dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Sparganiaceae (bur-reed family) E00275 Sparganium tuber ...

  7. Environ: E00427 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00427 Allium chinense bulb Allii chinensis bulbus Crude drug Allium chinense [TAX:...130426] Liliaceae (lily family) Allium chinense bulb (boiled, dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Liliaceae (lily family) E00427 Allium chinense bulb ...

  8. Reference: ARELIKEGHPGDFR2 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available vation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Gerbera hybrida (Asteraceae) suggests conserved protein-protein and protein-promoter interactio...ns between the anciently diverged monocots and eudicots. Plant Physiol. 133: 1831-1842 (2003) PubMed: 14605235; ...

  9. Oxygenation of the Root Zone and TCE Remediation: A Plant Model of Rhizosphere Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    photosynthetic, and eukaryotic organisms. There are four main plant groups: bryophytes, seedless vascular plants, gymnosperms, and angiosperms . The 28... angiosperms , or flowering plants, are the dominant group of plants on land, and are divided into two classes: the monocotyledons (monocots), and

  10. Geranyllinalool synthases in solanaceae and other angiosperms constitute an ancient branch of diterpene synthases involved in the synthesis of defensive compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falara, V.; Alba, J.M.; Kant, M.R.; Schuurink, R.C.; Pichersky, E.

    2014-01-01

    Many angiosperm plants, including basal dicots, eudicots, and monocots, emit (E,E)-4,8,12-trimethyltrideca-1,3,7,11-tetraene, which is derived from geranyllinalool, in response to biotic challenge. An Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) geranyllinalool synthase (GLS) belonging to the e/f clade of the

  11. Dicotyledon Weed Quantification Algorithm for Selective Herbicide Application in Maize Crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Morten Stigaard; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Midtiby, Henrik Skov

    2016-01-01

    of a single plant is possible. The aim of this study is to adapt the monocot and dicot coverage ratio vision (MoDiCoVi) algorithm to estimate dicotyledon leaf cover, perform grid spraying in real time, and present initial results in terms of potential herbicide savings in maize. The authors designed...

  12. Conservation, Divergence, and Genome-Wide Distribution of PAL and POX A Gene Families in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Rawal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide identification and phylogenetic and syntenic comparison were performed for the genes responsible for phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL and peroxidase A (POX A enzymes in nine plant species representing very diverse groups like legumes (Glycine max and Medicago truncatula, fruits (Vitis vinifera, cereals (Sorghum bicolor, Zea mays, and Oryza sativa, trees (Populus trichocarpa, and model dicot (Arabidopsis thaliana and monocot (Brachypodium distachyon species. A total of 87 and 1045 genes in PAL and POX A gene families, respectively, have been identified in these species. The phylogenetic and syntenic comparison along with motif distributions shows a high degree of conservation of PAL genes, suggesting that these genes may predate monocot/eudicot divergence. The POX A family genes, present in clusters at the subtelomeric regions of chromosomes, might be evolving and expanding with higher rate than the PAL gene family. Our analysis showed that during the expansion of POX A gene family, many groups and subgroups have evolved, resulting in a high level of functional divergence among monocots and dicots. These results will act as a first step toward the understanding of monocot/eudicot evolution and functional characterization of these gene families in the future.

  13. Seasonal diet changes in elephant and impala in mopane woodland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kos, M.; Hoetmer, A.J.; Pretorius, Y.; Boer, de W.F.; Knegt, de H.J.; Grant, C.C.; Kohi, E.; Page, B.; Peel, M.; Slotow, R.; Waal, van der C.; Wieren, van S.E.; Prins, H.H.T.; Langevelde, van F.

    2012-01-01

    Elephant and impala as intermediate feeders, having a mixed diet of grass and browse, respond to seasonal fluctuations of forage quality by changing their diet composition. We tested the hypotheses that (1) the decrease in forage quality is accompanied by a change in diet from more monocots in the w

  14. Miscellaneous information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1965-01-01

    C. A. Backer & R. C. Bakhuizen van den Brink, Flora of Java, volume 2, will be published about New year 1966. This volume will deal with the second half of the dicots; the third and last volume will give the monocots. The 641 pages of text of this volume will be preceded by a 72-page essay by Dr. C.

  15. Novel gene expression tools for rice biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotechnology is an effective and important method of improving both quality and agronomic traits in rice. We are developing novel molecular tools for genetic engineering, with a focus on developing novel transgene expression control elements (i.e. promoters) for rice. A suite of monocot grass promo...

  16. Drug: D10238 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D10238 Crude, Drug Coix fruit with involucre (non-JP); Coicis fructus cum involucri...rds for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Poaceae (grass family) D10238 Coix fruit with involucre PubChem: 163312269 ...

  17. Incorporation of p-coumarates into the cell walls of alfalfa changes the lignin composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    In general, monocots can contain a significant amount of an ester-linked p-coumarate (pCA) in their cell walls, but its function is unclear. One hypothesis is that pCA aids in the formation of syringyl-rich regions during lignification. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa), a dicot, is a cultivated perennial f...

  18. Using Live-Cell Markers in Maize to Analyze Cell Division Orientation and Timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Carolyn G

    2016-01-01

    Recently developed live-cell markers provide an opportunity to explore the dynamics and localization of proteins in maize, an important crop and model for monocot development. A step-by-step method is outlined for observing and analyzing the process of division in maize cells. The steps include plant growth conditions, sample preparation, time-lapse setup, and calculation of division rates.

  19. Geranyllinalool synthases in solanaceae and other angiosperms constitute an ancient branch of diterpene synthases involved in the synthesis of defensive compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falara, V.; Alba, J.M.; Kant, M.R.; Schuurink, R.C.; Pichersky, E.

    2014-01-01

    Many angiosperm plants, including basal dicots, eudicots, and monocots, emit (E,E)-4,8,12-trimethyltrideca-1,3,7,11-tetraene, which is derived from geranyllinalool, in response to biotic challenge. An Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) geranyllinalool synthase (GLS) belonging to the e/f clade of the

  20. Keep on growing: building and patterning leaves in the grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monocot leaves have unique features that arise early in their development. Maturing leaves protectively enclose younger leaves and the meristem, the pool of founder cells from which a leaf emerges. Through the maturation process, proximal sheath and distal blade tissues differentiate and are separat...

  1. The c-terminus of wheat streak mosaic virus coat protein is involved in differential infection of wheat and maize through host-specific long-distance transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multifunctional viral coat proteins (CPs) play important roles in the virus life-cycle. The CP determinants and mechanisms involved in extension of host range of monocot-infecting viruses are poorly understood. The role of the C-terminal region of Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) CP in virus transpo...

  2. Photoperiodic regulation of flowering in perennial ryegrass involving a CONSTANS-like homolog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, J.; Storgaard, M.; Andersen, C.H.

    2004-01-01

    we report on the isolation and characterization of a L. perenne gene (LpCO) that is homologous to CONSTANS, and which is tightly coupled to the. oral inductive long day signal. Like other monocot CO-like proteins, the LpCO contains a zinc finger domain with a non-conserved B-Box2. Although the B-Box2...

  3. Environ: E00423 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00423 Alocasia odora rhizome Crude drug Calcium oxalate [CPD:C17478] Alocasia odor...a [TAX:174188] Araceae (arum family) Alocasia odora rhizome (x-section, dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Araceae (arum family) E00423 Alocasia odora rhizome ...

  4. Environ: E00717 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00717 Orris oil Essential oil alpha-Irone [CPD:C09690], gamma-Irone, Methyl myrist...hizomes Obtained by steam distillation Major component: alpha-Irone [CPD:C09690] Essential oils [BR:br08321] Monocot plants Iridaceae (iris family) E00717 Orris oil CAS: 8002-73-1 ...

  5. An assessment of molecular mechanisms involved in metal uptake, translocation and homeostasis in Agave, a genus of CAM succulent plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agave is a monocot genus with more than 200 species of succulent plants capable of growing under arid and desert lands, steep and rocky slopes, or in coasts with high salinity. Some of them have economic relevance either for the production of alcoholic beverages as Tequila, or for natural fiber prod...

  6. Morphological, phylogenetic, and ecological diversity of the new model species Setaria viridis (Poaceae: Paniceae) and its close relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Daniel J; Kellogg, Elizabeth A

    2014-03-01

    Species limits of the emerging model organism Setaria viridis (tribe Paniceae, subtribe Cenchrinae) are not well defined. It is thought to be related to S. adhaerens, S. faberi, S. verticillata, and S. verticilliformis and in North America occurs with the morphologically similar S. pumila. An integrated approach was taken to evaluate its variation and relationships with the other taxa. Statistical morphology, flow cytometry, molecular phylogenetics, and growth experiments were employed to examine the group's physical variation, polyploidy, evolutionary relationships, and drought ecology, respectively. SETARIA VIRIDIS contributed one genome to the tetraploids S. faberi, S. verticillata, and S. verticilliformis; the other genome of the latter two was contributed by S. adhaerens. Setaria pumila is unrelated. Morphologically, S. viridis is most similar to S. faberi, but all tested accessions of S. viridis were diploid, whereas those of S. faberi were all tetraploid. Principal component analysis of 70 morphological characters consistently separated S. viridis from S. faberi, largely by spikelet characters. The diagnostic morphological characters are not affected by watering. Setaria faberi is far more sensitive to drought, in terms of mortality and morphological stunting, than S. viridis or S. pumila. SETARIA VIRIDIS is a diploid species and has contributed to several polyploid derivatives. The most morphologically similar of the polyploids is S. faberi, which differs in spikelet features, phylogenetics, genome size, and ecological response to drought. Researchers using field-collected S. viridis as a model organism will benefit from the clear delimitation provided in this study.

  7. Fumigant toxicity of five essential oils rich in ketones against Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M Herrera

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils (EOs and individual compounds act as fumigants against insects found in stored products. In fumigant assays, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky adults were treated with essential oils derived from Aphyllocladus decussatus Hieron, Aloysia polystachya Griseb, Minthostachys verticillata Griseb Epling and Tagetes minuta L , which are rich in ketones and their major components: a- thujone, R-carvone, S-carvone, (- menthone, R (+ pulegone and E-Z- ocimenone. M. verticillata oil was the most toxic ( LC50: 116.6 µl /L air characterized by a high percentage of menthone (40.1% and pulegone (43.7%. All ketones showed insecticidal activity against S. zeamais. However, pulegone (LC50: 11.8 µl/L air, R- carvone (LC50: 17.5 µl/L air, S-carvone (LC50: 28.1 µl/L air and E-Z-ocimenone (LC50: 42.3 µl/L air were the most toxic. These ketones are a,b-unsaturated carbonyl. This feature could play a fundamental role in the increase of insecticidal activity against S. zeamais.

  8. Screening of medicinal plants from Reunion Island for antimalarial and cytotoxic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonville, M C; Kodja, H; Humeau, L; Fournel, J; De Mol, P; Cao, M; Angenot, L; Frédérich, M

    2008-12-08

    Nine plants from Reunion Island, selected using ethnopharmacology and chemotaxonomy, were investigated for their potential antimalarial value. Thirty-eight extracts were prepared by maceration using CH(2)Cl(2) and MeOH, and were tested for in vitro activity against the 3D7 and W2 strain of Plasmodium falciparum. The most active extracts were then tested for in vitro cytotoxicity on human WI-38 fibroblasts to determine the selectivity index. Those extracts were also investigated in vivo against Plasmodium berghei infected mice. Most active of the extracts tested were the dichloromethane leaves extracts of Nuxia verticillata Lam. (Buddlejaceae), Psiadia arguta Voigt. (Asteraceae), Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae), the methanol extracts from Aphloia theiformis (Vahl) Benn. (Aphloiaceae) bark, and Terminalia bentzoe L. (Combretaceae) leaves displaying in vitro IC(50) values ranging from 5.7 to 14.1mug/ml. Extracts from Psiadia, Aphloia at 200mg/(kgday) and Teminalia at 50mg/(kgday) also exhibited significant (pplants showed interesting antimalarial activity with good selectivity: Aphloia theiformis and Terminalia bentzoe. Nuxia verticillata still needs to be tested in vivo, with a new batch of plant material.

  9. The maize PIN gene family of auxin transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian eForestan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Auxin is a key regulator of plant development and its differential distribution in plant tissues, established by a polar cell-to-cell transport, can trigger a wide range of developmental processes. A few members of the two families of auxin efflux transport proteins, PIN-formed (PIN and P-glycoprotein (ABCB/PGP, have so far been characterized in maize. Nine new Zea mays auxin efflux carriers PIN family members and two maize PIN-like genes have now been identified. Four members of PIN1 (named ZmPIN1a–d cluster, one gene homologous to AtPIN2 (ZmPIN2, three orthologs of PIN5 (ZmPIN5a–c, one gene paired with AtPIN8 (ZmPIN8, and three monocot-specific PINs (ZmPIN9, ZmPIN10a and b were cloned and the phylogenetic relationships between early land plants, monocots and eudicots PIN proteins investigated, including the new maize PIN proteins. Tissue-specific expression patterns of the twelve maize PIN genes, two PIN-like genes and ZmABCB1, an ABCB auxin efflux carrier, were analyzed using semi-quantitative RT–PCR. ZmPIN gene transcripts have overlapping expression domains in the root apex, during male and female inflorescence differentiation and kernel development. However, some PIN family members have specific tissue localization: ZmPIN1d transcript marks the L1 layer of the SAM and IM during the flowering transition and the monocot-specific ZmPIN9 is expressed in the root endodermis and pericycle. The phylogenetic and gene structure analyses together with the expression pattern of the ZmPIN gene family indicate that subfunctionalization of some maize PINs can be associated to the differentiation and development of monocot-specific organs and tissues and might have occurred after the divergence between dicots and monocots.

  10. Anatomical aspects of angiosperm root evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seago, James L.; Fernando, Danilo D.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Anatomy had been one of the foundations in our understanding of plant evolutionary trends and, although recent evo-devo concepts are mostly based on molecular genetics, classical structural information remains useful as ever. Of the various plant organs, the roots have been the least studied, primarily because of the difficulty in obtaining materials, particularly from large woody species. Therefore, this review aims to provide an overview of the information that has accumulated on the anatomy of angiosperm roots and to present possible evolutionary trends between representatives of the major angiosperm clades. Scope This review covers an overview of the various aspects of the evolutionary origin of the root. The results and discussion focus on angiosperm root anatomy and evolution covering representatives from basal angiosperms, magnoliids, monocots and eudicots. We use information from the literature as well as new data from our own research. Key Findings The organization of the root apical meristem (RAM) of Nymphaeales allows for the ground meristem and protoderm to be derived from the same group of initials, similar to those of the monocots, whereas in Amborellales, magnoliids and eudicots, it is their protoderm and lateral rootcap which are derived from the same group of initials. Most members of Nymphaeales are similar to monocots in having ephemeral primary roots and so adventitious roots predominate, whereas Amborellales, Austrobaileyales, magnoliids and eudicots are generally characterized by having primary roots that give rise to a taproot system. Nymphaeales and monocots often have polyarch (heptarch or more) steles, whereas the rest of the basal angiosperms, magnoliids and eudicots usually have diarch to hexarch steles. Conclusions Angiosperms exhibit highly varied structural patterns in RAM organization; cortex, epidermis and rootcap origins; and stele patterns. Generally, however, Amborellales, magnoliids and, possibly

  11. Remote sensing analysis of Lake Livingston aquatic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, A. R., Jr.; Newman, R. M.

    1976-01-01

    Results obtained during 1975 to monitor the growth of aquatic plants in the Lake Livingston area, using remote sensing photographic imagery, were described. Sequential total coverage was provided of the Jungle and White Rock Creek, plus coverage of smaller areas of localized infestation downlake, including Brushy Creek, KOA Kampground Marina, Penwaugh Slough, Memorial Point Marina, the Beacon Bay marinas and Pine Island. The imagery was generally good, photographic exposure being increased as the season progressed in order to obtain better pictures of the submerged vegetation. Some very significant differences in growth patterns, species interaction, and species dominance were observed when compared to 1974. Observation of the following plants was discussed: water hyacinth, hydrilla, coontail, potamageton. In general, the level of infestation was lower in 1975 than in 1974, due to the combined effect of more systematic application of herbicides and harsher intervening winter weather conditions.

  12. On Merging Hunaniopanax with Aralia (Araliaceae),with Description of a New Taxon and Additional Nomenclatural Changes in Asian Aralia%湖南参属的归并及亚洲楤木属(五加科)的一个新种和一些名称的变更

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Molecular and morphological evidence suggests that the newly described Hunaniopanax hypoglaucus C. J. Qi & T. R. Cao is nested within Aralia L.Specifically Hunaniopanax is closely related to Aralia parasitica and A verticillata .Morphological data support its sister species relationship with A verticillata because the two taxa share a synapomorphy of verticillate pattern of inflorescence.To maintain the monophyly of Aralia, Hunaniopanax is herein merged with Aralia , and a new combination, Aralia hypoglauca (C. J. Qi & T. R. Cao) J. Wen & Y. F. Deng, is made. Aralia hypoglauca is also newly recorded from Guangxi, China in this study.The previously hypothesized close relationship of Hunaniopanax with Dendropanax Decne. & Planch. was refuted by our micromorphological examination as well as the DNA data. A new species, Aralia shangiana J. Wen, is herein described and two new combinations and a new name are also proposed: Aralia glabrifoliolata (C. B. Shang) J. Wen, comb. nov., A stellata (King) J. Wen,comb. nov., and A delavayi J. Wen, nom. nov.%分子与形态证据表明湖南参(Hunaniopanax hypoglaucus C.J.Qi & T.R.Cao)起源于木属(Aralia L.),湖南参的近缘种为寄生五叶参(Aralia parasitica)和轮伞五叶参(Aralia verticillata),形态证据支持湖南参为轮伞五叶参的姐妹种,此2种具轮伞花序这一共衍征.为了保证木属的单系性,现将湖南参并入木属,并作如下新组合:Aralia hypoglauca (C.J.Qi & T.R.Cao) J.Wen & Y.F.Deng.本文报道了湖南参在广西的新分布.目前的形态学和分子数据均不支持早先提出的湖南参与树参属(Dendropanax)的近缘关系.本文亦报道了木属的1新种、2新种组合和1个新名称:Aralia shangiana J.Wen.sp.nov.(向氏五叶参,新种);Aralia glabrifoliolata (C.B.Shang) J.Wen.comb.nov.(光叶五叶参,新组合);Aralia stellata (King) J.Wen,comb.nov.(星毛羽叶参,新组合)和Aralia delavayi J.Wen.nom.nov.(云南五叶参,新名称).

  13. The evolutionary context of root epidermis cell patterning in grasses (Poaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzec, Marek; Melzer, Michael; Szarejko, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    In the last century, the mechanism for establishing the root epidermal pattern in grasses was proposed as a differentiating trait that can be used in taxonomic studies and as a useful tool to indicate the relationships between genera. However, knowledge about root hair differentiation in monocots is still scarce. During the last few years, this process has been studied intensively, mainly based on genetics and histological studies. A histological analysis of the root epidermis pattern composed from root hairs (trichoblasts) and non-root hair cells (atrichoblasts), as well as observations of the mechanism of the establishment of this pattern allowed 2 different methods of epidermal cell specialization in monocots to be precisely described. Additionally, a recently published paper describing root hair development in barley shed new light on the evolutionary context of the mechanism of root epidermis cell specialization, which is discussed in the presented work.

  14. The evolutionary context of root epidermis cell patterning in grasses (Poaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzec, Marek; Melzer, Michael; Szarejko, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    In the last century, the mechanism for establishing the root epidermal pattern in grasses was proposed as a differentiating trait that can be used in taxonomic studies and as a useful tool to indicate the relationships between genera. However, knowledge about root hair differentiation in monocots is still scarce. During the last few years, this process has been studied intensively, mainly based on genetics and histological studies. A histological analysis of the root epidermis pattern composed from root hairs (trichoblasts) and non-root hair cells (atrichoblasts), as well as observations of the mechanism of the establishment of this pattern allowed 2 different methods of epidermal cell specialization in monocots to be precisely described. Additionally, a recently published paper describing root hair development in barley shed new light on the evolutionary context of the mechanism of root epidermis cell specialization, which is discussed in the presented work. PMID:24521825

  15. Flora and vegetation on cryoturbated and associates habitats around abra Apacheta, Ayacucho - Huancavelica (Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asunción Cano

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available around Abra Apacheta, in Cangallo (Ayacucho and Huaytara (Huancavelica Provinces. The aims of this study were: to study vascular floristic composition of High Andes (over 4500 m of altitude and characterize highland vegetation. There were used conventional techniques for botanical collection and vegetation coverage measurements by intersection-line transects and Point Quadrat modifyed method. There were registered 134 species of vascular plants (Pteridophytes, Gymnospems, Eudicots and Monocots grouped in 60 genera and 23 families. Eudicots were the dominant group with 74% of the total registered, 82% in genera and 77% in species; followed by Monocots with 13%, 13% and 21% in the previous categories. Monilophytes (ferns were poorly represented by two families (9%, two genera (3% and two species (1%; while Gymnosperms only registered one specie (Ephedra rupestris Benth.. By the quantitative analysis three types of plant communities associated to cryoturbated soils were characterized, we also report two types of associated vegetation: grasslands and rocky areas.

  16. Paspalum striate mosaic virus: an Australian mastrevirus from Paspalum dilatatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geering, Andrew D W; Thomas, John E; Holton, Timothy; Hadfield, James; Varsani, Arvind

    2012-01-01

    Three monocot-infecting mastreviruses from Australia, all found primarily in pasture and naturalised grasses, have been characterised at the molecular level. Here, we present the full genome sequence of a fourth, Paspalum striate mosaic virus (PSMV), isolated from Paspalum dilatatum from south-east Queensland. The genome was 2816 nt long and had an organisation typical of other monocot-infecting mastreviruses. Its nearest relative is Bromus cartharticus striate mosaic virus (BCSMV), with which it shares an overall genome identity of 75%. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete genome and each of the putative viral proteins places PSMV in a group with the other three Australian striate mosaic viruses. PSMV, BCSMV and Digitaria didactyla striate mosaic virus all contain a similar, small recombinant sequence in the small intergenic region.

  17. Resolution of deep angiosperm phylogeny using conserved nuclear genes and estimates of early divergence times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Liping; Zhang, Qiang; Sun, Renran; Kong, Hongzhi; Zhang, Ning; Ma, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Angiosperms are the most successful plants and support human livelihood and ecosystems. Angiosperm phylogeny is the foundation of studies of gene function and phenotypic evolution, divergence time estimation and biogeography. The relationship of the five divergent groups of the Mesangiospermae (~99.95% of extant angiosperms) remains uncertain, with multiple hypotheses reported in the literature. Here transcriptome data sets are obtained from 26 species lacking sequenced genomes, representing each of the five groups: eudicots, monocots, magnoliids, Chloranthaceae and Ceratophyllaceae. Phylogenetic analyses using 59 carefully selected low-copy nuclear genes resulted in highly supported relationships: sisterhood of eudicots and a clade containing Chloranthaceae and Ceratophyllaceae, with magnoliids being the next sister group, followed by monocots. Our topology allows a re-examination of the evolutionary patterns of 110 morphological characters. The molecular clock estimates of Mesangiospermae diversification during the late to middle Jurassic correspond well to the origins of some insects, which may have been a factor facilitating early angiosperm radiation. PMID:25249442

  18. Cymbidium chlorotic mosaic virus, a new sobemovirus isolated from a spring orchid (Cymbidium goeringii) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Hideki; Takemoto, Shogo; Maruyama, Kazuyuki; Chiba, Sotaro; Andika, Ida Bagus; Suzuki, Nobuhiro

    2015-08-01

    Cymbidium chlorotic mosaic virus (CyCMV), isolated from a spring orchid (Cymbidium goeringii), was characterized molecularly. CyCMV isometric virions comprise a single, positive-strand RNA genome of 4,083 nucleotides and 30-kDa coat protein. The virus genome contains five overlapping open reading frames with a genomic organization similar to that of sobemoviruses. BLAST searches and phylogenetic analysis revealed that CyCMV is most closely related to papaya lethal yellowing virus, a proposed dicot-infecting sobemovirus (58.8 % nucleotide sequence identity), but has a relatively distant relationship to monocot-infecting sobemoviruses, with only modest sequence identities. This suggests that CyCMV is a new monocot-infecting member of the floating genus Sobemovirus.

  19. We’re good to grow: Dynamic integration of cell wall architecture with the machinery of growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus R Benatti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite differences in cell wall composition between the type I cell walls of dicots and most monocots and the type II walls of commelinid monocots, all flowering plants respond to the same classes of growth regulators in the same tissue-specific way and exhibit the same growth physics. Substantial progress has been made in defining gene families and identifying mutants in cell wall-related genes, but our understanding of the biochemical basis of wall extensibility during growth is still rudimentary. In this review, we highlight insights into the physiological control of cell expansion emerging from genetic functional analyses, mostly in Arabidopsis and other dicots, and a few examples of genes of potential orthologous function in grass species. We discuss examples of cell wall architectural features that impact growth independent of composition, and progress in identifying proteins involved in transduction of growth signals and integrating their outputs in the molecular machinery of wall expansion.

  20. Biodegradation of phenol, 2,4-DCP, 2,4-D, and 2,4,5-T in field-collected rhizosphere and nonrhizosphere soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyle, J.J.; Shann, J.R. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1995-07-01

    This study investigated xenobiotic biodegradation in rhizosphere soil collected from field-grown plants, grouped for analysis as monocots or dicots. Microbial activity was highest in monocot rhizosphere soils, No differences were seen between these soils in the mineralization of phenol or 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), but there were differences in 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) mineralization. The rate constants for 2,4-D or 2,4,5-T mineralization in nonrhizosphere soil. Thus, soils that had a prior association with a plant showed significantly increased rates o mineralization for the more recalcitrant compounds tested. In addition, this enhanced mineralization in the rhizosphere appeared to be dependent on the type of plant involved. 20 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Hormone defense networking in rice: tales from a different world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vleesschauwer, David; Gheysen, Godelieve; Höfte, Monica

    2013-10-01

    Recent advances in plant immunity research underpin the pivotal role of small-molecule hormones in regulating the plant defense signaling network. Although most of our understanding comes from studies of dicot plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana, new studies in monocots are providing additional insights into the defense-regulatory role of phytohormones. Here, we review the roles of both classical and more recently identified stress hormones in regulating immunity in the model monocot rice (Oryza sativa) and highlight the importance of hormone crosstalk in shaping the outcome of rice-pathogen interactions. We also propose a defense model for rice that does not support a dichotomy between the pathogen lifestyle and the effectiveness of the archetypal defense hormones salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA).

  2. New taxa, new records and name changes for southern African plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Gibbs Russell

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available Alterations for the year 1986 to the inventory maintained in PRECIS are reported for bryophytes, pteridophytes and monocotyledons, and for a few dicotyledons. For the cryptogams and monocots there are 77 newly described species or infraspecific taxa, 27 names brought back into use, and nine species newly reported for southern Africa, resulting in 113 additions to the total list of species. Five species were removed because they were mistakenly recorded from the area. Seventy-five names have gone into synonymy, there are 52 new combinations, and there are 35 orthographic corrections, resulting in 237 alterations to the list of species. The total of 355 additions, deletions and alterations represents about 5% of the total species and infraspecific taxa for the cryptogams and monocots.

  3. Chloroplast DNA inversions and the origin of the grass family (Poaceae).

    OpenAIRE

    Doyle, J.J.; Davis, J I; Soreng, R J; Garvin, D; Anderson, M J

    1992-01-01

    The phylogenetic affinities of the grass family (Poaceae) have long been debated. The chloroplast genomes of at least some grasses have been known to possess three inversions relative to the typical gene arrangement found in most flowering plants. We have surveyed for the presence of these inversions in grasses and other monocots by polymerase chain reaction amplification with primers constructed from sequences flanking the inversion end points. Amplification phenotypes diagnostic for the lar...

  4. Regenerating Longleaf Pine on Hydric Soils: Short- and Long-term Effects on Native Ground-Layer Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-16

    grape vine/woody vitsp. MONOCOTS CYPERACEAE Carex striata var. brevis Walter’s sedge graminoid CASTB Cyperus croceus Baldwin’s...this area is longleaf pine savanna, consisting of longleaf pine overstories with herbaceous ground layers dominated by grasses and sedges , including...groups: large graminoids (grasses with leaves >15 cm long, forming dense bunches or looser clumps), small graminoids (smaller grasses, sedges , and

  5. Elucidating the affinities and habitat of ancient, widespread Cyperaceae: Volkeria messelensis gen. et sp. nov., a fossil mapanioid sedge from the Eocene of Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Selena Y.; Collinson, Margaret E.; Simpson, David A.; Rudall, Paula J.; Marone, Federica; Stampanoni, Marco

    2009-01-01

    The sedges (family Cyperaceae) are an economically and ecologically important monocot group dating back at least to the Paleocene. While modern genera are mostly unknown before the Oligocene, several extinct taxa are recognized as the earliest sedges. Their affinities have been unclear until now, because they are found as isolated, often abraded fruits or endocarps. Exceptionally preserved sedge fossils from the Middle Eocene of Messel, Germany yield more characters for identification, Fossil...

  6. Folk herbal medicine: a survey on the paniya tribes of mundakunnu village of the nilgiri hills, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, P N Arul

    2005-07-01

    The present paper represents the results of an ethnobotanical survey conducted in Mundakunnu village of Gudalur taluk, Nilgiri district of Tamil Nadu, India. It has been observed that the plant species are used to various ailments of analgesic, antidiarrhoeal, piles, antidiabetic, gynecological problems, vermifuge, antidandruff, venereal diseases, bone fracture and as vegetables. A total of 52 plants species belonging to 51 genera (33 dicot & 6 monocot) have been discussed.

  7. Environ: E00069 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00069 Termeric (JP16) Turmeric rhizome Crude drug; Medicinal herb Curcumin [CPD:C10443], Turmerone [CPD:C17494], Dehydroturmerone, Zingiberene [CPD:C09750], D-alpha-Phellandrene, p-Hydroxycinnamoyl-feruloyl-methane, p-p'-Dihydroxxycinnamoyl-methane Curcuma longa [TAX:136217] Same as: D06695 Zingiberaceae (ginger family) Curcuma longa rhizome Major component: Curcumin [CPD:C10443] Medicinal herbs [BR:br08322] Monocot plants Zingiberaceae (ginger family) E00069 Turmeric ...

  8. Drug: D06702 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06702 Crude, Drug Processed ginger (JP16) [6]-Shogaol [CPD:C10494], [6]-Gingerol [...icine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06702 Processed ginger (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for warming the interior Drugs for warming the interior D06702 Processed ginger Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Zingiberaceae (ginger family) D06702 Processed ginger PubChem: 47208353 ...

  9. Environ: E00306 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00306 Dioscorea hypoglauca, Dioscorea tokoro rhizome Crude drug Dioscin [CPD:C0889...7], Gracillin [CPD:C08901], Tokoronin [CPD:C08916], Yononin, Dioscorea-sapotoxin A, B Dioscorea hypoglauca [TAX:357960], Dioscore...a tokoro [TAX:64475] Dioscoreaceae (yam family) Dioscorea hypoglauca, Dioscorea tokoro ...rhizome Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Dioscoreaceae (yam family) E00306 Dioscorea hypoglauca, Dioscorea tokoro rhizome ...

  10. Drug: D06766 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available or component: Asparagine [CPD:C16438] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and ...Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06766 Asparagus tuber (JP16) ...hing Ying Drugs for replenishing Ying D06766 Asparagus tuber Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Asparagaceae (asparagus family) D06766 Asparagus tuber PubChem: 47208417 ...

  11. Drug: D06778 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ategory: 5100 Araceae (arum family) Pinellia tuber Major component: Homogentisic acid [CPD:C00544] Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs... 5100 Crude drugs D06778 Pinellia tuber (JP16) Traditional Chinese M...llia tuber; Pineliae tuber Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Araceae (arum family) D06778 Pinellia tuber PubChem: 47208429 ...

  12. Drug: D06774 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rds for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and... Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D0...ss Cough suppressants and expectorants D06774 Fritillaria bulb Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Liliaceae (lily family) D06774 Fritillaria bulb PubChem: 47208425 ...

  13. Drug: D06765 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ponent: Vanillyl alcohol [CPD:C06317] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and ...Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06765 Gastrodia tuber (JP16) ...Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Sedative drugs... D06765 Gastrodia tuber; Tianma Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Orchidaceae (orchid family) D06765 Gastrodia tuber PubChem: 47208416 ...

  14. Phytocystatins and their potential to control plant diseases caused by fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Aline M; dos Reis, Savio P; de Souza, Claudia R B

    2015-01-01

    Plant cystatins, also called phytocystatins, constitute a family of specific cysteine protease inhibitors found in several monocots and dicots, where they can be involved in the regulation of several endogenous processes and in defense against pests and pathogens, as well as in response to abiotic stress. In this mini-review we aimed to present isolated and characterized phytocystatins with potential use in control of plant disease caused by fungi.

  15. Phylogenetic footprint of the plant clock system in angiosperms: evolutionary processes of Pseudo-Response Regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saito Shigeru

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant circadian clocks regulate many photoperiodic and diurnal responses that are conserved among plant species. The plant circadian clock system has been uncovered in the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, using genetics and systems biology approaches. However, it is still not clear how the clock system had been organized in the evolutionary history of plants. We recently revealed the molecular phylogeny of LHY/CCA1 genes, one of the essential components of the clock system. The aims of this study are to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of angiosperm clock-associated PRR genes, the partner of the LHY/CCA1 genes, and to clarify the evolutionary history of the plant clock system in angiosperm lineages. Results In the present study, to investigate the molecular phylogeny of PRR genes, we performed two approaches: reconstruction of phylogenetic trees and examination of syntenic relationships. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that PRR genes had diverged into three clades prior to the speciation of monocots and eudicots. Furthermore, copy numbers of PRR genes have been independently increased in monocots and eudicots as a result of ancient chromosomal duplication events. Conclusions Based on the molecular phylogenies of both PRR genes and LHY/CCA1 genes, we inferred the evolutionary process of the plant clock system in angiosperms. This scenario provides evolutionary information that a common ancestor of monocots and eudicots had retained the basic components required for reconstructing a clock system and that the plant circadian clock may have become a more elaborate mechanism after the speciation of monocots and eudicots because of the gene expansion that resulted from polyploidy events.

  16. The nucleotide sequence and genome structure of the geminivirus miscanthus streak virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatani, M; Matsumoto, Y; Mizuta, H; Ikegami, M; Boulton, M I; Davies, J W

    1991-10-01

    A tandem dimer of miscanthus streak virus (MiSV) DNA was inserted into the T-DNA of the binary plasmid vector pBIN19 and agroinoculated into several monocotyledonous plants (monocots) using Agrobacterium tumefaciens or A. rhizogenes. Disease symptoms and geminate particles were produced in maize and Panicum milaceum plants, and MiSV-specific double-stranded and single-stranded DNAs were found in these plants. The nucleotide sequence of the infectious MiSV clone, consisting of 2672 nucleotides, was determined. Four open reading frames (ORFs) for proteins of Mr greater than 10K were identified, two (V0 and V2) in the virus (+) sense and two (C1 and C2) in the complementary (-) sense, although C2 did not have an ATG start codon. Unlike other geminiviruses infecting monocots, complementary-sense ORFs did not overlap. Potential splicing donor and acceptor sites were identified in the sequence of the border region between the C terminus of ORF C1 and the N terminus of ORF C2. Amino acid sequences predicted from three (V2, C1 and C2) of these ORFs showed significant homology with the corresponding ORFs of other geminiviruses infecting monocots. A fifth ORF (V1), which showed some homology with ORF V1 of other monocot-infecting geminiviruses despite having a coding capacity for a product of Mr 8.8K, was found just upstream of ORF V2 as observed in those geminiviruses. ORF V0 showed no significant homology with ORFs present in any other geminiviruses. A mutation of V0 indicated that the C-terminal 30% of this ORF was not necessary for infection in maize, but that sequences around the mutated LspI site might have some regulatory role.

  17. Rice arbuscular mycorrhiza as a tool to study the molecular mechanisms of fungal symbiosis and a potential target to increase productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Tomomi; Imaizumi-Anraku, Haruko

    2015-12-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a monocot model crop for cereal molecular biology. Following the emergence of molecular genetics of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis in model legumes in the 1990s, studies on rice genetic resources have considerably contributed to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms and evolution of root intracellular symbioses.In this review, we trace the history of these studies and suggest the potential utility of AM symbiosis for improvement in rice productivity.

  18. Clonality in seagrasses, emergent properties and seagrass landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Kendrick, Gary A.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Marbà, Núria

    2005-01-01

    Seagrasses are clonal monocots that dominate shallow subtidal coastal and estuarine environments worldwide. They are important for their relatively high productivity and their role in coastal sediment stabilization, as habitat and food for invertebrates, fishes, turtles, dugongs and manatees, and as a source for detrital food webs. Seagrasses grow through the iteration of a vegetative ramet, consisting of leaves capable of photosynthesizing attached to a shoot, a portion of rhizome and associ...

  19. Phylogenetic footprint of the plant clock system in angiosperms: evolutionary processes of Pseudo-Response Regulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Plant circadian clocks regulate many photoperiodic and diurnal responses that are conserved among plant species. The plant circadian clock system has been uncovered in the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, using genetics and systems biology approaches. However, it is still not clear how the clock system had been organized in the evolutionary history of plants. We recently revealed the molecular phylogeny of LHY/CCA1 genes, one of the essential components of the clock system. The aims of this study are to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of angiosperm clock-associated PRR genes, the partner of the LHY/CCA1 genes, and to clarify the evolutionary history of the plant clock system in angiosperm lineages. Results In the present study, to investigate the molecular phylogeny of PRR genes, we performed two approaches: reconstruction of phylogenetic trees and examination of syntenic relationships. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that PRR genes had diverged into three clades prior to the speciation of monocots and eudicots. Furthermore, copy numbers of PRR genes have been independently increased in monocots and eudicots as a result of ancient chromosomal duplication events. Conclusions Based on the molecular phylogenies of both PRR genes and LHY/CCA1 genes, we inferred the evolutionary process of the plant clock system in angiosperms. This scenario provides evolutionary information that a common ancestor of monocots and eudicots had retained the basic components required for reconstructing a clock system and that the plant circadian clock may have become a more elaborate mechanism after the speciation of monocots and eudicots because of the gene expansion that resulted from polyploidy events. PMID:20433765

  20. Pantoporate pollen in the Asteraceae (Vernonieae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Robinson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Pantoporate pollen, which occurs sporadically in the Monocots and Dicots, has now been found in Asteraceae in two apparently related genera of the tribe Vernonieae, Polydora Fenzl and Oocephala H.Rob. Disposition of pores in Polydora seems more asymmetric than in Oocephala. Based on the known relationships within the Vernonieae, some conjectures are made regarding development of the pantoporate condition in the group.

  1. Comparative sequence and genetic analyses of asparagus BACs reveal no microsynteny with onion or rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakse, Jernej; Telgmann, Alexa; Jung, Christian; Khar, Anil; Melgar, Sergio; Cheung, Foo; Town, Christopher D; Havey, Michael J

    2006-12-01

    The Poales (includes the grasses) and Asparagales [includes onion (Allium cepa L.) and asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.)] are the two most economically important monocot orders. The Poales are a member of the commelinoid monocots, a group of orders sister to the Asparagales. Comparative genomic analyses have revealed a high degree of synteny among the grasses; however, it is not known if this synteny extends to other major monocot groups such as the Asparagales. Although we previously reported no evidence for synteny at the recombinational level between onion and rice, microsynteny may exist across shorter genomic regions in the grasses and Asparagales. We sequenced nine asparagus BACs to reveal physically linked genic-like sequences and determined their most similar positions in the onion and rice genomes. Four of the asparagus BACs were selected using molecular markers tightly linked to the sex-determining M locus on chromosome 5 of asparagus. These BACs possessed only two putative coding regions and had long tracts of degenerated retroviral elements and transposons. Five asparagus BACs were selected after hybridization of three onion cDNAs that mapped to three different onion chromosomes. Genic-like sequences that were physically linked on the cDNA-selected BACs or genetically linked on the M-linked BACs showed significant similarities (e < -20) to expressed sequences on different rice chromosomes, revealing no evidence for microsynteny between asparagus and rice across these regions. Genic-like sequences that were linked in asparagus were used to identify highly similar (e < -20) expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of onion. These onion ESTs mapped to different onion chromosomes and no relationship was observed between physical or genetic linkages in asparagus and genetic linkages in onion. These results further indicate that synteny among grass genomes does not extend to a sister order in the monocots and that asparagus may not be an appropriate smaller genome

  2. Phylogenetic footprint of the plant clock system in angiosperms: evolutionary processes of pseudo-response regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Naoki; Saito, Shigeru; Saito, Claire Tanaka; Uemura, Matsuo

    2010-05-01

    Plant circadian clocks regulate many photoperiodic and diurnal responses that are conserved among plant species. The plant circadian clock system has been uncovered in the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, using genetics and systems biology approaches. However, it is still not clear how the clock system had been organized in the evolutionary history of plants. We recently revealed the molecular phylogeny of LHY/CCA1 genes, one of the essential components of the clock system. The aims of this study are to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of angiosperm clock-associated PRR genes, the partner of the LHY/CCA1 genes, and to clarify the evolutionary history of the plant clock system in angiosperm lineages. In the present study, to investigate the molecular phylogeny of PRR genes, we performed two approaches: reconstruction of phylogenetic trees and examination of syntenic relationships. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that PRR genes had diverged into three clades prior to the speciation of monocots and eudicots. Furthermore, copy numbers of PRR genes have been independently increased in monocots and eudicots as a result of ancient chromosomal duplication events. Based on the molecular phylogenies of both PRR genes and LHY/CCA1 genes, we inferred the evolutionary process of the plant clock system in angiosperms. This scenario provides evolutionary information that a common ancestor of monocots and eudicots had retained the basic components required for reconstructing a clock system and that the plant circadian clock may have become a more elaborate mechanism after the speciation of monocots and eudicots because of the gene expansion that resulted from polyploidy events.

  3. A novel phylogeny and morphological reconstruction of the PIN genes and first phylogeny of the ACC-oxidases (ACOs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Matthew Clouse

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The PIN and ACO gene families present interesting questions about the evolution of plant physiology, including testing hypotheses about the ecological drivers of their diversification and whether unrelated genes have been recruited for similar functions. The PIN-formed proteins contribute to the polar transport of auxin, a hormone which regulates plant growth and development. PIN loci are categorized into groups according to their protein length and structure, as well as subcellular localization. An interesting question with PIN genes is the nature of the ancestral form and location. ACOs are members of a superfamily of oxygenases and oxidases that catalyze the last step of ethylene synthesis, which regulates many aspects of the plant life cycle. We used publicly available PIN and ACO sequences to conduct phylogenetic analyses. Third codon positions of these genes in monocots have a high GC content, which could be historical but is more likely due to a mutational bias. Thus we developed methods to extract phylogenetic information from nucleotide sequences while avoiding this convergent feature. One method consisted in using only A-T transformations, and another used only the first and second codon positions for serine, which can only take A or T and G or C, respectively. We also conducted tree-searches for both gene families using unaligned amino acid sequences and dynamic homology. PIN genes appear to have diversified earlier than ACOs, with monocot and dicot copies more mixed in the phylogeny. However, gymnosperm PINs appear to be derived and not closely related to those from primitive plants. We find strong support for a long PIN gene ancestor with short forms subsequently evolving one or more times. ACO genes appear to have diversified mostly since the dicot-monocot split, as most genes cluster into a small number of monocot and dicot clades when the tree is rooted by genes from mosses. Gymnosperm ACOs were recovered as closely related and

  4. A novel phylogeny and morphological reconstruction of the PIN genes and first phylogeny of the ACC-oxidases (ACOs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouse, Ronald M; Carraro, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    The PIN and ACO gene families present interesting questions about the evolution of plant physiology, including testing hypotheses about the ecological drivers of their diversification and whether unrelated genes have been recruited for similar functions. The PIN-formed proteins contribute to the polar transport of auxin, a hormone which regulates plant growth and development. PIN loci are categorized into groups according to their protein length and structure, as well as subcellular localization. An interesting question with PIN genes is the nature of the ancestral form and location. ACOs are members of a superfamily of oxygenases and oxidases that catalyze the last step of ethylene synthesis, which regulates many aspects of the plant life cycle. We used publicly available PIN and ACO sequences to conduct phylogenetic analyses. Third codon positions of these genes in monocots have a high GC content, which could be historical but is more likely due to a mutational bias. Thus, we developed methods to extract phylogenetic information from nucleotide sequences while avoiding this convergent feature. One method consisted in using only A-T transformations, and another used only the first and second codon positions for serine, which can only take A or T and G or C, respectively. We also conducted tree-searches for both gene families using unaligned amino acid sequences and dynamic homology. PIN genes appear to have diversified earlier than ACOs, with monocot and dicot copies more mixed in the phylogeny. However, gymnosperm PINs appear to be derived and not closely related to those from primitive plants. We find strong support for a long PIN gene ancestor with short forms subsequently evolving one or more times. ACO genes appear to have diversified mostly since the dicot-monocot split, as most genes cluster into a small number of monocot and dicot clades when the tree is rooted by genes from mosses. Gymnosperm ACOs were recovered as closely related and derived.

  5. Positive selection on the K domain of the AGAMOUS protein in the Zingiberales suggests a mechanism for the evolution of androecial morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Ana Maria R; Yockteng, Roxana; Otoni, Wagner C; Specht, Chelsea D.

    2015-01-01

    Background The ABC model of flower development describes the molecular basis for specification of floral organ identity in model eudicots such as Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum. According to this model, expression of C-class genes is linked to stamen and gynoecium organ identity. The Zingiberales is an order of tropical monocots in which the evolution of floral morphology is characterized by a marked increase in petaloidy in the androecium. Petaloidy is a derived characteristic of the ginger fam...

  6. Chemotaxonomic Evaluation of Species of Turkish Salvia: Fatty Acid Composition of Seed Oils. II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgut Kılıç

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids composition of seed oil of Salvia viridis, S. hydrangea, S. blepharochleana, S. chianantha, S. staminea, S. hypergeia,, S. cilicica, S. caespitosa, S. sclarea, S. cadmica, S. microstegia, S. pachystachys and S. verticillata were analyzed by GC/MS. The main compound were found to be as linoleic acid (18:2; 12.8 % to 52.2 %, linolenic acid (18:3; 3.2 % to 47.7 %, oleic acid (18:1; 11.3 % to 25.6 %, palmitic acid (16:0; 0.7 % to 16.8 % and stearic acid (18:0; 1.8 % to 4.8 %. A phylogenetic tree of species of Salvia were reported and compared to 18:3/18:2 ratio of the seed oils. Fatty acid composition of Salvia seed oils could be used as a chemotaxonomical marker.

  7. A taxonomic survey of the shallow-water (<150 m black corals (Cnidaria: Antipatharia of the Hawaiian Islands

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    Daniel eWagner

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The shallow-water (<150 m antipatharian fauna of the Hawaiian Archipelago is described and illustrated based on a systematic examination of skeletal spine morphology, polyp morphology, colony branching pattern and in situ photographs. A total of 172 black coral specimens were examined, including all available type material of species previously reported from shallow waters off Hawaiʻi. The examined specimens were assigned to three families (Antipathidae, Aphanipathidae and Myriopathidae, six genera (Antipathes, Cirrhipathes, Stichopathes, Aphanipathes, Acanthopathes and Myriopathes, and eight species: Antipathes griggi Opresko, 2009, Antipathes grandis Verrill, 1928, Cirrhipathes cf. anguina (Dana, 1846, Stichopathes echinulata Brook, 1889, Stichopathes? sp., Aphanipathes verticillata mauiensis Opresko et al., 2012, Acanthopathes undulata (Van Pesch 1914 andMyriopathes cf. ulex (Ellis and Solander 1786. The biogeographical distribution of Hawaiian shallow-water black corals is presented and discussed.

  8. The cladorhizid fauna (Porifera, Poecilosclerida) of the Caribbean and adjacent waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestetun, Jon T; Pomponi, Shirley A; Rapp, Hans Tore

    2016-10-18

    The carnivorous sponge family Cladorhizidae has been subject to several recent studies, yet the cladorhizid fauna of the Caribbean and adjacent areas remain comparatively poorly known. In this article we provide a description of the novel species Abyssocladia polycephalus sp. nov. from the Muir Seamount NE of Bermuda, belonging to the mainly Pacific genus Abyssocladia, and Asbestopluma (Asbestopluma) caribica sp. nov. from the Beata Ridge. Additionally, we provide a re-description of the poorly known species Chondrocladia (Chondrocladia) verticillata Topsent, 1920, and compare this species with the closely related species C. (C.) concrescens Schmidt, 1880. Finally, we provide a brief overview of the carnivorous sponges known from the Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea and adjacent Atlantic Ocean.

  9. New deep-water cnidarian sites in the southern Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. ANGELETTI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent ROV (Remotely Operated Vehicle exploration and bottom sampling in the southern Adriatic Sea (Apulian and Montenegrin margins resulted in the discovery of cnidarian-rich deep-sea habitats in the depth range of ca. 400-700 m. In particular, ROV inspection of Montenegrin canyons reveals the existence of megabenthic communities dominated by a variety of cnidarians, including scleractinians (Madrepora oculata, Lophelia pertusa, Dendrophyllia cornigera, antipatharians (Leiopathes glaberrima and gorgonians (Callogorgia verticillata as major habitat forming taxa, often in association with sponges and, subordinately, serpulids. All such cnidarians are new records for the southeastern side of the Adriatic Sea. Our investigation indicates that an almost continuous belt of patchy cold water coral sites occurs along the entire southwestern margin (Apulian, basically connecting the Adriatic populations with those inhabiting the Ionian margin (Santa Maria di Leuca coral province.

  10. Multiplicity of carbohydrate-binding sites in -prism fold lectins: occurrence and possible evolutionary implications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alok Sharma; Divya Chandran; Desh D Singh; M Vijayan

    2007-09-01

    The -prism II fold lectins of known structure, all from monocots, invariably have three carbohydrate-binding sites in each subunit/domain. Until recently, -prism I fold lectins of known structure were all from dicots and they exhibited one carbohydrate-binding site per subunit/domain. However, the recently determined structure of the -prism fold I lectin from banana, a monocot, has two very similar carbohydrate-binding sites. This prompted a detailed analysis of all the sequences appropriate for two-lectin folds and which carry one or more relevant carbohydrate-binding motifs. The very recent observation of a -prism I fold lectin, griffithsin, with three binding sites in each domain further confirmed the need for such an analysis. The analysis demonstrates substantial diversity in the number of binding sites unrelated to the taxonomical position of the plant source. However, the number of binding sites and the symmetry within the sequence exhibit reasonable correlation. The distribution of the two families of -prism fold lectins among plants and the number of binding sites in them, appear to suggest that both of them arose through successive gene duplication, fusion and divergent evolution of the same primitive carbohydrate-binding motif involving a Greek key. Analysis with sequences in individual Greek keys as independent units lends further support to this conclusion. It would seem that the preponderance of three carbohydrate-binding sites per domain in monocot lectins, particularly those with the -prism II fold, is related to the role of plant lectins in defence.

  11. Genus-Wide Comparative Genome Analyses of Colletotrichum Species Reveal Specific Gene Family Losses and Gains during Adaptation to Specific Infection Lifestyles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Pamela; Narusaka, Mari; Kumakura, Naoyoshi; Tsushima, Ayako; Takano, Yoshitaka; Narusaka, Yoshihiro; Shirasu, Ken

    2016-05-22

    Members from Colletotrichum genus adopt a diverse range of lifestyles during infection of plants and represent a group of agriculturally devastating pathogens. In this study, we present the draft genome of Colletotrichum incanum from the spaethianum clade of Colletotrichum and the comparative analyses with five other Colletotrichum species from distinct lineages. We show that the C. incanum strain, originally isolated from Japanese daikon radish, is able to infect both eudicot plants, such as certain ecotypes of the eudicot Arabidopsis, and monocot plants, such as lily. Being closely related to Colletotrichum species both in the graminicola clade, whose members are restricted strictly to monocot hosts, and to the destructivum clade, whose members are mostly associated with dicot infections, C. incanum provides an interesting model system for comparative genomics to study how fungal pathogens adapt to monocot and dicot hosts. Genus-wide comparative genome analyses reveal that Colletotrichum species have tailored profiles of their carbohydrate-degrading enzymes according to their infection lifestyles. In addition, we show evidence that positive selection acting on secreted and nuclear localized proteins that are highly conserved may be important in adaptation to specific hosts or ecological niches. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  12. Virus-like attachment sites and plastic CpG islands:landmarks of diversity in plant Del retrotransposons.

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    Guilherme M Q Cruz

    Full Text Available Full-length Del elements from ten angiosperm genomes, 5 monocot and 5 dicot, were retrieved and putative attachment (att sites were identified. In the 2432 Del elements, two types of U5 att sites and a single conserved type of U3 att site were identified. Retroviral att sites confer specificity to the integration process, different att sites types therefore implies lineage specificity. While some features are common to all Del elements, CpG island patterns within the LTRs were particular to lineage specific clusters. All eudicot copies grouped into one single clade while the monocots harbour a more diverse collection of elements. Furthermore, full-length Del elements and truncated copies were unevenly distributed amongst chromosomes. Elements of Del lineage are organized in plants into three clusters and each cluster is composed of elements with distinct LTR features. Our results suggest that the Del lineage efficiently amplified in the monocots and that one branch is probably a newly emerging sub-lineage. Finally, sequences in all groups are under purifying selection. These results show the LTR region is dynamic and important in the evolution of LTR-retrotransposons, we speculate that it is a trigger for retrotransposon diversification.

  13. OsFY, a Homolog of AtFY, Encodes a Protein that Can Interact with OsFCA-γin Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi LU; Zheng-Kai XU; Ren-Tao SONG

    2006-01-01

    FCA and FY are flowering time related genes involved in the autonomous flowering pathway in Arabidopsis. FCA interacts with FY to regulate the alternative processing of FCA pre-mRNA. The FCA/FY interaction is also required for the regulation of FLC expression, a major floral repressor in Arabidopsis.However, it is not clear if the regulation of this autonomous flowering pathway is also present in monocot plants, such as rice. Recently, alternative RNA processing of OsFCA was observed in rice, which strongly suggested the existence of an autonomous flowering pathway in rice. In this work, we cloned the cDNA of the autonomous flowering pathway gene OsFY from rice. The predicted OsFY protein contained a conserved 7 WD-repeat region and at least two Pro-Pro-Leu-Pro motifs compared to Arabidopsis FY. The proteinprotein interaction between OsFY and OsFCA-γ, the key feature of their gene function, was also demonstrated using the yeast two-hybrid system. The GenBank database search provided evidence of expression for other autonomous pathway gene homologs in rice. These results indicate that the autonomous flowering pathway is present in monocots, and the regulation through FY and FCA interaction is conserved between monocots and dicots.

  14. Plantas daninhas de uma pastagem cultivada de baixa produtividade no Nordeste Paraense Weeds of pasture low yielded areas of northeastern in the Pará State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo E. B. Mascarenhas

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente existem 23 milhões de hectares de pastagens cultivadas em área originalmente sob floresta na Amazônia. Desse total, em torno de cinco milhões de hectares encontram-se com baixa produtividade ou em vias de degradação, infestados de plantas daninhas. Com o objetivo de identificar as plantas daninhas que ocorrem em área de pastagem de baixa produtividade em Terra Alta, PA ( 0º 58” S e 47º 52” W. Gr. , foram efetuados levantamentos botânicos qualitativos, pelo método visual e coleta de todas as espécies presentes na área. Foram registradas 34 famílias, representadas por 118 espécies, destacando-se as famílias Leguminosae, Gramineae, Malvaceae, Myrtaceae, Cyperaceae e Asteraceae com 21, 16, 8, 7, 6 e 6 espécies, respectivamente. As plantas daninhas consideradas mais importantes foram: Borreira verticillata, Rolandra argentea, Desmodium canum, Davilla rugosa, Vismia guianensis e Imperata brasiliensis.Presently there are 23 million hectares of cultivated pasture in forest ecosystem of the Amazon Region. From that area, 5 million hectares are low yield or in some stage of degradation and invaded by weeds. Aiming to identify the weed species that occur in degraded pastures of Terra Alta, state of Pará (0º 58” S e 47º 52” W. Gr. , a botanical survey was carried out, colleting samples of all weed species presents in the area. Thirty-four families were recorded represented by 118 species, being Leguminosae, Gramineae, Malvaceae, Myrtaceae, Cyperaceae and Asteraceae the most important families with 21, 16, 8, 7, 6 and 6 species respectively. The most important weed species were: Borreira verticillata, Rolandra argentea, Desmodium canum, Davilla rugosa, Vismia guianensis e Imperata brasiliensis.

  15. Anatomía foliar y caulinar en especies de Stemodia (Scrophulariaceae Foliar and caulinar anatomy in species of Stemodia (Scrophulariaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria De Las Mercedes Sosa

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la estructura anatómica foliar y caulinar en el género Stemodia. Son consideradas siete especies: S. ericifolia (Kuntze K. Schum., S. hyptoides Cham. & Schltdl., S. lanceolata Benth., S. lobelioides Lehm., S. palustris A. St.-Hil., S. stricta Cham. & Schltdl. y S. verticillata (Mill. Hassl. Se hallaron diferencias en la epidermis foliar, donde hay variación en el tipo de estomas y de tricomas, y en la forma de las papilas epidérmicas; también en la estructura del mesofilo. Se describen e ilustran cuatro tipos de tricomas considerando si son o no glandulares y el número de células que lo conforman. El estudio de la anatomía caulinar mostró diferencias en cuanto a la presencia de aerénquima cortical y de laguna medular, y el porcentaje de espacios en el aerénquima cortical.Comparative anatomical studies of the leaves and stems on the genus Stemodia are presented. Seven species are considered: S. ericifolia (Kuntze K. Schum., S. hyptoides Cham. & Schltdl., S. lanceolata Benth., S. lobelioides Lehm., S. palustris A. St.-Hil., S. stricta Cham. & Schltdl. and S. verticillata (Mill. Hassl. There are variation in the stomatal and trichome types, form of the papillae and mesophyll structure. Four trichome types are described and illustrated considering if they are glandular or non-glandular and the number of cells. The stems present a quite homogeneous anatomical structure. Some differences in the amount and distribution of the aerenchyma and the size of the intercellular spaces are observed.

  16. The Prevalence of Fabry Disease in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease in Turkey: The TURKFAB Study

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    Kultigin Turkmen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Fabry disease is a treatable cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD characterized by a genetic deficiency of α-galactosidase A. European Renal Best Practice (ERBP recommends screening for Fabry disease in CKD patients. However, this is based on expert opinion and there are no reports of the prevalence of Fabry disease in stage 1-5 CKD. Hence, we investigated the prevalence of Fabry disease in CKD patients not receiving renal replacement therapy. Methods: This prospective study assessed α-galactosidase activity in dried blood spots in 313 stage 1-5 CKD patients, 167 males, between ages of 18-70 years whose etiology of CKD was unknown and were not receiving renal replacement therapy. The diagnosis was confirmed by GLA gene mutation analysis. Results: Three (all males of 313 CKD patients (0.95% were diagnosed of Fabry disease, for a prevalence in males of 1.80%. Family screening identified 8 aditional Fabry patients with CKD. Of a total of 11 Fabry patients, 7 were male and started enzyme replacement therapy and 4 were female. The most frequent manifestations in male patients were fatigue (100%, tinnitus, vertigo, acroparesthesia, hypohidrosis, cornea verticillata and angiokeratoma (all 85%, heat intolerance (71%, and abdominal pain (57%. The most frequent manifestations in female patients were fatigue and cornea verticillata (50%, and tinnitus, vertigo and angiokeratoma (25%. Three patients had severe episodic abdominal pain attacks and proteinuria, and were misdiagnosed as familial Mediterranean fever. Conclusions: The prevalence of Fabry disease in selected CKD patients is in the range found among renal replacement therapy patients, but the disease is diagnosed at an earlier, treatable stage. These data support the ERBP recommendation to screen for Fabry disease in patients with CKD of unknown origin.

  17. An energetic analysis of host plant selection by the large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Stephen J

    1980-01-01

    The large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus, is a specialized seed feeder that has been observed completing nymphal development in the field on only a small proportion of its potential host species within the genus Asclepias. In central Missouri only two of the six milkweed species studied, A. syriaca and A. verticillata, commonly supported nymphal O. fasciatus growth in the field. The seed of all six species, however, was equally suitable food for bugs reared in the laboratory. In laboratory preference tests, adult bugs chose to feed on the largest seeds, A. hirtella, but such a preference could not explain the observed field feeding patterns.One explanation to account for the observed host plant selection is based upon an energetic analysis. Only A. syriaca provided enough seed biomass for a clutch of O. fasciatus nymphs to develop on a single plant, and only A. verticillata grew in high enough density that a clutch could find sufficient food within the limited range of nymphal movement. These results illustrate a corollary of the resource concentration hypothesis: within a plant group whose members share similar secondary plant chemistries, the only species that will be viable hosts for a specialized herbivore are those that provide the minimal resource density necessary for the completion of nymphal development.In central Missouri, O. fasciatus has specialized on a critical resource density, not traits of individual Asclepias species. The appearance of host selection within the potential host plant spectrum is the result of a characteristic growth form, seed output, and dispersion pattern for each milkweed species that makes some species much more likely than others to produce sufficient seed resources.

  18. The effect of duration of solarization on controlling branched broomrape (Phelipanche ramosa L. and some weed species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boz, Özhan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of two-, four- and six-week periods of solarization on Phelipanche ramosa and other weeds were determined in tomato greenhouses between 2007-2009 in Aydin Province/Turkey. In the first year, the maximum temperatures recorded in the soil in the solarized area were 54 °C at a depth of 5 cm, 47 °C at 10 cm and 41 °C at 20 cm. In the second year, the maximum temperatures in the solarized area were 44.5 °C at 5 cm, 39.7 °C at 10 cm and 34.7 °C at 20 cm. In the first season, regardless of solarization time, solarization reduced the density of Amaranthus viridis, Setaria verticillata, Urtica urens, Solanum nigrum, Portulaca oleracea, Chenopodium album and Stellaria media by 99-100 %. Solarization’s effect on P. ramosa was 100 % regardless of the duration of solarization. In the second year, 2-, 4- and 6-week solarization periods, respectively, reduced A. viridis by 67, 73 and 93 %; S. verticillata by 78, 80 and 94 %; U. urens by 99, 100 and 100 %; and S. media by 100 % for all treatments. When P. ramosa was examined, a 2-week solarization period was found to result in a 20 % decrease and a 4-week solarization period resulted in a 47 % decrease. Six weeks of solarization reduced P. ramosa by 74 %. Additionally, there was an increase in tomato yield in response to longer periods of solarization.

  19. Current perspectives on the hormonal control of seed development in Arabidopsis and maize: a focus on auxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locascio, Antonella; Roig-Villanova, Irma; Bernardi, Jamila; Varotto, Serena

    2014-01-01

    The seed represents the unit of reproduction of flowering plants, capable of developing into another plant, and to ensure the survival of the species under unfavorable environmental conditions. It is composed of three compartments: seed coat, endosperm and embryo. Proper seed development depends on the coordination of the processes that lead to seed compartments differentiation, development and maturation. The coordination of these processes is based on the constant transmission/perception of signals by the three compartments. Phytohormones constitute one of these signals; gradients of hormones are generated in the different seed compartments, and their ratios comprise the signals that induce/inhibit particular processes in seed development. Among the hormones, auxin seems to exert a central role, as it is the only one in maintaining high levels of accumulation from fertilization to seed maturation. The gradient of auxin generated by its PIN carriers affects several processes of seed development, including pattern formation, cell division and expansion. Despite the high degree of conservation in the regulatory mechanisms that lead to seed development within the Spermatophytes, remarkable differences exist during seed maturation between Monocots and Eudicots species. For instance, in Monocots the endosperm persists until maturation, and constitutes an important compartment for nutrients storage, while in Eudicots it is reduced to a single cell layer, as the expanding embryo gradually replaces it during the maturation. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge on hormonal control of seed development, by considering the data available in two model plants: Arabidopsis thaliana, for Eudicots and Zea mays L., for Monocots. We will emphasize the control exerted by auxin on the correct progress of seed development comparing, when possible, the two species.

  20. Current perspectives on the hormonal control of seed development in Arabidopsis and maize: a focus on auxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella eLocascio

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The seed represents the unit of reproduction of flowering plants, capable of developing into another plant, and to ensure the survival of the species under unfavorable environmental conditions. It is composed of three compartments: seed coat, endosperm and embryo. Proper seed development depends on the coordination of the processes that lead to seed compartments differentiation, development and maturation. The coordination of these processes is based on the constant transmission/perception of signals by the three compartments. Phytohormones constitute one of these signals, gradients of hormones are generated in the different seed compartments, and the ratios of which constitute the signals that induce/inhibit a particular process in seed development. Among the hormones, auxin seems to exert a pivotal role; since it is the unique hormone that maintains high level of accumulation from fertilization to seed maturation. The gradient of auxin generated by its PIN carriers, affects several processes of seed development, including pattern formation, cell division and expansion. Despite the high degree of conservation in the regulatory mechanisms that lead to seed development within the Spermatophytes, remarkable differences exists during seed maturation between Monocots and Eudicots species. For instance, in Monocots, the endosperm persists until maturation, and constitutes an important compartment for nutrients storage; while in Eudicots it is reduced to a single cell layer, as the expanding embryo gradually replaces it during the maturation.This review will provide an overview of the current knowledge on hormonal control of seed development, by considering the data available in two model plants: Arabidopsis thaliana,for Eudicots, and Zea mays, for Monocots. We will emphasize the control exerted by auxin on the correct progress of seed development comparing, when possible, the two species.

  1. Identifying the Basal Angiosperm Node in Chloroplast GenomePhylogenies: Sampling One's Way Out of the Felsenstein Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leebens-Mack, Jim; Raubeson, Linda A.; Cui, Liying; Kuehl,Jennifer V.; Fourcade, Matthew H.; Chumley, Timothy W.; Boore, JeffreyL.; Jansen, Robert K.; dePamphilis, Claude W.

    2005-05-27

    While there has been strong support for Amborella and Nymphaeales (water lilies) as branching from basal-most nodes in the angiosperm phylogeny, this hypothesis has recently been challenged by phylogenetic analyses of 61 protein-coding genes extracted from the chloroplast genome sequences of Amborella, Nymphaea and 12 other available land plant chloroplast genomes. These character-rich analyses placed the monocots, represented by three grasses (Poaceae), as sister to all other extant angiosperm lineages. We have extracted protein-coding regions from draft sequences for six additional chloroplast genomes to test whether this surprising result could be an artifact of long-branch attraction due to limited taxon sampling. The added taxa include three monocots (Acorus, Yucca and Typha), a water lily (Nuphar), a ranunculid(Ranunculus), and a gymnosperm (Ginkgo). Phylogenetic analyses of the expanded DNA and protein datasets together with microstructural characters (indels) provided unambiguous support for Amborella and the Nymphaeales as branching from the basal-most nodes in the angiospermphylogeny. However, their relative positions proved to be dependent on method of analysis, with parsimony favoring Amborella as sister to all other angiosperms, and maximum likelihood and neighbor-joining methods favoring an Amborella + Nympheales clade as sister. The maximum likelihood phylogeny supported the later hypothesis, but the likelihood for the former hypothesis was not significantly different. Parametric bootstrap analysis, single gene phylogenies, estimated divergence dates and conflicting in del characters all help to illuminate the nature of the conflict in resolution of the most basal nodes in the angiospermphylogeny. Molecular dating analyses provided median age estimates of 161 mya for the most recent common ancestor of all extant angiosperms and 145 mya for the most recent common ancestor of monocots, magnoliids andeudicots. Whereas long sequences reduce variance in

  2. Comparative cell-specific transcriptomics reveals differentiation of C4 photosynthesis pathways in switchgrass and other C4 lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Xiaolan; Lu, Nan; Li, Guifen; Nakashima, Jin; Tang, Yuhong; Dixon, Richard A

    2016-03-01

    Almost all C4 plants require the co-ordination of the adjacent and fully differentiated cell types, mesophyll (M) and bundle sheath (BS). The C4 photosynthetic pathway operates through two distinct subtypes based on how malate is decarboxylated in BS cells; through NAD-malic enzyme (NAD-ME) or NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME). The diverse or unique cell-specific molecular features of M and BS cells from separate C4 subtypes of independent lineages remain to be determined. We here provide an M/BS cell type-specific transcriptome data set from the monocot NAD-ME subtype switchgrass (Panicum virgatum). A comparative transcriptomics approach was then applied to compare the M/BS mRNA profiles of switchgrass, monocot NADP-ME subtype C4 plants maize and Setaria viridis, and dicot NAD-ME subtype Cleome gynandra. We evaluated the convergence in the transcript abundance of core components in C4 photosynthesis and transcription factors to establish Kranz anatomy, as well as gene distribution of biological functions, in these four independent C4 lineages. We also estimated the divergence between NAD-ME and NADP-ME subtypes of C4 photosynthesis in the two cell types within C4 species, including differences in genes encoding decarboxylating enzymes, aminotransferases, and metabolite transporters, and differences in the cell-specific functional enrichment of RNA regulation and protein biogenesis/homeostasis. We suggest that C4 plants of independent lineages in both monocots and dicots underwent convergent evolution to establish C4 photosynthesis, while distinct C4 subtypes also underwent divergent processes for the optimization of M and BS cell co-ordination. The comprehensive data sets in our study provide a basis for further research on evolution of C4 species. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  3. Evolution and Expression Patterns of TCP Genes in Asparagales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal, Yesenia; Alzate, Juan F.; Pabón-Mora, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    CYCLOIDEA-like genes are involved in the symmetry gene network, limiting cell proliferation in the dorsal regions of bilateral flowers in core eudicots. CYC-like and closely related TCP genes (acronym for TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, CYCLOIDEA, and PROLIFERATION CELL FACTOR) have been poorly studied in Asparagales, the largest order of monocots that includes both bilateral flowers in Orchidaceae (ca. 25.000 spp) and radially symmetrical flowers in Hypoxidaceae (ca. 200 spp). With the aim of assessing TCP gene evolution in the Asparagales, we isolated TCP-like genes from publicly available databases and our own transcriptomes of Cattleya trianae (Orchidaceae) and Hypoxis decumbens (Hypoxidaceae). Our matrix contains 452 sequences representing the three major clades of TCP genes. Besides the previously identified CYC specific core eudicot duplications, our ML phylogenetic analyses recovered an early CIN-like duplication predating all angiosperms, two CIN-like Asparagales-specific duplications and a duplication prior to the diversification of Orchidoideae and Epidendroideae. In addition, we provide evidence of at least three duplications of PCF-like genes in Asparagales. While CIN-like and PCF-like genes have multiplied in Asparagales, likely enhancing the genetic network for cell proliferation, CYC-like genes remain as single, shorter copies with low expression. Homogeneous expression of CYC-like genes in the labellum as well as the lateral petals suggests little contribution to the bilateral perianth in C. trianae. CIN-like and PCF-like gene expression suggests conserved roles in cell proliferation in leaves, sepals and petals, carpels, ovules and fruits in Asparagales by comparison with previously reported functions in core eudicots and monocots. This is the first large scale analysis of TCP-like genes in Asparagales that will serve as a platform for in-depth functional studies in emerging model monocots. PMID:28144250

  4. Evolution and Expression Patterns of TCP Genes in Asparagales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal, Yesenia; Alzate, Juan F; Pabón-Mora, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    CYCLOIDEA-like genes are involved in the symmetry gene network, limiting cell proliferation in the dorsal regions of bilateral flowers in core eudicots. CYC-like and closely related TCP genes (acronym for TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, CYCLOIDEA, and PROLIFERATION CELL FACTOR) have been poorly studied in Asparagales, the largest order of monocots that includes both bilateral flowers in Orchidaceae (ca. 25.000 spp) and radially symmetrical flowers in Hypoxidaceae (ca. 200 spp). With the aim of assessing TCP gene evolution in the Asparagales, we isolated TCP-like genes from publicly available databases and our own transcriptomes of Cattleya trianae (Orchidaceae) and Hypoxis decumbens (Hypoxidaceae). Our matrix contains 452 sequences representing the three major clades of TCP genes. Besides the previously identified CYC specific core eudicot duplications, our ML phylogenetic analyses recovered an early CIN-like duplication predating all angiosperms, two CIN-like Asparagales-specific duplications and a duplication prior to the diversification of Orchidoideae and Epidendroideae. In addition, we provide evidence of at least three duplications of PCF-like genes in Asparagales. While CIN-like and PCF-like genes have multiplied in Asparagales, likely enhancing the genetic network for cell proliferation, CYC-like genes remain as single, shorter copies with low expression. Homogeneous expression of CYC-like genes in the labellum as well as the lateral petals suggests little contribution to the bilateral perianth in C. trianae. CIN-like and PCF-like gene expression suggests conserved roles in cell proliferation in leaves, sepals and petals, carpels, ovules and fruits in Asparagales by comparison with previously reported functions in core eudicots and monocots. This is the first large scale analysis of TCP-like genes in Asparagales that will serve as a platform for in-depth functional studies in emerging model monocots.

  5. Early to mid Cretaceous vegetation of northern Gondwana - the onset of angiosperm radiation and climatic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coiffard, Clément; Mohr, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    Early Cretaceous Northern Gondwana seems to be the cradle of many early flowering plants, especially mesangiosperms that include magnoliids and monocots and basal eudicots. So far our knowledge was based mostly on dispersed pollen and small flowering structures. New fossil finds from Brazil include more complete plants with attached roots, leaves and flowers. Taxonomic studies show that these fossils belonged to clades which are, based on macroscopic characters and molecular data, also considered to be rather basal, such as several members of Nymphaeales, Piperales, Laurales, Magnoliales, monocots (Araliaceae) and Ranunculales. Various parameters can be used in order to understand the physiology and habitat of these plants. Adaptations to climate and habitat are partly mirrored in their root anatomy (evidence of tap roots), leaf size and shape, leaf anatomy including presence of glands, and distribution of stomata. An important ecophysiolocical parameter is vein density as an indicator for the plants' cabability to pump water, and the stomatal pore index, representing the proportion of stomatal pore area on the leaf surface, which is related to the water vapor resistance of the leaf epidermis. During the mid-Cretaceous leaf vein density started to surpass that of gymnosperms, one factor that made angiosperms very successful in conquering many kinds of new environments. Using data on these parameters we deduce that during the late Early to mid Cretaceous angiosperms were already diverse, being represented as both herbs, with aquatic members, such as Nymphaeles, helophytes (e.g. some monocots) and plants that may have grown in shady locations. Other life forms included shrubs and perhaps already small trees (e.g. Magnoliales). These flowering plants occupied various habitats, ranging from xeric (e.g. some Magnoliales) to mesic and shady (e.g. Piperales) or aquatic (e.g. Araceae, Nymphaeales). Overall, it seems that several of these plants clearly exhibited some

  6. Parallel evolution of TCP and B-class genes in Commelinaceae flower bilateral symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preston Jill C

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flower bilateral symmetry (zygomorphy has evolved multiple times independently across angiosperms and is correlated with increased pollinator specialization and speciation rates. Functional and expression analyses in distantly related core eudicots and monocots implicate independent recruitment of class II TCP genes in the evolution of flower bilateral symmetry. Furthermore, available evidence suggests that monocot flower bilateral symmetry might also have evolved through changes in B-class homeotic MADS-box gene function. Methods In order to test the non-exclusive hypotheses that changes in TCP and B-class gene developmental function underlie flower symmetry evolution in the monocot family Commelinaceae, we compared expression patterns of teosinte branched1 (TB1-like, DEFICIENS (DEF-like, and GLOBOSA (GLO-like genes in morphologically distinct bilaterally symmetrical flowers of Commelina communis and Commelina dianthifolia, and radially symmetrical flowers of Tradescantia pallida. Results Expression data demonstrate that TB1-like genes are asymmetrically expressed in tepals of bilaterally symmetrical Commelina, but not radially symmetrical Tradescantia, flowers. Furthermore, DEF-like genes are expressed in showy inner tepals, staminodes and stamens of all three species, but not in the distinct outer tepal-like ventral inner tepals of C. communis. Conclusions Together with other studies, these data suggest parallel recruitment of TB1-like genes in the independent evolution of flower bilateral symmetry at early stages of Commelina flower development, and the later stage homeotic transformation of C. communis inner tepals into outer tepals through the loss of DEF-like gene expression.

  7. Transcriptome and exoproteome analysis of utilization of plant-derived biomass by Myceliophthora thermophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbusz, Magdalena Anna; Di Falco, Marcos; Ishmael, Nadeeza; Marqueteau, Sandrine; Moisan, Marie-Claude; Baptista, Cassio da Silva; Powlowski, Justin; Tsang, Adrian

    2014-11-01

    Myceliophthora thermophila is a thermophilic fungus whose genome encodes a wide range of carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) involved in plant biomass degradation. Such enzymes have potential applications in turning different kinds of lignocellulosic feedstock into sugar precursors for biofuels and chemicals. The present study examined and compared the transcriptomes and exoproteomes of M. thermophila during cultivation on different types of complex biomass to gain insight into how its secreted enzymatic machinery varies with different sources of lignocellulose. In the transcriptome analysis three monocot (barley, oat, triticale) and three dicot (alfalfa, canola, flax) plants were used whereas in the proteome analysis additional substrates, i.e. wood and corn stover pulps, were included. A core set of 59 genes encoding CAZymes was up-regulated in response to both monocot and dicot straws, including nine polysaccharide monooxygenases and GH10, but not GH11, xylanases. Genes encoding additional xylanolytic enzymes were up-regulated during growth on monocot straws, while genes encoding additional pectinolytic enzymes were up-regulated in response to dicot biomass. Exoproteome analysis was generally consistent with the conclusions drawn from transcriptome analysis, but additional CAZymes that accumulated to high levels were identified. Despite the wide variety of biomass sources tested some CAZy family members were not expressed under any condition. The results of this study provide a comprehensive view from both transcriptome and exoproteome levels, of how M. thermophila responds to a wide range of biomass sources using its genomic resources. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Site quality influence over understory plant diversity in old-growth and harvested Nothofagus pumilio forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Gallo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The effects and interactions of shelterwood forest harvesting and site qualities over understory plant species diversity and composition were compared among primary and harvested Nothofagus pumilio forests.Area of study: Tierra del Fuego (Argentina, on three pure conditions (one and six year-old harvested, and primary without previous harvesting forests and three site qualities (high, medium and low.Material and Methods: Understory richness and cover (% were registered in five replicates of 1 hectare each per treatment. Taxonomic species were classified in categories (groups, origin and life forms. Two-way ANOVAs and multivariate analyses were conducted.Main results: Shelterwood harvesting and site quality significantly influenced understory cover and richness, which allow the introduction of native and exotic species and increasing of dicot and monocot covers. In dicots, monocots, exotics and total groups, higher richness and covers were related to time. Meanwhile, cover reached similar high values in all site qualities on dicot, native and total groups. On the other hand, monocot and exotic richness and cover remain similar in primary and recently harvested forests, and greatly increased in old harvested forests. Mosses and ferns were among the most sensitive groups.Research highlights: Impacts of shelterwood cut depend on site quality of the stands and time since harvesting occurs. For this, different site quality stands should received differential attention in the development of conservation strategies, as well as variations in the shelterwood implementation (as irregularity and patchiness should be considered to better promote understory plant species conservation inside managed areas.Key words: plant species conservation; years after harvesting; forest management; Tierra del Fuego.

  9. The discovery of polyandry in Curculigo (Hypoxidaceae): implications for androecium evolution of asparagoid monocotyledons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocyan, A

    2007-08-01

    Individual flowers of the monocot Curculigo racemosa (Hypoxidaceae, Asparagales) are regularly polyandrous. To evaluate the significance of this almost unique character among Asparagales for flower evolution of asparagoid monocots, flowers of C. racemosa were studied comparatively. Anthetic flowers as well as early floral developmental stages were studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. Despite the polyandry, floral development is similar to that of other Asparagales with a developmental gradient from adaxial to abaxial. Stamens initiate simultaneously and the diameter of staminal primordia is about half of that in species with six anthers. The number of stamens is not fixed (12-26) and varies within the same inflorescence. Surprisingly, the gynoecium can be four- or six-locular, besides the normal trimerous state. The discovery of a polyandrous Curculigo reveals plasticity of stamen number at the base of Asparagales. Orchidaceae - sister to all other Asparagales - has a reduced stamen number (three, two or one), whereas in Hypoxidaceae - part of the next diverging clade - either the normal monocot stamen number (six), polyandry (this study) or the loss of three anthers (Pauridia) occurs. However, at present it is impossible to decide whether the flexibility in stamen number is autapomorphic for each group or whether it is a synapomorphy. The small size of stamen primordia of Curculigo is conspicuous. It allows more space for additional androecial primordia. Stamens are initiated as independent organs, and filaments are not in bundles, hence C. racemosa is not secondarily polyandrous as may be the case in the distantly related Gethyllis of asparagoid Amaryllidaceae. The increase in carpel number is a rare phenomenon in angiosperms. A possible explanation for the polyandry of C. racemosa is that it is a natural SUPERMAN-deficient mutant, which shows an increase of stamens, or ULTRAPETALA or CARPEL FACTORY mutants, which are polyandrous and changed in

  10. Construction of a rice glycoside hydrolase phylogenomic database and identification of targets for biofuel research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita eSharma

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Glycoside hydrolases (GH catalyze the hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds in cell wall polymers and can have major effects on cell wall architecture. Taking advantage of the massive datasets available in public databases, we have constructed a rice phylogenomic database of GHs (http://ricephylogenomics.ucdavis.edu/cellwalls/gh/. This database integrates multiple data types including the structural features, orthologous relationships, mutant availability and gene expression patterns for each GH family in a phylogenomic context. The rice genome encodes 437 GH genes classified into 34 families. Based on pairwise comparison with eight dicot and four monocot genomes, we identified 138 GH genes that are highly diverged between monocots and dicots, 57 of which have diverged further in rice as compared with four monocot genomes scanned in this study. Chromosomal localization and expression analysis suggest a role for both whole-genome and localized gene duplications in expansion and diversification of GH families in rice. We examined the meta-profiles of expression patterns of GH genes in twenty different anatomical tissues of rice. Transcripts of 51 genes exhibit tissue or developmental stage-preferential expression, whereas, seventeen other genes preferentially accumulate in actively growing tissues. When queried in RiceNet, a probabilistic functional gene network that facilitates functional gene predictions, nine out of seventeen genes form a regulatory network with the well-characterized genes involved in biosynthesis of cell wall polymers including cellulose synthase and cellulose synthase-like genes of rice. Two-thirds of the GH genes in rice are up regulated in response to biotic and abiotic stress treatments indicating a role in stress adaptation. Our analyses identify potential GH targets for cell wall modification.

  11. Induction of pathogenesis-related gene 1 (PR-1 by acibenzolar-s-methyl application in pineapple and its effect on reniform nematodes (Rotylenchulus reniformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buncha Chinnasri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The induction of systemic acquired resistance (SAR in pineapples (Ananas comosus was studied as shown by the up-regulation of the PR-1 gene (the SAR marker and examination of the SAR effect on the reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis. Real-time polymerase chain reaction assay was performed using degenerate primers designed from the PR-1 genes of several monocotyledonous (monocots and dicotyledonous (dicots plants. A 266 bp cDNA band was evident only in plants treated with the SAR inducer, acibenzolar-s-methyl. This 266 bp cDNA was sequenced and found to be highly homologous to a number of PR-1 genes from monocots. In addition, the amino acid sequence deduced from the 266 bp cDNA showed a high identity to PR-1 proteins from both monocots and dicots. Therefore, it was highly likely that this cloned fragment was part of the A. comosus PR-1 gene, indicating that A. comosus has an SAR pathway. The time course of PR-1 expression was studied. The results showed that PR-1 induction was initiated as early as 1 d after acibenzolar application and continued through 3 wk thereafter. The effect of SAR on the nematodes, R. reniformis, in pineapples was also elucidated. The results showed that the reproduction of nematodes on the pineapples treated with 100 mg/L or 200 mg/L was 55% lower than that on pineapples treated with 0 mg/L or 50 mg/L. Nematode reproduction on pineapples treated with the same concentration but inoculated at different times was not significantly different (p > 0.05.

  12. Site quality influence over understory plant diversity in old-growth and harvested Nothofagus pumilio forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallo, E. A.; Lencinas, M. V.; Martinez-Pastur, G. J.

    2013-05-01

    Aim of study: The effects and interactions of shelter wood forest harvesting and site qualities over understory plant species diversity and composition were compared among primary and harvested Nothofagus pumilio forests. Area of study: Tierra del Fuego (Argentina), on three pure conditions (one and six year-old harvested, and primary without previous harvesting forests) and three site qualities (high, medium and low). Material and Methods: Understory richness and cover (%) were registered in five replicates of 1 hectare each per treatment. Taxonomic species were classified in categories (groups, origin and life forms). Two-way ANOVAs and multivariate analyses were conducted. Main results: Shelterwood harvesting and site quality significantly influenced understory cover and richness, which allow the introduction of native and exotic species and increasing of dicot and monocot covers. In dicots, monocots, exotics and total groups, higher richness and covers were related to time. Meanwhile, cover reached similar high values in all site qualities on dicot, native and total groups. On the other hand, monocot and exotic richness and cover remain similar in primary and recently harvested forests, and greatly increased in old harvested forests. Mosses and ferns were among the most sensitive groups. Research highlights: Impacts of shelterwood cut depend on site quality of the stands and time since harvesting occurs. For this, different site quality stands should received differential attention in the development of conservation strategies, as well as variations in the shelterwood implementation (as irregularity and patchiness) should be considered to better promote understory plant species conservation inside managed areas. (Author) 45 refs.

  13. Engineering the Oryza sativa cell wall with rice NAC transcription factors regulating secondary wall formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouki eYoshida

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant tissues that require structural rigidity synthesize a thick, strong secondary cell wall of lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses in a complicated bridged structure. Master regulators of secondary wall synthesis were identified in dicots, and orthologs of these regulators have been identified in monocots, but regulation of secondary cell wall formation in monocots has not been extensively studied. Here we demonstrate that the rice transcription factors SECONDARY WALL NAC DOMAIN PROTEINs (SWNs can regulate secondary wall formation in rice (Oryza sativa and are potentially useful for engineering the monocot cell wall. The OsSWN1 promoter is highly active in sclerenchymatous cells of the leaf blade and less active in xylem cells. By contrast, the OsSWN2 promoter is highly active in xylem cells and less active in sclerenchymatous cells. OsSWN2 splicing variants encode two proteins; the shorter protein (OsSWN2S has very low transcriptional activation ability, but the longer protein (OsSWN2L and OsSWN1 have strong transcriptional activation ability. In rice, expression of an OsSWN2S chimeric repressor, driven by the OsSWN2 promoter, resulted in stunted growth and para-wilting (leaf rolling and browning under normal water conditions due to impaired vascular vessels. The same OsSWN2S chimeric repressor, driven by the OsSWN1 promoter, caused a reduction of cell wall thickening in sclerenchymatous cells, a drooping leaf phenotype, reduced lignin and xylose contents and increased digestibility as forage. These data suggest that OsSWNs regulate secondary wall formation in rice and manipulation of OsSWNs may enable improvements in monocotyledonous crops for forage or biofuel applications.

  14. Annotation and comparative analysis of the glycoside hydrolase genes in Brachypodium distachyon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, Ludmila [United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Western Regional Research Center (WRRC), Albany; Bragg, Jennifer [United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Western Regional Research Center (WRRC), Albany; Wu, Jiajie [United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Western Regional Research Center (WRRC), Albany; Yang, Xiaohan [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Vogel, John [United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Western Regional Research Center (WRRC), Albany

    2010-01-01

    Background Glycoside hydrolases cleave the bond between a carbohydrate and another carbohydrate, a protein, lipid or other moiety. Genes encoding glycoside hydrolases are found in a wide range of organisms, from archea to animals, and are relatively abundant in plant genomes. In plants, these enzymes are involved in diverse processes, including starch metabolism, defense, and cell-wall remodeling. Glycoside hydrolase genes have been previously cataloged for Oryza sativa (rice), the model dicotyledonous plant Arabidopsis thaliana, and the fast-growing tree Populus trichocarpa (poplar). To improve our understanding of glycoside hydrolases in plants generally and in grasses specifically, we annotated the glycoside hydrolase genes in the grasses Brachypodium distachyon (an emerging monocotyledonous model) and Sorghum bicolor (sorghum). We then compared the glycoside hydrolases across species, both at the whole-genome level and at the level of individual glycoside hydrolase families. Results We identified 356 glycoside hydrolase genes in Brachypodium and 404 in sorghum. The corresponding proteins fell into the same 34 families that are represented in rice, Arabidopsis, and poplar, helping to define a glycoside hydrolase family profile which may be common to flowering plants. Examination of individual glycoside hydrolase familes (GH5, GH13, GH18, GH19, GH28, and GH51) revealed both similarities and distinctions between monocots and dicots, as well as between species. Shared evolutionary histories appear to be modified by lineage-specific expansions or deletions. Within families, the Brachypodium and sorghum proteins generally cluster with those from other monocots. Conclusions This work provides the foundation for further comparative and functional analyses of plant glycoside hydrolases. Defining the Brachypodium glycoside hydrolases sets the stage for Brachypodium to be a monocot model for investigations of these enzymes and their diverse roles in planta. Insights

  15. A contribution to understanding the structure of amphivasal secondary bundles in monocotyledons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Jura-Morawiec

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Secondary growth of monocotyledonous plants is connected with the activity of the monocot cambium that accumulates most of the derivatives inner to the cambial cylinder. These derivatives differentiate into (a secondary bundles with the amphivasal arrangement, i.e. xylem composed of tracheids surrounds the phloem cells and (b the parenchymatous secondary conjunctive tissue in which the bundles are embedded. The amphivasal secondary bundles differ in the arrangement of xylem cells as visible on single cross sections through the secondary body of the monocots. Apart from the bundles with typical ring of tracheids also the bundles where tracheids do not quite surround the phloem are present. We aimed to elucidate the cross sectional anatomy of the amphivasal secondary bundles with the use of the serial sectioning method which allowed us to follow very precisely the bundle structure along its length. The studies were carried out with the samples of secondary tissues collected from the stem of Dracaena draco L. growing in the greenhouses of the Polish Academy of Sciences Botanical Garden – CBDC in Powsin and the Adam Mickiewicz University Botanical Garden. The material was fixed in a mixture of glycerol and ethanol (1:1; v/v, dehydrated stepwise with graded ethanol series and finally embedded in epon resin. Afterwards, the material was sectioned with microtome into continuous series of thin (3 μm sections, stained with PAS/toluidine blue and examined under the light microscope. The results, described in details in Jura‑Morawiec & Wiland-Szymańska (2014, revealed novel facts about tracheids arrangement. Each amphivasal bundle is composed of sectors where tracheids form a ring as well as of such where tracheids are separated by vascular parenchyma cells. We hypothesize that strands of vascular parenchyma cells locally separating the tracheids enable radial transport of assimilates from sieve elements of the bundle towards the sink tissues, e

  16. Comprehensive definition of genome features in Spirodela polyrhiza by high-depth physical mapping and short-read DNA sequencing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Todd P; Bryant, Douglas; Gutierrez, Ryan; Borisjuk, Nikolai; Chu, Philomena; Zhang, Hanzhong; Xia, Jing; Zhou, Junfei; Peng, Hai; El Baidouri, Moaine; Ten Hallers, Boudewijn; Hastie, Alex R; Liang, Tiffany; Acosta, Kenneth; Gilbert, Sarah; McEntee, Connor; Jackson, Scott A; Mockler, Todd C; Zhang, Weixiong; Lam, Eric

    2017-02-01

    Spirodela polyrhiza is a fast-growing aquatic monocot with highly reduced morphology, genome size and number of protein-coding genes. Considering these biological features of Spirodela and its basal position in the monocot lineage, understanding its genome architecture could shed light on plant adaptation and genome evolution. Like many draft genomes, however, the 158-Mb Spirodela genome sequence has not been resolved to chromosomes, and important genome characteristics have not been defined. Here we deployed rapid genome-wide physical maps combined with high-coverage short-read sequencing to resolve the 20 chromosomes of Spirodela and to empirically delineate its genome features. Our data revealed a dramatic reduction in the number of the rDNA repeat units in Spirodela to fewer than 100, which is even fewer than that reported for yeast. Consistent with its unique phylogenetic position, small RNA sequencing revealed 29 Spirodela-specific microRNA, with only two being shared with Elaeis guineensis (oil palm) and Musa balbisiana (banana). Combining DNA methylation data and small RNA sequencing enabled the accurate prediction of 20.5% long terminal repeats (LTRs) that doubled the previous estimate, and revealed a high Solo:Intact LTR ratio of 8.2. Interestingly, we found that Spirodela has the lowest global DNA methylation levels (9%) of any plant species tested. Taken together our results reveal a genome that has undergone reduction, likely through eliminating non-essential protein coding genes, rDNA and LTRs. In addition to delineating the genome features of this unique plant, the methodologies described and large-scale genome resources from this work will enable future evolutionary and functional studies of this basal monocot family. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Studies on weed diversity and its associated phytosociology under direct dry seeded rice systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mantosh Kumar Sinha; Arnab Banerjee

    2016-01-01

    Chhattisgarh is commonly known as Bowl of rice where rice is grown as monocrop in the entire state whether soil is bhata, matasi, kanhar or black soil. Present study is based on the study of biodiversity of weeds under Direct Dry Seeded Rice Systems in Koria District (C.G.) Study was conducted to assess the phytosociological studies of weed species in paddy field at Baikunthpur, Koriya district, Chattisgarh. A total of 43 genera and 9 families of Dicotyledonae and 3 families of monocots and...

  18. Environ: E00664 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00664 Ginger oil Essential oil Zingiberene [CPD:C09750], beta-Sesquiphellandrene [...[CPD:C01499], Myrcene [CPD:C06074], cis-Citral [CPD:C09847], 2-Nonanol, 2-Nonanone Zingiber... officinale [TAX:65948] the dried, unpeeled, freshly ground rhizomes of Zingiberaceae (ginger family) Zingiber... officinale Obtained by steam distillation Major component: Zingiberene [CPD:C09750] Essential o...ils [BR:br08321] Monocot plants Zingiberaceae (ginger family) E00664 Ginger oil CAS: 8007-08-7 ...

  19. Finding Signals for Plant Promoters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weimou Zheng

    2003-01-01

    The strongest signal of plant promoter is searched with the model of single motif with two types. It turns out that the dominant type is the TATA-box. The other type may be called TATA-less signal, and may be used in gene finders for promoter recognition. While the TATA signals are very close for the monocot and the dicot, their TATA-less signals are significantly different. A general and flexible multi-motif model is also proposed for promoter analysis based on dynamic programming. By extending the Gibbs sampler to the dynamic programming and introducing temperature, an efficient algorithm is developed for searching signals in plant promoters.

  20. Identification and characterization of barley RNA-directed RNA polymerases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Christian Toft; Stephens, Jennifer; Hornyik, Csaba

    2009-01-01

    in dicot species. In this report, we identi!ed and characterized HvRDR1, HvRDR2 and HvRDR6 genes in the monocot plant barley (Hordeum vulgare). We analysed their expression under various biotic and abiotic stresses including fungal and viral infections, salicylic acid treatment as well as during plant...... development. The different classes and subclasses of barley RDRs displayed contrasting expression patterns during pathogen challenge and development suggesting their involvement in speci!c regulatory pathways. Their response to heat and salicylic acid treatment suggests a conserved pattern of expression...

  1. Drug: D06786 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nt: Cylindrin [CPD:C17534] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese med...icine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06786 Imperat...a rhizome (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Other drugs Hemostatic drugs... D06786 Imperata rhizome; Imperatae rhizoma Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Poaceae (grass family) D06786 Imperata rhizome PubChem: 47208437 ...

  2. The Shoot Apical Meristem Size Regulated by FON4 in Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Huangwei

    2007-01-01

    CLAVATA pathway is one of best-characterized signaling pathway involves in the regulation of meristem development in Arabidopsis. Increasing evidence indicated that this pathway also exist in the monocots as well as in the dicots. We have recently identified FON4 in rice as an ortholog of CLV3 in Arabidopsis. FON4 is putative ligand of FON1, which play a role in restricting the meristem size in rice. FON4 and CLV3 are the members of CLE gene family, which encode small functional secreted peptide with a conserved 14-amino acid motif (CLE motif) near or at the C termini. PMID:19704753

  3. Environ: E00115 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00115 Ginger (JP16) Crude drug; Medicinal herb; Zingiberene [CPD:C09750], beta-Bis...PD:C16777], Comphene [CPD:C06076], 1,8-Cineole [DR:D04115], beta-Phellandrene [CPD:C09877 C11392], Myrcene [CPD:C06074], [6]-Ginger...ol [CPD:C10462], [8]-Gingerol [CPD:C17495], [10]-Gingerol ...ale [TAX:94328] Same as: D06744 Zingiberaceae (ginger family) Zingiber officinale rhizome Major component: Ginger...ol [CPD:C10462 C17495 C17496] Medicinal herbs [BR:br08322] Monocot plants Zingiberaceae (ginger family) E00115 Ginger ...

  4. Evolutionary biology studies on the Iris pumila clonal plant: Advantages of a good model system, main findings and directions for further research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarasjev A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary studies on the dwarf bearded iris, Iris pumila L., a perennial clonal monocot with hermaphroditic enthomophylous flowers, have been conducted during the last three decades on plants and populations from the Deliblato Sands in Serbia. In this review we discuss the main advantages of this model system that have enabled various studies of several important genetic, ecological, and evolutionary issues at different levels of biological organization (molecular, physiological, anatomical, morphological and population. Based on published research and its resonance in international scientific literature, we present the main findings obtained from these studies, and discuss possible directions for further research.

  5. ABC model and floral evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guisheng; MENG Zheng; KONG Hongzhi; CHEN Zhiduan; LU Anming

    2003-01-01

    The paper introduces the classical ABC model of floral development and thereafter ABCD, ABCDE and quartet models, and presents achievements in the studies on floral evolution such as the improved understanding on the relationship of reproductive organs between gnetophytes and angiosperms, new results in perianth evolution and identified homology of floral organs between dicots and monocots. The evo-devo studies on plant taxa at different evolutionary levels are useful to better understanding the homology of floral organs, and to clarifying the mysteries of the origin and subsequent diversification of flowers.

  6. Vascular anatomy of the flower of Hyacinthoides non-scripta (L. Chouard ex Rothm. A new insight about a complex placentation pattern in Asparagaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Deroin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Floral vasculature and gynoecium architecture were revised in Hyacinthoides non-scripta (L. Chouard ex Rothm. Receptacle exhibits the usual regular vascular groundplan for monocots, while carpels are united at the ovary bases and by their styles, but very loosely in their middle region, so that a basket-like capsule is ripened. The septal nectary is well developed with two apertures at the ovary base and below the style insertion. Vasculature demonstrated basal ovules pairs sheltered by each carpel are in fact cauline. Thus floral axis appears to be involved in the congenital intercarpellary fusion, an unrecognized feature until now in the core-Asparagales.

  7. Determination of arsenic species in water, soils and plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattusch, J.; Wennrich, R. [UFZ - Center for Environmental Research Leipzig / Halle, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Leipzig (Germany); Schmidt, A.C.; Reisser, W. [University of Leipzig, Institute of Botany, Leipzig (Germany)

    2000-01-01

    Ion chromatographic separation coupled with ICP-MS was used to determine arsenic species in plant and soil extracts. A scheme for growth, harvesting, sample pre-treatment and analysis was developed for the arsenic species to enable determination. Preliminary results obtained with ten herb plants grown on arsenic-contaminated soil compared to non-contaminated soil show a heterogeneous pattern of accumulation rate, metabolization and detoxification mechanisms in monocots and dicots. Arsenite appears to be the major component in plants with good growth. Organic arsenic species were even detected at very low concentrations (< 150 {mu}g kg{sup -1} (dry mass)). (orig.)

  8. The 5′UTR-intron of the Gladiolus polyubiquitin promoter GUBQ1 enhances translation efficiency in Gladiolus and Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamo Kathryn

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are many non-cereal monocots of agronomic, horticultural, and biofuel importance. Successful transformation of these species requires an understanding of factors controlling expression of their genes. Introns have been known to affect both the level and tissue-specific expression of genes in dicots and cereal monocots, but there have been no studies on an intron isolated from a non-cereal monocot. This study characterizes the levels of GUS expression and levels of uidA mRNA that code for β-glucuronidase (GUS expression in leaves of Gladiolus and Arabidopsis using GUBQ1, a polyubiquitin promoter with a 1.234 kb intron, isolated from the non-cereal monocot Gladiolus, and an intronless version of this promoter. Results Gladiolus and Arabidopsis were verified by Southern hybridization to be transformed with the uidA gene that was under control of either the GUBQ1 promoter (1.9 kb, a 5′ GUBQ1 promoter missing its 1.234 kb intron (0.68 kb, or the CaMV 35 S promoter. Histochemical staining showed that GUS was expressed throughout leaves and roots of Gladiolus and Arabidopsis with the 1.9 kb GUBQ1 promoter. GUS expression was significantly decreased in Gladiolus and abolished in Arabidopsis when the 5′UTR-intron was absent. In Arabidopsis and Gladiolus, the presence of uidA mRNA was independent of the presence of the 5′UTR-intron. The 5′-UTR intron enhanced translation efficiency for both Gladiolus and Arabidopsis. Conclusions The GUBQ1 promoter directs high levels of GUS expression in young leaves of both Gladiolus and Arabidopsis. The 5′UTR-intron from GUBQ1 resulted in a similar pattern of β-glucuronidase translation efficiency for both species even though the intron resulted in different patterns of uidA mRNA accumulation for each species.

  9. Drug: D06796 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06796 Crude, Drug Bitter cardamon (JP16); Alpiniae fructus (TN) Nootkatone [CPD:C1...Drugs for Qi Drugs for replenishing Qi D06796 Bitter cardamon; Alpiniae fructus Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Mon...ocot plants Zingiberaceae (ginger family) D06796 Bitter cardamon PubChem: 47208447 ... ...5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06796 Bit...ter cardamon (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs

  10. Pineapple and banana pectins comprise fewer homogalacturonan building blocks with a smaller degree of polymerization as compared with yellow passion fruit and lemon pectins: implication for gelling properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapo, Beda M

    2009-04-13

    Pectins are viewed as multiblock cobiopolymers of different pectic polysaccharides, notably, homogalacturonan (HG) and rhamnogalacturonan I (RG I). Furthermore, on the basis of HGs isolated from different (pectins from) dicot cell walls, HG is supposed to have an average degree of polymerization (DP) of approximately 100 irrespective of the plant source. To validate or invalidate these suppositions, pectins from both monocot (pineapple and banana) and dicot (yellow passion fruit and lemon) cell walls were examined. The results show that all the extracted pectins comprise HGs as well as type I and II arabinogalactan side chain-containing RGs I, but of significantly (p properties of pectin.

  11. Reference: 288 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ly of integral membrane transporters function in cellular detoxification, cell-to-cell signaling, and channel regulation. More re...cently, members of the multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein (...n in both monocots and dicots. Here, we report that the Arabidopsis thaliana MDR/PGP PGP4 functions in the basipetal redire...ction of auxin from the root tip. Reporter gene studies showed tha...l as lateral root formation were reduced in pgp4 mutants compared with the wild type. pgp4 exhibited re

  12. Discrimination of corn from monocotyledonous weeds with ultraviolet (UV) induced fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panneton, Bernard; Guillaume, Serge; Samson, Guy; Roger, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    In production agriculture, savings in herbicides can be achieved if weeds can be discriminated from crop, allowing the targeting of weed control to weed-infested areas only. Previous studies demonstrated the potential of ultraviolet (UV) induced fluorescence to discriminate corn from weeds and recently, robust models have been obtained for the discrimination between monocots (including corn) and dicots. Here, we developed a new approach to achieve robust discrimination of monocot weeds from corn. To this end, four corn hybrids (Elite 60T05, Monsanto DKC 26-78, Pioneer 39Y85 (RR), and Syngenta N2555 (Bt, LL)) and four monocot weeds (Digitaria ischaemum (Schreb.) I, Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv., Panicum capillare (L.), and Setaria glauca (L.) Beauv.) were grown either in a greenhouse or in a growth cabinet and UV (327 nm) induced fluorescence spectra (400 to 755 nm) were measured under controlled or uncontrolled ambient light intensity and temperature. This resulted in three contrasting data sets suitable for testing the robustness of discrimination models. In the blue-green region (400 to 550 nm), the shape of the spectra did not contain any useful information for discrimination. Therefore, the integral of the blue-green region (415 to 455 nm) was used as a normalizing factor for the red fluorescence intensity (670 to 755 nm). The shape of the normalized red fluorescence spectra did not contribute to the discrimination and in the end, only the integral of the normalized red fluorescence intensity was left as a single discriminant variable. Applying a threshold on this variable minimizing the classification error resulted in calibration errors ranging from 14.2% to 15.8%, but this threshold varied largely between data sets. Therefore, to achieve robustness, a model calibration scheme was developed based on the collection of a calibration data set from 75 corn plants. From this set, a new threshold can be estimated as the 85% quantile on the cumulative frequency

  13. Functional divergence of the NIP III subgroup proteins involved altered selective constraints and positive selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Zhujun

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nod26-like intrinsic proteins (NIPs that belong to the aquaporin superfamily are unique to plants. According to homology modeling and phylogenetic analysis, the NIP subfamily can be further divided into three subgroups with distinct biological functions (NIP I, NIP II, and NIP III. In some grasses, the NIP III subgroup proteins (NIP2s were demonstrated to be permeable to solutes with larger diameter, such as silicic acid and arsenous acids. However, to date there is no data-mining or direct experimental evidences for the permeability of such larger solutes for dicot NIP2s, although they exhibit similar three-dimensional structures as those in grasses. It is therefore intriguing to investigate the molecular mechanisms that drive the evolution of plant NIP2s. Results The NIP III subgroup is more ancient with a divergence time that predates the monocot-dicot split. The proliferation of NIP2 genes in modern grass species is primarily attributed to whole genome and segmental chromosomal duplication events. The structure of NIP2 genes is relatively conserved, possessing five exons and four introns. All NIP2s possess an ar/R filter consisting of G, S, G, and R, except for the cucumber CsNIP2;2, where a small G in the H2 is substituted with the bulkier C residue. Our maximum likelihood analysis revealed that NIP2s, especially the loop A (LA region, have undergone strong selective pressure for adaptive evolution. The analysis at the amino acid level provided strong statistical evidences for the functional divergence between monocot and dicot NIP III subgroup proteins. In addition, several SDPs (Specificity Determining Positions responsible for functional specificity were predicted. Conclusions The present study provides the first evidences of functional divergence between dicot and monocot NIP2s, and suggests that positive selection, as well as a radical shift of evolutionary rate at some critical amino acid sites is the primary

  14. Use of solaria to predict weed density and floristic composition in no-till cropping systems Uso de solaria na predição da densidade de ervas daninhas e da composição florística no sistema de semeadura direta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Antonio Calviño

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of a new method, developed for predicting density and floristic composition of weed communities in field crops. Based on the use of solaria (100 mm transparent plastic tarps lying on the soil to stimulate weed seedlings emergence, the method was tested in Tandil, Argentina, from 1998 to 2001. The system involved corn and sunflower in commercial no-till system. Major weeds in the experiments included Digitaria sanguinalis, Setaria verticillata and S. viridis, which accounted for 98% of the weed community in the three years of experiments since 1998. Large numbers of Tagetes minuta, Chenopodium album and Ammi majus were present in 2001. Comparison of weed communities under solaria with communities in field crops indicated that the method is useful for predicting the presence and density of some major weed species, at both high and low densities, of individuals in areas of 10 ha using only five solaria. Low density of weed species makes the method particularly useful to help deciding the time for herbicide applications to avoid soil contamination.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de novo método, desenvolvido para predizer a densidade e a composição florística das comunidades de plantas daninhas. O método é baseado no uso de solaria (plástico transparente de 100 mm sobre o solo, a fim de estimular o aparecimento de ervas daninhas, e foi testado em Tandil, Argentina, de 1998 a 2001. O sistema envolve milho e girassol, em cultivos comerciais em semeadura direta. As principais espécies experimentadas foram Digitaria sanguinalis, Setaria verticillata e S. viridis, que responderam por 98% da comunidade nos três anos de experiência. Números altos de Tagetes minuta, Chenopodium album e Ammi majus estavam presentes em 2001. A comparação de comunidades de ervas daninhas sob solaria com comunidades fora de solaria indicou que o método é útil para predizer a presença e

  15. Diversidad de Agaricomycetes clavarioides en la Estación de Biología de Chamela, Jalisco, México Diversity of clavarioid Agaricomycetes at the Chamela Biological Station, Jalisco, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itzel Ramírez-López

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio es una contribución al conocimiento de la diversidad y estructura de los Agaricomycetes clavarioides que se desarrollan en los bosques tropicales de la Estación de Biología de Chamela, Jalisco, México. Las recolecciones se realizaron durante la temporada de lluvias de los años 2005 a 2008; se registraron datos de hábitat y morfología de los basidiomas, tipo de vegetación y sustrato donde se desarrollan, así como del patrón de crecimiento, área de distribución, abundancia y orientación e inclinación de las laderas donde se localizaron. Los 86 ejemplares registrados corresponden a 17 especies, de las cuales Physalacria changensis, P. inflata, Pterula verticillata y Scytinopogon scaber son nuevos registros para México. Scytinopogon pallescens, Pterula sp. 2 y Thelephora sp. fueron las más abundantes y 6 especies se registraron sólo 1 vez. Los datos obtenidos indican que la frecuencia con la que se hallan los basidiomas de los clavarioides en los distintos hábitats no es aleatoria, sino que su producción se da preferentemente en las laderas sur con inclinación de 21° a 30° y en el bosque tropical subperennifolio.This study is a contribution to the biodiversity and community structure of clavarioid Agaricomycetes in the tropical forests of the Chamela Biological Station, in Jalisco, Mexico. The collections were made during the rainy seasons from 2005 to 2008 during which we recorded the morphological and ecological information, including basidiocarp morphology and patterns of growth. Likewise, records were also taken for habitat preferences, types of substrate, orientation, slope inclination, range of distribution and abundance. The 86 specimens recorded, corresponded to 17 different species, from which Physalacria changensis, P. inflata, Pterula verticillata and Scytinopogon scaber are new records for Mexico. The species S. pallescens, Pterula sp. 2 and Thelephora sp. were the most abundant, while other 6 species

  16. Pollen analysis in honey samples from the two main producing regions in the Brazilian northeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geni da S. Sodré

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge about the botanical source of honey is very important for the beekeeper while it indicates adequate and abundant supply sources of nectar and pollen for the bees, thus contributing toward improved yield. The present study means to identify the pollen types occurring in 58 samples of honey produced in two states of the northeastern region of Brazil, Piauí (38 samples and Ceará (20 samples, and to verify the potential of the honey plants during the months of February to August. The samples were obtained directly from beekeepers in each state and analyzed at the Apiculture Laboratory of the Entomology Section of Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", USP, Piracicaba, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The pollen analysis was performed using the acetolysis method. The samples were submitted to both a qualitative and a quantitative analysis. The dominant pollen in the State of Ceará is from Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia, M. verrucosa, Borreria verticillata, Serjania sp., and a Fabaceae pollen type, while in the State of Piauí it is from Piptadenia sp., M. caesalpiniaefolia, M. verrucosa, Croton urucurana and Tibouchina sp.O conhecimento da origem botânica do mel é de grande importância para o apicultor por indicar fontes adequadas e de abundante suprimento de néctar e pólen para as abelhas, contribuindo, desta forma, para uma melhor produção. O presente estudo teve como objetivo identificar os tipos polínicos em 58 amostras de méis produzidos em dois estados da região nordeste do Brasil, Piauí (38 amostras e Ceará (20 amostras, verificando o potencial das plantas apícolas durante os meses de fevereiro a agosto. As amostras foram obtidas diretamente de apicultores de cada Estado e analisadas no Laboratório de Apicultura do Setor de Entomologia da Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", USP, Piracicaba, Estado de São Paulo. A análise polínica foi realizada utilizando-se o método da acetólise. As amostras foram

  17. Clorofíceas marinhas bentônicas da Praia de Serrambi, Pernambuco, Brasil Benthic marine Chlorophyceae from Serrambi Beach, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Maria Barreto Pereira

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available É apresentado o levantamento florístico sobre as clorofíceas marinhas bentônicas encontradas na Praia de Serrambi, litoral Sul do Estado de Pernambuco. O material estudado foi coletado em três estações, as quais foram visitadas mensalmente durante o período de abril de 1986 a setembro de 1987. As clorofíceas foram representadas na flora local por 39 espécies, três variedades e uma forma, pertencentes às ordens Ulotrichales, Ulvales, Siphonocladales, Cladophorales, Caulerpales e Dasycladales. Acetabularia calyculus Quoy & Gaimard. In Freycinet, Bryopsis pennata Lamouroux, Bryopsis plumosa (Hudson C. Agardh, Caulerpa ambigua Okamura, Caulerpa serrulata (Forsskål J. Agardh emend Børgesen, Chaetomorpha brachygona Harvey, Cladophora coelothrix Kützing, Cladophoropsis membranacea (C. Agardh Børgesen, Codium intertextum Collins & Hervey, Ernodesmis verticillata (Kützing Børgesen são novas referências para a flora do litoral de Pernambuco. Pringsheimiella scutata (Reinke von Höhnel ex Marchewianka o é também para o litoral continental do Brasil. Halimeda opuntia (L. Lamouroux foi hospedeira de maior número de epífitas, enquanto Bryopsis plumosa, quando epífita, foi a que cresceu sobre maior número de hospedeiros.This survey presents studies about benthics marine chlorophyceae found in the Serrambi Beach, South coast of Pernambuco. The material studied was collected in three stations, which were visited monthly during the period from April, 1986 to September, 1987. The chlorophyceae were represented in this flora by 39 species, three varieties and one form, from orders Ulotrichales, Ulvales, Siphonocladales, Cladophorales, Caulerpales and Dasycladales. Acetabularia calyculus Quoy & Gaimard. In Freycinet, Bryopsis pennata Lamouroux, Bryopsis plumosa (Hudson C. Agardh, Caulerpa ambigua Okamura, Caulerpa serrulata (Forsskål J. Agardh emend Børgesen, Chaetomorpha brachygona Harvey, Cladophora coelothrix Kützing, Cladophoropsis

  18. Descriptions and Seasonal Variations of Various Biotopes and Ecotones of Indus River Bed at Chashma Barrage, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahira Hussain

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to find the diversity index of flora, investigation of species at pond area and biomass calculation of economic plants at Chashma Barrage, Pakistan. The study area consisted of river Bella, pond area and eastern edge of river bed near Ali Wali Ghandi village at Chashma Barrage. The seasonal variation in the abundance of floral species was also related with the increase in temperature. Cyperus deformus, Phragmites kerka, Saccharum spontaneum were most abundant in the river ‘Bella’ habitat. Persicassia amphibian, Cyperus deformus and Polygonum royleanum were abundant in Aliwali Ghandi habitat. Aquatic plants of families Potamogetonaceae, Nymphaeaceae, Najadaceae and Hydrocharitaceae were most common in pond area . The ecotones were wide and variable between the aquatic biotopes and the river bed biotopes. On the Aliwali Ghandi site the moist soil with puddles and small channels of water were found and Cyperus deformus biotope prevailed. In the river ‘Bella’ site Phragmites, Sacharum was the biotope and in water Hydrilla biotope was recorded. An increase in biomass of Phragmites, Sacharum and Typha was recorded with the passage of time. The species of the area have significant importance in socio economics of the local community of Chashma Barrage.

  19. Phytoplankton community of Lake Baskandi anua, Cachar District, Assam, North East India – An ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi M.B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversity, relative abundance and dominance of phytoplankton community of the Lake Baskandi anua, an oxbow lake of Assam, North east India were studied during December 2009 to November 2010. Chlorophyll content and biomass of phytoplankton along with physico-chemical properties of water of the lake were also estimated. The lake is covered with Hydrilla and other macrophytes like Eichhornia, Trapa, Altrnenthera, Polygonum, Ludwizia sp., etc. Seasonal fluctuations of 41 genera of phytoplankton, belonging to 5 groups (Chlorophyceae, Cyanobacteria, Bacillariophyceae, Euglenophyceae and Dinophyceae were encountered in the lake. Chlorophyceae was found to be highest in winter, Cyanobacteria and Euglena in monsoon and Bacillariophyceae in pre monsoon. According to Engelmann’s scale, Spirogyra indica was found eudominant followed by 10 dominant, 24 subdominant and 20 recedent species. Chlorophyll- a content of phytoplankton varied from 14.18 to 33.89 μg·L-1, during the study period. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA revealed significant seasonal variation in physico-chemical properties of water like Water temperature, pH, Conductivity, Dissolved oxygen, Free CO2, Total alkalinity, Calcium, Chloride, Nitrate and Ammonia. Relationship between phytoplankton group assemblage and environmental variables were explored by the ordination method CCA (Canonical Correspondence Analysis.

  20. Performa Udang Hias Red Cherry (Neocaridina heteropoda pada Fase Pembesaran Melalui Aplikasi Warna Wadah Berbeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Subamia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp red cherry shrimp is one of the ornamental potential developed. One of the conservation efforts can be made to increase production by optimizing keragaannya on enlargement phase. This study aims at scaling up the production of red cherry shrimp, especially in the phase of enlargement. Treatment in the form of background color is composed of (A without colors (control, (B white, (C in black, and (D red. Each treatment was repeated three times with a 45-day long research. Container maintenance in the form of an aquarium measuring 14x14x14 cm3 volume of 1 l and equipped with aeration. The prawns used were 10 fish / aquarium with a weighted average of 0.018 ± 0.21 g and the total length of the average of 0.82 ± 0.21 cm. Feeding in the form of an ad bloodworm satiation and include aquatic plant Hydrilla sp. as a source of additional food and shelter in the form of detritus. The results showed that the weight gain and the highest long background color was achieved by treatment D (red which is equal to 0.09 ± 0.3 g and 1.62 ± 0.3 cm. Survival at each treatment reached 100%. The water quality of all treatments during the study period remained within normal limits.

  1. Aquatic Food Plants and their Consumer Birds at Sandi Bird Sanctuary, Hardoi, Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushalendra Kumar Jha

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the Bird Sanctuaries of Uttar Pradesh, Sandi, was selected for studying some ecological aspects like, aquatic food plants, their food calendar and dependent birds of migratory as well as resident origin. The study site is considered as an ideal wetland. This is located at 27o15’ N and 79o55’ E. Thirty four food plant species were identified to be eaten by 16 birds.These plants were the species of Alloteropsis, Arundo, Azolla, Ceratophyllum, Chloris, Commelina, Cyperus, Echinochloa, Eichhornia, Eleocharis, Hydrilla, Ipomoea, Jussiaea, Lemna, Najas, Nelumbo, Nymphea, Nymphoides, Oryza, Pistia, Polygonum, Potamogeton, Scirpus, Spirodela, Trapa, Typha, Vallisneria, and Wolffia. Common consumer birds eating plant parts were Coot, Pochards, Teal, Wigeon, Gadwal, Gargany, Goose, Whistling-duck, Mallard, Pintail, Shoveler, and Swamphen. These are primarily the migratory birds except Coot, Whistling-duck and Swamphen. Spot-billed Duck, and Indian Moorhen were occasionally seen eating submerged hydrophytes and filamentous slimy green algae. On the basis of multi-strata growth of plants in the Sanctuary a wetland profile was prepared. Food calendar i.e., availability of palatable parts of plants during different months was recorded. Information collected in the study could be used for habitat management, especially the weed removal and ensuring food sustainability for the vegetarian birds.

  2. Fish abundances in shoreline habitats and submerged aquatic vegetation in a tidal freshwater embayment of the Potomac River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Richard T; Jones, R Christian

    2012-05-01

    Submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) is considered an important habitat for juvenile and small forage fish species, but many long-term recruitment surveys do not effectively monitor fish communities in SAV. To better understand the impact of recent large increases of SAV on the fish community in tidal freshwater reaches of the Potomac River, we compared traditional seine sampling from shore with drop ring sampling of SAV beds (primarily Hydrilla) in a shallow water (depths, shoreline and SAV habitats in late summer of three different years (2007, 2008, and 2009). For the dominant species (Fundulus diaphanus, Lepomis macrochirus, Etheostoma olmstedi, Morone americana, Lepomis gibbosus, and Fundulus heteroclitus), density was nearly always higher in SAV, but overall, species richness was highest in shoreline habitats sampled with seines. Although historical monitoring of fish in Gunston Cove (and throughout Chesapeake Bay) is based upon seine sampling (and trawl sampling in deeper areas), the high densities of fish and larger areal extent of SAV indicated that complementary sampling of SAV habitats would produce more accurate trends in abundances of common species. Because drop ring samples cover much less area than seines and may miss rare species, a combination of methods that includes seine sampling is needed for biodiversity assessment. The resurgence of SAV in tidal freshwater signifies improving water quality, and methods we evaluated here support improved inferences about population trends and fish community structure as indicators of ecosystem condition.

  3. Correlation between pollen morphology and pollination mechanisms in the Hydrocharitaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Norio; Uehara, Koichi; Murata, Jin

    2004-08-01

    The pollen morphology of 11 genera and 11 species of the Hydrocharitaceae and one species of the Najadaceae was studied using scanning and transmission electron microscopies, and the exine structures and sculptures are discussed in relation to pollination mechanisms and the molecular phylogeny. The pollen grains of the Hydrocharitaceae are spherical, inaperturate, and form monads or tetrads, while those of the Najadaceae are elliptical, inaperturate, and form monads. The entomophilous genera Egeria, Blyxa, Ottelia, Stratiotes, and Hydrocharis share pollen grains that have projections like spines or bacula. The anemophilous genus Limnobium has reticulate pollen grains. The hypohydrophilous genera Thalassia and Najas are characterized by pollen grains with reduced exine structures. The pollen-epihydrophilous genera Elodea and Hydrilla have tightly arranged small spinous pollen grains, and the male flower-epihydrophilous genera Enhalus and Vallisneria have reduced reticulate or gemmate exines. Character state reconstruction of the exine structures and sculptures using a molecular phylogenetic tree suggests that variation in the exine is generally correlated with the pollination mechanism; the selective pressures acting on the pollination mechanisms have reduced the exine structure in hypohydrophilous plants and resulted in various exine sculptures that are adapted to the different pollination mechanisms in entomophilous, anemophilous, and pollen-epihydrophilous plants.

  4. Studies on weed diversity and its associated phytosociology under direct dry seeded rice systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantosh Kumar Sinha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Chhattisgarh is commonly known as Bowl of rice where rice is grown as monocrop in the entire state whether soil is bhata, matasi, kanhar or black soil. Present study is based on the study of biodiversity of weeds under Direct Dry Seeded Rice Systems in Koria District (C.G. Study was conducted to assess the phytosociological studies of weed species in paddy field at Baikunthpur, Koriya district, Chattisgarh. A total of 43 genera and 9 families of Dicotyledonae and 3 families of monocots and 1 Pteridophytes was also observed and 43 weed species were identified Ratio of Sedges: (Grasses:Broad-leaved weeds was calculated as 9:12:18 Ratio under direct dry seeded rice systems. The results obtained indicated that Echinochloa colona, Cyperus iria and Cynodon dactylon were the most frequent in 2007; E. colona and C. iria were the most frequent in 2008 and 2009. The importance value index (IVI revealed that the most important weeds within the community were Poaceae and Cyperaceae. Out of 12 angiosperm families the predominance was shown by monocot families Cyperaceae and Poaceae having and weed species, respectively. The pteridophyta family Marsileaceae was represented by 1 weed species.

  5. Tracing the origin and evolution of plant TIR-encoding genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoqin; Pang, Hui; Li, Mimi; Chen, Jianqun; Hang, Yueyu

    2014-08-10

    Toll-interleukin-1 receptor (TIR)-encoding proteins represent one of the most important families of disease resistance genes in plants. Studies that have explored the functional details of these genes tended to focus on only a few limited groups; the origin and evolutionary history of these genes were therefore unclear. In this study, focusing on the four principal groups of TIR-encoding genes, we conducted an extensive genome-wide survey of 32 fully sequenced plant genomes and Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) from the gymnosperm Pinus taeda and explored the origins and evolution of these genes. Through the identification of the TIR-encoding genes, the analysis of chromosome positions, the identification and analysis of conserved motifs, and sequence alignment and phylogenetic reconstruction, our results showed that the genes of the TIR-X family (TXs) had an earlier origin and a wider distribution than the genes from the other three groups. TIR-encoding genes experienced large-scale gene duplications during evolution. A skeleton motif pattern of the TIR domain was present in all spermatophytes, and the genes with this skeleton pattern exhibited a conserved and independent evolutionary history in all spermatophytes, including monocots, that followed their gymnosperm origin. This study used comparative genomics to explore the origin and evolutionary history of the four main groups of TIR-encoding genes. Additionally, we unraveled the mechanism behind the uneven distribution of TIR-encoding genes in dicots and monocots.

  6. A Targeted Enrichment Strategy for Massively Parallel Sequencing of Angiosperm Plastid Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory W. Stull

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: We explored a targeted enrichment strategy to facilitate rapid and low-cost next-generation sequencing (NGS of numerous complete plastid genomes from across the phylogenetic breadth of angiosperms. Methods and Results: A custom RNA probe set including the complete sequences of 22 previously sequenced eudicot plastomes was designed to facilitate hybridization-based targeted enrichment of eudicot plastid genomes. Using this probe set and an Agilent SureSelect targeted enrichment kit, we conducted an enrichment experiment including 24 angiosperms (22 eudicots, two monocots, which were subsequently sequenced on a single lane of the Illumina GAIIx with single-end, 100-bp reads. This approach yielded nearly complete to complete plastid genomes with exceptionally high coverage (mean coverage: 717×, even for the two monocots. Conclusions: Our enrichment experiment was highly successful even though many aspects of the capture process employed were suboptimal. Hence, significant improvements to this methodology are feasible. With this general approach and probe set, it should be possible to sequence more than 300 essentially complete plastid genomes in a single Illumina GAIIx lane (achieving 50× mean coverage. However, given the complications of pooling numerous samples for multiplex sequencing and the limited number of barcodes (e.g., 96 available in commercial kits, we recommend 96 samples as a current practical maximum for multiplex plastome sequencing. This high-throughput approach should facilitate large-scale plastid genome sequencing at any level of phylogenetic diversity in angiosperms.

  7. Unique and Conserved Features of the Barley Root Meristem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwendolyn K. Kirschner

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant root growth is enabled by root meristems that harbor the stem cell niches as a source of progenitors for the different root tissues. Understanding the root development of diverse plant species is important to be able to control root growth in order to gain better performances of crop plants. In this study, we analyzed the root meristem of the fourth most abundant crop plant, barley (Hordeum vulgare. Cell division studies revealed that the barley stem cell niche comprises a Quiescent Center (QC of around 30 cells with low mitotic activity. The surrounding stem cells contribute to root growth through the production of new cells that are displaced from the meristem, elongate and differentiate into specialized root tissues. The distal stem cells produce the root cap and lateral root cap cells, while cells lateral to the QC generate the epidermis, as it is typical for monocots. Endodermis and inner cortex are derived from one common initial lateral to the QC, while the outer cortex cell layers are derived from a distinct stem cell. In rice and Arabidopsis, meristem homeostasis is achieved through feedback signaling from differentiated cells involving peptides of the CLE family. Application of synthetic CLE40 orthologous peptide from barley promotes meristem cell differentiation, similar to rice and Arabidopsis. However, in contrast to Arabidopsis, the columella stem cells do not respond to the CLE40 peptide, indicating that distinct mechanisms control columella cell fate in monocot and dicot plants.

  8. Identification of sugarcane cDNAs encoding components of the cell cycle machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrietta Mírian Helene

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on cell cycle research in plants indicate that the majority of the fundamental regulators are conserved with other eukaryotes, but the controlling mechanisms imposed on them, and their integration into growth and development is unique to plants. To date, most studies on cell division have been conducted in dicot plants. However, monocot plants have distinct developmental strategies that will affect the regulation of cell division at the meristems. In order to advance our understanding how cell division is integrated with the basic mechanisms controlling cell growth and development in monocots, we took advantage of the sugarcane EST Project (Sucest to carry an exhaustive data mining to identify components of the cell cycle machinery. Results obtained include the description of distinct classes of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs; A, B, D, and H-type cyclins; CDK-interacting proteins, CDK-inhibitory and activating kinases, pRB and E2F transcription factors. Most sugarcane cell cycle genes seem to be member of multigene families. Like in dicot plants, CDKa transcription is not restricted to tissues with elevated meristematic activity, but the vast majority of CDKb-related ESTs are found in regions of high proliferation rates. Expression of CKI genes is far more abundant in regions of less cell division, notably in lateral buds. Shared expression patterns for a group of clusters was unraveled by transcriptional profiling, and we suggest that similar approaches could be used to identify genes that are part of the same regulatory network.

  9. Long-term CO{sub 2} enrichment of a pasture community: Species richness, dominance, and succession

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potvin, C.; Vasseur, L. [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    1997-04-01

    The present study addresses responses of a pasture community to CO{sub 2} enrichment in situ. It focused on two levels of organization. We examined changes in both community properties and species-specific responses during long-term exposure to high CO{sub 2} concentration. The underlying hypothesis is that CO{sub 2} enrichment could change community composition. At the community level, we observed higher species richness and lesser dominance under enriched than ambient CO{sub 2}. Two species were apparently central in explaining our results. Agropyran repens and Plantago major. The cover of this first species increased only under ambient CO{sub 2}. Conversely, the cover of the latter species decreased under ambient CO{sub 2} but remained stable under enriched CO{sub 2}. Species were pooled into dicots and monocots to examine space acquisition. Changes in monocot cover through time were more tightly coupled with that of dicots under ambient than high CO{sub 2}. Enrichment with CO{sub 2} appeared to have a positive effect on the early-successional species, preventing the complete dominance by late-successional species. In fact, under elevated CO{sub 2} early-and late-successional species were coexisting. Therefore, our results suggest the possibility that succession patterns might be altered by CO{sub 2} enrichment apparently because enriched CO{sub 2} stimulates the growth of dicots. 40 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Evidence for plant viruses in the region of Argentina Islands, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polischuk, Valery; Budzanivska, Irena; Shevchenko, Tetyana; Oliynik, Svitlana

    2007-02-01

    This work focused on the assessment of plant virus occurrence among primitive and higher plants in the Antarctic region. Sampling occurred during two seasons (2004/5 and 2005/6) at the Ukrainian Antarctic Station 'Academician Vernadskiy' positioned on Argentina Islands. Collected plant samples of four moss genera (Polytrichum, Plagiatecium, Sanionia and Barbilophozia) and one higher monocot plant species, Deschampsia antarctica, were further subjected to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to test for the presence of common plant viruses. Surprisingly, samples of Barbilophozia and Polytrichum mosses were found to contain antigens of viruses from the genus Tobamovirus, Tobacco mosaic virus and Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus, which normally parasitize angiosperms. By contrast, samples of the monocot Deschampsia antarctica were positive for viruses typically infecting dicots: Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus, Cucumber mosaic virus and Tomato spotted wilt virus. Serological data for Deschampsia antarctica were supported in part by transmission electron microscopy observations and bioassay results. The results demonstrate comparatively high diversity of plant viruses detected in Antarctica; the results also raise questions of virus specificity and host susceptibility, as the detected viruses normally infect dicotyledonous plants. However, the means of plant virus emergence in the region remain elusive and are discussed.

  11. TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA 1 ubiquitously regulates plant growth and development from Arabidopsis to foxtail millet (Setaria italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kaige; Qi, Shuanghui; Li, Dong; Jin, Changyu; Gao, Chenhao; Duan, Shaowei; Feng, Baili; Chen, Mingxun

    2017-01-01

    TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA 1 of Arabidopsis thaliana (AtTTG1) is a WD40 repeat transcription factor that plays multiple roles in plant growth and development, particularly in seed metabolite production. In the present study, to determine whether SiTTG1 of the phylogenetically distant monocot foxtail millet (Setaria italica) has similar functions, we used transgenic Arabidopsis and Nicotiana systems to explore its activities. We found that SiTTG1 functions as a transcription factor. Overexpression of the SiTTG1 gene rescued many of the mutant phenotypes in Arabidopsis ttg1-13 plants. Additionally, SiTTG1 overexpression fully corrected the reduced expression of mucilage biosynthetic genes, and the induced expression of genes involved in accumulation of seed fatty acids and storage proteins in developing seeds of ttg1-13 plants. Ectopic expression of SiTTG1 restored the sensitivity of the ttg1-13 mutant to salinity and high glucose stresses during germination and seedling establishment, and restored altered expression levels of some stress-responsive genes in ttg1-13 seedlings to the wild type level under salinity and glucose stresses. Our results provide information that will be valuable for understanding the function of TTG1 from monocot to dicot species and identifying a promising target for genetic manipulation of foxtail millet to improve the amount of seed metabolites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Functional analysis of NLP genes from Botrytis elliptica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Martijn; VAN Baarlen, Peter; Schouten, Alexander; VAN Kan, Jan A L

    2007-03-01

    SUMMARY We functionally analysed two Nep1-like protein (NLP) genes from Botrytis elliptica (a specialized pathogen of lily), encoding proteins homologous to the necrosis and ethylene-inducing protein (NEP1) from Fusarium oxysporum. Single gene replacement mutants were made for BeNEP1 and BeNEP2, providing the first example of transformation and successful targeted mutagenesis in this fungus. The virulence of both mutants on lily leaves was not affected. BeNEP1 and BeNEP2 were individually expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris, and the necrosis-inducing activity was tested by infiltration of both proteins into leaves of several monocots and eudicots. Necrotic symptoms developed on the eudicots tobacco, Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis thaliana, and cell death was induced in tomato cell suspensions. No necrotic symptoms developed on leaves of the monocots rice, maize and lily. These results support the hypothesis that the necrosis-inducing activity of NLPs is limited to eudicots. We conclude that NLPs are not essential virulence factors and they do not function as host-selective toxins for B. elliptica.

  13. Defective Pollen Wall is Required for Anther and Microspore Development in Rice and Encodes a Fatty Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, J.; Shanklin, J.; Tan, H.; Yu, X.-H.; Liu, Y.; Liang, W.; Ranathunge, K.; Franke, R. B.; Schreiber, L.; Wang, Y.; Kai, G.; Ma, H.; Zhang, D.

    2011-06-01

    Aliphatic alcohols naturally exist in many organisms as important cellular components; however, their roles in extracellular polymer biosynthesis are poorly defined. We report here the isolation and characterization of a rice (Oryza sativa) male-sterile mutant, defective pollen wall (dpw), which displays defective anther development and degenerated pollen grains with an irregular exine. Chemical analysis revealed that dpw anthers had a dramatic reduction in cutin monomers and an altered composition of cuticular wax, as well as soluble fatty acids and alcohols. Using map-based cloning, we identified the DPW gene, which is expressed in both tapetal cells and microspores during anther development. Biochemical analysis of the recombinant DPW enzyme shows that it is a novel fatty acid reductase that produces 1-hexadecanol and exhibits >270-fold higher specificity for palmiltoyl-acyl carrier protein than for C16:0 CoA substrates. DPW was predominantly targeted to plastids mediated by its N-terminal transit peptide. Moreover, we demonstrate that the monocot DPW from rice complements the dicot Arabidopsis thaliana male sterile2 (ms2) mutant and is the probable ortholog of MS2. These data suggest that DPWs participate in a conserved step in primary fatty alcohol synthesis for anther cuticle and pollen sporopollenin biosynthesis in monocots and dicots.

  14. New insights into the interplay between codon bias determinants in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camiolo, S; Melito, S; Porceddu, A

    2015-12-01

    Codon bias is the non-random use of synonymous codons, a phenomenon that has been observed in species as diverse as bacteria, plants and mammals. The preferential use of particular synonymous codons may reflect neutral mechanisms (e.g. mutational bias, G|C-biased gene conversion, genetic drift) and/or selection for mRNA stability, translational efficiency and accuracy. The extent to which these different factors influence codon usage is unknown, so we dissected the contribution of mutational bias and selection towards codon bias in genes from 15 eudicots, 4 monocots and 2 mosses. We analysed the frequency of mononucleotides, dinucleotides and trinucleotides and investigated whether the compositional genomic background could account for the observed codon usage profiles. Neutral forces such as mutational pressure and G|C-biased gene conversion appeared to underlie most of the observed codon bias, although there was also evidence for the selection of optimal translational efficiency and mRNA folding. Our data confirmed the compositional differences between monocots and dicots, with the former featuring in general a lower background compositional bias but a higher overall codon bias. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  15. Late cretaceous aquatic plant world in Patagonia, Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Rubén Cúneo

    Full Text Available In this contribution, we describe latest Cretaceous aquatic plant communities from the La Colonia Formation, Patagonia, Argentina, based on their taxonomic components and paleoecological attributes. The La Colonia Formation is a geological unit deposited during a Maastrichtian-Danian transgressive episode of the South Atlantic Ocean. This event resulted in the deposition of a series of fine-grained sediments associated with lagoon systems occurring along irregular coastal plains in northern Patagonia. These deposits preserved a diverse biota, including aquatic and terrestrial plants and animals. The aquatic macrophytes can be broadly divided into two groups: free-floating and rooted, the latter with emergent or floating leaves. Free-floating macrophytes include ferns in Salviniaceae (Azolla and Paleoazolla and a monocot (Araceae. Floating microphytes include green algae (Botryoccocus, Pediastrum and Zygnemataceae. Among the rooted components, marsileaceous water ferns (including Regnellidium and an extinct form and the eudicot angiosperm Nelumbo (Nelumbonaceae are the dominant groups. Terrestrial plants occurring in the vegetation surrounding the lagoons include monocots (palms and Typhaceae, ferns with affinities to Dicksoniaceae, conifers, and dicots. A reconstruction of the aquatic plant paleocommuniy is provided based on the distribution of the fossils along a freshwater horizon within the La Colonia Formation. This contribution constitutes the first reconstruction of a Cretaceous aquatic habitat for southern South America.

  16. Riverine Dissolved Organic Matter Degradation Modeled Through Microbial Incubations of Vascular Plant Leachates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harfmann, J.; Hernes, P.; Chuang, C. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) contains as much carbon as is in the atmosphere, provides the main link between terrestrial and marine carbon reservoirs, and fuels the microbial food web. The fate and removal of DOM is a result of several complex conditions and processes, including photodegradation, sorption/desorption, dominant vascular plant sources, and microbial abundance. In order to better constrain factors affecting microbial degradation, laboratory incubations were performed using Sacramento River water for microbial inoculums and vascular plant leachates. Four vascular plant sources were chosen based on their dominance in the Sacramento River Valley: gymnosperm needles from Pinus sabiniana (foothill pine), angiosperm dicot leaves from Quercus douglassi (blue oak), angiosperm monocot mixed annual grasses, and angiosperm monocot mixed Schoenoplectus acutus (tule) and Typha spp. (cattails). Three concentrations of microbial inoculum were used for each plant material, ranging from 0.2% to 10%. Degradation was monitored as a function of time using dissolved organic carbon (DOC), UV-Vis absorbance, and fluorescent dissolved organic matter (fDOM), and was compared across vascular plant type and inoculum concentration.

  17. Stress tolerance in plants via habitat-adapted symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Rusty J; Henson, Joan; Van Volkenburgh, Elizabeth; Hoy, Marshal; Wright, Leesa; Beckwith, Fleur; Kim, Yong-Ok; Redman, Regina S

    2008-04-01

    We demonstrate that native grass species from coastal and geothermal habitats require symbiotic fungal endophytes for salt and heat tolerance, respectively. Symbiotically conferred stress tolerance is a habitat-specific phenomenon with geothermal endophytes conferring heat but not salt tolerance, and coastal endophytes conferring salt but not heat tolerance. The same fungal species isolated from plants in habitats devoid of salt or heat stress did not confer these stress tolerances. Moreover, fungal endophytes from agricultural crops conferred disease resistance and not salt or heat tolerance. We define habitat-specific, symbiotically-conferred stress tolerance as habitat-adapted symbiosis and hypothesize that it is responsible for the establishment of plants in high-stress habitats. The agricultural, coastal and geothermal plant endophytes also colonized tomato (a model eudicot) and conferred disease, salt and heat tolerance, respectively. In addition, the coastal plant endophyte colonized rice (a model monocot) and conferred salt tolerance. These endophytes have a broad host range encompassing both monocots and eudicots. Interestingly, the endophytes also conferred drought tolerance to plants regardless of the habitat of origin. Abiotic stress tolerance correlated either with a decrease in water consumption or reactive oxygen sensitivity/generation but not to increased osmolyte production. The ability of fungal endophytes to confer stress tolerance to plants may provide a novel strategy for mitigating the impacts of global climate change on agricultural and native plant communities.

  18. Genetic modification of wetland grasses for phytoremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czako, M.; Liang Dali; Marton, L. [Dept. of Biological Sciences, Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Feng Xianzhong; He Yuke [National Lab. of Plant Molecular Genetics, Shanghai Inst. of Plant Physiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, SH (China)

    2005-04-01

    Wetland grasses and grass-like monocots are very important natural remediators of pollutants. Their genetic improvement is an important task because introduction of key transgenes can dramatically improve their remediation potential. Tissue culture is prerequisite for genetic manipulation, and methods are reported here for in vitro culture and micropropagation of a number of wetland plants of various ecological requirements such as salt marsh, brackish water, riverbanks, and various zones of lakes and ponds, and bogs. The monocots represent numerous genera in various families such as Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Juncaceae, and Typhaceae. The reported species are in various stages of micropropagation and Arundo donax is scaled for mass propagation for selecting elite lines for pytoremediation. Transfer of key genes for mercury phytoremediation into the salt marsh cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) is also reported here. All but one transgenic lines contained both the organomercurial lyase (merB) and mercuric reductase (merA) sequences showing that co-introduction into Spartina of two genes from separate Agrobacterium strains is possible. (orig.)

  19. Unique and Conserved Features of the Barley Root Meristem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, Gwendolyn K; Stahl, Yvonne; Von Korff, Maria; Simon, Rüdiger

    2017-01-01

    Plant root growth is enabled by root meristems that harbor the stem cell niches as a source of progenitors for the different root tissues. Understanding the root development of diverse plant species is important to be able to control root growth in order to gain better performances of crop plants. In this study, we analyzed the root meristem of the fourth most abundant crop plant, barley (Hordeum vulgare). Cell division studies revealed that the barley stem cell niche comprises a Quiescent Center (QC) of around 30 cells with low mitotic activity. The surrounding stem cells contribute to root growth through the production of new cells that are displaced from the meristem, elongate and differentiate into specialized root tissues. The distal stem cells produce the root cap and lateral root cap cells, while cells lateral to the QC generate the epidermis, as it is typical for monocots. Endodermis and inner cortex are derived from one common initial lateral to the QC, while the outer cortex cell layers are derived from a distinct stem cell. In rice and Arabidopsis, meristem homeostasis is achieved through feedback signaling from differentiated cells involving peptides of the CLE family. Application of synthetic CLE40 orthologous peptide from barley promotes meristem cell differentiation, similar to rice and Arabidopsis. However, in contrast to Arabidopsis, the columella stem cells do not respond to the CLE40 peptide, indicating that distinct mechanisms control columella cell fate in monocot and dicot plants.

  20. On the cellular site of two-pore channel TPC1 action in the Poaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadacz-Narloch, Beata; Kimura, Sachie; Kurusu, Takamitsu; Farmer, Edward E; Becker, Dirk; Kuchitsu, Kazuyuki; Hedrich, Rainer

    2013-11-01

    The slow vacuolar (SV) channel has been characterized in different dicots by patch-clamp recordings. This channel represents the major cation conductance of the largest organelle in most plant cells. Studies with the tpc1-2 mutant of the model dicot plant Arabidopsis thaliana identified the SV channel as the product of the TPC1 gene. By contrast, research on rice and wheat TPC1 suggested that the monocot gene encodes a plasma membrane calcium-permeable channel. To explore the site of action of grass TPC1 channels, we expressed OsTPC1 from rice (Oryza sativa) and TaTPC1 from wheat (Triticum aestivum) in the background of the Arabidopsis tpc1-2 mutant. Cross-species tpc1 complementation and patch-clamping of vacuoles using Arabidopsis and rice tpc1 null mutants documented that both monocot TPC1 genes were capable of rescuing the SV channel deficit. Vacuoles from wild-type rice but not the tpc1 loss-of-function mutant harbor SV channels exhibiting the hallmark properties of dicot TPC1/SV channels. When expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells OsTPC1 was targeted to Lysotracker-Red-positive organelles. The finding that the rice TPC1, just like those from the model plant Arabidopsis and even animal cells, is localized and active in lyso-vacuolar membranes associates this cation channel species with endomembrane function. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. Reconstructing the Evolutionary History of Paralogous APETALA1/FRUITFULL-Like Genes in Grasses (Poaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Jill C.; Kellogg, Elizabeth A.

    2006-01-01

    Gene duplication is an important mechanism for the generation of evolutionary novelty. Paralogous genes that are not silenced may evolve new functions (neofunctionalization) that will alter the developmental outcome of preexisting genetic pathways, partition ancestral functions (subfunctionalization) into divergent developmental modules, or function redundantly. Functional divergence can occur by changes in the spatio-temporal patterns of gene expression and/or by changes in the activities of their protein products. We reconstructed the evolutionary history of two paralogous monocot MADS-box transcription factors, FUL1 and FUL2, and determined the evolution of sequence and gene expression in grass AP1/FUL-like genes. Monocot AP1/FUL-like genes duplicated at the base of Poaceae and codon substitutions occurred under relaxed selection mostly along the branch leading to FUL2. Following the duplication, FUL1 was apparently lost from early diverging taxa, a pattern consistent with major changes in grass floral morphology. Overlapping gene expression patterns in leaves and spikelets indicate that FUL1 and FUL2 probably share some redundant functions, but that FUL2 may have become temporally restricted under partial subfunctionalization to particular stages of floret development. These data have allowed us to reconstruct the history of AP1/FUL-like genes in Poaceae and to hypothesize a role for this gene duplication in the evolution of the grass spikelet. PMID:16816429

  2. N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone, a mediator of bacterial quorum-sensing regulation, exhibits plant-dependent stability and may be inactivated by germinating Lotus corniculatus seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delalande, Laurie; Faure, Denis; Raffoux, Aurélie; Uroz, Stéphane; D'Angelo-Picard, Cathy; Elasri, Miena; Carlier, Aurélien; Berruyer, Romain; Petit, Annik; Williams, Paul; Dessaux, Yves

    2005-03-01

    The half-life of N-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL) was determined under various pH and temperature conditions, and in several plant environments. C6-HSL was sensitive to alkaline pH, a process that was also temperature-dependent. In addition, C6-HSL disappeared from plant environments, i.e. axenic monocot and dicot plants cultivated under gnotobiotic, hydroponic conditions, albeit with variable kinetics. The disappearance was rapid at the root system of legume plants such as clover or Lotus, and slow or non-existent at the root system of monocots such as wheat or corn. These variable kinetics were not dependent upon pH changes that may have affected the growth media of the plants. Furthermore, C6-HSL did not accumulate in the plant, and the plant did not produce inhibitors of the C6-HSL signal. HPLC analyses revealed that C6-HSL disappeared from the media, and hence, Lotus exhibited a natural C6-HSL inactivating ability. This ability was not specific for C6-HSL and allowed the degradation of other N-acyl-homoserine lactones such as 3-oxo-C6-HSL, 3-oxo-octanoyl-HSL and 3-oxo-decanoyl-HSL. Preliminary investigation revealed that the inactivating ability is temperature-dependant and possibly of enzymatic origin.

  3. Silicon and the plant extracellular matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gea eGuerriero

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Silicon (Si is one of the most abundant elements on earth. Although not considered essential for the growth and development of higher plants, it is nonetheless known to increase vigour and to play protective roles. Its protective effects include for instance alleviation of (abiotic stress damages and heavy metal toxicity. Si was shown to interact with several components of the plant cell walls in the form of silica (SiO2. In plants SiO2 promotes strengthening of the cell walls and provides increased mechanical support to the aerial parts. The relationship SiO2-plant cell wall has been well documented in monocots and pteridophytes, which are known Si accumulators, while much less is known on the interaction of Si with the cell walls of dicots. We here provide a concise up-to-date survey on the interaction between Si and plant cell wall components by focussing on cellulose, hemicelluloses, callose, pectins, lignin and proteins. We also describe the effects of Si on cell wall-related processes by discussing the published results in both monocots and dicots. We conclude our survey with a description of the possible mechanisms by which Si exerts priming in plants.

  4. Molecular actions of two synthetic brassinosteroids, iso-carbaBL and 6-deoxoBL, which cause altered physiological activities between Arabidopsis and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Ayako; Tochio, Naoya; Fujioka, Shozo; Ito, Shinsaku; Kigawa, Takanori; Shimada, Yukihisa; Matsuoka, Makoto; Yoshida, Shigeo; Kinoshita, Toshinori; Asami, Tadao; Seto, Hideharu; Nakano, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    Brassinosteroid (BR) is an important plant hormone that is perceived by the BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1) receptor. BRI1 is conserved among dicot and monocot species; however, the molecular mechanism underlying BR perception in monocots is not fully understood. We synthesised two BRs, iso-carbabrassinolide (iso-carbaBL) and 6-deoxoBL, which have different BR activities in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) and rice. Our bioassay indicated that iso-carbaBL has relatively strong BR activity in Arabidopsis, but is inactive in rice and competitively inhibits BR activity. The bioactivity of 6-deoxoBL was similar to that of BL in Arabidopsis, but was much lower in rice. Binding experiments using recombinant Arabidopsis and rice BRI1 protein fragments suggested that iso-carbaBL and 6-deoxoBL bind to both receptors. These results showed that iso-carbaBL and 6-deoxoBL act as an antagonist and agonist, respectively, of BRs in rice. A docking simulation analysis suggested that iso-carbaBL fits deeper in the binding pocket to block the binding of active BR to rice BRI1. The simulated binding energy of 6-deoxoBL with rice BRI1 is much lower than that with Arabidopsis BRI1. The possible structural characteristics of rice BRI1 were determined based on the difference in the BR activities of iso-carbaBL and 6-deoxoBL in Arabidopsis and rice.

  5. Deficiency of maize starch-branching enzyme i results in altered starch fine structure, decreased digestibility and reduced coleoptile growth during germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Two distinct starch branching enzyme (SBE) isoforms predate the divergence of monocots and dicots and have been conserved in plants since then. This strongly suggests that both SBEI and SBEII provide unique selective advantages to plants. However, no phenotype for the SBEI mutation, sbe1a, had been previously observed. To explore this incongruity the objective of the present work was to characterize functional and molecular phenotypes of both sbe1a and wild-type (Wt) in the W64A maize inbred line. Results Endosperm starch granules from the sbe1a mutant were more resistant to digestion by pancreatic α-amylase, and the sbe1a mutant starch had an altered branching pattern for amylopectin and amylose. When kernels were germinated, the sbe1a mutant was associated with shorter coleoptile length and higher residual starch content, suggesting that less efficient starch utilization may have impaired growth during germination. Conclusions The present report documents for the first time a molecular phenotype due to the absence of SBEI, and suggests strongly that it is associated with altered physiological function of the starch in vivo. We believe that these results provide a plausible rationale for the conservation of SBEI in plants in both monocots and dicots, as greater seedling vigor would provide an important survival advantage when resources are limited. PMID:21599988

  6. Differences in U root-to-shoot translocation between plant species explained by U distribution in roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straczek, Anne; Duquene, Lise [Belgium Nuclear Research Centre (SCK.CEN), Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Wegrzynek, Dariusz [IAEA, Seibersdorf Laboratories, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Chinea-Cano, Ernesto [IAEA, Seibersdorf Laboratories, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Wannijn, Jean [Belgium Nuclear Research Centre (SCK.CEN), Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Navez, Jacques [Royal Museum of Africa, Department of Geology, Leuvensesteenweg 13, 3080 Tervuren (Belgium); Vandenhove, Hildegarde, E-mail: hvandenh@sckcen.b [Belgium Nuclear Research Centre (SCK.CEN), Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2010-03-15

    Accumulation and distribution of uranium in roots and shoots of four plants species differing in their cation exchange capacity of roots (CECR) was investigated. After exposure in hydroponics for seven days to 100 mumol U L{sup -1}, distribution of uranium in roots was investigated through chemical extraction of roots. Higher U concentrations were measured in roots of dicots which showed a higher CECR than monocot species. Chemical extractions indicated that uranium is mostly located in the apoplasm of roots of monocots but that it is predominantly located in the symplasm of roots of dicots. Translocation of U to shoot was not significantly affected by the CECR or distribution of U between symplasm and apoplasm. Distribution of uranium in roots was investigated through chemical extraction of roots for all species. Additionally, longitudinal and radial distribution of U in roots of maize and Indian mustard, respectively showing the lowest and the highest translocation, was studied following X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis of specific root sections. Chemical analysis and XRF analysis of roots of maize and Indian mustard clearly indicated a higher longitudinal and radial transport of uranium in roots of Indian mustard than in roots of maize, where uranium mostly accumulated in root tips. These results showed that even if CECR could partly explain U accumulation in roots, other mechanisms like radial and longitudinal transport are implied in the translocation of U to the shoot.

  7. HvLUX1 is a candidate gene underlying the early maturity 10 locus in barley: phylogeny, diversity, and interactions with the circadian clock and photoperiodic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campoli, Chiara; Pankin, Artem; Drosse, Benedikt; Casao, Cristina M; Davis, Seth J; von Korff, Maria

    2013-09-01

    Photoperiodic flowering is a major factor determining crop performance and is controlled by interactions between environmental signals and the circadian clock. We proposed Hvlux1, an ortholog of the Arabidopsis circadian gene LUX ARRHYTHMO, as a candidate underlying the early maturity 10 (eam10) locus in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The link between eam10 and Hvlux1 was discovered using high-throughput sequencing of enriched libraries and segregation analysis. We conducted functional, phylogenetic, and diversity studies of eam10 and HvLUX1 to understand the genetic control of photoperiod response in barley and to characterize the evolution of LUX-like genes within barley and across monocots and eudicots. We demonstrate that eam10 causes circadian defects and interacts with the photoperiod response gene Ppd-H1 to accelerate flowering under long and short days. The results of phylogenetic and diversity analyses indicate that HvLUX1 was under purifying selection, duplicated at the base of the grass clade, and diverged independently of LUX-like genes in other plant lineages. Taken together, these findings contribute to improved understanding of the barley circadian clock, its interaction with the photoperiod pathway, and evolution of circadian systems in barley and across monocots and eudicots.

  8. Genome-wide comparative analysis of tonoplast intrinsic protein (TIP) genes in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regon, Preetom; Panda, Piyalee; Kshetrimayum, Erina; Panda, Sanjib Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs) play a vital role in water transport across membranes. In the present study, we performed a comparative analysis of TIP genes in ten plant species including both monocots and dicots. A total of 100 TIP aquaporin genes were identified, and their relationships among the plant species were analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship of these genes within the plant species. Based on the phylogenetic analysis results, TIPs were classified into five distinct arbitrary groups (group I to group V), which represented TIP2, TIP5, TIP4, TIP1, and TIP3, respectively. Group I represented the largest arbitrary group, followed by group IV, in the phylogenetic tree. The result clearly indicates that TIP2 and TIP1 are abundant aquaporins and highly related among the species. In the present review, a comparative study of gene structure analysis between dicots and monocots has been performed to analyze their structural variation. Most of the predicted motifs are conserved among the species, signifying an evolutionary relationship. The gene expression analysis indicated that the expression of TIP genes varies during different developmental stages and also during stressed conditions. The results indicated a great degree of evolutionary relationship and variation in the expression levels of TIPs in plants.

  9. cDNA cloning and characterization of a mannose-binding lectin from Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ginger) rhizomes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zhonghai Chen; Guoyin Kai; Xiaojun Liu; Juan Lin; Xiaofen Sun; Kexuan Tang

    2005-03-01

    Using RNA extracted from Zingiber officinale rhizomes and primers designed according to the conservative regions of monocot mannose-binding lectins, the full-length cDNA of Z. officinale agglutinin (ZOA) was cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full-length cDNA of zoa was 746 bp and contained a 510 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a lectin precursor of 169 amino acids with a signal peptide. ZOA was a mannose-binding lectin with three typical mannose-binding sites (QDNY). Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that zoa expressed in all the tested tissues of Z. officinale including leaf, root and rhizome, suggesting it to be a constitutively expressing form. ZOA protein was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli with the molecular weight expected. To our knowledge, this is the first mannose-binding lectin cDNA cloned from the family Zingiberaceae. Our results demonstrate that monocot mannose-binding lectins also occur within the family Zingiberaceae.

  10. Oat Phytochrome Is Biologically Active in Transgenic Tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, M. T.; Quail, P. H.

    1989-08-01

    To determine the functional homology between phytochromes from evolutionarily divergent species, we used the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter to express a monocot (oat) phytochrome cDNA in a dicot plant (tomato). Immunoblot analysis shows that more than 50% of the transgenic tomato plants synthesize the full-length oat phytochrome polypeptide. Moreover, leaves of light-grown transgenic plants contain appreciably less oat phytochrome than leaves from dark-adapted plants, and etiolated R1 transgenic seedlings have higher levels of spectrally active phytochrome than wild-type tomato seedlings in direct proportion to the level of immunochemically detectable oat polypeptide present. These data suggest that the heterologous oat polypeptide carries a functional chromophore, allowing reversible photoconversion between the two forms of the molecule, and that the far-red absorbing form (Pfr) is recognized and selectively degraded by the Pfr-specific degradative machinery in the dicot cell. The overexpression of oat phytochrome has pleiotropic, phenotypic consequences at all major phases of the life cycle. Adult transgenic tomato plants expressing high levels of the oat protein tend to be dwarfed, with dark green foliage and fruits. R1 transgenic seedlings have short hypocotyls with elevated anthocyanin contents. We conclude that a monocot phytochrome can be synthesized and correctly processed to a biologically active form in a dicot cell, and that the transduction pathway components that interact with the photoreceptor are evolutionarily conserved.

  11. Comparative genome analysis and phylogenetic relationship of order Liliales insight from the complete plastid genome sequences of two Lilies (Lilium longiflorum and Alstroemeria aurea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Sung Kim

    Full Text Available Monocots are one of the most diverse, successful and economically important clades of angiosperms. We attempt to analyse the complete plastid genome sequences of two lilies and their lengths were 152,793bp in Lilium longiflorum (Liliaceae and 155,510bp in Alstroemeria aurea (Alstroemeriaceae. Phylogenetic analyses were performed for 28 taxa including major lineages of monocots using the sequences of 79 plastid genes for clarifying the phylogenetic relationship of the order Liliales. The sister relationship of Liliales and Asparagales-commelinids was improved with high resolution. Comparative analyses of inter-familial and inter-specific sequence variation were also carried out among three families of Liliaceae, Smilacaceae, and Alstroemeriaceae, and between two Lilium species of L. longflorum and L. superbum. Gene content and order were conserved in the order Liliales except infA loss in Smilax and Alstroemeria. IR boundaries were similar in IRa, however, IRb showed different extension patterns as JLB of Smilax and JSB in Alstroemeria. Ka/Ks ratio was high in matK among the pair-wise comparison of three families and the most variable genes were psaJ, ycf1, rpl32, rpl22, matK, and ccsA among the three families and rps15, rpoA, matK, and ndhF between Lilium.

  12. Comparative genome analysis and phylogenetic relationship of order Liliales insight from the complete plastid genome sequences of two Lilies (Lilium longiflorum and Alstroemeria aurea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Sung; Kim, Joo-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Monocots are one of the most diverse, successful and economically important clades of angiosperms. We attempt to analyse the complete plastid genome sequences of two lilies and their lengths were 152,793bp in Lilium longiflorum (Liliaceae) and 155,510bp in Alstroemeria aurea (Alstroemeriaceae). Phylogenetic analyses were performed for 28 taxa including major lineages of monocots using the sequences of 79 plastid genes for clarifying the phylogenetic relationship of the order Liliales. The sister relationship of Liliales and Asparagales-commelinids was improved with high resolution. Comparative analyses of inter-familial and inter-specific sequence variation were also carried out among three families of Liliaceae, Smilacaceae, and Alstroemeriaceae, and between two Lilium species of L. longflorum and L. superbum. Gene content and order were conserved in the order Liliales except infA loss in Smilax and Alstroemeria. IR boundaries were similar in IRa, however, IRb showed different extension patterns as JLB of Smilax and JSB in Alstroemeria. Ka/Ks ratio was high in matK among the pair-wise comparison of three families and the most variable genes were psaJ, ycf1, rpl32, rpl22, matK, and ccsA among the three families and rps15, rpoA, matK, and ndhF between Lilium.

  13. Late Cretaceous Aquatic Plant World in Patagonia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cúneo, N. Rubén; Gandolfo, María A.; Zamaloa, María C.; Hermsen, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution, we describe latest Cretaceous aquatic plant communities from the La Colonia Formation, Patagonia, Argentina, based on their taxonomic components and paleoecological attributes. The La Colonia Formation is a geological unit deposited during a Maastrichtian-Danian transgressive episode of the South Atlantic Ocean. This event resulted in the deposition of a series of fine-grained sediments associated with lagoon systems occurring along irregular coastal plains in northern Patagonia. These deposits preserved a diverse biota, including aquatic and terrestrial plants and animals. The aquatic macrophytes can be broadly divided into two groups: free-floating and rooted, the latter with emergent or floating leaves. Free-floating macrophytes include ferns in Salviniaceae (Azolla and Paleoazolla) and a monocot (Araceae). Floating microphytes include green algae (Botryoccocus, Pediastrum and Zygnemataceae). Among the rooted components, marsileaceous water ferns (including Regnellidium and an extinct form) and the eudicot angiosperm Nelumbo (Nelumbonaceae) are the dominant groups. Terrestrial plants occurring in the vegetation surrounding the lagoons include monocots (palms and Typhaceae), ferns with affinities to Dicksoniaceae, conifers, and dicots. A reconstruction of the aquatic plant paleocommuniy is provided based on the distribution of the fossils along a freshwater horizon within the La Colonia Formation. This contribution constitutes the first reconstruction of a Cretaceous aquatic habitat for southern South America. PMID:25148081

  14. Late cretaceous aquatic plant world in Patagonia, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cúneo, N Rubén; Gandolfo, María A; Zamaloa, María C; Hermsen, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution, we describe latest Cretaceous aquatic plant communities from the La Colonia Formation, Patagonia, Argentina, based on their taxonomic components and paleoecological attributes. The La Colonia Formation is a geological unit deposited during a Maastrichtian-Danian transgressive episode of the South Atlantic Ocean. This event resulted in the deposition of a series of fine-grained sediments associated with lagoon systems occurring along irregular coastal plains in northern Patagonia. These deposits preserved a diverse biota, including aquatic and terrestrial plants and animals. The aquatic macrophytes can be broadly divided into two groups: free-floating and rooted, the latter with emergent or floating leaves. Free-floating macrophytes include ferns in Salviniaceae (Azolla and Paleoazolla) and a monocot (Araceae). Floating microphytes include green algae (Botryoccocus, Pediastrum and Zygnemataceae). Among the rooted components, marsileaceous water ferns (including Regnellidium and an extinct form) and the eudicot angiosperm Nelumbo (Nelumbonaceae) are the dominant groups. Terrestrial plants occurring in the vegetation surrounding the lagoons include monocots (palms and Typhaceae), ferns with affinities to Dicksoniaceae, conifers, and dicots. A reconstruction of the aquatic plant paleocommuniy is provided based on the distribution of the fossils along a freshwater horizon within the La Colonia Formation. This contribution constitutes the first reconstruction of a Cretaceous aquatic habitat for southern South America.

  15. Divergent Evolutionary Patterns of NAC Transcription Factors Are Associated with Diversification and Gene Duplications in Angiosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaoli; Ren, Jing; Nevo, Eviatar; Yin, Xuegui; Sun, Dongfa; Peng, Junhua

    2017-01-01

    NAC (NAM/ATAF/CUC) proteins constitute one of the biggest plant-specific transcription factor (TF) families and have crucial roles in diverse developmental programs during plant growth. Phylogenetic analyses have revealed both conserved and lineage-specific NAC subfamilies, among which various origins and distinct features were observed. It is reasonable to hypothesize that there should be divergent evolutionary patterns of NAC TFs both between dicots and monocots, and among NAC subfamilies. In this study, we compared the gene duplication and loss, evolutionary rate, and selective pattern among non-lineage specific NAC subfamilies, as well as those between dicots and monocots, through genome-wide analyses of sequence and functional data in six dicot and five grass lineages. The number of genes gained in the dicot lineages was much larger than that in the grass lineages, while fewer gene losses were observed in the grass than that in the dicots. We revealed (1) uneven constitution of Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs) and contrasting birth/death rates among subfamilies, and (2) two distinct evolutionary scenarios of NAC TFs between dicots and grasses. Our results demonstrated that relaxed selection, resulting from concerted gene duplications, may have permitted substitutions responsible for functional divergence of NAC genes into new lineages. The underlying mechanism of distinct evolutionary fates of NAC TFs shed lights on how evolutionary divergence contributes to differences in establishing NAC gene subfamilies and thus impacts the distinct features between dicots and grasses.

  16. Molecular cloning, recombinant gene expression, and antifungal activity of cystatin from taro (Colocasia esculenta cv. Kaosiung no. 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, A H; Yeh, K W

    2005-06-01

    A cDNA clone, designated CeCPI, encoding a novel phytocystatin was isolated from taro corms (Colocasia esculenta) using both degenerated primers/RT-PCR amplification and 5'-/3'-RACE extension. The full-length cDNA gene is 1,008 bp in size, encodes 206 amino acid residues, with a deduced molecular weight of 29 kDa. It contains a conserved reactive site motif Gln-Val-Val-Ser-Gly of cysteine protease inhibitors, and another consensus ARFAV sequence for phytocystatin. Sequence analysis revealed that CeCPI is phylogenetically closely related to Eudicots rather than to Monocots, despite taro belonging to Monocot. Recombinant GST-CeCPI fusion protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and its inhibitory activity against papain was identified on gelatin/SDS-PAGE. These results confirmed that recombinant CeCPI protein exhibited strong cysteine protease inhibitory activity. Investigation of its antifungal activity clearly revealed a toxic effect on the mycelium growth of phytopathogenic fungi, such as Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. etc., at a concentration of 80 microg recombinant CeCPI/ ml. Moreover, mycelium growth was completely inhibited and the sclerotia lysed at a concentration of 150-200 microg/ml. Further studies have demonstrated that recombinant CeCPI is capable of acting against the endogenous cysteine proteinase in the fungal mycelium.

  17. Evolutionary switch and genetic convergence on rbcL following the evolution of C4 photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christin, Pascal-Antoine; Salamin, Nicolas; Muasya, A Muthama; Roalson, Eric H; Russier, Flavien; Besnard, Guillaume

    2008-11-01

    Rubisco is responsible for the fixation of CO2 into organic compounds through photosynthesis and thus has a great agronomic importance. It is well established that this enzyme suffers from a slow catalysis, and its low specificity results into photorespiration, which is considered as an energy waste for the plant. However, natural variations exist, and some Rubisco lineages, such as in C4 plants, exhibit higher catalytic efficiencies coupled to lower specificities. These C4 kinetics could have evolved as an adaptation to the higher CO2 concentration present in C4 photosynthetic cells. In this study, using phylogenetic analyses on a large data set of C3 and C4 monocots, we showed that the rbcL gene, which encodes the large subunit of Rubisco, evolved under positive selection in independent C4 lineages. This confirms that selective pressures on Rubisco have been switched in C4 plants by the high CO2 environment prevailing in their photosynthetic cells. Eight rbcL codons evolving under positive selection in C4 clades were involved in parallel changes among the 23 independent monocot C4 lineages included in this study. These amino acids are potentially responsible for the C4 kinetics, and their identification opens new roads for human-directed Rubisco engineering. The introgression of C4-like high-efficiency Rubisco would strongly enhance C3 crop yields in the future CO2-enriched atmosphere.

  18. Comparative Genomic Study of the Thioredoxin Family in Photosynthetic Organisms with Emphasis on Populus trichocarpa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kamel Chibani; Gunnar Wingsle; Jean-Pierre Jacquot; Eric Gelhaye; Nicolas Rouhier

    2009-01-01

    The recent genome sequencing of Populus trichocarpa and Vitis vinifera, two models of woody plants, of Sorghum bicolor, a model of monocot using C4 metabolism, and of the moss Physcomitrella patens, together with the availability of photosynthetic organism genomes allows performance of a comparative genomic study with organisms having different ways of life, reproduction modes, biological traits, and physiologies. Thioredoxins (Trxs) are small ubiq-uitous proteins involved in the reduction of disulfide bridges in a variety of target enzymes present in all sub-cellular compartments and involved in many biochemical reactions. The genes coding for these enzymes have been identified in these newly sequenced genomes and annotated. The gene content, organization and distribution were compared to other photosynthetic organisms, leading to a refined classification. This analysis revealed that higher plants and bryo-phytes have a more complex family compared to algae and cyanobacteria and to non-photosynthetic organisms, since poplar exhibits 49 genes coding for typical and atypical thioredoxins and thioredoxin reductases, namely one-third more than monocots such as Oryza sativa and S. bicolor. The higher number of Trxs in poplar is partially explained by gene duplication in the Trx m, h, and nucleoredoxin classes. Particular attention was paid to poplar genes with emphasis on Trx-like classes called Clot, thioredoxin-like, thioredoxins of the lilium type and nucleoredoxins, which were not described in depth in previous genomic studies.

  19. Loss of YABBY2-like gene expression may underlie the evolution of the laminar style in Canna and contribute to floral morphological diversity in the Zingiberales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsie eMorioka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Zingiberales is an order of tropical monocots that exhibits diverse floral morphologies. The evolution of petaloid, laminar stamens, staminodes, and styles contributes to this diversity. The laminar style is a derived trait in the family Cannaceae and plays an important role in pollination as its surface is used for secondary pollen presentation. Previous work in the Zingiberales has implicated YABBY2-like genes, which function in promoting laminar outgrowth, in the evolution of stamen morphology. Here, we investigate the evolution and expression of Zingiberales YABBY2-like genes in order to understand the evolution of the laminar style in Canna. Phylogenetic analyses show that multiple duplication events have occurred in this gene lineage prior to the diversification of the Zingiberales. Reverse transcription-PCR in Canna, Costus, and Musa reveals differential expression across floral organs, taxa, and gene copies, and a role for YABBY2-like genes in the evolution of the laminar style is proposed. Selection tests indicate that almost all sites in conserved domains are under purifying selection, consistent with their functional relevance, and a motif unique to monocot YABBY2-like genes is identified. These results contribute to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the evolution of floral morphologies.

  20. Species-specific size expansion and molecular evolution of the oleosins in angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Sun, Yepeng; Su, Wujie; Yang, Jing; Liu, Xiuming; Wang, Yanfang; Wang, Fawei; Li, Haiyan; Li, Xiaokun

    2012-11-10

    Oleosins are hydrophobic plant proteins thought to be important for the formation of oil bodies, which supply energy for seed germination and subsequent seedling growth. To better understand the evolutionary history and diversity of the oleosin gene family in plants, especially angiosperms, we systematically investigated the molecular evolution of this family using eight representative angiosperm species. A total of 73 oleosin members were identified, with six members in each of four monocot species and a greater but variable number in the four eudicots. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that the angiosperm oleosin genes belonged to three monophyletic lineages. Species-specific gene duplications, caused mainly by segmental duplication, led to the great expansion of oleosin genes and occurred frequently in eudicots after the monocot-eudicot divergence. Functional divergence analyses indicate that significant amino acid site-specific selective constraints acted on the different clades of oleosins. Adaptive evolution analyses demonstrate that oleosin genes were subject to strong purifying selection after their species-specific duplications and that rapid evolution occurred with a high degree of evolutionary dynamics in the pollen-specific oleosin genes. In conclusion, this study serves as a foundation for genome-wide analyses of the oleosins. These findings provide insight into the function and evolution of this gene family in angiosperms and pave the way for studies in other plants. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.