WorldWideScience

Sample records for monoclonal protein secretion

  1. Effects of Monoclonal Antibody Against Porcine 40-kDa Adipocyte-Specific Membrane Protein on Endocrine Secretion in Pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ling-yun; HU Hong-mei; ZHAO Su-mei; ZHANG Xi; DUAN Gang; GAO Shi-zheng

    2009-01-01

    The present study was to investigate the effect of monocional antibody against porcine 40-kDa adipocyte-specific membrane protein on endocrine secretion in pigs, in order to provide the evidence for application of this antibody to reduce excessive fat deposition in pig production. 40 Landrace × Saba pigs were randomly divided into 8 groups: 2 control groups were given saline with 10 mL, respectively, and the 6 treatment groups were given monoclonal antibody against porcine 40-kDa adipocyte-specific membrane protein with 0.1,0.5, and 1.0 mg kg-1 body weight at 15 or 60 kg body weight,respectively, all treatments were performed by intraperitoneal injection. The results showed that this monoclonal antibody could significantly reduce serum insulin level and increase levels of serum growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), triiodothyronine (T3), and tetraiodothyronine (T4) either at 15 or 60 kg body weight injection. However,more marked effect was observed at 15 kg body weight treatment. Moreover, the dose-dependent effect of this monoclonal antibody on endocrine secretion was also observed. This result revealed that this monoclonal antibody increased secretion of hormones regulating fat lysis and reduced secretion of hormones regulating fat synthesis, suggests the reduction of porcine excessive fat deposition by this monoclonal antibody was carried out through affecting hormones regulating fat metabolism.

  2. Preparation of Monoclonal Antibodies Against SpiC Protein Secreted by T3SS-2 of Salmonella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Shizhong; Qian, Shanshan; Pan, Zhiming; Sun, Lin; Chen, Xiang; Jiao, Xinan

    2015-12-01

    SpiC protein, a member of Salmonella spp. type III secretion system (T3SS)-2, is necessary for the survival of Salmonella within macrophages, and it plays a vital role in Salmonella pathogenesis. To develop and test monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against SpiC protein, two recombinant proteins, rHis-SpiC and rGST-SpiC, were expressed in vitro in the prokaryotic expression vectors pET-30(a) and pGEX-6p-1, respectively, and rHis-SpiC protein used to immunize mice. Hybridomas were generated from the splenocytes of these mice and the monoclonal antibodies produced by these cells were assessed using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with rGST-SpiC as the coating antigen. An immunoblotting analysis indicated that all seven of the MAbs developed in this study could specifically recognize the SpiC protein. These MAbs will be very useful in the study of SpiC function and for use in the immunodiagnosis of Salmonella infection.

  3. Unconventional protein secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yu; Wang, Juan; Wang, Junqi; Stierhof, York-Dieter; Robinson, David G; Jiang, Liwen

    2012-10-01

    It is generally believed that protein secretion or exocytosis is achieved via a conventional ER (endoplasmic reticulum)-Golgi-TGN (trans-Golgi network)-PM (plasma membrane) pathway in the plant endomembrane system. However, such signal peptide (SP)-dependent protein secretion cannot explain the increasing number of SP-lacking proteins which are found outside of the PM in plant cells. The process by which such leaderless secretory proteins (LSPs) gain access to the cell exterior is termed unconventional protein secretion (UPS) and has been well-studied in animal and yeast cells, but largely ignored by the plant community. Here, we review the evidence for UPS in plants especially in regard to the recently discovered EXPO (exocyst-positive-organelle).

  4. Autotransporter protein secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tame, Jeremy R H

    2011-12-01

    Autotransporter proteins are a large family of virulence factors secreted from Gram-negative bacteria by a unique mechanism. First described in the 1980s, these proteins have a C-terminal region that folds into a β-barrel in the bacterial outer membrane. The so-called passenger domain attached to this barrel projects away from the cell surface and may be liberated from the cell by self-cleavage or surface proteases. Although the majority of passenger domains have a similar β-helical structure, they carry a variety of sub-domains, allowing them to carry out widely differing functions related to pathogenesis. Considerable biochemical and structural characterisation of the barrel domain has shown that 'autotransporters' in fact require a conserved and essential protein complex in the outer membrane for correct folding. Although the globular domains of this complex projecting into the periplasmic space have also been structurally characterised, the overall secretion pathway of the autotransporters remains highly puzzling. It was presumed for many years that the passenger domain passed through the centre of the barrel domain to reach the cell surface, driven at least in part by folding. This picture is complicated by conflicting data, and there is currently little hard information on the true nature of the secretion intermediates. As well as their medical importance therefore, autotransporters are proving to be an excellent system to study the folding and membrane insertion of outer membrane proteins in general. This review focuses on structural aspects of autotransporters; their many functions in pathogenesis are beyond its scope.

  5. Extracellular secretion of recombinant proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linger, Jeffrey G.; Darzins, Aldis

    2014-07-22

    Nucleic acids encoding secretion signals, expression vectors containing the nucleic acids, and host cells containing the expression vectors are disclosed. Also disclosed are polypeptides that contain the secretion signals and methods of producing polypeptides, including methods of directing the extracellular secretion of the polypeptides. Exemplary embodiments include cellulase proteins fused to secretion signals, methods to produce and isolate these polypeptides, and methods to degrade lignocellulosic biomass.

  6. A monoclonal antibody against human MUDENG protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagley, Yadav; Choi, Jun-Ha; Wickramanayake, Dimuthu Dhammika; Choi, Geun-Yeol; Kim, Chang-Kyu; Kim, Tae-Hyoung; Oh, Jae-Wook

    2013-08-01

    MUDENG (mu-2-related death-inducing gene, MuD) encodes a predicted ∼54-kDa protein in humans, considered to be involved in trafficking proteins from endosomes toward other membranous compartments as well as in inducing cell death. Here we report on the generation of a mouse monoclonal antibody (MAb) against the middle domain of human (h) MuD. This IgG sub 1 MAb, named M3H9, recognizes residues 244-326 in the middle domain of the MuD protein. Thus, the MuD proteins expressed in an astroglioma cell line and primary astrocytes can be detected by the M3H9 MAb. We showed that M3H9 MAb can be useful in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblot experiments. In addition, M3H9 MAb can detect the expression of the MuD protein in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded mouse ovary and uterus tissues. These results indicate that the MuD MAb M3H9 could be useful as a new biomarker of hereditary spastic paraplegia and other related diseases.

  7. Monoclonal antibodies against NS1 protein of Goose parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zheng; Tian, Wei; Yu, Tianfei; Li, Li; Ma, Bo; Wang, Junwei

    2012-04-01

    In the present study, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against NS1 protein of Goose parvovirus (GPV) were generated. The secreted MAbs were obtained by fusing mouse myeloma cells and spleen cells of BALB/c mice, which were immunized with the plasmid pcDNA3.1-GPV-NS1 and recombinant protein of GPV-NS1. With indirect ELISA, six hybridoma cell lines against GPV-NS1 were screened. The subtypes of the two MAbs were IgG2a; the others were IgM. The light chain was κ. Western blot analysis showed that six MAbs reacted with recombinant protein GPV-NS1. GPV-NS1 was dissected into 15 overlapping epitopes, which were used to react with MAbs in Western blot. Results showed that six MAbs recognized NS1 protein linear B-cell epitopes located at the C-terminus 453-514 aa, 485-542 aa, and 533-598 aa.

  8. Secretion by numbers: protein traffic in prokaryotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economou, Anastasias; Christie, Peter J.; Fernandez, Rachel C.; Palmer, Tracy; Plano, Greg V.; Pugsley, Anthony P.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Almost all aspects of protein traffic in bacteria were covered at the ASM-FEMS meeting on the topic in Iraklio, Crete in May 2006. The studies presented ranged from mechanistic analysis of specific events leading proteins to their final destinations to the physiological roles of the targeted proteins. Among the highlights from the meeting that are reviewed here are the molecular dynamics of SecA protein, membrane protein insertion, type III secretion needles and chaperones, type IV secretion, the two partner and autosecretion systems, the ‘secretion competent state’, and the recently discovered type VI secretion system. PMID:17020575

  9. Non-classical protein secretion in bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausbøll Anders

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present an overview of bacterial non-classical secretion and a prediction method for identification of proteins following signal peptide independent secretion pathways. We have compiled a list of proteins found extracellularly despite the absence of a signal peptide. Some of these proteins also have known roles in the cytoplasm, which means they could be so-called "moon-lightning" proteins having more than one function. Results A thorough literature search was conducted to compile a list of currently known bacterial non-classically secreted proteins. Pattern finding methods were applied to the sequences in order to identify putative signal sequences or motifs responsible for their secretion. We have found no signal or motif characteristic to any majority of the proteins in the compiled list of non-classically secreted proteins, and conclude that these proteins, indeed, seem to be secreted in a novel fashion. However, we also show that the apparently non-classically secreted proteins are still distinguished from cellular proteins by properties such as amino acid composition, secondary structure and disordered regions. Specifically, prediction of disorder reveals that bacterial secretory proteins are more structurally disordered than their cytoplasmic counterparts. Finally, artificial neural networks were used to construct protein feature based methods for identification of non-classically secreted proteins in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Conclusion We present a publicly available prediction method capable of discriminating between this group of proteins and other proteins, thus allowing for the identification of novel non-classically secreted proteins. We suggest candidates for non-classically secreted proteins in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. The prediction method is available online.

  10. The proteins secreted by Trichomonas vaginalis and vaginal epithelial cell response to secreted and episomally expressed AP65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucknoor, Ashwini S; Mundodi, Vasanthakrishna; Alderete, John F

    2007-11-01

    We showed recently that contact of human vaginal epithelial cells (VECs) by Trichomonas vaginalis and incubation with trichomonad proteins in conditioned medium induced expression of VEC genes. We performed 2-D SDS-PAGE followed by MALDI-TOF to identify the major secreted proteins. Based on protein abundance and separation of spots in 2-D gels, 32 major secreted proteins were examined, which gave 19 proteins with accession numbers. These proteins included known secreted cysteine proteinases. In addition, other secreted proteins were enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, adhesin protein AP65, heat shock proteins, thioredoxin reductase and coronins. We confirmed that the secreted trichomonad proteins induced expression of VEC genes, including interleukin 8 (IL-8), COX-2 and fibronectin. Purified AP65 added to VECs had a pronounced effect only on IL-8 gene expression, which was inhibited in the presence of 12G4 monoclonal antibody to AP65. Moreover, AP65 expressed episomally within epithelial cells was found to enhance the expression of IL-8 and COX-2. This may be the first report of analysis of the secreted proteins of T. vaginalis and of the host epithelial cell response to these proteins and to the prominent adhesin AP65.

  11. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies against waterfowl parvoviruses VP3 protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Xiuchen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The VP3 protein of goose parvovirus (GPV or Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV, a major structural protein, can induce neutralizing antibodies in geese and ducks, but monoclonal antibodies (MAbs against VP3 protein has never been characterized. Results Three hybridoma cell lines secreting anti-GPV VP3 MAbs were obtained and designated 4A8, 4E2, and 2D5. Immunoglobulin subclass tests differentiated them as IgG2b (4A8 and 4E2 and IgG2a (2D5. Dot blotting assays showed that three MAbs reacted with His-VP3 protein in a conformation-independent manner. A competitive binding assay indicated that the MAbs delineated two epitopes, A and B of VP3. Immunofluorescence assay showed that MAbs 4A8, 4E2, and 2D5 could specifically bind to goose embryo fibroblast cells (GEF or duck fibroblast cells (DEF infected with GPV and MDPV. Dot blotting also showed that the MAbs recognized both nature GPV and MDPV antigen. Western blotting confirmed that the MAbs recognized VP3 proteins derived from purified GPV and MDPV particles. The MAbs 4A8 and 2D5 had universal reactivity to heterologous GPV and MDPV tested in an antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Conclusions Preparation and characterization of these the MAbs suggests that they may be useful for the development of a MAb-capture ELISA for rapid detection of both GPV and MDPV. Virus isolation and PCR are reliable for detecting GPV and MDPV infection, but these procedures are laborious, time-consuming, and requiring instruments. These diagnosis problems highlight the ongoing demand for rapid, reproducible, and automatic methods for the sensitive detection of both GPV and MDPV infection.

  12. Identification of protein secretion systems and novel secreted proteins in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krehenbrink Martin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteins secreted by bacteria play an important role in infection of eukaryotic hosts. Rhizobia infect the roots of leguminous plants and establish a mutually beneficial symbiosis. Proteins secreted during the infection process by some rhizobial strains can influence infection and modify the plant defence signalling pathways. The aim of this study was to systematically analyse protein secretion in the recently sequenced strain Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841. Results Similarity searches using defined protein secretion systems from other Gram-negative bacteria as query sequences revealed that R. l. bv. viciae 3841 has ten putative protein secretion systems. These are the general export pathway (GEP, a twin-arginine translocase (TAT secretion system, four separate Type I systems, one putative Type IV system and three Type V autotransporters. Mutations in genes encoding each of these (except the GEP were generated, but only mutations affecting the PrsDE (Type I and TAT systems were observed to affect the growth phenotype and the profile of proteins in the culture supernatant. Bioinformatic analysis and mass fingerprinting of tryptic fragments of culture supernatant proteins identified 14 putative Type I substrates, 12 of which are secreted via the PrsDE, secretion system. The TAT mutant was defective for the symbiosis, forming nodules incapable of nitrogen fixation. Conclusion None of the R. l. bv. viciae 3841 protein secretion systems putatively involved in the secretion of proteins to the extracellular space (Type I, Type IV, Type V is required for establishing the symbiosis with legumes. The PrsDE (Type I system was shown to be the major route of protein secretion in non-symbiotic cells and to secrete proteins of widely varied size and predicted function. This is in contrast to many Type I systems from other bacteria, which typically secrete specific substrates encoded by genes often localised in close proximity to

  13. A monoclonal antibody for G protein-coupled receptor crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Peter W; Rasmussen, Søren G F; Parnot, Charles; Fung, Juan José; Masood, Asna; Kobilka, Tong Sun; Yao, Xiao-Jie; Choi, Hee-Jung; Weis, William I; Rohrer, Daniel K; Kobilka, Brian K

    2007-11-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute the largest family of signaling proteins in mammals, mediating responses to hormones, neurotransmitters, and senses of sight, smell and taste. Mechanistic insight into GPCR signal transduction is limited by a paucity of high-resolution structural information. We describe the generation of a monoclonal antibody that recognizes the third intracellular loop (IL3) of the native human beta(2) adrenergic (beta(2)AR) receptor; this antibody was critical for acquiring diffraction-quality crystals.

  14. Monoclonal antibody to native P39 protein from Borrelia burgdorferi.

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan, T J; Hechemy, K E; Harris, H L; Rudofsky, U H; Samsonoff, W A; Peterson, A J; Evans, B. D.; Balaban, S L

    1994-01-01

    We have produced, by using a sonicate of Borrelia burgdorferi, a monoclonal antibody (MAb), NYSP39H, that is specific for the P39 protein band. This MAb reacted with 13 isolates of B. burgdorferi but not with eight different spirochetes (four borrelias, two leptospiras, and two treponemas). Surface labeling of B. burgdorferi with biotin and subsequent treatment with Nonidet P-40 showed that P39 was not biotinylated but was extracted with Nonidet P-40, indicating that it is present within the ...

  15. High-efficiency screening of monoclonal antibodies for membrane protein crystallography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Ho Lim

    Full Text Available Determination of crystal structures of membrane proteins is often limited by difficulties obtaining crystals diffracting to high resolution. Co-crystallization with Fab fragments of monoclonal antibodies has been reported to improve diffraction of membrane proteins crystals. However, it is not simple to generate useful monoclonal antibodies for membrane protein crystallography. In this report, we present an optimized process for efficient screening from immunization to final validation of monoclonal antibody for membrane protein crystallography.

  16. High throughput recombinant protein production of fungal secreted proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vala, Andrea Lages Lino; Roth, Doris; Grell, Morten Nedergaard

    2011-01-01

    Secreted proteins are important for both symbiotic and pathogenic interactions between fungi and their hosts. Our research group uses screens and genomic mining to discover novel proteins involved in these processes. To efficiently study the large number of candidate proteins, we are establishing...

  17. Preparation of Monoclonal Antibodies Against Prion Proteins With Full-length Hamster PrP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Objective To prepare the PrP specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that can be used for the detection of mammalian prions and study of pathogenesis of prion diseases. Methods Several BALB/c mice were immunized with recombinant hamster prion protein (HaPrP). Three hybridoma cell lines designated as B7, B9, and B10, secreting monoclonal antibodies against HaPrP, were established by hybridoma technique. The mAbs reactivities were evaluated with ELISA, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Results The mAbs produced by these cell lines reacted well with different recombinant hamster PrP proteins. Western blot analyses showed that mAbs B7 and B9 reacted with PrPSc from the scrapie-infected animals after proteinase K digestion with three glycosylated forms. The mAbs exhibited cross-reactivity with various PrPC from several other mammalian species, including humans and cattles. Immunohistochemistry assays confirmed that mAbs B7 and B9 could recognize not only extracellular but also intracellular PrPSc. Conclusion The mAbs of prion protein are successfully generated by hybridoma technique and can be applied for the diagnosis of prion associated diseases.

  18. P53 FUSION PROTEIN EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTE AND PREPARATION OF MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY TO P53

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Caiyun; Shou Chengchao; Sun Sulian; ZhangLei; Zeng Li

    1998-01-01

    Objective: Conventional immunohistochemistry (IHC) is available to assess P53 mutations, and expensive imported anti-P53 monoclonal antibody has been used in China, it is necessary to study a new monoclonal antibody.Methods: The P53 DNA fragment enconding N-terminal 180 amiao acide was obtained by PCR and was cloned into PGEX-2T plasmid expressing glutathione S-transferase (GST). The P53-GST fusion protein expressed by JM109was used for immunizing BALB/C mice. We have raised one hybridoma strain secreting McAb to human P53(named M126). Results: The IHC analysis of 52paraffin-embedded sections from human breast cancer with M126 and PAB1801 (Zymed Co.) has showed that the positive immunoreactions were 25 cases (48%) and 22cases (42.3%) respectively. The staining of M126 was stronger and preferable to PAB1801. Conclusion: M126can be instead of PAB1801 for studying immunohistochemical analysis on P53 Protein.

  19. Monoclonal antibodies against the iron regulated outer membrane Proteins of Acinetobacter baumannii are bactericidal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goel Vikas

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iron is an important nutrient required by all forms of life.In the case of human hosts,the free iron availability is 10-18M,which is far less than what is needed for the survival of the invading bacterial pathogen.To survive in such conditions, bacteria express new proteins in their outer membrane and also secrete iron chelators called siderophores. Results/ Discussion Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 19606, a nosocomial pathogen which grows under iron restricted conditions, expresses four new outer membrane proteins,with molecular weight ranging from 77 kDa to 88 kDa, that are called Iron Regulated Outer Membrane Proteins (IROMPs. We studied the functional and immunological properties of IROMPs expressed by A.baumanii ATCC 19606.The bands corresponding to IROMPs were eluted from SDS-PAGE and were used to immunize BALB/c mice for the production of monoclonal antibodies. Hybridomas secreting specific antibodies against these IROMPs were selected after screening by ELISA and their reactivity was confirmed by Western Blot. The antibodies then generated belonged to IgM isotype and showed bactericidical and opsonising activities against A.baumanii in vitro.These antibodies also blocked siderophore mediated iron uptake via IROMPs in bacteria. Conclusion This proves that iron uptake via IROMPs,which is mediated through siderophores,may have an important role in the survival of A.baumanii inside the host,and helps establishing the infection.

  20. High throughput recombinant protein production of fungal secreted proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vala, Andrea Lages Lino; Roth, Doris; Grell, Morten Nedergaard

    2011-01-01

    a high-throughput protein production system with a special focus on fungal secreted proteins. We use a ligation independent cloning to clone target genes into expression vectors for E. coli and P. pastoris and a small scale test expression to identify constructs producing soluble protein. Expressed...... interaction), between fungi of the order Entomophthorales and aphids (pathogenic interaction), and in the mycoparasitic interaction between the oomycetes Pythium oligandrum and P. ultimum. In general, the high-throughput protein production system can lead to a better understanding of fungal/host interactions...

  1. A Novel Mechanism for Protein Delivery by the Type 3 Secretion System for Extracellularly Secreted Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejeda-Dominguez, Farid; Huerta-Cantillo, Jazmin; Chavez-Dueñas, Lucia; Navarro-Garcia, Fernando

    2017-03-28

    The type 3 secretion system (T3SS) is essential for bacterial virulence through delivering effector proteins directly into the host cytosol. Here, we identified an alternative delivery mechanism of virulence factors mediated by the T3SS, which consists of the association of extracellularly secreted proteins from bacteria with the T3SS to gain access to the host cytosol. Both EspC, a protein secreted as an enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) autotransporter, and YopH, a protein detected on the surface of Yersinia, require a functional T3SS for host cell internalization; here we provide biophysical and molecular evidence to support the concept of the EspC translocation mechanism, which requires (i) an interaction between EspA and an EspC middle segment, (ii) an EspC translocation motif (21 residues that are shared with the YopH translocation motif), (iii) increases in the association and dissociation rates of EspC mediated by EspA interacting with EspD, and (iv) an interaction of EspC with the EspD/EspB translocon pore. Interestingly, this novel mechanism does not exclude the injection model (i.e., EspF) operating through the T3SS conduit; therefore, T3SS can be functioning as an internal conduit or as an external railway, which can be used to reach the translocator pore, and this mechanism appears to be conserved among different T3SS-dependent pathogens.IMPORTANCE The type 3 secretion system is essential for injection of virulence factors, which are delivered directly into the cytosol of the host cells for usurping and subverting host processes. Recent studies have shown that these effectors proteins indeed travel inside an "injectisome" conduit through a single step of translocation by connecting the bacterium and host cell cytoplasms. However, all findings are not compatible with this model. For example, both YopH, a protein detected on the surface of Yersinia, and EspC, an autotransporter protein secreted by enteropathogenic E. coli, require a functional T3

  2. Pharmacokinetics of biotech drugs: peptides, proteins and monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiunn H

    2009-09-01

    With the advances in recombinant DNA biotechnology, molecular biology and immunology, the number of biotech drugs, including peptides, proteins and monoclonal antibodies, available for clinical use has dramatically increased in recent years. Although pharmacokinetic principles are equally applicable to the large molecule drugs and conventional small molecule drugs, the underlying mechanisms for the processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of large molecule drugs are often very different from that of small molecule drugs. Therefore, a good understanding of the ADME processes of large molecule drugs is essential in support of the development of therapeutic biologics. The purpose of this article is to review the current knowledge of the ADME processes that govern the pharmacokinetics of biotech drugs. The challenges encountered by orally administered peptide and protein drugs, and the nature of lymphatic absorption after subcutaneous administration will be discussed. In addition, molecular mechanisms of biodistribution, metabolism and renal excretion of biotech drugs will also be discussed. Finally, approaches used for prediction of human pharmacokinetics of protein drugs will be briefly discussed.

  3. Preparation and Primary Application of Monoclonal Antibodies against a Novel Ribosome-inactivating Protein Moschatin from Pumpkin Seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heng-Chuan XIA; Wei-Guo HU; Xin-Xiu YANG; Feng LI; Zu-Chuan ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    Plant ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) have multiple biological functions, and have beenwidely used in the studies on biomedical and agronomic applications. Moschatin is a novel single-chain RIPrecently purified from pumpkin seeds, and it has been successfully applied to construct the immunotoxin thatcan selectively kill the cultured human melanoma cells. Six stable strains of hybridomas (2H8, 4A8, 5B6,6F8, 4H 10 and 6C2) that can secrete high specific monoclonal antibodies against Moschatin have beensuccessfully prepared using hybridoma technique. The isotypes of these monoclonal antibodies areIgG1, IgG1, IgG1, IgG1, IgG2a and IgM. Their affinity constants were determined to be 1.42×108, 2.71×108,8.72×107, 2.06×108, 1.36×108 and 1.51×108M-1 in a sequent order, measured by non-competitive ELISA.The monoclonal antibody 4A8 has been used to detect Moschatin in Western blot. An immunoaffinity gel,which consisted ofa monoclonal antibody 4H10 and Sepharose 4B, was prepared and used to purify Moschatinfrom pumpkin seeds crude extract.

  4. Preparation and Primary Application of Monoclonal Antibodies against a Novel Ribosome-inactivating Protein Moschatin from Pumpkin Seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heng-ChuanXIA; Wei-GuoHU; Xin-XiuYANG; FengLI; Zu-ChuanZHANG

    2004-01-01

    Plant ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) have multiple biological functions, and have beenwidely used in the studies on biomedical and agronomic applications. Moschatin is a novel single-chain RIPrecently purified from pumpkin seeds, and it has been successfully applied to construct the immunotoxin thatcan selectively kill the cultured human melanoma cells. Six stable strains of hybridomas (2H8, 4A8, 5B6,6F8, 4H10 and 6C2) that can secrete high specific monoclonal antibodies against Moschatin have beensuccessfully prepared using hybridoma technique. The isotypes of these monoclonal antibodies areIgG1, IgG1, IgG1, IgG1, IgG2a and IgM. Their affinity constants were determined to be 1.42×108, 2.71×108,8.72×07, 2.06×l08, 1.36×108 and 1.51×108 M-1 in a sequent order, measured by non-competitive ELISA.The monoclonal antibody 4A8 has been used to detect Moschatin in Western blot. An immunoaffinity gel,which consisted ofa monoclonal antibody 4H 10 and Sepharose 4B, was prepared and used to purify Moschatinfrom pumpkin seeds crude extract.

  5. Production and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies of Shrimp White Spot Syndrome Virus Envelope Protein VP28

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan-gang GU; Jun-fa YUAN; Ge-lin XU; Li-juan LI; Ni LIU; Cong ZHANG; Jian-hong ZHANG; Zheng-li SHI

    2007-01-01

    BALB/c mice were immunized with purified White spot syndrome virus (WSSV).Six monoclonal antibody cell lines were selected by ELISA with VP28 protein expressed in E.coll in vitro neutralization experiments showed that 4 of them could inhibit the virus infection in crayfish.Westernblot suggested that all these monoclonal antibodies were against the conformational structure of VP28.The monoclonal antibody 7B4 was labeled with colloidal gold particles and used to locate the VP28 on virus envelope by immunogold labeling.These monoclonal antibodies could be used to develop immunological diagnosis methods for WSSV infection.

  6. Monoclonal antibodies against a synthetic peptide from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinaa, L; Wulff, A M; Saermark, T

    1994-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies against a synthetic peptide (aa 138-152) from HIV-1 Nef protein were produced and characterized. Three hybridoma lines producing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the synthetic peptide were generated by fusion between P3-X63 Ag8.653 myeloma cells and BALB/c splenocytes fr...

  7. Occurrence of Double Monoclonal Bands on Protein Electrophoresis: An Unusual Finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Vishrut K; Bhagat, Priyanka; Bansal, Frainey; Chhabra, Seema

    2016-06-01

    Various techniques of protein electrophoresis are used for detection of monoclonal proteins/paraproteins in serum and/or urine of patients with monoclonal gammopathies. These are detected as the so-called 'M' bands (monoclonal bands) on serum protein electrophoresis and/or immunofixation electrophoresis. In most cases, a single M-band is detected. However, more than one M-band can be detected in the samples of a minor proportion of patients. This condition is termed as 'double gammopathy' or 'biclonal gammopathy'. A knowledge of such an unusual occurrence is essential for recognition and appropriate interpretation of this entity.

  8. Monoclonal antibody probe for assessing beer foam stabilizing proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, A; Proudlove, M O; Dickie, K; Mills, E N; Kauffman, J A; Morgan, M R

    1999-08-01

    A monoclonal antibody (Mab; IFRN 1625) has been produced, which is specific for the most hydrophobic polypeptides responsible for foam stabilization. The binding characteristics of the Mab suggest that it is the conformation of certain hydrophobic polypeptides which is important for foam stabilization. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for assessing the foam-positive form of the foam-stabilizing polypeptides in beer was developed using IFRN 1625. A good correlation was obtained between ELISA determination of foam-stabilizing polypeptides and an empirical means of determining foaming, that is, the Rudin head retention values, for a collection of beers of various foam qualities. Application of the ELISA to different stages of the brewing process showed that the amounts of foam-positive polypeptides increased during barley germination. During the brewing process the proportion of foam-positive polypeptides present after fermentation increased slightly, although a large amount was lost along with other beer proteins during subsequent steps, such as filtering. The present study demonstrates that the amounts of beer polypeptide present in a foam-positive form have a direct relationship with the foaming potential of beer, that their levels are altered by processing, and that there is potential for greater quality control.

  9. A catalogue of human secreted proteins and its implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivakumar Keerthikumar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Under both normal and pathological conditions, cells secrete variety of proteins through classical and non-classical secretory pathways into the extracellular space. Majority of these proteins represent pathophysiology of the cell from which it is secreted. Recently, though more than 92% of the protein coding genes has been mapped by human proteome map project, but number of those proteins that constitutes secretome of the cell still remains elusive. Secreted proteins or the secretome can be accessible in bodily fluids and hence are considered as potential biomarkers to discriminate between healthy and diseased individuals. In order to facilitate the biomarker discovery and to further aid clinicians and scientists working in these arenas, we have compiled and catalogued secreted proteins from the human proteome using integrated bioinformatics approach. In this study, nearly 14% of the human proteome is likely to be secreted through classical and non-classical secretory pathways. Out of which, ~38% of these secreted proteins were found in extracellular vesicles including exosomes and shedding microvesicles. Among these secreted proteins, 94% were detected in human bodily fluids including blood, plasma, serum, saliva, semen, tear and urine. We anticipate that this high confidence list of secreted proteins could serve as a compendium of candidate biomarkers. In addition, the catalogue may provide functional insights in understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in various physiological and pathophysiological conditions of the cell.

  10. Cloning and Characterization of a Hybridoma Secreting a 4-(Methylnitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK-Specific Monoclonal Antibody and Recombinant F(ab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence K. Silbart

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Smokeless tobacco products have been associated with increased risks of oro-pharyngeal cancers, due in part to the presence of tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs such as 4-(methylnitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK. These potent carcinogens are formed during tobacco curing and as a result of direct nitrosation reactions that occur in the oral cavity. In the current work we describe the isolation and characterization of a hybridoma secreting a high-affinity, NNK-specific monoclonal antibody. A structurally-related benzoyl derivative was synthesized to facilitate coupling to NNK-carrier proteins, which were characterized for the presence of the N-nitroso group using the Griess reaction, and used to immunize BALB/c mice. Splenocytes from mice bearing NNK-specific antibodies were used to create hybridomas. Out of four, one was selected for subcloning and characterization. Approximately 99% of the monoclonal antibodies from this clone were competitively displaced from plate-bound NNKB conjugates in the presence of free NNK. The affinity of the monoclonal antibody to the NNKB conjugates was Kd = 2.93 nM as determined by surface plasmon resonance. Free nicotine was a poor competitor for the NNKB binding site. The heavy and light chain antibody F(ab fragments were cloned, sequenced and inserted in tandem into an expression vector, with an FMDV Furin 2A cleavage site between them. Expression in HEK 293 cells revealed a functional F(ab with similar binding features to that of the parent hybridoma. This study lays the groundwork for synthesizing transgenic tobacco that expresses carcinogen-sequestration properties, thereby rendering it less harmful to consumers.

  11. Discovery of functional monoclonal antibodies targeting G-protein-coupled receptors and ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Trevor C I

    2016-06-15

    The development of recombinant antibody therapeutics is a significant area of growth in the pharmaceutical industry with almost 50 approved monoclonal antibodies on the market in the US and Europe. Despite this growth, however, certain classes of important molecular targets have remained intractable to therapeutic antibodies due to complexity of the target molecules. These complex target molecules include G-protein-coupled receptors and ion channels which represent a large potential target class for therapeutic intervention with monoclonal antibodies. Although these targets have typically been addressed by small molecule approaches, the exquisite specificity of antibodies provides a significant opportunity to provide selective modulation of these target proteins. Given this opportunity, substantial effort has been applied to address the technical challenges of targeting these complex membrane proteins with monoclonal antibodies. In this review recent progress made in the strategies for discovery of functional monoclonal antibodies for these challenging membrane protein targets is addressed.

  12. Production of Human Monoclonal Rheumatoid Factor Secreting Hybridomas Derived from Rheumatoid Synovial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    antisera to human [gM and human IgG heavy chains , kappa and lambda lightTable 2: Rheumatoid synowal cell tRF subelass speclicity profiles chains , and...antisera to whole mouse Ig including light chains .(ELISA)frompantie MKin Table 1& AD7 RF was a human 1gM k monoclonal antibody without Well IgGI gG2

  13. Identification and characterization of secreted proteins in Eimeria tenella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramlee, Intan Azlinda; Firdaus-Raih, Mohd; Wan, Kiew-Lian

    2015-09-01

    Eimeria tenella is a protozoan parasite that causes coccidiosis, an economically important disease in the poultry industry. The characterization of proteins that are secreted by parasites have been shown to play important roles in parasite invasion and are considered to be potential control agents. In this study, 775 proteins potentially secreted by E. tenella were identified. These proteins were further filtered to remove mitochondrial proteins. Out of 763 putative secreted proteins, 259 proteins possess transmembrane domains while another 150 proteins have GPI (Glycosylphosphatidylinositol) anchors. Homology search revealed that 315 and 448 proteins have matches with known and hypothetical proteins in the database, respectively. Within this data set, previously characterized secretory proteins such as micronemes, rhoptry kinases and dense granules were detected.

  14. ERBB oncogene proteins as targets for monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanovski, O L; Lebedenko, E N; Deyev, S M

    2012-03-01

    General properties of the family of tyrosine kinase ERBB receptors are considered in connection with their role in the generation of cascades of signal transduction in normal and tumor cells. Causes of acquisition of oncogene features by genes encoding these receptors and their role in tumorigenesis are analyzed. Anti-ERBB monoclonal antibodies approved for therapy are described in detail, and mechanisms of their antitumor activity and development of resistance to them are reviewed. The existing and the most promising strategies for creating and using monoclonal antibodies and their derivatives for therapy of cancer are discussed.

  15. Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) might contaminate murine monoclonal antibodies after purification on protein G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Jörg A; Fettke, Joerg; Lenz, Christine; Albers, Katharina; Mallwitz, Frank; Gajovic-Eichelmann, Nenad; Ehrentreich-Förster, Eva; Kusch, Emely; Sellrie, Frank

    2012-03-31

    The large scale production of a monoclonal anti-progesterone antibody in serum free medium followed by affinity chromatography on protein G lead to a contamination of the antibody sample with a protein of about 14 kDa. This protein was identified by mass spectrometry as secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI). This SLPI contamination lead to a failure of the fiber-optic based competitive fluorescence assay to detect progesterone in milk. Purification of the monoclonal antibody using protein A columns circumvented this problem.

  16. Lipid-independent secretion of a Drosophila Wnt protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Wendy; Hang, Howard C; Nusse, Roel

    2008-06-20

    Wnt proteins comprise a large class of secreted signaling molecules with key roles during embryonic development and throughout adult life. Recently, much effort has been focused on understanding the factors that regulate Wnt signal production. For example, Porcupine and Wntless/Evi/Sprinter have been identified as being required in Wnt-producing cells for the processing and secretion of many Wnt proteins. Interestingly, in this study we find that WntD, a recently characterized Drosophila Wnt family member, does not require Porcupine or Wntless/Evi/Sprinter for its secretion or signaling activity. Because Porcupine is involved in post-translational lipid modification of Wnt proteins, we used a novel labeling method and mass spectrometry to ask whether WntD undergoes lipid modification and found that it does not. Although lipid modification is also hypothesized to be required for Wnt secretion, we find that WntD is secreted very efficiently. WntD secretion does, however, maintain a requirement for the secretory pathway component Rab1. Our results show that not all Wnt family members require lipid modification, Porcupine, or Wntless/Evi/Sprinter for secretion and suggest that different modes of secretion may exist for different Wnt proteins.

  17. Mining secreted proteins that function in pepper fruit development and ripening using a yeast secretion trap (YST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Je Min, E-mail: jemin@knu.ac.kr [Department of Plant Science, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Horticultural Science, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-Jik [Biotechnology Institute, Nongwoo Bio Co, Ltd, Yeoju (Korea, Republic of); Department of Plant Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Rose, Jocelyn K.C. [Department of Plant Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Yeam, Inhwa [Department of Horticulture and Breeding, Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byung-Dong [Department of Plant Science, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • Yeast secretion trap (YST) is a valuable tool for mining secretome. • A total of 80 secreted proteins are newly identified via YST in pepper fruits. • The secreted proteins are differentially regulated during pepper development and ripening. • Transient GFP-fusion assay and in planta secretion trap can effectively validate the secretion of proteins. - Abstract: Plant cells secrete diverse sets of constitutively- and conditionally-expressed proteins under various environmental and developmental states. Secreted protein populations, or secretomes have multiple functions, including defense responses, signaling, metabolic processes, and developmental regulation. To identify genes encoding secreted proteins that function in fruit development and ripening, a yeast secretion trap (YST) screen was employed using pepper (Capsicum annuum) fruit cDNAs. The YST screen revealed 80 pepper fruit-related genes (CaPFRs) encoding secreted proteins including cell wall proteins, several of which have not been previously described. Transient GFP-fusion assay and an in planta secretion trap were used to validate the secretion of proteins encoded by selected YST clones. In addition, RNA gel blot analyses provided further insights into their expression and regulation during fruit development and ripening. Integrating our data, we conclude that the YST provides a valuable functional genomics tool for the identification of substantial numbers of novel secreted plant proteins that are associated with biological processes, including fruit development and ripening.

  18. Studying host cell protein interactions with monoclonal antibodies using high throughput protein A chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisodiya, Vikram N; Lequieu, Joshua; Rodriguez, Maricel; McDonald, Paul; Lazzareschi, Kathlyn P

    2012-10-01

    Protein A chromatography is typically used as the initial capture step in the purification of monoclonal antibodies produced in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Although exploiting an affinity interaction for purification, the level of host cell proteins in the protein A eluent varies significantly with different feedstocks. Using a batch binding chromatography method, we performed a controlled study to assess host cell protein clearance across both MabSelect Sure and Prosep vA resins. We individually spiked 21 purified antibodies into null cell culture fluid generated with a non-producing cell line, creating mock cell culture fluids for each antibody with an identical composition of host cell proteins and antibody concentration. We demonstrated that antibody-host cell protein interactions are primarily responsible for the variable levels of host cell proteins in the protein A eluent for both resins when antibody is present. Using the additives guanidine HCl and sodium chloride, we demonstrated that antibody-host cell protein interactions may be disrupted, reducing the level of host cell proteins present after purification on both resins. The reduction in the level of host cell proteins differed between antibodies suggesting that the interaction likely varies between individual antibodies but encompasses both an electrostatic and hydrophobic component.

  19. Limited cross-reactivity of mouse monoclonal antibodies against Dengue virus capsid protein among four serotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noda M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Megumi Noda,1 Promsin Masrinoul,1 Chaweewan Punkum,1 Chonlatip Pipattanaboon,2,3 Pongrama Ramasoota,2,4 Chayanee Setthapramote,2,3 Tadahiro Sasaki,6 Mikiko Sasayama,1 Akifumi Yamashita,1,5 Takeshi Kurosu,6 Kazuyoshi Ikuta,6 Tamaki Okabayashi11Mahidol-Osaka Center for Infectious Diseases, 2Center of Excellence for Antibody Research, 3Department of Microbiology and Immunology, 4Department of Social and Environmental Medicine, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Ratchathewi, Bangkok, Thailand; 5Graduate School of Life Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi, 6Department of Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, JapanBackground: Dengue illness is one of the important mosquito-borne viral diseases in tropical and subtropical regions. Four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4 are classified in the Flavivirus genus of the family Flaviviridae. We prepared monoclonal antibodies against DENV capsid protein from mice immunized with DENV-2 and determined the cross-reactivity with each serotype of DENV and Japanese encephalitis virus.Methods and results: To clarify the relationship between the cross-reactivity of monoclonal antibodies and the diversity of these viruses, we examined the situations of flaviviruses by analyses of phylogenetic trees. Among a total of 60 prepared monoclonal antibodies specific for DENV, five monoclonal antibodies stained the nuclei of infected cells and were found to be specific to the capsid protein. Three were specific to DENV-2, while the other two were cross-reactive with DENV-2 and DENV-4. No monoclonal antibodies were cross-reactive with all four serotypes. Phylogenetic analysis of DENV amino acid sequences of the capsid protein revealed that DENV-2 and DENV-4 were clustered in the same branch, while DENV-1 and DENV-3 were clustered in the other branch. However, these classifications of the capsid protein were different from those of the

  20. CELL-WALL GROWTH AND PROTEIN SECRETION IN FUNGI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SIETSMA, JH; WOSTEN, HAB; WESSELS, JGH

    1995-01-01

    Secretion of proteins is a vital process in fungi. Because hyphal walls form a diffusion barrier for proteins, a mechanism different from diffusion probably exist to transport proteins across the wall. In Schizophyllum commune, evidence has been obtained for synthesis at the hyphal apex of wall comp

  1. Human keratinocytes synthesize and secrete the extracellular matrix protein, thrombospondin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikner, N E; Dixit, V M; Frazier, W A; Clark, R A

    1987-02-01

    Thrombospondin (TSP) a glycoprotein originally identified as the endogenous lectin of platelets, is also synthesized by fibroblasts, endothelial cells, pneumocytes, smooth muscle cells, and macrophages. Thrombospondin is subdivided into functional domains which bind specifically to heparin, fibronectin, collagen, and to specific cellular receptors. It is found within the basement membranes of kidney, lung, smooth muscle, and skin. Thus TSP may serve as an important link between cells and matrices. Thrombospondin also has been reported at the epidermal-dermal junction. We wished to determine whether human keratinocytes synthesize and secrete TSP. Pure human keratinocytes were grown in defined medium without fibroblast feeder layers. Immunofluorescent staining with either rabbit polyclonal or mouse monoclonal antibodies to human platelet TSP yielded specific granular staining within the cytoplasm of keratinocytes. Culture media and cellular lysates were harvested from cultures metabolically labeled with [35S]methionine. Trichloroacetic acid precipitation, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and autoradiography revealed a major labeled band comigrating with purified platelet TSP in both the media and the cellular lysates. Immunoprecipitation with either the polyclonal or the monoclonal anti-TSP antibodies followed by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography identified this band as TSP. Thus keratinocytes in culture synthesize and secrete TSP. Thrombospondin may play an important role in epidermal interactions with extracellular matrix.

  2. Self-Assembly of Protein Monolayers Engineered for Improved Monoclonal Immunoglobulin G Binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy H. Lakey

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial outer membrane proteins, along with a filling lipid molecule can be modified to form stable self-assembled monolayers on gold. The transmembrane domain of Escherichia coli outer membrane protein A has been engineered to create a scaffold protein to which functional motifs can be fused. In earlier work we described the assembly and structure of an antibody-binding array where the Z domain of Staphylococcus aureus protein A was fused to the scaffold protein. Whilst the binding of rabbit polyclonal immunoglobulin G (IgG to the array is very strong, mouse monoclonal IgG dissociates from the array easily. This is a problem since many immunodiagnostic tests rely upon the use of mouse monoclonal antibodies. Here we describe a strategy to develop an antibody-binding array that will bind mouse monoclonal IgG with lowered dissociation from the array. A novel protein consisting of the scaffold protein fused to two pairs of Z domains separated by a long flexible linker was manufactured. Using surface plasmon resonance the self-assembly of the new protein on gold and the improved binding of mouse monoclonal IgG were demonstrated.

  3. [Preparation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific for FlaA protein of Campylobacter jejuni].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinlin; Yin, Yanxin; Mei, Dexia; Zhang, Gong; Pan, Zhiming; Liu, Xiufan; Jiao, Xin'an

    2010-08-01

    We expressed and purified Campylobacter jejuni flagellin FlaA protein to develop monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against this protein. The C. jejuni flaA gene was amplified and inserted into the expression plasmids, pET30a (+) and pGEX-6p-1. The purified rHis-FlaA protein was used as an immunogen in 8-week-old BALB/c mice, and injected subcutaneously. The purified rGST-FlaA protein used as a detecting antigen for screening mAbs against FlaA was prepared by using a denaturation and renaturation technique. The specificity of mAbs was characterized by Dot-ELISA and Western blot assays. The recombinant expression plasmids, pET30a (+)-flaA and pGEX-6p-1-flaA were obtained. The sizes of the recombinant proteins, rHis-FlaA and rGST-FlaA, were consistent with their predicted size. Specific reaction was found between FlaA positive serum and expressed protein by Western-blot assay, confirming its identification as a Campylobacter jejuni immunogen. Three hybridoma cell lines, designated 2D12, 5A12 and 6A9, secreting mAbs against FlaA were obtained. Their immunoglobulin subclasses were IgG2a, IgG1 and IgG1, respectively. The ELISA titers of the ascites fluid were 1:102 400, 1:102 400 and 1:51 200, respectively. Western blot analysis confirmed that the three mAbs reacted with the rHis-FlaA fusion protein but not the His tag. The Dot-ELISA results demonstrated that the three mAbs only with FlaA and not the tags for the expression vectors. The successful preparation of three mAbs specific for the FlaA protein lays the foundation for further study regarding the biological characteristics of FlaA and the pathogenesis of C. jejuni.

  4. The ESX system in Bacillus subtilis mediates protein secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A Huppert

    Full Text Available Esat-6 protein secretion systems (ESX or Ess are required for the virulence of several human pathogens, most notably Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus. These secretion systems are defined by a conserved FtsK/SpoIIIE family ATPase and one or more WXG100 family secreted substrates. Gene clusters coding for ESX systems have been identified amongst many organisms including the highly tractable model system, Bacillus subtilis. In this study, we demonstrate that the B. subtilis yuk/yue locus codes for a nonessential ESX secretion system. We develop a functional secretion assay to demonstrate that each of the locus gene products is specifically required for secretion of the WXG100 virulence factor homolog, YukE. We then employ an unbiased approach to search for additional secreted substrates. By quantitative profiling of culture supernatants, we find that YukE may be the sole substrate that depends on the FtsK/SpoIIIE family ATPase for secretion. We discuss potential functional implications for secretion of a unique substrate.

  5. Midgut proteins released by microapocrine secretion in Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Walciane; Cardoso, Christiane; Ribeiro, Alberto F; Terra, Walter R; Ferreira, Clélia

    2013-01-01

    Microapocrine vesicles bud from the lepidopteran midgut microvilli as double membrane vesicles. To identify the proteins secreted by this process, antibodies raised against isolated microapocrine vesicles from Spodoptera frugiperda were used for screening a midgut cDNA expression library. Positive clones were sequenced, assembled and N blasted against S. frugiperda sequences obtained by pyrosequencing midgut mRNA. This procedure led to the extension of microapocrine sequences that were annotated. A similar procedure was used to identify midgut microvillar proteins that necessarily are part of the microapocrine vesicle. Forty-eight proteins were associated with microvillar membranes. They pertain to 8 functional groups: digestive enzymes, peritrophic membrane, protection, transporters, receptors, secretory machinery, cytoskeleton and signaling, and unknown. Twenty-eight proteins are putatively secreted by microapocrine secretion. Most of them are digestive enzymes, but the list also includes proteins involved in protection and in peritrophic membrane formation. Among the identified digestive enzymes, aminopeptidases are typically microvillar and group into the classes 1, 2, 3, 5, and 6. There are two amylases secreted by microapocrine secretion: one is a digestive enzyme and the other is a transporter-like amylase with no clear function. One lipase has a predicted transmembrane loop, whereas the others are supposed to be secreted by microapocrine secretion and be digestive. Trypsin is membrane bound and is delivered by microapocrine secretion, but has no predicted features to bind membranes. It may remain bound through the signal peptide till be delivered into the midgut lumen. Proteins supposed to be involved in the microapocrine secretory machinery were: calmodulin, annexin, myosin 7a, and gelsolin 1. Their putative roles are discussed, but more research is necessary to settle this subject.

  6. Development and characterization of murine monoclonal antibody specific for the P1.4 PorA proteins from strain B:4:P1.(7b.4. of Neisseria meningitidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Pérez

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis isolates are conventionally classified by serosubtyping that characterizes the reactivities of the PorA outer membrane protein variable-region epitopes with monoclonal antibodies. Porins are outer membrane proteins (OMPs of N. meningitidis serogroup B and have attracted study principally for two reasons: their use in the classification of meningococcal isolates into serotype and subtype and as potential components of vaccines against this important pathogen. New murine hybridomas, secreting specific monoclonal antibodies against PorA serotype P1.4 of N. meningitidis serogroup B, were generated using conventional hybridoma procedures. The monoclonal antibodies obtained were characterized by Western blot and whole cell ELISA, using reference strains from different N. meningitidis serotypes and subtypes. All monoclonal antibodies belong to isotype IgG1. Others hybridomas producing MAbs against PorB and FrpB were also obtained.

  7. [Preparation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against cytolethal distending toxin protein of Campylobacter jejuni].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lei; Shang, Yuwei; Ren, Fangzhe; Wang, Nan; Jiao, Xin'an; Huang, Jinlin

    2014-08-04

    To express Campylobacter jejuni cytolethal distending toxin B protein (CdtB) in a prokaryote to prepare monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the protein, and to study their antitoxic effects. The C. jejuni cdtB gene was amplified and inserted into the expression plasmids pET-30a( + ) and pGEX-6p-1. The purified rGST-CdtB protein was used as the immunogen to screen hybridoma cells for mAbs against the protein. The mAb titers were determined with an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and their specificity with a Dot-ELISA and western blotting analysis. We determined the antitoxic properties of the mAbs in CaCo-2 and HD-11 cells. Recombinant expression plasmids pET-30a (+)-cdtB and pGEX-6p-l-cdtB were successfully constructed, and fusion proteins rHis-CdtB and rGST-CdtB expressed, respectively. Five hybridoma cell lines, designated 1F3, IF5, 2E4, 2E11, and 2F2, were screened for the stable secretion of mAbs against CdtB. The immunoglobulin subclass of 2E11 was IgG2b and that of the other mAbs was IgG1. The mAb titers in the ascites fluids were 1:1 x 10(8) on indirect ELISA. Dot-ELISA demonstrated that the five mAbs reacted specifically with C. jejuni. Western blotting analysis confirmed that the five mAbs reacted well with the rGST-CdtB fusion protein. The mAbs significantly reduced the adhesion and invasion capacities of the bacterium in CaCo-2 cells (P < 0.01). The successful preparation of five mAbs specific for the CdtB protein will allow further study of the biological characteristics of CdtB and the pathogenesis of C. jejuni.

  8. Functional genomics to study protein secretion stress in Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva Pinheiro Carvalho, Neuza Daniela

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis we have focused our studies towards a better understanding of different processes involved in the protein secretion pathway that might act as bottlenecks for homologous and heterologous protein production. We have given particular attention to the molecular mechanisms of folding and q

  9. Proteomic analysis of Taenia solium metacestode excretion-secretion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Bjorn; Kanobana, Kirezi; Gabriël, Sarah; Polman, Katja; Deckers, Nynke; Dorny, Pierre; Deelder, André M; Palmblad, Magnus

    2012-06-01

    The metacestode larval stage of Taenia solium is the causal agent of a zoonotic disease called cysticercosis. The disease has an important impact on pork trade (due to porcine cysticercosis) and public health (due to human neurocysticercosis). In order to improve the current diagnostic tools and to get a better understanding of the interaction between T. solium metacestodes and their host, there is a need for more information about the proteins that are released by the parasite. In this study, we used protein sequences from different helminths, 1DE, reversed-phase LC, and MS/MS to analyze the excretion-secretion proteins produced by T. solium metacestodes from infected pigs. This is the first report of the T. solium metacestode excretion-secretion proteome. We report 76 proteins including 27 already described T. solium proteins, 17 host proteins and 32 proteins likely to be of T. solium origin, but identified using sequences from other helminths.

  10. Specific ion and buffer effects on protein-protein interactions of a monoclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D; Keeling, R; Tracka, M; van der Walle, C F; Uddin, S; Warwicker, J; Curtis, R

    2015-01-05

    Better predictive ability of salt and buffer effects on protein-protein interactions requires separating out contributions due to ionic screening, protein charge neutralization by ion binding, and salting-in(out) behavior. We have carried out a systematic study by measuring protein-protein interactions for a monoclonal antibody over an ionic strength range of 25 to 525 mM at 4 pH values (5, 6.5, 8, and 9) in solutions containing sodium chloride, calcium chloride, sodium sulfate, or sodium thiocyante. The salt ions are chosen so as to represent a range of affinities for protein charged and noncharged groups. The results are compared to effects of various buffers including acetate, citrate, phosphate, histidine, succinate, or tris. In low ionic strength solutions, anion binding affinity is reflected by the ability to reduce protein-protein repulsion, which follows the order thiocyanate > sulfate > chloride. The sulfate specific effect is screened at the same ionic strength required to screen the pH dependence of protein-protein interactions indicating sulfate binding only neutralizes protein charged groups. Thiocyanate specific effects occur over a larger ionic strength range reflecting adsorption to charged and noncharged regions of the protein. The latter leads to salting-in behavior and, at low pH, a nonmonotonic interaction profile with respect to sodium thiocyanate concentration. The effects of thiocyanate can not be rationalized in terms of only neutralizing double layer forces indicating the presence of an additional short-ranged protein-protein attraction at moderate ionic strength. Conversely, buffer specific effects can be explained through a charge neutralization mechanism, where buffers with greater valency are more effective at reducing double layer forces at low pH. Citrate binding at pH 6.5 leads to protein charge inversion and the formation of attractive electrostatic interactions. Throughout the report, we highlight similarities in the measured

  11. Secretion of angiopoietin-like 4 protein from intestinal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soren Drud Nielsen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4 has been suggested to play a role in lipid metabolism as a regulatory protein of lipoprotein lipase activity. Intestinal secretion of ANGPTL4, which is regulated by fatty acids, may inhibit the activity of circulating lipoprotein lipase; but, recent studies suggest that it could also inhibit pancreatic lipase in the gut and thereby reduce intestinal uptake of lipids. Secretion of the ANGPTL4 protein to either the lumen or tissue/blood side of the intestinal epithelial layer would indicate possible modes of action. Methods: Caco-2 cells were grown on permeable membranes and cultured for 21 days to spontaneously differentiate into an intact monolayer of intestinal cells, mimicking the epithelial cell layer lining the intestinal wall. Cells were treated with 9 mM butyrate and the time dependent gene expression and protein secretion to the apical and basolateral side was analysed over a time-course of 24 hours. Possible feedback from ANGPTL4 protein was investigated by adding 0.25 ng/ml recombinant ANGPTL4 protein to culture media. Results: Butyrate-induced ANGPTL4 gene expression increased in Caco-2 cells after 2 hours,reaching a plateau of approximately 6 fold after 6-24 hours, while the ANGPTL4 protein secretion to both the apical and basolateral sides was increased 18-24 hours after stimulation. Anegative feedback on apical and basolateral secretion was observed in the presence of recombinant ANGPTL4 on the apical and basolateral sides, respectively. Conclusion: The present study indicates that, upon exposure to butyrate, the monolayer of epithelial cells secretes the ANGPTL4 protein to both the tissue/blood (basolateral side and the luminal (apical side of the monolayer which, in an in vivo situation, may be interpreted as potential inhibition of both the circulating and pancreatic lipase.

  12. Mechanism of Action of Secreted Newt Anterior Gradient Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassme, Kathrin S.; Garza-Garcia, Acely; Delgado, Jean-Paul; Godwin, James W.; Kumar, Anoop; Gates, Phillip B.; Brockes, Jeremy P.

    2016-01-01

    Anterior gradient (AG) proteins have a thioredoxin fold and are targeted to the secretory pathway where they may act in the ER, as well as after secretion into the extracellular space. A newt member of the family (nAG) was previously identified as interacting with the GPI-anchored salamander-specific three-finger protein called Prod1. Expression of nAG has been implicated in the nerve dependence of limb regeneration in salamanders, and nAG acted as a growth factor for cultured newt limb blastemal (progenitor) cells, but the mechanism of action was not understood. Here we show that addition of a peptide antibody to Prod1 specifically inhibit the proliferation of blastema cells, suggesting that Prod1 acts as a cell surface receptor for secreted nAG, leading to S phase entry. Mutation of the single cysteine residue in the canonical active site of nAG to alanine or serine leads to protein degradation, but addition of residues at the C terminus stabilises the secreted protein. The mutation of the cysteine residue led to no detectable activity on S phase entry in cultured newt limb blastemal cells. In addition, our phylogenetic analyses have identified a new Caudata AG protein called AG4. A comparison of the AG proteins in a cell culture assay indicates that nAG secretion is significantly higher than AGR2 or AG4, suggesting that this property may vary in different members of the family. PMID:27100463

  13. Excreted/Secreted Proteins from Trypanosome Procyclic Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celestine Michelle Atyame Nten

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma secretome was shown to be involved in parasite virulence and is suspected of interfering in parasite life-cycle steps such as establishment in the Glossina midgut, metacyclogenesis. Therefore, we attempted to identify the proteins secreted by procyclic strains of T. brucei gambiense and T. brucei brucei, responsible for human and animal trypanosomiasis, respectively. Using mass spectrometry, 427 and 483 nonredundant proteins were characterized in T. brucei brucei and T. brucei gambiense secretomes, respectively; 35% and 42% of the corresponding secretome proteins were specifically secreted by T. brucei brucei and T. brucei gambiense, respectively, while 279 proteins were common to both subspecies. The proteins were assigned to 12 functional classes. Special attention was paid to the most abundant proteases (14 families because of their potential implication in the infection process and nutrient supply. The presence of proteins usually secreted via an exosome pathway suggests that this type of process is involved in trypanosome ESP secretion. The overall results provide leads for further research to develop novel tools for blocking trypanosome transmission.

  14. Low molecular mass GTP-binding proteins are secreted from mammary epithelial cells in association with lipid globules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, D; Ankrapp, D; Keenan, T W

    1993-07-01

    Secretion of milk lipid globules is achieved through encapsulation of triacylglycerol-rich lipid droplets in a specialized region of apical plasma membrane of mammary epithelial cells. A class of low molecular mass GTP-binding proteins were associated tightly with the lipid globule membrane, and these proteins appeared to change from peripheral to integral membrane proteins during intracellular growth and transit of lipid globule precursors. Inclusion of GTP or GTP gamma S in incubation medium stimulated secretion of lipids from primary cultures of permeabilized rat mammary epithelial cells. Six polypeptides with molecular masses between 28 and 21 kDa were detected by ability to bind GTP gamma S following separation of lipid-globule-associated proteins by SDS-PAGE and transblotting onto nitrocellulose. That all of these polypeptides were distinct immunologically from the archetype ras was evident from lack of immunoreactivity with p21 ras G-protein monoclonal antibody in Western blots. This monoclonal antibody bound to a 23 kDa polypeptide of lipid droplets that was not detected with the GTP gamma S binding assay. A 25 kDa component of milk lipid globules was a potent substrate for ADP-ribosylation by botulinum toxin C3, but cholera toxin was much less effective, suggesting that this component may belong to the rac class of G-proteins. The 21 kDa component was related immunologically to ADP ribosylation factor.

  15. Diversity and subcellular distribution of archaeal secreted proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mechthild ePohlschroder

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Secreted proteins make up a significant percentage of a prokaryotic proteome and play critical roles in important cellular processes such as polymer degradation, nutrient uptake, signal transduction, cell wall biosynthesis and motility. The majority of archaeal proteins are believed to be secreted either in an unfolded conformation via the universally conserved Sec pathway or in a folded conformation via the Twin arginine transport (Tat pathway. Extensive in vivo and in silico analyses of N-terminal signal peptides that target proteins to these pathways have led to the development of computational tools that not only predict Sec and Tat substrates with high accuracy but also provide information about signal peptide processing and targeting. Predictions therefore include indications as to whether a substrate is a soluble secreted protein, a membrane or cell-wall anchored protein, or a surface structure subunit, and whether it is targeted for post-translational modification such as glycosylation or the addition of a lipid. The use of these in silico tools, in combination with biochemical and genetic analyses of transport pathways and their substrates, has resulted in improved predictions of the subcellular localization of archaeal secreted proteins, allowing for a more accurate annotation of archaeal proteomes, and has led to the identification of potential adaptations to extreme environments, as well as archaeal kingdom-specific pathways. A more comprehensive understanding of the transport pathways and post-translational modifications of secreted archaeal proteins will also generate invaluable insights that will facilitate the identification of commercially valuable archaeal enzymes and the development of heterologous systems in which to efficiently express them.

  16. Secreted Proteins Defy the Expression Level-Evolutionary Rate Anticorrelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyertag, Felix; Berninsone, Patricia M; Alvarez-Ponce, David

    2017-03-01

    The rates of evolution of the proteins of any organism vary across orders of magnitude. A primary factor influencing rates of protein evolution is expression. A strong negative correlation between expression levels and evolutionary rates (the so-called E-R anticorrelation) has been observed in virtually all studied organisms. This effect is currently attributed to the abundance-dependent fitness costs of misfolding and unspecific protein-protein interactions, among other factors. Secreted proteins are folded in the endoplasmic reticulum, a compartment where chaperones, folding catalysts, and stringent quality control mechanisms promote their correct folding and may reduce the fitness costs of misfolding. In addition, confinement of secreted proteins to the extracellular space may reduce misinteractions and their deleterious effects. We hypothesize that each of these factors (the secretory pathway quality control and extracellular location) may reduce the strength of the E-R anticorrelation. Indeed, here we show that among human proteins that are secreted to the extracellular space, rates of evolution do not correlate with protein abundances. This trend is robust to controlling for several potentially confounding factors and is also observed when analyzing protein abundance data for 6 human tissues. In addition, analysis of mRNA abundance data for 32 human tissues shows that the E-R correlation is always less negative, and sometimes nonsignificant, in secreted proteins. Similar observations were made in Caenorhabditis elegans and in Escherichia coli, and to a lesser extent in Drosophila melanogaster, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Arabidopsis thaliana. Our observations contribute to understand the causes of the E-R anticorrelation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Differentially expressed protein markers in human submandibular and sublingual secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shen; Denny, Patricia; Denny, Paul; Xie, Yongming; Loo, Joseph A; Wolinsky, Lawrence E; Li, Yang; McBride, Jim; Ogorzalek Loo, Rachel R; Navazesh, Mavash; Wong, David T

    2004-11-01

    Proteome analysis of secretions from individual salivary glands is important for understanding the health of the oral cavity and pathogenesis of certain diseases. However, cross-contamination of submandibular (SM) and sublingual (SL) glandular secretions can occur. The close anatomic relationship of the SM and SL ductal orifices can lead to such contamination. Additionally, these glands may share common ducts. To insure the purity of SM/SL secretions for proteomic analysis, it is important to develop unique biomarkers which could be used to verify the integrity of the individual glandular saliva. In this study, a proteomics approach based on mass spectrometry and gel electrophoresis techniques was utilized to identify and verify a set of proteins (cystatin C, calgranulin B and MUC5B mucin), which are differentially expressed in SM/SL secretions. SM/SL fluids were obtained from nine healthy subjects. Cystatin C was found to be an SM-selective protein as it was found in all SM fluids but not detected in two SL fluids. MUC5B mucin and calgranulin B, on the other hand, were found to be SL-selective proteins. All SL samples contained MUC5B mucin, whereas MUC5B mucin was not detected in four SM samples. Eight of the SL samples contained calgranulin B; however, calgranulin B was absent in eight SM samples. This set of protein markers, especially calgranulin B, can be used to determine the purity of SM/SL samples, and therefore identify potential individuals who do not exhibit cross-contaminated SM/SL secretions, an important requirement for subsequent proteome analysis of pure SM and SL secretions.

  18. Select host cell proteins coelute with monoclonal antibodies in protein A chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogal, Bartek; Chhiba, Krishan; Emery, Jefferson C

    2012-01-01

    The most significant factor contributing to the presence of host cell protein (HCP) impurities in Protein A chromatography eluates is their association with the product monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has been reported previously, and it has been suggested that more efficacious column washes may be developed by targeting the disruption of the mAbs-HCP interaction. However, characterization of this interaction is not straight forward as it is likely to involve multiple proteins and/or types of interaction. This work is an attempt to begin to understand the contribution of HCP subpopulations and/or mAb interaction propensity to the variability in HCP levels in the Protein A eluate. We performed a flowthrough (FT) recycling study with product respiking using two antibody molecules of apparently different HCP interaction propensities. In each case, the ELISA assay showed depletion of select subpopulations of HCP in Protein A eluates in subsequent column runs, while the feedstock HCP in the FTs remained unchanged from its native harvested cell culture fluid (HCCF) levels. In a separate study, the final FT from each molecule's recycling study was cross-spiked with various mAbs. In this case, Protein A eluate levels remained low for all but two molecules which were known as having high apparent HCP interaction propensity. The results of these studies suggest that mAbs may preferentially bind to select subsets of HCPs, and the degree of interaction and/or identity of the associated HCPs may vary depending on the mAb.

  19. A monoclonal antibody for G protein-coupled receptor crystallography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Day, Peter W; Rasmussen, Søren Gøgsig Faarup; Parnot, Charles

    2007-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute the largest family of signaling proteins in mammals, mediating responses to hormones, neurotransmitters, and senses of sight, smell and taste. Mechanistic insight into GPCR signal transduction is limited by a paucity of high-resolution structural...

  20. Characterization of the ectodomain of the envelope protein of dengue virus type 4: expression, membrane association, secretion and particle formation in the absence of precursor membrane protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-Chia Hsieh

    Full Text Available The envelope (E of dengue virus (DENV is the major target of neutralizing antibodies and vaccine development. After biosynthesis E protein forms a heterodimer with precursor membrane (prM protein. Recent reports of infection enhancement by anti-prM monoclonal antibodies (mAbs suggest anti-prM responses could be potentially harmful. Previously, we studied a series of C-terminal truncation constructs expressing DENV type 4 prM/E or E proteins and found the ectodomain of E protein alone could be recognized by all 12 mAbs tested, suggesting E protein ectodomain as a potential subunit immunogen without inducing anti-prM response. The characteristics of DENV E protein ectodomain in the absence of prM protein remains largely unknown.In this study, we investigated the expression, membrane association, glycosylation pattern, secretion and particle formation of E protein ectodomain of DENV4 in the presence or absence of prM protein. E protein ectodomain associated with membrane in or beyond trans-Golgi and contained primarily complex glycans, whereas full-length E protein associated with ER membrane and contained high mannose glycans. In the absence of prM protein, E protein ectodomain can secrete as well as form particles of approximately 49 nm in diameter, as revealed by sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation with or without detergent and electron microscopy. Mutational analysis revealed that the secretion of E protein ectodomain was affected by N-linked glycosylation and could be restored by treatment with ammonia chloride.Considering the enhancement of DENV infectivity by anti-prM antibodies, our findings provide new insights into the expression and secretion of E protein ectodomain in the absence of prM protein and contribute to future subunit vaccine design.

  1. Proteomic mapping of secreted proteins of Trichoderma spp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li S; Bramley P M; Smith J; Cannon P F

    2004-01-01

    @@ A series of highly taxonomically diverse Trichoderma strains were investigated using proteomic approaches, to investigate the utility of protein profiles as taxonomic markers and to identify proteins of potential economic importance. Initial studies have focused on a comparison of single strains of T.aureoviride, T. saturnisporum, T. polysporum, T. longbrachiatum and T. spirale, along with two strains of T. harzianum. All seven strains were grown in synthetic medium supplemented with 2 % (w/v) glycerol, to maximize the diversity of extracellular protein production. Samples of secreted protein were separated by 2D gel electrophoresis and will be characterized by MALDI-TOF peptide fingerprinting.

  2. Immunogenic Domains and Secondary Structure of Escherichia coli Recombinant Secreted Protein Escherichia coli-Secreted Protein B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxane Maria Fontes Piazza

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Several pathogenic bacteria are able to induce the attaching and effacing (A/E lesion. The A/E lesion is caused by effector proteins, such as Escherichia coli-secreted protein B (EspB, responsible together with Escherichia coli-secreted protein D for forming a pore structure on the host cell, which allows the translocation of effector proteins. Different variants of this protein can be found in E. coli strains, and during natural infection or when this protein is injected, this leads to variant-specific production of antibodies, which may not be able to recognize other variants of this bacterial protein. Herein, we describe the production of a hybrid recombinant EspB toxin that comprises all known variants of this protein. This recombinant protein could be useful as an antigen for the production of antibodies with broad-range detection of EspB-bearing bacteria, or as an antigen that could be used in vaccine formulation to generate antibodies against different EspB variants, thereby increasing immunization potential. In addition, the recombinant protein allowed us to analyze its secondary structure, to propose the immunogenic regions of EspB variants, and also to characterize anti-EspB antibodies. Our results suggest that this hybrid protein or a protein composed of the conserved immunogenic regions could be used for a variety of clinical applications.

  3. Immunogenic Domains and Secondary Structure of Escherichia coli Recombinant Secreted Protein Escherichia coli-Secreted Protein B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Bruna Alves; Rocha, Letícia Barboza; Carvalho, Eneas; Piazza, Roxane Maria Fontes; Luz, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Several pathogenic bacteria are able to induce the attaching and effacing (A/E) lesion. The A/E lesion is caused by effector proteins, such as Escherichia coli-secreted protein B (EspB), responsible together with Escherichia coli-secreted protein D for forming a pore structure on the host cell, which allows the translocation of effector proteins. Different variants of this protein can be found in E. coli strains, and during natural infection or when this protein is injected, this leads to variant-specific production of antibodies, which may not be able to recognize other variants of this bacterial protein. Herein, we describe the production of a hybrid recombinant EspB toxin that comprises all known variants of this protein. This recombinant protein could be useful as an antigen for the production of antibodies with broad-range detection of EspB-bearing bacteria, or as an antigen that could be used in vaccine formulation to generate antibodies against different EspB variants, thereby increasing immunization potential. In addition, the recombinant protein allowed us to analyze its secondary structure, to propose the immunogenic regions of EspB variants, and also to characterize anti-EspB antibodies. Our results suggest that this hybrid protein or a protein composed of the conserved immunogenic regions could be used for a variety of clinical applications.

  4. Identification of novel proteins in Neospora caninum using an organelle purification and monoclonal antibody approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Catherine S; Cheng, Tim T; Drummond, Michael L; Peng, Eric D; Vermont, Sarah J; Xia, Dong; Cheng, Stephen J; Wastling, Jonathan M; Bradley, Peter J

    2011-04-04

    Neospora caninum is an important veterinary pathogen that causes abortion in cattle and neuromuscular disease in dogs. Neospora has also generated substantial interest because it is an extremely close relative of the human pathogen Toxoplasma gondii, yet does not appear to infect humans. While for Toxoplasma there are a wide array of molecular tools and reagents available for experimental investigation, relatively few reagents exist for Neospora. To investigate the unique biological features of this parasite and exploit the recent sequencing of its genome, we have used an organelle isolation and monoclonal antibody approach to identify novel organellar proteins and develop a wide array of probes for subcellular localization. We raised a panel of forty-six monoclonal antibodies that detect proteins from the rhoptries, micronemes, dense granules, inner membrane complex, apicoplast, mitochondrion and parasite surface. A subset of the proteins was identified by immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry and reveal that we have identified and localized many of the key proteins involved in invasion and host interaction in Neospora. In addition, we identified novel secretory proteins not previously studied in any apicomplexan parasite. Thus, this organellar monoclonal antibody approach not only greatly enhances the tools available for Neospora cell biology, but also identifies novel components of the unique biological characteristics of this important veterinary pathogen.

  5. Identification of novel proteins in Neospora caninum using an organelle purification and monoclonal antibody approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine S Sohn

    Full Text Available Neospora caninum is an important veterinary pathogen that causes abortion in cattle and neuromuscular disease in dogs. Neospora has also generated substantial interest because it is an extremely close relative of the human pathogen Toxoplasma gondii, yet does not appear to infect humans. While for Toxoplasma there are a wide array of molecular tools and reagents available for experimental investigation, relatively few reagents exist for Neospora. To investigate the unique biological features of this parasite and exploit the recent sequencing of its genome, we have used an organelle isolation and monoclonal antibody approach to identify novel organellar proteins and develop a wide array of probes for subcellular localization. We raised a panel of forty-six monoclonal antibodies that detect proteins from the rhoptries, micronemes, dense granules, inner membrane complex, apicoplast, mitochondrion and parasite surface. A subset of the proteins was identified by immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry and reveal that we have identified and localized many of the key proteins involved in invasion and host interaction in Neospora. In addition, we identified novel secretory proteins not previously studied in any apicomplexan parasite. Thus, this organellar monoclonal antibody approach not only greatly enhances the tools available for Neospora cell biology, but also identifies novel components of the unique biological characteristics of this important veterinary pathogen.

  6. Generation of a monoclonal antibody against the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked protein Rae-1 using genetically engineered tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiemiao; Vien, Long T; Xia, Xueqing; Bover, Laura; Li, Shulin

    2014-02-04

    Although genetically engineered cells have been used to generate monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against numerous proteins, no study has used them to generate mAbs against glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins. The GPI-linked protein Rae-1, an NKG2D ligand member, is responsible for interacting with immune surveillance cells. However, very few high-quality mAbs against Rae-1 are available for use in multiple analyses, including Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry. The lack of high-quality mAbs limits the in-depth analysis of Rae-1 fate, such as shedding and internalization, in murine models. Moreover, currently available screening approaches for identifying high-quality mAbs are excessively time-consuming and costly. We used Rae-1-overexpressing CT26 tumor cells to generate 60 hybridomas that secreted mAbs against Rae-1. We also developed a streamlined screening strategy for selecting the best anti-Rae-1 mAb for use in flow cytometry assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blotting, and immunostaining. Our cell line-based immunization approach can yield mAbs against GPI-anchored proteins, and our streamlined screening strategy can be used to select the ideal hybridoma for producing such mAbs.

  7. Proteomic identification of secreted proteins of Propionibacterium acnes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holland Carsten

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The anaerobic Gram-positive bacterium Propionibacterium acnes is a human skin commensal that resides preferentially within sebaceous follicles; however, it also exhibits many traits of an opportunistic pathogen, playing roles in a variety of inflammatory diseases such as acne vulgaris. To date, the underlying disease-causing mechanisms remain ill-defined and knowledge of P. acnes virulence factors remains scarce. Here, we identified proteins secreted during anaerobic cultivation of a range of skin and clinical P. acnes isolates, spanning the four known phylogenetic groups. Results Culture supernatant proteins of P. acnes were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE and all Coomassie-stained spots were subsequently identified by MALDI mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS. A set of 20 proteins was secreted in the mid-exponential growth phase by the majority of strains tested. Functional annotation revealed that many of these common proteins possess degrading activities, including glycoside hydrolases with similarities to endoglycoceramidase, β-N-acetylglucosaminidase and muramidase; esterases such as lysophospholipase and triacylglycerol lipase; and several proteases. Other secreted factors included Christie-Atkins-Munch-Petersen (CAMP factors, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, and several hypothetical proteins, a few of which are unique to P. acnes. Strain-specific differences were apparent, mostly in the secretion of putative adhesins, whose genes exhibit variable phase variation-like sequence signatures. Conclusions Our proteomic investigations have revealed that the P. acnes secretome harbors several proteins likely to play a role in host-tissue degradation and inflammation. Despite a large overlap between the secretomes of all four P. acnes phylotypes, distinct differences between predicted host-tissue interacting proteins were identified, providing potential insight into the differential virulence

  8. [Evaluation of the relations between serum proteins electrophoresis and other laboratory tests in monoclonal gammopathies (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramacciotti, P G; Lazzari, L; Minardi, P

    1976-03-01

    We have considered interesting to determine monoclonal gammopathies incidence, in 2191 serum proteins electrophoresis performed in our laboratory from January to December 1974. We have found 15 cases of monoclonal gammopathies, some cases combined with Mieloma (3 cases), some other with other with non specific diseases. We have considered the relations between type of gammopathy and other laboratory tests useful for any other diagnose: they are: immunochemical analysis, E.S.R., red and white count, total proteins, Bence Jones protein.

  9. Secretion and extracellular space travel of Wnt proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Julia Christina; Boutros, Michael

    2013-08-01

    Wnt signaling pathways control many processes during development, stem cell maintenance and homeostasis, and their aberrant regulation has been linked to diseases in man including diabetes, neurodegeneration and cancer. Wnts are hydrophobic proteins, however, quite paradoxically, they can travel over distances to induce cell-type specific responses. While there has been an initial focus on elucidating the intracellular signaling cascade, discoveries in the past few years have shed light on a highly complex, and regulated secretory process that guides Wnt proteins through the exocytic pathway. Wnt proteins are at least in portion packaged onto extracellular carriers such as exosomes. Similar to dysregulation of components in the Wnt receiving cell, failure to regulate Wnt secretion has been linked to cancer. Here, we review recent discoveries on factors and processes implicated in Wnt secretion.

  10. Selection for Genes Encoding Secreted Proteins and Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Robert D.; Gu, Qimin; Goddard, Audrey; Rosenthal, Arnon

    1996-07-01

    Extracellular proteins play an essential role in the formation, differentiation, and maintenance of multicellular organisms. Despite that, the systematic identification of genes encoding these proteins has not been possible. We describe here a highly efficient method to isolate genes encoding secreted and membrane-bound proteins by using a single-step selection in yeast. Application of this method, termed signal peptide selection, to various tissues yielded 559 clones that appear to encode known or novel extracellular proteins. These include members of the transforming growth factor and epidermal growth factor protein families, endocrine hormones, tyrosine kinase receptors, serine/threonine kinase receptors, seven transmembrane receptors, cell adhesion molecules, extracellular matrix proteins, plasma proteins, and ion channels. The eventual identification of most, or all, extracellular signaling molecules will advance our understanding of fundamental biological processes and our ability to intervene in disease states.

  11. Mining secreted proteins that function in pepper fruit development and ripening using a yeast secretion trap (YST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Je Min; Lee, Sang-Jik; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Yeam, Inhwa; Kim, Byung-Dong

    2014-04-18

    Plant cells secrete diverse sets of constitutively- and conditionally-expressed proteins under various environmental and developmental states. Secreted protein populations, or secretomes have multiple functions, including defense responses, signaling, metabolic processes, and developmental regulation. To identify genes encoding secreted proteins that function in fruit development and ripening, a yeast secretion trap (YST) screen was employed using pepper (Capsicum annuum) fruit cDNAs. The YST screen revealed 80 pepper fruit-related genes (CaPFRs) encoding secreted proteins including cell wall proteins, several of which have not been previously described. Transient GFP-fusion assay and an in planta secretion trap were used to validate the secretion of proteins encoded by selected YST clones. In addition, RNA gel blot analyses provided further insights into their expression and regulation during fruit development and ripening. Integrating our data, we conclude that the YST provides a valuable functional genomics tool for the identification of substantial numbers of novel secreted plant proteins that are associated with biological processes, including fruit development and ripening.

  12. Detection of kappa and lambda light chain monoclonal proteins in human serum: automated immunoassay versus immunofixation electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaskowski, Troy D; Litwin, Christine M; Hill, Harry R

    2006-02-01

    Recently, turbidimetric immunoassays for detecting and quantifying kappa and lambda free light chains (FLC) have become available and are promoted as being more sensitive than immunofixation electrophoresis (IFE) in detecting FLC monoclonal proteins. In this study, we assessed the ability of these turbidimetric assays to detect serum monoclonal proteins involving both free and heavy-chain-bound kappa and lambda light chains compared to standard immunofixation electrophoresis. Sera demonstrating a restricted band of protein migration (other than a definite M spike) by serum protein electrophoresis (SPE), which may represent early monoclonal proteins, were also examined. When compared to IFE, percent agreement, sensitivity, and specificity for the kappa-FLC and lambda-FLC were 94.6, 72.9, and 99.5% and 98.5, 91.4, and 99.7%, respectively, in detecting monoclonal proteins involving free and heavy-chain-bound light chains. The majority of sera (73.7%) demonstrating a restricted band of protein migration on SPE demonstrated abnormal IFE patterns suggestive of multiple myeloma or monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance, but gave normal kappa/lambda FLC ratios using the turbidimetric immunoassays. In conclusion, the kappa and lambda FLC assays are significantly less sensitive (72.9 to 91.4%) than IFE, but specific in detecting serum monoclonal proteins. Moreover, the kappa/lambda ratio has little value in routine screening since the majority of sera with abnormal IFE patterns had normal kappa/lambda FLC ratios.

  13. Generation and Characterization of a Monoclonal Antibody Against prM Protein of West Nile Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Li-Ping; Huo, Hong; Wang, Xiao-Lei; Bu, Zhi-Gao; Hua, Rong-Hong

    2014-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV), which is an emerging pathogenic flavivirus with increasing distribution worldwide, is the cause of major human and animal health concerns. The pre-membrane (prM) protein of WNV is cleaved during maturation by the furin protease into the structural protein M and a pr-segment. In this study we generated and characterized a monoclonal antibody (MAb) against the WNV prM protein. Western blot analysis showed that the MAb reacted with WNV prM specifically. Immunohistochemistr...

  14. Monoclonal antibody-escape variant of dengue virus serotype 1: Genetic composition and envelope protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chem, Y K; Chua, K B; Malik, Y; Voon, K

    2015-06-01

    Monoclonal antibody-escape variant of dengue virus type 1 (MabEV DEN-1) was discovered and isolated in an outbreak of dengue in Klang Valley, Malaysia from December 2004 to March 2005. This study was done to investigate whether DEN152 (an isolate of MabEV DEN-1) is a product of recombination event or not. In addition, the non-synonymous mutations that correlate with the monoclonal antibody-escape variant were determined in this study. The genomes of DEN152 and two new DEN-1 isolates, DENB04 and DENK154 were completely sequenced, aligned, and compared. Phylogenetic tree was plotted and the recombination event on DEN152 was investigated. DEN152 is sub-grouped under genotype I and is closely related genetically to a DEN-1 isolated in Japan in 2004. DEN152 is not a recombinant product of any parental strains. Four amino acid substitutions were unique only to DEN 152. These amino acid substitutions were (Ser)[326](Leu), (Ser)[340](Leu) at the deduced E protein, (Ile)[250](Thr) at NS1 protein, and (Thr)[41](Ser) at NS5 protein. Thus, DEN152 is an isolate of the emerging monoclonal antibody-escape variant DEN-1 that escaped diagnostic laboratory detection.

  15. Identification of Anaplasma marginale type IV secretion system effector proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Lockwood

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anaplasma marginale, an obligate intracellular alphaproteobacterium in the order Rickettsiales, is a tick-borne pathogen and the leading cause of anaplasmosis in cattle worldwide. Complete genome sequencing of A. marginale revealed that it has a type IV secretion system (T4SS. The T4SS is one of seven known types of secretion systems utilized by bacteria, with the type III and IV secretion systems particularly prevalent among pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. The T4SS is predicted to play an important role in the invasion and pathogenesis of A. marginale by translocating effector proteins across its membrane into eukaryotic target cells. However, T4SS effector proteins have not been identified and tested in the laboratory until now. RESULTS: By combining computational methods with phylogenetic analysis and sequence identity searches, we identified a subset of potential T4SS effectors in A. marginale strain St. Maries and chose six for laboratory testing. Four (AM185, AM470, AM705 [AnkA], and AM1141 of these six proteins were translocated in a T4SS-dependent manner using Legionella pneumophila as a reporter system. CONCLUSIONS: The algorithm employed to find T4SS effector proteins in A. marginale identified four such proteins that were verified by laboratory testing. L. pneumophila was shown to work as a model system for A. marginale and thus can be used as a screening tool for A. marginale effector proteins. The first T4SS effector proteins for A. marginale have been identified in this work.

  16. Characterization of two monoclonal antibodies, 38F10 and 44D11, against the major envelope fusion protein of Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zijiao; Liu, Jinliang; Wang, Zhiying; Deng, Fei; Wang, Hualin; Hu, Zhihong; Wang, Manli; Zhang, Tao

    2016-12-01

    The envelope fusion protein F of baculoviruses is a class I viral fusion protein which play a significant role during virus entry into insect cells. F is initially synthesized as a precursor (F0) and then cleaved into a disulfide-linked F1 and F2 subunits during the process of protein maturation and secretion. To facilitate further investigation into the structure and function of F protein during virus infection, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the F2 subunit of Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus (HearNPV) (HaF) were generated. Two kinds of mAbs were obtained according to their different recognition epitopes: one kind of mAbs, as represented by 38F10, recognizes amino acid (aa) 85 to 123 of F2 and the other kind, represented by 44D11, recognizes aa 148 to 173 of F2. Western blot and immunofluorescence assay confirmed that both of the mAbs recognized the F protein expressed in HearNPV infected cells, however, only 44D11 could neutralize HearNPV infection. The results further showed that 44D11 may not interact with a receptor binding epitope, rather it was demonstrated to inhibit syncytium formation in cells expressing the HaF protein. The results imply that the monoclonal antibody 44D11 recognizes a region within HaF2 that may be involved in the F-mediated membrane fusion process.

  17. Comprehensive Mapping Antigenic Epitopes of NS1 Protein of Japanese Encephalitis Virus with Monoclonal Antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Hong Hua

    Full Text Available Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV non-structural protein 1 (NS1 contributes to virus replication and elicits protective immune responses during infection. JEV NS1-specific antibody responses could be a target in the differential diagnosis of different flavivirus infections. However, the epitopes on JEV NS1 are poorly characterized. The present study describes the full mapping of linear B-cell epitopes in JEV NS1. We generated eleven NS1-specific monoclonal antibodies from mice immunized with recombinant NS1. For epitope mapping of monoclonal antibodies, a set of 51 partially-overlapping peptides covering the entire NS1 protein were expressed with a GST-tag and then screened using monoclonal antibodies. Through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, five linear epitope-containing peptides were identified. By sequentially removing amino acid residues from the carboxy and amino terminal of peptides, the minimal units of the five linear epitopes were identified and confirmed using monoclonal antibodies. Five linear epitopes are located in amino acids residues (5AIDITRK(11, (72RDELNVL(78, (251KSKHNRREGY(260, (269DENGIVLD(276, and (341DETTLVRS(348. Furthermore, it was found that the epitopes are highly conserved among JEV strains through sequence alignment. Notably, none of the homologous regions on NS1 proteins from other flaviviruses reacted with the MAbs when they were tested for cross-reactivity, and all five epitope peptides were not recognized by sera against West Nile virus or Dengue virus. These novel virus-specific linear B-cell epitopes of JEV NS1 would benefit the development of new vaccines and diagnostic assays.

  18. Heat shock response improves heterologous protein secretion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Jin; Österlund, Tobias; Liu, Zihe

    2013-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widely used platform for the production of heterologous proteins of medical or industrial interest. However, heterologous protein productivity is often low due to limitations of the host strain. Heat shock response (HSR) is an inducible, global, cellular...... stress response, which facilitates the cell recovery from many forms of stress, e.g., heat stress. In S. cerevisiae, HSR is regulated mainly by the transcription factor heat shock factor (Hsf1p) and many of its targets are genes coding for molecular chaperones that promote protein folding and prevent...... the accumulation of mis-folded or aggregated proteins. In this work, we over-expressed a mutant HSF1 gene HSF1-R206S which can constitutively activate HSR, so the heat shock response was induced at different levels, and we studied the impact of HSR on heterologous protein secretion. We found that moderate and high...

  19. Glycosylation in secreted proteins from yeast Kluyveromyces lactis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, A.V.; Passos, F.M.L. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Microbiologia. Lab. de Fisiologia de Microrganismos; Azevedo, B.R.; Pimenta, A.M.C.; Santoro, M.M. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica e Imunologia. Lab. de Enzimologia e Fisico-Quimica de Proteina

    2008-07-01

    Full text: The nutritional status of a cell culture affects either the expression or the traffic of a number of proteins. The identification of the physiological conditions which favor protein secretion has important biotechnological consequences in designing systems for recombinant extracellular protein industrial production. Yeast Kluyvromyces lactis has been cultured in a continuous stirring tank bioreactor (CSTR) under nitrogen limitation at growth rates (0.03 h{sup -1} and 0.09 h{sup -1}) close to either exponential or stationary batch growth phases, respectively the objective was to investigate the extracellular glycoproteins at these two level of nitrogen limitation. Proteins from free cell extracts were separated by gradient SDS-PAGE (5-15%) and two-dimensional chromatography, and were analyzed by mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS). In SDS-PAGE analysis, differences in extracellular proteome were visualized: different proteins profiles at these two growth rates. The 0.09 h-1 growth rate showed larger number of bands using colloidal Coma ssie Blue staining. Different bands were detected at these two growth rates when the PAS assay for glycoprotein detection in polyacrylamide gel was used. The two-dimensional chromatogram profiles were comparatively distinguished between the 0.03 h{sup -1} and 0.09 h{sup -1} growth rate samples. Protein peaks from the second dimension, were subjected to mass spectrometry. The mass spectrums visualized showed glycosylated proteins with N-acetylglucosamine molecules and 8, 9 or 15 hexoses molecules. Comparisons between the proteins averaged mass values with the deduced proteins masses from K. lactis secreted proteins database indicated possible post-translational modifications, such as post-translational proteolysis, acetylation, deamidation and myristoylation.

  20. Monoclonal antibody against Saint Louis encephalitis prM viral protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pupo-Antúnez, M; Vázquez, S; Sosa, A L; Caballero, Y; Vásquez, Y; Morier, L; Álvarez, M; Guzmán, M G

    2015-06-15

    Saint Louis encephalitis virus belongs to Flavivirus genus; Flaviviridae family jointly with other medically important flaviviruses including dengue virus and West Nile virus. The biological properties and functions of prM flavivirus protein are under investigation due to its importance in the generation of infectious virion and host interactions. Monoclonal antibodies have become powerful tools in this approach. Also the use of monoclonal antibodies has been successfully applied for antigenic analysis, clinical diagnosis and treatments. Here, using an immunofluorescence assay we describe a monoclonal antibody (mAb 3D2) that uniquely recognizes native prM Saint Louis encephalitis virus protein expressed in either C6/36-HT or Vero cells. In conclusion, mAb3D2 has significant potential for use in (a) the diagnosis of infections caused by this virus and (b) therapeutic use to treat patients infected by this virus and fundamental research to understand the role of the prM in the Saint Louis encephalitis virus infectious process.

  1. Effects of Monoclonal Antibody Against Adipocyte-Specific Membrane Protein on Lipid Metabolism in Pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Shi-zheng; LIU Ling-yun; ZHAO Su-mei; HU Hong-mei; GE Chang-rong; LIU Yong-gang; ZHANG Xi

    2008-01-01

    This study was to investigate the regulation of monoclonal antibodies against adipocyte membrane proteins(McAb)on lipid metabolism in pigs.Forty Landrace x Saba pigs were randomly divided into eight groups;the control group was given 10 mL saline and the treat groups were given monoclonal antibody against adipocyte-specific membrane protein with 0.10 0.5,and 1.0 mg kg-1 body weight at 15 and 60 kg body weight,respectively,by intraperitoneal injection.The results showed that McAb could increase,significantly,serum lipoprotein lipase activity and reduce serum nonesterified fatty acid(NEFA)content.Meanwhile,McAb increased content of serum lipid,triglyceride(TG),cholesterol(CHO),high density lipoprotein(HDL),and low density lipoprotein(LDL) both at 15 and 60 kg body weight.However,McAb affected more significantly the lipid metabolism at 15 kg body weight than at 60 kg body weight.Moreover,this effect of McAb on lipid metabolism exhibited dose-dependent effect.These results suggested that this monoclonal antibody increased lipase activity,promoted lipolysis,and utilization of lipid so that McAb could be applied to restrain excessive fat deposition in porcine production through the regulation of fat metabolism.

  2. Evaluation of bottlenecks in the late stages of protein secretion in Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, A; Tjalsma, H; Smith, H.E; Meima, R.; Venema, G; Bron, S; van Dijl, J.M

    1999-01-01

    Despite a high capacity for secretion of homologous proteins, the secretion of heterologous proteins by Bacillus subtilis is frequently inefficient. In the present studies, we have investigated and compared bottlenecks in the secretion of four heterologous proteins: Bacillus lichenifomis alpha-amyla

  3. Unconventional Secretion of Ebola Virus Matrix Protein VP40

    OpenAIRE

    Reynard, Olivier; Reid, St. Patrick; Page, Audrey; Mateo, Mathieu; Alazard-Dany, Nathalie; Raoul, Hervé; Basler, Christopher F.; Volchkov, Viktor E.

    2011-01-01

    The Ebola virus matrix protein VP40 plays an essential role in virus assembly and budding. In this study we reveal that transient VP40 expression results in the release into the culture medium of substantial amounts of soluble monomeric VP40 in addition to the release of virus-like particles containing an oligomeric form of this protein as previously described. We show that VP40 secretion is endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi–independent and is not associated with cell death. Soluble VP40 was observ...

  4. Isolation of isoproteins from monoclonal antibodies and recombinant proteins by chromatofocusing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungbauer, A; Tauer, C; Wenisch, E; Uhl, K; Brunner, J; Purtscher, M; Steindl, F; Buchacher, A

    1990-07-20

    A fast protein liquid chromatographic method for the preparative separation of the various isoproteins is described. Highly purified human monoclonal antibodies, recombinant human superoxide dismutase and human superoxide dismutase from erythrocytes were used as starting material. The isoproteins were separated by chromatofocusing on Mono P columns. A very narrow pH gradient was applied to achieve complete separation of the isoproteins. The prepurification steps and the pretreatment of the samples to achieve optimum resolution are described in detail. The method is also applicable to extremely basic monoclonal antibodies (pI = 9). The successful separation was checked by isoelectric focusing in immobilized pH gradients (Immobilines). The future of these methods is discussed, because for many different biochemical and biophysical investigations pure and homogeneous isoproteins are necessary.

  5. Monoclonal antibodies against proteins of the IBR virus nucleocapside and their assessing by ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannette Navarrete 0.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Monoclonal antibodies were produced against the nucleocapside of a field IBR virus strain. The virus was growth in MOBK cell line. Viral components were purified and concentrated in a continuous 30% sacarose gradient followed by chemical precipitation. Nucleocapsides were run in a 10% SDS-PAGE gel. Positive hybridomes were tested using a direct ELISA developed in our laboratory. As a result eigth ELISA positive clones were obtained, from these five were also positive to seronetralization and immunodot. The clones recognize a 39.8Kda protein. Aditionally, a capture-ELISA was developed using the monoclonal antobodies from this research. This ELISA is useful to detect a reference as a field nm virus strain.

  6. Legionella pneumophila secretes a mitochondrial carrier protein during infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Dolezal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mitochondrial Carrier Family (MCF is a signature group of integral membrane proteins that transport metabolites across the mitochondrial inner membrane in eukaryotes. MCF proteins are characterized by six transmembrane segments that assemble to form a highly-selective channel for metabolite transport. We discovered a novel MCF member, termed Legionellanucleotide carrier Protein (LncP, encoded in the genome of Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaire's disease. LncP was secreted via the bacterial Dot/Icm type IV secretion system into macrophages and assembled in the mitochondrial inner membrane. In a yeast cellular system, LncP induced a dominant-negative phenotype that was rescued by deleting an endogenous ATP carrier. Substrate transport studies on purified LncP reconstituted in liposomes revealed that it catalyzes unidirectional transport and exchange of ATP transport across membranes, thereby supporting a role for LncP as an ATP transporter. A hidden Markov model revealed further MCF proteins in the intracellular pathogens, Legionella longbeachae and Neorickettsia sennetsu, thereby challenging the notion that MCF proteins exist exclusively in eukaryotic organisms.

  7. Novel immunohistochemical monoclonal antibody against rat B cell receptor Associated Protein 31 (BAP31).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chaojun; Yan, Binyuan; Chen, Lihua; Li, Yongming; Wei, Yuying; Sun, Yuanjie; Yang, Angang; Yang, Kun; Jin, Boquan

    2009-10-01

    BAP31 is an evolutionarily conserved polytopic integral protein of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane implicated in regulating the export of selected membrane proteins from the ER to downstream compartments of the secretory pathway. BAP31 interacts with mIgD, cellubrevin, major histocompatibility complex class I, and BCL-2/BCL-X(L) and plays an important role in regulating the egress of these proteins and in apoptosis. Although BAP31 RNA is ubiquitous, the protein's anatomic localization in rat tissues has not been determined. This is partially because production of high affinity antibodies, especially monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) suitable for immunohistochemical staining, has lagged. To gain further insight into its possible functions, we generated a novel MAb specific for rat BAP31 in immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry and localized BAP31 in some rat tissues. Immunoreactivity of BAP31 was prominent in fundic glands, colon, pancreatic acinuses, and liver but not in skeleton muscle and lung. Thus, successful production of rat BAP31 monoclonal antibodies provides a new powerful tool for investigation of BAP31 function in the rat model.

  8. Infectious Keratitis: Secreted Bacterial Proteins That Mediate Corneal Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E. Marquart

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular bacterial infections are universally treated with antibiotics, which can eliminate the organism but cannot reverse the damage caused by bacterial products already present. The three very common causes of bacterial keratitis—Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pneumoniae—all produce proteins that directly or indirectly cause damage to the cornea that can result in reduced vision despite antibiotic treatment. Most, but not all, of these proteins are secreted toxins and enzymes that mediate host cell death, degradation of stromal collagen, cleavage of host cell surface molecules, or induction of a damaging inflammatory response. Studies of these bacterial pathogens have determined the proteins of interest that could be targets for future therapeutic options for decreasing corneal damage.

  9. Generation of Monoclonal Antibodies against Immunoglobulin Proteins of the Domestic Ferret (Mustela putorius furo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo) serves as an animal model for the study of several viruses that cause human disease, most notably influenza. Despite the importance of this animal model, characterization of the immune response by flow cytometry (FCM) is severely hampered due to the limited number of commercially available reagents. To begin to address this unmet need and to facilitate more in-depth study of ferret B cells including the identification of antibody-secreting cells, eight unique murine monoclonal antibodies (mAb) with specificity for ferret immunoglobulin (Ig) were generated using conventional B cell hybridoma technology. These mAb were screened for reactivity against ferret peripheral blood mononuclear cells by FCM and demonstrate specificity for CD79β+ B cells. Several of these mAb are specific for the light chain of surface B cell receptor (BCR) and enable segregation of kappa and lambda B cells. Additionally, a mAb that yielded surface staining of nearly all surface BCR positive cells (i.e., pan ferret Ig) was generated. Collectively, these MαF-Ig mAb offer advancement compared to the existing portfolio of polyclonal anti-ferret Ig detection reagents and should be applicable to a wide array of immunologic assays including the identification of antibody-secreting cells by FCM. PMID:28286781

  10. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibody specific to recombinant dengue multi-epitope protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhyankar, Ajay Vinayak; Bhargava, Rakesh; Jana, Asha Mukul; Sahni, Ajay Kumar; Rao, P V Lakshmana

    2008-06-01

    Monoclonal antibodies against novel dengue recombinant protein were produced following immunization of Balb/c mice with recombinant dengue multi-epitope protein (r-DMEP) expressed in Escherichia coli vector and purified in a single-step chromatography system. Antigenicity of r-DMEP was evaluated by dot enzyme immunoassay. Mice were immunized intraperitoneally with five doses each of 100 microg of this novel antigen at 1-week intervals and a final intravenous booster dose prior to the fusion. Hybridomas resulted from fusion of myeloma cells and splenocytes using PEG-1500 as an additive. Selection of the hybrids was done using HAT medium, and the hybrids thus selected were finally screened qualitatively and quantitatively by dot and plate immunoassays, respectively. Five antibody secretory hybrid clones exhibited specific reactivity against r-DMEP by dot-ELISA, whereas a lone clone was found to be cross-reactive with Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific to r-DME protein recognized the envelope and non-structural epitopes by Western blot analysis. These MAbs were further checked for their diagnostic efficacy using dengue suspected clinical samples and found overall sensitivity and specificity for DRDE dipstick ELISA. MAb-based dipstick ELISA results were 85%, 75% and 85%, 90%, respectively.

  11. Comparative transcriptional analysis of Bacillus subtilis cells overproducing either secreted proteins, lipoproteins or membrane proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marciniak, Bogumila C.; Trip, Hein; van-der Veek, Patricia J.; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Marciniak, Bogumiła C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Bacillus subtilis is a favorable host for the production of industrially relevant proteins because of its capacity of secreting proteins into the medium to high levels, its GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) status, its genetic accessibility and its capacity to grow in large

  12. Comparative transcriptional analysis of Bacillus subtilis cells overproducing either secreted proteins, lipoproteins or membrane proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marciniak, Bogumila C.; Trip, Hein; van-der Veek, Patricia J.; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Marciniak, Bogumiła C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Bacillus subtilis is a favorable host for the production of industrially relevant proteins because of its capacity of secreting proteins into the medium to high levels, its GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) status, its genetic accessibility and its capacity to grow in large fermentatio

  13. Computational Analysis of Signal Peptide-Dependent Secreted Proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Computer based software such as the SignalP v3.0, TargetP vl.01, big-PI predictor and TMHMM v2.0 were combined to predict the signal peptides, and the signal peptide-dependent secreted proteins among the 6 700 ORFs in genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results showed that 163 proteins were the secreted ones containing signal peptides, and they were secreted via Sec pathway. Among the 163 predicted secreted proteins, the signal peptides of 47 secreted proteins included only the H-domain and C-domain, without N-domain, but the signal peptides of other 116 secreted proteins included all the three domains. There were differences in the constitution of signal peptides between the secreted proteins of S. cerevisiae and of Candida albicans, but the length and amino acids types of their signal peptides were similar in general. Few of the same signal peptides occurred in the secreted proteins of S. cerevisiae genome, and the homology could be compared among the secreted proteins with the same signal peptides. The BLAST 2 SEQUENECES and CLUSTAL W were used to align the two protein sequences and multi-protein sequences, respectively. The alignment result indicated that homology of these sequences with the same signal peptide was very highly conservative in amino acid of complete gene. The effect of the signal peptides in S. cerevisia on expression of foreign eukaryotic secreted proteins is discussed in this paper.

  14. Quantification of β-region IgA monoclonal proteins - should we include immunochemical Hevylite® measurements? Point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Josie A R; Jenner, Ellen L; Carr Smith, Hugh D; Berlanga, Oscar; Harding, Stephen J

    2016-06-01

    Accurate measurement of IgA monoclonal proteins presents a significant challenge to laboratory staff. IgA heavy/light chain (Hevylite, HLC) analysis is an alternative methodology for monoclonal protein assessment, giving an independent measure of IgAκ and IgAλ concentrations. Clonality is assessed by calculating the ratio of involved immunoglobulin to background uninvolved immunoglobulin concentrations (e.g. IgAκ/IgAλ in an IgAκ patient). Here we discuss the challenges faced by the laboratory in IgA monoclonal protein assessment, and compare the performance of Hevylite assays with electrophoresis and total IgA results. We present data which validates the use of Hevylite for response assessment: in most cases, Hevylite provides comparable response assignment to that provided by serum protein electrophoresis (SPE) and total IgA; in other cases Hevylite provides additional information, such as detection of residual disease or relapse.

  15. Biosimilar structural comparability assessment by NMR: from small proteins to monoclonal antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japelj, Boštjan; Ilc, Gregor; Marušič, Jaka; Senčar, Jure; Kuzman, Drago; Plavec, Janez

    2016-01-01

    Biosimilar drug products must have a demonstrated similarity with respect to the reference product’s molecules in order to ensure both the effectiveness of the drug and the patients’ safety. In this paper the fusion framework of a highly sensitive NMR fingerprinting approach for conformational changes and mathematically-based biosimilarity metrics is introduced. The final goal is to translate the complex spectral information into biosimilarity scores, which are then used to estimate the degree of similarity between the biosimilar and the reference product. The proposed method was successfully applied to a small protein, i.e., filgrastim (neutropenia treatment), which is the first biosimilar approved in the United States, and a relatively large protein, i.e., monoclonal antibody rituximab (lymphoma treatment). This innovative approach introduces a new level of sensitivity to structural changes that are induced by, e.g., a small pH shift or other changes in the protein formulation. PMID:27578487

  16. Biosimilar structural comparability assessment by NMR: from small proteins to monoclonal antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japelj, Boštjan; Ilc, Gregor; Marušič, Jaka; Senčar, Jure; Kuzman, Drago; Plavec, Janez

    2016-08-01

    Biosimilar drug products must have a demonstrated similarity with respect to the reference product’s molecules in order to ensure both the effectiveness of the drug and the patients’ safety. In this paper the fusion framework of a highly sensitive NMR fingerprinting approach for conformational changes and mathematically-based biosimilarity metrics is introduced. The final goal is to translate the complex spectral information into biosimilarity scores, which are then used to estimate the degree of similarity between the biosimilar and the reference product. The proposed method was successfully applied to a small protein, i.e., filgrastim (neutropenia treatment), which is the first biosimilar approved in the United States, and a relatively large protein, i.e., monoclonal antibody rituximab (lymphoma treatment). This innovative approach introduces a new level of sensitivity to structural changes that are induced by, e.g., a small pH shift or other changes in the protein formulation.

  17. [Characterization of a panel of monoclonal antibodies to hepatitis C NS3 recombinant protein ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulmedzhidova, A G; Masalova, O V; Atanadze, S N; Ulanova, T I; Burkov, A N; Khudiakov, Iu E; Fields, H; Kushch, A A

    2002-01-01

    Recombinant protein rNS3 imitating helicase region (1356-1459 amino acid residues) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) was expressed in E. coli cells and used for BALB/c mice immunization. Seven hybrydoma clones producing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to rHS3 were obtained. All MAbs reacted in ELISA with NS3 protein from Murex anti-HCV Version III and in immunoblotting from RIBA 3. These MAbs detect 5 individual epitopes, 4 of which were conformational and 1 discontinuous. All MAbs could compete for rNS3 binding with serum antibodies from patients with chronic hepatitis C, which suggests that these MAbs can recognize the natural HCV NS3 protein.

  18. CHARACTER OF TUMOR ASSOCIATED PROTEIN RECOGNIZED BY MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY AGAINST YUNNAN GEJIU LUNG CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: To identify and characterize lung cancer associated protein N35 and attempt to learn the prospective possibility of the clinical application of the protein N35. Methods: Immunoprecipitation, immunoblotting, differential centrifigation and subcellular assay, immunohistochemistry, N-glycanase digestion, mitotic cell immunoflourescence and multiple methods of affinity chromatography have been used with the monoclonal antibody N-35 to detect the distribution of the protein N35 among the various cancer cell lines and normal human tissue, the relationship between the protein N35 and glycoprotein, the location of the subcellular structure and chromosomal domain of the protein N35,the most effective way of purification of tumor associated protein N35. Results: The protein N35 is a glycoprotein, distributes to the human lung cancer cell line GLC-82, human cervical cancer cell line Hela, human hepatic cancer cell line HepG-2 and human breast cancer cell line PMC with different relative molecular mass(Mr), but no expression of the protein ingredient in normal human fresh tissue; concentrates at the nuclei significantly ,much more than at the mitochondrail and membrane, locates at the centriole of the chromosomal domain. Conclusions: The lung cancer associated protein N35 might be expressed only by the cancer cells and related with the proliferation of cancer cells as a role of tumor cell growth regulator.

  19. Phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein 4 (PEBP4) is a secreted protein and has multiple functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huan; Liu, Dan; Lin, Hui; Jiang, Shanshan; Ying, Ying; Chun, Shao; Deng, Haiteng; Zaia, Joseph; Wen, Rong; Luo, Zhijun

    2016-07-01

    Phosphatidylethanolamine binding proteins (PEBP) represent a superfamily of proteins that are conserved from bacteria to humans. In mammals, four members have been identified, PEBP1-4. To determine the functional differences among PEBP1-4 and the underlying mechanism for their actions, we performed a sequence alignment and found that PEBP4 contains a signal peptide and potential glycosylation sites, whereas PEBP1-3 are intracellular proteins. To test if PEBP4 is secreted, we made constructs with Myc epitope at the amino (N) terminus or carboxyl (C) terminus to mask the signal sequence or keep it free, respectively. Our data revealed that both mouse and human PEBP4 were secreted when the epitope was tagged at their C-terminus. To our surprise, secretion was dependent upon the C-terminal conserved domain in addition to the N-terminal signal sequence. When the epitope was placed to the N-terminus, the recombinant protein failed to secrete and instead, was retained in the cytoplasm. Mass spectrometry detected asparagine (N)-glycosylation on the secreted PEBP4. Although overexpression of N-terminal tagged PEBP4 resulted in an inhibition of ERK activation by EGF, that with a C-terminal epitope tag did not have such an effect. Likewise, transfection of PEBP4 shRNA did not appear to affect ERK activation, suggesting that PEBP4 does not participate in the regulation of this pathway. In contrast, PEBP4 siRNA suppressed phosphorylation of Act at S473. Therefore, our results suggest that PEBP4 is a multifunctional protein and can be secreted. It will be important to investigate the mechanism by which PEBP4 is secreted and regulates cellular events.

  20. [An efficient method for producing monoclonal antibodies against multi-pass membrane proteins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Hideki; Masuko, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Antibodies have greatly contributed to the development of medical science and pharmacology, because of their high specificity. The cell fusion method has developed monoclonal antibodies (mAb) technology, such that massive amounts of mAb with a uniform structure can be produced. Although mAb have been produced against many proteins so far, the production of mAb against multi-pass transmembrane proteins, such as G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) and various transporter proteins has been extremely difficult. The complicated structures, poorly extracellular regions, and high hydrophobicity of multiple-transmembrane proteins make it difficult to produce mAb against them. Production of mAb that recognize the extracellular region of living cells is thought to be important in determining the ability of a protein. Based on these findings, we tried to produce mAb against a multi-pass transmembrane transporter using green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fused full-length target proteins as immunogens. Furthermore, the immunizing method has proved to be important in generating functional mAb. We succeeded in producing functional mAb that react against the extracellular region of a 12-pass transmembrane transporter in a living cell. Based on this success, we began to produce mAb against seven-transmembrane GPCR. In this symposium, we report on the results of producing mAb against S1P receptors, a type of GPCR.

  1. Monoclonal antibody selection for interleukin-4 quantification using suspension arrays and forward-phase protein microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Cole, K D; Peterson, A; He, Hua-Jun; Gaigalas, A K; Zong, Y

    2007-12-01

    A recombinant mouse interleukin-4 (IL-4) and three different purified rat antimouse IL-4 monoclonal antibodies (Mab) with different clonalities were employed as a model system. This system was used to examine monoclonal antibody effectiveness using both conventional and high-throughput measurement techniques to select antibodies for attaining the most sensitive detection of the recombinant IL-4 through the "sandwich-type" immunoassays. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) measurements and two high-throughput methods, suspension arrays (also called multiplexed bead arrays) and forward-phase protein microarrays, predicted the same capture (BVD4-1D11) and detection (BVD6-24G2) antibody pair for the most sensitive detection of the recombinant cytokine. By using this antibody pair, we were able to detect as low as 2 pg/mL of IL-4 in buffer solution and 13.5 pg/mL of IL-4 spiked in 100% normal mouse serum with the multiplexed bead arrays. Due to the large amount of material required for SPR measurements, the study suggests that the multiplexed bead arrays and protein microarrays are both suited for the selection of numerous antibodies against the same analyte of interest to meet the need in the areas of systems biology and reproducible clinical diagnostics for better patient care.

  2. Synthesis and secretion of proteins by perifused caput epididymal tubules, and association of secreted proteins with spermatozoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinefelter, G.R.; Hamilton, D.W.

    1985-11-01

    We have used perifusion organ culture of proximal and distal caput epididymal tubules of the rat to study the secretion of proteins by epididymal epithelium and uptake of the luminal radioactive proteins by sperm. The amount of incorporation of L-(35S)methionine into luminal fluid proteins was time dependent and completely inhibited by cycloheximide. The association of labeled proteins with cultured sperm was also dependent on time and continuous, with sperm still acquiring labeled luminal proteins after protein synthesis was arrested. A Mr = 46,000 molecule was found to be heavily labeled in luminal fluid and sperm extracts. Fluorograms of all L-(35S)methionine extracts immunoprecipitated using an antiepididymal alpha-lactalbumin antibody (Klinefelter and Hamilton, 1984) showed labeling of an Mr = 18,000 molecule and, in addition, the Mr = 46,000 molecule, but immunostaining was specific only for the Mr = 18,000 molecule and the heavy chain of the immunoglobulin. We suggest that the Mr = 46,000 molecule may be galactosyltransferase. Galactose oxidase-NaB(3H)4 labeling of the cultured caput sperm cell surface revealed a Mr = 23,000 molecule that was able to be immunoprecipitated with antiepididymal alpha-lactalbumin antibody. Our data suggest that this cell surface molecule is similar to one component of the fluid epididymal alpha-lactalbumin-like complex and, in addition, show that glycosylation of the sperm surface can occur in the caput epididymidis.

  3. Distribution of Flagella Secreted Protein and Integral Membrane Protein Among Campylobacter jejuni Isolated from Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    secreted protein and integral membrane protein among Campylobacter jejuni isolated from Thailand Piyarat Pootong 1·, Oralak Serichantalergs...Ladaporn Bodhidatta \\ Frederic Poly2, Patricia Guerry2 and Carl J Mason 1 Abstract Background: Campylobacter jejuni, a gram-negative bacterium, is a...groups of integral membrane protein. The significance of these different FspA variants to virulence requires further study. Background Campylobacter

  4. Evaluation of the expression of sperm proteins in normozoospermic and asthenozoospermic men using monoclonal antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Capkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that infertility affects estimated 15% of all couples. Male infertility is the primary or contributory cause in 60% of these cases. Consequently, the application of assisted reproduction is increasing. These methods could benefit from an extended evaluation of sperm quality. For this reason, we analyzed sperm proteins from 30 men with normal spermiograms and 30 men with asthenozoospermia. Ejaculates of both groups were tested by flow cytometry (FCM and fluorescence with a set of well-characterized anti-human sperm Hs-monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs, which were generated in our laboratory. No statistically significant differences were found between normospermics and asthenospermics in the expression of the sperm surface protein clusterin, evaluated with Hs-3 MoAb, and semenogelin, evaluated with Hs-9 MoAb. However, FCM revealed quantitative differences in the acrosomal proteins between normozoospermic and asthenozoospermic men, namely, in glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, evaluated with Hs-8 MoAb, valosin-containing protein, evaluated with Hs-14 MoAb, and ATP synthase (cAMP-dependent protein kinase II, PRKAR2A, evaluated with MoAb Hs-36. Asthenozoospermic men displayed a highly reduced expression of intra-acrosomal proteins, with a likely decrease in sperm quality, and thus a negative impact on successful reproduction. Asthenozoospermia seems to be a complex disorder involving intra-acrosomal proteins.

  5. Identification of an immunogenic protein of Giardia lamblia using monoclonal antibodies generated from infected mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jael Quintero

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The humoral immune response plays an important role in the clearance of Giardia lamblia. However, our knowledge about the specific antigens of G. lamblia that induce a protective immune response is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterise the immunogenic proteins of G. lamblia in a mouse model. We generated monoclonal antibodies (moAbs specific to G. lamblia (1B10, 2C9.D11, 3C10.E5, 3D10, 5G8.B5, 5F4, 4C7, 3C5 and 3C6 by fusing splenocytes derived from infected mice. Most of these moAbs recognised a band of ± 71 kDa (5G8 protein and this protein was also recognised by serum from the infected mice. We found that the moAbs recognised conformational epitopes of the 5G8 protein and that this antigen is expressed on the cell surface and inside trophozoites. Additionally, antibodies specific to the 5G8 protein induced strong agglutination (> 70-90% of trophozoites. We have thus identified a highly immunogenic antigen of G. lamblia that is recognised by the immune system of infected mice. In summary, this study describes the identification and partial characterisation of an immunogenic protein of G. lamblia. Additionally, we generated a panel of moAbs specific for this protein that will be useful for the biochemical and immunological characterisation of this immunologically interesting Giardia molecule.

  6. Modeling on-column reduction of trisulfide bonds in monoclonal antibodies during protein A chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Sanchayita; Rajshekaran, Rupshika; Labanca, Marisa; Conley, Lynn

    2017-01-06

    Trisulfides can be a common post-translational modification in many recombinant monoclonal antibodies. These are a source of product heterogeneity that add to the complexity of product characterization and hence, need to be reduced for consistent product quality. Trisulfide bonds can be converted to the regular disulfide bonds by incorporating a novel cysteine wash step during Protein A affinity chromatography. An empirical model is developed for this on-column reduction reaction to compare the reaction rates as a function of typical operating parameters such as temperature, cysteine concentration, reaction time and starting level of trisulfides. The model presented here is anticipated to assist in the development of optimal wash conditions for the Protein A step to effectively reduce trisulfides to desired levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Burkholderia cenocepacia type VI secretion system mediates escape of type II secreted proteins into the cytoplasm of infected macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rosales-Reyes

    Full Text Available Burkholderia cenocepacia is an opportunistic pathogen that survives intracellularly in macrophages and causes serious respiratory infections in patients with cystic fibrosis. We have previously shown that bacterial survival occurs in bacteria-containing membrane vacuoles (BcCVs resembling arrested autophagosomes. Intracellular bacteria stimulate IL-1β secretion in a caspase-1-dependent manner and induce dramatic changes to the actin cytoskeleton and the assembly of the NADPH oxidase complex onto the BcCV membrane. A Type 6 secretion system (T6SS is required for these phenotypes but surprisingly it is not required for the maturation arrest of the BcCV. Here, we show that macrophages infected with B. cenocepacia employ the NLRP3 inflammasome to induce IL-1β secretion and pyroptosis. Moreover, IL-1β secretion by B. cenocepacia-infected macrophages is suppressed in deletion mutants unable to produce functional Type VI, Type IV, and Type 2 secretion systems (SS. We provide evidence that the T6SS mediates the disruption of the BcCV membrane, which allows the escape of proteins secreted by the T2SS into the macrophage cytoplasm. This was demonstrated by the activity of fusion derivatives of the T2SS-secreted metalloproteases ZmpA and ZmpB with adenylcyclase. Supporting this notion, ZmpA and ZmpB are required for efficient IL-1β secretion in a T6SS dependent manner. ZmpA and ZmpB are also required for the maturation arrest of the BcCVs and bacterial intra-macrophage survival in a T6SS-independent fashion. Our results uncover a novel mechanism for inflammasome activation that involves cooperation between two bacterial secretory pathways, and an unanticipated role for T2SS-secreted proteins in intracellular bacterial survival.

  8. Generation and characterization of a monoclonal antibody against prM protein of West Nile virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Li-Ping; Huo, Hong; Wang, Xiao-Lei; Bu, Zhi-Gao; Hua, Rong-Hong

    2014-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV), which is an emerging pathogenic flavivirus with increasing distribution worldwide, is the cause of major human and animal health concerns. The pre-membrane (prM) protein of WNV is cleaved during maturation by the furin protease into the structural protein M and a pr-segment. In this study we generated and characterized a monoclonal antibody (MAb) against the WNV prM protein. Western blot analysis showed that the MAb reacted with WNV prM specifically. Immunohistochemistry assays demonstrated that the MAb recognized native prM protein in transfected BHK-21 cells. Preliminary studies were performed to identify the epitope recognized by the MAb using a set of synthesized overlapping peptides spanning the whole length of the prM protein. The MAb reported here may provide a valuable tool for the further exploration of the biological properties and functions of the prM protein and may also be developed for potential clinical applications.

  9. A monoclonal antibody against PrM/M protein of Japanese encephalitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Rong-Hong; Bu, Zhi-Gao

    2011-10-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a major public health threat in the Asia-Pacific region. The pre-membrane (PrM) protein of Japanese encephalitis virus is cleaved during maturation by the cellular protease into the structural protein M and a pr-segment. Here, we describe a procedure to generate monoclonal antibody (MAb) against JEV PrM/M protein and investigate its characteristics. Western blot analysis showed that the MAbs produced in this study were against JEV PrM/M specifically. Indirect immunofluorescence assay demonstrated that they could recognize native PrM/M protein in JEV-infected BHK-21 cells. Preliminary studies identified the epitope of the MAb with a set of synthesized overlapping peptides covering the whole length of PrM protein of JEV. The MAbs reported here may provide valuable tools for the further exploration of biological properties and functions of PrM/M protein and may also be developed for potential clinical applications.

  10. Monoclonal Antibody Production and Immunolocalization of a Salinity Stress-Related Protein in Rice (Oryza sativa)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jackson MARCONDES; Ana Beatriz GARCIA

    2011-01-01

    Among various physiological responses to salt stress,the synthesis of a lectin-related protein of 14.5 kDa was observed in rice plants (Oryza sativa L.) under the treatment of 170 mmol/L NaCl.In order to better understand the role of the SALT protein in the physiological processes involving salinity,it was immunolocalized in mesophilic cells of leaf sheath and blade of a rice variety IAC-4440 following monoclonal antibodies produced by hybridome culture technique.This variety turned out to be an excellent model for that purpose,since it accumulates SALT protein even in absence of salt treatment and it has been classified as moderately sensitive to salinity and a superior grain producer.This feature was relevant for this work since it allowed the use of plants without the deleterious effects caused by salinity.Immunocytochemistry assays revealed that the SALT protein is located in the stroma of chloroplasts under non-stressing condition.Since the chloroplast is the main target affected by salinity and considering that the SALT protein does not present any apparent signal peptide for organelle localization,its lectin-like activity seems to play an important role in the establishment of stable complexes,either to other proteins or to oligosaccharides that are translocated to the chloroplast.

  11. Comparative transcriptional analysis of Bacillus subtilis cells overproducing either secreted proteins, lipoproteins or membrane proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marciniak Bogumiła C

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacillus subtilis is a favorable host for the production of industrially relevant proteins because of its capacity of secreting proteins into the medium to high levels, its GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe status, its genetic accessibility and its capacity to grow in large fermentations. However, production of heterologous proteins still faces limitations. Results This study aimed at the identification of bottlenecks in secretory protein production by analyzing the response of B. subtilis at the transcriptome level to overproduction of eight secretory proteins of endogenous and heterologous origin and with different subcellular or extracellular destination: secreted proteins (NprE and XynA of B. subtilis, Usp45 of Lactococcus lactis, TEM-1 β-lactamase of Escherichia coli, membrane proteins (LmrA of L. lactis and XylP of Lactobacillus pentosus and lipoproteins (MntA and YcdH of B. subtilis. Responses specific for proteins with a common localization as well as more general stress responses were observed. The latter include upregulation of genes encoding intracellular stress proteins (groES/EL, CtsR regulated genes. Specific responses include upregulation of the liaIHGFSR operon under Usp45 and TEM-1 β-lactamase overproduction; cssRS, htrA and htrB under all secreted proteins overproduction; sigW and SigW-regulated genes mainly under membrane proteins overproduction; and ykrL (encoding an HtpX homologue specifically under membrane proteins overproduction. Conclusions The results give better insights into B. subtilis responses to protein overproduction stress and provide potential targets for genetic engineering in order to further improve B. subtilis as a protein production host.

  12. Prophylactic and therapeutic activity of fully human monoclonal antibodies directed against Influenza A M2 protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwerder Myriam

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Influenza virus infection is a prevalent disease in humans. Antibodies against hemagglutinin have been shown to prevent infection and hence hemagglutinin is the major constituent of current vaccines. Antibodies directed against the highly conserved extracellular domain of M2 have also been shown to mediate protection against Influenza A infection in various animal models. Active vaccination is generally considered the best approach to combat viral diseases. However, passive immunization is an attractive alternative, particularly in acutely exposed or immune compromized individuals, young children and the elderly. We recently described a novel method for the rapid isolation of natural human antibodies by mammalian cell display. Here we used this approach to isolate human monoclonal antibodies directed against the highly conserved extracellular domain of the Influenza A M2 protein. The identified antibodies bound M2 peptide with high affinities, recognized native cell-surface expressed M2 and protected mice from a lethal influenza virus challenge. Moreover, therapeutic treatment up to 2 days after infection was effective, suggesting that M2-specific monoclonals have a great potential as immunotherapeutic agents against Influenza infection.

  13. A novel genetic system for recombinant protein secretion in the Antarctic Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC125

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marino Gennaro

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The final aim of recombinant protein production is both to have a high specific production rate and a high product quality. It was already shown that using cold-adapted bacteria as host vectors, some "intractable" proteins can be efficiently produced at temperature as low as 4°C. Results A novel genetic system for the production and secretion of recombinant proteins in the Antarctic Gram-negative bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC125 was set up. This system aims at combining the low temperature recombinant product production with the advantages of extra-cellular protein targeting. The psychrophilic α-amylase from Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAB23 was used as secretion carrier. Three chimerical proteins were produced by fusing intra-cellular proteins to C-terminus of the psychrophilic α-amylase and their secretion was analysed. Data reported in this paper demonstrate that all tested chimeras were translocated with a secretion yield always higher than 80%. Conclusion Data presented here demonstrate that the "cold" gene-expression system is efficient since the secretion yield of tested chimeras is always above 80%. These secretion performances place the α-amylase derived secretion system amongst the best heterologous secretion systems in Gram-negative bacteria reported so far. As for the quality of the secreted passenger proteins, data presented suggest that the system also allows the correct disulphide bond formation of chimera components, secreting a fully active passenger.

  14. Monoclonal antibodies to intermediate filament proteins of human cells: unique and cross-reacting antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gown, A M; Vogel, A M

    1982-11-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were generated against the intermediate filament proteins of different human cells. The reactivity of these antibodies with the different classes of intermediate filament proteins was determined by indirect immunofluorescence on cultured cells, immunologic indentification on SDS polyacrylamide gels ("wester blot" experiments), and immunoperoxidase assays on intact tissues. The following four antibodies are described: (a) an antivimentin antibody generated against human fibroblast cytoskeleton; (b), (c) two antibodies that recognize a 54-kdalton protein in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells; and (d) an antikeratin antibody made to stratum corneum that recognizes proteins of molecular weight 66 kdaltons and 57 kdaltons. The antivimentin antibody reacts with vimentin (58 kdaltons), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and keratins from stratum corneum, but does not recognize hepatoma intermediate filaments. In immunofluorescence assays, the antibody reacts with mesenchymal cells and cultured epithelial cells that express vimentin. This antibody decorates the media of blood vessels in tissue sections. One antihepatoma filament antibody reacts only with the 54 kdalton protein of these cells and, in immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase assays, only recognizes epithelial cells. It reacts with almost all nonsquamous epithelium. The other antihepatoma filament antibody is much less selective, reacting with vimentin, GFAP, and keratin from stratum corneum. This antibody decorates intermediate filaments of both mesenchymal and epithelial cells. The antikeratin antibody recognizes 66-kdalton and 57-kdalton proteins in extracts of stratum corneum and also identifies proteins of similar molecular weights in all cells tested. However, by immunofluorescence, this antibody decorates only the intermediate filaments of epidermoid carcinoma cells. When assayed on tissue sections, the antibody reacts with squamous epithelium and some, but not all

  15. Unconventional protein secretion in plants: a critical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, David G; Ding, Yu; Jiang, Liwen

    2016-01-01

    Unconventional protein secretion (UPS) is a collective term for mechanisms by which cytosolic proteins that lack a signal peptide ("leaderless secretory proteins" (LSPs)) can gain access to the cell exterior. Numerous examples of UPS have been well documented in animal and yeast cells. In contrast, our understanding of the mechanism(s) and function of UPS in plants is very limited. This review evaluates the available literature on this subject. The apparent large numbers of LSPs in the plant secretome suggest that UPS also occurs in plants but is not a proof. Although the direct transport of LSPs across the plant plasma membrane (PM) has not yet been described, it is possible that as in other eukaryotes, exosomes may be released from plant cells through fusion of multivesicular bodies (MVBs) with the PM. In this way, LSPs, but also small RNAs (sRNAs), that are passively taken up from the cytosol into the intraluminal vesicles of MVBs, could reach the apoplast. Another possible mechanism is the recently discovered exocyst-positive organelle (EXPO), a double-membrane-bound compartment, distinct from autophagosomes, which appears to sequester LSPs.

  16. Therapeutic Potential of Secreted Amyloid Precursor Protein APPsα

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mockett, Bruce G.; Richter, Max; Abraham, Wickliffe C.; Müller, Ulrike C.

    2017-01-01

    Cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by α-secretase generates an extracellularly released fragment termed secreted APP-alpha (APPsα). Not only is this process of interest due to the cleavage of APP within the amyloid-beta sequence, but APPsα itself has many physiological properties that suggest its great potential as a therapeutic target. For example, APPsα is neurotrophic, neuroprotective, neurogenic, a stimulator of protein synthesis and gene expression, and enhances long-term potentiation (LTP) and memory. While most early studies have been conducted in vitro, effectiveness in animal models is now being confirmed. These studies have revealed that either upregulating α-secretase activity, acutely administering APPsα or chronic delivery of APPsα via a gene therapy approach can effectively treat mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other disorders such as traumatic head injury. Together these findings suggest the need for intensifying research efforts to harness the therapeutic potential of this multifunctional protein.

  17. Monoclonal antibodies against DNA-binding tips of DNABII proteins disrupt biofilms in vitro and induce bacterial clearance in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A. Novotny

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of chronic and recurrent bacterial diseases are attributed to the presence of a recalcitrant biofilm that contributes significantly to pathogenesis. As such, these diseases will require an innovative therapeutic approach. We targeted DNABII proteins, an integral component of extracellular DNA (eDNA which is universally found as part of the pathogenic biofilm matrix to develop a biofilm disrupting therapeutic. We show that a cocktail of monoclonal antibodies directed against specific epitopes of a DNABII protein is highly effective to disrupt diverse biofilms in vitro as well as resolve experimental infection in vivo, in both a chinchilla and murine model. Combining this monoclonal antibody cocktail with a traditional antibiotic to kill bacteria newly released from the biofilm due to the action of the antibody cocktail was highly effective. Our results strongly support these monoclonal antibodies as attractive candidates for lead optimization as a therapeutic for resolution of bacterial biofilm diseases.

  18. Production of monoclonal antibodies specific to Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus using recombinant capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangman, Pradit; Senapin, Saengchan; Chaivisuthangkura, Parin; Longyant, Siwaporn; Rukpratanporn, Sombat; Sithigorngul, Paisarn

    2012-03-20

    The gene encoding the capsid protein of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) was cloned into pGEX-6P-1 expression vector and then transformed into the Escherichia coli strain BL21. After induction, capsid protein-glutathione-S-transferase (GST-MrNV; 64 kDa) was produced. The recombinant protein was separated using SDS-PAGE, excised from the gel, electro-eluted and then used for immunization for monoclonal antibody (MAb) production. Four MAbs specific to the capsid protein were selected and could be used to detect natural MrNV infections in M. rosenbergii by dot blotting, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry without cross-reaction with uninfected shrimp tissues or other common shrimp viruses. The detection sensitivity of the MAbs was 10 fmol µl-1 of the GST-MrNV, as determined using dot blotting. However, the sensitivity of the MAb on dot blotting with homogenate from naturally infected M. rosenbergii was approximately 200-fold lower than that of 1-step RT-PCR. Immunohistochemical analysis using these MAbs with infected shrimp tissues demonstrated staining in the muscles, nerve cord, gill, heart, loose connective tissue and inter-tubular tissue of the hepatopancreas. Although the positive reactions occurred in small focal areas, the immunoreactivity was clearly demonstrated. The MAbs targeted different epitopes of the capsid protein and will be used to develop a simple immunoassay strip test for rapid detection of MrNV.

  19. Generation of monoclonal antibodies specific of the postfusion conformation of the Pneumovirinae fusion (F) protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Laura; Olmedillas, Eduardo; Mas, Vicente; Vázquez, Mónica; Cano, Olga; Terrón, María C; Luque, Daniel; Palomo, Concepción; Melero, José A

    2015-11-01

    Paramyxovirus entry into cells requires fusion of the viral and cell membranes mediated by one of the major virus glycoproteins, the fusion (F) glycoprotein which transits from a metastable pre-fusion conformation to a highly stable post-fusion structure during the membrane fusion process. F protein refolding involves large conformational changes of the protein trimer. One of these changes results in assembly of two heptad repeat sequences (HRA and HRB) from each protomer into a six-helix bundle (6HB) motif. To assist in distinguishing pre- and post-fusion conformations of the Pneumovirinae F proteins, and as extension of previous work (Palomo et al., 2014), a general strategy was designed to obtain polyclonal and particularly monoclonal antibodies specific of the 6HB motif of the Pneumovirinae fusion protein. The antibodies reported here should assist in the characterization of the structural changes that the F protein of human metapneumovirus or respiratory syncytial virus experiences during the process of membrane fusion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies that recognize the Eimeria tenella microneme protein MIC2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasai, Kazumi; Fetterer, Raymond H; Lillehoj, Hyun; Matusra, Satomi; Constantinoiu, Constantin C; Matsubayashi, Makoto; Tani, Hiroyuki; Baba, Eiichiroh

    2008-12-01

    The apicomplexan pathogens of Eimeria cause coccidiosis, an intestinal disease of chickens, which has a major economic impact on the poultry industry. Members of the Apicomplexa share an assortment of unique secretory organelles (rhoptries, micronemes and dense granules) that mediate invasion of host cells and formation and modification of the parasitophorous vacuole. Among these, microneme protein 2 from Eimeria tenella(EtMIC2) has a putative function in parasite adhesion to the host cell to initiate the invasion process. To investigate the role of EtMIC2 in host parasite interactions, the production and characterization of 12 monoclonal antibodies (mabs) produced against recombinant EtMIC2 proteins is described. All mabs reacted with molecules belonging to the apical complex of sporozoites and merozoites of E. tenella, E. acervulina and E. maxima in an immunofluorescence assay. By Western blot analysis, the mabs identified a developmentally regulated protein of 42 kDa corresponding to EtMIC 2 and cross-reacted with proteins in developmental stages of E. acervulina. Collectively, these mabs are useful tools for the detailed investigation of the characterization of EtMIC2 related proteins in Eimeria species.

  1. Characterization of the co-elution of host cell proteins with monoclonal antibodies during protein A purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingchun; Goetze, Andrew M; Cui, Huanchun; Wylie, Jenna; Tillotson, Ben; Hewig, Art; Hall, Michael P; Flynn, Gregory C

    2016-05-01

    Protein A chromatography is commonly used as the initial step for purifying monoclonal antibody biotherapeutics expressed in mammalian tissue culture cells. The purpose of this step, as well as later chromatography steps, is, in part, to remove host cell proteins (HCPs) and other related impurities. Understanding the retention mechanism for the subset of HCPs retained during this step is of great interest to monoclonal antibody (mAb) process developers because it allows formation of a guided HCP clearance strategy. However, only limited information is available about the specific HCPs that co-purify with mAbs at this step. In this study, a comprehensive comparison of HCP subpopulations that associated with 15 different mAbs during protein A chromatography was conducted by a 2D-LC-HDMS(E) approach. We found that a majority of CHO HCPs binding to and eluting with the mAbs were common among the mAbs studied, with only a small percentage (∼10% on average) of a mAb's total HCP content in the protein A (PrA) eluate specific for a particular antibody. The abundance of these HCPs in cell culture fluids and their ability to interact with mAbs were the two main factors determining their prevalence in protein A eluates. Potential binding segments for HCPs to associate with mAbs were also studied through their co-purification with individual Fc and (Fab')2 antibody fragments. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:708-717, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  2. Analysis of epitopes in the capsid protein of avian hepatitis E virus by using monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shiwei; Zhao, Qin; Lu, Mingzhe; Sun, Peiming; Qiu, Hongkai; Zhang, Lu; Lv, Junhua; Zhou, En-Min

    2011-02-01

    Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) is related genetically and antigenically to human and swine HEVs and capsid protein of avian HEV shares approximately 48-49% amino acid sequence identities with those of human and swine HEVs. Six monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were produced and used to locate different epitopes in the ORF2 region of aa 339-570 of avian HEV Chinese isolate. The results showed that five epitopes were located in the aa 339-414 region and one in the aa 510-515 region. Two epitopes located in aa 339-355 and aa 384-414 regions are the immunodominant epitopes on the surface of the avian HEV particles as demonstrated by immune capture of viral particles and immunohistochemical detection of the ORF2 antigens with two MAbs.

  3. Monoclonal antibody targeting chikungunya virus envelope 1 protein inhibits virus release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masrinoul, Promsin; Puiprom, Orapim; Tanaka, Atsushi; Kuwahara, Miwa; Chaichana, Panjaporn; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Ramasoota, Pongrama; Okabayashi, Tamaki

    2014-09-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes an acute clinical illness characterized by sudden high fever, intense joint pain, and skin rash. Recent outbreaks of chikungunya disease in Africa and Asia are a major public health concern; however, there is currently no effective licensed vaccine or specific treatment. This study reported the development of a mouse monoclonal antibody (MAb), CK47, which recognizes domain III within the viral envelope 1 protein and inhibited the viral release process, thereby preventing the production of progeny virus. The MAb had no effect on virus entry and replication processes. Thus, CK47 may be a useful tool for studying the mechanisms underlying CHIKV release and may show potential as a therapeutic agent.

  4. Heterologous protein secretion in Lactococcus lactis: a novel antigen delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langella P.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are Gram-positive bacteria and are generally regarded as safe (GRAS organisms. Therefore, LAB could be used for heterologous protein secretion and they are good potential candidates as antigen delivery vehicles. To develop such live vaccines, a better control of protein secretion is required. We developed an efficient secretion system in the model LAB, Lactococcus lactis. Staphylococcal nuclease (Nuc was used as the reporter protein. We first observed that the quantity of secreted Nuc correlated with the copy number of the cloning vector. The nuc gene was cloned on a high-copy number cloning vector and no perturbation of the metabolism of the secreting strain was observed. Replacement of nuc native promoter by a strong lactococcal one led to a significant increase of nuc expression. Secretion efficiency (SE of Nuc in L. lactis was low, i.e., only 60% of the synthesized Nuc was secreted. Insertion of a synthetic propeptide between the signal peptide and the mature moiety of Nuc increased the SE of Nuc. On the basis of these results, we developed a secretion system and we applied it to the construction of an L. lactis strain which secretes a bovine coronavirus (BCV epitope-protein fusion (BCV-Nuc. BCV-Nuc was recognized by both anti-BCV and anti-Nuc antibodies. Secretion of this antigenic fusion is the first step towards the development of a novel antigen delivery system based on LAB-secreting strains.

  5. Detection of major capsid protein of infectious myonecrosis virus in shrimps using monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Caroline H; Borsa, Mariana; Rosa, Rafael D; Cargnin-Ferreira, Eduardo; Pereira, Alitiene M L; Grisard, Edmundo C; Zanetti, Carlos R; Pinto, Aguinaldo R

    2010-10-01

    Infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) has been causing a progressive disease in farm-reared shrimps in Brazil and Indonesia. Immunodiagnostic methods for IMNV detection, although reliable, are not employed currently because monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against this virus are not available. In this study, a fragment of the IMNV major capsid protein gene, comprising amino acids 300-527 (IMNV(300-527)), was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The nucleotide sequence of the recombinant IMNV(300-527) fragment displayed a high degree of identity to the major capsid protein of IMNV isolates from Brazil (99%) and Indonesia (98%). Ten MAbs were generated against the expressed fragment, and eight of these, mostly IgG(2a) or IgG(2b), were able to bind to IMNV in tissue extracts from shrimps infected naturally in immunodot-blot assays. Six of these MAbs recognized a approximately 100 kDa protein in a Western-blot, which is the predicted mass of IMNV major capsid protein, and also bound to viral inclusions present in muscle fibroses and in coagulative myonecrosis, as demonstrated by immunohistochemistry. Among all those MAbs created, four did not cross-react with non-infected shrimp tissues; this observation supports their applicability as a sensitive and specific immunodiagnosis of IMNV infection in shrimps.

  6. Production and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies against Human Nuclear Protein FAM76B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojing Zheng

    Full Text Available Human FAM76B (hFAM76B is a 39 kDa protein that contains homopolymeric histidine tracts, a targeting signal for nuclear speckles. FAM76B is highly conserved among different species, suggesting that it may play an important physiological role in normal cellular functions. However, a lack of appropriate tools has hampered study of this potentially important protein. To facilitate research into the biological function(s of FAM76B, murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs against hFAM76B were generated by using purified, prokaryotically expressed hFAM76B protein. Six strains of MAbs specific for hFAM76B were obtained and characterized. The specificity of MAbs was validated by using FAM76B-/- HEK 293 cell line. Double immunofluorescence followed by laser confocal microscopy confirmed the nuclear speckle localization of hFAM76B, and the specific domains recognized by different MAbs were further elucidated by Western blot. Due to the high conservation of protein sequences between mouse and human FAM76B, MAbs against hFAM76B were shown to react with mouse FAM76B (mFAM76B specifically. Lastly, FAM76B was found to be expressed in the normal tissues of most human organs, though to different extents. The MAbs produced in this study should provide a useful tool for investigating the biological function(s of FAM76B.

  7. Epitopes on the peplomer protein of infectious bronchitis virus strain M41 as defined by monoclonal antibodies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.M.C. Bleumink-Pluym; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); M.C. Horzinek; B.A.M. van der Zeijst (Ben); H.G.M. Niesters (Bert)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractSixteen monoclonal antibodies (Mcabs) were prepared against infectious bronchitis virus strain M41, all of them reacting with the peplomer protein. One of them, Mcab 13, was able to neutralize the virus and to inhibit hemagglutination. Competition binding assays allowed the definition of

  8. Coordination of Pancreatic HCO3- Secretion by Protein-Protein Interaction between Membrane Transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee MG

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that protein-protein interaction is essential in many biological processes including epithelial transport. In this report, we discuss the significance of protein interactions to HCO(3(- secretion in pancreatic duct cells. In pancreatic ducts HCO(3(- secretion is mediated by cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR activated luminal Cl(-/HCO(3(- exchange activity and HCO(3(- absorption is achieved by Na(+-dependent mechanisms including Na(+/H(+ exchanger 3 (NHE3. We found biochemical and functional association between CFTR and NHE3. In addition, protein binding through PDZ modules is needed for this regulatory interaction. CFTR affected NHE3 activities in two ways. Acutely, CFTR augmented the cAMP-dependent inhibition of NHE3. In a chronic mechanism, CFTR increases the luminal expression of Na(+/H(+ exchange in pancreatic duct cells. These findings reveal that protein complexes in the plasma membrane of pancreatic duct cells are highly organized for efficient HCO(3(- secretion.

  9. Maltose-Binding Protein (MBP, a Secretion-Enhancing Tag for Mammalian Protein Expression Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Reuten

    Full Text Available Recombinant proteins are commonly expressed in eukaryotic expression systems to ensure the formation of disulfide bridges and proper glycosylation. Although many proteins can be expressed easily, some proteins, sub-domains, and mutant protein versions can cause problems. Here, we investigated expression levels of recombinant extracellular, intracellular as well as transmembrane proteins tethered to different polypeptides in mammalian cell lines. Strikingly, fusion of proteins to the prokaryotic maltose-binding protein (MBP generally enhanced protein production. MBP fusion proteins consistently exhibited the most robust increase in protein production in comparison to commonly used tags, e.g., the Fc, Glutathione S-transferase (GST, SlyD, and serum albumin (ser alb tag. Moreover, proteins tethered to MBP revealed reduced numbers of dying cells upon transient transfection. In contrast to the Fc tag, MBP is a stable monomer and does not promote protein aggregation. Therefore, the MBP tag does not induce artificial dimerization of tethered proteins and provides a beneficial fusion tag for binding as well as cell adhesion studies. Using MBP we were able to secret a disease causing laminin β2 mutant protein (congenital nephrotic syndrome, which is normally retained in the endoplasmic reticulum. In summary, this study establishes MBP as a versatile expression tag for protein production in eukaryotic expression systems.

  10. A High Throughput Protein Microarray Approach to Classify HIV Monoclonal Antibodies and Variant Antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Y Dotsey

    Full Text Available In recent years, high throughput discovery of human recombinant monoclonal antibodies (mAbs has been applied to greatly advance our understanding of the specificity, and functional activity of antibodies against HIV. Thousands of antibodies have been generated and screened in functional neutralization assays, and antibodies associated with cross-strain neutralization and passive protection in primates, have been identified. To facilitate this type of discovery, a high throughput-screening tool is needed to accurately classify mAbs, and their antigen targets. In this study, we analyzed and evaluated a prototype microarray chip comprised of the HIV-1 recombinant proteins gp140, gp120, gp41, and several membrane proximal external region peptides. The protein microarray analysis of 11 HIV-1 envelope-specific mAbs revealed diverse binding affinities and specificities across clades. Half maximal effective concentrations, generated by our chip analysis, correlated significantly (P<0.0001 with concentrations from ELISA binding measurements. Polyclonal immune responses in plasma samples from HIV-1 infected subjects exhibited different binding patterns, and reactivity against printed proteins. Examining the totality of the specificity of the humoral response in this way reveals the exquisite diversity, and specificity of the humoral response to HIV.

  11. Identification and characterization of host cell protein product-associated impurities in monoclonal antibody bioprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Nicholas E; Valente, Kristin N; Choe, Leila H; Lee, Kelvin H; Lenhoff, Abraham M

    2014-05-01

    Downstream processing of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has evolved to allow the specific process for a new product to be developed largely by empirical specialization of a platform process that enables removal of impurities of different kinds. A more complete characterization of impurities and the product itself would provide insights into the rational design of efficient downstream processes. This work identifies and characterizes host cell protein (HCP) product-associated impurities, that is, HCP species carried through the downstream processes via direct interactions with the mAb. Interactions between HCPs and mAbs are characterized using cross-interaction chromatography under solution conditions typical of those used in downstream processing. The interacting species are then identified by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. This methodology has been applied to identify product-associated impurities in one particular purification step, namely protein A affinity chromatography, for four therapeutic mAbs as well as the Fab and Fc domains of one of these mAbs. The results show both the differences in HCP-mAb interactions among different mAbs, and the relative importance of product association compared to co-elution in protein A affinity chromatography. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Pharmacological inhibition of dynamin II reduces constitutive protein secretion from primary human macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaike Kockx

    Full Text Available Dynamins are fission proteins that mediate endocytic and exocytic membrane events and are pharmacological therapeutic targets. These studies investigate whether dynamin II regulates constitutive protein secretion and show for the first time that pharmacological inhibition of dynamin decreases secretion of apolipoprotein E (apoE and several other proteins constitutively secreted from primary human macrophages. Inhibitors that target recruitment of dynamin to membranes (MiTMABs or directly target the GTPase domain (Dyngo or Dynole series, dose- and time- dependently reduced the secretion of apoE. SiRNA oligo's targeting all isoforms of dynamin II confirmed the involvement of dynamin II in apoE secretion. Inhibition of secretion was not mediated via effects on mRNA or protein synthesis. 2D-gel electrophoresis showed that inhibition occurred after apoE was processed and glycosylated in the Golgi and live cell imaging showed that inhibited secretion was associated with reduced post-Golgi movement of apoE-GFP-containing vesicles. The effect was not restricted to macrophages, and was not mediated by the effects of the inhibitors on microtubules. Inhibition of dynamin also altered the constitutive secretion of other proteins, decreasing the secretion of fibronectin, matrix metalloproteinase 9, Chitinase-3-like protein 1 and lysozyme but unexpectedly increasing the secretion of the inflammatory mediator cyclophilin A. We conclude that pharmacological inhibitors of dynamin II modulate the constitutive secretion of macrophage apoE as a class effect, and that their capacity to modulate protein secretion may affect a range of biological processes.

  13. Immunological characteristics of outer membrane protein omp31 of goat Brucella and its monoclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, W Y; Wang, Y; Zhang, Z C; Yan, F

    2015-10-05

    We examined the immunological characteristics of outer membrane protein omp31 of goat Brucella and its monoclonal antibody. Genomic DNA from the M5 strain of goat Brucella was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pGEX-4T-1. The expression and immunological characteristics of the fusion protein GST-omp31 were subjected to preliminary western blot detection with goat Brucella rabbit immune serum. The Brucella immunized BALB/c mouse serum was detected using purified protein. The high-potency mouse splenocytes and myeloma Sp2/0 cells were fused. Positive clones were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to establish a hybridoma cell line. Mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with hybridoma cells to prepare ascites. The mAb was purified using the n-caprylic acid-ammonium sulfate method. The characteristics of mAb were examined using western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A 680-base pair band was observed after polymerase chain reaction. Enzyme digestion identification and sequencing showed that the pGEX-4T-1-omp31 prokaryotic expression vector was successfully established; a target band of approximately 57 kDa with an apparent molecular weight consistent with the size of the target fusion protein. At 25°C, the expression of soluble expression increased significantly; the fusion protein GST-omp31 was detected by western blotting. Anti-omp31 protein mAb was obtained from 2 strains of Brucella. The antibody showed strong specificity and sensitivity and did not cross-react with Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, or Bacillus pyocyaneus. The pGEX-4T-1-omp31 prokaryotic expression vector was successfully established and showed good immunogenicity. The antibody also showed strong specificity and good sensitivity.

  14. Protein trafficking, ergosterol biosynthesis and membrane physics impact recombinant protein secretion in Pichia pastoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattanovich Diethard

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing availability of 'omics' databases provide important platforms for yeast engineering strategies since they offer a lot of information on the physiology of the cells under diverse growth conditions, including environmental stresses. Notably, only a few of these approaches have considered a performance under recombinant protein production conditions. Recently, we have identified a beneficial effect of low oxygen availability on the expression of a human Fab fragment in Pichia pastoris. Transcriptional analysis and data mining allowed for the selection of potential targets for strain improvement. A first selection of these candidates has been evaluated as recombinant protein secretion enhancers. Results Based on previous transcriptomics analyses, we selected 8 genes for co-expression in the P. pastoris strain already secreting a recombinant Fab fragment. Notably, WSC4 (which is involved in trafficking through the ER has been identified as a novel potential target gene for strain improvement, with up to a 1.2-fold increase of product yield in shake flask cultures. A further transcriptomics-based strategy to modify the yeast secretion system was focused on the ergosterol pathway, an aerobic process strongly affected by oxygen depletion. By specifically partially inhibiting ergosterol synthesis with the antifungal agent fluconazole (inhibiting Erg11p, we tried to mimic the hypoxic conditions, in which the cellular ergosterol content was significantly decreased. This strategy led to an improved Fab yield (2-fold without impairing cellular growth. Since ergosterol shortage provokes alterations in the plasma membrane composition, an important role of this cellular structure in protein secretion is suggested. This hypothesis was additionally supported by the fact that the addition of non-ionic surfactants also enhanced Fab secretion. Conclusions The current study presents a systems biotechnology-based strategy for the

  15. Identification and molecular characterization of a novel protein Saglin as a target of monoclonal antibodies affecting salivary gland infectivity of Plasmodium sporozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okulate, M A; Kalume, D E; Reddy, R; Kristiansen, T; Bhattacharyya, M; Chaerkady, R; Pandey, A; Kumar, N

    2007-12-01

    Molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction between malarial sporozoites and putative receptor(s) on the salivary glands of Anopheles gambiae remain largely unknown. In previous studies, a salivary gland protein of ~100 kDa was identified as a putative target based on recognition of the protein by a monoclonal antibody (mAb) 2A3 that caused a >/= 70% reduction in the average number of sporozoites per infected salivary gland when fed to mosquitoes. Using affinity purification we purified the target of this mAb from extracts of female A. gambiae salivary glands and it was found to be a novel protein by tandem mass spectrometric analysis. Biochemical and molecular characterization of the 100 kDa protein showed that this molecule, designated Saglin, exists as a disulphide-bonded homodimer of 50 kDa subunits. The ability to form homodimers was retained even in the recombinant Saglin expressed in mammalian cells (HEK293). The amino acid sequence of Saglin contains a signal peptide suggesting that Saglin is a secreted protein. If Saglin is indeed involved in the process of invasion of A. gambiae salivary glands by sporozoites of Plasmodium, it could provide a novel target for future investigations aimed at interruption of malaria transmission.

  16. Modulation of secreted proteins of mouse mammary epithelial cells by the collagenous substrata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, E.Y.H.; Parry, G.; Bissell, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    It has been shown previously that cultures of mouse mammary epithelial cells retain their characteristic morphology and their ability to produce ..gamma..-casein, a member of the casein gene family, only if they are maintained on floating collagen gels. In this paper we show: (a) Cells on floating collagen gels secrete not only ..gamma..-casein but also ..cap alpha../sub 1/-, ..cap alpha../sub 2/-, and ..beta..-caseins. These are not secreted by cells on plastic and are secreted to only a very limited extent by cells on attached collagen gels. (b) The floating collagen gel regulates at the level of synthesis and/or stabilization of the caseins rather than at the level of secretion alone. Contraction of the floating gel is important in that cells cultured on floating glutaraldehyde cross-linked gels do not secrete any of the caseins. (c) The secretion of an 80,000-mol-wt protein, most probably transferrin, and a 67,000-mol-wt protein, probably butyrophilin, a major protein of the milk fat globule membrane, are partially modulated by substrata. However, in contrast to the caseins, these are always detectable in media from cells cultured on plastic and attached gels. (d) Whey acidic protein, a major whey protein, is actively secreted by freshly isolated cells but is secreted in extremely limited quantities in cultured cells regardless of the nature of the substratum used. Lactalbumin secretion is also decreased significantly in cultured cells. (e) A previously unreported set of proteins, which may be minor milk proteins, are prominently secreted by the mammary cells on all substrata tested. We conclude that while the substratum profoundly influences the secretion of the caseins, it does not regulate the expression of every milk-specific protein in the same way. The mechanistic implications of these findings are discussed.

  17. Proteomic analysis of rutin-induced secreted proteins from Aspergillus flavus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Martha L; Kiernan, Urban A; Francisco, Wilson A

    2004-03-01

    Few studies have been conducted to identify the extracellular proteins and enzymes secreted by filamentous fungi, particularly with respect to dispensable metabolic pathways. Proteomic analysis has proven to be the most powerful method for identification of proteins in complex mixtures and is suitable for the study of the alteration of protein expression under different environmental conditions. The filamentous fungus Aspergillus flavus can degrade the flavonoid rutin as the only source of carbon via an extracellular enzyme system. In this study, a proteomic analysis was used to differentiate and identify the extracellular rutin-induced and non-induced proteins secreted by A. flavus. The secreted proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. While 15 rutin-induced proteins and 7 non-induced proteins were identified, more than 90 protein spots remain unidentified, indicating that these proteins are either novel proteins or proteins that have not yet been sequenced.

  18. Protein-Phospholipid Interactions in Nonclassical Protein Secretion: Problem and Methods of Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Neivandt

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular proteins devoid of signal peptides use nonclassical secretion mechanisms for their export. These mechanisms are independent of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi. Some nonclassically released proteins, particularly fibroblast growth factors (FGF 1 and 2, are exported as a result of their direct translocation through the cell membrane. This process requires specific interactions of released proteins with membrane phospholipids. In this review written by a cell biologist, a structural biologist and two membrane engineers, we discuss the following subjects: (i Phenomenon of nonclassical protein release and its biological significance; (ii Composition of the FGF1 multiprotein release complex (MRC; (iii The relationship between FGF1 export and acidic phospholipid externalization; (iv Interactions of FGF1 MRC components with acidic phospholipids; (v Methods to study the transmembrane translocation of proteins; (vi Membrane models to study nonclassical protein release.

  19. The Evolution of the Secreted Regulatory Protein Progranulin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger G E Palfree

    Full Text Available Progranulin is a secreted growth factor that is active in tumorigenesis, wound repair, and inflammation. Haploinsufficiency of the human progranulin gene, GRN, causes frontotemporal dementia. Progranulins are composed of chains of cysteine-rich granulin modules. Modules may be released from progranulin by proteolysis as 6kDa granulin polypeptides. Both intact progranulin and some of the granulin polypeptides are biologically active. The granulin module occurs in certain plant proteases and progranulins are present in early diverging metazoan clades such as the sponges, indicating their ancient evolutionary origin. There is only one Grn gene in mammalian genomes. More gene-rich Grn families occur in teleost fish with between 3 and 6 members per species including short-form Grns that have no tetrapod counterparts. Our goals are to elucidate progranulin and granulin module evolution by investigating (i: the origins of metazoan progranulins (ii: the evolutionary relationships between the single Grn of tetrapods and the multiple Grn genes of fish (iii: the evolution of granulin module architectures of vertebrate progranulins (iv: the conservation of mammalian granulin polypeptide sequences and how the conserved granulin amino acid sequences map to the known three dimensional structures of granulin modules. We report that progranulin-like proteins are present in unicellular eukaryotes that are closely related to metazoa suggesting that progranulin is among the earliest extracellular regulatory proteins still employed by multicellular animals. From the genomes of the elephant shark and coelacanth we identified contemporary representatives of a precursor for short-from Grn genes of ray-finned fish that is lost in tetrapods. In vertebrate Grns pathways of exon duplication resulted in a conserved module architecture at the amino-terminus that is frequently accompanied by an unusual pattern of tandem nearly identical module repeats near the carboxyl

  20. An Experimental Approach for the Identification of Conserved Secreted Proteins in Trypanosomatids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa M. Corrales

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular factors produced by Leishmania spp., Trypanosoma cruzi, and Trypanosoma brucei are important in the host-parasite relationship. Here, we describe a genome-based approach to identify putative extracellular proteins conserved among trypanosomatids that are likely involved in the classical secretory pathway. Potentially secreted proteins were identified by bioinformatic analysis of the T. cruzi genome. A subset of thirteen genes encoding unknown proteins with orthologs containing a signal peptide sequence in L. infantum, L. major, and T. brucei were transfected into L. infantum. Tagged proteins detected in the extracellular medium confirmed computer predictions in about 25% of the hits. Secretion was confirmed for two L. infantum orthologs proteins using the same experimental system. Infectivity studies of transgenic Leishmania parasites suggest that one of the secreted proteins increases parasite replication inside macrophages. This methodology can identify conserved secreted proteins involved in the classical secretory pathway, and they may represent potential virulence factors in trypanosomatids.

  1. The role of electrostatics in protein-protein interactions of a monoclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D; Keeling, R; Tracka, M; van der Walle, C F; Uddin, S; Warwicker, J; Curtis, R

    2014-07-07

    Understanding how protein-protein interactions depend on the choice of buffer, salt, ionic strength, and pH is needed to have better control over protein solution behavior. Here, we have characterized the pH and ionic strength dependence of protein-protein interactions in terms of an interaction parameter kD obtained from dynamic light scattering and the osmotic second virial coefficient B22 measured by static light scattering. A simplified protein-protein interaction model based on a Baxter adhesive potential and an electric double layer force is used to separate out the contributions of longer-ranged electrostatic interactions from short-ranged attractive forces. The ionic strength dependence of protein-protein interactions for solutions at pH 6.5 and below can be accurately captured using a Deryaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) potential to describe the double layer forces. In solutions at pH 9, attractive electrostatics occur over the ionic strength range of 5-275 mM. At intermediate pH values (7.25 to 8.5), there is a crossover effect characterized by a nonmonotonic ionic strength dependence of protein-protein interactions, which can be rationalized by the competing effects of long-ranged repulsive double layer forces at low ionic strength and a shorter ranged electrostatic attraction, which dominates above a critical ionic strength. The change of interactions from repulsive to attractive indicates a concomitant change in the angular dependence of protein-protein interaction from isotropic to anisotropic. In the second part of the paper, we show how the Baxter adhesive potential can be used to predict values of kD from fitting to B22 measurements, thus providing a molecular basis for the linear correlation between the two protein-protein interaction parameters.

  2. Human monoclonal antibodies to West Nile virus identify epitopes on the prM protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Amanda E; Kalantarov, Gavreel F; Chang, Gwong-Jen J; Trakht, Ilya; Blair, Carol D; Roehrig, John T

    2011-02-05

    Hybridoma cell lines (2E8, 8G8 and 5G12) producing fully human monoclonal antibodies (hMAbs) specific for the pre-membrane (prM) protein of West Nile virus (WNV) were prepared using a human fusion partner cell line, MFP-2, and human peripheral blood lymphocytes from a blood donor diagnosed with WNV fever in 2004. Using site-directed mutagenesis of a WNV-like particle (VLP) we identified 4 amino acid residues in the prM protein unique to WNV and important in the binding of these hMAbs to the VLP. Residues V19 and L33 are important epitopes for the binding of all three hMAbs. Mutations at residue, T20 and T24 affected the binding of hMAbs, 8G8 and 5G12 only. These hMAbs did not significantly protect AG129 interferon-deficient mice or Swiss Webster outbred mice from WNV infection.

  3. Generation and characterisation of monoclonal antibodies specific to avian influenza H7N9 haemagglutinin protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Malik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Emerging virulent strains of influenza virus pose a serious public health threat with potential pandemic consequences. A novel avian influenza virus, H7N9, breached the species barrier from infected domestic poultry to humans in 2013 in China. Since then, it has caused numerous infections in humans with a close contact to poultry. Materials and Methods: In this study, we describe the preliminary characterisation of five murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs developed against recombinant haemagglutinin (rHA protein of avian H7N9 A/Anhui/1/2013 virus by their Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA reactivity and binding affinity. Results: Of the five MAbs, four were highly specific to H7N9 HA and did not show any cross-reactivity in ELISA with rHA protein from pandemic as well as seasonal H1N1, H2N2, H3N2, H5N1 and influenza virus B (B/Brisbane/60/2008. However, one of the MAbs, MA-24, in addition to HA protein of H7N9 also reacted strongly with HA protein of H3N2 and weakly with HA of pandemic and seasonal H1N1 and H2N2. All the five MAbs also reacted with H7N9 rHA in Western blot. The MAbs bound H7N9 rHA with an equilibrium dissociation constant (KD ranging between 0.14 and 25.20 nM, indicating their high affinity to HA. Conclusions: These antibodies may be useful in developing diagnostic tools for the detection of influenza H7N9 virus infections.

  4. Characterization of surface proteins of Cronobacter muytjensii using monoclonal antibodies and MALDI-TOF Mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ababneh Qotaiba O

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cronobacter spp. is a newly emerging pathogen that causes meningitis in infants and other diseases in elderly and immunocompromised individuals. This study was undertaken to investigate surface antigenic determinants in Cronobacter spp. using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs and MALDI-TOF Mass spectrometry. Results Spleenocytes from mice that were immunized with heat-killed (20 min, 80°C Cronobacter cells were fused with SP2 myeloma cells. Five desirable MAbs (A1, B5, 2C2, C5 and A4 were selected. MAbs A1, B5, 2C2 and C5 were of IgG2a isotype while A4 was an IgM. Specificity of the MAbs was determined by using immunoblotting with outer membrane protein preparations (OMPs extracted from 12 Cronobacter and 6 non-Cronobacter bacteria. All MAbs recognized proteins with molecular weight ranging between 36 and 49 kDa except for one isolate (44 in which no OMPs were detected. In addition, MAbs recognized two bands (38-41 kDa in four of the non-Cronobacter bacteria. Most of the proteins recognized by the MAbs were identified by MALDI-TOF peptide sequencing and appeared to be heterogeneous with the identities of some of them are still unknown. All MAbs recognized the same epitope as determined by an additive Index ELISA with their epitopes appeared to be conformational rather than sequential. Further, none of the MAbs recognized purified LPS from Cronobacter spp. Specificity of the MAbs toward OMPs was further confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. Conclusions Results obtained in this study highlight the immunological cross-reactivity among Cronobacter OMPs and their Enterobacteriaceae counterparts. Nevertheless, the identity of the identified proteins appeared to be different as inferred from the MALDI-TOF sequencing and identification.

  5. High-yield secretion of recombinant proteins from the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos Martinez, Erick Miguel; Fimognari, Lorenzo; Sakuragi, Yumiko

    2017-01-01

    Microalga-based biomanufacturing of recombinant proteins is attracting growing attention due to its advantages in safety, metabolic diversity, scalability and sustainability. Secretion of recombinant proteins can accelerate the use of microalgal platforms by allowing post-translational modificati......Microalga-based biomanufacturing of recombinant proteins is attracting growing attention due to its advantages in safety, metabolic diversity, scalability and sustainability. Secretion of recombinant proteins can accelerate the use of microalgal platforms by allowing post...... reinhardtii, a widely used green microalga as a model organism and a potential industrial biotechnology platform. We demonstrated that the putative signal sequence from C. reinhardtii gametolysin can assist the secretion of the yellow fluorescent protein Venus into the culture media. To increase the secretion...... in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Taken together, the results demonstrate the utility of the gametolysin signal sequence and (SP)n glycomodule to promote a more efficient biomanufacturing of microalgae-based recombinant proteins....

  6. Multistep processing of the secretion leader of the extracellular protein Epx1 in Pichia pastoris and implications for protein localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiss, Silvia; Puxbaum, Verena; Gruber, Clemens; Altmann, Friedrich; Mattanovich, Diethard; Gasser, Brigitte

    2015-07-01

    Secretion leaders are required to direct nascent proteins to the secretory pathway. They are of interest in the study of intracellular protein transport, and are required for the production of secretory recombinant proteins. Secretion leaders are processed in two steps in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi. Although yeast cells typically contain about 150 proteins entering the secretory pathway, only a low number of proteins are actually secreted to the cell supernatant. Analysis of the secretome of the yeast Pichia pastoris revealed that the most abundant secretory protein, which we named Epx1, belongs to the cysteine-rich secretory protein family CRISP. Surprisingly, the Epx1 secretion leader undergoes a three-step processing on its way to the cell exterior instead of the usual two-step processing. The Kex2 cleavage site within the P. pastoris Epx1 leader is not conserved in the homologues of most other yeasts. We studied the effect of exchanging the Kex2-cleavage motif on the secretory behaviour of reporter proteins fused to variants of the Epx1 leader sequence, and observed mistargeting for some but not all of the variants using fluorescence microscopy. By targeting several recombinant human proteins for secretion, we revealed that a short variant of the leader sequence, as well as the Epx1 signal sequence alone, resulted in the correct N-termini of the secreted proteins. Both leader variants proved to be very efficient, even exceeding the secretion levels obtained with commonly used secretion leaders. Taken together, the novel Epx1 secretion leader sequences are a valuable tool for recombinant protein production as well as basic research of intracellular transport.

  7. A human CD5+ B cell clone that secretes an idiotype-specific high affinity IgM monoclonal antibody.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.W.J. van der Heijden (Roger); H. Bunschoten; A.C. Hoek (Aad); J. van Es (Johan); M. Punter; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); F.G.C.M. Uytdehaag (Fons)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractWe previously demonstrated the occurrence of a naturally arisen human anti-idiotypic B cell clone, that we transformed with EBV (EBV383). We show evidence that EBV383 not only expresses the CD5 surface Ag, but also contains the 2.7-kb mRNA transcript encoding this protein. In addition, w

  8. Generation of human hybridomas producing migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and of murine hybridomas secreting monoclonal antibodies to human MIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, W Y; Remold, H G; David, J R

    1985-01-01

    Human T-cell hybridomas were established by hybridization of concanavalin A (Con A)-stimulated human peripheral blood T lymphocytes with cells from a 6-thioguanine-resistant, aminopterin-sensitive mutant line designated CEM-WH4, derived from the continuously growing human T cell line, CEM. High levels of MIF activity were demonstrated in the supernatants of two hybridoma lines, T-CEMA and T-CEMB but not of CEM-WH4 when stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate and phytohemagglutinin. In comparison, MIF derived from Con A-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed 100 times less activity. Upon isoelectrofocusing, MIF activity of T-CEMB was found exclusively between pH 4.6 and 5.3 whereas MIF derived from T-CEMA showed heterogeneity with a major peak of MIF recovered at pH 4.6-5.3 and a minor peak at pH 2.4-3.3. These molecules, however, were all found to have an apparent MW of 68,000 and were resistant to trypsin. Most of these characteristics are in accordance with second day pH 3- and pH 5-MIF derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. When spleen cells from BALB/c mice immunized with T-CEMB-MIF were used to fuse with NS-1 mouse myeloma cells, nine hybridomas secreting antibodies to human MIF were obtained. Clone D112 which demonstrated the highest MIF-neutralizing activity was found to neutralize MIF derived from T-CEMA, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and a T cell line, Mo.

  9. A Novel Approach to Monitor Clearance of Host Cell Proteins Associated With Monoclonal Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboulaich, Nabila; Chung, Wai Keen; Thompson, Jenny Heidbrink; Larkin, Christopher; Robbins, David; Zhu, Min

    2014-01-01

    Co-purification of a subset of host cell proteins (HCPs) with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) during the capture of mAbs on Protein A affinity chromatography is primarily caused by interactions of HCPs with the mAbs. To date, there is limited information about the identity of those HCPs due to the difficulty in detecting low abundance HCPs in the presence of a large amount of the mAb. Here, an approach is presented that allows identification of HCPs that specifically associate with the mAb, while avoiding interference from the mAb itself. This approach involves immobilization of purified mAb onto chromatography resin via cross-linking, followed by incubation with HCPs obtained from supernatant of non-mAb producer cells that are representative of the expression systems used in mAb manufacturing. The HCPs that bind to the mAb are recovered and identified using mass spectrometry. This approach has not only allowed a comprehensive comparison of HCP subpopulations that associate with different mAbs, but also enabled monitoring of the effects of a variety of wash modifiers on the dissociation of individual HCP–mAb interactions. The dissociation of HCPs that associated with the mAb was monitored by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and mass spectrometry. This approach can be utilized as a screening tool to assist the development of effective and targeted wash steps in Protein A chromatography that ensures not only reduction of HCP levels copurified with the mAb but also removal of specific HCPs that may have a potential impact on mAb structural stability and patient safety. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 30:1114–1124, 2014 PMID:25044920

  10. Monoclonal antibody binding to the major outer membrane protein of Campylobacter coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hongliang; Pang, Ervinna; Chang, Jason; Toh, Say Ling; Ng, Fook Kheong; Tan, Ai Ling; Kwang, Jimmy

    2008-11-30

    Campylobacter species are major enteric pathogens causing diarrhea illness in humans and animals. Immunological tests are needed for accurate and rapid identification of C. coli, in conjunction with the use of standard biochemical tests. We initiated the creation of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) using whole C. coli cells as antigen. Four positive clones were identified, namely MAb2G6, MAb3B9, MAb4A10 and MAb5B9. Dot-blot assay and ELISA revealed that only MAb2G6 did not cross react with C. jejuni and other Campylobacter isolates. As demonstrated by dot-blot assay, MAb2G6 reacted with all 23 C. coli isolates tested but did not react with 29 isolates of C. jejuni, 3 other Campylobacter spp. isolates and 19 non-Campylobacter isolates, with the lowest detection limit was in the range of 10(3) to 10(4) bacteria. Western blots and dot blots showed that the antigen of MAb2G6 was a native protein, with immunoprecipitation assay showed that MAb2G6 bound to a protein band of approximately 43 kDa in size, corresponding to major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of C. coli revealed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Immunofluorescence assay (IFA) showed that MOMP of C. coli was indeed the antigen of MAb2G6, with immunogold-electron microscopy demonstrated that MAb2G6 conjugated with immunogold particles bound to all over the surface of C. coli cells. MAb2G6 also showed potential usage in direct detection of C. coli in faecal samples.

  11. Differential secretion pathways of proteins fused to the Escherichia coli maltose binding protein (MBP) in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moua, Pachai S; Gonzalez, Alfonso; Oshiro, Kristin T; Tam, Vivian; Li, Zhiguo Harry; Chang, Jennifer; Leung, Wilson; Yon, Amy; Thor, Der; Venkatram, Sri; Franz, Andreas H; Risser, Douglas D; Lin-Cereghino, Joan; Lin-Cereghino, Geoff P

    2016-08-01

    The Escherichia coli maltose binding protein (MBP) is an N-terminal fusion partner that was shown to enhance the secretion of some heterologous proteins from the yeast Pichia pastoris, a popular host for recombinant protein expression. The amount of increase in secretion was dependent on the identity of the cargo protein, and the fusions were proteolyzed prior to secretion, limiting its use as a purification tag. In order to overcome these obstacles, we used the MBP as C-terminal partner for several cargo peptides. While the Cargo-MBP proteins were no longer proteolyzed in between these two moieties when the MBP was in this relative position, the secretion efficiency of several fusions was lower than when MBP was located at the opposite end of the cargo protein (MBP-Cargo). Furthermore, fluorescence analysis suggested that the MBP-EGFP and EGFP-MBP proteins followed different routes within the cell. The effect of several Pichia pastoris beta-galactosidase supersecretion (bgs) strains, mutants showing enhanced secretion of select reporters, was also investigated on both MBP-EGFP and EGFP-MBP. While the secretion efficiency, proteolysis and localization of the MBP-EGFP was influenced by the modified function of Bgs13, EGFP-MBP behavior was not affected in the bgs strain. Taken together, these results indicate that the location of the MBP in a fusion affects the pathway and trans-acting factors regulating secretion in P. pastoris.

  12. Quality Control System for Beer Developed with Monoclonal Antibodies Specific to Barley Lipid Transfer Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukie Murakami-Yamaguchi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-specific lipid transfer protein (LTP in barley grain reacted with the IgE in sera drawn from food allergy patients. A sandwich-type of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was developed with mouse monoclonal antibodies raised against LTP purified with barley flour. This ELISA showed a practical working range of 0.3–3 ng/mL and no cross-reactivity with wheat, adlay and rye. Using this ELISA, LTP was determined in several types of barley-foods, including fermented foods such as malt vinegar, barley-malt miso and beer. LTP content in beer of the same kind was approximately constant, even if manufacturing factory and production days were different. Not only as a factor of foam formation and stability but also as an allergen, controlling and monitoring of LTP in beer should be considered. Taken together, our LTP-detecting ELISA can be proposed as an appropriate system for the quality control of beer.

  13. Application of GP5 Protein to Develop Monoclonal Antibody against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Tian; Yan Cheng; Jin-yang Wu; Jian-hui He; You-jun Shang; Xiang-tao Liu

    2011-01-01

    In this study,a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus(PRRSV),named as 8C9 and4B4,were produced by fusing SP2/0 myeloma cells and spleen cells of BALB/c mice immunized with the PRRSV (TCID50=5.5),screened by the indirect ELISA and subjected to several limiting dilutions.mAbs were then identified by biological characterization.Among the two fusion cell strains,8C9 belonged to the IgG1 subclass and 4B4 belonged to the IgG2a subclass.The titers in cell culture supernatant and abdomen liquor reached to 1:104and 1:105,respectively.The specificity test indicated that the two cells had specific reactions for the PRRSV and GP5 protein respectively,and no reaction with Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) or Swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV).The molecular weights of the heavy chain and light chain were about 45.0 kDa and 25.0 kDa,respectively.In neutralization activity tests,the results showed that the prepared mAb 4B4 can protect 50% of cells with no CPE in dilution up to 1:512,but mAB 8C9 has no neutralization activities to PRRSV.

  14. Purification of chimeric heavy chain monoclonal antibody EG2-hFc using hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography: an alternative to protein-A affinity chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadavarte, Rahul; Spearman, Maureen; Okun, Natalie; Butler, Michael; Ghosh, Raja

    2014-06-01

    Heavy chain monoclonal antibodies are being considered as alternative to whole-IgG monoclonal antibodies for certain niche applications. Protein-A chromatography which is widely used for purifying IgG monoclonal antibodies is also used for purifying heavy chain monoclonal antibodies as these molecules possess fully functional Fc regions. However, the acidic conditions used to elute bound antibody may sometimes also leach protein-A, which is immunotoxic. Low pH conditions also tend to make the mAb molecules unstable and prone to aggregation. Moreover, protein-A affinity chromatography does not remove aggregates already present in the feed. Hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography (or HIMC) has already been studied as an alternative to protein-A chromatography for purifying whole-IgG monoclonal antibodies. This paper describes the use of HIMC for capturing a humanized chimeric heavy chain monoclonal antibody (EG2-hFC). Binding and eluting conditions were suitably optimized using pure EG2-hFC. Based on this, an HIMC method was developed for capture of EG2-hFC directly from cell culture supernatant. The EG2-hFc purity obtained in this single-step process was high. The glycan profiles of protein-A and HIMC purified monoclonal antibody samples were similar, clearly demonstrating that both techniques captured similarly glycosylated population of EG2-hFc. Moreover, this technique was able to resolve aggregates from monomeric form of the EG2-hFc.

  15. A sensitive three monoclonal antibodies based automatic latex particle-enhanced turbidimetric immunoassay for Golgi protein 73 detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yanyan; Shen, Han; Zhu, Yefei; Xu, Hongpan; Li, Zhiyang; Si, Jin

    2017-01-01

    Golgi protein 73 (GP73) is a novel and potential marker for diagnosing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that has been found to be abnormally elevated in liver disease. A latex particle-enhanced turbidimetric immunoassay (LTIA) was recently introduced and licensed for application in a variety of automated clinical chemistry analyzers. However, no studies have reported sufficient data on analytical performance of this method when using 3 monoclonal antibodies for GP73 measurement. The experimental conditions were firstly optimized and range of linearity, diagnostic potential, clinical relevance were compared with the LTIA based on polyclonal antibodies and ELISA. Dilution tests for the LTIA using 3 monoclonal antibodies produced a calibration curve from 10 to 350 ng/mL while the polyclonal antibodies produced the curve from 20 to 320 ng/mL. The detection limit was achieved at 1.82 ng/mL concentration. Within-run CV was obtained in the range of 1.5–2.9% and ROC curves indicated sensitivity and specificity of the LTIA based on 3 monoclonal antibodies were 96.7% and 93.3%, respectively, higher than for the polyclonal antibodies (94.6% and 72.4%) and ELISA (70.0% and 83.3%). Therefore, the LTIA assay based on 3 monoclonal antibodies is thus applicable in quantification of GP73 concentration in automated biochemistry analyzers. PMID:28054632

  16. Genome-scale analysis of the high-efficient protein secretion system of Aspergillus oryzae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Lifang; Feizi, Amir; Osterlund, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Background: The koji mold, Aspergillus oryzae is widely used for the production of industrial enzymes due to its particularly high protein secretion capacity and ability to perform post-translational modifications. However, systemic analysis of its secretion system is lacking, generally due to th...

  17. Small secreted proteins enable biofilm development in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnasa, Rami; Nagar, Elad; Sendersky, Eleonora; Reich, Ziv; Simkovsky, Ryan; Golden, Susan; Schwarz, Rakefet

    2016-01-01

    Small proteins characterized by a double-glycine (GG) secretion motif, typical of secreted bacterial antibiotics, are encoded by the genomes of diverse cyanobacteria, but their functions have not been investigated to date. Using a biofilm-forming mutant of Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 and a mutational approach, we demonstrate the involvement of four small secreted proteins and their GG-secretion motifs in biofilm development. These proteins are denoted EbfG1-4 (enable biofilm formation with a GG-motif). Furthermore, the conserved cysteine of the peptidase domain of the Synpcc7942_1133 gene product (dubbed PteB for peptidase transporter essential for biofilm) is crucial for biofilm development and is required for efficient secretion of the GG-motif containing proteins. Transcriptional profiling of ebfG1-4 indicated elevated transcript levels in the biofilm-forming mutant compared to wild type (WT). However, these transcripts decreased, acutely but transiently, when the mutant was cultured in extracellular fluids from a WT culture, and biofilm formation was inhibited. We propose that WT cells secrete inhibitor(s) that suppress transcription of ebfG1-4, whereas secretion of the inhibitor(s) is impaired in the biofilm-forming mutant, leading to synthesis and secretion of EbfG1-4 and supporting the formation of biofilms. PMID:27558743

  18. Mechanical Unfolding of an Autotransporter Passenger Protein Reveals the Secretion Starting Point and Processive Transport Intermediates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baclayon, Marian; van Ulsen, Peter; Mouhib, Halima; Shabestari, Maryam Hashemi; Verzijden, Timo; Abeln, Sanne; Roos, Wouter H; Wuite, Gijs J L

    2016-01-01

    The backbone of secreted autotransporter passenger proteins generally attains a stable β-helical structure. The secretion of passengers across the outer membrane was proposed to be driven by sequential folding of this structure at the cell surface. This mechanism would require a relatively-stable in

  19. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies to an antigenic protein from Stachybotrys chartarum and its measurement in house dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianping; Liang, Yinan; Belisle, Donald; Miller, J David

    2008-03-20

    Using sera from atopic patients we have isolated an extracellular protein, which is antigenic in humans, from Stachybotrys chartarum sesu lato. Here we report the production of monoclonal antibodies to the protein and the development of a sensitive and specific assay to the target protein as well as analyses in house dust samples spiked with spores. The detection limit for the target antigen in house dust was approximately 0.2 ng/g dry weight house dust. This detection limit is comparable to those for house dust mite allergen and the allergen of the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus but lower than that for the fungus Alternaria alternata.

  20. Insulin-degrading enzyme is exported via an unconventional protein secretion pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leissring Malcolm A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE is a ubiquitously expressed zinc-metalloprotease that degrades several pathophysiologically significant extracellular substrates, including insulin and the amyloid β-protein (Aβ, and accumulating evidence suggests that IDE dysfunction may be operative in both type 2 diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer disease (AD. Although IDE is well known to be secreted by a variety of cell types, the underlying trafficking pathway(s remain poorly understood. To address this topic, we investigated the effects of known inhibitors or stimulators of protein secretion on the secretion of IDE from murine hepatocytes and HeLa cells. IDE secretion was found to be unaffected by the classical secretion inhibitors brefeldin A (BFA, monensin, or nocodazole, treatments that readily inhibited the secretion of α1-antitrypsin (AAT overexpressed in the same cells. Using a novel cell-based Aβ-degradation assay, we show further that IDE secretion was similarly unaffected by multiple stimulators of protein secretion, including glyburide and 3'-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl-ATP (Bz-ATP. The calcium ionophore, A23187, increased extracellular IDE activity, but only under conditions that also elicited cytotoxicity. Our results provide the first biochemical evidence that IDE export is not dependent upon the classical secretion pathway, thereby identifying IDE as a novel member of the select class of unconventionally secreted proteins. Further elucidation of the mechanisms underlying IDE secretion, which would be facilitated by the assays described herein, promises to uncover processes that might be defective in disease or manipulated for therapeutic benefit.

  1. Protein adsorption on ion exchange resins and monoclonal antibody charge variant modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guélat, Bertrand; Khalaf, Rushd; Lattuada, Marco; Costioli, Matteo; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2016-05-20

    A novel multicomponent adsorption equilibrium model for proteins on ion-exchange resins is developed on a statistical thermodynamic basis including surface coverage effects and protein-resin and protein-protein interactions. The resulting model exhibits a general competitive Langmuirian behavior and was applied to the study and optimization of the separation of monoclonal antibody charge variants on two strong cation exchangers. The model accounts explicitly for the effect of both pH and salt concentration, and its parameters can be determined in diluted conditions, that is, through physically sound assumptions, all model parameters can be obtained using solely experiments in diluted conditions, and be used to make predictions in overloaded conditions. The parameterization of the model and optimization of the separation is based on a two-step approach. First, gradient experiments in diluted conditions are undertaken in order to determine the model parameters. Based on these experiments and on information about the proteins of interest and the stationary phase used, all the model parameters can be estimated. Second, using the parameterized model, an initial Pareto optimization is undertaken where overloaded operating conditions are investigated. Experiments from this Pareto set are then used to refine the estimation of the model parameters. A second Pareto optimization can then be undertaken, this time with the refined parameters. This can be repeated until a satisfactory set of model parameters is found. This iterative approach is shown to be extremely efficient and to provide large amounts of knowledge based on only a few experiments. It is shown that due to the strong physical foundation of the model and the very low number of adjustable parameters, the number of iterations is expected to be at most two or three. Furthermore, the model based tool is improved as more experimental knowledge is provided, allowing for better estimations of the chromatographic

  2. Generation and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies Specific to Avian Influenza H5N1 Hemagglutinin Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Ankita; Mallajosyula, V Vamsee Aditya; Mishra, Nripendra Nath; Varadarajan, Raghavan; Gupta, Satish Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus has in the past breached the species barrier from infected domestic poultry to humans in close contact. Although human-to-human transmission has previously not been reported, HPAI H5N1 virus has pandemic potential owing to gain of function mutation(s) and/or genetic reassortment with human influenza A viruses. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have been used for diagnosis as well as specific therapeutic candidates in several disease conditions including viral infections in humans. In this study, we describe the preliminary characterization of four murine MAbs developed against recombinant hemagglutinin (rHA) protein of avian H5N1 A/turkey/Turkey/1/2005 virus that are either highly specific or broadly reactive against HA from other H5N1 subtype viruses, such as A/Hong Kong/213/03, A/Common magpie/Hong Kong/2256/2006, and A/Barheaded goose/Quinghai/14/2008. The antibody binding is specific to H5N1 HAs, as none of the antibodies bound H1N1, H2N2, H3N2, or B/Brisbane/60/2008 HAs. Out of the four MAbs, one of them (MA-7) also reacted weakly with the rHA protein of H7N9 A/Anhui/1/2013. All four MAbs bound H5 HA (A/turkey/Turkey/1/2005) with high affinity with an equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) ranging between 0.05 and 10.30 nM. One of the MAbs (MA-1) also showed hemagglutination inhibition activity (HI titer; 31.25 μg/mL) against the homologous A/turkey/Turkey/1/2005 H5N1 virus. These antibodies may be useful in developing diagnostic tools for detection of influenza H5N1 virus infection.

  3. Investigation of the Influence of Protein-Losing Enteropathy on Monoclonal Antibody Pharmacokinetics in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yujie; Li, Tommy R; Balthasar, Joseph P

    2017-08-28

    Protein losing enteropathy (PLE), which is characterized by substantial loss of plasma proteins into the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, is a complication of a variety of GI diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease. Clinical studies have found that the clearance of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) is often increased in subjects with diseases known to cause PLE; however, direct relationships between PLE and mAb pharmacokinetics have not been demonstrated. This study employed a murine model of colitis to examine the influence of PLE on mAb pharmacokinetics. Mice were given dextran sodium sulfate (DSS, 2% w/v) supplemented tap water as drinking source for 6 days to induce colitis and PLE. Mice were then intravenously injected with 8C2, a murine IgG1 mAb. 8C2 plasma concentrations were measured up to 14 days post injection. Fecal alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT) clearance was measured as biomarker for PLE. DSS-treated mice developed PLE of clinically relevant severity. They also showed a transient increase in 8C2 plasma clearance and a decrease in 8C2 plasma exposure. The area under the 8C2 plasma concentration-time curve for the length of the study (AUC0-14d) reduced from 1368 ± 255 to 594 ± 224 day μg/ml following DSS treatment (p = 0.001). A quantitative relationship between A1AT clearance and 8C2 clearance was obtained via population pharmacokinetic modeling. DSS treatment substantially increased 8C2 clearance and reduced 8C2 exposure. Increased mAb plasma clearance was highly correlated with A1AT fecal clearance, suggesting the possible utility of A1AT fecal clearance as a mechanistic biomarker to predict the pharmacokinetics of therapeutic antibodies.

  4. Production of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against the Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal protein Vip3Aa16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hamadou-Charfi, Dorra; Sauer, Annette Juliane; Abdelkafi-Mesrati, Lobna; Jaoua, Samir; Stephan, Dietrich

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study is to establish a quantitative determination of the vegetative insecticidal protein Vip3A from the culture supernatant of Bacillus thuringiensis either by ELISA or by the conventional quantification method of the Western blot band. The Vip3A protein was produced by fermentation of the B. thuringiensis reference strain BUPM95 in 3 L. By Western blot, the Vip3Aa16 toxin was detected in the culture supernatant during the exponential growth phase of B. thuringiensis BUPM95. However, the detection of Vip3Aa16 on Western blot showed in addition to the toxin two other strips (62 and 180 kDa) recognized by the anti-Vip3Aa16 polyclonal antibodies prepared at the Centre of Biotechnology of Sfax Tunisia. For that reason and in order to develop a technique for reliable quantification of the toxin, we have considered the production of polyclonal antibodies at the Julius Kühn Institute, Germany. These antibodies were the basis for the production of monoclonal antibodies directed against the protein produced by the Vip3Aa16 recombinant strain Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). These monoclonal antibodies were tested by plate-trapped antigen (PTA) and triple antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA). The selection of hybridoma supernatants gave us four positive clones producing monoclonal antibodies.

  5. Secreted Frizzled-Related Protein 2 and Inflammation-Induced Skeletal Muscle Atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoxi; Kny, Melanie; Schmidt, Franziska; Hahn, Alexander; Wollersheim, Tobias; Kleber, Christian; Weber-Carstens, Steffen; Fielitz, Jens

    2017-02-01

    In sepsis, the disease course of critically ill patients is often complicated by muscle failure leading to ICU-acquired weakness. The myokine transforming growth factor-β1 increases during inflammation and mediates muscle atrophy in vivo. We observed that the transforming growth factor-β1 inhibitor, secreted frizzled-related protein 2, was down-regulated in skeletal muscle of ICU-acquired weakness patients. We hypothesized that secreted frizzled-related protein 2 reduction enhances transforming growth factor-β1-mediated effects and investigated the interrelationship between transforming growth factor-β1 and secreted frizzled-related protein 2 in inflammation-induced atrophy. Observational study and prospective animal trial. Two ICUs and research laboratory. Twenty-six critically ill patients with Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores greater than or equal to 8 underwent a skeletal muscle biopsy from the vastus lateralis at median day 5 in ICU. Four patients undergoing elective orthopedic surgery served as controls. To search for signaling pathways enriched in muscle of ICU-acquired weakness patients, a gene set enrichment analysis of our recently published gene expression profiles was performed. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry were used to analyze secreted frizzled-related protein 2 expression and protein content. A mouse model of inflammation-induced skeletal muscle atrophy due to polymicrobial sepsis and cultured myocytes were used for mechanistic analyses. None. Gene set enrichment analysis uncovered transforming growth factor-β1 signaling activation in vastus lateralis from ICU-acquired weakness patients. Muscular secreted frizzled-related protein 2 expression was reduced after 5 days in ICU. Likewise, muscular secreted frizzled-related protein 2 expression was decreased early and continuously in mice with inflammation-induced atrophy. In muscle, secreted frizzled-related protein 2

  6. C-terminal domain of hepatitis C virus core protein is essential for secretion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Soo-Ho Choi; Kyu-Jin Park; So-Yeon Kim; Dong-Hwa Choi; Jung-Min Park; Soon B. Hwang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: We have previously demonstrated that hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein is efficiently released into the culture medium in insect cells. The objective of this study is to characterize the HCV core secretion in insect cells.METHODS: We constructed recombinant baculoviruses expressing various-length of mutant core proteins, expressed these proteins in insect cells, and examined core protein secretion in insect cells.RESULTS: Only wild type core was efficiently released into the culture medium, although the protein expression level of wild type core was lower than those of other mutant core proteins. We found that the shorter form of the core construct expressed the higher level of protein. However, if more than 18 amino acids of the core were truncated at the C-terminus,core proteins were no longer seareted into the culture medium.Membrane flotation data show that the secreted core proteins are associated with the cellular membrane protein, indicating that HCV core is secreted as a membrane complex.CONCLUSION: The C-terminal 18 amino acids of HCV core were crucial for core secretion into the culture media.Since HCV replication occurs on lipid raft membrane structure,these results suggest that HCV may utilize a unique core release mechanism to escape immune surveillance, thereby potentially representing the feature of HCV morphogenesis.

  7. Protein secretion biotechnology in Gram-positive bacteria with special emphasis on Streptomyces lividans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anné, Jozef; Vrancken, Kristof; Van Mellaert, Lieve; Van Impe, Jan; Bernaerts, Kristel

    2014-08-01

    Proteins secreted by Gram-positive bacteria are released into the culture medium with the obvious benefit that they usually retain their native conformation. This property makes these host cells potentially interesting for the production of recombinant proteins, as one can take full profit of established protocols for the purification of active proteins. Several state-of-the-art strategies to increase the yield of the secreted proteins will be discussed, using Streptomyces lividans as an example and compared with approaches used in some other host cells. It will be shown that approaches such as increasing expression and translation levels, choice of secretion pathway and modulation of proteins thereof, avoiding stress responses by changing expression levels of specific (stress) proteins, can be helpful to boost production yield. In addition, the potential of multi-omics approaches as a tool to understand the genetic background and metabolic fluxes in the host cell and to seek for new targets for strain and protein secretion improvement is discussed. It will be shown that S. lividans, along with other Gram-positive host cells, certainly plays a role as a production host for recombinant proteins in an economically viable way. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein trafficking and secretion in bacteria. Guest Editors: Anastassios Economou and Ross Dalbey.

  8. Crystal structure of the Yersinia type III secretion protein YscE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phan, Jason; Austin, Brian P.; Waugh, David S. (NIH)

    2010-12-06

    The plague-causing bacterium Yersinia pestis utilizes a contact-dependent (type III) secretion system (T3SS) to transport virulence factors from the bacterial cytosol directly into the interior of mammalian cells where they interfere with signal transduction pathways that mediate phagocytosis and the inflammatory response. The type III secretion apparatus is composed of 20-25 different Yersinia secretion (Ysc) proteins. We report here the structure of YscE, the smallest Ysc protein, which is a dimer in solution. The probable mode of oligomerization is discussed.

  9. Systems and methods for the secretion of recombinant proteins in gram negative bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Withers, III, Sydnor T.; Dominguez, Miguel A.; DeLisa, Matthew P.; Haitjema, Charles H.

    2017-02-21

    Disclosed herein are systems and methods for producing recombinant proteins utilizing mutant E. coli strains containing expression vectors carrying nucleic acids encoding the proteins, and secretory signal sequences to direct the secretion of the proteins to the culture medium. Host cells transformed with the expression vectors are also provided.

  10. Systems and methods for the secretion of recombinant proteins in gram negative bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Withers, III, Sydnor T.; Dominguez, Miguel A; DeLisa, Matthew P.; Haitjema, Charles H.

    2016-08-09

    Disclosed herein are systems and methods for producing recombinant proteins utilizing mutant E. coli strains containing expression vectors carrying nucleic acids encoding the proteins, and secretory signal sequences to direct the secretion of the proteins to the culture medium. Host cells transformed with the expression vectors are also provided.

  11. Systems and methods for the secretion of recombinant proteins in gram negative bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, III, Sydnor T.; Dominguez, Miguel A; DeLisa, Matthew P.; Haitjema, Charles H.

    2016-08-09

    Disclosed herein are systems and methods for producing recombinant proteins utilizing mutant E. coli strains containing expression vectors carrying nucleic acids encoding the proteins, and secretory signal sequences to direct the secretion of the proteins to the culture medium. Host cells transformed with the expression vectors are also provided.

  12. Calcium-dependent activator protein for secretion 2 (CAPS2) promotes BDNF secretion and is critical for the development of GABAergic interneuron network

    OpenAIRE

    Shinoda, Yo; Sadakata, Tetsushi; Nakao, Kazuhito; Katoh-Semba, Ritsuko; Kinameri, Emi; Furuya, Asako; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Hirase, Hajime; Furuichi, Teiichi

    2011-01-01

    Calcium-dependent activator protein for secretion 2 (CAPS2) is a dense-core vesicle-associated protein that is involved in the secretion of BDNF. BDNF has a pivotal role in neuronal survival and development, including the development of inhibitory neurons and their circuits. However, how CAPS2 affects BDNF secretion and its biological significance in inhibitory neurons are largely unknown. Here we reveal the role of CAPS2 in the regulated secretion of BDNF and show the effect of CAPS2 on the ...

  13. A novel universal neutralizing monoclonal antibody against enterovirus 71 that targets the highly conserved "knob" region of VP3 protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja K Kiener

    Full Text Available Hand, foot and mouth disease caused by enterovirus 71(EV71 leads to the majority of neurological complications and death in young children. While putative inactivated vaccines are only now undergoing clinical trials, no specific treatment options exist yet. Ideally, EV71 specific intravenous immunoglobulins could be developed for targeted treatment of severe cases. To date, only a single universally neutralizing monoclonal antibody against a conserved linear epitope of VP1 has been identified. Other enteroviruses have been shown to possess major conformational neutralizing epitopes on both the VP2 and VP3 capsid proteins. Hence, we attempted to isolate such neutralizing antibodies against conformational epitopes for their potential in the treatment of infection as well as differential diagnosis and vaccine optimization. Here we describe a universal neutralizing monoclonal antibody that recognizes a conserved conformational epitope of EV71 which was mapped using escape mutants. Eight escape mutants from different subgenogroups (A, B2, B4, C2, C4 were rescued; they harbored three essential mutations either at amino acid positions 59, 62 or 67 of the VP3 protein which are all situated in the "knob" region. The escape mutant phenotype could be mimicked by incorporating these mutations into reverse genetically engineered viruses showing that P59L, A62D, A62P and E67D abolish both monoclonal antibody binding and neutralization activity. This is the first conformational neutralization epitope mapped on VP3 for EV71.

  14. Bovine peptidoglycan recognition protein-S: antimicrobial activity, localization, secretion, and binding properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tydell, C Chace; Yuan, Jun; Tran, Patti; Selsted, Michael E

    2006-01-15

    Peptidoglycan (PGN) recognition proteins (PGRPs) are pattern recognition molecules of innate immunity that are conserved from insects to humans. Various PGRPs are reported to have diverse functions: they bind bacterial molecules, digest PGN, and are essential to the Toll pathway in Drosophila. One family member, bovine PGN recognition protein-S (bPGRP-S), has been found to bind and kill microorganisms in a PGN-independent manner, raising questions about the identity of the bPGRP-S ligand. Addressing this, we have determined the binding and microbicidal properties of bPGRP-S in a range of solutions approximating physiologic conditions. In this study we show that bPGRP-S interacts with other bacterial components, including LPS and lipoteichoic acid, with higher affinities than for PCP, as determined by their abilities to inhibit bPGRP-S-mediated killing of bacteria. Where and how PGRPs act in vivo is not yet clear. Using Immunogold electron microscopy, PGRP-S was localized to the dense/large granules of naive neutrophils, which contain the oxygen-independent bactericidal proteins of these cells, and to the neutrophil phagolysosome. In addition, Immunogold staining and secretion studies demonstrate that neutrophils secrete PGRP-S when exposed to bacteria. Bovine PGRP-S can mediate direct lysis of heat-killed bacteria; however, PGRP-S-mediated killing of bacteria is independent of this activity. Evidence that bPGRP-S has multiple activities and affinity to several bacterial molecules challenges the assumption that the PGRP family of proteins recapitulates the evolution of TLRs. Mammalian PGRPs do not have a single antimicrobial activity against a narrow range of target organisms; rather, they are generalists in their affinity and activity.

  15. Protein secretion systems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: an essay on diversity, evolution and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain eFILLOUX

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Protein secretion systems are molecular nanomachines used by Gram-negative bacteria to thrive within their environment. They are used to release enzymes that hydrolyze complex carbon sources into usable compounds, or to release proteins that capture essential ions such as iron. They are also used to colonize and survive within eukaryotic hosts, causing acute or chronic infections, subverting the host cell response and escaping the immune system. In this article, the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is used as a model to review the diversity of secretion systems that bacteria have evolved to achieve these goals. This diversity may result from a progressive transformation of cell envelope complexes that initially may not have been dedicated to secretion. The striking similarities between secretion systems and type IV pili, flagella, bacteriophage tail or efflux pumps is a nice illustration of this evolution. Differences are also needed since various secretion configurations calls for diversity. For example, some proteins are released in the extracellular medium while others are directly injected into the cytosol of eukaryotic cells. Some proteins are folded before being released and transit into the periplasm. Other proteins cross the whole cell envelope at once in an unfolded state. However, the secretion system requires conserved basic elements or features. For example, there is a need for an energy source or for an outer membrane channel. The structure of this review is thus quite unconventional. Instead of listing secretion types one after each other, it presents a melting pot of concepts indicating that secretion types are in constant evolution and use basic principles. In other words, emergence of new secretion systems could be predicted the way Mendeleïev had anticipated characteristics of yet unknown elements.

  16. Critical epitopes in the nucleocapsid protein of SFTS virus recognized by a panel of SFTS patients derived human monoclonal antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: SFTS virus (SFTSV is a newly discovered pathogen to cause severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS in human. Successful control of SFTSV epidemic requires better understanding of the antigen target in humoral immune responses to the new bunyavirus infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have generated a combinatorial Fab antibody phage library from two SFTS patients recovered from SFTSV infection. To date, 94 unique human antibodies have been generated and characterized from over 1200 Fab antibody clones obtained by screening the library with SFTS purified virions. All those monoclonal antibodies (MAbs recognized the nucleocapsid (N protein of SFTSV while none of them were reactive to the viral glycoproteins Gn or Gc. Furthermore, over screening 1000 mouse monoclonal antibody clones derived from SFTSV virions immunization, 462 clones reacted with N protein, while only 16 clones were reactive to glycoprotein. Furthermore, epitope mapping of SFTSV N protein was performed through molecular simulation, site mutation and competitive ELISA, and we found that at least 4 distinct antigenic epitopes within N protein were recognized by those human and mouse MAbs, in particular mutation of Glu10 to Ala10 abolished or significantly reduced the binding activity of nearly most SFTS patients derived MAbs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The large number of human recombinant MAbs derived from SFTS patients recognized the viral N protein indicated the important role of the N protein in humoral responses to SFTSV infection, and the critical epitopes we defined in this study provided molecular basis for detection and diagnosis of SFTSV infection.

  17. Genetic engineering, expression, and activity of a chimeric monoclonal antibody-avidin fusion protein for receptor-mediated delivery of biotinylated drugs in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boado, Ruben J; Zhang, Yufeng; Zhang, Yun; Xia, Chun-fang; Wang, Yuntao; Pardridge, William M

    2008-03-01

    The genetic engineering, expression, and validation of a fusion protein of avidin (AV) and a chimeric monoclonal antibody (mAb) to the human insulin receptor (HIR) is described. The 15 kDa avidin monomer was fused to the carboxyl terminus of the heavy chain of the HIRMAb. The fusion protein heavy chain reacted with antibodies specific for human IgG and avidin, and had the same affinity for binding to the HIR extracellular domain as the original chimeric HIRMAb. The fusion protein qualitatively bound biotinylated ligands, but was secreted fully saturated with biotin by COS cells, owing to the high level of biotin in tissue culture medium. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were permanently transfected with a tandem vector expressing the fusion protein genes, and high expressing cell lines were isolated by methotrexate amplification and dilutional cloning. The product expressed by CHO cells had high binding to the HIR, and migrated as a homogeneous species in size exclusion HPLC and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The CHO cells were adapted to a 4 week culture in biotin depleted medium, and the HIRMAb-AV fusion protein expressed under these conditions had 1 unoccupied biotin binding site per molecule, based on a [3H]-biotin ultrafiltration assay. The HIRMAb-AV increased biotin uptake by human cells >15-fold, and mediated the endocytosis of fluorescein-biotin, as demonstrated by confocal microscopy. In summary, the HIRMAb-AV fusion protein is a new drug targeting system for humans that can be adapted to monobiotinylated drugs or nucleic acids.

  18. Monoclonal Antibodies Production Platforms: An Opportunity Study of a Non-Protein-A Chromatographic Platform Based on Process Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, António L; Mateus, Marília; Aires-Barros, Maria R; Azevedo, Ana M

    2017-09-13

    Monoclonal antibodies currently dominate the biopharmaceutical market with growing sales having reached 80 billion USD in 2016. As most top-selling mAbs are approaching the end of their patent life, biopharmaceutical companies compete fiercely in the biosimilars market. These two factors present a strong motivation for alternative process strategies and process optimization. In this work a novel purification strategy for monoclonal antibodies comprising phenylboronic acid multimodal chromatography for capture followed by polishing by ion-exchange monolithic chromatography and packed bed hydrophobic interaction chromatography is presented and compared to the traditional protein-A-based process. Although the capital investment is similar for both processes, the operation cost is 20% lower for the novel strategy. This study shows that the new process is worthwhile investing in and could present a viable alternative to the platform process used by most industrial players. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Label-free detection and characterization of the binding of hemagglutinin protein and broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies using terahertz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yiwen; Zhong, Junlan; Zhang, Cunlin; Zuo, Jian; Pickwell-MacPherson, Emma

    2015-03-01

    Hemagglutinin (HA) is the main surface glycoprotein of the influenza A virus. The H9N2 subtype influenza A virus is recognized as the most possible pandemic strain as it has crossed the species barrier, infecting swine and humans. We use terahertz spectroscopy to study the hydration shell formation around H9 subtype influenza A virus's HA protein (H9 HA) as well as the detection of antigen binding of H9 HA with the broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody. We observe a remarkable concentration dependent nonlinear response of the H9 HA, which reveals the formation process of the hydration shell around H9 HA molecules. Furthermore, we show that terahertz dielectric properties of the H9 HA are strongly affected by the presence of the monoclonal antibody F10 and that the terahertz dielectric loss tangent can be used to detect the antibody binding at lower concentrations than the standard ELISA test.

  20. Isolation of a membrane protein complex for type VII secretion in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Khaled A; Anderson, Mark; Ohr, Ryan Jay; Missiakas, Dominique

    2017-09-05

    The ESAT6-like secretion system (ESS) of Staphylococcus aureus promotes effector protein transport across the bacterial envelope. Genes in the ESS cluster are required for S. aureus establishment of persistent abscess lesions and the modulation of immune responses during blood stream infections. The biochemical functions of most of the ESS gene products, specifically the identity of secretion machine components, are however unknown. Earlier work demonstrated that deletion of essB, which encodes a membrane protein, abolishes S. aureus ESS secretion. Loss of function mutations truncating the essB gene product cause dominant-negative phenotypes on ESS secretion, suggesting that EssB may be a central component of the secretion machinery. To test this prediction, we purified native and affinity-tagged EssB from staphylococcal membranes via dodecyl-maltoside extraction, identifying a complex assembled from five proteins, EsaA, EssA, EssB, EssD and EsxA. All five proteins are essential for secretion, as knock-out mutations in the corresponding genes abolish ESS transport. Biochemical and bacterial two-hybrid analyses revealed a direct interaction between EssB and EsaA that, by engaging a mobile machine component, EsxA, may also recruit EssA and EssD.IMPORTANCE Type VII secretion systems support the lifestyle of Gram-positive bacteria, including important human pathogens such as Bacillus anthracis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Staphylococcus aureus Genes encoding SpoIIIE-FtsK-like ATPases and WXG100 secreted products are conserved features of type VII secretion pathways, however most of the genes in T7SS clusters are not conserved between different bacterial species. Here we isolate a complex of proteins from the membranes of S. aureus that appears to represent the core secretion machinery, designated ESS (ESAT-6-like secretion system). These results suggest that three membrane proteins, EsaA, EssB and EssA form a secretion complex that associates with EssC, the Spo

  1. Association among Fibrinolytic Proteins, Metabolic Syndrome Components, Insulin Secretion, and Resistance in Schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Shuen Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the role of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA and its soluble receptors (suPAR and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 in metabolic syndrome (MetS components, insulin secretion, and resistance in schoolchildren. We enrolled 387 children, aged 10.3 ± 1.5 years, in Taipei. Anthropometry, fibrinolytic proteins, MetS components, insulin secretion, and resistance were measured. Subjects were divided into normal, overweight, and obese groups. Finally, the relationship between fibrinolytic proteins and metabolic syndrome in boys and girls was analyzed. In boys, PAI-1 was positively associated with body mass index (BMI percentile, hypertriglyceride, insulin secretion, and resistance. In girls, PAI-1 was positively associated with obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and insulin secretion. In girls, uPA was positively associated with insulin secretion. suPAR was positively associated with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in both boys and girls, and with BMI percentile and body fat in girls. The obese boys had higher suPAR and PAI-1 levels than the normal group. The obese girls had higher uPA, suPAR, and PAI-1 than the normal group. Boys and girls with MetS had higher PAI-1. Fibrinolytic proteins, especially PAI-1, are associated with MetS components and insulin secretion in children. Fibrinolytic proteins changes were more likely to occur in girls than in boys.

  2. NClassG+: A classifier for non-classically secreted Gram-positive bacterial proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pino Camilo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most predictive methods currently available for the identification of protein secretion mechanisms have focused on classically secreted proteins. In fact, only two methods have been reported for predicting non-classically secreted proteins of Gram-positive bacteria. This study describes the implementation of a sequence-based classifier, denoted as NClassG+, for identifying non-classically secreted Gram-positive bacterial proteins. Results Several feature-based classifiers were trained using different sequence transformation vectors (frequencies, dipeptides, physicochemical factors and PSSM and Support Vector Machines (SVMs with Linear, Polynomial and Gaussian kernel functions. Nested k-fold cross-validation (CV was applied to select the best models, using the inner CV loop to tune the model parameters and the outer CV group to compute the error. The parameters and Kernel functions and the combinations between all possible feature vectors were optimized using grid search. Conclusions The final model was tested against an independent set not previously seen by the model, obtaining better predictive performance compared to SecretomeP V2.0 and SecretPV2.0 for the identification of non-classically secreted proteins. NClassG+ is freely available on the web at http://www.biolisi.unal.edu.co/web-servers/nclassgpositive/

  3. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (cAPK) regulatory subunits are packaged and secreted by many exocrine and endocrine cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mednieks, M.I.; Hand, A.R.

    1986-05-01

    Regulatory (R) subunits of cAPK were identified by us as components of rat and human saliva by photoaffinity labeling with (/sup 32/P)-8-azido cyclic AMP. Photoaffinity labeling of purified rat parotid granule contents and immunogold labeling of thin sections with monoclonal antibodies showed the presence of R subunits in granules. The authors now report that cAPK R subunits are present in secretory granules and are apparently secreted by many exocrine and endocrine cell types. Labeling of thin sections of rat tissues with antibody to R subunits and protein A-gold shows gold particles over secretory granules of endocrine cells of the pituitary, pancreas and intestine. Zymogen granules of exocrine pancreatic acinar cells, the dense cores of secretory granules of seminal vesicle epithelial cells and secretory product in the seminal vesicle lumina were prominently labeled with gold. Photoaffinity labeling shows that pancreatic secretions and seminal vesicle contents have cAPK components. Phosphorylative modification of cellular proteins by cAMP controls hormonally stimulated protein secretion by many cell types. Although no catalytic activity was detected, identification of R subunits in granules and as secretory products indicates that they may have multiple roles in cellular mechanisms of action of cyclic AMP-mediated events in secretory cells.

  4. A protein secretion system linked to bacteroidete gliding motility and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Keiko; Naito, Mariko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Hirakawa, Hideki; Shoji, Mikio; McBride, Mark J; Rhodes, Ryan G; Nakayama, Koji

    2010-01-05

    Porphyromonas gingivalis secretes strong proteases called gingipains that are implicated in periodontal pathogenesis. Protein secretion systems common to other Gram-negative bacteria are lacking in P. gingivalis, but several proteins, including PorT, have been linked to gingipain secretion. Comparative genome analysis and genetic experiments revealed 11 additional proteins involved in gingipain secretion. Six of these (PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN, PorW, and Sov) were similar in sequence to Flavobacterium johnsoniae gliding motility proteins, and two others (PorX and PorY) were putative two-component system regulatory proteins. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that porK, porL, porM, porN, porP, porT, and sov were down-regulated in P. gingivalis porX and porY mutants. Disruption of the F. johnsoniae porT ortholog resulted in defects in motility, chitinase secretion, and translocation of a gliding motility protein, SprB adhesin, to the cell surface, providing a link between a unique protein translocation system and a motility apparatus in members of the Bacteroidetes phylum.

  5. Computational prediction and experimental assessment of secreted/surface proteins from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Vizcaíno

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The mycobacterial cell envelope has been implicated in the pathogenicity of tuberculosis and therefore has been a prime target for the identification and characterization of surface proteins with potential application in drug and vaccine development. In this study, the genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv was screened using Machine Learning tools that included feature-based predictors, general localizers and transmembrane topology predictors to identify proteins that are potentially secreted to the surface of M. tuberculosis, or to the extracellular milieu through different secretory pathways. The subcellular localization of a set of 8 hypothetically secreted/surface candidate proteins was experimentally assessed by cellular fractionation and immunoelectron microscopy (IEM to determine the reliability of the computational methodology proposed here, using 4 secreted/surface proteins with experimental confirmation as positive controls and 2 cytoplasmic proteins as negative controls. Subcellular fractionation and IEM studies provided evidence that the candidate proteins Rv0403c, Rv3630, Rv1022, Rv0835, Rv0361 and Rv0178 are secreted either to the mycobacterial surface or to the extracellular milieu. Surface localization was also confirmed for the positive controls, whereas negative controls were located on the cytoplasm. Based on statistical learning methods, we obtained computational subcellular localization predictions that were experimentally assessed and allowed us to construct a computational protocol with experimental support that allowed us to identify a new set of secreted/surface proteins as potential vaccine candidates.

  6. Development of an improved Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC125 strain for recombinant protein secretion at low temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cirulli Claudia

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a previous paper, we reported the accomplishment of a cold gene-expression system for the recombinant secretion of heterologous proteins in Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC125. This system makes use of the psychrophilic α-amylase from P. haloplanktis TAB23 as secretion carrier, and allows an effective extra-cellular addressing of recombinant proteins. However, Pseudoalteromonales are reported to secrete a wide range of extra-cellular proteases. This feature works against the efficiency of the cold-adapted secretion system, because of the proteolytic degradation of recombinant products. The aim of this study is the construction of a P. haloplanktis TAC125 mutant strain with reduced extra-cellular proteolytic activity. Results P. haloplanktis TAC125 culture medium resulted to contain multiple and heterogeneous proteases. Since the annotation of the Antarctic bacterium genome highlighted the presence of only one canonical secretion machinery, namely the Type II secretion pathway (T2SS, we have inactivated this secretion system by a gene insertion strategy. A mutant strain of P. haloplanktis TAC125 in which the gspE gene was knocked-out, actually displayed a remarkable reduction of the extra-cellular protease secretion. Quite interestingly this strain still retained the ability to secrete the psychrophilic amylase as efficiently as the wild type. Moreover, the decrease in extra-cellular proteolytic activity resulted in a substantial improvement in the stability of the secreted amylase-β-lactamase chimera. Conclusion Here we report a cell engineering approach to the construction of a P. haloplanktis TAC125 strain with reduced extra-cellular protease activity. The improved strain is able to secrete the psychrophilic α-amylase (the carrier of our recombinant secretion system, while it displays a significant reduction of protease content in the culture medium. These features make the gspE mutant an improved host with a

  7. Secretome analysis of Aspergillus fumigatus reveals Asp-hemolysin as a major secreted protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartenberg, Dirk; Lapp, Katrin; Jacobsen, Ilse D; Dahse, Hans-Martin; Kniemeyer, Olaf; Heinekamp, Thorsten; Brakhage, Axel A

    2011-11-01

    Surface-associated and secreted proteins represent primarily exposed components of Aspergillus fumigatus during host infection. Several secreted proteins are known to be involved in defense mechanisms or immune evasion, thus, probably contributing to pathogenicity. Furthermore, several secreted antigens were identified as possible biomarkers for the verification of diseases caused by Aspergillus species. Nevertheless, there is only limited knowledge about the composition of the secretome and about molecular functions of particular proteins. To identify secreted proteins potentially essential for virulence, the core secretome of A. fumigatus grown in minimal medium was determined. Two-dimensional gel electrophoretic separation and subsequent MALDI-TOF-MS/MS analyses resulted in the identification of 64 different proteins. Additionally, secretome analyses of A. fumigatus utilizing elastin, collagen or keratin as main carbon and nitrogen source were performed. Thereby, the alkaline serine protease Alp1 was identified as the most abundant protein and hence presumably represents an important protease during host infection. Interestingly, the Asp-hemolysin (Asp-HS), which belongs to the protein family of aegerolysins and which was often suggested to be involved in fungal virulence, was present in the secretome under all growth conditions tested. In addition, a second, non-secreted protein with an aegerolysin domain annotated as Asp-hemolysin-like (HS-like) protein can be found to be encoded in the genome of A. fumigatus. Generation and analysis of Asp-HS and HS-like deletion strains revealed no differences in phenotype compared to the corresponding wild-type strain. Furthermore, hemolysis and cytotoxicity was not altered in both single-deletion and double-deletion mutants lacking both aegerolysin genes. All mutant strains showed no attenuation in virulence in a mouse infection model for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Overall, this study provides a comprehensive

  8. The S-layer proteins of Tannerella forsythia are secreted via a type IX secretion system that is decoupled from protein O-glycosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomek, M B; Neumann, L; Nimeth, I; Koerdt, A; Andesner, P; Messner, P; Mach, L; Potempa, J S; Schäffer, C

    2014-12-01

    Conserved C-terminal domains (CTD) have been shown to act as a signal for the translocation of certain proteins across the outer membrane of Bacteroidetes via a type IX secretion system (T9SS). The genome sequence of the periodontal pathogen Tannerella forsythia predicts the presence of the components for a T9SS in conjunction with a suite of CTD proteins. T. forsythia is covered with a two-dimensional crystalline surface (S-) layer composed of the glycosylated CTD proteins TfsA and TfsB. To investigate, if T9SS is functional in T. forsythia, T9SS-deficient mutants were generated by targeting either TF0955 (putative C-terminal signal peptidase) or TF2327 (PorK ortholog), and the mutants were analyzed with respect to secretion, assembly and glycosylation of the S-layer proteins as well as proteolytic processing of the CTD and biofilm formation. In either mutant, TfsA and TfsB were incapable of translocation, as evidenced by the absence of the S-layer in transmission electron microscopy of ultrathin-sectioned bacterial cells. Despite being entrapped within the periplasm, mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the S-layer proteins were modified with the complete, mature glycan found on the secreted proteins, indicating that protein translocation and glycosylation are two independent processes. Further, the T9SS mutants showed a denser biofilm with fewer voids compared with the wild-type. This study demonstrates the functionality of T9SS and the requirement of CTD for the outer membrane passage of extracellular proteins in T. forsythia, exemplified by the two S-layer proteins. In addition, T9SS protein translocation is decoupled from O-glycan attachment in T. forsythia.

  9. Temporal Profiling and Pulsed SILAC Labeling Identify Novel Secreted Proteins during ex vivo Osteoblast Differentiation of Human Stromal Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lars P; Chen, Li; Nielsen, Maria Overbeck;

    2012-01-01

    labeling to distinguish genuine secreted proteins from intracellular contaminants. We identified 466 potentially secreted proteins that were quantified at 5 time-points during 14-days ex vivo OB differentiation including 41 proteins known to be involved in OB functions. Among these, 315 proteins exhibited...

  10. Applying unconventional secretion of the endochitinase Cts1 to export heterologous proteins in Ustilago maydis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Janpeter; Sarkari, Parveen; Kreibich, Saskia; Brefort, Thomas; Feldbrügge, Michael; Schipper, Kerstin

    2012-10-15

    The demand on the biotechnological production of proteins for pharmaceutical, medical and industrial applications is steadily growing. For the production of challenging proteins, we aim to establish a novel expression platform in the well characterized eukaryotic microorganism Ustilago maydis. In filaments of this fungus, secretion of the endochitinase Cts1 depends on mRNA transport along microtubules, which is mediated by the key RNA-binding protein Rrm4. Here, we report two important findings: (i) Cts1 secretion occurs via a novel unconventional route and (ii) this secretory mechanism can be exploited for the export of active heterologous proteins. Initially, we used β-glucuronidase (Gus) as a reporter for unconventional secretion. This bacterial enzyme is inactivated by N-glycosylation during its passage through the conventional eukaryotic secretory pathway. By contrast, in our system Gus was exported in its active form by fusion to Cts1 confirming its secretion by an unconventional route. As a proof-of-principle for economically important biopharmaceuticals we expressed an active single-chain antibody. Importantly, the novel protein export pathway circumvents N-glycosylation which is advantageous in many applications, e.g., to avoid undesired immune reactions in humans. Thus, the unconventional Cts1 secretion machinery has a high potential for the production of biotechnologically relevant proteins.

  11. Comprehensive analysis of varicella-zoster virus proteins using a new monoclonal antibody collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.L. Roviš (Tihana Lenac); S.M. Bailer (Susanne); V.R. Pothineni (Venkata R); W.J.D. Ouwendijk (Werner ); H. Šimić (Hrvoje); M. Babić (Marina); K. Miklić (Karmela); S. Malić (Suzana); M.C. Verweij; M. Baiker (Martin); O. Gonzalez (Orland); A. Brunn (Albrecht von); R. Zimmer; K. Früh (Klaus); G.M.G.M. Verjans (George); S. Jonjic (Stipan); J. Haasb (Jürgeni)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractVaricella-zoster virus (VZV) is the etiological agent of chickenpox and shingles. Due to the virus's restricted host and cell typetropism and the lack of tools for VZV proteomics, it is one of the least-characterized human herpesviruses. We generated 251monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) again

  12. Human surfactant protein A2 gene mutations impair dimmer/trimer assembly leading to deficiency in protein sialylation and secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Song

    Full Text Available Surfactant protein A2 (SP-A2 plays an essential role in surfactant metabolism and lung host defense. SP-A2 mutations in the carbohydrate recognition domain have been related to familial pulmonary fibrosis and can lead to a recombinant protein secretion deficiency in vitro. In this study, we explored the molecular mechanism of protein secretion deficiency and the subsequent biological effects in CHO-K1 cells expressing both wild-type and several different mutant forms of SP-A2. We demonstrate that the SP-A2 G231V and F198S mutants impair the formation of dimmer/trimer SP-A2 which contributes to the protein secretion defect. A deficiency in sialylation, but not N-linked glycosylation, is critical to the observed dimmer/trimer impairment-induced secretion defect. Furthermore, both mutant forms accumulate in the ER and form NP-40-insoluble aggregates. In addition, the soluble mutant SP-A2 could be partially degraded through the proteasome pathway but not the lysosome or autophagy pathway. Intriguingly, 4-phenylbutyrate acid (4-PBA, a chemical chaperone, alleviates aggregate formation and partially rescued the protein secretion of SP-A2 mutants. In conclusion, SP-A2 G231V and F198S mutants impair the dimmer/trimer assembly, which contributes to the protein sialylation and secretion deficiency. The intracellular protein mutants could be partially degraded through the proteasome pathway and also formed aggregates. The treatment of the cells with 4-PBA resulted in reduced aggregation and rescued the secretion of mutant SP-A2.

  13. Application of native signal sequences for recombinant proteins secretion in Pichia pastoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borodina, Irina; Do, Duy Duc; Eriksen, Jens C.;

    alpha‐mating factor (MF) prepropeptide from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is most commonly used. Our aim was to test whether signal peptides from P. pastoris native secreted proteins could be used to direct secretion of recombinant proteins. Results Eleven native signal peptides from P. pastoris were tested...... with the promoter and signal peptide of choice (or a mix thereof) and the basic expression vector. The mix is treated with USER enzyme and transformed into E. coli. The plasmids (or plasmid mixes) are further purified, linearized and transformed into P. pastoris. We illustrate the commodity of the system...... by optimization of expression of three different proteins in P. pastoris. Conclusions Native signal peptides from P. pastoris can be used to direct secretion of recombinant proteins. A novel USER‐based P. pastoris system allows easy cloning of protein‐coding gene with the promoter and leader sequence of choice....

  14. Analysis of potato virus Y coat protein epitopes recognized by three commercial monoclonal antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Ping Tian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Potato virus Y (PVY, genus Potyvirus causes substantial economic losses in solanaceous plants. Routine screening for PVY is an essential part of seed potato certification, and serological assays are often used. The commercial, commonly used monoclonal antibodies, MAb1128, MAb1129, and MAb1130, recognize the viral coat protein (CP of PVY and distinguish PVYN strains from PVYO and PVYC strains, or detect all PVY strains, respectively. However, the minimal epitopes recognized by these antibodies have not been identified. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: SPOT peptide array was used to map the epitopes in CP recognized by MAb1128, MAb1129, and MAb1130. Then alanine replacement as well as N- and C-terminal deletion analysis of the identified peptide epitopes was done to determine critical amino acids for antibody recognition and the respective minimal epitopes. The epitopes of all antibodies were located within the 30 N-terminal-most residues. The minimal epitope of MAb1128 was 25NLNKEK30. Replacement of 25N or 27N with alanine weakened the recognition by MAb1128, and replacement of 26L, 29E, or 30K nearly precluded recognition. The minimal epitope for MAb1129 was 16RPEQGSIQSNP26 and the most critical residues for recognition were 22I and 23Q. The epitope of MAb1130 was defined by residues 5IDAGGS10. Mutation of residue 6D abrogated and mutation of 9G strongly reduced recognition of the peptide by MAb1130. Amino acid sequence alignment demonstrated that these epitopes are relatively conserved among PVY strains. Finally, recombinant CPs were produced to demonstrate that mutations in the variable positions of the epitope regions can affect detection with the MAbs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The epitope data acquired can be compared with data on PVY CP-encoding sequences produced by laboratories worldwide and utilized to monitor how widely the new variants of PVY can be detected with current seed potato certification schemes or during the

  15. Functional genomic analysis of the Bacillus subtilis Tat pathway for protein secretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijl, JM; Braun, PG; Robinson, C; Quax, WJ; Antelmann, H; Hecker, M; Muller, J; Tjalsma, H; Bron, S; Jongbloed, JDH

    2002-01-01

    Protein secretion from Bacillus species is a major industrial production tool with a market of over $1 billion per year. However, standard export technologies, based on the well-characterised general secretory (See) pathway, are frequently inapplicable for the production of proteins. The recently di

  16. A novel fusion partner for enhanced secretion of recombinant proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jung-Hoon; Sung, Bong Hyun; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Kim, Chul Ho; Sohn, Jung-Hoon

    2016-12-01

    Expressing proteins with fusion partners improves yield and simplifies the purification process. We developed a novel fusion partner to improve the secretion of heterologous proteins that are otherwise poorly excreted in yeast. The VOA1 (YGR106C) gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a subunit of vacuolar ATPase. We found that C-terminally truncated Voa1p was highly secreted into the culture medium, even when fused with rarely secreted heterologous proteins such as human interleukin-2 (hIL-2). Deletion mapping of C-terminally truncated Voa1p, identified a hydrophilic 28-amino acid peptide (HL peptide) that was responsible for the enhanced secretion of target protein. A purification tag and a protease cleavage site were added to use HL peptide as a multi-purpose fusion partner. The utility of this system was tested via the expression and purification of various heterologous proteins. In many cases, the yield of target proteins fused with the peptide was significantly increased, and fusion proteins could be directly purified with affinity chromatography. The fusion partner was removed by in vitro processing, and intact proteins were purified by re-application of samples to affinity chromatography.

  17. Gene delivery of the therapeutic polypeptide erythropoietin to primary brain capillary endothelial cells for protein secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Annette Burkhart; Moos, Torben

    2016-01-01

    in this passage, as turning BCECs into recombinant protein factories by transfection could result in protein secretion into the brain. The non-mitotic BCECs might, however, not be very susceptible to non-viral gene therapy in vivo, since this strategy is believed to be dependent on active cell division. We have...

  18. Human rhinovirus 16 causes Golgi apparatus fragmentation without blocking protein secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousnier, Aurelie; Swieboda, Dawid; Pinto, Anaïs; Guedán, Anabel; Rogers, Andrew V; Walton, Ross; Johnston, Sebastian L; Solari, Roberto

    2014-10-01

    The replication of picornaviruses has been described to cause fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus that blocks the secretory pathway. The inhibition of major histocompatibility complex class I upregulation and cytokine, chemokine and interferon secretion may have important implications for host defense. Previous studies have shown that disruption of the secretory pathway can be replicated by expression of individual nonstructural proteins; however the situation with different serotypes of human rhinovirus (HRV) is unclear. The expression of 3A protein from HRV14 or HRV2 did not cause Golgi apparatus disruption or a block in secretion, whereas other studies showed that infection of cells with HRV1A did cause Golgi apparatus disruption which was replicated by the expression of 3A. HRV16 is the serotype most widely used in clinical HRV challenge studies; consequently, to address the issue of Golgi apparatus disruption for HRV16, we have systematically and quantitatively examined the effect of HRV16 on both Golgi apparatus fragmentation and protein secretion in HeLa cells. First, we expressed each individual nonstructural protein and examined their cellular localization and their disruption of endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus architecture. We quantified their effects on the secretory pathway by measuring secretion of the reporter protein Gaussia luciferase. Finally, we examined the same outcomes following infection of cells with live virus. We demonstrate that expression of HRV16 3A and 3AB and, to a lesser extent, 2B caused dispersal of the Golgi structure, and these three nonstructural proteins also inhibited protein secretion. The infection of cells with HRV16 also caused significant Golgi apparatus dispersal; however, this did not result in the inhibition of protein secretion. Importance: The ability of replicating picornaviruses to influence the function of the secretory pathway has important implications for host defense. However, there appear to be

  19. Interactions between Trypanosoma cruzi Secreted Proteins and Host Cell Signaling Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe Costa, Renata; da Silveira, Jose F.; Bahia, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Chagas disease is one of the prevalent neglected tropical diseases, affecting at least 6–7 million individuals in Latin America. It is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which is transmitted to vertebrate hosts by blood-sucking insects. After infection, the parasite invades and multiplies in the myocardium, leading to acute myocarditis that kills around 5% of untreated individuals. T. cruzi secretes proteins that manipulate multiple host cell signaling pathways to promote host cell invasion. The primary secreted lysosomal peptidase in T. cruzi is cruzipain, which has been shown to modulate the host immune response. Cruzipain hinders macrophage activation during the early stages of infection by interrupting the NF-kB P65 mediated signaling pathway. This allows the parasite to survive and replicate, and may contribute to the spread of infection in acute Chagas disease. Another secreted protein P21, which is expressed in all of the developmental stages of T. cruzi, has been shown to modulate host phagocytosis signaling pathways. The parasite also secretes soluble factors that exert effects on host extracellular matrix, such as proteolytic degradation of collagens. Finally, secreted phospholipase A from T. cruzi contributes to lipid modifications on host cells and concomitantly activates the PKC signaling pathway. Here, we present a brief review of the interaction between secreted proteins from T. cruzi and the host cells, emphasizing the manipulation of host signaling pathways during invasion. PMID:27065960

  20. Interactions between Trypanosoma cruzi secreted proteins and host cell signaling pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Watanabe Costa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is one of the prevalent neglected tropical diseases, affecting at least 6-7 million individuals in Latin America. It is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi, which is transmitted to vertebrate hosts by blood-sucking insects. After infection, the parasite invades and multiplies in the myocardium, leading to acute myocarditis that kills around 5% of untreated individuals. T. cruzi secretes proteins that manipulate multiple host cell signaling pathways to promote host cell invasion. The primary secreted lysosomal peptidase in T. cruzi is cruzipain, which has been shown to modulate the host immune response. Cruzipain hinders macrophage activation during the early stages of infection by interrupting the NF-kB P65 mediated signaling pathway. This allows the parasite to survive and replicate, and may contribute to the spread of infection in acute Chagas disease. Another secreted protein P21, which is expressed in all of the developmental stages of T. cruzi, has been shown to modulate host phagocytosis signaling pathways. The parasite also secretes soluble factors that exert effects on host extracellular matrix, such as proteolytic degradation of collagens. Finally, secreted phospholipase A from T. cruzi contributes to lipid modifications on host cells and concomitantly activates the PKC signaling pathway. Here we present a brief review of the interaction between secreted proteins from T. cruzi and the host cells, emphasizing the manipulation of host signaling pathways during invasion.

  1. Protein secretion is required for pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A to promote lung cancer growth in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Pan

    Full Text Available Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPPA has been reported to regulate the activity of insulin-like growth factor (IGF signal pathway through proteolytic degradation of IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs thereby increasing the local concentration of free IGFs available to receptors. In this study we found that PAPPA is secreted from two out of seven lung cancer cell lines examined. None of immortalized normal bronchial epithelial cells (HBE tested secrets PAPPA. There is no correlation between expression level and secretion of PAPPA in these cells. A cell line over-expressing PAPPA accompanied with secretion shows no notable changes in proliferation under cell culture conditions in vitro, but displays significantly augmentation of tumor growth in vivo in a xenograft model. In contrast, a cell line over-expressing PAPPA without secretion exhibits reduction of tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo. Down-regulation of PAPPA expression and secretion by RNAi knockdown decreases tumor growth after implanted in vivo. The tumor promoting activity of PAPPA appears to be mediated mainly through augmentation of the IGF signaling pathway as indicated by notable increases in downstream Akt kinase phosphorylation in tumor samples. Our results indicate that PAPPA secretion may play an important role in lung cancer growth and progression.

  2. Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against hepatitis C virus E2 protein bind discontinuous epitopes and inhibit infection at a postattachment step

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabo, Michelle C; Luca, Vincent C; Prentoe, Jannick

    2011-01-01

    The E2 glycoprotein of hepatitis C virus (HCV) mediates viral attachment and entry into target hepatocytes and elicits neutralizing antibodies in infected patients. To characterize the structural and functional basis of HCV neutralization, we generated a novel panel of 78 monoclonal antibodies...... of the homologous HCV strain in cell culture. Two of these bound E2 proteins from strains representative of HCV genotypes 1 to 6, and one of these MAbs, H77.39, neutralized infection of strains from five of these genotypes. The three most potent neutralizing MAbs in our panel, H77.16, H77.39, and J6.36, inhibited...

  3. Molecular Characterization of Two Monoclonal Antibodies against the Same Epitope on B-Cell Receptor Associated Protein 31

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Won-Tae; Shin, Saemina; Hwang, Hyo Jeong; Kim, Min Kyu; Jung, Han-Sung; Park, Hwangseo; RYU, CHUN JEIH

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we showed that B-cell receptor associated protein 31 (BAP31), an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane chaperone, is also expressed on the cell surface by two monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) 297-D4 and 144-A8. Both MAbs recognize the same linear epitope on the C-terminal domain of BAP31, although they were independently established. Here, flow cytometric analysis showed that 144-A8 had additional binding properties to some cells, as compared to 297-D4. Quantitative antigen binding assa...

  4. A monoclonal antibody against the human SUMO-1 protein obtained by immunization with recombinant protein and CpG-DNA-liposome complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongbum; Lee, Joo Young; Song, Dae-Geun; Kwon, Sanghoon; Lee, Younghee; Pan, Cheol-Ho; Kwon, Hyung-Joo

    2013-10-01

    Post-translational modification regulated by conjugation of a small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) is involved in various cellular processes. In this study, we expressed and purified recombinant human SUMO-1 (hSUMO-1). BALB/c mice were immunized with a complex of hSUMO-1 protein and Lipoplex(O) to produce hSUMO-1-specific antibodies. Using conventional hybridoma technology, we obtained four hybridoma clones derived from the mouse with the highest antibody titer against hSUMO-1. Based on Western blot analysis, our hSUMO-1 monoclonal antibody specifically recognizes hSUMO-1, but not other SUMO proteins. These results support that the anti-hSUMO-1 monoclonal antibody produced with the aid of Lipoplex(O) adjuvant is specific and that Lipoplex(O) is useful for development of monoclonal antibodies against recombinant protein. In addition, we analyzed human tissues to examine the distribution of hSUMO-1. Higher expression of hSUMO-1 was detected in normal adrenal gland, esophagus, pancreas, liver, stomach, kidney, and uterus than in corresponding cancer tissues, suggesting a tumor suppressive function of hSUMO-1.

  5. Campylobacter fetus surface layer proteins are transported by a type I secretion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, S A; Shedd, O L; Ray, K C; Beins, M H; Jorgensen, J P; Blaser, M J

    1998-12-01

    The virulence of Campylobacter fetus, a bacterial pathogen of ungulates and humans, is mediated in part by the presence of a paracrystalline surface layer (S-layer) that confers serum resistance. The subunits of the S-layer are S-layer proteins (SLPs) that are secreted in the absence of an N-terminal signal sequence and attach to either type A or B C. fetus lipopolysaccharide in a serospecific manner. Antigenic variation of multiple SLPs (encoded by sapA homologs) of type A strain 23D occurs by inversion of a promoter-containing DNA element flanked by two sapA homologs. Cloning and sequencing of the entire 6.2-kb invertible region from C. fetus 23D revealed a probable 5.6-kb operon of four overlapping genes (sapCDEF, with sizes of 1,035, 1,752, 1,284, and 1,302 bp, respectively) transcribed in the opposite direction from sapA. The four genes also were present in the invertible region of type B strain 84-107 and were virtually identical to their counterparts in the type A strain. Although SapC had no database homologies, SapD, SapE, and SapF had predicted amino acid homologies with type I protein secretion systems (typified by Escherichia coli HlyBD/TolC or Erwinia chrysanthemi PrtDEF) that utilize C-terminal secretion signals to mediate the secretion of hemolysins, leukotoxins, or proteases from other bacterial species. Analysis of the C termini of four C. fetus SLPs revealed conserved structures that are potential secretion signals. A C. fetus sapD mutant neither produced nor secreted SLPs. E. coli expressing C. fetus sapA and sapCDEF secreted SapA, indicating that the sapCDEF genes are sufficient for SLP secretion. C. fetus SLPs therefore are transported to the cell surface by a type I secretion system.

  6. Purification of monoclonal antibodies from clarified cell culture fluid using Protein A capture continuous countercurrent tangential chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Amit K; Tran, Travis; Napadensky, Boris; Teella, Achyuta; Brookhart, Gary; Ropp, Philip A; Zhang, Ada W; Tustian, Andrew D; Zydney, Andrew L; Shinkazh, Oleg

    2015-11-10

    Recent studies using simple model systems have demonstrated that continuous countercurrent tangential chromatography (CCTC) has the potential to overcome many of the limitations of conventional Protein A chromatography using packed columns. The objective of this work was to optimize and implement a CCTC system for monoclonal antibody purification from clarified Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell culture fluid using a commercial Protein A resin. Several improvements were introduced to the previous CCTC system including the use of retentate pumps to maintain stable resin concentrations in the flowing slurry, the elimination of a slurry holding tank to improve productivity, and the introduction of an "after binder" to the binding step to increase antibody recovery. A kinetic binding model was developed to estimate the required residence times in the multi-stage binding step to optimize yield and productivity. Data were obtained by purifying two commercial antibodies from two different manufactures, one with low titer (∼ 0.67 g/L) and one with high titer (∼ 6.9 g/L), demonstrating the versatility of the CCTC system. Host cell protein removal, antibody yields and purities were similar to those obtained with conventional column chromatography; however, the CCTC system showed much higher productivity. These results clearly demonstrate the capabilities of continuous countercurrent tangential chromatography for the commercial purification of monoclonal antibody products.

  7. Characterization of EssB, a protein required for secretion of ESAT-6 like proteins in Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yi-Hsing

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus secretes EsxA and EsxB, two small polypeptides of the WXG100 family of proteins. Genetic analyses have shown that production and secretion of EsxA and EsxB require an intact ESAT-6 Secretion System (ESS, a cluster of genes that is conserved in many Firmicutes and encompasses esxA and esxB . Here, we characterize EssB, one of the proteins encoded by the ESS cluster. EssB is highly conserved in Gram-positive bacteria and belongs to the Cluster of Orthologous Groups of protein COG4499 with no known function. Results By generating an internal deletion in essB , we demonstrate that EssB is required for secretion of EsxA. We use a polyclonal antibody to identify EssB and show that the protein fractionates with the plasma membrane of S. aureus . Yet, when produced in Escherichia coli, EssB remains mostly soluble and the purified protein assembles into a highly organized oligomer that can be visualized by electron microscopy. Production of truncated EssB variants in wild-type S. aureus confers a dominant negative phenotype on EsxA secretion. Conclusions The data presented here support the notion that EssB may oligomerize and interact with other membrane components to form the WXG100-specific translocon in S. aureus .

  8. Identification of a linear B-cell epitope on the avian leukosis virus P27 protein using monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofei; Qin, Liting; Zhu, Haibo; Sun, Yingjun; Cui, Xuezhi; Gao, Yadong; Qi, Xiaole; Wang, Yongqiang; Gao, Honglei; Gao, Yulong; Wang, Xiaomei

    2016-10-01

    Avian leukosis virus (ALV) is an avian oncogenic retrovirus that can induce various clinical tumors. The capsid protein P27 is the group-specific antigen of ALV and has many viral antigen sites that are easy to detect. In this study, we produced a monoclonal antibody (mAb), 3A9, that is specific for the P27 protein. A series of partially overlapping peptides were screened to define (181)PPSAR(185) as the minimal linear epitope recognized by mAb 3A9. The identified epitope could be recognized by chicken anti-ALV and mouse anti-ALV P27 sera. The epitope was highly conserved among a number of ALV-A, ALV-B and ALV-J strains. MAb 3A9 might be a valuable tool for the development of new immunodiagnostic approaches for ALV, and the defined linear epitope might help further our understanding of the antigenic structure of the P27 protein.

  9. Antibody Array Revealed PRL-3 Affects Protein Phosphorylation and Cytokine Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongyong; Lian, Shenyi; Meng, Lin; Qu, Like; Shou, Chengchao

    2017-01-01

    Phosphatase of regenerating liver 3 (PRL-3) promotes cancer metastasis and progression via increasing cell motility and invasiveness, however the mechanism is still not fully understood. Previous reports showed that PRL-3 increases the phosphorylation of many important proteins and suspected that PRL-3-enhanced protein phosphorylation may be due to its regulation on cytokines. To investigate PRL-3's impact on protein phosphorylation and cytokine secretion, we performed antibody arrays against protein phosphorylation and cytokines separately. The data showed that PRL-3 could enhance tyrosine phosphorylation and serine/threonine phosphorylation of diverse signaling proteins. Meanwhile, PRL-3 could affect the secretion of a subset of cytokines. Furthermore, we discovered the PRL-3-increased IL-1α secretion was regulated by NF-κB and Jak2-Stat3 pathways and inhibiting IL-1α could reduce PRL-3-enhanced cell migration. Therefore, our result indicated that PRL-3 promotes protein phosphorylation by acting as an 'activator kinase' and consequently regulates cytokine secretion.

  10. Microfluidic screening and whole-genome sequencing identifies mutations associated with improved protein secretion by yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Mingtao; Bai, Yunpeng; Sjostrom, Staffan L.

    2015-01-01

    interest in improving its protein secretion capacity. Due to the complexity of the secretory machinery in eukaryotic cells, it is difficult to apply rational engineering for construction of improved strains. Here we used high-throughput microfluidics for the screening of yeast libraries, generated by UV...... to construct efficient cell factories for protein secretion. The combined use of microfluidics screening and whole-genome sequencing to map the mutations associated with the improved phenotype can easily be adapted for other products and cell types to identify novel engineering targets, and this approach could...

  11. High yield secretion of recombinant proteins from the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Martinez, E M; Fimognari, L; Sakuragi, Y

    2017-02-16

    Microalga-based biomanufacturing of recombinant proteins is attracting growing attention due to its advantages in safety, metabolic diversity, scalability, and sustainability. Secretion of recombinant proteins can accelerate the use of microalgal platforms by allowing post-translational modifications and easy recovery of products from the culture media. However, currently, the yields of secreted recombinant proteins are low, which hampers the commercial application of this strategy. This study aimed at expanding the genetic tools for enhancing secretion of recombinant proteins in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a widely used green microalga as a model organism and a potential industrial biotechnology platform. We demonstrated that the putative signal sequence from C. reinhardtii gametolysin can assist the secretion of the yellow fluorescent protein Venus into the culture media. In order to increase the secretion yields, Venus was C-terminally fused with synthetic glycomodules comprised of tandem serine (Ser) and proline (Pro) repeats of 10 and 20 units [hereafter (SP)n, wherein n=10 or 20]. The yields of the (SP)n-fused Venus were higher than Venus without the glycomodule by up to 12 folds, with the maximum yield of 15 mg L(-1) . Moreover, the presence of the glycomodules confererred an enhanced proteolytic protein stability. The Venus-(SP)n proteins were shown to be glycosylated, and a treatment of the cells with Brefeldin A led to a suggestion that glycosylation of the (SP)n glycomodules starts in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Taken together, the results demonstrate the utility of the gametolysin signal sequence and (SP)n glycomodule to promote a more efficient biomanufacturing of microalgae-based recombinant proteins. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Generation of Recombinant Schmallenberg Virus Nucleocapsid Protein in Yeast and Development of Virus-Specific Monoclonal Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justas Lazutka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Schmallenberg virus (SBV, discovered in continental Europe in late 2011, causes mild clinical signs in adult ruminants, including diarrhoea and reduced milk yield. However, fetal infection can lead to severe malformation in newborn offspring. To develop improved reagents for SBV serology, a high-level yeast expression system was employed to produce recombinant SBV nucleocapsid (N protein. Recombinant SBV N protein was investigated as an antigen in SBV-specific IgG enzyme immunoassay and used for generation of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs. Yeast-expressed SBV N protein was reactive with anti-SBV IgG-positive cow serum specimens collected from different farms of Lithuania. After immunization of mice with recombinant SBV N protein, four MAbs were generated. The MAbs raised against recombinant SBV N protein reacted with native viral nucleocapsids in SBV-infected BHK cells by immunofluorescence assay. The reactivity of recombinant N protein with SBV-positive cow serum specimens and the ability of the MAbs to recognize virus-infected cells confirm the antigenic similarity between yeast-expressed SBV N protein and native viral nucleocapsids. Our study demonstrates that yeast expression system is suitable for high-level production of recombinant SBV N protein and provides the first evidence on the presence of SBV-specific antibodies in cow serum specimens collected in Lithuania.

  13. Preliminary identification of secreted proteins by Leptospira interrogans serovar Kennewicki strain Pomona Fromm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricardi, L.M.P.; Portaro, F.C.; Abreu, P.A.E.; Barbosa, A.S. [Instituto Butantan, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Morais, Z.M.; Vasconcellos, S.A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: This project aimed to identify secreted proteins by pathogenic Leptospira interrogans serovar Kennewicki strain Pomona Fromm (LPF) by proteomic analyses. The strain LPF, whose virulence was maintained by passages in hamsters, were cultured in EMJH medium. The supernatants were centrifuged, dialyzed and subjected to lyophilization. Protein samples were resolved first by IEF at pH 3 to 10, immobilized pH gradient 13-cm strips. Strips were then processed for the second-dimension separation on SDS-polyacrylamide gels. Proteins from gel spots were subjected to reduction, cysteine-alkylation, and in-gel tryptic digestion, and analyzed by LC/MS/MS spectrometry. Liquid chromatography-based separation followed by automated tandem mass spectrometry was also used to identify secreted proteins. In silico analyses were performed using the PSORTbV.3.0 program and SignalP server. One major obstacle to secretome studies is the difficulty to obtain extracts of secreted proteins without citoplasmatic contamination. In addition, the extraction of low concentration proteins from large volumes of culture media, which are rich in salts, BSA and other compounds, frequently interfere with most proteomics techniques. For these reasons, several experimental approaches were used to optimize the protocol applied. In spite of this fact, our analysis resulted in the identification of 200 proteins with high confidence. Only 5 of 63 secreted proteins predicted by in silico analysis were found. Other classes identified included proteins that possess signal peptide but whose cellular localization prediction is unknown or may have multiple localization sites, and proteins that lack signal peptide and are thus thought to be secreted via non conventional mechanisms or resulting from cytoplasmic contamination by cell lysis. Many of these are hypothetical proteins with no putative conserved domains detected. To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify secreted proteins by

  14. Monoclonal Antibody Targeting Staphylococcus aureus Surface Protein A (SasA) Protect Against Staphylococcus aureus Sepsis and Peritonitis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yilong; Qian, Mengying; Yi, Shaoqiong; Liu, Shuling; Li, Bing; Yu, Rui; Guo, Qiang; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Yu, Changming; Li, Jianmin; Xu, Junjie; Chen, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) imposes an increasing impact on public health. Due to multi-antibiotics resistance in MRSA strains, there is an urgent need to develop novel therapeutics such as effective monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against MRSA infections. Staphylococcus aureus surface protein A (SasA), a large surface-located protein (~240 kDa), is one of MSCRAMMs (microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules) and a potential target for immunotherapeutic approaches against S. aureus infections. In the present study, we analyzed the sequence of SasA with bioinformatics tools and generated a protective monoclonal antibody (2H7) targeting the conserved domain of SasA. 2H7 was shown to recognize wild-type S. aureus and promote opsonophagocytic killing of S. aureus. In both sepsis and peritoneal infection models, prophylactic administration of 2H7 improved the survival of BALB/c mice challenged by S. aureus strain USA300 and ST239 (prevalent MRSA clones in North America and Asian countries, respectively) and enhanced bacterial clearance in kidneys. Additionally, 2H7 prophylaxis prevented the formation of intraperitoneal abscess in a murine model of peritoneal infection and therapeutic administration of 2H7 showed protective efficacy in a murine sepsis model. Our results presented here provide supporting evidences that an anti-SasA mAb might be a potential component in an antibody-based immunotherapeutic treatment of MRSA infections.

  15. Characterization of periplasmic protein BP26 epitopes of Brucella melitensis reacting with murine monoclonal and sheep antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jinlang; Wang, Wenjing; Wu, Jingbo; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Yuanzhi; Qiao, Jun; Chen, Chuangfu; Gao, Goege F; Allain, Jean-Pierre; Li, Chengyao

    2012-01-01

    More than 35,000 new cases of human brucellosis were reported in 2010 by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. An attenuated B. melitensis vaccine M5-90 is currently used for vaccination of sheep and goats in China. In the study, a periplasmic protein BP26 from M5-90 was characterized for its epitope reactivity with mouse monoclonal and sheep antibodies. A total of 29 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against recombinant BP26 (rBP26) were produced, which were tested for reactivity with a panel of BP26 peptides, three truncated rBP26 and native BP26 containing membrane protein extracts (NMP) of B. melitensis M5-90 in ELISA and Western-Blot. The linear, semi-conformational and conformational epitopes from native BP26 were identified. Two linear epitopes recognized by mAbs were revealed by 28 of 16mer overlapping peptides, which were accurately mapped as the core motif of amino acid residues ⁹³DRDLQTGGI¹⁰¹ (position 93 to 101) or residues ¹⁰⁴QPIYVYPD¹¹¹, respectively. The reactivity of linear epitope peptides, rBP26 and NMP was tested with 137 sheep sera by ELISAs, of which the two linear epitopes had 65-70% reactivity and NMP 90% consistent with the results of a combination of two standard serological tests. The results were helpful for evaluating the reactivity of BP26 antigen in M5-90.

  16. Production, characterization and utility of a panel of monoclonal antibodies for the detection of toluene diisocyanate haptenated proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruwona, Tinashe B; Johnson, Victor J; Hettick, Justin M; Schmechel, Detlef; Beezhold, Donald; Wang, Wei; Simoyi, Reuben H; Siegel, Paul D

    2011-10-28

    Diisocyanates (dNCOs) are highly reactive low molecular weight chemicals used in the manufacture of polyurethane products and are the most commonly reported cause of occupational asthma. Mechanistic disease studies and development of biomonitoring and research tools, such as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been hampered by dNCOs' ability to self-polymerize and to cross-link biomolecules. Toluene diisocyanate (TDI)-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), with potential use in immunoassays for exposure and biomarker assessments, were produced and reactivities characterized against mono- and diisocyanate and dithioisocyanate protein conjugates. In general, TDI reactive mAbs displayed stronger recognition of isocyanate haptenated proteins when the NCO was in the ortho position relative to the tolyl group, and were capable of discriminating between isocyanate and isothiocyanate conjugates and between aromatic and aliphatic dNCOs. Preliminary studies using TDI vapor exposed cells suggest potential utility of these mAbs for both research and biomonitoring. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. The unfolded protein response mediates fibrogenesis and collagen I secretion through regulating TANGO1 in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiers, Jessica L; Kostallari, Enis; Mushref, Malek; deAssuncao, Thiago M; Li, Haiyang; Jalan-Sakrikar, Nidhi; Huebert, Robert C; Cao, Sheng; Malhi, Harmeet; Shah, Vijay H

    2017-03-01

    Fibrogenesis encompasses the deposition of matrix proteins, such as collagen I, by hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) that culminates in cirrhosis. Fibrogenic signals drive transcription of procollagen I, which enters the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), is trafficked through the secretory pathway, and released to generate extracellular matrix. Alternatively, disruption of procollagen I ER export could activate the unfolded protein response (UPR) and drive HSC apoptosis. Using a small interfering RNA screen, we identified Transport and Golgi organization 1 (TANGO1) as a potential participant in collagen I secretion. We investigated the role of TANGO1 in procollagen I secretion in HSCs and liver fibrogenesis. Depletion of TANGO1 in HSCs blocked collagen I secretion without affecting other matrix proteins. Disruption of secretion led to procollagen I retention within the ER, induction of the UPR, and HSC apoptosis. In wild-type (WT) HSCs, both TANGO1 and the UPR were induced by transforming growth factor β (TGFβ). As the UPR up-regulates proteins involved in secretion, we studied whether TANGO1 was a target of the UPR. We found that UPR signaling is responsible for up-regulating TANGO1 in response to TGFβ, and this mechanism is mediated by the transcription factor X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1). In vivo, murine and human cirrhotic tissue displayed increased TANGO1 messenger RNA levels. Finally, TANGO1(+/-) mice displayed less hepatic fibrosis compared to WT mice in two separate murine models: CCl4 and bile duct ligation. Loss of TANGO1 leads to procollagen I retention in the ER, which promotes UPR-mediated HSC apoptosis. TANGO1 regulation during HSC activation occurs through a UPR-dependent mechanism that requires the transcription factor, XBP1. Finally, TANGO1 is critical for fibrogenesis through mediating HSC homeostasis. The work reveals a unique role for TANGO1 and the UPR in facilitating collagen I secretion and fibrogenesis. (Hepatology 2017;65:983-998). © 2016 by

  18. Preparation of Monoclonal Antibody Against HPT and Its Application to Detecting Marker Protein in Genetically Modified Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI-CHEN YANG; SU-XIANG ZHANG; GUO-HUA PI; YING-HUA LI; ZHEN ZHU; XIAO-GUANG YANG

    2005-01-01

    Objective To produce the monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against hygromycin B phosphotransferase (HPT) and to develop immunoassay based on mAbs for biosafety assessment of HPT in genetically modified rice (GM rice). Methods BALB/c mice were immunized with purified recombinant 6His. HPT protein, and the conventional hybridoma technology was used to generate the monoclonal hybridoma cells. ELISA and Western blot were used to analyze the specificity of mAbs recognizing HPT and the cross reaction with other proteins. A double-Ab sandwich ELISA method was established to detect HPT expression level in the sck gene-modified rice plants. Results Four hybridomas, named F1, D4-2, D4-4, and D4-5, producing the mAbs against HPT were successfully obtained with the titer of ascetic mAbs ranging from 1×10-4 to 1×10-5. Identification of subclass showed that all the produced mAbs belonged to IgG1. Western blot showed specific binding reaction between the mAbs to the HPT proteins expressed in the GM rice. A double sandwich ELISA coated with anti-HPT polyclonal antibody was established with mAbs as sandwich antibody, which showed a sensitivity of 30ng/mL and did not crossreact with other proteins. The expression level of HPT in the leaves of sck-transformed lines was detected (80-150ng/mL). But HPT protein in the grain and seed of GM rice could not be detected using this ELISA assay. Conclusion Anti-HPT mAbs prepared herein have a high specificity and can be used for rapid assay of HPT antigen. The expression level of HPT in the GM rice grain and seed is lower than our ELISA detection limit.

  19. Gene delivery of therapeutic polypeptides to brain capillary endothelial cells for protein secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Annette Burkhart; Thomsen, Louiza Bohn; Moos, Torben

    of the proteins. Morphological examination of the protein expression was determined using immunofluorescence detecting FLAG. Additionally, the transfection efficiency were determined by Flow cytometry. Perspective: Our study opens for knowledge on how non-viral gene therapy to BCECs can lead to protein secretion......Background: The potential for treatment of chronic disorders affecting the CNS is complicated by the inability of several drugs to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). None-viral gene therapy applied to brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) denotes a novel approach to overcome the restraints....... Results: mRNA expression of proteins with neuroprotective potential in RBEC were enabled. Their expression patters were compared with those of RBE4 and HeLa cells using RT-qPCR analyzes. The evidence for protein synthesis and secretion was obtained by detection of FLAG-tagged to the C-terminal of any...

  20. Identification of Protein Secretion Systems in Bacterial Genomes Using MacSyFinder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abby, Sophie S; Rocha, Eduardo P C

    2017-01-01

    Protein secretion systems are complex molecular machineries that translocate proteins through the outer membrane, and sometimes through multiple other barriers. They have evolved by co-option of components from other envelope-associated cellular machineries, making them sometimes difficult to identify and discriminate. Here, we describe how to identify protein secretion systems in bacterial genomes using MacSyFinder. This flexible computational tool uses the knowledge stemming from experimental studies to identify homologous systems in genome data. It can be used with a set of predefined models-"TXSScan"-to identify all major secretion systems of diderm bacteria (i.e., with inner and with LPS-containing outer membranes). For this, it identifies and clusters colocalized components of secretion systems using sequence similarity searches with hidden Markov model protein profiles. Finally, it checks whether the genetic content and organization of clusters satisfy the constraints of the model. TXSScan models can be customized to search for variants of known systems. The models can also be built from scratch to identify novel systems. In this chapter, we describe a complete pipeline of analysis, including the identification of a reference set of experimentally studied systems, the identification of components and the construction of their protein profiles, the definition of the models, their optimization, and, finally, their use as tools to search genomic data.

  1. Secretion of Anti-Plasmodium Effector Proteins from a Natural Pantoea agglomerans Isolate by Using PelB and HlyA Secretion Signals▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisi, Dawn C.; Lampe, David J.

    2011-01-01

    The insect-vectored disease malaria is a major world health problem. New control strategies are needed to supplement the current use of insecticides and medications. A genetic approach can be used to inhibit development of malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.) in the mosquito host. We hypothesized that Pantoea agglomerans, a bacterial symbiont of Anopheles mosquitoes, could be engineered to express and secrete anti-Plasmodium effector proteins, a strategy termed paratransgenesis. To this end, plasmids that include the pelB or hlyA secretion signals from the genes of related species (pectate lyase from Erwinia carotovora and hemolysin A from Escherichia coli, respectively) were created and tested for their efficacy in secreting known anti-Plasmodium effector proteins (SM1, anti-Pbs21, and PLA2) in P. agglomerans and E. coli. P. agglomerans successfully secreted HlyA fusions of anti-Pbs21 and PLA2, and these strains are under evaluation for anti-Plasmodium activity in infected mosquitoes. Varied expression and/or secretion of the effector proteins was observed, suggesting that the individual characteristics of a particular effector may require empirical testing of several secretion signals. Importantly, those strains that secreted efficiently grew as well as wild-type strains under laboratory conditions and, thus, may be expected to be competitive with the native microbiota in the environment of the mosquito midgut. PMID:21602368

  2. Secretion of anti-Plasmodium effector proteins from a natural Pantoea agglomerans isolate by using PelB and HlyA secretion signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisi, Dawn C; Lampe, David J

    2011-07-01

    The insect-vectored disease malaria is a major world health problem. New control strategies are needed to supplement the current use of insecticides and medications. A genetic approach can be used to inhibit development of malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.) in the mosquito host. We hypothesized that Pantoea agglomerans, a bacterial symbiont of Anopheles mosquitoes, could be engineered to express and secrete anti-Plasmodium effector proteins, a strategy termed paratransgenesis. To this end, plasmids that include the pelB or hlyA secretion signals from the genes of related species (pectate lyase from Erwinia carotovora and hemolysin A from Escherichia coli, respectively) were created and tested for their efficacy in secreting known anti-Plasmodium effector proteins (SM1, anti-Pbs21, and PLA2) in P. agglomerans and E. coli. P. agglomerans successfully secreted HlyA fusions of anti-Pbs21 and PLA2, and these strains are under evaluation for anti-Plasmodium activity in infected mosquitoes. Varied expression and/or secretion of the effector proteins was observed, suggesting that the individual characteristics of a particular effector may require empirical testing of several secretion signals. Importantly, those strains that secreted efficiently grew as well as wild-type strains under laboratory conditions and, thus, may be expected to be competitive with the native microbiota in the environment of the mosquito midgut.

  3. Secretion of Human Protein C in Mouse Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chae-Won Park

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To determine the production of recombinant human protein C (rec-hPC in milk, we created two homozygous mice lines for the goat β-casein/hPC transgene. Females and males of both lines (#10 and #11 displayed normal growth, fertility, and lactated normally. The copy number of the transgene was about fivefold higher in #10 line as compared to #11 line. mRNA expression of the transgene was only detected in the mammary glands of both lines. Furthermore, mRNA expression was fourfold higher on day 7 than on day 1 during lactation. Northern blot analysis of mRNA expression in the #10 line of transgenic (Tg mice indicated a strong expression of the transgene in the mammary glands after seven days of lactation. Comparison of rec-hPC protein level with that of mRNA in the mammary glands showed a very similar pattern. A 52-kDa band corresponding to the hPC protein was strongly detected in mammary glands of the #10 line during lactation. We also detected two bands of heavy chain and one weak band of light chain in the milk of the #10 and #11 lines. One single band at 52 kDa was detected from CHO cells transfected with hPC cDNA. hPC was mainly localized in the alveolar epithelial cell of the mammary glands. The protein is strongly expressed in the cytoplasm of the cultured mammary gland tissue. hPC protein produced in milk ranged from 2 to 28 ng/mL. These experiments indicated that rec-hPC can be produced at high levels in mice mammary glands.

  4. Significance of monoclonal antibodies against the conserved epitopes within non-structural protein 3 helicase of hepatitis C virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixin Bian

    Full Text Available Nonstructural protein 3 (NS3 of hepatitis C virus (HCV, codes for protease and helicase carrying NTPase enzymatic activities, plays a crucial role in viral replication and an ideal target for diagnosis, antiviral therapy and vaccine development. In this study, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs to NS3 helicase were characterized by epitope mapping and biological function test. A total of 29 monoclonal antibodies were produced to the truncated NS3 helicase of HCV-1b (T1b-rNS3, aa1192-1459. Six mAbs recognized 8/29 16mer peptides, which contributed to identify 5 linear and 1 discontinuous putative epitope sequences. Seven mAbs reacted with HCV-2a JFH-1 infected Huh-7.5.1 cells by immunofluorescent staining, of which 2E12 and 3E5 strongly bound to the exposed linear epitope (1231PTGSGKSTK(1239 (EP05 or core motif (1373IPFYGKAI(1380 (EP21, respectively. Five other mAbs recognized semi-conformational or conformational epitopes of HCV helicase. MAb 2E12 binds to epitope EP05 at the ATP binding site of motif I in domain 1, while mAb 3E5 reacts with epitope EP21 close to helicase nucleotide binding region of domain 2. Epitope EP05 is totally conserved and EP21 highly conserved across HCV genotypes. These two epitope peptides reacted strongly with 59-79% chronic and weakly with 30-58% resolved HCV infected blood donors, suggesting that these epitopes were dominant in HCV infection. MAb 2E12 inhibited 50% of unwinding activity of NS3 helicase in vitro. Novel monoclonal antibodies recognize highly conserved epitopes at crucial functional sites within NS3 helicase, which may become important antibodies for diagnosis and antiviral therapy in chronic HCV infection.

  5. Monoclonal antibody-assisted structure-function analysis of the carbohydrate recognition domain of surfactant protein D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartshorn, Kevan L; White, Mitchell R; Rynkiewicz, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) plays important roles in host defense against a variety of pathogens including influenza A virus (IAV). Ligand binding by SP-D is mediated by the trimeric neck and carbohydrate recognition domain (NCRD). We used monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against human SP-D and a panel...... of mutant collectin NCRD constructs to identify functionally and structurally important epitopes. The ability of SP-D to bind to IAV and mannan involved partially overlapping binding sites that are distinct from those involved in binding to the glycoprotein-340 (gp-340) scavenger receptor protein. A species...... abrogated antiviral activity, were associated with decreased binding to multiple blocking mAbs, consistent with critical structural roles. More conservative substitutions at 335, which showed a significant increase in neutralization activity, caused selective loss of binding to one mAb. The analysis reveals...

  6. Decidual-secreted factors alter invasive trophoblast membrane and secreted proteins implying a role for decidual cell regulation of placentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Melaleuca Menkhorst

    Full Text Available Inadequate or inappropriate implantation and placentation during the establishment of human pregnancy is thought to lead to first trimester miscarriage, placental insufficiency and other obstetric complications. To create the placental blood supply, specialized cells, the 'extravillous trophoblast' (EVT invade through the differentiated uterine endometrium (the decidua to engraft and remodel uterine spiral arteries. We hypothesized that decidual factors would regulate EVT function by altering the production of EVT membrane and secreted factors. We used a proteomics approach to identify EVT membrane and secreted proteins regulated by decidual cell factors. Human endometrial stromal cells were decidualized in vitro by treatment with estradiol (10(-8 M, medroxyprogesterone acetate (10(-7 M and cAMP (0.5 mM for 14 days. Conditioned media (CM was collected on day 2 (non-decidualized CM and 14 (decidualized CM of treatment. Isolated primary EVT cultured on Matrigel™ were treated with media control, non-decidualized or decidualized CM for 16 h. EVT CM was fractionated for proteins <30 kDa using size-exclusion affinity nanoparticles (SEAN before trypsin digestion and HPLC-MS/MS. 43 proteins produced by EVT were identified; 14 not previously known to be expressed in the placenta and 12 which had previously been associated with diseases of pregnancy including preeclampsia. Profilin 1, lysosome associated membrane glycoprotein 1 (LAMP1, dipeptidyl peptidase 1 (DPP1/cathepsin C and annexin A2 expression by interstitial EVT in vivo was validated by immunhistochemistry. Decidual CM regulation in vitro was validated by western blotting: decidualized CM upregulated profilin 1 in EVT CM and non-decidualized CM upregulated annexin A2 in EVT CM and pro-DPP1 in EVT cell lysate. Here, non-decidualized factors induced protease expression by EVT suggesting that non-decidualized factors may induce a pro-inflammatory cascade. Preeclampsia is a pro

  7. Characterization of human-type monoclonal antibodies against reduced form of hemin binding protein 35 from Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Y; Okano, S; Shiroza, T; Tahara, T; Nakazawa, K; Kataoka, S; Ishida, I; Kobayashi, T; Yoshie, H; Abiko, Y

    2011-12-01

    The gram-negative anaerobe Porphyromonas gingivalis has been implicated as an important pathogen in the development of adult periodontitis, and its colonization of subgingival sites is critical in the pathogenic process. We previously identified a 35 kDa surface protein (hemin binding protein 35; HBP35) from P. gingivalis that exhibited coaggregation activity, while additional analysis suggested that this protein possessed an ability to bind heme molecules. For development of passive immunotherapy for periodontal diseases, human-type monoclonal antibodies have been prepared using HBP35 as an antigen in TransChromo mice. In the present study, we focused on a single antibody, TCmAb-h13, which is known to inhibit heme binding to recombinant HBP35. The aim of our investigation was to clarify the redox-related function of HBP35 and consider the benefits of human-type monoclonal antibodies. To examine the antigen recognition capability of TCmAbs with immunoblotting and Biacore techniques, we used the native form as well as several Cys-to-Ser variants of recombinant HBP35. We found that the redox state of recombinant HBP35 was dependent on two Cys residues, (48) C and (51) C, in the thioredoxin active center (WCGxCx). Furthermore, TCmAb-h13 recognized the reduced forms of recombinant HBP35, indicating its inhibitory effect on P. gingivalis growth. Hemin binding protein 35 appears to be an important molecule involved in recognition of the redox state of environmental conditions. In addition, TCmAb-h13 had an inhibitory effect on heme binding to recombinant HBP35, thereby interfering with P. gingivalis growth. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Overexpression of the transcription factor Yap1 modifies intracellular redox conditions and enhances recombinant protein secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marizela Delic

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative folding of secretory proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER is a redox active process, which also impacts the redox conditions in the cytosol. As the transcription factor Yap1 is involved in the transcriptional response to oxidative stress, we investigate its role upon the production of secretory proteins, using the yeast Pichia pastoris as model, and report a novel important role of Yap1 during oxidative protein folding. Yap1 is needed for the detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS caused by increased oxidative protein folding. Constitutive co-overexpression of PpYAP1 leads to increased levels of secreted recombinant protein, while a lowered Yap1 function leads to accumulation of ROS and strong flocculation. Transcriptional analysis revealed that more than 150 genes were affected by overexpression of YAP1, in particular genes coding for antioxidant enzymes or involved in oxidation-reduction processes. By monitoring intracellular redox conditions within the cytosol and the ER using redox-sensitive roGFP1 variants, we could show that overexpression of YAP1 restores cellular redox conditions of protein-secreting P. pastoris by reoxidizing the cytosolic redox state to the levels of the wild type. These alterations are also reflected by increased levels of oxidized intracellular glutathione (GSSG in the YAP1 co-overexpressing strain. Taken together, these data indicate a strong impact of intracellular redox balance on the secretion of (recombinant proteins without affecting protein folding per se. Re-establishing suitable redox conditions by tuning the antioxidant capacity of the cell reduces metabolic load and cell stress caused by high oxidative protein folding load, thereby increasing the secretion capacity.

  9. The type III secreted protein BspR regulates the virulence genes in Bordetella bronchiseptica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Kurushima

    Full Text Available Bordetella bronchiseptica is closely related with B. pertussis and B. parapertussis, the causative agents of whooping cough. These pathogenic species share a number of virulence genes, including the gene locus for the type III secretion system (T3SS that delivers effector proteins. To identify unknown type III effectors in Bordetella, secreted proteins in the bacterial culture supernatants of wild-type B. bronchiseptica and an isogenic T3SS-deficient mutant were compared with iTRAQ-based, quantitative proteomic analysis method. BB1639, annotated as a hypothetical protein, was identified as a novel type III secreted protein and was designated BspR (Bordetella secreted protein regulator. The virulence of a BspR mutant (ΔbspR in B. bronchiseptica was significantly attenuated in a mouse infection model. BspR was also highly conserved in B. pertussis and B. parapertussis, suggesting that BspR is an essential virulence factor in these three Bordetella species. Interestingly, the BspR-deficient strain showed hyper-secretion of T3SS-related proteins. Furthermore, T3SS-dependent host cell cytotoxicity and hemolytic activity were also enhanced in the absence of BspR. By contrast, the expression of filamentous hemagglutinin, pertactin, and adenylate cyclase toxin was completely abolished in the BspR-deficient strain. Finally, we demonstrated that BspR is involved in the iron-responsive regulation of T3SS. Thus, Bordetella virulence factors are coordinately but inversely controlled by BspR, which functions as a regulator in response to iron starvation.

  10. Proteomic analysis of secreted proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings: improved recovery following removal of phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charmont, Stéphane; Jamet, Elisabeth; Pont-Lezica, Rafael; Canut, Hervé

    2005-02-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings grown in liquid culture were used to recover proteins secreted from the whole plant. The aim was to identify apoplastic proteins that may be lost during classical extraction procedures such as preparation of cell walls. The inclusion of polyvinyl-polypyrrolidone (PVPP) in the protocol of purification of secreted proteins allowed a more efficient identification of proteins after their separation by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry analyses. Improvement of identification was 4-fold. It is related to an increased number of detectable peaks on mass spectra increasing the percentage of sequence coverage, and the identification confidence. The role of PVPP was to trap phenolic compounds and to prevent their unspecific interactions with proteins. These experiments resulted in the identification of 44 secreted proteins, of which 70% were not identified in previous cell wall proteomic studies. This may be due to specific gene regulation in seedlings and/or to a better access to apoplastic proteins not bound to cell walls.

  11. Effect of secretory pathway gene overexpression on secretion of a fluorescent reporter protein in Aspergillus nidulans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schalén, Martin; Anyaogu, Diana Chinyere; Hoof, Jakob Blæsbjerg

    2016-01-01

    Background: The considerable capacity of filamentous fungi for the secretion of proteins is the basis for multi-billion dollar industries producing enzymes and proteins with therapeutic value. The stepwise pathway from translation to secretion is therefore well studied, and genes playing major...... roles in the process have been identified through transcriptomics. The assignment of function to these genes has been enabled in combination with gene deletion studies. In this work, 14 genes known to play a role in protein secretion in filamentous fungi were overexpressed in Aspergillus nidulans...... results indicate that increased expression may be a way for the cell to slow down secretion in order to cope with the increased protein load. By constructing a secretion reporter strain, the study demonstrates a robust way to study the secretion pathway in filamentous fungi....

  12. MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES AND RECOMBINANT PROTEINS OF FILOVIRUSES: IMMUNOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND EVALUATION OF THEIR EFFICIENCY FOR IMMUNE DIAGNOSTICS OF MARBURG AND EBOLA VIRUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Kazachinskaia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs against VP35, VP40 and NP viral proteins of Marburg and Ebola viruses, as well as recombinant VP35, VP40 and NP proteins were generated and tested for their capacity to specific immune reactions. Monoclonal antibodies to appropriate viral proteins effectively recognized the VP35, VP40 and NP recombinant proteins, thus allowing to develop a variant of a MAb-based ELISA analysis with different types of biotin-labeled MAbs, using these antibodies for capturing viral and recombinant antigens of Marburg and Ebola viruses. These techniques were able to detect viral and recombinant proteins in a concentration range between 1 and 150 ng/ml. We conclude that the recombinant VP35, VP40 and NP proteins of filoviruses, as well as MAbs against these viral proteins represent a promising tool for a new generation of immunodiagnostic kits and studying immunological features of filovirus infection.

  13. Identification of secreted proteins of Aspergillus oryzae associated with growth on solid cereal substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesebeke, R. te; Boussier, A.; Biezen, N. van; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den; Punt, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    Filamentous growth of Aspergillus oryzae on solid cereal substrates involves secretion of substrate converting enzymes and a solid substrate specific polarised hyphal growth phenotype. To identify proteins produced under these specific conditions, the extracts of A. oryzae grown on wheat-based media

  14. Caught in the act: discovering secreted proteins from fungi and oomycetes in action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, Doris; Grell, Morten Nedergaard; Jensen, Annette Bruun;

    -infected host systems. By methods such as TAST (transposon-assisted signal trapping) and PCR with degenerated primers, the libraries are screened for secreted proteins, especially enzymes, which are then further characterized. We investigate a fourth system, the mycorrhizal fungus Paxillus convolutus...

  15. Identification of secreted proteins of Aspergillus oryzae associated with growth on solid cereal substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesebeke, R. te; Boussier, A.; Biezen, N. van; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den; Punt, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    Filamentous growth of Aspergillus oryzae on solid cereal substrates involves secretion of substrate converting enzymes and a solid substrate specific polarised hyphal growth phenotype. To identify proteins produced under these specific conditions, the extracts of A. oryzae grown on wheat-based media

  16. A novel screening system for secretion of heterologous proteins in Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trip, Hein; van der Veek, Patricia J.; Renniers, Ton C.; Meima, Rob; Sagt, Cees M.; Mohrmann, Lisette; Kuipers, Oscar P.

    2011-01-01

    High-level production of secretory proteins in Bacillus subtilis leads to a stress response involving the two-component system CssRS and its target genes htrA and htrB. Here, we used this sensing system in a reporter strain in which gfp is under control of P(htrA), the secretion stress responsive pr

  17. Nuclear Engineering of Microalgae for High Yield Secretion of Recombinant Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos Martinez, Erick Miguel

    to the glycomodules, accumulation of a fusion protein was dramatically increased by up to 12 folds, with the maximum yield of 15 mg L-1. Characterization of the secreted Venus showed the presence of glycosylations and increased resistance to proteolytic degradation. The results from this thesis demonstrate...

  18. [Immunohistochemical research on human breast tumors using monoclonal antibodies to intermediate filament proteins. Cancer of the breast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gel'shteĭn, V I; Chipysheva, T A; Ermilova, V D; Litvinova, L V; Bannikov, G A

    1986-01-01

    Immunomorphologic study of 29 breast cancer cases using monoclonal antibodies to proteins of intermediate filaments shown to differentiate the lining epithelium from myoepithelium in the non-proliferating epithelial structures of the mamma, has shown the cells in the majority of tumours (according to the International WHO Classification defined as infiltrating ductal, lobular, and tubular cancer forms) to contain prekeratin (PK) C12, specific for normal lining epithelium, but not for the myoepithelium. In cases of cancer with chondroid metaplasia (a malignant variant of the so-called "mixed tumour") the cells contained PK E3, vimentin and structural myosin, normally specific for myoepithelium. The cell heterogenicity in PK C12 content or its absence noted in the infiltrating cancers with predominance of a solid component can indicate a high degree of tumour anaplasia. It is concluded that usage of monoclonal antibodies to PK C12, invariably found in the cells of fibrotic invasion foci, can be a useful indicator for early diagnosis of infiltrative tumour growth.

  19. Rivoflavin may interfere with on-line monitoring of secreted green fluorescence protein fusion proteins in Pichia pastoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valero Francisco

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Together with the development of optical sensors, fluorometry is becoming an increasingly attractive tool for the monitoring of cultivation processes. In this context, the green fluorescence protein (GFP has been proposed as a molecular reporter when fused to target proteins to study their subcellular localization or secretion behaviour. The present work evaluates the use of the GFP fusion partner for monitoring extracellular production of a Rhizopus oryzae lipase (ROL in Pichia pastoris by means of 2D-fluorimetric techniques Results In this study, the GFP-ROL fusion protein was successfully produced as a secreted fusion form in P. pastoris batch cultivations. Furthermore, both the fusion enzyme and the fluorescent protein (GFP S65T mutant retained their biological activity. However, when multiwavelength spectrofluorometry was used for extracellular fusion protein monitoring, riboflavin appeared as a major interfering component with GFP signal. Only when riboflavin was removed by ultrafiltration from cultivation supernatants, GFP fluorescence signal linearly correlated to lipase activity Conclusion P. pastoris appears to secrete/excrete significant amounts of riboflavin to the culture medium. When attempting to monitor extracellular protein production in P. pastoris using GFP fusions combined with multiwavelength spectrofluorimetric techniques, riboflavin may interfere with GFP fluorescence signal, thus limiting the application of some GFP variants for on-line extracellular recombinant protein quantification and monitoring purposes.

  20. Temperature-Induced Protein Secretion by Leishmania mexicana Modulates Macrophage Signalling and Function

    OpenAIRE

    Kasra Hassani; Elisabeth Antoniak; Armando Jardim; Martin Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Protozoan parasites of genus Leishmania are the causative agents of leishmaniasis. These digenetic microorganisms undergo a marked environmental temperature shift (TS) during transmission from the sandfly vector (ambient temperature, 25-26°C) to the mammalian host (37°C). We have observed that this TS induces a rapid and dramatic increase in protein release from Leishmania mexicana (cutaneous leishmaniasis) within 4 h. Proteomic identification of the TS-induced secreted proteins revealed 72 p...

  1. Protein acylation in the inhibition of insulin secretion by norepinephrine, somatostatin, galanin, and PGE2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Haiying; Straub, Susanne G; Sharp, Geoffrey W G

    2003-08-01

    The major physiological inhibitors of insulin secretion, norepinephrine, somatostatin, galanin, and prostaglandin E2, act via specific receptors that activate pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive G proteins. Four inhibitory mechanisms are known: 1) activation of ATP-sensitive K channels and repolarization of the beta-cell; 2) inhibition of L-type Ca2+ channels; 3) decreased activity of adenylyl cyclase; and 4) inhibition of exocytosis at a "distal" site in stimulus-secretion coupling. We have examined the underlying mechanisms of inhibition at this distal site. In rat pancreatic islets, 2-bromopalmitate, cerulenin, and polyunsaturated fatty acids, all of which suppress protein acyltransferase activity, blocked the distal inhibitory effects of norepinephrine in a concentration-dependent manner. In contrast, control compounds such as palmitate, 16-hydroxypalmitate, and etomoxir, which do not block protein acylation, had no effect. Furthermore, 2-bromopalmitate also blocked the distal inhibitory actions of somatostatin, galanin, and prostaglandin E2. Importantly, neither 2-bromopalmitate nor cerulenin affected the action of norepinephrine to decrease cAMP production. We also examined the effects of norepinephrine, 2-bromopalmitate, and cerulenin on palmitate metabolism. Palmitate oxidation and its incorporation into lipids seemed not to contribute to the effects of 2-bromopalmitate and cerulenin on norepinephrine action. These data suggest that protein acylation mediates the distal inhibitory effect on insulin secretion. We propose that the inhibitors of insulin secretion, acting via PTX-sensitive G proteins, activate a specific protein acyltransferase, causing the acylation of a protein or proteins critical to exocytosis. This particular acylation and subsequent disruption of the essential and precise interactions involved in core complex formation would block exocytosis.

  2. Dramatic secretion of recombinant protein expressed in tobacco cells with a designer glycopeptide tag is highly impacted by medium composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ningning; Dolan, Maureen; Wu, Di; Phillips, Gregory C; Xu, Jianfeng

    2016-12-01

    Cell growth medium composition has profound impacts on the O -glycosylation of a "designer" arabinogalactan protein-based module; full glycosylation is essential in directing efficient extracellular secretion of the tagged recombinant protein. Expression of recombinant proteins in plant cells as fusion with a de novo designed hydroxyproline (Hyp)-O-glycosylated peptide (HypGP) tag, termed HypGP engineering technology, resulted in dramatically increased secreted protein yields. This is due to the function of the HypGP tag as a molecular carrier in promoting efficient transport of conjoined proteins into culture media. To optimize the cell culture to achieve the best secreted protein yields, the medium effects on the cell growth and protein secretion were investigated using as a model system the tobacco BY-2 cell expressing enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) fused with a (SP)32 tag (32 tandem repeats of "Ser-Pro" motif). The (SP)32 tag was found to undergo two-stage Hyp-O-glycosylation in plant cells with the dramatic secretion of the conjoined EGFP correlating with the triggering of the second-stage glycosylation. The BY-2 cell culture in SH medium generated a high secreted protein yield (125 mg/L) with a low cell biomass accumulation (~7.5 gDW/L). In contrast, very low secreted protein yields (~1.5 mg/L) with a high cell biomass accumulation (13.5 gDW/L) were obtained in MS medium. The macronutrients, specifically, the nitrogen supply greatly impacted the glycosylation of the (SP)32 tag and subsequent protein secretion. Modified MS medium with reduced nitrogen levels boosted the secreted EGFP yields to 168 mg/L. This study demonstrates the profound impacts of medium composition on the secreted yields of a HypGP-tagged protein, and provides a basis for medium design to achieve the highest productivity of the HypGP engineering technology.

  3. Amyloid precursor protein is trafficked and secreted via synaptic vesicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teja W Groemer

    Full Text Available A large body of evidence has implicated amyloid precursor protein (APP and its proteolytic derivatives as key players in the physiological context of neuronal synaptogenesis and synapse maintenance, as well as in the pathology of Alzheimer's Disease (AD. Although APP processing and release are known to occur in response to neuronal stimulation, the exact mechanism by which APP reaches the neuronal surface is unclear. We now demonstrate that a small but relevant number of synaptic vesicles contain APP, which can be released during neuronal activity, and most likely represent the major exocytic pathway of APP. This novel finding leads us to propose a revised model of presynaptic APP trafficking that reconciles existing knowledge on APP with our present understanding of vesicular release and recycling.

  4. Estrogen stimulates release of secreted amyloid precursor protein from primary rat cortical neurons via protein kinase C pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun ZHANG; Ying HUANG; Yi-chun ZHU; Tai YAO

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the mechanism of the action of estrogen, which stimulates the release of secreted amyloid precursor protein α (sAPPα) and decreases the gen eration of amyloid-β protein (Aβ), a dominant component in senile plaques in the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients. Methods: Experiments were carried out inprimary rat cortical neurons, and Western blot was used to detect sAPPα in aculture medium and the total amount of cellular amyloid precursor protein (APP) in neurons. Results: 17β-Estradiol (but not 17α-estradiol) and β-estradiol 6-(Ocarboxymethyl) oxime: BSA increased the secretion of sAPPα and this effect was blocked by protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor calphostin C, but not by the classical estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780. Meanwhile, 17β-estradiol did not alter the synthesis of cellular APP. Conclusion: The effect of 17β-estradiol on sAPPα secretion is likely mediated through the membrane binding sites, and needs molecular configuration specificity of the ligand. Furthermore, the action of the PKC dependent pathway might be involved in estrogen-induced sAPPα secretion.

  5. Gene delivery into primary brain capillary endothelial cells for protein secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Annette Burkhart; Thomsen, Louiza Bohn; Lichota, Jacek

    material into BCECs, which, theoretically, will result in expression and secretion of the recombinant protein from the BCECs and into the brain, thus turning BCECs into small recombinant protein factories. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of using BCECs as small factories......-endothelial electrical resistance above 200 ohm*cm2, indicating that the BCECs formed a tight polar monolayer with functional tight junctions. This was confirmed by immunostaining for the thigh junction protein ZO-1. Rat BCECs were transfected with a red fluorescence protein Hc-RED for 24 hours. Positive transfection...

  6. Preconcentrating (within the broth) secreted extracellular proteins during a bakers' yeast fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Effler, W.T. Jr.; Pandey, N.K.; Tanner, R.D.; Malaney, G.W.; Scott, C.D. (ed.)

    1986-01-01

    Proteins secreted by yeast during the fermentation process are spacially fractionated (concentrated at a particular vertical position) within the fermentation vessel due to the phenomenon of bubble fractionation, despite moderately vigorous mixing. The degree of fractionation is influenced by the conditions in which the fermentation takes place. The broth pH strongly influences the extent of fractionation of specific proteins. In addition fractionation is enhanced under anaerobic conditions, presumably because there are more CO2 bubbles present for hydrophobic protein adsorption. The addition of moderate levels of salt to the broth reduces the fractionation for most (but not all) of the proteins.

  7. A Rapid Method for Determining the Concentration of Recombinant Protein Secreted from Pichia pastoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L. W.; Zhao, Y.; Niu, L. P.; Jiang, R.; Song, Y.; Feng, H.; feng, K.; Qi, C.

    2011-02-01

    Pichia secretive expression system is one of powerful eukaryotic expression systems in genetic engineering, which is especially suitable for industrial utilization. Because of the low concentration of the target protein in initial experiment, the methods and conditions for expression of the target protein should be optimized according to the protein yield repetitively. It is necessary to set up a rapid, simple and convenient analysis method for protein expression levels instead of the generally used method such as ultrafiltration, purification, dialysis, lyophilization and so on. In this paper, acetone precipitation method was chosen to concentrate the recombinant protein firstly after comparing with four different protein precipitation methods systematically, and then the protein was analyzed by SDS-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis. The recombinant protein was determined with the feature of protein band by the Automated Image Capture and 1-D Analysis Software directly. With this method, the optimized expression conditions of basic fibroblast growth factor secreted from pichia were obtained, which is as the same as using traditional methods. Hence, a convenient tool to determine the optimized conditions for the expression of recombinant proteins in Pichia was established.

  8. A structurally informed autotransporter platform for efficient heterologous protein secretion and display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Wouter SP

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The self-sufficient autotransporter (AT pathway, ubiquitous in Gram-negative bacteria, combines a relatively simple protein secretion mechanism with a high transport capacity. ATs consist of a secreted passenger domain and a β-domain that facilitates transfer of the passenger across the cell-envelope. They have a great potential for the extracellular expression of recombinant proteins but their exploitation has suffered from the limited structural knowledge of carrier ATs. Capitalizing on its crystal structure, we have engineered the Escherichia coli AT Hemoglobin protease (Hbp into a platform for the secretion and surface display of heterologous proteins, using the Mycobacterium tuberculosis vaccine target ESAT6 as a model protein. Results Based on the Hbp crystal structure, five passenger side domains were selected and one by one replaced by ESAT6, whereas a β-helical core structure (β-stem was left intact. The resulting Hbp-ESAT6 chimeras were efficiently and stably secreted into the culture medium of E. coli. On the other hand, Hbp-ESAT6 fusions containing a truncated β-stem appeared unstable after translocation, demonstrating the importance of an intact β-stem. By interrupting the cleavage site between passenger and β-domain, Hbp-ESAT6 display variants were constructed that remain cell associated and facilitate efficient surface exposure of ESAT6 as judged by proteinase K accessibility and whole cell immuno-EM analysis. Upon replacement of the passenger side domain of an alternative AT, EspC, ESAT6 was also efficiently secreted, showing the approach is more generally applicable to ATs. Furthermore, Hbp-ESAT6 was efficiently displayed in an attenuated Salmonella typhimurium strain upon chromosomal integration of a single encoding gene copy, demonstrating the potential of the Hbp platform for live vaccine development. Conclusions We developed the first structurally informed AT platform for efficient secretion and

  9. Electrostatic model for protein adsorption in ion-exchange chromatography and application to monoclonal antibodies, lysozyme and chymotrypsinogen A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guélat, Bertrand; Ströhlein, Guido; Lattuada, Marco; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2010-08-27

    A model for the adsorption equilibrium of proteins in ion-exchange chromatography explicitly accounting for the effect of pH and salt concentration in the limit of highly diluted systems was developed. It is based on the use of DLVO theory to estimate the electrostatic interactions between the charged surface of the ion-exchanger and the proteins. The corresponding charge distributions were evaluated as a function of pH and salt concentration using a molecular approach. The model was verified for the adsorption equilibrium of lysozyme, chymotrypsinogen A and four industrial monoclonal antibodies on two strong cation-exchangers. The adsorption equilibrium constants of these proteins were determined experimentally at various pH values and salt concentrations and the model was fitted with a good agreement using three adjustable parameters for each protein in the whole range of experimental conditions. Despite the simplifications of the model regarding the geometry of the protein-ion-exchanger system, the physical meaning of the parameters was retained.

  10. Rotating wall vessel exposure alters protein secretion and global gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, Helena; O'Neill, Alex J.; Blake, Katy L.; Walther, Meik; Long, Paul F.; Hinds, Jason; Taylor, Peter W.

    2012-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is routinely recovered from air and surface samples taken aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and poses a health threat to crew. As bacteria respond to the low shear forces engendered by continuous rotation conditions in a Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) and the reduced gravitational field of near-Earth flight by altering gene expression, we examined the effect of low-shear RWV growth on protein secretion and gene expression by three S. aureus isolates. When cultured under 1 g, the total amount of protein secreted by these strains varied up to fourfold; under continuous rotation conditions, protein secretion by all three strains was significantly reduced. Concentrations of individual proteins were differentially reduced and no evidence was found for increased lysis. These data suggest that growth under continuous rotation conditions reduces synthesis or secretion of proteins. A limited number of changes in gene expression under continuous rotation conditions were noted: in all isolates vraX, a gene encoding a polypeptide associated with cell wall stress, was down-regulated. A vraX deletion mutant of S. aureus SH1000 was constructed: no differences were found between SH1000 and ΔvraX with respect to colony phenotype, viability, protein export, antibiotic susceptibility, vancomycin kill kinetics, susceptibility to cold or heat and gene modulation. An ab initio protein-ligand docking simulation suggests a major binding site for β-lactam drugs such as imipenem. If such changes to the bacterial phenotype occur during spaceflight, they will compromise the capacity of staphylococci to cause systemic infection and to circumvent antibacterial chemotherapy.

  11. Reovirus genome segment assortment into progeny genomes studied by the use of monoclonal antibodies directed against reovirus proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antczak, J B; Joklik, W K

    1992-04-01

    Using a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MABs) against reovirus proteins, we have identified proteins that associate with reovirus messenger RNA molecules prior to the generation of progeny double-stranded (ds) genome segments and proteins that are components of the structures within which progeny ds genome segments are generated. The following conclusions can be drawn from the results obtained. (1) Three proteins rapidly become associated with mRNA molecules to form single-stranded RNA-containing complexes (ssRCCs): the nonstructural protein microNS, the nonstructural protein sigma NS, and protein sigma 3. (2) Analysis of populations of ssRCCs in density gradients and by sequential exposure to various MABs indicates that some ssRCCs contain only microNS, others microNS and sigma NS or sigma 3, and others all three proteins. Each ssRCC contains one RNA molecule and, depending on the size of the RNA, 10-30 protein molecules. (3) The relative proportions of the individual RNA species in the ssRCC populations reflect the composition of the total mRNA population present in infected cells (which differs substantially from equimolarity). (4) RCCs that contain dsRNA, which become detectable as early as 4 hr after infection, contain not only microNS, sigma NS, and sigma 3, but also lambda 2. (5) The relative proportions of the 10 genome segments in dsRCCs are equimolar. This suggests that genome segment assortment into progeny genomes is linked to the transcription of plus strands into minus strands.

  12. Combination of hydrogel nanoparticles and proteomics to reveal secreted proteins associated with decidualization of human uterine stromal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephens Andrew N

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of secreted proteins of low abundance is often limited by abundant and high molecular weight (MW proteins. We have optimised a procedure to overcome this limitation. Results Low MW proteins in the conditioned media of cultured cells were first captured using dual-size exclusion/affinity hydrogel nanoparticles and their identities were then revealed by proteomics. Conclusions This technique enables the analysis of secreted proteins of cultured cells low MW and low abundance.

  13. Proteomics informed by transcriptomics identifies novel secreted proteins in Dermacentor andersoni saliva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudenda, Lwiindi; Aguilar Pierle, Sebastian; Turse, Joshua E.; Scoles, Glen A.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Clauss, Therese RW; Ueti, Massaro W.; Brown, Wendy C.; Brayton, Kelly A.

    2014-08-07

    Dermacentor andersoni, known as the Rocky Mountain wood tick, is found in the western United States and transmits pathogens that cause diseases of veterinary and public health importance including Rocky Mountain spotted fever, tularemia, Colorado tick fever and bovine anaplasmosis. Tick saliva is known to modulate both innate and acquired immune responses, enabling ticks to feed for several days without detection. During feeding ticks subvert host defences such as hemostasis and inflammation, which would otherwise result in coagulation, wound repair and rejection of the tick. Molecular characterization of the proteins and pharmacological molecules secreted in tick saliva offers an opportunity to develop tick vaccines as an alternative to the use of acaricides, as well as new anti-inflammatory drugs. We performed proteomics informed by transcriptomics to identify D. andersoni saliva proteins that are secreted during feeding. The transcript data generated a database of 21,797 consensus sequences, which we used to identify 677 proteins secreted in the saliva of D. andersoni ticks fed for 2 and 5 days, following proteomic investigations of whole saliva using mass spectrometry. Salivary gland transcript levels of unfed ticks were compared with 2 and 5 day fed ticks to identify genes upregulated early during tick feeding. We cross-referenced the proteomic data with the transcriptomic data to identify 157 proteins of interest for immunomodulation and blood feeding. Proteins of unknown function as well as known immunomodulators were identified.

  14. Oit1/Fam3D, a gut-secreted protein displaying nutritional status-dependent regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Nicole J W; IJssennagger, Noortje; Oosterink, Els; Keshtkar, Shohreh; Hooiveld, Guido J E J; Mensink, Ronald P; Hammer, Sebastiaan; Smit, Johannes W A; Müller, Michael; van der Meer, Roelof

    2012-11-01

    Oncoprotein-induced transcript 1 (Oit1) was previously identified as a dietary fat-induced gene in the small intestine of C57Bl/6J mice. In this study, we further characterized Oit1 and its human ortholog family with sequence similarity 3, member D (Fam3D), on the messenger RNA as well as the protein level. Oit1 and Fam3D were found to be predominantly expressed in the gastrointestinal tract of mice and humans, respectively. Dietary fat induced a clear and acute up-regulation of Oit1, especially in the jejunum, whereas fasting led to a reduced gene expression in the small intestine. Regarding protein expression, we found a remarkable pattern of Oit1 along the longitudinal axis of the intestine, a predominant villus-restricted expression in the proximal small intestine and a more pronounced crypt expression in the distal parts of the intestine. Using transfection experiments, we confirmed secretion of the Oit1 protein, as was predicted by a signal peptide sequence. Detection of Oit1 and Fam3D in plasma samples indicated that both proteins are secreted to the basolateral site of enterocytes. Moreover, in human plasma samples, we also found an effect of nutritional status on Fam3D levels, with a postprandial elevation and a reduction after fasting. In conclusion, Oit1 and Fam3D are gut-derived proteins that are expressed and secreted in a nutritional status-dependent manner.

  15. Mussel adhesion is dictated by time-regulated secretion and molecular conformation of mussel adhesive proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrone, Luigi; Kumar, Akshita; Sutanto, Clarinda N.; Patil, Navinkumar J.; Kannan, Srinivasaraghavan; Palaniappan, Alagappan; Amini, Shahrouz; Zappone, Bruno; Verma, Chandra; Miserez, Ali

    2015-10-01

    Interfacial water constitutes a formidable barrier to strong surface bonding, hampering the development of water-resistant synthetic adhesives. Notwithstanding this obstacle, the Asian green mussel Perna viridis attaches firmly to underwater surfaces via a proteinaceous secretion (byssus). Extending beyond the currently known design principles of mussel adhesion, here we elucidate the precise time-regulated secretion of P. viridis mussel adhesive proteins. The vanguard 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (Dopa)-rich protein Pvfp-5 acts as an adhesive primer, overcoming repulsive hydration forces by displacing surface-bound water and generating strong surface adhesion. Using homology modelling and molecular dynamics simulations, we find that all mussel adhesive proteins are largely unordered, with Pvfp-5 adopting a disordered structure and elongated conformation whereby all Dopa residues reside on the protein surface. Time-regulated secretion and structural disorder of mussel adhesive proteins appear essential for optimizing extended nonspecific surface interactions and byssus' assembly. Our findings reveal molecular-scale principles to help the development of wet-resistant adhesives.

  16. Rac Regulates Giardia lamblia Encystation by Coordinating Cyst Wall Protein Trafficking and Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krtková, Jana; Thomas, Elizabeth B; Alas, Germain C M; Schraner, Elisabeth M; Behjatnia, Habib R; Hehl, Adrian B; Paredez, Alexander R

    2016-08-23

    Encystation of the common intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia involves the production, trafficking, and secretion of cyst wall material (CWM). However, the molecular mechanism responsible for the regulation of these sequential processes remains elusive. Here, we examined the role of GlRac, Giardia's sole Rho family GTPase, in the regulation of endomembrane organization and cyst wall protein (CWP) trafficking. Localization studies indicated that GlRac is associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi apparatus-like encystation-specific vesicles (ESVs). Constitutive GlRac signaling increased levels of the ER marker PDI2, induced ER swelling, reduced overall CWP1 production, and promoted the early maturation of ESVs. Quantitative analysis of cells expressing constitutively active hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged GlRac (HA-Rac(CA)) revealed fewer but larger ESVs than control cells. Consistent with the phenotype of premature maturation of ESVs in HA-Rac(CA)-expressing cells, constitutive GlRac signaling resulted in increased CWP1 secretion and, conversely, morpholino depletion of GlRac blocked CWP1 secretion. Wild-type cells unexpectedly secreted large quantities of CWP1 into the medium, and free CWP1 was used cooperatively during cyst formation. These results, in part, could account for the previously reported observation that G. lamblia encysts more efficiently at high cell densities. These studies of GlRac show that it regulates encystation at several levels, and our findings support its coordinating role as a regulator of CWP trafficking and secretion. The central role of GlRac in regulating membrane trafficking and the cytoskeleton, both of which are essential to Giardia parasitism, further suggests its potential as a novel target for drug development to treat giardiasis. The encystation process is crucial for the transmission of giardiasis and the life cycle of many protists. Encystation for Giardia lamblia involves the assembly of a protective cyst wall

  17. Quantitation of soluble aggregates in recombinant monoclonal antibody cell culture by pH-gradient protein A chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hai; Chen, Ken; Pulisic, Matt; Apostol, Izydor; Huang, Gang

    2009-05-15

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) produced from mammalian cell culture may contain significant amounts of dimers and higher order aggregates. Quantitation of soluble aggregates in the cell culture is time-consuming and labor-intensive, usually involving a purification step to remove the impurities that interfere with the subsequent size exclusion chromatography (SEC) analysis. We have developed a novel pH-gradient protein A chromatography for rapid, non-size based separation of the aggregates in mAb cell culture samples. Our results demonstrate that this method has excellent correlation with SEC and can be applied to both human immunoglobulin gamma 1 (IgG1) and IgG2 antibodies. This approach can be useful in the quantitation of soluble aggregates in crude cell culture samples.

  18. Identification of IgE-binding proteins from Lepidoglyphus destructor and production of monoclonal antibodies to a major allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventas, P; Carreira, J; Polo, F

    1991-08-01

    The allergen composition of one of the most important storage mites, Lepidoglyphus destructor, has been studied by immunodetection after SDS-PAGE with individual patient sera. An allergenic polypeptide of 14 kDa was identified with 95% of the sera. This major allergen was isolated in the supernatant of 60% ammonium sulfate salt precipitation of the whole extract, which was subsequently used to immunize BALB/c mice so as to produce monoclonal antibodies. Four mAbs recognizing molecules with IgE-binding ability were obtained. The specificity of the mAbs was assayed against different allergenic extracts, and the molecules recognized by them were characterized by immunoblotting. Two mAbs (Le5B5 and Le9E4) were directed to the 14-kDa allergen; the other two to several proteins of lesser allergenic significance.

  19. Engineering human cells for in vivo secretion of antibody and non-antibody therapeutic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Martín, David; Sanz, Laura; Álvarez-Vallina, Luis

    2011-12-01

    Purified proteins such as antibodies are widely used as therapeutic agents in clinical medicine. However, clinical-grade proteins for therapeutic use require sophisticated technologies and are extremely expensive to produce. In vivo secretion of therapeutic proteins by genetically engineered human cells may advantageously replace injection of highly purified proteins. The use of gene transfer methods circumvents problems related to large-scale production and purification and offers additional benefits by achieving sustained concentrations of therapeutic protein with a syngenic glycosylation pattern that make the protein potentially less immunogenic. The feasibility of the in vivo production of therapeutic proteins by diverse cells/tissues has now been demonstrated using different techniques, such as ex vivo genetically modified cells and in vivo gene transfer mediated by viral vectors.

  20. Selective condensation drives partitioning and sequential secretion of cyst wall proteins in differentiating Giardia lamblia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Konrad

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Controlled secretion of a protective extracellular matrix is required for transmission of the infective stage of a large number of protozoan and metazoan parasites. Differentiating trophozoites of the highly minimized protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia secrete the proteinaceous portion of the cyst wall material (CWM consisting of three paralogous cyst wall proteins (CWP1-3 via organelles termed encystation-specific vesicles (ESVs. Phylogenetic and molecular data indicate that Diplomonads have lost a classical Golgi during reductive evolution. However, neogenesis of ESVs in encysting Giardia trophozoites transiently provides basic Golgi functions by accumulating presorted CWM exported from the ER for maturation. Based on this "minimal Golgi" hypothesis we predicted maturation of ESVs to a trans Golgi-like stage, which would manifest as a sorting event before regulated secretion of the CWM. Here we show that proteolytic processing of pro-CWP2 in maturing ESVs coincides with partitioning of CWM into two fractions, which are sorted and secreted sequentially with different kinetics. This novel sorting function leads to rapid assembly of a structurally defined outer cyst wall, followed by slow secretion of the remaining components. Using live cell microscopy we find direct evidence for condensed core formation in maturing ESVs. Core formation suggests that a mechanism controlled by phase transitions of the CWM from fluid to condensed and back likely drives CWM partitioning and makes sorting and sequential secretion possible. Blocking of CWP2 processing by a protease inhibitor leads to mis-sorting of a CWP2 reporter. Nevertheless, partitioning and sequential secretion of two portions of the CWM are unaffected in these cells. Although these cysts have a normal appearance they are not water resistant and therefore not infective. Our findings suggest that sequential assembly is a basic architectural principle of protective wall formation and requires

  1. Stability of buffer-free freeze-dried formulations: A feasibility study of a monoclonal antibody at high protein concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garidel, Patrick; Pevestorf, Benjamin; Bahrenburg, Sven

    2015-11-01

    We studied the stability of freeze-dried therapeutic protein formulations over a range of initial concentrations (from 40 to 160 mg/mL) and employed a variety of formulation strategies (including buffer-free freeze dried formulations, or BF-FDF). Highly concentrated, buffer-free liquid formulations of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been shown to be a viable alternative to conventionally buffered preparations. We considered whether it is feasible to use the buffer-free strategy in freeze-dried formulations, as an answer to some of the known drawbacks of conventional buffers. We therefore conducted an accelerated stability study (24 weeks at 40 °C) to assess the feasibility of stabilizing freeze-dried formulations without "classical" buffer components. Factors monitored included pH stability, protein integrity, and protein aggregation. Because the protein solutions are inherently self-buffering, and the system's buffer capacity scales with protein concentration, we included highly concentrated buffer-free freeze-dried formulations in the study. The tested formulations ranged from "fully formulated" (containing both conventional buffer and disaccharide stabilizers) to "buffer-free" (including formulations with only disaccharide lyoprotectant stabilizers) to "excipient-free" (with neither added buffers nor stabilizers). We evaluated the impacts of varying concentrations, buffering schemes, pHs, and lyoprotectant additives. At the end of 24 weeks, no change in pH was observed in any of the buffer-free formulations. Unbuffered formulations were found to have shorter reconstitution times and lower opalescence than buffered formulations. Protein stability was assessed by visual inspection, sub-visible particle analysis, protein monomer content, charge variants analysis, and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. All of these measures found the stability of buffer-free formulations that included a disaccharide stabilizer comparable to buffer

  2. Metformin directly inhibits ghrelin secretion through AMP-activated protein kinase in rat primary gastric cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, J; Sheppard, E; Anini, Y

    2013-03-01

    The antidiabetic drug Metformin causes weight loss in both diabetic and non-diabetic individuals. Metformin treatment is also associated with lower circulating levels of the orexigenic hormone ghrelin. To test whether Metformin directly affects ghrelin cells, rat primary stomach cells were treated with Metformin and the levels of ghrelin secretion, proghrelin gene expression and activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) were examined. Metformin significantly reduced ghrelin secretion and proghrelin mRNA production and both these effects were blocked by co-incubation with the AMPK inhibitor compound C. Furthermore, the AMPK activator 5-amino-1-β-D-ribofuranosyl-imidazole-4-carboxamide (AICAR) significantly inhibited ghrelin secretion. Additionally, ghrelin cells were shown to express AMPK. Finally, Metformin treatment caused a significant increase in the level of phosphorylated (active) AMPK. Our results show that Metformin directly inhibits stomach ghrelin production and secretion through AMPK. This reduction in ghrelin secretion may be one of the key components in Metformin's mechanism of weight loss.

  3. Expression, Purification, and Biophysical Characterization of a Secreted Anthrax Decoy Fusion Protein in Nicotiana benthamiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppanan, Kalimuthu; Duhra-Gill, Sifti; Kailemia, Muchena J.; Phu, My L.; Lebrilla, Carlito B.; Dandekar, Abhaya M.; Rodriguez, Raymond L.; Nandi, Somen; McDonald, Karen A.

    2017-01-01

    Anthrax toxin receptor-mediated drug development for blocking anthrax toxin action has received much attention in recent decades. In this study, we produced a secreted anthrax decoy fusion protein comprised of a portion of the human capillary morphogenesis gene-2 (CMG2) protein fused via a linker to the fragment crystallizable (Fc) domain of human immunoglobulin G1 in Nicotiana benthamiana plants using a transient expression system. Using the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV) 35S promoter and co-expression with the p19 gene silencing suppressor, we were able to achieve a high level of recombinant CMG2-Fc-Apo (rCMG2-Fc-Apo) protein accumulation. Production kinetics were observed up to eight days post-infiltration, and maximum production of 826 mg/kg fresh leaf weight was observed on day six. Protein A affinity chromatography purification of the rCMG2-Fc-Apo protein from whole leaf extract and apoplast wash fluid showed the homodimeric form under non-reducing gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry analysis confirmed the molecular integrity of the secreted protein. The N-glycosylation pattern of purified rCMG2-Fc-Apo protein was analysed; the major portion of N-glycans consists of complex type structures in both protein samples. The most abundant (>50%) N-glycan structure was GlcNAc2(Xyl)Man3(Fuc)GlcNAc2 in rCMG2-Fc-Apo recovered from whole leaf extract and apoplast wash fluid. High mannose N-glycan structures were not detected in the apoplast wash fluid preparation, which confirmed the protein secretion. Altogether, these findings demonstrate that high-level production of rCMG2-Fc-Apo can be achieved by transient production in Nicotiana benthamiana plants with apoplast targeting. PMID:28054967

  4. Expression, Purification, and Biophysical Characterization of a Secreted Anthrax Decoy Fusion Protein in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppanan, Kalimuthu; Duhra-Gill, Sifti; Kailemia, Muchena J; Phu, My L; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Dandekar, Abhaya M; Rodriguez, Raymond L; Nandi, Somen; McDonald, Karen A

    2017-01-04

    Anthrax toxin receptor-mediated drug development for blocking anthrax toxin action has received much attention in recent decades. In this study, we produced a secreted anthrax decoy fusion protein comprised of a portion of the human capillary morphogenesis gene-2 (CMG2) protein fused via a linker to the fragment crystallizable (Fc) domain of human immunoglobulin G1 in Nicotiana benthamiana plants using a transient expression system. Using the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV) 35S promoter and co-expression with the p19 gene silencing suppressor, we were able to achieve a high level of recombinant CMG2-Fc-Apo (rCMG2-Fc-Apo) protein accumulation. Production kinetics were observed up to eight days post-infiltration, and maximum production of 826 mg/kg fresh leaf weight was observed on day six. Protein A affinity chromatography purification of the rCMG2-Fc-Apo protein from whole leaf extract and apoplast wash fluid showed the homodimeric form under non-reducing gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry analysis confirmed the molecular integrity of the secreted protein. The N-glycosylation pattern of purified rCMG2-Fc-Apo protein was analysed; the major portion of N-glycans consists of complex type structures in both protein samples. The most abundant (>50%) N-glycan structure was GlcNAc₂(Xyl)Man₃(Fuc)GlcNAc₂ in rCMG2-Fc-Apo recovered from whole leaf extract and apoplast wash fluid. High mannose N-glycan structures were not detected in the apoplast wash fluid preparation, which confirmed the protein secretion. Altogether, these findings demonstrate that high-level production of rCMG2-Fc-Apo can be achieved by transient production in Nicotiana benthamiana plants with apoplast targeting.

  5. Comparative proteomic analysis of extracellular matrix proteins secreted by hypertrophic scar with normal skin fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ma

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The formation of hypertrophic scars (HSs is a fibroproliferative disorder of abnormal wound healing. HSs usually characterize excessive proliferation of fibroblasts, abnormal deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM during wound healing, associated with cosmetic, functional, and psychological problems. Owing to the role of ECM proteins in scar formation, we comparatively analyzed matrix proteins secreted by normal skin fibroblasts (NSFs and HS fibroblasts (HSFs. The acetone-extracted secreted proteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE, and identified by mass spectrometry (MS. Based on Go annotation of MS data, the profiling of ECM proteins was established and scar-related proteins have been screened out. The functions of several ECM proteins identified by MS have been discussed, such as collagens I, VI, XII, fibronectin, decorin, lumican, and protein procollagen C endopeptidase enhancer 1 (PCPE-1. Among them, the MS result of PCPE-1 was supported by Western blotting that PCPE-1 from HSFs were significantly upregulated than that from NSFs. It is suggested that PCPE-1 could be a potential target for scar treatment. The exploration of scar related proteins may provide new perspectives on understanding the mechanism of scar formation and open a new way to scar treatment and prevention.

  6. Development and use of a monoclonal antibody to detect semi-digested proteins of the English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae, in the guts of ladybird beetle predators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, S.J.; Zhou, X.R.; Pang, B.P.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Zhao, G.Q.

    2009-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody (McAb), EGA-4A9, was developed to detect the semi-digested proteins of the English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), in predatory ladybird beetles (species of the genera Adonia, Coccinella, Hippodamia, and Propylea) using the gut homogenate of Ado

  7. Consuming viscous prey: a novel protein-secreting delivery system in neotropical snail-eating snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Efficient venom delivery systems are known to occur only in varanoid lizards and advanced colubroidean snakes among squamate reptiles. Although components of these venomous systems might have been present in a common ancestor, the two lineages independently evolved strikingly different venom gland systems. In snakes, venom is produced exclusively by serous glands in the upper jaw. Within the colubroidean radiation, lower jaw seromucous infralabial glands are known only in two distinct lineages–the basal pareatids and the more advanced Neotropical dipsadines known as “goo-eating snakes”. Goo-eaters are a highly diversified, ecologically specialized clade that feeds exclusively on invertebrates (e.g., gastropod molluscs and annelids). Their evolutionary success has been attributed to their peculiar feeding strategies, which remain surprisingly poorly understood. More specifically, it has long been thought that the more derived Dipsadini genera Dipsas and Sibynomorphus use glandular toxins secreted by their infralabial glands to extract snails from their shells. Results Here, we report the presence in the tribe Dipsadini of a novel lower jaw protein-secreting delivery system effected by a gland that is not functionally related to adjacent teeth, but rather opens loosely on the oral epithelium near the tip of the mandible, suggesting that its secretion is not injected into the prey as a form of envenomation but rather helps control the mucus and assists in the ingestion of their highly viscous preys. A similar protein-secreting system is also present in the goo-eating genus Geophis and may share the same adaptive purpose as that hypothesized for Dipsadini. Our phylogenetic hypothesis suggests that the acquisition of a seromucous infralabial gland represents a uniquely derived trait of the goo-eating clade that evolved independently twice within the group as a functionally complex protein-secreting delivery system. Conclusions The acquisition by snail

  8. Pmp-like proteins Pls1 and Pls2 are secreted into the lumen of the Chlamydia trachomatis inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Ine; Valdivia, Raphael H

    2008-09-01

    The obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis secretes effector proteins across the membrane of the pathogen-containing vacuole (inclusion) to modulate host cellular functions. In an immunological screen for secreted chlamydial proteins, we identified CT049 and CT050 as potential inclusion membrane-associated proteins. These acidic, nonglobular proteins are paralogously related to the passenger domain of the polymorphic membrane protein PmpC and, like other Pmp proteins, are highly polymorphic among C. trachomatis ocular and urogenital strains. We generated antibodies to these Pmp-like secreted (Pls) proteins and determined by immunofluorescence microscopy that Pls1 (CT049) and Pls2 (CT050) localized to globular structures within the inclusion lumen and at the inclusion membrane. Fractionation of membranes and cytoplasmic components from infected cells by differential and density gradient centrifugation further indicated that Pls1 and Pls2 associated with membranes distinct from the bulk of bacterial and inclusion membranes. The accumulation of Pls1 and, to a lesser extent, Pls2 in the inclusion lumen was insensitive to the type III secretion inhibitor C1, suggesting that this translocation system is not essential for Pls protein secretion. In contrast, Pls secretion and stability were sensitive to low levels of beta-lactam antibiotics, suggesting that a functional cell wall is required for Pls secretion from the bacterial cell. Finally, we tested the requirement for these proteins in Chlamydia infection by microinjecting anti-Pls1 and anti-Pls2 antibodies into infected cells. Coinjection of anti-Pls1 and -Pls2 antibodies partially inhibited expansion of the inclusion. Because Pls proteins lack classical sec-dependent secretion signals, we propose that Pls proteins are secreted into the inclusion lumen by a novel mechanism to regulate events important for chlamydial replication and inclusion expansion.

  9. Bone morphogenetic protein-4 enhances vascular endothelial growth factor secretion by human retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Rhonda R; Unda, Richard; Yeh, Lee-Chuan C; Vidro, Eileen K; Lee, John C; Tsin, Andrew T

    2006-08-01

    Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells secrete vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a cytokine known to promote angiogenesis. Results from RNase protection assays (RPAs) show that RPE from non-diabetic human donors and from adult retinal pigment epithelium-19 (ARPE-19) cells expressed significant bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4) message. In addition, ARPE-19 cells cultured in high glucose (25 mM), compared to those in physiological glucose (5.5 mM) released significantly more BMP-4 into the conditioned media (CM). However, the effect of BMP-4 on the release of VEGF by ARPE-19 cells has not been studied. Accordingly, ARPE-19 cells were treated with BMP-4 to determine VEGF secretion. BMP-4 and VEGF levels in the CM and cell lysates were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cells treated with exogenous BMP-4 had higher VEGF in the CM and this treatment effect was dose- and time-dependent, while cell lysates had low levels of VEGF. Addition of cycloheximide (CHX) or actinomycin-D (ACT) significantly reduced VEGF secretion from cells treated with BMP-4, suggesting that the BMP-4-induced secretion of VEGF requires new RNA and protein synthesis. Our results suggest that BMP-4 may play a role in the regulation of ocular angiogenesis associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR) by stimulating VEGF release from RPE cells.

  10. Heterologous protein secretion in Lactobacilli with modified pSIP vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Lea Karlskås

    Full Text Available We describe new variants of the modular pSIP-vectors for inducible gene expression and protein secretion in lactobacilli. The basic functionality of the pSIP system was tested in Lactobacillus strains representing 14 species using pSIP411, which harbors the broad-host-range Lactococcus lactis SH71rep replicon and a β-glucuronidase encoding reporter gene. In 10 species, the inducible gene expression system was functional. Based on these results, three pSIP vectors with different signal peptides were modified by replacing their narrow-host-range L. plantarum 256rep replicon with SH71rep and transformed into strains of five different species of Lactobacillus. All recombinant strains secreted the target protein NucA, albeit with varying production levels and secretion efficiencies. The Lp_3050 derived signal peptide generally resulted in the highest levels of secreted NucA. These modified pSIP vectors are useful tools for engineering a wide variety of Lactobacillus species.

  11. Monoclonal antibody-glial-derived neurotrophic factor fusion protein penetrates the blood-brain barrier in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing-Hui; Boado, Ruben J; Lu, Jeff Zhiqiang; Hui, Eric Ka-Wai; Pardridge, William M

    2010-04-01

    Glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a potent neuroprotective agent for multiple brain disorders, including Parkinson's disease. However, GDNF drug development is difficult because GDNF does not cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). To enable future drug development of GDNF in mouse models, the neurotrophin was re-engineered as an IgG fusion protein to enable penetration through the BBB after intravenous administration. The 134-amino acid GDNF was fused to the heavy chain of a chimeric monoclonal antibody (MAb) against the mouse transferrin receptor (TfR) designated the cTfRMAb. This antibody undergoes receptor-mediated transport across the BBB and acts as a molecular Trojan horse to ferry the GDNF into mouse brain. The cTfRMAb-GDNF fusion protein was expressed by stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells, affinity-purified, and the biochemical identity was confirmed by mouse IgG and GDNF Western blotting. The cTfRMAb-GDNF fusion protein was bifunctional and bound with high affinity to both the GDNF receptor alpha1, ED(50) = 1.7 +/- 0.2 nM, and the mouse TfR, ED(50) = 3.2 +/- 0.3 nM. The cTfRMAb-GDNF fusion protein was rapidly taken up by brain, and the brain uptake was 3.1 +/- 0.2% injected dose/g brain at 60 min after intravenous injection of a 1-mg/kg dose of the fusion protein. Brain capillary depletion analysis showed the majority of the fusion protein was transcytosed across the BBB with penetration into brain parenchyma. The brain uptake results indicate it is possible to achieve therapeutic elevations of GDNF in mouse brain with intravenous administration of the cTfRMAb-GDNF fusion protein.

  12. Identification of genes encoding the type IX secretion system and secreted proteins in Flavobacterium columnare IA-S-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavobacterium columnare, a member of the phylum Bacteroidetes, causes columnaris disease in wild and aquaculture-reared freshwater fish. The mechanisms responsible for columnaris disease are not known. Many members of the phylum Bacteroidetes use type IX secretion systems (T9SSs) to secrete enzymes...

  13. The type III protein secretion system contributes to Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri biofilm formation

    KAUST Repository

    Zimaro, Tamara

    2014-04-18

    Background: Several bacterial plant pathogens colonize their hosts through the secretion of effector proteins by a Type III protein secretion system (T3SS). The role of T3SS in bacterial pathogenesis is well established but whether this system is involved in multicellular processes, such as bacterial biofilm formation has not been elucidated. Here, the phytopathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (X. citri) was used as a model to gain further insights about the role of the T3SS in biofilm formation. Results: The capacity of biofilm formation of different X. citri T3SS mutants was compared to the wild type strain and it was observed that this secretion system was necessary for this process. Moreover, the T3SS mutants adhered proficiently to leaf surfaces but were impaired in leaf-associated growth. A proteomic study of biofilm cells showed that the lack of the T3SS causes changes in the expression of proteins involved in metabolic processes, energy generation, exopolysaccharide (EPS) production and bacterial motility as well as outer membrane proteins. Furthermore, EPS production and bacterial motility were also altered in the T3SS mutants. Conclusions: Our results indicate a novel role for T3SS in X. citri in the modulation of biofilm formation. Since this process increases X. citri virulence, this study reveals new functions of T3SS in pathogenesis. 2014 Zimaro et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  14. Novel diagnosis for citrus stubborn disease by detection of a spiroplasma citri-secreted protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jinxia; Pagliaccia, Deborah; Morgan, Robyn; Qiao, Yongli; Pan, Songqin; Vidalakis, Georgios; Ma, Wenbo

    2014-02-01

    Citrus stubborn disease (CSD), first identified in California, is a widespread bacterial disease found in most arid citrus-producing regions in the United States and the Mediterranean Region. The disease is caused by Spiroplasma citri, an insect-transmitted and phloem-colonizing bacterium. CSD causes significant tree damage resulting in loss of fruit production and quality. Detection of CSD is challenging due to low and fluctuating titer and sporadic distribution of the pathogen in infected trees. In this study, we report the development of a novel diagnostic method for CSD using an S. citri-secreted protein as the detection marker. Microbial pathogens secrete a variety of proteins during infection that can potentially disperse systemically in infected plants with the vascular flow. Therefore, their distribution may not be restricted to the pathogen infection sites and could be used as a biological marker for infection. Using mass spectrometry analysis, we identified a unique secreted protein from S. citri that is highly expressed in the presence of citrus phloem extract. ScCCPP1, an antibody generated against this protein, was able to distinguish S. citri-infected citrus and periwinkle from healthy plants. In addition, the antiserum could be used to detect CSD using a simple direct tissue print assay without the need for sample processing or specialized lab equipment and may be suitable for field surveys. This study provides proof of a novel concept of using pathogen-secreted protein as a marker for diagnosis of a citrus bacterial disease and can probably be applied to other plant diseases.

  15. Dietary protein-induced hepatic IGF-1 secretion mediated by PPARγ activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiaojuan; Wang, Songbo; Xu, Jingren; Zhuang, Lu; Xing, Kongping; Zhang, Mengyuan; Zhu, Xiaotong; Wang, Lina; Gao, Ping; Xi, Qianyun; Sun, Jiajie; Zhang, Yongliang; Li, Tiejun; Shu, Gang; Jiang, Qingyan

    2017-01-01

    Dietary protein or amino acid (AA) is a crucial nutritional factor to regulate hepatic insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) expression and secretion. However, the underlying intracellular mechanism by which dietary protein or AA induces IGF-1 expression remains unknown. We compared the IGF-1 gene expression and plasma IGF-1 level of pigs fed with normal crude protein (CP, 20%) and low-protein levels (LP, 14%). RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed to detect transcript expression in the liver in response to dietary protein. The results showed that serum concentrations and mRNA levels of IGF-1 in the liver were higher in the CP group than in the LP group. RNA-seq analysis identified a total of 1319 differentially expressed transcripts (667 upregulated and 652 downregulated), among which the terms “oxidative phosphorylation”, “ribosome”, “gap junction”, “PPAR signaling pathway”, and “focal adhesion” were enriched. In addition, the porcine primary hepatocyte and HepG2 cell models also demonstrated that the mRNA and protein levels of IGF-1 and PPARγ increased with the increasing AA concentration in the culture. The PPARγ activator troglitazone increased IGF-1 gene expression and secretion in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, inhibition of PPARγ effectively reversed the effects of the high AA concentration on the mRNA expression of IGF-1 and IGFBP-1 in HepG2 cells. Moreover, the protein levels of IGF-1 and PPARγ, as well as the phosphorylation of mTOR, significantly increased in HepG2 cells under high AA concentrations. mTOR phosphorylation can be decreased by the mTOR antagonist, rapamycin. The immunoprecipitation results also showed that high AA concentrations significantly increased the interaction of mTOR and PPARγ. In summary, PPARγ plays an important role in the regulation of IGF-1 secretion and gene expression in response to dietary protein. PMID:28257428

  16. Calcium-containing phosphopeptides pave the secretory pathway for efficient protein traffic and secretion in fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Juan F

    2014-01-01

    Casein phosphopeptides (CPPs) containing chelated calcium drastically increase the secretion of extracellular homologous and heterologous proteins in filamentous fungi. Casein phosphopeptides released by digestion of alpha - and beta-casein are rich in phosphoserine residues (SerP). They stimulate enzyme secretion in the gastrointestinal tract and enhance the immune response in mammals, and are used as food supplements. It is well known that casein phosphopeptides transport Ca2+ across the membranes and play an important role in Ca2+ homeostasis in the cells. Addition of CPPs drastically increases the production of heterologous proteins in Aspergillus as host for industrial enzyme production. Recent proteomics studies showed that CPPs alter drastically the vesicle-mediated secretory pathway in filamentous fungi, apparently because they change the calcium concentration in organelles that act as calcium reservoirs. In the organelles calcium homeostasis a major role is played by the pmr1 gene, that encodes a Ca2+/Mn2+ transport ATPase, localized in the Golgi complex; this transporter controls the balance between intra-Golgi and cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentrations. A Golgi-located casein kinase (CkiA) governs the ER to Golgi directionality of the movement of secretory proteins by interacting with the COPII coat of secretory vesicles when they reach the Golgi. Mutants defective in the casein-2 kinase CkiA show abnormal targeting of some secretory proteins, including cytoplasmic membrane amino acid transporters that in ckiA mutants are miss-targeted to vacuolar membranes. Interestingly, addition of CPPs increases a glyceraldehyde-3-phpshate dehydrogenase protein that is known to associate with microtubules and act as a vesicle/membrane fusogenic agent. In summary, CPPs alter the protein secretory pathway in fungi adapting it to a deregulated protein traffic through the organelles and vesicles what results in a drastic increase in secretion of heterologous and also of

  17. Rapid evolution of the sequences and gene repertoires of secreted proteins in bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Nogueira

    Full Text Available Proteins secreted to the extracellular environment or to the periphery of the cell envelope, the secretome, play essential roles in foraging, antagonistic and mutualistic interactions. We hypothesize that arms races, genetic conflicts and varying selective pressures should lead to the rapid change of sequences and gene repertoires of the secretome. The analysis of 42 bacterial pan-genomes shows that secreted, and especially extracellular proteins, are predominantly encoded in the accessory genome, i.e. among genes not ubiquitous within the clade. Genes encoding outer membrane proteins might engage more frequently in intra-chromosomal gene conversion because they are more often in multi-genic families. The gene sequences encoding the secretome evolve faster than the rest of the genome and in particular at non-synonymous positions. Cell wall proteins in Firmicutes evolve particularly fast when compared with outer membrane proteins of Proteobacteria. Virulence factors are over-represented in the secretome, notably in outer membrane proteins, but cell localization explains more of the variance in substitution rates and gene repertoires than sequence homology to known virulence factors. Accordingly, the repertoires and sequences of the genes encoding the secretome change fast in the clades of obligatory and facultative pathogens and also in the clades of mutualists and free-living bacteria. Our study shows that cell localization shapes genome evolution. In agreement with our hypothesis, the repertoires and the sequences of genes encoding secreted proteins evolve fast. The particularly rapid change of extracellular proteins suggests that these public goods are key players in bacterial adaptation.

  18. Identification and quantification of serum proteins secreted into the normal human jejunum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Hegnhøj, J H

    1990-01-01

    The in vivo transfer of serum proteins to the human intestinal lumen was characterized by crossed immunoelectrophoretic analyses of intestinal perfusates from four healthy volunteers. Serum proteins with molecular masses below 100 kDa and the immunoglobulins were found in human jejunal perfusates....... Larger serum proteins were either absent (alpha and beta lipoproteins) or present in small amounts (alpha 2-macroglobulin, haptoglobulin and ceruloplasmin). These results demonstrate the existence of a selective transfer of serum proteins to the intestinal lumen under physiological conditions....... The intestinal clearance rate was 0.1 ml serum per hour per 10 cm jejunum for albumin, prealbumin, alpha 1-antitrypsin, orosomucoid, transferrin and haemopexin. The rate of secretion of total protein to the jejunal lumen was 100 mg protein per hour per 10 cm jejunum. About 45% was due to immunoglobulins...

  19. Modulating carbohydrate–protein interactions through glycoengineering of monoclonal antibodies to impact cancer physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiang, Austin W.T.; Li, Shangzhong; Spahn, Philipp N.

    2016-01-01

    Diverse glycans on proteins impact cell and organism physiology, along with drug activity. Since many protein-based biotherapeutics are glycosylated and these glycans have biological activity, there is a desire to engineer glycosylation for recombinant protein-based biotherapeutics. Engineered gl...

  20. Generation of Monoclonal Antibodies against Non-structural Protein 3AB of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong Lin; Junjun Shao; Huiyun Chang; Shandian Gao; Guozheng Cong; Junzheng Du

    2012-01-01

    To identify linear epitopes on the non-structural protein 3AB of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV),BABL/c mice were immunized with the 3AB protein and splenocytes of BALB/c mice were fused with myeloma Sp2/0 cells.Two hybridoma monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) cell lines against the 3AB protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) were obtained,named C6 and E7 respectively.The microneutralization titer was 1∶1024 for mAb C6,and 1∶512 for E7.Both mAbs contain kappa light chains,and were of subclass IgG2b.In order to define the mAbs binding epitopes,the reactivity of these mAbs against FMDV were examined by indirect ELISA.The results showed that both mAbs can react with FMDV,but had no cross-reactivity with Swine Vesicular Disease (SVD) antigens.The titers in abdomen liquor were 1∶5×106 for C6 and 1∶2×106 for E7.In conclusion,the mAbs obtained from this study are specific for the detection of FMDV,can be used for etiological and immunological researches on FMDV,and have potential use in diagnosis and future vaccine designs.

  1. Dextrose-mediated aggregation of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies in human plasma: Implication of isoelectric precipitation of complement proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shen; Zhang, Baolin

    2015-01-01

    Many therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are clinically administered through intravenous infusion after mixing with a diluent, e.g., saline, 5% dextrose. Such a clinical setting increases the likelihood of interactions among mAb molecules, diluent, and plasma components, which may adversely affect product safety and efficacy. Avastin® (bevacizumab) and Herceptin® (trastuzumab), but not Remicade® (infliximab), were shown to undergo rapid aggregation upon dilution into 5% dextrose when mixed with human plasma in vitro; however, the biochemical pathways leading to the aggregation were not clearly defined. Here, we show that dextrose-mediated aggregation of Avastin or Herceptin in plasma involves isoelectric precipitation of complement proteins. Using mass spectrometry, we found that dextrose-induced insoluble aggregates were composed of mAb itself and multiple abundant plasma proteins, namely complement proteins C3, C4, factor H, fibronectin, and apolipoprotein. These plasma proteins, which are characterized by an isoelectronic point of 5.5-6.7, lost solubility at the resulting pH in the mixture with formulated Avastin (pH 6.2) and Herceptin (pH 6.0). Notably, switching formulation buffers for Avastin (pH 6.2) and Remicade (pH 7.2) reversed their aggregation profiles. Avastin formed little, if any, insoluble aggregates in dextrose-plasma upon raising the buffer pH to 7.2 or above. Furthermore, dextrose induced pH-dependent precipitation of plasma proteins, with massive insoluble aggregates being detected at pH 6.5-6.8. These data show that isoelectric precipitation of complement proteins is a prerequisite of dextrose-induced aggregation of mAb in human plasma. This finding highlights the importance of assessing the compatibility of a therapeutic mAb with diluent and human plasma during product development.

  2. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies against hepatitis C virus nonstructural protein 3: different antigenic determinants from human B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou-Yang, P; Chiang, B L; Hwang, L H; Chen, Y G; Yang, P M; Chi, W K; Chen, P J; Chen, D S

    1999-04-01

    The nonstructural (NS3) region protein of hepatitis C virus (HCV) possesses major B-cell epitopes that induce antibodies after infection. To elucidate further the characteristics of these B cells and their role in the immune regulation of HCV infection, T9 (portion of NS3 region, amino acids [a.a.] 1188-1493)-specific monoclonal antibodies were derived and mapped for B-cell antigenic determinants with recombinant proteins. A total of 10 T9-specific hybridomas were generated and tested for B-cell antigenic determinants. To analyze the B-cell antigenic determinants, eight recombinant proteins including NS3-e (a.a. 1175-1334), NS3-a' (a.a. 1175-1250), NS3-a (a.a. 1251-1334), NS3-b (a.a. 1323-1412), NS3-c (a.a. 1407-1499), NS3-a/b (a.a. 1251-1412), NS3-bc (a.a. 1323-1499), and NS3-abc (a.a. 1251-1499) encoded by NS3-region internal clones were expressed and tested for immunoblotting. The data suggested IgG hybridomas recognized NS3-a, NS3-a', or NS3-b protein by immunoblotting. By contrast, the NS3-e protein bears the major antigenic determinant recognized by human sera. Half of the hybridomas were found to react with protein NS3-a', which is not a major B-cell antigenic determinant in humans. These data suggested that conformational epitopes in vivo may be important for B-cell recognition.

  3. Preparation and Characterization of Three Monoclonal Antibodies against HIV-1 p24 Capsid Protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangjie Liu; Jianping Wang; Jianchun Xiao; Zhiwei Zhao; Yongtang Zheng

    2007-01-01

    HIV-1 p24 detection provides a means to aid the early diagnosis of HIV-1 infection, track the progression of disease and assess the efficacy of antiretroviral therapy. In the present study, three monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) p3JB9,p5F1 and p6F4 against HIV-1 p24 were generated. All mAbs could detect p24 of HIV-1ⅢB, HIV-1Ada-M, HIV-174v mAbs p5F1 and p6F4 could detect HIV-1KM018, while p3JB9 could not. Three mAbs did not react with HIV-2ROD,HIV-2CBL-20 and SIVagmTyo-1. The recognized epitope of p5F1 was located on the Gag amino acid region DCKTILKALGPAATLEEMMTAC. The p5F1 was used to establish a modified sandwich ELISA with rabbit anti-p24 serum and showed good specificity and high sensitivity, which has been used to measure HIV-1 p24 antigen levels in research.

  4. Brucella Modulates Secretory Trafficking via Multiple Type IV Secretion Effector Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myeni, Sebenzile; Child, Robert; Ng, Tony W.; Kupko, John J.; Wehrly, Tara D.; Porcella, Stephen F.; Knodler, Leigh A.; Celli, Jean

    2013-01-01

    The intracellular pathogenic bacterium Brucella generates a replicative vacuole (rBCV) derived from the endoplasmic reticulum via subversion of the host cell secretory pathway. rBCV biogenesis requires the expression of the Type IV secretion system (T4SS) VirB, which is thought to translocate effector proteins that modulate membrane trafficking along the endocytic and secretory pathways. To date, only a few T4SS substrates have been identified, whose molecular functions remain unknown. Here, we used an in silico screen to identify putative T4SS effector candidate proteins using criteria such as limited homology in other bacterial genera, the presence of features similar to known VirB T4SS effectors, GC content and presence of eukaryotic-like motifs. Using β-lactamase and CyaA adenylate cyclase reporter assays, we identified eleven proteins translocated into host cells by Brucella, five in a VirB T4SS-dependent manner, namely BAB1_0678 (BspA), BAB1_0712 (BspB), BAB1_0847 (BspC), BAB1_1671 (BspE) and BAB1_1948 (BspF). A subset of the translocated proteins targeted secretory pathway compartments when ectopically expressed in HeLa cells, and the VirB effectors BspA, BspB and BspF inhibited protein secretion. Brucella infection also impaired host protein secretion in a process requiring BspA, BspB and BspF. Single or combined deletions of bspA, bspB and bspF affected Brucella ability to replicate in macrophages and persist in the liver of infected mice. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that Brucella modulates secretory trafficking via multiple T4SS effector proteins that likely act coordinately to promote Brucella pathogenesis. PMID:23950720

  5. Rac Regulates Giardia lamblia Encystation by Coordinating Cyst Wall Protein Trafficking and Secretion

    OpenAIRE

    Jana Krtková; Elizabeth B Thomas; Germain C. M. Alas; Schraner, Elisabeth M.; Behjatnia, Habib R; Hehl, Adrian B.; Paredez, Alexander R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Encystation of the common intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia involves the production, trafficking, and secretion of cyst wall material (CWM). However, the molecular mechanism responsible for the regulation of these sequential processes remains elusive. Here, we examined the role of GlRac, Giardia’s sole Rho family GTPase, in the regulation of endomembrane organization and cyst wall protein (CWP) trafficking. Localization studies indicated that GlRac is associated with the endoplasmi...

  6. Rac regulates giardia lamblia encystation by coordinating cyst wall protein trafficking and secretion

    OpenAIRE

    Krtková, Jana; Elizabeth B Thomas; Germain C. M. Alas; Schraner, Elisabeth M.; Behjatnia, Habib R; Hehl, Adrian B.; Paredez, Alexander R.

    2016-01-01

    UNLABELLED Encystation of the common intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia involves the production, trafficking, and secretion of cyst wall material (CWM). However, the molecular mechanism responsible for the regulation of these sequential processes remains elusive. Here, we examined the role of GlRac, Giardia's sole Rho family GTPase, in the regulation of endomembrane organization and cyst wall protein (CWP) trafficking. Localization studies indicated that GlRac is associated with the endoplas...

  7. Secretion of protein and epidermal growth factor (EGF) by transplanted human pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konturek, J W; Buesing, M; Hopt, U T; Stachura, J; Becker, H D; Konturek, S J

    1992-08-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) has been localized in human salivary and Brunner's glands and found to stimulate the proliferation of gastrointestinal and pancreatic tissues in animals, but little is known about EGF in human pancreas. This study was designed to determine the distribution and release of EGF in the pancreas and to assess the secretion of EGF and protein by the transplanted human pancreas. The peroxidase antiperoxidase (PAP) immunocytochemical method with anti-hEGF showed that EGF was restricted mainly to the excretory cells lining pancreatic ducts. The EGF immunoreactivity in the pancreatic tissue averaged about 15 +/- 0.5 micrograms/g of tissue wt. The concentration and output of EGF in the pancreatic juice were, respectively, about 3.4 +/- 0.7 ng/mL and 68 + 12 ng/h in basal secretion collected from the whole pancreatic transplant. A significant increase in EGF release from this transplant started about 2 h after its reperfusion and was accompanied by a parallel increase in protein output. Injection of iv secretion (1 U/kg) resulted in a transient rise in EGF output, probably as a result of washout by increased vol flow, whereas HCCK (1 U/kg) caused more prolonged release of EGF accompanied by a marked stimulation of protein secretion. Ingestion of a mixed meal caused an immediate and sustained increment in EGF output, and protein output showed a more protracted increase, reaching its peak in the second postprandial hour. Fractionation of an extract of pancreatic juice on G-5O Sephadex superfine column revealed that EGF immunoreactivity emerged as a major peak in the same position as authentic human EGF (hEGF).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. The Rab11 Effector Protein FIP1 Regulates Adiponectin Trafficking and Secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Navarrete, Jose Maria; Fernandez-Real, Jose Manuel; Mora, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin is an adipokine secreted by white adipocytes involved in regulating insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues. Secretion of adiponectin in adipocytes relies on the endosomal system, however, the intracellular machinery involved in mediating adiponectin release is unknown. We have previously reported that intracellular adiponectin partially compartmentalizes with rab 5 and rab11, markers for the early/sorting and recycling compartments respectively. Here we have examined the role of several rab11 downstream effector proteins (rab11 FIPs) in regulating adiponectin trafficking and secretion. Overexpression of wild type rab11 FIP1, FIP3 and FIP5 decreased the amount of secreted adiponectin expressed in HEK293 cells, whereas overexpression of rab11 FIP2 or FIP4 had no effect. Furthermore shRNA-mediated depletion of FIP1 enhanced adiponectin release whereas knock down of FIP5 decreased adiponectin secretion. Knock down of FIP3 had no effect. In 3T3L1 adipocytes, endogenous FIP1 co-distributed intracellularly with endogenous adiponectin and FIP1 depletion enhanced adiponectin release without altering insulin-mediated trafficking of the glucose transporter Glut4. While adiponectin receptors internalized with transferrin receptors, there were no differences in transferrin receptor recycling between wild type and FIP1 depleted adipocytes. Consistent with its inhibitory role, FIP1 expression was decreased during adipocyte differentiation, by treatment with thiazolidinediones, and with increased BMI in humans. In contrast, FIP1 expression increased upon exposure of adipocytes to TNFα. In all, our findings identify FIP1 as a novel protein involved in the regulation of adiponectin trafficking and release. PMID:24040321

  9. The rab11 effector protein FIP1 regulates adiponectin trafficking and secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Brian P; Del Bas, Josep Maria; Moreno-Navarrete, Jose Maria; Fernandez-Real, Jose Manuel; Mora, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin is an adipokine secreted by white adipocytes involved in regulating insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues. Secretion of adiponectin in adipocytes relies on the endosomal system, however, the intracellular machinery involved in mediating adiponectin release is unknown. We have previously reported that intracellular adiponectin partially compartmentalizes with rab 5 and rab11, markers for the early/sorting and recycling compartments respectively. Here we have examined the role of several rab11 downstream effector proteins (rab11 FIPs) in regulating adiponectin trafficking and secretion. Overexpression of wild type rab11 FIP1, FIP3 and FIP5 decreased the amount of secreted adiponectin expressed in HEK293 cells, whereas overexpression of rab11 FIP2 or FIP4 had no effect. Furthermore shRNA-mediated depletion of FIP1 enhanced adiponectin release whereas knock down of FIP5 decreased adiponectin secretion. Knock down of FIP3 had no effect. In 3T3L1 adipocytes, endogenous FIP1 co-distributed intracellularly with endogenous adiponectin and FIP1 depletion enhanced adiponectin release without altering insulin-mediated trafficking of the glucose transporter Glut4. While adiponectin receptors internalized with transferrin receptors, there were no differences in transferrin receptor recycling between wild type and FIP1 depleted adipocytes. Consistent with its inhibitory role, FIP1 expression was decreased during adipocyte differentiation, by treatment with thiazolidinediones, and with increased BMI in humans. In contrast, FIP1 expression increased upon exposure of adipocytes to TNFα. In all, our findings identify FIP1 as a novel protein involved in the regulation of adiponectin trafficking and release.

  10. The rab11 effector protein FIP1 regulates adiponectin trafficking and secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian P Carson

    Full Text Available Adiponectin is an adipokine secreted by white adipocytes involved in regulating insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues. Secretion of adiponectin in adipocytes relies on the endosomal system, however, the intracellular machinery involved in mediating adiponectin release is unknown. We have previously reported that intracellular adiponectin partially compartmentalizes with rab 5 and rab11, markers for the early/sorting and recycling compartments respectively. Here we have examined the role of several rab11 downstream effector proteins (rab11 FIPs in regulating adiponectin trafficking and secretion. Overexpression of wild type rab11 FIP1, FIP3 and FIP5 decreased the amount of secreted adiponectin expressed in HEK293 cells, whereas overexpression of rab11 FIP2 or FIP4 had no effect. Furthermore shRNA-mediated depletion of FIP1 enhanced adiponectin release whereas knock down of FIP5 decreased adiponectin secretion. Knock down of FIP3 had no effect. In 3T3L1 adipocytes, endogenous FIP1 co-distributed intracellularly with endogenous adiponectin and FIP1 depletion enhanced adiponectin release without altering insulin-mediated trafficking of the glucose transporter Glut4. While adiponectin receptors internalized with transferrin receptors, there were no differences in transferrin receptor recycling between wild type and FIP1 depleted adipocytes. Consistent with its inhibitory role, FIP1 expression was decreased during adipocyte differentiation, by treatment with thiazolidinediones, and with increased BMI in humans. In contrast, FIP1 expression increased upon exposure of adipocytes to TNFα. In all, our findings identify FIP1 as a novel protein involved in the regulation of adiponectin trafficking and release.

  11. Mutations in the West Nile prM protein affect VLP and virion secretion in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Amanda E; Huang, Claire Y-H; Blair, Carol D; Roehrig, John T

    2012-11-10

    Mutation of the West Nile virus-like particle (WN VLP) prM protein (T20D, K31A, K31V, or K31T) results in undetectable VLP secretion from transformed COS-1 cells. K31 mutants formed intracellular prM-E heterodimers; however these proteins remained in the ER and ER-Golgi intermediary compartments of transfected cells. The T20D mutation affected glycosylation, heterodimer formation, and WN VLP secretion. When infectious viruses bearing the same mutations were used to infect COS-1 cells, K31 mutant viruses exhibited delayed growth and reduced infectivity compared to WT virus. Epitope maps of WN VLP and WNV prM were also different. These results suggest that while mutations in the prM protein can reduce or eliminate secretion of WN VLPs, they have less effect on virus. This difference may be due to the quantity of prM in WN VLPs compared to WNV or to differences in maturation, structure, and symmetry of these particles.

  12. Temperature-induced protein secretion by Leishmania mexicana modulates macrophage signalling and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Kasra; Antoniak, Elisabeth; Jardim, Armando; Olivier, Martin

    2011-05-03

    Protozoan parasites of genus Leishmania are the causative agents of leishmaniasis. These digenetic microorganisms undergo a marked environmental temperature shift (TS) during transmission from the sandfly vector (ambient temperature, 25-26°C) to the mammalian host (37°C). We have observed that this TS induces a rapid and dramatic increase in protein release from Leishmania mexicana (cutaneous leishmaniasis) within 4 h. Proteomic identification of the TS-induced secreted proteins revealed 72 proteins, the majority of which lack a signal peptide and are thus thought to be secreted via nonconventional mechanisms. Interestingly, this protein release is accompanied by alterations in parasite morphology including an augmentation in the budding of exovesicles from its surface. Here we show that the exoproteome of L. mexicana upon TS induces cleavage and activation of the host protein tyrosine phosphatases, specifically SHP-1 and PTP1-B, in a murine bone-marrow-derived macrophage cell line. Furthermore, translocation of prominent inflammatory transcription factors, namely NF-κB and AP-1 is altered. The exoproteome also caused inhibition of nitric oxide production, a crucial leishmanicidal function of the macrophage. Overall, our results provide strong evidence that within early moments of interaction with the mammalian host, L. mexicana rapidly releases proteins and exovesicles that modulate signalling and function of the macrophage. These modulations can result in attenuation of the inflammatory response and deactivation of the macrophage aiding the parasite in the establishment of infection.

  13. Temperature-induced protein secretion by Leishmania mexicana modulates macrophage signalling and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasra Hassani

    Full Text Available Protozoan parasites of genus Leishmania are the causative agents of leishmaniasis. These digenetic microorganisms undergo a marked environmental temperature shift (TS during transmission from the sandfly vector (ambient temperature, 25-26°C to the mammalian host (37°C. We have observed that this TS induces a rapid and dramatic increase in protein release from Leishmania mexicana (cutaneous leishmaniasis within 4 h. Proteomic identification of the TS-induced secreted proteins revealed 72 proteins, the majority of which lack a signal peptide and are thus thought to be secreted via nonconventional mechanisms. Interestingly, this protein release is accompanied by alterations in parasite morphology including an augmentation in the budding of exovesicles from its surface. Here we show that the exoproteome of L. mexicana upon TS induces cleavage and activation of the host protein tyrosine phosphatases, specifically SHP-1 and PTP1-B, in a murine bone-marrow-derived macrophage cell line. Furthermore, translocation of prominent inflammatory transcription factors, namely NF-κB and AP-1 is altered. The exoproteome also caused inhibition of nitric oxide production, a crucial leishmanicidal function of the macrophage. Overall, our results provide strong evidence that within early moments of interaction with the mammalian host, L. mexicana rapidly releases proteins and exovesicles that modulate signalling and function of the macrophage. These modulations can result in attenuation of the inflammatory response and deactivation of the macrophage aiding the parasite in the establishment of infection.

  14. Yersinia pestis Yop secretion protein F: purification, characterization, and protective efficacy against bubonic plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swietnicki, Wieslaw; Powell, Bradford S; Goodin, Jeremy

    2005-07-01

    Yersinia pestis is a gram-negative human pathogen that uses a type III secretion system to deliver virulence factors into human hosts. The delivery is contact-dependent and it has been proposed that polymerization of Yop secretion protein F (YscF) is used to puncture mammalian cell membranes to facilitate delivery of Yersinia outer protein effectors into host cells. To evaluate the potential immunogenicity and protective efficacy of YscF against Y. pestis, we used a purified recombinant YscF protein as a potential vaccine candidate in a mouse subcutaneous infection model. YscF was expressed and purified from Escherichia coli by immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography and protein identity was confirmed by ion trap mass spectrometry. The recombinant protein was highly alpha-helical and formed relatively stable aggregates under physiological conditions. The properties were consistent with behavior expected for the native YscF, suggesting that the antigen was properly folded. Ten mice were inoculated subcutaneously, administered booster injections after one month, and challenged with 130 LD(50) of wild type Y. pestis CO92. Six animals in the vaccinated group but none in the control group survived the challenge. The vaccinated animals produced high levels of specific antibodies against YscF as determined by Western blot. The data were statistically significant (P = 0.053 by two-tailed Fisher's test), suggesting that the YscF protein can provide a protective immune response against lethal plague challenge during subcutaneous plague infection.

  15. Exosomal Secretion of Cytoplasmic Prostate Cancer Xenograft-derived Proteins *S⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Flip H.; Krijgsveld, Jeroen; van Rijswijk, Angelique; van den Bemd, Gert-Jan; van den Berg, Mirella S.; van Weerden, Wytske M.; Willemsen, Rob; Dekker, Lennard J.; Luider, Theo M.; Jenster, Guido

    2009-01-01

    Novel markers for prostate cancer (PCa) are needed because current established markers such as prostate-specific antigen lack diagnostic specificity and prognostic value. Proteomics analysis of serum from mice grafted with human PCa xenografts resulted in the identification of 44 tumor-derived proteins. Besides secreted proteins we identified several cytoplasmic proteins, among which were most subunits of the proteasome. Native gel electrophoresis and sandwich ELISA showed that these subunits are present as proteasome complexes in the serum from xenograft-bearing mice. We hypothesized that the presence of proteasome subunits and other cytoplasmic proteins in serum of xenografted mice could be explained by the secretion of small vesicles by cancer cells, so-called exosomes. Therefore, mass spectrometry and Western blotting analyses of the protein content of exosomes isolated from PCa cell lines was performed. This resulted in the identification of mainly cytoplasmic proteins of which several had previously been identified in the serum of xenografted mice, including proteasome subunits. The isolated exosomes also contained RNA, including the gene fusion TMPRSS2-ERG product. These observations suggest that although their function is not clearly defined cancer-derived exosomes offer possibilities for the identification of novel biomarkers for PCa. PMID:19204029

  16. Cloning and molecular characterization of cDNAs encoding three Ancylostoma ceylanicum secreted proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwińska, Anna M; Bąska, Piotr; Daniłowicz-Luebert, Emilia; Januszkiewicz, Kamil; Długosz, Ewa; Wędrychowicz, Halina; Cappello, Michael; Wiśniewski, Marcin

    2013-03-01

    Ancylostoma ceylanicum belongs to a group of soil-transmitted helminths, which infect almost 576 mln people worldwide and are a major cause of anaemia and malnutrition. Upon contact with a permissive host, third-stage larvae (L3) residing in the environment become activated larvae (ssL3), a process associated with changes in the profile of gene expression. Ancylostoma secreted proteins (ASPs) are the major proteins secreted during larvae activation and play a crucial role in hookworm adaptation to parasitism. Here we report the cloning using RACE-PCR technique of three novel ASPs from the hookworm A. ceylanicum (Ace-asp-3, Ace-asp-4, and Ace-asp-5) and computational analysis of the protein sequences. All three proteins contain SCP (Sperm Coating Protein) domain characteristic for previously described ASP proteins. Real-time PCR analysis shows significant up-regulation of Ace-asp-3 and Ace-asp-5 expression in adult worms and correlated down-regulation in ssL3 larvae. On the other hand, expression of Ace-asp-4 was increased in ssL3 stages and decreased in adult parasites.

  17. Performance metrics for evaluating system suitability in liquid chromatography—Mass spectrometry peptide mass mapping of protein therapeutics and monoclonal antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Mowei; Gucinski, Ashley C.; Boyne, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    The use of liquid chromatography – mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for the characterization of proteins can provide a plethora of information related to their structure, including amino acid sequence determination and analysis of posttranslational modifications. The variety of LC-MS based applications has led to the use of LC-MS characterization of therapeutic proteins and monoclonal antibodies as an integral part of the regulatory approval process. However, the improper use of an LC-MS system, rel...

  18. [Inhibition of invasion and multiplication of Toxoplasma gondii in human colonic epithelial cells by a monoclonal antibody against protein SAG2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, J C; Sánchez, R M; Iraola, R C; Pérez, J S

    2001-01-01

    By an bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation assay, it was proved hat an IgG 1 subclass, murine monoclonal antibody to surface protein SAG2 of Toxoplasma gondii is capable of reducing the invasion and multiplication of the parasites in highly differentiated mucine secretory HT29-18N2 line cells from a human colon adenocarcinoma. This result shows the importance of surface protein SAG2 of T.gondii in invasion and further multiplication of parasites in the host cell.

  19. Development of a chitinase and v-cathepsin negative bacmid for improved integrity of secreted recombinant proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaba, S.A.; Salcedo, A.M.; Wafula, P.O.; Vlak, J.M.; Oers, van M.M.

    2004-01-01

    The application of the baculovirus-in sect cell expression system for the production of integral membrane and secreted proteins is often more troublesome than for cytoplasmic proteins. One protein expressed at low levels in insect cells is the Theileria parva sporozoite surface protein p67. Theileri

  20. Monoclonal Antibodies that Recognize Proteins Unique to Somatic Embryos of Daucus carota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    For enzyme immunoassay (EIA), 6 M urea extracts of the lyophilized tissues were prepared (-., personal communication), their protein content was...of hybridoma supernates on EIA plates coated with 6 M urea extracts (1 mg protein/well) of lyophilized callus cells (A), somatic embryo cells (B), and...101Ali reacts with denatured proteins that were identified as LHCP by their apparent molecular weight and reaction with rabbit antisera to maize LHCP

  1. Have We Overlooked the Importance of Serine/Threonine Protein Phosphatases in Pancreatic Beta-Cells? Role Played by Protein Phosphatase 2A in Insulin Secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esser V

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetic predisposition and environmental influences insidiously converge to cause glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Beta-cell compensates by secreting more insulin and when it fails, overt diabetes mellitus ensues. The need to understand the mechanisms involved in insulin secretion cannot be stressed enough. Phosphorylation of proteins plays an important role in regulating insulin secretion. In order to understand how a particular cellular process is regulated by protein phosphorylation the nature of the protein kinases and protein phosphatases involved and the mechanisms that determine when and where these enzymes are active should be investigated. While the actions of protein kinases have been intensely studied within the beta-cell, less emphasis has been placed on protein phosphatases even though they play an important regulatory role. This review focuses on the importance of protein phosphatase 2A in insulin secretion. Most of the present knowledge on protein phosphatase 2A originates from protein phosphatase inhibitor studies on islets and beta-cell lines. The ability of protein phosphatase 2A to change its activity in the presence of glucose and inhibitors provides clues to its role in regulating insulin secretion. An aggressive approach to elucidate the substrates and mechanisms of action of protein phosphatases is crucial to the understanding of phosphorylation events within the beta-cell. Characterizing protein phosphatase 2A within the beta-cell will certainly help us in understanding the mechanisms involved in insulin secretion and provide valuable information for drug development.

  2. Distinct expression profiles of Notch-1 protein in human solid tumors: Implications for development of targeted therapeutic monoclonal antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Li

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Yuan Li1, Janine A Burns1, Carol A Cheney1, Ningyan Zhang1, Salvatore Vitelli1, Fubao Wang1, Andrew Bett2, Michael Chastain2, Laurent P Audoly1, Zhi-Qiang Zhang1,31Department of Biologics Research, 2Department of Vaccine Research, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA, USA; 3Clinical Development Laboratory, Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, NJ, USAAbstract: Biological therapies, such as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs that target tumor-associated antigens have been considered an effective therapeutic approach in oncology. In considering Notch-1 receptor as a potential target, we performed immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays to determine 1 whether the receptor is overexpressed in tumor cells as compared to their corresponding normal tissues and 2 the clinical significance of its expression levels in human breast, colorectal, lung and prostate cancers. We found that the expression of Notch-1 protein was overexpressed in primary colorectal adenocarcinoma and nonsmall cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC, but not in primary ductal breast carcinoma or prostate adenocarcinoma. Further analysis revealed that higher levels of Notch-1 protein expression were significantly associated with poorer differentiation of breast and prostate tumors. Strikingly, for NSCLC, the expression levels of Notch-1 protein were found to be inversely correlated with tumor differentiation and progression. For colorectal tumors, however, no correlation of Notch-1 protein expression was found with any tumor clinicopathological parameters, in spite of its overexpression in tumor cells. Our data demonstrated the complexity of Notch-1 protein expression in human solid tumors and further supported the notion that the roles of Notch-1 expression in tumorigenesis are highly context-dependent. The findings could provide the basis for development of distinct therapeutic strategies of Notch-1 mAbs for its applications in the treatment of suitable types of human cancers.Keywords: Notch

  3. Generation of monoclonal antibodies for the assessment of protein purification by recombinant ribosomal coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Janni; Sperling-Petersen, Hans Uffe; Mortensen, Kim Kusk;

    2005-01-01

    We recently described a conceptually novel method for the purification of recombinant proteins with a propensity to form inclusion bodies in the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli. Recombinant proteins were covalently coupled to the E. coli ribosome by fusing them to ribosomal protein 23 (rpL23...... Sepharose affinity chromatography. The purified antibodies were used to evaluate the separation of ribosomes from GFP, streptavidin, murine interleukin-6, a phagedisplay antibody and yeast elongation factor 1A by centrifugation, when ribosomes with covalently coupled target protein were cleaved at specific...

  4. Effect of honokiol on exotoxin proteins listeriolysin O and p60 secreted by Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Rizeng; Zhao, Ziwen; Guo, Na; Liu, Zonghui; Zhao, Xingchen; Li, Wenli; Li, Xiaoxu; Shi, Ce; Nie, Dandan; Wang, Weilin; Liu, Tao; Ma, Wenchen; Yu, Lu; Li, Juan

    2015-12-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is considered one of the most important foodborne pathogens. The virulence-related proteins listeriolysin O (LLO) and p60 are critical factors involved in Listeria pathogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of honokiol on LLO and p60 secreted from L. monocytogenes. A listeriolysin assay was used to investigate the haemolytic activities of L. monocytogenes exposed to honokiol, and the secretion of LLO and p60 was detected by immunoblot analysis. Additionally, the influence of honokiol on the transcription of LLO and p60 genes (hly and iap, respectively) was analysed by real-time reverse transcription PCR. TNF-α release assays were performed to elucidate the biological relevance of changes in LLO and p60 secretion induced by honokiol. According to the data, honokiol showed good anti-L. monocytogenes activity, with MICs of 8-16 μg ml(-1), and the secretion of LLO and p60 was decreased by honokiol. In addition, the transcription of hly and iap was inhibited by honokiol. Our results indicate that TNF-α production by RAW264.7 cells stimulated with L. monocytogenes supernatants was inhibited by honokiol. Based on these data, we propose that honokiol could be used as a promising natural compound against L. monocytogenes and its virulence factors.

  5. Multidrug transporter ABCG2/breast cancer resistance protein secretes riboflavin (vitamin B2) into milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Herwaarden, Antonius E; Wagenaar, Els; Merino, Gracia; Jonker, Johan W; Rosing, Hilde; Beijnen, Jos H; Schinkel, Alfred H

    2007-02-01

    The multidrug transporter breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) is strongly induced in the mammary gland during pregnancy and lactation. We here demonstrate that BCRP is responsible for pumping riboflavin (vitamin B(2)) into milk, thus supplying the young with this important nutrient. In Bcrp1(-/-) mice, milk secretion of riboflavin was reduced >60-fold compared to that in wild-type mice. Yet, under laboratory conditions, Bcrp1(-/-) pups showed no riboflavin deficiency due to concomitant milk secretion of its cofactor flavin adenine dinucleotide, which was not affected. Thus, two independent secretion mechanisms supply vitamin B(2) equivalents to milk. BCRP is the first active riboflavin efflux transporter identified in mammals and the first transporter shown to concentrate a vitamin into milk. BCRP activity elsewhere in the body protects against xenotoxins by reducing their absorption and mediating their excretion. Indeed, Bcrp1 activity increased excretion of riboflavin into the intestine and decreased its systemic availability in adult mice. Surprisingly, the paradoxical dual utilization of BCRP as a xenotoxin and a riboflavin pump is evolutionarily conserved among mammals as diverse as mice and humans. This study establishes the principle that an ABC transporter can transport a vitamin into milk and raises the possibility that other vitamins and nutrients are likewise secreted into milk by ABC transporters.

  6. THE SECRETION OF DIGESTIVE ENZYMES AND CAECAL SIZE ARE DETERMINED BY DIETARY PROTEIN IN THE CRICKET Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodring, Joseph; Weidlich, Sandy

    2016-11-01

    In Gryllus bimaculatus, the size of the caecum decreases in the latter half of each instar to a stable minimal size with a steady minimal rate of digestive enzyme secretion until feeding resumes after ecdysis. The higher the percent protein in the newly ingested food, the faster and larger the caecum grows, and as a consequent the higher the secretion rate of trypsin and amylase. When hard boiled eggs (40% protein) are eaten the caecum is 2× larger, the trypsin secretion is almost 3× greater, and amylase 2.5× greater then when fed the same amount of apples (1.5% protein). Only dietary protein increases amylase secretion, whereas dietary carbohydrates have no effect on amylase secretion. The minimal caecal size and secretion rate must be supported by utilization of hemolymph amino acids, but the growth of the caecum and increasing enzymes secretions after the molt depend upon an amino acid source in the lumen. This simple regulation of digestive enzyme secretion is ideal for animals that must stop feeding in order to molt. This basic control system does not preclude additional regulation mechanisms, such as prandal, which is also indicated for G. bimaculatus, or even paramonal regulation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Nuclear Engineering of Microalgae for High Yield Secretion of Recombinant Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos Martinez, Erick Miguel

    Photosynthetic microorganism like microalgae and cyanobacteria are considered as emerging biotechnology platforms for production of recombinant proteins and other high-value biomolecules with a wide range of applications. Moreover, microalgae offer significant advantages compared with other...... the potential of microalgae as a cell factory for secretion of recombinant proteins. The second research project presented in this thesis aimed to establish a new robust method to allow in vivo measurements of metabolic enzyme activities in cyanobacteria, with a hope that the method would facilitate further...

  8. P80, the HinT interacting membrane protein, is a secreted antigen of Mycoplasma hominis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrich Birgit

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycoplasmas are cell wall-less bacteria which encode a minimal set of proteins. In Mycoplasma hominis, the genes encoding the surface-localized membrane complex P60/P80 are in an operon with a gene encoding a cytoplasmic, nucleotide-binding protein with a characteristic Histidine triad motif (HinT. HinT is found in both procaryotes and eukaryotes and known to hydrolyze adenosine nucleotides in eukaryotes. Immuno-precipitation and BIACore analysis revealed an interaction between HinT and the P80 domain of the membrane complex. As the membrane anchored P80 carries an N-terminal uncleaved signal peptide we have proposed that the N-terminus extends into the cytoplasm and interacts with the cytosolic HinT. Results Further characterization of P80 suggested that the 4.7 kDa signal peptide is protected from cleavage only in the membrane bound form. We found several proteins were released into the supernatant of a logarithmic phase mycoplasma culture, including P80, which was reduced in size by 10 kDa. Western blot analysis of recombinant P80 mutants expressed in E. coli and differing in the N-terminal region revealed that mutation of the +1 position of the mature protein (Asn to Pro which is important for signal peptidase I recognition resulted in reduced P80 secretion. All other P80 variants were released into the supernatant, in general as a 74 kDa protein encompassing the helical part of P80. Incubation of M. hominis cells in phosphate buffered saline supplemented with divalent cations revealed that the release of mycoplasma proteins into the supernatant was inhibited by high concentrations of calciumions. Conclusions Our model for secretion of the P80 protein of M. hominis implies a two-step process. In general the P80 protein is transported across the membrane and remains complexed to P60, surface-exposed and membrane anchored via the uncleaved signal sequence. Loss of the 4.7 kDa signal peptide seems to be a pre-requisite for P

  9. A Novel Monoclonal Antibody Against a Synthetic Peptide from β-Actin can React with its Corresponding Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Nazila; Bayat, Ali-Ahmad; Zarei, Omid; Hadavi, Reza; Mahmoudian, Jafar; Mahmoudi, Ahmad R; Darzi, Maryam; Rabbani, Hodjattallah; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Actin is one of the most widely studied structural and multifunctional housekeeping proteins in eukaryotic cells with important roles in many cell functions. Antibodies against β-actin and other housekeeping gene-encoded proteins are used as internal loading controls in Western blot analyses. The aim of this study was to produce a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against a synthetic peptide derived from N-terminal region of β-actin and to study its reactivity with different organisms. A synthetic peptide, derived from β-actin, was designed and used to produce a mAb by hybridoma technology. The produced antibody (clone 4E5- A10) was purified by an affinity chromatography column followed by characterization of purified mAb using SDS-PAGE, ELISA and Western blot. Our results showed that 4E5-A10 was an IgM and had desired purity and excellent reactivity with the immunizing peptide with an affinity constant of 2.7x10(8) M(-1)>. It could detect a band of about 45 kDa, corresponding to β-actin, in Western blot. Furthermore, it could react in a more sensitive manner and with a wider range of organisms than a known commercial anti β-actin antibody. Our data suggest that 4E5-A10 can act as a sensitive probe for detection of β-actin as an internal loading control, for a wide range of organisms, in Western blot analyses.

  10. Piezometric biosensors for anti-apoptotic protein survivin based on buried positive-potential barrier and immobilized monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stobiecka, Magdalena; Chalupa, Agata; Dworakowska, Beata

    2016-10-15

    The anti-apoptotic protein survivin (Sur) plays an important role in the regulation of cell division and inducing the chemotherapeutic drug resistance. The Sur protein and its mRNA have recently been studied as cancer biomarkers and potential targets for cancer therapy. In this work, we have focused on the design of immunosensors for the detection of Sur based on buried positive-potential barrier layer structure and anti-survivin antibody. The modification of solid AuQC piezoelectrodes was monitored by recording the resonance frequency shift and electrochemical measurements during each step of the sensor preparation. Our results indicate that the immunosensor with covalently bound monoclonal anti-survivin antibody can detect Sur with the limit of detection, LOD=1.7nM (S/N=3σ). The immunosensor applicability for the analysis of real samples was assessed by testing samples of cell lysate solutions obtained from human astrocytoma (glioblastoma) U-87MG cell line, with the experiments performed using the standard addition method. The good linearity of the calibration curves for PBS and lysate solutions at low Sur concentrations confirm the high specificity of the proposed biosensor and good discrimination against nonspecific interactions with lysate components. The calculations indicate that there is still room to increase the Sur capture capacity for Sur while miniaturizing the sensor. The important advantage of the sensor is that it can be reused by a simple regeneration procedure.

  11. Characterization and Diagnostic Use of a Monoclonal Antibody for VP28 Envelope Protein of White Spot Syndrome Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chong-lin Hou; Yu Cao; Rong-hui Xie; Yi-zhen Wang; Hua-hua Du

    2011-01-01

    The gene encoding the VP28 envelope protein of White spot syndrome virus (WSSV)was cloned into expression vector pET-30a and transformed into the Escherichia coli strain BL21.After induction,the recombinant VP28 (rVP28) protein was purified and then used to immunize Balb/c mice for monoclonal antibody (MAb) production.It was observed by immuno-electron microscopy the MAbs specific to rVP28 could recognize native VP28 target epitopes of WSSV and dot-blot analysis was used to detect natural WSSV infection.Competitive PCR showed that the viral level was approximately 104 copies/mg tissue in the dilution of gill homogenate of WSSV-infected crayfish at the detection limit of dot-blot assay.Our results suggest that dot-blot analysis with anti-rVP28 MAb could rapidly and sensitively detect WSSV at the early stages of WSSV infection.

  12. Potential use of G protein-coupled receptor-blocking monoclonal antibodies as therapeutic agents for cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Deron R

    2012-01-01

    The therapeutic use of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is the fastest growing area of pharmaceutical development and has enjoyed significant clinical success since approval of the first mAb drug in1984. However, despite significant effort, there are still no approved therapeutic mAbs directed against the largest and most attractive family of drug targets: G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). GPCRs regulate essentially all cellular processes, including those that are fundamental to cancer pathology, such as proliferation, survival/drug resistance, migration, differentiation, tissue invasion, and angiogenesis. Many different GPCR isoforms are enhanced or dysregulated in multiple tumor types, and several GPCRs have known oncogenic activity. With approximately 350 distinct GPCRs in the genome, these receptors provide a rich landscape for the design of effective, targeted therapies for cancer, a uniquely heterogeneous disease family. While the generation of selective, efficacious mAbs has been problematic for these structurally complex integral membrane proteins, progress in the development of immunotherapeutics has been made by several independent groups. This chapter provides an overview of the roles of GPCRs in cancer and describes the current state of the art of GPCR-targeted mAb drugs.

  13. Secretion of biologically active interferon-gamma inducible protein-10 (IP-10 by Lactococcus lactis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saucedo-Cardenas Odila

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemokines are a large group of chemotactic cytokines that regulate and direct migration of leukocytes, activate inflammatory responses, and are involved in many other functions including regulation of tumor development. Interferon-gamma inducible-protein-10 (IP-10 is a member of the C-X-C subfamily of the chemokine family of cytokines. IP-10 specifically chemoattracts activated T lymphocytes, monocytes, and NK cells. IP-10 has been described also as a modulator of other antitumor cytokines. These properties make IP-10 a novel therapeutic molecule for the treatment of chronic and infectious diseases. Currently there are no suitable live biological systems to produce and secrete IP-10. Lactococcus lactis has been well-characterized over the years as a safe microorganism to produce heterologous proteins and to be used as a safe, live vaccine to deliver antigens and cytokines of interest. Here we report a recombinant strain of L. lactis genetically modified to produce and secrete biologically active IP-10. Results The IP-10 coding region was isolated from human cDNA and cloned into an L. lactis expression plasmid under the regulation of the pNis promoter. By fusion to the usp45 secretion signal, IP-10 was addressed out of the cell. Western blot analysis demonstrated that recombinant strains of L. lactis secrete IP-10 into the culture medium. Neither degradation nor incomplete forms of IP-10 were detected in the cell or supernatant fractions of L. lactis. In addition, we demonstrated that the NICE (nisin-controlled gene expression system was able to express IP-10 "de novo" even two hours after nisin removal. This human IP-10 protein secreted by L. lactis was biological active as demonstrated by Chemotaxis assay over human CD3+T lymphocytes. Conclusion Expression and secretion of mature IP-10 was efficiently achieved by L. lactis forming an effective system to produce IP-10. This recombinant IP-10 is biologically active as

  14. Harpins, multifunctional proteins secreted by gram-negative plant-pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Min-Seon; Kim, Wooki; Lee, Chanhui; Oh, Chang-Sik

    2013-10-01

    Harpins are glycine-rich and heat-stable proteins that are secreted through type III secretion system in gram-negative plant-pathogenic bacteria. Many studies show that these proteins are mostly targeted to the extracellular space of plant tissues, unlike bacterial effector proteins that act inside the plant cells. Over the two decades since the first harpin of pathogen origin, HrpN of Erwinia amylovora, was reported in 1992 as a cell-free elicitor of hypersensitive response (HR), diverse functional aspects of harpins have been determined. Some harpins were shown to have virulence activity, probably because of their involvement in the translocation of effector proteins into plant cytoplasm. Based on this function, harpins are now considered to be translocators. Their abilities of pore formation in the artificial membrane, binding to lipid components, and oligomerization are consistent with this idea. When harpins are applied to plants directly or expressed in plant cells, these proteins trigger diverse beneficial responses such as induction of defense responses against diverse pathogens and insects and enhancement of plant growth. Therefore, in this review, we will summarize the functions of harpins as virulence factors (or translocators) of bacterial pathogens, elicitors of HR and immune responses, and plant growth enhancers.

  15. Involvement of major facilitator superfamily proteins SfaA and SbnD in staphyloferrin secretion in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannauer, Mélissa; Sheldon, Jessica R; Heinrichs, David E

    2015-03-12

    A paucity of information exists concerning the mechanism(s) by which bacteria secrete siderophores into the extracellular compartment. We investigated the role of SfaA and SbnD, two major facilitator superfamily (MFS)-type efflux proteins, in the secretion of the Staphylococcus aureus siderophores staphyloferrin A (SA) and staphyloferrin B (SB), respectively. Deletion of sfaA resulted in a drastic reduction of SA secreted into the supernatant with a corresponding accumulation of SA in the cytoplasm and a significant growth defect in cells devoid of SB synthesis. In contrast, sbnD mutants showed transiently lowered levels of secreted SB, suggesting the involvement of additional efflux mechanisms.

  16. Correlation of secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine with diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Song, Hai-Yan; Liu, Kai; An, Meng-Meng

    2015-01-01

    To detect the serum concentrations of secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) in patients with diabetic nephropathy and SPARC mRNA and protein expressions in renal tissue of db/db mice (C57BL/KsJ, diabetic nephropathy mice), thus preliminary exploration on the role of secreted protein acidic riches in cysteine in the development of diabetic nephropathy were carried out. Serum SPARC levels in normal subjects, patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (without diabetic nephropathy), chronic renal failure (without diabetes mellitus), and diabetic nephropathy were determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. 12-week-old db/db mice (db/db group) and its littermate wild-type control mice (NC group) were selected with 6 from each group, and the kidney tissue were taken. RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence were used to detect the mRNA, targeted protein expressions of SPARC and the staining of renal tissue. The serum level of SPARC in diabetic nephropathy group was significantly higher than those in normal group, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and chronic renal failure group (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The SPARC level in the type 2 diabetes mellitus group was higher than that in normal group (P < 0.05), but there was no difference between normal group and chronic renal failure. SPARC mRNA and protein levels in renal tissue of db/db mice were higher compared with the normal control group (P < 0.05). The long term hyperglycemic state in patients with diabetic nephropathy causes pathological change of renal tissue. Simultaneously, increased secretion of SPARC from renal tissue results in elevation of serum SPARC level. SPARC correlates with the occurrence and progression of diabetes, and it may play a role in pathological change of diabetic nephropathy.

  17. [Protein trans-spliced chimeric human/porcine BDD-FVIII with augmented secretion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fu-xiang; Yang, Shu-de; Liu, Ze-long; Miao, Jing; Qu, Hui-ge; Chi, Xiao-yan

    2010-10-01

    This study is to construct a chimeric human/porcine BDD-FVIII (BDD-hpFVIII) containing the substituted porcine A1 and A3 domains which proved to have a pro-secretory function. By exploring Ssp DnaB intein's protein trans-splicing a dual-vector was adopted to co-transfer the chimeric BDD-hpFVIII gene into cultured COS-7 cell to observe the intracellular BDD-hpFVIII splicing by Western blotting and secretion of spliced chimeric BDD-hp FVIII protein and bio-activity using ELISA and Coatest assay, respectively. The dada showed that an obvious protein band of spliced BDD-hpFVIII can be seen, and the amount of spliced BDD-hpFVIII protein and bio-activity in the supernatant were up to (340 +/- 64) ng x mL(-1) and (2.52 +/- 0.32) u x mL(-1) secreted by co-transfected cells which were significantly higher than that of dual-vector-mediated human BDD-FVIII gene co-transfection cells [(93 +/- 22) ng x mL(-1), (0.72 +/- 0.13) u x mL(-1)]. Furthermore, a spliced BDD-hpFVIII protein and activity can be detected in supernatant from combined cells separately transfected with intein-fused BDD-hpFVIII heavy and light chain genes indicating that intein-mediated BDD-hpFVIII splicing occurs independently of cellular mechanism. It provided evidence for enhancing FVIII secretion in the research of animal models using intein-based dual vector for the delivery of the BDD-hpFVIII gene.

  18. Using hierarchical clustering of secreted protein families to classify and rank candidate effectors of rust fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane G O Saunders

    Full Text Available Rust fungi are obligate biotrophic pathogens that cause considerable damage on crop plants. Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, the causal agent of wheat stem rust, and Melampsora larici-populina, the poplar leaf rust pathogen, have strong deleterious impacts on wheat and poplar wood production, respectively. Filamentous pathogens such as rust fungi secrete molecules called disease effectors that act as modulators of host cell physiology and can suppress or trigger host immunity. Current knowledge on effectors from other filamentous plant pathogens can be exploited for the characterisation of effectors in the genome of recently sequenced rust fungi. We designed a comprehensive in silico analysis pipeline to identify the putative effector repertoire from the genome of two plant pathogenic rust fungi. The pipeline is based on the observation that known effector proteins from filamentous pathogens have at least one of the following properties: (i contain a secretion signal, (ii are encoded by in planta induced genes, (iii have similarity to haustorial proteins, (iv are small and cysteine rich, (v contain a known effector motif or a nuclear localization signal, (vi are encoded by genes with long intergenic regions, (vii contain internal repeats, and (viii do not contain PFAM domains, except those associated with pathogenicity. We used Markov clustering and hierarchical clustering to classify protein families of rust pathogens and rank them according to their likelihood of being effectors. Using this approach, we identified eight families of candidate effectors that we consider of high value for functional characterization. This study revealed a diverse set of candidate effectors, including families of haustorial expressed secreted proteins and small cysteine-rich proteins. This comprehensive classification of candidate effectors from these devastating rust pathogens is an initial step towards probing plant germplasm for novel resistance components.

  19. Using Hierarchical Clustering of Secreted Protein Families to Classify and Rank Candidate Effectors of Rust Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Diane G. O.; Win, Joe; Cano, Liliana M.; Szabo, Les J.; Kamoun, Sophien; Raffaele, Sylvain

    2012-01-01

    Rust fungi are obligate biotrophic pathogens that cause considerable damage on crop plants. Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, the causal agent of wheat stem rust, and Melampsora larici-populina, the poplar leaf rust pathogen, have strong deleterious impacts on wheat and poplar wood production, respectively. Filamentous pathogens such as rust fungi secrete molecules called disease effectors that act as modulators of host cell physiology and can suppress or trigger host immunity. Current knowledge on effectors from other filamentous plant pathogens can be exploited for the characterisation of effectors in the genome of recently sequenced rust fungi. We designed a comprehensive in silico analysis pipeline to identify the putative effector repertoire from the genome of two plant pathogenic rust fungi. The pipeline is based on the observation that known effector proteins from filamentous pathogens have at least one of the following properties: (i) contain a secretion signal, (ii) are encoded by in planta induced genes, (iii) have similarity to haustorial proteins, (iv) are small and cysteine rich, (v) contain a known effector motif or a nuclear localization signal, (vi) are encoded by genes with long intergenic regions, (vii) contain internal repeats, and (viii) do not contain PFAM domains, except those associated with pathogenicity. We used Markov clustering and hierarchical clustering to classify protein families of rust pathogens and rank them according to their likelihood of being effectors. Using this approach, we identified eight families of candidate effectors that we consider of high value for functional characterization. This study revealed a diverse set of candidate effectors, including families of haustorial expressed secreted proteins and small cysteine-rich proteins. This comprehensive classification of candidate effectors from these devastating rust pathogens is an initial step towards probing plant germplasm for novel resistance components. PMID:22238666

  20. FAM20: an evolutionarily conserved family of secreted proteins expressed in hematopoietic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cobos Everardo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hematopoiesis is a complex developmental process controlled by a large number of factors that regulate stem cell renewal, lineage commitment and differentiation. Secreted proteins, including the hematopoietic growth factors, play critical roles in these processes and have important biological and clinical significance. We have employed representational difference analysis to identify genes that are differentially expressed during experimentally induced myeloid differentiation in the murine EML hematopoietic stem cell line. Results One identified clone encoded a previously unidentified protein of 541 amino acids that contains an amino terminal signal sequence but no other characterized domains. This protein is a member of family of related proteins that has been named family with sequence similarity 20 (FAM20 with three members (FAM20A, FAM20B and FAM20C in mammals. Evolutionary comparisons revealed the existence of a single FAM20 gene in the simple vertebrate Ciona intestinalis and the invertebrate worm Caenorhabditis elegans and two genes in two insect species, Drosophila melanogaster and Anopheles gambiae. Six FAM20 family members were identified in the genome of the pufferfish, Fugu rubripes and five members in the zebrafish, Danio rerio. The mouse Fam20a protein was ectopically expressed in a mammalian cell line and found to be a bona fide secreted protein and efficient secretion was dependent on the integrity of the signal sequence. Expression analysis revealed that the Fam20a gene was indeed differentially expressed during hematopoietic differentiation and that the other two family members (Fam20b and Fam20c were also expressed during hematcpoiesis but that their mRNA levels did not vary significantly. Likewise FAM20A was expressed in more limited set of human tissues than the other two family members. Conclusions The FAM20 family represents a new family of secreted proteins with potential functions in regulating

  1. Immunological Detection of Newcastle Disease Viral Antigen in the Naturally Infected Chickens by Monoclonal Antibodies against Fusion-2 Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Mantik Astawa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs against Fusion (F2 protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV wereproduced for the detection of the viral antigen in infected chickens. Cells derived from spleen of Balb/c miceimmunized with the virus were fused with mouse myeloma cells to generate hybridomas capable ofproducing mAbs against the virus. The hybridomas were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA for anti-NDV specific mAbs using crude viral antigen (allantoic fluid of NDV-infected fertile eggsand normal uninfected allantoic fluid of fertile eggs as negative control. The NDV proteins reactive withmAbs were then determined by Western Blotting using purified NDV as antigen. The mAbs reactive withF2 (12.5 KDa protein of NDV were then used for the detection of NDV antigen in both the allantoic fluidof NDV- infected chicken embryos and in organs of naturally infected chickens. The results showed that 2out of 5 mAbs produced were against F2 protein of NDV. By indirect ELISA, the mAbs were able to detectthe viral antigen in allantoic fluid of NDV infected fertile chicken eggs at the titre as low as 2-2 to 2-4 HAunits per 0.1 mL. NDV–antigen was also detected by immunoperoxidase staining in paraffin-embeddedtissues of NDV-infected chickens but not in normal uninfected chickens. The most prominent infection wasdetected in the gastrointestinal tract and the lung. The NDV antigen was also detected in other organssuch as the brain, spleen, and several other tissues. It is evident that mAbs produced against F2 proteinof NDV were applicable for use in the detection of NDV antigen in infected chickens.

  2. Antigenic characterization of an abnormal isoform of prion protein using a new diverse panel of monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chan-Lan; Umetani, Atsushi; Matsui, Toshio; Ishiguro, Naotaka; Shinagawa, Morikazu; Horiuchi, Motohiro

    2004-03-01

    We established a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against prion protein (PrP) by immunizing PrP gene-ablated mice with the pathogenic isoform of prion protein (PrPSc) or recombinant prion protein (rPrP). The mAbs could be divided into at least 10 groups by fine epitope analyses using mutant rPrPs and pepspot analysis. Seven linear epitopes, lying within residues 56-90, 119-127, 137-143, 143-149, 147-151, 163-169, and 219-229, were defined by seven groups of mAbs, although the remaining three groups of mAbs recognized discontinuous epitopes. We attempted to examine whether any of these epitopes are located on the accessible surface of PrPSc. However, no mAbs reacted with protease-treated PrPSc purified from scrapie-affected mice, even when PrPSc was dispersed into a detergent-lipid protein complex, to reduce the size of PrPSc aggregates. In contrast, denaturation of PrPSc by guanidine hydrochloride efficiently exposed all of the epitopes. This suggests that any epitope recognized by this panel of mAbs is buried within the PrPSc aggregates. Alternatively, if the corresponding region(s) are on the surface of PrPSc, the region(s) may be folded into conformations to which the mAbs cannot bind. The reactivity of a panel of mAb also showed that the state of PrPSc aggregation influenced the denaturation process, and the sensitivity to denaturation appeared to vary between epitopes. Our results demonstrate that this new panel of well-characterized mAbs will be valuable for studying the biochemistry and biophysics of PrP molecules as well as for the immuno-diagnosis of prion diseases.

  3. Structure of a PE–PPE–EspG complex from Mycobacterium tuberculosis reveals molecular specificity of ESX protein secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekiert, Damian C.; Cox, Jeffery S.

    2014-01-01

    Nearly 10% of the coding capacity of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome is devoted to two highly expanded and enigmatic protein families called PE and PPE, some of which are important virulence/immunogenicity factors and are secreted during infection via a unique alternative secretory system termed “type VII.” How PE-PPE proteins function during infection and how they are translocated to the bacterial surface through the five distinct type VII secretion systems [ESAT-6 secretion system (ESX)] of M. tuberculosis is poorly understood. Here, we report the crystal structure of a PE-PPE heterodimer bound to ESX secretion-associated protein G (EspG), which adopts a novel fold. This PE-PPE-EspG complex, along with structures of two additional EspGs, suggests that EspG acts as an adaptor that recognizes specific PE–PPE protein complexes via extensive interactions with PPE domains, and delivers them to ESX machinery for secretion. Surprisingly, secretion of most PE-PPE proteins in M. tuberculosis is likely mediated by EspG from the ESX-5 system, underscoring the importance of ESX-5 in mycobacterial pathogenesis. Moreover, our results indicate that PE-PPE domains function as cis-acting targeting sequences that are read out by EspGs, revealing the molecular specificity for secretion through distinct ESX pathways. PMID:25275011

  4. Nicotinic Acid Increases Adiponectin Secretion from Differentiated Bovine Preadipocytes through G-Protein Coupled Receptor Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Kopp

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The transition period in dairy cows (3 weeks prepartum until 3 weeks postpartum is associated with substantial mobilization of energy stores, which is often associated with metabolic diseases. Nicotinic acid (NA is an antilipolytic and lipid-lowering compound used to treat dyslipidaemia in humans, and it also reduces non-esterified fatty acids in cattle. In mice the G-protein coupled receptor 109A (GPR109A ligand NA positively affects the secretion of adiponectin, an important modulator of glucose and fat metabolism. In cattle, the corresponding data linking NA to adiponectin are missing. Our objective was to examine the effects of NA on adiponectin and AMPK protein abundance and the expression of mRNAs of related genes such as chemerin, an adipokine that enhances adiponectin secretion in vitro. Differentiated bovine adipocytes were incubated with pertussis toxin (PTX to verify the involvement of GPR signaling, and treated with 10 or 15 µM NA for 12 or 24 h. NA increased adiponectin concentrations (p ≤ 0.001 and the mRNA abundances of GPR109A (p ≤ 0.05 and chemerin (p ≤ 0.01. Pre-incubation with PTX reduced the adiponectin response to NA (p ≤ 0.001. The NA-stimulated secretion of adiponectin and the mRNA expression of chemerin in the bovine adipocytes were suggestive of GPR signaling-dependent improved insulin sensitivity and/or adipocyte metabolism in dairy cows.

  5. The Ca(2+)-dependent activator protein for secretion CAPS: do I dock or do I prime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, David R; Rettig, Jens

    2009-02-01

    The "Ca(2+)-dependent activator protein for secretion" (CAPS) is a protein which reconstitutes regulated secretion in permeabilized neuroendocrine cells. It is generally accepted that CAPS plays an important role in the release of the contents of dense core vesicles in the nervous system as well as in a variety of other secretory tissues. At which step in the exocytotic process CAPS functions as well as its role in the fusion of synaptic vesicles is still under dispute. A recent growth spurt in the CAPS field has been fueled by genetic approaches in Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila as well as the application of knockout and knockdown approaches in mouse cells and in cell lines, respectively. We have attempted to review the body of work that established CAPS as an important regulator of secretion and to describe new information that has furthered our understanding of how CAPS may function. We discuss the conclusions, point out areas where controversy remains, and suggest directions for future experiments.

  6. Sprinter: a novel transmembrane protein required for Wg secretion and signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Robyn M; Thombre, Shreya; Firtina, Zeynep; Gray, Dione; Betts, Daniella; Roebuck, Jamie; Spana, Eric P; Selva, Erica M

    2006-12-01

    Wingless (Wg) is a secreted ligand that differentially activates gene expression in target tissues. It belongs to the Wnt family of secreted signaling molecules that regulate cell-to-cell interactions during development. Activation of Wg targets is dependent on the ligand concentration in the extracellular milieu; cellular mechanisms that govern the synthesis, delivery and receipt of Wg are elaborate and complex. We have identified sprinter (srt), which encodes a novel, evolutionarily conserved transmembrane protein required for the transmission of the Wg signal. Mutations in srt cause the accumulation of Wg in cells that express it, and retention of the ligand prevents activation of its target genes in signal-receiving cells. In the absence of Srt activity, levels of Wg targets (including Engrailed in embryos lacking maternal and zygotic srt, and Senseless and Achaete in wing discs) are reduced. Activation of Wg targets in the receiving cells does not require srt. Hence, the function of Srt is restricted to events occurring within the Wg-producing cells. We show that srt is not required for any aspect of Hedgehog (Hh) signal transduction, suggesting specificity of srt for the Wg pathway. We propose that srt encodes a protein required for Wg secretion that regulates maturation, membrane targeting or delivery of Wg. Loss of srt function in turn diminishes Wg-pathway activation in receiving cells.

  7. Insulin Stimulates S100B Secretion and These Proteins Antagonistically Modulate Brain Glucose Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartchow, Krista Minéia; Tramontina, Ana Carolina; de Souza, Daniela F; Biasibetti, Regina; Bobermin, Larissa D; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto

    2016-06-01

    Brain metabolism is highly dependent on glucose, which is derived from the blood circulation and metabolized by the astrocytes and other neural cells via several pathways. Glucose uptake in the brain does not involve insulin-dependent glucose transporters; however, this hormone affects the glucose influx to the brain. Changes in cerebrospinal fluid levels of S100B (an astrocyte-derived protein) have been associated with alterations in glucose metabolism; however, there is no evidence whether insulin modulates glucose metabolism and S100B secretion. Herein, we investigated the effect of S100B on glucose metabolism, measuring D-(3)H-glucose incorporation in two preparations, C6 glioma cells and acute hippocampal slices, and we also investigated the effect of insulin on S100B secretion. Our results showed that: (a) S100B at physiological levels decreases glucose uptake, through the multiligand receptor RAGE and mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK signaling, and (b) insulin stimulated S100B secretion via PI3K signaling. Our findings indicate the existence of insulin-S100B modulation of glucose utilization in the brain tissue, and may improve our understanding of glucose metabolism in several conditions such as ketosis, streptozotocin-induced dementia and pharmacological exposure to antipsychotics, situations that lead to changes in insulin signaling and extracellular levels of S100B.

  8. Proteomes of the barley aleurone layer: A model system for plant signalling and protein secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnie, Christine; Andersen, Birgit; Shahpiri, Azar; Svensson, Birte

    2011-05-01

    The cereal aleurone layer is of major importance due to its nutritional properties as well as its central role in seed germination and industrial malting. Cereal seed germination involves mobilisation of storage reserves in the starchy endosperm to support seedling growth. In response to gibberellic acid produced by the embryo, the aleurone layer synthesises hydrolases that are secreted to the endosperm for the degradation of storage products. The barley aleurone layer can be separated from the other seed tissues and maintained in culture, allowing the study of the effect of added signalling molecules in an isolated system. These properties have led to its use as a model system for the study of plant signalling and germination. More recently, proteome analysis of the aleurone layer has provided new insight into this unique tissue including identification of plasma membrane proteins and targeted analysis of germination-related changes and the thioredoxin system. Here, analysis of intracellular and secreted proteomes reveals features of the aleurone layer system that makes it promising for investigations of plant protein secretion mechanisms.

  9. Role of prolyl hydroxylase domain proteins in the regulation of insulin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mei; Paglialunga, Sabina; Wong, Julia M-K; Hoang, Monica; Pillai, Renjitha; Joseph, Jamie W

    2016-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes is associated with impaired nutrient-regulated anaplerosis and insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. One key anaplerotic substrate that may be involved in regulating insulin release is α-ketoglutarate (αKG). Since prolyl hydroxylase domain proteins (PHDs) can metabolize cytosolic αKG, we sought to explore the role of this enzyme in the regulation of β-cell function. The oxygen-sensing PHDs regulate the stability of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) as well as other proline-containing proteins by catalyzing the hydroxylation of proline residues. This reaction is dependent on sufficient levels of oxygen, iron, and αKG. In the present study, we utilized both pharmacological and genetic approaches to assess the impact of inhibiting PHD activity on β-cell function. We demonstrate that ethyl-3,4-dihydroxybenzoate (EDHB), a PHD inhibitor, significantly blunted glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from 832/13 clonal cells, rat, and human islets. EDHB reduced glucose utilization, ATP/ADP ratio, and key TCA cycle intermediates such as pyruvate, citrate, fumarate, and malate. siRNA-mediated knockdown of PHD1 and PHD3 inhibited GSIS, whereas siRNA-mediated knockdown of PHD2 had no effect on GSIS. Taken together, the current results demonstrate an important role for PHDs as mediators of islet insulin secretion.

  10. Rac Regulates Giardia lamblia Encystation by Coordinating Cyst Wall Protein Trafficking and Secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Krtková

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Encystation of the common intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia involves the production, trafficking, and secretion of cyst wall material (CWM. However, the molecular mechanism responsible for the regulation of these sequential processes remains elusive. Here, we examined the role of GlRac, Giardia’s sole Rho family GTPase, in the regulation of endomembrane organization and cyst wall protein (CWP trafficking. Localization studies indicated that GlRac is associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and the Golgi apparatus-like encystation-specific vesicles (ESVs. Constitutive GlRac signaling increased levels of the ER marker PDI2, induced ER swelling, reduced overall CWP1 production, and promoted the early maturation of ESVs. Quantitative analysis of cells expressing constitutively active hemagglutinin (HA-tagged GlRac (HA-RacCA revealed fewer but larger ESVs than control cells. Consistent with the phenotype of premature maturation of ESVs in HA-RacCA-expressing cells, constitutive GlRac signaling resulted in increased CWP1 secretion and, conversely, morpholino depletion of GlRac blocked CWP1 secretion. Wild-type cells unexpectedly secreted large quantities of CWP1 into the medium, and free CWP1 was used cooperatively during cyst formation. These results, in part, could account for the previously reported observation that G. lamblia encysts more efficiently at high cell densities. These studies of GlRac show that it regulates encystation at several levels, and our findings support its coordinating role as a regulator of CWP trafficking and secretion. The central role of GlRac in regulating membrane trafficking and the cytoskeleton, both of which are essential to Giardia parasitism, further suggests its potential as a novel target for drug development to treat giardiasis.

  11. G protein-coupled receptor 120 signaling regulates ghrelin secretion in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhi; Yoshimura, Makoto; Aizawa, Sayaka; Kurotani, Reiko; Zigman, Jeffrey M; Sakai, Takafumi; Sakata, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, is produced predominantly in the stomach. It has been reported that endogenous ghrelin levels are increased by fasting and decreased immediately after feeding and that fasting-induced ghrelin release is controlled by the sympathetic nervous system. However, the mechanisms of plasma ghrelin decrement after feeding are poorly understood. Here, we studied the control of ghrelin secretion using ghrelin-producing cell lines and found that these cells express high levels of mRNA encoding G-protein coupled receptor 120 (GPR120). Addition of GW-9508 (a GPR120 chemical agonist) and α-linolenic acid (a natural ligand for GPR120) inhibited the secretion of ghrelin by ∼50 and 70%, respectively. However, the expression levels of preproghrelin and ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) mRNAs were not influenced by GW-9508. In contrast, the expression levels of prohormone convertase 1 were decreased significantly by GW-9508 incubation. Moreover, we observed that the inhibitory effect of GW-9508 on ghrelin secretion was blocked by a small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting the sequence of GPR120. Furthermore, pretreatment with GW-9508 blocked the effect of the norepinephrine (NE)-induced ghrelin elevation in ghrelin cell lines. In addition, we showed that GW-9508 inhibited ghrelin secretion via extracellular signal-regulated kinase activity in ghrelin cell lines. Finally, we found that GW-9508 decreased plasma ghrelin levels in mice. These results suggest that the decrease of ghrelin secretion after feeding is induced partially by long-chain fatty acids that act directly on gastric GPR120-expressing ghrelin cells.

  12. Acinetobacter baumannii secretes cytotoxic outer membrane protein A via outer membrane vesicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Sook Jin

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii is an important nosocomial pathogen that causes a high morbidity and mortality rate in infected patients, but pathogenic mechanisms of this microorganism regarding the secretion and delivery of virulence factors to host cells have not been characterized. Gram-negative bacteria naturally secrete outer membrane vesicles (OMVs that play a role in the delivery of virulence factors to host cells. A. baumannii has been shown to secrete OMVs when cultured in vitro, but the role of OMVs in A. baumannii pathogenesis is not well elucidated. In the present study, we evaluated the secretion and delivery of virulence factors of A. baumannii to host cells via the OMVs and assessed the cytotoxic activity of outer membrane protein A (AbOmpA packaged in the OMVs. A. baumannii ATCC 19606(T secreted OMVs during in vivo infection as well as in vitro cultures. Potential virulence factors, including AbOmpA and tissue-degrading enzymes, were associated with A. baumannii OMVs. A. baumannii OMVs interacted with lipid rafts in the plasma membranes and then delivered virulence factors to host cells. The OMVs from A. baumannii ATCC 19606(T induced apoptosis of host cells, whereas this effect was not detected in the OMVs from the ΔompA mutant, thereby reflecting AbOmpA-dependent host cell death. The N-terminal region of AbOmpA(22-170 was responsible for host cell death. In conclusion, the OMV-mediated delivery of virulence factors to host cells may well contribute to pathogenesis during A. baumannii infection.

  13. Hypoxic tumor cell modulates its microenvironment to enhance angiogenic and metastatic potential by secretion of proteins and exosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung Eun; Tan, Hon Sen; Datta, Arnab; Lai, Ruenn Chai; Zhang, Huoming; Meng, Wei; Lim, Sai Kiang; Sze, Siu Kwan

    2010-06-01

    Under hypoxia, tumor cells produce a secretion that modulates their microenvironment to facilitate tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. Here, we observed that hypoxic or reoxygenated A431 carcinoma cells exhibited enhanced angiogenic and metastatic potential such as reduced cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix adhesion, increased invasiveness, and production of a secretion with increased chorioallantoic membrane angiogenic activity. Consistent with these observations, quantitative proteomics revealed that under hypoxia the tumor cells secreted proteins involved in angiogenesis, focal adhesion, extracellular matrix-receptor interaction, and immune cell recruitment. Unexpectedly, the secreted proteins were predominantly cytoplasmic and membrane proteins. Ultracentrifugation at 100,000 x g precipitated 54% of the secreted proteins and enriched for many exosome-associated proteins such as the tetraspanins and Alix and also proteins with the potential to facilitate angiogenesis and metastasis. Two tetraspanins, CD9 and CD81, co-immunoprecipitated. Together, these data suggested that tumor cells secrete proteins and exosomes with the potential to modulate their microenvironment and facilitate angiogenesis and metastasis.

  14. Rapid characterization of N-linked glycans from secreted and gel-purified monoclonal antibodies using MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Rasmus; Dickson, Alan J; Goodacre, Royston; Stephens, Gill M; Sellick, Christopher A

    2010-12-01

    Recombinant monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) are increasingly being used for therapeutic use and correct glycosylation of these MAbs is essential for their correct function. Glycosylation profiles are host cell- and antibody class-dependent and can change over culture time and environmental conditions. Therefore, rapid monitoring of glycan addition/status is of great importance for process validity. We describe two workflows of generally applicability for glycan profiling of purified and gel-purified MAbs produced in NS0 and CHO cells, in which small-scale antibody purification and buffer exchange is combined with PNGase F glycan cleavage and graphite HyperCarb desalting. MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry is used for sensitive detection of glycan forms, with the ability to confirm glycan structures by selective ion fragmentation. Both workflows are rapid, technically simple and amenable to automation, and use in multi-well formats. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. A proteomic approach for identification of secreted proteins during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes to adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kratchmarova, Irina; Kalume, Dario E; Blagoev, Blagoy;

    2002-01-01

    We have undertaken a systematic proteomic approach to purify and identify secreted factors that are differentially expressed in preadipocytes versus adipocytes. Using one-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with nanoelectrospray tandem mass spectrometry, proteins that were specifically secre...

  16. Antibody recognition to secreted proteins of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in sera from infected ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradenas, M; Jara, M C; Hernández, N; Zambrano, A; Collins, M T; Kruze, J

    2009-09-18

    Two liquid culture media to obtain secreted proteins of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis at different incubation periods were evaluated. Middlebrook 7H9-OADC (7H9) and Watson-Reid (WR) broths were inoculated with a field strain of M. paratuberculosis and growth curves determined using nonlinear regression analysis. Most culture filtrate (CF) proteins were of low molecular weight and reacted strongly against sera from cultured-positive cases of paratuberculosis. CF proteins obtained in WR yielded a higher number of bands and were detected earlier than those obtained from 7H9. A high degree of variability in CF protein immunoreactivity was seen among infected animals. Sera from cattle with clinical paratuberculosis or heavy fecal shedders of M. paratuberculosis reacted more intensively and to more CF proteins than did sera from other infected cattle. Immunoblots showed differences in antibody binding to CF proteins when sera were absorbed with M. avium but not with others environmental mycobacteria. Immunoblots with sera from infected goats and a sheep showed reactivity with proteins of 32, 33 and 46kDa both before and after the sera were absorbed with M. phlei. Antibodies found in serum of infected deer reacted with CF proteins in a similar way as did for cattle. These results suggest that a pool of CF proteins of M. paratuberculosis could be good candidates as antigens for serodiagnosis of paratuberculosis.

  17. A vesicle-trafficking protein commandeers Kv channel voltage sensors for voltage-dependent secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grefen, Christopher; Karnik, Rucha; Larson, Emily; Lefoulon, Cécile; Wang, Yizhou; Waghmare, Sakharam; Zhang, Ben; Hills, Adrian; Blatt, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Growth in plants depends on ion transport for osmotic solute uptake and secretory membrane trafficking to deliver material for wall remodelling and cell expansion. The coordination of these processes lies at the heart of the question, unresolved for more than a century, of how plants regulate cell volume and turgor. Here we report that the SNARE protein SYP121 (SYR1/PEN1), which mediates vesicle fusion at the Arabidopsis plasma membrane, binds the voltage sensor domains (VSDs) of K(+) channels to confer a voltage dependence on secretory traffic in parallel with K(+) uptake. VSD binding enhances secretion in vivo subject to voltage, and mutations affecting VSD conformation alter binding and secretion in parallel with channel gating, net K(+) concentration, osmotic content and growth. These results demonstrate a new and unexpected mechanism for secretory control, in which a subset of plant SNAREs commandeer K(+) channel VSDs to coordinate membrane trafficking with K(+) uptake for growth.

  18. Absence of repellents in Ustilago maydis induces genes encoding small secreted proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teertstra, Wieke R; Krijgsheld, Pauline; Wösten, Han A B

    2011-08-01

    The rep1 gene of the maize pathogen Ustilago maydis encodes a pre-pro-protein that is processed in the secretory pathway into 11 peptides. These so-called repellents form amphipathic amyloid fibrils at the surface of aerial hyphae. A SG200 strain in which the rep1 gene is inactivated (∆rep1 strain) is affected in aerial hyphae formation. We here assessed changes in global gene expression as a consequence of the inactivation of the rep1 gene. Microarray analysis revealed that only 31 genes in the ∆rep1 SG200 strain had a fold change in expression of ≥2. Twenty-two of these genes were up-regulated and half of them encode small secreted proteins (SSPs) with unknown functions. Seven of the SSP genes and two other genes that are over-expressed in the ∆rep1 SG200 strain encode proteins that can be classified as secreted cysteine-rich proteins (SCRPs). Interestingly, most of the SCRPs are predicted to form amyloids. The SCRP gene um00792 showed the highest up-regulation in the ∆rep1 strain. Using GFP as a reporter, it was shown that this gene is over-expressed in the layer of hyphae at the medium-air interface. Taken together, it is concluded that inactivation of rep1 hardly affects the expression profile of U. maydis, despite the fact that the mutant strain has a strong reduced ability to form aerial hyphae.

  19. Chimeric adaptor proteins translocate diverse type VI secretion system effectors in Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterweger, Daniel; Kostiuk, Benjamin; Ötjengerdes, Rina; Wilton, Ashley; Diaz-Satizabal, Laura; Pukatzki, Stefan

    2015-08-13

    Vibrio cholerae is a diverse species of Gram-negative bacteria, commonly found in the aquatic environment and the causative agent of the potentially deadly disease cholera. These bacteria employ a type VI secretion system (T6SS) when they encounter prokaryotic and eukaryotic competitors. This contractile puncturing device translocates a set of effector proteins into neighboring cells. Translocated effectors are toxic unless the targeted cell produces immunity proteins that bind and deactivate incoming effectors. Comparison of multiple V. cholerae strains indicates that effectors are encoded in T6SS effector modules on mobile genetic elements. We identified a diverse group of chimeric T6SS adaptor proteins required for the translocation of diverse effectors encoded in modules. An example for a T6SS effector that requires T6SS adaptor protein 1 (Tap-1) is TseL found in pandemic V. cholerae O1 serogroup strains and other clinical isolates. We propose a model in which Tap-1 is required for loading TseL onto the secretion apparatus. After T6SS-mediated TseL export is completed, Tap-1 is retained in the bacterial cell to load other T6SS machines.

  20. A vector system for ABC transporter-mediated secretion and purification of recombinant proteins in Pseudomonas species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jaewook; Lee, Ukjin; Park, Jiye; Yoo, Do-Hyun; Ahn, Jung Hoon

    2015-03-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens is an efficient platform for recombinant protein production. P. fluorescens has an ABC transporter secreting endogenous thermostable lipase (TliA) and protease, which can be exploited to transport recombinant proteins across the cell membrane. In this study, the expression vector pDART was constructed by inserting tliDEF, genes encoding the ABC transporter, along with the construct of the lipase ABC transporter recognition domain (LARD), into pDSK519, a widely used shuttle vector. When the gene for the target protein was inserted into the vector, the C-terminally fused LARD allowed it to be secreted through the ABC transporter into the extracellular medium. After secretion of the fused target protein, the LARD containing a hydrophobic C terminus enabled its purification through hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) using a methyl-Sepharose column. Alkaline phosphatase (AP) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) were used to validate the expression, export, and purification of target proteins by the pDART system. Both proteins were secreted into the extracellular medium in P. fluorescens. In particular, AP was secreted in several Pseudomonas species with its enzymatic activity in extracellular media. Furthermore, purification of the target protein using HIC yielded some degree of AP and GFP purification, where AP was purified to almost a single product. The pDART system will provide greater convenience for the secretory production and purification of recombinant proteins in Gram-negative bacteria, such as Pseudomonas species.

  1. Development and characterization of monoclonal antibody against non-structural protein-2 of Chikungunya virus and its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Soma; Kumar, Abhishek; Mamidi, Prabhudutta; Nayak, Tapas Kumar; Das, Indrani; Chhatai, Jagamohan; Basantray, Itishree; Bramha, Umarani; Maiti, Prasanta Kumar; Singh, Sujay; Suryawanshi, Amol Ratnakar; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis

    2014-04-01

    The recent epidemics of Chikungunya viruses (CHIKV) with unprecedented magnitude and unusual clinical severity have raised a great public health concern worldwide, especially due to unavailability of vaccine or specific therapy. This emphasizes the need to understand the biological processes of this virus in details. Although CHIKV associated research has been initiated, the availability of CHIKV specific reagents for in-depth investigation of viral infection and replication are scanty. For Alphavirus replication, non-structural protein 2 (nsP2) is known to play a key regulatory role among all other non-structural proteins. The current study describes the development and characterization of nsP2 specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) against a synthetic peptide of CHIKV. Reactivity and efficacy of this mAb have been demonstrated by ELISA, Western blot, Flow cytometry and Immunofluorescence assay. Time kinetic study confirms that this mAb is highly sensitive to CHIKV-nsP2 as this protein has been detected very early during viral replication in infected cells. Homology analysis of the selected epitope sequence reveals that it is conserved among all the CHIKV strains of different genotypes, while analysis with other Alphavirus sequences shows that none of them are 100% identical to the epitope sequence. Moreover, using the mAb, three isoforms of CHIKV-nsP2 have been detected in 2D blot analysis during infection in mammalian cells. Accordingly, it can be suggested that the mAb reported in this study can be a sensitive and specific tool for experimental investigations of CHIKV replication and infection.

  2. Calcium-dependent activator protein for secretion 2 (CAPS2) promotes BDNF secretion and is critical for the development of GABAergic interneuron network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Yo; Sadakata, Tetsushi; Nakao, Kazuhito; Katoh-Semba, Ritsuko; Kinameri, Emi; Furuya, Asako; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Hirase, Hajime; Furuichi, Teiichi

    2011-01-04

    Calcium-dependent activator protein for secretion 2 (CAPS2) is a dense-core vesicle-associated protein that is involved in the secretion of BDNF. BDNF has a pivotal role in neuronal survival and development, including the development of inhibitory neurons and their circuits. However, how CAPS2 affects BDNF secretion and its biological significance in inhibitory neurons are largely unknown. Here we reveal the role of CAPS2 in the regulated secretion of BDNF and show the effect of CAPS2 on the development of hippocampal GABAergic systems. We show that CAPS2 is colocalized with BDNF, both synaptically and extrasynaptically in axons of hippocampal neurons. Overexpression of exogenous CAPS2 in hippocampal neurons of CAPS2-KO mice enhanced depolarization-induced BDNF exocytosis events in terms of kinetics, frequency, and amplitude. We also show that in the CAPS2-KO hippocampus, BDNF secretion is reduced, and GABAergic systems are impaired, including a decreased number of GABAergic neurons and their synapses, a decreased number of synaptic vesicles in inhibitory synapses, and a reduced frequency and amplitude of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents. Conversely, excitatory neurons in the CAPS2-KO hippocampus were largely unaffected with respect to field excitatory postsynaptic potentials, miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents, and synapse number and morphology. Moreover, CAPS2-KO mice exhibited several GABA system-associated deficits, including reduced late-phase long-term potentiation at CA3-CA1 synapses, decreased hippocampal theta oscillation frequency, and increased anxiety-like behavior. Collectively, these results suggest that CAPS2 promotes activity-dependent BDNF secretion during the postnatal period that is critical for the development of hippocampal GABAergic networks.

  3. Generation of a Monoclonal Antibody Specifically Reacting with Neuron-specific TATA-Box Binding Protein-Associated Factor 1 (N-TAF1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gen Tamiya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available TATA-box binding protein-associated factor 1 (TAF1, the largest subunit of the transcription factor IID complex, plays an important role in the RNA polymerase II-mediated gene transcription pathway regulating the transcription of a large number of genes related to cell division. The neuron-specific isoform of the TAF1 gene (N-TAF1 may have an essential role in neurons through transcriptional regulation of many neuron-specific genes. The present study reports the preparation and properties of a monoclonal antibody directed against N-TAF1. The monoclonal antibody, 3A-11F, specifically recognized N-TAF1 protein with no reactivity to TAF1 protein, as evidenced by immunocytochemistry and immunoprecipitation using cultured cells expressing recombinant N-TAF1 or TAF1 protein. Immunohistochemistry using 3A-11F showed that N-TAF1-imunoreactivity was detected in the nuclear region of neurons in the rat brain. The 3A-11F monoclonal antibody promises to be a useful tool for determining the expression pattern and biological function of N-TAF1 in the brain.

  4. A protein-conjugate approach to develop a monoclonal antibody-based antigen detection test for the diagnosis of human brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Kailash P; Saito, Mayuko; Atluri, Vidya L; Rolán, Hortensia G; Young, Briana; Kerrinnes, Tobias; Smits, Henk; Ricaldi, Jessica N; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Gilman, Robert H; Tsolis, Renee M; Vinetz, Joseph M

    2014-06-01

    Human brucellosis is most commonly diagnosed by serology based on agglutination of fixed Brucella abortus as antigen. Nucleic acid amplification techniques have not proven capable of reproducibly and sensitively demonstrating the presence of Brucella DNA in clinical specimens. We sought to optimize a monoclonal antibody-based assay to detect Brucella melitensis lipopolysaccharide in blood by conjugating B. melitensis LPS to keyhole limpet hemocyanin, an immunogenic protein carrier to maximize IgG affinity of monoclonal antibodies. A panel of specific of monoclonal antibodies was obtained that recognized both B. melitensis and B. abortus lipopolysaccharide epitopes. An antigen capture assay was developed that detected B. melitensis in the blood of experimentally infected mice and, in a pilot study, in naturally infected Peruvian subjects. As a proof of principle, a majority (7/10) of the patients with positive blood cultures had B. melitensis lipopolysaccharide detected in the initial blood specimen obtained. One of 10 patients with relapsed brucellosis and negative blood culture had a positive serum antigen test. No seronegative/blood culture negative patients had a positive serum antigen test. Analysis of the pair of monoclonal antibodies (2D1, 2E8) used in the capture ELISA for potential cross-reactivity in the detection of lipopolysaccharides of E. coli O157:H7 and Yersinia enterocolitica O9 showed specificity for Brucella lipopolysaccharide. This new approach to develop antigen-detection monoclonal antibodies against a T cell-independent polysaccharide antigen based on immunogenic protein conjugation may lead to the production of improved rapid point-of-care-deployable assays for the diagnosis of brucellosis and other infectious diseases.

  5. Evaluation of Salmonella enterica type III secretion system effector proteins as carriers for heterologous vaccine antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazy, Wael Abdel Halim; Xu, Xin; Metelitsa, Leonid; Hensel, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Live attenuated strains of Salmonella enterica have a high potential as carriers of recombinant vaccines. The type III secretion system (T3SS)-dependent translocation of S. enterica can be deployed for delivery of heterologous antigens to antigen-presenting cells. Here we investigated the efficacy of various effector proteins of the Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI2)-encoded T3SS for the translocation of model antigens and elicitation of immune responses. The SPI2 T3SS effector proteins SifA, SteC, SseL, SseJ, and SseF share an endosomal membrane-associated subcellular localization after translocation. We observed that all effector proteins could be used to translocate fusion proteins with the model antigens ovalbumin and listeriolysin into the cytosol of host cells. Under in vitro conditions, fusion proteins with SseJ and SteC stimulated T-cell responses that were superior to those triggered by fusion proteins with SseF. However, in mice vaccinated with Salmonella carrier strains, only fusion proteins based on SseJ or SifA elicited potent T-cell responses. These data demonstrate that the selection of an optimal SPI2 effector protein for T3SS-mediated translocation is a critical parameter for the rational design of effective Salmonella-based recombinant vaccines.

  6. A dynamic study of protein secretion and aggregation in the secretory pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossuto, Maria Francesca; Sannino, Sara; Mazza, Davide; Fagioli, Claudio; Vitale, Milena; Yoboue, Edgar Djaha; Sitia, Roberto; Anelli, Tiziana

    2014-01-01

    Precise coordination of protein biogenesis, traffic and homeostasis within the early secretory compartment (ESC) is key for cell physiology. As a consequence, disturbances in these processes underlie many genetic and chronic diseases. Dynamic imaging methods are needed to follow the fate of cargo proteins and their interactions with resident enzymes and folding assistants. Here we applied the Halotag labelling system to study the behavior of proteins with different fates and roles in ESC: a chaperone, an ERAD substrate and an aggregation-prone molecule. Exploiting the Halo property of binding covalently ligands labelled with different fluorochromes, we developed and performed non-radioactive pulse and chase assays to follow sequential waves of proteins in ESC, discriminating between young and old molecules at the single cell level. In this way, we could monitor secretion and degradation of ER proteins in living cells. We can also follow the biogenesis, growth, accumulation and movements of protein aggregates in the ESC. Our data show that protein deposits within ESC grow by sequential apposition of molecules up to a given size, after which novel seeds are detected. The possibility of using ligands with distinct optical and physical properties offers a novel possibility to dynamically follow the fate of proteins in the ESC.

  7. A dynamic study of protein secretion and aggregation in the secretory pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Francesca Mossuto

    Full Text Available Precise coordination of protein biogenesis, traffic and homeostasis within the early secretory compartment (ESC is key for cell physiology. As a consequence, disturbances in these processes underlie many genetic and chronic diseases. Dynamic imaging methods are needed to follow the fate of cargo proteins and their interactions with resident enzymes and folding assistants. Here we applied the Halotag labelling system to study the behavior of proteins with different fates and roles in ESC: a chaperone, an ERAD substrate and an aggregation-prone molecule. Exploiting the Halo property of binding covalently ligands labelled with different fluorochromes, we developed and performed non-radioactive pulse and chase assays to follow sequential waves of proteins in ESC, discriminating between young and old molecules at the single cell level. In this way, we could monitor secretion and degradation of ER proteins in living cells. We can also follow the biogenesis, growth, accumulation and movements of protein aggregates in the ESC. Our data show that protein deposits within ESC grow by sequential apposition of molecules up to a given size, after which novel seeds are detected. The possibility of using ligands with distinct optical and physical properties offers a novel possibility to dynamically follow the fate of proteins in the ESC.

  8. Development and characterization of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against canine distemper virus hemagglutinin protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Zhenwei; Xia, Xingxia; Wang, Yongshan; Mei, Yongjie

    2015-04-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) causes a serious multisystemic disease in dogs and other carnivora. Hemagglutinin (H) protein-specific antibodies are mainly responsible for protective immunity against CDV infection. In the present study, six neutralizing MAbs to the H protein of CDV were newly obtained and characterized by immunizing BALB/c mice with a recent Chinese field isolate. Competitive binding inhibition assay revealed that they recognized four distinct antigenic regions of the H protein. Immunofluorescence assay and western blotting showed that all MAbs recognize the conformational rather than the linear epitopes of the H protein. Furthermore, in immunofluorescence and virus neutralization assays, two of the MAbs were found to react only with the recent Chinese field isolate and not with older CDV strains, including vaccine strain Onderstepoort, indicating there are neutralization-related antigenic variations between the recent Chinese field isolate and the older CDV strains examined in this study. The newly established MAbs are useful for differentiating the expanding CDV strains and could be used in immunotherapy and immunodiagnosis against infection with CDV.

  9. Huntingtin-interacting protein 14 is a type 1 diabetes candidate protein regulating insulin secretion and beta-cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchtold, Lukas Adrian; Størling, Zenia Marian; Ortis, Fernanda; Lage, Kasper; Bang-Berthelsen, Claus; Bergholdt, Regine; Hald, Jacob; Brorsson, Caroline Anna; Eizirik, Decio Laks; Pociot, Flemming; Brunak, Søren; Størling, Joachim

    2011-09-13

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a complex disease characterized by the loss of insulin-secreting β-cells. Although the disease has a strong genetic component, and several loci are known to increase T1D susceptibility risk, only few causal genes have currently been identified. To identify disease-causing genes in T1D, we performed an in silico "phenome-interactome analysis" on a genome-wide linkage scan dataset. This method prioritizes candidates according to their physical interactions at the protein level with other proteins involved in diabetes. A total of 11 genes were predicted to be likely disease genes in T1D, including the INS gene. An unexpected top-scoring candidate gene was huntingtin-interacting protein (HIP)-14/ZDHHC17. Immunohistochemical analysis of pancreatic sections demonstrated that HIP14 is almost exclusively expressed in insulin-positive cells in islets of Langerhans. RNAi knockdown experiments established that HIP14 is an antiapoptotic protein required for β-cell survival and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and IFN-γ) that mediate β-cell dysfunction in T1D down-regulated HIP14 expression in insulin-secreting INS-1 cells and in isolated rat and human islets. Overexpression of HIP14 was associated with a decrease in IL-1β-induced NF-κB activity and protection against IL-1β-mediated apoptosis. Our study demonstrates that the current network biology approach is a valid method to identify genes of importance for T1D and may therefore embody the basis for more rational and targeted therapeutic approaches.

  10. Separation of monoclonal antibody charge state variants by open tubular capillary electrochromatography with immobilised protein as stationary phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yamin; Wang, Wentao; Xiao, Xue; Jia, Li

    2016-09-30

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are highly heterogeneous and complex glycoproteins requiring powerful analytical tools for characterization and quality control. In this work, we utilize adsorbed bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a stationary phase in open tubular (OT) capillary electrochromatography for separation of charge state variants of mAbs. Poly(diallydimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) was used to assist fabrication of BSA coated OT column by electrostatic self-assembly. Scanning electron microscopy and electroosmotic flow measurement were carried out to characterize the as-prepared BSA coated PDDA OT columns. The electrochromatographic performance of the OT columns was evaluated by separation of basic proteins and different charge state variants of mAbs. The effects of background solution pH and concentration on separation were investigated. A rapid separation of charge state variants of mAbs was successfully achieved in the BSA coated PDDA OT column. Separation of seven variants of the mAb cetuximab was achieved using the prepared column. Two basic variants and one acidic variant of rituximab, and two basic variants and four acidic variants of trastuximab were successfully distinguished from the main forms. In addition, the columns demonstrated good repeatability and stability with the run-to-run, day-to-day and batch-to-batch relative standard deviations of migration times less than 3.7%.

  11. Monoclonal antibodies against accumulation-associated protein affect EPS biosynthesis and enhance bacterial accumulation of Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Hu

    Full Text Available Because there is no effective antibiotic to eradicate Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm infections that lead to the failure of medical device implantations, the development of anti-biofilm vaccines is necessary. Biofilm formation by S. epidermidis requires accumulation-associated protein (Aap that contains sequence repeats known as G5 domains, which are responsible for the Zn(2+-dependent dimerization of Aap to mediate intercellular adhesion. Antibodies against Aap have been reported to inhibit biofilm accumulation. In the present study, three monoclonal antibodies (MAbs against the Aap C-terminal single B-repeat construct followed by the 79-aa half repeat (AapBrpt1.5 were generated. MAb(18B6 inhibited biofilm formation by S. epidermidis RP62A to 60% of the maximum, while MAb(25C11 and MAb(20B9 enhanced biofilm accumulation. All three MAbs aggregated the planktonic bacteria to form visible cell clusters. Epitope mapping revealed that the epitope of MAb(18B6, which recognizes an identical area within AapBrpt constructs from S. epidermidis RP62A, was not shared by MAb(25C11 and MAb(20B9. Furthermore, all three MAbs were found to affect both Aap expression and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS, including extracellular DNA and PIA biosynthesis in S. epidermidis and enhance the cell accumulation. These findings contribute to a better understanding of staphylococcal biofilm formation and will help to develop epitope-peptide vaccines against staphylococcal infections.

  12. Production of mouse monoclonal antibody against Streptococcus dysgalactiae GapC protein and mapping its conserved B-cell epitope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Limeng; Zhang, Hua; Fan, Ziyao; Zhou, Xue; Yu, Liquan; Sun, Hunan; Wu, Zhijun; Yu, Yongzhong; Song, Baifen; Ma, Jinzhu; Tong, Chunyu; Zhu, Zhanbo; Cui, Yudong

    2015-02-01

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae (S. dysgalactiae) GapC protein is a protective antigen that induces partial immunity against S. dysgalactiae infection in animals. To identify the conserved B-cell epitope of S. dysgalactiae GapC, a mouse monoclonal antibody 1E11 (mAb1E11) against GapC was generated and used to screen a phage-displayed 12-mer random peptide library (Ph.D.-12). Eleven positive clones recognized by mAb1E11 were identified, most of which matched the consensus motif TGFFAKK. Sequence of the motif exactly matched amino acids 97-103 of the S. dysgalactiae GapC. In addition, the epitope (97)TGFFAKK(103) showed high homology among different streptococcus species. Site-directed mutagenic analysis further confirmed that residues G98, F99, F100 and K103 formed the core of (97)TGFFAKK(103), and this core motif was the minimal determinant of the B-cell epitope recognized by the mAb1E11. Collectively, the identification of conserved B-cell epitope within S. dysgalactiae GapC highlights the possibility of developing the epitope-based vaccine.

  13. Characterization of Niemann-Pick Type C2 protein expression in multiple cancers using a novel NPC2 monoclonal antibody.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Jen Liao

    Full Text Available Niemann-Pick Type C2 (NPC2 plays an important role in the regulation of intracellular cholesterol homeostasis via direct binding with free cholesterol. However, little is known about the significance of NPC2 in cancer. In this study, we have pinpointed the impact of various different cancers on NPC2 expression. A series of anti-NPC2 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs with the IgG2a isotype were generated and peptide screening demonstrated that the reactive epitope were amino acid residues 31-40 of the human NPC2 protein. The specificity of these mAbs was confirmed by Western blotting using shRNA mediated knock-down of NPC2 in human SK-Hep1 cells. By immunohistochemical staining, NPC2 is expressed in normal kidney, liver, breast, colon, lung, esophageal, uterine cervical, pancreatic and stomach tissue. Strong expression of NPC2 was found in the distal and proximal convoluted tubule of kidney and the hepatocytes of liver. Normal esophageal, uterine cervical, pancreatic, stomach, breast, colon and lung tissue stained moderately to weakly. When compared to their normal tissue equivalents, NPC2 overexpression was observed in cancers of the breast, colon and lung. Regarding to breast cancer, NPC2 up-regulation is associated with estrogen receptor (-, progesterone receptor (- and human epidermal growth factor receptor (+. On the other hand, NPC2 was found to be down-regulated in renal cell carcinoma, liver cirrhosis and hepatoma tissues. By antigen-capture enzyme immunoassay ELISA, the serum NPC2 is increased in patients with cirrhosis and liver cancer. According to western blot data, the change of glycosylated pattern of NPC2 in serum is associated with cirrhosis and liver cancer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive immunohistochemical and serological study investigating the expression of NPC2 in a variety of different human cancers. These novel monoclonal antibodies should help with elucidating the roles of NPC2 in tumor

  14. An IgE epitope of Bet v 1 and fagales PR10 proteins as defined by a human monoclonal IgE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hecker, J.; Diethers, A.; Schulz, D.;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Analyses of the molecular basis underlying allergenicity and allergen cross-reactivity, as well as improvement of allergy diagnostics and therapeutics, are hampered by the lack of human monoclonal IgE antibodies and knowledge about their epitopes. Here, we addressed the consecutive...... generation and epitope delineation of a human monoclonal IgE against the prototypic allergen Bet v 1. METHODS: Phage-display scFv hybrid libraries of allergic donor-derived VH epsilon and synthetic VL were established from 107 mononuclear cells. An obtained scFv was converted into human immunoglobulin...... formats including IgE. Using variants of Bet v 1, the epitope of the antibody was mapped and extrapolated to other PR10 proteins. RESULTS: The obtained antibodies exhibited pronounced reactivity with Bet v 1, but were not reactive with the homologous PR10 protein Mal d 1. The epitope as defined by the IgE...

  15. Enhanced detection of single-cell-secreted proteins using a fluorescent immunoassay on the protein-G-terminated glass substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Y

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Yoon Jeong,1,2 Kwan Hong Lee,1,2 Hansoo Park,3 Jonghoon Choi1,2 1Department of Bionano Technology, Graduate School, Hanyang University, Seoul, 2Department of Bionano Engineering, Hanyang University ERICA, Ansan, 3School of Integrative Engineering, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, South Korea Abstract: We present an evaluation of protein-G-terminated glass slides that may contain a suitable substrate for aligning the orientation of antibodies to obtain better binding moiety to the target antigen. The results of the protein-G-terminated slides were compared with those obtained with epoxy-based slides to evaluate signal enhancement for human immunoglobulin G (IgG targets, and an increase in the average fluorescence intensity was observed for the lowest measurable amount of IgG target in the assay using protein-G-terminated slides. Applying this strategy for signal amplification to single-cell assays improves the limits of detection for human IgG protein and cytokines (interleukin-2 and interferon-γ captured from hybridomas. Our data indicate that protein-G-terminated slides have a higher binding capacity for antigens and have better spot-to-spot consistency than that of traditional epoxy-based slides. These properties would be beneficial in the detection of fine amounts of single-cell-secreted proteins, which may provide key insights into cell–cell communication and immune responses. Keywords: microwell array, antibody’s orientation, single cell analysis, secreted cytokine, protein-G-terminated surface

  16. Phospholipase C-related catalytically inactive protein (PRIP controls KIF5B-mediated insulin secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Asano

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that phospholipase C-related catalytically inactive protein (PRIP-knockout mice exhibited hyperinsulinemia. Here, we investigated the role of PRIP in insulin granule exocytosis using Prip-knockdown mouse insulinoma (MIN6 cells. Insulin release from Prip-knockdown MIN6 cells was higher than that from control cells, and Prip knockdown facilitated movement of GFP-phogrin-labeled insulin secretory vesicles. Double-immunofluorescent staining and density step-gradient analyses showed that the KIF5B motor protein co-localized with insulin vesicles in Prip-knockdown MIN6 cells. Knockdown of GABAA-receptor-associated protein (GABARAP, a microtubule-associated PRIP-binding partner, by Gabarap silencing in MIN6 cells reduced the co-localization of insulin vesicles with KIF5B and the movement of vesicles, resulting in decreased insulin secretion. However, the co-localization of KIF5B with microtubules was not altered in Prip- and Gabarap-knockdown cells. The presence of unbound GABARAP, freed either by an interference peptide or by Prip silencing, in MIN6 cells enhanced the co-localization of insulin vesicles with microtubules and promoted vesicle mobility. Taken together, these data demonstrate that PRIP and GABARAP function in a complex to regulate KIF5B-mediated insulin secretion, providing new insights into insulin exocytic mechanisms.

  17. Hierarchical effector protein transport by the Salmonella Typhimurium SPI-1 type III secretion system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brit Winnen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Type III secretion systems (TTSS are employed by numerous pathogenic and symbiotic bacteria to inject a cocktail of different "effector proteins" into host cells. These effectors subvert host cell signaling to establish symbiosis or disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have studied the injection of SipA and SptP, two effector proteins of the invasion-associated Salmonella type III secretion system (TTSS-1. SipA and SptP trigger different host cell responses. SipA contributes to triggering actin rearrangements and invasion while SptP reverses the actin rearrangements after the invasion has been completed. Nevertheless, SipA and SptP were both pre-formed and stored in the bacterial cytosol before host cell encounter. By time lapse microscopy, we observed that SipA was injected earlier than SptP. Computer modeling revealed that two assumptions were sufficient to explain this injection hierarchy: a large number of SipA and SptP molecules compete for transport via a limiting number of TTSS; and the TTSS recognize SipA more efficiently than SptP. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This novel mechanism of hierarchical effector protein injection may serve to avoid functional interference between SipA and SptP. An injection hierarchy of this type may be of general importance, allowing bacteria to precisely time the host cell manipulation by type III effectors.

  18. The major secreted protein Msp1/p75 is O-glycosylated in Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebeer Sarah

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the occurrence, biosynthesis and possible functions of glycoproteins are increasingly documented for pathogens, glycoproteins are not yet widely described in probiotic bacteria. Nevertheless, knowledge of protein glycosylation holds important potential for better understanding specific glycan-mediated interactions of probiotics and for glycoengineering in food-grade microbes. Results Here, we provide evidence that the major secreted protein Msp1/p75 of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is glycosylated. Msp1 was shown to stain positive with periodic-acid Schiff staining, to be susceptible to chemical deglycosylation, and to bind with the mannose-specific Concanavalin A (ConA lectin. Recombinant expression in Escherichia coli resulted in a significant reduction in molecular mass, loss of ConA reactivity and increased sensitivity towards pronase E and proteinase K. Mass spectrometry showed that Msp1 is O-glycosylated and identified a glycopeptide TVETPSSA (amino acids 101-108 bearing hexoses presumably linked to the serine residues. Interestingly, these serine residues are not present in the homologous protein of several Lactobacillus casei strains tested, which also did not bind to ConA. The role of the glycan substitutions in known functions of Msp1 was also investigated. Glycosylation did not seem to impact significantly on the peptidoglycan hydrolase activity of Msp1. In addition, the glycan chain appeared not to be required for the activation of Akt signaling in intestinal epithelial cells by Msp1. On the other hand, examination of different cell extracts showed that Msp1 is a glycosylated protein in the supernatant, but not in the cell wall and cytosol fraction, suggesting a link between glycosylation and secretion of this protein. Conclusions In this study we have provided the first evidence of protein O-glycosylation in the probiotic L rhamnosus GG. The major secreted protein Msp1 is glycosylated with Con

  19. Secreted Protein Acidic and Rich in Cysteine (SPARC) Mediates Metastatic Dormancy of Prostate Cancer in Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sambad; Xing, Fei; Liu, Yin; Wu, Kerui; Said, Neveen; Pochampally, Radhika; Shiozawa, Yusuke; Lin, Hui-Kuan; Balaji, K C; Watabe, Kounosuke

    2016-09-09

    Prostate cancer is known to frequently recur in bone; however, how dormant cells switch its phenotype leading to recurrent tumor remains poorly understood. We have isolated two syngeneic cell lines (indolent and aggressive) through in vivo selection by implanting PC3mm stem-like cells into tibial bones. We found that indolent cells retained the dormant phenotype, whereas aggressive cells grew rapidly in bone in vivo, and the growth rates of both cells in culture were similar, suggesting a role of the tumor microenvironment in the regulation of dormancy and recurrence. Indolent cells were found to secrete a high level of secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), which significantly stimulated the expression of BMP7 in bone marrow stromal cells. The secreted BMP7 then kept cancer cells in a dormant state by inducing senescence, reducing "stemness," and activating dormancy-associated p38 MAPK signaling and p21 expression in cancer cells. Importantly, we found that SPARC was epigenetically silenced in aggressive cells by promoter methylation, but 5-azacytidine treatment reactivated the expression. Furthermore, high SPARC promoter methylation negatively correlated with disease-free survival of prostate cancer patients. We also found that the COX2 inhibitor NS398 down-regulated DNMTs and increased expression of SPARC, which led to tumor growth suppression in bone in vivo These findings suggest that SPARC plays a key role in maintaining the dormancy of prostate cancer cells in the bone microenvironment.

  20. Heterogeneity in ess transcriptional organization and variable contribution of the Ess/Type VII protein secretion system to virulence across closely related Staphylocccus aureus strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kneuper, Holger; Cao, Zhen Ping; Twomey, Kate B; Zoltner, Martin; Jäger, Franziska; Cargill, James S; Chalmers, James; van der Kooi - Pol, Magda; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Ryan, Robert P; Hunter, William N; Palmer, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    The Type VII protein secretion system, found in Gram-positive bacteria, secretes small proteins, containing a conserved W-x-G amino acid sequence motif, to the growth medium. Staphylococcus aureus has a conserved Type VII secretion system, termed Ess, which is dispensable for laboratory growth but r

  1. Heterogeneity in ess transcriptional organization and variable contribution of the Ess/Type VII protein secretion system to virulence across closely related Staphylocccus aureus strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kneuper, Holger; Cao, Zhen Ping; Twomey, Kate B; Zoltner, Martin; Jäger, Franziska; Cargill, James S; Chalmers, James; van der Kooi - Pol, Magda; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Ryan, Robert P; Hunter, William N; Palmer, Tracy

    The Type VII protein secretion system, found in Gram-positive bacteria, secretes small proteins, containing a conserved W-x-G amino acid sequence motif, to the growth medium. Staphylococcus aureus has a conserved Type VII secretion system, termed Ess, which is dispensable for laboratory growth but

  2. Macroautophagy and Cell Responses Related to Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Lipid Metabolism and Unconventional Secretion of Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Arnould

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Macroautophagy has important physiological roles and its cytoprotective or detrimental function is compromised in various diseases such as many cancers and metabolic diseases. However, the importance of autophagy for cell responses has also been demonstrated in many other physiological and pathological situations. In this review, we discuss some of the recently discovered mechanisms involved in specific and unspecific autophagy related to mitochondrial dysfunction and organelle degradation, lipid metabolism and lipophagy as well as recent findings and evidence that link autophagy to unconventional protein secretion.

  3. Macroautophagy and Cell Responses Related to Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Lipid Metabolism and Unconventional Secretion of Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demine, Stéphane; Michel, Sébastien; Vannuvel, Kayleen; Wanet, Anaïs; Renard, Patricia; Arnould, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    Macroautophagy has important physiological roles and its cytoprotective or detrimental function is compromised in various diseases such as many cancers and metabolic diseases. However, the importance of autophagy for cell responses has also been demonstrated in many other physiological and pathological situations. In this review, we discuss some of the recently discovered mechanisms involved in specific and unspecific autophagy related to mitochondrial dysfunction and organelle degradation, lipid metabolism and lipophagy as well as recent findings and evidence that link autophagy to unconventional protein secretion. PMID:24710422

  4. Quantification of the physiochemical constraints on the export of spider silk proteins by Salmonella type III secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voigt Christopher A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The type III secretion system (T3SS is a molecular machine in gram negative bacteria that exports proteins through both membranes to the extracellular environment. It has been previously demonstrated that the T3SS encoded in Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 (SPI-1 can be harnessed to export recombinant proteins. Here, we demonstrate the secretion of a variety of unfolded spider silk proteins and use these data to quantify the constraints of this system with respect to the export of recombinant protein. Results To test how the timing and level of protein expression affects secretion, we designed a hybrid promoter that combines an IPTG-inducible system with a natural genetic circuit that controls effector expression in Salmonella (psicA. LacO operators are placed in various locations in the psicA promoter and the optimal induction occurs when a single operator is placed at the +5nt (234-fold and a lower basal level of expression is achieved when a second operator is placed at -63nt to take advantage of DNA looping. Using this tool, we find that the secretion efficiency (protein secreted divided by total expressed is constant as a function of total expressed. We also demonstrate that the secretion flux peaks at 8 hours. We then use whole gene DNA synthesis to construct codon optimized spider silk genes for full-length (3129 amino acids Latrodectus hesperus dragline silk, Bombyx mori cocoon silk, and Nephila clavipes flagelliform silk and PCR is used to create eight truncations of these genes. These proteins are all unfolded polypeptides and they encompass a variety of length, charge, and amino acid compositions. We find those proteins fewer than 550 amino acids reliably secrete and the probability declines significantly after ~700 amino acids. There also is a charge optimum at -2.4, and secretion efficiency declines for very positively or negatively charged proteins. There is no significant correlation with hydrophobicity

  5. Galectin-3 Binding Protein Secreted by Breast Cancer Cells Inhibits Monocyte-Derived Fibrocyte Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Michael J V; Roife, David; Gomer, Richard H

    2015-08-15

    To metastasize, tumor cells often need to migrate through a layer of collagen-containing scar tissue which encapsulates the tumor. A key component of scar tissue and fibrosing diseases is the monocyte-derived fibrocyte, a collagen-secreting profibrotic cell. To test the hypothesis that invasive tumor cells may block the formation of the fibrous sheath, we determined whether tumor cells secrete factors that inhibit monocyte-derived fibrocyte differentiation. We found that the human metastatic breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 secretes activity that inhibits human monocyte-derived fibrocyte differentiation, whereas less aggressive breast cancer cell lines secrete less of this activity. Purification indicated that Galectin-3 binding protein (LGALS3BP) is the active factor. Recombinant LGALS3BP inhibits monocyte-derived fibrocyte differentiation, and immunodepletion of LGALS3BP from MDA-MB 231 conditioned media removes the monocyte-derived fibrocyte differentiation-inhibiting activity. LGALS3BP inhibits the differentiation of monocyte-derived fibrocytes from wild-type mouse spleen cells, but not from SIGN-R1(-/-) mouse spleen cells, suggesting that CD209/SIGN-R1 is required for the LGALS3BP effect. Galectin-3 and galectin-1, binding partners of LGALS3BP, potentiate monocyte-derived fibrocyte differentiation. In breast cancer biopsies, increased levels of tumor cell-associated LGALS3BP were observed in regions of the tumor that were invading the surrounding stroma. These findings suggest LGALS3BP and galectin-3 as new targets to treat metastatic cancer and fibrosing diseases.

  6. Type III secretion as a generalizable strategy for the production of full-length biopolymer-forming proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Anum; Li, Cheng; Metcalf, Kevin J; Tullman-Ercek, Danielle

    2016-11-01

    Biopolymer-forming proteins are integral in the development of customizable biomaterials, but recombinant expression of these proteins is challenging. In particular, biopolymer-forming proteins have repetitive, glycine-rich domains and, like many heterologously expressed proteins, are prone to incomplete translation, aggregation, and proteolytic degradation in the production host. This necessitates tailored purification processes to isolate each full-length protein of interest from the truncated forms as well as other contaminating proteins; owing to the repetitive nature of these proteins, the truncated polypeptides can have very similar chemistry to the full-length form and are difficult to separate from the full-length protein. We hypothesized that bacterial expression and secretion would be a promising alternative option for biomaterials-forming proteins, simplifying isolation of the full-length target protein. By using a selective secretion system, truncated forms of the protein are not secreted and thus are not found in the culture harvest. We show that a synthetically upregulated type III secretion system leads to a general increase in secretion titer for each protein that we tested. Moreover, we observe a substantial enhancement in the homogeneity of full-length forms of pro-resilin, tropo-elastin crosslinking domains, and silk proteins produced in this manner, as compared with proteins purified from the cytosol. Secretion via the type III apparatus limits co-purification of truncated forms of the target protein and increases protein purity without extensive purification steps. Demonstrating the utility of such a system, we introduce several modifications to resilin-based peptides and use an un-optimized, single-column process to purify these proteins. The resulting materials are of sufficiently high quantity and yield for the production of antimicrobial hydrogels with highly reproducible rheological properties. The ease of this process and its

  7. Expression analysis of the Theileria parva subtelomere-encoded variable secreted protein gene family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Schmuckli-Maurer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The intracellular protozoan parasite Theileria parva transforms bovine lymphocytes inducing uncontrolled proliferation. Proteins released from the parasite are assumed to contribute to phenotypic changes of the host cell and parasite persistence. With 85 members, genes encoding subtelomeric variable secreted proteins (SVSPs form the largest gene family in T. parva. The majority of SVSPs contain predicted signal peptides, suggesting secretion into the host cell cytoplasm. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analysed SVSP expression in T. parva-transformed cell lines established in vitro by infection of T or B lymphocytes with cloned T. parva parasites. Microarray and quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed mRNA expression for a wide range of SVSP genes. The pattern of mRNA expression was largely defined by the parasite genotype and not by host background or cell type, and found to be relatively stable in vitro over a period of two months. Interestingly, immunofluorescence analysis carried out on cell lines established from a cloned parasite showed that expression of a single SVSP encoded by TP03_0882 is limited to only a small percentage of parasites. Epitope-tagged TP03_0882 expressed in mammalian cells was found to translocate into the nucleus, a process that could be attributed to two different nuclear localisation signals. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis reveals a complex pattern of Theileria SVSP mRNA expression, which depends on the parasite genotype. Whereas in cell lines established from a cloned parasite transcripts can be found corresponding to a wide range of SVSP genes, only a minority of parasites appear to express a particular SVSP protein. The fact that a number of SVSPs contain functional nuclear localisation signals suggests that proteins released from the parasite could contribute to phenotypic changes of the host cell. This initial characterisation will facilitate future studies on the regulation of SVSP gene

  8. SECRET domain of variola virus CrmB protein can be a member of poxviral type II chemokine-binding proteins family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shchelkunov Sergei N

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variola virus (VARV the causative agent of smallpox, eradicated in 1980, have wide spectrum of immunomodulatory proteins to evade host immunity. Recently additional biological activity was discovered for VARV CrmB protein, known to bind and inhibit tumour necrosis factor (TNF through its N-terminal domain homologous to cellular TNF receptors. Besides binding TNF, this protein was also shown to bind with high affinity several chemokines which recruit B- and T-lymphocytes and dendritic cells to sites of viral entry and replication. Ability to bind chemokines was shown to be associated with unique C-terminal domain of CrmB protein. This domain named SECRET (Smallpox virus-Encoded Chemokine Receptor is unrelated to the host proteins and lacks significant homology with other known viral chemokine-binding proteins or any other known protein. Findings De novo modelling of VARV-CrmB SECRET domain spatial structure revealed its apparent structural homology with cowpox virus CC-chemokine binding protein (vCCI and vaccinia virus A41 protein, despite low sequence identity between these three proteins. Potential ligand-binding surface of modelled VARV-CrmB SECRET domain was also predicted to bear prominent electronegative charge which is characteristic to known orthopoxviral chemokine-binding proteins. Conclusions Our results suggest that SECRET should be included into the family of poxviral type II chemokine-binding proteins and that it might have been evolved from the vCCI-like predecessor protein.

  9. Secreted protein eco-corona mediates uptake and impacts of polystyrene nanoparticles on Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Fatima; Lynch, Iseult

    2016-03-30

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are defined as having at least one external dimension between 1 and 100 nm. Due to their small size, NPs have a large surface area to volume ratio giving them unique characteristics that differ from bulk material of the same chemical composition. As a result these novel materials have found numerous applications in medical and industrial fields with the result that environmental exposure to NPs is increasingly likely. Similarly, increased reliance on plastic, which degrades extremely slowly in the environment, is resulting in increased accumulation of micro-/nano-plastics in fresh and marine waters, whose ecotoxicological impacts are as yet poorly understood. Although NPs are well known to adsorb macromolecules from their environment, forming a biomolecule corona which changes the NP identity and how it interacts with organisms, significantly less research has been performed on the ecological corona (eco-corona). Secretion of biomolecules is a well established predator-prey response in aquatic food chains, raising the question of whether NPs interact with secreted proteins, and the impact of such interaction on NP uptake and ecotoxicity. We report here initial studies, including optimisation of protocols using carboxylic-acid and amino modified spherical polystyrene NPs, to assess interaction of NPs with biomolecules secreted by Daphnia magna and the impact of these interactions on NP uptake, retention and toxicity towards Daphnia magna. Daphnia magna are an important environmental indicator species who may be especially sensitive to nanoparticles (NPs) as a result of being filter-feeders. This paper demonstrates for the first time that proteins released by Daphnia magna create an eco-corona around polystyrene NPs which causes heightened uptake of the NPs and consequently increases toxicity. The secreted protein eco-corona also causes the NPs to be less efficiently removed from the gut of D. magna and NPs remaining in the gut of D. magna

  10. Heat shock protein 70 regulates platelet integrin activation, granule secretion and aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigg, Rachel A; Healy, Laura D; Nowak, Marie S; Mallet, Jérémy; Thierheimer, Marisa L D; Pang, Jiaqing; McCarty, Owen J T; Aslan, Joseph E

    2016-04-01

    Molecular chaperones that support protein quality control, including heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), participate in diverse aspects of cellular and physiological function. Recent studies have reported roles for specific chaperone activities in blood platelets in maintaining hemostasis; however, the functions of Hsp70 in platelet physiology remain uninvestigated. Here we characterize roles for Hsp70 activity in platelet activation and function. In vitro biochemical, microscopy, flow cytometry, and aggregometry assays of platelet function, as well as ex vivo analyses of platelet aggregate formation in whole blood under shear, were carried out under Hsp70-inhibited conditions. Inhibition of platelet Hsp70 blocked platelet aggregation and granule secretion in response to collagen-related peptide (CRP), which engages the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif-bearing collagen receptor glycoprotein VI (GPVI)-Fc receptor-γ chain complex. Hsp70 inhibition also reduced platelet integrin-αIIbβ3 activation downstream of GPVI, as Hsp70-inhibited platelets showed reduced PAC-1 and fibrinogen binding. Ex vivo, pharmacological inhibition of Hsp70 in human whole blood prevented the formation of platelet aggregates on collagen under shear. Biochemical studies supported a role for Hsp70 in maintaining the assembly of the linker for activation of T cells signalosome, which couples GPVI-initiated signaling to integrin activation, secretion, and platelet function. Together, our results suggest that Hsp70 regulates platelet activation and function by supporting linker for activation of T cells-associated signaling events downstream of platelet GPVI engagement, suggesting a role for Hsp70 in the intracellular organization of signaling systems that mediate platelet secretion, "inside-out" activation of platelet integrin-αIIbβ3, platelet-platelet aggregation, and, ultimately, hemostatic plug and thrombus formation.

  11. Sulindac modulates secreted protein expression from LIM1215 colon carcinoma cells prior to apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greening, David W; Ji, Hong; Kapp, Eugene A; Simpson, Richard J

    2013-11-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of mortality in Western populations. Growing evidence from human and rodent studies indicate that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) cause regression of existing colon tumors and act as effective chemopreventive agents in sporadic colon tumor formation. Although much is known about the action of the NSAID sulindac, especially its role in inducing apoptosis, mechanisms underlying these effects is poorly understood. In previous secretome-based proteomic studies using 2D-DIGE/MS and cytokine arrays we identified over 150 proteins released from the CRC cell line LIM1215 whose expression levels were dysregulated by treatment with 1mM sulindac over 16h; many of these proteins are implicated in molecular and cellular functions such as cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, angiogenesis and apoptosis (Ji et al., Proteomics Clin. Appl. 2009, 3, 433-451). We have extended these studies and describe here an improved protein/peptide separation strategy that facilitated the identification of 987 proteins and peptides released from LIM1215 cells following 1mM sulindac treatment for 8h preceding the onset of apoptosis. This peptidome separation strategy involved fractional centrifugal ultrafiltration of concentrated cell culture media (CM) using nominal molecular weight membrane filters (NMWL 30K, 3K and 1K). Proteins isolated in the >30K and 3-30K fractions were electrophoretically separated by SDS-PAGE and endogenous peptides in the 1-3K membrane filter were fractioned by RP-HPLC; isolated proteins and peptides were identified by nanoLC-MS-MS. Collectively, our data show that LIM1215 cells treated with 1mM sulindac for 8h secrete decreased levels of proteins associated with extracellular matrix remodeling (e.g., collagens, perlecan, syndecans, filamins, dyneins, metalloproteinases and endopeptidases), cell adhesion (e.g., cadherins, integrins, laminins) and mucosal maintenance (e.g., glycoprotein 340 and mucins 5AC, 6

  12. Chronic effects of a Salmonella type III secretion effector protein AvrA in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Lu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Salmonella infection is a common public health problem that can become chronic and increase the risk of inflammatory bowel diseases and cancer. AvrA is a Salmonella bacterial type III secretion effector protein. Increasing evidence demonstrates that AvrA is a multi-functional enzyme with critical roles in inhibiting inflammation, regulating apoptosis, and enhancing proliferation. However, the chronic effects of Salmonella and effector AvrA in vivo are still unknown. Moreover, alive, mutated, non-invasive Salmonella is used as a vector to specifically target cancer cells. However, studies are lacking on chronic infection with non-pathogenic or mutated Salmonella in the host. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We infected mice with Salmonella Typhimurium for 27 weeks and investigated the physiological effects as well as the role of AvrA in intestinal inflammation. We found altered body weight, intestinal pathology, and bacterial translocation in spleen, liver, and gallbladder in chronically Salmonella-infected mice. Moreover, AvrA suppressed intestinal inflammation and inhibited the secretion of cytokines IL-12, IFN-gamma, and TNF-alpha. AvrA expression in Salmonella enhanced its invasion ability. Liver abscess and Salmonella translocation in the gallbladder were observed and may be associated with AvrA expression in Salmonella. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We created a mouse model with persistent Salmonella infection in vivo. Our study further emphasizes the importance of the Salmonella effector protein AvrA in intestinal inflammation, bacterial translocation, and chronic infection in vivo.

  13. Distinct activities of Bartonella henselae type IV secretion effector proteins modulate capillary-like sprout formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidegger, F; Ellner, Y; Guye, P; Rhomberg, T A; Weber, H; Augustin, H G; Dehio, C

    2009-07-01

    The zoonotic pathogen Bartonella henselae (Bh) can lead to vasoproliferative tumour lesions in the skin and inner organs known as bacillary angiomatosis and bacillary peliosis. The knowledge on the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in this pathogen-triggered angiogenic process is confined by the lack of a suitable animal model and a physiologically relevant cell culture model of angiogenesis. Here we employed a three-dimensional in vitro angiogenesis assay of collagen gel-embedded endothelial cell (EC) spheroids to study the angiogenic properties of Bh. Spheroids generated from Bh-infected ECs displayed a high capacity to form sprouts, which represent capillary-like projections into the collagen gel. The VirB/VirD4 type IV secretion system and a subset of its translocated Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) were found to profoundly modulate this Bh-induced sprouting activity. BepA, known to protect ECs from apoptosis, strongly promoted sprout formation. In contrast, BepG, triggering cytoskeletal rearrangements, potently inhibited sprouting. Hence, the here established in vitro model of Bartonella- induced angiogenesis revealed distinct and opposing activities of type IV secretion system effector proteins, which together with a VirB/VirD4-independent effect may control the angiogenic activity of Bh during chronic infection of the vasculature.

  14. Engineering the supply chain for protein production/secretion in yeasts and mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Tobias; Niklas, Jens; Heinzle, Elmar

    2015-03-01

    Metabolic bottlenecks play an increasing role in yeasts and mammalian cells applied for high-performance production of proteins, particularly of pharmaceutical ones that require complex posttranslational modifications. We review the present status and developments focusing on the rational metabolic engineering of such cells to optimize the supply chain for building blocks and energy. Methods comprise selection of beneficial genetic modifications, rational design of media and feeding strategies. Design of better producer cells based on whole genome-wide metabolic network analysis becomes increasingly possible. High-resolution methods of metabolic flux analysis for the complex networks in these compartmented cells are increasingly available. We discuss phenomena that are common to both types of organisms but also those that are different with respect to the supply chain for the production and secretion of pharmaceutical proteins.

  15. Characterization of EssB, a protein required for secretion of ESAT-6 like proteins in Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Yi-Hsing; Anderson Mark; Hendrickx Antoni PA; Missiakas Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus secretes EsxA and EsxB, two small polypeptides of the WXG100 family of proteins. Genetic analyses have shown that production and secretion of EsxA and EsxB require an intact ESAT-6 Secretion System (ESS), a cluster of genes that is conserved in many Firmicutes and encompasses esxA and esxB . Here, we characterize EssB, one of the proteins encoded by the ESS cluster. EssB is highly conserved in Gram-positive bacteria and belongs to the Cluster of ...

  16. Analysis of the role of the gene bipA, encoding the major endoplasmic reticulum chaperone protein in the secretion of homologous and heterologous proteins in black Aspergilli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, P.J.; Gemeren, I.A. van; Drint-Kuijvenhoven, J.; Hessing, J.G.M.; Muijlwijk van - Harteveld, G.M.; Beijersbergen, A.; Verrips, C.T.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den

    1998-01-01

    The function of the endoplasmic-reticulum-localized chaperone binding protein (BiP) in relation to protein secretion in filamentous fungi was studied. It was shown that the overproduction of several homologous and heterologous recombinant proteins by Aspergillus strains induces the expression of bip

  17. Partially Protective Immunity Induced by a 20 kDa Protein Secreted by Trichinella spiralis Stichocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo Bi

    Full Text Available Trichinella spiralis infection induces protective immunity against re-infection in animal models. Identification of the antigens eliciting acquired immunity during infection is important for vaccine development against Trichinella infection and immunodiagnosis.The T. spiralis adult cDNA library was immunoscreened with sera from pigs experimentally infected with 20,000 infective T. spiralis larvae. Total 43 positive clones encoding for 28 proteins were identified; one of the immunodominant proteins was 20 kDa Ts-ES-1 secreted by Trichinella stichocytes and existing in the excretory/secretory (ES products of T. spiralis adult and muscle larval worms. Ts-ES-1 contains 172 amino acids with a typical signal peptide in the first 20 amino acids. The expression of Ts-ES-1 was detected in both the adult and muscle larval stages at the mRNA and protein expression levels. Mice immunized with recombinant Ts-ES-1 (rTs-ES-1 formulated with ISA50v2 adjuvant exhibited a significant worm reduction in both the adult worm (27% and muscle larvae burden (42.1% after a challenge with T. spiralis compared to the adjuvant control group (p<0.01. The rTs-ES-1-induced protection was associated with a high level of specific anti-Ts-ES-1 IgG antibodies and a Th1/Th2 mixed immune response.The newly identified rTs-ES-1 is an immunodominant protein secreted by Trichinella stichocytes during natural infection and enables to the induction of partial protective immunity in vaccinated mice against Trichinella infection. Therefore, rTs-ES-1 is a potential candidate for vaccine development against trichinellosis.

  18. Metabolic flux profiling of recombinant protein secreting Pichia pastoris growing on glucose:methanol mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordà Joel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris has emerged as one of the most promising yeast hosts for the production of heterologous proteins. Mixed feeds of methanol and a multicarbon source instead of methanol as sole carbon source have been shown to improve product productivities and alleviate metabolic burden derived from protein production. Nevertheless, systematic quantitative studies on the relationships between the central metabolism and recombinant protein production in P. pastoris are still rather limited, particularly when growing this yeast on mixed carbon sources, thus hampering future metabolic network engineering strategies for improved protein production. Results The metabolic flux distribution in the central metabolism of P. pastoris growing on a mixed feed of glucose and methanol was analyzed by Metabolic Flux Analysis (MFA using 13C-NMR-derived constraints. For this purpose, we defined new flux ratios for methanol assimilation pathways in P. pastoris cells growing on glucose:methanol mixtures. By using this experimental approach, the metabolic burden caused by the overexpression and secretion of a Rhizopus oryzae lipase (Rol in P. pastoris was further analyzed. This protein has been previously shown to trigger the unfolded protein response in P. pastoris. A series of 13C-tracer experiments were performed on aerobic chemostat cultivations with a control and two different Rol producing strains growing at a dilution rate of 0.09 h−1 using a glucose:methanol 80:20 (w/w mix as carbon source. The MFA performed in this study reveals a significant redistristribution of carbon fluxes in the central carbon metabolism when comparing the two recombinant strains vs the control strain, reflected in increased glycolytic, TCA cycle and NADH regeneration fluxes, as well as higher methanol dissimilation rates. Conclusions Overall, a further 13C-based MFA development to characterise the central metabolism of methylotrophic

  19. Metabolic flux profiling of recombinant protein secreting Pichia pastoris growing on glucose:methanol mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordà, Joel; Jouhten, Paula; Cámara, Elena; Maaheimo, Hannu; Albiol, Joan; Ferrer, Pau

    2012-05-08

    The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris has emerged as one of the most promising yeast hosts for the production of heterologous proteins. Mixed feeds of methanol and a multicarbon source instead of methanol as sole carbon source have been shown to improve product productivities and alleviate metabolic burden derived from protein production. Nevertheless, systematic quantitative studies on the relationships between the central metabolism and recombinant protein production in P. pastoris are still rather limited, particularly when growing this yeast on mixed carbon sources, thus hampering future metabolic network engineering strategies for improved protein production. The metabolic flux distribution in the central metabolism of P. pastoris growing on a mixed feed of glucose and methanol was analyzed by Metabolic Flux Analysis (MFA) using 13C-NMR-derived constraints. For this purpose, we defined new flux ratios for methanol assimilation pathways in P. pastoris cells growing on glucose:methanol mixtures. By using this experimental approach, the metabolic burden caused by the overexpression and secretion of a Rhizopus oryzae lipase (Rol) in P. pastoris was further analyzed. This protein has been previously shown to trigger the unfolded protein response in P. pastoris. A series of 13C-tracer experiments were performed on aerobic chemostat cultivations with a control and two different Rol producing strains growing at a dilution rate of 0.09 h(-1) using a glucose:methanol 80:20 (w/w) mix as carbon source.The MFA performed in this study reveals a significant redistribution of carbon fluxes in the central carbon metabolism when comparing the two recombinant strains vs the control strain, reflected in increased glycolytic, TCA cycle and NADH regeneration fluxes, as well as higher methanol dissimilation rates. Overall, a further 13C-based MFA development to characterise the central metabolism of methylotrophic yeasts when growing on mixed methanol:multicarbon sources has been

  20. Molecular Characterization of Two Monoclonal Antibodies against the Same Epitope on B-Cell Receptor Associated Protein 31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won-Tae; Shin, Saemina; Hwang, Hyo Jeong; Kim, Min Kyu; Jung, Han-Sung; Park, Hwangseo; Ryu, Chun Jeih

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we showed that B-cell receptor associated protein 31 (BAP31), an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane chaperone, is also expressed on the cell surface by two monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) 297-D4 and 144-A8. Both MAbs recognize the same linear epitope on the C-terminal domain of BAP31, although they were independently established. Here, flow cytometric analysis showed that 144-A8 had additional binding properties to some cells, as compared to 297-D4. Quantitative antigen binding assays also showed that 144-A8 had higher antigen binding capacity than 297-D4. Affinity measurement revealed that 144-A8 had 1.54-fold higher binding affinity than 297-D4. Analysis of the heavy- and light-chain variable region sequences of two MAbs revealed that both MAbs belonged to the same heavy chain (Igh-V3660 VH3) and light chain subgroup (IGKV21) with just two amino acid differences in each framework region, indicating that both MAbs arise from the same germline origin. Seven amino acid differences were found between the complementarity determining regions (CDRs) of the two MAbs. Molecular modeling of the epitope-paratope complexes revealed that the epitope appeared to reside in closer proximity to the CDRs of 144-A8 than to those of 297-D4 with the stronger hydrogen bond interactions with the former than the latter. More interestingly, an additional hydrophobic interaction appeared to be established between the leucine residue of epitope and the paratope of 144-A8, due to the substitution of H-Tyr101 for H-Phe101 in 144-A8. Thus, the different binding specificity and affinity of 144-A8 appeared to be due to the different hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interaction induced by the alterations of amino acids in CDRs of 144-A8. The results provide molecular insights into how the binding specificities and affinities of antibodies evolve with the same epitope in different microenvironments.

  1. Generation of Monoclonal Antibodies against Dengue Virus Type 4 and Identification of Enhancing Epitopes on Envelope Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Tao Tang

    Full Text Available The four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV1-4 pose a serious threat to global health. Cross-reactive and non-neutralizing antibodies enhance viral infection, thereby exacerbating the disease via antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE. Studying the epitopes targeted by these enhancing antibodies would improve the immune responses against DENV infection. In order to investigate the roles of antibodies in the pathogenesis of dengue, we generated a panel of 16 new monoclonal antibodies (mAbs against DENV4. Using plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT, we examined the neutralizing activity of these mAbs. Furthermore, we used the in vitro and in vivo ADE assay to evaluate the enhancement of DENV infection by mAbs. The results indicate that the cross-reactive and poorly neutralizing mAbs, DD11-4 and DD18-5, strongly enhance DENV1-4 infection of K562 cells and increase mortality in AG129 mice. The epitope residues of these enhancing mAbs were identified using virus-like particle (VLP mutants. W212 and E26 are the epitope residues of DD11-4 and DD18-5, respectively. In conclusion, we generated and characterized 16 new mAbs against DENV4. DD11-4 and D18-5 possessed non-neutralizing activities and enhanced viral infection. Moreover, we identified the epitope residues of enhancing mAbs on envelope protein. These results may provide useful information for development of safe dengue vaccine.

  2. Plasma Thrombin Generation and Sensitivity to Activated Protein C Among Patients With Myeloma and Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Maeve P; Kevane, Barry; O'Shea, Susan I; Quinn, Shane; Egan, Karl; Gilligan, Oonagh M; Ní Áinle, Fionnuala

    2016-09-01

    The etiology of the prothrombotic state in myeloma has yet to be definitively characterized. Similarly, while recent evidence suggests that patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) may also be at increased risk of thrombosis, the magnitude and the etiology of this risk have also yet to be defined. The present study aims to characterize patterns of plasma thrombin generation and sensitivity to the anticoagulant activity of activated protein C (APC) at the time of initial diagnosis of myeloma and in response to therapy in comparison to that observed among patients with MGUS and matched, healthy volunteers. Patients presenting with newly diagnosed/newly relapsed myeloma (n = 8), MGUS (n = 8), and matched healthy volunteers (n = 8) were recruited. Plasma thrombin generation was determined by calibrated automated thrombography. Peak thrombin generation was significantly higher in patients with myeloma (383.4 ± 33.4 nmol/L) and MGUS (353.4 ± 16.5 nmol/L) compared to healthy volunteers (276.7 ± 20.8 nmol/L; P < .05). In the presence of APC, endogenous thrombin potential was significantly lower in control plasma (228.6 ± 44.5 nmol/L × min) than in either myeloma (866.2 ± 241.3 nmol/L × min, P = .01) or MGUS plasma (627 ± 91.5 nmol/L × min, P = .003). Within the myeloma cohort, peak thrombin generation was significantly higher at diagnosis (353.2 ± 15.9 nmol/L) than following completion of the third cycle of therapy (282.1 ± 15.2 nmol/L; P < .005). Moreover, sensitivity to APC increased progressively with each cycle of chemotherapy. Further study of the etiology and evolving patterns of hypercoagulability among patients with these conditions is warranted and may have future implications for thromboprophylaxis strategies. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Production, secretion, and cell surface display of recombinant Sporosarcina ureae S-layer fusion proteins in Bacillus megaterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch, Denise; Ostermann, Kai; Rödel, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Monomolecular crystalline bacterial cell surface layers (S-layers) have broad application potential in nanobiotechnology due to their ability to generate functional supramolecular structures. Here, we report that Bacillus megaterium is an excellent host organism for the heterologous expression and efficient secretion of hemagglutinin (HA) epitope-tagged versions of the S-layer protein SslA from Sporosarcina ureae ATCC 13881. Three chimeric proteins were constructed, comprising the precursor, C-terminally truncated, and N- and C-terminally truncated forms of the S-layer SslA protein tagged with the human influenza hemagglutinin epitope. For secretion of fusion proteins, the open reading frames were cloned into the Escherichia coli-Bacillus megaterium shuttle vector pHIS1525. After transformation of the respective plasmids into Bacillus megaterium protoplasts, the recombinant genes were successfully expressed and the proteins were secreted into the growth medium. The isolated S-layer proteins are able to assemble in vitro into highly ordered, crystalline, sheetlike structures with the fused HA tag accessible to antibody. We further show by fluorescent labeling that the secreted S-layer fusion proteins are also clustered on the cell envelope of Bacillus megaterium, indicating that the cell surface can serve in vivo as a nucleation point for crystallization. Thus, this system can be used as a display system that allows the dense and periodic presentation of S-layer proteins or the fused tags.

  4. Enhanced resistance in Theobroma cacao against oomycete and fungal pathogens by secretion of phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helliwell, Emily E; Vega-Arreguín, Julio; Shi, Zi; Bailey, Bryan; Xiao, Shunyuan; Maximova, Siela N; Tyler, Brett M; Guiltinan, Mark J

    2016-03-01

    The internalization of some oomycete and fungal pathogen effectors into host plant cells has been reported to be blocked by proteins that bind to the effectors' cell entry receptor, phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI3P). This finding suggested a novel strategy for disease control by engineering plants to secrete PI3P-binding proteins. In this study, we tested this strategy using the chocolate tree Theobroma cacao. Transient expression and secretion of four different PI3P-binding proteins in detached leaves of T. cacao greatly reduced infection by two oomycete pathogens, Phytophthora tropicalis and Phytophthora palmivora, which cause black pod disease. Lesion size and pathogen growth were reduced by up to 85%. Resistance was not conferred by proteins lacking a secretory leader, by proteins with mutations in their PI3P-binding site, or by a secreted PI4P-binding protein. Stably transformed, transgenic T. cacao plants expressing two different PI3P-binding proteins showed substantially enhanced resistance to both P. tropicalis and P. palmivora, as well as to the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum theobromicola. These results demonstrate that secretion of PI3P-binding proteins is an effective way to increase disease resistance in T. cacao, and potentially in other plants, against a broad spectrum of pathogens. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. High-yield secretion of recombinant proteins expressed in tobacco cell culture with a designer glycopeptide tag: Process development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ningning; Gonzalez, Maria; Savary, Brett; Xu, Jianfeng

    2016-03-01

    Low-yield protein production remains the most significant economic hurdle with plant cell culture technology. Fusions of recombinant proteins with hydroxyproline-O-glycosylated designer glycopeptide tags have consistently boosted secreted protein yields. This prompted us to study the process development of this technology aiming to achieve productivity levels necessary for commercial viability. We used a tobacco BY-2 cell culture expressing EGFP as fusion with a glycopeptide tag comprised of 32 repeat of "Ser-Pro" dipeptide, or (SP)32 , to study cell growth and protein secretion, culture scale-up, and establishment of perfusion cultures for continuous production. The BY-2 cells accumulated low levels of cell biomass (~7.5 g DW/L) in Schenk & Hildebrandt medium, but secreted high yields of (SP)32 -tagged EGFP (125 mg/L). Protein productivity of the cell culture has been stable for 6.0 years. The BY-2 cells cultured in a 5-L bioreactor similarly produced high secreted protein yield at 131 mg/L. Successful operation of a cell perfusion culture for 30 days was achieved under the perfusion rate of 0.25 and 0.5 day(-1) , generating a protein volumetric productivity of 17.6 and 28.9 mg/day/L, respectively. This research demonstrates the great potential of the designer glycopeptide technology for use in commercial production of valuable proteins with plant cell cultures. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. A type II protein secretory pathway required for levansucrase secretion by Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta, Juan G; Sotolongo, Mailin; Menéndez, Carmen; Alfonso, Dubiel; Trujillo, Luis E; Soto, Melvis; Ramírez, Ricardo; Hernández, Lázaro

    2004-08-01

    The endophytic diazotroph Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus secretes a constitutively expressed levansucrase (LsdA, EC 2.4.1.10) to utilize plant sucrose. LsdA, unlike other extracellular levansucrases from gram-negative bacteria, is transported to the periplasm by a signal-peptide-dependent pathway. We identified an unusually organized gene cluster encoding at least the components LsdG, -O, -E, -F, -H, -I, -J, -L, -M, -N, and -D of a type II secretory system required for LsdA translocation across the outer membrane. Another open reading frame, designated lsdX, is located between the operon promoter and lsdG, but it was not identified in BLASTX searches of the DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank databases. The lsdX, -G, and -O genes were isolated from a cosmid library of strain SRT4 by complementation of an ethyl methanesulfonate mutant unable to transport LsdA across the outer membrane. The downstream genes lsdE, -F, -H, -I, -J, -L, -M, -N, and -D were isolated through chromosomal walking. The high G+C content (64 to 74%) and the codon usage of the genes identified are consistent with the G+C content and codon usage of the standard G. diazotrophicus structural gene. Sequence analysis of the gene cluster indicated that a polycistronic transcript is synthesized. Targeted disruption of lsdG, lsdO, or lsdF blocked LsdA secretion, and the bacterium failed to grow on sucrose. Replacement of Cys(162) by Gly at the C terminus of the pseudopilin LsdG abolished the protein functionality, suggesting that there is a relationship with type IV pilins. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed conservation of the type II secretion operon downstream of the levansucrase-levanase (lsdA-lsdB) locus in 14 G. diazotrophicus strains representing 11 genotypes recovered from four different host plants in diverse geographical regions. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a type II pathway for protein secretion in the Acetobacteraceae.

  7. hBolA, novel non-classical secreted proteins, belonging to different BolA family with functional divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu-Bo; Cao, Jia-Bing; Wan, Bing-Bing; Wang, Xin-Rong; Ding, Guo-Hui; Zhu, Hong; Yang, Hong-Meng; Wang, Ke-Sheng; Zhang, Xin; Han, Ze-Guang

    2008-10-01

    This study reported that all three human BolA proteins (hBolA1, hBolA2, and hBolA3) are novel non-classical secreted proteins identified with bioinformatics and molecular biology experiments. The three BolA fusion proteins with c-Myc tag could be secreted into the culture medium of the transfected Cos-7 cells, although they could not be colocalized with Golgi apparatus. And the secretion of three BolA proteins could not be inhibited after BFA treatment. Furthermore, the secretion was not dependent on its predicted signal peptide. All the experiment results suggested that the secretion was a non-classical export. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the human BolAs belong to three different groups with functional divergence of BolA subfamily, where the different helix-turn-helix motif among hBolA1, hBolA2, and hBolA3 could be responsible for their functional divergence. Our data provided a basis for functional studies of BolA protein family.

  8. Unfolded Protein Response (UPR Regulator Cib1 Controls Expression of Genes Encoding Secreted Virulence Factors in Ustilago maydis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hampel

    Full Text Available The unfolded protein response (UPR, a conserved eukaryotic signaling pathway to ensure protein homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER, coordinates biotrophic development in the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis. Exact timing of UPR activation is required for virulence and presumably connected to the elevated expression of secreted effector proteins during infection of the host plant Zea mays. In the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, expression of UPR target genes is induced upon binding of the central regulator Hac1 to unfolded protein response elements (UPREs in their promoters. While a role of the UPR in effector secretion has been described previously, we investigated a potential UPR-dependent regulation of genes encoding secreted effector proteins. In silico prediction of UPREs in promoter regions identified the previously characterized effector genes pit2 and tin1-1, as bona fide UPR target genes. Furthermore, direct binding of the Hac1-homolog Cib1 to the UPRE containing promoter fragments of both genes was confirmed by quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation (qChIP analysis. Targeted deletion of the UPRE abolished Cib1-dependent expression of pit2 and significantly affected virulence. Furthermore, ER stress strongly increased Pit2 expression and secretion. This study expands the role of the UPR as a signal hub in fungal virulence and illustrates, how biotrophic fungi can coordinate cellular physiology, development and regulation of secreted virulence factors.

  9. Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) Regulator Cib1 Controls Expression of Genes Encoding Secreted Virulence Factors in Ustilago maydis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Martin; Jakobi, Mareike; Schmitz, Lara; Meyer, Ute; Finkernagel, Florian; Doehlemann, Gunther; Heimel, Kai

    2016-01-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR), a conserved eukaryotic signaling pathway to ensure protein homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), coordinates biotrophic development in the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis. Exact timing of UPR activation is required for virulence and presumably connected to the elevated expression of secreted effector proteins during infection of the host plant Zea mays. In the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, expression of UPR target genes is induced upon binding of the central regulator Hac1 to unfolded protein response elements (UPREs) in their promoters. While a role of the UPR in effector secretion has been described previously, we investigated a potential UPR-dependent regulation of genes encoding secreted effector proteins. In silico prediction of UPREs in promoter regions identified the previously characterized effector genes pit2 and tin1-1, as bona fide UPR target genes. Furthermore, direct binding of the Hac1-homolog Cib1 to the UPRE containing promoter fragments of both genes was confirmed by quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation (qChIP) analysis. Targeted deletion of the UPRE abolished Cib1-dependent expression of pit2 and significantly affected virulence. Furthermore, ER stress strongly increased Pit2 expression and secretion. This study expands the role of the UPR as a signal hub in fungal virulence and illustrates, how biotrophic fungi can coordinate cellular physiology, development and regulation of secreted virulence factors.

  10. The inner rod protein controls substrate switching and needle length in a Salmonella type III secretion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebre, Matthew D; Galán, Jorge E

    2014-01-14

    Type III secretion machines are essential for the biology of many bacteria that are pathogenic or symbiotic for animals, plants, or insects. They exert their function by delivering bacterial effector proteins into target eukaryotic cells. The core component of these machines is the needle complex, a multiprotein structure that spans the bacterial envelope and serves as a conduit for proteins that transit this secretion pathway. The needle complex is composed of a multiring base embedded in the bacterial envelope and a filament-like structure, the needle, that projects from the bacterial surface and is linked to the base by the inner rod. Assembly of the needle complex proceeds in a step-wise fashion that is initiated by the assembly of the base and is followed by the export of the building subunits for the needle and inner rod substructures. Once assembled, the needle complex reprograms its specificity and becomes competent for the secretion of effector proteins. Here through genetic, biochemical, and electron microscopy analyses of the Salmonella inner rod protein subunit PrgJ we present evidence that the assembly of the inner rod dictates the timing of substrate switching and needle length. Furthermore, the identification of mutations in PrgJ that specifically alter the hierarchy of protein secretion provides additional support for a complex role of the inner rod substructure in type III secretion.

  11. Common protein sequence signatures associate with Sclerotinia borealis lifestyle and secretion in fungal pathogens of the Sclerotiniaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eBadet

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fungal plant pathogens produce secreted proteins adapted to function outside fungal cells to facilitate colonization of their hosts. In many cases such as for fungi from the Sclerotiniaceae family the repertoire and function of secreted proteins remains elusive. In the Sclerotiniaceae, whereas Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea are cosmopolitan broad host-range plant pathogens, Sclerotinia borealis has a psychrophilic lifestyle with a low optimal growth temperature, a narrow host range and geographic distribution. To spread successfully, S. borealis must synthesize proteins adapted to function in its specific environment. The search for signatures of adaptation to S. borealis lifestyle may therefore help revealing proteins critical for colonization of the environment by Sclerotiniaceae fungi. Here, we analyzed amino acids usage and intrinsic protein disorder in alignments of groups of orthologous proteins from the three Sclerotiniaceae species. We found that enrichment in Thr, depletion in Glu and Lys, and low disorder frequency in hot loops are significantly associated with S. borealis proteins. We designed an index to report bias in these properties and found that high index proteins were enriched among secreted proteins in the three Sclerotiniaceae fungi. High index proteins were also enriched in function associated with plant colonization in S. borealis, and in in planta-induced genes in S. sclerotiorum. We highlight a novel putative antifreeze protein and a novel putative lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase identified through our pipeline as candidate proteins involved in colonization of the environment. Our findings suggest that similar protein signatures associate with S. borealis lifestyle and with secretion in the Sclerotiniaceae. These signatures may be useful for identifying proteins of interest as targets for the management of plant diseases.

  12. The Secreted Protein Rv1860 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Stimulates Human Polyfunctional CD8+ T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satchidanandam, Vijaya; Kumar, Naveen; Biswas, Sunetra; Jumani, Rajiv S; Jain, Chandni; Rani, Rajni; Aggarwal, Bharti; Singh, Jaya; Kotnur, Mohan Rao; Sridharan, Anand

    2016-04-01

    We previously reported that Rv1860 protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis stimulated CD4(+)and CD8(+)T cells secreting gamma interferon (IFN-γ) in healthy purified protein derivative (PPD)-positive individuals and protected guinea pigs immunized with a DNA vaccine and a recombinant poxvirus expressing Rv1860 from a challenge with virulent M. tuberculosis We now show Rv1860-specific polyfunctional T (PFT) cell responses in the blood of healthy latently M. tuberculosis-infected individuals dominated by CD8(+) T cells, using a panel of 32 overlapping peptides spanning the length of Rv1860. Multiple subsets of CD8(+) PFT cells were significantly more numerous in healthy latently infected volunteers (HV) than in tuberculosis (TB) patients (PAT). The responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from PAT to the peptides of Rv1860 were dominated by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) secretions, the former coming predominantly from non-T cell sources. Notably, the pattern of the T cell response to Rv1860 was distinctly different from those of the widely studied M. tuberculosis antigens ESAT-6, CFP-10, Ag85A, and Ag85B, which elicited CD4(+) T cell-dominated responses as previously reported in other cohorts. We further identified a peptide spanning amino acids 21 to 39 of the Rv1860 protein with the potential to distinguish latent TB infection from disease due to its ability to stimulate differential cytokine signatures in HV and PAT. We suggest that a TB vaccine carrying these and other CD8(+) T-cell-stimulating antigens has the potential to prevent progression of latent M. tuberculosis infection to TB disease.

  13. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies specific for the six-helix bundle of the human respiratory syncytial virus fusion glycoprotein as probes of the protein post-fusion conformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo, Concepción; Mas, Vicente; Vázquez, Mónica; Cano, Olga [Unidad de Biología Viral, Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Madrid (Spain); CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorias, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); Luque, Daniel; Terrón, María C. [Unidad de Microscopía Electrónica y Confocal, Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); Calder, Lesley J. [National Institute for Medical Research, MRC, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA (United Kingdom); Melero, José A., E-mail: jmelero@isciii.es [Unidad de Biología Viral, Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Madrid (Spain); CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorias, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-07-15

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) has two major surface glycoproteins (G and F) anchored in the lipid envelope. Membrane fusion promoted by hRSV{sub F} occurs via refolding from a pre-fusion form to a highly stable post-fusion state involving large conformational changes of the F trimer. One of these changes results in assembly of two heptad repeat sequences (HRA and HRB) into a six-helix bundle (6HB) motif. To assist in distinguishing pre- and post-fusion conformations of hRSV{sub F}, we have prepared polyclonal (α-6HB) and monoclonal (R145) rabbit antibodies specific for the 6HB. Among other applications, these antibodies were used to explore the requirements of 6HB formation by isolated protein segments or peptides and by truncated mutants of the F protein. Site-directed mutagenesis and electron microscopy located the R145 epitope in the post-fusion hRSV{sub F} at a site distantly located from previously mapped epitopes, extending the repertoire of antibodies that can decorate the F molecule. - Highlights: • Antibodies specific for post-fusion respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein are described. • Polyclonal antibodies were obtained in rabbit inoculated with chimeric heptad repeats. • Antibody binding required assembly of a six-helix bundle in the post-fusion protein. • A monoclonal antibody with similar structural requirements is also described. • Binding of this antibody to the post-fusion protein was visualized by electron microscopy.

  14. Dissection of an old protein reveals a novel application: domain D of Staphylococcus aureus Protein A (sSpAD as a secretion - tag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paal Michael

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli as a frequently utilized host organism for recombinant protein production offers different cellular locations with distinct qualities. The periplasmic space is often favored for the production of complex proteins due to enhanced disulfide bond formation, increased target product stability and simplified downstream processing. To direct proteins to the periplasmic space rather small proteinaceus tags that can be used for affinity purification would be advantageous. Results We discovered that domain D of the Staphylococcus aureus protein A was sufficient for the secretion of various target proteins into the periplasmic space of E. coli. Our experiments indicated the Sec pathway as the mode of secretion, although N-terminal processing was not observed. Furthermore, the solubility of recombinant fusion proteins was improved for proteins prone to aggregation. The tag allowed a straightforward affinity purification of recombinant fusion protein via an IgG column, which was exemplified for the target protein human superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD. Conclusions In this work we present a new secretion tag that combines several advantages for the production of recombinant proteins in E. coli. Domain D of S. aureus protein A protects the protein of interest against N-terminal degradation, increases target protein solubility and enables a straight-forward purification of the recombinant protein using of IgG columns.

  15. PG1058 Is a Novel Multidomain Protein Component of the Bacterial Type IX Secretion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veith, Paul D.; Butler, Catherine A.; Nor Muhammad, Nor A.; Chen, Yu-Yen; Slakeski, Nada; Peng, Benjamin; Zhang, Lianyi; Dashper, Stuart G.; Cross, Keith J.; Cleal, Steven M.; Moore, Caroline; Reynolds, Eric C.

    2016-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis utilises the Bacteroidetes-specific type IX secretion system (T9SS) to export proteins across the outer membrane (OM), including virulence factors such as the gingipains. The secreted proteins have a conserved carboxy-terminal domain essential for type IX secretion that is cleaved upon export. In P. gingivalis the T9SS substrates undergo glycosylation with anionic lipopolysaccharide (A-LPS) and are attached to the OM. In this study, comparative analyses of 24 Bacteroidetes genomes identified ten putative novel components of the T9SS in P. gingivalis, one of which was PG1058. Computer modelling of the PG1058 structure predicted a novel N- to C-terminal architecture comprising a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain, a β-propeller domain, a carboxypeptidase regulatory domain-like fold (CRD) and an OmpA_C-like putative peptidoglycan binding domain. Inactivation of pg1058 in P. gingivalis resulted in loss of both colonial pigmentation and surface-associated proteolytic activity; a phenotype common to T9SS mutants. Immunoblot and LC-MS/MS analyses of subcellular fractions revealed T9SS substrates accumulated within the pg1058 mutant periplasm whilst whole-cell ELISA showed the Kgp gingipain was absent from the cell surface, confirming perturbed T9SS function. Immunoblot, TEM and whole-cell ELISA analyses indicated A-LPS was produced and present on the pg1058 mutant cell surface although it was not linked to T9SS substrate proteins. This indicated that PG1058 is crucial for export of T9SS substrates but not for the translocation of A-LPS. PG1058 is a predicted lipoprotein and was localised to the periplasmic side of the OM using whole-cell ELISA, immunoblot and LC-MS/MS analyses of subcellular fractions. The structural prediction and localisation of PG1058 suggests that it may have a role as an essential scaffold linking the periplasmic and OM components of the T9SS. PMID:27711252

  16. The Yersinia enterocolitica type three secretion chaperone SycO is integrated into the Yop regulatory network and binds to the Yop secretion protein YscM1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heesemann Jürgen

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pathogenic yersiniae (Y. pestis, Y. pseudotuberculosis, Y. enterocolitica share a virulence plasmid encoding a type three secretion system (T3SS. This T3SS comprises more than 40 constituents. Among these are the transport substrates called Yops (Yersinia outer proteins, the specific Yop chaperones (Sycs, and the Ysc (Yop secretion proteins which form the transport machinery. The effectors YopO and YopP are encoded on an operon together with SycO, the chaperone of YopO. The characterization of SycO is the focus of this study. Results We have established the large-scale production of recombinant SycO in its outright form. We confirm that Y. enterocolitica SycO forms homodimers which is typical for Syc chaperones. SycO overproduction in Y. enterocolitica decreases secretion of Yops into the culture supernatant suggesting a regulatory role of SycO in type III secretion. We demonstrate that in vitro SycO interacts with YscM1, a negative regulator of Yop expression in Y. enterocolitica. However, the SycO overproduction phenotype was not mediated by YscM1, YscM2, YopO or YopP as revealed by analysis of isogenic deletion mutants. Conclusion We present evidence that SycO is integrated into the regulatory network of the Yersinia T3SS. Our picture of the Yersinia T3SS interactome is supplemented by identification of the SycO/YscM1 interaction. Further, our results suggest that at least one additional interaction partner of SycO has to be identified.

  17. Overcoming the metabolic burden of protein secretion in Schizosaccharomyces pombe--a quantitative approach using 13C-based metabolic flux analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Tobias; Lange, Sabrina; Wilhelm, Nadine; Bureik, Matthias; Yang, Tae-Hoon; Heinzle, Elmar; Schneider, Konstantin

    2014-01-01

    Protein secretion in yeast is generally associated with a burden to cellular metabolism. To investigate this metabolic burden in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we constructed a set of strains secreting the model protein maltase in different amounts. We quantified the influence of protein secretion on the metabolism applying (13)C-based metabolic flux analysis in chemostat cultures. Analysis of the macromolecular biomass composition revealed an increase in cellular lipid content at elevated levels of protein secretion and we observed altered metabolic fluxes in the pentose phosphate pathway, the TCA cycle, and around the pyruvate node including mitochondrial NADPH supply. Supplementing acetate to glucose or glycerol minimal media was found to improve protein secretion, accompanied by an increased cellular lipid content and carbon flux through the TCA cycle as well as increased mitochondrial NADPH production. Thus, systematic metabolic analyses can assist in identifying factors limiting protein secretion and in deriving strategies to overcome these limitations.

  18. Heterogenic expression of genes encoding secreted proteins at the periphery of Aspergillus niger colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinck, Arman; de Bekker, Charissa; Ossin, Adam; Ohm, Robin A; de Vries, Ronald P; Wösten, Han A B

    2011-01-01

    Colonization of a substrate by fungi starts with the invasion of exploring hyphae. These hyphae secrete enzymes that degrade the organic material into small molecules that can be taken up by the fungus to serve as nutrients. We previously showed that only part of the exploring hyphae of Aspergillus niger highly express the glucoamylase gene glaA. This was an unexpected finding since all exploring hyphae are exposed to the same environmental conditions. Using GFP as a reporter, we here demonstrate that the acid amylase gene aamA, the α-glucuronidase gene aguA, and the feruloyl esterase gene faeA of A. niger are also subject to heterogenic expression within the exploring mycelium. Coexpression studies using GFP and dTomato as reporters showed that hyphae that highly express one of these genes also highly express the other genes encoding secreted proteins. Moreover, these hyphae also highly express the amylolytic regulatory gene amyR, and the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene gpdA. In situ hybridization demonstrated that the high expressers are characterized by a high 18S rRNA content. Taken together, it is concluded that two subpopulations of hyphae can be distinguished within the exploring mycelium of A. niger. The experimental data indicate that these subpopulations differ in their transcriptional and translational activity.

  19. Pore-forming Activity of the Escherichia coli Type III Secretion System Protein EspD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Abhishek; Caballero-Franco, Celia; Bakker, Dannika; Totten, Stephanie; Jardim, Armando

    2015-10-16

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli is a causative agent of gastrointestinal and diarrheal diseases. Pathogenesis associated with enterohemorrhagic E. coli involves direct delivery of virulence factors from the bacteria into epithelial cell cytosol via a syringe-like organelle known as the type III secretion system. The type III secretion system protein EspD is a critical factor required for formation of a translocation pore on the host cell membrane. Here, we show that recombinant EspD spontaneously integrates into large unilamellar vesicle (LUV) lipid bilayers; however, pore formation required incorporation of anionic phospholipids such as phosphatidylserine and an acidic pH. Leakage assays performed with fluorescent dextrans confirmed that EspD formed a structure with an inner diameter of ∼2.5 nm. Protease mapping indicated that the two transmembrane helical hairpin of EspD penetrated the lipid layer positioning the N- and C-terminal domains on the extralumenal surface of LUVs. Finally, a combination of glutaraldehyde cross-linking and rate zonal centrifugation suggested that EspD in LUV membranes forms an ∼280-320-kDa oligomeric structure consisting of ∼6-7 subunits.

  20. The de novo autism spectrum disorder RELN R2290C mutation reduces Reelin secretion and increases protein disulfide isomerase expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammert, Dawn B; Middleton, Frank A; Pan, Jen; Olson, Eric C; Howell, Brian W

    2017-07-01

    Despite the recent identification of over 40 missense heterozygous Reelin gene (RELN) mutations in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), none of these has been functionally characterized. Reelin is an integral signaling ligand for proper brain development and post-natal synapse function - properties likely disrupted in ASD patients. We find that the R2290C mutation, which arose de novo in an affected ASD proband, and other analogous mutations in arginine-amino acid-arginine domains reduce protein secretion. Closer analysis of RELN R2290C heterozygous neurospheres reveals up-regulation of Protein Disulfide Isomerase A1, best known as an endoplasmic reticulum-chaperone protein, which has been linked to neuronal pathology. This effect is recapitulated in a heterozygous RELN mouse mutant that is characterized by defective Reelin secretion. These findings suggest that both a deficiency in Reelin signaling and pathologic impairment of Reelin secretion may contribute to ASD risk. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  1. Proteins of the lactococcin A secretion system : lcnD encodes two in-frame proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varcamonti, M; Nicastro, G; Venema, G; Kok, J

    2001-01-01

    Polyclonal antibodies were raised against LcnC and LcnD proteins of the Lactococcus lactis bacteriocin lactococcin A secretory system to examine their cellular location and interaction. Two major reacting bands were detected by Western immunoblot with the anti-LcnD antibody: one of 52 kDa (LcnD) and

  2. Impact of protein uptake and degradation on recombinant protein secretion in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyo, Keith E. J.; Liu, Zihe; Magnusson, Ylva

    2014-01-01

    and simplifying downstream purification, compared to other systems that require complex media. As such, engineering S. cerevisiae to improve titers has been then the subject of significant attention, but the majority of previous efforts have been focused on improving protein synthesis. Here, we characterize...

  3. Immunoreactivity score using an anti-sst2A receptor monoclonal antibody strongly predicts the biochemical response to adjuvant treatment with somatostatin analogs in acromegaly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Gatto (Federico); R.A. Feelders (Richard); R. van der Pas (Rob); J.M. Kros (Johan); M. Waaijers (Marlijn); D. Sprij-Mooij (Diana); S.J.C.M.M. Neggers (Bas); A. van der Lelij (Allegonda); F. Minuto (Francesco); S.W.J. Lamberts (Steven); W.W. de Herder (Wouter); D. Ferone (Diego); L.J. Hofland (Leo)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractContext: Somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (sst2A) protein expression has been demonstrated to positively correlate with somatostatin analog treatment outcome in GH-secreting adenomas. Recently, a new rabbit monoclonal anti-sst2A antibody (clone UMB-1) has been validated as a reliable meth

  4. Casein phosphopeptides drastically increase the secretion of extracellular proteins in Aspergillus awamori. Proteomics studies reveal changes in the secretory pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosalková Katarina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The secretion of heterologous animal proteins in filamentous fungi is usually limited by bottlenecks in the vesicle-mediated secretory pathway. Results Using the secretion of bovine chymosin in Aspergillus awamori as a model, we found a drastic increase (40 to 80-fold in cells grown with casein or casein phosphopeptides (CPPs. CPPs are rich in phosphoserine, but phosphoserine itself did not increase the secretion of chymosin. The stimulatory effect is reduced about 50% using partially dephosphorylated casein and is not exerted by casamino acids. The phosphopeptides effect was not exerted at transcriptional level, but instead, it was clearly observed on the secretion of chymosin by immunodetection analysis. Proteomics studies revealed very interesting metabolic changes in response to phosphopeptides supplementation. The oxidative metabolism was reduced, since enzymes involved in fermentative processes were overrepresented. An oxygen-binding hemoglobin-like protein was overrepresented in the proteome following phosphopeptides addition. Most interestingly, the intracellular pre-protein enzymes, including pre-prochymosin, were depleted (most of them are underrepresented in the intracellular proteome after the addition of CPPs, whereas the extracellular mature form of several of these secretable proteins and cell-wall biosynthetic enzymes was greatly overrepresented in the secretome of phosphopeptides-supplemented cells. Another important 'moonlighting' protein (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, which has been described to have vesicle fusogenic and cytoskeleton formation modulating activities, was clearly overrepresented in phosphopeptides-supplemented cells. Conclusions In summary, CPPs cause the reprogramming of cellular metabolism, which leads to massive secretion of extracellular proteins.

  5. Secretion and processing of a novel multi-domain cystatin-like protein by intracellular stages of Trichinella spiralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Mark W; Massie, Diane H; Connolly, Bernadette

    2007-01-01

    The excretory-secretory (ES) proteins of nematode parasites are of major interest as they function at the host-parasite interface and are likely to have roles crucial for successful parasitism. Furthermore, the ES proteins of intracellular nematodes such as Trichinella spiralis may also function to regulate gene expression in the host cell. In a recent proteomic analysis we identified a novel secreted cystatin-like protein from T. spiralis L1 muscle larva. Here we show that the protein, MCD-1 (multi-cystatin-like domain protein 1), contains three repeating cystatin-like domains and analysis of the mcd-1 gene structure suggests that the repeated domains arose from duplication of an ancestral cystatin gene. Cystatins are a diverse group of cysteine protease inhibitors and those secreted by parasitic nematodes are important immuno-modulatory factors. The cystatin superfamily also includes cystatin-like proteins that have no cysteine protease inhibitory activity. A recombinant MCD-1 protein expressed as a GST-fusion protein in Escherichia coli failed to inhibit papain in vitro suggesting that the T. spiralis protein is a new member of the non-inhibitory cystatin-related proteins. MCD-1 secreted from T. spiralis exists as high- and low-molecular weight isoforms and we show that a recombinant MCD-1 protein secreted by HeLa cells undergoes pH-dependent processing that may result in the release of individual cystatin-like domains. Furthermore, we found that mcd-1 gene expression is largely restricted to intracellular stages with the highest levels of expression in the adult worms. It is likely that the major role of the protein is during the intestinal stage of T. spiralis infections.

  6. A Case with Significant Proteinuria Caused by Secreted Protein from Urothelial Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Sakakima

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available 58-year-old female was admitted to our hospital complaining isolated proteinuria of 1.7 g/day. Abdominal echography showed right-sided unilateral hydronephrosis, and computed tomography pointed out a tumor of the right renal pelvis, suggesting cancer of renal pelvis. The right nephroureterectomy was carried out. Pathological diagnosis was urothelial carcinoma. Renal tissue revealed no apparent glomerulopathy with tubular atrophy, interstitial fibrosis, and mildly-to-moderately interstitial mononuclear cell infiltration. Immunofluorescence study showed no deposition of immunoreactanct, and electron microscopy showed almost normal glomerulus without electron dense deposit. Proteinuria disappeared within 6 days after the operation. Moderate amount of proteinuria in our patient was probably caused by secreted protein from urothelial carcinoma. This condition is rare but should be taken into account in patients with even moderate amount of proteinuria.

  7. Paracrine Secreted Frizzled-Related Protein 4 Inhibits Melanocytes Differentiation in Hair Follicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Haiying; Lei, Mingxing; Li, Yuhong; Liu, Yingxin; Tang, Yinhong; Xing, Yizhan; Deng, Fang

    2017-01-01

    Wnt signaling plays crucial role in regulating melanocyte stem cells/melanocyte differentiation in the hair follicle. However, how the Wnt signaling is balanced to be overactivated to control follicular melanocytes behavior remains unknown. Here, by using immunofluorescence staining, we showed that secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (sFRP4) is preferentially expressed in the skin epidermal cells rather than in melanocytes. By overexpression of sFRP4 in skin cells in vivo and in vitro, we found that sFRP4 attenuates activation of Wnt signaling, resulting in decrease of melanocytes differentiation in the regenerating hair follicle. Our findings unveiled a new regulator that involves modulating melanocytes differentiation through a paracrine mechanism in hair follicle, supplying a hope for potential therapeutic application to treat skin pigmentation disorders. PMID:28337220

  8. Tuberculous Granuloma Induction via Interaction of a Bacterial Secreted Protein with Host Epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkman, Hannah E.; Pozos, Tamara C.; Zheng, John; Davis, J. Muse; Rawls, John F.; Ramakrishnan, Lalita

    2011-01-01

    Granulomas, organized aggregates of immune cells, are a hallmark of tuberculosis, and have traditionally been thought to restrict mycobacterial growth. However, analysis of Mycobacterium marinum in zebrafish has shown that the early granuloma facilitates mycobacterial growth; uninfected macrophages are recruited to the granuloma where they are productively infected by M. marinum. Here, we identified the molecular mechanism by which mycobacteria induce granulomas: the bacterial secreted protein ESAT-6, which has long been implicated in virulence, induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) in epithelial cells neighboring infected macrophages. MMP9 enhanced recruitment of macrophages, which contributed to nascent granuloma maturation and bacterial growth. Disruption of MMP9 function attenuated granuloma formation and bacterial growth. Thus, interception of epithelial MMP9 production could hold promise as a host-targeting tuberculosis therapy. PMID:20007864

  9. Effects of the Monoclonal Antibody against Porcine 40 kDa Adipocyte-specific Plasma Membrane Protein on Adipocytes and Carcass Composition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shizheng GAO; Changrong GE; Xi ZHANG; Yonggang LIU

    2007-01-01

    The effects of the mouse monoclonal antibody against 40 kDa adipocyte-specific plasma membrane protein on porcine adipocytes and carcass composition were investigated in vitro and in vivo.Results revealed that the in vitro complement-mediated cytotoxicity of this monoclonal antibody can lead to adipocyte lysis, remarkable reduction of adipocyte lipid accumulation (P<0.01), and significant decrease of well-differentiated fat cells (P<0.01). Treatment of adipocytes with this antibody alone in vitro did not induce cell lysis, but could lead to noticeable reduction of well-differentiated cells and lipid accumulation (P<0.05) at the pre-adipocyte stage. In vivo, pigs injected with 0.5 mg/kg or 1.0 mg/kg of antibody showed smaller adipocyte sizes (P<0.01) and reduced lipid accumulation of adipocytes (P<0.01). Our results also indicated that pigs intraperitoneally or subcutaneously immunized with 0.5 mg/kg of monoclonal antibody at 15 kg or 1.0 mg/kg antibody at 60 kg had a higher lean meat percentage (P<0.05), larger loin eye area (P<0.05), lower fat meat percentage (P<0.05), less backfat thickness (P<0.05) and smaller leaf fat weight (P<0.05) than the control pigs, but other carcass traits such as caul fat weight, heart weight, liver weight, spleen weight,kidney weight, lung weight, and dressing percentage were not significantly affected. These results suggested that this monoclonal antibody could be applied to restrain excessive fat deposition in porcine production.

  10. Crystallization and molecular-replacement studies of the monoclonal antibody mAbR310 specific for the (R)-HNE-modified protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Sohei, E-mail: itosohei@u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp [Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, Graduate School of Nutritional and Environmental Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52-1 Yada, Suruga-Ku, Shizuoka 422-8526 (Japan); Tatsuda, Emi [Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Ishino, Kousuke; Suzuki, Kenichiro; Sakai, Hiroshi [Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, Graduate School of Nutritional and Environmental Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52-1 Yada, Suruga-Ku, Shizuoka 422-8526 (Japan); Uchida, Koji [Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, Graduate School of Nutritional and Environmental Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52-1 Yada, Suruga-Ku, Shizuoka 422-8526 (Japan)

    2006-06-01

    Antigen-free Fab fragment of mAbR310, which recognizes (R)-HNE modified protein, has been crystallized. Initial phases have been obtained by molecular replacement. 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), a major racemic product of lipid peroxidation, reacts with histidine to form a stable HNE–histidine Michael addition-type adduct possessing three chiral centres in the cyclic hemiacetal structure. Monoclonal antibodies against HNE-modified protein have been widely used for assessing oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo. Here, the purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of a Fab fragment of novel monoclonal antibody R310 (mAbR310), which recognizes (R)-HNE-modified protein, are reported. The Fab fragment of mAbR310 was obtained by digestion with papain, purified and crystallized. Using hanging-drop vapour-diffusion crystallization techniques, crystals of mAbR310 Fab were obtained. The crystal belongs to the monoclinic space group C2 (unit-cell parameters a = 127.04, b = 65.31, c = 64.29 Å, β = 118.88°) and diffracted X-rays to a resolution of 1.84 Å. The asymmetric unit contains one molecule of mAbR310, with a corresponding crystal volume per protein weight of 2.51 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and a solvent content of 51.0%.

  11. Single point mutation in tick-borne encephalitis virus prM protein induces a reduction of virus particle secretion

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshii, Kentarou; Konno, Akihiro; Goto, Akiko; Nio, Junko; Obara, Mayumi; Ueki, Tomotaka; Hayasaka, Daisuke; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Kariwa, Hiroaki; Takashima, Ikuo

    2004-01-01

    Flaviviruses are assembled to bud into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and are secreted through the vesicle transport pathway. Virus envelope proteins play important roles in this process. In this study, the effect of mutations in the envelope proteins of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus on secretion of virus-like particles (VLPs), using a recombinant plasmid expression system was analysed. It was found that a single point mutation at position 63 in prM induces a reduction in s...

  12. Host-Pathogen Interactions: VII. Plant Pathogens Secrete Proteins which Inhibit Enzymes of the Host Capable of Attacking the Pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albersheim, P; Valent, B S

    1974-05-01

    The results presented demonstrate that microbial pathogens of plants have the ability to secrete proteins which effectively inhibit an enzyme synthesized by the host; an enzyme whose substrate is a constituent of the cell wall of the pathogen. The system in which this was discovered is the anthracnose-causing fungal pathogen (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum) and its host, the French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). An endo-beta-1, 3-glucanase present in the bean leaves is specifically inhibited by a protein secreted by C. lindemuthianum. The cell walls of C. lindemuthianum are shown to be composed largely of a 1, 3-glucan.

  13. Quantitative proteomic analysis reveals effects of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on invasion-promoting proteins secreted by glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangar, Vineet; Funk, Cory C; Kusebauch, Ulrike; Campbell, David S; Moritz, Robert L; Price, Nathan D

    2014-10-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is a highly invasive and aggressive brain tumor with an invariably poor prognosis. The overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a primary influencer of invasion and proliferation in tumor cells and the constitutively active EGFRvIII mutant, found in 30-65% of Glioblastoma multiforme, confers more aggressive invasion. To better understand how EGFR contributes to tumor aggressiveness, we investigated the effect of EGFR on the secreted levels of 65 rationally selected proteins involved in invasion. We employed selected reaction monitoring targeted mass spectrometry using stable isotope labeled internal peptide standards to quantity proteins in the secretome from five GBM (U87) isogenic cell lines in which EGFR, EGFRvIII, and/or PTEN were expressed. Our results show that cell lines with EGFR overexpression and constitutive EGFRvIII expression differ remarkably in the expression profiles for both secreted and intracellular signaling proteins, and alterations in EGFR signaling result in reproducible changes in concentrations of secreted proteins. Furthermore, the EGFRvIII-expressing mutant cell line secretes the majority of the selected invasion-promoting proteins at higher levels than other cell lines tested. Additionally, the intracellular and extracellular protein measurements indicate elevated oxidative stress in the EGFRvIII-expressing cell line. In conclusion, the results of our study demonstrate that EGFR signaling has a significant effect on the levels of secreted invasion-promoting proteins, likely contributing to the aggressiveness of Glioblastoma multiforme. Further characterization of these proteins may provide candidates for new therapeutic strategies and targets as well as biomarkers for this aggressive disease. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. The Wnt secretion protein Evi/Gpr177 promotes glioma tumourigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Iris; Goidts, Violaine; Bongers, Angelika; Kerr, Grainne; Vollert, Gordon; Radlwimmer, Bernhard; Hartmann, Christian; Herold-Mende, Christel; Reifenberger, Guido; von Deimling, Andreas; Boutros, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Malignant astrocytomas are highly aggressive brain tumours with poor prognosis. While a number of structural genomic changes and dysregulation of signalling pathways in gliomas have been described, the identification of biomarkers and druggable targets remains an important task for novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Here, we show that the Wnt-specific secretory protein Evi (also known as GPR177/Wntless/Sprinter) is overexpressed in astrocytic gliomas. Evi/Wls is a core Wnt signalling component and a specific regulator of pan-Wnt protein secretion, affecting both canonical and non-canonical signalling. We demonstrate that its depletion in glioma and glioma-derived stem-like cells led to decreased cell proliferation and apoptosis. Furthermore, Evi/Wls silencing in glioma cells reduced cell migration and the capacity to form tumours in vivo. We further show that Evi/Wls overexpression is sufficient to promote downstream Wnt signalling. Taken together, our study identifies Evi/Wls as an essential regulator of glioma tumourigenesis, identifying a pathway-specific protein trafficking factor as an oncogene and offering novel therapeutic options to interfere with the aberrant regulation of growth factors at the site of production.

  15. Monoclonal antibody raised against human mitotic cyclin B1, identifies cyclin B-like mitotic proteins in synchronized onion (Allium cepa L.) root meristem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, S K; Ghosh, S

    1997-03-01

    Cyclin B-like mitotic proteins have been detected in synchronized Allium cepa L. root tip cells by using mouse monoclonal anti-cyclin B1 antibody raised against human cyclin B1. Immunoblot shows two closely placed isoforms of cyclin B-like proteins having an apparent molecular weight around 54 kDa. In vivo [35S]-methionine labelling followed by immunoprecipitation and autoradiography indicates that cyclin B-like proteins are mainly synthesized in the G2 phase of the cell cycle and destroyed in late mitosis. Immunoblotting data depict that the level of cyclin B-like proteins reaches the maximum at the late G2 to early M phase; and it becomes degraded in the late hours of mitosis. Moreover, the cyclin B isoforms are stabilized in colchicine-arrested metaphase cells as already reported in animal cells.

  16. Genome-wide analysis of small secreted cysteine-rich proteins identifies candidate effector proteins potentially involved in Fusarium graminearum-wheat interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathogen-derived, small secreted cysteine-rich proteins (SSCPs) are known to be a common source of fungal effectors that trigger resistance or susceptibility in specific host plants. This group of proteins has not been well studied in Fusarium graminearum, the primary cause of Fusarium head blight ...

  17. A new method to extract matrix proteins directly from the secretion of the mollusk mantle and the role of these proteins in shell biomineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojun; Liu, Chang; Chen, Lei; Sun, Juan; Zhou, Yujuan; Li, Qi; Zheng, Guilan; Zhang, Guiyou; Wang, Hongzhong; Xie, Liping; Zhang, Rongqing

    2011-10-01

    Considering the continuous and substantive secretory ability of the mantle in vitro, we report a new technique to produce shell-matrix proteins by inducing the mantle, after removal from the organism's body, to secrete soluble-matrix proteins into phosphate buffer. By this method, a large amount of matrix proteins could be obtained in 2 h. Experiments involving in vitro calcium carbonate crystallization and organic framework calcium carbonate crystallization indicated that these proteins retain high bioactivity and play key roles in shell biomineralization. Phosphate buffer-soluble proteins secreted by the margin of the mantles (MSPs) were used to reconstruct the stages in the growth of the prismatic layer of the decalcified organic frameworks. The MSPs were observed to aggregate calcites in vitro, and this ability enabled the mollusk to form big calcites in the prismatic layer. During shell biomineralization, an important stage after the self-assembly of the biomacromolecules and the formation of crystals is the assembly of the two parts to form a firm structure. Moreover, a new type of matrix protein, functioning as the binding factor between the crystals and the organic frameworks, was shown to exist in the phosphate buffer-soluble proteins secreted by the central part of mantles (CSPs). Nanoscale-sized bowl-like aragonites, with heights of ∼800 nm, were induced by CSPs in vitro. This method is a successful example of obtaining functional proteins through secretion by animal tissues.

  18. Comparative analysis of twin-arginine (Tat)-dependent protein secretion of a heterologous model protein (GFP) in three different Gram-positive bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meissner, Daniel; Vollstedt, Angela; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Freudl, Roland

    2007-01-01

    In contrast to the general protein secretion (Sec) system, the twin-arginine translocation (Tat) export pathway allows the translocation of proteins across the bacterial plasma membrane in a fully folded conformation. Due to this feature, the Tat pathway provides an attractive alternative to the sec

  19. Monoclonal gammopathy and spurious hypophosphatemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbord, Steven D; Chaudhuri, Anita; Blauth, Kathleen; DeRubertis, Frederick R

    2003-02-01

    Spuriously low levels of plasma phosphate have been reported previously in patients with multiple myeloma and polyclonal gammopathy. We report 2 cases of spurious hypophosphatemia in patients with elevated concentrations of serum monoclonal immunoglobulins, 1 of whom had monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and the other multiple myeloma. Plasma phosphate concentrations were measured using nondeproteinized and deproteinized plasma samples from patients with monoclonal gammopathies. In 2 patients with monoclonal gammopathy, the levels of plasma inorganic phosphate were reported as <1.0 mg/dL when the phosphate concentration was determined using an analyzer that employs nondeproteinized plasma. When the samples were reanalyzed using a laboratory method that removes serum proteins, normal or elevated concentrations of phosphate were found. Plasma levels of phosphate in 4 other patients with monoclonal gammopathy were normal by both methods. These data confirm previous reports that spurious hypophosphatemia occurs in some patients with increased levels of serum monoclonal immunoglobulins when laboratory methods using nondeproteinized samples are employed. The occurrence of unusually low plasma phosphate concentrations in patients without symptoms or clinically apparent causes of hypophosphatemia should alert physicians to search for monoclonal gammopathy.

  20. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa patatin-like protein PlpD is the archetype of a novel Type V secretion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salacha, Richard; Kovacić, Filip; Brochier-Armanet, Céline; Wilhelm, Susanne; Tommassen, Jan; Filloux, Alain; Voulhoux, Romé; Bleves, Sophie

    2010-06-01

    We discovered a novel secreted protein by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, PlpD, as a member of the bacterial lipolytic enzyme family of patatin-like proteins (PLPs). PlpD is synthesized as a single molecule consisting of a secreted domain fused to a transporter domain. The N-terminus of PlpD includes a classical signal peptide followed by the four PLP conserved blocks that account for its lipase activity. The C-terminus consists of a POTRA (polypeptide transport-associated) motif preceding a putative 16-stranded beta-barrel similar to those of TpsB transporters of Type Vb secretion system. We showed that the C-terminus remains inserted into the outer membrane while the patatin moiety is secreted. The association between a TpsB component and a passenger protein is a unique hybrid organization that we propose to classify as Type Vd. More than 200 PlpD orthologues exist among pathogenic and environmental bacteria, which suggests that bacteria secrete numerous PLPs using this newly defined mechanism.

  1. Genes encoding novel secreted and transmembrane proteins are temporally and spatially regulated during Drosophila melanogaster embryogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Mauricio

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Morphogenetic events that shape the Drosophila melanogaster embryo are tightly controlled by a genetic program in which specific sets of genes are up-regulated. We used a suppressive subtractive hybridization procedure to identify a group of developmentally regulated genes during early stages of D. melanogaster embryogenesis. We studied the spatiotemporal activity of these genes in five different intervals covering 12 stages of embryogenesis. Results Microarrays were constructed to confirm induction of expression and to determine the temporal profile of isolated subtracted cDNAs during embryo development. We identified a set of 118 genes whose expression levels increased significantly in at least one developmental interval compared with a reference interval. Of these genes, 53% had a phenotype and/or molecular function reported in the literature, whereas 47% were essentially uncharacterized. Clustering analysis revealed demarcated transcript groups with maximum gene activity at distinct developmental intervals. In situ hybridization assays were carried out on 23 uncharacterized genes, 15 of which proved to have spatiotemporally restricted expression patterns. Among these 15 uncharacterized genes, 13 were found to encode putative secreted and transmembrane proteins. For three of them we validated our protein sequence predictions by expressing their cDNAs in Drosophila S2R+ cells and analyzed the subcellular distribution of recombinant proteins. We then focused on the functional characterization of the gene CG6234. Inhibition of CG6234 by RNA interference resulted in morphological defects in embryos, suggesting the involvement of this gene in germ band retraction. Conclusion Our data have yielded a list of developmentally regulated D. melanogaster genes and their expression profiles during embryogenesis and provide new information on the spatiotemporal expression patterns of several uncharacterized genes. In particular, we

  2. Characterization of Skin Aging-Associated Secreted Proteins (SAASP) Produced by Dermal Fibroblasts Isolated from Intrinsically Aged Human Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldera Lupa, Daniel M; Kalfalah, Faiza; Safferling, Kai; Boukamp, Petra; Poschmann, Gereon; Volpi, Elena; Götz-Rösch, Christine; Bernerd, Francoise; Haag, Laura; Huebenthal, Ulrike; Fritsche, Ellen; Boege, Fritz; Grabe, Niels; Tigges, Julia; Stühler, Kai; Krutmann, Jean

    2015-08-01

    Most molecular hallmarks of cellular senescence have been identified in studies of cells aged in vitro by driving them into replicative or stress-induced senescence. Comparatively, less is known about the characteristic features of cells that have aged in vivo. Here we provide a systematic molecular analysis of normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs) that were isolated from intrinsically aged human skin of young versus middle aged versus old donors. Intrinsically aged NHDFs in culture exhibited more frequently nuclear foci positive for p53 binding protein 1 and promyelocytic leukemia protein reminiscent of 'DNA segments with chromatin alterations reinforcing senescence (DNA-SCARS)'. Formation of such foci was neither accompanied by increased DNA double strand breaks, nor decreased cell viability, nor telomere shortening. However, it was associated with the development of a secretory phenotype, indicating incipient cell senescence. By quantitative analysis of the entire secretome present in conditioned cell culture supernatant, combined with a multiplex cytokine determination, we identified 998 proteins secreted by intrinsically aged NHDFs in culture. Seventy of these proteins exhibited an age-dependent secretion pattern and were accordingly denoted 'skin aging-associated secreted proteins (SAASP)'. Systematic comparison of SAASP with the classical senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) revealed that matrix degradation as well as proinflammatory processes are common aspects of both conditions. However, secretion of 27 proteins involved in the biological processes of 'metabolism' and 'adherens junction interactions' was unique for NHDFs isolated from intrinsically aged skin. In conclusion, fibroblasts isolated from intrinsically aged skin exhibit some, but not all, molecular hallmarks of cellular senescence. Most importantly, they secrete a unique pattern of proteins that is distinct from the canonical SASP and might reflect specific processes of skin aging.

  3. Secretome analysis of Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 and the involvement of the TolC-homologue HgdD in protein secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Alexander; Stevanovic, Mara; Brouwer, Eva; Bublak, Daniela; Tripp, Joanna; Schorge, Tobias; Karas, Michael; Schleiff, Enrico

    2015-03-01

    Secretion of proteins is a central strategy of bacteria to influence and respond to their environment. Until now, there has been very few discoveries regarding the cyanobacterial secrotome or the secretion machineries involved. For a mutant of the outer membrane channel TolC-homologue HgdD of Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, a filamentous and heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium, an altered secretome profile was reported. To define the role of HgdD in protein secretion, we have developed a method to isolate extracellular proteins of Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 wild type and an hgdD loss-of-function mutant. We identified 51 proteins of which the majority is predicted to have an extracellular secretion signal, while few seem to be localized in the periplasmic space. Eight proteins were exclusively identified in the secretome of wild-type cells, which coincides with the distribution of type I secretion signal. We selected three candidates and generated hemagglutinin-tagged fusion proteins which could be exclusively detected in the extracellular protein fraction. However, these proteins are not secreted in the hgdD-mutant background, where they are rapidly degraded. This confirms a direct function of HgdD in protein secretion and points to the existence of a quality control mechanism at least for proteins secreted in an HgdD-dependent pathway.

  4. Klebsiella pneumoniae O antigen loss alters the outer membrane protein composition and the selective packaging of proteins into secreted outer membrane vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Bethaney K; Seeley, Kent W; Gutel, Dedra; Ellis, Terri N

    2015-11-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a nosocomial pathogen which naturally secretes lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and cell envelope associated proteins into the environment through the production of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). The loss of the LPS O antigen has been demonstrated in other bacterial species to significantly alter the composition of OMVs. Therefore, this study aimed to comprehensively analyze the impact of O antigen loss on the sub-proteomes of both the outer membrane and secreted OMVs from K. pneumoniae. As determined by LC-MS/MS, OMVs were highly enriched with outer membrane proteins involved in cell wall, membrane, and envelope biogenesis as compared to the source cellular outer membrane. Deletion of wbbO, the enzyme responsible for O antigen attachment to LPS, decreased but did not eliminate this enrichment effect. Additionally, loss of O antigen resulted in OMVs with increased numbers of proteins involved in post-translational modification, protein turnover, and chaperones as compared to secreted vesicles from the wild type. This alteration of OMV composition may be a compensatory mechanism to deal with envelope stress. This comprehensive analysis confirms the highly distinct protein composition of OMVs as compared to their source membrane, and provides evidence for a selective sorting mechanism that involves LPS polysaccharides. These data support the hypothesis that modifications to LPS alters both the mechanics of protein sorting and the contents of secreted OMVs and significantly impacts the protein composition of the outer membrane.

  5. Use of AN Eosinophil Specific Monoclonal Antibody in Assessing Eosinophil Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkoff, Marjorie Sue

    A monoclonal antibody to an eosinophil specific determinant is very important in assessing eosinophil function during helminthic infection. Eosinophils induced by Schistosoma mansoni infection in BALB/c mice were used to induce C57B1/6 immunocytes for production of hybridomas secreting eosinophil monoclonal antibodies. These antibodies were shown to react with an eosinophil surface epitope but not with neutrophils or macrophages as determined by ELISA, immunodiffusion, immunofluorescence, and immunoblot assay. Affinity chromatography with eosinophil chemotactic factor-sepharose consistently selected out a { rm M_ R} 67,000 protein from solubilized eosinophil membrane antigens but not from neutrophil and macrophage antigens. In vitro studies showed that the eosinophil-specific monoclonal antibodies abrogated antibody-dependent eosinophil -mediated killing of S. mansoni schistosomula using mouse, rat or human eosinophils. Neutrophil and macrophage killing activities were unaffected. The monoclonal antibodies effected complement-dependent lysis of mouse and rat eosinophils but not of human eosinophils. ECF-treated eosinophils showed enhanced killing of schistosomula which was blocked by the monoclonal antibody. Murine and human eosinophils preincubated with monoclonal antibody exhibited decreased chemotaxis to ECF at optimal chemotactic concentrations. The monoclonal antibody also blocked eosinophil binding to ECF- sepharose beads. In vivo induction of peripheral blood eosinophilia by injection of S. mansoni eggs was suppressed by injections of monoclonal antibodies 2CD13 and 2QD45 in mouse and rat experimental models. Eosinophilia induced by keyhole limpet hemocyanin- cyclophosphamide treatment was also suppressed by monoclonal antibody in both murine and rat systems. Pulmonary granulomas in mice given egg injection and monoclonal antibody were smaller and contained fewer eosinophils than those granulomas from mice given eggs only. In immuno-biochemical studies, the

  6. Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine is a matrix scavenger chaperone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Chlenski

    Full Text Available Secreted Protein Acidic and Rich in Cysteine (SPARC is one of the major non-structural proteins of the extracellular matrix (ECM in remodeling tissues. The functional significance of SPARC is emphasized by its origin in the first multicellular organisms and its high degree of evolutionary conservation. Although SPARC has been shown to act as a critical modulator of ECM remodeling with profound effects on tissue physiology and architecture, no plausible molecular mechanism of its action has been proposed. In the present study, we demonstrate that SPARC mediates the disassembly and degradation of ECM networks by functioning as a matricellular chaperone. While it has low affinity to its targets inside the cells where the Ca(2+ concentrations are low, high extracellular concentrations of Ca(2+ activate binding to multiple ECM proteins, including collagens. We demonstrated that in vitro, this leads to the inhibition of collagen I fibrillogenesis and disassembly of pre-formed collagen I fibrils by SPARC at high Ca(2+ concentrations. In cell culture, exogenous SPARC was internalized by the fibroblast cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Pulse-chase assay further revealed that internalized SPARC is quickly released outside the cell, demonstrating that SPARC shuttles between the cell and ECM. Fluorescently labeled collagen I, fibronectin, vitronectin, and laminin were co-internalized with SPARC by fibroblasts, and semi-quantitative Western blot showed that SPARC mediates internalization of collagen I. Using a novel 3-dimensional model of fluorescent ECM networks pre-deposited by live fibroblasts, we demonstrated that degradation of ECM depends on the chaperone activity of SPARC. These results indicate that SPARC may represent a new class of scavenger chaperones, which mediate ECM degradation, remodeling and repair by disassembling ECM networks and shuttling ECM proteins into the cell. Further understanding of this mechanism may provide

  7. Expression of PPARα modifies fatty acid effects on insulin secretion in uncoupling protein-2 knockout mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Catherine B

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims/hypothesis In uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2 knockout (KO mice, protection of beta cells from fatty acid exposure is dependent upon transcriptional events mediated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα. Methods PPARα expression was reduced in isolated islets from UCP2KO and wild-type (WT mice with siRNA for PPARα (siPPARα overnight. Some islets were also cultured with oleic or palmitic acid, then glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS was measured. Expression of genes was examined by quantitative RT-PCR or immunoblotting. PPARα activation was assessed by oligonucleotide consensus sequence binding. Results siPPARα treatment reduced PPARα protein expression in KO and WT islets by >85%. In siPPARα-treated UCP2KO islets, PA but not OA treatment significantly decreased the insulin response to 16.5 mM glucose. In WT islets, siPPARα treatment did not modify GSIS in PA and OA exposed groups. In WT islets, PA treatment significantly increased UCP2 mRNA and protein expression. Both PA and OA treatment significantly increased PPARα expression in UCP2KO and WT islets but OA treatment augmented PPARα protein expression only in UCP2KO islets (p Conclusion These data show that the negative effect of saturated fatty acid on GSIS is mediated by PPARα/UCP2. Knockout of UCP2 protects beta-cells from PA exposure. However, in the absence of both UCP2 and PPARα even a short exposure (24 h to PA significantly impairs GSIS.

  8. New Cysteine-Rich Ice-Binding Protein Secreted from Antarctic Microalga, Chloromonas sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Woongsic; Campbell, Robert L; Gwak, Yunho; Kim, Jong Im; Davies, Peter L; Jin, EonSeon

    2016-01-01

    Many microorganisms in Antarctica survive in the cold environment there by producing ice-binding proteins (IBPs) to control the growth of ice around them. An IBP from the Antarctic freshwater microalga, Chloromonas sp., was identified and characterized. The length of the Chloromonas sp. IBP (ChloroIBP) gene was 3.2 kb with 12 exons, and the molecular weight of the protein deduced from the ChloroIBP cDNA was 34.0 kDa. Expression of the ChloroIBP gene was up- and down-regulated by freezing and warming conditions, respectively. Western blot analysis revealed that native ChloroIBP was secreted into the culture medium. This protein has fifteen cysteines and is extensively disulfide bonded as shown by in-gel mobility shifts between oxidizing and reducing conditions. The open-reading frame of ChloroIBP was cloned and over-expressed in Escherichia coli to investigate the IBP's biochemical characteristics. Recombinant ChloroIBP produced as a fusion protein with thioredoxin was purified by affinity chromatography and formed single ice crystals of a dendritic shape with a thermal hysteresis activity of 0.4±0.02°C at a concentration of 5 mg/ml. In silico structural modeling indicated that the three-dimensional structure of ChloroIBP was that of a right-handed β-helix. Site-directed mutagenesis of ChloroIBP showed that a conserved region of six parallel T-X-T motifs on the β-2 face was the ice-binding region, as predicted from the model. In addition to disulfide bonding, hydrophobic interactions between inward-pointing residues on the β-1 and β-2 faces, in the region of ice-binding motifs, were crucial to maintaining the structural conformation of ice-binding site and the ice-binding activity of ChloroIBP.

  9. Bacteroidales Secreted Antimicrobial Proteins Target Surface Molecules Necessary for Gut Colonization and Mediate Competition In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, Kevin G; Coyne, Michael J; Gentyala, Rahul R; Chatzidaki-Livanis, Maria; Comstock, Laurie E

    2016-08-23

    We recently showed that human gut Bacteroidales species secrete antimicrobial proteins (BSAPs), and we characterized in vitro the first such BSAP produced by Bacteroides fragilis In this study, we identified a second potent BSAP produced by the ubiquitous and abundant human gut species Bacteroides uniformis The two BSAPs contain a membrane attack complex/perforin (MACPF) domain but share very little sequence similarity. We identified the target molecules of BSAP-sensitive cells and showed that each BSAP targets a different class of surface molecule: BSAP-1 targets an outer membrane protein of sensitive B. fragilis strains, and BSAP-2 targets the O-antigen glycan of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of sensitive B. uniformis strains. Species-wide genomic and phenotypic analyses of B. fragilis and B. uniformis showed that BSAP-producing strains circumvent killing by synthesizing an orthologous nontargeted surface molecule. The BSAP genes are adjacent to the gene(s) encoding their target replacements, suggesting coacquisition. Using a gnotobiotic mouse competitive-colonization model, we found that the BSAP surface targets are important for colonization of the mammalian gut, thereby explaining why they are maintained in sensitive strains and why they were replaced rather than deleted in BSAP-producing strains. Using isogenic BSAP-producing, -sensitive, and -resistant strains, we show that a BSAP-producing strain outcompetes a sensitive strain but not a resistant strain in the mammalian gut. Human gut metagenomic datasets reveal that BSAP-1-sensitive strains do not cooccur with BSAP-1-producing strains in human gut microbiotas, further supporting the idea that BSAPs are important competitive factors with relevance to the strain-level composition of the human gut microbiota. We know relatively little about the ecology of the human intestinal microbiota and the combination of factors that dictate which strains and species occupy an individual's gut microbial community

  10. Low penetrance and effect on protein secretion of LGI1 mutations causing autosomal dominant lateral temporal epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bonaventura, Carlo; Operto, Francesca F; Busolin, Giorgia; Egeo, Gabriella; D'Aniello, Alfredo; Vitello, Libero; Smaniotto, Gessica; Furlan, Sandra; Diani, Erica; Michelucci, Roberto; Giallonardo, Anna Teresa; Coppola, Giangennaro; Nobile, Carlo

    2011-07-01

    To describe the clinical and genetic findings of four families with autosomal dominant lateral temporal epilepsy. A personal and family history was obtained from each affected and unaffected subject along with a physical and neurologic examination. Routine electroencephalography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies were performed in almost all patients. DNAs from family members were screened for LGI1 mutations. The effects of mutations on Lgi1 protein secretion were determined in transfected culture cells. The four families included a total of 11 patients (two deceased), six of whom had lateral temporal epilepsy with auditory aura. Age at onset was in the second decade of life; seizures were well controlled by antiepileptic treatment and MRI studies were normal. We found two pathogenic LGI1 mutations with uncommonly low penetrance: the R136W mutation, previously detected in a sporadic case with telephone-induced partial seizures, gave rise to the epileptic phenotype in three of nine mutation carriers in one family; the novel C179R mutation caused epilepsy in an isolated patient from a family where the mutation segregated. Another novel pathogenic mutation, I122T, and a nonsynonymous variant, I359V, were found in the two other families. Protein secretion tests showed that the R136W and I122T mutations inhibited secretion of the mutant proteins, whereas I359V had no effect on protein secretion; C179R was not tested, because of its predictable effect on protein folding. These findings suggest that some LGI1 mutations may have a weak penetrance in families with complex inheritance pattern, or isolated patients, and that the protein secretion test, together with other predictive criteria, may help recognize pathogenic LGI1 mutations. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2011 International League Against Epilepsy.

  11. Secretion of whey acidic protein and cystatin is down regulated at mid-lactation in the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, K.R.; Fisher, J.A.; Muths, E.; Trott, J.; Janssens, P.A.; Reich, C.; Shaw, D.C.

    2001-01-01

    Milk collected from the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) between day 100 and 260 of lactation showed major changes in milk composition at around day 200 of lactation, the time at which the pouch young begins to temporarily exit the pouch and eat herbage. The carbohydrate content of milk declined abruptly at this time and although there was only a small increase in total protein content, SDS PAGE analysis of milk revealed asynchrony in the secretory pattern of individual proteins. The levels of ??-lactalbumin, ??-lactoglobulin, serum albumin and transferrin remain unchanged during lactation. In contrast, the protease inhibitor cystatin, and the putative protease inhibitor whey acidic protein (WAP) first appeared in milk at elevated concentrations after approximately 150 days of lactation and then ceased to be secreted at approximately 200 days. In addition, a major whey protein, late lactation protein, was first detected in milk around the time whey acidic protein and cystatin cease to be secreted and was present at least until day 260 of lactation. The co-ordinated, but asynchronous secretion of putative protease inhibitors in milk may have several roles during lactation including tissue remodelling in the mammary gland and protecting specific proteins in milk required for physiological development of the dependent young. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Inc.

  12. Aberrant Expression and Secretion of Heat Shock Protein 90 in Patients with Bullous Pemphigoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukaj, Stefan; Kleszczyński, Konrad; Vafia, Katerina; Groth, Stephanie; Meyersburg, Damian; Trzonkowski, Piotr; Ludwig, Ralf J.; Zillikens, Detlef; Schmidt, Enno; Fischer, Tobias W.; Kasperkiewicz, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The cell stress chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) has been implicated in inflammatory responses and its inhibition has proven successful in different mouse models of autoimmune diseases, including epidermolysis bullosa acquisita. Here, we investigated expression levels and secretory responses of Hsp90 in patients with bullous pemphigoid (BP), the most common subepidermal autoimmune blistering skin disease. In comparison to healthy controls, the following observations were made: (i) Hsp90 was highly expressed in the skin of BP patients, whereas its serum levels were decreased and inversely associated with IgG autoantibody levels against the NC16A immunodominant region of the BP180 autoantigen, (ii) in contrast, neither aberrant levels of circulating Hsp90 nor any correlation of this protein with serum autoantibodies was found in a control cohort of autoimmune bullous disease patients with pemphigus vulgaris, (iii) Hsp90 was highly expressed in and restrictedly released from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of BP patients, and (iv) Hsp90 was potently induced in and restrictedly secreted from human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells by BP serum and isolated anti-BP180 NC16A IgG autoantibodies, respectively. Our results reveal an upregulated Hsp90 expression at the site of inflammation and an autoantibody-mediated dysregulation of the intracellular and extracellular distribution of this chaperone in BP patients. These findings suggest that Hsp90 may play a pathophysiological role and represent a novel potential treatment target in BP. PMID:23936217

  13. Novel fold of VirA, a type III secretion system effector protein from Shigella flexneri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Jamaine; Wang, Jiawei; Tropea, Joseph E.; Zhang, Di; Dauter, Zbigniew; Waugh, David S.; Wlodawer, Alexander (SAIC); (NCI)

    2009-01-28

    VirA, a secreted effector protein from Shigella sp., has been shown to be necessary for its virulence. It was also reported that VirA might be related to papain-like cysteine proteases and cleave {alpha}-tubulin, thus facilitating intracellular spreading. We have now determined the crystal structure of VirA at 3.0 {angstrom} resolution. The shape of the molecule resembles the letter 'V,' with the residues in the N-terminal third of the 45-kDa molecule (some of which are disordered) forming one clearly identifiable domain, and the remainder of the molecule completing the V-like structure. The fold of VirA is unique and does not resemble that of any known protein, including papain, although its N-terminal domain is topologically similar to cysteine protease inhibitors such as stefin B. Analysis of the sequence conservation between VirA and its Escherichia coli homologs EspG and EspG2 did not result in identification of any putative protease-like active site, leaving open a possibility that the biological function of VirA in Shigella virulence may not involve direct proteolytic activity.

  14. The yeast signal sequence trap identifies secreted proteins of the hemibiotrophic corn pathogen Colletotrichum graminicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krijger, Jorrit-Jan; Horbach, Ralf; Behr, Michael; Schweizer, Patrick; Deising, Holger B; Wirsel, Stefan G R

    2008-10-01

    The hemibiotroph Colletotrichum graminicola is the causal agent of stem rot and leaf anthracnose on Zea mays. Following penetration of epidermal cells, the fungus enters a short biotrophic phase, followed by a destructive necrotrophic phase of pathogenesis. During both phases, secreted fungal proteins are supposed to determine progress and success of the infection. To identify genes encoding such proteins, we constructed a yeast signal sequence trap (YSST) cDNA-library from RNA extracted from mycelium grown in vitro on corn cell walls and leaf extract. Of the 103 identified unigenes, 50 showed significant similarities to genes with a reported function, 25 sequences were similar to genes without a known function, and 28 sequences showed no similarity to entries in the databases. Macroarray hybridization and quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction confirmed that most genes identified by the YSST screen are expressed in planta. Other than some genes that were constantly expressed, a larger set showed peaks of transcript abundances at specific phases of pathogenesis. Another set exhibited biphasic expression with peaks at the biotrophic and necrotrophic phase. Transcript analyses of in vitro-grown cultures revealed that several of the genes identified by the YSST screen were induced by the addition of corn leaf components, indicating that host-derived factors may have mimicked the host milieu.

  15. Aberrant expression and secretion of heat shock protein 90 in patients with bullous pemphigoid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Tukaj

    Full Text Available The cell stress chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90 has been implicated in inflammatory responses and its inhibition has proven successful in different mouse models of autoimmune diseases, including epidermolysis bullosa acquisita. Here, we investigated expression levels and secretory responses of Hsp90 in patients with bullous pemphigoid (BP, the most common subepidermal autoimmune blistering skin disease. In comparison to healthy controls, the following observations were made: (i Hsp90 was highly expressed in the skin of BP patients, whereas its serum levels were decreased and inversely associated with IgG autoantibody levels against the NC16A immunodominant region of the BP180 autoantigen, (ii in contrast, neither aberrant levels of circulating Hsp90 nor any correlation of this protein with serum autoantibodies was found in a control cohort of autoimmune bullous disease patients with pemphigus vulgaris, (iii Hsp90 was highly expressed in and restrictedly released from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of BP patients, and (iv Hsp90 was potently induced in and restrictedly secreted from human keratinocyte (HaCaT cells by BP serum and isolated anti-BP180 NC16A IgG autoantibodies, respectively. Our results reveal an upregulated Hsp90 expression at the site of inflammation and an autoantibody-mediated dysregulation of the intracellular and extracellular distribution of this chaperone in BP patients. These findings suggest that Hsp90 may play a pathophysiological role and represent a novel potential treatment target in BP.

  16. Actin Cytoskeleton Manipulation by Effector Proteins Secreted by Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli Pathotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Navarro-Garcia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The actin cytoskeleton is a dynamic structure necessary for cell and tissue organization, including the maintenance of epithelial barriers. Disruption of the epithelial barrier coincides with alterations of the actin cytoskeleton in several disease states. These disruptions primarily affect the paracellular space, which is normally regulated by tight junctions. Thereby, the actin cytoskeleton is a common and recurring target of bacterial virulence factors. In order to manipulate the actin cytoskeleton, bacteria secrete and inject toxins and effectors to hijack the host cell machinery, which interferes with host-cell pathways and with a number of actin binding proteins. An interesting model to study actin manipulation by bacterial effectors is Escherichia coli since due to its genome plasticity it has acquired diverse genetic mobile elements, which allow having different E. coli varieties in one bacterial species. These E. coli pathotypes, including intracellular and extracellular bacteria, interact with epithelial cells, and their interactions depend on a specific combination of virulence factors. In this paper we focus on E. coli effectors that mimic host cell proteins to manipulate the actin cytoskeleton. The study of bacterial effector-cytoskeleton interaction will contribute not only to the comprehension of the molecular causes of infectious diseases but also to increase our knowledge of cell biology.

  17. Erwinia amylovora type three-secreted proteins trigger cell death and defense responses in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degrave, A; Fagard, M; Perino, C; Brisset, M N; Gaubert, S; Laroche, S; Patrit, O; Barny, M-A

    2008-08-01

    Erwinia amylovora is the bacterium responsible for fire blight, a necrotic disease affecting plants of the rosaceous family. E. amylovora pathogenicity requires a functional type three secretion system (T3SS). We show here that E. amylovora triggers a T3SS-dependent cell death on Arabidopsis thaliana. The plants respond by inducing T3SS-dependent defense responses, including salicylic acid (SA)-independent callose deposition, activation of the SA defense pathway, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, and part of the jasmonic acid/ethylene defense pathway. Several of these reactions are similar to what is observed in host plants. We show that the cell death triggered by E. amylovora on A. thaliana could not be simply explained by the recognition of AvrRpt2 ea by the resistance gene product RPS2. We then analyzed the role of type three-secreted proteins (T3SPs) DspA/E, HrpN, and HrpW in the induction of cell death and defense reactions in A. thaliana following infection with the corresponding E. amylovora mutant strains. HrpN and DspA/E were found to play an important role in the induction of cell death, activation of defense pathways, and ROS accumulation. None of the T3SPs tested played a major role in the induction of SA-independent callose deposition. The relative importance of T3SPs in A. thaliana is correlated with their relative importance in the disease process on host plants, indicating that A. thaliana can be used as a model to study their role.

  18. [Immunohistochemical study of human breast tumors using monoclonal antibodies to intermediate filament proteins (nonproliferating epithelial structures in breast dysplasia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gel'shteĭn, V I; Chipysheva, T A; Litvinova, L V; Ermilova, V D; Bannikov, G A

    1985-01-01

    An immunohistochemical analysis of nonproliferating epithelial structures was carried out in 10 samples of human breast dysplasia and in 4 samples of tissue surrounding mammary gland carcinoma. Monoclonal mouse antibodies against individual prekeratins of rat monolayer epithelial antibodies of clone C12 against rat prekeratin with the molecular mass 49 kilodalton and antibodies of clone E3 against rat prekeratin with the molecular mass 40 kilodalton-monoclonal antibodies against vimentin (clone 30), as well as polyclonal antibodies against smooth muscle myosin and against the basement membrane glycoprotein laminin were used. The lining epithelium of all glandular structures reacted only with C12 antibodies. Two variants of myoepithelial cells containing myosin were detected. Variant I contains myosin and vimentin and is localized in intralobular ducts. Variant 2 contains myosin and prekeratin, recognized by E3 antibodies and is found in extralobular ducts.

  19. Autoimmunity related to IgM monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. Peripheral neuropathy and connective tissue sensibilization caused by IgM M-proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønsson, V; Schrøder, H D; Nolsøe, C

    1988-01-01

    against structures in the endoneurium but no IgM autoimmunity in the direct fluorescence test. The latter improved clinically in parallel with a decrease in the M-protein indicating a pathogenetic role of the autoantibody. In three other cases, the IgM was bound to connective tissue structures, two......In eight of 10 consecutive cases of IgM monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), the M-protein had specificity towards various tissues as estimated by direct and indirect immunofluorescence studies of skin and/or sural nerve biopsies. Five of the cases had neuropathy. In three...... of them also had plasma antibodies against the peri- and endoneurium in the indirect fluorescence test. Finally, two cases showed no reaction of the M-protein against any tissue structures. Since an autoimmune pathogenesis is suspected, the HLA types of seven patients are reported....

  20. Venom allergen-like proteins in secretions of plant-parasitic nematodes activate and suppress extracellular plant immune receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lozano Torres, J.L.

    2014-01-01

      Parasitic worms threaten human, animal and plant health by infecting people, livestock and crops worldwide. Animals and plants share an anciently evolved innate immune system. Parasites modulate this immune system by secreting proteins to maintain their parasitic lifestyle. This thesis descr

  1. Blood outgrowth endothelial cells as a vehicle for transgene expression of hepatocyte-secreted proteins via Sleeping Beauty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kren, Betsy T; Yin, Wenxan; Key, Nigel S; Hebbel, Robert P; Steer, Clifford J

    2007-01-01

    The therapeutic use of autologous cells with the capacity for extensive in vitro expansion and manipulation prior to host administration has been an area of significant investigation over the last decade. Blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOECs) are derived from the circulation and exhibit proliferative growth, in vivo engraftment, and survival characteristics for long-term expression of endogenously secreted proteins, such as factor VIII (FVIII). The authors describe a modified method for the isolation, culture, and expansion of these cells that is readily accomplished using standard laboratory methods. Using a commercially available transfection reagent, approximately 30% of these primary cells can be routinely transfected with the nonviral Sleeping Beauty transposon for long-term, stable transgene expression. Moreover, the results indicate that these cells have the ability to secrete functionally active proteins that are synthesized endogenously by hepatocytes and require post-translational modification including alpha1-antitrypsin and clotting factors VII and IX. This, coupled with their notably long half-life of years, suggests that these cells may provide an appropriate vehicle for secretion of a variety of proteins produced by different cell types in vivo. Thus, BOECs have the potential to provide clinically relevant secreted proteins for diseases other than those of endothelial origin.

  2. The breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) affects pharmacokinetics, hepatobiliary excretion, and milk secretion of the antibiotic nitrofurantoin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merino, G; Jonker, JW; Wagenaar, E; van Herwaarden, AE; Schinkel, AH

    2005-01-01

    Nitrofurantoin is a commonly used urinary tract antibiotic prescribed to lactating woman. It is actively transported into human and rat milk by an unknown mechanism. Our group has demonstrated an important role of the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) in the secretion of xenotoxins into

  3. The type 3 protein secretion system of Cupriavidus taiwanensis strain LMG19424 compromises symbiosis with Leucaena leucocephala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Maged M; Crèvecoeur, Michèle; Masson-Boivin, Catherine; Perret, Xavier

    2012-10-01

    Cupriavidus taiwanensis forms proficient symbioses with a few Mimosa species. Inactivation of a type III protein secretion system (T3SS) had no effect on Mimosa pudica but allowed C. taiwanensis to establish chronic infections and fix nitrogen in Leucaena leucocephala. Unlike what was observed for other rhizobia, glutamate rather than plant flavonoids mediated transcriptional activation of this atypical T3SS.

  4. Host-Pathogen Interactions: VI. A Single Plant Protein Efficiently Inhibits Endopolygalacturonases Secreted by Colletotrichum Lindemuthianum and Aspergillus Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, M L; Anderson, A J; Albersheim, P

    1973-03-01

    Endopolygalacturonases have been purified from the extracellular enzymes of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and Aspergillus niger. A protein, purified from Red Kidney (Phaseolus vulgaris) beans for its ability to inhibit the endopolygalacturonase secreted by C. lindemuthianum, inhibits the A. niger endopolygalacturonase almost as efficiently as it inhibits the C. lindemuthianum enzyme.

  5. Distinct expression profiles of Notch-1 protein in human solid tumors: Implications for development of targeted therapeutic monoclonal antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan Li; Burns, Janine A.; Carol A Cheney; et al

    2010-01-01

    Yuan Li1, Janine A Burns1, Carol A Cheney1, Ningyan Zhang1, Salvatore Vitelli1, Fubao Wang1, Andrew Bett2, Michael Chastain2, Laurent P Audoly1, Zhi-Qiang Zhang1,31Department of Biologics Research, 2Department of Vaccine Research, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA, USA; 3Clinical Development Laboratory, Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, NJ, USAAbstract: Biological therapies, such as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that target tumor-associated antigens have been considered an effecti...

  6. Distinct expression profiles of Notch-1 protein in human solid tumors: Implications for development of targeted therapeutic monoclonal antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuan; Burns, Janine A.; Carol A Cheney; Zhang, Ningyan; Vitelli, Salvatore; Wang, Fubao; Bett, Andrew; Chastain, Michael; Audoly, Laurent P.; Zhang, Zhi-Qiang

    2010-01-01

    Biological therapies, such as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that target tumor-associated antigens have been considered an effective therapeutic approach in oncology. In considering Notch-1 receptor as a potential target, we performed immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays to determine 1) whether the receptor is overexpressed in tumor cells as compared to their corresponding normal tissues and 2) the clinical significance of its expression levels in human breast, colorectal, lung and prosta...

  7. Production and Identification of Monoclonal Antibodies against MIP Protein of Chlamydophila abortus%流产嗜性衣原体MIP蛋白单克隆抗体的制备及特性鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔺俊丽; 李兆才; 曹小安; 赵荣; 周继章

    2015-01-01

    In order to produce the monoclonal antibodies ( mAbs) against MIP protein of Chlamydophila abortus, Balb/c mice were immunized with purified MIP protein. The positive hybridoma cell lines were screened by indirect ELISA after cell fusion and subcloned by limiting dilution. Two monoclonal antibody hybridoma cell lines which secrete MIP resistant protein were established eventually and named M1 and M3 respectively. The titer of these mAbs were1 ∶ 1600 and the relative affinity were 10 μg/mL by the way of ELISA;the recombinant MIP protein specificity of two strains of the monoclonal was recognized by Western Blot; the characteristics of hybridoma was confirmed by chromosome identification. The subtype of IgG of two strains was IgG1, and the light chain of them was κ chain by the mAb subclass detection kit; the neutralization test showed that the mAbs can interrupt transmission of infection. The successful preparation of the 2 mAbs anti-MIP will provide some useful date for setting up diagnostic and therapy method and the basic research of MIP protein in the future.%为制备抗流产嗜性衣原体MIP 蛋白单克隆抗体,以纯化的重组MIP 蛋白为抗原,免疫Balb/c小鼠后经细胞融合,间接ELISA法筛选阳性细胞克隆并进行有限稀释克隆化,建立了两株分泌抗MIP蛋白单克隆抗体的杂交瘤细胞株,将其分别命名为M1,M2。间接ELISA测杂交瘤细胞上清抗体效价为1∶1600、相对亲和力为10μg/mL;Western blot鉴定两株单克隆抗体能特异识别MIP重组蛋白;细胞核型实验鉴定单抗符合杂交瘤细胞的特性;单克隆抗体亚类检测试剂盒鉴定两株单抗免疫球蛋白类型均为IgG1,轻链为κ链;体外中和试验表明,两株单抗均能有效阻断感染。抗MIP单克隆抗体的成功制备将为建立诊断、治疗方法及MIP蛋白的进一步研究奠定基础。

  8. New Protein-Protein Interactions Identified for the Regulatory and Structural Components and Substrates of the Type III Secretion System of the Phytopathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis Pathovar citri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegria, Marcos C.; Docena, Cassia; Khater, Leticia; Ramos, Carlos H. I.; da Silva, Ana C. R.; Farah, Chuck S.

    2004-01-01

    We have initiated a project to identify protein-protein interactions involved in the pathogenicity of the bacterial plant pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri. Using a yeast two-hybrid system based on Gal4 DNA-binding and activation domains, we have focused on identifying interactions involving subunits, regulators, and substrates of the type III secretion system coded by the hrp (for hypersensitive response and pathogenicity), hrc (for hrp conserved), and hpa (for hrp associated) genes. We have identified several previously uncharacterized interactions involving (i) HrpG, a two-component system response regulator responsible for the expression of X. axonopodis pv. citri hrp operons, and XAC0095, a previously uncharacterized protein encountered only in Xanthomonas spp.; (ii) HpaA, a protein secreted by the type III secretion system, HpaB, and the C-terminal domain of HrcV; (iii) HrpB1, HrpD6, and HrpW; and (iv) HrpB2 and HrcU. Homotropic interactions were also identified for the ATPase HrcN. These newly identified protein-protein interactions increase our understanding of the functional integration of phytopathogen-specific type III secretion system components and suggest new hypotheses regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying Xanthomonas pathogenicity. PMID:15342589

  9. Identification of novel protein-protein interactions of Yersinia pestis type III secretion system by yeast two hybrid system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiying Yang

    Full Text Available Type III secretion system (T3SS of the plague bacterium Y. pestis encodes a syringe-like structure consisting of more than 20 proteins, which can inject virulence effectors into host cells to modulate the cellular functions. Here in this report, interactions among the possible components in T3SS of Yersinia pestis were identified using yeast mating technique. A total of 57 genes, including all the pCD1-encoded genes except those involved in plasmid replication and partition, pseudogenes, and the putative transposase genes, were subjected to yeast mating analysis. 21 pairs of interaction proteins were identified, among which 9 pairs had been previously reported and 12 novel pairs were identified in this study. Six of them were tested by GST pull down assay, and interaction pairs of YscG-SycD, YscG-TyeA, YscI-YscF, and YopN-YpCD1.09c were successfully validated, suggesting that these interactions might play potential roles in function of Yersinia T3SS. Several potential new interactions among T3SS components could help to understand the assembly and regulation of Yersinia T3SS.

  10. Role of the N-linked glycans of the prM and E envelope proteins in tick-borne encephalitis virus particle secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Akiko; Yoshii, Kentarou; Obara, Mayumi; Ueki, Tomotaka; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Kariwa, Hiroaki; Takashima, Ikuo

    2005-04-27

    The tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus has two membrane glycoproteins (prM and E), which each has one N-linked glycan. Constructs that express prM and E proteins of TBE virus have been shown to produce virus-like particles (VLPs), which have surface properties that are similar to those of infectious viruses. To reveal the function of glycosylation of the TBE virus prM and E proteins in the secretion of VLPs, we expressed glycosylation-mutated prM and E proteins and compared the secretion levels and biological properties of the VLPs. In the prM protein glycosylation-deficient mutant, the level of secreted E protein was reduced to 60% of the wild-type level. On the other hand, in the E or prM-E protein glycosylation-deficient mutant, the level of secreted E protein was reduced to 10% of the wild-type level. Furthermore, the mutant which was glycosylated at positions 66 and 154 in protein E, the level of secreted E protein was four-fold higher than that of the wild-type. However, in the mutant which was glycosylated at position 66 only, E protein secretion was reduced to only 10% of the wild-type level. These data suggest that the glycan associated with the N-linked glycosylation site at position 154 in protein E plays an important role in VLP secretion.

  11. Switching of G-protein Usage by the Calcium-sensing Receptor Reverses Its Effect on Parathyroid Hormone-related Protein Secretion in Normal Versus Malignant Breast Cells*

    OpenAIRE

    Mamillapalli, Ramanaiah; VanHouten, Joshua; Zawalich, Walter; Wysolmerski, John

    2008-01-01

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) is a G-protein-coupled receptor that signals in response to extracellular calcium and regulates parathyroid hormone secretion. The CaR is also expressed on normal mammary epithelial cells (MMECs), where it has been shown to inhibit secretion of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and participate in the regulation of calcium and bone metabolism during lactation. In contrast to normal breast cells, the CaR has been reported to s...

  12. Cloning and expression of Mycobacterium bovis secreted protein MPB51 in Escherichia coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xiuyun; WANG Chunfeng; WANG Chunfang; HE Zhaoyang

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to clone,identify,and express the mature secreted protein MPB51 from Mycobacterium bovis and to lay a good foundation for the diagnosis of M.bovis,for applying M.bovis vaccine into clinical practice,and for detection of immunity effectiveness.The gene encoding MPB51 was amplified from M.bovis Valleel 11 chromosomal DNA by using PCR technique,PCR product was approximately 800 bp DNA segment.Clone vector pGEM-T-51 was successfully constructed by the PCR product that was cloned into pGEM-T vector by using T-A clone technique,pGEM-T-51 and pET28a(+)were digested by BamH I and EcoR I double enzymes.The prokaryotic expression vector pET28a-51 was constructed by using the purified MPB51 gene that was subcloned into the expression vector pET28a(+).Plasmid containing pET28a-51 was transformed into competence E.coli BL21(DE3).The bacterium was induced by IPTG and its lysates were loaded directly onto SDS-PAGE.An approximately 30 kDa exogenous protein was observed on the SDS-PAGE.The protein was analyzed by using Western-blotting and it had the antigenic activity ofM.bovis.These results could serve as a basis for further studies on the usefulness of the gene and its expression product in the development of subunit vaccine and DNA vaccine against bovine tuberculosis.

  13. Panel of monoclonal antibodies to sperm surface proteins as a tool for monitoring localization and identification of sperm-zona pellucida receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigo, Michal; Dorosh, Andriy; Pohlová, Alžběta; Jonáková, Věra; Šulc, Miroslav; Maňásková-Postlerová, Pavla

    2015-03-01

    Primary binding of the sperm to the zona pellucida (ZP) is one of the many steps necessary for successful fertilization. Sperm bind ZP by means of membrane receptors which recognize carbohydrate moieties on ZP glycoproteins according to a well-defined sequential process. Primary binding receptors, many of which have been disclosed in various mammals, are localized throughout the acrosomal region of the sperm surface. A panel of monoclonal antibodies against proteins from the sperm surface was prepared. Antibodies were screened by immunofluorescence for protein localization and Western blotting. Proteins localized on the sperm head and simultaneously detected by Western blotting were further studied in terms of immunolocalization in reproductive tissues and fluids, binding to ZP, immunoprecipitation and sequencing. Of 17 prepared antibodies, 8 recognized proteins localized on the sperm head and also detected proteins of interest by Western blotting. Only three other antibodies recognized proteins that also coincided in binding to ZP. These three antibodies were used for immunoprecipitation, and further protein sequencing of immunoprecipitates revealed that these antibodies distinguished acrosin precursor, RAB-2A protein, and lactadherin P47. This is not the first time we have detected acrosin on the surface of ejaculated and capacitated sperm. However, to our knowledge, this is the first time RAB-2A has been detected on the sperm surface. Lactadherin P47 has already been characterized and its physiological function in reproduction has been proposed.

  14. Stimulation of Hepatoma Cell Invasiveness and Metastatic Potential by Proteins Secreted From Irradiated Nonparenchymal Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Leyuan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Wang Zhiming [Department of Medical Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Gao Yabo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Wang Lingyan [Experimental Research Center, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Zeng Zhaochong, E-mail: zeng.zhaochong@zs-hospital.sh.cn [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To determine whether factors secreted by irradiated liver nonparenchymal cells (NPCs) may influence invasiveness and/or metastatic potential of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and to elucidate a possible mechanism for such effect. Methods and Materials: Primary rat NPCs were cultured and divided into irradiated (10-Gy X-ray) and nonirradiated groups. Forty-eight hours after irradiation, conditioned medium from irradiated (SR) or nonirradiated (SnonR) cultures were collected and added to sublethally irradiated cultures of the hepatoma McA-RH7777 cell line. Then, hepatoma cells were continuously passaged for eight generations (RH10Gy-SR and RH10Gy-SnonR). The invasiveness and metastatic potential of McA-RH7777, RH10Gy-SnonR, and RH10Gy-SR cells were evaluated using an in vitro gelatinous protein (Matrigel) invasion and an in vivo metastasis assay. In addition, SR and SnonR were tested using rat cytokine antibody arrays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: In vitro gelatinous protein invasion assay indicated that the numbers of invading cells was significantly higher in RH10Gy-SR (40 {+-} 4.74) than in RH10Gy-SnonR (30.6 {+-} 3.85) cells, and lowest in McA-RH7777 (11.4 {+-} 3.56) cells. The same pattern was observed in vivo in a lung metastasis assay, as evaluated by number of metastatic lung nodules seen with RH10Gy-SR (28.83 {+-} 5.38), RH10Gy-SnonR (22.17 {+-} 4.26), and McA-RH7777 (8.3 {+-} 3.8) cells. Rat cytokine antibody arrays and ELISA demonstrated that metastasis-promoting cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} and interleukin-6), circulating growth factors (vascular endothelial growth factor and epidermal growth factor), and metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) were upregulated in SR compared with SnonR. Conclusions: Radiation can increase invasiveness and metastatic potential of sublethally irradiated hepatoma cells, and soluble mediators released from irradiated NPCs promote this potential. Increased secretion of

  15. Wheat germ cell-free system-based production of hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein of human parainfluenza virus type 3: generation and characterization of monoclonal antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoko eMatsunaga

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Human parainfluenza virus 3 (HPIV3 commonly causes respiratory disorders in infants and young children. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs have been produced to several components of HPIV3 and commercially available. However, the utility of these antibodies for several immunological and proteomic assays for understanding the nature of HPIV3 infection remain to be characterized. Herein, we report the development and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN of HPIV3. A recombinant full-length HPIV3-HN was successfully synthesized using the wheat-germ cell-free protein production system. After immunization and cell fusion, 36 mouse hybridomas producing MAbs to HPIV3-HN were established. The MAbs obtained were fully characterized using ELISA, immunoblotting and immunofluorescent analyses. Of the MAbs tested, single clone was found to be applicable in both flow cytometry and immunoprecipitation procedures. By utilizing the antibody, we newly identified HPIV3-HN binding host proteins via immunoprecipitation-based mass spectrometry analysis. This study provides the availability of our newly-developed MAbs as a valuable tool for the study of HPIV3 infection as well as the several diagnostic tests of this virus.

  16. Comparative proteomic analysis of extracellular secreted proteins expressed by two pathogenic Acanthamoeba castellanii clinical isolates and a non-pathogenic ATCC strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian-Ming; Lin, Wei-Chen; Li, Sung-Chou; Shih, Min-Hsiu; Chan, Wen-Ching; Shin, Jyh-Wei; Huang, Fu-Chin

    2016-07-01

    Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a serious ocular disease caused by pathogenic Acanthamoeba gaining entry through wounds in the corneal injury; generally, patients at risk for contracting AK wear contact lenses, usually over a long period of time. Moreover, pathogenic Acanthamoeba causes serious consequences: it makes the cornea turbid and difficult to operate on, including procedures such as enucleation of the eyeball. At present, diagnosis of this disease is not straightforward, and treatment is very demanding. We have established the comparative transcriptome and extracellular secreted proteomic database according to the non-pathogenic strain ATCC 30010 and the pathogenic strains NCKU_B and NCKU_D. We identified 44 secreted proteins successfully, 10 consensus secreted proteins and 34 strain-specific secreted proteins. These proteins may provide targets for therapy and immuno-diagnosis of Acanthamoeba infections. This study shows a suitable approach to identify secreted proteins in Acanthamoeba and provides new perspectives for the study of molecules potentially involved in the AK.

  17. Ketoglutarate transport protein KgtP is secreted through the type III secretion system and contributes to virulence in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Cai, Lu-Lu; Zou, Hua-Song; Ma, Wen-Xiu; Liu, Xi-Ling; Zou, Li-Fang; Li, Yu-Rong; Chen, Xiao-Bin; Chen, Gong-You

    2012-08-01

    The phytopathogenic prokaryote Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is the causal agent of bacterial leaf blight (BB) of rice and utilizes a type III secretion system (T3SS) to deliver T3SS effectors into rice cells. In this report, we show that the ketoglutarate transport protein (KgtP) is secreted in an HpaB-independent manner through the T3SS of X. oryzae pv. oryzae PXO99(A) and localizes to the host cell membrane for α-ketoglutaric acid export. kgtP contained an imperfect PIP box (plant-inducible promoter) in the promoter region and was positively regulated by HrpX and HrpG. A kgtP deletion mutant was impaired in bacterial virulence and growth in planta; furthermore, the mutant showed reduced growth in minimal media containing α-ketoglutaric acid or sodium succinate as the sole carbon source. The reduced virulence and the deficiency in α-ketoglutaric acid utilization by the kgtP mutant were restored to wild-type levels by the presence of kgtP in trans. The expression of OsIDH, which is responsible for the synthesis of α-ketoglutaric acid in rice, was enhanced when KgtP was present in the pathogen. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that KgtP, which is regulated by HrpG and HrpX and secreted by the T3SS in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, transports α-ketoglutaric acid when the pathogen infects rice.

  18. Analysis of two monoclonal antibodies reactive with envelope