WorldWideScience

Sample records for monochrome ten-inch display

  1. Ten inch Planar Optic Display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiser, L. [Beiser (Leo) Inc., Flushing, NY (United States); Veligdan, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-04-01

    A Planar Optic Display (POD) is being built and tested for suitability as a high brightness replacement for the cathode ray tube, (CRT). The POD display technology utilizes a laminated optical waveguide structure which allows a projection type of display to be constructed in a thin (I to 2 inch) housing. Inherent in the optical waveguide is a black cladding matrix which gives the display a black appearance leading to very high contrast. A Digital Micromirror Device, (DMD) from Texas Instruments is used to create video images in conjunction with a 100 milliwatt green solid state laser. An anamorphic optical system is used to inject light into the POD to form a stigmatic image. In addition to the design of the POD screen, we discuss: image formation, image projection, and optical design constraints.

  2. Optimization of the polyplanar optical display electronics for a monochrome B-52 display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSanto, L.

    1998-04-01

    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. The prototype ten-inch display is two inches thick and has a matte black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. In order to achieve a long lifetime, the new display uses a new 200 mW green solid-state laser (10,000 hr. life) at 532 nm as its light source. To produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP{trademark}) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments (TI). In order to use the solid-state laser as the light source and also fit within the constraints of the B-52 display, the Digital Micromirror Device (DMD{trademark}) chip is operated remotely from the Texas Instruments circuit board. In order to achieve increased brightness a monochrome digitizing interface was investigated. The operation of the DMD{trademark} divorced from the light engine and the interfacing of the DMD{trademark} board with the RS-170 video format specific to the B-52 aircraft will be discussed, including the increased brightness of the monochrome digitizing interface. A brief description of the electronics required to drive the new 200 mW laser is also presented.

  3. Liquid-crystal displays for medical imaging: a discussion of monochrome versus color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Steven L.; Samei, Ehsan

    2004-05-01

    A common view is that color displays cannot match the performance of monochrome displays, normally used for diagnostic x-ray imaging. This view is based largely on historical experience with cathode-ray tube (CRT) displays, and does not apply in the same way to liquid-crystal displays (LCDs). Recent advances in color LCD technology have considerably narrowed performance differences with monochrome LCDs for medical applications. The most significant performance advantage of monochrome LCDs is higher luminance, a concern for use under bright ambient conditions. LCD luminance is limited primarily by backlight design, yet to be optimized for color LCDs for medical applications. Monochrome LCDs have inherently higher contrast than color LCDs, but this is not a major advantage under most conditions. There is no practical difference in luminance precision between color and monochrome LCDs, with a slight theoretical advantage for color. Color LCDs can provide visualization and productivity enhancement for medical applications, using digital drive from standard commercial graphics cards. The desktop computer market for color LCDs far exceeds the medical monitor market, with an economy of scale. The performance-to-price ratio for color LCDs is much higher than monochrome, and warrants re-evaluation for medical applications.

  4. Comparison of Color LCD and Medical-grade Monochrome LCD Displays in Diagnostic Radiology

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    In diagnostic radiology, medical-grade monochrome displays are usually recommended because of their higher luminance. Standard color displays can be used as a less expensive alternative, but have a lower luminance. The aim of the present study was to compare image quality for these two types of displays. Images of a CDRAD contrast-detail phantom were read by four radiologists using a 2-megapixel (MP) color display (143 cd/m2 maximum luminance) as well as 2-MP (295 cd/m2) and 3-MP monochrome d...

  5. Comparison of color LCD and medical-grade monochrome LCD displays in diagnostic radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geijer, Håkan; Geijer, Mats; Forsberg, Lillemor; Kheddache, Susanne; Sund, Patrik

    2007-06-01

    In diagnostic radiology, medical-grade monochrome displays are usually recommended because of their higher luminance. Standard color displays can be used as a less expensive alternative, but have a lower luminance. The aim of the present study was to compare image quality for these two types of displays. Images of a CDRAD contrast-detail phantom were read by four radiologists using a 2-megapixel (MP) color display (143 cd/m(2) maximum luminance) as well as 2-MP (295 cd/m(2)) and 3-MP monochrome displays. Thirty lumbar spine radiographs were also read by four radiologists using the color and the 2-MP monochrome display in a visual grading analysis (VGA). Very small differences were found between the displays when reading the CDRAD images. The VGA scores were -0.28 for the color and -0.25 for the monochrome display (p = 0.24; NS). It thus seems possible to use color displays in diagnostic radiology provided that grayscale adjustment is used.

  6. Image-quality assessment of monochrome monitors for medical soft copy display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibrecht, Martin; Spekowius, Gerhard; Quadflieg, Peter; Blume, Hartwig R.

    1997-05-01

    Soft-copy presentation of medical images is becoming part of the medical routine as more and more health care facilities are converted to digital filmless hospital and radiological information management. To provide optimal image quality, display systems must be incorporated when assessing the overall system image quality. We developed a method to accomplish this. The proper working of the method is demonstrated with the analysis of four different monochrome monitors. We determined display functions and veiling glare with a high-performance photometer. Structure mottle of the CRT screens, point spread functions and images of stochastic structures were acquired by a scientific CCD camera. The images were analyzed with respect to signal transfer characteristics and noise power spectra. We determined the influence of the monitors on the detective quantum efficiency of a simulated digital x-ray imaging system. The method follows a physical approach; nevertheless, the results of the analysis are in good agreement with the subjective impression of human observers.

  7. Polyplanar optical display electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSanto, L.; Biscardi, C. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology

    1997-07-01

    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. The prototype ten inch display is two inches thick and has a matte black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. In order to achieve a long lifetime, the new display uses a 100 milliwatt green solid-state laser (10,000 hr. life) at 532 nm as its light source. To produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP{trademark}) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments. In order to use the solid-state laser as the light source and also fit within the constraints of the B-52 display, the Digital Micromirror Device (DMD{trademark}) circuit board is removed from the Texas Instruments DLP light engine assembly. Due to the compact architecture of the projection system within the display chassis, the DMD{trademark} chip is operated remotely from the Texas Instruments circuit board. The authors discuss the operation of the DMD{trademark} divorced from the light engine and the interfacing of the DMD{trademark} board with various video formats (CVBS, Y/C or S-video and RGB) including the format specific to the B-52 aircraft. A brief discussion of the electronics required to drive the laser is also presented.

  8. Polyplanar optic display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.; Biscardi, C.; Brewster, C.; DeSanto, L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology; Beiser, L. [Leo Beiser Inc., Flushing, NY (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. This display screen is 2 inches thick and has a matte black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. The new display uses a 100 milliwatt green solid state laser (532 nm) as its optical source. In order to produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP{trademark}) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments, Inc. A variable astigmatic focusing system is used to produce a stigmatic image on the viewing face of the POD. In addition to the optical design, the authors discuss the electronic interfacing to the DLP{trademark} chip, the opto-mechanical design and viewing angle characteristics.

  9. Interface of the transport systems research vehicle monochrome display system to the digital autonomous terminal access communication data bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easley, W. C.; Tanguy, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    An upgrade of the transport systems research vehicle (TSRV) experimental flight system retained the original monochrome display system. The original host computer was replaced with a Norden 11/70, a new digital autonomous terminal access communication (DATAC) data bus was installed for data transfer between display system and host, while a new data interface method was required. The new display data interface uses four split phase bipolar (SPBP) serial busses. The DATAC bus uses a shared interface ram (SIR) for intermediate storage of its data transfer. A display interface unit (DIU) was designed and configured to read from and write to the SIR to properly convert the data from parallel to SPBP serial and vice versa. It is found that separation of data for use by each SPBP bus and synchronization of data tranfer throughout the entire experimental flight system are major problems which require solution in DIU design. The techniques used to accomplish these new data interface requirements are described.

  10. A method for evaluating image quality of monochrome and color displays based on luminance by use of a commercially available color digital camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokurei, Shogo, E-mail: shogo.tokurei@gmail.com, E-mail: junjim@med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan and Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Hospital, 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Morishita, Junji, E-mail: shogo.tokurei@gmail.com, E-mail: junjim@med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to propose a method for the quantitative evaluation of image quality of both monochrome and color liquid-crystal displays (LCDs) using a commercially available color digital camera. Methods: The intensities of the unprocessed red (R), green (G), and blue (B) signals of a camera vary depending on the spectral sensitivity of the image sensor used in the camera. For consistent evaluation of image quality for both monochrome and color LCDs, the unprocessed RGB signals of the camera were converted into gray scale signals that corresponded to the luminance of the LCD. Gray scale signals for the monochrome LCD were evaluated by using only the green channel signals of the camera. For the color LCD, the RGB signals of the camera were converted into gray scale signals by employing weighting factors (WFs) for each RGB channel. A line image displayed on the color LCD was simulated on the monochrome LCD by using a software application for subpixel driving in order to verify the WF-based conversion method. Furthermore, the results obtained by different types of commercially available color cameras and a photometric camera were compared to examine the consistency of the authors’ method. Finally, image quality for both the monochrome and color LCDs was assessed by measuring modulation transfer functions (MTFs) and Wiener spectra (WS). Results: The authors’ results demonstrated that the proposed method for calibrating the spectral sensitivity of the camera resulted in a consistent and reliable evaluation of the luminance of monochrome and color LCDs. The MTFs and WS showed different characteristics for the two LCD types owing to difference in the subpixel structure. The MTF in the vertical direction of the color LCD was superior to that of the monochrome LCD, although the WS in the vertical direction of the color LCD was inferior to that of the monochrome LCD as a result of luminance fluctuations in RGB subpixels. Conclusions: The authors

  11. Laser-driven polyplanar optic display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.T.; Biscardi, C.; Brewster, C.; DeSanto, L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology; Beiser, L. [Leo Beiser Inc., Flushing, NY (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. This display screen is 2 inches thick and has a matte-black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. The new display uses a 200 milliwatt green solid-state laser (532 nm) as its optical source. In order to produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments, Inc. A variable astigmatic focusing system is used to produce a stigmatic image on the viewing face of the POD. In addition to the optical design, the authors discuss the DLP chip, the optomechanical design and viewing angle characteristics.

  12. Comparison of detectability of a simple object with low contrast displayed on a high-brightness color LCD and a monochrome LCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Keita; Morishita, Junji; Hiwasa, Takeshi; Hatanaka, Shiro; Sakai, Shuji; Hashimoto, Noriyuki; Nakamura, Yasuhiko; Toyofuku, Fukai; Higashida, Yoshiharu; Ohki, Masafumi

    2010-07-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of the different luminance settings of a high-brightness color liquid-crystal display (LCD) on the detectability of a simple grayscale object with low contrast by use of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The detectability of a high-brightness color LCD with two maximum-luminance settings (500 and 170 cd/m(2)) was compared with the detectability of a monochrome LCD (500 cd/m(2)). The two LCDs used in this study were calibrated to the grayscale standard display function. The average areas under the ROC curve (AUCs) and the standard deviations for all thirteen observers for the 500 cd/m(2) color LCD, 500 cd/m(2) monochrome LCD, and 170 cd/m(2) color LCD were 0.937 +/- 0.040, 0.924 +/- 0.056, and 0.915 +/- 0.068, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in the average AUCs among the three LCD monitor conditions. On the other hand, the total observation time for the 170 cd/m(2) color LCD was significantly shorter than that for the 500 cd/m(2) color and monochrome LCDs (p LCD provided a performance comparable to the monochrome LCD for detection of a simple grayscale object with low contrast.

  13. Mirror monochromator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mankos, Marian [Electron Optica, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Shadman, Khashayar [Electron Optica, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2014-12-02

    In this SBIR project, Electron Optica, Inc. (EOI) is developing a mirror electron monochromator (MirrorChrom) attachment to new and retrofitted electron microscopes (EMs) for improving the energy resolution of the EM from the characteristic range of 0.2-0.5 eV to the range of 10-50 meV. This improvement will enhance the characterization of materials by imaging and spectroscopy. In particular, the monochromator will refine the energy spectra characterizing materials, as obtained from transmission EMs [TEMs] fitted with electron spectrometers, and it will increase the spatial resolution of the images of materials taken with scanning EMs (SEMs) operated at low voltages. EOI’s MirrorChrom technology utilizes a magnetic prism to simultaneously deflect the electron beam off the axis of the microscope column by 90° and disperse the electrons in proportional to their energies into a module with an electron mirror and a knife-edge. The knife-edge cuts off the tails of the energy distribution to reduce the energy spread of the electrons that are reflected, and subsequently deflected, back into the microscope column. The knife-edge is less prone to contamination, and thereby charging, than the conventional slits used in existing monochromators, which improves the reliability and stability of the module. The overall design of the MirrorChrom exploits the symmetry inherent in reversing the electron trajectory in order to maintain the beam brightness – a parameter that impacts how well the electron beam can be focused downstream onto a sample. During phase I, EOI drafted a set of candidate monochromator architectures and evaluated the trade-offs between energy resolution and beam current to achieve the optimum design for three particular applications with market potential: increasing the spatial resolution of low voltage SEMs, increasing the energy resolution of low voltage TEMs (beam energy of 5-20 keV), and increasing the energy resolution of conventional TEMs (beam

  14. HIRDLS monochromator calibration equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepplewhite, Christopher L.; Barnett, John J.; Djotni, Karim; Whitney, John G.; Bracken, Justain N.; Wolfenden, Roger; Row, Frederick; Palmer, Christopher W. P.; Watkins, Robert E. J.; Knight, Rodney J.; Gray, Peter F.; Hammond, Geoffory

    2003-11-01

    A specially designed and built monochromator was developed for the spectral calibration of the HIRDLS instrument. The High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) is a precision infra-red remote sensing instrument with very tight requirements on the knowledge of the response to received radiation. A high performance, vacuum compatible monochromator, was developed with a wavelength range from 4 to 20 microns to encompass that of the HIRDLS instrument. The monochromator is integrated into a collimating system which is shared with a set of tiny broad band sources used for independent spatial response measurements (reported elsewhere). This paper describes the design and implementation of the monochromator and the performance obtained during the period of calibration of the HIRDLS instrument at Oxford University in 2002.

  15. Practical aspects of monochromators developed for transmission electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimoto, Koji

    2014-01-01

    A few practical aspects of monochromators recently developed for transmission electron microscopy are briefly reviewed. The basic structures and properties of four monochromators, a single Wien filter monochromator, a double Wien filter monochromator, an omega-shaped electrostatic monochromator and an alpha-shaped magnetic monochromator, are outlined. The advantages and side effects of these monochromators in spectroscopy and imaging are pointed out. A few properties of the monochromators in imaging, such as spatial or angular chromaticity, are also discussed. PMID:25125333

  16. APS high heat load monochromator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W.K.; Mills, D.

    1993-02-01

    This document contains the design specifications of the APS high heat load (HHL) monochromator and associated accessories as of February 1993. It should be noted that work is continuing on many parts of the monochromator including the mechanical design, crystal cooling designs, etc. Where appropriate, we have tried to add supporting documentation, references to published papers, and calculations from which we based our decisions. The underlying philosophy behind performance specifications of this monochromator was to fabricate a device that would be useful to as many APS users as possible, that is, the design should be as generic as possible. In other words, we believe that this design will be capable of operating on both bending magnet and ID beamlines (with the appropriate changes to the cooling and crystals) with both flat and inclined crystal geometries and with a variety of coolants. It was strongly felt that this monochromator should have good energy scanning capabilities over the classical energy range of about 4 to 20 keywith Si (111) crystals. For this reason, a design incorporating one rotation stage to drive both the first and second crystals was considered most promising. Separate rotary stages for the first and second crystals can sometimes provide more flexibility in their capacities to carry heavy loads (for heavily cooled first crystals or sagittal benders of second crystals), but their tuning capabilities were considered inferior to the single axis approach.

  17. Large monochromator systems at PETRA III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horbach, J., E-mail: Jan.Horbach@desy.de [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron Hamburg, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Degenhardt, M.; Hahn, U.; Heuer, J.; Peters, H.B.; Schulte-Schrepping, H. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron Hamburg, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Donat, A.; Luedecke, H. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron Zeuthen, Platanenallee 6, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany)

    2011-09-01

    For the beamlines of the new synchrotron radiation source PETRA III, fixed exit double crystal monochromators with specific features were developed. To achieve a compact arrangement of the canted undulator beamlines at Sectors 2 and 6, it is necessary to shift one of the two beamlines in vertical direction. This is done by Large Offset Monochromators (LOM). One of these monochromators (LOM500, installed at beamline P03) is cooled with liquid nitrogen as it accepts the white beam. LOM1250 (installed at beamline P08) accepts a monochromatic beam and therefore needs no cooling system. The challenge with this monochromator is its large beam offset by 1.25 m. The energy range in combination with this large vertical beam offset demands for a relative crystal movement of roughly 3 m along the beam direction. This is solved by translating each crystal by up to 1.5 m. LOM1250 is equipped with a laser-based stabilisation, which allows compensating the thermal drift of the mechanical components involved in the positioning of the crystals. This is done by piezo actors below the crystals using the laser beam position after passing each crystal as feedback. With this approach we provide a closed loop system without attenuation of the X-ray beam by position monitors. The third monochromator at beamline P06 shifts the beam only by 21 mm upwards but has a linear travel of one crystal by 3.9 m. This is due to its large energy range of 4.4-90 keV using multilayer crystals. The technical design and mechanical engineering issues of the three Large Monochromator Systems at beamlines P03, P06 and P08 are highlighted in this article.

  18. Monochromator design for the HADAS reflectometer in Jülich

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rücker, U.; Alefeld, B.; Kentzinger, E.; Brückel, Th

    2000-06-01

    A reflectometer with polarization analysis is being built on the basis of the HADAS spectrometer in the neutron guide hall at the research reactor FRJ-2 (DIDO) in Jülich. For obtaining the optimal flux at the sample position, the performances of several monochromator designs have been calculated, e.g. focusing mirrors, mosaic monochromator crystals and bent perfect crystal monochromators. Under the given geometrical limitations a double monochromator with bent perfect Si crystals and vertical focusing has the best performance.

  19. Effective temperature and exergy of monochromic blackbody radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A new parameter named monochromic effective temperature Tλ is proposed, which represents the thermodynamic quality of monochromic blackbody radiation. The exergy of the monochromic blackbody radiation is expressed by Tλ. The monochromic effective temperature equation is developed, which shows that the produci of Tλ and the wavelength is constant, which equals 5.33016×10-3 tion in photosynthesis can be explained by the results of this work.

  20. Angular vibrations of cryogenically cooled double-crystal monochromators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergueev, I; Döhrmann, R; Horbach, J; Heuer, J

    2016-09-01

    The effect of angular vibrations of the crystals in cryogenically cooled monochromators on the beam performance has been studied theoretically and experimentally. A simple relation between amplitude of the vibrations and size of the focused beam is developed. It is shown that the double-crystal monochromator vibrations affect not only the image size but also the image position along the optical axis. Several methods to measure vibrations with the X-ray beam are explained and analyzed. The methods have been applied to systematically study angular crystal vibrations at monochromators installed at the PETRA III light source. Characteristic values of the amplitudes of angular vibrations for different monochromators are presented.

  1. New method for spectrofluorometer monochromator wavelength calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paladini, A A; Erijman, L

    1988-09-01

    A method is presented for wavelength calibration of spectrofluorometer monochromators. It is based on the distortion that the characteristic absorption bands of glass filters (holmium or didymium oxide), commonly used for calibration of spectrophotometers, introduce in the emitted fluorescence of fluorophores like indole, diphenyl hexatriene, xylene or rhodamine 6G. Those filters or a well characterized absorber with sharp bands like benzene vapor can be used for the same purpose. The wavelength calibration accuracy obtained with this method is better than 0.1 nm, and requires no modification in the geometry of the spectrofluorometer sample compartment.

  2. Image Descriptors for Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-03-01

    hypothetical televison display. The viewing distance is 4 picture heights, and the bandwidth limitation has been set by the U.S. Monochrome Standards...significantly influence the power spectrum over most of the video frequency range. A large dc component and a small random component provide another scene... influences . It was Illuminated with natural light to a brightness of over 300 ft-L. The high brightness levels were chosen so as to nearly reproduce the

  3. Comparison of the commercial color LCD and the medical monochrome LCD using randomized object test patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Wu

    Full Text Available Workstations and electronic display devices in a picture archiving and communication system (PACS provide a convenient and efficient platform for medical diagnosis. The performance of display devices has to be verified to ensure that image quality is not degraded. In this study, we designed a set of randomized object test patterns (ROTPs consisting of randomly located spheres with various image characteristics to evaluate the performance of a 2.5 mega-pixel (MP commercial color LCD and a 3 MP diagnostic monochrome LCD in several aspects, including the contrast, resolution, point spread effect, and noise. The ROTPs were then merged into 120 abdominal CT images. Five radiologists were invited to review the CT images, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis was carried out using a five-point rating scale. In the high background patterns of ROTPs, the sensitivity performance was comparable between both monitors in terms of contrast and resolution, whereas, in the low background patterns, the performance of the commercial color LCD was significantly poorer than that of the diagnostic monochrome LCD in all aspects. The average area under the ROC curve (AUC for reviewing abdominal CT images was 0.717±0.0200 and 0.740±0.0195 for the color monitor and the diagnostic monitor, respectively. The observation time (OT was 145±27.6 min and 127±19.3 min, respectively. No significant differences appeared in AUC (p = 0.265 and OT (p = 0.07. The overall results indicate that ROTPs can be implemented as a quality control tool to evaluate the intrinsic characteristics of display devices. Although there is still a gap in technology between different types of LCDs, commercial color LCDs could replace diagnostic monochrome LCDs as a platform for reviewing abdominal CT images after monitor calibration.

  4. Comparison of the commercial color LCD and the medical monochrome LCD using randomized object test patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jay; Wu, Tung H; Han, Rou P; Chang, Shu J; Shih, Cheng T; Sun, Jing Y; Hsu, Shih M

    2012-01-01

    Workstations and electronic display devices in a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) provide a convenient and efficient platform for medical diagnosis. The performance of display devices has to be verified to ensure that image quality is not degraded. In this study, we designed a set of randomized object test patterns (ROTPs) consisting of randomly located spheres with various image characteristics to evaluate the performance of a 2.5 mega-pixel (MP) commercial color LCD and a 3 MP diagnostic monochrome LCD in several aspects, including the contrast, resolution, point spread effect, and noise. The ROTPs were then merged into 120 abdominal CT images. Five radiologists were invited to review the CT images, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was carried out using a five-point rating scale. In the high background patterns of ROTPs, the sensitivity performance was comparable between both monitors in terms of contrast and resolution, whereas, in the low background patterns, the performance of the commercial color LCD was significantly poorer than that of the diagnostic monochrome LCD in all aspects. The average area under the ROC curve (AUC) for reviewing abdominal CT images was 0.717±0.0200 and 0.740±0.0195 for the color monitor and the diagnostic monitor, respectively. The observation time (OT) was 145±27.6 min and 127±19.3 min, respectively. No significant differences appeared in AUC (p = 0.265) and OT (p = 0.07). The overall results indicate that ROTPs can be implemented as a quality control tool to evaluate the intrinsic characteristics of display devices. Although there is still a gap in technology between different types of LCDs, commercial color LCDs could replace diagnostic monochrome LCDs as a platform for reviewing abdominal CT images after monitor calibration.

  5. A methodology for visually lossless JPEG2000 compression of monochrome stereo images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hsin-Chang; Marcellin, Michael W; Bilgin, Ali

    2015-02-01

    A methodology for visually lossless compression of monochrome stereoscopic 3D images is proposed. Visibility thresholds are measured for quantization distortion in JPEG2000. These thresholds are found to be functions of not only spatial frequency, but also of wavelet coefficient variance, as well as the gray level in both the left and right images. To avoid a daunting number of measurements during subjective experiments, a model for visibility thresholds is developed. The left image and right image of a stereo pair are then compressed jointly using the visibility thresholds obtained from the proposed model to ensure that quantization errors in each image are imperceptible to both eyes. This methodology is then demonstrated via a particular 3D stereoscopic display system with an associated viewing condition. The resulting images are visually lossless when displayed individually as 2D images, and also when displayed in stereoscopic 3D mode.

  6. Monochromator development at 4W1B beamline of BSRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yaning; Yan, Y.; Hu, T. D.; Liu, T.; Xian, D. C.

    2001-07-01

    The 4W1B is a X-ray monochromator beamline for XAFS at BSRF. During the upgrading phase, we have redesigned the monochromator to improve the performance of the beamline. It is a goniometer based, fixed exit double crystal monochromator. A mechanical linkage is employed to adjust the distance between the surfaces of the two crystals as the Bragg angle is changed to keep the outgoing beam direction constant. The whole mechanism is driven by only one stepping motor. The testing result shows that over the scanning range of 5-30°, the shift of outgoing beam position is less then 70 μm in the vertical direction. The basic principle, the mechanical realization, and the error analysis are discussed in detail. The performance and the testing results are also presented in this paper.

  7. Monochromator development at 4W1B beamiline of BSRF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YaningXie; Y.Yan; T.D.Hu; T.Liu; D.C.Xian

    2001-01-01

    The 4W1B is a X-ary monochromator beamline for XAFS at BSRF.During the upgrading phase,we have redsigned the monochromator to improve the performnce of beamline.It is a goniometer based,fixed exit double crystal monochromator.A mechanical linkage is employed to adjust the distance between the surfaces of the two crystals as the Bragg angle is changed to keep the outgoing beam direction constant.The whole mechanism is driven by only one stepping motor.The testing result shows that over the scanning range of 5-30°,the shift of outgoing beam position is less then 70μm in the vertical direction.The basic principle,the mechanical realization,and the error analysis are discussed in detail.The performance and the testing results are also presented in this paper.2001 Elsevier Science B.V.All rights reserved.

  8. A hard X-ray laboratory for monochromator characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamelin, B. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    Since their installation at ILL during the 1970`s the ILL {gamma}-ray diffractometers have been intensively used in the development of neutron monochromators. However, the ageing of the sources and new developments in hard X-ray diffractometry lead to a decision at the end of 1995 to replace the existing {gamma}-ray laboratory with a hard X-ray laboratory, based on a 420 keV generator, making available in the long term several beam-lines for rapid characterisation of monochromator crystals. The facility is now installed and its characteristics and advantages are outlined. (author). 2 refs.

  9. Composite germanium monochromators - results for the TriCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schefer, J.; Fischer, S.; Boehm, M.; Keller, L.; Horisberger, M.; Medarde, M.; Fischer, P. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Composite germanium monochromators are in the beginning of their application in neutron diffraction. We show here the importance of the permanent quality control with neutrons on the example of the 311 wafers which will be used on the single crystal diffractometer TriCS at SINQ. (author) 2 figs., 3 refs.

  10. Monochromator on a synchrotron undulator source for liquid surface studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Freund, A.K.

    1992-01-01

    a monochromator made of a beryllium mosaic crystal using the (002) reflection in Laue geometry placed in undulator beams of DORIS III at the Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor and of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. An analysis of the diffraction properties in terms of mosaic spread, heat load...

  11. A vacuum ultraviolet filtering monochromator for synchrotron-based spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janik, Ireneusz; Marin, Timothy W.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the design, characterization, and implementation of a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) monochromator for use in filtering stray and scattered light from the principal monochromator output of the Stainless Steel Seya VUV synchrotron beam line at the Synchrotron Radiation Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison. We demonstrate a reduction of three orders of magnitude of stray and scattered light over the wavelength range 1400-2000 Å with minimal loss of light intensity, allowing for over six orders of magnitude of dynamic range in light detection. We suggest that a similar filtering scheme can be utilized in any variety of spectroscopic applications where a large dynamic range and low amount of background signal are of import, such as in transmittance experiments with very high optical density.

  12. Design and performance of the ALS double-crystal monochromator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, G.; Ryce, S.; Perera, R.C.C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    A new {open_quotes}Cowan type{close_quotes} double-crystal monochromator, based on the boomerang design used at NSLS beamline X-24A, has been developed for beamline 9.3.1 at the ALS, a windowless UHV beamline covering the 1-6 keV photon-energy range. Beamline 9.3.1 is designed to simultaneously achieve the goals of high energy resolution, high flux, and high brightness at the sample. The mechanical design has been simplified, and recent developments in technology have been included. Measured mechanical precision of the monochromator shows significant improvement over existing designs. In tests with x-rays at NSLS beamline X-23 A2, maximum deviations in the intensity of monochromatic light were just 7% during scans of several hundred eV in the vicinity of the Cr K edge (6 keV) with the monochromator operating without intensity feedback. Such precision is essential because of the high brightness of the ALS radiation and the overall length of beamline 9.3.1 (26 m).

  13. Characterisation of a Sr-90 based electron monochromator

    CERN Document Server

    Arfaoui, S; CERN; Casella, C; ETH Zurich

    2015-01-01

    This note describes the characterisation of an energy filtered Sr-90 source to be used in laboratory studies that require Minimum Ionising Particles (MIP) with a kinetic energy of up to approx. 2 MeV. The energy calibration was performed with a LYSO scintillation crystal read out by a digital Silicon Photomultiplier (dSiPM). The LYSO/dSiPM set-up was pre-calibrated using a Na-22 source. After introducing the motivation behind the usage of such a device, this note presents the principle and design of the electron monochromator as well as its energy and momentum characterisation.

  14. Vibrational stability of a cryocooled horizontal double-crystal monochromator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, Paw; Johansson, Ulf; Ursby, Thomas; Jensen, Brian Norsk

    2016-01-01

    The vibrational stability of a horizontally deflecting double-crystal monochromator (HDCM) is investigated. Inherently a HDCM will preserve the vertical beam stability better than a ‘normal’ vertical double-crystal monochromator as the vibrations of a HDCM will almost exclusively affect the horizontal stability. Here both the relative pitch vibration between the first and second crystal and the absolute pitch vibration of the second crystal are measured. All reported measurements are obtained under active cooling by means of flowing liquid nitrogen (LN2). It is found that it is favorable to circulate the LN2 at high pressures and low flow rates (up to 5.9 bar and down to 3 l min−1 is tested) to attain low vibrations. An absolute pitch stability of the second crystal of 18 nrad RMS, 2–2500 Hz, and a relative pitch stability between the two crystals of 25 nrad RMS, 1–2500 Hz, is obtained under cryocooling conditions that allow for 1516 W to be adsorbed by the LN2 before it vaporizes. PMID:27577758

  15. Performance of a beam-multiplexing diamond crystal monochromator at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Diling; Feng, Yiping; Stoupin, Stanislav

    2014-01-01

    A double-crystal diamond monochromator was recently implemented at the Linac Coherent Light Source. It enables splitting pulses generated by the free electron laser in the hard x-ray regime and thus allows the simultaneous operations of two instruments. Both monochromator crystals are High-Pressu...

  16. Microcontroller-based servo for two-crystal X-ray monochromators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddons, D P

    1998-05-01

    Microcontrollers have become increasingly easy to incorporate into instruments as the architectures and support tools have developed. The PIC series is particularly easy to use, and this paper describes a controller used to stabilize the output of a two-crystal X-ray monochromator at a given offset from its peak intensity position, as such monochromators are generally used.

  17. MACS low-background doubly focusing neutron monochromator

    CERN Document Server

    Smee, S A; Scharfstein, G A; Qiu, Y; Brand, P C; Anand, D K; Broholm, C L

    2002-01-01

    A novel doubly focusing neutron monochromator has been developed as part of the Multi-Analyzer Crystal Spectrometer (MACS) at the NIST Center for Neutron Research. The instrument utilizes a unique vertical focusing element that enables active vertical and horizontal focusing with a large, 357-crystal (1428 cm sup 2), array. The design significantly reduces the amount of structural material in the beam path as compared to similar instruments. Optical measurements verify the excellent focal performance of the device. Analytical and Monte Carlo simulations predict that, when mounted at the NIST cold-neutron source, the device should produce a monochromatic beam (DELTA E=0.2 meV) with flux phi>10 sup 8 n/cm sup 2 s. (orig.)

  18. SUMS: synchronous undulator-monochromator scans at Synchrotron Soleil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Manuel; Hardion, Vincent; Renaud, Guillaume; Chapuis, Lilian; Millet, Raphael; Langlois, Florent; Marteau, Fabrice; Chauvet, Christian

    2012-07-01

    A strategy for performing synchronous undulator-monochromator scans (SUMS) compatible with the control system of Synchrotron Soleil has been developed. The implementation of the acquisition scheme has required the development of an electronic interface between the undulator and the beamline. The characterization of delays and jitters in the synchronous movement of various motor axes has motivated the development of a new electronic synchronization scheme among various axes, including the case when one of the axes is electronically accessible in `read-only' mode. A software prototype has been developed to allow the existing hard continuous software to work in user units. The complete strategy has been implemented and successfully tested at the TEMPO beamline.

  19. Monochromator-Based Absolute Calibration of Radiation Thermometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keawprasert, T.; Anhalt, K.; Taubert, D. R.; Hartmann, J.

    2011-08-01

    A monochromator integrating-sphere-based spectral comparator facility has been developed to calibrate standard radiation thermometers in terms of the absolute spectral radiance responsivity, traceable to the PTB cryogenic radiometer. The absolute responsivity calibration has been improved using a 75 W xenon lamp with a reflective mirror and imaging optics to a relative standard uncertainty at the peak wavelength of approximately 0.17 % ( k = 1). Via a relative measurement of the out-of-band responsivity, the spectral responsivity of radiation thermometers can be fully characterized. To verify the calibration accuracy, the absolutely calibrated radiation thermometer is used to measure Au and Cu freezing-point temperatures and then to compare the obtained results with the values obtained by absolute methods, resulting in T - T 90 values of +52 mK and -50 mK for the gold and copper fixed points, respectively.

  20. Double-crystal monochromator as the first optical element in BESSRC-CAT beamlines (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beno, Mark A.; Ramanathan, Mohan

    1996-09-01

    The first optical element in the BESSRC-CAT beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source will be a monochromator, so that a standard design for this critical component is advantageous. The monochromator we have designed is a double-crystal, fixed-exit scheme with a constant offset designed for UHV operation, thereby allowing windowless operation of the beamlines. The crystals are mounted on a turntable with the first crystal at the center of rotation. A mechanical linkage is used to correctly position the second crystal and maintain a constant offset. The main drive for the rotary motion is provided by a vacuum-compatible Huber goniometer isolated from the main vacuum chamber. Rotary motion of the primary monochromator stage is accomplished by using two adjacent vacuum chambers connected only by the small annular opening around a hollow stainless steel shaft, which connects the Huber goniometer to the turntable on which the crystals are mounted. The design of the monochromator is such that it can accommodate both water and liquid nitrogen cooling for the crystal optics. The basic design for the monochromator linkage mechanism will be presented along with details of the monochromator chamber. The results of initial optical tests of the monochromator system using tilt sensors and a precision autocollimator will also be given.

  1. New high-brightness monochrome monitor based on color CRT technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spekowius, Gerhard; Weibrecht, Martin; D'Adda, Carlo; Antonini, Antonio; Casale, Carlo; Blume, Hartwig R.

    1997-05-01

    With increasing availability of medical image communication infrastructures, medical images are more and more displayed as soft-copies rather than as hard-copies. Often however, the image viewing environment is characterized by high ambient light, such as in surgery rooms or offices illuminated by daylight. We are describing a very-high- brightness cathode-ray-tube (CRT) monitor which accommodates these viewing conditions without the typical deterioration in resolution due to electron focal spot blooming. The three guns of a standard color CRT are used to create a high brightness monochrome monitor. The CRT has no shadow-mask, and a homogeneous P45 phosphor layer has been deposited instead of the structured red-green-blue color phosphor screen. The electron spots of the three guns are dynamically matched by applying appropriate waveforms to four additional multiple magnetic fields around the gun assembly. We evaluated the image quality of the triple-gun CRT monitor concerning parameters which are especially relevant for medical imaging applications. We have measured characteristic curves, dynamic range, veiling glare, resolution, spot profiles, and screen noise. The monitor can provide a high luminance of more than 200 fL. Due to nearly perfect matching of the three spots, the resolution is mainly determined by the beam profile of a single gun and is remarkably high even at these high luminance values. The P45 phosphor shows very little structure noise, which is an advantage for medical desktop applications. Since all relevant monitor parameters are digitally controlled, the status of the monitor can be fully characterized at any time. This feature particularly facilitates the reproduction of brightness and contrast values and hence allows easy implementation of a display function standard or to return to a desired display function that has been found useful for a given application in the past.

  2. The development of a 200 kV monochromated field emission electron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukai, Masaki, E-mail: mmukai@jeol.co.jp [JEOL Ltd., 3-1-2 Musashino, Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan); Kim, Judy S. [University of Oxford, Department of Materials, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Omoto, Kazuya; Sawada, Hidetaka; Kimura, Atsushi; Ikeda, Akihiro; Zhou, Jun; Kaneyama, Toshikatsu [JEOL Ltd., 3-1-2 Musashino, Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan); Young, Neil P.; Warner, Jamie H.; Nellist, Peter D.; Kirkland, Angus I. [University of Oxford, Department of Materials, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-01

    We report the development of a monochromator for an intermediate-voltage aberration-corrected electron microscope suitable for operation in both STEM and TEM imaging modes. The monochromator consists of two Wien filters with a variable energy selecting slit located between them and is located prior to the accelerator. The second filter cancels the energy dispersion produced by the first filter and after energy selection forms a round monochromated, achromatic probe at the specimen plane. The ultimate achievable energy resolution has been measured as 36 meV at 200 kV and 26 meV at 80 kV. High-resolution Annular Dark Field STEM images recorded using a monochromated probe resolve Si–Si spacings of 135.8 pm using energy spreads of 218 meV at 200 kV and 217 meV at 80 kV respectively. In TEM mode an improvement in non-linear spatial resolution to 64 pm due to the reduction in the effects of partial temporal coherence has been demonstrated using broad beam illumination with an energy spread of 134 meV at 200 kV. - Highlights: • Monochromator for 200 kV aberration corrected TEM and STEM was developed. • Monochromator produces monochromated and achromatic probe at specimen plane. • Ultimate energy resolution was measured to be 36 meV at 200 kV and 26 meV at 80 kV. • Atomic resolution STEM images were recorded using monochromated electron probe. • Improvements of TEM resolution were confirmed using monochromated illumination.

  3. Realisation of a novel crystal bender for a fast double crystal monochromator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaeper, R.; Richwin, M. E-mail: richwin@uni-wuppertal.de; Wollmann, R.; Luetzenkirchen-Hecht, D.; Frahm, R

    2001-07-21

    A novel crystal bender for an X-ray undulator beamline as part of a fast double crystal monochromator development for full EXAFS energy range was characterized. Rocking curves of the monochromator crystal system were recorded under different heat loads and bending forces of the indirectly cooled first Si(1 1 1) crystal. The monochromator development implements new piezo-driven tilt tables with wide angular range to adjust the crystals' Bragg angles and a high pressure actuated bender mechanism for the first crystal.

  4. Realisation of a novel crystal bender for a fast double crystal monochromator

    CERN Document Server

    Zaeper, R; Wollmann, R; Luetzenkirchen-Hecht, D; Frahm, R

    2001-01-01

    A novel crystal bender for an X-ray undulator beamline as part of a fast double crystal monochromator development for full EXAFS energy range was characterized. Rocking curves of the monochromator crystal system were recorded under different heat loads and bending forces of the indirectly cooled first Si(1 1 1) crystal. The monochromator development implements new piezo-driven tilt tables with wide angular range to adjust the crystals' Bragg angles and a high pressure actuated bender mechanism for the first crystal.

  5. Optimization of Monochromated TEM for Ultimate Resolution Imaging and Ultrahigh Resolution Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Lopatin, Sergei

    2017-09-01

    The performance of a monochromated transmission electron microscope with Wien type monochromator is optimized to achieve an extremely narrow energy spread of electron beam and an ultrahigh energy resolution with spectroscopy. The energy spread in the beam is improved by almost an order of magnitude as compared to specified values. The optimization involves both the monochromator and the electron energy loss detection system. We demonstrate boosted capability of optimized systems with respect to ultra-low loss EELS and sub-angstrom resolution imaging (in a combination with spherical aberration correction).

  6. Aberration corrected and monochromated environmental transmission electron microscopy: challenges and prospects for materials science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Willum; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    2010-01-01

    The latest generation of environmental transmission electron microscopes incorporates aberration correctors and monochromators, allowing studies of chemical reactions and growth processes with improved spatial resolution and spectral sensitivity. Here, we describe the performance of such an instr......The latest generation of environmental transmission electron microscopes incorporates aberration correctors and monochromators, allowing studies of chemical reactions and growth processes with improved spatial resolution and spectral sensitivity. Here, we describe the performance...

  7. IMCA-CAT BM first monochromator crystal optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, I.N.; Cimpoes, S.; Chrzas, J. [CSRRI, Illinois Institute of Technology, 3301 S. Dearborn Street, Chicago, Il 60616 (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The high heat load at the surfaces of the first x-ray optical elements at the APS requires special measures to be taken to more completely utilize the beam. A conceptually new design for such an element, proposed, realized, and tested by M. Hart and conveniently called {open_quote}{open_quote}matchbox,{close_quote}{close_quote} is to be implemented at the IMCA-CAT BM beamline as the first monochromator crystal. The requirements of the IMCA-CAT companies for the BM beamline dictate that an optimization of the design is made for a given x-ray energy range E=13 keV {plus_minus}1 keV. A modification of the original design to improve the vacuum compatibility of the device was made in collaboration with M. Hart. A FEA optimization of the geometry is made using the ALGOR and ABAQUS programs. Determination of the resulting slopes and the useful crystal surface after the best compensation of the thermal distortions are also made. The surface profile obtained by the FEA study was used to perform a ray-tracing analysis of the IMCA-CAT BM beamline. The results of the ray-tracing study will be presented. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Monochromator-Based Absolute Calibration of a Standard Radiation Thermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantilla, J. M.; Hernanz, M. L.; Campos, J.; Martín, M. J.; Pons, A.; del Campo, D.

    2014-04-01

    Centro Español de Metrología (CEM) is disseminating the International Temperature Scale (ITS-90), at high temperatures, by using the fixed points of Ag and Cu and a standard radiation thermometer. However, the future mise-en-pratique for the definition of the kelvin ( MeP-K) will include the dissemination of the kelvin by primary methods and by indirect approximations capable of exceptionally low uncertainties or increased reliability. Primary radiometry is, at present, able to achieve uncertainties competitive with the ITS-90 above the silver point with one of the possible techniques the calibration for radiance responsivity of an imaging radiometer (radiance method). In order to carry out this calibration, IO-CSIC (Spanish Designated Institute for luminous intensity and luminous flux) has collaborated with CEM, allowing traceability to its cryogenic radiometer. A monochromator integrating sphere-based spectral comparator facility has been used to calibrate one of the CEM standard radiation thermometers. The absolute calibrated standard radiation thermometer has been used to determine the temperatures of the fixed points of Cu, Co-C, Pt-C, and Re-C. The results obtained are 1357.80 K, 1597.10 K, 2011.66 K, and 2747.64 K, respectively, with uncertainties ranging from 0.4 K to 1.1 K.

  9. Moessbauer-Fresnel zone plate as nuclear monochromator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mooney, T.M.; Alp, E.E.; Yun, W.B.

    1992-06-01

    Zone plates currently used in x-ray optics derive their focusing power from (a spatial variation of) the electronic refractive index -- that is, from the collective effect of electronic x-ray-scattering amplitudes. Nuclei also scatter x rays, and resonant nuclear-scattering amplitudes, particularly those associated with Moessbauer fluorescence, can dominate the refractive index for x-rays whose energies are very near the nuclear-resonance energy. A zone plate whose Fresnel zones are filled alternately with {sup 57}Fe and {sup 56}Fe ({sup 57}Fe has a nuclear resonance of natural width {Gamma} = 4.8 nano-eV at 14.413 keV; {sup 56}Fe has no such resonance) has a resonant focusing efficiency; it focuses only those x-rays whose energies are within several {Gamma} of resonance. When followed by an absorbing screen with a small pinhole, such a zone plate can function as a synchrotron-radiation monochromator with an energy resolution of a few parts in 10{sup 12}. The energy-dependent focusing efficiency and the resulting time-dependent response of a resonant zone plate are discussed.

  10. High-heat-load monochromator options for the RIXS beamline at the APS with the MBA lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zunping, E-mail: zpliu@anl.gov; Gog, Thomas, E-mail: gog@aps.anl.gov; Stoupin, Stanislav A.; Upton, Mary H.; Ding, Yang; Kim, Jung-Ho; Casa, Diego M.; Said, Ayman H.; Carter, Jason A.; Navrotski, Gary [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States)

    2016-07-27

    With the MBA lattice for APS-Upgrade, tuning curves of 2.6 cm period undulators meet the source requirements for the RIXS beamline. The high-heat-load monochromator (HHLM) is the first optical white beam component. There are four options for the HHLM such as diamond monochromators with refrigerant of either water or liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}), and silicon monochromators of either direct or indirect cooling system. Their performances are evaluated at energy 11.215 keV (Ir L-III edge). The cryo-cooled diamond monochromator has similar performance as the water-cooled diamond monochromator because GaIn of the Cu-GaIn-diamond interface becomes solid. The cryo-cooled silicon monochromators perform better, not only in terms of surface slope error due to thermal deformation, but also in terms of thermal capacity.

  11. Double crystal monochromator controlled by integrated computing on BL07A in New SUBARU, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okui, Masato, E-mail: okui@kohzu.co.jp [Kohzu Precision Co., Ltd., 2-6-15, Kurigi, Asao-ku, Kawasaki-shi, Kanagawa 215-8521 (Japan); Laboratory of Advanced Science and Technology for Industry, University of Hyogo (Japan); Yato, Naoki; Watanabe, Akinobu; Lin, Baiming; Murayama, Norio [Kohzu Precision Co., Ltd., 2-6-15, Kurigi, Asao-ku, Kawasaki-shi, Kanagawa 215-8521 (Japan); Fukushima, Sei, E-mail: FUKUSHIMA.Sei@nims.go.jp [Laboratory of Advanced Science and Technology for Industry, University of Hyogo (Japan); National Institute for Material Sciences (Japan); Kanda, Kazuhiro [Laboratory of Advanced Science and Technology for Industry, University of Hyogo (Japan)

    2016-07-27

    The BL07A beamline in New SUBARU, University of Hyogo, has been used for many studies of new materials. A new double crystal monochromator controlled by integrated computing was designed and installed in the beamline in 2014. In this report we will discuss the unique features of this new monochromator, MKZ-7NS. This monochromator was not designed exclusively for use in BL07A; on the contrary, it was designed to be installed at low cost in various beamlines to facilitate the industrial applications of medium-scale synchrotron radiation facilities. Thus, the design of the monochromator utilized common packages that can satisfy the wide variety of specifications required at different synchrotron radiation facilities. This monochromator can be easily optimized for any beamline due to the fact that a few control parameters can be suitably customized. The beam offset can be fixed precisely even if one of the two slave axes is omitted. This design reduces the convolution of mechanical errors. Moreover, the monochromator’s control mechanism is very compact, making it possible to reduce the size of the vacuum chamber can be made smaller.

  12. Cascade self-seeding scheme with wake monochromator for narrow-bandwidth X-ray FELs

    CERN Document Server

    Geloni, Gianluca; Saldin, Evgeni

    2010-01-01

    Three different approaches have been proposed so far for production of highly monochromatic X-rays from a baseline XFEL undulator: (i) single-bunch self-seeding scheme with a four crystal monochromator in Bragg reflection geometry; (ii) double-bunch self-seeding scheme with a four-crystal monochromator in Bragg reflection geometry; (iii) single-bunch self-seeding scheme with a wake monochromator. A unique element of the X-ray optical design of the last scheme is the monochromatization of X-rays using a single crystal in Bragg-transmission geometry. A great advantage of this method is that the monochromator introduces no path delay of X-rays. This fact eliminates the need for a long electron beam bypass, or for the creation of two precisely separated, identical electron bunches, as required in the other two self-seeding schemes. In its simplest configuration, the self-seeded XFEL consists of an input undulator and an output undulator separated by a monochromator. In some experimental situations this simplest t...

  13. On the influence of monochromator thermal deformations on X-ray focusing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antimonov, M. A.; Khounsary, A. M.; Sandy, A. R.; Narayanan, S.; Navrotski, G.

    2016-06-01

    A cooled double crystal monochromator system is used on many high heat load X-ray synchrotron radiation beamlines in order to select, by diffraction, a narrow spectrum of the beam. Thermal deformation of the first crystal monochromator - and the potential loss of beam brightness - is often a concern. However, if downstream beam focusing is planned, the lensing effect of the monochromator must be considered even if thermal deformations are small. In this paper we report on recent experiments at an Advanced Photon Source (APS) beamline that focuses the X-ray beam using compound refractive lenses downstream of an X-ray monochromator system. Increasing the X-ray beam power by increasing the storage ring current from 100 mA to 130 mA resulted in an effective doubling of the focal distance. We show quantitatively that this is due to a lensing effect of the distorted monochromator that results in the creation of a virtual source downstream of the actual source. An analysis of the defocusing and options to mitigate this effect are explored.

  14. On the influence of monochromator thermal deformations on X-ray focusing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antimonov, M.A. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); X-ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, Saint Petersburg 195251 (Russian Federation); Khounsary, A.M., E-mail: amk@iit.edu [Department of Physics, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Sandy, A.R.; Narayanan, S.; Navrotski, G. [X-ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2016-06-01

    A cooled double crystal monochromator system is used on many high heat load X-ray synchrotron radiation beamlines in order to select, by diffraction, a narrow spectrum of the beam. Thermal deformation of the first crystal monochromator – and the potential loss of beam brightness – is often a concern. However, if downstream beam focusing is planned, the lensing effect of the monochromator must be considered even if thermal deformations are small. In this paper we report on recent experiments at an Advanced Photon Source (APS) beamline that focuses the X-ray beam using compound refractive lenses downstream of an X-ray monochromator system. Increasing the X-ray beam power by increasing the storage ring current from 100 mA to 130 mA resulted in an effective doubling of the focal distance. We show quantitatively that this is due to a lensing effect of the distorted monochromator that results in the creation of a virtual source downstream of the actual source. An analysis of the defocusing and options to mitigate this effect are explored.

  15. The residual stress instrument with optimized Si(220) monochromator and position-sensitive detector at HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang-Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yusung, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Myung-Kook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yusung, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: moonmk@kaeri.re.kr; Em, Vyacheslav T. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yusung, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Young-Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yusung, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Cheon, Jong-Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yusung, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Uk-Won [Korea Astronomy Observatory, Yusung, Daejon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Kong, Kyung-Nam [Korea Astronomy Observatory, Yusung, Daejon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-06-11

    An upgraded residual stress instrument at the HANARO reactor of the KAERI is described. A horizontally focusing bent perfect crystal Si(220) monochromator (instead of a mosaic vertical focusing Ge monochromator) is installed in a drum with a tunable (2{theta}{sub M}=0-60{sup o}) take-off angle/wavelength. A specially designed position-sensitive detector (60% efficiency for {lambda}=1.8A) with 200mm (instead of 100mm) high-active area is used. There are no Soller type collimators in the instrument. The minimum possible monochromator to sample distance, L{sub MS}=2m, and sample to detector distance, L{sub SD}=1.2m, were found to be optimal. The new PSD and bent Si(220) monochromator combined with the possibility of selecting an appropriate wavelength resulted in about a ten-fold gain in data collection rate. The optimal reflections of austenitic and ferritic steels, aluminum and nickel for stress measurements with a Si(220) monochromator were chosen experimentally. The ability of the instrument to make strain measurements deep inside the austenitic and ferritic steels has been tested. For the chosen reflections and wavelengths, no shift of peak position (apparent strain) was observed up to 56mm length of path.

  16. A double multilayer monochromator for the B16 Test beamline at the Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawhney, K. J. S.; Dolbnya, I. P.; Scott, S. M.; Tiwari, M. K.; Preece, G. M.; Alcock, S. G.; Malandain, A. W.

    2011-09-01

    The B16 Test beamline at the Diamond Light Source is in user operation. It has been recently upgraded with the addition of a double multilayer monochromator (DMM), which provides further functionality and versatility to the beamline. The multilayer monochromator is equipped with two pairs of multilayer optics (Ni/B4C and Ru/B4C) to cover the wide photon energy range of 2 - 20 keV, with good efficiency. The DMM provides a broad bandpass / high flux operational mode for the beamline and, when used in tandem with the Si (111) double crystal monochromator, it gives a very high higher-order harmonics suppression. The design details of the DMM and the first commissioning results obtained using the DMM are presented.

  17. Performance of a beam-multiplexing diamond crystal monochromator at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Diling; Feng, Yiping; Stoupin, Stanislav; Terentyev, Sergey A.; Lemke, Henrik T.; Fritz, David M.; Chollet, Matthieu; Glownia, J. M.; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Sikorski, Marcin; Song, Sanghoon; Brandt van Driel, Tim; Williams, Garth J; Messerschmidt, Marc; Boutet, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    A double-crystal diamond monochromator was recently implemented at the Linac Coherent Light Source. It enables splitting pulses generated by the free electron laser in the hard x-ray regime and thus allows the simultaneous operations of two instruments. Both monochromator crystals are High-Pressure High-Temperature grown type-IIa diamond crystal plates with the (111) orientation. The first crystal has a thickness of ∼100 μm to allow high reflectivity within the Bragg bandwidth and good transm...

  18. A diffracted-beam monochromator for long linear detectors in X-ray diffractometers with Bragg-Brentano parafocusing geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Pers, N.M.; Hendrikx, R.W.A.; Delhez, R.; Böttger, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    A new diffracted-beam monochromator has been developed for Bragg-Brentano X-ray diffractometers equipped with a linear detector. The monochromator consists of a cone-shaped graphite highly oriented pyrolytic graphite crystal oriented out of the equatorial plane such that the parafocusing geometry is

  19. Nanoscale mapping of optical band gaps using monochromated electron energy loss spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, W.; Granerød, C. S.; Venkatachalapathy, V.; Johansen, K. M. H.; Jensen, I. J. T.; Kuznetsov, A. Yu; Prytz, Ø.

    2017-03-01

    Using monochromated electron energy loss spectroscopy in a probe-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope we demonstrate band gap mapping in ZnO/ZnCdO thin films with a spatial resolution below 10 nm and spectral precision of 20 meV.

  20. Measurement & Minimization of Mount Induced Strain on Double Crystal Monochromator Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, J.; Alcock, S. G.

    2013-03-01

    Opto-mechanical mounts can cause significant distortions to monochromator crystals and mirrors if not designed or implemented carefully. A slope measuring profiler, the Diamond-NOM [1], was used to measure the change in tangential slope as a function of crystal clamping configuration and load. A three point mount was found to exhibit the lowest surface distortion (Diamond Light Source.

  1. Self-seeding scheme with gas monochromator for narrow-bandwidth soft X-ray FELs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    Self-seeding schemes, consisting of two undulators with a monochromator in between, aim at reducing the bandwidth of SASE X-ray FELs. We recently proposed to use a new method of monochromatization exploiting a single crystal in Bragg transmission geometry for self-seeding in the hard X-ray range. Here we consider a possible extension of this method to the soft X-ray range using a cell filled with resonantly absorbing gas as monochromator. The transmittance spectrum in the gas exhibits an absorbing resonance with narrow bandwidth. Then, similarly to the hard X-ray case, the temporal waveform of the transmitted radiation pulse is characterized by a long monochromatic wake. In fact, the FEL pulse forces the gas atoms to oscillate in a way consistent with a forward-propagating, monochromatic radiation beam. The radiation power within this wake is much larger than the equivalent shot noise power in the electron bunch. Further on, the monochromatic wake of the radiation pulse is combined with the delayed electron bunch and amplified in the second undulator. The proposed setup is extremely simple, and composed of as few as two simple elements. These are the gas cell, to be filled with noble gas, and a short magnetic chicane. The installation of the magnetic chicane does not perturb the undulator focusing system and does not interfere with the baseline mode of operation. In this paper we assess the features of gas monochromator based on the use of He and Ne.We analyze the processes in the monochromator gas cell and outside it, touching upon the performance of the differential pumping system as well. We study the feasibility of using the proposed self-seeding technique to generate narrow bandwidth soft X-ray radiation in the LCLS-II soft X-ray beam line. We present conceptual design, technical implementation and expected performances of the gas monochromator self-seeding scheme. (orig.)

  2. Projection displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, George L.; Yang, Kei H.

    1998-08-01

    Projection display in today's market is dominated by cathode ray tubes (CRTs). Further progress in this mature CRT projector technology will be slow and evolutionary. Liquid crystal based projection displays have gained rapid acceptance in the business market. New technologies are being developed on several fronts: (1) active matrix built from polysilicon or single crystal silicon; (2) electro- optic materials using ferroelectric liquid crystal, polymer dispersed liquid crystals or other liquid crystal modes, (3) micromechanical-based transducers such as digital micromirror devices, and grating light valves, (4) high resolution displays to SXGA and beyond, and (5) high brightness. This article reviews the projection displays from a transducer technology perspective along with a discussion of markets and trends.

  3. Design and optimization of the grating monochromator for soft X-ray self-seeding FELs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkez, Svitozar

    2015-10-15

    The emergence of Free Electron Lasers (FEL) as a fourth generation of light sources is a breakthrough. FELs operating in the X-ray range (XFEL) allow one to carry out completely new experiments that probably most of the natural sciences would benefit. Self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) is the baseline FEL operation mode: the radiation pulse starts as a spontaneous emission from the electron bunch and is being amplified during an FEL process until it reaches saturation. The SASE FEL radiation usually has poor properties in terms of a spectral bandwidth or, on the other side, longitudinal coherence. Self-seeding is a promising approach to narrow the SASE bandwidth of XFELs significantly in order to produce nearly transformlimited pulses. It is achieved by the radiation pulse monochromatization in the middle of an FEL amplification process. Following the successful demonstration of the self-seeding setup in the hard X-ray range at the LCLS, there is a need for a self-seeding extension into the soft X-ray range. Here a numerical method to simulate the soft X-ray self seeding (SXRSS) monochromator performance is presented. It allows one to perform start-to-end self-seeded FEL simulations along with (in our case) GENESIS simulation code. Based on this method, the performance of the LCLS self-seeded operation was simulated showing a good agreement with an experiment. Also the SXRSS monochromator design developed in SLAC was adapted for the SASE3 type undulator beamline at the European XFEL. The optical system was studied using Gaussian beam optics, wave optics propagation method and ray tracing to evaluate the performance of the monochromator itself. Wave optics analysis takes into account the actual beam wavefront of the radiation from the coherent FEL source, third order aberrations and height errors from each optical element. The monochromator design is based on a toroidal VLS grating working at a fixed incidence angle mounting without both entrance and exit

  4. Electroluminescence Gray Scale Display Driving Method and Circuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Hao; LI Rong-yu; YANG Xin

    2007-01-01

    The increasing use of color terminals for personal computers has raised a demand for video graphic adapter(VGA)-format panel displays. Since only monochrome(ZnS∶Mn) electroluminescence(EL) displays of suitable size and speed are available, lack of colors has to be replaced by grayscale in the first place. There are two basic driving methods to achieve grayscale in thin-film EL displays: pulse amplitude modulation(PAM) method and pulse width modulation(PWM) method. But there are serious disadvantages of the two traditional methods. For the former method, the high voltage PAM ICs are too expensive to produce the grayscale EL display in bulks and the driver integrated circuit(IC) is complex. Though the PWM method has good grayscale display quality, the hardware implementation is too complex. A new driving method with which the width and the amplitude of the pulse can be modulated and simultaneously the challenge can be solved efficaciously is presented.

  5. A compact low cost “master–slave” double crystal monochromator for x-ray cameras calibration of the Laser MégaJoule Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubert, S., E-mail: sebastien.hubert@cea.fr; Prévot, V.

    2014-12-21

    The Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA-CESTA, France) built a specific double crystal monochromator (DCM) to perform calibration of x-ray cameras (CCD, streak and gated cameras) by means of a multiple anode diode type x-ray source for the MégaJoule Laser Facility. This DCM, based on pantograph geometry, was specifically modeled to respond to relevant engineering constraints and requirements. The major benefits are mechanical drive of the second crystal on the first one, through a single drive motor, as well as compactness of the entire device. Designed for flat beryl or Ge crystals, this DCM covers the 0.9–10 keV range of our High Energy X-ray Source. In this paper we present the mechanical design of the DCM, its features quantitatively measured and its calibration to finally provide monochromatized spectra displaying spectral purities better than 98%.

  6. A magnetically adsorbed fine adjustment mechanism of the second crystal in a double-crystal monochromator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Chong-Zhen; GAO Xue-Guan; MA Pei-Sun; WANG Feng-Qin; HE Dong-Qing; HUANG Yu-Ying; LIU Peng

    2005-01-01

    In a fine adjustment mechanism of the second crystal in a double-crystal monochromator, a compression spring is usually used as a return force element, but it often produces permanent deform after some time. A novel fine adjustment mechanism is put forward, which utilizes permanent-magnet as the return force element instead of a compression spring. Its principle and advantages of adjusting the pitch angle and the roll angle are analyzed, and the structure parameters of the permanent-magnet, which is the key pa rt of the fine adjustment mechanism, are optimized. The magnetically adsorbed fine adjustment mechanism has been testified and applied successfully in the double-crystal monochromator of 4W1B beam line in Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF).

  7. Stress mitigation of x-ray beamline monochromators using topography test unit.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maj, J.; Waldschmidt, G.; Baldo, P.; Macrander, A.; Koshelev, I.; Huang, R.; Maj, L.; Maj, A.; Univ. of Chicago; Northeastern Ohio Univ. Coll. of Medicine; Rosalind Franklin Univ. of Medicine and Science

    2007-01-01

    Silicon and diamond monochromators (crystals), often used in the Advanced Photon Source X-ray beamlines, require a good quality surface finish and stress-free installation to ensure optimal performance. The device used to mount the crystal has been shown to be ajor contributing source of stress. In this case, an adjustable mounting device is an effective method of reducing stresses and improve the rocking curve to levels much closer to ideal. Analysis by a topography test unit has been used to determine the distribution of stresses and to measure the rocking curve, as well as create CCD images of the crystal. This paper describes the process of measuring these stresses and manipulating the mounting device and crystal to create a substantially improved monochromator.

  8. Alignment and characterization of the two-stage time delay compensating XUV monochromator

    CERN Document Server

    Eckstein, Martin; Kubin, Markus; Yang, Chung-Hsin; Frassetto, Fabio; Poletto, Luca; Vrakking, Marc J J; Kornilov, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    We present the design, implementation and alignment procedure for a two-stage time delay compensating monochromator. The setup spectrally filters the radiation of a high-order harmonic generation source providing wavelength-selected XUV pulses with a bandwidth of 300 to 600~meV in the photon energy range of 3 to 50~eV. XUV pulses as short as $12\\pm3$~fs are demonstrated. Transmission of the 400~nm (3.1~eV) light facilitates precise alignment of the monochromator. This alignment strategy together with the stable mechanical design of the motorized beamline components enables us to automatically scan the XUV photon energ in pump-probe experiments that require XUV beam pointing stability. The performance of the beamline is demonstrated by the generation of IR-assisted sidebands in XUV photoionization of argon atoms.

  9. Grating monochromator for soft X-ray self-seeding the European XFEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkez, Svitozar; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    Self-seeding is a promising approach to significantly narrow the SASE bandwidth of XFELs to produce nearly transform-limited pulses. The implementation of this method in the soft X-ray wavelength range necessarily involves gratings as dispersive elements. We study a very compact self-seeding scheme with a grating monochromator originally designed at SLAC, which can be straightforwardly installed in the SASE3 type undulator beamline at the European XFEL. The monochromator design is based on a toroidal VLS grating working at a fixed incidence angle mounting without entrance slit. It covers the spectral range from 300 eV to 1000 eV. The optical system was studied using wave optics method (in comparison with ray tracing) to evaluate the performance of the self-seeding scheme. Our wave optics analysis takes into account the actual beam wavefront of the radiation from the coherent FEL source, third order aberrations, and errors from each optical element. Wave optics is the only method available, in combination with FEL simulations, for the design of a self-seeding monochromator without exit slit. We show that, without exit slit, the self-seeding scheme is distinguished by the much needed experimental simplicity, and can practically give the same resolving power (about 7000) as with an exit slit. Wave optics is also naturally applicable to calculations of the self-seeding scheme efficiency, which include the monochromator transmittance and the effect of the mismatching between seed beam and electron beam. Simulations show that the FEL power reaches 1 TW and that the spectral density for a TW pulse is about two orders of magnitude higher than that for the SASE pulse at saturation.

  10. Fast continuous energy scan with dynamic coupling of the monochromator and undulator at the DEIMOS beamline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, L; Otero, E; Choueikani, F; Marteau, F; Chapuis, L; Ohresser, P

    2014-05-01

    In order to improve the efficiency of X-ray absorption data recording, a fast scan method, the Turboscan, has been developed on the DEIMOS beamline at Synchrotron SOLEIL, consisting of a software-synchronized continuous motion of the monochromator and undulator motors. This process suppresses the time loss when waiting for the motors to reach their target positions, as well as software dead-time, while preserving excellent beam characteristics.

  11. Focusing characteristics of diamond crystal x-ray monochromators. An experimental and theoretical comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rio, M.S. del; Grübel, G.; Als-Nielsen, J.

    1995-01-01

    Perfect crystals in transmission (Laue) geometry can be used effectively for x-ray monochromators, and moreover, perfect Laue crystals show an interesting focusing effect when the incident beam is white and divergent. This focusing is directly dependent on the incident beam divergence and on the ...... from a diamond crystal in Lane geometry, and we analyze and explain the results by comparison with ray-tracing simulations. (C) 1995 American Institute of Physics....

  12. FEA analysis of diamond as IMCA{close_quote}s monochromator crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrzas, J.; Cimpoes, S.; Ivanov, I.N. [CSRRI, Illinois Institute of Technology, 3301 S. Dearborn Street, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States)

    1996-09-01

    A great deal of effort has been make in recent years in the field of undulator high heat load optics, and currently there are several tractable options [Rev. Sci. Instrum. {bold 69}, 2792 (1994); Nucl. Instrum. Methods A {bold 266}, 517 (1988); Nucl. Instrum. Methods A {bold 239}, 555 (1993)]. Diamond crystals offer some attractive options{endash}water as the coolant, the use of established monochromator mechanisms, simpler monochromator design as compared to the use of liquid nitrogen or gallium. The use of diamond crystals as the optical elements in a double-crystal monochromator for the IMCA-CAT and MR-CAT ID beamlines has been studied. A first crystal mounting scheme using an indium-gallium eutectic as the heat transfer medium developed in collaboration with DND-CAT and M. Hart will be presented. A FEA analysis of the IMCA-CAT ID beamline arrangement using the APS undulator A as the radiaiton source will be presented. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Bent Crystal Monochromator with Constant Crystal Center Position and 2-theta Arm for a Dispersive Beamline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, Regis T.; Tolentino, Hélio C. N.

    2004-05-01

    For the new LNLS dispersive beam line it was designed a single-crystal monochromator and a 2-theta arm. The monochromator uses a new bender design assembled on the top of an in-vacuum HUBER goniometer. This bender is able to apply independent torque on each extremity of the crystal in a way that changes in the curvature radius do not affect the position of the center of the crystal. It also has a twist mechanism, based on eccentric bearings and elastic components. The crystal extremities are clamped to the bender using two water-cooled copper blocks, for thermal stabilization. All the bender's movements are done with vacuum compatible stepping-motors. The vacuum chamber was built with enough space to allow future installation of another bender for crystals with different Bragg planes. The internal mechanics is isolated from the vacuum chamber and can move up and down with three high precision jacks. The design of the 2-theta arm is based on two linear translation stages and some special bearings. The two stages are equipped with linear encoders, ball screws end linear bearings. With a proper alignment procedure, it is possible to find the equations that controls each translation stage in order to get a virtual rotation referenced to the monochromator center. The main arm is composed of a steel frame, a 3m long granite block, a central aluminum optical rail and two auxiliary side rails.

  14. Milli-electronvolt monochromatization of hard X-rays with a sapphire backscattering monochromator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergueev, I.; Wille, H.-C.; Hermann, R. P.; Bessas, D.; Shvyd’ko, Yu. V.; Zając, M.; Rüffer, R.

    2011-01-01

    A sapphire backscattering monochromator with 1.1 (1) meV bandwidth for hard X-rays (20–40 keV) is reported. The optical quality of several sapphire crystals has been studied and the best crystal was chosen to work as the monochromator. The small energy bandwidth has been obtained by decreasing the crystal volume impinged upon by the beam and by choosing the crystal part with the best quality. The monochromator was tested at the energies of the nuclear resonances of 121Sb at 37.13 keV, 125Te at 35.49 keV, 119Sn at 23.88 keV, 149Sm at 22.50 keV and 151Eu at 21.54 keV. For each energy, specific reflections with sapphire temperatures in the 150–300 K region were chosen. Applications to nuclear inelastic scattering with these isotopes are demonstrated. PMID:21862862

  15. A bent Laue-Laue monochromator for a synchrotron-based computed tomography system

    CERN Document Server

    Ren, B; Chapman, L D; Ivanov, I; Wu, X Y; Zhong, Z; Huang, X

    1999-01-01

    We designed and tested a two-crystal bent Laue-Laue monochromator for wide, fan-shaped synchrotron X-ray beams for the program multiple energy computed tomography (MECT) at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). MECT employs monochromatic X-ray beams from the NSLS's X17B superconducting wiggler beamline for computed tomography (CT) with an improved image quality. MECT uses a fixed horizontal fan-shaped beam with the subject's apparatus rotating around a vertical axis. The new monochromator uses two Czochralski-grown Si crystals, 0.7 and 1.4 mm thick, respectively, and with thick ribs on their upper and lower ends. The crystals are bent cylindrically, with the axis of the cylinder parallel to the fan beam, using 4-rod benders with two fixed rods and two movable ones. The bent-crystal feature of the monochromator resolved the difficulties we had had with the flat Laue-Laue design previously used in MECT, which included (a) inadequate beam intensity, (b) excessive fluctuations in beam intensity, and (c) i...

  16. Resolution enhancement in transmission electron microscopy with 60-kV monochromated electron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishita, Shigeyuki; Mukai, Masaki; Sawada, Hidetaka [JEOL Ltd., 3-1-2 Musashino, Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan); Suenaga, Kazutomo [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan)

    2016-01-04

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) at low accelerating voltages is useful to obtain images with low irradiation damage. For a low accelerating voltage, linear information transfer, which determines the resolution for observation of single-layered materials, is largely limited by defocus spread, which improves when a narrow energy spread is used in the electron source. In this study, we have evaluated the resolution of images obtained at 60 kV by TEM performed with a monochromated electron source. The defocus spread has been evaluated by comparing diffractogram tableaux from TEM images obtained under nonmonochromated and monochromated illumination. The information limits for different energy spreads were precisely measured by using diffractograms with a large beam tilt. The result shows that the information limit reaches 0.1 nm with an energy width of 0.10 eV. With this monochromated source and a higher-order aberration corrector, we have obtained images of single carbon atoms in a graphene sheet by TEM at 60 kV.

  17. High heat flux x-ray monochromators: What are the limits?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.S.

    1997-06-01

    First optical elements at third-generation, hard x-ray synchrotrons, such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS), are subjected to immense heat fluxes. The optical elements include crystal monochromators, multilayers and mirrors. This paper presents a mathematical model of the thermal strain of a three-layer (faceplate, heat exchanger, and baseplate), cylindrical optic subjected to narrow beam of uniform heat flux. This model is used to calculate the strain gradient of a liquid-gallium-cooled x-ray monochromator previously tested on an undulator at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS). The resulting thermally broadened rocking curves are calculated and compared to experimental data. The calculated rocking curve widths agree to within a few percent of the measured values over the entire current range tested (0 to 60 mA). The thermal strain gradient under the beam footprint varies linearly with the heat flux and the ratio of the thermal expansion coefficient to the thermal conductivity. The strain gradient is insensitive to the heat exchanger properties and the optic geometry. This formulation provides direct insight into the governing parameters, greatly reduces the analysis time, and provides a measure of the ultimate performance of a given monochromator.

  18. Design of the control system for full-color LED display based on MSP430 MCU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Xu, Hui-juan; Qin, Ling-ling; Zheng, Long-jiang

    2013-08-01

    The LED display incorporate the micro electronic technique, computer technology and information processing as a whole, it becomes the most preponderant of a new generation of display media with the advantages of bright in color, high dynamic range, high brightness and long operating life, etc. The LED display has been widely used in the bank, securities trading, highway signs, airport and advertising, etc. According to the display color, the LED display screen is divided into monochrome screen, double color display and full color display. With the diversification of the LED display's color and the ceaseless rise of the display demands, the LED display's drive circuit and control technology also get the corresponding progress and development. The earliest monochrome screen just displaying Chinese characters, simple character or digital, so the requirements of the controller are relatively low. With the widely used of the double color LED display, the performance of its controller will also increase. In recent years, the full color LED display with three primary colors of red, green, blue and grayscale display effect has been highly attention with its rich and colorful display effect. Every true color pixel includes three son pixels of red, green, blue, using the space colour mixture to realize the multicolor. The dynamic scanning control system of LED full-color display is designed based on MSP430 microcontroller technology of the low power consumption. The gray control technology of this system used the new method of pulse width modulation (PWM) and 19 games show principle are combining. This method in meet 256 level grayscale display conditions, improves the efficiency of the LED light device, and enhances the administrative levels feels of the image. Drive circuit used 1/8 scanning constant current drive mode, and make full use of the single chip microcomputer I/O mouth resources to complete the control. The system supports text, pictures display of 256 grayscale

  19. Study of a scattering shield in a high heat load monochromator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Rong, E-mail: rh66@cornell.edu [IMCA-CAT, Hauptman-Woodward Institute (United States); Meron, Mati [CARS, The University of Chicago (United States)

    2013-07-11

    The techniques for the cooling of the first crystal of a monochromator are by now mature and are used routinely to deal with the heat loads resulting from the intense beams generated by third generation synchrotron insertion device sources. However, the thermal stability of said monochromators, which crucially depends on proper shielding of X-ray scattering off the first crystal, remains a serious consideration. This will become even more so in the near future, as many synchrotron facilities are upgrading to higher beam currents and energies. During a recent upgrade of the 17-ID beamline at the APS it was recognized that accurate simulation of the spatial distribution of the power scattered off the first crystal was essential for the understanding and remediation of the observed large temperature increase of the first crystal's scattering shield. The calculation is complex, due to the broad energy spectrum of the undulator and the prevalence of multiple X-ray scattering events within the bulk of the crystal, thus the Monte Carlo method is the natural tool for such a task. A successful simulation was developed, for the purpose of the 17-ID upgrade, and used to significantly improve the design of the first crystal's scattering shield. -- Highlights: • We use the Monte Carlo method to simulate X-ray scattering from monochromator crystals. • Scattered X-ray power on each surface of the scattering shield has been calculated. • Overheating on the original shield is well explained with simulated scattering power. • The thermal stability of the modified scattering shield is satisfactory.

  20. 1-40-keV fixed-exit monochromator for a wafer mapping TXRF facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comin, Fabio; Apostolo, G.; Freund, Andreas K.; Mangiagalli, P.; Navizet, M.; Troxel, C. L.

    1998-12-01

    An industrial facility for the mapping of trace impurities on the surface of 300 mm Silicon wafers will be commissioned at the end of 1998. The elements to be detected range from Na to Hg with a target routine detection limit of 108 atoms/cm2. The monochromator of the facility plays a central role and fulfills the following requirements: ease of operations and fast tuning (one single motor); extended energy range (1 - 40 KeV covered by a fixed exit Si(111) channel cut and multilayer pair); smooth and reliable running (water cooling even in the powerful ESRF undulator beams at high energies). The mechanical structure of the monochromator is based on well-established concepts: an external goniometer transfers the main rotation to the in-vacuum plateau via a hollow differentially pumped feed-through. The optical arrangement shows some novelties: the plateau can be cooled either by water or liquid nitrogen and it holds the convex- concave machined Si(111) channel-cut for fixed exit performances. The shape of the machined surfaces of the crystal helps also on to spread the power density of the beam on the silicon surface. A set of two identical multilayers are also mounted on the plateau and the transition from the Si(111) crystal to the multilayer operation is performed by rotating the wafer main axis by about 180 degrees. The whole facility is centered around the three main components: the monochromator, the wafer handling robots and the two linear arrays of solid state fluorescence detectors.

  1. A New Flexible Monochromator Setup for Quick Scanning X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stotzel, J.; Lutzenkirchen-Hecht, D; Frahm, R

    2010-01-01

    A new monochromator setup for quick scanning x-ray absorption spectroscopy in the subsecond time regime is presented. Novel driving mechanics allow changing the energy range of the acquired spectra by remote control during data acquisition for the first time, thus dramatically increasing the flexibility and convenience of this method. Completely new experiments are feasible due to the fact that time resolution, edge energy, and energy range of the acquired spectra can be changed continuously within seconds without breaking the vacuum of the monochromator vessel and even without interrupting the measurements. The advanced mechanics are explained in detail and the performance is characterized with x-ray absorption spectra of pure metal foils. The energy scale was determined by a fast and accurate angular encoder system measuring the Bragg angle of the monochromator crystal with subarcsecond resolution. The Bragg angle range covered by the oscillating crystal can currently be changed from 0{sup o} to 3.0{sup o} within 20 s, while the mechanics are capable to move with frequencies of up to ca. 35 Hz, leading to ca. 14 ms/spectrum time resolution. A new software package allows performing programmed scan sequences, which enable the user to measure stepwise with alternating parameters in predefined time segments. Thus, e.g., switching between edges scanned with the same energy range is possible within one in situ experiment, while also the time resolution can be varied simultaneously. This progress makes the new system extremely user friendly and efficient to use for time resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy at synchrotron radiation beamlines.

  2. A new flexible monochromator setup for quick scanning x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoetzel, J.; Luetzenkirchen-Hecht, D.; Frahm, R. [Fachbereich C, Physik, Bergische Universitaet Wuppertal, Gaussstr. 20, 42097 Wuppertal (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    A new monochromator setup for quick scanning x-ray absorption spectroscopy in the subsecond time regime is presented. Novel driving mechanics allow changing the energy range of the acquired spectra by remote control during data acquisition for the first time, thus dramatically increasing the flexibility and convenience of this method. Completely new experiments are feasible due to the fact that time resolution, edge energy, and energy range of the acquired spectra can be changed continuously within seconds without breaking the vacuum of the monochromator vessel and even without interrupting the measurements. The advanced mechanics are explained in detail and the performance is characterized with x-ray absorption spectra of pure metal foils. The energy scale was determined by a fast and accurate angular encoder system measuring the Bragg angle of the monochromator crystal with subarcsecond resolution. The Bragg angle range covered by the oscillating crystal can currently be changed from 0 deg. to 3.0 deg. within 20 s, while the mechanics are capable to move with frequencies of up to ca. 35 Hz, leading to ca. 14 ms/spectrum time resolution. A new software package allows performing programmed scan sequences, which enable the user to measure stepwise with alternating parameters in predefined time segments. Thus, e.g., switching between edges scanned with the same energy range is possible within one in situ experiment, while also the time resolution can be varied simultaneously. This progress makes the new system extremely user friendly and efficient to use for time resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy at synchrotron radiation beamlines.

  3. Pictorial Format Display Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    34 Launch mode symbology Countermeasures effectiveness cuding Ribbon-in-the-sky Altitude terrain coding Geographic and cultural features Waypoint/target...Monochrome Tractor beam Missile position Bogie number and type Bogie altitude information Altitude terrain coding Geographic and cultural featuresj - Figure...Abbreviated pitch and roll, indices could als.M be considered for low altitude segements where terrain portrayed in the HUD field-of-view may not

  4. A new gradient monochromator for the IN13 back-scattering spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciampolini, L.; Bove, L. E.; Mondelli, C.; Alianelli, L.; Labbe-Lavigne, S.; Natali, F.; Bée, M.; Deriu, A.

    2005-06-01

    We present new McStas simulations of the back-scattering thermal neutron spectrometer IN13 to evaluate the advantages of a new temperature gradient monochromator relative to a conventional one. The simulations show that a flux gain up to a factor 7 can be obtained with just a 10% loss in energy resolution and a 20% increase in beam spot size at the sample. The results also indicate that a moderate applied temperature gradient (ΔT≃16 K) is sufficient to obtain this significant flux gain.

  5. A new gradient monochromator for the IN13 back-scattering spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciampolini, L. [Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia, Unita di Parma (Italy)]. E-mail: ciampolinil@ieee.org; Bove, L.E. [Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia, OGG, ILL Grenoble (France); Mondelli, C. [Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia, OGG, ILL Grenoble (France); Alianelli, L. [Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia, OGG, ILL Grenoble (France); Institut Laue Langevin, Grenoble (France); Labbe-Lavigne, S. [CNRS, Grenoble (France); Natali, F. [Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia, OGG, ILL Grenoble (France); Bee, M. [Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France); Deriu, A. [Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia, Unita di Parma (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Parma (Italy)

    2005-06-01

    We present new McStas simulations of the back-scattering thermal neutron spectrometer IN13 to evaluate the advantages of a new temperature gradient monochromator relative to a conventional one. The simulations show that a flux gain up to a factor 7 can be obtained with just a 10% loss in energy resolution and a 20% increase in beam spot size at the sample. The results also indicate that a moderate applied temperature gradient ({delta}T{approx}16K) is sufficient to obtain this significant flux gain. n.

  6. Synchronous scanning of undulator gap and monochromator for XAFS measurements in soft x-ray region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, T; Matsubayashi, N; Imamura, M; Shimada, H

    2001-03-01

    Synchronous scanning of the undulator gap and a monochromator was done to obtain smooth profiles of incident x-rays that are suitable for XAFS measurements. By changing the gap from 150 mm(B=0.12 T) to 140 mm (B=0.15 T) with the use of the 3rd to 11th harmonic peaks, soft x-rays with energy from 200 eV to 1200 eV were obtained. The smooth profile of the incident x-rays provided high-quality measurement of XANES and EXAFS spectra in the soft x-ray region. Issues that would improve the synchronous scanning system are discussed.

  7. Ultra high energy resolution focusing monochromator for inelastic X-ray scattering spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Suvorov, A; Chubar, O; Cai, Y Q

    2015-01-01

    A further development of a focusing monochromator concept for X-ray energy resolution of 0.1 meV and below is presented. Theoretical analysis of several optical layouts based on this concept was supported by numerical simulations performed in the "Synchrotron Radiation Workshop" software package using the physical-optics approach and careful modeling of partially-coherent synchrotron (undulator) radiation. Along with the energy resolution, the spectral shape of the energy resolution function was investigated. It was shown that under certain conditions the decay of the resolution function tails can be faster than that of the Gaussian function.

  8. A soft X-ray plane-grating monochromator optimized for elliptical dipole radiation from modern sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachel, Torsten, E-mail: torsten.kachel@helmholtz-berlin.de; Eggenstein, Frank [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Follath, Rolf [Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2015-07-14

    The utilization of elliptical dipole radiation in a collimated plane-grating monochromator at BESSY II is described. A new but yet well proven way of making elliptically polarized dipole radiation from the BESSY II storage ring applicable to the SX700-type collimated plane-grating monochromator PM3 is described. It is shown that due to the limited vertical acceptance of the grating a simple use of vertical apertures is not possible in this case. Rather, deflecting the beam upwards or downwards by rotating the vertically collimating toroidal mirror M1 around the light axis leads to excellent performance. The resulting detuning of the photon energy can be taken into account by a readjustment of the monochromator internal plane mirror M2. The energy resolution of the beamline is not affected by the non-zero ‘roll’ of the collimating mirror.

  9. Optimisation and fabrication of a composite pyrolytic graphite monochromator for the Pelican instrument at the ANSTO OPAL reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, A. K.; Yu, D. H.

    2011-04-01

    The triple monochromator for the TOF neutron spectrometer Pelican at ANSTO has been fully optimised in terms of overall performance, including the determination of the thickness of the pyrolytic graphite crystals. A total of 24 composite crystals were designed and fabricated. The calculated optimum thickness of 1.3 mm and the length of 15 cm of the monochromator crystals, that are not available commercially, were obtained by cleaving and soldering with indium. An extensive characterisation of the crystals using X-ray and neutron diffraction was conducted before and after the cleaving and bonding processes. The results proved that no damage was introduced during fabrication and showed that the design goals were fully met. The measured peak reflectivity and rocking curve widths were indeed in an excellent agreement with theory. In addition to the superior efficiency of the triple monochromator achieved by this novel approach, the amount of the crystal material required could be reduced by 1/3.

  10. Self-seeding scheme with gas monochromator for narrow-bandwidth soft X-ray FELs

    CERN Document Server

    Geloni, Gianluca; Saldin, Evgeni

    2011-01-01

    Self-seeding schemes, consisting of two undulators with a monochromator in between, aim at reducing the bandwidth of SASE X-ray FELs. We recently proposed to use a new method of monochromatization exploiting a single crystal in Bragg-transmission geometry for self-seeding in the hard X-ray range. Here we consider a possible extension of this method to the soft X-ray range using a cell filled with resonantly absorbing gas as monochromator. The transmittance spectrum in the gas exhibits an absorbing resonance with narrow bandwidth. Then, similarly to the hard X-ray case, the temporal waveform of the transmitted radiation pulse is characterized by a long monochromatic wake. In fact, the FEL pulse forces the gas atoms to oscillate in a way consistent with a forward-propagating, monochromatic radiation beam. The radiation power within this wake is much larger than the equivalent shot noise power in the electron bunch. Further on, the monochromatic wake of the radiation pulse is combined with the delayed electron b...

  11. $YB_{66} a new soft X-ray monochromator for synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, J; Rowen, M; Schäfers, F; Müller, B R; Rek, Z U

    1999-01-01

    For pt.I see Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., vol.A291, p.243-8, 1990. YB/sub 66/, a complex boron-rich man-made crystal, has been singled out as a potential monochromator material to disperse synchrotron soft X-rays in the 1-2 keV region. Results of a series of systematic property characterizations pertinent for this application are presented in this paper. These include Laue diffraction patterns and high-precision lattice-constant determination, etch rate, stoichiometry, thermal expansion, soft X-ray reflectivity and rocking-curve measurements, thermal load effects on monochromator performance, nature of intrinsic positive glitches and their reduction. The 004 reflection of YB/sub 66/ has a reflectance of ~3 in this spectral region. The width of the rocking curve varies from 0.25 eV at 1.1 keV to 1.0 eV at 2 keV, which is a factor of two better than that of beryl(1010) in the same energy range, and enables measurements of high-resolution XANES spectra at the Mg, Al and Si K- edges. The thermal bump on the...

  12. An independent survey of monochrome and color low light level TV cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Bradley L.; Tomkinson, David M.; Reynolds, Joseph P.

    2015-05-01

    Using the latest models from the U.S. Army Night Vision Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD), a survey of monochrome and color imaging systems at daylight and low light levels is conducted. Each camera system is evaluated and compared under several different assumptions, such as equivalent field of view with equal and variable f/#, common lens focal length and aperture, with high dynamic range comparisons and over several light levels. The modeling is done by use of the Targeting Task Performance (TTP) metric using the latest version of the Night Vision Integrated Performance Model (NV⁸IPM). The comparison is performed over the V parameter, the main output of the TTP metric. Probability of identification (PID) versus range predictions are a direct non-linear mapping of the V parameter as a function of range. Finally, a comparison between the performance of a Bayer-filtered color camera, the Bayer-filtered color camera with the IR block filter removed, and a monochrome version of the same camera is also conducted.

  13. Grating monochromator for soft X-ray self-seeding the European XFEL

    CERN Document Server

    Serkez, Svitozar; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2013-01-01

    Self-seeding is a promising approach to significantly narrow the SASE bandwidth of XFELs to produce nearly transform-limited pulses. The implementation of this method in the soft X-ray wavelength range necessarily involves gratings as dispersive elements. We study a very compact self-seeding scheme with a grating monochromator originally designed at SLAC, which can be straightforwardly installed in the SASE3 type undulator beamline at the European XFEL. The monochromator design is based on a toroidal VLS grating working at a fixed incidence angle mounting without entrance slit. It covers the spectral range from 300 eV to 1000 eV. The optical system was studied using wave optics method (in comparison with ray tracing) to evaluate the performance of the self-seeding scheme. Our wave optics analysis takes into account the actual beam wavefront of the radiation from the coherent FEL source, third order aberrations, and errors from each optical element. Wave optics is the only method available, in combination with...

  14. Vibration measurements of high-heat-load monochromators for DESY PETRA III extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristiansen, Paw, E-mail: paw.kristiansen@fmb-oxford.com [FMB Oxford Ltd, Unit 1 Ferry Mills, Oxford OX2 0ES (United Kingdom); Horbach, Jan; Döhrmann, Ralph; Heuer, Joachim [DESY, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron Hamburg, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-05-09

    Vibration measurements of a cryocooled double-crystal monochromator are presented. The origins of the vibrations are identified. The minimum achieved vibration of the relative pitch between the two crystals is 48 nrad RMS and the minimum achieved absolute vibration of the second crystal is 82 nrad RMS. The requirement for vibrational stability of beamline optics continues to evolve rapidly to comply with the demands created by the improved brilliance of the third-generation low-emittance storage rings around the world. The challenge is to quantify the performance of the instrument before it is installed at the beamline. In this article, measurement techniques are presented that directly and accurately measure (i) the relative vibration between the two crystals of a double-crystal monochromator (DCM) and (ii) the absolute vibration of the second-crystal cage of a DCM. Excluding a synchrotron beam, the measurements are conducted under in situ conditions, connected to a liquid-nitrogen cryocooler. The investigated DCM utilizes a direct-drive (no gearing) goniometer for the Bragg rotation. The main causes of the DCM vibration are found to be the servoing of the direct-drive goniometer and the flexibility in the crystal cage motion stages. It is found that the investigated DCM can offer relative pitch vibration down to 48 nrad RMS (capacitive sensors, 0–5 kHz bandwidth) and absolute pitch vibration down to 82 nrad RMS (laser interferometer, 0–50 kHz bandwidth), with the Bragg axis brake engaged.

  15. Italian panoramic monochromator for the THEMIS telescope: the first results and instrument evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallini, Fabio; Berrilli, Francesco; Caccin, Bruno; Cantarano, Sergio; Ceppatelli, Guido; Egidi, Alberto; Righini, Alberto

    1998-07-01

    We briefly describe the design and the characteristics of the Italian Panoramic Monochromator installed at the focal plane of the THEMIS telescope built in Izana by a joint venture of the French and Italian National Research Councils. The Panoramic Monochromator substantially is a narrow band filter (approximately equals 22 mAngstrom bandwidth) tunable on the visible spectrum for quasi simultaneous bidimensional spectrometry of the solar atmosphere. The narrow bandwidth is obtained by using a non standard birefringent filter and a Fabry Perot interferometer mounted in series. This assembly has the advantage of the spectral purity of one channel of the Fabry Perot interferometer and a very large free spectral range. Moreover the spectral stability depends on the interferometer, the environment of which may be carefully controlled. The design of this instrument is not really new, but, only now it has been possible to build it thanks to the development of servo controlled Fabry Perot interferometers, which are stable in time and may easily be tuned. The system seems to perform well. It is stable in wavelength and the spectral pass band and stray light are within the expected values, as it may be deduced by very preliminary tests performed at the THEMIS Telescope and in Arcetri (Firenze) at the 'G. B. Donati' solar tower.

  16. Design and fabrication of an active polynomial grating for soft-X-ray monochromators and spectrometers

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, S J; Perng, S Y; Kuan, C K; Tseng, T C; Wang, D J

    2001-01-01

    An active polynomial grating has been designed for use in synchrotron radiation soft-X-ray monochromators and spectrometers. The grating can be dynamically adjusted to obtain the third-order-polynomial surface needed to eliminate the defocus and coma aberrations at any photon energy. Ray-tracing results confirm that a monochromator or spectrometer based on this active grating has nearly no aberration limit to the overall spectral resolution in the entire soft-X-ray region. The grating substrate is made of a precisely milled 17-4 PH stainless steel parallel plate, which is joined to a flexure-hinge bender shaped by wire electrical discharge machining. The substrate is grounded into a concave cylindrical shape with a nominal radius and then polished to achieve a roughness of 0.45 nm and a slope error of 1.2 mu rad rms. The long trace profiler measurements show that the active grating can reach the desired third-order polynomial with a high degree of figure accuracy.

  17. Design and fabrication of an active polynomial grating for soft-X-ray monochromators and spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S.-J.; Chen, C. T.; Perng, S. Y.; Kuan, C. K.; Tseng, T. C.; Wang, D. J.

    2001-07-01

    An active polynomial grating has been designed for use in synchrotron radiation soft-X-ray monochromators and spectrometers. The grating can be dynamically adjusted to obtain the third-order-polynomial surface needed to eliminate the defocus and coma aberrations at any photon energy. Ray-tracing results confirm that a monochromator or spectrometer based on this active grating has nearly no aberration limit to the overall spectral resolution in the entire soft-X-ray region. The grating substrate is made of a precisely milled 17-4 PH stainless steel parallel plate, which is joined to a flexure-hinge bender shaped by wire electrical discharge machining. The substrate is grounded into a concave cylindrical shape with a nominal radius and then polished to achieve a roughness of 0.45 nm and a slope error of 1.2 μrad rms. The long trace profiler measurements show that the active grating can reach the desired third-order polynomial with a high degree of figure accuracy.

  18. High-resolution monochromator for iron nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy of biological samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoda, Yoshitaka; Okada, Kyoko; Wang, Hongxin; Cramer, Stephen P.; Seto, Makoto

    2016-12-01

    A new high-resolution monochromator for 14.4-keV X-rays has been designed and developed for the Fe nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy of biological samples. In addition to high resolution, higher flux and stability are especially important for measuring biological samples, because of the very weak signals produced due to the low concentrations of Fe-57. A 24% increase in flux while maintaining a high resolution better than 0.9 meV is achieved in the calculation by adopting an asymmetric reflection of Ge, which is used as the first crystal of the three-bounce high-resolution monochromator. A 20% increase of the exit beam size is acceptable to our biological applications. The higher throughput of the new design has been experimentally verified. A fine rotation mechanics that combines a weak-link hinge with a piezoelectric actuator was used for controlling the photon energy of the monochromatic beam. The resulting stability is sufficient to preserve the intrinsic resolution.

  19. A coded structured light system based on primary color stripe projection and monochrome imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Sandro; Paoli, Alessandro; Razionale, Armando Viviano

    2013-10-14

    Coded Structured Light techniques represent one of the most attractive research areas within the field of optical metrology. The coding procedures are typically based on projecting either a single pattern or a temporal sequence of patterns to provide 3D surface data. In this context, multi-slit or stripe colored patterns may be used with the aim of reducing the number of projected images. However, color imaging sensors require the use of calibration procedures to address crosstalk effects between different channels and to reduce the chromatic aberrations. In this paper, a Coded Structured Light system has been developed by integrating a color stripe projector and a monochrome camera. A discrete coding method, which combines spatial and temporal information, is generated by sequentially projecting and acquiring a small set of fringe patterns. The method allows the concurrent measurement of geometrical and chromatic data by exploiting the benefits of using a monochrome camera. The proposed methodology has been validated by measuring nominal primitive geometries and free-form shapes. The experimental results have been compared with those obtained by using a time-multiplexing gray code strategy.

  20. A Coded Structured Light System Based on Primary Color Stripe Projection and Monochrome Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Viviano Razionale

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Coded Structured Light techniques represent one of the most attractive research areas within the field of optical metrology. The coding procedures are typically based on projecting either a single pattern or a temporal sequence of patterns to provide 3D surface data. In this context, multi-slit or stripe colored patterns may be used with the aim of reducing the number of projected images. However, color imaging sensors require the use of calibration procedures to address crosstalk effects between different channels and to reduce the chromatic aberrations. In this paper, a Coded Structured Light system has been developed by integrating a color stripe projector and a monochrome camera. A discrete coding method, which combines spatial and temporal information, is generated by sequentially projecting and acquiring a small set of fringe patterns. The method allows the concurrent measurement of geometrical and chromatic data by exploiting the benefits of using a monochrome camera. The proposed methodology has been validated by measuring nominal primitive geometries and free-form shapes. The experimental results have been compared with those obtained by using a time-multiplexing gray code strategy.

  1. Optimization of a constrained linear monochromator design for neutral atom beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltenbacher, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    A focused ground state, neutral atom beam, exploiting its de Broglie wavelength by means of atom optics, is used for neutral atom microscopy imaging. Employing Fresnel zone plates as a lens for these beams is a well established microscopy technique. To date, even for favorable beam source conditions a minimal focus spot size of slightly below 1μm was reached. This limitation is essentially given by the intrinsic spectral purity of the beam in combination with the chromatic aberration of the diffraction based zone plate. Therefore, it is important to enhance the monochromaticity of the beam, enabling a higher spatial resolution, preferably below 100nm. We propose to increase the monochromaticity of a neutral atom beam by means of a so-called linear monochromator set-up - a Fresnel zone plate in combination with a pinhole aperture - in order to gain more than one order of magnitude in spatial resolution. This configuration is known in X-ray microscopy and has proven to be useful, but has not been applied to neutral atom beams. The main result of this work is optimal design parameters based on models for this linear monochromator set-up followed by a second zone plate for focusing. The optimization was performed for minimizing the focal spot size and maximizing the centre line intensity at the detector position for an atom beam simultaneously. The results presented in this work are for, but not limited to, a neutral helium atom beam.

  2. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy: a computer controlled, scanning monochromator system for the rapid determination of the elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floyd, M.A.

    1980-03-01

    A computer controlled, scanning monochromator system specifically designed for the rapid, sequential determination of the elements is described. The monochromator is combined with an inductively coupled plasma excitation source so that elements at major, minor, trace, and ultratrace levels may be determined, in sequence, without changing experimental parameters other than the spectral line observed. A number of distinctive features not found in previously described versions are incorporated into the system here described. Performance characteristics of the entire system and several analytical applications are discussed.

  3. A diffracted-beam monochromator for long linear detectors in X-ray diffractometers with Bragg-Brentano parafocusing geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Pers, N M; Hendrikx, R W A; Delhez, R; Böttger, A J

    2013-04-01

    A new diffracted-beam monochromator has been developed for Bragg-Brentano X-ray diffractometers equipped with a linear detector. The monochromator consists of a cone-shaped graphite highly oriented pyrolytic graphite crystal oriented out of the equatorial plane such that the parafocusing geometry is preserved over the whole opening angle of the linear detector. In our standard setup a maximum wavelength discrimination of 3% is achieved with an overall efficiency of 20% and a small decrease in angular resolution of only 0.02 °2θ. In principle, an energy resolution as low as 1.5% can be achieved.

  4. Universal Numeric Segmented Display

    CERN Document Server

    Azad, Md Abul kalam; Kamruzzaman, S M

    2010-01-01

    Segmentation display plays a vital role to display numerals. But in today's world matrix display is also used in displaying numerals. Because numerals has lots of curve edges which is better supported by matrix display. But as matrix display is costly and complex to implement and also needs more memory, segment display is generally used to display numerals. But as there is yet no proposed compact display architecture to display multiple language numerals at a time, this paper proposes uniform display architecture to display multiple language digits and general mathematical expressions with higher accuracy and simplicity by using a 18-segment display, which is an improvement over the 16 segment display.

  5. Multispectral integral imaging acquisition and processing using a monochrome camera and a liquid crystal tunable filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre-Carmona, Pedro; Sánchez-Ortiga, Emilio; Xiao, Xiao; Pla, Filiberto; Martínez-Corral, Manuel; Navarro, Héctor; Saavedra, Genaro; Javidi, Bahram

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents an acquisition system and a procedure to capture 3D scenes in different spectral bands. The acquisition system is formed by a monochrome camera, and a Liquid Crystal Tunable Filter (LCTF) that allows to acquire images at different spectral bands in the [480, 680]nm wavelength interval. The Synthetic Aperture Integral Imaging acquisition technique is used to obtain the elemental images for each wavelength. These elemental images are used to computationally obtain the reconstruction planes of the 3D scene at different depth planes. The 3D profile of the acquired scene is also obtained using a minimization of the variance of the contribution of the elemental images at each image pixel. Experimental results show the viability to recover the 3D multispectral information of the scene. Integration of 3D and multispectral information could have important benefits in different areas, including skin cancer detection, remote sensing and pattern recognition, among others.

  6. The sapphire backscattering monochromator at the Dynamics beamline P01 of PETRA III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeev, P.; Asadchikov, V.; Bessas, D.; Butashin, A.; Deryabin, A.; Dill, F.-U.; Ehnes, A.; Herlitschke, M.; Hermann, R. P.; Jafari, A.; Prokhorov, I.; Roshchin, B.; Röhlsberger, R.; Schlage, K.; Sergueev, I.; Siemens, A.; Wille, H.-C.

    2016-12-01

    We report on a high resolution sapphire backscattering monochromator installed at the Dynamics beamline P01 of PETRA III. The device enables nuclear resonance scattering experiments on Mössbauer isotopes with transition energies between 20 and 60 keV with sub-meV to meV resolution. In a first performance test with 119Sn nuclear resonance at a X-ray energy of 23.88 keV an energy resolution of 1.34 meV was achieved. The device extends the field of nuclear resonance scattering at the PETRA III synchrotron light source to many further isotopes like 151Eu, 149Sm, 161Dy, 125Te and 121Sb.

  7. A high-precision cryogenically-cooled crystal monochromator for the APS diagnostics beamline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotela, E.; Yang, B.; Sharma, s.; Barcikowski, A.

    2000-07-24

    A high-precision cryogenically-cooled crystal monochromator has been developed for the APS diagnostics beamline. The design permits simultaneous measurements of the particle beam size and divergence. It provides for a large rotation angle, {minus}15{degree} to 180{degree}, with a resolution of 0.0005{degree}. The roll angle of the crystal can be adjusted by up to {+-}3{degree} with a resolution of 0.0001{degree}. A vertical translational stage, with a stroke of {+-}25 mm and resolution of 8 {micro}m, is provided to enable using different parts of the same crystal or to retract the crystal from the beam path. The modular design will allow optimization of cooling schemes to minimize thermal distortions of the crystal under high heat loads.

  8. Flux-enhanced monochromator by ultrasound excitation of annealed Czochralski-grown silicon crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Koehler, S; Seitz, C; Magerl, A; Mashkina, E; Demin, A

    2003-01-01

    The neutron flux from monochromator crystals can be increased by ultrasound excitation or by strain fields. Rocking curves of both a perfect float-zone silicon crystal and an annealed Czochralski silicon crystal with oxygen precipitates were measured at various levels of ultrasound excitation on a cold-neutron backscattering spectrometer. We find that the effects of the dynamic strain field from the ultrasound and the static strain field from the defects are not additive. Rocking curves were also taken at different ultrasound frequencies near resonance of the crystal/ultrasound-transducer system with a time resolution of 1 min. Pronounced effects of crystal heating are observed, which render the conditions for maximum neutron reflectivity delicate. (orig.)

  9. Measuring the criticality of the `magic condition' for a beam-expanding monochromator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, Mercedes; Chapman, Dean

    2016-11-01

    It has been established that for cylindrically bent crystals the optimal beam characteristics occur when the geometric and single-ray foci are matched. In the beam-expanding monochromator developed for the BioMedical Imaging and Therapy beamlines at the Canadian Light Source, it was unclear how critical this `magic condition' was for preserving the transverse coherence of the beam. A study was conducted to determine whether misalignments away from the ideal conditions would severely affect the transverse coherence of the beam, thereby limiting phase-based imaging techniques. The results were that the magic condition has enough flexibility to accommodate deviations of about ±1° or ±5 keV.

  10. Adaptive silicon monochromators for high-power wigglers; design, finite-element analysis and laboratory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, J P; Hart, M

    1995-05-01

    Multipole wigglers in storage rings already produce X-ray power in the range up to a few kilowatts and planned devices at third-generation facilities promise up to 30 kW. Although the power density at the monochromator position is an order of magnitude lower than that from undulators, the thermal strain field in the beam footprint can still cause severe loss of performance in X-ray optical systems. For an optimized adaptive design, the results of finite-element analysis are compared with double-crystal rocking curves obtained with a laboratory X-ray source and, in a second paper [Quintana, Hart, Bilderback, Henderson, Richter, Setterson, White, Hausermann, Krumrey & Schulte-Schrepping (1995). J. Synchotron Rad. 2, 1-5], successful tests at wiggler sources at CHESS and ESRF and in an undulator source at HASYLAB are reported.

  11. A Drabkin-type spin resonator as tunable neutron beam monochromator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piegsa, F.M., E-mail: florian.piegsa@phys.ethz.ch [ETH Zürich, Institute for Particle Physics, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Ries, D. [ETH Zürich, Institute for Particle Physics, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Filges, U.; Hautle, P. [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2015-09-11

    A Drabkin-type spin resonator was designed and successfully implemented at the multi-purpose beam line BOA at the spallation neutron source SINQ at the Paul Scherrer Institute. The device selectively acts on the magnetic moment of neutrons within an adjustable velocity band and hence can be utilized as a tunable neutron beam monochromator. Several neutron time-of-flight (TOF) spectra have been recorded employing various settings in order to characterize its performance. In a first test application the velocity dependent transmission of a beryllium filter was determined. In addition, we demonstrate that using an exponential current distribution in the spin resonator coil the side-maxima in the TOF spectra usually associated with a Drabkin setup can be strongly suppressed.

  12. Diffraction imaging for in-situ characterization of double-crystal x-ray monochromators

    CERN Document Server

    Stoupin, Stanislav; Heald, Steve M; Brewe, Dale; Meron, Mati

    2015-01-01

    Imaging of the Bragg reflected x-ray beam is proposed and validated as an in-situ method for characterization of performance of double-crystal monochromators under the heat load of intense synchrotron radiation. A sequence of images is collected at different angular positions on the reflectivity curve of the second crystal and analyzed. The method provides rapid evaluation of the wavefront of the exit beam, which relates to local misorientation of the crystal planes along the beam footprint on the thermally distorted first crystal. The measured misorientation can be directly compared to results of finite element analysis. The imaging method offers an additional insight on the local intrinsic crystal quality over the footprint of the incident x-ray beam.

  13. Bragg prism monochromator and analyser for super ultra-small angle neutron scattering studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Apoorva G Wagh; Sohrab Abbas; Markus Strobl; Wolfgang Treimer

    2008-11-01

    We have designed, fabricated and operated a novel Bragg prism monochromator–analyser combination. With a judicious choice of the Bragg reflection, its asymmetry and the apex angle of the silicon single crystal prism, the monochromator has produced a neutron beam with sub-arcsec collimation. A Bragg prism analyser with the opposite asymmetry has been tailored to accept a still sharper angular profile. With this optimized monochromator–analyser pair, we have attained the narrowest and sharpest neutron angular profile to date. At this facility, we have recorded the first SUSANS spectra spanning wave vector transfers ∼ 10−6 Å-1 to characterize samples containing agglomerates up to tens of micrometres in size.

  14. On the sagittal focusing of synchrotron radiation with a double crystal monochromator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushnir, V.I.; Quintana, J.P.; Georgopoulos, P. (DUNU Synchrotron Research Center, Robert R. McCormick School of Engineering and Applied Science, Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States))

    1993-05-01

    A method to avoid the anticlastic bending of the second crystal in a two-crystal monochromator for synchrotron radiation is proposed. It is analytically shown that the anticlastic curvature is zero at the center of the crystal for a simply supported isotropic crystal loaded with a constant moment provided that the crystal's aspect ratio is equal to a 'golden value' dependent on the Poisson coefficient [nu]. For [nu]=0.262 (equal to [nu] in the Si(111) plane) this ratio is 2.360. Finite element results are presented on the case of the clamped crystal and show that there is a similar 'golden value' approximately equal to 1.42 for [nu]=0.262. (orig.).

  15. High-aperture monochromator-reflectometer and its usefulness for CCD calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnyakov, Eugene A.; Shcherbakov, Alexander V.; Pertsov, Andrei A.; Polkovnikov, Vladimir N.; Pestov, Alexey E.; Pariev, Dmitry E.; Chkhalo, Nikolai I.

    2017-05-01

    We present a laboratory high-aperture monochromator-reflectometer employing laser-plasma radiation source and three replaceable Schwarzschild objectives for a certain range of applications in the soft X-ray spectral waveband. Three sets of X-ray multilayer mirrors for the Schwarzschild objectives enable operation of the reflectometer at the wavelengths of 135, 171 and 304 Å, while a goniometer with three degrees of freedom allows different measurement modes. We have used the facility for a laboratory CCD calibration at the wavelengths specified. Combined with the results of the CCD sensitivity measurements conducted in the VUV spectral waveband, the total outcome provides a more comprehensive understanding of the CCD effectivity in a wide spectral range.

  16. A water-cooled x-ray monochromator for using off-axis undulator beam.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khounsary, A.; Maser, J.

    2000-12-11

    Undulator beamlines at third-generation synchrotrons x-ray sources are designed to use the high-brilliance radiation that is contained in the central cone of the generated x-ray beams. The rest of the x-ray beam is often unused. Moreover, in some cases, such as in the zone-plate-based microfocusing beamlines, only a small part of the central radiation cone around the optical axis is used. In this paper, a side-station branch line at the Advanced Photon Source that takes advantage of some of the unused off-axis photons in a microfocusing x-ray beamline is described. Detailed information on the design and analysis of a high-heat-load water-cooled monochromator developed for this beamline is provided.

  17. High-resolution monochromated electron energy-loss spectroscopy of organic photovoltaic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jessica A; Scheltens, Frank J; Drummy, Lawrence F; Durstock, Michael F; Hage, Fredrik S; Ramasse, Quentin M; McComb, David W

    2017-09-01

    Advances in electron monochromator technology are providing opportunities for high energy resolution (10 - 200meV) electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) to be performed in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). The energy-loss near-edge structure in core-loss spectroscopy is often limited by core-hole lifetimes rather than the energy spread of the incident illumination. However, in the valence-loss region, the reduced width of the zero loss peak makes it possible to resolve clearly and unambiguously spectral features at very low energy-losses (photovoltaics (OPVs): poly(3-hexlythiophene) (P3HT), [6,6] phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), copper phthalocyanine (CuPc), and fullerene (C60). Data was collected on two different monochromated instruments - a Nion UltraSTEM 100 MC 'HERMES' and a FEI Titan(3) 60-300 Image-Corrected S/TEM - using energy resolutions (as defined by the zero loss peak full-width at half-maximum) of 35meV and 175meV, respectively. The data was acquired to allow deconvolution of plural scattering, and Kramers-Kronig analysis was utilized to extract the complex dielectric functions. The real and imaginary parts of the complex dielectric functions obtained from the two instruments were compared to evaluate if the enhanced resolution in the Nion provides new opto-electronic information for these organic materials. The differences between the spectra are discussed, and the implications for STEM-EELS studies of advanced materials are considered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Rotation of X-ray polarization in the glitches of a silicon crystal monochromator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, John P; Boada, Roberto; Bowron, Daniel T; Stepanov, Sergey A; Díaz-Moreno, Sofía

    2016-08-01

    EXAFS studies on dilute samples are usually carried out by collecting the fluorescence yield using a large-area multi-element detector. This method is susceptible to the 'glitches' produced by all single-crystal monochromators. Glitches are sharp dips or spikes in the diffracted intensity at specific crystal orientations. If incorrectly compensated, they degrade the spectroscopic data. Normalization of the fluorescence signal by the incident flux alone is sometimes insufficient to compensate for the glitches. Measurements performed at the state-of-the-art wiggler beamline I20-scanning at Diamond Light Source have shown that the glitches alter the spatial distribution of the sample's quasi-elastic X-ray scattering. Because glitches result from additional Bragg reflections, multiple-beam dynamical diffraction theory is necessary to understand their effects. Here, the glitches of the Si(111) four-bounce monochromator of I20-scanning just above the Ni K edge are associated with their Bragg reflections. A fitting procedure that treats coherent and Compton scattering is developed and applied to a sample of an extremely dilute (100 micromolal) aqueous solution of Ni(NO3)2. The depolarization of the wiggler X-ray beam out of the electron orbit is modeled. The fits achieve good agreement with the sample's quasi-elastic scattering with just a few parameters. The X-ray polarization is rotated up to ±4.3° within the glitches, as predicted by dynamical diffraction. These results will help users normalize EXAFS data at glitches.

  19. Introducing large color displays in the Gripen fighter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundgren, Mats; Brandtberg, Hans

    1998-09-01

    Cockpit design is about communication between the aircraft system and the pilot. The information available on-board is very large and increases with on-going development of the systems. New functions for integration and fusion will, together with decision support and automation, set requirements on the displays to transfer information to the pilot. Information overload, mental workload and flight safety are always important areas to put efforts in. The present version of the Swedish JAS 39 Gripen aircraft has three monochrome multi-function displays. The displays are fairly large for a small aircraft, 5' X 6', giving a good situation awareness for the pilot. A new version of the Gripen cockpit featuring large color displays is now under development and will be introduced to the Swedish air force and ready for export market in the end of 2001. Display size, resolution, graphics capability and color have great impact on the pilots ability to acquire and understand the presented information. These factors are very important when designing an improved cockpit. By utilizing the most modern flat panel AMLCD techniques we have succeeded in integrating three 6.2' X 8.3' full-color multi-function displays in the Gripen aircraft.

  20. Thermal and structural finite element analysis of water cooled silicon monochromator for synchrotron radiation comparison of two different cooling schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Artemiev, A I; Busetto, E; Hrdy, J; Mrazek, D; Plesek, I; Savoia, A

    2001-01-01

    The article describes the results of Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of the first Si monochromator crystal distortions due to Synchrotron Radiation (SR) heat load and consequent analysis of the influence of the distortions on a double crystal monochromator performance. Efficiencies of two different cooling schemes are compared. A thin plate of Si crystal is lying on copper cooling support in both cases. There are microchannels inside the cooling support. In the first model the direction of the microchannels is parallel to the diffraction plane. In the second model the direction of the microchannels is perpendicular to the diffraction plane or in other words, it is a conventional cooling scheme. It is shown that the temperature field along the crystal volume is more uniform and more symmetrical in the first model than in the second (conventional) one.

  1. Optimization of bent perfect Si(220)-crystal monochromator for residual strain/stress instrument-Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Myung-Kook [Neutron Beam Application, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Duckjin-Dong, Yusung, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: moonmk@kaeri.re.kr; Em, Vyacheslav T. [Neutron Beam Application, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Duckjin-Dong, Yusung, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang-Hee [Neutron Beam Application, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Duckjin-Dong, Yusung, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Mikula, Pavol [Nuclear Physics Institute and Research Centre Rez Ltd., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Hong, Kwang-Pyo [Neutron Beam Application, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Duckjin-Dong, Yusung, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Young-Hyun [Neutron Beam Application, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Duckjin-Dong, Yusung, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Cheon, Jong-Kyu [Neutron Beam Application, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Duckjin-Dong, Yusung, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Uk-Won [Nuclear Physics Institute and Research Centre Rez Ltd., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Kong, Kyung-Nam [Nuclear Physics Institute and Research Centre Rez Ltd., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Korea Astronomy Observatory, Yusung, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Kyung-Chan [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, 35-3 Hongchon-Ri, Ipchang-Myun, Chonan-Si, Chungnam, 330-825 (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-11-01

    Optimized diffractometer arrangements for residual strain measurements employing curved crystal monochromators provide good luminosity and a high {delta}d/d resolution in the vicinity of usually used scattering angle 2{theta}{sub S}{approx}+/-90{sup o}. Due to a variety of designs of the diffractometers which could be installed at a constant or different take-off angles, except a few attempts, there is a lack of experimental evidence providing a help in a choice of parameters for an optimum performance. In addition to our earlier investigations with curved Si(311) monochromator employed in different diffraction geometries (see paper I [M.K. Moon et al., Physica B, submitted [1

  2. Design, Build & Test of a Double Crystal Monochromator for Beamlines I09 & I23 at the Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, J.; Lee, T.; Alcock, S.; Patel, H.

    2013-03-01

    A high stability Double Crystal Monochromator has been developed at The Diamond Light Source for beamlines I09 and I23. The design specification was a cryogenic, fixed exit, energy scanning monochromator, operating over an energy range of 2.1 - 25 keV using a Si(111) crystal set. The novel design concepts are the direct drive, air bearing Bragg axis, low strain crystal mounts and the cooling scheme. The instrument exhibited superb stability and repeatability on the B16 Test Beamline. A 20 keV Si(555), 1.4 μrad rocking curve was demonstrated. The DCM showed good stability without any evidence of vibration or Bragg angle nonlinearity.

  3. All-diamond optical assemblies for a beam-multiplexing X-ray monochromator at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    CERN Document Server

    Stoupin, S; Blank, V D; Shvyd'ko, Yu V; Goetze, K; Assoufid, L; Polyakov, S N; Kuznetsov, M S; Kornilov, N V; Katsoudas, J; Alonso-Mori, R; Chollet, M; Feng, Y; Glownia, J M; Lemke, H; Robert, A; Song, S; Sikorski, M; Zhu, D

    2014-01-01

    A double-crystal diamond (111) monochromator recently implemented at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) enables splitting of the primary X-ray beam into a pink (transmitted) and a monochromatic (reflected) branch. The first monochromator crystal with a thickness of 100 um provides sufficient X-ray transmittance to enable simultaneous operation of two beamlines. Here we report on the design, fabrication, and X-ray characterization of the first and second (300-um-thick) crystals utilized in the monochromator and the optical assemblies holding these crystals. Each crystal plate has a region of about 5 X 2 mm2 with low defect concentration, sufficient for use in X-ray optics at the LCLS. The optical assemblies holding the crystals were designed to provide mounting on a rigid substrate and to minimize mounting-induced crystal strain. The induced strain was evaluated using double-crystal X-ray topography and was found to be small over the 5 X 2 mm2 working regions of the crystals.

  4. Double-crystal monochromator for a PF 60-period soft x-ray undulator (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, T.; Maezawa, H.; Nomura, M.; Ando, M.

    1989-07-01

    Since undulator light is sharply collimated itself, it can be effectively monochromatized by a perfect crystal. An x-ray double-crystal monochromator with a fixed exit has been designed and built for the use of undulator light from a 60-period undulator at Photon Factory (beamline 2A). Available Bragg angle ranges from 7° to 80°. Angle scan is made by means of a goniometer outside the vacuum chamber, with the finest step of 0.1 arcsec. Magnetic fluid is used as the vacuum seal of the feedthrough. The fixed exit beam position is kept by translating the second crystal along the two mechanical guides: one for normal and the other for parallel to the crystal surface. Adjustment of the parallelity of two crystals is made manually with flexible wires. Since a total power in the central coherent portion which is limited by a 1×1-mm2 slit is not so much, a stable operation is possible without cooling the crystal. Currently, InSb (111) reflection is used. The diffracting planes of the first cyrstal is 1° off from the surface and the second is the symmetric reflection. At its fifth harmonics, brilliant undulator light of approximately 1012 photons/s mm2 with 1-eV energy resolution is available (E=2 keV).

  5. Quick scanning monochromator for millisecond in situ and in operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, O.; Lützenkirchen-Hecht, D.; Frahm, R.

    2015-09-01

    The design and capabilities of a novel Quick scanning Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (QEXAFS) monochromator are presented. The oscillatory movement of the crystal stage is realized by means of a unique open-loop driving scheme operating a direct drive torque motor. The entire drive mechanics are installed inside of a goniometer located on the atmospheric side of the vacuum chamber. This design allows remote adjustment of the oscillation frequency and spectral range, giving complete control of QEXAFS measurements. It also features a real step-scanning mode, which operates without a control loop to prevent induced vibrations. Equipped with Si(111) and Si(311) crystals on a single stage, it facilitates an energy range from 4.0 keV to 43 keV. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectra up to k = 14.4 Å-1 have been acquired within 17 ms and X-ray absorption near edge structure spectra covering more than 200 eV within 10 ms. The achieved data quality is excellent as shown by the presented measurements.

  6. Design, Fabrication and Measurement of Ni/Ti Multilayer Used for Neutron Monochromator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhong; WANG Zhan-Shan; ZHU Jing-Tao; WU Yong-Rong; MU Bao-Zhong; WANG Feng-Li; QIN Shu-Ji; CHEN Ling-Yan

    2007-01-01

    Ni/Ti multilayers.which can be used for neutron monochromators,are designed,fabricated and measured.Firstly,their reflectivities are simulated based on the Nevot-Croce model.Reflectivities of two Ni/Ti multilayer mirrors with periods d=10.3nm(M1)and d=7.8nm(M2) are calculated.In the calculation,the reflectivity of the Ni/Ti multilayer is taken as a function of the gazing angle with different roughness factors δ=1.0nm and δ=1.5nm.Secondly,these two multilayers are fabricated by the direct current magnetron sputtering technology.Thirdly their structures are characterized by small-angle x-ray diffraction.The roughness factors are fitted to be O.68nm and 1.16nm for M1 and M2.respectively.Finally their reflective performances are measured on the V14 neutron beam line at the Bedin Neutron Scattering Centre(BENSC),Germany.The experimental data show that the grazing angle of the reflected neutron intensity peak increases,but the reflected neutron intensity decreases.with the decreasing periods of the multilayers.

  7. Vibration measurements of high-heat-load monochromators for DESY PETRA III extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, Paw; Horbach, Jan; Döhrmann, Ralph; Heuer, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    The requirement for vibrational stability of beamline optics continues to evolve rapidly to comply with the demands created by the improved brilliance of the third-generation low-emittance storage rings around the world. The challenge is to quantify the performance of the instrument before it is installed at the beamline. In this article, measurement techniques are presented that directly and accurately measure (i) the relative vibration between the two crystals of a double-crystal monochromator (DCM) and (ii) the absolute vibration of the second-crystal cage of a DCM. Excluding a synchrotron beam, the measurements are conducted under in situ conditions, connected to a liquid-nitrogen cryocooler. The investigated DCM utilizes a direct-drive (no gearing) goniometer for the Bragg rotation. The main causes of the DCM vibration are found to be the servoing of the direct-drive goniometer and the flexibility in the crystal cage motion stages. It is found that the investigated DCM can offer relative pitch vibration down to 48 nrad RMS (capacitive sensors, 0–5 kHz bandwidth) and absolute pitch vibration down to 82 nrad RMS (laser interferometer, 0–50 kHz bandwidth), with the Bragg axis brake engaged. PMID:26134790

  8. The performance of a cryogenically cooled monochromator for an in-vacuum undulator beamline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Lee, Wah Keat; Wulff, Michael; Eybert, Laurent

    2003-07-01

    The channel-cut silicon monochromator on beamline ID09 at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility is indirectly cooled from the sides by liquid nitrogen. The thermal slope error of the diffracting surface is calculated by finite-element analysis and the results are compared with experiments. The slope error is studied as a function of cooling coefficients, beam size, position of the footprint and power distribution. It is found that the slope error versus power curve can be divided into three regions: (i). The linear region: the thermal slope error is linearly proportional to the power. (ii). The transition region: the temperature of the Si crystal is close to 125 K; the thermal slope error is below the straight line extrapolated from the linear curve described above. (iii). The non-linear region: the temperature of the Si crystal is higher than 125 K and the thermal slope error increases much faster than the power. Heat-load tests were also performed and the measured rocking-curve widths are compared with those calculated by finite-element modeling. When the broadening from the intrinsic rocking-curve width and mounting strain are included, the calculated rocking-curve width versus heat load is in excellent agreement with experiment.

  9. Mechanical design aspects of a soft X-ray plane grating monochromator

    CERN Document Server

    Vasina, R; Dolezel, P; Mynar, M; Vondracek, M; Chab, V; Slezak, J A; Comicioli, C; Prince, K C

    2001-01-01

    A plane grating monochromator based on the SX-700 concept has been constructed for the Materials Science Beamline, Elettra, which is attached to a bending magnet. The tuning range is from 35 to 800 eV with calculated spectral resolving power epsilon/DELTA epsilon better than 4000 in the whole range. The optical elements consist of a toroidal prefocusing mirror, polarization aperture, entrance slit, plane pre-mirror, single plane grating (blazed), spherical mirror, exit slit and toroidal refocusing mirror. The plane grating is operated in the fixed focus mode with C sub f sub f =2.4. Energy scanning is performed by rotation of the plane grating and simultaneous translation and rotation of the plane pre-mirror. A novel solution is applied for the motion of the plane pre-mirror, namely by a translation and mechanically coupling the rotation by a cam. The slits have no moving parts in vacuum to reduce cost and increase ruggedness, and can be fully closed without risk of damage. In the first tests, a resolving pow...

  10. Displaying gray shades in liquid crystal displays

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T N Ruckmongathan

    2003-08-01

    Quality of image in a display depends on the contrast, colour, resolution and the number of gray shades. A large number of gray shades is necessary to display images without any contour lines. These contours are due to limited number of gray shades in the display causing abrupt changes in grayness of the image, while the original image has a gradual change in brightness. Amplitude modulation has the capability to display a large number of gray shades with minimum number of time intervals [1,2]. This paper will cover the underlying principle of amplitude modulation, some variants and its extension to multi-line addressing. Other techniques for displaying gray shades in passive matrix displays are reviewed for the sake of comparison.

  11. Invisible Display in Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prichystal, Jan Phuklin; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bladt, Henrik Henriksen

    2005-01-01

    for an integrated display in a metal surface is often ruled by design and functionality of a product. The integration of displays in metal surfaces requires metal removal in order to clear the area of the display to some extent. The idea behind an invisible display in Aluminum concerns the processing of a metal...

  12. A virtual image chain for perceived image quality of medical display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchessoux, Cédric; Jung, Jürgen

    2006-03-01

    This paper describes a virtual image chain for medical display (project VICTOR: granted in the 5th framework program by European commission). The chain starts from raw data of an image digitizer (CR, DR) or synthetic patterns and covers image enhancement (MUSICA by Agfa) and both display possibilities, hardcopy (film on viewing box) and softcopy (monitor). Key feature of the chain is a complete image wise approach. A first prototype is implemented in an object-oriented software platform. The display chain consists of several modules. Raw images are either taken from scanners (CR-DR) or from a pattern generator, in which characteristics of DR- CR systems are introduced by their MTF and their dose-dependent Poisson noise. The image undergoes image enhancement and comes to display. For soft display, color and monochrome monitors are used in the simulation. The image is down-sampled. The non-linear response of a color monitor is taken into account by the GOG or S-curve model, whereas the Standard Gray-Scale-Display-Function (DICOM) is used for monochrome display. The MTF of the monitor is applied on the image in intensity levels. For hardcopy display, the combination of film, printer, lightbox and viewing condition is modeled. The image is up-sampled and the DICOM-GSDF or a Kanamori Look-Up-Table is applied. An anisotropic model for the MTF of the printer is applied on the image in intensity levels. The density-dependent color (XYZ) of the hardcopy film is introduced by Look-Up-tables. Finally a Human Visual System Model is applied to the intensity images (XYZ in terms of cd/m2) in order to eliminate nonvisible differences. Comparison leads to visible differences, which are quantified by higher order image quality metrics. A specific image viewer is used for the visualization of the intensity image and the visual difference maps.

  13. Beryllium, zinc and lead single crystals as a thermal neutron monochromators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adib, M.; Habib, N. [Reactor Physics Department, NRC, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Bashter, I.I. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University (Egypt); Morcos, H.N.; El-Mesiry, M.S. [Reactor Physics Department, NRC, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Mansy, M.S., E-mail: drmohamedmansy88@hotmail.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University (Egypt)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: •Monochromatic features of Be, Zn and Pb single crystals. •Calculations of neutron reflectivity using a computer program MONO. •Optimum mosaic spread, thickness and cutting plane of single crystals. -- Abstract: The monochromatic features of Be, Zn and Pb single crystals are discussed in terms of orientation, mosaic spread, and thickness within the wavelength band from 0.04 up to 0.5 nm. A computer program MONO written in “FORTRAN-77”, has been adapted to carry out the required calculations. Calculations show that a 5 mm thick of beryllium (HCP structure) single crystal cut along its (0 0 2) plane having 0.6° FWHM are the optimum parameters when it is used as a monochromator with high reflected neutron intensity from a thermal neutron flux. Furthermore, at wavelengths shorter than 0.16 nm it is free from the accompanying higher order ones. Zinc (HCP structure) has the same parameters, with intensity much less than the latter. The same features are seen with lead (FCC structure) cut along its (3 1 1) plane with less reflectivity than the former. However, Pb (3 1 1) is more preferable than others at neutron wavelengths ⩽ 0.1 nm, since the glancing angle (θ ∼ 20°) is more suitable to carry out diffraction experiments. For a cold neutron flux, the first-order neutrons reflected from beryllium is free from the higher orders up to 0.36 nm. While for Zn single crystal is up to 0.5 nm.

  14. Soil-Structure Interaction Analysis of Jack-up Platforms Subjected to Monochrome and Irregular Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maziar Gholami KORZANI; Ali Akbar AGHAKOUCHAK

    2015-01-01

    As jack-up platforms have recently been used in deeper and harsher waters, there has been an increasing demand to understand their behaviour more accurately to develop more sophisticated analysis techniques. One of the areas of significant development has been the modelling of spudcan performance, where the load-displacement behaviour of the foundation is required to be included in any numerical model of the structure. In this study, beam on nonlinear winkler foundation (BNWF) modeling—which is based on using nonlinear springs and dampers instead of a continuum soil media—is employed for this purpose. A regular monochrome design wave and an irregular wave representing a design sea state are applied to the platform as lateral loading. By using the BNWF model and assuming a granular soil under spudcans, properties such as soil nonlinear behaviour near the structure, contact phenomena at the interface of soil and spudcan (such as uplifting and rocking), and geometrical nonlinear behaviour of the structure are studied. Results of this study show that inelastic behaviour of the soil causes an increase in the lateral displacement at the hull elevation and permanent unequal settlement in soil below the spudcans, which are increased by decreasing the friction angle of the sandy soil. In fact, spudcans and the underlying soil cause a relative fixity at the platform support, which changes the dynamic response of the structure compared with the case where the structure is assumed to have a fixed support or pinned support. For simulating this behaviour without explicit modelling of soil-structure interaction (SSI), moment-rotation curves at the end of platform legs, which are dependent on foundation dimensions and soil characteristics, are obtained. These curves can be used in a simplified model of the platform for considering the relative fixity at the soil-foundation interface.

  15. Handbook of display technology

    CERN Document Server

    Castellano, Joseph A

    1992-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive review of technical and commercial aspects of display technology. It provides design engineers with the information needed to select proper technology for new products. The book focuses on flat, thin displays such as light-emitting diodes, plasma display panels, and liquid crystal displays, but it also includes material on cathode ray tubes. Displays include a large number of products from televisions, auto dashboards, radios, and household appliances, to gasoline pumps, heart monitors, microwave ovens, and more.For more information on display tech

  16. Development of a bent Laue beam-expanding double-crystal monochromator for biomedical X-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinson, Mercedes, E-mail: mercedes.m@usask.ca [University of Saskatchewan, 116 Science Place, Room 163, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Samadi, Nazanin [University of Saskatchewan, 107 Wiggins Road, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Belev, George [Canadian Light Source, 44 Innovation Boulevard, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Bassey, Bassey [University of Saskatchewan, 116 Science Place, Room 163, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Lewis, Rob [University of Saskatchewan, 107 Wiggins Road, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Aulakh, Gurpreet [University of Saskatchewan, 107 Wiggins Road, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Chapman, Dean [University of Saskatchewan, 116 Science Place, Room 163, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); University of Saskatchewan, 107 Wiggins Road, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2014-03-13

    A bent Laue beam-expanding double-crystal monochromator was developed and tested at the Biomedical Imaging and Therapy beamline at the Canadian Light Source. The expander will reduce scanning time for micro-computed tomography and allow dynamic imaging that has not previously been possible at this beamline. The Biomedical Imaging and Therapy (BMIT) beamline at the Canadian Light Source has produced some excellent biological imaging data. However, the disadvantage of a small vertical beam limits its usability in some applications. Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) imaging requires multiple scans to produce a full projection, and certain dynamic imaging experiments are not possible. A larger vertical beam is desirable. It was cost-prohibitive to build a longer beamline that would have produced a large vertical beam. Instead, it was proposed to develop a beam expander that would create a beam appearing to originate at a source much farther away. This was accomplished using a bent Laue double-crystal monochromator in a non-dispersive divergent geometry. The design and implementation of this beam expander is presented along with results from the micro-CT and dynamic imaging tests conducted with this beam. Flux (photons per unit area per unit time) has been measured and found to be comparable with the existing flat Bragg double-crystal monochromator in use at BMIT. This increase in overall photon count is due to the enhanced bandwidth of the bent Laue configuration. Whilst the expanded beam quality is suitable for dynamic imaging and micro-CT, further work is required to improve its phase and coherence properties.

  17. A Compressive Superresolution Display

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix

    2014-06-22

    In this paper, we introduce a new compressive display architecture for superresolution image presentation that exploits co-design of the optical device configuration and compressive computation. Our display allows for superresolution, HDR, or glasses-free 3D presentation.

  18. Lunar Sample Display Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA provides a number of lunar samples for display at museums, planetariums, and scientific expositions around the world. Lunar displays are open to the public....

  19. Characterization of InGaN/GaN quantum well growth using monochromated valence electron energy loss spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Palisaitis, J.; Lundskog, A.; Forsberg, U.; Janzén, E.; Birch, J.; Hultman, L.; Persson, P. O. Å.

    2014-01-01

    The early stages of InGaN/GaN quantum wells growth for In reduced conditions have been investigated for varying thickness and composition of the wells. The structures were studied by monochromated STEM–VEELS spectrum imaging at high spatial resolution. It is found that beyond a critical well thickness and composition, quantum dots (>20 nm) are formed inside the well. These are buried by compositionally graded InGaN, which is formed as GaN is grown while residual In is incorporated into the...

  20. Replacement of monochromator and proportional gas counter by mercuric iodide detector in X-ray powder diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissenbaum, J.; Levi, A.; Burger, A.; Schieber, M. (Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel). School of Applied Science and Technology)

    1983-02-01

    Low resolution and therefore low-cost mercuric iodide detectors have successfully been applied to replace the combination of a graphite monochromator and a proportional gas radiation counter used in X-ray diffractometers. The mercuric iodide detector requires a lower DC bias of only 200 V rather than the 1500 V bias needed for the proportional gas counter. The much better stopping power of HgI/sub 2/ allows higher counting efficiency and therefore a better signal-to-noise ratio. Results are shown for X-ray powder diffractions of polycrystalline cubic silicon and tetragonal HgI/sub 2/.

  1. Holographically recorded ion-etched varied line spacing grating for a monochromator at the Photon Factory BL19B

    CERN Document Server

    Fujisawa, M; Shin, S

    2001-01-01

    Holographically recorded, ion etched ruled gratings can be obtained for the varied line spacing plane grating (VPG) monochromator at the Photon Factory BL19B. A new holographic recording method makes it possible to manufacture VPGs with large varied line coefficients for reducing the aberration terms in the optical path function. The efficiency at higher photon energies and the quantity of stray light are improved in comparison with mechanically ruled gratings. The calculation shows that the much lower efficiency at higher photon energies is not intrinsic for saw-tooth type gratings. It seems to be caused instead by carbon contamination, radiation damage, deformation at manufacturing and so on.

  2. [Evaluation of image quality using the normalized-rank approach for primary class liquid-crystal display (LCD) monitors with different colors and resolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroki, Hidefumi; Katayama, Reiji; Sakaguchi, Taro; Maeda, Takashi; Morishita, Junji; Hayabuchi, Naofumi

    2010-11-20

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the image quality of five types of liquid-crystal display (LCD) monitors by utilizing the normalized-rank approach and to investigate the effect of LCD monitor specifications, such as display colors, luminance, and resolution, on the evaluators' ranking. The LCD monitors used in this study were 2, 3 and 5 mega-pixel monochrome LCD monitors, and 2 and 3 mega-pixel color LCD monitors (Eizo Nanao Corporation). All LCD monitors were calibrated to the grayscale standard display function (GSDF) with different maximum luminance (recommended luminance) settings. Also, four kinds of radiographs were used for observer study based on the normalized-rank approach: three adult chest radiographs, three pediatric chest radiographs, three ankle joint radiographs, and four double-contrasted upper gastrointestinal radiographs. Ten radiological technologists participated in the observer study. Monochrome LCD monitors exhibited superior ranking with statistically significant differences (pLCD monitors in all kinds of radiographs. The major difference between monochrome and color monitors was luminance. Therefore, it is considered that the luminance of LCD monitors affects observers' evaluations based on image quality. Moreover, in the case of radiographs that include high frequency image components, the monitor resolution also affects the evaluation. In clinical practice, it is necessary to optimize the luminance and choose appropriate LCD monitors for diagnostic images.

  3. Multipurpose monochromator for the Basic Energy Science Synchrotron Radiation Center Collaborative Access Team beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source x-ray facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, M.; Beno, M. A.; Knapp, G. S.; Jennings, G.; Cowan, P. L.; Montano, P. A.

    1995-02-01

    The Basic Energy Science Synchrotron Radiation Center (BESSRC) Collaborative Access Team (CAT) will construct x-ray beamlines at two sectors of the Advanced Photon Source facility. In most of the beamlines the first optical element will be a monochromator, so that a standard design for this critical component is advantageous. The monochromator is a double-crystal, fixed exit scheme with a constant offset designed for ultrahigh vacuum windowless operation. In this design, the crystals are mounted on a turntable with the first crystal at the center of rotation. Mechanical linkages are used to correctly position the second crystal and maintain a constant offset. The main drive for the rotary motion is provided by a vacuum compatible Huber goniometer isolated from the main vacuum chamber. The design of the monochromator is such that it can accommodate water, gallium, or liquid-nitrogen cooling for the crystal optics.

  4. Optimization of the bent perfect Si(311)-crystal monochromator for a residual strain/stress instrument at the HANARO reactor-Part I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Myung-Kook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Neutron Beam Application, 150 Duckjin-Dong, Yusung, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: moonmk@kaeri.re.kr; Lee, Chang-Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Neutron Beam Application, 150 Duckjin-Dong, Yusung, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Em, Vyacheslav T. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Neutron Beam Application, 150 Duckjin-Dong, Yusung, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Mikula, Pavol [Nuclear Physics Institute and Research Centre Rez, Ltd., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Hong, Kwang-Pyo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Neutron Beam Application, 150 Duckjin-Dong, Yusung, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Young-Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Neutron Beam Application, 150 Duckjin-Dong, Yusung, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Cheon, Jong-Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Neutron Beam Application, 150 Duckjin-Dong, Yusung, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Young-Nam [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Neutron Beam Application, 150 Duckjin-Dong, Yusung, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Shin-Ae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Neutron Beam Application, 150 Duckjin-Dong, Yusung, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung-Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Neutron Beam Application, 150 Duckjin-Dong, Yusung, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Kyung-Chan [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology 35-3 Hongchon-Ri, Ipchang-Myun, Chonan-Si, Chungnam 330-825 (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-12-01

    Reflectivity and resolution properties of a variety of optimized focusing monochromator performances based on cylindrically bent perfect Si-crystals were tested with the aim of evaluating their possible use in a strain/stress diffractometer. It has been found that the optimized monochromator performances of the curved Si(311) crystals (for the take-off angle 2{theta}{sub M}=60 deg.) provide a good luminosity and a sufficiently high resolution (full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the instrumental {delta}d/d-profile can be about 2x10{sup -3} in the vicinity of the lattice spacing d=0.117nm for 2{theta}{sub S}{approx}90 deg.) of the strain/stress diffractometer with the figure of merit more than one order of magnitude larger than that related to the conventional flat mosaic Ge(220) monochromator of {eta}=15{sup '}.

  5. Wake monochromator in asymmetric and symmetric Bragg and Laue geometry for self-seeding the European X-ray FEL

    CERN Document Server

    Geloni, Gianluca; Saldin, Evgeni; Serkez, Svitozar; Tolkiehn, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the use of self-seeding schemes with wake monochromators to produce TW power, fully coherent pulses for applications at the dedicated bio-imaging bealine at the European X-ray FEL, a concept for an upgrade of the facility beyond the baseline previously proposed by the authors. We exploit the asymmetric and symmetric Bragg and Laue reflections (sigma polarization) in diamond crystal. Optimization of the bio-imaging beamline is performed with extensive start-to-end simulations, which also take into account effects such as the spatio-temporal coupling caused by the wake monochromator. The spatial shift is maximal in the range for small Bragg angles. A geometry with Bragg angles close to pi/2 would be a more advantageous option from this viewpoint, albeit with decrease of the spectral tunability. We show that it will be possible to cover the photon energy range from 3 keV to 13 keV by using four different planes of the same crystal with one rotational degree of freedom.

  6. Wake monochromator in asymmetric and symmetric Bragg and Laue geometry for self-seeding the European X-ray FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni; Serkez, Svitozar; Tolkiehn, Martin [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    We discuss the use of self-seeding schemes with wake monochromators to produce TW power, fully coherent pulses for applications at the dedicated bio-imaging beamline at the European X-ray FEL, a concept for an upgrade of the facility beyond the baseline previously proposed by the authors. We exploit the asymmetric and symmetric Bragg and Laue reflections (sigma polarization) in diamond crystal. Optimization of the bio-imaging beamline is performed with extensive start-to-end simulations, which also take into account effects such as the spatio-temporal coupling caused by the wake monochromator. The spatial shift is maximal in the range for small Bragg angles. A geometry with Bragg angles close to {pi}/2 would be a more advantageous option from this viewpoint, albeit with decrease of the spectral tunability. We show that it will be possible to cover the photon energy range from 3 keV to 13 keV by using four different planes of the same crystal with one rotational degree of freedom.

  7. Design and analysis of a high heat load pin-post monochromator crystal with an integral water manifold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schildkamp, W. [Consortium for Advanced Radiation Sources, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Tonnessen, T. [Rocketdyne Albuquerque Operations, 2511 C. Broadbent Parkway, N.E., Albuquerque, NM 87107 (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Conventional minichannel water cooling geometry will not perform satisfactorily for x-radiation from a wiggler source at the Advanced Photon Source. For closed-gap wiggler operation, cryogenic silicon appears to be the only option for crystals in Bragg-Bragg geometry. For operation of the wiggler at more modest critical energies ({lt}17 keV), the first crystal can be cooled by a pin-post cooling scheme, using water at room temperature as a coolant. In order to limit the water consumption to 4 gpm and hence the risk of introducing vibrations to the crystal, the intensely cooled area of the crystal was matched to the footprint of the beam, leaving a less cooled area of the crystal subject to survival in a missteered beam but not to perform as a monochromator. The manifold design avoids large areas of high water pressure that would bow the crystal. We present here the design of a pin-post monochromator consisting of a four-layer silicon manifold system and an integrally bonded 39{percent} nickel-iron alloy base plate. A transparent prototype of the design will be exhibited. Fabrication techniques and design advantages will be discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Invisible Display in Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prichystal, Jan Phuklin; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bladt, Henrik Henriksen

    2005-01-01

    Bang & Olufsen a/s has been working with ideas for invisible integration of displays in metal surfaces. Invisible integration of information displays traditionally has been possible by placing displays behind transparent or semitransparent materials such as plastic or glass. The wish for an integ...... be obtained by shining light from the backside of the workpiece. When there is no light from the backside, the front surface seems totally untouched. This was achieved by laser ablation with ultra-short pulses.......Bang & Olufsen a/s has been working with ideas for invisible integration of displays in metal surfaces. Invisible integration of information displays traditionally has been possible by placing displays behind transparent or semitransparent materials such as plastic or glass. The wish...... for an integrated display in a metal surface is often ruled by design and functionality of a product. The integration of displays in metal surfaces requires metal removal in order to clear the area of the display to some extent. The idea behind an invisible display in Aluminum concerns the processing of a metal...

  9. Energy-harvesting laser phosphor display and its design considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujieda, Ichiro; Itaya, Shunsuke; Ohta, Masamichi; Hirai, Yuuki; Kohmoto, Takamasa

    2017-04-01

    One can convert a luminescent solar concentrator to a display by projecting intensity-modulated light on it. We fabricated a 95 mm×95 mm×10 mm screen by sandwiching a thin coumarin 6 layer with two acrylic plates. We removed the light source in a commercial projector and fed a blue laser beam into its optics. It displayed monochrome images on the screen clearly. A photodiode covered a 10 mm×10 mm region on the edge surface of the screen. As we pulsed the laser, the photodiode output varied synchronously. Its output indicates that a fully covered version would harvest up to 71% of the incoming laser power. However, a ghost image was noticeable when we displayed a high-contrast still image. We address two aspects in design considerations. First, tiling small modules will reduce the thickness of a large-area projection system and alleviate its self-absorption loss. For seamless tiling, we can attach output couplers to the surface of the transparent plate and extract photoluminescence (PL) photons in each module. Second, the origin of the ghost image is the PL photons reflected at the plate-air interface inside the screen. Thinning the transparent plate facing the projector will eliminate such an optical cross talk.

  10. Light emitting polymer materials for full-color displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreitzer, Hubert; Becker, Heinrich; Breuning, Esther; Falcou, Aurelie; Treacher, Kevin; Busing, Arne; Parham, Amir; Stossel, Philipp; Heun, Susanne; Steiger, Juergen

    2003-03-01

    In the last few years, industrial research into materials fulfilling the needs of the maturing OLED display industry has intensified considerably. A first generation of polymers (phenyl-PPVs) is now being commercially exploited in first monochrome polymer LED displays. Nevertheless, due to market interest, there is a huge demand for materials for full-color OLED displays. After giving some initial results on our work in this field at last year's SPIE, we will report on the progress in the development of polymers for red, green, and blue emission. Our main focus here lies on the improvement of the properties of various polymers derived from the spiro-bifluorene core. Depending on the color, the main issues vary strongly: Whereas e.g. for BLUE materials, efficiency, color coordinates, and processibility fulfill already commercial demands, operational lifetime still needs to be improved strongly. For RED materials, in contrast, the operational lifetime is already excellent, whereas the efficiency and the driving current still need to be improved. For GREEN acquiring saturated emission, whilst maintaining the other properties (high efficiency, long operational lifetime), is still challenging. Also, we will report on advances in full-color patterning, especially techniques based on Ink-Jet Printing.

  11. A medium-resolution monochromator for 73 keV x-rays - Nuclear resonant scattering of synchrotron radiation from 193-Ir

    CERN Document Server

    Alexeev, Pavel; Wille, Hans-Christian; Sergeev, Ilya; Herlitschke, Marcus; Leupold, Olaf; McMorrow, Desmond F; Röhlsberger, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    We report on the development and characterization of a medium resolution monochromator for synchrotron-based hyperfine spectroscopy at the 73 keV nuclear resonance of 193-Ir. The device provides high throughput of 6*10^8 ph/s in an energy bandwidth of 300(20) meV. We excited the nuclear resonance in 193-Ir at 73.04 keV and observed nuclear fluorescence of 193-Ir in Iridium metal. The monochromator allows for Nuclear Forward Scattering spectroscopy on Ir and its compounds.

  12. OLED displays and lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Koden, Mitsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have emerged as the leading technology for the new display and lighting market. OLEDs are solid-state devices composed of thin films of organic molecules that create light with the application of electricity. OLEDs can provide brighter, crisper displays on electronic devices and use less power than conventional light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or liquid crystal displays (LCDs) used today. This book covers both the fundamentals and practical applications of flat and flexible OLEDs.

  13. Scalable Resolution Display Walls

    KAUST Repository

    Leigh, Jason

    2013-01-01

    This article will describe the progress since 2000 on research and development in 2-D and 3-D scalable resolution display walls that are built from tiling individual lower resolution flat panel displays. The article will describe approaches and trends in display hardware construction, middleware architecture, and user-interaction design. The article will also highlight examples of use cases and the benefits the technology has brought to their respective disciplines. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  14. JAVA Stereo Display Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Karina

    2008-01-01

    This toolkit provides a common interface for displaying graphical user interface (GUI) components in stereo using either specialized stereo display hardware (e.g., liquid crystal shutter or polarized glasses) or anaglyph display (red/blue glasses) on standard workstation displays. An application using this toolkit will work without modification in either environment, allowing stereo software to reach a wider audience without sacrificing high-quality display on dedicated hardware. The toolkit is written in Java for use with the Swing GUI Toolkit and has cross-platform compatibility. It hooks into the graphics system, allowing any standard Swing component to be displayed in stereo. It uses the OpenGL graphics library to control the stereo hardware and to perform the rendering. It also supports anaglyph and special stereo hardware using the same API (application-program interface), and has the ability to simulate color stereo in anaglyph mode by combining the red band of the left image with the green/blue bands of the right image. This is a low-level toolkit that accomplishes simply the display of components (including the JadeDisplay image display component). It does not include higher-level functions such as disparity adjustment, 3D cursor, or overlays all of which can be built using this toolkit.

  15. Standardizing visual display quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besuijen, Ko; Spenkelink, Gerd P.J.

    1998-01-01

    The current ISO 9241–3 standard for visual display quality and the proposed user performance tests are reviewed. The standard is found to be more engineering than ergonomic and problems with system configuration, software applications, display settings, user behaviour, wear and physical environment

  16. Helmet-Mounted Displays (HMD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Helmet-Mounted Display labis responsible for monocular HMD day display evaluations; monocular HMD night vision performance processes; binocular HMD day display...

  17. Visual merchandising window display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opris (Cas. Stanila M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Window display plays a major part in the selling strategies; it does not only include the simple display of goods, nowadays it is a form of art, also having the purpose of sustaining the brand image. This article wants to reveal the tools that are essential in creating a fabulous window display. Being a window designer is not an easy job, you have to always think ahead trends, to have a sense of colour, to know how to use light to attract customers in the store after only one glance at the window. The big store window displays are theatre scenes: with expensive backgrounds, special effects and high fashion mannequins. The final role of the displays is to convince customers to enter the store and trigger the purchasing act which is the final goal of the retail activity.

  18. Defense display market assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    1998-09-01

    This paper addresses the number, function and size of principal military displays and establishes a basis to determine the opportunities for technology insertion in the immediate future and into the next millennium. Principal military displays are defined as those occupying appreciable crewstation real-estate and/or those without which the platform could not carry out its intended mission. DoD 'office' applications are excluded from this study. The military displays market is specified by such parameters as active area and footprint size, and other characteristics such as luminance, gray scale, resolution, angle, color, video capability, and night vision imaging system (NVIS) compatibility. Funded, future acquisitions, planned and predicted crewstation modification kits, and form-fit upgrades are taken into account. This paper provides an overview of the DoD niche market, allowing both government and industry a necessary reference by which to meet DoD requirements for military displays in a timely and cost-effective manner. The aggregate DoD market for direct-view and large-area military displays is presently estimated to be in excess of 242,000. Miniature displays are those which must be magnified to be viewed, involve a significantly different manufacturing paradigm and are used in helmet mounted displays and thermal weapon sight applications. Some 114,000 miniature displays are presently included within Service weapon system acquisition plans. For vendor production planning purposes it is noted that foreign military sales could substantially increase these quantities. The vanishing vendor syndrome (VVS) for older display technologies continues to be a growing, pervasive problem throughout DoD, which consequently must leverage the more modern display technologies being developed for civil- commercial markets.

  19. Organic Thin Film Devices for Displays and Lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Oliver J.; Krause, Ralf; Paetzold, Ralph

    Organic materials can be used for fabrication of, e.g., electronic circuits, solar cells, light sensors, memory cells and light emitting diodes. Especially organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) are increasingly attractive because of their huge market potential. The feasibility of efficient OLEDs was first shown in 1987 [3]. Only about ten years later the first product, a display for car radios, entered the market. Today monochrome and full colour OLED-displays can be found in many applications replacing established flat panel display technologies like TFT-LCDs. This substitution is a consequence of the outstanding attributes of OLED technology: Organic light emitting displays are self-emissive, thin, video capable and in addition they show a wide temperature operation range and allow a viewing angle of nearly 180 degree in conjunction with a low power consumption. As performance has steadily increased over the last years, today OLEDs are also under investigation as next generation light source. In contrast to inorganic LEDs, they can be built as flat 2-dimensional light sources that are lightweight, colour tunable, and potentially cheap. This will open up new degrees of freedom in design leading also to completely new applications. In this contribution we will have a brief view on the history of organic electroluminescent materials before we introduce the basic principles of OLEDs with a focus on the physical processes leading to light generation in thin organic films. Along with an overview of different concepts and technologies used to build OLEDs, the current status of OLED development will be illustrated. The last part focuses on the challenges that have to be overcome to enable a sustainable success in the display and lighting markets.

  20. Evaluation of display technologies for Internet of Things (IoT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, Julia; Fegert, Tobias; Cisowski, Matthäus Stephanus; Marsal, Anatolij; Eichberger, Domenik; Blankenbach, Karlheinz

    2017-02-01

    Internet of Things (IoT) is a booming industry. We investigated several (semi-) professional IoT devices in combination with displays (focus on reflective technologies) and LEDs. First, these displays were compared for reflectance and ambient light performance. Two measurement set-ups with diffuse conditions were used for simulating typical indoor lighting conditions of IoT displays. E-paper displays were evaluated best as they combine a relative high reflectance with large contrast ratio. Reflective monochrome LCDs show a lower reflectance but are widely available. Second we studied IoT microprocessors interfaces to displays. A µP can drive single LEDs and one or two Seg 8 LED digits directly by GPIOs. Other display technologies require display controllers with a parallel or serial interface to the microprocessor as they need dedicated waveforms for driving the pixels. Most suitable are display modules with built-in display RAM as only pixel data have to be transferred which changes. A HDMI output (e.g. Raspberry Pi) results in high cost for the displays, therefore AMLCDs are not suitable for low to medium cost IoT systems. We compared and evaluated furthermore status indicators, icons, text and graphics IoT display systems regarding human machine interface (HMI) characteristics and effectiveness as well as power consumption. We found out that low resolution graphics bistable e-paper displays are the most appropriate display technology for IoT systems as they show as well information after a power failure or power switch off during maintenance or e.g. QR codes for installation. LED indicators are the most cost effective approach which has however very limited HMI capabilities.

  1. First experimental test of a new monochromated and aberration-corrected 200 kV field-emission scanning transmission electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, T; Quandt, E; Stegmann, H; Thesen, A; Benner, G

    2006-01-01

    The first 200 kV scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) with an imaging energy filter, a monochromator and a corrector for the spherical aberration (Cs-corrector) of the illumination system has been built and tested. The STEM/TEM concept with Koehler illumination allows to switch easily between STEM mode for analytical and TEM mode for high-resolution or in situ studies. The Cs-corrector allows the use of large illumination angles for retaining a sufficiently high beam current despite the intensity loss in the monochromator. With the monochromator on and a 3 microm slit in the dispersion plane that gives 0.26 eV full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) energy resolution we have obtained so far an electron beam smaller than 0.20 nm in diameter (FWHM as measured by scanning the spot quickly over the CCD) which contains 7 pA current and, according to simulations, should be around 0.12 nm in true size. A high-angle annular dark field (ADF) image with isotropic resolution better than 0.28 nm has been recorded with the monochromator in the above configuration and the Cs-corrector on. The beam current is still somewhat low for electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) but is expected to increase substantially by optimising the condenser set-up and using a somewhat larger condenser aperture.

  2. First experimental test of a new monochromated and aberration-corrected 200 kV field-emission scanning transmission electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walther, T. [Center of Advanced European Studies and Research (caesar), Ludwig-Erhard-Allee 2, D-53175 Bonn (Germany)]. E-mail: walther@caesar.de; Quandt, E. [Center of Advanced European Studies and Research (caesar), Ludwig-Erhard-Allee 2, D-53175 Bonn (Germany); Stegmann, H. [Carl Zeiss Nano Technology Systems GmbH, Carl-Zeiss-Str. 56, D-73447 Oberkochen (Germany); Thesen, A. [Carl Zeiss Nano Technology Systems GmbH, Carl-Zeiss-Str. 56, D-73447 Oberkochen (Germany); Benner, G. [Carl Zeiss Nano Technology Systems GmbH, Carl-Zeiss-Str. 56, D-73447 Oberkochen (Germany)

    2006-10-15

    The first 200 kV scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) with an imaging energy filter, a monochromator and a corrector for the spherical aberration (C {sub s}-corrector) of the illumination system has been built and tested. The STEM/TEM concept with Koehler illumination allows to switch easily between STEM mode for analytical and TEM mode for high-resolution or in situ studies. The C{sub s}-corrector allows the use of large illumination angles for retaining a sufficiently high beam current despite the intensity loss in the monochromator. With the monochromator on and a 3 {mu}m slit in the dispersion plane that gives 0.26 eV full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) energy resolution we have obtained so far an electron beam smaller than 0.20 nm in diameter (FWHM as measured by scanning the spot quickly over the CCD) which contains 7 pA current and, according to simulations, should be around 0.12 nm in true size. A high-angle annular dark field (ADF) image with isotropic resolution better than 0.28 nm has been recorded with the monochromator in the above configuration and the C {sub s}-corrector on. The beam current is still somewhat low for electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) but is expected to increase substantially by optimising the condenser set-up and using a somewhat larger condenser aperture.

  3. Panoramic projection avionics displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmanash, Michael H.

    2003-09-01

    Avionics projection displays are entering production in advanced tactical aircraft. Early adopters of this technology in the avionics community used projection displays to replace or upgrade earlier units incorporating direct-view CRT or AMLCD devices. Typical motivation for these upgrades were the alleviation of performance, cost and display device availability concerns. In these systems, the upgraded (projection) displays were one-for-one form / fit replacements for the earlier units. As projection technology has matured, this situation has begun to evolve. The Lockheed-Martin F-35 is the first program in which the cockpit has been specifically designed to take advantage of one of the more unique capabilities of rear projection display technology, namely the ability to replace multiple small screens with a single large conformal viewing surface in the form of a panoramic display. Other programs are expected to follow, since the panoramic formats enable increased mission effectiveness, reduced cost and greater information transfer to the pilot. Some of the advantages and technical challenges associated with panoramic projection displays for avionics applications are described below.

  4. Vibratory response of a precision double-multi-layer monochromator positioning system using a generic modeling program with experimental verification.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barraza, J.

    1998-07-29

    A generic vibratory response-modeling program has been developed as a tool for designing high-precision optical positioning systems. The systems are modeled as rigid-body structures connected by linear non-rigid elements such as complex actuators and bearings. The full dynamic properties of each non-rigid element are determined experimentally or theoretically, then integrated into the program as inertial and stiffness matrices. Thus, it is possible to have a suite of standardize structural elements for modeling many different positioning systems that use standardized components. This paper will present the application of this program to a double-multi-layer monochromator positioning system that utilizes standardized components. Calculated results are compared to experimental modal analysis results.

  5. Measurement of vibrational spectrum of liquid using monochromated scanning transmission electron microscopy-electron energy loss spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Tomohiro; Fukuyama, Mao; Hibara, Akihide; Okunishi, Eiji; Mukai, Masaki; Mizoguchi, Teruyasu

    2014-10-01

    Investigations on the dynamic behavior of molecules in liquids at high spatial resolution are greatly desired because localized regions, such as solid-liquid interfaces or sites of reacting molecules, have assumed increasing importance with respect to improving material performance. In application to liquids, electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) observed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a promising analytical technique with the appropriate resolutions. In this study, we obtained EELS spectra from an ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis (trifluoromethyl-sulfonyl) imide (C2mim-TFSI), chosen as the sampled liquid, using monochromated scanning TEM (STEM). The molecular vibrational spectrum and the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO)-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) gap of the liquid were investigated. The HOMO-LUMO gap measurement coincided with that obtained from the ultraviolet-visible spectrum. A shoulder in the spectrum observed ∼0.4 eV is believed to originate from the molecular vibration. From a separately performed infrared observation and first-principles calculations, we found that this shoulder coincided with the vibrational peak attributed to the C-H stretching vibration of the [C2mim(+)] cation. This study demonstrates that a vibrational peak for a liquid can be observed using monochromated STEM-EELS, and leads one to expect observations of chemical reactions or aids in the analysis of the dynamic behavior of molecules in liquid. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. In-situ metrology for the optimization of bent crystals used in hard-X-ray monochromators: Comparison between measurement and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomasset, Muriel, E-mail: muriel.thomasset@synchrotron-soleil.f [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' orme des Merisiers, BP 48, 91192 Gif sur Yvette (France); Moreno, Thierry; Capitanio, Blandine; Idir, Mourad [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' orme des Merisiers, BP 48, 91192 Gif sur Yvette (France); Bucourt, Samuel [Imagine Optic, 18 rue Charles de Gaulle, Orsay 91400 (France)

    2010-05-01

    Crystal sagittal focusing is known as one of the most efficient way of focusing synchrotron X-ray radiation from bending magnet sources, thus delivering increases photon flux at the sample position. To optimize the performance of a sagittaly bent crystal inside a monochromator, it is necessary to have knowledge of its radius of curvature. However, this measurement is not very easy to obtain. Even though the use of the X-ray beam is the ultimate source for optimizing the system, it is still necessary to have a prior knowledge of the radius of curvature as a function of the motor bender positions to avoid any catastrophic failure. In this paper, we describe a simple, efficient and accurate method of measuring the radius of curvature of sagitally bent monochromator crystals at several bending magnet beamlines at synchrotron SOLEIL. To optimize the crystal bending inside these monochromators, we used a Shack-Hartmann sensor (HP 26) developed by the Imagine Optic Company (Orsay/France). This high accuracy two-dimensional metrology tool was originally designed to be installed on a Long Trace Profiler translation stage to measure the mirrors profiles. During a period where the SOLEIL synchrotron was in shutdown, this instrument was directly mounted inside the monochromator so that the radius of curvature could be measured in-situ. This method allows us to optimize the curvature and eliminate twist before bending strongly the crystal below radii of curvature of less than 2 m. The second step in the optimization process was to use the X-ray beam for the final adjustments of the bending system, where X-ray images are then used to analyse the residual defaults of the system. Using SpotX, a ray-tracing simulation tool, these errors can be fully analysed and a fully optimized system can then be obtained. Overall, five beamlines at synchrotron SOLEIL have used in this method to optimize their monochromators.

  7. Small - Display Cartography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Flemming; Hvas, Anders; Münster-Swendsen, Jørgen

    This report comprises the work carried out in the work-package of small display cartography. The work-package has aimed at creating a general framework for the small-display cartography. A solid framework facilitates an increased use of spatial data in mobile devices - thus enabling, together...... with the rapidly evolving positioning techniques, a new category of position-dependent, map-based services to be introduced. The report consists of the following parts: Part I: Categorization of handheld devices, Part II: Cartographic design for small-display devices, Part III: Study on the GiMoDig Client ? Portal...... Service Communication and finally, Part IV: Concluding remarks and topics for further research on small-display cartography. Part II includes a separate Appendix D consisting of a cartographic design specification. Part III includes a separate Appendix C consisting of a schema specification, a separate...

  8. Flexible displays, rigid designs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornbæk, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    Rapid technological progress has enabled a wide range of flexible displays for computing devices, but the user experience--which we're only beginning to understand--will be the key driver for successful designs....

  9. Liquid Crystal Airborne Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-01

    81/2X 11- 10 -9 .8 display using a large advertising alphanimeric ( TCI ) has been added to the front of the optical box used in the F-4 aircraft for HUD...properties over a wide range of tempera - tures, including normal room temperature. What are Liquid Crystals? Liquid crystals have been classified in three...natic fanctions and to present data needed for the semi- automatic and manual control of system functions. Existing aircraft using CRT display

  10. Military display performance parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Meyer, Frederick

    2012-06-01

    The military display market is analyzed in terms of four of its segments: avionics, vetronics, dismounted soldier, and command and control. Requirements are summarized for a number of technology-driving parameters, to include luminance, night vision imaging system compatibility, gray levels, resolution, dimming range, viewing angle, video capability, altitude, temperature, shock and vibration, etc., for direct-view and virtual-view displays in cockpits and crew stations. Technical specifications are discussed for selected programs.

  11. Hewlett-Packard's Approaches to Full Color Reflective Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Gary

    2012-02-01

    Reflective displays are desirable in applications requiring low power or daylight readability. However, commercial reflective displays are currently either monochrome or capable of only dim color gamuts. Low cost, high-quality color technology would be rapidly adopted in existing reflective display markets and would enable new solutions in areas such as retail pricing and outdoor digital signage. Technical breakthroughs are required to enable bright color gamuts at reasonable cost. Pixel architectures that rely on pure reflection from a single layer of side-by-side primary-color sub-pixels use only a fraction of the display area to reflect incident light of a given color and are, therefore, unacceptably dark. Reflective devices employing stacked color primaries offer the possibility of a somewhat brighter color gamut but can be more complex to manufacture. In this talk, we describe HP's successes in addressing these fundamental challenges and creating both high performance stacked-primary reflective color displays as well as inexpensive single layer prototypes that provide good color. Our stacked displays utilize a combination of careful light management techniques, proprietary high-contrast electro-optic shutters, and highly transparent active-matrix TFT arrays based on transparent metal oxides. They also offer the possibility of relatively low cost manufacturing through roll-to-roll processing on plastic webs. To create even lower cost color displays with acceptable brightness, we have developed means for utilizing photoluminescence to make more efficient use of ambient light in a single layer device. Existing reflective displays create a desired color by reflecting a portion of the incident spectrum while absorbing undesired wavelengths. We have developed methods for converting the otherwise-wasted absorbed light to desired wavelengths via tailored photoluminescent composites. Here we describe a single active layer prototype display that utilizes these materials

  12. Raster graphics display library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsrud, Anders; Stephenson, Michael B.

    1987-01-01

    The Raster Graphics Display Library (RGDL) is a high level subroutine package that give the advanced raster graphics display capabilities needed. The RGDL uses FORTRAN source code routines to build subroutines modular enough to use as stand-alone routines in a black box type of environment. Six examples are presented which will teach the use of RGDL in the fastest, most complete way possible. Routines within the display library that are used to produce raster graphics are presented in alphabetical order, each on a separate page. Each user-callable routine is described by function and calling parameters. All common blocks that are used in the display library are listed and the use of each variable within each common block is discussed. A reference on the include files that are necessary to compile the display library is contained. Each include file and its purpose are listed. The link map for MOVIE.BYU version 6, a general purpose computer graphics display system that uses RGDL software, is also contained.

  13. Dynamic plasmonic colour display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaoyang; Kamin, Simon; Liu, Na

    2017-02-01

    Plasmonic colour printing based on engineered metasurfaces has revolutionized colour display science due to its unprecedented subwavelength resolution and high-density optical data storage. However, advanced plasmonic displays with novel functionalities including dynamic multicolour printing, animations, and highly secure encryption have remained in their infancy. Here we demonstrate a dynamic plasmonic colour display technique that enables all the aforementioned functionalities using catalytic magnesium metasurfaces. Controlled hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of the constituent magnesium nanoparticles, which serve as dynamic pixels, allow for plasmonic colour printing, tuning, erasing and restoration of colour. Different dynamic pixels feature distinct colour transformation kinetics, enabling plasmonic animations. Through smart material processing, information encoded on selected pixels, which are indiscernible to both optical and scanning electron microscopies, can only be read out using hydrogen as a decoding key, suggesting a new generation of information encryption and anti-counterfeiting applications.

  14. The Ultimate Display

    CERN Document Server

    Fluke, C J

    2016-01-01

    Astronomical images and datasets are increasingly high-resolution and multi-dimensional. The vast majority of astronomers perform all of their visualisation and analysis tasks on low-resolution, two-dimensional desktop monitors. If there were no technological barriers to designing the ultimate stereoscopic display for astronomy, what would it look like? What capabilities would we require of our compute hardware to drive it? And are existing technologies even close to providing a true 3D experience that is compatible with the depth resolution of human stereoscopic vision? We consider the CAVE2 (an 80 Megapixel, hybrid 2D and 3D virtual reality environment directly integrated with a 100 Tflop/s GPU-powered supercomputer) and the Oculus Rift (a low- cost, head-mounted display) as examples at opposite financial ends of the immersive display spectrum.

  15. Backscattering analyzer geometry as a straightforward and precise method for monochromator characterization at third-generation synchrotron-radiation sources (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snigirev, A. A.; Lequien, S.; Suvorov, A. Yu.

    1995-02-01

    With the assessment of the third generation of synchrotron-radiation sources, insertion devices (ID) are going to become extensively used. The choice of the ID field configuration allows the optimization of the photon flux at the desired energy. This attractive situation results in a much higher flux on optical elements, mainly on monochromators for which new cooling schemes have to be developed. These latter must be characterized under operating conditions and generally, the figure of merit for monochromators is the rocking curve (RC) measurement. By varying the ID field, the monochromator may be fully characterized with regard to the heat load. To achieve this aim, we have proposed and tested a double-crystal setup where a Si analyzer crystal installed in backscattering geometry (BSG) is coupled with a silicon p-i-n photodiode as the detection system (Fig. 1). The analyzer was a standard Si wafer (111) orientation, from which we used the following Bragg reflections: 333, 444, 555, 777, 888, 999, ... to measure the RCs of monochromators keeping the analyzer fixed. We were then able to probe the formers at the respective energies 5.9, 7.9, 9.9, 13.8, 15.8, 17.8 keV, etc. Setting the analyzer crystal in BSG, we get several-fold benefits from the method: (1) A very good angular resolution (˜10-6 rad) when one combines the BSG analyzer with narrow slits (˜100 μm). (2) A high-energy resolution yielding to a calibration of the monochromator with an accuracy better than 1 eV. (3) The analyzer crystal attenuates the reflected intensity which avoids the use of any scatterer foil to count the number of photons. We directly used photodiodes which are well known to respond linearly to radiation intensities and to have a high dynamic range (more than 6 decades). (4) No fine mechanics is needed for the analyzer, just a simple manual turntable can be used to set the analyzer in BSG through the utilization of a laser beam. Results on different tests for operating liquid-N2

  16. SOLIDFELIX: a transportable 3D static volume display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhans, Knut; Kreft, Alexander; Wörden, Henrik Tom

    2009-02-01

    monochrome, it is possible to create an RGB-display. For the same reasons we started tests with polymers. We were able to achieve meaningful results which point out a new direction in the investigation on polymers. For the reasons described above, our new solid state device is one of modular design. The simplicity to change all components makes it possible to do experiments with different display volumes and lasers for every specific purpose of the display in a very effective way. The images can be drawn inside the display volume by acousto-optic, galvanometric or polygon mirror deflection units. We control our galvanometric deflection unit with a personal computer and a selfwritten software which makes it easier to handle the setup and makes interactivity possible. This setup makes it a powerful and flexible tool to keep track with the rapid technological progress of today and helped us to experience the disadvantages and the advantages of most of the possible deflection units in practice. These experiences are a main element in our paper and lead to some conclusions which will be of big importance in future display developments. Potential applications include imaging and computer aided design as well as scientific data visualization.

  17. Refreshing Refreshable Braille Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russomanno, Alexander; O'Modhrain, Sile; Gillespie, R Brent; Rodger, Matthew W M

    2015-01-01

    The increased access to books afforded to blind people via e-publishing has given them long-sought independence for both recreational and educational reading. In most cases, blind readers access materials using speech output. For some content such as highly technical texts, music, and graphics, speech is not an appropriate access modality as it does not promote deep understanding. Therefore blind braille readers often prefer electronic braille displays. But, these are prohibitively expensive. The search is on, therefore, for a low-cost refreshable display that would go beyond current technologies and deliver graphical content as well as text. And many solutions have been proposed, some of which reduce costs by restricting the number of characters that can be displayed, even down to a single braille cell. In this paper, we demonstrate that restricting tactile cues during braille reading leads to poorer performance in a letter recognition task. In particular, we show that lack of sliding contact between the fingertip and the braille reading surface results in more errors and that the number of errors increases as a function of presentation speed. These findings suggest that single cell displays which do not incorporate sliding contact are likely to be less effective for braille reading.

  18. Virtual Auditory Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    timbre , intensity, distance, room modeling, radio communication Virtual Environments Handbook Chapter 4 Virtual Auditory Displays Russell D... musical note “A” as a pure sinusoid, there will be 440 condensations and rarefactions per second. The distance between two adjacent condensations or...and complexity are pitch, loudness, and timbre respectively. This distinction between physical and perceptual measures of sound properties is an

  19. Virtual acoustic displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Elizabeth M.

    1991-01-01

    A 3D auditory display can potentially enhance information transfer by combining directional and iconic information in a quite naturalistic representation of dynamic objects in the interface. Another aspect of auditory spatial clues is that, in conjunction with other modalities, it can act as a potentiator of information in the display. For example, visual and auditory cues together can reinforce the information content of the display and provide a greater sense of presence or realism in a manner not readily achievable by either modality alone. This phenomenon will be particularly useful in telepresence applications, such as advanced teleconferencing environments, shared electronic workspaces, and monitoring telerobotic activities in remote or hazardous situations. Thus, the combination of direct spatial cues with good principles of iconic design could provide an extremely powerful and information-rich display which is also quite easy to use. An alternative approach, recently developed at ARC, generates externalized, 3D sound cues over headphones in realtime using digital signal processing. Here, the synthesis technique involves the digital generation of stimuli using Head-Related Transfer Functions (HRTF's) measured in the two ear-canals of individual subjects. Other similar approaches include an analog system developed by Loomis, et. al., (1990) and digital systems which make use of transforms derived from normative mannikins and simulations of room acoustics. Such an interface also requires the careful psychophysical evaluation of listener's ability to accurately localize the virtual or synthetic sound sources. From an applied standpoint, measurement of each potential listener's HRTF's may not be possible in practice. For experienced listeners, localization performance was only slightly degraded compared to a subject's inherent ability. Alternatively, even inexperienced listeners may be able to adapt to a particular set of HRTF's as long as they provide adequate

  20. Application of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy analysis with a polychromator/monochromator combination the byproducts of coal-fired power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weers, C. A.

    The by-products of coal-fired power plants may be hazardous for the environment. Good analysis methods are therefore required in order to establish either a possible usage of the by-products or their possible storage. Preliminary experiments performed with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy have proven very successful. Moreover, the method is cost-effective. A short description is given of the optimized system for routine analysis. The system consists of a 2- and a 15-channel polychromator in combination with a monochromator. The opportunities is provides are also described. Use of the monochromator to analyze coal and run-off water from the flue-gases desulphurization, and of the polychromators to analyze coal fly-ash is described separately.

  1. A possibility of parallel and anti-parallel diffraction measurements on neutron diffractometer employing bent perfect crystal monochromator at the monochromatic focusing condition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yong Nam Choi; Shin Ae Kim; Sung Kyu Kim; Sung Baek Kim; Chang-Hee Lee; Pivel Mikula

    2004-07-01

    In a conventional diffractometer having single monochromator, only one position, parallel position, is used for the diffraction experiment (i.e. detection) because the resolution property of the other one, anti-parallel position, is very poor. However, a bent perfect crystal (BPC) monochromator at monochromatic focusing condition can provide a quite flat and equal resolution property at both parallel and anti-parallel positions and thus one can have a chance to use both sides for the diffraction experiment. From the data of the FWHM and the / measured on three diffraction geometries (symmetric, asymmetric compression and asymmetric expansion), we can conclude that the simultaneous diffraction measurement in both parallel and anti-parallel positions can be achieved.

  2. 中子单色器模拟分析研究%Simulation and Analysis of Spectrum Selection Affected by Neutron Monochromator's Parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍合勇; 唐科; 唐彬; 刘斌; 曹超

    2014-01-01

    为研究单色器对中子能谱的选择规律,本文利用MCSTAS程序模拟分析了机械速度选择器与晶体单色器几个特征参数对中子能量选择影响。分析结果显示经机械速度选择器单色选择中子注量率要下降1~2个量级,而晶体单色器要下降2~3个量级。因此,对于单色化要求比较高选用晶体单色器,对于实验时间要求较高的选用机械速度选择器。%To comprehend the selective rule of monochromator for neutron spectrum , the paper analyzes the effects of several characteristic parameters on neutron energy selection .The simulated results indicate that ve-locity selector could get high neutron flux , whose energy width -broadening becomes larger along with selected neutron peak wavelength , and crystal monochromator could get high energy resolution , whose energy width -broadening becomes narrower along with selected neutron peak wavelength .So it is suggested that crystal mono-chromator can be selected if high energy resolution is required , and mechanical velocity selector can be used if high neutron flux is required .

  3. Refrigerated display cabinets; Butikskyla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahlen, Per

    2000-07-01

    This report summarizes experience from SP research and assignments regarding refrigerated transport and storage of food, mainly in the retail sector. It presents the fundamentals of heat and mass transfer in display cabinets with special focus on indirect systems and secondary refrigerants. Moreover, the report includes a brief account of basic food hygiene and the related regulations. The material has been compiled for educational purposes in the Masters program at Chalmers Technical University.

  4. Book Display as Adult Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S. Moore

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available 無Book display as an adult service is defined as choosing and positioning adult books from the collection to increase their circulation. The author contrasts bookstore arrangement for sales versus library arrangement for access. The paper considers the library-as-a-whole as a display, examines the right size for an in-library display, and discusses mass displays, end-caps, on-shelf displays, and the Tiffany approach. The author proposes that an effective display depends on an imaginative, unifying theme, and that book displays are part of the joy of libraries.

  5. Handbook of Visual Display Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Cranton, Wayne; Fihn, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The Handbook of Visual Display Technology is a unique work offering a comprehensive description of the science, technology, economic and human interface factors associated with the displays industry. An invaluable compilation of information, the Handbook will serve as a single reference source with expert contributions from over 150 international display professionals and academic researchers. All classes of display device are covered including LCDs, reflective displays, flexible solutions and emissive devices such as OLEDs and plasma displays, with discussion of established principles, emergent technologies, and particular areas of application. The wide-ranging content also encompasses the fundamental science of light and vision, image manipulation, core materials and processing techniques, display driving and metrology.

  6. Latest development of display technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hong-Yue; Yao, Qiu-Xiang; Liu, Pan; Zheng, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Ji-Cheng; Zheng, Hua-Dong; Zeng, Chao; Yu, Ying-Jie; Sun, Tao; Zeng, Zhen-Xiang

    2016-09-01

    In this review we will focus on recent progress in the field of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) display technologies. We present the current display materials and their applications, including organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), flexible OLEDs quantum dot light emitting diodes (QLEDs), active-matrix organic light emitting diodes (AMOLEDs), electronic paper (E-paper), curved displays, stereoscopic 3D displays, volumetric 3D displays, light field 3D displays, and holographic 3D displays. Conventional 2D display devices, such as liquid crystal devices (LCDs) often result in ambiguity in high-dimensional data images because of lacking true depth information. This review thus provides a detailed description of 3D display technologies.

  7. Noite e dia e alguns monocromos psíquicos Night and day - and some psychical monochromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luiz André de Sousa

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta uma leitura do conto de Jack London "A sombra e o brilho" mostrando o funcionamento do princípio da mímesis no processo de identificação. Propõe-se a expressão monocromos psíquicos para esses espaços mentais de indiferenciação entre o eu e o Outro. Adota-se a tese de Caillois, que afirma que o eu é permeável ao espaço. Nessa perspectiva, o tema do duplo, amplamente desenvolvido por Freud, é fundamental. Partindo-se de notas sobre o trabalho do fotógrafo cego Bavcar, procura-se mostrar alguns traços da estrutura do olhar. O artigo finaliza mostrando as conexões possíveis dessas reflexões para a prática psicanalítica.The paper presents a reading of Jack London's tale "The Shadow and the brightness", showing how the principle of mimesis works in the process of the identification. We propose to call psychical monochromes the spaces of mental indifference between the self and the other. We follow the thesis of Roger Caillois: "the self is permeable in the space". In this perspective, the subject of the double, developped by Freud is essential. We try to show the dialectic of the structure of the look based in some notes about the work of the blind photographer Bavcar. The article finish with showing the possibles connections of all these points with the clinical work.

  8. LHCb Event display

    CERN Document Server

    Trisovic, Ana

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb Event Display was made for educational purposes at the European Organization for Nuclear Research, CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. The project was implemented as a stand-alone application using C++ and ROOT, a framework developed by CERN for data analysis. This paper outlines the development and architecture of the application in detail, as well as the motivation for the development and the goals of the exercise. The application focuses on the visualization of events recorded by the LHCb detector, where an event represents a set of charged particle tracks in one proton-proton collision. Every particle track is coloured by its type and can be selected to see its essential information such as mass and momentum. The application allows students to save this information and calculate the invariant mass for any pair of particles. Furthermore, the students can use additional calculating tools in the application and build up a histogram of these invariant masses. The goal for the students is to find a $D^0$ par...

  9. Colorimetry for CRT displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golz, Jürgen; MacLeod, Donald I A

    2003-05-01

    We analyze the sources of error in specifying color in CRT displays. These include errors inherent in the use of the color matching functions of the CIE 1931 standard observer when only colorimetric, not radiometric, calibrations are available. We provide transformation coefficients that prove to correct the deficiencies of this observer very well. We consider four different candidate sets of cone sensitivities. Some of these differ substantially; variation among candidate cone sensitivities exceeds the variation among phosphors. Finally, the effects of the recognized forms of observer variation on the visual responses (cone excitations or cone contrasts) generated by CRT stimuli are investigated and quantitatively specified. Cone pigment polymorphism gives rise to variation of a few per cent in relative excitation by the different phosphors--a variation larger than the errors ensuing from the adoption of the CIE standard observer, though smaller than the differences between some candidate cone sensitivities. Macular pigmentation has a larger influence, affecting mainly responses to the blue phosphor. The estimated combined effect of all sources of observer variation is comparable in magnitude with the largest differences between competing cone sensitivity estimates but is not enough to disrupt very seriously the relation between the L and M cone weights and the isoluminance settings of individual observers. It is also comparable with typical instrumental colorimetric errors, but we discuss these only briefly.

  10. A belief-propagation-based decoding method for two-dimensional barcodes with monochrome auxiliary lines robust against non-uniform geometric distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamizuru, Kohei; Nakamura, Kazuya; Kawasaki, Hiroshi; Ono, Satoshi

    2017-03-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) codes are widely used for various fields such as production, logistics, and marketing thanks to their larger capacity than one-dimensional barcodes. However, they are subject to distortion when printed on non-rigid materials, such as papers and clothes. Although general 2D code decoders correct uniform distortion such as perspective distortion, it is difficult to correct non-uniform and irregular distortion of the 2D code itself. This paper proposes a decoding method for the 2D code, which models monochrome auxiliary line recognition as Markov random field, and solves it using belief propagation.

  11. Data Display in Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Verdinelli PsyD

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Visual displays help in the presentation of inferences and conclusions and represent ways of organizing, summarizing, simplifying, or transforming data. Data displays such as matrices and networks are often utilized to enhance data analysis and are more commonly seen in quantitative than in qualitative studies. This study reviewed the data displays used by three prestigious qualitative research journals within a period of three years. The findings include the types of displays used in these qualitative journals, the frequency of use, and the purposes for using visual displays as opposed to presenting data in text.

  12. Unique interactive projection display screen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1997-11-01

    Projection systems continue to be the best method to produce large (1 meter and larger) displays. However, in order to produce a large display, considerable volume is typically required. The Polyplanar Optic Display (POD) is a novel type of projection display screen, which for the first time, makes it possible to produce a large projection system that is self-contained and only inches thick. In addition, this display screen is matte black in appearance allowing it to be used in high ambient light conditions. This screen is also interactive and can be remotely controlled via an infrared optical pointer resulting in mouse-like control of the display. Furthermore, this display need not be flat since it can be made curved to wrap around a viewer as well as being flexible.

  13. Augmenting digital displays with computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing

    As we inevitably step deeper and deeper into a world connected via the Internet, more and more information will be exchanged digitally. Displays are the interface between digital information and each individual. Naturally, one fundamental goal of displays is to reproduce information as realistically as possible since humans still care a lot about what happens in the real world. Human eyes are the receiving end of such information exchange; therefore it is impossible to study displays without studying the human visual system. In fact, the design of displays is rather closely coupled with what human eyes are capable of perceiving. For example, we are less interested in building displays that emit light in the invisible spectrum. This dissertation explores how we can augment displays with computation, which takes both display hardware and the human visual system into consideration. Four novel projects on display technologies are included in this dissertation: First, we propose a software-based approach to driving multiview autostereoscopic displays. Our display algorithm can dynamically assign views to hardware display zones based on multiple observers' current head positions, substantially reducing crosstalk and stereo inversion. Second, we present a dense projector array that creates a seamless 3D viewing experience for multiple viewers. We smoothly interpolate the set of viewer heights and distances on a per-vertex basis across the arrays field of view, reducing image distortion, crosstalk, and artifacts from tracking errors. Third, we propose a method for high dynamic range display calibration that takes into account the variation of the chrominance error over luminance. We propose a data structure for enabling efficient representation and querying of the calibration function, which also allows user-guided balancing between memory consumption and the amount of computation. Fourth, we present user studies that demonstrate that the ˜ 60 Hz critical flicker fusion

  14. Rapid display of radiographic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Jerome R., Jr.; Moore, Stephen M.; Whitman, Robert A.; Blaine, G. James; Jost, R. Gilbert; Karlsson, L. M.; Monsees, Thomas L.; Hassen, Gregory L.; David, Timothy C.

    1991-07-01

    The requirements for the rapid display of radiographic images exceed the capabilities of widely available display, computer, and communications technologies. Computed radiography captures data with a resolution of about four megapixels. Large-format displays are available that can present over four megapixels. One megapixel displays are practical for use in combination with large-format displays and in areas where the viewing task does not require primary diagnosis. This paper describes an electronic radiology system that approximates the highest quality systems, but through the use of several interesting techniques allows the possibility of its widespread installation throughout hospitals. The techniques used can be grouped under three major system concepts: a local, high-speed image server, one or more physician's workstations each with one or more high-performance auxiliary displays specialized to the radiology viewing task, and dedicated, high-speed communication links between the server and the displays. This approach is enhanced by the use of a progressive transmission scheme to decrease the latency for viewing four megapixel images. The system includes an image server with storage for over 600 4-megapixel images and a high-speed link. A subsampled megapixel image is fetched from disk and transmitted to the display in about one second followed by the full resolution 4-megapixel image in about 2.5 seconds. Other system components include a megapixel display with a 6-megapixel display memory space and frame-rate update of image roam, zoom, and contrast. Plans for clinical use are presented.

  15. Military display market segment: helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    2004-09-01

    The military display market is analyzed in terms of one of its segments: helicopter displays. Parameters requiring special consideration, to include luminance ranges, contrast ratio, viewing angles, and chromaticity coordinates, are examined. Performance requirements for rotary-wing displays relative to several premier applications are summarized. Display sizes having aggregate defense applications of 5,000 units or greater and having DoD applications across 10 or more platforms, are tabulated. The issue of size commonality is addressed where distribution of active area sizes across helicopter platforms, individually, in groups of two through nine, and ten or greater, is illustrated. Rotary-wing displays are also analyzed by technology, where total quantities of such displays are broken out into CRT, LCD, AMLCD, EM, LED, Incandescent, Plasma and TFEL percentages. Custom, versus Rugged commercial, versus commercial off-the-shelf designs are contrasted. High and low information content designs are identified. Displays for several high-profile military helicopter programs are discussed, to include both technical specifications and program history. The military display market study is summarized with breakouts for the helicopter market segment. Our defense-wide study as of March 2004 has documented 1,015,494 direct view and virtual image displays distributed across 1,181 display sizes and 503 weapon systems. Helicopter displays account for 67,472 displays (just 6.6% of DoD total) and comprise 83 sizes (7.0% of total DoD) in 76 platforms (15.1% of total DoD). Some 47.6% of these rotary-wing applications involve low information content displays comprising just a few characters in one color; however, as per fixed-wing aircraft, the predominant instantiation involves higher information content units capable of showing changeable graphics, color and video.

  16. Effect of visualization display colour on polyp conspicuity at virtual colonoscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burling, D. [Intestinal Imaging Centre, St Mark' s Hospital, Harrow, Middlesex (United Kingdom)], E-mail: burlingdavid@yahoo.co.uk; Moore, A.; Gupta, A.; East, J.; Tam, E.; Pickhardt, P.J.; Marshall, M.; Taylor, S.A. [Intestinal Imaging Centre, St Mark' s Hospital, Harrow, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2008-09-15

    Aim: To investigate the effect of different colour three-dimensional (3D) displays on polyp detection at virtual colonoscopy (VC). Methods: Five VC trained observers were shown 'brief flashes' (lasting 0.2 s) of 125 3D endoluminal image snap-shots, repeated for each of six display colours (750 images total). One hundred images contained a single polyp (diameter range 5-42 mm) and 25 contained no polyp ('normal'). Images were reviewed in random order over five reading sessions, readers recording either normality or presence and location of a polyp. Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine any influence of colour on polyp detection stratified according to polyp size (medium 5-9 mm/large {>=}10 mm). The kappa statistic was used to assess effect of colour on observer agreement. Results: Individual reader polyp detection rates ranged between 75-94%. Compared to the default pink 'soft tissue' display, the odds of polyp detection were 0.65 (CI 0.41,1.01) for green, 0.82 (0.53,1.30) for blue, 1 (0.63,1.59) for red, 1.12 (0.7,1.79) for monochrome, and 1.15 for yellow (0.72,1.84). Overall, there was no significant difference between the displays (p = 0.11). Including normal cases, there was no overall difference in correct case classification between the six colours (p = 0.44). The odds of detecting large versus medium polyps was significantly greater for 3/5 observers; odds ratio (OR) 2.84-10.1, although unaffected by display colour (p = 0.3). Conclusion: The background colour display generally has a minimal effect on polyp detection at VC, although green should be avoided.

  17. X-1 on display

    Science.gov (United States)

    1949-01-01

    A Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1 series aircraft on display at an Open House at NACA Muroc Flight Test Unit or High-Speed Flight Research Station hangar on South Base of Edwards Air Force Base, California. (The precise date of the photo is uncertain, but it is probably before 1948.) The instrumentation that was carried aboard the aircraft to gather data is on display. The aircraft data was recorded on oscillograph film that was read, calibrated, and converted into meaningful parameters for the engineers to evaluate from each research flight. In the background of the photo are several early U.S. jets. These include several Lockheed P-80 Shooting Stars, which were used as chase planes on X-1 flights; two Bell P-59 Airacomets, the first U.S. jet pursuit aircraft (fighter in later parlance); and a prototype Republic XP-84 Thunderjet. There were five versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for eXperimental Sonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant

  18. Synchrotron X-ray adaptative monochromator: study and realization of a prototype; Monochromateur adaptatif pour rayonnement X synchrotron: etude et realisation d`un prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dezoret, D.

    1995-12-12

    This work presents a study of a prototype of a synchrotron X-ray monochromator. The spectral qualities of this optic are sensitive to the heat loads which are particularly important on third synchrotron generation like ESRF. Indeed, powers generated by synchrotron beams can reach few kilowatts and power densities about a few tens watts per square millimeters. The mechanical deformations of the optical elements of the beamlines issue issue of the heat load can damage their spectral efficiencies. In order to compensate the deformations, wa have been studying the transposition of the adaptive astronomical optics technology to the x-ray field. First, we have considered the modifications of the spectral characteristics of a crystal induced by x-rays. We have established the specifications required to a technological realisation. Then, thermomechanical and technological studies have been required to transpose the astronomical technology to an x-ray technology. After these studies, we have begun the realisation of a prototype. This monochromator is composed by a crystal of silicon (111) bonded on a piezo-electric structure. The mechanical control is a loop system composed by a infrared light, a Shack-Hartmann CDD and wave front analyser. This system has to compensate the deformations of the crystal in the 5 kcV to 60 kcV energy range with a power density of 1 watt per square millimeters. (authors).

  19. A spherical grating monochromator and beamline optimised for the provision of polarised synchrotron radiation in the photon energy range 20-200 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finetti, P.; Holland, D.M.P. E-mail: d.m.p.holland@dl.ac.uk; Latimer, C.J.; Binns, C.; Quinn, F.M.; Bowler, M.A.; Grant, A.F.; Mythen, C.S

    2001-12-01

    The design and performance of a spherical grating monochromator and beamline optimised for experiments requiring polarised radiation are described. The beamline is mounted on a bending magnet source at the Synchrotron Radiation Source at Daresbury Laboratory, and the monochromator incorporates three gratings to cover the photon energy range 20-200 eV. The relative first- and higher-order grating efficiencies have been measured by means of photoelectron spectroscopy and have been compared to theoretical predictions. A movable aperture, placed in the optical path between the source and the first mirror, defines the photon emission directions of the beam entering the beamline. The polarisation of the radiation leaving the beamline is determined both by the vertical position of this aperture and by the modifications introduced by the beamline geometry and the optical components. The modification to the polarisation is difficult to calculate analytically, and a satisfactory quantitative assessment can only be accomplished through a combination of reflectivity and ray-tracing analysis. A reflection polarimeter has been used to obtain a full characterisation of the polarisation in the energy range 20-40 eV. These measurements have enabled the Stokes parameters to be deduced. The degree of linear polarisation has also been investigated through angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy measurements.

  20. Cryogenically cooled bent double-Laue monochromator for high-energy undulator X-rays (50-200 keV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastri, S D; Fezzaa, K; Mashayekhi, A; Lee, W K; Fernandez, P B; Lee, P L

    2002-09-01

    A liquid-nitrogen-cooled monochromator for high-energy X-rays consisting of two bent Si(111) Laue crystals adjusted to sequential Rowland conditions has been in operation for over two years at the SRI-CAT sector 1 undulator beamline of the Advanced Photon Source (APS). It delivers over ten times more flux than a flat-crystal monochromator does at high energies, without any increase in energy width (DeltaE/E approximately 10(-3)). Cryogenic cooling permits optimal flux, avoiding a sacrifice from the often employed alternative technique of filtration - a technique less effective at sources like the 7 GeV APS, where considerable heat loads can be deposited by high-energy photons, especially at closed undulator gaps. The fixed-offset geometry provides a fully tunable in-line monochromatic beam. In addition to presenting the optics performance, unique crystal design and stable bending mechanism for a cryogenically cooled crystal under high heat load, the bending radii adjustment procedures are described.

  1. Calculations and surface quality measurements of high-asymmetry angle x-ray crystal monochromators for advanced x-ray imaging and metrological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zápražný, Zdenko; Korytár, Dušan; Jergel, Matej; Šiffalovič, Peter; Dobročka, Edmund; Vagovič, Patrik; Ferrari, Claudio; Mikulík, Petr; Demydenko, Maksym; Mikloška, Marek

    2015-03-01

    We present the numerical optimization and the technological development progress of x-ray optics based on asymmetric germanium crystals. We show the results of several basic calculations of diffraction properties of germanium x-ray crystal monochromators and of an analyzer-based imaging method for various asymmetry factors using an x-ray energy range from 8 to 20 keV. The important parameter of highly asymmetric monochromators as image magnifiers or compressors is the crystal surface quality. We have applied several crystal surface finishing methods, including advanced nanomachining using single-point diamond turning (SPDT), conventional mechanical lapping, chemical polishing, and chemomechanical polishing, and we have evaluated these methods by means of atomic force microscopy, diffractometry, reciprocal space mapping, and others. Our goal is to exclude the chemical etching methods as the final processing technique because it causes surface undulations. The aim is to implement very precise deterministic methods with a control of surface roughness down to 0.1 nm. The smallest roughness (˜0.3 nm), best planarity, and absence of the subsurface damage were observed for the sample which was machined using an SPDT with a feed rate of 1 mm/min and was consequently polished using a fine polishing 15-min process with a solution containing SiO2 nanoparticles (20 nm).

  2. A point-focusing small angle x-ray scattering camera using a doubly curved monochromator of a W/Si multilayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasanuma, Yuji; Law, Robert V.; Kobayashi, Yuji

    1996-03-01

    A point-focusing small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) camera using a doubly curved monochromator of a W/Si multilayer has been designed, constructed, and tested. The two radii of curvature of the monochromator are 20 400 and 7.6 mm. The reflectivity of its first-order Bragg reflection for CuKα radiation was calculated to be 0.82, being comparable to that (0.81) of its total reflection. By only 10 s x-ray exposure, scattering from a high-density polyethylene film was detected on an imaging plate (IP). A rotating-anode x-ray generator operated at 40 kV and 30 mA was used. Diffraction from rat-tail collagen has shown that the optical arrangement gives the Bragg spacing up to, at least, 30 nm for CuKα radiation. Combined with IPs, the camera may permit us to carry out time-resolved SAXS measurements for phase behaviors of liquid crystals, lipids, polymer alloys, etc., on conventional x-ray generators available in laboratories.

  3. Laser illuminated flat panel display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1995-12-31

    A 10 inch laser illuminated flat panel Planar Optic Display (POD) screen has been constructed and tested. This POD screen technology is an entirely new concept in display technology. Although the initial display is flat and made of glass, this technology lends itself to applications where a plastic display might be wrapped around the viewer. The display screen is comprised of hundreds of planar optical waveguides where each glass waveguide represents a vertical line of resolution. A black cladding layer, having a lower index of refraction, is placed between each waveguide layer. Since the cladding makes the screen surface black, the contrast is high. The prototype display is 9 inches wide by 5 inches high and approximately I inch thick. A 3 milliwatt HeNe laser is used as the illumination source and a vector scanning technique is employed.

  4. Miniature information displays: primary applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvelda, Phillip; Lewis, Nancy D.

    1998-04-01

    Positioned to replace current liquid crystal display technology in many applications, miniature information displays have evolved to provide several truly portable platforms for the world's growing personal computing and communication needs. The technology and functionality of handheld computer and communicator systems has finally surpassed many of the standards that were originally established for desktop systems. In these new consumer electronics, performance, display size, packaging, power consumption, and cost have always been limiting factors for fabricating genuinely portable devices. The rapidly growing miniature information display manufacturing industry is making it possible to bring a wide range of highly anticipated new products to new markets.

  5. Colorimetric evaluation of display performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmowski, Bogdan B.

    2001-08-01

    The development of information techniques, using new technologies, physical phenomena and coding schemes, enables new application areas to be benefited form the introduction of displays. The full utilization of the visual perception of a human operator, requires the color coding process to be implemented. The evolution of displays, from achromatic (B&W) and monochromatic, to multicolor and full-color, enhances the possibilities of information coding, creating however a need for the quantitative methods of display parameter assessment. Quantitative assessment of color displays, restricted to photometric measurements of their parameters, is an estimate leading to considerable errors. Therefore, the measurements of a display's color properties have to be based on spectral measurements of the display and its elements. The quantitative assessment of the display system parameters should be made using colorimetric systems like CIE1931, CIE1976 LAB or LUV. In the paper, the constraints on the measurement method selection for the color display evaluation are discussed and the relations between their qualitative assessment and the ergonomic conditions of their application are also presented. The paper presents the examples of using LUV colorimetric system and color difference (Delta) E in the optimization of color liquid crystal displays.

  6. Maintenance Procedure Display: Head Mounted Display (HMD) Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Milrian; Litaker, Harry L., Jr.; Solem, Jody A.; Holden, Kritina L.; Hoffman, Ronald R.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing maintenance procedures for head mounted displays is shown. The topics include: 1) Study Goals; 2) Near Eye Displays (HMDs); 3) Design; 4) Phase I-Evaluation Methods; 5) Phase 1 Results; 6) Improved HMD Mounting; 7) Phase 2 -Evaluation Methods; 8) Phase 2 Preliminary Results; and 9) Next Steps.

  7. Large holographic displays for real-time applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerdtner, A.; Häussler, R.; Leister, N.

    2008-02-01

    Holography is generally accepted as the ultimate approach to display three-dimensional scenes or objects. Principally, the reconstruction of an object from a perfect hologram would appear indistinguishable from viewing the corresponding real-world object. Up to now two main obstacles have prevented large-screen Computer-Generated Holograms (CGH) from achieving a satisfactory laboratory prototype not to mention a marketable one. The reason is a small cell pitch CGH resulting in a huge number of hologram cells and a very high computational load for encoding the CGH. These seemingly inevitable technological hurdles for a long time have not been cleared limiting the use of holography to special applications, such as optical filtering, interference, beam forming, digital holography for capturing the 3-D shape of objects, and others. SeeReal Technologies has developed a new approach for real-time capable CGH using the socalled Tracked Viewing Windows technology to overcome these problems. The paper will show that today's state of the art reconfigurable Spatial Light Modulators (SLM), especially today's feasible LCD panels are suited for reconstructing large 3-D scenes which can be observed from large viewing angles. For this to achieve the original holographic concept of containing information from the entire scene in each part of the CGH has been abandoned. This substantially reduces the hologram resolution and thus the computational load by several orders of magnitude making thus real-time computation possible. A monochrome real-time prototype measuring 20 inches has been built and demonstrated at last year's SID conference and exhibition 2007 and at several other events.

  8. Updated defense display market assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    1999-08-01

    This paper addresses the number, function and size of principal military displays and establishes a basis to determine the opportunities for technology insertion in the immediate future and into the next millennium. Principal military displays are defined as those occupying appreciable crewstation real-estate and/or those without which the platform could not carry out its intended mission. DoD 'office' applications are excluded from this study. The military displays market is specified by such parameters as active area and footprint size, and other characteristics such as luminance, gray scale, resolution, angle, color, video capability, and night vision imaging system compatibility. Funded, future acquisitions, planned and predicted crewstation modification kits, and form-fit upgrades are taken into account. This paper provides an overview of the DoD niche market, allowing both government and industry a necessary reference by which to meet DoD requirements for military displays in a timely and cost-effective manner. The aggregate DoD installed base for direct-view and large-area military displays is presently estimated to be in excess of 313,000. Miniature displays are those which must be magnified to be viewed, involve a significantly different manufacturing paradigm and are used in helmet mounted displays and thermal weapon sight applications. Some 114,000 miniature displays are presently included within future weapon system acquisition plans. For vendor production planning purposes it is noted that foreign military sales could substantially increase these quantities. The vanishing vendor syndrome (VVS) for older display technologies continues to be a growing, pervasive problem throughout DoD, which consequently must leverage the more modern, especially flat panel, display technologies being developed to replace older, especially cathode ray tube, technology for civil-commercial markets. Total DoD display needs (FPD, HMD) are some 427,000.

  9. Flexible Bistable Cholesteric Reflective Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Ke

    2006-03-01

    Cholesteric liquid crystals (ChLCs) exhibit two stable states at zero field condition-the reflecting planar state and the nonreflecting focal conic state. ChLCs are an excellent candidate for inexpensive and rugged electronic books and papers. This paper will review the display cell structure,materials and drive schemes for flexible bistable cholesteric (Ch) reflective displays.

  10. Three-dimensional display technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jason

    2013-01-01

    The physical world around us is three-dimensional (3D), yet traditional display devices can show only two-dimensional (2D) flat images that lack depth (i.e., the third dimension) information. This fundamental restriction greatly limits our ability to perceive and to understand the complexity of real-world objects. Nearly 50% of the capability of the human brain is devoted to processing visual information [Human Anatomy & Physiology (Pearson, 2012)]. Flat images and 2D displays do not harness the brain's power effectively. With rapid advances in the electronics, optics, laser, and photonics fields, true 3D display technologies are making their way into the marketplace. 3D movies, 3D TV, 3D mobile devices, and 3D games have increasingly demanded true 3D display with no eyeglasses (autostereoscopic). Therefore, it would be very beneficial to readers of this journal to have a systematic review of state-of-the-art 3D display technologies.

  11. Flat panel display - Impurity doping technology for flat panel displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Toshiharu [Advanced Technology Planning, Sumitomo Eaton Nova Corporation, SBS Tower 9F, 10-1, Yoga 4-chome, Setagaya-ku, 158-0097 Tokyo (Japan)]. E-mail: suzuki_tsh@senova.co.jp

    2005-08-01

    Features of the flat panel displays (FPDs) such as liquid crystal display (LCD) and organic light emitting diode (OLED) display, etc. using low temperature poly-Si (LTPS) thin film transistors (TFTs) are briefly reviewed comparing with other FPDs. The requirements for fabricating TFTs used for high performance FPDs and system on glass (SoG) are addressed. This paper focuses on the impurity doping technology, which is one of the key technologies together with crystallization by laser annealing, formation of high quality gate insulator and gate-insulator/poly-Si interface. The issues to be solved in impurity doping technology for state of the art and future TFTs are clarified.

  12. Tone compatibility between HDR displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bist, Cambodge; Cozot, Rémi; Madec, Gérard; Ducloux, Xavier

    2016-09-01

    High Dynamic Range (HDR) is the latest trend in television technology and we expect an in ux of HDR capable consumer TVs in the market. Initial HDR consumer displays will operate on a peak brightness of about 500-1000 nits while in the coming years display peak brightness is expected to go beyond 1000 nits. However, professionally graded HDR content can range from 1000 to 4000 nits. As with Standard Dynamic Range (SDR) content, we can expect HDR content to be available in variety of lighting styles such as low key, medium key and high key video. This raises concerns over tone-compatibility between HDR displays especially when adapting to various lighting styles. It is expected that dynamic range adaptation between HDR displays uses similar techniques as found with tone mapping and tone expansion operators. In this paper, we survey simple tone mapping methods of 4000 nits color-graded HDR content for 1000 nits HDR displays. We also investigate tone expansion strategies when HDR content graded in 1000 nits is displayed on 4000 nits HDR monitors. We conclude that the best tone reproduction technique between HDR displays strongly depends on the lighting style of the content.

  13. Design,Simulation and Test for Double Focusing Si Monochromator of Neutron Residual Stress Diff ractometer%中子应力谱仪双聚焦 Si 单色器设计、模拟与测试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡瑞; 刘蕴韬; 王玮; 刘中孝; 李峻宏; 高建波; 王洪立; 陈东风

    2015-01-01

    The double focusing Si monochromator was designed ,simulated and tested for the neutron residual stress diffractometer on China Advanced Research Reactor .T he optimal vertical curvature and the optimal thickness of Si wafers were obtained by SIMRES simulation program .In addition ,the figure of merit in dependence on the scattering angle ,monochromator horizontal curvature and wavelength was also deter‐mined by this program . The neutron beam test results indicate that the intensity of neutron increases by 15 times by using double focusing Si monochromator in comparison with Cu monochromator .%本文对中国先进研究堆中子应力谱仪使用的双聚焦 Si单色器进行了设计、模拟和测试。采用SIM RES模拟程序确定了单色器垂直曲率及Si片厚度的最优值,并得到品质因数与散射角、单色器水平曲率和波长的依赖关系。实际测试结果表明,与平板Cu单色器相比,使用双聚焦Si单色器样品处中子强度提高了15倍。

  14. High-Pressure-Hydrogen-Induced Spin Reconfiguration in GdFe2 Observed by 57Fe-Polarized Synchrotron Radiation Mössbauer Spectroscopy with Nuclear Bragg Monochromator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, Takaya; Imai, Yasuhiko; Hirao, Naohisa; Matsuoka, Takahiro; Nakamura, Yumiko; Sakaki, Kouji; Enoki, Hirotoshi; Ishimatsu, Naoki; Masuda, Ryo; Seto, Makoto

    2016-12-01

    57Fe-polarized synchrotron radiation Mössbauer spectroscopy (PSRMS) with an X-ray phase plate and a nuclear Bragg monochromator was used to study ferrimagnetic GdFe2 in high-pressure hydrogen. The pressure-dependent spectra clearly showed a two-step magnetic transition of GdFe2. 57Fe-PSRMS with circular polarization gave direct evidence that the Fe moment was directed parallel to the net magnetization of the GdFe2 hydride at 20 GPa. This spin configuration was opposite to that of the initial GdFe2, suggesting an extreme weakening of the antiferromagnetic interaction between Fe and Gd. 57Fe-PSRMS enables the characterization of the nonuniform properties of iron-based polycrystalline powder alloys. The excellent applicability of 57Fe-PSRMS covers a wide range of scientific fields.

  15. A table-top monochromator for tunable femtosecond XUV pulses generated in a semi-infinite gas cell: Experiment and simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Conta, A; Huppert, M; Wörner, H J

    2016-07-01

    We present a new design of a time-preserving extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) monochromator using a semi-infinite gas cell as a source. The performance of this beamline in the photon-energy range of 20 eV-42 eV has been characterized. We have measured the order-dependent XUV pulse durations as well as the flux and the spectral contrast. XUV pulse durations of ≤40 fs using 32 fs, 800 nm driving pulses were measured on the target. The spectral contrast was better than 100 over the entire energy range. A simple model based on the strong-field approximation is presented to estimate different contributions to the measured XUV pulse duration. On-axis phase-matching calculations are used to rationalize the variation of the photon flux with pressure and intensity.

  16. ENERGY STAR Certified Displays - Deprecated

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset is up-to-date but newer better data can be retrieved at: https://data.energystar.gov/dataset/ENERGY-STAR-Certified-Displays/xsyb-v8gs Certified models...

  17. Color speckle in laser displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Kazuo

    2015-07-01

    At the beginning of this century, lighting technology has been shifted from discharge lamps, fluorescent lamps and electric bulbs to solid-state lighting. Current solid-state lighting is based on the light emitting diodes (LED) technology, but the laser lighting technology is developing rapidly, such as, laser cinema projectors, laser TVs, laser head-up displays, laser head mounted displays, and laser headlamps for motor vehicles. One of the main issues of laser displays is the reduction of speckle noise1). For the monochromatic laser light, speckle is random interference pattern on the image plane (retina for human observer). For laser displays, RGB (red-green-blue) lasers form speckle patterns independently, which results in random distribution of chromaticity, called color speckle2).

  18. Ultraminiature, Micropower Multipurpose Display Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High information content electronic displays remain the most difficult element of the human-machine interface to effectively miniaturize. Mobile applications need a...

  19. Effective color design for displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Lindsay W.

    2002-06-01

    Visual communication is a key aspect of human-computer interaction, which contributes to the satisfaction of user and application needs. For effective design of presentations on computer displays, color should be used in conjunction with the other visual variables. The general needs of graphic user interfaces are discussed, followed by five specific tasks with differing criteria for display color specification - advertising, text, information, visualization and imaging.

  20. Performance studies of electrochromic displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Ciprian; Dobre, Robert Alexandru

    2015-02-01

    The idea of having flexible, very thin, light, low power and even low cost display devices implemented using new materials and technologies is very exciting. Nowadays we can talk about more than just concepts, such devices exist, and they are part of an emerging concept: FOLAE (Flexible Organic and Large Area Electronics). Among the advantages of electrochromic devices are the low power consumption (they are non-emissive, i.e. passive) and the aspect like ink on paper with good viewing angle. Some studies are still necessary for further development, before proper performances are met and the functional behavior can be predicted. This paper presents the results of the research activity conducted to develop electric characterization platform for the organic electronics display devices, especially electrochromic displays, to permit a thorough study. The hardware part of platform permits the measuring of different electric and optical parameters. Charging/discharging a display element presents high interest for optimal driving circuitry. In this sense, the corresponding waveforms are presented. The contrast of the display is also measured for different operation conditions as driving voltage levels and duration. The effect of temperature on electrical and optical parameters (contrast) of the display will be also presented.

  1. COREMAP: Graphical user interface for displaying reactor core data in an interactive hexagon map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muscat, F.L.; Derstine, K.L.

    1995-06-01

    COREMAP is a Graphical User Interface (GUI) designed to assist users read and check reactor core data from multidimensional neutronic simulation models in color and/or as text in an interactive 2D planar grid of hexagonal subassemblies. COREMAP is a complete GEODST/RUNDESC viewing tool which enables the user to access multi data set files (e.g. planes, moments, energy groups ,... ) and display up to two data sets simultaneously, one as color and the other as text. The user (1) controls color scale characteristics such as type (linear or logarithmic) and range limits, (2) controls the text display based upon conditional statements on data spelling, and value. (3) chooses zoom features such as core map size, number of rings and surrounding subassemblies, and (4) specifies the data selection for supplied popup subwindows which display a selection of data currently off-screen for a selected cell, as a list of data and/or as a graph. COREMAP includes a RUNDESC file editing tool which creates ``proposed`` Run-description files by point and click revisions to subassembly assignments in an existing EBRII Run-description file. COREMAP includes a fully automated printing option which creates high quality PostScript color or greyscale images of the core map independent of the monitor used, e.g. color prints can be generated with a session from a color or monochrome monitor. The automated PostScript output is an alternative to the xgrabsc based printing option. COREMAP includes a plotting option which creates graphs related to a selected cell. The user specifies the X and Y coordinates types (planes, moment, group, flux ,... ) and a parameter, P, when displaying several curves for the specified (X, Y) pair COREMAP supports hexagonal geometry reactor core configurations specified by: the GEODST file and binary Standard Interface Files and the RUNDESC ordering.

  2. The VLT Real Time Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlin, T.; Brighton, A.; Biereichel, P.

    The VLT Real-Time Display (RTD) software was developed in order to support image display in real-time, providing a tool for users to display video like images from a camera or detector as fast as possible on an X-Server. The RTD software is implemented as a package providing a Tcl/Tk image widget written in C++ and an independent image handling library and can be used as a building block, adding display capabilities to dedicated VLT control applications. The RTD widget provides basic image display functionality like: panning, zooming, color scaling, colormaps, intensity changes, pixel query, overlaying of line graphics. A large set of assisting widgets, e.g., colorbar, zoom window, spectrum plot are provided to enable the building of image applications. The support for real-time is provided by an RTD image event mechanism used for camera or detector subsystems to pass images to the RTD widget. Image data are passed efficiently via shared memory. This paper describes the architecture of the RTD software and summarizes the features provided by RTD.

  3. Transmission Photoelectron Microscopy Of Diatoms At The Multilayer Monochromator Beamline U125-1/ML At BESSY II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, M.; Kleineberg, U.; Heinzmann, U.

    2004-05-01

    A new setup for Transmission Photoelectron Microscopy (T-PEEM) at the 3rd generation Berlin electron storage ring BESSY II is reported and initial results on imaging of dried diatom algae immobilized on a thin silicon membrane are described. The T-PEEM images recorded at a photon energy of 95 eV display a spatial resolution of better than 65 nm. Furthermore spectroscopic imaging is enabled by tuning the illuminating photon energy in the vicinity of x-ray absorption edges.

  4. Phosphors for flat panel emissive displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, M.T.; Walko, R.J.; Phillips, M.L.F.

    1995-07-01

    An overview of emissive display technologies is presented. Display types briefly described include: cathode ray tubes (CRTs), field emission displays (FEDs), electroluminescent displays (ELDs), and plasma display panels (PDPs). The critical role of phosphors in further development of the latter three flat panel emissive display technologies is outlined. The need for stable, efficient red, green, and blue phosphors for RGB fall color displays is emphasized.

  5. BES Monitoring & Displaying System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MengWANG; BingyunZHANG; 等

    2001-01-01

    BES1 Monitoring & Displaying System(BESMDS)is projected to monitor and display the running status of DAQ and Slow Control systems of BES through the Web for worldwide accessing.It provides a real-time remote means of monitoring as well as an approach to study the environmental influence upon physical data taking.The system collects real-time data separately from BES online subsystems by network sockets and stores the data into a database.People can access the system through its web site.which retrieves data on request from the database and can display results in dynamically created images.Its web address in http:// besmds,ihep.ac.cn/

  6. Engineering antibodies by yeast display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boder, Eric T; Raeeszadeh-Sarmazdeh, Maryam; Price, J Vincent

    2012-10-15

    Since its first application to antibody engineering 15 years ago, yeast display technology has been developed into a highly potent tool for both affinity maturing lead molecules and isolating novel antibodies and antibody-like species. Robust approaches to the creation of diversity, construction of yeast libraries, and library screening or selection have been elaborated, improving the quality of engineered molecules and certainty of success in an antibody engineering campaign and positioning yeast display as one of the premier antibody engineering technologies currently in use. Here, we summarize the history of antibody engineering by yeast surface display, approaches used in its application, and a number of examples highlighting the utility of this method for antibody engineering.

  7. PROGRAMMABLE DISPLAY PUSHBUTTON LEGEND EDITOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquets, A. M.

    1994-01-01

    The Programmable Display Pushbutton (PDP) is a pushbutton device available from Micro Switch which has a programmable 16 x 35 matrix of LEDs on the pushbutton surface. Any desired legends can be displayed on the PDPs, producing user-friendly applications which greatly reduce the need for dedicated manual controls. Because the PDP can interact with the operator, it can call for the correct response before transmitting its next message. It is both a simple manual control and a sophisticated programmable link between the operator and the host system. The Programmable Display Pushbutton Legend Editor, PDPE, is used to create the LED displays for the pushbuttons. PDPE encodes PDP control commands and legend data into message byte strings sent to a Logic Refresh and Control Unit (LRCU). The LRCU serves as the driver for a set of four PDPs. The legend editor (PDPE) transmits to the LRCU user specified commands that control what is displayed on the LED face of the individual pushbuttons. Upon receiving a command, the LRCU transmits an acknowledgement that the message was received and executed successfully. The user then observes the effect of the command on the PDP displays and decides whether or not to send the byte code of the message to a data file so that it may be called by an applications program. The PDPE program is written in FORTRAN for interactive execution. It was developed on a DEC VAX 11/780 under VMS. It has a central memory requirement of approximately 12800 bytes. It requires four Micro Switch PDPs and two RS-232 VAX 11/780 terminal ports. The PDPE program was developed in 1985.

  8. Computational multi-projection display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Seokil; Park, Soon-Gi; Lee, Chang-Kun; Cho, Jaebum; Lee, Seungjae; Lee, Byoungho

    2016-04-18

    A computational multi-projection display is proposed by employing a multi-projection system combining with compressive light field displays. By modulating the intensity of light rays from a spatial light modulator inside a single projector, the proposed system can offer several compact views to observer. Since light rays are spread to all directions, the system can provide flexible positioning of viewpoints without stacking projectors in vertical direction. Also, if the system is constructed properly, it is possible to generate view images with inter-pupillary gap and satisfy the super multi-view condition. We explain the principle of the proposed system and verify its feasibility with simulations and experimental results.

  9. Display standards for commercial flight decks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberth, Larry S.; Penn, Cecil W.

    1994-06-01

    SAE display standards are used as guidelines for certifying commercial airborne electronic displays. The SAE document generation structure and approval process is described. The SAE committees that generate display standards are described. Three SAE documents covering flat panel displays (AS-8034, ARP-4256, and ARP-4260) are discussed with their current status. Head-Up Display documents are also in work.

  10. Display Apple M7649Zm

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    It was Designed for the Power Mac G4. This Apple studio display gives you edge-to-edge distortion-free images. With more than 16.7 million colors and 1,280 x 1,024 dpi resolution, you view brilliant and bright images on this Apple 17-inch monitor.

  11. Book Display as Adult Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Matthew S.

    1997-01-01

    Defines book display as an adult service as choosing and positioning adult books from the library collection to increase their circulation. The author contrasts bookstore arrangement for sales versus library arrangement for access, including contrasting missions, genre grouping, weeding, problems, and dimensions. (Author/LRW)

  12. Real Time Sonic Boom Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haering, Ed

    2014-01-01

    This presentation will provide general information about sonic boom mitigation technology to the public in order to supply information to potential partners and licensees. The technology is a combination of flight data, atmospheric data and terrain information implemented into a control room real time display for flight planning. This research is currently being performed and as such, any results and conclusions are ongoing.

  13. Graphics Display of Foreign Scripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, John R.

    1987-01-01

    Describes Graphics Project for Foreign Language Learning at the University of Pennsylvania, which has developed ways of displaying foreign scripts on microcomputers. Character design on computer screens is explained; software for graphics, printing, and language instruction is discussed; and a text editor is described that corrects optically…

  14. Verbal Modification via Visual Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Edmun B.; Wallace-Childers, La Donna

    1977-01-01

    The inability of foreign language students to produce acceptable approximations of new vowel sounds initiated a study to devise a real-time visual display system whereby the students could match vowel production to a visual pedagogical model. The system used amateur radio equipment and a standard oscilloscope. (CHK)

  15. Colour displays for categorical images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glasbey, C.; Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Toh, V.F.K.; Gray, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a method for identifying a set of colours for displaying 2D and 3D categorical images when the categories are unordered labels. The principle is to find maximally distinct sets of colours. We either generate colours sequentially, to maximize the dissimilarity or distance between a new col

  16. Autostereoscopic display with eye tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomono, Takao; Hoon, Kyung; Ha, Yong Soo; Kim, Sung-Sik; Son, Jung-Young

    2002-05-01

    Auto-stereoscopic 21-inch display with eye tracking having wide viewing zone and bright image was fabricated. The image of display is projected to retinal through several optical components. We calculated optical system for wider viewing zone by using Inverse-Ray Trace Method. The viewing zone of first model is 155mm (theoretical value: 161mm). We could widen viewing zone by controlling paraxial radius of curvature of spherical mirror, the distance between lenses and so on. The viewing zone of second model is 208mm. We used two spherical mirrors to obtain twice brightness. We applied eye-tracking system to the display system. Eye recognition is based on neural network card based on ZICS technology. We fabricated Auto-stereoscopic 21-inch display with eye tracking. We measured viewing zone based on illumination area. The viewing zone was 206mm, which was close to theoretical value. We could get twice brightness also. We could see 3D image according to position without headgear.

  17. Crystal ball single event display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosnick, D.; Gibson, A. [Valparaiso Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Allgower, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). High Energy Physics Div.; Alyea, J. [Valparaiso Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). High Energy Physics Div.

    1997-10-15

    The Single Event Display (SED) is a routine that is designed to provide information graphically about a triggered event within the Crystal Ball. The SED is written entirely in FORTRAN and uses the CERN-based HICZ graphing package. The primary display shows the amount of energy deposited in each of the NaI crystals on a Mercator-like projection of the crystals. Ten different shades and colors correspond to varying amounts of energy deposited within a crystal. Information about energy clusters is displayed on the crystal map by outlining in red the thirteen (or twelve) crystals contained within a cluster and assigning each cluster a number. Additional information about energy clusters is provided in a series of boxes containing useful data about the energy distribution among the crystals within the cluster. Other information shown on the event display include the event trigger type and data about {pi}{sup o}`s and {eta}`s formed from pairs of clusters as found by the analyzer. A description of the major features is given, along with some information on how to install the SED into the analyzer.

  18. GridOrbit public display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos, Juan David Hincapie; Tabard, Aurélien; Bardram, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    We introduce GridOrbit, a public awareness display that visualizes the activity of a community grid used in a biology laboratory. This community grid executes bioin-formatics algorithms and relies on users to donate CPU cycles to the grid. The goal of GridOrbit is to create a shared awareness about...

  19. Information retrieval and display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groover, J. L.; King, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    Versatile command-driven data management system offers users, through simplified command language, a means of storing and searching data files, sorting data files into specified orders, performing simple or complex computations, effecting file updates, and printing or displaying output data. Commands are simple to use and flexible enough to meet most data management requirements.

  20. Display Sharing: An Alternative Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    The current Johnson Space Center (JSC) Mission Control Center (MCC) Video Transport System (VTS) provides flight controllers and management the ability to meld raw video from various sources with telemetry to improve situational awareness. However, maintaining a separate infrastructure for video delivery and integration of video content with data adds significant complexity and cost to the system. When considering alternative architectures for a VTS, the current system's ability to share specific computer displays in their entirety to other locations, such as large projector systems, flight control rooms, and back supporting rooms throughout the facilities and centers must be incorporated into any new architecture. Internet Protocol (IP)-based systems also support video delivery and integration. IP-based systems generally have an advantage in terms of cost and maintainability. Although IP-based systems are versatile, the task of sharing a computer display from one workstation to another can be time consuming for an end-user and inconvenient to administer at a system level. The objective of this paper is to present a prototype display sharing enterprise solution. Display sharing is a system which delivers image sharing across the LAN while simultaneously managing bandwidth, supporting encryption, enabling recovery and resynchronization following a loss of signal, and, minimizing latency. Additional critical elements will include image scaling support, multi -sharing, ease of initial integration and configuration, integration with desktop window managers, collaboration tools, host and recipient controls. This goal of this paper is to summarize the various elements of an IP-based display sharing system that can be used in today's control center environment.

  1. Displays for future intermediate UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel; Metzler, James; Blakesley, David; Rister, Courtney; Nuhu, Abdul-Razak

    2008-04-01

    The Dedicated Autonomous Extended Duration Airborne Long-range Utility System (DAEDALUS) is a prototype Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) that won the 2007 AFRL Commander's Challenge. The purpose of the Commander's Challenge was to find an innovative solution to urgent warfighter needs by designing a UAV with increased persistence for tactical employment of sensors and communication systems. DAEDALUS was chosen as a winning prototype by AFRL, AFMC and SECAF. Follow-on units are intended to fill an intermediate role between currently fielded Tier I and Tier II UAV's. The UAV design discussed in this paper, including sensors and displays, will enter Phase II for Rapid Prototype Development with the intent of developing the design for eventual production. This paper will discuss the DAEDALUS UAV prototype system, with particular focus on its communications, to include the infrared sensor and electro-optical camera, but also displays, specifically man-portable.

  2. Characterization of the rotating display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, J W; Fahey, F H; Harkness, B A; Eggli, D F; Balseiro, J; Ziessman, H A

    1988-09-01

    The rotating display is a useful method for reviewing single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) data. This study evaluated the requirements for a subjectively pleasing and useful implementation of this technique. Twelve SPECT data sets were modified and viewed by several observers who recorded the minimum framing rates for apparent smooth rotation, 3D effect, effects of image size, and other parameters. The results showed that a minimum of 16 frames was needed for a useful display. Smaller image sizes and more frames were preferred. The recommended minimal framing rate for a 64-frame study is 16-17 frames per second and for a 32-frame study, 12-13 frames per second. Other enhancements also were useful.

  3. Interactive display of polygonal data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, P.M.

    1977-10-01

    Interactive computer graphics is an excellent approach to many types of applications. It is an exciting method of doing geographic analysis when desiring to rapidly examine existing geographically related data or to display specially prepared data and base maps for publication. One such program is the interactive thematic mapping system called CARTE, which combines polygonal base maps with statistical data to produce shaded maps using a variety of shading symbolisms on a variety of output devices. A polygonal base map is one where geographic entities are described by points, lines, or polygons. It is combined with geocoded data to produce special subject or thematic maps. Shading symbolisms include texture shading for areas, varying widths for lines, and scaled symbols for points. Output devices include refresh and storage CRTs and auxiliary Calcomp or COM hardcopy. The system is designed to aid in the quick display of spatial data and in detailed map design.

  4. Game engines and immersive displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Benjamin; Destefano, Marc

    2014-02-01

    While virtual reality and digital games share many core technologies, the programming environments, toolkits, and workflows for developing games and VR environments are often distinct. VR toolkits designed for applications in visualization and simulation often have a different feature set or design philosophy than game engines, while popular game engines often lack support for VR hardware. Extending a game engine to support systems such as the CAVE gives developers a unified development environment and the ability to easily port projects, but involves challenges beyond just adding stereo 3D visuals. In this paper we outline the issues involved in adapting a game engine for use with an immersive display system including stereoscopy, tracking, and clustering, and present example implementation details using Unity3D. We discuss application development and workflow approaches including camera management, rendering synchronization, GUI design, and issues specific to Unity3D, and present examples of projects created for a multi-wall, clustered, stereoscopic display.

  5. Proof nets for display logic

    CERN Document Server

    Moot, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores several extensions of proof nets for the Lambek calculus in order to handle the different connectives of display logic in a natural way. The new proof net calculus handles some recent additions to the Lambek vocabulary such as Galois connections and Grishin interactions. It concludes with an exploration of the generative capacity of the Lambek-Grishin calculus, presenting an embedding of lexicalized tree adjoining grammars into the Lambek-Grishin calculus.

  6. Modern Display Technologies and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    conventional tubes, LSI circuitry offers the possibility of correcting some of the deficiencies in electron-optic perform- ance and may lead to acceptable...certain ceramic materials such as PLZT (lead lanthanum zirconate titanate) can be utilized for display applications. PLZT is transparent in the visible...consuming power (3.8.12). 3.8.4.2 State of development, Magnetic particles have been made of polyethylene with powdered Strontium ferrite as a filler

  7. Striations in Plasma Display Panel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG Ji-Ting; CAO Jing; MIAO Jin-Song

    2005-01-01

    @@ The phenomenon of striation has been investigated experimentally in a macroscopic ac-plasma display panel (PDP). The relationship between the characteristics of striation and the operation conditions including voltage, frequency, rib, and electrode configuration, etc is obtained experimentally. The origin of the striations is considered to be the ionization waves in the transient positive column near the dielectric surface in the anode area during the discharge, and the perturbation is caused by resonance kinetic effects in inert gas.

  8. Multiview synthesis for autostereoscopic displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, Gökçe.; Bhaskaran, Vasudev

    2013-09-01

    Autostereoscopic (AS) displays spatially multiplex multiple views, providing a more immersive experience by enabling users to view the content from different angles without the need of 3D glasses. Multiple views could be captured from multiple cameras at different orientations, however this could be expensive, time consuming and not applicable to some applications. The goal of multiview synthesis in this paper is to generate multiple views from a stereo image pair and disparity map by using various video processing techniques including depth/disparity map processing, initial view interpolation, inpainting and post-processing. We specifically emphasize the need for disparity processing when there is no depth information is available that is associated with the 2D data and we propose a segmentation based disparity processing algorithm to improve disparity map. Furthermore we extend the texture based 2D inpainting algorithm to 3D and further improve the hole-filling performance of view synthesis. The benefit of each step of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated with comparison to state of the art algorithms in terms of visual quality and PSNR metric. Our system is evaluated in an end-to-end multi view synthesis framework where only stereo image pair is provided as input to the system and 8 views are outputted and displayed in 8-view Alioscopy AS display.

  9. Method for characterization of a spherically bent crystal for K.alpha. X-ray imaging of laser plasmas using a focusing monochromator geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugland, Nathan; Doeppner, Tilo; Glenzer, Siegfried; Constantin, Carmen; Niemann, Chris; Neumayer, Paul

    2015-04-07

    A method is provided for characterizing spectrometric properties (e.g., peak reflectivity, reflection curve width, and Bragg angle offset) of the K.alpha. emission line reflected narrowly off angle of the direct reflection of a bent crystal and in particular of a spherically bent quartz 200 crystal by analyzing the off-angle x-ray emission from a stronger emission line reflected at angles far from normal incidence. The bent quartz crystal can therefore accurately image argon K.alpha. x-rays at near-normal incidence (Bragg angle of approximately 81 degrees). The method is useful for in-situ calibration of instruments employing the crystal as a grating by first operating the crystal as a high throughput focusing monochromator on the Rowland circle at angles far from normal incidence (Bragg angle approximately 68 degrees) to make a reflection curve with the He-like x-rays such as the He-.alpha. emission line observed from a laser-excited plasma.

  10. New measuring concepts using integrated online analysis of color and monochrome digital high-speed camera sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renz, Harald

    1997-05-01

    High speed sequences allow a subjective assessment of very fast processes and serve as an important basis for the quantitative analysis of movements. Computer systems help to acquire, handle, display and store digital image sequences as well as to perform measurement tasks automatically. High speed cameras have been used since several years for safety tests, material testing or production optimization. To get the very high speed of 1000 or more images per second, three have been used mainly 16 mm film cameras, which could provide an excellent image resolution and the required time resolution. But up to now, most results have been only judged by viewing. For some special applications like safety tests using crash or high-g sled tests in the automobile industry there have been used image analyzing techniques to measure also the characteristic of moving objects inside images. High speed films, shot during the short impact, allow judgement of the dynamic scene. Additionally they serve as an important basis for the quantitative analysis of the very fast movements. Thus exact values of the velocity and acceleration, the dummies or vehicles are exposed to, can be derived. For analysis of the sequences the positions of signalized points--mostly markers, which are fixed by the test engineers before a test--have to be measured frame by frame. The trajectories show the temporal sequence of the test objects and are the base for calibrated diagrams of distance, velocity and acceleration. Today there are replaced more and more 16 mm film cameras by electronic high speed cameras. The development of high-speed recording systems is very far advanced and the prices of these systems are more and more comparable to those of traditional film cameras. Also the resolution has been increased very greatly. The new cameras are `crashproof' and can be used for similar tasks as the 16 mm film cameras at similar sizes. High speed video cameras now offer an easy setup and direct access to

  11. Gestures to Intuitively Control Large Displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fikkert, F.W.; Vet, van der P.E.; Rauwerda, H.; Breit, T.; Nijholt, A.; Sales Dias, M.; Gibet, S.; Wanderley, M.W.; Bastos, R.

    2009-01-01

    Large displays are highly suited to support discussions in empirical science. Such displays can display project results on a large digital surface to feed the discussion. This paper describes our approach to closely involve multidisciplinary omics scientists in the design of an intuitive display con

  12. 27 CFR 6.55 - Display service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Distribution Service § 6.55 Display service. Industry member reimbursements to retailers for setting up product or other displays constitutes paying the retailer for rendering a display service within the meaning... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Display service. 6.55...

  13. Review of Defense Display Research Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Programs Flat Panel Autostereoscopic N-perspective 3D High Definition DMD Digital Projector Light Piping & Quantum Cavity Displays Solid State Laser...Megapixel Displays • Size Commonality • 67 % Weight Reduction • > 200 sq. in. per Display 20-20 Vision Simulators True 3D , sparse symbols Foldable Display...megapixel 2D and True 3D Display Technology 25M & T3D FY02-FY06 New service thrusts

  14. Recent Trend in Development of Olfactory Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Yasuyuki

    An olfactory display is a device that generates scented air with desired concentration of aroma, and delivers it to the user's olfactory organ. In this article, the nature of olfaction is briefly described from the view point of how to configure olfactory displays. Next, component technologies to compose olfactory displays, i.e., making scents and delivering scents, are categorized. Several existing olfactory display systems are introduced to show the current status of research and development of olfactory displays.

  15. Optical display for radar sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szu, Harold; Hsu, Charles; Willey, Jefferson; Landa, Joseph; Hsieh, Minder; Larsen, Louis V.; Krzywicki, Alan T.; Tran, Binh Q.; Hoekstra, Philip; Dillard, John T.; Krapels, Keith A.; Wardlaw, Michael; Chu, Kai-Dee

    2015-05-01

    Boltzmann headstone S = kB Log W turns out to be the Rosette stone for Greek physics translation optical display of the microwave sensing hieroglyphics. The LHS is the molecular entropy S measuring the degree of uniformity scattering off the sensing cross sections. The RHS is the inverse relationship (equation) predicting the Planck radiation spectral distribution parameterized by the Kelvin temperature T. Use is made of the conservation energy law of the heat capacity of Reservoir (RV) change T Δ S = -ΔE equals to the internal energy change of black box (bb) subsystem. Moreover, an irreversible thermodynamics Δ S > 0 for collision mixing toward totally larger uniformity of heat death, asserted by Boltzmann, that derived the so-called Maxwell-Boltzmann canonical probability. Given the zero boundary condition black box, Planck solved a discrete standing wave eigenstates (equation). Together with the canonical partition function (equation) an average ensemble average of all possible internal energy yielded the celebrated Planck radiation spectral (equation) where the density of states (equation). In summary, given the multispectral sensing data (equation), we applied Lagrange Constraint Neural Network (LCNN) to solve the Blind Sources Separation (BSS) for a set of equivalent bb target temperatures. From the measurements of specific value, slopes and shapes we can fit a set of Kelvin temperatures T's for each bb targets. As a result, we could apply the analytical continuation for each entropy sources along the temperature-unique Planck spectral curves always toward the RGB color temperature display for any sensing probing frequency.

  16. Simulated monitor display for CCTV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    Two computer programs have been developed which generate a two-dimensional graphic perspective of the video output produced by a Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) camera. Both programs were primarily written to produce a graphic display simulating the field-of-view (FOV) of a perimeter assessment system as seen on a CCTV monitor. The original program was developed for use on a Tektronix 4054 desktop computer; however, the usefulness of this graphic display program led to the development of a similar program for a Hewlett-Packard 9845B desktop computer. After entry of various input parameters, such as, camera lens and orientation, the programs automatically calculate and graphically plot the locations of various items, e.g., fences, an assessment zone, running men, and intrusion detection sensors. Numerous special effects can be generated to simulate such things as roads, interior walls, or sides of buildings. Other objects can be digitized and entered into permanent memory similar to the running men. With this type of simulated monitor perspective, proposed camera locations with respect to fences and a particular assessment zone can be rapidly evaluated without the costly time delays and expenditures associated with field evaluation.

  17. GridOrbit public display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos, Juan David Hincapie; Tabard, Aurélien; Bardram, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    We introduce GridOrbit, a public awareness display that visualizes the activity of a community grid used in a biology laboratory. This community grid executes bioin-formatics algorithms and relies on users to donate CPU cycles to the grid. The goal of GridOrbit is to create a shared awareness about...... the research taking place in the biology laboratory. This should promote contribu-tions to the grid, and thereby mediate the appropriation of the grid technology. GridOrbit visualizes the activity in the grid, shows information about the different active projects, and supports a messaging functionality where...... people comment on projects. Our work explores the usage of interactive technologies as enablers for the appropriation of an otherwise invisible infrastructure....

  18. Simplified Night Sky Display System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Timothy P.

    2010-01-01

    A document describes a simple night sky display system that is portable, lightweight, and includes, at most, four components in its simplest configuration. The total volume of this system is no more than 10(sup 6) cm(sup 3) in a disassembled state, and weighs no more than 20 kilograms. The four basic components are a computer, a projector, a spherical light-reflecting first surface and mount, and a spherical second surface for display. The computer has temporary or permanent memory that contains at least one signal representing one or more images of a portion of the sky when viewed from an arbitrary position, and at a selected time. The first surface reflector is spherical and receives and reflects the image from the projector onto the second surface, which is shaped like a hemisphere. This system may be used to simulate selected portions of the night sky, preserving the appearance and kinesthetic sense of the celestial sphere surrounding the Earth or any other point in space. These points will then show motions of planets, stars, galaxies, nebulae, and comets that are visible from that position. The images may be motionless, or move with the passage of time. The array of images presented, and vantage points in space, are limited only by the computer software that is available, or can be developed. An optional approach is to have the screen (second surface) self-inflate by means of gas within the enclosed volume, and then self-regulate that gas in order to support itself without any other mechanical support.

  19. ProPath Display Process Overview

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This API displays an overview of the process including the description, goals, associated roles (linked to their detailed information). It also displays all of the...

  20. Holographic Waveguided See-Through Display Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA need for lightweight, space suit-mounted displays, Luminit proposes a novel Holographic Waveguided See-Through Display. Our proposed Holographic...

  1. Projection/Reflection Heads-up Display

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA need for an EVA information display device, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Projection/Reflection Heads-up Display...

  2. OZ: An Innovative Primary Flight Display Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed SBIR project will develop OZ, an innovative primary flight display for aircraft. The OZ display, designed from "first principles" of vision science,...

  3. Emerging Large-Screen Display Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    1255, Santa Clara, CA. 25. Williams, R. D., and F. Garcia, 1988, "A Real Time Autostereoscopic Multiplanar 3D Display System," Society for Information...K. Miyaji, 1989, " 3D Display using Laser and Moving Screen, Japan Display 1989, Paper P3-5. 27. Sterling, R. D., R. D. TeKolste, J. M. Haggerty, T. C

  4. Liquid crystal displays for aircraft engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalenko L. F.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Operating conditions for liquid-crystal displays of aircraft instruments have been examined. Requirements to engineering of a liquid-crystal display for operation in severe environment have been formulated. The implementation options for liquid-crystal matrix illumination have been analyzed in order to ensure the sufficient brightness depending on external illumination of a display screen.

  5. Microfluidics for electronic paper-like displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shui, Lingling; Hayes, Robert A.; Jin, Mingliang; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Xiao; Bai, Pengfei; van den Berg, Albert; Zhou, Guofu

    2014-01-01

    Displays are ubiquitous in modern life, and there is a growing need to develop active, full color, video-rate reflective displays that perform well in high-light conditions. The core of display technology is to generate or manipulate light in the visible wavelength. Colored fluids or fluids with

  6. Data Display Markup Language (DDML) Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-31

    Moreover, the tendency of T&E is towards a plug-and-play-like data acquisition system that requires standard languages and modules for data displays...Telemetry Group DOCUMENT 127-17 DATA DISPLAY MARKUP LANGUAGE (DDML) HANDBOOK DISTRIBUTION A: APPROVED FOR...DOCUMENT 127-17 DATA DISPLAY MARKUP LANGUAGE (DDML) HANDBOOK January 2017 Prepared by Telemetry Group

  7. Reconfigurable Full-Page Braille Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, H. Douglas

    1994-01-01

    Electrically actuated braille display cells of proposed type arrayed together to form full-page braille displays. Like other braille display cells, these provide changeable patterns of bumps driven by digitally recorded text stored on magnetic tapes or in solid-state electronic memories. Proposed cells contain electrorheological fluid. Viscosity of such fluid increases in strong electrostatic field.

  8. 27 CFR 6.83 - Product displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... industry member of giving or selling product displays to a retailer does not constitute a means to induce... costs are excluded. (2) All product displays must bear conspicuous and substantial advertising matter on... address of the retailer may appear on the product displays. (3) The giving or selling of such...

  9. CERN students display their work

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    The first poster session by students working on the LHC experiments, organised by the LPCC, was a great success. Showcasing the talents of over a hundred young physicists from all over the world, it was an opportunity for everyone at CERN to check out the wide range of research work being done by the new generation of physicists at CERN.   At 5.30 p.m. on Wednesday 23 March, the first poster session by CERN students took place in Restaurant No.1, where no fewer than 87 posters went on public display. The students were split into 8 groups according to their research field* and all were on hand to answer the questions of an inquisitive audience. TH Department's Michelangelo Mangano, who is head of the LHC Physics Centre at CERN (LPCC) and is responsible for the initiative, confirms that nothing was left to chance, even the choice of date: "We wanted to make the most of the general enthusiasm around the winter conferences and the meeting of the LHC Experiments Committee to present the stud...

  10. Citizenship displayed by disabled people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Prado Carlino

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available By investigating the processes by which successful teachers become activate citizens and by listening to the diversity and richness of their life and formation stories, this work became possible. Its aim is to display some of the utterances of two Down Syndrome individuals and their active-citizenship activities. Their stories were told in the reports of two teachers when describing their personal and professional history, and were considered to be an integral part of it. Thus, some of the utterances and perceptions with which these two individuals elaborate their references, their worldview and their active-citizenship activity are evidenced in this paper. This article is based on the language conceptions of Vygotsky and Bakhtin who defend the idea that the group and the social mentality are ingrain in the individual. Hence, the history of one person reveals that of many others, since there is a deep link between the individual and the social in the formation of a subjective worldview. As a result, it can be easily seen that the utterances expressed by the participants in this research cannot be considered strictly individual because enunciation is social in nature. Despite the fact that the utterances are those of individuals, they manifest a collective reality. This demonstrates the real advantages and possibilities that deficient people get from their participation and intervention in society.

  11. An efficient plane-grating monochromator based on conical diffraction for continuous tuning in the entire soft X-ray range including tender X-rays (2-8 keV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jark, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Recently it was verified that the diffraction efficiency of reflection gratings with rectangular profile, when illuminated at grazing angles of incidence with the beam trajectory along the grooves and not perpendicular to them, remains very high for tender X-rays of several keV photon energy. This very efficient operation of a reflection grating in the extreme off-plane orientation, i.e. in conical diffraction, offers the possibility of designing a conical diffraction monochromator scheme that provides efficient continuous photon energy tuning over rather large tuning ranges. For example, the tuning could cover photon energies from below 1000 eV up to 8 keV. The expected transmission of the entire instrument is high as all components are always operated below the critical angle for total reflection. In the simplest version of the instrument a plane grating is preceded by a plane mirror rotating simultaneously with it. The photon energy selection will then be made using the combination of a focusing mirror and exit slit. As is common for grating monochromators for soft X-ray radiation, the minimum spectral bandwidth is source-size-limited, while the bandwidth can be adjusted freely to any larger value. As far as tender X-rays (2-8 keV) are concerned, the minimum bandwidth is at least one and up to two orders of magnitude larger than the bandwidth provided by Si(111) double-crystal monochromators in a collimated beam. Therefore the instrument will provide more flux, which can even be increased at the expense of a bandwidth increase. On the other hand, for softer X-rays with photon energies below 1 keV, competitive relative spectral resolving powers of the order of 10000 are possible.

  12. Laser-based displays: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellappan, Kishore V; Erden, Erdem; Urey, Hakan

    2010-09-01

    After the invention of lasers, in the past 50 years progress made in laser-based display technology has been very promising, with commercial products awaiting release to the mass market. Compact laser systems, such as edge-emitting diodes, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, and optically pumped semiconductor lasers, are suitable candidates for laser-based displays. Laser speckle is an important concern, as it degrades image quality. Typically, one or multiple speckle reduction techniques are employed in laser displays to reduce speckle contrast. Likewise, laser safety issues need to be carefully evaluated in designing laser displays under different usage scenarios. Laser beam shaping using refractive and diffractive components is an integral part of laser displays, and the requirements depend on the source specifications, modulation technique, and the scanning method being employed in the display. A variety of laser-based displays have been reported, and many products such as pico projectors and laser televisions are commercially available already.

  13. Microspheres in Plasma Display Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Filling small bubbles of molten glass with gases is just as difficult as it sounds, but the technical staff at NASA is not known to shy away from a difficult task. When Microsphere Systems, Inc. (MSI), of Ypsilanti, Michigan, and Imaging Systems Technology, Inc. (IST), of Toledo, Ohio, were trying to push the limits of plasma displays but were having difficulty with the designs, NASA s Glenn Garrett Morgan Commercialization Initiative (GMCI) assembled key personnel at Glenn Research Center and Ohio State University for a brainstorming session to come up with a solution for the companies. They needed a system that could produce hollow, glass micro-sized spheres (microspheres) that could be filled with a variety of gasses. But the extremely high temperature required to force the micro-sized glass bubbles to form at the tip of a metal nozzle resulted in severe discoloration of the microspheres. After countless experiments on various glass-metal combinations, they had turned to the GMCI for help. NASA experts in advanced metals, ceramics, and glass concluded that a new design approach was necessary. The team determined that what was needed was a phosphate glass composition that would remain transparent, and they went to work on a solution. Six weeks later, using the design tips from the NASA team, Tim Henderson, president of MSI, had designed a new system in which all surfaces in contact with the molten glass would be ceramic instead of metal. Meanwhile, IST was able to complete a Phase I Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and supply a potential customer with samples of the microspheres for evaluation as filler materials for high-performance insulations.

  14. Military display market segment: wearable and portable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    2003-09-01

    The military display market (MDM) is analyzed in terms of one of its segments, wearable and portable displays. Wearable and portable displays are those embedded in gear worn or carried by warfighters. Categories include hand-mobile (direct-view and monocular/binocular), palm-held, head/helmet-mounted, body-strapped, knee-attached, lap-born, neck-lanyard, and pocket/backpack-stowed. Some 62 fielded and developmental display sizes are identified in this wearable/portable MDM segment. Parameters requiring special consideration, such as weight, luminance ranges, light emission, viewing angles, and chromaticity coordinates, are summarized and compared. Ruggedized commercial versus commercial off-the-shelf designs are contrasted; and a number of custom displays are also found in this MDM category. Display sizes having aggregate quantities of 5,000 units or greater or having 2 or more program applications are identified. Wearable and portable displays are also analyzed by technology (LCD, LED, CRT, OLED and plasma). The technical specifications and program history of several high-profile military programs are discussed to provide a systems context for some representative displays and their function. As of August 2002 our defense-wide military display market study has documented 438,882 total display units distributed across 1,163 display sizes and 438 weapon systems. Wearable and portable displays account for 202,593 displays (46% of total DoD) yet comprise just 62 sizes (5% of total DoD) in 120 weapons systems (27% of total DoD). Some 66% of these wearable and portable applications involve low information content displays comprising just a few characters in one color; however, there is an accelerating trend towards higher information content units capable of showing changeable graphics, color and video.

  15. Digital interface for high-resolution displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, David J.; Gorenflo, Ronald L.

    1999-08-01

    Commercial display interfaces are currently transitioning from analog to digital. Although this transition is in the very early stages, the military needs to begin planning their own transition to digital. There are many problems with the analog interface in high-resolution display systems that are solved by changing to a digital interface. Also, display system cost can be lower with a digital interface to a high resolution display. Battelle is under contract with DARPA to develop an advanced Display Interface (ADI) to replace the analog RGB interfaces currently used in high definition workstation displays. The goal is to create a standard digital display interface for military applications that is based on emerging commercial standards. Support for military application- specific functionality is addressed, including display test and control. The main challenges to implementing a digital display interface are described, along with approaches to address the problems. Conceptual ADI architectures are described and contrasted. The current and emerging commercial standards for digital display interfaces are reviewed in detail. Finally, the tasks required to complete the ADI effort are outlined and described.

  16. Spectroradiometric characterization of autostereoscopic 3D displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubiño, Manuel; Salas, Carlos; Pozo, Antonio M.; Castro, J. J.; Pérez-Ocón, Francisco

    2013-11-01

    Spectroradiometric measurements have been made for the experimental characterization of the RGB channels of autostereoscopic 3D displays, giving results for different measurement angles with respect to the normal direction of the plane of the display. In the study, 2 different models of autostereoscopic 3D displays of different sizes and resolutions were used, making measurements with a spectroradiometer (model PR-670 SpectraScan of PhotoResearch). From the measurements made, goniometric results were recorded for luminance contrast, and the fundamental hypotheses have been evaluated for the characterization of the displays: independence of the RGB channels and their constancy. The results show that the display with the lower angle variability in the contrast-ratio value and constancy of the chromaticity coordinates nevertheless presented the greatest additivity deviations with the measurement angle. For both displays, when the parameters evaluated were taken into account, lower angle variability consistently resulted in the 2D mode than in the 3D mode.

  17. Evaluating Ambient Displays in the Wild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messeter, Jörn; Molenaar, Daryn

    A prominent issue for evaluating ambient displays has been the conflict between the relative intrusiveness of evaluation methods and the intention to keep the display at the periphery of the user’s attention. There is a general lack of research discussing the difficulties of evaluating ambient...... displays in the wild, and in particular social aspects of use has received little attention. This paper presents a case study of an ambient light display designed for a public setting. Based on results from a non-intrusive in situ evaluation, we argue that viewing ambient displays as features of a broader...... social setting may aid our understanding of issues regarding the evaluation of ambient displays in the wild....

  18. Parallel large data visualization with display walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidegger, Luiz; Vo, Huy T.; Krüger, Jens; Silva, Cláudio T.; Comba, João L. D.

    2012-01-01

    While there exist popular software tools that leverage the power of arrays of tiled high resolution displays, they usually require either the use of a particular API or significant programming effort to be properly configured. We present PVW (Parallel Visualization using display Walls), a framework that uses display walls for scientific visualization, requiring minimum labor in setup, programming and configuration. PVW works as a plug-in to pipeline-based visualization software, and allows users to migrate existing visualizations designed for a single-workstation, single-display setup to a large tiled display running on a distributed machine. Our framework is also extensible, allowing different APIs and algorithms to be made display wall-aware with minimum effort.

  19. Conceptual Design of Industrial Process Displays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C.R.; Lind, Morten

    1999-01-01

    by a simple example from a plant with batch processes. Later the method is applied to develop a supervisory display for a condenser system in a nuclear power plant. The differences between the continuous plant domain of power production and the batch processes from the example are analysed and broad...... categories of display types are proposed. The problems involved in specification and invention of a supervisory display are analysed and conclusions from these problems are made. It is concluded that the design method proposed provides a framework for the progress of the display design and is useful in pin......-pointing the actual problems. The method was useful in reducing the number of existing displays that could fulfil the requirements of the supervision task. The method provided at the same time a framework for dealing with the problems involved in inventing new displays based on structured analysis. However...

  20. Three-dimensional Imaging, Visualization, and Display

    CERN Document Server

    Javidi, Bahram; Son, Jung-Young

    2009-01-01

    Three-Dimensional Imaging, Visualization, and Display describes recent developments, as well as the prospects and challenges facing 3D imaging, visualization, and display systems and devices. With the rapid advances in electronics, hardware, and software, 3D imaging techniques can now be implemented with commercially available components and can be used for many applications. This volume discusses the state-of-the-art in 3D display and visualization technologies, including binocular, multi-view, holographic, and image reproduction and capture techniques. It also covers 3D optical systems, 3D display instruments, 3D imaging applications, and details several attractive methods for producing 3D moving pictures. This book integrates the background material with new advances and applications in the field, and the available online supplement will include full color videos of 3D display systems. Three-Dimensional Imaging, Visualization, and Display is suitable for electrical engineers, computer scientists, optical e...

  1. Laser Based 3D Volumetric Display System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Literature, Costa Mesa, CA July 1983. 3. "A Real Time Autostereoscopic Multiplanar 3D Display System", Rodney Don Williams, Felix Garcia, Jr., Texas...8217 .- NUMBERS LASER BASED 3D VOLUMETRIC DISPLAY SYSTEM PR: CD13 0. AUTHOR(S) PE: N/AWIU: DN303151 P. Soltan, J. Trias, W. Robinson, W. Dahlke 7...laser generated 3D volumetric images on a rotating double helix, (where the 3D displays are computer controlled for group viewing with the naked eye

  2. Matrix-addressable electrochromic display cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beni, G.; Schiavone, L. M.

    1981-04-01

    We report an electrochromic display cell with intrinsic matrix addressability. The cell, based on a sputtered iridium oxide film (SIROF) and a tantalum-oxide hysteretic counterelectrode, has electrochromic parameters (i.e., response times, operating voltages, and contrast) similar to those of other SIROF display devices, but in addition, has short-circuit memory and voltage threshold. Memory and threshold are sufficiently large to allow, in principle, multiplexing of electrochromic display panels of large-screen TV pixel size.

  3. Helmet-Mounted Display Design Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-11-03

    on openStack create menu "CSHMD" set the menuitems of "CSHMD" to "(Main Menu; References;-; Definitions;Display Criteria;Display Formats;Display Modes...34Macintosh" then put ":" into dirSep else put "V’ into dirSep put stackPathO&"Resource"&dirSep into gResPath put 0 into gXRef end openStack on

  4. Future Directions for Astronomical Image Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Eric

    2000-03-01

    In the "Future Directions for Astronomical Image Displav" project, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) and the National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO) evolved our existing image display program into fully extensible. cross-platform image display software. We also devised messaging software to support integration of image display into astronomical analysis systems. Finally, we migrated our software from reliance on Unix and the X Window System to a platform-independent architecture that utilizes the cross-platform Tcl/Tk technology.

  5. Refreshable Braille Displays Using EAP Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2010-01-01

    Refreshable Braille can help visually impaired persons benefit from the growing advances in computer technology. The development of such displays in a full screen form is a great challenge due to the need to pack many actuators in small area without interferences. In recent years, various displays using actuators such as piezoelectric stacks have become available in commercial form but most of them are limited to one line Braille code. Researchers in the field of electroactive polymers (EAP) investigated methods of using these materials to form full screen displays. This manuscript reviews the state of the art of producing refreshable Braille displays using EAP-based actuators..

  6. Refreshable Braille displays using EAP actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2010-04-01

    Refreshable Braille can help visually impaired persons benefit from the growing advances in computer technology. The development of such displays in a full screen form is a great challenge due to the need to pack many actuators in small area without interferences. In recent years, various displays using actuators such as piezoelectric stacks have become available in commercial form but most of them are limited to one line Braille code. Researchers in the field of electroactive polymers (EAP) investigated methods of using these materials to form full screen displays. This manuscript reviews the state of the art of producing refreshable Braille displays using EAP-based actuators.

  7. PENGARUH DISPLAY PRODUK PADA KEPUTUSAN PEMBELIAN KONSUMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Melati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Most of ritel outlet recently using product display as a one of their best marketing strategy, the reason is quiet easy to be understood, since consumers are too easy to be teased by those kind of beautiful product display that is being displayed by the retail outlet. The good retail outlets are trying their best to design and make the very good product display, so they can attract more consumers and make them not thinking twice to visit their store and purchase lots of thing. Clearly seeing that an attractive product design is able to influence a consumer to make a buying decision. 

  8. New ultraportable display technology and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvelda, Phillip; Lewis, Nancy D.

    1998-08-01

    MicroDisplay devices are based on a combination of technologies rooted in the extreme integration capability of conventionally fabricated CMOS active-matrix liquid crystal display substrates. Customized diffraction grating and optical distortion correction technology for lens-system compensation allow the elimination of many lenses and systems-level components. The MicroDisplay Corporation's miniature integrated information display technology is rapidly leading to many new defense and commercial applications. There are no moving parts in MicroDisplay substrates, and the fabrication of the color generating gratings, already part of the CMOS circuit fabrication process, is effectively cost and manufacturing process-free. The entire suite of the MicroDisplay Corporation's technologies was devised to create a line of application- specific integrated circuit single-chip display systems with integrated computing, memory, and communication circuitry. Next-generation portable communication, computer, and consumer electronic devices such as truly portable monitor and TV projectors, eyeglass and head mounted displays, pagers and Personal Communication Services hand-sets, and wristwatch-mounted video phones are among the may target commercial markets for MicroDisplay technology. Defense applications range from Maintenance and Repair support, to night-vision systems, to portable projectors for mobile command and control centers.

  9. Testing Instrument for Flight-Simulator Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1987-01-01

    Displays for flight-training simulators rapidly aligned with aid of integrated optical instrument. Calibrations and tests such as aligning boresight of display with respect to user's eyes, checking and adjusting display horizon, checking image sharpness, measuring illuminance of displayed scenes, and measuring distance of optical focus of scene performed with single unit. New instrument combines all measurement devices in single, compact, integrated unit. Requires just one initial setup. Employs laser and produces narrow, collimated beam for greater measurement accuracy. Uses only one moving part, double right prism, to position laser beam.

  10. Microencapsulated Electrophoretic Films for Electronic Paper Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundson, Karl

    2003-03-01

    Despite the dominance of liquid crystal displays, they do not perform some functions very well. While backlit liquid crystal displays can offer excellent color performance, they wash out in bright lighting and suffer from high power consumption. Reflective liquid crystal displays have limited brightness, making these devices challenging to read for long periods of time. Flexible liquid crystal displays are difficult to manufacture and keep stable. All of these attributes (long battery lifetime, bright reflective appearance, compatibility with flexible substrates) are traits that would be found in an ideal electronic paper display - an updateable substitute for paper that could be employed in electronic books, newspapers, and other applications. I will discuss technologies that are being developed for electronic-paper-like displays, and especially on particle-based technologies. A microencapsulated electrophoretic display technology is being developed at the E Ink corporation. This display film offers offer high brightness and an ink-on-paper appearance, compatibility with flexible substrates, and image stability that can lead to very low power consumption. I will present some of the physical and chemical challenges associated with making display films with high performance.

  11. Framework for effective use of multiple displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiong; Kimber, Don; Zhao, Frank; Huang, Jeffrey

    2005-10-01

    Meeting environments, such as conference rooms, executive briefing centers, and exhibition spaces, are now commonly equipped with multiple displays, and will become increasingly display-rich in the future. Existing authoring/presentation tools such as PowerPoint, however, provide little support for effective utilization of multiple displays. Even using advanced multi-display enabled multimedia presentation tools, the task of assigning material to displays is tedious and distracts presenters from focusing on content. This paper describes a framework for automatically assigning presentation material to displays, based on a model of the quality of views of audience members. The framework is based on a model of visual fidelity which takes into account presentation content, audience members' locations, the limited resolution of human eyes, and display location, orientation, size, resolution, and frame rate. The model can be used to determine presentation material placement based on average or worst case audience member view quality, and to warn about material that would be illegible. By integrating this framework with a previous system for multi-display presentation [PreAuthor, others], we created a tool that accepts PowerPoint and/or other media input files, and automatically generates a layout of material onto displays for each state of the presentation. The tool also provides an interface allowing the presenter to modify the automatically generated layout before or during the actual presentation. This paper discusses the framework, possible application scenarios, examples of the system behavior, and our experience with system use.

  12. Pengaruh Display Produk pada Keputusan Pembelian Konsumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Melati

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Most of ritel outlet recently using product display as a one of their best marketing strategy, the reason is quiet easy to be understood, since consumers are too easy to be teased by those kind of beautiful product display that is being displayed by the retail outlet. The good retail outlets are trying their best to design and make the very good product display, so they can attract more consumers and make them not thinking twice to visit their store and purchase lots of thing. Clearly seeing that an attractive product design is able to influence a consumer to make a buying decision.

  13. Display of nuclear medicine imaging studies

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, B; Samuel, A M

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear medicine imaging studies involve evaluation of a large amount of image data. Digital signal processing techniques have introduced processing algorithms that increase the information content of the display. Nuclear medicine imaging studies require interactive selection of suitable form of display and pre-display processing. Static imaging study requires pre-display processing to detect focal defects. Point operations (histogram modification) along with zoom and capability to display more than one image in one screen is essential. This album mode of display is also applicable to dynamic, MUGA and SPECT data. Isometric display or 3-D graph of the image data is helpful in some cases e.g. point spread function, flood field data. Cine display is used on a sequence of images e.g. dynamic, MUGA and SPECT imaging studies -to assess the spatial movement of tracer with time. Following methods are used at the investigator's discretion for inspection of the 3-D object. 1) Display of orthogonal projections, 2) Disp...

  14. Volumetric Three-Dimensional Display Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundell, Barry G.; Schwarz, Adam J.

    2000-03-01

    A comprehensive study of approaches to three-dimensional visualization by volumetric display systems This groundbreaking volume provides an unbiased and in-depth discussion on a broad range of volumetric three-dimensional display systems. It examines the history, development, design, and future of these displays, and considers their potential for application to key areas in which visualization plays a major role. Drawing substantially on material that was previously unpublished or available only in patent form, the authors establish the first comprehensive technical and mathematical formalization of the field, and examine a number of different volumetric architectures. System level design strategies are presented, from which proposals for the next generation of high-definition predictable volumetric systems are developed. To ensure that researchers will benefit from work already completed, they provide: * Descriptions of several recent volumetric display systems prepared from material supplied by the teams that created them * An abstract volumetric display system design paradigm * An historical summary of 90 years of development in volumetric display system technology * An assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of many of the systems proposed to date * A unified presentation of the underlying principles of volumetric display systems * A comprehensive bibliography Beautifully supplemented with 17 color plates that illustrate volumetric images and prototype displays, Volumetric Three-Dimensional Display Systems is an indispensable resource for professionals in imaging systems development, scientific visualization, medical imaging, computer graphics, aerospace, military planning, and CAD/CAE.

  15. High-efficiency B₄C/Mo₂C alternate multilayer grating for monochromators in the photon energy range from 0.7 to 3.4 keV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choueikani, Fadi; Lagarde, Bruno; Delmotte, Franck; Krumrey, Michael; Bridou, Françoise; Thomasset, Muriel; Meltchakov, Evgueni; Polack, François

    2014-04-01

    An alternate multilayer (AML) grating has been prepared by coating an ion etched lamellar grating with a B4C/Mo2C multilayer (ML) having a layer thickness close to the groove depth. Such a structure behaves as a 2D synthetic crystal and can reach very high efficiencies when the Bragg condition is satisfied. This AML coated grating has been characterized at the SOLEIL Metrology and Tests Beamline between 0.7 and 1.7 keV and at the four-crystal monochromator beamline of Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at BESSY II between 1.75 and 3.4 keV. A peak diffraction efficiency of nearly 27% was measured at 2.2 keV. The measured efficiencies are well reproduced by numerical simulations made with the electromagnetic propagation code CARPEM. Such AML gratings, paired with a matched ML mirror, constitute efficient monochromators for intermediate energy photons. They will extend the accessible energy for many applications as x-ray absorption spectroscopy or x-ray magnetic circular dichroism experiments.

  16. Display Developer for Firing Room Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    The firing room at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is responsible for all NASA human spaceflight launch operations, therefore it is vital that all displays within the firing room be properly tested, up-to-date, and user-friendly during a launch. The Ground Main Propulsion System (GMPS) requires a number of remote displays for Vehicle Integration and Launch (VIL) Operations at KSC. My project is to develop remote displays for the GMPS using the Display Services and Framework (DSF) editor. These remote displays will be based on model images provided by GMPS through PowerPoint. Using the DSF editor, the PowerPoint images can be recreated with active buttons associated with the correct Compact Unique Identifiers (CUIs). These displays will be documented in the Software Requirements and Design Specifications (SRDS) at the 90% GMPS Design Review. In the future, these remote displays will be available for other developers to improve, edit, or add on to so that the display may be incorporated into the firing room to be used for launches.

  17. Interruption and Pausing of Public Display Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feuchtner, Tiare; Walter, Robert; Müller, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    We present a quantitative and qualitative analysis of interruptions of interaction with a public display game, and explore the use of a manual pause mode in this scenario. In previous public display installations we observed users frequently interrupting their interaction. To explore ways of supp...

  18. Additive and subtractive transparent depth displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, F.L.; Toet, A.

    2003-01-01

    Image fusion is the generally preferred method to combine two or more images for visual display on a single screen. We demonstrate that perceptual image separation may be preferable over perceptual image fusion for the combined display of enhanced and synthetic imagery. In this context image separat

  19. Assessment of OLED displays for vision research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Emily A; Jiang, Haomiao; Vildavski, Vladimir; Farrell, Joyce E; Norcia, Anthony M

    2013-10-23

    Vision researchers rely on visual display technology for the presentation of stimuli to human and nonhuman observers. Verifying that the desired and displayed visual patterns match along dimensions such as luminance, spectrum, and spatial and temporal frequency is an essential part of developing controlled experiments. With cathode-ray tubes (CRTs) becoming virtually unavailable on the commercial market, it is useful to determine the characteristics of newly available displays based on organic light emitting diode (OLED) panels to determine how well they may serve to produce visual stimuli. This report describes a series of measurements summarizing the properties of images displayed on two commercially available OLED displays: the Sony Trimaster EL BVM-F250 and PVM-2541. The results show that the OLED displays have large contrast ratios, wide color gamuts, and precise, well-behaved temporal responses. Correct adjustment of the settings on both models produced luminance nonlinearities that were well predicted by a power function ("gamma correction"). Both displays have adjustable pixel independence and can be set to have little to no spatial pixel interactions. OLED displays appear to be a suitable, or even preferable, option for many vision research applications.

  20. Teacher Portfolios: Displaying the Art of Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Susan

    2004-01-01

    A portfolio can convey a teacher's beliefs, knowledge and skills. An artist uses a portfolio to display artistic talent, and a teacher can use his or her portfolio to display teaching talent and teaching style. A teacher's portfolio may be used to obtain new employment, to document teaching accomplishments in order to receive a promotion or tenure…

  1. Methods for Selecting Phage Display Antibody Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara-Acevedo, Ricardo; Diez, Paula; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Maria; Degano, Rosa Maria; Ibarrola, Nieves; Gongora, Rafael; Orfao, Alberto; Fuentes, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    The selection process aims sequential enrichment of phage antibody display library in clones that recognize the target of interest or antigen as the library undergoes successive rounds of selection. In this review, selection methods most commonly used for phage display antibody libraries have been comprehensively described.

  2. Interruption and Pausing of Public Display Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feuchtner, Tiare; Walter, Robert; Müller, Jörg

    We present a quantitative and qualitative analysis of interruptions of interaction with a public display game, and explore the use of a manual pause mode in this scenario. In previous public display installations we observed users frequently interrupting their interaction. To explore ways...... of supporting such behavior, we implemented a gesture controlled multiuser game with four pausing techniques. We evaluated them in a field study analyzing 704 users and found that our pausing techniques were eagerly explored, but rarely used with the intention to pause the game. Our study shows...... that interactions with public displays are considerably intermissive, and that users mostly interrupt interaction to socialize and mainly approach public displays in groups. We conclude that, as a typical characteristic of public display interaction, interruptions deserve consideration. However, manual pause modes...

  3. Three-dimensional hologram display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, Frederick (Inventor); Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Bryant, Nevin (Inventor); Tsou, Peter (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a three-dimensional (3D) hologram display system. The 3D hologram display system includes a projector device for projecting an image upon a display medium to form a 3D hologram. The 3D hologram is formed such that a viewer can view the holographic image from multiple angles up to 360 degrees. Multiple display media are described, namely a spinning diffusive screen, a circular diffuser screen, and an aerogel. The spinning diffusive screen utilizes spatial light modulators to control the image such that the 3D image is displayed on the rotating screen in a time-multiplexing manner. The circular diffuser screen includes multiple, simultaneously-operated projectors to project the image onto the circular diffuser screen from a plurality of locations, thereby forming the 3D image. The aerogel can use the projection device described as applicable to either the spinning diffusive screen or the circular diffuser screen.

  4. An interactive multiview 3D display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoxing; Geng, Zheng; Zhang, Mei; Dong, Hui

    2013-03-01

    The progresses in 3D display systems and user interaction technologies will help more effective 3D visualization of 3D information. They yield a realistic representation of 3D objects and simplifies our understanding to the complexity of 3D objects and spatial relationship among them. In this paper, we describe an autostereoscopic multiview 3D display system with capability of real-time user interaction. Design principle of this autostereoscopic multiview 3D display system is presented, together with the details of its hardware/software architecture. A prototype is built and tested based upon multi-projectors and horizontal optical anisotropic display structure. Experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of this novel 3D display and user interaction system.

  5. Real time speech formant analyzer and display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, George E. (Ames, IA); Struve, Walter S. (Ames, IA); Homer, John F. (Ames, IA)

    1987-01-01

    A speech analyzer for interpretation of sound includes a sound input which converts the sound into a signal representing the sound. The signal is passed through a plurality of frequency pass filters to derive a plurality of frequency formants. These formants are converted to voltage signals by frequency-to-voltage converters and then are prepared for visual display in continuous real time. Parameters from the inputted sound are also derived and displayed. The display may then be interpreted by the user. The preferred embodiment includes a microprocessor which is interfaced with a television set for displaying of the sound formants. The microprocessor software enables the sound analyzer to present a variety of display modes for interpretive and therapeutic used by the user.

  6. Extraction and Analysis of Display Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Chris; Moye, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    The Display Audit Suite is an integrated package of software tools that partly automates the detection of Portable Computer System (PCS) Display errors. [PCS is a lap top computer used onboard the International Space Station (ISS).] The need for automation stems from the large quantity of PCS displays (6,000+, with 1,000,000+ lines of command and telemetry data). The Display Audit Suite includes data-extraction tools, automatic error detection tools, and database tools for generating analysis spread sheets. These spread sheets allow engineers to more easily identify many different kinds of possible errors. The Suite supports over 40 independent analyses, 16 NASA Tech Briefs, November 2008 and complements formal testing by being comprehensive (all displays can be checked) and by revealing errors that are difficult to detect via test. In addition, the Suite can be run early in the development cycle to find and correct errors in advance of testing.

  7. 2D/3D switchable displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, T.; de Zwart, S. T.; Willemsen, O. H.; Hiddink, M. G. H.; IJzerman, W. L.

    2006-02-01

    A prerequisite for a wide market acceptance of 3D displays is the ability to switch between 3D and full resolution 2D. In this paper we present a robust and cost effective concept for an auto-stereoscopic switchable 2D/3D display. The display is based on an LCD panel, equipped with switchable LC-filled lenticular lenses. We will discuss 3D image quality, with the focus on display uniformity. We show that slanting the lenticulars in combination with a good lens design can minimize non-uniformities in our 20" 2D/3D monitors. Furthermore, we introduce fractional viewing systems as a very robust concept to further improve uniformity in the case slanting the lenticulars and optimizing the lens design are not sufficient. We will discuss measurements and numerical simulations of the key optical characteristics of this display. Finally, we discuss 2D image quality, the switching characteristics and the residual lens effect.

  8. Ergonomic concerns with lightbar guidance displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ima, C S; Mann, D D

    2004-05-01

    This article reviews some ergonomic factors associated with agricultural guidance displays. Any technology or management decision that improves the efficiency of an agricultural operation can be considered an aspect of precision farming. Agricultural guidance displays are one such tool because they help to reduce guidance error (i.e., skipping and overlapping of implements within the field), which result in improper application of crop inputs at increased cost. Although each of the guidance displays currently available functions using a different principle, their key objective is to communicate useful guidance information to the operator of the agricultural machine. The case with which the operator obtains the required information depends on a number of ergonomic factors, such as color perceptibility, flash rate, attentional demand, display size, viewing distance, and height of placement of the display in the cab. Ergonomics can be defined as the application of knowledge to create a safe, comfortable, and effective work environment. Consequently, it is critical to consider ergonomics when designing guidance displays or when locating a display in the tractor cab. Without considering ergonomics, it is unlikely that the efficiency of the human-machine system can be optimized.

  9. Crosstalk in stereoscopic displays: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Andrew J.

    2012-10-01

    Crosstalk, also known as ghosting or leakage, is a primary factor in determining the image quality of stereoscopic three dimensional (3D) displays. In a stereoscopic display, a separate perspective view is presented to each of the observer's two eyes in order to experience a 3D image with depth sensation. When crosstalk is present in a stereoscopic display, each eye will see a combination of the image intended for that eye, and some of the image intended for the other eye-making the image look doubled or ghosted. High levels of crosstalk can make stereoscopic images hard to fuse and lack fidelity, so it is important to achieve low levels of crosstalk in the development of high-quality stereoscopic displays. Descriptive and mathematical definitions of these terms are formalized and summarized. The mechanisms by which crosstalk occurs in different stereoscopic display technologies are also reviewed, including micropol 3D liquid crystal displays (LCDs), autostereoscopic (lenticular and parallax barrier), polarized projection, anaglyph, and time-sequential 3D on LCDs, plasma display panels and cathode ray tubes. Crosstalk reduction and crosstalk cancellation are also discussed along with methods of measuring and simulating crosstalk.

  10. Potential improvements for dual directional view displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Jonathan; Parry Jones, Lesley; Gass, Paul; Imai, Akira; Takatani, Tomoo; Yabuta, Koji

    2014-02-01

    Dual directional view (DDV) displays show different images to different viewers. For example, the driver of a car looking at a central DDV display could view navigation information, while the passenger, looking from a different angle, could be watching a movie. This technology, which has now established itself on the dashboards of high-end Jaguar, Mercedes, and Range Rover cars, is manufactured by Sharp Corporation using a well-known parallax barrier technique. Unfortunately parallax barriers are associated with an inevitable drop in brightness compared with a single view display. A parallax barrier-based DDV display typically has less than half the transmission of a single view display. Here we present a solution to these problems via the use of a combined microlens and parallax barrier system, which can not only boost the brightness by 55% from a parallax barrier-only system but increase the head freedom by 25% and reduce crosstalk also. However, the use of microlenses (which must be positioned between the polarizers of the LCD) can adversely affect the contrast ratio of the display. Careful choice of the LCD mode is therefore required in order to create a DDV display that is both high in brightness and contrast ratio. The use of a single-domain vertically aligned nematic (VAN) liquid crystal (LC) mode, together with a microlens plus parallax barrier system can achieve this with a contrast ratio of 1700∶1 measured at 30° to normal incidence.

  11. Touch sensitive electrorheological fluid based tactile display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanju; Davidson, Rob; Taylor, Paul

    2005-12-01

    A tactile display is programmable device whose controlled surface is intended to be investigated by human touch. It has a great number of potential applications in the field of virtual reality and elsewhere. In this research, a 5 × 5 tactile display array including electrorheological (ER) fluid has been developed and investigated. Force responses of the tactile display array have been measured while a probe was moved across the upper surface. The purpose of this was to simulate the action of touch performed by human finger. Experimental results show that the sensed surface information could be controlled effectively by adjusting the voltage activation pattern imposed on the tactels. The performance of the tactile display is durable and repeatable. The touch sensitivity of this ER fluid based tactile display array has also been investigated in this research. The results show that it is possible to sense the touching force normal to the display's surface by monitoring the change of current passing through the ER fluid. These encouraging results are helpful for constructing a new type of tactile display based on ER fluid which can act as both sensor and actuator at the same time.

  12. Military market for flat panel displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    1997-07-01

    This paper addresses the number, function and size of primary military displays and establishes a basis to determine the opportunities for technology insertion in the immediate future and into the next millennium. The military displays market is specified by such parameters as active area and footprint size, and other characteristics such as luminance, gray scale, resolution, color capability and night vision imaging system capability. A select grouping of funded, future acquisitions, planned and predicted cockpit kits, and form-fit-function upgrades are taken into account. It is the intent of this paper to provide an overview of the DoD niche market, allowing both government and industry a timely reference to insure meeting DoD requirements for flat-panel displays on schedule and in a cost-effective manner. The aggregate DoD market for direct view displays is presently estimated to be in excess of 157,000. Helmet/head mounted displays will add substantially to this total. The vanishing vendor syndrome for older display technologies is becoming a growing, pervasive problem throughout DoD, which consequently just leverage the more modern display technologies being developed for civil-commercial markets.

  13. [Odor sensing system and olfactory display].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, Takamichi

    2014-01-01

    In this review, an odor sensing system and an olfactory display are introduced into people in pharmacy. An odor sensing system consists of an array of sensors with partially overlapping specificities and pattern recognition technique. One of examples of odor sensing systems is a halitosis sensor which quantifies the mixture composition of three volatile sulfide compounds. A halitosis sensor was realized using a preconcentrator to raise sensitivity and an electrochemical sensor array to suppress the influence of humidity. Partial least squares (PLS) method was used to quantify the mixture composition. The experiment reveals that the sufficient accuracy was obtained. Moreover, the olfactory display, which present scents to human noses, is explained. A multi-component olfactory display enables the presentation of a variety of smells. The two types of multi-component olfactory display are described. The first one uses many solenoid valves with high speed switching. The valve ON frequency determines the concentration of the corresponding odor component. The latter one consists of miniaturized liquid pumps and a surface acoustic wave (SAW) atomizer. It enables the wearable olfactory display without smell persistence. Finally, the application of the olfactory display is demonstrated. Virtual ice cream shop with scents was made as a content of interactive art. People can enjoy harmony among vision, audition and olfaction. In conclusion, both odor sensing system and olfactory display can contribute to the field of human health care.

  14. Transparent 3D display for augmented reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byoungho; Hong, Jisoo

    2012-11-01

    Two types of transparent three-dimensional display systems applicable for the augmented reality are demonstrated. One of them is a head-mounted-display-type implementation which utilizes the principle of the system adopting the concave floating lens to the virtual mode integral imaging. Such configuration has an advantage in that the threedimensional image can be displayed at sufficiently far distance resolving the accommodation conflict with the real world scene. Incorporating the convex half mirror, which shows a partial transparency, instead of the concave floating lens, makes it possible to implement the transparent three-dimensional display system. The other type is the projection-type implementation, which is more appropriate for the general use than the head-mounted-display-type implementation. Its imaging principle is based on the well-known reflection-type integral imaging. We realize the feature of transparent display by imposing the partial transparency to the array of concave mirror which is used for the screen of reflection-type integral imaging. Two types of configurations, relying on incoherent and coherent light sources, are both possible. For the incoherent configuration, we introduce the concave half mirror array, whereas the coherent one adopts the holographic optical element which replicates the functionality of the lenslet array. Though the projection-type implementation is beneficial than the head-mounted-display in principle, the present status of the technical advance of the spatial light modulator still does not provide the satisfactory visual quality of the displayed three-dimensional image. Hence we expect that the head-mounted-display-type and projection-type implementations will come up in the market in sequence.

  15. Memory effect in ac plasma displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szlenk, K.; Obuchowicz, E.

    1993-10-01

    The bistable or `memory' mode of operation of an ac plasma display panel is presented. The difference between dc and ac plasma panel operation from the point of view of memory function is discussed. The graphic ac plasma display with thin film Cr-Cu-Cr electrodes was developed in OBREP and its basic parameters are described. It consists of 36 X 59 picture elements, its outer dimensions are: 76 X 52 mm2 and the screen size is: 49 X 30 mm2. The different dielectric glass materials were applied as dielectric layers and the influence of the properties of these materials on display parameters and memory function was investigated.

  16. Embedded systems for controlling LED matrix displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marghescu, Cristina; Drumea, Andrei

    2016-12-01

    LED matrix displays are a common presence in everyday life - they can be found in trains, buses, tramways, office information tables or outdoor media. The structure of the display unit is similar for all these devices, a matrix of light emitting diodes coupled between row and column lines, but there are many options for the display controller that switches these lines. Present paper analyzes different types of embedded systems that can control the LED matrix, based on single board computers, on microcontrollers with different peripheral devices or with programmable logic devices like field programmable gate arrays with implemented soft processor cores. Scalability, easiness of implementation and costs are analyzed for all proposed solutions.

  17. Display depth analyses with the wave aberration for the auto-stereoscopic 3D display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Sang, Xinzhu; Yu, Xunbo; Chen, Duo; Chen, Zhidong; Zhang, Wanlu; Yan, Binbin; Yuan, Jinhui; Wang, Kuiru; Yu, Chongxiu; Dou, Wenhua; Xiao, Liquan

    2016-07-01

    Because the aberration severely affects the display performances of the auto-stereoscopic 3D display, the diffraction theory is used to analyze the diffraction field distribution and the display depth through aberration analysis. Based on the proposed method, the display depth of central and marginal reconstructed images is discussed. The experimental results agree with the theoretical analyses. Increasing the viewing distance or decreasing the lens aperture can improve the display depth. Different viewing distances and the LCD with two lens-arrays are used to verify the conclusion.

  18. Compressive multi-mode superresolution display

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Compressive displays are an emerging technology exploring the co-design of new optical device configurations and compressive computation. Previously, research has shown how to improve the dynamic range of displays and facilitate high-quality light field or glasses-free 3D image synthesis. In this paper, we introduce a new multi-mode compressive display architecture that supports switching between 3D and high dynamic range (HDR) modes as well as a new super-resolution mode. The proposed hardware consists of readily-available components and is driven by a novel splitting algorithm that computes the pixel states from a target high-resolution image. In effect, the display pixels present a compressed representation of the target image that is perceived as a single, high resolution image. © 2014 Optical Society of America.

  19. High Resolution Autostereoscopic Cockpit Display Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During this Phase II program Dimension Technologies Inc. (DTI) proposes to design and build an autostereoscopic (glasses-free 3D) LCD based aircraft cockpit display...

  20. Projection/Reflection Heads-up Display

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA need for an extravehicular activity (EVA) information display device, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to advance development of a new...

  1. Night Vision Device and Cockpit Displays

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Night Vision Device and Cockpit Display labevaluates night vision devices and certifies them for use in the fleet. Lab functions supported include: Analysis of...

  2. Precarious manhood and displays of physical aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosson, Jennifer K; Vandello, Joseph A; Burnaford, Rochelle M; Weaver, Jonathan R; Arzu Wasti, S

    2009-05-01

    The results of three experiments demonstrate that physically aggressive displays are part of men's cultural script for restoring threatened gender status. In Studies 1 and 2, challenges to men's gender status elicited heightened physically aggressive displays, including punching a pad with greater force and selecting an aggressive boxing activity over a nonaggressive puzzle activity. Study 3 established that a public display of aggressive readiness reduced men's anxiety-related cognitions in the wake of a gender threat. This suggests that aggressive displays may function to downregulate negative affect when manhood has been threatened. The discussion considers past research on gender and physical aggression in light of the authors' thesis that manhood, relative to womanhood, is culturally defined as a precarious status that must be actively, even aggressively, defended.

  3. Emerging Technologies of Liquid Crystal Displays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sin-Doo Lee; Chang-Jae Yu; Jae-Hong Park; Min-Sik Jung

    2003-01-01

    The general features and the emerging technologies of liquid crystal displays are described from the viewpoints of wide viewing and fast response technologies. The device applications of liquid crystals for optical communications are also described.

  4. Fluorescent protein integrated white LEDs for displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, Daniel Aaron; Melikov, Rustamzhon; Conkar, Deniz; Nur Firat-Karalar, Elif; Nizamoglu, Sedat

    2016-11-01

    The usage time of displays (e.g., TVs, mobile phones, etc) is in general shorter than their functional life time, which worsens the electronic waste (e-waste) problem around the world. The integration of biomaterials into electronics can help to reduce the e-waste problem. In this study, we demonstrate fluorescent protein integrated white LEDs to use as a backlight source for liquid crystal (LC) displays for the first time. We express and purify enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) and monomeric Cherry protein (mCherry), and afterward we integrate these proteins as a wavelength-converter on a blue LED chip. The protein-integrated backlight exhibits a high luminous efficacy of 248 lm/Wopt and the area of the gamut covers 80% of the NTSC color gamut. The resultant colors and objects in the image on the display can be well observed and distinguished. Therefore, fluorescent proteins show promise for display applications.

  5. White constancy method for mobile displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yum, Ji Young; Park, Hyun Hee; Jang, Seul Ki; Lee, Jae Hyang; Kim, Jong Ho; Yi, Ji Young; Lee, Min Woo

    2014-03-01

    In these days, consumer's needs for image quality of mobile devices are increasing as smartphone is widely used. For example, colors may be perceived differently when displayed contents under different illuminants. Displayed white in incandescent lamp is perceived as bluish, while same content in LED light is perceived as yellowish. When changed in perceived white under illuminant environment, image quality would be degraded. Objective of the proposed white constancy method is restricted to maintain consistent output colors regardless of the illuminants utilized. Human visual experiments are performed to analyze viewers'perceptual constancy. Participants are asked to choose the displayed white in a variety of illuminants. Relationship between the illuminants and the selected colors with white are modeled by mapping function based on the results of human visual experiments. White constancy values for image control are determined on the predesigned functions. Experimental results indicate that propsed method yields better image quality by keeping the display white.

  6. Bioadsorption strategies with yeast molecular display technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibasaki, Seiji; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Molecular display techniques using microbial cell surfaces have been widely developed in the past twenty years, and are useful tools as whole cell catalysts for various applications such as bioconversion, bioremediation, biosensing, and the screening system of protein libraries. Furthermore, different types of microbial cells among eukaryotic and prokaryotic strains have been investigated for their use in surface display technologies. Recently, several kinds of protein-displaying yeasts have been utilized as bioadsorbents in this platform technology. In particular, these trials have successfully expanded the possibility of applications to metal binding, affinity purification, and receptor-ligand interaction by using the yeast cell surface. In this mini review, we describe the general principles of molecular display technology using yeast cells and its applications, with a particular focus on bioadsorption.

  7. Are tiled display walls needed for astronomy?

    CERN Document Server

    Meade, Bernard F; Manos, Steven; Sinnott, Richard O

    2014-01-01

    Clustering commodity displays into a Tiled Display Wall (TDW) provides a cost-effective way to create an extremely high resolution display, capable of approaching the image sizes now gen- erated by modern astronomical instruments. Astronomers face the challenge of inspecting single large images, many similar images simultaneously, and heterogeneous but related content. Many research institutions have constructed TDWs on the basis that they will improve the scientific outcomes of astronomical imagery. We test this concept by presenting sample images to astronomers and non- astronomers using a standard desktop display (SDD) and a TDW. These samples include standard English words, wide field galaxy surveys and nebulae mosaics from the Hubble telescope. These experiments show that TDWs provide a better environment for searching for small targets in large images than SDDs. It also shows that astronomers tend to be better at searching images for targets than non-astronomers, both groups are generally better when em...

  8. [Review of visual display system in flight simulator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guang-hui; Wei, Shao-ning

    2003-06-01

    Visual display system is the key part and plays a very important role in flight simulators and flight training devices. The developing history of visual display system is recalled and the principle and characters of some visual display systems including collimated display systems and back-projected collimated display systems are described. The future directions of visual display systems are analyzed.

  9. Tiled large-screen three-dimensional display consisting of frameless multi-view display modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaki, Yasuhiro; Tokoro, Masayuki; Hirabayashi, Kenji

    2014-03-24

    To realize large-screen three-dimensional (3D) displays, frameless multi-view display modules are arranged two-dimensionally. This paper proposes a multi-view display module in which a multi-view flat-panel display is projected onto a screen of the module to provide a frameless screen. The display module consists of a multi-view flat-panel display, an imaging lens, an aperture, a screen lens, and a vertical diffuser. Prototype display modules were constructed having a screen size of 27.3 in., a 3D resolution of 320 × 200, and 144 viewpoints. Four modules were tiled vertically to provide a screen size of 62.4 in. Distortions in the screen imaging and viewpoint generation were corrected.

  10. Routing and advanced display technologies within STOMPM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittu, Ranjeev; Uhlmann, Jeffrey K.; McCune, Justin

    1998-08-01

    This paper will discuss research conducted at the Naval Research Laboratory in the area of automated routing, advanced 3D displays and novel interface techniques for interacting with those displays. This research has culminated in the development of the strike optimized mission planing module (STOMPM). The STOMPM testbed incorporates new technologies/results in the aforementioned areas to address the deficiencies in current systems and advance the state of the art in military planing systems.

  11. Beacon data acquisition and display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skogmo, David G.; Black, Billy D.

    1991-01-01

    A system for transmitting aircraft beacon information received by a secondary surveillance radar through telephone lines to a remote display includes a digitizer connected to the radar for preparing a serial file of data records containing position and identification information of the beacons detected by each sweep of the radar. This information is transmitted through the telephone lines to a remote computer where it is displayed.

  12. Large-scale autostereoscopic outdoor display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitterer, Jörg; Fidler, Franz; Saint Julien-Wallsee, Ferdinand; Schmid, Gerhard; Gartner, Wolfgang; Leeb, Walter; Schmid, Ulrich

    2013-03-01

    State-of-the-art autostereoscopic displays are often limited in size, effective brightness, number of 3D viewing zones, and maximum 3D viewing distances, all of which are mandatory requirements for large-scale outdoor displays. Conventional autostereoscopic indoor concepts like lenticular lenses or parallax barriers cannot simply be adapted for these screens due to the inherent loss of effective resolution and brightness, which would reduce both image quality and sunlight readability. We have developed a modular autostereoscopic multi-view laser display concept with sunlight readable effective brightness, theoretically up to several thousand 3D viewing zones, and maximum 3D viewing distances of up to 60 meters. For proof-of-concept purposes a prototype display with two pixels was realized. Due to various manufacturing tolerances each individual pixel has slightly different optical properties, and hence the 3D image quality of the display has to be calculated stochastically. In this paper we present the corresponding stochastic model, we evaluate the simulation and measurement results of the prototype display, and we calculate the achievable autostereoscopic image quality to be expected for our concept.

  13. A new type of multiview display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurk, Silvio; Kuhlmey, Mathias; de la Barré, René

    2015-03-01

    The common architecture of multi-view autostereoscopic displays assigns a nominal viewing distance. The design affects the convergence of the visible rays at a nominal viewing distance where diamond shaped viewing zones are created. In contrast to this approach, the authors present a new design strategy departing from the geometric relations of common 3D display designs. They show that a beam emitted from a sub-pixel should be rendered with an individual camera direction determined by an algorithm. This algorithm also uses, besides the parameters of the display design, the desired viewing distance and the allowed increments of the camera angle. This enables very flexible designs of autostereoscopic displays. The main difference from the common multiview display is that its design approach enables a continued viewing zone without the usually diamond shaped sweet spots. The algorithm for controlling the rendering and the multiplexing is generic, as well as for integral and multiview design approaches using an image splitter raster. The paper introduces it for autostereoscopic displays with horizontal parallax.

  14. Methodologies for the evaluation of CRT displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackman, H.S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a series of experiments that have been conducted by the Human Factors Research Branch for the purpose of developing objective methods that will be used to evaluate the effectiveness of cathode ray tube (CRT) generated displays in improving reactor operator performance. The results of this work can provide a basis for the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) to objectively evaluate specific licensee-developed display designs. The following methods have been developed: (1) Psychophysics - short exposure of static display types were presented to subjects who were tasked to report status of a given parameter; (2) Multidimensional Rating Scale - paper and pencil instrument employed by subjects to rate the features of a display type across a variety of psychological dimensions; (3) Checklist Evaluation - a paper and pencil instrument employed by subjects to assess particular display types according to a set of human engineering criteria; (4) Noninteractive Evaluation - a formal experiment where the subjects were requested to identify dynamic simulated transients using various display types; and (5) Interactive Evaluation - similar to the noninteractive, but the subjects interacted with the simulator using a touch screen to mitigate transient events.

  15. Dual redundant display in bubble canopy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Ken; Niemczyk, James

    2010-04-01

    Today's cockpit integrator, whether for state of the art military fast jet, or piston powered general aviation, is striving to utilize all available panel space for AMLCD based displays to enhance situational awareness and increase safety. The benefits of a glass cockpit have been well studied and documented. The technology used to create these glass cockpits, however, is driven by commercial AMLCD demand which far outstrips the combined worldwide avionics requirements. In order to satisfy the wide variety of human factors and environmental requirements, large area displays have been developed to maximize the usable display area while also providing necessary redundancy in case of failure. The AMLCD has been optimized for extremely wide viewing angles driven by the flat panel TV market. In some cockpit applications, wide viewing cones are desired. In bubble canopy cockpits, however, narrow viewing cones are desired to reduce canopy reflections. American Panel Corporation has developed AMLCD displays that maximize viewing area, provide redundancy, while also providing a very narrow viewing cone even though commercial AMLCD technology is employed suitable for high performance AMLCD Displays. This paper investigates both the large area display architecture with several available options to solve redundancy as well as beam steering techniques to also limit canopy reflections.

  16. Oil defect detection of electrowetting display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hou-Chi; Tsai, Yu-Hsiang; Yan, Yung-Jhe; Huang, Ting-Wei; Mang, Ou-Yang

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, transparent display is an emerging topic in display technologies. Apply in many fields just like mobile device, shopping or advertising window, and etc. Electrowetting Display (EWD) is one kind of potential transparent display technology advantages of high transmittance, fast response time, high contrast and rich color with pigment based oil system. In mass production process of Electrowetting Display, oil defects should be found by Automated Optical Inspection (AOI) detection system. It is useful in determination of panel defects for quality control. According to the research of our group, we proposed a mechanism of AOI detection system detecting the different kinds of oil defects. This mechanism can detect different kinds of oil defect caused by oil overflow or material deteriorated after oil coating or driving. We had experiment our mechanism with a 6-inch Electrowetting Display panel from ITRI, using an Epson V750 scanner with 1200 dpi resolution. Two AOI algorithms were developed, which were high speed method and high precision method. In high precision method, oil jumping or non-recovered can be detected successfully. This mechanism of AOI detection system can be used to evaluate the oil uniformity in EWD panel process. In the future, our AOI detection system can be used in quality control of panel manufacturing for mass production.

  17. [Peptide phage display in biotechnology and biomedicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmicheva, G A; Belyavskaya, V A

    2016-07-01

    To date peptide phage display is one of the most common combinatorial methods used for identifying specific peptide ligands. Phage display peptide libraries containing billions different clones successfully used for selection of ligands with high affinity and selectivity toward wide range of targets including individual proteins, bacteria, viruses, spores, different kind of cancer cells and variety of nonorganic targets (metals, alloys, semiconductors etc.) Success of using filamentous phage in phage display technologies relays on the robustness of phage particles and a possibility to genetically modify its DNA to construct new phage variants with novel properties. In this review we are discussing characteristics of the most known non-commercial peptide phage display libraries of different formats (landscape libraries in particular) and their successful applications in several fields of biotechnology and biomedicine: discovery of peptides with diagnostic values against different pathogens, discovery and using of peptides recognizing cancer cells, trends in using of phage display technologies in human interactome studies, application of phage display technologies in construction of novel nano materials.

  18. Extension of self-seeding scheme with single crystal monochromator to lower energy < 5 keV as a way to generate multi-TW scale pulses at the European XFEL

    CERN Document Server

    Geloni, Gianluca; Saldin, Evgeni

    2012-01-01

    We propose a use of the self-seeding scheme with single crystal monochromator to produce high power, fully-coherent pulses for applications at a dedicated bio-imaging beamline at the European X-ray FEL in the photon energy range between 3.5 keV and 5 keV. We exploit the C(111) Bragg reflection (pi-polarization) in diamond crystals with a thickness of 0.1 mm, and we show that, by tapering the 40 cells of the SASE3 type undulator the FEL power can reach up to 2 TW in the entire photon energy range. The present design assumes the use of a nominal electron bunch with charge 0.1 nC at nominal electron beam energy 17.5 GeV. The main application of the scheme proposed in this work is for single shot imaging of individual protein molecules.

  19. Structure Design and Accuracy Testing of Monochromator in a Soft X-Ray Spectromicroscopic Beamline%软X射线谱学显微光束线单色器结构设计及精度测试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚学鹏; 卢启鹏; 彭忠琦

    2013-01-01

    In order to satisfy the technical requirement of soft X-ray microscopy beamline in Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF), whose key assembly monochromator is designed. Wavelength scanning movement principle of monochromator is described. Design scheme of wavelength scanning mechanism is discussed, and factors affecting the angular repeatability of plane mirror and plane grating are analyzed in detail; switching mechanism of plane grating is described, and horizontal deviation, vertical deviation, roll angle precision, yaw angle precision and pitch angle precision are analyzed in detail; six-bar parallel mechanism is used for adjusting the UHV-chamber, and adjusting range and resolution of the bar are analyzed. The entire structure of monochromator is presented, and its precision testing is performed. Results show that the angular repeatability of plane mirror and plane grating are 0.166" and 0.149", and roll, yaw and pitch angular repeatability of plane grating switching mechanism are 0. 08", 0.12" and 0.05", indicating that structure design and precision of monochromator satisfy the technical demand.%针对上海光源谱学显微光束线站的性能要求,对其核心部件单色器进行结构设计.阐述了单色器的扫描运动原理,论述了波长扫描机构的设计方案,具体分析平面镜和光栅的转角重复精度影响因素;描述光栅切换机构,着重分析其水平偏差、垂直偏差、滚角、摆角和投角的精度问题;采用六杆并联机构的方案完成镜箱调节机构的设计,分析其支杆的调节范围和分辨力情况.给出了单色器的结构,并且对其精度进行了测试.测试结果表明,平面镜和光栅的转角重复精度分别为0.166″和0.149″;光栅切换机构的滚角、摆角和投角的重复精度分别为0.08″、0.12″和0.05″.这说明了单色器的结构设计方案和机械精度满足技术要求.

  20. 变包含角平面光栅单色器及其关键技术%The variable included angle plane grating monochromator and the key technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈家华; 薛松; 卢启鹏; 彭忠琦; 邰仁忠; 王勇; 陈明; 吴坤

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the design of a variable included angle plane grating monochromator (VAPGM) on the soft X-ray spectromicroscopy beam-line at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF).The precision scanning system of sin-bar meets the requirements through resolving the high precision repeatability of mechanical transmission system; the inner path water cooling structure of the plane mirror controls the thermal deformation of the mirror surface; the huge dimension and quadrate flange chamber ensures the ultra high vacuum (UHV) which the VAPGM requires.Finally, the main capabilities of the monochromator, including the energy range, energy resolution and energy repeatability, reach the design requirements completely.%分析设计并研制了上海光源软X射线谱学显微光束线站的变包含角平面光栅单色器,经过精密加工调试,保证了扫描系统的转角重复精度;采用多孔腔内部通道水冷方法,控制了镜子表面热变形;完成真空箱体大尺寸方法兰加工与密封,达到了单色器工作所需的超高真空.通过上述关键部件的精确掌控,确保了单色器主要性能--光子能量范围、能量分辨率和能量重复性,均优于设计指标.

  1. Monocular display unit for 3D display with correct depth perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kunio; Hosomi, Takashi

    2009-11-01

    A study of virtual-reality system has been popular and its technology has been applied to medical engineering, educational engineering, a CAD/CAM system and so on. The 3D imaging display system has two types in the presentation method; one is a 3-D display system using a special glasses and the other is the monitor system requiring no special glasses. A liquid crystal display (LCD) recently comes into common use. It is possible for this display unit to provide the same size of displaying area as the image screen on the panel. A display system requiring no special glasses is useful for a 3D TV monitor, but this system has demerit such that the size of a monitor restricts the visual field for displaying images. Thus the conventional display can show only one screen, but it is impossible to enlarge the size of a screen, for example twice. To enlarge the display area, the authors have developed an enlarging method of display area using a mirror. Our extension method enables the observers to show the virtual image plane and to enlarge a screen area twice. In the developed display unit, we made use of an image separating technique using polarized glasses, a parallax barrier or a lenticular lens screen for 3D imaging. The mirror can generate the virtual image plane and it enlarges a screen area twice. Meanwhile the 3D display system using special glasses can also display virtual images over a wide area. In this paper, we present a monocular 3D vision system with accommodation mechanism, which is useful function for perceiving depth.

  2. Tactile display with dielectric multilayer elastomer actuatorsq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matysek, Marc; Lotz, Peter; Schlaak, Helmut F.

    2009-03-01

    Tactile perception is the human sensation of surface textures through the vibrations generated by stroking a finger over the surface. The skin responds to several distributed physical quantities. Perhaps the most important are high-frequency vibrations, pressure distributions (static shape) and thermal properties. The integration of tactile displays in man-machine interfaces promises a more intuitive handling. For this reason many tactile displays are developed using different technologies. We present several state-of-the-art tactile displays based on different types of dielectric elastomer actuators to clarify the advantages of our matrix display based on multilayer technology. Using this technology perpendicular and hexagonal arrays of actuator elements (tactile stimulators) can be integrated into a PDMS substrate. Element diameters down to 1 mm allow stimuli at the range of the human two-point-discrimination threshold. Driving the elements by column and row addressing enables various stimulation patterns with a reduced number of feeding lines. The transient analysis determines charging times of the capacitive actuators depending on actuator geometry and material parameters. This is very important to ensure an adequate dynamic characteristic of the actuators to stimulate the human skin by vibrations. The suitability of multilayer dielectric elastomer actuators for actuation in tactile displays has been determined. Beside the realization of a static tactile display - where multilayer DEA are integrated as drives for movable contact pins - we focus on the direct use of DEA as a vibrotactile display. Finally, we present the scenario and achieved results of a recognition threshold test. Even relative low voltages in the range of 800 V generate vibrations with 100% recognition ratio within the group of participants. Furthermore, the frequency dependent characteristic of the determined recognition threshold confirms with established literature.

  3. Identifying Suitable Projection Parameters and Display Configurations for Mobile True-3D Displays

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano, Marcos; Hildebrandt, Dale; Subramanian, Sriram; Irani, Pourang

    2014-01-01

    International audience; We present a two-part exploration on mobile true-3D displays, i.e. displaying volumetric 3D content in mid-air. We first identify and study the parameters of a mobile true-3D projection, in terms of the projection's distance to the phone, angle to the phone, display volume and position within the display. We identify suitable parameters and constraints, which we propose as requirements for developing mobile true-3D systems. We build on the first outcomes to explore met...

  4. Polarity effect in electrovibration for tactile display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Kurt A; Nammi, Krishnakant; Agarwal, Abhishek K; Tyler, Mitchell E; Haase, Steven J; Beebe, David J

    2006-10-01

    Electrovibration is the tactile sensation of an alternating potential between the human body and a smooth conducing surface when the skin slides over the surface and where the current is too small to stimulate sensory nerves directly. It has been proposed as a high-density tactile display method, for example to display pictographic information to persons who are blind. Previous models for the electrovibration transduction mechanism are based on a parallel-plate capacitor in which the electrostatic force is insensitive to polarity. We present experimental data showing that electrovibratory perceptual sensitivity to positive pulses is less than that for negative or biphasic pulses and propose that this disparity may be due to the asymmetric electrical properties of human skin. We furthermore propose using negative pulses for insulated tactile displays based on electrovibration because their sensory thresholds were found to be more stable than for waveforms incorporating positive pulses.

  5. The design of electronic map displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretz, Anthony J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a cognitive analysis of a pilot's navigation task and describes an experiment comparing a new map display that employs the principle of visual momentum with the two traditional approaches, track-up and north-up. The data show that the advantage of a track-up alignment is its congruence with the egocentered forward view; however, the inconsistency of the rotating display hinders development of a cognitive map. The stability of a north-up alignment aids the acquisition of a cognitive map, but there is a cost associated with the mental rotation of the display to a track-up alignment for tasks involving the ego-centered forward view. The data also show that the visual momentum design captures the benefits and reduces the costs associated with the two traditional approaches.

  6. Optical scanning holography for stereoscopic display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jung-Ping; Wen, Hsuan-Hsuan

    2016-10-01

    Optical Scanning Holography (OSH) is a scanning-type digital holographic recording technique. One of OSH's most important properties is that the OSH can record an incoherent hologram, which is free of speckle and thus is suitable for the applications of holographic display. The recording time of a scanning hologram is proportional to the sampling resolution. Hence the viewing angle as well as the resolution of a scanning hologram is limited for avoid too long recording. As a result, the viewing angle is not large enough for optical display. To solve this problem, we recorded two scanning holograms at different viewing angles. The two holograms are synthesized to a single stereoscopic hologram with two main viewing angles. In displaying, two views at the two main viewing angles are reconstructed. Because both views contain full-depth-resolved 3D scenes, the problem of accommodation conflict in conventional stereogram is avoided.

  7. High performance visual display for HENP detectors

    CERN Document Server

    McGuigan, M; Spiletic, J; Fine, V; Nevski, P

    2001-01-01

    A high end visual display for High Energy Nuclear Physics (HENP) detectors is necessary because of the sheer size and complexity of the detector. For BNL this display will be of special interest because of STAR and ATLAS. To load, rotate, query, and debug simulation code with a modern detector simply takes too long even on a powerful work station. To visualize the HENP detectors with maximal performance we have developed software with the following characteristics. We develop a visual display of HENP detectors on BNL multiprocessor visualization server at multiple level of detail. We work with general and generic detector framework consistent with ROOT, GAUDI etc, to avoid conflicting with the many graphic development groups associated with specific detectors like STAR and ATLAS. We develop advanced OpenGL features such as transparency and polarized stereoscopy. We enable collaborative viewing of detector and events by directly running the analysis in BNL stereoscopic theatre. We construct enhanced interactiv...

  8. Characterising laser beams with liquid crystal displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Angela; Naidoo, Darryl; Forbes, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    We show how one can determine the various properties of light, from the modal content of laser beams to decoding the information stored in optical fields carrying orbital angular momentum, by performing a modal decomposition. Although the modal decomposition of light has been known for a long time, applied mostly to pattern recognition, we illustrate how this technique can be implemented with the use of liquid-crystal displays. We show experimentally how liquid crystal displays can be used to infer the intensity, phase, wavefront, Poynting vector, and orbital angular momentum density of unknown optical fields. This measurement technique makes use of a single spatial light modulator (liquid crystal display), a Fourier transforming lens and detector (CCD or photo-diode). Such a diagnostic tool is extremely relevant to the real-time analysis of solid-state and fibre laser systems as well as mode division multiplexing as an emerging technology in optical communication.

  9. Issues in defense training systems immersive displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord, Philip

    2006-05-01

    Display technology for DOD immersive projector-based flight training systems are at a crossroads as CRT technology slowly disappears from the market place. From the DOD perspective, emerging technologies arrive poorly matched to satisfy training needs. The DOD represents a minority voice in the marketplace. Current issues include: Satisfying requirements for black level, brightness and contrast ratio, Establishing standard metrics for resolution, system performance and reliability, Obtaining maintainability and self-calibration in multi-channel arrays, Reducing screen cross-reflection in wrap-around immersive display arrays. Laser, DLP, and LCOS projector systems are compared for their current acceptance and problems in defense flight training systems. General requirements of visual display systems are discussed and contrasted for flight trainers for low flyers (helicopters) high flyers (tactical aircraft) in real-time immersive, networked systems. FLIR and NVG simulation techniques are described.

  10. Interacting on and around Large Displays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Anders

    of content that reside outside the display boundaries, taking advantage of users’ perceived location of off-screen content. Off-Limits was found to provide significant benefits over touch-based interaction. The results show that an extension of interactions beyond the boundaries of the display can increase......), a previously successfully text entry method for touch- and pen-based input, to work as a technique for mid-air text entry. With a text entry rate of 20.6 WPM after 10 sessions of text entry, the mid-air WGK provided faster text entry rates than previously evaluated methods for mid-air text entry. An improved....... To improve understanding of the differences between input modalities for large displays, the mid-air WGK was compared to a touch-based functionally equivalent WGK. The touch-based keyboard was found to be significantly faster than the mid-air WGK, indicating that touch based interaction may be preferable...

  11. Pilot Preferences on Displayed Aircraft Control Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Gregory, Irene M.

    2013-01-01

    The experiments described here explored how pilots want available maneuver authority information transmitted and how this information affects pilots before and after an aircraft failure. The aircraft dynamic variables relative to flight performance were narrowed to energy management variables. A survey was conducted to determine what these variables should be. Survey results indicated that bank angle, vertical velocity, and airspeed were the preferred variables. Based on this, two displays were designed to inform the pilot of available maneuver envelope expressed as bank angle, vertical velocity, and airspeed. These displays were used in an experiment involving control surface failures. Results indicate the displayed limitations in bank angle, vertical velocity, and airspeed were helpful to the pilots during aircraft surface failures. However, the additional information did lead to a slight increase in workload, a small decrease in perceived aircraft flying qualities, and no effect on aircraft situation awareness.

  12. A Displayer of Stellar Hydrodynamics Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigo, José Antonio Escartín; Senz, Domingo García

    The graphics display tool that we present here was originally developed to meet the needs of the Astronomy and Astrophysics group at the UPC (GAA). At present, it is used to display the plots obtained from hydrodynamic simulations using the SPH (smoothed particle hydrodynamics) method. It is, however, a generic program that can be used for other multidimensional hydrodynamic methods. The application combines the most widely used features of other programs (most of them commercial) such as GnuPlot, Surfer, Grapher, IDL, Voxler, etc.

  13. Interpretation and display of research results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Kumar Kulkarni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It important to properly collect, code, clean and edit the data before interpreting and displaying the research results. Computers play a major role in different phases of research starting from conceptual, design and planning, data collection, data analysis and research publication phases. The main objective of data display is to summarize the characteristics of a data and to make the data more comprehensible and meaningful. Usually data is presented depending upon the type of data in different tables and graphs. This will enable not only to understand the data behaviour, but also useful in choosing the different statistical tests to be applied.

  14. Variable parallax barrier spacing in autostereoscopic displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seon Kyu; Khym, Sungwon; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Sung-Kyu

    2016-07-01

    In general, multi-view autostereoscopic displays can only provide autostereoscopic images with little crosstalk at the optimum viewing distance (OVD) in the depth direction, limiting the mobility of viewers. Therefore, this paper proposes a method of increasing viewer mobility in the depth direction by varying the distance separating the parallax barrier and the display. Computer simulations and experiments were conducted to verify changes in the OVD resulting from the application of the proposed method. The results showed that the proposed method is effective at changing the OVD with respect to changes in the viewing distance. Therefore this method minimizes changes in the 3D image quality due to the viewer's depth location.

  15. Perceptual transparency in neon color spreading displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekroll, Vebjørn; Faul, Franz

    2002-08-01

    In neon color spreading displays, both a color illusion and perceptual transparency can be seen. In this study, we investigated the color conditions for the perception of transparency in such displays. It was found that the data are very well accounted for by a generalization of Metelli's (1970) episcotister model of balanced perceptual transparency to tristimulus values. This additive model correctly predicted which combinations of colors would lead to optimal impressions of transparency. Color combinations deviating slightly from the additive model also looked transparent, but less convincingly so.

  16. Bright color reflective displays with interlayer reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitson, Stephen; Geisow, Adrian; Rudin, John; Taphouse, Tim

    2011-08-01

    A good solution to the reflective display of color has been a major challenge for the display industry, with very limited color gamuts demonstrated to date. Conventional side-by-side red, green and blue color filters waste two-thirds of incident light. The alternative of stacking cyan, magenta and yellow layers is also challenging -- a 10% loss per layer compounds to nearly 50% overall. Here we demonstrate an architecture that interleaves absorbing-to-clear shutters with matched wavelength selective reflectors. This increases color gamut by reducing losses and more cleanly separating the color channels, and gives much wider choice of electro-optic colorants.

  17. Displaying of Details in Subvoxel Accuracy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡文立; 陈天洲; 等

    1996-01-01

    Under the volume segmentation in voxel space,a lot of details,some fine and thin objects,are ignored.In order to accurately display these details,this paper has developed a methodology for volume segmentation in subvoxel space.In the subvoxel space,most of the “bridges”between adjacent layers are broken down.Based on the subvoxel space,an automatic segmentation algorithm reserving details is discussed.After segmentation,volume data in subvoxel space are reduced to original voxel space.Thus,the details with width of only one or several voxels are extracted and displayed.

  18. Large-screen display industry: market and technology trends for direct view and projection displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Joseph A.; Mentley, David E.

    1996-03-01

    Large screen information displays are defined as dynamic electronic displays that can be viewed by more than one person and are at least 2-feet wide. These large area displays for public viewing provide convenience, entertainment, security, and efficiency to the viewers. There are numerous uses for large screen information displays including those in advertising, transportation, traffic control, conference room presentations, computer aided design, banking, and military command/control. A noticeable characteristic of the large screen display market is the interchangeability of display types. For any given application, the user can usually choose from at least three alternative technologies, and sometimes from many more. Some display types have features that make them suitable for specific applications due to temperature, brightness, power consumption, or other such characteristic. The overall worldwide unit consumption of large screen information displays of all types and for all applications (excluding consumer TV) will increase from 401,109 units in 1995 to 655,797 units in 2002. On a unit consumption basis, applications in business and education represent the largest share of unit consumption over this time period; in 1995, this application represented 69.7% of the total. The market (value of shipments) will grow from DOL3.1 billion in 1995 to DOL3.9 billion in 2002. The market will be dominated by front LCD projectors and LCD overhead projector plates.

  19. Head Mounted Displays for Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    image generating capabilities. 2.2.4 Color Since people are used to viewing the world in color, a full-color display would add to the realism of the...Crescent Street, Waltham, MA, undated. Lipton, L., Foundations of the Stereoscopic Cinema , New York: Van Nostrand Rheinhold Company, 1982. Martin, S. W

  20. Exploring Community Building with an Awareness Display

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vyas, Dhaval; Nijholt, Anton; Eliëns, Anton; Poelman, Wim; Makedon, Fillia

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a field trial of a pervasive system called Panorama that is aimed at supporting social awareness in work environments. Panorama is an intelligent situated display in the staff room of an academic department. It artistically represents non-critical user generated content suc

  1. A Conceptual Framework for Ambient Learning Displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Börner, D., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2010). A Conceptual Framework for Ambient Learning Displays. In B. Chang, T. Hirashima, & H. Ogata (Eds.), Joint Proceedings of the Work-in-Progress Poster and Invited Young Researcher Symposium for the 18th International Conference on Computers in Education (pp.

  2. Perception of Depth with Stereoscopic Combat Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-01

    phorias and aniseikonia contributed to visual fatigue in * observers of stereo displays though this proposition has never been put to test. In future...experiments, individuals with slight, but measurable, eye muscle imbalances or aniseikonia -should be compared with normals across various viewing sy

  3. Perception of Spatial Features with Stereoscopic Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-24

    aniseikonia (differences in retinal image size in the two eyes) are of little significance because only monocular perception of the display is required for...perception as a result of such factors as aniseikonia , uncor- rected refractive errors, or phorias results in reduced stereopsis. However, because

  4. A Conceptual Framework for Ambient Learning Displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Börner, D., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2010, 29 November-3 December). A Conceptual Framework for Ambient Learning Displays. Poster presented at the Work-in-Progress Poster and Invited Young Researcher Symposium of the 18th International Conference on Computers in Education, Putrajaya, Malaysia: Asia-Pa

  5. A Conceptual Framework for Ambient Learning Displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Börner, D., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2010). A Conceptual Framework for Ambient Learning Displays. In B. Chang, T. Hirashima, & H. Ogata (Eds.), Joint Proceedings of the Work-in-Progress Poster and Invited Young Researcher Symposium for the 18th International Conference on Computers in Education (pp.

  6. Liquid Crystal Microlenses for Autostereoscopic Displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Algorri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional vision has acquired great importance in the audiovisual industry in the past ten years. Despite this, the first generation of autostereoscopic displays failed to generate enough consumer excitement. Some reasons are little 3D content and performance issues. For this reason, an exponential increase in three-dimensional vision research has occurred in the last few years. In this review, a study of the historical impact of the most important technologies has been performed. This study is carried out in terms of research manuscripts per year. The results reveal that research on spatial multiplexing technique is increasing considerably and today is the most studied. For this reason, the state of the art of this technique is presented. The use of microlenses seems to be the most successful method to obtain autostereoscopic vision. When they are fabricated with liquid crystal materials, extended capabilities are produced. Among the numerous techniques for manufacturing liquid crystal microlenses, this review covers the most viable designs for its use in autostereoscopic displays. For this reason, some of the most important topologies and their relation with autostereoscopic displays are presented. Finally, the challenges in some recent applications, such as portable devices, and the future of three-dimensional displays based on liquid crystal microlenses are outlined.

  7. Recommended Colours for Use on Airborne Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    generation of military aircraft will also utilise such devices. There are a number of types of colour CRTs but the penetron and shadow mask devices are...towards 610 nm also typifies penetron displays. When these boundaries are superimposed on repre- sentative source (Fig 21) and surface (Fig 22) plots it

  8. Presenting directions with a vibrotactile torso display

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van

    2005-01-01

    Vibrotactile displays covering the torso present spatial information in an intuitive way since the stimuli are directly mapped to the body coordinates; left is left, front is front, etc. The present study investigated the direction in the horizontal plane to which a specific torso location is mapped

  9. Supramolecular liquid crystal displays : construction and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogboom, Joannes Theodorus Valentinus

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes chemical methodologies, which can be ued to construct alignment layers for liquid crystal display purposes in a non-clean room environment, by making use of supramolecular chemistry. These techniques are subsequently used to attain control over LCD-properties, both pre- and pos

  10. A Conceptual Framework for Ambient Learning Displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Börner, D., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2010, 29 November-3 December). A Conceptual Framework for Ambient Learning Displays. Poster presented at the Work-in-Progress Poster and Invited Young Researcher Symposium of the 18th International Conference on Computers in Education, Putrajaya, Malaysia:

  11. Ambient Displays and Game Design Patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelle, Sebastian; Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Kelle, S., Börner, D., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2010). Ambient Displays and Game Design Patterns. In M. Wolpers, P. A. Kirschner, M. Scheffel, S. Lindstädt, & V. Dimitrova (Eds.), Sustaining TEL: From Innovation to Learning and Practice, Proceedings of EC-TEL 2010 (pp. 512-517). LNCS 6383. Berlin, He

  12. Slew Timer For Symbol Display Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Paul A.

    1993-01-01

    Slew-length timer generates delay and, at end of delay, signal indicating end of one of slews of electron beam in cathode-ray-tube display driven by symbol generator. End-of-slew signal constitutes "permission" for symbol generator to begin drawing next symbol segment.

  13. Latest Developments In Liquid Crystal Television Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozumi, Shinji; Oguchi, Kouichi; Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    1984-06-01

    This paper will discuss developments in liquid crystal (LC) television displays, mainly for pocket-size TV sets. There are two types of LC television displays. One is a simple multiplexing type, and the other is an active matrix type. The former type is an easier way to fabricate large and low-cost LC panels than the latter. However, it has serious drawbacks. The contrast gets lower as the duty ratio gets higher. Therefore the TV image of this type inevitably has rather low contrast and resolution. On the other hand, the active matrix type, which consists of active elements in each pixel, has several advantages in overcoming such problems. The metal oxide semiconductor transistors and the amorphous or polycrystalline Si thin-film transistors (TFTs) have possibilities in this application. A full-color LC display, which can be realized by the combina-tion of color filters and poly Si TFT arrays on a transparent substrate, was proven to have excellent color image, close to that of conventional CRTs. Here, several examples of LC television displays, including color, are shown. Some of them are already on the market, and others will be soon.

  14. Baculovirus display of functional antibody Fab fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Shinya; Ogawa, Takafumi; Matsui, Kazusa; Suzuki, Tasuku; Katsuda, Tomohisa; Yamaji, Hideki

    2015-08-01

    The generation of a recombinant baculovirus that displays antibody Fab fragments on the surface was investigated. A recombinant baculovirus was engineered so that the heavy chain (Hc; Fd fragment) of a mouse Fab fragment was expressed as a fusion to the N-terminus of baculovirus gp64, while the light chain of the Fab fragment was simultaneously expressed as a secretory protein. Following infection of Sf9 insect cells with the recombinant baculovirus, the culture supernatant was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using antigen-coated microplates and either an anti-mouse IgG or an anti-gp64 antibody. A relatively strong signal was obtained in each case, showing antigen-binding activity in the culture supernatant. In western blot analysis of the culture supernatant using the anti-gp64 antibody, specific protein bands were detected at an electrophoretic mobility that coincided with the molecular weight of the Hc-gp64 fusion protein as well as that of gp64. Flow cytometry using a fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated antibody specific to mouse IgG successfully detected the Fab fragments on the surface of the Sf9 cells. These results suggest that immunologically functional antibody Fab fragments can be displayed on the surface of baculovirus particles, and that a fluorescence-activated cell sorter with a fluorescence-labeled antigen can isolate baculoviruses displaying specific Fab fragments. This successful baculovirus display of antibody Fab fragments may offer a novel approach for the efficient selection of specific antibodies.

  15. Tactile display device using an electrorheological fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, H. Douglas

    1994-08-01

    A tactile display device utilizes an electrorheological fluid to activate a plurality of tactile dots. A voltage is selectively produced uniformly across an electrorheological fluid flowing between a common ground electrode and a plurality of conductive dot electrodes, thereby producing an increase in the fluid's viscosity to the extent that fluid flow between the two electrodes is restricted. The flow restriction produces a build-up of electrorheological fluid in a corresponding dot actuator chamber. The resulting pressure increase in the chamber displaces an elastic diaphragm fixed to a display surface to form a lump which can be perceived by the reader as one dot in a Braille character cell. A flow regulation system provides a continually pressurized flow system and provides for free flow of the electrorheological fluid through the plurality of dot actuator chambers when they are not activated. The device is adaptable to printed circuit techniques and can simultaneously display tactile dots representative of a full page of Braille characters stored on a medium such as a tape cassette or to display tactile dots representative of non-Braille data appearing on a computer monitor or contained on another data storage medium. In an alternate embodiment, the elastic diaphragm drives a plurality of spring-loaded pins provided with positive stops to maintain consistent displacements of the pins in both their actuated and nonactuated positions.

  16. Visualising the Battlefield with Panoramic Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-11-01

    such colour capability, sufficient viewing angle, capabilities: who has the authority to interact colourcablity sufficintrvie igag with and change...conferencing, briefings, etc. can also be displayed (see Figure 2). * LSDs must conform to population stereotypes (i.e. user expectations about

  17. Converting a Display Screen into a Touchscreen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qun Wang; Jun Cheng; San-Ming Shen; Yi-Jiang Shen; Jian-Xin Pang

    2014-01-01

    A method is presented to convert any display screen into a touchscreen by using a pair of cameras. Most state of art touchscreens make use of special touch-sensitive hardware or depend on infrared sensors in various configurations. We describe a novel computer-vision-based method that can robustly identify fingertips and detect touch with a precision of a few millimeters above the screen. In our system, the two cameras capture the display screen image simultaneously. Users can interact with a computer by the fingertip on the display screen. We have two important contributions:first, we develop a simple and robust hand detection method based on predicted images. Second, we determine whether a physical touch takes places by the homography of the two cameras. In this system, the appearance of the display screen in camera images is inherently predictable from the computer output images. Therefore, we can compute the predicted images and extract human hand precisely by simply subtracting the predicted images from captured images.

  18. Recognition of epoxy with phage displayed peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Swathi; Cui, Yue

    2013-07-01

    The development of a general approach for non-destructive chemical and biological functionalization of epoxy could expand opportunities for both fundamental studies and creating various device platforms. Epoxy shows unique electrical, mechanical, chemical and biological compatibility and has been widely used for fabricating a variety of devices. Phage display has emerged as a powerful method for selecting peptides that possess enhanced selectivity and binding affinity toward a variety of targets. In this letter, we demonstrate for the first time a powerful yet benign approach for identifying binding motifs to epoxy via comprehensively screened phage displayed peptides. Our results show that the epoxy can be selectively recognized with peptide-displaying phages. Further, along with the development of epoxy-based microstructures; recognition of the epoxy with phage displayed peptides can be specifically localized in these microstructures. We anticipate that these results could open up exciting opportunities in the use of peptide-recognized epoxy in fundamental biochemical recognition studies, as well as in applications ranging from analytical devices, hybrid materials, surface and interface, to cell biology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Electronic Chart Display and Information System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces the most advanced form of electronic chart display and information systems (ECDIS) which complies with the Performance Standards for ECDIS established by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO).It also describes the key features and the important functions of ECDIS.Then the future development of ECDIS in marine is discussed.

  20. Advanced manufacturing technologies on color plasma displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betsui, Keiichi

    2000-06-01

    The mass production of the color plasma display started from 1996. However, since the price of the panel is still expensive, PDPs are not in widespread use at home. It is necessary to develop the new and low-cost manufacturing technologies to reduce the price of the panel. This paper describes some of the features of new fabrication technologies of PDPs.

  1. Ambient Displays and Game Design Patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelle, Sebastian; Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Kelle, S., Börner, D., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2010). Ambient Displays and Game Design Patterns. In M. Wolpers, P. A. Kirschner, M. Scheffel, S. Lindstädt, & V. Dimitrova (Eds.), Sustaining TEL: From Innovation to Learning and Practice, Proceedings of EC-TEL 2010 (pp. 512-517). LNCS 6383. Berlin,

  2. VLSI design of 3D display processing chip for binocular stereo displays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ge Chenyang; Zheng Nanning

    2010-01-01

    In order to develop the core chip supporting binocular stereo displays for head mounted display(HMD)and glasses-TV,a very large scale integrated(VLSI)design scheme is proposed by using a pipeline architecture for 3D display processing chip(HMD100).Some key techniques including stereo display processing and high precision video scaling based bicubic interpolation,and their hardware implementations which improve the image quality are presented.The proposed HMD100 chip is verified by the field-programmable gate array(FPGA).As one of innovative and high integration SoC chips,HMD100 is designed by a digital and analog mixed circuit.It can support binocular stereo display,has better scaling effect and integration.Hence it is applicable in virtual reality(VR),3D games and other microdisplay domains.

  3. Spatial constraints of stereopsis in video displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schor, Clifton

    1989-01-01

    Recent development in video technology, such as the liquid crystal displays and shutters, have made it feasible to incorporate stereoscopic depth into the 3-D representations on 2-D displays. However, depth has already been vividly portrayed in video displays without stereopsis using the classical artists' depth cues described by Helmholtz (1866) and the dynamic depth cues described in detail by Ittleson (1952). Successful static depth cues include overlap, size, linear perspective, texture gradients, and shading. Effective dynamic cues include looming (Regan and Beverly, 1979) and motion parallax (Rogers and Graham, 1982). Stereoscopic depth is superior to the monocular distance cues under certain circumstances. It is most useful at portraying depth intervals as small as 5 to 10 arc secs. For this reason it is extremely useful in user-video interactions such as telepresence. Objects can be manipulated in 3-D space, for example, while a person who controls the operations views a virtual image of the manipulated object on a remote 2-D video display. Stereopsis also provides structure and form information in camouflaged surfaces such as tree foliage. Motion parallax also reveals form; however, without other monocular cues such as overlap, motion parallax can yield an ambiguous perception. For example, a turning sphere, portrayed as solid by parallax can appear to rotate either leftward or rightward. However, only one direction of rotation is perceived when stereo-depth is included. If the scene is static, then stereopsis is the principal cue for revealing the camouflaged surface structure. Finally, dynamic stereopsis provides information about the direction of motion in depth (Regan and Beverly, 1979). Clearly there are many spatial constraints, including spatial frequency content, retinal eccentricity, exposure duration, target spacing, and disparity gradient, which - when properly adjusted - can greatly enhance stereodepth in video displays.

  4. Dynamic exit pupil trackers for autostereoscopic displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akşit, Kaan; Baghsiahi, Hadi; Surman, Phil; Ölçer, Selim; Willman, Eero; Selviah, David R; Day, Sally; Urey, Hakan

    2013-06-17

    This paper describes the first demonstrations of two dynamic exit pupil (DEP) tracker techniques for autostereoscopic displays. The first DEP tracker forms an exit pupil pair for a single viewer in a defined space with low intraocular crosstalk using a pair of moving shutter glasses located within the optical system. A display prototype using the first DEP tracker is constructed from a pair of laser projectors, pupil-forming optics, moving shutter glasses at an intermediate pupil plane, an image relay lens, and a Gabor superlens based viewing screen. The left and right eye images are presented time-sequentially to a single viewer and seen as a 3D image without wearing glasses and allows the viewer to move within a region of 40 cm × 20 cm in the lateral plane, and 30 cm along the axial axis. The second DEP optics can move the exit pupil location dynamically in a much larger 3D space by using a custom spatial light modulator (SLM) forming an array of shutters. Simultaneous control of multiple exit pupils in both lateral and axial axes is demonstrated for the first time and provides a viewing volume with an axial extent of 0.6-3 m from the screen and within a lateral viewing angle of ± 20° for multiple viewers. This system has acceptable crosstalk (< 5%) between the stereo image pairs. In this novel version of the display the optical system is used as an advanced dynamic backlight for a liquid crystal display (LCD). This has advantages in terms of overall display size as there is no requirement for an intermediate image, and in image quality. This system has acceptable crosstalk (< 5%) between the stereo image pairs.

  5. Writing next-generation display photomasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstrom, Tor; Wahlsten, Mikael; Park, Youngjin

    2016-10-01

    Recent years have seen a fast technical development within the display area. Displays get ever higher pixel density and the pixels get smaller. Current displays have over 800 PPI and market forces will eventually drive for densities of 2000 PPI or higher. The transistor backplanes also get more complex. OLED displays require 4-7 transistors per pixel instead of the typical 1-2 transistors used for LCDs, and they are significantly more sensitive to errors. New large-area maskwriters have been developed for masks used in high volume production of screens for state-of-theart smartphones. Redesigned laser optics with higher NA and lower aberrations improve resolution and CD uniformity and reduce mura effects. The number of beams has been increased to maintain the throughput despite the higher writing resolution. OLED displays are highly sensitive to placement errors and registration in the writers has been improved. To verify the registration of produced masks a separate metrology system has been developed. The metrology system is self-calibrated to high accuracy. The calibration is repeatable across machines and sites using Z-correction. The repeatability of the coordinate system makes it possible to standardize the coordinate system across an entire supply chain or indeed across the entire industry. In-house metrology is a commercial necessity for high-end mask shop, but also the users of the masks, the panel makers, would benefit from having in-house metrology. It would act as the reference for their mask suppliers, give better predictive and post mortem diagnostic power for the panel process, and the metrology could be used to characterize and improve the entire production loop from data to panel.

  6. Phage display: concept, innovations, applications and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, Jyoti; Szewczyk, Magdalena M; Grover, Ashok K

    2010-01-01

    Phage display is the technology that allows expression of exogenous (poly)peptides on the surface of phage particles. The concept is simple in principle: a library of phage particles expressing a wide diversity of peptides is used to select those that bind the desired target. The filamentous phage M13 is the most commonly used vector to create random peptide display libraries. Several methods including recombinant techniques have been developed to increase the diversity of the library. On the other extreme, libraries with various biases can be created for specific purposes. For instance, when the sequence of the peptide that binds the target is known, its affinity and selectivity can be increased by screening libraries created with limited mutagenesis of the peptide. Phage libraries are screened for binding to synthetic or native targets. The initial screening of library by basic biopanning has been extended to column chromatography including negative screening and competition between selected phage clones to identify high affinity ligands with greater target specificity. The rapid isolation of specific ligands by phage display is advantageous in many applications including selection of inhibitors for the active and allosteric sites of the enzymes, receptor agonists and antagonists, and G-protein binding modulatory peptides. Phage display has been used in epitope mapping and analysis of protein-protein interactions. The specific ligands isolated from phage libraries can be used in therapeutic target validation, drug design and vaccine development. Phage display can also be used in conjunction with other methods. The past innovations and those to come promise a bright future for this field.

  7. Liquid crystal displays with high brightness of visualization versus active displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olifierczuk, Marek; Zieliński, Jerzy

    2007-05-01

    Nowadays Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD) takes the very important place among different visualization devices. It's are used in many standard applications such as computer or video screens. In May 2006, 100" LCD TV monitor had been shown by LG. But beside of this main direction of display development, very interesting - because of insignificant electro-magnetic disturbances - is the possibility of it's applications in motorization and aviation. An example of it can be a glass cockpit of U2 , Boeing 777 or many different car dashboards. On this field beside LCD we have now many another display technologies, but interesting for us are 3 of them: FEDs (Field Emission Displays), OLEDs (Organic Light Emitting Diode), PLEDs (Polymer Light Emitting Diode). The leading position of LCD is a result of LCD unique advantages of flat form, weight, power consumption, and reliability, higher (than CRT) luminance, luminance uniformity, sunlight readability, wide dimming range, fault tolerance and a large active display area with a small border. The basis of starting our investigation was the comparison of passive LCD and the other technology, which can be theoretically used on motorization and aviation field. The following parameters are compared: contrast ratio, luminance level, temperature stability, life-time, operating temperature range, color performance, and depth, viewing cone, technology maturity, availability and cost. In our work an analysis of Liquid Crystal Displays used in specific applications is done. The possibilities of the applications such a display under high lighting level are presented. The presented results of this analysis are obtained from computer program worked by authors, which makes it possible to calculate the optical parameters of transmissive and reflective LCD working in quasi-real conditions. The base assumption of this program are shown. This program calculate the transmission and reflection coefficient of a display taking into account the

  8. Wearable and augmented reality displays using MEMS and SLMs

    OpenAIRE

    Ürey, Hakan; Ulusoy, Erdem; Akşit, Kaan; Hossein, Amir; Niaki, Ghanbari

    2016-01-01

    In this talk, we present the various types of 3D displays, head-mounted projection displays and wearable displays developed in our group using MEMS scanners, compact RGB laser light sources, and spatial light modulators.

  9. Wearable and augmented reality displays using MEMS and SLMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urey, Hakan; Ulusoy, Erdem; Kazempourradi, Seyedmahdi M. K.; Mengu, Deniz; Olcer, Selim; Holmstrom, Sven T.

    2016-03-01

    In this talk, we present the various types of 3D displays, head-mounted projection displays and wearable displays developed in our group using MEMS scanners, compact RGB laser light sources, and spatial light modulators.

  10. Advanced and tendencies in the development of display technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kompanets, I. N.

    2006-06-01

    Advances and key display applications are discussed. Computer, compact mobile, TV and collective large screen displays are mentioned. Flat panel displays step on CRT devices to leave them behind in 2007. Materials, active matricies and applications of bright radiative field emission and organic LED displays are developing successively and pressing other technologies to be used in photo-cameras, cellular phones, auto-cars and avionics. Progress in flexible screens can substantially extend the display design and application soon. 3D display systems are under intensive development, and laser is an important unit in some vaiants of holographic and volumetric 3D displays. Value forecast of different display markets is presented.

  11. Super high precision 200 ppi liquid crystal display series; Chokoseido 200 ppi ekisho display series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    In mobile equipment, in demand is a high precision liquid crystal display (LCD) having the power of expression equivalent to printed materials like magazines because of the necessity of displaying a large amount of information on a easily potable small screen. In addition, with the spread and high-quality image of digital still cameras, it is strongly desired to display photographed digital image data in high quality. Toshiba Corp., by low temperature polysilicone (p-Si) technology, commercialized the liquid crystal display series of 200 ppi (pixels per inch) precision dealing with the rise of the high-precision high-image quality LCD market. The super high precision of 200 ppi enables the display of smooth beautiful animation comparable to printed sheets of magazines and photographs. The display series are suitable for the display of various information services such as electronic books and electronic photo-viewers including internet. The screen sizes lined up are No. 4 type VGA (640x480 pixels) of a small pocket notebook size and No. 6.3 type XGA (1,024x768 pixels) of a paperback size, with a larger screen to be furthered. (translated by NEDO)

  12. The effect of configural displays on pilot situation awareness in helmet-mounted displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Joseph Christopher

    The current research utilized configural displays within the domain of aviation to assess what design features of configural displays contribute to the formation of operator situation awareness (SA). Configural displays map system information relevant to operator goals onto geometric shapes called emergent features. An emergent feature is formed from the combination of individual line segments to produce a global feature more perceptually salient and recognized sooner than the individual parts themselves. Configural displays have been shown in previous research to provide better operator performance for integration tasks where multiple pieces of information must be considered at once, yet the design aspects of configural displays that impact the formation of operator SA have yet to be determined. The current research compared the design features of three aviation configural displays over four experiments to quantify what aspects of configural displays would impact operator SA. The research sought to determine whether the simple act of representing system information in configural displays using emergent features is sufficient for facilitating operator SA or do other design factors need to be considered? Operator SA was assessed using explicit and implicit measures of SA from operator task performance in addition to a subjective SA rating scale. The recognition of aircraft attitude (climb/dive flight angles) when briefly presented to pilots in Experiment 1 revealed significant performance differences for the Arc Segment Attitude Reference (ASAR) configural display which mapped aircraft attitude information onto a circular shape versus the traditional aircraft head-up display (HUD) ladder found in the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) HUD and Dual-Articulated (DA) HUD. The current research in Experiment 1 provides evidence that configural displays such as the ASAR that utilize emergent features well mapped to fully relate the information needed for a task will facilitate

  13. A dynamic display keyboard and a key for use in a dynamic display keyboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The invention relates to a dynamic display keyboard comprising a plurality of key elements (101), each key element (101) comprises a transmitting part (102) capable of transmitting at least a part of light incident on the transmitting part; a mat (105) comprising a plurality of elevated elements......). In this way, the dynamic display keyboard is able to provide a tactile feedback in response to a user action directed towards a key of the keyboard. Further, the only power requiring element in the keyboard is the display unit....

  14. Cognitive Cost of Using Augmented Reality Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, James; Ssin, Seung Youb; ElSayed, Neven A M; Dorrian, Jillian; Webb, David P; Walsh, James A; Simon, Timothy M; Irlitti, Andrew; Smith, Ross T; Kohler, Mark; Thomas, Bruce H

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents the results of two cognitive load studies comparing three augmented reality display technologies: spatial augmented reality, the optical see-through Microsoft HoloLens, and the video see-through Samsung Gear VR. In particular, the two experiments focused on isolating the cognitive load cost of receiving instructions for a button-pressing procedural task. The studies employed a self-assessment cognitive load methodology, as well as an additional dual-task cognitive load methodology. The results showed that spatial augmented reality led to increased performance and reduced cognitive load. Additionally, it was discovered that a limited field of view can introduce increased cognitive load requirements. The findings suggest that some of the inherent restrictions of head-mounted displays materialize as increased user cognitive load.

  15. Time management displays for shuttle countdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beller, Arthur E.; Hadaller, H. Greg; Ricci, Mark J.

    1992-01-01

    The Intelligent Launch Decision Support System project is developing a Time Management System (TMS) for the NASA Test Director (NTD) to use for time management during Shuttle terminal countdown. TMS is being developed in three phases: an information phase; a tool phase; and an advisor phase. The information phase is an integrated display (TMID) of firing room clocks, of graphic timelines with Ground Launch Sequencer events, and of constraints. The tool phase is a what-if spreadsheet (TMWI) for devising plans for resuming from unplanned hold situations. It is tied to information in TMID, propagates constraints forward and backward to complete unspecified values, and checks the plan against constraints. The advisor phase is a situation advisor (TMSA), which proactively suggests tactics. A concept prototype for TMSA is under development. The TMID is currently undergoing field testing. Displays for TMID and TMWI are described. Descriptions include organization, rationale for organization, implementation choices and constraints, and use by NTD.

  16. Visual displays and Neuro-Linguistic Programming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); VanHoozer, W.R. [Tranceformations Unlimited, Rigby, ID (United States)

    1994-10-01

    Advancement of computer technology is forthcoming at such a rapid pace that the research concerning the interplay of humans and computer technology is lagging far behind. One area of particular concern is the design of visual displays that are pragmatic, ``user friendly,`` and ``user assisting.`` When engineers design visual displays, they generally do so methodically and logically, but only from within their own individual perspective or ``model of the world.`` They select the human aspects which make sense to them and not necessarily to non-engineers, operators, and others. The model design is what the engineer chooses to relate, based on his or her perspective of reality. These choices limit the model design thereby excluding the users` perspective. A set of techniques which can be used to assist the designers in expanding their choices and include the users` model is Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP).

  17. Panoramic cockpit displays for tactical military cockpits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Mark; Huffman, David

    2010-04-01

    The F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) incorporates the latest technology for aerial warfighting. To support this aircraft's mission and to provide the pilot with the increased situational awareness needed in today's battlespace, a panoramic AMLCD was developed and is being deployed for the first time. This 20" by 8" display is the largest fielded to date in a tactical fighter. Key system innovations had to be employed to allow this technology to function in this demanding environment. Certain older generation aircraft are now considering incorporating a panoramic display to provide their crews with this level of increased capability. Key design issues that had to be overcome dealt with sunlight readability, vibration resistance, touchscreen operation, and reliability concerns to avoid single-point failures. A completely dual redundant system design had to be employed to ensure that the pilot would always have access to critical mission and flight data.

  18. Interactive displays natural human-interface technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Bhowmik, Achintya K

    2014-01-01

    One of the first books to provide an in-depth discussion of the technologies, applications and trends in the rapidly emerging field of interactive displays (touch, gesture & voice) The book will cover the technologies, applications and trends in the field of interactive displays, namely interfaces based on touch, gesture and voice and those using a combination of these technologies. The book will be split into 4 main parts with each being dedicated to a specific user interface. Part 1 ''Touch Interfaces'' will provide a review of the currently deployed touch-screen technologies and applications. It will also cover the recent developments towards achieving thinner, lightweight and cost-reduced touch screen panels in the future via integration of touch functionalities. Part 2 ''Gesture Interfaces'' will examine techniques and applications in stereoscopic 3D computer vision, structured-light 3D computer vision and time-of-flight 3D computer vision in gesture interfaces. Part 3 ''Voice Interfaces'' will revie...

  19. Likelihood alarm displays. [for human operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkin, Robert D.; Kantowitz, Barry H.; Kantowitz, Susan C.

    1988-01-01

    In a likelihood alarm display (LAD) information about event likelihood is computed by an automated monitoring system and encoded into an alerting signal for the human operator. Operator performance within a dual-task paradigm was evaluated with two LADs: a color-coded visual alarm and a linguistically coded synthetic speech alarm. The operator's primary task was one of tracking; the secondary task was to monitor a four-element numerical display and determine whether the data arose from a 'signal' or 'no-signal' condition. A simulated 'intelligent' monitoring system alerted the operator to the likelihood of a signal. The results indicated that (1) automated monitoring systems can improve performance on primary and secondary tasks; (2) LADs can improve the allocation of attention among tasks and provide information integrated into operator decisions; and (3) LADs do not necessarily add to the operator's attentional load.

  20. Spacesuit Data Display and Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David G.; Sells, Aaron; Shah, Hemal

    2009-01-01

    A prototype embedded avionics system has been designed for the next generation of NASA extra-vehicular-activity (EVA) spacesuits. The system performs biomedical and other sensor monitoring, image capture, data display, and data transmission. An existing NASA Phase I and II award winning design for an embedded computing system (ZIN vMetrics - BioWATCH) has been modified. The unit has a reliable, compact form factor with flexible packaging options. These innovations are significant, because current state-of-the-art EVA spacesuits do not provide capability for data displays or embedded data acquisition and management. The Phase 1 effort achieved Technology Readiness Level 4 (high fidelity breadboard demonstration). The breadboard uses a commercial-grade field-programmable gate array (FPGA) with embedded processor core that can be upgraded to a space-rated device for future revisions.

  1. Next Generation Flight Displays Using HTML5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The Human Integrated Vehicles and Environments (HIVE) lab at Johnson Space Center (JSC) is focused on bringing together inter-disciplinary talent to design and integrate innovative human interface technologies for next generation manned spacecraft. As part of this objective, my summer internship project centered on an ongoing investigation in to building flight displays using the HTML5 standard. Specifically, the goals of my project were to build and demo "flight-like" crew and wearable displays as well as create a webserver for live systems being developed by the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program. In parallel to my project, a LabVIEW application, called a display server, was created by the HIVE that uses an XTCE (XML (Extensible Markup Language) Telemetry and Command Exchange) parser and CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data System) space packet decoder to translate telemetry items sent by the CFS (Core Flight Software) over User Datagram Protocol (UDP). It was the webserver's job to receive these UDP messages and send them to the displays. To accomplish this functionality, I utilized Node.js and the accompanying Express framework. On the display side, I was responsible for creating the power system (AMPS) displays. I did this by using HTML5, CSS and JavaScript to create web pages that could update and change dynamically based on the data they received from the webserver. At this point, I have not started on the commanding, being able to send back to the CFS, portion of the displays but hope to have this functionality working by the completion of my internship. I also created a way to test the webserver's functionality without the display server by making a JavaScript application that read in a comma-separate values (CSV) file and converted it to XML which was then sent over UDP. One of the major requirements of my project was to build everything using as little preexisting code as possible, which I accomplished by only using a handful of Java

  2. Grating light modulator for projection display

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiyong Sun; Shanglian Huang; Jie Zhang; Zhihai Zhang; Yong Zhu

    2009-01-01

    A novel grating light modulator for projection display is introduced. It consists of an upper moveable grat-ing, a bottom mirror, and four supporting posts between them. The moveable grating and the bottom mir-ror compose a phase grating whose phase difference is controlled by the actuating voltage. When the phase difference is 2kπ, the grating light modulator will switch the incident light to zero-order diffraction; when the phase difference is (2k - 1)π, the grating light modulator will diffract light to first-order diffraction. A 16 × 16 modulator array is fabricated by the surface micromachining technology. The device works well when it is actuated by a voltage with 1-kHz frequency and 10-V amplitude. The fabricated grating light modulator can show blackness and brightness when controlled by the voltage. This modulator has potential applications in projection display system.

  3. Two methods to forecast auroral displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigernes, Fred; Dyrland, Margit; Brekke, Pål; Chernouss, Sergey; Lorentzen, Dag Arne; Oksavik, Kjellmar; Sterling Deehr, Charles

    2011-10-01

    This work compares the methods by Starkov (1994a) and Zhang & Paxton (2008), that calculate the size and location of the auroral ovals as a function of planetary Kp index. The ovals are mapped in position and time onto a solar illuminated surface model of the Earth. It displays both the night- and dayside together with the location of the twilight zone as Earth rotates under the ovals. The graphical display serves as a tool to forecast auroral activity based on the predicted value of the Kp index. The forecast is installed as a service at http://kho.unis.no/. The Zhang & Paxton (2008) ovals are wider in latitude than the Starkov (1994a) ovals. The nightside model ovals coincide fairly well in shape for low to normal auroral conditions. The equatorward border of the diffuse aurora is well defined by both methods on the nightside for Kp ≤ 7. The dayside needs further studies in order to conclude.

  4. Two methods to forecast auroral displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksavik Kjellmar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This work compares the methods by Starkov (1994a and Zhang & Paxton (2008, that calculate the size and location of the auroral ovals as a function of planetary Kp index. The ovals are mapped in position and time onto a solar illuminated surface model of the Earth. It displays both the night- and dayside together with the location of the twilight zone as Earth rotates under the ovals. The graphical display serves as a tool to forecast auroral activity based on the predicted value of the Kp index. The forecast is installed as a service at http://kho.unis.no/. The Zhang & Paxton (2008 ovals are wider in latitude than the Starkov (1994a ovals. The nightside model ovals coincide fairly well in shape for low to normal auroral conditions. The equatorward border of the diffuse aurora is well defined by both methods on the nightside for Kp ≤ 7. The dayside needs further studies in order to conclude.

  5. Uniform LED illuminator for miniature displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedev, Vladimir; Pelka, David G.; Parkyn, William A.

    1998-10-01

    The Total Internally Reflecting (TIR) lens is a faceted structure composed of prismatic elements that collect a source's light over a much larger angular range than a conventional Fresnel lens. It has been successfully applied to the efficient collimation of light from incandescent and fluorescent lamps, and from light-emitting diodes (LEDs). A novel LED-powered collimating backlight is presented here, for uniformly illuminating 0.25'-diagonal miniature liquid- crystal displays, which are a burgeoning market for pagers, cellular phones, digital cameras, camcorders, and virtual- reality displays. The backlight lens consists of a central dual-asphere refracting section and an outer TIR section, properly curved with a curved exit face.

  6. Multiview multiperspective time multiplexed autostereoscopic display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupiec, Stephen A.; Markov, Vladimir B.; Hopper, Darrel G.; Saini, Gurdial

    2008-02-01

    The implementation of a time multiplexed display capable of eight simultaneously visible viewing zones will be described. The system employs a high speed digital micromirror device (DMD) to allow for the high framerate essential for flicker free display of multiple viewing zones. A combination of custom graphical processor unit (GPU) programming and a correspondingly optimized field programmable gate array (FPGA) DMD driver allows for real time interactive rendering of scenes. The rendering engine is entirely based on off the shelf with the use of a standard DVI-D interface for data transfer to the DMD interface. A rapidly switched LED light engine is employed to overcome the speed limitations of color wheel light sources, as well as providing a highly saturated color gamut. Selection of viewing zones is achieved by the use of a high-speed shutter interfaced directly to the DMD driver for precise synchronization.

  7. Vision Algorithms Catch Defects in Screen Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Andrew Watson, a senior scientist at Ames Research Center, developed a tool called the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO), which models human vision for use in robotic applications. Redmond, Washington-based Radiant Zemax LLC licensed the technology from NASA and combined it with its imaging colorimeter system, creating a powerful tool that high-volume manufacturers of flat-panel displays use to catch defects in screens.

  8. Lanthanide Diphthalocyanines. Electrochemistry and Display Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    addressing must be devised. Electrochromic cells usually attain cycle lives far beyond those of secondary batteries, although both devices operate with...6 x 6 inches in size. Recently, Barclay et al. (1980) demonstrated a 1 x 1-inch viologen electrochromic matrix with integrated drive built on a...Identify by block nimober) rare earths diphthalocyanines electrochemistry electrochromism displays 20. ABSTRACT (Coninue on revee side Of necessary, and

  9. VOICE. A Spectrogram Computer Display Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    Bioacoustics Laboratory of the Biology Department. Funding for the work has been from the Office of Naval Research under contracts N00014-88-K-0273...a 0; /einitializes at each exit from running display*/ which a Alevels Epuebkt]; which->pge a pagenow; which->incr - step; which->ofset M doff set...Collection Hancock Library of Biology & Texas A&M University Oceanography Dept. of Oceanography Alan Hancock Laboratory College Station, TX 77843 University of

  10. Heuristic Automation for Decluttering Tactical Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    This approach led to a 23% improvement in search times, even when the au- tomation was only 70% reliable. In a dual-task paradigm, Sorkin, Kantowitz ...and Kantowitz (1988) used a “likelihood alarm display” to indi- cate the likelihood of a signal occurring in the secondary task. Users exploited the... Kantowitz , & Kanto- witz, 1988; St. John & Manes, 2002) and fuzzy signal detection (Parasuraman, Masalonis, & Hancock, 2000). Such a display would still

  11. Inventions on Displaying and Resizing Windows

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Umakant

    2014-01-01

    Windows are used quite frequently in a GUI environment. The greatest advantage of using windows is that each window creates a virtual screen space. Hence, although the physical screen space is limited to a few inches, use of windows can create unlimited screen space to display innumerable items. The use of windows facilitates the user to open and interact with multiple programs or documents simultaneously in different windows. Sometimes a single program may also open multiple windows to displ...

  12. Remote Tactile Displays for Future Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    performance, each participant sat on an adjustable height, padded stool , which was adjusted so that each participant’s ear was approximately at the ear...Brill, J. C.; Gilson, R. D. Tactile Technology for Covert Displays. Proceedings of the 50th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics ...Reduction Via Multi-Sensory Directional Cueing. Proceedings of the 48th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, New Orleans, LA, 2004

  13. Electronic control/display interface technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, R. V.; Busquets, A. M.; Murray, R. F.; Hatfield, J. J.

    1985-01-01

    An effort to produce a representative workstation for the Space Station Data Management Test Bed that provides man/machine interface design options for consolidating, automating, and integrating the space station work station, and hardware/software technology demonstrations of space station applications is discussed. The workstation will emphasize the technologies of advanced graphics engines, advanced display/control medias, image management techniques, multifunction controls, and video disk utilizations.

  14. Holographic Combiners for Head-Up Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-10-01

    AFAL-TR-77 -110 S HOLOGRAPHIC COMBINERS FOR HEAD-UP DISPLAYS S Radar and Optics Division Environmental Research Institute of Michigan P.O. Box 8618...to 200. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE(RWihen Data Entered) FOREWORD This report was prepared by the Radar and Optics Division of the...with fringes parallel to the surface......31 Figure 13. Raytrace through the F-4 HUD with a holographic combiner

  15. Modern Display Technologies for Airborne Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    from the sulphonic acid group and achieved operating life of greater than 10’ cycles with over 3 years shelf-life. The switching speed was rather slow...pitch. In spite of all this ordering, however, liquid crystals are clearly liquid, flowing readily with quite low viscosity . Consequently the...solids and is the basis of most optical effects used in displays. Other physical properties, such as electrical conductivity, elasticity, viscosity

  16. Remote Software Application and Display Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Brandon T.

    2014-01-01

    The era of the shuttle program has come to an end, but only to give rise to newer and more exciting projects. Now is the time of the Orion spacecraft, a work of art designed to exceed all previous endeavors of man. NASA is exiting the time of exploration and is entering a new period, a period of pioneering. With this new mission, many of NASAs organizations must undergo a great deal of change and development to support the Orion missions. The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) is the new system that will provide NASA the ability to launch rockets into orbit and thus control Orion and other spacecraft as the goal of populating Mars becomes ever increasingly tangible. Since the previous control system, Launch Processing System (LPS), was primarily designed to launch the shuttles, SCCS was needed as Kennedy Space Center (KSC) reorganized to a multiuser spaceport for commercial flights, providing a more versatile control over rockets. Within SCCS, is the Launch Control System (LCS), which is the remote software behind the command and monitoring of flight and ground system hardware. This internship at KSC has involved two main components in LCS, including Remote Software Application and Display development. The display environment provides a graphical user interface for an operator to view and see if any cautions are raised, while the remote applications are the backbone that communicate with hardware, and then relay the data back to the displays. These elements go hand in hand as they provide monitoring and control over hardware and software alike from the safety of the Launch Control Center. The remote software applications are written in Application Control Language (ACL), which must undergo unit testing to ensure data integrity. This paper describes both the implementation and writing of unit tests in ACL code for remote software applications, as well as the building of remote displays to be used in the Launch Control Center (LCC).

  17. SureTrak Probability of Impact Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, John

    2012-01-01

    The SureTrak Probability of Impact Display software was developed for use during rocket launch operations. The software displays probability of impact information for each ship near the hazardous area during the time immediately preceding the launch of an unguided vehicle. Wallops range safety officers need to be sure that the risk to humans is below a certain threshold during each use of the Wallops Flight Facility Launch Range. Under the variable conditions that can exist at launch time, the decision to launch must be made in a timely manner to ensure a successful mission while not exceeding those risk criteria. Range safety officers need a tool that can give them the needed probability of impact information quickly, and in a format that is clearly understandable. This application is meant to fill that need. The software is a reuse of part of software developed for an earlier project: Ship Surveillance Software System (S4). The S4 project was written in C++ using Microsoft Visual Studio 6. The data structures and dialog templates from it were copied into a new application that calls the implementation of the algorithms from S4 and displays the results as needed. In the S4 software, the list of ships in the area was received from one local radar interface and from operators who entered the ship information manually. The SureTrak Probability of Impact Display application receives ship data from two local radars as well as the SureTrak system, eliminating the need for manual data entry.

  18. Speckle analysis in laser scanning display system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Chang; Wei Huang; Fugui Yang; Hai Ming; Jianping Xie

    2009-01-01

    The theory of speckle formation in laser scanning display system is established based on the averaging effect of eye response as laser beam scanning through an eye resolution spot.It is analyzed that speckle reduction can be obtained by averaging states of speckle during scanning.The theoretical results show that a smaller correlation length of screen surface and the narrowing of laser beam in scanning direction can reduce speckle contrast for this system.

  19. Electro Spray Method for Flexible Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-12

    mobility.1-6) For the fabrication of ZnO-based thin films, vacuum processes, such as, sputtering, pulsed laser deposition and plasma enhanced chemical...3, “Thermal Analysis of Oxide Thin Film Transistor with Fluorinated Silicon Nitride Gate Insulator”. 3) M.Ochi and Y.Uraoka et al, AMDp1-3...Y.Uraoka et al, FLXp2-3, “Thermal Analysis of Oxide Thin Film Transistor with Fluorinated Silicon Nitride Gate Insulator”, International Display

  20. How the user views visual displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A.

    1995-12-31

    Most designers are not schooled in the area of human-interaction psychology and therefore tend to rely on the traditional ergonomic aspects of human factors when designing complex human-interactive workstations. Unfortunately, by ignoring the importance of the integration of the user interface at the psychophysiological level, the result can be ineffective use of a system leading to an inherently error- and failure-prone system. Therefore, to minimize failures in a human-interactive system, it is essential that designers understand how each user`s processing characteristics affect how the user gathers and processes information. By understanding the significant processing characteristics of the user, designers can implement practical and effective visual displays (or any other type of system) that are more desirable to all users. The material presented in this paper is based on a general study that involved users` perspective views of how visual displays should be designed for effective use. The methodology used was Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP), because of its applicability in expanding design choices from the users` ``model of the world.`` The findings of the study have provided a beginning in the development of user comfort parameters and visual displays.

  1. Optimization of lens shape for autostereoscopic display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ping; An, Shu; Ma, Jianshe

    2016-10-01

    The three-dimensional(3D) displays based on binocular parallax have drawn increasingly interests. The light splitting element, which presents separate images to the viewer's left and right eyes, plays an important part in the auto-stereoscopic display. Lenticular lenses are widely used as the light splitting elements. However, the crosstalk resulted from the unsatisfied splitting may reduce the 3D experience. It was determined that the most suitable cross sectional shape for lenticular lenses is elliptical. Firstly, the formula of the surface is derived based on the ellipse expression and the requirement of the 3D display system, that is y2+0.5651x2 - 303.4768=0. Secondly, one axial source and 4 off-axial sources placed at the heights of 2.5mm, 5mm, 7.5mm and 8mm are used to analyze the beam splitting quality of the cylindrical and elliptical lens element, respectively. The spot of elliptical lens is smaller which means a better beam splitting quality. Thirdly, Monte Carlo Non-Sequential Ray tracing algorithm is used to simulate the luminance distribution on the viewing plane, the narrower width of vertical stripes means that the aberration is suppressed. Finally, the shape of elliptical can reduce the processing difficulty with the 10μm minimum step width. In a word, the optimization of the surface has a significant effect on the improvement of stereoscopic depth and the reduction of ghost images.

  2. Interaction Analysis through Proteomic Phage Display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustav N. Sundell

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phage display is a powerful technique for profiling specificities of peptide binding domains. The method is suited for the identification of high-affinity ligands with inhibitor potential when using highly diverse combinatorial peptide phage libraries. Such experiments further provide consensus motifs for genome-wide scanning of ligands of potential biological relevance. A complementary but considerably less explored approach is to display expression products of genomic DNA, cDNA, open reading frames (ORFs, or oligonucleotide libraries designed to encode defined regions of a target proteome on phage particles. One of the main applications of such proteomic libraries has been the elucidation of antibody epitopes. This review is focused on the use of proteomic phage display to uncover protein-protein interactions of potential relevance for cellular function. The method is particularly suited for the discovery of interactions between peptide binding domains and their targets. We discuss the largely unexplored potential of this method in the discovery of domain-motif interactions of potential biological relevance.

  3. Dynamic Color Displays Using Stepwise Cavity Resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiqin; Duan, Xiaoyang; Matuschek, Marcus; Zhou, Yanming; Neubrech, Frank; Duan, Huigao; Liu, Na

    2017-09-13

    High-resolution multicolor printing based on pixelated optical nanostructures is of great importance for promoting advances in color display science. So far, most of the work in this field has been focused on achieving static colors, limiting many potential applications. This inevitably calls for the development of dynamic color displays with advanced and innovative functionalities. In this Letter, we demonstrate a novel dynamic color printing scheme using magnesium-based pixelated Fabry-Pérot cavities by gray scale nanolithography. With controlled hydrogenation and dehydrogenation, magnesium undergoes unique metal and dielectric transitions, enabling distinct blank and color states from the pixelated Fabry-Pérot resonators. Following such a scheme, we first demonstrate dynamic Ishihara plates, in which the encrypted images can only be read out using hydrogen as information decoding key. We also demonstrate a new type of dynamic color generation, which enables fascinating transformations between black/white printing and color printing with fine tonal tuning. Our work will find wide-ranging applications in full-color printing and displays, colorimetric sensing, information encryption and anticounterfeiting.

  4. 极高分辨变包含角平面光栅单色器关键技术及检测方法研究%Key technologies and the performance measuring methods in variable included angle plane grating monochromator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢启鹏; 宋源; 龚学鹏; 马磊

    2016-01-01

    变包含角平面光栅单色器具有分辨率高和光通量高等优点,被广泛应用于各科研领域,并且随着相关领域研究的不断深入,迫切需要提高其光谱分辨率,以满足使用需求。为研究探索极高分辨率变包含角平面光栅单色器,结合上海同步辐射光源光束线,重点研究影响单色器分辨率的关键因素;对单色器光学元件表面热负载进行分析,设计冷却系统,降低热负载产生的影响;研究变包含角平面光栅单色器转角精度等检测方法。结果表明,根据推导出的变包含角平面光栅单色器光学放大倍数与单色器分辨率的关系式,达到优选极高分辨率工作模式的目的;加入冷却系统后,单色器前置平面镜因受热负载影响而产生的最大斜率误差由8.1μrad降到3.1μrad;设计可应用于变包含角光栅单色器分辨率达5×104的转角精度检测方法,检测精度可达0.026″。该研究将为第三代同步辐射光源中建造极高分辨变包含角单色器提供帮助。%The variable-included-angle plane grating monochromator is broadly used in high performance soft X-ray due to its superior performance,such as high throughput and high resolution.With the development of Science,improving and optimizing the resolution of variables-included-angle plane grating monochromator is necessary and urgently.In order to study and explore the ultra-high resolution of variables-included-angle plane grating monochromator in synchrotron radiation,some issues were researched in this work.Firstly,the relationship between working modes of variables-included-angle plane grating monochromator with different cf is emphatically researched.According to the relationship,the high resolution working modes of the mono-chromator can be selected.Secondly,we studied the effects of high heat load on the optical system by using the simulation software and designed an appropriate cooling system in

  5. The CRT display evaluation: The multidimensional rating of CRT-generated displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getman, D. L.; Blackman, H. S.; Banks, W. W.; Petersen, R. J.

    1982-10-01

    This report is one in a series evaluating various methods for determining the effectiveness of display formats and contains results from multidimensional rating of three cathode ray tube displays. Each display contained information regarding the status of nine safety parameters critical to safe operations the Loss-Of-Fluid Test (LOFT) reactor located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Certified LOFT operators evaluated three formats - bars, stars, and meters - as part of a multimethod display evaluation ongoing at INEL. Each of the six cognitive dimensions embedded in the rating scale are discussed in terms of their internal consistency and ability to differentiate between each of the three formats. Preliminary findings suggest that two of the six dimensions, content integration and cognitive processing, were able to discriminate between formats while satisfying the criteria of internal consistency as measured by Cronbach's alpha. Conclusions in this report must be interpreted in light of moderate test-retest reliability.

  6. Three-dimensional holographic display using active shutter for head mounted display application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Eui; Kim, Nam; Song, Hoon; Lee, Hong-Seok; Park, Jae-Hyeung

    2011-03-01

    Three-dimensional holographic system using active shutters for head mounted display application is proposed. Conventional three-dimensional head mounted display suffers from eye-fatigue since it only provides binocular disparity, not monocular depth cues like accommodation. The proposed method presents two holograms of a 3D scene to corresponding eyes using active shutters. Since a holography delivered to each eye has full three-dimensional information, not only the binocular depth cues but also monocular depth cues are presented, eliminating eye-fatigue. The application to the head mounted display also greatly relaxes the viewing angle requirement that is one of the main issues of the conventional holographic displays. In presentation, the proposed optical system will be explained in detail with experimental results.

  7. Flexible daylight memory displays EASL DMD: a new approach toward displays for cockpit and soldier systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holter, Borre; Kamfjord, Thor G.; Fossum, Richard; Fagerberg, Ragnar

    2000-08-01

    The Norwegian based company PolyDisplayR ASA, in collaboration with the Norwegian Army Material Command and SINTEF, has refined, developed and shown with color and black/white technology demonstrators an electrically addressed Smectic A reflective LCD technology featuring: (1) Good contrast, all-round viewing angle and readability under all light conditions (no wash-out in direct sunlight). (2) Infinite memory -- image remains without power -- very low power consumption, no or very low radiation ('silent display') and narrow band updating. (3) Clear, sharp and flicker-free images. (4) Large number of gray tones and colors possible. (5) Simple construction and production -- reduced cost, higher yield, more robust and environmentally friendly. (6) Possibility for lighter, more robust and flexible displays based on plastic substrates. The results and future implementation possibilities for cockpit and soldier-system displays are discussed.

  8. Display on Display: Migrating Identities in Contemporary Francophone Literature and Music

    OpenAIRE

    Knox, Katelyn Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    "Display on Display: Migrating Identities in Contemporary Francophone Literature and Music" examines Francophone cultural works of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries that grapple with constructions of sub-Saharan African immigrant identity in France. Its cultural studies methodology responds to a current lacuna in traditional philology-based literary studies that divorces literary expression from its wider cultural context, bringing to the fore questions of corporeality, history, and id...

  9. Advanced Colorimetry of Display Systems: Tetra-Chroma3 Display Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kaiser

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available High-fidelity color image reproduction is one of the key issues invisual telecommunication systems, for electronic commerce,telemedicine, digital museum and so on. All colorimetric standards ofdisplay systems are up to the present day trichromatic. But, from theshape of a horseshoe-area of all existing colors in the CIE xychromaticity diagram it follows that with three real reproductivelights, the stated area in the CIE xy chromaticity diagram cannot beoverlaid. The expansion of the color gamut of a display device ispossible in a few ways. In this paper, the way of increasing the numberof primaries is studied. The fourth cyan primary is added to threeconventional ones to enlarge the color gamut of reproduction towardscyans and yellow-oranges. The original method of color management forthis new display unit is introduced. In addition, the color gamut ofthe designed additive-based display is successfully compared with thecolor gamut of a modern subtractive-based system. A display with morethan three primary colors is called a multiprimary color display. Thevery advantageous property of such display is the possibility todisplay metameric colors.

  10. High-speed display system for animation using multimicrocomputer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onda, K.; Oako, Y.

    1983-01-01

    A high-speed display system architecture for computer animation is proposed. Many picture memories, each of which is connected to a microcomputer, and display controller are used for producing and displaying pictures in parallel. This system can be realized with low-speed processors without specific hardwares to display natural movement. 1 ref.

  11. A Unique 10 Segment Display for Bengali Numerals

    CERN Document Server

    Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Ahmad, Shabbir; Kamruzzaman, S M

    2010-01-01

    Segmented display is widely used for efficient display of alphanumeric characters. English numerals are displayed by 7 segment and 16 segment display. The segment size is uniform in this two display architecture. Display architecture using 8, 10, 11, 18 segments have been proposed for Bengali numerals 0...9 yet no display architecture is designed using segments of uniform size and uniform power consumption. In this paper we have proposed a uniform 10 segment architecture for Bengali numerals. This segment architecture uses segments of uniform size and no bent segment is used.

  12. Comment on {open_quote}{open_quote}Comments on the use of asymmetric monochromators for x-ray diffraction on a synchrotron source{close_quote}{close_quote} [Rev. Sci. Instrum. {bold 66}, 2174 (1995)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez del Rio, M. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, B.P. 220, 38043 Grenoble-Cedex (France); Cerrina, F. [Center for X-ray Lithography, 3731 Schneider Dr., Stoughton, Wisconsin 53589 (United States)

    1996-10-01

    In the article {open_quote}{open_quote}Comments on the use of asymmetric monochromators for x-ray diffraction on a synchrotron source,{close_quote}{close_quote} by Colin Nave, Ana Gonzalez, Graham Clark, Sean McSweeney, Stewart Cummings, and Michael Hart, Rev. Sci. Instrum. {bold 66}, 2174 (1995), paragraph II, the authors{close_quote} unfamiliarity with our modeling codes leads them to claim that our approach to treat bent-asymmetrically cut crystals in ray tracing calculations is incorrect. Since SHADOW is a widely used code, it is important to correct any misunderstandings, and we give here arguments to demonstrate that our approach is perfectly valid, and the arguments used by the authors to criticize our method are based on an unwarranted conclusion extracted from one of our previous articles. We show that SHADOW, when properly run, treats the cases raised exactly. Indeed, their arguments provide a nice benchmark test for verifying the accuracy of SHADOW {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Historical halo displays as past weather indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhäuser, Dagmar; Neuhäuser, Ralph

    2017-04-01

    Certain halo displays like the 22° circle were known to indicate specific weather pattern since millennia - as specified in Babylonian omina, Aristotle's Meteorology, farmers' weather lore, etc. Today, it is known that halo phenomena are due to refraction and reflection of sun and moon light in ice crystals in cirrus and cirrostratus, so that halo observations do indicate atmospheric conditions like temperature, humidity, pressure etc. in a few km height. The Astronomical Diaries of Babylonia have recorded both halo phenomena (circles, parhelia, etc.) and weather conditions (rain, clouds, etc.), so that we can use them to show statistically, whether, which and how fast halo phenomena are related to weather - for the last few centuries BC for Babylonia. We can then also compare the observations of Babylonian priests in the given BC epoch (without air and light pollution) with the last few decades of the modern epoch (with air and light pollution), where amateur halo observers have systematically recorded such phenomena (in Europe). Weather and climate are known to be partly driven by solar activity. Hence, one could also consider whether there is an indirect relation between halo displays as weather proxy and aurorae as solar activity proxy - if low solar activity leads to low pressure systems, one could expect more halos, preliminary studies show such a hint. For the last few decades, we have many halo observations, satellite imaging of the aurora oval, and many data on solar activity. A statistically sufficient amount of aurora and halo observations should be available for the historic time to investigate such a possible connection: halos were recorded very often in antiquity and the medieval times (as found in chronicles etc.), and modern scholarly catalogs of aurorae also often contain unrecognized halo displays.

  14. Measurement of Contrast Ratios for 3D Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-01

    stereoscopic, autostereoscopic , 3D , display ABSTRACT 3D image display devices have wide applications in medical and entertainment areas. Binocular (stereoscopic...and system crosstalk. In many 3D display systems viewer’ crosstalk is an important issue for good performance, especial in autostereoscopic display...UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADPO 11343 TITLE: Measurement of Contrast Ratios for 3D Display

  15. Program For Displaying Computed Electromagnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hom, Kam W.

    1995-01-01

    EM-ANIMATE computer program specialized visualization displays and animates output data on near fields and surface currents computed by electromagnetic-field program - in particular MOM3D (LAR-15074). Program based on windows and contains user-friendly, graphical interface for setting viewing options, selecting cases, manipulating files, and like. Written in FORTRAN 77. EM-ANIMATE also available as part of package, COS-10048, includes MOM3D, IRIS program computing near-field and surface-current solutions of electromagnetic-field equations.

  16. Creating Gaze Annotations in Head Mounted Displays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardanbeigi, Diako; Qvarfordt, Pernilla

    2015-01-01

    , the user simply captures an image using the HMD’s camera, looks at an object of interest in the image, and speaks out the information to be associated with the object. The gaze location is recorded and visualized with a marker. The voice is transcribed using speech recognition. Gaze annotations can......To facilitate distributed communication in mobile settings, we developed GazeNote for creating and sharing gaze annotations in head mounted displays (HMDs). With gaze annotations it possible to point out objects of interest within an image and add a verbal description. To create an annota- tion...

  17. Intelligent Luminescence for Communication Display and Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-18

    the gate ofMOSFET Q2. In practice, it has been found that a high gain NPN transistor functions better than a MOSFET in the Q2 spot due to inherent...optically transparent n- and p-type wide band gap materials and transparent transistors for display applications. It was demonstrated that emiSSive and...transparent, thin-film enhancement-mode transistor was reported with ~ 90% visible transparency and an on/off ratio of 106 for integration into

  18. The many facets of auditory display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blattner, Meera M.

    1995-01-01

    In this presentation we will examine some of the ways sound can be used in a virtual world. We make the case that many different types of audio experience are available to us. A full range of audio experiences include: music, speech, real-world sounds, auditory displays, and auditory cues or messages. The technology of recreating real-world sounds through physical modeling has advanced in the past few years allowing better simulation of virtual worlds. Three-dimensional audio has further enriched our sensory experiences.

  19. Organic Thin Film Electroluminescent Passive Matrix Display

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Long life green-emitting matrix display based on organic light-emitting diode is reported. The pixel number is 96×60, equivalent pixel size 0.4×0.4 mm2, and the pixel gap 0.1 mm. An image with no crosstalk between pixels is obtained. The average luminance of these pixels at duty cycle of 1/64 is 100 cd/m2, and the power consumption is 0.6 W. The dark room contrast of 1:100 is achieved without using a polarization filter.

  20. Reconfigurable Braille display with phase change locking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soule, Cody W.; Lazarus, Nathan

    2016-07-01

    Automatically updated signs and displays for sighted people are common in today’s world. However, there is no cheap, low power equivalent available for the blind. This work demonstrates a reconfigurable Braille cell using the solid-to-liquid phase change of a low melting point alloy as a zero holding power locking mechanism. The device is actuated with the alloy in the liquid state, and is then allowed to solidify to lock the Braille dot in the actuated position. A low-cost manufacturing process is developed that includes molding of a rigid silicone to create pneumatic channels, and bonding of a thin membrane of a softer silicone on the surface for actuation. A plug of Field’s metal (melting point 62 °C) is placed in the pneumatic channels below each Braille dot to create the final device. The device is well suited for low duty cycle operation in applications such as signs, and is able to maintain its state indefinitely without additional power input. The display requires a pneumatic pressure of only 24 kPa for actuation, and reconfiguration has been demonstrated in less than a minute and a half.

  1. Response terminated displays unload selective attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Joseph Jackson Roper

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Perceptual load theory successfully replaced the early versus late selection debate by appealing to adaptive control over the efficiency of selective attention. Early selection is observed unless perceptual load (p-Load is sufficiently low to grant attentional ‘spill-over‘ to task-irrelevant stimuli. Many studies exploring load theory have used limited display durations that perhaps impose artificial limits on encoding processes. We extended the exposure duration in a classic p-Load task to alleviate temporal encoding demands that may otherwise tax mnemonic consolidation processes. If the load effect arises from perceptual demands alone, then freeing-up available mnemonic resources by extending the exposure duration should have little effect. The results of Experiment 1 falsify this prediction. We observed a reliable flanker effect under high p-Load, response-terminated displays. Next, we orthogonally manipulated exposure duration and task-relevance. Counter-intuitively, we found that the likelihood of observing the flanker effect under high p-Load resides with the duration of the task-relevant array, not the flanker itself. We propose that stimulus and encoding demands interact to produce the load effect. Our account clarifies how task parameters differentially impinge upon cognitive processes to produce attentional ‘spill-over’ by appealing to visual short-term memory as an additional processing bottleneck when stimuli are briefly presented.

  2. Data Quality Monitoring Display for ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ilchenko, Y; The ATLAS collaboration; Corso-Radu, A; Hadavand, H; Kolos, S; Slagle, K; Taffard, A

    2009-01-01

    The start of collisions at the LHC brings with it much excitement and many unknowns. It’s essential at this point in the experiment to be prepared with user-friendly tools to quickly and efficiently determine the quality of the data. Easy visualization of data for the shift crew and experts is one of the key factors in the data quality assessment process. The Data Quality Monitoring Display (DQMD) is a visualization tool for the automatic data quality assessment of the ATLAS experiment. It is the interface through which the shift crew and experts can validate the quality of the data being recorded or processed, be warned of problems related to data quality, and identify the origin of such problems. This tool allows great flexibility for visualization of results from automatic histogram checking through custom algorithms, the configuration used to run the algorithms, and histograms used for the check, with an overlay of reference histograms when applicable. The display also supports visualization of the resu...

  3. Market trends in the projection display industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Sweta

    2001-03-01

    The projection display industry represents a multibillion- dollar market that includes four distinct technologies. High-volume consumer products and high-value business products drive the market, with different technologies being used in different application markets. The consumer market is dominated by rear CRT technology, especially in the projection TV segment. Rear LCD (liquid crystal display), MEMS/DLP (or Digital Light Processing TM) and LCOS (Liquid-crystal-on-silicon) TVs are slowly emerging as future competitors to rear CRT projectors. Front CRT projectors are also facing challenges from LCD and DLP technology for the home theater market while the business market is completely dominated by front LCD and DLP technology. Three-chip DLP projectors have replaced liquid crystal light valves in large venue applications where projectors have higher light output requirements. In recent years front LCD and LCOS projectors have been increasingly competing with 3-chip DLP projectors especially at the low end of the large venue application market. Within the next five years the projection market will experience very fast growth. Sales and presentation applications, which are the fastest growing applications in the business market, will continue to be the major driving force for the growth for front projectors, and the shift in the consumer market to digital and HDTV products will drive the rear projection market.

  4. Bidding for Representative Allocations for Display Advertising

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Arpita; Papineni, Kishore; Vassilvitskii, Sergei

    2009-01-01

    Display advertising has traditionally been sold via guaranteed contracts -- a guaranteed contract is a deal between a publisher and an advertiser to allocate a certain number of impressions over a certain period, for a pre-specified price per impression. However, as spot markets for display ads, such as the RightMedia Exchange, have grown in prominence, the selection of advertisements to show on a given page is increasingly being chosen based on price, using an auction. As the number of participants in the exchange grows, the price of an impressions becomes a signal of its value. This correlation between price and value means that a seller implementing the contract through bidding should offer the contract buyer a range of prices, and not just the cheapest impressions necessary to fulfill its demand. Implementing a contract using a range of prices, is akin to creating a mutual fund of advertising impressions, and requires {\\em randomized bidding}. We characterize what allocations can be implemented with rando...

  5. Design of large format commercial display holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, John F. W.

    1989-05-01

    Commercial display holography is approaching a critical stage where the ability to compete with other graphic media will dictate its future. Factors involved will be cost, technical quality and, in particular, design. The tenuous commercial success of display holography has relied heavily on its appeal to an audience with little or no previous experience in the medium. Well designed images were scarce, leading many commercial designers to avoid holography. As the public became more accustomed to holograms, the excitement dissipated, leaving a need for strong visual design if the medium is to survive in this marketplace. Drawing on the vast experience of TV, rock music and magazine advertising, competitive techniques such as video walls, mural duratrans, laser light shows and interactive videos attract a professional support structure far greater than does holography. This paper will address design principles developed at Holographics North for large format commercial holography. Examples will be drawn from a number of foreign and domestic corporate trade exhibitions. Recommendations will also be made on how to develop greater awareness of a holographic design.

  6. Stereoscopic display in a slot machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, M.

    2012-03-01

    This paper reports the results of a user trial with a slot machine equipped with a stereoscopic display. The main research question was to find out what kind of added value does stereoscopic 3D (S-3D) bring to slot games? After a thorough literature survey, a novel gaming platform was designed and implemented. Existing multi-game slot machine "Nova" was converted to "3DNova" by replacing the monitor with an S-3D display and converting six original games to S-3D format. To evaluate the system, several 3DNova machines were put available for players for four months. Both qualitative and quantitative analysis was carried out from statistical values, questionnaires and observations. According to the results, people find the S-3D concept interesting but the technology is not optimal yet. Young adults and adults were fascinated by the system, older people were more cautious. Especially the need to wear stereoscopic glasses provide a challenge; ultimate system would probably use autostereoscopic technology. Also the games should be designed to utilize its full power. The main contributions of this paper are lessons learned from creating an S-3D slot machine platform and novel information about human factors related to stereoscopic slot machine gaming.

  7. Home Energy Displays: Consumer Adoption and Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaMarche, J.; Cheney, K.; Akers, C.; Roth, K.; Sachs, O.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of this project was to investigate the factors influencing consumer adoption of Home Energy Displays (HEDs) and to evaluate electricity consumption in households with basic HEDs versus enhanced feedback methods - web portals or alerts. We hypothesized that providing flexible and relatable information to users, in addition to a basic HED, would make feedback more effective and achieve persistent energy savings. In Phase I, we conducted three user research studies and found preferences for aesthetically pleasing, easy to understand feedback that is accessible through multiple media and offered free of charge. The deployment of HEDs in 150 households planned for Phase II encountered major recruitment and HED field deployment problems. First, after extensive outreach campaigns to apartment complexes with 760 units, only 8% of building's tenants elected to receive a free HED in their homes as part of the field study. Second, the HED used, a leading market model, had a spectrum of problems, including gateway miscommunications, failure to post to a data-hosting third party, and display malfunctions. In light of these challenges, we are pursuing a modified study investigating the energy savings of a web portal versus alert-based energy feedback instead of a physical HED.

  8. The technology of multiuser large display area and auto free-viewing stereoscopic display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tian-Qi; Zhang, He-Ling; Han, Jing

    2010-11-01

    No-glasses optical grating stereoscopic display is one of a chief development of stereoscopic display, but it is always confined by the range of stereoscopic visible and quantity of stereoscopic information and quantity of users. This research use the combination of Fresnel lens array and controllable point lights to output information of the two eyes of different users separately. Combining the technology of eyes-tracking, it can make no-glasses optical grating stereoscopic display be visible in 3D orientation range by multiuser in the condition of two-angle image sources. And it also can be visible in 360° stereoscopic overlook by one user in the condition of multi-angle image sources.

  9. Full resolution hologram-like autostereoscopic display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenlaub, Jesse B.; Hutchins, Jamie

    1995-01-01

    Under this program, Dimension Technologies Inc. (DTI) developed a prototype display that uses a proprietary illumination technique to create autostereoscopic hologram-like full resolution images on an LCD operating at 180 fps. The resulting 3D image possesses a resolution equal to that of the LCD along with properties normally associated with holograms, including change of perspective with observer position and lack of viewing position restrictions. Furthermore, this autostereoscopic technique eliminates the need to wear special glasses to achieve the parallax effect. Under the program a prototype display was developed which demonstrates the hologram-like full resolution concept. To implement such a system, DTI explored various concept designs and enabling technologies required to support those designs. Specifically required were: a parallax illumination system with sufficient brightness and control; an LCD with rapid address and pixel response; and an interface to an image generation system for creation of computer graphics. Of the possible parallax illumination system designs, we chose a design which utilizes an array of fluorescent lamps. This system creates six sets of illumination areas to be imaged behind an LCD. This controlled illumination array is interfaced to a lenticular lens assembly which images the light segments into thin vertical light lines to achieve the parallax effect. This light line formation is the foundation of DTI's autostereoscopic technique. The David Sarnoff Research Center (Sarnoff) was subcontracted to develop an LCD that would operate with a fast scan rate and pixel response. Sarnoff chose a surface mode cell technique and produced the world's first large area pi-cell active matrix TFT LCD. The device provided adequate performance to evaluate five different perspective stereo viewing zones. A Silicon Graphics' Iris Indigo system was used for image generation which allowed for static and dynamic multiple perspective image rendering

  10. A dynamic display keyboard and a key for use in a dynamic display keyboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The invention relates to a dynamic display keyboard comprising a plurality of key elements, each key element comprises a transmitting part capable of transmitting at least a part of light incident on the transmitting part; a mat comprising a plurality of elevated elements capable of providing...... part; at least one display unit capable of providing light to the plurality of transmitting parts via the optical element; and wherein the light provided to a transmitting part defines a visual value of the corresponding key element.; In this way, the keyboard is dynamic and further is able to provide...... a tactile feedback in response to a user action directed towards a key of the keyboard....

  11. Pilot performance with a simulated ILS independence pictorial display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, E.; Wempe, T.

    1972-01-01

    As part of a general investigation of the effectiveness of pictorial displays for manual control and monitoring of aircraft approaches and landings, a simulator study was conducted in which pilot performance with three pictorial displays was evaluated. These displays differed in the type of guidance symbology added to the basic perspective runway display. The effect of decreased resolution and update rate of the runway image on pilot performance was also determined. The results indicate that for pictorial displays with added guidance symbology, there was a marked improvement in pilot performance compared to results of a previous study in which the display consisted of only a runway image and aircraft attitude.

  12. Integrated Launch Operations Applications Remote Display Developer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemming, Cedric M., II

    2014-01-01

    This internship provides the opportunity to support the creation and use of Firing Room Displays and Firing Room Applications that use an abstraction layer called the Application Control Language (ACL). Required training included video watching, reading assignments, face-to-face instruction and job shadowing other Firing Room software developers as they completed their daily duties. During the training period various computer and access rights needed for creating the applications were obtained. The specific ground subsystems supported are the Cryogenics Subsystems, Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) and Liquid Oxygen (LO2). The cryogenics team is given the task of finding the best way to handle these very volatile liquids that are used to fuel the Space Launch System (SLS) and the Orion flight vehicles safely.

  13. Jacquard-woven photonic bandgap fiber displays

    CERN Document Server

    Sayed, Imran; Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    2010-01-01

    We present an overview of photonic textile displays woven on a Jacquard loom, using newly discovered polymer photonic bandgap fibers that have the ability to change color and appearance when illuminated with ambient or transmitted light. The photonic fiber can be thin (smaller than 300 microns in diameter) and highly flexible, which makes it possible to weave in the weft on a computerized Jacquard loom and develop intricate double weave structures together with a secondary weft yarn. We demonstrate how photonic crystal fibers enable a variety of color and structural patterns on the textile, and how dynamic imagery can be created by balancing the ambient and emitted radiation. Finally, a possible application in security ware for low visibility conditions is described as an example.

  14. A compliant soft-actuator laterotactile display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoop, Espen; Rossiter, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    Humans are extremely adept at eliciting useful information through touch, and the tactile domain has huge potential for handheld and wearable electronic devices. Smart materials may be central to exploiting this potential. The skin is highly sensitive to laterotactile stimulation, where tactile elements move laterally against the skin, and this modality is well suited for wearable devices. Wearable devices should be soft and compliant, in order to move with the user and be comfortable. We present and characterize a laterotactile display using soft and compliant dielectric elastomer actuators. We carry out an initial psychophysical study to determine the absolute sensitivity threshold of laterotactile stimulation, and find that at low frequencies sensitivity is higher than for normal tactile stimulation. Our results suggest that the mechanoreceptors close to the skin surface (SA1, FA1) have improved sensitivity to laterotactile stimulation. We believe our results lay the foundation for a range of new soft robotic human interface devices using smart materials.

  15. Head-Up Displays and Attention Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Risser, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    The primary role of head-up displays (HUDs) is to provide primary flight, navigation, and guidance information to the pilot in a forward field-of-view on a head-up transparent screen. Therefore, this theoretically allows for optimal control of an aircraft through the simultaneous scanning of both instrument data and the out-the-window scene. However, despite significant aviation safety benefits afforded by HUDs, a number of accidents have shown that their use does not come without costs. The human factors community has identified significant issues related to the pilot distribution of near and far domain attentional resources because of the compellingness of symbology elements on the HUD; a concern termed, attention or cognitive capture. The paper describes the phenomena of attention capture and presents a selected survey of the literature on the etiology and potential prescriptions.

  16. Home Energy Displays. Consumer Adoption and Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaMarche, Janelle [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, Cambridge, MA (United States); Cheney, K. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, Cambridge, MA (United States); Akers, C. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, Cambridge, MA (United States); Roth, K. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, Cambridge, MA (United States); Sachs, O. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The focus of this project was to investigate the factors influencing consumer adoption of Home Energy Displays (HEDs) and to evaluate electricity consumption in households with basic HEDs versus enhanced feedback methods - web portals or alerts. The team hypothesized that providing flexible and relatable information to users, in addition to a basic HED, would make feedback more effective and achieve persistent energy savings. In Phase I, Fraunhofer conducted three user research studies and found preferences for aesthetically pleasing, easy to understand feedback that is accessible through multiple media and offered free of charge. The deployment of HEDs in 150 households planned for Phase II encountered major recruitment and HED field deployment problems. In light of these challenges, the team is pursuing a modified study investigating the energy savings of a web portal versus alert-based energy feedback instead of a physical HED.

  17. An Evaluation of Detect and Avoid Displays for UAS: The Effect of Information Level and Display Location on Pilot Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorie, Conrad; Fern, Lisa; Pack, Jessica; Shively, Jay; Draper, Mark H.

    2015-01-01

    The pilot-in-the-loop Detect-and-Avoid (DAA) task requires the pilot to carry out three major functions: 1) detect a potential threat, 2) determine an appropriate resolution maneuver, and 3) execute that resolution maneuver via the GCS control and navigation interface(s). The purpose of the present study was to examine two main questions with respect to DAA display considerations that could impact pilots ability to maintain well clear from other aircraft. First, what is the effect of a minimum (or basic) information display compared to an advanced information display on pilot performance? Second, what is the effect of display location on UAS pilot performance? Two levels of information level (basic, advanced) were compared across two levels of display location (standalone, integrated), for a total of four displays. The results indicate that the advanced displays had faster overall response times compared to the basic displays, however, there were no significant differences between the standalone and integrated displays.

  18. Simulation Test of a Head-Worn Display with Ambient Vision Display for Unusual Attitude Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Jarvis (Trey) J., III; Nicholas, Stephanie N.; Shelton, Kevin J.; Ballard, Kathryn; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Ellis, Kyle E.; Bailey, Randall E.; Williams, Steven P.

    2017-01-01

    Head-Worn Displays (HWDs) are envisioned as a possible equivalent to a Head-Up Display (HUD) in commercial and general aviation. A simulation experiment was conducted to evaluate whether the HWD can provide an equivalent or better level of performance to a HUD in terms of unusual attitude recognition and recovery. A prototype HWD was tested with ambient vision capability which were varied (on/off) as an independent variable in the experiment testing for attitude awareness. The simulation experiment was conducted in two parts: 1) short unusual attitude recovery scenarios where the aircraft is placed in an unusual attitude and a single-pilot crew recovered the aircraft; and, 2) a two-pilot crew operating in a realistic flight environment with "off-nominal" events to induce unusual attitudes. The data showed few differences in unusual attitude recognition and recovery performance between the tested head-down, head-up, and head-worn display concepts. The presence and absence of ambient vision stimulation was inconclusive. The ergonomic influences of the head-worn display, necessary to implement the ambient vision experimentation, may have influenced the pilot ratings and acceptance of the concepts.

  19. Phylogenetic networks: A tool to display character conflict and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phylogenetic networks: A tool to display character conflict and demographic history. ... Networks can display alternative topologies and co-existence of ancestors and descendants, which are otherwise not obvious when a ... Article Metrics.

  20. Interactive 3D display simulator for autostereoscopic smart pad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Yeong-Seon; Lee, Ho-Dong; Park, Min-Chul; Son, Jung-Young; Park, Gwi-Tae

    2012-06-01

    There is growing interest of displaying 3D images on a smart pad for entertainments and information services. Designing and realizing various types of 3D displays on the smart pad is not easy for costs and given time. Software simulation can be an alternative method to save and shorten the development. In this paper, we propose a 3D display simulator for autostereoscopic smart pad. It simulates light intensity of each view and crosstalk for smart pad display panels. Designers of 3D display for smart pad can interactively simulate many kinds of autostereoscopic displays interactively by changing parameters required for panel design. Crosstalk to reduce leakage of one eye's image into the image of the other eye, and light intensity for computing visual comfort zone are important factors in designing autostereoscopic display for smart pad. Interaction enables intuitive designs. This paper describes an interactive 3D display simulator for autostereoscopic smart pad.

  1. Methods and apparatus for transparent display using scattering nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Chia Wei; Qiu, Wenjun; Zhen, Bo; Shapira, Ofer; Soljacic, Marin

    2017-06-14

    Transparent displays enable many useful applications, including heads-up displays for cars and aircraft as well as displays on eyeglasses and glass windows. Unfortunately, transparent displays made of organic light-emitting diodes are typically expensive and opaque. Heads-up displays often require fixed light sources and have limited viewing angles. And transparent displays that use frequency conversion are typically energy inefficient. Conversely, the present transparent displays operate by scattering visible light from resonant nanoparticles with narrowband scattering cross sections and small absorption cross sections. More specifically, projecting an image onto a transparent screen doped with nanoparticles that selectively scatter light at the image wavelength(s) yields an image on the screen visible to an observer. Because the nanoparticles scatter light at only certain wavelengths, the screen is practically transparent under ambient light. Exemplary transparent scattering displays can be simple, inexpensive, scalable to large sizes, viewable over wide angular ranges, energy efficient, and transparent simultaneously.

  2. The Use of Festive Colors In Display Layout Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊旭

    2011-01-01

    In display layout design, Because colour performance for human psychology has a direct impact, therefore correctly apply colors bring to people's these emotional factors to determine the color display layout, prompting the audience a profound visual impre

  3. The Effect of Quantization Error on Display Color Gamut Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Chen; Tiefu Ding

    2003-01-01

    Researchers and designers who work with color displays often transform color gamut between two different display devices. This paper demonstrates the effect of quantization error on the transformation based on analyzing the color gamut deviation profoundly.

  4. Methods and apparatus for transparent display using scattering nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chia Wei; Qiu, Wenjun; Zhen, Bo; Shapira, Ofer; Soljacic, Marin

    2016-05-10

    Transparent displays enable many useful applications, including heads-up displays for cars and aircraft as well as displays on eyeglasses and glass windows. Unfortunately, transparent displays made of organic light-emitting diodes are typically expensive and opaque. Heads-up displays often require fixed light sources and have limited viewing angles. And transparent displays that use frequency conversion are typically energy inefficient. Conversely, the present transparent displays operate by scattering visible light from resonant nanoparticles with narrowband scattering cross sections and small absorption cross sections. More specifically, projecting an image onto a transparent screen doped with nanoparticles that selectively scatter light at the image wavelength(s) yields an image on the screen visible to an observer. Because the nanoparticles scatter light at only certain wavelengths, the screen is practically transparent under ambient light. Exemplary transparent scattering displays can be simple, inexpensive, scalable to large sizes, viewable over wide angular ranges, energy efficient, and transparent simultaneously.

  5. Review of Display Technologies Focusing on Power Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rodríguez Fernández

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the main manufacturing technologies of displays, focusing on those with low and ultra-low levels of power consumption, which make them suitable for current societal needs. Considering the typified value obtained from the manufacturer’s specifications, four technologies—Liquid Crystal Displays, electronic paper, Organic Light-Emitting Display and Electroluminescent Displays—were selected in a first iteration. For each of them, several features, including size and brightness, were assessed in order to ascertain possible proportional relationships with the rate of consumption. To normalize the comparison between different display types, relative units such as the surface power density and the display frontal intensity efficiency were proposed. Organic light-emitting display had the best results in terms of power density for small display sizes. For larger sizes, it performs less satisfactorily than Liquid Crystal Displays in terms of energy efficiency.

  6. Computer and visual display terminals (VDT) vision syndrome (CVDTS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parihar, J K S; Jain, Vaibhav Kumar; Chaturvedi, Piyush; Kaushik, Jaya; Jain, Gunjan; Parihar, Ashwini K S

    2016-01-01

    .... However the prolonged use of these devices is not without any complication. Computer and visual display terminals syndrome is a constellation of symptoms ocular as well as extraocular associated with prolonged use of visual display terminals...

  7. Psychometric Assessment of Stereoscopic Head-Mounted Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-29

    Journal Article 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) Jan 2015 - Dec 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE PSYCHOMETRIC ASSESSMENT OF STEREOSCOPIC HEAD- MOUNTED DISPLAYS...disparity. This paper details the psychometric validation of the stereoscopic rendering of a virtual environment using game-based simulation software...mounted display, near eye display, stereo display, stereo HMD, psychometric assessment, stereoscopic performance, eye-limited stereo vision. 16

  8. Three-Dimensional Displays: Perception, Implementation, and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    visualization displays. Information Displays, 8-10. Williams, R.D., & Garcia, F., Jr. (1989b). A real-time autostereoscopic multiplanar 3D display system...particularly salient cues. Techniques for inpiernenting perspective and stereoptic displays are then described. This discussion Is followed by a review of 3D ...Vvhere avai lable, studies are discussed w~hich contrast the efficacy of 3D with 2D representations. In both laboratory and field studies, it

  9. Pervasive displays understanding the future of digital signage

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, Nigel; Alt, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Fueled by falling display hardware costs and rising demand, digital signage and pervasive displays are becoming ever more ubiquitous. Such systems have traditionally been used for advertising and information dissemination, with digital signage commonplace in shopping malls, airports and public spaces. While advertising and broadcasting announcements remain important applications, developments in sensing and interaction technologies are enabling entirely new classes of display applications that tailor content to the situation and audience of the display. As a result, signage systems are beginni

  10. Passive Matrix Organic Electroluminescent Display for 3G Cellular Phone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The major features of the display technologies for 3G cellular phone are reviewed. The comparison between their potential candidates for 3G cellular phone is given, and a detailed discussion is made on passive matrix organic electroluminescent display technology. A novel method to improve display contrast ratio is presented. Finally several 3G phone set prototypes with OLED display panels are given as well as the market forecast

  11. The Evaluation of a Graphical Pulmonary Display in Anesthesiology

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    We have developed graphic technology to display data from the respiratory monitors used during anesthesia. The display uses color, texture, shape and emergent features to highlight abnormal pulmonary physiology. Nineteen anesthesiologists participated in a simulator based evaluation (METI, Sarasota, FL.). Half the subjects used the metaphor display and half did not. Each subject was trained for 10 minutes on the pulmonary display. The time difference during the obstructed endotracheal tube di...

  12. Securing information display by use of visual cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hirotsugu; Hayasaki, Yoshio; Nishida, Nobuo

    2003-09-01

    We propose a secure display technique based on visual cryptography. The proposed technique ensures the security of visual information. The display employs a decoding mask based on visual cryptography. Without the decoding mask, the displayed information cannot be viewed. The viewing zone is limited by the decoding mask so that only one person can view the information. We have developed a set of encryption codes to maintain the designed viewing zone and have demonstrated a display that provides a limited viewing zone.

  13. 16 CFR 1033.2 - Display of control numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Display of control numbers. 1033.2 Section 1033.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL DISPLAY OF CONTROL NUMBERS FOR COLLECTION OF INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS UNDER THE PAPERWORK REDUCTION ACT § 1033.2 Display of control...

  14. Increasing Range Of Apparent Depth In A Stereoscopic Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquets, Anthony M.; Parrish, Russell V.; Williams, Steven P.

    1995-01-01

    Optical configuration conceived for increasing range of apparent depth provided by stereoscopic display system, without imposing concomitant reduction in field of view. Observer wears shuttered goggles synchronized with alternating left- and right-eye views on display. However, instead of looking directly at display screen, observer looks at screen via reflection in mirror collimating light emitted by screen.

  15. Decorating microbes : surface display of proteins on Escherichia coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bloois, Edwin; Winter, Remko T.; Kolmar, Harald; Fraaije, Marco W.

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial surface display entails the presentation of recombinant proteins or peptides on the surface of bacterial cells. Escherichia coil is the most frequently used bacterial host for surface display and, as such, a variety of E. coil display systems have been described that primarily promote the

  16. 27 CFR 6.35 - Renting display space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Renting display space. 6.35 Section 6.35 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Renting display space. The renting of display space by an industry member at a retail...

  17. 27 CFR 6.56 - Renting display space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Renting display space. 6.56 Section 6.56 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Distribution Service § 6.56 Renting display space. A promotion whereby an industry member rents display...

  18. Scientific Graphical Displays on the Macintosh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grotch, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    In many organizations scientists have ready access to more than one computer, often both a workstation (e.g., SUN, HP, SGI) as well as a Macintosh or other PC. The scientist commonly uses the work station for `number-crunching` and data analysis whereas the Macintosh is relegated to either word processing or serves as a `dumb terminal` to a larger main-frame computer. In an informal poll of my colleagues, very few of them used their Macintoshes for either statistical analysis or for graphical data display. I believe that this state of affairs is particularly unfortunate because over the last few years both the computational capability, and even more so, the software availability for the Macintosh have become quite formidable. In some instances, very powerful tools are now available on the Macintosh that may not exist (or be far too costly) on the so-called `high end` workstations. Many scientists are simply unaware of the wealth of extremely useful, `off-the-shelf` software that already exists on the Macintosh for scientific graphical and statistical analysis.

  19. Designing a Vibrotactile Head-mounted Display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus Oliveira, Victor; Brayda, Luca; Nedel, Luciana; Maciel, Anderson

    2017-01-23

    Due to the perceptual characteristics of the head, vibrotactile Head-mounted Displays are built with low actuator density. Therefore, vibrotactile guidance is mostly assessed by pointing towards objects in the azimuthal plane. When it comes to multisensory interaction in 3D environments, it is also important to convey information about objects in the elevation plane. In this paper, we design and assess a haptic guidance technique for 3D environments. First, we explore the modulation of vibration frequency to indicate the position of objects in the elevation plane. Then, we assessed a vibrotactile HMD made to render the position of objects in a 3D space around the subject by varying both stimulus loci and vibration frequency. Results have shown that frequencies modulated with a quadratic growth function allowed a more accurate, precise, and faster target localization in an active head pointing task. The technique presented high usability and a strong learning effect for a haptic search across different scenarios in an immersive VR setup.

  20. Phenols displaying tyrosinase inhibition from Humulus lupulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Wook; Woo, Hyun Sim; Kim, Jeong Yoon; Ryuk, Jin Ah; Park, Ki Hun; Ko, Byoung Seob

    2016-10-01

    Tyrosinase is the rate-limiting enzyme for the production of melanin and other pigments via the oxidation of l-tyrosine. The methanol extract from Humulus lupulus showed potent inhibition against mushroom tyrosinase. The bioactivity-guided fractionation of this methanol extract resulted in the isolation of seven flavonoids (1-7), identified as xanthohumol (1), 4'-O-methylxanthohumol (2), xanthohumol C (3), flavokawain C (4), xanthoumol B (5), 6-prenylnaringenin (6) and isoxanthohumol (7). All isolated flavonoids (1-7) effectively inhibited the monophenolase (IC50s = 15.4-58.4 µM) and diphenolase (IC50s = 27.1-117.4 µM) activities of tyrosinase. Kinetic studies using Lineweaver-Burk and Dixon-plots revealed that chalcones (1-5) were competitive inhibitors, whereas flavanones (6 and 7) exhibited both mixed and non-competitive inhibitory characteristics. In conclusion, this study is the first to demonstrate that the phenolic phytochemicals of H. lupulus display potent inhibitory activities against tyrosinase.

  1. Nanoscale bacteriophage biosensors beyond phage display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Wook; Song, Jangwon; Hwang, Mintai P; Lee, Kwan Hyi

    2013-01-01

    Bacteriophages are traditionally used for the development of phage display technology. Recently, their nanosized dimensions and ease with which genetic modifications can be made to their structure and function have put them in the spotlight towards their use in a variety of biosensors. In particular, the expression of any protein or peptide on the extraluminal surface of bacteriophages is possible by genetically engineering the genome. In addition, the relatively short replication time of bacteriophages offers researchers the ability to generate mass quantities of any given bacteriophage-based biosensor. Coupled with the emergence of various biomarkers in the clinic as a means to determine pathophysiological states, the development of current and novel technologies for their detection and quantification is imperative. In this review, we categorize bacteriophages by their morphology into M13-based filamentous bacteriophages and T4- or T7-based icosahedral bacteriophages, and examine how such advantages are utilized across a variety of biosensors. In essence, we take a comprehensive approach towards recent trends in bacteriophage-based biosensor applications and discuss their outlook with regards to the field of biotechnology.

  2. Nanoscale bacteriophage biosensors beyond phage display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee JW

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Jong-Wook Lee,1 Jangwon Song,1,2 Mintai P Hwang,1 Kwan Hyi Lee1,2 1Center for Biomaterials, Biomedical Research Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, Korea; 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Seoul, Korea Abstract: Bacteriophages are traditionally used for the development of phage display technology. Recently, their nanosized dimensions and ease with which genetic modifications can be made to their structure and function have put them in the spotlight towards their use in a variety of biosensors. In particular, the expression of any protein or peptide on the extraluminal surface of bacteriophages is possible by genetically engineering the genome. In addition, the relatively short replication time of bacteriophages offers researchers the ability to generate mass quantities of any given bacteriophage-based biosensor. Coupled with the emergence of various biomarkers in the clinic as a means to determine pathophysiological states, the development of current and novel technologies for their detection and quantification is imperative. In this review, we categorize bacteriophages by their morphology into M13-based filamentous bacteriophages and T4- or T7-based icosahedral bacteriophages, and examine how such advantages are utilized across a variety of biosensors. In essence, we take a comprehensive approach towards recent trends in bacteriophage-based biosensor applications and discuss their outlook with regards to the field of biotechnology. Keywords: biosensing, M13 bacteriophage, T4 bacteriophage, bacterial detection, Escherichia coli, SPR sensor

  3. New Media Display Technology and Exhibition Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Wo Kuo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the inheritor of Chinese civilization, the National Palace Museum (hereafter referred to as the NPM, houses a world-class collection of cultural art and artifacts. Since the NPM began promoting the National Digital Archives Project in 2002, its efforts have expanded to develop a digital museum and various e-learning programs. Extending the use of digital archives to its educational and cultural industrial endeavors, the NPM has maximized the value of its exhibitions, publications, and educational programs.  In 2013, the NPM integrated creative thinking and interdisciplinary technologies, such as floating projection, augmented reality, and other sensory interactive media, to recreate the historical circumstance of 19th century East Asian maritime cultures in “Rebuilding the Tong-an Ships—New Media Art Exhibition," which opened at Huashan 1914 Creative Park and later won the Gold Award at the 2014 Digital Education Innovation Competition. Through a thorough exploration of the factors contributing to the success of "Rebuilding the Tong-an Ships," this study has isolated the two main factors of the exhibition’s popularity, namely, the compactness of the metadata and the atmosphere created by the interactive display technology.

  4. Whole body interaction with public displays

    CERN Document Server

    Walter, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This book develops valuable new approaches to digital out-of-home media and digital signage in urban environments. It offers solutions for communicating interactive features of digital signage to passers-by. Digital out-of-home media and digital signage screens are becoming increasingly interactive thanks to touch input technology and gesture recognition. To optimize their conversion rate, interactive public displays must 1) attract attention, 2) communicate to passers-by that they are interactive, 3) explain the interaction, and 4) provide a motivation for passers-by to interact. This book highlights solutions to problems 2 and 3 above. The focus is on whole-body interaction, where the positions and orientations of users and their individual body parts are captured by specialized sensors (e.g., depth cameras). The book presents revealing findings from a field study on communicating interactivity, a laboratory on analysing visual attention, a field study on mid-air gestures, and a field study on using mid-air...

  5. Hover training display: rationale and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still, David L.; Temme, Leonard A.

    2008-04-01

    Hover is an essential component of rotary wing aviation but learning to hover is extremely difficult. From the viewpoint inside the cockpit, the beginning student neither sees nor understands what needs to be done to control the aircraft. This is because the out-the-window real world visual cues suffer from two primary shortcomings. First, the real world visual cues are ambiguous. For example, the relative motion of the ground moving under the nose may indicate forward flight, pitching upward, vertical ascent, or any combination of these. Second, human ability to judge aircraft pitch by itself is insufficient to stabilize the aircraft; such other clues as relative motion or parallax are needed to augment pitch judgments to set aircraft attitude adequately. We report a training display (TD) designed to assist training rotary wing hover. The TD is specifically constructed to communicate aircraft performance and attitude to the student pilot and to disambiguate the external world's features and motions cues into symbology that allows each cue independently to support sufficient levels of parameter resolution. Our preliminary observations, based on pilot data collected during the design, parameterization, and calibration of the TD indicate that it meets its goals in a fashion that enables beginning flight students to understand and interpret the motion cues of the real world out-the-window view.

  6. Projection display technologies for the new millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Frederic J.

    2000-04-01

    Although analog CRTs continue to enable most of the world's electronic projection displays such as US consumer rear projection televisions, discrete pixel (digital) active matrix LCD and DLP reflective mirror array projectors have rapidly created large nonconsumer markets--primarily for business. Recent advances in image quality, compactness and cost effectiveness of digital projectors have the potential to revolutionize major consumer and entertainment markets as well. Digital penetration of the mainstream consumer projection TV market will begin in the hear 2000. By 2005 digital projection HDTVs could take the major share of the consumer HDTV projection market. Digital projection is expected to dominate both the consumer HDTV and the cinema market by 2010, resulting in potential shipments for all projection markets exceeding 10 M units per year. Digital projection is improving at a rate 10X faster than analog CRT projectors and 5X faster than PDP flat panels. Continued rapid improvement of digital projection is expected due to its relative immaturity and due to the wide diversity of technological improvements being pursued. Key technology enablers are the imaging panels, light sources and micro-optics. Market shares of single panel projectors, MEMs panels, LCOS panels and low T p-Si TFT LCD panel variants are expected to increase.

  7. Nanoscale bacteriophage biosensors beyond phage display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Wook; Song, Jangwon; Hwang, Mintai P; Lee, Kwan Hyi

    2013-01-01

    Bacteriophages are traditionally used for the development of phage display technology. Recently, their nanosized dimensions and ease with which genetic modifications can be made to their structure and function have put them in the spotlight towards their use in a variety of biosensors. In particular, the expression of any protein or peptide on the extraluminal surface of bacteriophages is possible by genetically engineering the genome. In addition, the relatively short replication time of bacteriophages offers researchers the ability to generate mass quantities of any given bacteriophage-based biosensor. Coupled with the emergence of various biomarkers in the clinic as a means to determine pathophysiological states, the development of current and novel technologies for their detection and quantification is imperative. In this review, we categorize bacteriophages by their morphology into M13-based filamentous bacteriophages and T4- or T7-based icosahedral bacteriophages, and examine how such advantages are utilized across a variety of biosensors. In essence, we take a comprehensive approach towards recent trends in bacteriophage-based biosensor applications and discuss their outlook with regards to the field of biotechnology. PMID:24143096

  8. 30-view projection 3D display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Junejei; Wang, Yuchang

    2015-03-01

    A 30-view auto-stereoscopic display using angle-magnifying screen is proposed. Small incident angle of Lamp-scanning from exit pupil of projection lens is magnified into large field of view on the observing side. The lamp-scanning is realized by the vibration of Galvano-mirror that synchronizing with the frame rate of the DMD and reflecting the laser illuminator to the scanning angles. To achieve 15-view, a 3-chip DLP projector with frame rate of 720 Hz is used. For one cycle of vibration of Galvano-mirror, steps of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 10, 12, 14 are reflected on going-path and steps of 13, 11, 9, 7, 5, 3, 1 are reflected on returning path. A frame is divided into two half parts of odd lines and even lines for two views. For each view, 48 half frames per second are provided. A projection lens with aperture-relay module is used to double the lens aperture and separating the frame into two half parts of even and odd lines. After going through the Philips prism, three panels, the scanning 15 spots are doubled to 30 spots and emerge from the exit pupil of the projection lens. The exit 30 light spots from the projection lens are projected to 30 viewing zones by the anglemagnifying screen. A cabinet of rear projection with two folded mirrors is used because a projection lens of long throw distance is required.

  9. Vision based flight procedure stereo display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Wan, Di; Ma, Lan; He, Yuncheng

    2008-03-01

    A virtual reality flight procedure vision system is introduced in this paper. The digital flight map database is established based on the Geographic Information System (GIS) and high definitions satellite remote sensing photos. The flight approaching area database is established through computer 3D modeling system and GIS. The area texture is generated from the remote sensing photos and aerial photographs in various level of detail. According to the flight approaching procedure, the flight navigation information is linked to the database. The flight approaching area vision can be dynamic displayed according to the designed flight procedure. The flight approaching area images are rendered in 2 channels, one for left eye images and the others for right eye images. Through the polarized stereoscopic projection system, the pilots and aircrew can get the vivid 3D vision of the flight destination approaching area. Take the use of this system in pilots preflight preparation procedure, the aircrew can get more vivid information along the flight destination approaching area. This system can improve the aviator's self-confidence before he carries out the flight mission, accordingly, the flight safety is improved. This system is also useful in validate the visual flight procedure design, and it helps to the flight procedure design.

  10. Visual anomalies and display night vision goggles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Donald N.; Ineson, Judith; Cheetham, Mark

    2003-09-01

    A brief study has been conducted to investigate several visual anomalies reported by test pilots using a Display Night Vision Goggle (DNVG) that superimposed symbols onto the intensified image seen by the right eye. A survey of relevant research suggests that one oddity, an apparent focus mis-match between the scene image and the injected symbols, is an irremovable facet of the perception of bright, contrasting, overlaid symbols. A second oddity, an uncomfortable and distracting blurring of the under-stimulated left eye during periods of flight in cloud, was eventually experienced by several people in a laboratory simulation, the effect being more noticeable if the under-stimulated eye was the dominant eye. A subsequent apparent enlargement of the HUD symbols and a post-flight focussing delay by the left eye seemed to be after-effects of whatever caused the ocular discomfort. As about 30% of the population are left eye dominant, the disturbing discomfort and aftermath could affect this proportion of pilots using a right-eye DNVG. Although further work is needed to understand the phenomena, it would be wise to warn aircrew and enable the symbol injection unit to be fitted to either channel of the DNVG.

  11. Studies on Relevance, Ranking and Results Display

    CERN Document Server

    Gelernter, Judith; Carbonell, Jaime

    2010-01-01

    This study considers the extent to which users with the same query agree as to what is relevant, and how what is considered relevant may translate into a retrieval algorithm and results display. To combine user perceptions of relevance with algorithm rank and to present results, we created a prototype digital library of scholarly literature. We confine studies to one population of scientists (paleontologists), one domain of scholarly scientific articles (paleo-related), and a prototype system (PaleoLit) that we built for the purpose. Based on the principle that users do not pre-suppose answers to a given query but that they will recognize what they want when they see it, our system uses a rules-based algorithm to cluster results into fuzzy categories with three relevance levels. Our system matches at least 1/3 of our participants' relevancy ratings 87% of the time. Our subsequent usability study found that participants trusted our uncertainty labels but did not value our color-coded horizontal results layout ...

  12. Little Artists put on a Big Display

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    It has become a regular appointment for CERN people: the exhibition of naive and beautiful works made by young artists from the CERN nursery school. Physicists? Pianists? Teachers? They still don't know what they will be... some of them can hardly speak. But one thing's for sure CERN gives them the chance to discover and express their artistic aptitudes. And once a year they can proudly show their works to all CERN people. We are talking about children from le nursery school run by the CERN Staff Association, who are the creators of amazing works currently on display in the Main Building. To prepare for this very important appointment each class of young artists from 2 to 6 years old, have been hard at work for several months. Des élèves du Jardin d'enfants de 5 ans devant l'une de leurs oeuvres, un dinosaure en carton. Working together to express themselves in creative activities, such as drawing, pottery, music, musical movement, games, arts, and craftwork, children from all over the...

  13. Using the human eye to characterize displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gille, Jennifer; Larimer, James O.

    2001-06-01

    Monitor characterization has taken on new importance for non-professional users, who are not usually equipped to make photometric measurements. Our purpose was to examine some of the visual judgements used in characterization schemes that have been proposed for web users. We studied adjusting brightness to set the black level, banding effects du to digitization, and gamma estimation in the light an din the dark, and a color-matching tasks in the light, on a desktop CRT and a laptop LCD. Observers demonstrated the sensitivity of the visual system for comparative judgements in black- level adjustment, banding visibility, and gamma estimation. The results of the color-matching task were ambiguous. In the brightness adjustment task, the action of the adjustment was not as presumed; however, perceptual judgements were as expected under the actual conditions. Whenthe gamma estimates of observers were compared to photometric measurements, pro9blems with the definition of gamma were identified. Information about absolute light levels that would be important for characterizing a display, given the shortcomings of gamma in measuring apparent contrast, are not measurable by eye alone. The LCD was not studied as extensively as the CRT because of viewing-angle problems, and its transfer function did not follow a power law, rendering gamma estimation meaningless.

  14. Perceptual dimensions for a dynamic tactile display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Thrasyvoulos N.; Tartter, Vivien C.; Seward, Andrew G.; Genzer, Boris; Gourgey, Karen; Kretzschmar, Ilona

    2009-02-01

    We propose a new approach for converting graphical and pictorial information into tactile patterns that can be displayed in a static or dynamic tactile device. The key components of the proposed approach are (1) an algorithm that segments a scene into perceptually uniform segments; (2) a procedure for generating perceptually distinct tactile patterns; and (3) a mapping of the visual textures of the segments into tactile textures that convey similar concepts. We used existing digital halftoning and other techniques to generate a wide variety of tactile textures. We then conducted formal and informal subjective tests with sighted (but visually blocked) and visually-impaired subjects to determine the ability of human tactile perception to perceive differences among them. In addition to generating perceptually distinguishable tactile patterns, our goal is to identify significant dimensions of tactile texture perception, which will make it possible to map different visual attributes into independent tactile attributes. Our experimental results indicate that it is poosible to generate a number of perceptually distinguishable tactile patterns, and that different dimensions of tactile texture perception can indeed be identified.

  15. Designing low cost LED display for the billboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yi-Jian; Uang, Chii-Maw; Wang, Ping-Chieh; Ho, Zu-Sheng

    2011-10-01

    With quickly advance of the computer, microelectronics and photonics technologies, LED display panel becomes a new electronic advertising media. It can be used to show any information whatever characters or graphics. Most LED display panels are built of many Light-Emitting Diodes arranged in a matrix form. The display has many advantages such as low power, low cost, long life and high definition. Because the display panel is asked to show rich color, the LED display panel's driving system becomes very complex. The design methodology of LED display panel's driver becomes more and more important to meet the market requirements. Cost is always the most important issue in public market domain. In this paper, we report a design methodology of LED display panel's driver based on the microprocessor control unit (MCU) system and LED display controller IC, HT1632C, to control three colors, RGB, color LED display panel and the modular panel size is 24*16 in matrix form. The HT1632C is a memory mapping LED display controller, it can be used on many applications, such as digital clock, thermometer, counter, voltmeter or other instrumentation readouts. Three pieces of HT1632C are used to drive a 24*16 RGB LED display panel, in our design case. Each HT163C chip is used to control one of the R, G and B color. As the drive mode is driven in DC mode, the RGB display panel can create and totally of seven colors under the control of MCU. The MCU generates the control signal to drive HT1632C. In this study, the software design methodology is adopted with dynamic display principle. When the scan frequency is 60Hz, LED display panel will get the clear picture and be able to display seven colors.

  16. Illumination, color and imaging evaluation and optimization of visual displays

    CERN Document Server

    Bodrogi , P

    2012-01-01

    This comprehensive and modern reference on display technology, Illumination, color and imaging focuses on visual effects and how displayed images are best matched to the human visual system. It teaches how to exploit the knowledge of color information processing to design usable, ergonomic, and visually pleasing displays and display environments. The contents describe design principles and methods to optimize self-luminous visual technologies for the user using modern still and motion image displays and the whole range of indoor light sources. Design principles and methods are derived from

  17. 3D touchable holographic light-field display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Higashida, Ryo

    2016-01-20

    We propose a new type of 3D user interface: interaction with a light field reproduced by a 3D display. The 3D display used in this work reproduces a 3D light field, and a real image can be reproduced in midair between the display and the user. When using a finger to touch the real image, the light field from the display will scatter. Then, the 3D touch sensing is realized by detecting the scattered light by a color camera. In the experiment, the light-field display is constructed with a holographic screen and a projector; thus, a preliminary implementation of a 3D touch is demonstrated.

  18. Three-dimensional scene capturing for the virtual reality display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jingsheng; Sang, Xinzhu; Guo, Nan; Chen, Duo; Yan, Binbin; Wang, Kuiru; Dou, Wenhua; Xiao, Liquan

    2016-10-01

    A virtual reality shooting and display system based on multiple degrees of freedom camera is designed and demonstrated. Three-dimensional scene display and the wide angle display can be achieved easily and quickly through the construction with the proposed system. The range of the viewing scene can be broaden with the image stitching process, and the display in the demonstrated system can achieve the effect of wide angle for applications of image mosaic. In the meantime, the system can realize 3D scene display, which can effectively reduce the complexity of the 3D scene generation, and provide a foundation for adding interactive characteristics for the 3D scene in the future. The system includes an adjustable bracket, computer software, and a virtual reality device. Multiple degrees of freedom of the adjustable bracket are developed to obtain 3D scene source images and mosaic source images easily. 5 degrees of freedom are realized, including rotation, lifting, translation, convergence and pitching. To realize the generation and display of three-dimensional scenes, two cameras are adjusted into a parallel state. With the process of image distortion eliminating and calibration, the image is transferred to the virtual reality device for display. In order to realize wide angle display, the cameras are adjusted into "V" type. The preprocessing includes image matching and fusion to realize image stitching. The mosaic image is transferred for virtual reality display with its image reading and display functions. The wide angle 3D scene display is realized by adjusting different states.

  19. Technologies and solutions for data display in the operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitterman, Noemi

    2006-06-01

    Recent advances in technology have led to the introduction of a variety of innovative devices, each with their own platform for data display, into the operating room (OR). While these innovative applications are expanding the traditional boundaries of the surgical space and enhancing treatment capabilities, the introduction of additional screens and displays is placing an ever-increasing load on the OR team. This review describes the main data display platforms currently available in ORs: computer monitors with CRT (cathode ray tube) or LCD (liquid crystal display) screens, suspended imaging displays, wearable computers (WC), auditory displays and tactile (haptic) displays. The different display platforms are evaluated according to their compatibility with the characteristics of the working environment (OR), the monitoring task, and the users (the surgical team). No single display configuration provides an ultimate solution for presenting patient data in the OR. A multi-sensory data display including visual, acoustic and haptic manipulation is suggested as a promising configuration for data display in the OR.

  20. Research into display sharing techniques for distributed computing environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugg, Steven B.; Fitzgerald, Paul F., Jr.; Rosson, Nina Y.; Johns, Stephen R.

    1990-01-01

    The X-based Display Sharing solution for distributed computing environments is described. The Display Sharing prototype includes the base functionality for telecast and display copy requirements. Since the prototype implementation is modular and the system design provided flexibility for the Mission Control Center Upgrade (MCCU) operational consideration, the prototype implementation can be the baseline for a production Display Sharing implementation. To facilitate the process the following discussions are presented: Theory of operation; System of architecture; Using the prototype; Software description; Research tools; Prototype evaluation; and Outstanding issues. The prototype is based on the concept of a dedicated central host performing the majority of the Display Sharing processing, allowing minimal impact on each individual workstation. Each workstation participating in Display Sharing hosts programs to facilitate the user's access to Display Sharing as host machine.