Sample records for monochromatic spatially coherent

  1. Display of the complex degree of coherence due to quasi-monochromatic spatially incoherent sources. (United States)

    Michalski, M; Sicre, E E; Rabal, H J


    A method for displaying the complex degree of coherence (CDC) of a quasi-monochromatic spatially incoherent source is proposed. The phase of the CDC is encoded in a method similar to that used in interferometric imaging with incoherent light. The method is based on Fourier analysis of the speckle pattern that appears when a diffuser is illuminated with the partially coherent field whose CDC is to be displayed. In addition, an intensity pattern that resembles the spatial distribution of the incoherent source can also be obtained.

  2. Cell response to quasi-monochromatic light with different coherence (United States)

    Budagovsky, A. V.; Solovykh, N. V.; Budagovskaya, O. N.; Budagovsky, I. A.


    The problem of the light coherence effect on the magnitude of the photoinduced cell response is discussed. The origins of ambiguous interpretation of the known experimental results are considered. Using the biological models, essentially differing in anatomy, morphology and biological functions (acrospires of radish, blackberry microsprouts cultivated in vitro, plum pollen), the effect of statistical properties of quasi-monochromatic light (λmax = 633 nm) on the magnitude of the photoinduced cell response is shown. It is found that for relatively low spatial coherence, the cell functional activity changes insignificantly. The maximal enhancement of growing processes (stimulating effect) is observed when the coherence length Lcoh and the correlation radius rcor are greater than the cell size, i.e., the entire cell fits into the field coherence volume. In this case, the representative indicators (germination of seeds and pollen, the spears length) exceeds those of non-irradiated objects by 1.7 - 3.9 times. For more correct assessment of the effect of light statistical properties on photocontrol processes, it is proposed to replace the qualitative description (coherent - incoherent) with the quantitative one, using the determination of spatial and temporal correlation functions and comparing them with the characteristic dimensions of the biological structures, e.g., the cell size.

  3. Cell response to quasi-monochromatic light with different coherence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budagovsky, A V; Solovykh, N V [I.V.Michurin All-Russian Recearch Institute of Fruit Crops Genetics and Breeding (Russian Federation); Budagovskaya, O N [I.V.Michurin All-Russia Research and Development Institute of Gardening, Michurinsk, Tambov region (Russian Federation); Budagovsky, I A [P N Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    The problem of the light coherence effect on the magnitude of the photoinduced cell response is discussed. The origins of ambiguous interpretation of the known experimental results are considered. Using the biological models, essentially differing in anatomy, morphology and biological functions (acrospires of radish, blackberry microsprouts cultivated in vitro, plum pollen), the effect of statistical properties of quasi-monochromatic light (λ{sub max} = 633 nm) on the magnitude of the photoinduced cell response is shown. It is found that for relatively low spatial coherence, the cell functional activity changes insignificantly. The maximal enhancement of growing processes (stimulating effect) is observed when the coherence length L{sub coh} and the correlation radius r{sub cor} are greater than the cell size, i.e., the entire cell fits into the field coherence volume. In this case, the representative indicators (germination of seeds and pollen, the spears length) exceeds those of non-irradiated objects by 1.7 – 3.9 times. For more correct assessment of the effect of light statistical properties on photocontrol processes, it is proposed to replace the qualitative description (coherent – incoherent) with the quantitative one, using the determination of spatial and temporal correlation functions and comparing them with the characteristic dimensions of the biological structures, e.g., the cell size. (biophotonics)

  4. Partially coherent imaging and spatial coherence wavelets

    CERN Document Server

    Castaneda, R


    A description of spatially partially coherent imaging based on the propagation of second order spatial coherence wavelets and marginal power spectra (Wigner distribution functions) is presented. In this dynamics, the spatial coherence wavelets will be affected by the system through its elementary transfer function. The consistency of the model with the both extreme cases of full coherent and incoherent imaging was proved. In the last case we obtained the classical concept of optical transfer function as a simple integral of the elementary transfer function. Furthermore, the elementary incoherent response function was introduced as the Fourier transform of the elementary transfer function. It describes the propagation of spatial coherence wavelets form each object point to each image point through a specific point on the pupil planes. The point spread function of the system was obtained by a simple integral of the elementary incoherent response function.

  5. Control of cell interaction using quasi-monochromatic light with varying spatiotemporal coherence (United States)

    Budagovsky, A. V.; Maslova, M. V.; Budagovskaya, O. N.; Budagovsky, I. A.


    By the example of plants, fungi and bacteria, we consider the possibility of controlling the interaction of cells, being in competitive, antagonistic, or parasitic relations. For this aim we used short-time irradiation (a few seconds or minutes) with the red (633 nm) quasi-monochromatic light having different spatiotemporal coherence. It is shown that the functional activity is mostly increased in the cells whose size does not exceed the coherence length and the correlation radius of the light field. Thus, in the case of cells essentially differing in size, it is possible to increase the activity of smaller cells, avoiding the stimulation of larger ones. For example, the radiation having relatively low coherence (Lcoh, rcor plant cells by pathogen fungi, while the exposure to light with less statistical regularity (Lcoh = 4 μm, rcor = 5 μm) inhibits the growth of the Fusarium microcera fungus, infected by the bacterium of the Pseudomonas species. The quasi-monochromatic radiation with sufficiently high spatiotemporal coherence stimulated all interacting species (bacteria, fungi, plants). In the considered biocenosis, the equilibrium was shifted towards the favour of organisms having the highest rate of cell division or the ones better using their adaptation potential.

  6. Spatial coherence at the output of multimode optical fibers. (United States)

    Efimov, Anatoly


    The modulus of the complex degree of coherence is directly measured at the output of a step-index multimode optical fiber using lateral-sheering, delay-dithering Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Pumping the multimode fiber with monochromatic light always results in spatially-coherent output, whereas for the broadband pumping the modal dispersion of the fiber leads to a partially coherent output. While the coherence radius is a function of the numerical aperture only, the residual coherence outside the main peak is an interesting function of two dimensionless parameters: the number of non-degenerate modes and the ratio of the modal dispersion to the coherence time of the source. We develop a simple model describing this residual coherence and verify its predictions experimentally.

  7. Topological Properties of Spatial Coherence Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Ji-Rong; ZHU Tao; DUAN Yi-Shi


    The topological properties of the spatial coherence function are investigated rigorously.The phase singular structures(coherence vortices)of coherence function can be naturally deduced from the topological current,which is an abstract mathematical object studied previously.We find that coherence vortices are characterized by the Hopf index and Brouwer degree in topology.The coherence flux quantization and the linking of the closed coherence vortices are also studied from the topological properties of the spatial coherence function.

  8. Spatial Coherence of Synchrotron Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchesini, S; Coisson, R


    Synchrotron Radiation (SR) has been widely used since the 80's as a tool for many applications of UV, soft X rays and hard X rays in condensed matter physics, chemistry and biology. The evolution of SR sources towards higher brightness has led to the design of low-emittance electron storage rings (emittance is the product of beam size and divergence), and the development of special source magnetic structures, as undulators. This means that more and more photons are available on a narrow bandwidth and on a small collimated beam; in other words there is the possibility of getting a high power in a coherent beam. In most applications, a monochromator is used, and the temporal coherence of the light is given by the monochromator bandwidth. With smaller and smaller sources, even without the use of collimators, the spatial coherence of the light has become appreciable, first in the UV and soft X ray range, and then also with hard X rays. This has made possible new or improved experiments in interferometry, microscopy, holography, correlation spectroscopy, etc. In view of these recent possibilities and applications, it is useful to review some basic concepts about spatial coherence of SR, and its measurement and applications. In particular we show how the spatial coherence properties of the radiation in the far field can be calculated with simple operations from the single-electron amplitude and the electron beam angular and position spreads. The gaussian approximation will be studied in detail for a discussion of the properties of the far field mutual coherence and the estimate of the coherence widths, and the comparison with the VanCittert-Zernike limit.

  9. Spatial coherence of random laser emission. (United States)

    Redding, Brandon; Choma, Michael A; Cao, Hui


    We experimentally studied the spatial coherence of random laser emission from dye solutions containing nanoparticles. The spatial coherence, measured in a double slit experiment, varied significantly with the density of scatterers and the size and shape of the excitation volume. A qualitative explanation is provided, illustrating the dramatic difference from the spatial coherence of a conventional laser. This work demonstrates that random lasers can be controlled to provide intense, spatially incoherent emission for applications in which spatial cross talk or speckle limit performance.

  10. Spatial Coherence of Tropical Rainfall (United States)

    Ratan, Ram; Venugopal, V.; Sukhatme, Jai; Murtugudde, Raghu


    We characterise the spatial coherence of tropical rain and its wet spells from observations (TRMM) and assess if models (CMIP5) are able to reproduce the observed features. Based on 15 years (1998-2012) of TRMM 3B42 (V7) 1-degree, daily rainfall, we estimate the spatial decorrelation scale (e-folding distance) of rain at each location in the tropics. A ratio of zonal to meridional spatial scales clearly illustrates that while rain patterns tend to be anisotropic (ratio of 4) over tropical ocean regions (particularly over Pacific ITCZ); over land regions, rain tends to be mostly isotropic. This contrast between ocean and land appears to be reasonably well captured by CMIP5 models, although the anisotropy (ratio) over ocean is much higher than in observations. A very curious behaviour in observations is the presence of a coherent band of spatial decorrelation lengths straddling the equator, in the East Pacific, reminiscent of a double ITCZ that some models tend to simulate. A similar analysis of wet spells of different durations suggests that the decorrelation scale is largely independent of the duration of wet spell.

  11. Lateral-shearing, delay-dithering Mach-Zehnder interferometer for spatial coherence measurement. (United States)

    Efimov, Anatoly


    An image-shearing interferometer of Mach-Zehnder type with corner cubes is introduced for the purpose of measuring spatial coherence at the output of inhomogeneous optical sources, such as multimode fibers (MMFs). One arm of the interferometer is modulated in optical delay to produce dynamic interference fringes. Fringe visibility and the two individual intensities are measured nearly simultaneously to allow direct calculation of the modulus of the complex degree of coherence as a function of the lateral shear between the two interferometer arms. Spatial degree of coherence is measured for a step-index MMF pumped with monochromatic and broadband optical sources.

  12. Spatial coherence of random laser emission

    CERN Document Server

    Redding, Brandon; Cao, Hui


    We experimentally studied the spatial coherence of random laser emission from dye solutions containing nanoparticles. The spatial coherence, measured in a double-slit experiment, varied significantly with the density of scatterers and the size and shape of the excitation volume. A qualitative explanation is provided, illustrating the dramatic difference from the spatial coherence of a conventional laser. This work demonstrates that random lasers can be controlled to provide intense, spatially incoherent emission for applications in which spatial cross talk or speckle limit performance.

  13. Spatial-Coherence Effects in Spectroscopy (United States)

    Wolf, Emil


    In this report account is presented of research carried out during the period December 1, 1999 - November 30, 2002 under the sponsorship of the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under grant F49620-00l-l-0125. Our research covered many areas of modern optical physics, especially wave propagation in random media, inverse scattering, coherence properties of light, correlation-induced spectral changes, partially coherent beams, focusing of waves of arbitrary state of coherence, partially coherent solitons, spreading of partially coherent beams in random media, diffraction tomography and singular optics with polychromatic light. We believe that of special significance are some new results that we have obtained concerning the propagation of partially coherent beams in the turbulent atmosphere. The results indicate that in certain situations it is preferable to employ partially coherent beams rather than fully coherent ones for communication, tracking and guiding, for example. These results are preliminary and we are pursuing the subject further. In the field of singular optics we have opened up a new direction for progress in the field by having shown that some new and unexpected effects take place in the neighborhood of phase singularities in optical fields, when the light is polychromatic rather than monochromatic (studied previously). Specifically we have demonstrated that drastic changes of the spectrum of light take place in the immediate vicinity of the singular points. The results of our investigations were reported in 43 publications. They are listed on pages 3 to 5. Summaries of these publications are given on pages 6 - 14. Scientists who have participated in this research are listed on page 15.

  14. Spatial coherence and entanglement of light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Lorenzo Pires, Henrique


    In this thesis we investigate diverse aspects of spatial coherence of light. Non-classical fields containing two photons can be generated by a nonlinear optical process known as spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC). Among the questions we consider are: What is so special about spatial

  15. Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography with monochromatic and chromatic aberration correction. (United States)

    Zawadzki, Robert J; Cense, Barry; Zhang, Yan; Choi, Stacey S; Miller, Donald T; Werner, John S


    We have developed an improved adaptive optics - optical coherence tomography (AO-OCT) system and evaluated its performance for in vivo imaging of normal and pathologic retina. The instrument provides unprecedented image quality at the retina with isotropic 3D resolution of 3.5 x 3.5 x 3.5 microm(3). Critical to the instrument's resolution is a customized achromatizing lens that corrects for the eye's longitudinal chromatic aberration and an ultra broadband light source (Delta lambda=112 nm lambda(0)= approximately 836 nm). The eye's transverse chromatic aberrations is modeled and predicted to be sufficiently small for the imaging conditions considered. The achromatizing lens was strategically placed at the light input of the AO-OCT sample arm. This location simplifies use of the achromatizing lens and allows straightforward implementation into existing OCT systems. Lateral resolution was achieved with an AO system that cascades two wavefront correctors, a large stroke bimorph deformable mirror (DM) and a micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) DM with a high number of actuators. This combination yielded diffraction-limited imaging in the eyes examined. An added benefit of the broadband light source is the reduction of speckle size in the axial dimension. Additionally, speckle contrast was reduced by averaging multiple B-scans of the same proximal patch of retina. The combination of improved micron-scale 3D resolution, and reduced speckle size and contrast were found to significantly improve visibility of microscopic structures in the retina.

  16. Coupling of spatially partially coherent beams into planar waveguides. (United States)

    Partanen, Henri; Tervo, Jani; Turunen, Jari


    The second-order coherence theory of partially spatially coherent light and the overlap integral method are applied to study the end-coupling of stationary multimode light beams into planar waveguides. A method is presented for the determination of the cross-spectral density function of the guided field. Examples are given on the effects of spatial coherence, lateral shift, angular tilt, and defocusing of the incident beam on the coupling efficiency, spatial coherence, and propagation characteristics of the guided field.

  17. Robust quantum spatial coherence near a classical environment

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Shuyu; Keil, Mark; Japha, Yonathan; Folman, Ron


    In quantum physics spatial coherence allows a massive object to be present in two locations at the same time. Such spatial coherence is easily lost in the presence of a classical environment, making it unobservable in our day-to-day experience. Here we report the persistence of spatial coherence for ultra-cold atoms held only 5$\\,\\mu$m from a room temperature surface, reducing substantially the distance previously achieved between trapped atoms exhibiting spatial coherence and their classical environment. At this distance, the environment would normally destroy spatial coherence over any length greater than a few micrometers, but we nevertheless observe coherence over a length of 30$\\,\\mu$m. We show that no observable dephasing is taking place, even on a time scale on the order of one second. From a technological point of view, this may enable quantum devices based on atomic circuits.

  18. Spatially coherent surface resonance states derived from magnetic resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Zeyong; Cao, Yang; Wu, Chao; Ren, Jinzhi; Hang, Zhihong; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Daozhong; Chan, C T


    A thin metamaterial slab comprising a dielectric spacer sandwiched between a metallic grating and a ground plane is shown to possess spatially coherent surface resonance states that span a large frequency range and can be tuned by structural and material parameters. They give rise to nearly perfect angle-selective absorption and thus exhibit directional thermal emissivity. Direct numerical simulations show that the metamaterial slab supports spatially coherent thermal emission in a wide frequency range that is robust against structural disorder.

  19. Phase space representation of spatially partially coherent imaging. (United States)

    Castaneda, Roman


    The phase space representation of imaging with optical fields in any state of spatial coherence is developed by using spatial coherence wavelets. It leads to new functions for describing the optical transfer and response of imaging systems when the field is represented by Wigner distribution functions. Specific imaging cases are analyzed in this context, and special attention is devoted to the imaging of two point sources.

  20. Efficient method for controlling the spatial coherence of a laser

    CERN Document Server

    Nixon, Micha; Friesem, Asher; Cao, Hui; Davidson, Nir


    An efficient method to tune the spatial coherence of a degenerate laser over a broad range with minimum variation in the total output power is presented. It is based on varying the diameter of a spatial filter inside the laser cavity. The number of lasing modes supported by the degenerate laser can be controlled from 1 to 320,000, with less than a 50% change in the total output power. We show that a degenerate laser designed for low spatial coherence can be used as an illumination source for speckle-free microscopy that is 9 orders of magnitude brighter than conventional thermal light.

  1. Transport theory: Spatial coherence of random laser emission

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, Regine


    Recently random laser reached the stage of technologi- cal applicability. They have already been engineered as coherent microscope light sources in combination with light transport based disordered lenses. The big issue for all kinds of applications is the degree of coherence of the emitted radiation. The lasing spot sizes in dif- ferent regimes may provide different degrees of spatial and temporal coherence and as a consequence they can be perfectly tunable light sources for the case that the modal behavior can be controlled easily. In this letter we investigate the spatial coherence lengths of different random laser samples theoretically. The samples only vary in their filling with spherical ZnO Mie scatterers. Beyond we show, that the scattering mean free paths of random lasers are not only a material characteristics and dependent to the filling, instead the mean free paths change in depth of the sample and therefor depend on the nonlinear self-consistent gain of the random lasing principle.

  2. Harmonic Spatial Coherence Imaging: An Ultrasonic Imaging Method Based on Backscatter Coherence


    DAHL, JEREMY J.; Jakovljevic, Marko; Pinton, Gianmarco F.; Trahey, Gregg E.


    HSCI and SLSC imaging less sensitive to clutter because it has low spatial coherence. The method is based on the coherence of the second harmonic backscatter. Because the same signals that are used to construct harmonic B-mode images are also used to construct HSCI images, the benefits obtained with harmonic imaging are also applicable to HSCI. Harmonic imaging has been the primary tool for suppressing clutter in diagnostic ultrasound imaging, however second harmonic echoes are not necessaril...

  3. On Linear Coherent Estimation with Spatial Collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    Kar, Swarnendu


    We consider a power-constrained sensor network, consisting of multiple sensor nodes and a fusion center (FC), that is deployed for the purpose of estimating a common random parameter of interest. In contrast to the distributed framework, the sensor nodes are allowed to update their individual observations by (linearly) combining observations from neighboring nodes. The updated observations are communicated to the FC using an analog amplify-and-forward modulation scheme and through a coherent multiple access channel. The optimal collaborative strategy is obtained by minimizing the cumulative transmission power subject to a maximum distortion constraint. For the distributed scenario (i.e., with no observation sharing), the solution reduces to the power-allocation problem considered by [Xiao, TSP08]. Collaboration among neighbors significantly improves power efficiency of the network in the low local-SNR regime, as demonstrated through an insightful example and numerical simulations.

  4. Coherent Spatial and Colour Blended Exemplar Inpainting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In an image processing field the digital image recovery is termed as inpainting. Efficient retrieval of an image, especially having large objects with high curvature and complex texture is an immensely challenging problem for image inpainting researchers and practitioner. This enthused researchers and emerge various inpainting algorithms and many are in progress. Generally inpainting techniques approaches the available area source of given image(s to restore the unavailable area target by the information available at the target edge. This paper represents a novel approach BSDD (Blended Spatial and Dimensional Distances by sampling patches at each pixel of the source region. From the given sample, selection of local edge patch is gradient based without priority computation overhead as previous techniques. These local patches are searched globally by linear distance in which both spatial and dimensional distances are considered with regularization factor. The main motive of this method consists in achieving the efficiency, curvature and textural challenges of inpainting without compromising the quality of inpainted image. We have tested the proposed method in real as well as synthetic images with high curvature and complex textures in all cases results are comparable with other well-known techniques. In view of quality and optical the proposed algorithm exhibits better results.

  5. Reply to comment on 'Spatial Coherence and Optical Beam Shifts'

    CERN Document Server

    Löffler, W; Woerdman, J P


    In a comment, Wang, Zhu and Zubairy repeat their previous claim that the spatial Goos-H\\"anchen (GH) shift happening at total internal reflection at a dielectric-air interface depends on the spatial coherence of the incident beam. This contradicts our theoretical and experimental findings. Here, we show that the apparent disagreement between their numerical simulations and our results occurs only in a parameter range where the concept of a spatial beam shift is invalid, and that therefore their claim is inapplicable. We clarify this by discussing two key issues.

  6. The influence of spatial coherence on the Goos-Haenchen shift at total internal reflection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Liqin; Wang Ligang; Zhu Shiyao [Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027 (China); Zubairy, M Suhail [Centre for Quantum Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)], E-mail:


    In this paper, the influence of spatial coherence on the Goos-Haenchen (GH) shift at total internal reflection is theoretically investigated. Based on the theory of partial coherence, a general integral expression of the cross-spectral density is derived for a partially coherent beam reflected from an interface. Using numerical simulation, we find that the GH shift of the reflected beam greatly depends on the spatial coherence, and the GH shift is greatly reduced with a decrease in spatial coherence.

  7. Harmonic spatial coherence imaging: an ultrasonic imaging method based on backscatter coherence. (United States)

    Dahl, Jeremy; Jakovljevic, Marko; Pinton, Gianmarco F; Trahey, Gregg E


    We introduce a harmonic version of the short-lag spatial coherence (SLSC) imaging technique, called harmonic spatial coherence imaging (HSCI). The method is based on the coherence of the second-harmonic backscatter. Because the same signals that are used to construct harmonic B-mode images are also used to construct HSCI images, the benefits obtained with harmonic imaging are also obtained with HSCI. Harmonic imaging has been the primary tool for suppressing clutter in diagnostic ultrasound imaging, however secondharmonic echoes are not necessarily immune to the effects of clutter. HSCI and SLSC imaging are less sensitive to clutter because clutter has low spatial coherence. HSCI shows favorable imaging characteristics such as improved contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), improved speckle SNR, and better delineation of borders and other structures compared with fundamental and harmonic B-mode imaging. CNRs of up to 1.9 were obtained from in vivo imaging of human cardiac tissue with HSCI, compared with 0.6, 0.9, and 1.5 in fundamental B-mode, harmonic B-mode, and SLSC imaging, respectively. In vivo experiments in human liver tissue demonstrated SNRs of up to 3.4 for HSCI compared with 1.9 for harmonic B-mode. Nonlinear simulations of a heart chamber model were consistent with the in vivo experiments.

  8. Spatial smoothing coherence factor for ultrasound computed tomography (United States)

    Lou, Cuijuan; Xu, Mengling; Ding, Mingyue; Yuchi, Ming


    In recent years, many research studies have been carried out on ultrasound computed tomography (USCT) for its application prospect in early diagnosis of breast cancer. This paper applies four kinds of coherence-factor-like beamforming methods to improve the image quality of synthetic aperture focusing method for USCT, including the coherence-factor (CF), the phase coherence factor (PCF), the sign coherence factor (SCF) and the spatial smoothing coherence factor (SSCF) (proposed in our previous work). The performance of these methods was tested with simulated raw data which were generated by the ultrasound simulation software PZFlex 2014. The simulated phantom was set to be water of 4cm diameter with three nylon objects of different diameters inside. The ring-type transducer had 72 elements with a center frequency of 1MHz. The results show that all the methods can reveal the biggest nylon circle with the radius of 2.5mm. SSCF gets the highest SNR among the proposed methods and provides a more homogenous background. None of these methods can reveal the two smaller nylon circles with the radius of 0.75mm and 0.25mm. This may be due to the small number of elements.

  9. Comment on "Spatial Coherence and Optical Beam Shifts"

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Li-Gang; Zubairy, M Suhail


    This comment is to show that our simulation data, based on our theory and method in Ref. [J. Phys. B 41, 055401 (2008)], are also in agreement with the experimental data presented for $D_{p}-D_{s}$ in Ref. [Phys. Rev. Lett. \\textbf{109}, 213901 (2012)]. We also demonstrate how to show the effect of spatial coherence on the GH shifts in this comment, therefore we disagree with the claims in Ref. [Phys. Rev. Lett. \\textbf{109}, 213901 (2012)].

  10. Transient Aspects of Wave Propagation Connected with Spatial Coherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzat G. Bakhoum


    Full Text Available This study presents transient aspects of light wave propagation connected with spatial coherence. It is shown that reflection and refraction phenomena involve spatial patterns which are created within a certain transient time interval. After this transient time interval, these patterns act like a memory, determining the wave vector for subsequent sets of reflected/refracted waves. The validity of this model is based on intuitive aspects regarding phase conservation of energy for waves reflected/refracted by multiple centers in a certain material medium.

  11. Determining the Spectral Signature of Spatial Coherent Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Pastur, L R; Fraigneau, Y; Podvin, B


    We applied to an open flow a proper orthogonal decomposition (pod) technique, on 2D snapshots of the instantaneous velocity field, to reveal the spatial coherent structures responsible of the self-sustained oscillations observed in the spectral distribution of time series. We applied the technique to 2D planes out of 3D direct numerical simulations on an open cavity flow. The process can easily be implemented on usual personal computers, and might bring deep insights on the relation between spatial events and temporal signature in (both numerical or experimental) open flows.

  12. Spatially multiplexed interferometric microscopy with partially coherent illumination (United States)

    Picazo-Bueno, José Ángel; Zalevsky, Zeev; García, Javier; Ferreira, Carlos; Micó, Vicente


    We have recently reported on a simple, low cost, and highly stable way to convert a standard microscope into a holographic one [Opt. Express 22, 14929 (2014)]. The method, named spatially multiplexed interferometric microscopy (SMIM), proposes an off-axis holographic architecture implemented onto a regular (nonholographic) microscope with minimum modifications: the use of coherent illumination and a properly placed and selected one-dimensional diffraction grating. In this contribution, we report on the implementation of partially (temporally reduced) coherent illumination in SMIM as a way to improve quantitative phase imaging. The use of low coherence sources forces the application of phase shifting algorithm instead of off-axis holographic recording to recover the sample's phase information but improves phase reconstruction due to coherence noise reduction. In addition, a less restrictive field of view limitation (1/2) is implemented in comparison with our previously reported scheme (1/3). The proposed modification is experimentally validated in a regular Olympus BX-60 upright microscope considering a wide range of samples (resolution test, microbeads, swine sperm cells, red blood cells, and prostate cancer cells).

  13. Monochromatic subdiffusive spatial frequency domain imaging provides in-situ sensitivity to intratumoral morphological heterogeneity in a murine model. (United States)

    McClatchy, David M; Hoopes, P Jack; Pogue, Brian W; Kanick, Stephen Chad


    For the first time, spatially resolved quantitative metrics of light scattering recovered with sub-diffusive spatial frequency domain imaging (sd-SFDI) are shown to be sensitive to changes in intratumoral morphology and viability by direct comparison to histopathological analysis. Two freshly excised subcutaneous murine tumor cross-sections were measured with sd-SFDI, and recovered optical scatter parameter maps were co-registered to whole mount histology. Unique clustering of the optical scatter parameters μs' vs. γ (i.e. diffuse scattering vs. relative backscattering) evaluated at a single wavelength showed complete separation between regions of viable tumor, aggresive tumor with stromal growth, varying levels of necrotic tumor, and also peritumor muscle. The results suggest that with further technical development, sd-SFDI may represent a non-destructive screening tool for analysis of excised tissue or a non-invasive approach to investigate suspicious lesions without the need for exogenous labels or spectrally resolved imaging. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Role of spatial coherence in Goos-Hänchen and Imbert-Fedorov shifts. (United States)

    Aiello, Andrea; Woerdman, J P


    We present a theory for Goos-Hänchen (GH) and Imbert-Fedorov (IF) shifts for beams of light with arbitrary spatial coherence. By applying the well-known theory of partial spatial coherence, we can calculate explicitly spatial and angular GH and IF shifts for completely polarized beams of any shape and spatial coherence. For the specific case of a Gauss-Schell source, we find that only the angular part of GH and IF shifts is affected by the spatial coherence of the beam. A physical explanation of our results is given.

  15. Spatial coherence of thermal photons favors photosynthetic life

    CERN Document Server

    Manrique, Pedro; Caycedo-Soler, Felipe; Rodríguez, Ferney; Quiroga, Luis; Johnson, Neil


    Harvesting of sunlight underpins Life on Earth as well as driving novel energy device design. Though several experiments suggest that excitation energy transport and charge separation within a photosynthetic membrane may benefit from the quantum nature of their dynamics, the effects of spatial coherences in the incident light have been largely ignored. Here we show that spatial correlations in the incident light likely play an important role in trapping light and adding robustness, as well as providing a driving mechanism for an organism's adaptation toward more ordered structures. Our theory is grounded by empirical inputs, while its output is validated against testable predictions. Our results suggest that spatiotemporal correlations between photons, a fundamental property of the quantum world, should play a key role in our understanding of early Life and in improving the design of artificial photosynthetic systems.

  16. Non-Gaussian Colored Noise Optimized Spatial Coherence of a Hodgkin—Huxley Neuronal Network (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Juan; Lu, Qi-Shao


    We numerically study how non-Gaussian colored noise affects the spatial coherence of a Hodgkin—Huxley neuronal network. From the simulation results, we find that there exists some intermediate noise intensities, correlation time of the colored noise, and the deviation from Gaussian colored noise, for which an ordered pattern with a characteristic spatial frequency of the system comes forth in a resonant manner. Namely, under certain conditions, spatial coherence of the studied neuronal network can be optimized by the non-Gaussian colored noise, which indicates the occurrence of spatial coherence resonance.

  17. Spatial coherences of the sound pressure and the particle velocity in underwater ambient noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jin; LUO Xianzhi; HOU Chaohuan


    The spatial coherences were investigated between the sound pressure and the three orthogonal components of the particle velocity in underwater ambient noise. Based on the ray theory, integral expression was derived for the spatial coherence matrix of the sound pressure and the particle velocity in a stratified ocean with dipole noise sources homogenously distributed on the surface. The integrand includes a multiplying factor of the vertical directivity of the noise intensity, and the layered ocean environment affects the spatial coherences via this directivity factor. For a shallow water environment and a semi-infinite homogenous medium, the coherence calculation results were given. It was showed that the sound speed profile and the sea bottom could not be neglected in determining the spatial coherences of the ambient noise vector field.

  18. Change in spatial coherence of light on refraction and on reflection. (United States)

    Lahiri, Mayukh; Wolf, Emil


    A theory of refraction and reflection of partially coherent electromagnetic beams has been recently developed. In this paper, we apply it to study the change in spatial coherence caused by refraction and by reflection more fully. By considering a Gaussian Schell-model beam, we show that the change is, in general, dependent on the angle of incidence.

  19. Practical methods for the measurement of spatial coherence-A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maunders, C. [Dept. of Materials Engineering, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); Dwyer, C., E-mail: [Dept. of Materials Engineering, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); Monash Centre for Electron Microscopy, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); Tiemeijer, P.C. [FEI Electron Optics, PO Box 80066, 5600 KA Eindhoven (Netherlands); Etheridge, J. [Dept. of Materials Engineering, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); Monash Centre for Electron Microscopy, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia)


    Two new methods for the measurement of transverse spatial coherence in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) are developed and applied to measure the spatial coherence in a field emission gun TEM. Measurements are made under different illumination and operating conditions, illustrating the effect of these conditions on the spatial coherence. The relative merits and limitations of these methods are discussed and compared, together with the previously described 'Ronchigram' method. -- Highlights: {yields} Three methods for measuring the spatial coherence in a TEM are compared. {yields} The methods use different electron-optical configurations, applicable to STEM and HRTEM. {yields} One of these methods, applicable to STEM, is presented here for the first time. {yields} The methods are demonstrated to access different contributions to the effective source.

  20. General formalism for partial spatial coherence in reflection Mueller matrix polarimetry. (United States)

    Ossikovski, Razvigor; Hingerl, Kurt


    Starting from the first principles, we derive the expressions governing partially coherent Mueller matrix reflection polarimetry on spatially inhomogeneous samples. These are reported both in their general form and in the practically important specific form for two juxtaposed media.

  1. Measurement of Spatial Coherence of Light Propagating in a Turbulent Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Barcik


    Full Text Available A lot of issues have to be taken into account when designing a reliable free space optical communication link. Among these are e.g.,beam wander, fluctuation of optical intensity and loss of spatial coherence that are caused by atmospheric turbulence. This paper presents experimental measurements of spatial coherence of a laser beam. The experimental setup is based on Young's double pinhole experiment. Fringe patterns under atmospheric turbulence for four different pinhole separations are presented. From these fringe patterns, visibility is determined and the coherence radius is estimated.

  2. Fractional Fourier transform for partially coherent beam in spatial-frequency domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Yang-Jian; Lin Qiang


    By using Fourier transform and the tensor analysis method, the fractional Fourier transform (FRT) in the spatialfrequency domain for partially coherent beams is derived. Based on the FRT in the spatial-frequency domain, an analytical transform formula is derived for a partially coherent twisted anisotropic Gaussian-Schell model (GSM) beam passing through the FRT system. The connections between the FRT formula and the generalized diffraction integral formulae for partially coherent beams through an aligned optical system and a misaligned optical system in the spatialfrequency domain are discussed, separately. By using the derived formula, the intensity distribution of partially coherent twisted anisotropic GSM beams in the FRT plane are studied in detail. The formula derived provide a convenient tool for analysing and calculating the FRTs of the partially coherent beams in spatial-frequency domain.

  3. Image transfer with spatial coherence for aberration corrected transmission electron microscopes. (United States)

    Hosokawa, Fumio; Sawada, Hidetaka; Shinkawa, Takao; Sannomiya, Takumi


    The formula of spatial coherence involving an aberration up to six-fold astigmatism is derived for aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy. Transfer functions for linear imaging are calculated using the newly derived formula with several residual aberrations. Depending on the symmetry and origin of an aberration, the calculated transfer function shows characteristic symmetries. The aberrations that originate from the field's components, having uniformity along the z direction, namely, the n-fold astigmatism, show rotational symmetric damping of the coherence. The aberrations that originate from the field's derivatives with respect to z, such as coma, star, and three lobe, show non-rotational symmetric damping. It is confirmed that the odd-symmetric wave aberrations have influences on the attenuation of an image via spatial coherence. Examples of image simulations of haemoglobin and Si [211] are shown by using the spatial coherence for an aberration-corrected electron microscope.

  4. Polarization and spatial coherence of electromagnetic waves in uncorrelated disordered media

    CERN Document Server

    Vynck, Kevin; Carminati, Rémi


    Spatial field correlation functions represent a key quantity for the description of mesoscopic phenomena in disordered media and the optical characterization of complex materials. Yet many aspects related to the vector nature of light waves have not been investigated so far. We study theoretically the polarization and coherence properties of electromagnetic waves produced by a dipole source in a three-dimensional uncorrelated disordered medium. The spatial field correlation matrix is calculated analytically using a multiple scattering theory for polarized light. This allows us to provide a formal description of the light depolarization process in terms of "polarization eigenchannels" and to derive analytical formulas for the spatial coherence of multiply-scattered light.

  5. Spiral Waves and Multiple Spatial Coherence Resonances Induced by Colored Noise in Neuronal Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐昭; 李玉叶; 惠磊; 贾冰; 吉华光


    Gaussian colored noise induced spatial patterns and spatial coherence resonances in a square lattice neuronal network composed of Morris-Lecar neurons are studied. Each neuron is at resting state near a saddle-node bifurcation on invariant circle, coupled to its nearest neighbors by electronic coupling. Spiral waves with different structures and disordered spatial structures can be alternately induced within a large range of noise intensity. By calculating spatial structure function and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), it is found that SNR values are higher when the spiral structures are simple and are lower when the spatial patterns are complex or disordered, respectively. SNR manifest multiple local maximal peaks, indicating that the colored noise can induce multiple spatial coherence resonances. The maximal SNR values decrease as the correlation time of the noise increases. These results not only provide an example of multiple resonances, but also show that Gaussian colored noise play constructive roles in neuronal network.

  6. Spatio-temporal coherence of free-electron laser radiation in the extreme ultraviolet determined by a Michelson interferometer (United States)

    Hilbert, V.; Rödel, C.; Brenner, G.; Döppner, T.; Düsterer, S.; Dziarzhytski, S.; Fletcher, L.; Förster, E.; Glenzer, S. H.; Harmand, M.; Hartley, N. J.; Kazak, L.; Komar, D.; Laarmann, T.; Lee, H. J.; Ma, T.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Przystawik, A.; Redlin, H.; Skruszewicz, S.; Sperling, P.; Tiggesbäumker, J.; Toleikis, S.; Zastrau, U.


    A key feature of extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation from free-electron lasers (FELs) is its spatial and temporal coherence. We measured the spatio-temporal coherence properties of monochromatized FEL pulses at 13.5 nm using a Michelson interferometer. A temporal coherence time of (59±8) fs has been determined, which is in good agreement with the spectral bandwidth given by the monochromator. Moreover, the spatial coherence in vertical direction amounts to about 15% of the beam diameter and about 12% in horizontal direction. The feasibility of measuring spatio-temporal coherence properties of XUV FEL radiation using interferometric techniques advances machine operation and experimental studies significantly.

  7. Spatio-temporal coherence of free-electron laser radiation in the extreme ultraviolet determined by a Michelson interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilbert, V.; Rödel, C.; Zastrau, U., E-mail: [Institut für Optik und Quantenelektronik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Brenner, G.; Düsterer, S.; Dziarzhytski, S.; Harmand, M.; Przystawik, A.; Redlin, H.; Toleikis, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Döppner, T.; Ma, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Fletcher, L. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Förster, E. [Institut für Optik und Quantenelektronik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut Jena, Fröbelstieg 3, 07743 Jena (Germany); Glenzer, S. H.; Lee, H. J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Hartley, N. J. [Department of Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Kazak, L.; Komar, D.; Skruszewicz, S. [Institut für Physik, Universität Rostock, 18051 Rostock (Germany); and others


    A key feature of extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation from free-electron lasers (FELs) is its spatial and temporal coherence. We measured the spatio-temporal coherence properties of monochromatized FEL pulses at 13.5 nm using a Michelson interferometer. A temporal coherence time of (59±8) fs has been determined, which is in good agreement with the spectral bandwidth given by the monochromator. Moreover, the spatial coherence in vertical direction amounts to about 15% of the beam diameter and about 12% in horizontal direction. The feasibility of measuring spatio-temporal coherence properties of XUV FEL radiation using interferometric techniques advances machine operation and experimental studies significantly.

  8. Low-spatial-coherence broadband fiber source for speckle free imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Redding, Brandon; Mokan, Vadim; Seifert, Martin; Choma, Michael A; Cao, Hui


    We designed and demonstrate a fiber-based amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) source with low spatial coherence, low temporal coherence, and high power per mode. ASE is produced by optically pumping a large gain core multimode fiber while minimizing optical feedback to avoid lasing. The fiber ASE source provides 270 mW of continuous wave emission, centered at {\\lambda}=1055 nm with a full-width half-maximum bandwidth of 74 nm. The emission is distributed among as many as ~70 spatial modes, enabling efficient speckle suppression when combined with spectral compounding. Finally, we demonstrate speckle-free full field imaging using the fiber ASE source. The fiber ASE source provides a unique combination of high power per mode with both low spatial and low temporal coherence, making it an ideal source for full-field imaging and ranging applications.

  9. Low-spatial-coherence high-radiance broadband fiber source for speckle free imaging. (United States)

    Redding, Brandon; Ahmadi, Peyman; Mokan, Vadim; Seifert, Martin; Choma, Michael A; Cao, Hui


    We design and demonstrate a fiber-based amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) source with low spatial coherence, low temporal coherence, and high power per mode. ASE is produced by optically pumping a large gain core multimode fiber while minimizing optical feedback to avoid lasing. The fiber ASE source provides 270 mW of continuous wave emission, centered at λ=1055  nm, with a full width at half-maximum bandwidth of 74 nm. The emission is distributed among as many as ∼70 spatial modes, enabling efficient speckle suppression when combined with spectral compounding. Finally, we demonstrate speckle-free full-field imaging using the fiber ASE source. The fiber ASE source provides a unique combination of high power per mode with both low spatial and low temporal coherence, making it an ideal source for full-field imaging and ranging applications.

  10. Spatial coherence of undulator radiation beyond the van Cittert-Zernike theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Takayama, Y; Miyahara, T; Kamada, S; Okamoto, W; Hatano, T; Tai, R; Kagoshima, Y


    A novel approximation for calculating the first-order spatial coherence of undulator radiation is presented. Since the far-field approximation is not used in the calculation, it is applicable even in the near-field region. Compared with numerical results based on the first principles, the approximation is proved to be quite reasonable. The spatial coherence measured at the Photon Factory, KEK is analyzed using the formula and the results are found to be consistent with the design value within experimental errors.

  11. Spatial properties of coaxial superposition of two coherent Gaussian beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Boubaha, B


    Full Text Available contrasting with the usual ones based on diffraction. The experimental setup does not involve the use of some two-wave interferometer but uses a spatial light modulator for the generation of the necessary interference term. This allows one to avoid the thermal...

  12. Spatial and temporal coherence properties of single free-electron laser pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Singer, A; Mancuso, A P; Gerasimova, N; Yefanov, O M; Gulden, J; Gorniak, T; Senkbeil, T; Sakdinawat, A; Liu, Y; Attwood, D; Dziarzhytski, S; Mai, D D; Treusch, R; Weckert, E; Salditt, T; Rosenhahn, A; Wurth, W; Vartanyants, I A


    The experimental characterization of the spatial and temporal coherence properties of the free-electron laser in Hamburg (FLASH) at a wavelength of 8.0 nm is presented. Double pinhole diffraction patterns of single femtosecond pulses focused to a size of about 10 microns by 10 microns were measured. A transverse coherence length of 6.2 microns in the horizontal and 8.7 microns in the vertical direction was determined from the most coherent pulses. Using a split and delay unit the coherence time of the pulses produced in the same operation conditions of FLASH was measured to be 1.75 fs. From our experiment we estimated the degeneracy parameter of the FLASH beam to be on the order of $10^{10}$ to $10^{11}$, which exceeds the values of this parameter at any other source in the same energy range by many orders of magnitude.

  13. Generation of Vector Partially Coherent Optical Sources Using Phase-Only Spatial Light Modulators (United States)

    Hyde, Milo W.; Bose-Pillai, Santasri; Voelz, David G.; Xiao, Xifeng


    A simple and flexible optical system for generating electromagnetic or vector partially coherent sources or beams is presented. The alternative design controls field amplitude (beam shape), coherence, and polarization using only spatial light modulators. This improvement makes the apparatus simpler to construct and significantly increases the flexibility of vector partially coherent source generators by allowing many different types of sources to be produced without changing the physical setup. The system's layout and theoretical foundations are thoroughly discussed. The utility and flexibility of the proposed system are demonstrated by producing a vector Schell-model and non-Schell-model source. The experimental results are compared to theoretical predictions to validate the design. Lastly, design aspects, which must be considered when building a vector partially coherent source generator for a specific application, are discussed.

  14. Effect of spatial coherence of light on the photoregulation processes in cells (United States)

    Budagovsky, A. V.; Solovykh, N. V.; Yankovskaya, M. B.; Maslova, M. V.; Budagovskaya, O. N.; Budagovsky, I. A.


    The effect of the statistical properties of light on the value of the photoinduced reaction of the biological objects, which differ in the morphological and physiological characteristics, the optical properties, and the size of cells, was studied. The fruit of apple trees, the pollen of cherries, the microcuttings of blackberries in vitro, and the spores and the mycelium of fungi were irradiated by quasimonochromatic light fluxes with identical energy parameters but different values of coherence length and radius of correlation. In all cases, the greatest stimulation effect occurred when the cells completely fit in the volume of the coherence of the field, while both temporal and spatial coherence have a significant and mathematically certain impact on the physiological activity of cells. It was concluded that not only the spectral, but also the statistical (coherent) properties of the acting light play an important role in the photoregulation process.

  15. An off-axis digital holographic microscope with quasimonochromatic partially spatially coherent illumination in transmission (United States)

    Grebenyuk, Anton A.; Tarakanchikova, Yana V.; Ryabukho, Vladimir P.


    We propose an off-axis imaging approach for digital holographic microscopy (DHM) with quasimonochromatic partially spatially coherent illumination in transmission, which is intended to provide the advantages of off-axis partially coherent DHM imaging with a comparatively simple optical scheme. This approach does not require a diffraction grating for creating the off-axis modality and also allows for convenient control of the spatial frequency of carrier interference fringes for hologram sampling optimization. Theoretical analysis of the off-axis imaging process in this microscope is performed. An off-axis DHM based on the proposed approach is built and quantitative phase imaging of test objects is performed with suppressed coherent noise.

  16. Coherent Derivation of Equations for Differential Spectroscopy and Spatially Resolved Spectroscopy : An Undergraduate Tutorial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindkvist, M.; Granasen, G.; Groenlund, C.


    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a spectroscopic method that is frequently used in health care and sports medicine to monitor oxygenation parameters in biological tissue. This tutorial provides a coherent derivation of equations for differential spectroscopy and spatially resolved spectroscopy,

  17. Coherent Derivation of Equations for Differential Spectroscopy and Spatially Resolved Spectroscopy : An Undergraduate Tutorial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindkvist, M.; Granasen, G.; Groenlund, C.


    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a spectroscopic method that is frequently used in health care and sports medicine to monitor oxygenation parameters in biological tissue. This tutorial provides a coherent derivation of equations for differential spectroscopy and spatially resolved spectroscopy,

  18. Spatial averaging-effects on turbulence measured by a continuous-wave coherent lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöholm, Mikael; Mikkelsen, Torben; Mann, Jakob;


    The influence of spatial volume averaging of a focused continuous-wave coherent Doppler lidar on observed wind turbulence in the atmospheric surface layer is described and analysed. For the first time, comparisons of lidar-measured turbulent spectra with spectra simultaneously obtained from a mast...

  19. Balloon observations of spatial coherence in the Global Circuit (United States)

    Holzworth, R. H.; Polar Patrol Balloon Team

    The first campaign of the Polar Patrol Balloon (PPB) experiment (1st-PPB) was carried out at Syowa Station in Antarctica during 1990-1991 and 1992-1993. Based on the results of the 1st-PPB experiment, the next campaign (2nd-PPB) was carried out in the austral summer of 2002-2003. This paper will present the global circuit results from the 2nd-PPB experiment. In that experiment, three balloons were launched for the purpose of upper atmosphere physics observation (3 balloons). Payloads of these 3 flights were identical with each other, and were launched as close together in time as allowed by weather conditions to constitute a cluster of balloons during their flights. Such a "Balloon Cluster" is suitable to observe temporal evolution and spatial distribution of phenomena in the ionospheric regions and boundaries that the balloons traversed during their circumpolar trajectory. More than 20 days of simultaneous fair weather 3-axis electric field and stratospheric conductivity data were obtained at geomagnetic latitudes ranging from sub-auroral to the polar cap. Balloon separation varied from ˜ 60 to ˜ 500 km. This paper will present the global circuit observations with emphasis on the times of apparent spatial variation in the vertical fair weather field.

  20. Coherent Code Tracking for Spatial Transmit Diversity DS-CDMA Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. W. Stewart


    Full Text Available Spatial transmit diversity schemes are now well integrated into third-generation cellular mobile communication system specifications. When DS-CDMA-based technology is deployed in typical macro- and microcell environments, multipath diversity and spatial diversity may be exploited simultaneously by a 2D RAKE receiver. The work presented in this paper focuses on taking advantage of spatial transmit diversity in synchronising the 2D RAKE structure. We investigate the use of coherent and noncoherent techniques for tracking the timing parameters of each multipath component. It is shown that both noncoherent and coherent techniques benefit from transmit diversity. Additionally the performance gap between these two techniques increases with the number of antennas.


    Bloy, Luke; Ingalhalikar, Madhura; Verma, Ragini


    This work presents an automated method for partitioning neuronal white matter (WM) into regions of interest with uniform WM architecture. These regions can then be used to replace atlas-derived regions for any subsequent statistical analysis. The fiber orientation distribution function is used as a model of WM architecture resulting in a voxel similarity function sensitive to both fiber orientations and configurations. The method utilizes the normalized cuts algorithm to partition WM voxels based on this similarity function along with a connected component labeling algorithm to ensure spatial compactness. We illustrate the algorithms ability to discern regions based on both orientation and complexity through its application to a simulated fiber crossing and an in-vivo dataset.

  2. Long spatial coherence times a few micro-meters from a room temperature surface

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Shuyu; Keil, Mark; Japha, Yonathan; Folman, Ron


    The search for quantum coherence based on isolated atoms integrated with a room temperature solid state device (so-called atomchip [1-3]) has been intensifying in the last decade, with advances being made towards applications such as clocks, quantum information processing, surface probing and acceleration and gravitational field sensors. Such a device will also enable (and to some extent has already enabled) novel experiments in fundamental physics (e.g., [4-7]). Here we report on the trapping and maintenance of spatial coherence of atoms (in a Bose-Einstein Condensate -- BEC) about 5$\\mu$m from a room temperature surface, reducing significantly the distance previously achieved between the spatially coherent atoms and their classical environment [8-12], and most importantly entering the regime where atomic circuits are enabled. In addition, we enter the interesting regime in which the distance to the surface is much smaller than the probed coherence length, a regime in which the spatial dephasing reaches its ...

  3. Lens coupled tunable Young's double pinhole system for hard X-ray spatial coherence characterization. (United States)

    Lyubomirskiy, Mikhail; Snigireva, Irina; Snigirev, Anatoly


    We have implemented a modified Young's double slit experiment using pinholes with tunable separation distance coupled with compound refractive lens for hard X-ray spatial coherence characterization. Varying distance between the apertures provides a high sensitivity to the determination of spatial coherence across a wide range of experimental parameters. The use of refractive lenses as a Fourier transformer ensures far field registration conditions and allows the realization of a very compact experimental setup in comparison with the classical Young technique and its derivatives. The tunable double aperture interferometer was experimentally tested at the ESRF ID06 beamline in the energy range from 8 to 25 keV. The spatial coherence and the source size were measured by evaluating the visibility of the interference fringes at various separation distances between the apertures and this value agrees very well with the data obtained by other techniques. The proposed scheme can be used for comprehensive characterization of the coherence properties of the source on low emittance synchrotrons in the hard X-ray region.

  4. Light-induced spatial gratings created by unipolar attosecond pulses coherently interacting with a resonant medium (United States)

    Arkhipov, R. M.; Arkhipov, M. V.; Pakhomov, A. V.; Babushkin, I.; Rosanov, N. N.


    Recently, the possibility of the creation, erasing and ultrafast control of polarization and population inversion gratings by sequences of few-cycle bipolar pulses interacting with a medium in a resonant and coherent way was predicted. In this case, the overlapping of pulses in the medium is not needed for the creation of gratings. In this paper, we study the possibility of the ultrafast creation and control of spatial periodic gratings in a resonant medium when subcycle unipolar pulses (that is ones containing the constant spectral component of an electric field) propagate in the coherent regime.

  5. Spatial interference of light: transverse coherence and Alford and Gold effect

    CERN Document Server

    Jefferson, Flórez; Omar, Calderón-Losada; Luis-José, Salazar-Serrano; Alejandra, Valencia


    We study the interference between two parallel-propagating Gaussian beams, originated from the same source, as their transverse separation is tuned. The interference pattern as a function of such separation lead us to determine the spatial coherence of the original beam, in a similar way that a Michelson-Morley interferometer can be employed to measure the temporal coherence of a transform limited pulse. Moreover, performing a Fourier transform of the two-beam transverse plane, we observe an intensity modulation in the transverse momentum variable. This observation resembles the Alford and Gold Effect reported in time and frequency variables so far.

  6. Exploring the Ecological Coherence between the Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Bacterioplankton in Boreal Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Niño-García


    Full Text Available One of the major contemporary challenges in microbial ecology has been to discriminate the reactive core from the random, unreactive components of bacterial communities. In previous work we used the spatial abundance distributions of bacterioplankton across boreal lakes of Québec to group taxa into four distinct categories that reflect either hydrology-mediated dispersal along the aquatic network or environmental selection mechanisms within lakes. Here, we test whether this categorization derived from the spatial distribution of taxa is maintained over time, by analyzing the temporal dynamics of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs within those spatially derived categories along an annual cycle in the oligotrophic lake Croche (Québec, Canada, and assessing the coherence in the patterns of abundance, occurrence, and environmental range of these OTUs over space and time. We report that the temporal dynamics of most taxa within a single lake are largely coherent with those derived from their spatial distribution over large spatial scales, suggesting that these properties must be intrinsic of particular taxa. We also identified a set of rare taxa cataloged as having a random occupancy based on their spatial distribution, but which showed clear seasonality and abundance peaks along the year, yet these comprised a very small fraction of the total rare OTUs. We conclude that the presence of most rare bacterioplankton taxa in boreal lakes is random, since both their temporal and spatial dynamics suggest links to passive downstream transport and persistence in freshwater networks, rather than environmental selection.

  7. Effect of spatial coherence on laser beam self-focusing from orbit to the ground in the atmosphere. (United States)

    Deng, Hanling; Ji, Xiaoling; Li, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Xianqu; Zhang, Yuqiu


    The effect of spatial coherence on laser beam self-focusing in the atmosphere to assist delivering powerful laser beams from orbit to the ground is studied. It is found that a fully coherent beam is more strongly compressed on the ground than a partially (spatial) coherent beam (PCB), even so, for a PCB the compressed spot size on the ground may be reduced below the diffraction limit due to self-focusing effect, and a PCB has higher threshold critical power than a fully coherent beam. Furthermore, an effective design rule for maximal compression without beam splitting of the transported PCB from orbit to the ground is presented.

  8. Enhancing effect of phase coherence factor for improvement of spatial resolution in ultrasonic imaging. (United States)

    Hasegawa, Hideyuki


    Spatial resolution is one of the important factors that determines ultrasound image quality. In the present study, methods using the phase variance of ultrasonic echoes received by individual transducer elements have been examined for improvement of spatial resolution. An imaging method, i.e., phase coherence imaging, which uses the phase coherence factor (PCF) obtained from the phase variance of received ultrasonic echoes, was recently proposed. Spatial resolution is improved by weighting ultrasonic RF signals obtained by delay-and-sum (DAS) beam forming using PCF. In the present study, alternative PCFs, i.e., exponential PCF, harmonic PCF, and Gaussian PCF, have been proposed and examined for further improvement of spatial resolution. Spatial resolutions realized by the proposed PCFs were evaluated by an experiment using a phantom. The full widths at half maxima of the lateral profiles of an echo from a string phantom were 2.61 mm (DAS only), 1.46 mm (conventional PCF), and 0.48-0.62 mm (proposed PCFs). The PCFs newly proposed in the present study showed better spatial resolutions than the conventional PCF. The proposed PCFs also realized better visualization of echoes from a diffuse scattering medium than the conventional PCF.

  9. Form and motion coherence processing in dyspraxia: evidence of a global spatial processing deficit. (United States)

    O'Brien, Justin; Spencer, Janine; Atkinson, Janette; Braddick, Oliver; Wattam-Bell, John


    Form and motion coherence was tested in children with dyspraxia and matched controls to assess their global spatial and global motion processing abilities. Thresholds for detecting form coherence patterns were significantly higher in the dyspraxic group than in the control group. No corresponding difference was found on the motion coherence task. We tested eight children with dyspraxic disorder (mean age 8.2 years) and 50 verbal-mental-age matched controls (mean age 8.4 years) to test for a neural basis to the perceptual abnormalities observed in dyspraxia. The results provide evidence that children with dyspraxia have a specific impairment in the global processing of spatial information. This finding contrasts with other developmental disorders such as Williams syndrome, autism and dyslexia where deficits have been found in global motion processing and not global form processing. We conclude that children with dyspraxia may have a specific occipitotemporal deficit and we argue that testing form and motion coherence thresholds might be a useful diagnostic tool for the often coexistent disorders of dyspraxia and dyslexia.

  10. Non-approximated numerical modeling of propagation of light in any state of spatial coherence. (United States)

    Castañeda, Román; Garcia-Sucerquia, Jorge


    Due to analytical and numerical difficulties, the propagation of optical fields in any state of spatial coherence is traditionally computed under severe approximations. The paraxial approach in the Fresnel-Fraunhofer domain is one of the most widely used. These approximations provide a rough knowledge of the actual light behavior as it propagates, which is not enough for supporting applications, such as light propagation under a high numerical aperture (NA). In this paper, a non-approximated model for the propagation of optical fields in any state of spatial coherence is presented. The method is applicable in very practical cases, as high-NA propagations, because of its simplicity of implementation. This approach allows for studying unaware behaviors of light as it propagates. The light behavior close to the diffracting transmittances can also be analyzed with the aid of the proposed tool.

  11. Controlled spatial separation of spins and coherent dynamics in spin-orbit-coupled nanostructures (United States)

    Lo, Shun-Tsung; Chen, Chin-Hung; Fan, Ju-Chun; Smith, L. W.; Creeth, G. L.; Chang, Che-Wei; Pepper, M.; Griffiths, J. P.; Farrer, I.; Beere, H. E.; Jones, G. A. C.; Ritchie, D. A.; Chen, Tse-Ming


    The spatial separation of electron spins followed by the control of their individual spin dynamics has recently emerged as an essential ingredient in many proposals for spin-based technologies because it would enable both of the two spin species to be simultaneously utilized, distinct from most of the current spintronic studies and technologies wherein only one spin species could be handled at a time. Here we demonstrate that the spatial spin splitting of a coherent beam of electrons can be achieved and controlled using the interplay between an external magnetic field and Rashba spin-orbit interaction in semiconductor nanostructures. The technique of transverse magnetic focusing is used to detect this spin separation. More notably, our ability to engineer the spin-orbit interactions enables us to simultaneously manipulate and probe the coherent spin dynamics of both spin species and hence their correlation, which could open a route towards spintronics and spin-based quantum information processing.

  12. Application of THz probe radiation in low-coherent tomographs based on spatially separated counterpropagating beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuritsyn, I I; Shkurinov, A P; Nazarov, M M [Department of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Mandrosov, V I [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Dolgoprudnyi, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Cherkasova, O P [Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)


    A principle of designing a high-resolution low-coherent THz tomograph, which makes it possible to investigate media with a high spatial resolution (in the range λ{sub 0} – 2λ{sub 0}, where λ{sub 0} is the average probe wavelength) is considered. The operation principle of this tomograph implies probing a medium by radiation with a coherence length of 8λ{sub 0} and recording a hologram of a focused image of a fixed layer of this medium using spatially separated counterpropagating object and reference beams. Tomograms of the medium studied are calculated using a temporal approach based on application of the time correlation function of probe radiation. (terahertz radiation)

  13. Spatial Coherence of Impact Pressures at a Vertical Breakwater in Multidirectional Seas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, W.; Löffler, A.; Kortenhaus, A.

    " (LSF) includes the possibility for researchers to work at selected European large-scale facilities. Within this activity the project "Spatial coherence of impact pressures at a vertical breakwater in multidirectional seas" was founded and could therefore be performed by the University of Bologna...... (DISTART Idraulica, Italy [UoB]), Aalborg University (Hydraulics and Coastal Engineering Laboratory, Denmark [AU]) and Technical University of Braunschweig (Leichtweiss-Institut, Germany [LWI])....

  14. Spatial Coherence Properties of Organic Molecules Coupled to Plasmonic Surface Lattice Resonances in the Weak and Strong Coupling Regimes

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, L; Rekola, H T; Martikainen, J -P; Moerland, R J; Törmä, P


    We study spatial coherence properties of a system composed of periodic silver nanoparticle arrays covered with a fluorescent organic molecule (DiD) film. The evolution of spatial coherence of this composite structure from the weak to the strong coupling regime is investigated by systematically varying the coupling strength between the localized DiD excitons and the collective, delocalized modes of the nanoparticle array known as surface lattice resonances. A gradual evolution of coherence from the weak to the strong coupling regime is observed, with the strong coupling features clearly visible in interference fringes. A high degree of spatial coherence is demonstrated in the strong coupling regime, even when the mode is very excitonlike (80%), in contrast to the purely localized nature of molecular excitons. We show that coherence appears in proportion to the weight of the plasmonic component of the mode throughout the weak-to-strong coupling crossover, providing evidence for the hybrid nature of the normal m...

  15. Polarization-dependent intensity noise in a microchip solid-state laser with spatially coherent polarization vector fields. (United States)

    Otsuka, Kenju


    Polarization-resolved intensity noise has been investigated experimentally in a laser-diode-pumped isotropic microchip solid-state laser possessing spatially coherent polarization vector fields, which are formed by the coherent superposition of a pair of orthogonally polarized Ince-Gauss (IG) modes through the transverse mode locking. A large amount of noise reduction as compared with the total output, which is a coherent state, was observed for the stronger IG mode component by controlling the pump-beam focus.

  16. Extending the Effective Ranging Depth of Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography by Spatial Frequency Domain Multiplexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Wu


    Full Text Available We present a spatial frequency domain multiplexing method for extending the imaging depth range of a spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT system without any expensive device. This method uses two galvo scanners with different pivot-offset distances in two independent reference arms for spatial frequency modulation and multiplexing. The spatial frequency contents corresponding to different depth regions of the sample can be shifted to different frequency bands. The spatial frequency domain multiplexing SDOCT system provides an approximately 1.9-fold increase in the effective ranging depth compared with that of a conventional full-range SDOCT system. The reconstructed images of phantom and biological tissue demonstrate the expected increase in ranging depth. The parameters choice criterion for this method is discussed.

  17. Wave optics simulation of spatially partially coherent beams: Applications to free space laser communications (United States)

    Xiao, Xifeng

    One of the main drawbacks that prevent the extensive application of free space laser communications is the atmospheric turbulence through which the beam must propagate. For the past four decades, much attention has been devoted to finding different methods to overcome this difficulty. A partially coherent beam (PCB) has been recognized as an effective approach to improve the performance of an atmospheric link. It has been examined carefully with most analyses considering the Gaussian Schell-model (GSM) beam. However, practical PCBs may not follow GSM theory and are better examined through some numerical simulation approach such as a wave optics simulation. Consequently, an approach for modeling the spatially PCB in wave optics simulation is presented here. The approach involves the application of a sequence of random phase screens to an initial beam field and the summation of the intensity results after propagation. The relationship between the screen parameters and the spatial coherence function for the beam is developed and the approach is verified by comparing results with analytic formulations for a Gaussian Schell-model (GSM) beam. A variety of simulation studies were performed for this dissertation. The propagation through turbulence of a coherent beam and a particular version of a PCB, a pseudo-partially coherent beam (PPCB), is analyzed. The beam is created with a sequence of several Gaussian random phase screens for each atmospheric realization. The average intensity profiles, the scintillation index and aperture averaging factor for a horizontal propagation scenario are examined. Comparisons between these results and their corresponding analytic results for the well-known GSM beam are also made. Cumulative probability density functions for the received irradiance are initially investigated. Following the general simulation investigations, a performance metric is proposed as a general measure for optimizing the transverse coherence length of a partial

  18. On the spatial coherence of rainfall over the Saloum delta (Senegal from seasonal to decadal time scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malick eWADE


    Full Text Available A paleoreconstruction of the length and intensity of the rainy season over western Africa has been recently proposed, using analysis of fossil mollusk shells from the Saloum delta region, in western Senegal. In order to evaluate the significance of local long-term reconstructions of precipitations from paleoclimate proxies, and to better characterize the spatial homogeneity of rainfall distribution in northern Africa, we analyze here the spatial representativeness of rainfall in this region, from seasonal to decadal timescales. The spatial coherence of winter episodic rainfall events is relatively low and limited to surrounding countries. On the other hand, the summer rainfall, associated with the West African Monsoon, shows extended spatial coherence. At seasonal timescales, local rainfall over the Saloum is significantly correlated with rainfall in the whole western half of the Sahel. At interannual and longer timescales, the spatial coherence extends as far as the Red Sea, covering the full Sahel region. This spatial coherence is mainly associated to the zonal extension of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone. Coherently, summer rainfalls appear to be driven by SST anomalies mainly in the Pacific, the Indian Ocean, the Mediterranean basin, and the North Pacific. A more detailed analysis shows that consistency of the spatial rainfall coherence is reduced during the onset season of the West African Monsoon.

  19. Propagation of Partially Coherent Twisted Anisotropic Gaussian-Schell Model Beams in the Spatial-Frequency Domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡阳健; 林强


    The generalized Collins formula for partially coherent beams through axially non-symmetrical optical systems in the spatial-frequency domain is derived by means of the tensor method. Based on this formula, the tensor ABCD law in the spatial-frequency domain for partially coherent twisted anisotropic Gaussian-Schell model (GSM) beams is derived, which governs the transformation of the twisted anisotropic GSM beams in the spatialfrequency domain. An example of an application is provided.

  20. Recording of incoherent-object hologram as complex spatial coherence function using Sagnac radial shearing interferometer and a Pockels cell. (United States)

    Naik, Dinesh N; Pedrini, Giancarlo; Osten, Wolfgang


    The ideas of incoherent holography were conceived after the invention of coherent-light holography and their concepts seems indirectly related to it. In this work, we adopt an approach based on statistical optics to describe the process of recording of an incoherent-object hologram as a complex spatial coherence function. A Sagnac radial shearing interferometer is used for the correlation of optical fields and a Pockels cell is used to phase shift the interfering fields with the objective to quantify and to retrieve the spatial coherence function.

  1. Experimental demonstration of spatially coherent beam combining using optical parametric amplification. (United States)

    Kurita, Takashi; Sueda, Keiichi; Tsubakimoto, Koji; Miyanaga, Noriaki


    We experimentally demonstrated coherent beam combining using optical parametric amplification with a nonlinear crystal pumped by random-phased multiple-beam array of the second harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser at 10-Hz repetition rate. In the proof-of-principle experiment, the phase jump between two pump beams was precisely controlled by a motorized actuator. For the demonstration of multiple-beam combining a random phase plate was used to create random-phased beamlets as a pump pulse. Far-field patterns of the pump, the signal, and the idler indicated that the spatially coherent signal beams were obtained on both cases. This approach allows scaling of the intensity of optical parametric chirped pulse amplification up to the exa-watt level while maintaining diffraction-limited beam quality.

  2. Ultra-fast line-field low coherence holographic elastography using spatial phase shifting (United States)

    Liu, Chih-Hao; Schill, Alexander; Raghunathan, Raksha; Wu, Chen; Singh, Manmohan; Han, Zhaolong; Nair, Achuth; Larin, Kirill V.


    Optical coherence elastography (OCE) is an emerging technique for quantifying tissue biomechanical properties. Generally, OCE relies on point-by-point scanning. However, long acquisition times make point-by-point scanning unfeasible for clinical use. Here we demonstrate a noncontact single shot line-field low coherence holography system utilizing an automatic Hilbert transform analysis based on a spatial phase shifting technique. Spatio-temporal maps of elastic wave propagation were acquired with only one air-pulse excitation and used to quantify wave velocity and sample mechanical properties at a line rate of 200 kHz. Results obtained on phantoms were correlated with data from mechanical testing. Finally, the stiffness of porcine cornea at different intraocular pressures was also quantified in situ.

  3. An Empirical Formula for the Measurement of Spatial Coherence of Trapped Bose Gases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xiao-Ji; CHEN Shuai; WANG Yi-Qiu; CHEN Xu-Zong; ZHANG Jian-Wei


    An empirical formula, which demonstrates the interference fringe visibility as a function of the slit separation and the temperature of thermal atoms, is obtained by analysing a recent experiment [B1och et al. Nature 403 (2000)166] that refers to the spatial correlation function of a trapped Bose gas below the critical temperature. We find that the decay rate of the coherence function for the non-condensed component is about two orders larger than that of the pure condensed component. The changes of the interference fringe visibility versus the falling time for different temperatures and slit separations are also discussed.

  4. Extreme ultraviolet radiation for coherent diffractive imaging with high spatial resolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Using different noble gases,argon,neon and helium,we are able to generate by high-harmonic generation(HHG) just a few harmonic orders in the spectral range 10-35 nm with a photon flux of~2.10 12 photons/(harmonic cm2 s) for argon and~10 10 photons/(harmonic cm2 s) for helium. The few-harmonic-order radiation is used for coherent diffractive imaging directly without any spectral filter. A spatial resolution of~100 nm is achieved using a~30 nm HHG source.

  5. Coherent Sources Direction Finding and Polarization Estimation with Various Compositions of Spatially Spread Polarized Antenna Arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Xin


    Various compositions of sparsely polarized antenna arrays are proposed in this paper to estimate the direction-of-arrivals (DOAs) and polarizations of multiple coherent sources. These polarized antenna arrays are composed of one of the following five sparsely-spread sub-array geometries: 1) four spatially-spread dipoles with three orthogonal orientations, 2) four spatially-spread loops with three orthogonal orientations, 3) three spatially-spread dipoles and three spatially-spread loops with orthogonal orientations, 4) three collocated dipole-loop pairs with orthogonal orientations, and 5) a collocated dipole-triad and a collocated loop-triad. All the dipoles/loops/pairs/triads in each sub-array can also be sparsely spaced with the inter-antenna spacing far larger than a half-wavelength. Only one dimensional spatial-smoothing is used in the proposed algorithm to derive the two-dimensional DOAs and polarizations of multiple cross-correlated signals. From the simulation results, the sparse array composed of dip...

  6. Persistent patterns of brain activity: an EEG coherence study of the positive effect of music on spatial-temporal reasoning. (United States)

    Sarnthein, J; vonStein, A; Rappelsberger, P; Petsche, H; Rauscher, F H; Shaw, G L


    Motivated by predictions from the structured trion model of the cortex, behavioral experiments have demonstrated a causal short-term enhancement of spatial-temporal reasoning in college students following exposure to a Mozart sonata, but not in control conditions. The coherence analysis of electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings is well suited to the neurophysiological investigation of this behavioral enhancement. Here we report the presence of right frontal and left temporo-parietal coherent activity induced by listening to Mozart which carried over into the spatial-temporal tasks in three of our seven subjects. This carry-over effect was compared to EEG coherence analysis of spatial-temporal-tasks after listening to text. We suggest that these EEG coherence results provide the beginnings of understanding of the neurophysiological basis of the causal enhancement of spatial-temporal reasoning by listening to specific music. The observed long-lasting coherent EEG pattern might be evidence for structured sequences in cortical dynamics which extend over minutes.

  7. Spatial coherence does not affect contrast discrimination for multiple Gabor stimuli. (United States)

    Meese, T S; Hess, R F; Williams, C B


    Gestalt grouping rules imply a process or mechanism for grouping together local features of an object into a perceptual whole. Several psychophysical experiments have been interpreted as evidence for constrained interactions between nearby spatial filter elements and this has led to the hypothesis that element linking might be mediated by these interactions. A common tacit assumption is that these interactions result in response modulation which disturbs a local contrast code. We addressed this possibility by performing contrast discrimination experiments using two-dimensional arrays of multiple Gabor patches arranged either (i) vertically, (ii) in circles (coherent conditions), or (iii) randomly (incoherent condition), as well as for a single Gabor patch. In each condition, contrast increments were applied to either the entire test stimulus (experiment 1) or a single patch whose position was cued (experiment 2). In experiment 3, the texture stimuli were reduced to a single contour by displaying only the central vertical strip. Performance was better for the multiple-patch conditions than for the single-patch condition, but whether the multiple-patch stimulus was coherent or not had no systematic effect on the results in any of the experiments. We conclude that constrained local interactions do not interfere with a local contrast code for our suprathreshold stimuli, suggesting that, in general, this is not the way in which element linking is achieved. The possibility that interactions are involved in enhancing the detectability of contour elements at threshold remains unchallenged by our experiments.

  8. A Bright Spatially-Coherent Compact X-ray Synchrotron Source

    CERN Document Server

    Kneip, S; Martins, J L; Martins, S F; Bellei, C; Chvykov, V; Dollar, F; Fonseca, R; Huntington, C; Kalintchenko, G; Maksimchuk, A; Mangles, S P D; Matsuoka, T; Nagel, S R; Palmer, C; Schreiber, J; Phuoc, K Ta; Thomas, A G R; Yanovsky, V; Silva, L O; Krushelnick, K; Najmudin, Z


    Each successive generation of x-ray machines has opened up new frontiers in science, such as the first radiographs and the determination of the structure of DNA. State-of-the-art x-ray sources can now produce coherent high brightness keV x-rays and promise a new revolution in imaging complex systems on nanometre and femtosecond scales. Despite the demand, only a few dedicated synchrotron facilities exist worldwide, partially due the size and cost of conventional (accelerator) technology. Here we demonstrate the use of a recently developed compact laser-plasma accelerator to produce a well-collimated, spatially-coherent, intrinsically ultrafast source of hard x-rays. This method reduces the size of the synchrotron source from the tens of metres to centimetre scale, accelerating and wiggling a high electron charge simultaneously. This leads to a narrow-energy spread electron beam and x-ray source that is >1000 times brighter than previously reported plasma wiggler and thus has the potential to facilitate a myri...

  9. Spatial structure and coherence properties of Brillouin scatter from CO2 laser-target interaction (United States)

    Mitchel, G. R.; Grek, B.; Johnston, T. W.; Pépin, H.; Church, P.; Martin, F.


    The spatial structure and coherence properties of 10.6-μm light scattered from CO2 laser-target interactions in oblique incidence show many unexpected features. It is found that the Brillouin backscatter is neither a phase conjugate nor a ray retrace of the incident beam. Rather, it shows a preference for scattering directions other than those exactly antiparallel to the incident beam, apparently related to the angular distribution of the scattering source and also of the plasma corona that serves as the Brillouin amplifying medium. As well, the backscatter phasefront is strongly perturbed with respect to the incident phasefront. This is an indication of turbulence in the corona and/or memory of the structure in the source that is then amplified. Small-scale structures seen in the reimaged backscatter are due to phase perturbation and cannot be simply interpreted as geometric images of a (filamented) source. The phasefront of light that is scattered obliquely from the plasma is much more coherent.

  10. A new spatial coherence model and analytical coefficients for multi-support response spectrum combination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Junjie; Chen Hu


    In this paper, a new spatial coherence model of seismic ground motions is proposed by a fitting procedure. The analytical expressions of modal combination (correlation) coefficients of structural response are developed for multi-support seismic excitations. The coefficients from both the numerical integration and analytical solutions are compared to verify the accuracy of the solutions. It is shown that the analytical expressions of numerical modal combination coefficients are of high accuracy. The results of random responses of an example bridge show that the analytical modal combination coefficients developed in this paper are accurate enough to meet the requirements needed in practice. In addition, the computational efficiency of the analytical solutions of the modal combination coefficients is demonstrated by the response computation of the example bridge. It is found that the time required for the structural response analysis by using the analytical modal combination coefficients is less than 1/20 of that using numerical integral methods.

  11. Temporal electromagnetic degree of coherence and Stokes-parameter modulations in Michelson's interferometer (United States)

    Leppänen, Lasse-Petteri; Friberg, Ari T.; Setälä, Tero


    We show that for a stationary, quasi-monochromatic, partially polarized beam the temporal electromagnetic degree of coherence is specified by the modulation contrasts of the Stokes parameters in Michelson's interferometer. We also demonstrate how the polarization modulations are transferred into intensity variations, thereby enabling the measurement of the time-domain degree of coherence and the associated coherence time. Our results are analogous to those found earlier for spatial electromagnetic coherence in Young's interferometer and form an extension to the customary scalar treatment of Michelson's interferometer. Our work also highlights the relationship between polarization and electromagnetic coherence and the time-domain analyses of these quantities in terms of the traditional (polarization) Stokes parameters and the recently introduced coherence (two-time) Stokes parameters.

  12. Loss of spatial coherence and limiting of focal plane intensity by small-scale laser-beam filamentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweinsberg, Aaron; Kuper, Jerry [The Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Boyd, Robert W. [The Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Department of Physics and School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canda K1N 6N5 (Canada)


    We describe a nonlinear optical mechanism that leads to a decrease of the degree of (transverse) spatial coherence of a laser beam as a function of propagation distance. This prediction is in direct contrast with those of the van Cittert-Zernike theorem, which applies to propagation through a linear, homogeneous material. The mechanism by which coherence is lost is the growth of small phase irregularities initially present on the laser wave front. We develop a detailed theoretical model of this effect and present experimental results that validate this model. The practical importance of this result is that by being able to controllably decrease the spatial coherence of a laser beam, one can limit the maximum intensity that is produced in its focal region. By limiting the intensity, one can prevent laser damage to bulk optical components or to sensitive photodetectors. This mechanism thus provides an alternative to current approaches of sensor protection based on optical power limiting.

  13. Spatial distributions of the energy and energy flux density of partially coherent electromagnetic beams in atmospheric turbulence. (United States)

    Li, Jianlong; Lü, Baida; Zhu, Shifu


    The formulas of the energy and energy flux density of partially coherent electromagnetic beams in atmospheric turbulence are derived by using Maxwell's equations. Expressions expressed by elements of electric cross spectral density matrixes of the magnetic and the mutual cross spectral density matrix are obtained for the partially coherent electromagnetic beams. Taken the partially coherent Cosh-Gaussian (ChG) electromagnetic beam as a typical example, the spatial distributions of the energy and energy flux density in atmospheric turbulence are numerically calculated. It is found that the turbulence shows a broadening effect on the spatial distributions of the energy and energy flux density. Some interesting results are obtained and explained with regard to their physical nature.

  14. Stimulated-emission pumping enabling sub-diffraction-limited spatial resolution in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleff, C.; Gross, P.; Fallnich, C.; Offerhaus, H.L.; Herek, J.L.; Kruse, K.; Beeker, W.P.; Lee, C.J.; Boller, K-J.


    We present a theoretical investigation of stimulated emission pumping to achieve sub-diffraction-limited spatial resolution in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy. A pair of control light fields is used to prepopulate the Raman state involved in the CARS process prior to the CARS

  15. Clutter noise reduction for phased array imaging using frequency-spatial polarity coherence (United States)

    Gongzhang, Rui; Gachagan, Anthony; Xiao, Bo


    A number of materials used in industry exhibit highly-scattering properties which can reduce the performance of conventional ultrasonic NDE approaches. Moving Bandwidth Polarity Thresholding (MBPT) is a robust frequency diversity based algorithm for scatter noise reduction in single A-scan waveforms, using sign coherence across a range of frequency bands to reduce grain noise and improve Signal to Noise Ratio. Importantly, for this approach to be extended to array applications, spatial variation of noise characteristics must also be considered. This paper presents a new spatial-frequency diversity based algorithm for array imaging, extended from MBPT. Each A-scan in the full matrix capture array dataset is partitioned into a serial of overlapped frequency bands and then undergoes polarity thresholding to generate sign-only coefficients indicating possible flaw locations within each selected band. These coefficients are synthesized to form a coefficient matrix using a delay and sum approach in each frequency band. Matrices produced across the frequency bands are then summed to generate a weighting matrix, which can be applied on any conventional image. A 5MHz linear array has been used to acquire data from both austenitic steel and high nickel alloy (HNA) samples to validate the proposed algorithm. Background noise is significantly suppressed for both samples after applying this approach. Importantly, three side drilled holes and the back wall of the HNA sample are clearly enhanced in the processed image, with a mean 133% Contrast to Noise Ratio improvement when compared to a conventional TFM image.

  16. Multiscale Tikhonov-Total Variation Image Restoration Using Spatially Varying Edge Coherence Exponent. (United States)

    Prasath, V B Surya; Vorotnikov, Dmitry; Pelapur, Rengarajan; Jose, Shani; Seetharaman, Guna; Palaniappan, Kannappan


    Edge preserving regularization using partial differential equation (PDE)-based methods although extensively studied and widely used for image restoration, still have limitations in adapting to local structures. We propose a spatially adaptive multiscale variable exponent-based anisotropic variational PDE method that overcomes current shortcomings, such as over smoothing and staircasing artifacts, while still retaining and enhancing edge structures across scale. Our innovative model automatically balances between Tikhonov and total variation (TV) regularization effects using scene content information by incorporating a spatially varying edge coherence exponent map constructed using the eigenvalues of the filtered structure tensor. The multiscale exponent model we develop leads to a novel restoration method that preserves edges better and provides selective denoising without generating artifacts for both additive and multiplicative noise models. Mathematical analysis of our proposed method in variable exponent space establishes the existence of a minimizer and its properties. The discretization method we use satisfies the maximum-minimum principle which guarantees that artificial edge regions are not created. Extensive experimental results using synthetic, and natural images indicate that the proposed multiscale Tikhonov-TV (MTTV) and dynamical MTTV methods perform better than many contemporary denoising algorithms in terms of several metrics, including signal-to-noise ratio improvement and structure preservation. Promising extensions to handle multiplicative noise models and multichannel imagery are also discussed.

  17. Determining the spatial coherence of excitons from the photoluminescence spectrum in charge-transfer J-aggregates (United States)

    Hestand, Nicholas J.; Spano, Frank C.


    The importance of spatial coherence in energy and charge transfer processes in biological systems and photovoltaic devices has been hotly debated over the past several years. While larger spatial coherences are thought to benefit transport, a clear correlation has yet to be established, partly because a simple and accurate measure of the coherence length has remained elusive. Previously, it was shown that the number of coherently connected chromophores, NCoh , can be determined directly from the ratio (SR) of the 0-0 and 0-1 vibronic line strengths in the photoluminescence (PL) spectrum. The relation NCoh = λ02SR, where λ02 is the associated monomeric Huang-Rhys parameter, was derived in the Frenkel exciton limit. Here, it is shown that SR remains a highly accurate measure of coherence for systems characterized by significant charge transfer interactions (e.g. conjugated π-stacked systems). The only requirement is that the exciton band curvature must be positive, as in a J-aggregate.

  18. Theory of the directionality and spatial coherence of wind-driven ambient noise in a deep ocean with attenuation. (United States)

    Buckingham, Michael J


    Acoustic attenuation in seawater usually has little effect on the spatial statistics of ambient noise in the ocean. This expectation does not hold, however, at higher frequencies, above 10 kHz, and extreme depths, in excess of 6 km, an operating regime that is within the capabilities of the most recently developed acoustic instrument platforms. To quantify the effects of attenuation, theoretical models for the vertical directionality and the spatial coherence of wind-generated ambient noise are developed in this paper, based on a uniform distribution of surface sources above a semi-infinite, homogeneous ocean. Since there are no bottom reflections, all the noise is downward traveling; and the angular width of the directional density function becomes progressively narrower with increasing frequency because sound from the more distant sources experiences greater attenuation than acoustic arrivals from overhead. This narrowing of the noise lobe modifies the spatial coherence, shifting the zeros in the horizontal (vertical) coherence function to higher (lower) frequencies. In addition, the attenuation modifies the amplitudes of the higher-order oscillations in the horizontal and vertical coherence functions, tending to suppress the former and enhance the latter. These effects are large enough to be detectable with the latest deep-diving sensor technology.

  19. Optical coherence tomography for blood glucose monitoring in vitro through spatial and temporal approaches (United States)

    De Pretto, Lucas Ramos; Yoshimura, Tania Mateus; Ribeiro, Martha Simões; Zanardi de Freitas, Anderson


    As diabetes causes millions of deaths worldwide every year, new methods for blood glucose monitoring are in demand. Noninvasive approaches may increase patient adherence to treatment while reducing costs, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) may be a feasible alternative to current invasive diagnostics. This study presents two methods for blood sugar monitoring with OCT in vitro. The first, based on spatial statistics, exploits changes in the light total attenuation coefficient caused by different concentrations of glucose in the sample using a 930-nm commercial OCT system. The second, based on temporal analysis, calculates differences in the decorrelation time of the speckle pattern in the OCT signal due to blood viscosity variations with the addition of glucose with data acquired by a custom built Swept Source 1325-nm OCT system. Samples consisted of heparinized mouse blood, phosphate buffer saline, and glucose. Additionally, further samples were prepared by diluting mouse blood with isotonic saline solution to verify the effect of higher multiple scattering components on the ability of the methods to differentiate glucose levels. Our results suggest a direct relationship between glucose concentration and both decorrelation rate and attenuation coefficient, with our systems being able to detect changes of 65 mg/dL in glucose concentration.

  20. Spatial evolution of short pulses under conditions of coherent population trapping

    CERN Document Server

    Arkhipkin, V G


    We study the features of spatial and temporal evolution of two powerful short different-wavelength laser pulses interacting with optical dense three-level Lambda-type medium under condition of coherent population trapping for the general case of unequal transition oscillator strengths. The pulses are simultaneously sent into an atom. The durations of probe and coupling pulses $T_{1,2}$ ($T_2>T_1$) are supposed to be shorter than all relaxation times in the medium. We present analytical and numerical solutions of the self-consistent set of coupled Schr\\"{o}dinger equations and reduced wave equations in adiabatic limit with taking into account the first non-adiabatic correction. The adiabaticity criterion with account of pulse propagation is studied. We find that propagation dynamics depends on the relationship between the transition oscillator strengths. It is shown that at the initial stage of propagation the envelopes of the pulses slightly change along the length of the medium. This distance can be large co...

  1. Spatial-temporal analysis of coherent offshore wind field structures measured by scanning Doppler-lidar (United States)

    Valldecabres, L.; Friedrichs, W.; von Bremen, L.; Kühn, M.


    An analysis of the spatial and temporal power fluctuations of a simplified wind farm model is conducted on four offshore wind fields data sets, two from lidar measurements and two from LES under unstable and neutral atmospheric conditions. The integral length scales of the horizontal wind speed computed in the streamwise and the cross-stream direction revealed the elongation of the structures in the direction of the mean flow. To analyse the effect of the structures on the power output of a wind turbine, the aggregated equivalent power of two wind turbines with different turbine spacing in the streamwise and cross-stream direction is analysed at different time scales under 10 minutes. The fact of considering the summation of the power of two wind turbines smooths out the fluctuations of the power output of a single wind turbine. This effect, which is stronger with increasing spacing between turbines, can be seen in the aggregation of the power of two wind turbines in the streamwise direction. Due to the anti-correlation of the coherent structures in the cross-stream direction, this smoothing effect is stronger when the aggregated power is computed with two wind turbines aligned orthogonally to the mean flow direction.

  2. Influence of spatial and temporal coherences on atomic resolution high angle annular dark field imaging. (United States)

    Beyer, Andreas; Belz, Jürgen; Knaub, Nikolai; Jandieri, Kakhaber; Volz, Kerstin


    Aberration-corrected (scanning) transmission electron microscopy ((S)TEM) has become a widely used technique when information on the chemical composition is sought on an atomic scale. To extract the desired information, complementary simulations of the scattering process are inevitable. Often the partial spatial and temporal coherences are neglected in the simulations, although they can have a huge influence on the high resolution images. With the example of binary gallium phosphide (GaP) we elucidate the influence of the source size and shape as well as the chromatic aberration on the high angle annular dark field (HAADF) intensity. We achieve a very good quantitative agreement between the frozen phonon simulation and experiment for different sample thicknesses when a Lorentzian source distribution is assumed and the effect of the chromatic aberration is considered. Additionally the influence of amorphous layers introduced by the preparation of the TEM samples is discussed. Taking into account these parameters, the intensity in the whole unit cell of GaP, i.e. at the positions of the different atomic columns and in the region between them, is described correctly. With the knowledge of the decisive parameters, the determination of the chemical composition of more complex, multinary materials becomes feasible.

  3. Distributed fiber Brillouin strain and temperature sensor with centimeter spatial resolution by coherent probe-pump technique (United States)

    Zou, Lufan; Bao, Xiaoyi; Wan, Yidun; Ravet, Fabien; Chen, Liang


    We present a sensing principle of the distributed fiber Brillouin strain and temperature sensor by coherent probe-pump technique that offers a new method to achieve centimeter spatial resolution with high frequency resolution. A combination of continuous wave (cw) and pulse source as the probe (Stokes) beam and cw laser as the pump beam have resulted in stronger Brillouin interaction of Stokes and pump inside the pulse-length in the form of cw-pump and pulse-pump interactions. We find that the coherent portion inside the pulse-length of these two interactions due to the same phase has a very high Brillouin amplification. The Brillouin profile originating from the coherent interaction of pulse-pump with cw-pump results in high temperature and strain accuracy with centimeter resolution, which has been verified by successfully detecting 1.5 cm out-layer crack on an optical ground wire (OPGW) cable.

  4. Monochromatic gamma emitter for low energy quanta

    CERN Document Server

    Tomova, Z R; Mironova, S A


    The possibility of creating of a monochromatic gamma emitter of low energy quanta is analyzed. The idea is based on Daning's scheme. Except for purely scientific problems the monochromator is actual for therapy of wide range of diseases.

  5. Coherent and incoherent features, seasonal behaviors and spatial variations of internal tides in the northern South China Sea (United States)

    Cao, Anzhou; Guo, Zheng; Lv, Xianqing; Song, Jinbao; Zhang, Jicai


    Based on observations of the currents at six moorings from March 2010 to April 2011, the coherent and incoherent features, seasonal behaviors and spatial variations of internal tides (ITs) in the northern South China Sea (SCS) are investigated. Measurements of the currents indicate that both diurnal and semidiurnal ITs contain stronger coherent signals than incoherent ones at all moorings. In the measuring range, coherent internal tidal current variances explain 70% of the semidiurnal motion at most moorings. However, the proportion of coherent signals in the diurnal motion shows a non-monotonically decreasing trend with the westward propagation of diurnal ITs. Coherent signals of diurnal and semidiurnal ITs exhibit different seasonal variability at the six moorings: Diurnal ITs are stronger in winter (December to February) and summer (June to August) than in spring (March to May) and autumn (September to November), whereas stronger semidiurnal ITs always appear in spring and autumn. Combining these results with the temporal variation of barotropic tidal currents at the Luzon Strait (LS), it can be concluded that the seasonal variability of ITs at the six moorings are determined by the barotropic tides at the LS. In addition, this study shows that there are asymmetric features of ITs to the east and west of the LS.

  6. Fiber-optical sensor with miniaturized probe head and nanometer accuracy based on spatially modulated low-coherence interferogram analysis. (United States)

    Depiereux, Frank; Lehmann, Peter; Pfeifer, Tilo; Schmitt, Robert


    Fiber-optical sensors have some crucial advantages compared with rigid optical systems. They allow miniaturization and flexibility of system setups. Nevertheless, optical principles such as low-coherence interferometry can be realized by use of fiber optics. We developed and realized an approach for a fiber-optical sensor, which is based on the analysis of spatially modulated low-coherence interferograms. The system presented consists of three units, a miniaturized sensing probe, a broadband fiber-coupled light source, and an adapted Michelson interferometer, which is used as an optical receiver. Furthermore, the signal processing procedure, which was developed for the interferogram analysis in order to achieve nanometer measurement accuracy, is discussed. A system prototype has been validated thoroughly in different experiments. The results approve the accuracy of the sensor.

  7. Parameter Diversity Induced Multiple Spatial Coherence Resonances and Spiral Waves in Neuronal Network with and Without Noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉叶; 贾冰; 古华光; 安书成


    Diversity in the neurons and noise are inevitable in the real neuronal network.In this paper,parameter diversity induced spiral waves and multiple spatial coherence resonances in a two-dimensional neuronal network without or with noise are simulated.The relationship between the multiple resonances and the multiple transitions between patterns of spiral waves are identified.The coherence degrees induced by the diversity are suppressed when noise is introduced and noise density is increased.The results suggest that natural nervous system might profit from both parameter diversity and noise,provided a possible approach to control formation and transition of spiral wave by the cooperation between the diversity and noise.

  8. Very long spatial and temporal spontaneous coherence of 2D polariton condensates across the parametric threshold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spano, R.; Cuadra, J.; Lingg, C.;


    , and a relative large beam area (∅~50 μm) to obtain a true 2D condensate. Its coherence properties are measured with a Michelson interferometer. A finite correlation length is measured at an energy δE=-0.19 meV from the parametric threshold, as shown in Fig. 1(A). Once the threshold is reached, by changing...

  9. [Motivation effect on frequency-spatial characteristics of figural and verbal creativity: coherence changes in biopotentials]. (United States)

    Razumnikova, O M; Vol'f, N V; Tarasova, I V


    Effect of extrinsic motivation stimulating the most original problem solving during verbal and figural creativity testing was studied using the EEG coherence in the range of 4-30 Hz. The right-handed university students (27 males and 26 females) participated in the experiments. The instruction "to create the most original solution" (INS2) as compared to the instruction "to create any solution" (INS1) produced an increase in baseline coherence and task-related desynchronization in the alphal2 bands. This effect was more pronounced in the anterior cortex. Changes in the beta2 rhythm were found mostly in the posterior cortex and were presented by a decreased task-induced beta2 synchronization after INS2 vs. INS1. Instruction-related coherence changes in the alphal band did not depend on factors of gender and task type, whereas the effects of these factors on the alpha2 and beta2 bands were significant. Gender differences in instruction-related coherence changes were found in the alpha2 band during verbal creativity testing, whereas figural creativity was associated with gender-dependent instruction-related changes in the beta2 band. These differences were more pronounced in the INS1 condition. The results demonstrate that extrinsic motivation of creative thinking promotes the frequency-specific reorganization of hemispheric interactions. High-frequency widespread cortical oscillations are of greater significance in men, whereas low-frequency rhythms and, mainly, functioning of the frontal cortex greatly contribute to creative activity in women.

  10. Spatial transport of atomic coherence in electromagnetically induced absorption with a paraffin-coated Rb vapor cell. (United States)

    Lee, Yoon-Seok; Moon, Han Seb


    We report the spatial transport of spontaneously transferred atomic coherence (STAC) in electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA), which resulted from moving atoms with the STAC of the 5S(1/2) (F = 2)-5P(3/2) (F' = 3) transition of (87)Rb in a paraffin-coated vapor cell. In our experiment, two channels were spatially separate; the writing channel (WC) generated STAC in the EIA configuration, and the reading channel (RC) retrieved the optical field from the spatially transported STAC. Transported between the spatially separated positions, the fast light pulse of EIA in the WC and the delayed light pulse in the RC were observed. When the laser direction of the RC was counter-propagated in the direction of the WC, we observed direction reversal of the transported light pulse in the EIA medium. Furthermore, the delay time, the magnitude, and the width of the spatially transported light pulse were investigated with respect to the distance between the two channels.

  11. Mediatization, Spatial Coherence and Social Sustainability The Role of Digital Media Networks in a Swedish Countryside Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Jansson


    Full Text Available What does the implementation of new communication networks mean for the spa-tial coherence and social sustainability of rural communities? This paper takes its key from Wittel’s discussion of network sociality, understood as the opposite of Gemeinschaft. Wittel’s argument may inform our understanding of how commu-nicative patterns in rural communities are partly re-embedded through ongoing media transitions. But it must also be problematized. Relating Wittel’s discussion to Halfacree’s model of spatial coherence and Urry’s notion of network capital, as well as to findings from an ethnographic study in a Swedish countryside commu-nity, a more complex view is presented. It is argued that global communication networks under rural conditions contribute to the integration and sustainability of the community, as much as to processes of expansion and differentiation. The results show that network sociality and community constitute interdependent con-cepts. Through their capacity of linking people to external realms of interest, while simultaneously reinforcing their sense of belonging in the local community, online media promote ontological security at the individual level, thus operating as a social stabilizer.

  12. POD of vorticity fields: A method for spatial characterization of coherent structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurka, Roi [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London (Canada)]. E-mail:; Liberzon, Alexander [Institute of Environmental Engineering, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)]. E-mail:; Hetsroni, Gad [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel)]. E-mail:


    We present a method to identify large scale coherent structures, in turbulent flows, and characterize them. The method is based on the linear combination of the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) modes of vorticity. Spanwise vorticity is derived from the two-dimensional and two-component velocity fields measured by means of particle image velocimetry (PIV) in the streamwise-wall normal plane of a fully developed turbulent boundary layer in a flume. The identification method makes use of the whole data set simultaneously, through the two-point correlation tensor, providing a statistical description of the dominant coherent motions in a turbulent boundary layer. The identified pattern resembles an elongated, quasi-streamwise, vortical structure with streamwise length equal to the water height in the flume and inclined upwards in the streamwise-wall normal plane at angle of approximately 8{sup o}.

  13. Performance analysis of fiber-based free-space optical communications with coherent detection spatial diversity. (United States)

    Li, Kangning; Ma, Jing; Tan, Liying; Yu, Siyuan; Zhai, Chao


    The performances of fiber-based free-space optical (FSO) communications over gamma-gamma distributed turbulence are studied for multiple aperture receiver systems. The equal gain combining (EGC) technique is considered as a practical scheme to mitigate the atmospheric turbulence. Bit error rate (BER) performances for binary-phase-shift-keying-modulated coherent detection fiber-based free-space optical communications are derived and analyzed for EGC diversity receptions through an approximation method. To show the net diversity gain of a multiple aperture receiver system, BER performances of EGC are compared with a single monolithic aperture receiver system with the same total aperture area (same average total incident optical power on the aperture surface) for fiber-based free-space optical communications. The analytical results are verified by Monte Carlo simulations. System performances are also compared for EGC diversity coherent FSO communications with or without considering fiber-coupling efficiencies.

  14. High Average Power Diode Pumped Solid State Lasers: Power Scaling With High Spectral and Spatial Coherence (United States)


    sensing and coherent LIDAR systems, will require kW class lasers in the near future. The zigzag slab architecture [2], with its nearly one-dimensional... photodetectors ; PM1, PM2, PM3: thermal power meters; HBS1: 1064 nm holographic beam sampler; HBS2: 532-nm holographic beam sampler; LD: laser diode; CCD: charge...recombining pairs is measured by a photodetector . This measurement shows higher PL intensity as the material is improved by reducing defect density. We tried

  15. Coherence matrix of plasmonic beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novitsky, Andrey; Lavrinenko, Andrei


    We consider monochromatic electromagnetic beams of surface plasmon-polaritons created at interfaces between dielectric media and metals. We theoretically study non-coherent superpositions of elementary surface waves and discuss their spectral degree of polarization, Stokes parameters, and the for...... of the spectral coherence matrix. We compare the polarization properties of the surface plasmonspolaritons as three-dimensional and two-dimensional fields concluding that the latter is superior....

  16. Isolated attosecond pulses generation from coherent superposition state of helium ion in static electric fields and spatial nonhomogeneous fields (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Zhang, Zhengzhong; Wu, Yangjiang; Jiang, Shicheng; Yu, Chao


    We present a systematic study of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from helium ion with the initial state prepared as a coherent superposition of electronic ground state and an excited state. As a result, the conversion efficiency of the harmonic spectrum is significantly enhanced. When we add a static electric field in fundamental field, the supercontinuum region of the harmonic spectrum is distinctly extended and an isolated 100 as pulse can be generated. Moreover, we use a spatial nonhomogeneous field to increase the cutoff energy in high-order harmonic generation spectrum, which can be extended to about 700 eV, and an isolated 50 as pulse can be obtained directly by the superposition of the supercontinuum harmonics.

  17. Coherence vortices of partially coherent beams in the far field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Pu-Sheng; Lü Bai-da


    Based on the propagation law of cross-spectral density function, studied in this paper are the coherence vortices of partially coherent, quasi-monochromatic singular beams with Gaussian envelope and Schell-model correlator in the far field, where our main attention is paid to the evolution of far-field coherence vortices into intensity vortices of fully coherent beams. The results show that, although there are usually no zeros of intensity in partially coherent beams with Gaussian envelope and Schell-model correlator, zeros of spectral degree of coherence exist. The coherence vortices of spectral degree of coherence depend on the relative coherence length, mode index and positions of pairs of points.If a point and mode index are kept fixed, the position of coherence vortices changes with the increase of the relative coherence length. For the low coherent case there is a circular phase dislocation. In the coherent limit coherence vortices become intensity vortices of fully coherent Laguerre-Gaussian beams.

  18. Spatial observations by the CUTLASS coherent scatter radar of ionospheric modification by high power radio waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Bond

    Full Text Available Results are presented from an experimental campaign in April 1996, in which the new CUTLASS (Co-operative UK twin-located Auroral Sounding System coherent scatter radar was employed to observe artificial field aligned irregularities (FAI generated by the EISCAT (European Incoherent SCATter heating facility at Tromsø, Norway. The distribution of backscatter intensity from within the heated region has been investigated both in azimuth and range with the Finland component of CUTLASS, and the first observations of artificial irregularities by the Iceland radar are also presented. The heated region has been measured to extend over a horizontal distance of 170±50km, which by comparison with a model of the heater beam pattern corresponds to a threshold electric field for FAI of between 0.1 and 0.01V/m. Differences between field-aligned and vertical propagation heating are also presented.

  19. Single shot spatial and temporal coherence properties of the SLAC Linac Coherent Light Source in the hard x-ray regime. (United States)

    Gutt, C; Wochner, P; Fischer, B; Conrad, H; Castro-Colin, M; Lee, S; Lehmkühler, F; Steinke, I; Sprung, M; Roseker, W; Zhu, D; Lemke, H; Bogle, S; Fuoss, P H; Stephenson, G B; Cammarata, M; Fritz, D M; Robert, A; Grübel, G


    We measured the transverse and longitudinal coherence properties of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at SLAC in the hard x-ray regime at 9 keV photon energy on a single shot basis. Speckle patterns recorded in the forward direction from colloidal nanoparticles yielded the transverse coherence properties of the focused LCLS beam. Speckle patterns from a gold nanopowder recorded with atomic resolution allowed us to measure the shot-to-shot variations of the spectral properties of the x-ray beam. The focused beam is in the transverse direction fully coherent with a mode number close to 1. The average number of longitudinal modes behind the Si(111) monochromator is about 14.5 and the average coherence time τ(c)=(2.0±1.0) fc. The data suggest a mean x-ray pulse duration of (29±14)  fs behind the monochromator for (100±14) fc electron pulses.

  20. Spatial variability in cortex-muscle coherence investigated with magnetoencephalography and high-density surface electromyography. (United States)

    Piitulainen, Harri; Botter, Alberto; Bourguignon, Mathieu; Jousmäki, Veikko; Hari, Riitta


    Cortex-muscle coherence (CMC) reflects coupling between magnetoencephalography (MEG) and surface electromyography (sEMG), being strongest during isometric contraction but absent, for unknown reasons, in some individuals. We used a novel nonmagnetic high-density sEMG (HD-sEMG) electrode grid (36 mm × 12 mm; 60 electrodes separated by 3 mm) to study effects of sEMG recording site, electrode derivation, and rectification on the strength of CMC. Monopolar sEMG from right thenar and 306-channel whole-scalp MEG were recorded from 14 subjects during 4-min isometric thumb abduction. CMC was computed for 60 monopolar, 55 bipolar, and 32 Laplacian HD-sEMG derivations, and two derivations were computed to mimic "macroscopic" monopolar and bipolar sEMG (electrode diameter 9 mm; interelectrode distance 21 mm). With unrectified sEMG, 12 subjects showed statistically significant CMC in 91-95% of the HD-sEMG channels, with maximum coherence at ∼25 Hz. CMC was about a fifth stronger for monopolar than bipolar and Laplacian derivations. Monopolar derivations resulted in most uniform CMC distributions across the thenar and in tightest cortical source clusters in the left rolandic hand area. CMC was 19-27% stronger for HD-sEMG than for "macroscopic" monopolar or bipolar derivations. EMG rectification reduced the CMC peak by a quarter, resulted in a more uniformly distributed CMC across the thenar, and provided more tightly clustered cortical sources than unrectifed sEMGs. Moreover, it revealed CMC at ∼12 Hz. We conclude that HD-sEMG, especially with monopolar derivation, can facilitate detection of CMC and that individual muscle anatomy cannot explain the high interindividual CMC variability.

  1. Time-resolved imaging with OKE-based time-gate: enhancement in spatial resolution using low-coherence ultra-short illumination

    CERN Document Server

    Purwar, Harsh; Rozé, Claude; Blaisot, Jean-Bernard


    We propose a collinear optical Kerr effect (OKE) based time-gate configuration with low coherence illumination source, derived from the supercontinuum (SC) generated by focusing the femtosecond laser pulses inside water. At first the spectral broadening in SC generation and corresponding changes in its coherence properties are studied and then a narrow band of wavelengths is extracted to use as the probe beam in the OKE-based time-gate configuration. The gate timings and spatial resolution of the time-gated images are also investigated. The low coherence of the probe ensures that the artifacts due to speckles from the laser are reduced to a minimum. To illustrate this a comparison of the time-resolved images of the fuel sprays obtained with this configuration has been made with the images obtained with the collinear, dual color configuration of the optical gate with coherent illumination.

  2. Balloon Study of the Global Circuit: Spatial Coherence and Correlation with Lightning Observations (United States)

    Holzworth, R. H.; Bering, E. A.; Kokorowski, M.; Reddell, B.; Kadokura, A.; Yamagishi, H.; Sato, N.; Ejiri, M.; Hirosawa, H.; Yamagami, T.; Torii, S.; Tohyama, F.; Nakagawa, M.; Okada, T.


    The second campaign of the Polar Patrol Balloon (PPB) experiment (2nd-PPB) was carried out at Syowa Station in Antarctica during 2002-2003. This paper will present the global circuit results from the 2nd-PPB experiment. In that experiment, three balloons were launched for the purpose of upper atmosphere physics observation (3 balloons). Payloads of these 3 flights were identical with each other, and were launched as close together in time as allowed by weather conditions to constitute a cluster of balloons during their flights. Such a ``Balloon Cluster'' is suitable to observe temporal evolution and spatial distribution of phenomena in the ionospheric regions and boundaries that the balloons traversed during their circumpolar trajectory. More than 20 days of simultaneous fair weather 3-axis electric field and stratospheric conductivity data were obtained at geomagnetic latitudes ranging from sub-auroral to the polar cap. Balloon separation varied from ˜60 to ˜500 km. This paper will present the global circuit observations with emphasis on the times of apparent spatial variation in the vertical fair weather field. This paper will also present stratospheric conductivity observations with emphasis on the temporal and spatial variations that were observed. Finally, the inferred current density will be compared with data from the WWLL (TOGA) lightning monitor experiment.

  3. Spatial organization of EEG coherence during listening to consonant and dissonant chords. (United States)

    Passynkova, Natalia; Neubauer, Heinrich; Scheich, Henning


    Theories of harmony state that the contribution of both sensory and cognitive components is important for musical consonance perception. The aims of the present study were to analyze (a) functional intra- and inter-hemispheric connectivity associated with listening to consonant and dissonant chords using EEG coherence method; (b) relationships between affective responsiveness, sensory aspects of perceived consonance and associated brain connectivity. We identified two lines of inter-hemispheric connectivity in the theta band; one localized anterior being sensitive to consonance and one localized posterior sensitive to dissonance. Stronger right intra-hemispheric connectivity for consonance than dissonance in the theta band was associated with higher pleasantness ratings. The relationship between sensory aspects of perceived consonance and left intra-hemispheric connectivity found in theta-2 was interpreted as processing of vertical harmony without emotional involvement. The stronger connectivity along the axis "left anterior-right posterior" for dissonance than consonance in the alpha-1 band is discussed as a correlate of novelty processing. By introducing a "auditory object dissociation" hypothesis we suggest to extend the present concept of harmony perception. We believe that "auditory object dissociation" is a component of "sensory dissonance."

  4. First Sub-arcsecond Collimation of Monochromatic Neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagh, Apoorva G; Abbas, Sohrab; Treimer, Wolfgang, E-mail:


    We have achieved the tightest collimation to date of a monochromatic neutron beam by diffracting neutrons from a Bragg prism, viz. a single crystal prism operating in the vicinity of Bragg incidence. An optimised silicon {l_brace}111{r_brace} Bragg prism has collimated 5.26A neutrons down to 0.58 arcsecond. In conjunction with a similarly optimised Bragg prism analyser of opposite asymmetry, this ultra-parallel beam yielded a 0.62 arcsecond wide rocking curve. This beam has produced the first SUSANS spectrum in Q {approx} 10{sup -6} A{sup -1} range with a hydroxyapatite casein protein sample and demonstrated the instrument capability of characterising agglomerates upto 150 {mu}m in size. The super-collimation has also enabled recording of the first neutron diffraction pattern from a macroscopic grating of 200 {mu}m period. An analysis of this pattern yielded the beam transverse coherence length of 175 {mu}m (FWHM), the greatest achieved to date for A wavelength neutrons.

  5. Influence of partial coherence on analyzer-based imaging with asymmetric Bragg reflection. (United States)

    Modregger, Peter; Lübbert, Daniel; Schäfer, Peter; Richter, Jane; Köhler, Rolf; Baumbach, Tilo


    Image magnification via twofold asymmetric Bragg reflection (a setup called the "Bragg Magnifier") is a recently established technique allowing to achieve both sub-micrometer spatial resolution and phase contrast in X-ray imaging. The present article extends a previously developed theoretical formalism to account for partially coherent illumination. At a typical synchrotron setup polychromatic illumination is identified as the main influence of partial coherence and the implications on imaging characteristics are analyzed by numerical simulations. We show that contrast decreases by about 50% when compared to the monochromatic case, while sub-micrometer spatial resolution is preserved. The theoretical formalism is experimentally verified by correctly describing the dispersive interaction of the two orthogonal magnifier crystals, an effect that has to be taken into account for precise data evaluation.

  6. The use of wavenumber normalization in computing spatially averaged coherencies (KRSPAC) of microtremor data from asymmetric arrays (United States)

    Asten, M.W.; Stephenson, William J.; Hartzell, Stephen


    The SPAC method of processing microtremor noise observations for estimation of Vs profiles has a limitation that the array has circular or triangular symmetry in order to allow spatial (azimuthal) averaging of inter-station coherencies over a constant station separation. Common processing methods allow for station separations to vary by typically ±10% in the azimuthal averaging before degradation of the SPAC spectrum is excessive. A limitation on use of high-wavenumbers in inversions of SPAC spectra to Vs profiles has been the requirement for exact array symmetry to avoid loss of information in the azimuthal averaging step. In this paper we develop a new wavenumber-normalised SPAC method (KRSPAC) where instead of performing averaging of sets of coherency versus frequency spectra and then fitting to a model SPAC spectrum, we interpolate each spectrum to coherency versus k.r, where k and r are wavenumber and station separation respectively, and r may be different for each pair of stations. For fundamental mode Rayleigh-wave energy the model SPAC spectrum to be fitted reduces to Jo(kr). The normalization process changes with each iteration since k is a function of frequency and phase velocity and hence is updated each iteration. The method proves robust and is demonstrated on data acquired in the Santa Clara Valley, CA, (Site STGA) where an asymmetric array having station separations varying by a factor of 2 is compared with a conventional triangular array; a 300-mdeep borehole with a downhole Vs log provides nearby ground truth. The method is also demonstrated on data from the Pleasanton array, CA, where station spacings are irregular and vary from 400 to 1200 m. The KRSPAC method allows inversion of data using kr (unitless) values routinely up to 30, and occasionally up to 60. Thus despite the large and irregular station spacings, this array permits resolution of Vs as fine as 15 m for the near-surface sediments, and down to a maximum depth of 2.5 km.

  7. Influence of correspondence noise and spatial scaling on the upper limit for spatial displacement in fully-coherent random-dot kinematogram stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srimant P Tripathy

    Full Text Available Correspondence noise is a major factor limiting direction discrimination performance in random-dot kinematograms. In the current study we investigated the influence of correspondence noise on Dmax, which is the upper limit for the spatial displacement of the dots for which coherent motion is still perceived. Human direction discrimination performance was measured, using 2-frame kinematograms having leftward/rightward motion, over a 200-fold range of dot-densities and a four-fold range of dot displacements. From this data Dmax was estimated for the different dot densities tested. A model was proposed to evaluate the correspondence noise in the stimulus. This model summed the outputs of a set of elementary Reichardt-type local detectors that had receptive fields tiling the stimulus and were tuned to the two directions of motion in the stimulus. A key assumption of the model was that the local detectors would have the radius of their catchment areas scaled with the displacement that they were tuned to detect; the scaling factor k linking the radius to the displacement was the only free parameter in the model and a single value of k was used to fit all of the psychophysical data collected. This minimal, correspondence-noise based model was able to account for 91% of the variability in the human performance across all of the conditions tested. The results highlight the importance of correspondence noise in constraining the largest displacement that can be detected.

  8. Status report on the tunable monochromatic gamma—ray source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.Bertschy; W.Mondelaers; 等


    The tunable monochromatic gamma-ray source at the Ghent 15MeV linac is described.The characteristics of the monochromatic beam are given,and some applications,as the detection of heavy elements in other materials,are presented.

  9. Spatially evolving vortex-gas turbulent free shear layers: Part 2. Coherent structure dynamics in vorticity and concentration fields

    CERN Document Server

    Suryanarayanan, Saikishan


    This paper examines the mechanisms of coherent structure interactions in spatially evolving turbulent free shear layers at different values of the velocity ratio parameter {\\lambda}=$(U_1-U_2)/(U_1+U_2)$, where $U_1$ and $U_2 (\\leq U_1)$ are the free stream velocities on either side of the layer. The study employs the point-vortex (or vortex-gas) model presented in part I (arXiv:1509.00603) which predicts spreading rates that are in the close neighborhood of results from most high Reynolds number experiments and 3D simulations. The present (2D) simulations show that the well-known steep-growth merger events among neighboring structures of nearly equal size (Brown & Roshko 1974) account for more than 70% of the overall growth at {\\lambda}< 0.63. However the relative contribution of such 'hard merger' events decreases gradually with increasing {\\lambda}, and accounts for only 27% of the total growth at the single-stream limit ({\\lambda} = 1). It is shown that the rest of the contribution to layer growth ...

  10. Sub-recoil cooling up to nano-Kelvin. Direct measurement of spatial coherency length. New tests for Levy statistics; Refroidissement laser subrecul au nanokelvin. Mesure directe de la longueur de coherence spatiale. Nouveaux tests des statistiques de Levy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saubamea, B


    This thesis presents a new method to measure the temperature of ultracold atoms from the spatial autocorrelation function of the atomic wave-packets. We thus determine the temperature of metastable helium-4 atoms cooled by velocity selective dark resonance, a method known to cool the atoms below the temperature related to the emission or the absorption of a single photon by an atom at rest, namely the recoil temperature. This cooling mechanism prepares each atom in a coherent superposition of two wave-packets with opposite mean momenta, which are initially superimposed and then drift apart. By measuring the temporal decay of their overlap, we have access to the Fourier transform of the momentum distribution of the atoms. Using this method, we can measure temperatures as low as 5 nK, 800 times as small as the recoil temperature. Moreover we study in detail the exact shape of the momentum distribution and compare the experimental results with two different theoretical approaches: a quantum Monte Carlo simulation and an analytical model based on Levy statistics. We compare the calculated line shape with the one deduced from simulations, and each theoretical model with experimental data. A very good agreement is found with each approach. We thus demonstrate the validity of the statistical model of sub-recoil cooling and give the first experimental evidence of some of its characteristics: the absence of steady-state, the self-similarity and the non Lorentzian shape of the momentum distribution of the cooled atoms. All these aspects are related to the non ergodicity of sub-recoil cooling. (author)

  11. Monochromatization of femtosecond XUV light pulses with the use of reflection zone plates. (United States)

    Metje, Jan; Borgwardt, Mario; Moguilevski, Alexandre; Kothe, Alexander; Engel, Nicholas; Wilke, Martin; Al-Obaidi, Ruba; Tolksdorf, Daniel; Firsov, Alexander; Brzhezinskaya, Maria; Erko, Alexei; Kiyan, Igor Yu; Aziz, Emad F


    We report on a newly built laser-based tabletop setup which enables generation of femtosecond light pulses in the XUV range employing the process of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in a gas medium. The spatial, spectral, and temporal characteristics of the XUV beam are presented. Monochromatization of XUV light with minimum temporal pulse distortion is the central issue of this work. Off-center reflection zone plates are shown to be advantageous when selection of a desired harmonic is carried out with the use of a single optical element. A cross correlation technique was applied to characterize the performance of the zone plates in the time domain. By using laser pulses of 25 fs length to pump the HHG process, a pulse duration of 45 fs for monochromatized harmonics was achieved in the present setup.

  12. The quasi-monochromatic ULF wave foreshock boundary at Venus (United States)

    Shan, Lican; Mazelle, Christian; Meziane, Karim; Romanelli, Norberto; Ge, Yasong; Du, Aimin; Lu, Quanming; Zhang, Tielong


    The location of ULF quasi-monochromatic wave onsets upstream of Venus bow shock is explored using VEX magnetic field data. We report the existence of a spatial foreshock boundary from which ULF waves are present. It is found that the ULF boundary is sensitive to the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) direction and appears well defined for a cone-angle larger than 30 degrees. In the Venusian foreshock, the slope of the boundary increases with the cone-angle and for a nominal direction of the IMF, it makes an inclination of 70 degrees with the Sun-Venus direction. Moreover, we have found that the velocity of an ion traveling along the ULF boundary presents a qualitative agreement with the hypothesis of a quasi-adiabatic reflection of a portion of the solar wind at the bow shock. For a nominal IMF direction, the ions associated with the boundary have enough momentum to overcome the solar wind convection. These elements strongly suggest that backstreaming ions upstream of Venus bow shock provide the main energy source of the ULF foreshock waves.

  13. Diffraction coherence in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Françon, M; Green, L L


    Diffraction: Coherence in Optics presents a detailed account of the course on Fraunhofer diffraction phenomena, studied at the Faculty of Science in Paris. The publication first elaborates on Huygens' principle and diffraction phenomena for a monochromatic point source and diffraction by an aperture of simple form. Discussions focus on diffraction at infinity and at a finite distance, simplified expressions for the field, calculation of the path difference, diffraction by a rectangular aperture, narrow slit, and circular aperture, and distribution of luminous flux in the airy spot. The book th

  14. Sex and vision II: color appearance of monochromatic lights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramov Israel


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because cerebral cortex has a very large number of testosterone receptors, we examined the possible sex differences in color appearance of monochromatic lights across the visible spectrum. There is a history of men and women perceiving color differently. However, all of these studies deal with higher cognitive functions which may be culture-biased. We study basic visual functions, such as color appearance, without reference to any objects. We present here a detailed analysis of sex differences in primary chromatic sensations. Methods We tested large groups of young adults with normal vision, including spatial and temporal resolution, and stereopsis. Based on standard color-screening and anomaloscope data, we excluded all color-deficient observers. Stimuli were equi-luminant monochromatic lights across the spectrum. They were foveally-viewed flashes presented against a dark background. The elicited sensations were measured using magnitude estimation of hue and saturation. When the only permitted hue terms are red (R yellow (Y, green (G, blue (B, alone or in combination, such hue descriptions are language-independent and the hue and saturation values can be used to derive a wide range of color-discrimination functions. Results There were relatively small but clear and significant, differences between males and females in the hue sensations elicited by almost the entire spectrum. Generally, males required a slightly longer wavelength to experience the same hue as did females. The spectral loci of the unique hues are not correlated with anomaloscope matches; these matches are directly determined by the spectral sensitivities of L- and M-cones (genes for these cones are on the X-chromosomes. Nor are there correlations between loci of pairs of unique hues (R, Y, G, B. Wavelength-discrimination functions derived from the scaling data show that males have a broader range of poorer discrimination in the middle of the spectrum. The

  15. Goniometer Control System for Coherent Bremsstrahlung Production (United States)

    Acousta, V. M.


    A system for the generation of a high-intensity, quasi-monochromatic photon beam is discussed. The theory behind coherent bremsstrahlung photon beam production is analyzed and developed. The mechanics of a goniometer control system are presented. The software developed for remote control of the goniometer is also discussed. Finally, the results from various performance measurements are included.

  16. Fusion of colour and monochromatic images with edge emphasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rade M. Pavlović


    Full Text Available We propose a novel method to fuse true colour images with monochromatic non-visible range images that seeks to encode important structural information from monochromatic images efficiently but also preserve the natural appearance of the available true chromacity information. We utilise the β colour opponency channel of the lαβ colour as the domain to fuse information from the monochromatic input into the colour input by the way of robust grayscale fusion. This is followed by an effective gradient structure visualisation step that enhances the visibility of monochromatic information in the final colour fused image. Images fused using this method preserve their natural appearance and chromacity better than conventional methods while at the same time clearly encode structural information from the monochormatic input. This is demonstrated on a number of well-known true colour fusion examples and confirmed by the results of subjective trials on the data from several colour fusion scenarios. Introduction The goal of image fusion can be broadly defined as: the representation of visual information contained in a number of input images into a single fused image without distortion or loss of information. In practice, however, a representation of all available information from multiple inputs in a single image is almost impossible and fusion is generally a data reduction task.  One of the sensors usually provides a true colour image that by definition has all of its data dimensions already populated by the spatial and chromatic information. Fusing such images with information from monochromatic inputs in a conventional manner can severely affect natural appearance of the fused image. This is a difficult problem and partly the reason why colour fusion received only a fraction of the attention than better behaved grayscale fusion even long after colour sensors became widespread. Fusion method Humans tend to see colours as contrasts between opponent

  17. Study on paper moisture measurement method by monochromatic light sources (United States)

    Mo, Changtao; Du, Xin; He, Ping; Zhang, Lili; Li, Nan; Wang, Ming


    We design the emission and detection optical paths of three monochromatic infrared light sources with different wavelength. The three light sources are placed according to the different angles, so that the three kinds of monochromatic lights are converged on the same point of the sample. Using the method, we can detect the same point and improve the measurement accuracy. We choose the standard near-infrared monochromatic light source, so that we can save some equipments, such as tungsten- halogen lamp, filtered wheel, collimation focalizer, electric machine, and so on. In particular, we save the cumbersome cooling system, reduce the volume of the instrument greatly and reduce the cost. The three monochromatic light sources are supplied by the same pulse power source, to ensure their synchronous working.

  18. Relief Restoration of Complicated form Objects by Monochromatic Microwave Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmenko Ivan


    Full Text Available Article demonstrates possibility of monochromatic radiation usage for relief restoration. There is a problem with restoration when scanned object is not flat and it is not parallel to the scanning plane. It was discovered that two-dimensional phase distribution could be applied for distance determination. It is reliable way to solve problems listed above. In conclusion offered methods allow monochromatic microwave radiation usage for screening system development.

  19. Manipulation of the coherent spatial and angular shifts of Goos-Hänchen effect to realize the digital optical switch in silicon-on-insulator waveguide corner (United States)

    Sun, DeGui


    In this work, based on the quantum process of the Goos-Hänchen (GH) spatial shift, a quantum process of the GH angular shift is also theoretically investigated. Then, the coherence between spatial and angular shifts in the GH effect is discovered and developed to manipulate the final total displacement for a digital optical switch. It is found that a waveguide corner structure always makes the reflected guide-mode have a GH angular shift in the minus direction when the incident beam is in the Brewster angle vicinity, while it always makes the spatial shift in the plus direction. Meanwhile, the coherence of these two GH shifts has an interesting distribution with the incident angle, and only in the common linear response area to the incident angle, the two GH shifts are mutually enhancing, and then a mini refractive index modulation of the guided-mode at the reflecting interface can create a great stable jump of reflected beam displacement at an eigenstate under the GH effect. As a result, on the 220 nm CMOS-compatible silicon-on-insulator waveguide platform, with a tapered multimode interference (MMI) waveguide, a 5 × 1018cm-3 concentration variation of free carriers can create an absolute digital total displacement of 8-25 μm of the reflected beam on the MMI waveguide output end, leading to a 1 × 5 scale digital optical switching function.

  20. Automated three-dimensional detection and classification of living organisms using digital holographic microscopy with partial spatial coherent source: application to the monitoring of drinking water resources. (United States)

    El Mallahi, Ahmed; Minetti, Christophe; Dubois, Frank


    In this paper, we investigate the use of a digital holographic microscope working with partially coherent spatial illumination for an automated detection and classification of living organisms. A robust automatic method based on the computation of propagating matrices is proposed to detect the 3D position of organisms. We apply this procedure to the evaluation of drinking water resources by developing a classification process to identify parasitic protozoan Giardia lamblia cysts among two other similar organisms. By selecting textural features from the quantitative optical phase instead of morphological ones, a robust classifier is built to propose a new method for the unambiguous detection of Giardia lamblia cyst that present a critical contamination risk.

  1. Concept of coherence of learning physical optics (United States)

    Colombo, Elisa M.; Jaen, Mirta; de Cudmani, Leonor C.


    The aim of the actual paper is to enhance achievements of the text 'Optica Fisica Basica: estructurada alrededor del concepto de coherencia luminosa' (in English 'Basic Physical Optics centered in the concept of coherence'). We consider that this book is a very worth tool when one has to learn or to teach some fundamental concepts of physical optics. It is well known that the topics of physical optics present not easy understanding for students. Even more they also present some difficulties for the teachers when they have to introduce them to the class. First, we think that different phenomena like diffraction and polarization could be well understood if the starting point is a deep comprehension of the concept of interference of light and, associated with this, the fundamental and nothing intuitive concept of coherence of the light. In the reference text the authors propose the use of expression 'stable interference pattern of no uniform intensity' instead of 'pattern of interference' and 'average pattern of uniform untested' instead of 'lack of interference' to make reference that light always interfere but just under restrictive conditions it can be got temporal and spatial stability of the pattern. Another idea we want to stand out is that the ability to observe a 'stable interference pattern of no uniform intensity' is associated not only with the coherence of the source but also with the dimensions of the experimental system and with the temporal and spatial characteristics of the detector used - human eye, photographic film, etc. The proposal is well support by quantitative relations. With an alternate model: a train of waves with a finite length of coherence, it is possible to get range of validity of models, to decide when a source could be considered a 'point' or 'monochromatic' or 'remote', an 'infinite' wave or a train of waves, etc. Using this concept it is possible to achieve a better understanding of phenomena like the polarization of light. Here, it

  2. Broadband, monochromatic and quasi-monochromatic x-ray propagation in multi-Z media for imaging and diagnostics (United States)

    Westphal, Maximillian S.; Lim, Sara N.; Nahar, Sultana N.; Chowdhury, Enam; Pradhan, Anil K.


    With the advent of monochromatic and quasi-monochromatic x-ray sources, we explore their potential with computational and experimental studies on propagation through a combination of low and high-Z (atomic number) media for applications to imaging and detection. The multi-purpose code GEANT4 and a new code PHOTX are employed in numerical simulations, and a variety of x-ray sources are considered: conventional broadband devices with well-known spectra, quasi-monochromatic laser driven sources, and monochromatic synchrotron x-rays. Phantom samples consisting of layers of low-Z and high-Z material are utilized, with atomic-molecular species ranging from H2O to gold. Differential and total attenuation of x-ray fluxes from the different x-ray sources are illustrated through simulated x-ray images. Main conclusions of this study are: I. It is shown that a 65 keV Gaussian quasi-monochromatic source is capable of better contrast with less radiation exposure than a common 120 kV broadband simulator. II. A quantitative measure is defined and computed as a metric to compare the efficacy of any two x-ray sources, as a function of concentration of high-Z moieties in predominantly low-Z environment and depth of penetration. III. Characteristic spectral features of \

  3. Effects of source spatial partial coherence on temporal fade statistics of irradiance flux in free-space optical links through atmospheric turbulence. (United States)

    Chen, Chunyi; Yang, Huamin; Zhou, Zhou; Zhang, Weizhi; Kavehrad, Mohsen; Tong, Shoufeng; Wang, Tianshu


    The temporal covariance function of irradiance-flux fluctua-tions for Gaussian Schell-model (GSM) beams propagating in atmospheric turbulence is theoretically formulated by making use of the method of effective beam parameters. Based on this formulation, new expressions for the root-mean-square (RMS) bandwidth of the irradiance-flux temporal spectrum due to GSM beams passing through atmospheric turbulence are derived. With the help of these expressions, the temporal fade statistics of the irradiance flux in free-space optical (FSO) communication systems, using spatially partially coherent sources, impaired by atmospheric turbulence are further calculated. Results show that with a given receiver aperture size, the use of a spatially partially coherent source can reduce both the fractional fade time and average fade duration of the received light signal; however, when atmospheric turbulence grows strong, the reduction in the fractional fade time becomes insignificant for both large and small receiver apertures and in the average fade duration turns inconsiderable for small receiver apertures. It is also illustrated that if the receiver aperture size is fixed, changing the transverse correlation length of the source from a larger value to a smaller one can reduce the average fade frequency of the received light signal only when a threshold parameter in decibels greater than the critical threshold level is specified.

  4. The Contribution of z < or Approx. 6 Sources to the Spatial Coherence in the Unresolved Cosmic Near-Infrared and X-Ray Backgrounds (United States)

    Helgason, K.; Cappelluti, N.; Hasinger, G.; Kashlinsky, A.; Ricotti, M.


    A spatial clustering signal has been established in Spitzer/IRAC measurements of the unresolved cosmic near-infrared background (CIB) out to large angular scales, approx. 1deg. This CIB signal, while significantly exceeding the contribution from the remaining known galaxies, was further found to be coherent at a highly statistically significant level with the unresolved soft cosmic X-ray background (CXB). This measurement probes the unresolved CXB to very faint source levels using deep near-IR source subtraction.We study contributions from extragalactic populations at low to intermediate redshifts to the measured positive cross-power signal of the CIB fluctuations with the CXB. We model the X-ray emission from active galactic nuclei (AGNs), normal galaxies, and hot gas residing in virialized structures, calculating their CXB contribution including their spatial coherence with all infrared emitting counterparts. We use a halo model framework to calculate the auto and cross-power spectra of the unresolved fluctuations based on the latest constraints of the halo occupation distribution and the biasing of AGNs, galaxies, and diffuse emission. At small angular scales (1), the 4.5microns versus 0.5-2 keV coherence can be explained by shot noise from galaxies and AGNs. However, at large angular scales (approx.10), we find that the net contribution from the modeled populations is only able to account for approx. 3% of the measured CIB×CXB cross-power. The discrepancy suggests that the CIB×CXB signal originates from the same unknown source population producing the CIB clustering signal out to approx. 1deg.

  5. Reconstruction of quasi-monochromatic images from a multiple monochromatic x-ray imaging diagnostic for inertial confinement fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izumi, N; Turner, R; Barbee, T; Koch, J; Welser, L; Mansini, R


    We have developed a software package for image reconstruction of a multiple monochromatic x-ray imaging diagnostics (MMI) for diagnostic of inertial conferment fusion capsules. The MMI consists of a pinhole array, a multi-layer Bragg mirror, and a charge injection device image detector (CID). The pinhole array projects {approx}500 sub-images onto the CID after reflection off the multi-layer Bragg mirror. The obtained raw images have continuum spectral dispersion on its vertical axis. For systematic analysis, a computer-aided reconstruction of the quasi-monochromatic image is essential.

  6. On monochromatic arm exponents for 2D critical percolation

    CERN Document Server

    Beffara, Vincent


    We investigate the so-called monochromatic arm exponents for critical percolation in two dimensions. These exponents, describing the probability of observing j disjoint macroscopic paths, are shown to exist and to form a different family from the (now well-understood) polychromatic exponents.

  7. Kernels by Monochromatic Paths and Color-Perfect Digraphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galeana-Śanchez Hortensia


    Full Text Available For a digraph D, V (D and A(D will denote the sets of vertices and arcs of D respectively. In an arc-colored digraph, a subset K of V(D is said to be kernel by monochromatic paths (mp-kernel if (1 for any two different vertices x, y in N there is no monochromatic directed path between them (N is mp-independent and (2 for each vertex u in V (D \\ N there exists v ∈ N such that there is a monochromatic directed path from u to v in D (N is mp-absorbent. If every arc in D has a different color, then a kernel by monochromatic paths is said to be a kernel. Two associated digraphs to an arc-colored digraph are the closure and the color-class digraph CC(D. In this paper we will approach an mp-kernel via the closure of induced subdigraphs of D which have the property of having few colors in their arcs with respect to D. We will introduce the concept of color-perfect digraph and we are going to prove that if D is an arc-colored digraph such that D is a quasi color-perfect digraph and CC(D is not strong, then D has an mp-kernel. Previous interesting results are generalized, as for example Richardson′s Theorem.

  8. Classical stabilization of the hydrogen atom in a monochromatic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benvenuto, F.; Casati, G. (Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita, Via Castelnuovo 7, 22100 Como (Italy)); Shepelyansky, D.L. (Laboratoire de Physique Quantique, Universite Paul Sabatier, 31062, Toulouse (France))


    We report the results of analytical and numerical investigations on the ionization of a classical atom in a strong, linearly polarized, monochromatic field. We show that the ionization probability decreases with increasing field intensity at field amplitudes much larger than the classical chaos border. This effect should be observable in real laboratory experiments.

  9. Time-reversing a monochromatic subwavelength optical focus by optical phase conjugation of multiply-scattered light

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Jongchan; Lee, KyeoReh; Cho, Yong-Hoon; Park, YongKeun


    Due to its time-reversal nature, optical phase conjugation generates a monochromatic light wave which retraces its propagation paths. Here, we demonstrate the regeneration of a subwavelength optical focus by phase conjugation. Monochromatic light from a subwavelength source is scattered by random nanoparticles, and the scattered light is phase conjugated at the far-field region by coupling its wavefront into a single-mode optical reflector using a spatial light modulator. Then the conjugated beam retraces its propagation paths and forms a refocus on the source at the subwavelength scale. This is the first direct experimental realization of subwavelength focusing beyond the diffraction limit with far-field time reversal in the optical domain.

  10. A photonic analog-to-digital converter using phase modulation and self-coherent detection with spatial oversampling. (United States)

    Golani, Ori; Mauri, Luca; Pasinato, Fabiano; Cattaneo, Cristian; Consonnni, Guido; Balsamo, Stefano; Marom, Dan M


    We propose a new type of photonic analog-to-digital converter (ADC), designed for high-resolution (>7 bit) and high sampling rates (scalable to tens of GS/s). It is based on encoding the input analog voltage signal onto the phase of an optical pulse stream originating from a mode-locked laser, and uses spatial oversampling as a means to improve the conversion resolution. This paper describes the concept of spatial oversampling and draws its similarities to the commonly used temporal oversampling. The design and fabrication of a LiNbO(3)/silica hybrid photonic integrated circuit for implementing the spatial oversampling is shown, and its abilities are demonstrated experimentally by digitizing gigahertz signals (frequencies up to 18GHz) at an undersampled rate of 2.56GS/s with a conversion resolution of up to 7.6 effective bits. Oversampling factors of 1-4 are demonstrated.

  11. Ultrawideband coherent noise lidar range-Doppler imaging and signal processing by use of spatial-spectral holography in inhomogeneously broadened absorbers. (United States)

    Li, Youzhi; Hoskins, Alan; Schlottau, Friso; Wagner, Kelvin H; Embry, Carl; Babbitt, William Randall


    We introduce a new approach to coherent lidar range-Doppler sensing by utilizing random-noise illuminating waveforms and a quantum-optical, parallel sensor based on spatial-spectral holography (SSH) in a cryogenically cooled inhomogeneously broadened absorber (IBA) crystal. Interference between a reference signal and the lidar return in the spectrally selective absorption band of the IBA is used to sense the lidar returns and perform the front-end range-correlation signal processing. Modulating the reference by an array of Doppler compensating frequency shifts enables multichannel Doppler filtering. This SSH sensor performs much of the postdetection signal processing, increases the lidar system sensitivity through range-correlation gain before detection, and is capable of not only Doppler processing but also parallel multibeam reception using the high-spatial resolution of the IBA crystals. This approach permits the use of ultrawideband, high-power, random-noise, cw lasers as ranging waveforms in lidar systems instead of highly stabilized, injection-seeded, and amplified pulsed or modulated laser sources as required by most conventional coherent lidar systems. The capabilities of the IBA media for many tens of gigahertz bandwidth and resolution in the 30-300 kHz regime, while using either a pseudo-noise-coded waveform or just a high-power, noisy laser with a broad linewidth (e.g., a truly random noise lidar) may enable a new generation of improved lidar sensors and processors. Preliminary experimental demonstrations of lidar ranging and simulation on range-Doppler processing are presented.

  12. Inter-annual variability and spatial coherence of net primary productivity across a western Oregon Cascades landscape (United States)

    Travis J. Woolley; Mark E. Harmon; Kari B. O’Connell


    Inter-annual variability (IAV) of forest Net Primary Productivity (NPP) is a function of both extrinsic (e.g., climate) and intrinsic (e.g., stand dynamics) drivers. As estimates of NPP in forests are scaled from trees to stands to the landscape, an understanding of the relative effects of these factors on spatial and temporal behavior of NPP is important. Although a...

  13. Spatially-resolved in-situ quantification of biofouling using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and 3D image analysis in a spacer filled channel

    KAUST Repository

    Fortunato, Luca


    The use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to investigate biomass in membrane systems has increased with time. OCT is able to characterize the biomass in-situ and non-destructively. In this study, a novel approach to process three-dimensional (3D) OCT scans is proposed. The approach allows obtaining spatially-resolved detailed structural biomass information. The 3D biomass reconstruction enables analysis of the biomass only, obtained by subtracting the time zero scan to all images. A 3D time series analysis of biomass development in a spacer filled channel under representative conditions (cross flow velocity) for a spiral wound membrane element was performed. The flow cell was operated for five days with monitoring of ultrafiltration membrane performance: feed channel pressure drop and permeate flux. The biomass development in the flow cell was detected by OCT before a performance decline was observed. Feed channel pressure drop continuously increased with increasing biomass volume, while flux decline was mainly affected in the initial phase of biomass accumulation. The novel OCT imaging approach enabled the assessment of spatial biomass distribution in the flow cell, discriminating the total biomass volume between the membrane, feed spacer and glass window. Biomass accumulation was stronger on the feed spacer during the early stage of biofouling, impacting the feed channel pressure drop stronger than permeate flux.

  14. Understanding three-dimensional spatial relationship between the mouse second polar body and first cleavage plane with full-field optical coherence tomography. (United States)

    Zheng, Jing-gao; Huo, Tiancheng; Chen, Tianyuan; Wang, Chengming; Zhang, Ning; Tian, Ning; Zhao, Fengying; Lu, Danyu; Chen, Dieyan; Ma, Wanyun; Sun, Jia-lin; Xue, Ping


    The morphogenetic relationship between early patterning and polarity formation is of fundamental interest and remains a controversial issue in preimplantation embryonic development. We use a label-free three-dimensional (3-D) imaging technique of full-field optical coherence tomography (FF-OCT) successfully for the first time to study the dynamics of developmental processes in mouse preimplantation lives. Label-free 3-D subcellular time-lapse images are demonstrated to investigate 3-D spatial relationship between the second polar body (2PB) and the first cleavage plane. By using FF-OCT together with quantitative study, we show that only 25% of the predicted first cleavage planes, defined by the apposing plane of two pronuclei, pass through the 2PB. Also only 27% of the real cleavage planes pass through the 2PB. These results suggest that the 2PB is not a convincing spatial cue for the event of the first cleavage. Our studies demonstrate the feasibility of FF-OCT in providing new insights and potential breakthroughs to the controversial issues of early patterning and polarity in mammalian developmental biology.

  15. X-ray Absorption Imaging of High-Intensity Discharge Lamps Using Monochromatic Synchrotron Radiation (United States)

    Curry, John J.; Sansonetti, Craig J.; Hechtfischer, Ulrich; Adler, Helmar G.


    We will report results from the imaging of Hg vapor in high-intensity discharge lamps using synchrotron radiation and digital detectors. These measurements extend previous work on x-ray absorption imaging in arc lamps using an x-ray tube and a passive phosphor image plate detector^i. The large x-ray flux obtained from the Advanced Photon Source (Argonne National Laboratory) combined with the electronic gating capabilities of an intensified charge-coupled device detector have allowed us to obtain time-resolved Hg distributions with high spatial resolution. Monochromatic synchrotron radiation improves the accuracy over what can be obtained with quasi-continuum radiation from an x-ray tube source. ^iJ. J. Curry, M. Sakai, and J. E. Lawler, Journal of Applied Physics 84, 3066 (1998).

  16. Coherent bremsstrahlung used for digital subtraction angiography (United States)

    Überall, Herbert


    Digital subtraction angiography (DSA), also known as Dichromography, using synchrotron radiation beams has been developed at Stanford University (R. Hofstadter) and was subsequently taken over at the Brookhaven Synchrotron and later at Hamburg (HASYLAB) [see, e.g., W.R. Dix, Physik in unserer Zeit. 30 (1999) 160]. The imaging of coronary arteries is carried out with an iodine-based contrast agent which need not be injected into the heart. The radiation must be monochromatized and is applied above and below the K-edge of iodine (33.16 keV), with a subsequent digital subtraction of the two images. Monochromatization of the synchrotron radiation causes a loss of intensity of 10 -3. We propose instead the use of coherent bremsstrahlung [see, e.g., A.W. Saenz and H. Uberall, Phys. Rev. B25 (1982) 448] which is inherently monochromatic, furnishing a flux of 10 12 photon/sec. This requires a 10-20 MeV electron linac which can be obtained by many larger hospitals, eliminating the scheduling problems present at synchrotrons. The large, broad incoherent bremsstrahlung background underlying the monochromatic spike would lead to inadmissible overexposure of the patient. This problem can be solved with the use of Kumakhov's capillary optics [see e.g., S.B.Dabagov, Physics-Uspekhi 46 (2003) 1053]: the low-energy spiked radiation can be deflected towards the patient, while the higher energy incoherent background continues forward, avoiding the patient who is placed several meters from the source.

  17. Action of low-energy monochromatic coherent light on the stability of retinal lysosomes (United States)

    Metelitsina, Irina P.; Leus, N. F.


    The data had been obtained during the experiment in vitro by irradiation of solubilized lysosomal enzymes, retinal homogenates and native lysosomes enabled us to conclude that the laser beam ((lambda) equals 632.8 nm, power density from 0.1 to 15.0 mWt/cm2) acts on the level of membranous structures of lysosomes. During irradiation of rabbits eyes in vitro with an unfocused laser beam (power density on the cornea aur face from 0.01 to 15.0 mWt/cm2 was shown, that low-energy, ranged from 0.01 to 1.0 mWt/cm2 promotes stabilization of lysosomal membranes. Irradiation with laser beam of 8.0 mWt/cm2 and more power induces destabilization of lysosomal membranes. We have also shown that vitamins A and E effecting membranotropic on lysosomes may be corrected by low-energy radiation of helium-neon laser. It is substantiated experimentally that the stabilizing effect of vitamin E may be intensified in case of the combined action of laser radiation on lysosomes. The labilizing effect of vitamin A on membranes of organelles, as was studied, may be weakened by application of laser radiation of low intensities.

  18. Trace chemical characterization using monochromatic X-ray undulator radiation (United States)

    Eba; Numako; Iihara; Sakurai


    An efficient Johansson-type X-ray fluorescence spectrometer has been developed for advanced X-ray spectroscopic analysis with third-generation synchrotron radiation. Kalpha and Kbeta X-ray fluorescence spectra for trace metals have been collected by a Ge(220) analyzing crystal with a Rowland radius of 150 mm, under monochromatic X-ray excitation at the undulator beamline at the SPring-8. The energy resolution is approximately 10 eV for most of the K lines for 3d transition metals. In light of the greatly improved efficiency, as well as the excellent signal-to-background ratio, the relative and absolute detection limits achieved are 1 ppm and 1.2 ng of copper in a carbon matrix, respectively. The energy resolution of the present spectrometer permits the observation of some chemical effects in Kbeta spectra. It has been demonstrated that the changes in Kbeta5 and Kbeta'' intensity for iron and cobalt compounds can be used for the analysis of chemical states. Resonant X-ray fluorescent spectra are another important application of monochromatic excitation. In view of trace chemical characterization, the present spectrometer can be a good alternative to a conventional Si(Li) detector system when combined with highly brilliant X-rays.

  19. Optical encryption in spatially-incoherent light using two LC SLMs for both information input and encryption element imaging (United States)

    Bondareva, Alyona P.; Cheremkhin, Pavel A.; Evtikhiev, Nikolay N.; Krasnov, Vitaly V.; Rodin, Vladislav G.; Starikov, Sergey N.


    At present time methods of optical encryption are actively developed. The majority of existing methods of optical encryption use not only light intensity distribution, easily registered with photosensors, but also its phase distribution which require application of complex holographic schemes in conjunction with spatially coherent monochromatic illumination. This leads to complex optical schemes and low decryption quality. To eliminate these disadvantages it is possible to implement optical encryption using spatially incoherent monochromatic illumination which requires registration of light intensity distribution only. Encryption is accomplished by means of optical convolution of image of scene to be encrypted and encryption diffractive optical element (DOE) point spread function (PSF) which serves as encryption key. Encryption process is described as follows. Scene is illuminated with spatially-incoherent monochromatic light. In the absence of encryption DOE lens forms image of scene in photosensor plane. DOE serves as encryption element, its PSF - encryption key. Light passing through DOE forms convolution of object image and DOE PSF. Registered by photosensor convolution is encrypted image. Decryption was conducted numerically on computer by means of inverse filtration with regularization. Kinoforms were used as encryption DOE because they have single diffraction order. Two liquid crystal (LC) spatial light modulators (SLM) were used to implement dynamic digital information input and dynamic encryption key change. As input scene amplitude LC SLM HoloEye LC2002 with 800×600 pixels 32×32 μm2 and 256 gray levels was used. To image synthesized encryption kinoforms phase LC SLM HoloEye PLUTO VIS with 1920×1080 pixels 8×8 μm2 and 256 phase levels was used. Set of test images was successfully optically encrypted and then numerically decrypted. Encrypted images contents are hidden. Decrypted images despite quite high noise levels are positively recognizable

  20. Horizontal Coherence of Wave Forces on Vertical Wall Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Archetti, Renata; Lamberti, Alberto; Martinelli, Luca


    Evaluation of spatial coherence of breaking waves is of great importance and of recent interest.......Evaluation of spatial coherence of breaking waves is of great importance and of recent interest....

  1. Industrial mJ-class all-fiber front end with spatially coherent top-hat beam output used as seeder for high power laser (United States)

    Gleyze, Jean-François; Perrin, A.; Calvet, Pierre; Gouriou, Pierre; Scol, Florent; Valentin, Constance; Bouwmans, Géraud; Lecren, E.; Hugonnot, Emmanuel


    In large scale laser facility dedicated to laser-matter interaction including inertial confinement fusion, such as LMJ or NIF, high-energy main amplifier is injected by a laser source in which the beam parameters must be controlled. For many years, the CEA has developed nano-joule pulses all-fiber front end sources, based on the telecommunications fiber optics technologies. Thanks to these technologies, we have been able to precisely control temporal shaping and phase-modulated pulse. Nowadays, fiber lasers are able to deliver very high power beams and high energy pulses for industrial needs (laser marking, welding,…). Therefore, we have currently developed new nanosecond pulses fibered amplifiers able to increase output pulse energy up to the mJ level. These amplifiers are based on flexible fibers and not on rod type. This allows us to achieve a compact source. Nevertheless the intensity profile of theses fibers usually has a Gaussian shape. To be compatible with main amplifier section injection, the Gaussian intensity profile must then be transformed into `top-hat' profile. To reach the goal, we have recently developed an elegant and efficient solution based on a single-mode fiber which directly delivers a spatially coherent `top-hat' beam. In the conference, we will present this mJ-class top-hat all-fiber laser system, the results and the industrial prototype which can be used as a front-end of high-power lasers or as a seeder for other types of lasers.

  2. Coherent hybrid electromagnetic field imaging (United States)

    Cooke, Bradly J.; Guenther, David C.


    An apparatus and corresponding method for coherent hybrid electromagnetic field imaging of a target, where an energy source is used to generate a propagating electromagnetic beam, an electromagnetic beam splitting means to split the beam into two or more coherently matched beams of about equal amplitude, and where the spatial and temporal self-coherence between each two or more coherently matched beams is preserved. Two or more differential modulation means are employed to modulate each two or more coherently matched beams with a time-varying polarization, frequency, phase, and amplitude signal. An electromagnetic beam combining means is used to coherently combine said two or more coherently matched beams into a coherent electromagnetic beam. One or more electromagnetic beam controlling means are used for collimating, guiding, or focusing the coherent electromagnetic beam. One or more apertures are used for transmitting and receiving the coherent electromagnetic beam to and from the target. A receiver is used that is capable of square-law detection of the coherent electromagnetic beam. A waveform generator is used that is capable of generation and control of time-varying polarization, frequency, phase, or amplitude modulation waveforms and sequences. A means of synchronizing time varying waveform is used between the energy source and the receiver. Finally, a means of displaying the images created by the interaction of the coherent electromagnetic beam with target is employed.

  3. Research on spatial coherence of undulator source in Shanghai synchrotron radiation facility%上海同步辐射装置波荡器光源空间相干性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华; 闫帅; 闫芬; 蒋升; 毛成文; 梁东旭; 杨科; 李爱国; 余笑寒


    利用高斯-谢尔光源模型理论与交叉谱密度函数在自由空间传输的规律,研究了上海同步辐射装置波荡器光源(BL15U)的空间相干性;讨论了预聚焦镜、单色器对光束空间相干性的影响;实验测量了单色光狭缝S2处光束的横向相干长度(Z方向).理论计算表明,S2处光束的横向相干长度为66.5μm,但实验测量结果为27μm.理论与实验相差较大的原因是由于S2上游光学元件预聚焦镜或单色器1期性高频振动导致了光束空间相干性的退化.实验结果表明,上海同步辐射装置波荡器光源已有较强的空间相干性,可以满足微米尺度的硬X射线相干性实验.%Firstly,based on the Gaussian-schell model source theory and the propagation of cross-spectral density function in free space, the spatial coherence of undulator source(BL15U) in Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility is studied.Secondly,the influences of pre-focusing mirror and the monochromator on the beam spatial coherence are discussed.Finally,the spatial coherent length at mono slit S2 is measured.The spatial coherent length at S2 theoretically is 66.5μm,but experimentally is 27μm.This difference is due to the high frequency vibration of pre-focusing mirror or monochromato.Nevertheless,high coherent hard X ray beams can be obtained at the location of experimental sample and many coherent experiments can be fulfilled on this beamline.

  4. 高斯-谢尔模型阵列光束在湍流大气中的空间相干性%Spatial coherence properties of GSM array beams in turbulent atmosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢芳; 韩香娥


    基于广义Huygens- Fresnel原理和Rytov相位结构函数二次近似的方法,推导出了径向分布高斯-谢尔模(GSM)阵列光束在湍流大气中传输时的交叉谱密度函数解析表达式,并利用表征光束相干性的空间复相干度系数,详细分析了GSM阵列光束在大气湍流中传输时的空间相干性变化规律。研究结果表明:径向分布GSM阵列光束的空间相干性由子光束空间相干长度、传输距离、大气折射率结构常数及相对径向填充因子等因素共同确定;径向分布GSM阵列光束通过湍流大气时,其空间相干度在传输过程中会出现多峰值现象,但是随着传输距离增大,多峰值现象逐渐消失并趋向于高斯分布,并且随着距离增大空间相干度宽度逐渐减小,光束空间相干性变差。%Based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle and the quadratic approximation of Rytov's phase structure function, the analytical expression for the cross-spectral density function of the Gaussian Schell-Model (GSM) array beams propagating in atmospheric turbulence was derived. The degree of spatial coherence of GSM array beams in atmospheric turbulence was investigated numerically. The result shows that the spatial coherence properties of the GSM array beams are determined by the coherent length of beamlets, the transmission distance, the refractive index structure constant of atmospheric turbulence and the relative radial fill factor of the source in common. It also shows that the spatial coherence of the GSM array beams ends as Gaussian distribution, but multiple peaks are existed during the transmission, the width of the degree of coherence becomes smaller with the transmission distance continues increase which means that the degree of spatial coherence turns worse.

  5. Holographic microscopy in low coherence (United States)

    Chmelík, Radim; Petráček, Jiří; Slabá, Michala; Kollárová, Věra; Slabý, Tomáš; Čolláková, Jana; Komrska, Jiří; Dostál, Zbyněk.; Veselý, Pavel


    Low coherence of the illumination substantially improves the quality of holographic and quantitative phase imaging (QPI) by elimination of the coherence noise and various artefacts and by improving the lateral resolution compared to the coherent holographic microscopy. Attributes of coherence-controlled holographic microscope (CCHM) designed and built as an off-axis holographic system allowing QPI within the range from complete coherent to incoherent illumination confirmed these expected advantages. Low coherence illumination also furnishes the coherence gating which constraints imaging of some spatial frequencies of an object axially thus forming an optical section in the wide sense. In this way the depth discrimination capability of the microscope is introduced at the price of restricting the axial interval of possible numerical refocusing. We describe theoretically these effects for the whole range of illumination coherence. We also show that the axial refocusing constraints can be overcome using advanced mode of imaging based on mutual lateral shift of reference and object image fields in CCHM. Lowering the spatial coherence of illumination means increasing its numerical aperture. We study how this change of the illumination geometry influences 3D objects QPI and especially the interpretation of live cells QPI in terms of the dry mass density measurement. In this way a strong dependence of the imaging process on the light coherence is demonstrated. The theoretical calculations and numerical simulations are supported by experimental data including a chance of time-lapse watching of live cells even in optically turbid milieu.

  6. On the detectability of Galactic dark matter annihilation into monochromatic gamma-rays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐志成; 袁强; 毕效军; 陈国明


    Monochromatic y-rays are thought to be the smoking gun signal for identifying dark matter annihilation. However, the flux of monochromatic y-rays is usually suppressed by virtual quantum effects since dark matter should be neutral and does not couple with

  7. Contrast imaging with a monochromatic x-ray scanner (United States)

    Pole, Donald J.; Popovic, Kosta; Williams, Mark B.


    We are currently developing a monochromatic x-ray source for small animal tomographic imaging. This source consists of a conventional cone beam microfocus x-ray tube with a tungsten target coupled to a filter that uses Bragg diffraction to transmit only x-rays within a narrow energy range (~3 keV FWHM). A tissue-equivalent mouse phantom was used to a) evaluate how clearly CT imaging using the quasi-monoenergetic beam is able to differentiate tissue types compared to conventional polyenergetic CT, and b) to test the ability of the source and Bragg filter combination to perform dual energy, iodine contrast enhanced imaging. Single slice CT scans of the phantom were obtained both with polyenergetic (1.8 mm Al filtration) and quasi-monoenergetic beams. Region of interest analysis showed that pixel value variance was signifcantly reduced in the quasi-monochromatic case compared to the polyenergetic case, suggesting a reduction in the variance of the linear attenuation coefficients of the tissue equivalent materials due to the narrower energy spectrum. To test dual energy iodine K-edge imaging, vials containing solutions with a range of iodine contrasts were added to the phantom. Single-slice CT scans were obtained using spectra with maximum values at 30 and 35 keV, respectively. Analysis of the resulting difference images (35 keV image - 30 keV image) shows that the magnitude of the difference signal produced by iodine exceeds that of bone for iodine concentrations above ~20 mg/ml, and that of muscle and fat tissues for iodine concentrations above ~5 mg/ml.

  8. On the detectability of Galactic dark matter annihilation into monochromatic gamma-rays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Zhi-Cheng; YUAN Qiang; BI Xiao-Jun; CHEN Guo-Ming


    Monochromatic γ-rays are thought to be the smoking gun signal for identifying dark matter annihilation. However, the flux of monochromatic γ-rays is usually suppressed by virtual quantum effects since dark matter should be neutral and does not couple with γ-rays directly. In this work, we study the detection strategy of the monochromatic γ-rays in a future space-based detector. The flux of monochromatic γ-rays between 50 GeV and several TeV is calculated by assuming the supersymmetric neutralino as a typical dark matter candidate. The detection both by focusing on the Galactic center and in a scan mode that detects γ-rays from the whole Galactic halo are compared. The detector performance for the purpose of monochromatic γ-ray detection, with different energy and angular resolution, field of view, and background rejection efficiencies, is carefully studied with both analytical and fast Monte-Carlo methods.

  9. On the Detectability of Galactic Dark Matter Annihilation into Monochromatic Gamma-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Zhi-Cheng; Bi, Xiao-Jun; Chen, Guo-Ming


    Monochromatic gamma-rays are thought to be the smoking gun signal for identifying the dark matter annihilation. However, the flux of monochromatic gamma-rays is usually suppressed by the virtual quantum effects since dark matter should be neutral and does not couple with gamma-rays directly. In the work we study the detection strategy of the monochromatic gamma-rays in a future space-based detector. The monochromatic gamma-ray flux is calculated by assuming supersymmetric neutralino as a typical dark matter candidate. We discuss both the detection focusing on the Galactic center and in a scan mode which detects gamma-rays from the whole Galactic halo are compared. The detector performance for the purpose of monochromatic gamma-rays detection, with different energy and angular resolution, field of view, background rejection efficiencies, is carefully studied with both analytical and fast Monte-Carlo method.

  10. Dental Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-Feng Lin


    Full Text Available This review paper describes the applications of dental optical coherence tomography (OCT in oral tissue images, caries, periodontal disease and oral cancer. The background of OCT, including basic theory, system setup, light sources, spatial resolution and system limitations, is provided. The comparisons between OCT and other clinical oral diagnostic methods are also discussed.

  11. Monochromatic X-ray propagation in multi-Z media for imaging and diagnostics including Kα Resonance Fluorescence (United States)

    Westphal, Maximillian; Lim, Sara; Nahar, Sultana; Pradhan, Anil


    Aimed at monochromatic X-ray imaging and therapy, broadband, monochromatic, and quasi-monochromatic X-ray sources and propagation through low and high-Z (HZ) media were studied with numerically and experimentally. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using the software package Geant4, and a new code Photx, to simulate X-ray image contrast, depth of penetration, and total attenuation. The data show that monochromatic and quasi-monochromatic X-rays achieve improved contrast at lower absorbed radiation doses compared to conventional broadband 120 kV or CT scans. Experimental quasi-monochromatic high-intensity laser-produced plasma sources and monochromatic synchrotron beam data are compared. Physical processes responsible for X-ray photoexcitation and absorption are numerically modelled, including a novel mechanism for accelerating Kα resonance fluorescence via twin monochromatic X-ray beam. Potential applications are medical diagnostics and high-Z material detection. Acknowledgement: Ohio Supercomputer Center, Columbus, OH.

  12. Preliminary experimental study and simulation of an energy-tunable quasi-monochromatic laser-Compton X/γ-ray source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO We; XU Wang; ZHUO Hong-Bin; MA Yan-Yun


    We propose a slanting collision scheme for Compton scattering of a laser light against a relativistic electron beam.This scheme is suitable to generate an energy-tunable X/γ-ray source.In this paper,we present theoretical study and simulation of the spectral,spatial and temporal characteristics of such a source.We also describe two terms laser-Compton scattering (LCS) experiments at the 100 MeV Linac of Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics,where quasi-monochromatic LCS X-ray energy spectra with peak energies of ~30 keV are observed successfully.These preliminary investigations are carried out to understand the feasibility of developing an energy-tunable quasi-monochromatic X/γ-ray source,the future Shanghai Laser Electron Gamma Source.

  13. Coherence properties of light propagated through a scattering medium

    CERN Document Server

    Aruldoss, C K; Nugent, K A; Roberts, A


    Partially-coherent, quasi-monochromatic optical fields are fully described by their Mutual Optical Intensity (MOI) or the phase-space equivalent, the Generalised Radiance (GR). This paper reports on the application of a propagation-based phase-space tomographic technique for determining both the MOI and the GR of wavefields. This method is applied to the reconstruction of the MOI and the GR of an optical wavefield propagated through a suspension of \\~10micrometre diameter polystyrene spheres.

  14. The effect of monochromatic infrared energy on diabetic wound healing. (United States)

    He, Yayi; Yip, Selina Ly; Cheung, Kwok-Kuen; Huang, Lin; Wang, Shijie; Cheing, Gladys Ly


    This study examined the effect of monochromatic infrared energy (MIRE) on diabetic wound healing. Fifteen diabetic rats were given MIRE intervention on their skin wounds located on the dorsum and compared with 15 control diabetic rats. Assessments were conducted for each group at weeks 1, 2 and 4 post wounding (five rats at each time point) by calculating the percentage of wound closures (WCs) and performing histological and immunohistochemical staining on sections of wound tissue. Evaluations of WCs and histological examinations of reepithelialisation, cellular content and granulation tissue formation showed no significant difference between the MIRE and the control group at each time point. Through semi-quantitative immunohistochemical staining, the deposition of type I collagen in the MIRE group was found to have improved when compared with the control group at the end of week 2 (P = 0.05). No significant differences in the myofibroblast population were detected between the two groups. In conclusion, MIRE appeared to promote collagen deposition in the early stage of wound healing in diabetic rats, but the overall wound healing in the MIRE group was not significantly different from that of the control group. © 2012 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Inc.

  15. How accurate are infrared luminosities from monochromatic photometric extrapolation?

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Zesen; Kong, Xu


    Template-based extrapolations from only one photometric band can be a cost-effective method to estimate the total infrared (IR) luminosities ($L_{\\mathrm{IR}}$) of galaxies. By utilizing multi-wavelength data that covers across 0.35--500\\,$\\mathrm{\\mu m}$ in GOODS-North and GOODS-South fields, we investigate the accuracy of this monochromatic extrapolated $L_{\\mathrm{IR}}$ based on three IR spectral energy distribution (SED) templates (\\citealt[CE01]{Chary2001}; \\citealt[DH02]{Dale2002}; \\citealt[W08]{Wuyts2008a}) out to $z\\sim 3.5$. We find that the CE01 template provides the best estimate of $L_{\\mathrm{IR}}$ in {\\it Herschel}/PACS bands, while the DH02 template performs best in {\\it Herschel}/SPIRE bands. To estimate $L_{\\mathrm{IR}}$, we suggest that extrapolations from the available longest wavelength PACS band based on the CE01 template can be a good estimator. Moreover, if PACS measurement is unavailable, extrapolations from SPIRE observations but based on the \\cite{Dale2002} template can also provide ...

  16. Coloring random graphs online without creating monochromatic subgraphs

    CERN Document Server

    Mütze, Torsten; Spöhel, Reto


    Consider the following random process: The vertices of a binomial random graph $G_{n,p}$ are revealed one by one, and at each step only the edges induced by the already revealed vertices are visible. Our goal is to assign to each vertex one from a fixed number $r$ of available colors immediately and irrevocably without creating a monochromatic copy of some fixed graph $F$ in the process. Our first main result is that for any $F$ and $r$, the threshold function for this problem is given by $p_0(F,r,n)=n^{-1/m_1^*(F,r)}$, where $m_1^*(F,r)$ denotes the so-called \\emph{online vertex-Ramsey density} of $F$ and $r$. This parameter is defined via a purely deterministic two-player game, in which the random process is replaced by an adversary that is subject to certain restrictions inherited from the random setting. Our second main result states that for any $F$ and $r$, the online vertex-Ramsey density $m_1^*(F,r)$ is a computable rational number. Our lower bound proof is algorithmic, i.e., we obtain polynomial-time...

  17. 孪生光束干涉法测量光源的空间相干性%Measurement of the spatial coherence of extended light source by twin beams-interference method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    满天龙; 万玉红; 江竹青; 王大勇; 陶世荃


    The coherence of light source have been employed in many aspects, such as optical processing and optical coherence holography. For this reason it has attracted vast interest in developing quantitative methods for measuring the spatial coherence characteristics of an optical field. We propose a novel method for measuring the spatial coherence degree of optical fields based on the triangular interferometer. Spatially separated twin beams are formed by an interferometer, and the interferogram formed by the twin beams is captured by an image detector. Because the separation of the twin beams is related to the coordinate position of the input beam, a series of positions are sampled by moving a pinhole and corresponding interference patterns are recorded. Then the visibilities of the interference patterns are calculated for measuring the spatial coherence degree. Experimentally measured and theoretically calculated values of spatial coherence degree fit well. The measurement error is 3.8%. Experimental results show the method proposed here is effective, simple, and robust without any special optical elements.%定量测定光源空间相干性在部分相干光成像,非相干全息术及光信息处理领域具有重要的研究价值.本文基于三角全息干涉光路提出了一种测量光源空间相干性的新方法.利用三角干涉全息光路系统中分束镜产生的孪生光束进行干涉获得干涉图,通过调整光源中心位置在写入平面内偏离光轴的量,改变两孪生光束空间分离量的大小,采集对应的一系列干涉图,计算干涉图样的对比度,从而对光源照明空间的波前上一系列不同距离的点对之间的空间复相干度进行测量.实验系统光路配置较为简单且不需要使用特殊加工的光学元件.针对一个准单色的扩展光源设计并进行实验,结果表明利用文中提出的方法可以准确的测量光源的空间相干性,实验结果相对于理

  18. Dynamic coherent backscattering mirror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeylikovich, I.; Xu, M., E-mail: [Physics Department, Fairfield University, Fairfield, CT 06824 (United States)


    The phase of multiply scattered light has recently attracted considerable interest. Coherent backscattering is a striking phenomenon of multiple scattered light in which the coherence of light survives multiple scattering in a random medium and is observable in the direction space as an enhancement of the intensity of backscattered light within a cone around the retroreflection direction. Reciprocity also leads to enhancement of backscattering light in the spatial space. The random medium behaves as a reciprocity mirror which robustly converts a diverging incident beam into a converging backscattering one focusing at a conjugate spot in space. Here we first analyze theoretically this coherent backscattering mirror (CBM) phenomenon and then demonstrate the capability of CBM compensating and correcting both static and dynamic phase distortions occurring along the optical path. CBM may offer novel approaches for high speed dynamic phase corrections in optical systems and find applications in sensing and navigation.

  19. Dynamic coherent backscattering mirror (United States)

    Xu, M.


    The phase of multiply scattered light has recently attracted considerable interest. Coherent backscattering is a striking phenomenon of multiple scattered light in which the coherence of light survives multiple scattering in a random medium and is observable in the direction space as an enhancement of the intensity of backscattered light within a cone around the retroreflection direction. Reciprocity also leads to enhancement of backscattering light in the spatial space. The random medium behaves as a reciprocity mirror which robustly converts a diverging incident beam into a converging backscattering one focusing at a conjugate spot in space. Here we first analyze theoretically this coherent backscattering mirror (CBM) phenomenon and then demonstrate the capability of CBM compensating and correcting both static and dynamic phase distortions occurring along the optical path. CBM may offer novel approaches for high speed dynamic phase corrections in optical systems and find applications in sensing and navigation. PMID:26937296

  20. Spatial distribution and temporal evolution of scattering centers by optical coherence tomography in the poly(L-lactide) backbone of a bioresorbable vascular scaffold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutiérrez-Chico, Juan Luis; Radu, Maria D; Diletti, Roberto


    Scattering centers (SC) are often observed with optical coherence tomography (OCT) in some struts of bioresorbable vascular scaffolds (BVS). These SC might be caused by crazes in the polymer during crimp-deployment (more frequent at inflection points) or by other processes, such as physiological...

  1. Relations between integrated and monochromatic luminosities of flat-spectrum radio quasars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Fu Chen; Zhao-Yu Chen; Yi-Ping Qin; Min-Feng Gu; Lian-Zhong Lü; Cheng-Yue Su; You-Bing Li; Ye Chen


    We employ a sample of 362 flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) to calculate their integrated luminosities by integrating the spectral energy distribution (SED) constructed with multi-band (radio, IR, optical, UV and X-ray) data.We compare these luminosities with those estimated from monochromatic luminosities by multiplying them by the conventional bolometric correction factors.Our analysis shows that the integrated luminosities calculated from the SED are much larger than the bolometric luminosities estimated from monochromatic luminosities.Their departing behavior tightly correlates with radio luminosities.The relations between integrated and monochromatic luminosities are explored, which are regarded as empirical relations that might be more suitable to be applied to estimate integrated luminosities of FSRQs from their monochromatic luminosities.

  2. A monochromatized chopped beam of cold neutrons for low background experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussiere, A. (Lab. de Physique des Particules, 74 - Annecy le Vieux (France)); Grivot, P. (Inst. des Sciences Nucleaires, 38 - Grenoble (France)); Kossakowski, R. (Lab. de Physique des Particules, 74 - Annecy le Vieux (France)); Liaud, P. (Lab. de Physique des Particules, 74 - Annecy le Vieux (France)); Saintignon, P. de (Inst. des Sciences Nucleaires, 38 - Grenoble (France)); Schreckenbach, K. (Inst. Laue-Langevin, 38 - Grenoble (France))


    The design and performance of a monochromatized, chopped beam of cold neutrons are described. The beam is particularly suited for experiments where a low level of gamma ray and diffused neutron background is required. (orig.)

  3. Emission of monochromatic microwave radiation from a nonequilibrium condensation of excited magnons


    Vannucchi, FS; Vasconcellos, AR; Luzzi,R.


    The observation of monochromatic emission of radiation from a nonequilibrium Bose-Einstein-like condensate of magnons suggests the possibility of creating a monochromatic microwave generator pumped by incoherent broadband sources. The device would have a tunable emitted frequency as a function of the applied constant magnetic field. We present an analysis of the mechanisms of interaction between the condensate of magnons and the radiation field producing the super-radiant emission of photons....

  4. Monochromatic 4-term arithmetic progressions in 2-colorings of $\\mathbb Z_n$

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Linyuan


    This paper is motivated by a recent result of Wolf \\cite{wolf} on the minimum number of monochromatic 4-term arithmetic progressions(4-APs, for short) in $\\Z_p$, where $p$ is a prime number. Wolf proved that there is a 2-coloring of $\\Z_p$ with 0.000386% fewer monochromatic 4-APs than random 2-colorings; the proof is probabilistic and non-constructive. In this paper, we present an explicit and simple construction of a 2-coloring with 9.3% fewer monochromatic 4-APs than random 2-colorings. This problem leads us to consider the minimum number of monochromatic 4-APs in $\\Z_n$ for general $n$. We obtain both lower bound and upper bound on the minimum number of monochromatic 4-APs in all 2-colorings of $\\Z_n$. Wolf proved that any 2-coloring of $\\Z_p$ has at least $(1/16+o(1))p^2$ monochromatic 4-APs. We improve this lower bound into $(7/96+o(1))p^2$. Our results on $\\Z_n$ naturally apply to the similar problem on $[n]$ (i.e., $\\{1,2,..., n\\}$). In 2008, Parillo, Robertson, and Saracino \\cite{prs} constructed a 2-...

  5. On the Spatial Ambiguity Function

    CERN Document Server

    Yuryev, Arthur N


    The ambiguity function of a spatial signal in the "signal spatial frequency displacement vs antenna linear displacement" coordinates is considered in this paper; in case of a monochromatic signal with known carrier frequency, spatial signal vector angular displacement is considered as the second coordinate. The analysis is made taking into account an external (reradiated or thermal) background which contributes considerable peculiarities in the properties of the spatial ambiguity function. Accuracy of measuring the signal linear or angular displacement and resolution are determined. Examples for the Fresnel and Fraunhofer zones are given.

  6. Utilizing broadband X-rays in a Bragg coherent X-ray diffraction imaging experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Wonsuk; Liu, Wenjun; Harder, Ross; Xu, Ruqing; Fuoss, Paul H.; Hruszkewycz, Stephan O.


    A method is presented to simplify Bragg coherent X-ray diffraction imaging studies of complex heterogeneous crystalline materials with a two-stage screening/imaging process that utilizes polychromatic and monochromatic coherent X-rays and is compatible within situsample environments. Coherent white-beam diffraction is used to identify an individual crystal particle or grain that displays desired properties within a larger population. A three-dimensional reciprocal-space map suitable for diffraction imaging is then measured for the Bragg peak of interest using a monochromatic beam energy scan that requires no sample motion, thus simplifyingin situchamber design. This approach was demonstrated with Au nanoparticles and will enable, for example, individual grains in a polycrystalline material of specific orientation to be selected, then imaged in three dimensions while under load.

  7. Utilizing broadband X-rays in a Bragg coherent X-ray diffraction imaging experiment. (United States)

    Cha, Wonsuk; Liu, Wenjun; Harder, Ross; Xu, Ruqing; Fuoss, Paul H; Hruszkewycz, Stephan O


    A method is presented to simplify Bragg coherent X-ray diffraction imaging studies of complex heterogeneous crystalline materials with a two-stage screening/imaging process that utilizes polychromatic and monochromatic coherent X-rays and is compatible with in situ sample environments. Coherent white-beam diffraction is used to identify an individual crystal particle or grain that displays desired properties within a larger population. A three-dimensional reciprocal-space map suitable for diffraction imaging is then measured for the Bragg peak of interest using a monochromatic beam energy scan that requires no sample motion, thus simplifying in situ chamber design. This approach was demonstrated with Au nanoparticles and will enable, for example, individual grains in a polycrystalline material of specific orientation to be selected, then imaged in three dimensions while under load.

  8. Monochromatic photography of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant. Plotting of isophotes of partial nebula radiation in the (OIII) and (NII)+H. cap alpha. lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitnik, T.G.; Toropova, M.S. (Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Gosudarstvennyj Astronomicheskij Inst. ' ' GAISh' ' )


    System of the isophotes of the 9' size in the west part of the Cyg Loop supernova remnant using monochromatic photographs in the (O3) and (N2)+Hsub(..cap alpha..) lines is obtained. A relative displacement of the regions of emission in these lines is discovered and explained by temperature reduction due to radiative losses behind the shock wave of the supernova explosion. The morphology difference between the (O3) and (N2)+Hsub(..cap alpha..) lines is explained. Anomalously large intensity ratios Isub((O3))/Isub(Hsub(..beta..)) are supposed to be due to spatial separation of the corresponding emission regions.

  9. Lasers and holography an introduction to coherent optics

    CERN Document Server

    KOCK, Winston


    Science Study Series No. 39: Lasers and Holography: An Introduction to Coherent Optics focuses on the processes, methodologies, and techniques involved in optics, including wave diffraction and patterns, zone plates, holograms, and diffraction. The publication first ponders on holograms as wave patterns, coherence, and lasers. Topics include reflectors and resonators, natural line width, semiconductor lasers, reflectors and spatial coherence, energy conservation with reflectors, frequency coherence and stability, coherent waves from small sources, photographic grating, and properties o

  10. Tomo-TRPIV measurement of coherent structure spatial topology in turbulent boundary layer%湍流边界层相干结构空间拓扑形态的层析TRPIV测量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜楠; 于培宁; 管新蕾


    用层析TRPIV(time-resolved paticle image velocimetry)技术精细测量了水洞中平板湍流边界层三分量速度的时空序列信号,提出了空间局部平均多尺度速度结构函数的新概念描述湍流多尺度涡结构的空间拉伸、压缩、剪切变形和旋转.用空间局部平均多尺度速度结构函数对湍流脉动速度进行了空间多尺度分解.用空间局部平均多尺度速度结构函数的新概念,根据湍流多尺度涡结构在空间流向的拉伸和压缩特征,提出了新的湍流相干结构条件采样方法,检测并提取了层析TRPIV数据中相干结构的"喷射"和"扫掠"事件中的速度、涡量等物理量的空间拓扑形态.发现在喷射和扫掠事件中均存在一对反向旋转的准流向"马蹄形"涡结构.%The spatial-temporal sequence of 3D-3C(three-dimensional-three-component) simultaneous velocity field in a turbulent boundary layer was finely measured by tomographic TRPIV(time-resolved particle image velocimetry) in a water channel.A new concept of spatial local averaged velocity structure function was introduced to describe the dilation,compression and shear distortion and rotation of multi-scale eddy structures in turbulent flow.The three fluctuating velocity components of TBL(turbulent boundary layer) were decomposed into multi-scale components by spatial local averaged velocity structure function.A new turbulence coherent structure conditional sampling method was proposed based on the dilation and compression features of turbulent multi-scale eddy structures and the new concept of spatial local averaged velocity structure function.The eject and sweep process due to large-scale coherent structure burst was conditionally detected and the characteristic spatial topology modes of physical quantities,such as velocity and vorticity,during coherent structure bursts,were extracted from the tomo-PIV(particle image velocimetry) experimental dataset.A pair

  11. A mirror for lab-based quasi-monochromatic parallel x-rays. (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanhhai; Lu, Xun; Lee, Chang Jun; Jung, Jin-Ho; Jin, Gye-Hwan; Kim, Sung Youb; Jeon, Insu


    A multilayered parabolic mirror with six W/Al bilayers was designed and fabricated to generate monochromatic parallel x-rays using a lab-based x-ray source. Using this mirror, curved bright bands were obtained in x-ray images as reflected x-rays. The parallelism of the reflected x-rays was investigated using the shape of the bands. The intensity and monochromatic characteristics of the reflected x-rays were evaluated through measurements of the x-ray spectra in the band. High intensity, nearly monochromatic, and parallel x-rays, which can be used for high resolution x-ray microscopes and local radiation therapy systems, were obtained.

  12. A mirror for lab-based quasi-monochromatic parallel x-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Thanhhai; Lu, Xun; Lee, Chang Jun; Jeon, Insu, E-mail: [School of Mechanical Engineering, Chonnam National University, 300 Yongbong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jin-Ho [Pro-optics Co., Ltd., 475 Ami-ri, Bubal-eup, Icheon 467-866 (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Gye-Hwan [Department of Radiology, Nambu University, 76 Chumdan Jungang 1-ro, Gwangsan-gu, Gwangju 506-706 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Youb [School of Mechanical and Advanced Materials Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, 100 Banyeon-ri, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of)


    A multilayered parabolic mirror with six W/Al bilayers was designed and fabricated to generate monochromatic parallel x-rays using a lab-based x-ray source. Using this mirror, curved bright bands were obtained in x-ray images as reflected x-rays. The parallelism of the reflected x-rays was investigated using the shape of the bands. The intensity and monochromatic characteristics of the reflected x-rays were evaluated through measurements of the x-ray spectra in the band. High intensity, nearly monochromatic, and parallel x-rays, which can be used for high resolution x-ray microscopes and local radiation therapy systems, were obtained.

  13. Cycles and transitivity by monochromatic paths in arc-coloured digraphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Casas-Bautista


    The result by Sands et al. (1982 that asserts: Every 2-coloured digraph has a kernel by monochromatic paths, and the result by Galeana-Sánchez et al. (2011 that asserts: If D is a finite m-coloured digraph that admits a partition {C1,C2} of the set of colours of D such that for each i∈{1,2} every cycle in the subdigraph D[Ci] spanned by the arcs with colours in Ci is monochromatic, C(D does not contain neither rainbow triangles nor rainbow P3⃗ (path of length 3 involving colours of both C1 and C2; then D has a kernel by monochromatic paths.

  14. Experimental study of blockage of monochromatic waves by counter currents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suastika, I.K.


    Blockage of waves by a current can occur if waves are propagating on a spatially varying opposing current in which the velocity is increasing in the wave propagation direction. The ongoing waves become shorter and steeper while they are propagating against the current. Blocking occurs at the

  15. Coherence delay augmented laser beam homogenizer (United States)

    Rasmussen, P.; Bernhardt, A.


    The geometrical restrictions on a laser beam homogenizer are relaxed by ug a coherence delay line to separate a coherent input beam into several components each having a path length difference equal to a multiple of the coherence length with respect to the other components. The components recombine incoherently at the output of the homogenizer, and the resultant beam has a more uniform spatial intensity suitable for microlithography and laser pantogography. Also disclosed is a variable aperture homogenizer, and a liquid filled homogenizer.

  16. Electroencephalograpic coherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Brežan


    Full Text Available Different brain areas process various aspects of information in parallel as well as segregated way. It is not known, how is this information integrated into a unitary percept or action. The binding problem is one of the key problems in understanding brain function. Synchronized oscillatory activity of neurons is one possible mechanism of the functional integration of different communicating brain areas. The binding has been well-studied in the visual system, but it could also serve as a mechanism in visuomotor integration or functional coupling present with other brain processes and behavioural modes (perception, complex motor behaviour, selective attention, learning, working memory, etc.. Interregional synchronization of the electroencephalographic (EEG signal can be determined by EEG coherence analysis. In the article we present a research example of coherence changes in a visuomotor task. During this task, coherence between visual and motor brain areas increased. This might reflect functional coupling between those areas, but it could also be influenced by other cognitive processes (e.g. selective attention. Coherence analysis is suitable for studying integrative brain function. Because it measures only one of the possible mechanisms of integration, it offers promise especially when combined with other electrophysiological and functional imaging methods.

  17. Coherent amplified optical coherence tomography (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Rao, Bin; Chen, Zhongping


    A technique to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a high speed 1300 nm swept source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) system was demonstrated. A semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) was employed in the sample arm to coherently amplify the weak light back-scattered from sample tissue without increasing laser power illuminated on the sample. The image quality improvement was visualized and quantified by imaging the anterior segment of a rabbit eye at imaging speed of 20,000 A-lines per second. The theory analysis of SNR gain is given followed by the discussion on the technologies that can further improve the SNR gain.

  18. Coherence and Sense of Coherence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne


    Constraints in the implementation of models of blended learning can be explained by several causes, but in this paper, it is illustrated that lack of sense of coherence is a major factor of these constraints along with the referential whole of the perceived learning environments. The question...... of coherence is both related to conditional matters as learning environments, structure, clarity and linkage but also preconditioned matters and prerequisites among participants related to experiences and convenience. It is stressed that this calls for continuous assessment and reflections upon these terms...... and conditions if the student shall be able acquire the necessary competencies....

  19. Coherence, Pseudo-Coherence, and Non-Coherence. (United States)

    Enkvist, Nils Erik

    Analysis of the factors that make a text coherent or non-coherent suggests that total coherence requires cohesion not only on the textual surface but on the semantic level as well. Syntactic evidence of non-coherence includes lack of formal agreement blocking a potential cross-reference, anaphoric and cataphoric references that do not follow their…

  20. Note on 2-edge-colorings of complete graphs with small monochromatic k-connected subgraphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Ze-min; WANG Yu-ling; WEN Shi-li


    Bollob´as and Gy´arf´as conjectured that for n > 4(k-1) every 2-edge-coloring of Kn contains a monochromatic k-connected subgraph with at least n-2k+2 vertices. Liu, et al. proved that the conjecture holds when n ≥ 13k-15. In this note, we characterize all the 2-edge-colorings of Kn where each monochromatic k-connected subgraph has at most n-2k+2 vertices for n≥13k-15.

  1. Dispersion-free monochromatization method for selecting a single-order harmonic beam

    CERN Document Server

    Takahashi, Eiji J; Ichimaru, Satoshi; Midorikawa, Katsumi


    We propose a method to monochromatize multiple orders of high harmonics by using a proper designed multilayer mirror. Multilayer mirrors designed by our concept realize the perfect extraction of a single-order harmonic from multiple-order harmonic beam, and exhibit broadband tenability and high reflectivity in the soft-x-ray region. Furthermore, the proposed monochromatization method can preserve the femtosecond to attosecond pulse duration for the reflected beam. This device is very useful for ultrafast soft x-ray experiments that require high-order harmonic beams, such as femtosecond/attosecond, time-resolved, pump-probe spectroscopy.

  2. The monochromatic imaging mode of a RITA-type neutron spectrometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, C.R.H.; Andersen, P.; Klausen, S.N.;


    The imaging monochromatic mode of a neutron spectrometer with a multi-bladed RITA analyser system is so far unexplored. We present analytical calculations that define the mode. It is shown that the mode can be realised for PG (002) analyser crystals, from incident energies of about 3.2 meV and up......, allowing the important cases of 3.7, 5.0 and 13.7 meV. Due to beam divergence, the neutron rays from neighbouring analyser blades are found to overlap slightly. Hence, the optimal use of the monochromatic imaging mode would be found by employing an adjustable radial collimator to limit the spread...

  3. Coherence and Sense of Coherence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne


    of coherence is both related to conditional matters as learning environments, structure, clarity and linkage but also preconditioned matters and prerequisites among participants related to experiences and convenience. It is stressed that this calls for continuous assessment and reflections upon these terms...... and conditions if the student shall be able acquire the necessary competencies....

  4. Simultaneous scintillation measurements of coherent and partially coherent beams in an open atmosphere experiment (United States)

    Efimov, Anatoly; Velizhanin, Kirill; Gelikonov, Grigory


    Scintillation indices, probability distribution functions and signal spectra are measured simultaneously for spatially coherent and partially coherent optical beams propagating through various distances in an open atmosphere. The partially coherent beam is produced by coupling the broadband output of a superluminescent diode to a multimode optical fiber. A simple system to adjust the coherence radius by controlling the numerical aperture at the fiber output is implemented. Substantial reduction of the scintillation index and signal fade probability as compared to a slightly diverging coherent Gaussian beam are observed at all propagation distances studied up to 6.5 km.

  5. Spitzer Analysis of HII Region Complexes in the Magellanic Clouds: Determining a Suitable Monochromatic Obscured Star Formation Indicator

    CERN Document Server

    Lawton, Brandon; Babler, Brian; Block, Miwa; Bolatto, Alberto D; Bracker, Steve; Carlson, Lynn R; Engelbracht, Charles W; Hora, Joseph L; Indebetouw, Remy; Madden, Suzanne C; Meade, Marilyn; Meixner, Margaret; Misselt, Karl; Oey, M S; Oliveira, Joana M; Robitaille, Thomas; Sewilo, Marta; Shiao, Bernie; Vijh, Uma P; Whitney, Barbara


    HII regions are the birth places of stars, and as such they provide the best measure of current star formation rates (SFRs) in galaxies. The close proximity of the Magellanic Clouds allows us to probe the nature of these star forming regions at small spatial scales. We aim to determine the monochromatic IR band that most accurately traces the bolometric IR flux (TIR), which can then be used to estimate an obscured SFR. We present the spatial analysis, via aperture/annulus photometry, of 16 LMC and 16 SMC HII region complexes using the Spitzer IRAC and MIPS bands. UV rocket data and SHASSA H-alpha data are also included. We find that nearly all of the LMC and SMC HII region SEDs peak around 70um, from ~10 to ~400 pc from the central sources. As a result, the sizes of HII regions as probed by 70um is approximately equal to the sizes as probed by TIR (about 70 pc in radius); the radial profile of the 70um flux, normalized by TIR, is constant at all radii (70um ~ 0.45 TIR); the 1-sigma standard deviation of the 7...

  6. Photoionization of hydrogen atom by coherent intense high-frequency short laser pulses: Direct propagation of electron wave packets on enormous spatial grids

    CERN Document Server

    Demekhin, Philipp V; Cederbaum, Lorenz S


    The time-dependent Schr\\"{o}dinger equation for the hydrogen atom and its interaction with coherent intense high-frequency short laser pulses is solved numerically exactly by employing the code implemented for the multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree-Fock (MCTDHF) method. Thereby, the wavefunction is followed in space and time for times longer than the pulse duration. Results are explicitly shown for 3 and 10 fs pulses. Particular attention is paid to identifying the effect of dynamic interference of photoelectrons emitted with the same kinetic energy at different times during the rising and falling sides of the pulse predicted in [\\emph{Ph.V. Demekhin and L.S. Cederbaum}, Phys. Rev. Lett. \\textbf{108}, 253001 (2012)]. In order to be able to see the dynamic interference pattern in the computed electron spectra, the photoelectron wave packet has to be propagated over long distances. Clearly, complex absorption potentials often employed to compute spectra of emitted particles cannot be used to detect dy...

  7. History and status of coherent bremsstrahlung (United States)

    Überall, Herbert


    Coherent bremsstrahlung research originated with the 1955 papers by Dyson and Uberall, Ter-Mikaelian, and Ferretti. Its intermediate status thirty years later has been documented by Saenz and Uberall in the book Coherent Radiation Sources (A. W. Sáenz and H. Überall, editors), Springer, Berlin 1985. The first precision experiments were carried out by Diambrini-Palazzi et al. (1 960) in Frascati shortly after the theory had been developed; see also Timm (1 969). After experimentation by dozens of electron accelerator laboratories all over the world, there are presently measurements being made by Arends et al. at the University of Mainz (MAMI, 855 MeV), Klein et al. at the University of Bonn (ELSA, 3 GeV), at CERN (20-170 GeV) by Avakian of the Yerevan Physics Institute and others, and with electron energies of 6 GeV at the Jefferson Laboratory, Newport News, VA (F. J. Klein, Catholic University, spokesperson). At Jefferson Lab, linearly polarized quasi-monochromatic coherent-bremsstrahlung photons [peaked at 1.8GeV, with polarization (after collimation) of 84%] are being used for the production (off protons) of ρ and ω mesons among others. Recent theoretical research deals with coherent bremsstrahlung in quasicrystals (Fusina, Langworthy, and Saenz, 2001), and with planar and axial coherent bremsstrahlung in a diamond crystal (Chouffani, Endo, and Uberall 2001-2), both at low energies. In the latter study, in which the concept of axial coherent bremsstrahlung is now stressed (while in the related processes of planar and axial channeling radiation this distinction is well known), photon emission occurs here not necessarily in the forward direction.

  8. Coherent laser beam combining

    CERN Document Server

    Brignon, Arnaud


    Recently, the improvement of diode pumping in solid state lasers and the development of double clad fiber lasers have allowed to maintain excellent laser beam quality with single mode fibers. However, the fiber output power if often limited below a power damage threshold. Coherent laser beam combining (CLBC) brings a solution to these limitations by identifying the most efficient architectures and allowing for excellent spectral and spatial quality. This knowledge will become critical for the design of the next generation high-power lasers and is of major interest to many industrial, environme

  9. Effect of a combination of green and blue monochromatic light on broiler immune response. (United States)

    Zhang, Ziqiang; Cao, Jing; Wang, Zixu; Dong, Yulan; Chen, Yaoxing


    Our previous study suggested that green light or blue light would enhance the broiler immune response; this study was conducted to evaluate whether a combination of green and blue monochromatic light would result in improved immune response. A total of 192 Arbor Acre male broilers were exposed to white light, red light, green light, and blue light from 0 to 26 days. From 27 to 49 days, half of the broilers in green light and blue light were switched to blue light (G-B) and green light (B-G), respectively. The levels of anti-Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and anti-bovine serum albumin (BSA) IgG in G-B group were elevated by 11.9-40.3% and 17.4-48.7%, respectively, compared to single monochromatic lights (Plight groups. However, the serum TNF-α concentration in the G-B group was reduced by 3.64-40.5% compared to other groups, and no significant difference was found between the G-B and B-G groups in any type of detection index at the end of the experiment. These results suggested that the combination of G-B and B-G monochromatic light could effectively enhance the antibody titer, the proliferation index of lymphocytes and alleviate the stress response in broilers. Therefore, the combination of green and blue monochromatic light can improve the immune function of broilers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Pustular Palmoplantar Psoriasis Successfully Treated with Nb-UVB Monochromatic Excimer Light: A Case-Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Gianfaldoni


    Full Text Available Barber’s palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP is a form of localised pustular psoriasis, affecting the palmar and plantar surfaces. It is a chronic disease, with a deep impact on the patients’ quality of life. The Authors discuss a case of Baber Psoriasis successfully treated with monochromatic excimer light.

  11. Resonant three-photon ionization of hydrogenic atoms by a non-monochromatic laser field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yakhontov, V.; Santra, R.; Jungmann, K.


    We present ionization probability and lineshape calculations for the two-step three- photon ionization process, 1S (2(h)over-bar-omega)under-right-arrow, 2S ((h)over-bar-omega)under-right-arrow epsilon P, of the ground state of hydrogenic atoms in a non-monochromatic laser field with a time-dependen

  12. Resonant three-photon ionization of hydrogenic atoms by a non-monochromatic laser field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yakhontov, V.; Santra, R.; Jungmann, K.


    We present ionization probability and lineshape calculations for a specifed two-step three-photon ionization process of the ground state of hydrogenic atoms in a non-monochromatic laser field with a time-dependent amplitude. Within the framework of a three-level model, the AC Stark shifts and non-ze

  13. Broadband EM radiation amplification by means of a monochromatically driven two-level system (United States)

    Soldatov, Andrey V.


    It is shown that a two-level quantum system possessing dipole moment operator with permanent non-equal diagonal matrix elements and driven by external semiclassical monochromatic high-frequency electromagnetic (EM) (laser) field can amplify EM radiation waves of much lower frequency.

  14. The Effect of Coherence in the Propagation through Periodic Structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertolotti, M.; Hoenders, B.; Mandatori, A.; Sibilia, C.


    The effects of the coherence properties of light beams propagating through periodic structures are discussed. In particular, spatial coherence may influence the transmitted field. Some 2D structures which give transmittances strongly influenced by the coherence of the incoming field are discussed.

  15. Effects of monochromatic light stimuli on the development and Muc2 expression of goblet cells in broiler small intestines during embryogenesis. (United States)

    Yu, Y; Wang, Z; Cao, J; Dong, Y; Wang, T; Chen, Y


    The effects of monochromatic light on the ontogeny, differentiation, and Muc2 expression level in goblet cells were studied in the small intestines of late-stage broiler embryos. The embryos were exposed to blue light (B group), green light (G group), red light (R group), or darkness (D group) throughout the incubation period. On d 15 of incubation (E15), a few acidic goblet cells (only the sulfated subtype) were observed, and Muc2 mRNA expression was detected. On E18, however, neutral, acidic, and intermediate types, as well as the sulfated subtype, were observed in the small intestine, and a decreasing gradient of goblet cell density was found along the duodenum to ileum axis. Up to E21, 3 types of goblet cells and 3 acidic cell subtypes were found in all the small intestines. The goblet cell density increased along the duodenum to ileum axis. Monochromatic light stimulation resulted in no significant differences in the density and types of goblet cells between the different treatment groups on E15 and E18, but an increased Muc2 mRNA expression level was detected on E18 in the G group compared with the other treatment groups. On E21, the goblet cell density, proportion of acidic goblet cells, and Muc2 mRNA expression level increased in the G group compared with other treatment groups. These results suggest that the ontogeny and differentiation of goblet cells in broiler embryos display temporal and spatial differences. Green monochromatic light may have the potential to promote the proliferation and maturation of as well as the expression of Muc2 mRNA in goblet cells of broiler embryos.

  16. Breast tomosynthesis with monochromatic beams: a feasibility study using Monte Carlo simulations (United States)

    Malliori, A.; Bliznakova, K.; Sechopoulos, I.; Kamarianakis, Z.; Fei, B.; Pallikarakis, N.


    The aim of this study is to investigate the impact on image quality of using monochromatic beams for lower dose breast tomosynthesis (BT). For this purpose, modeling and simulation of BT and mammography imaging processes have been performed using two x-ray beams: one at 28 kVp and a monochromatic one at 19 keV at different entrance surface air kerma ranging between 0.16 and 5.5 mGy. Two 4 cm thick computational breast models, in a compressed state, were used: one simple homogeneous and one heterogeneous based on CT breast images, with compositions of 50% glandular-50% adipose and 40% glandular-60% adipose tissues by weight, respectively. Modeled lesions, representing masses and calcifications, were inserted within these breast phantoms. X-ray transport in the breast models was simulated with previously developed and validated Monte Carlo application. Results showed that, for the same incident photon fluence, the use of the monochromatic beam in BT resulted in higher image quality compared to the one using polychromatic acquisition, especially in terms of contrast. For the homogenous phantom, the improvement ranged between 15% and 22% for calcifications and masses, respectively, while for the heterogeneous one this improvement was in the order of 33% for the masses and 17% for the calcifications. For different exposures, comparable image quality in terms of signal-difference-to-noise ratio and higher contrast for all features was obtained when using a monochromatic 19 keV beam at a lower mean glandular dose, compared to the polychromatic one. Monochromatic images also provide better detail and, in combination with BT, can lead to substantial improvement in visualization of features, and particularly better edge detection of low-contrast masses.

  17. Photoacoustics with coherent light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Bossy


    Full Text Available Since its introduction in the mid-nineties, photoacoustic imaging of biological tissue has been one of the fastest growing biomedical imaging modality, and its basic principles are now considered as well established. In particular, light propagation in photoacoustic imaging is generally considered from the perspective of transport theory. However, recent breakthroughs in optics have shown that coherent light propagating through optically scattering medium could be manipulated towards novel imaging approaches. In this article, we first provide an introduction to the relevant concepts in the field, and then review the recent works showing that it is possible to exploit the coherence of light in conjunction with photoacoustics. We illustrate how the photoacoustic effect can be used as a powerful feedback mechanism for optical wavefront shaping in complex media, and conversely show how the coherence of light can be exploited to enhance photoacoustic imaging, for instance in terms of spatial resolution or for designing minimally invasive endoscopic devices. Finally, we discuss the current challenges and perspectives down the road towards practical applications in the field of photoacoustic imaging.

  18. Experimental study on partial coherence source

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao Xue Qing; Yuan Xiao; LiuJingRu; Wang Long Hua; Tang Ying; Huang, Kerson


    Partial coherence source is a key part in the laser system using echelon-free introduced spatial incoherence beam smoothing technique. Different kinds of partial coherence sources have been studied experimentally for improving the uniformity of laser intensity distribution. It is found that the source produced by excimer laser scattering on the surface of a teflon plate is ideal. The properties of this kind of source are studied. As a result, the uniformity of source beam intensity distribution, the beam spatial coherence and energy transfer efficiency of the source are obtained

  19. Enhancement of cooperation in the spatial prisoner's dilemma with a coherence-resonance effect through annealed randomness at a cooperator-defector boundary; comparison of two variant models (United States)

    Tanimoto, Jun


    Inspired by the commonly observed real-world fact that people tend to behave in a somewhat random manner after facing interim equilibrium to break a stalemate situation whilst seeking a higher output, we established two models of the spatial prisoner's dilemma. One presumes that an agent commits action errors, while the other assumes that an agent refers to a payoff matrix with an added random noise instead of an original payoff matrix. A numerical simulation revealed that mechanisms based on the annealing of randomness due to either the action error or the payoff noise could significantly enhance the cooperation fraction. In this study, we explain the detailed enhancement mechanism behind the two models by referring to the concepts that we previously presented with respect to evolutionary dynamic processes under the names of enduring and expanding periods.

  20. Investigation of adaptive filtering and MDL mitigation based on space-time block-coding for spatial division multiplexed coherent receivers (United States)

    Weng, Yi; He, Xuan; Yao, Wang; Pacheco, Michelle C.; Wang, Junyi; Pan, Zhongqi


    In this paper, we explored the performance of space-time block-coding (STBC) assisted multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) scheme for modal dispersion and mode-dependent loss (MDL) mitigation in spatial-division multiplexed optical communication systems, whereas the weight matrices of frequency-domain equalization (FDE) were updated heuristically using decision-directed recursive least squares (RLS) algorithm for convergence and channel estimation. The proposed STBC-RLS algorithm can achieve 43.6% enhancement on convergence rate over conventional least mean squares (LMS) for quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) signals with merely 16.2% increase in hardware complexity. The overall optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) tolerance can be improved via STBC by approximately 3.1, 4.9, 7.8 dB for QPSK, 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) and 64-QAM with respective bit-error-rates (BER) and minimum-mean-square-error (MMSE).

  1. [Optical coherence tomography in the diagnosis of achromatopsia]. (United States)

    Burgueño-Montañés, C; Colunga-Cueva, M


    The case of a fifty five year-old male with nyctalopia, photophobia, poor colour vision and nystagmus, is presented. The initial suspected diagnoses were achromatopsia and blue-cone monochromatism, since both are clinically indistinguishable. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) showed the characteristic foveal reflectivity pattern of achromatopsia. This diagnosis was subsequently confirmed by genetic study. OCT is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging method that allows tissue morphology to be observed with high resolution. Its use might be of great help to distinguish clinically similar diseases. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Development and applications of coherent imaging with improved temporal and spatial resolution; Developpement et applications de l'imagerie coherente aux rayons X a tres haute resolution spatiale et temporelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokso, Rajmund


    This work has 2 purposes: the improvement of both temporal and spatial resolution of X-ray tomography. The first part is devoted to the technical aspects of the tomographic technique, particularly at the ESRF (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility) beamline ID19, and the application of the new acquisition scheme to the imaging of liquid foams. We have improved the temporal resolution and field of view of the setup, which allowed to obtain for the first time experimental data with good statistics on three dimensional liquid foams. In the second part of the thesis we have described the Kirkpatrick-Baez focusing system and its first applications. In terms of stability and image quality the developments presented in this part of the thesis provide valuable evidence for the feasibility of phase contrast tomography in magnifying geometry. Since the ultimate goal of this research is to improve the spatial resolution in tomography for applications, four different contributions are important for the characterization of the imaging system: 1) the thermal stability and mechanical imperfections, 2) effects of distortion induced by mirror imperfections, 3) effects of refraction on sample borders, and 4) phase propagation effects with the influence of the magnification. Each of these factors has been studied.

  3. Towards a Monochromatization Scheme for Direct Higgs Production at FCC-ee

    CERN Document Server

    Valdivia Garcia, Marco Alan; Zimmermann, Frank


    Direct Higgs production in e+e− collisions at the FCC is of interest if the centre-of-mass energy spread can be reduced by at least an order of magnitude. A monochromatization scheme, to accomplish this, can be realized with horizontal dispersion of opposite sign for the two colliding beams at the interaction point (IP). We recall historical approaches to monochromatization, then derive a set of IP parameters which would provide the required performance in FCC e+e− collisions at 62.5 GeV beam energy, compare these with the baseline optics parameters at neighbouring energies (45.6 and 80 GeV), comment on the effect of beamstrahlung, and indicate the modifications of the FCC-ee final-focus optics needed to obtain the required parameters.

  4. Monochromatic imaging instrumentation for applications in aeronomy of the earth and planets (United States)

    Baumgardner, Jeffrey; Flynn, Brian; Mendillo, Michael


    Monochromatic imaging instrumentation has been developed that uses narrow-band (12 A FWHP) interference filters or plane reflection gratings for 2D imaging and imaging spectrograph applications. By changing the optics in front of the filter or grating, the field of view of the instruments can be varied from 180 deg to 6 deg. In the case of the 2D monochromatic imager, the 12 mm-diameter filtered image is formed at about f/1 on the input photocathode of an intensified CCD camera (380 x 488 pixels). The sensitivities of the systems are about 50-100 R s (S/N about 2). Examples of data taken with both of these instruments include detection and mapping of Jupiter's sodium magnetonebula and stable auroral red arcs in the terrestrial ionosphere.

  5. Coherent fiber supercontinuum for biophotonics. (United States)

    Tu, Haohua; Boppart, Stephen A


    Biophotonics and nonlinear fiber optics have traditionally been two independent fields. Since the discovery of fiber-based supercontinuum generation in 1999, biophotonics applications employing incoherent light have experienced a large impact from nonlinear fiber optics, primarily because of the access to a wide range of wavelengths and a uniform spatial profile afforded by fiber supercontinuum. However, biophotonics applications employing coherent light have not benefited from the most well-known techniques of supercontinuum generation for reasons such as poor coherence (or high noise), insufficient controllability, and inadequate portability. Fortunately, a few key techniques involving nonlinear fiber optics and femtosecond laser development have emerged to overcome these critical limitations. Despite their relative independence, these techniques are the focus of this review, because they can be integrated into a low-cost portable biophotonics source platform. This platform can be shared across many different areas of research in biophotonics, enabling new applications such as point-of-care coherent optical biomedical imaging.

  6. Monochromatic wavelength dispersive x-ray fluorescence providing sensitive and selective detection of uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havrilla, George J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Collins, Michael L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Montoya, Velma M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Zewu [XOS; Wei, Fuzhong [XOS


    Monochromatic wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (MWDXRF) is a sensitive and selective method for elemental compositional analyses. The basis for this instrumental advance is the doubly curved crystal (DCC) optic. Previous work has demonstrated the feasibility of sensitive trace element detection for yttrium as a surrogate for curium in aqueous solutions. Additional measurements have demonstrated similar sensitivity in several different matrix environments which attests to the selectivity of the DCC optic as well as the capabilities of the MWDXRF concept. The objective of this effort is to develop an improved Pu characterization method for nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. The MWDXRF prototype instrument is the second step in a multi-year effort to achieve an improved Pu assay. This work will describe a prototype MWDXRF instrument designed for uranium detection and characterization. The prototype consists of an X-ray tube with a rhodium anode and a DCC excitation optic incorporated into the source. The DCC optic passes the RhK{alpha} line at 20.214 keV for monochromatic excitation of the sample. The source is capable of 50 W power at 50 kV and 1.0 mA operation. The x-ray emission from the sample is collected by a DCC optic set at the UL{alpha} line of 13.613 keV. The collection optic transmits the UL{alpha} x-rays to the silicon drift detector. The x-ray source, sample, collection optic and detector are all mounted on motion controlled stages for the critical alignment of these components. The sensitivity and selectivity of the instrument is obtained through the monochromatic excitation and the monochromatic detection. The prototype instrument performance has a demonstrated for sensitivity for uranium detection of around 2 ppm at the current state of development. Further improvement in sensitivity is expected with more detailed alignment.

  7. Feasibility of Strong and Quasi-Monochromatic Gamma-Ray Generation by the Laser Compton Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jiyoung; Rehman, Haseeb ur; Kim, Yonghee [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    This is because LCS γ-rays are energy-tunable, quasi-monochromatic, and beam-like. The photon intensity of the mono-chromatic LCS gamma-ray should be high or strong for efficient and high transmutation rate. It was recently reported that a so-called energy-recovery linac system is able to produce a very high-intensity LCS photons in the order of approximately 1013 photons/s economically. It however did not evaluate quality of the LCS photon beam although a quasi-monoenergetic LCS beam is of huge importance in the photo-nuclear transmutation reactions. It is upon this observation that this paper was prepared. Specifically, this work attempts to quantify intensity of the quasi-monochromatic LCS beam from the said linac system. In addition, this paper aims to discuss general characteristics of the LCS photon, and possible approaches to increase its intensity. This paper presents essential characteristics of the laser Compton scattering (LCS) in terms of its photon energy, cross-section and photon intensity. By using different combinations of electron energy, laser energy and scattering angle, we can effectively generate high-intensity and highly-chromatic LCS gamma-rays. Our preliminary analyses indicate that, in view of Compton cross-section, higher-energy photon can be better generated by increasing the electron energy rather than increasing the laser energy. However, in order to maximize the intensity of monochromatic beam, the laser energy should be maximized for a targeted LCS photon energy.

  8. A method for the coherence measurement of the supercontinuum source using Michelson interferometer (United States)

    Semenova, V. A.; Tsypkin, A. V.; Putilin, S. E.; Bespalov, V. G.


    Coherent properties of supercontinuum sources are highly significant for various applications, including low-coherence interferometry and optical frequency metrology. We propose a fast method for the spatial and temporal self-coherence of the SC measurement using Michelson interferometer without a mirror movement. Furthermore, we present self-coherence measurements of the supercontinuum, generated in microstructured fiber at 780 nm.

  9. In-ovo monochromatic green light photostimulation enhances embryonic somatotropic axis activity. (United States)

    Dishon, L; Avital-Cohen, N; Malamud, D; Heiblum, R; Druyan, S; Porter, T E; Gumulka, M; Rozenboim, I


    Previous studies demonstrated that in ovo photostimulation with monochromatic green light increases body weight and accelerates muscle development in broilers. The mechanism in which in ovo photostimulation accelerates growth and muscle development is not clearly understood. The objective of the current study was to define development of the somatotropic axis in the broiler embryo associated with in ovo green light photostimulation. Two-hundred-forty fertile broiler eggs were divided into 2 groups. The first group was incubated under intermittent monochromatic green light using light-emitting diode (LED) lamps with an intensity of 0.1 W\\m2 at shell level, and the second group was incubated under dark conditions and served as control. In ovo green light photostimulation increased plasma growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) levels, as well as hypothalamic growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH), liver growth hormone receptor (GHR), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) mRNA levels. The in ovo photostimulation did not, however, increase embryo's body weight, breast muscle weight, or liver weight. The results of this study suggest that stimulation with monochromatic green light during incubation increases somatotropic axis expression, as well as plasma prolactin levels, during embryonic development. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  10. Determining contrast sensitivity functions for monochromatic light emitted by high-brightness LEDs (United States)

    Ramamurthy, Vasudha; Narendran, Nadarajah; Freyssinier, Jean Paul; Raghavan, Ramesh; Boyce, Peter


    Light-emitting diode (LED) technology is becoming the choice for many lighting applications that require monochromatic light. However, one potential problem with LED-based lighting systems is uneven luminance patterns. Having a uniform luminance distribution is more important in some applications. One example where LEDs are becoming a viable alternative and luminance uniformity is an important criterion is backlighted monochromatic signage. The question is how much uniformity is required for these applications. Presently, there is no accepted metric that quantifies luminance uniformity. A recent publication proposed a method based on digital image analysis to quantify beam quality of reflectorized halogen lamps. To be able to employ such a technique to analyze colored beams generated by LED systems, it is necessary to have contrast sensitivity functions (CSFs) for monochromatic light produced by LEDs. Several factors including the luminance, visual field size, and spectral power distribution of the light affect the CSFs. Although CSFs exist for a variety of light sources at visual fields ranging from 2 degrees to 20 degrees, CSFs do not exist for red, green, and blue light produced by high-brightness LEDs at 2-degree and 10-degree visual fields and at luminances typical for backlighted signage. Therefore, the goal of the study was to develop a family of CSFs for 2-degree and 10-degree visual fields illuminated by narrow-band LEDs at typical luminances seen in backlighted signs. The details of the experiment and the results are presented in this manuscript.

  11. Dichromatic and monochromatic laser radiation effects on survival and morphology of Pantoea agglomerans (United States)

    Thomé, A. M. C.; Souza, B. P.; Mendes, J. P. M.; Soares, L. C.; Trajano, E. T. L.; Fonseca, A. S.


    Despite the beneficial effects of low-level lasers on wound healing, their application for treatment of infected injuries is controversial because low-level lasers could stimulate bacterial growth exacerbating the infectious process. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate in vitro effects of low-level lasers on survival, morphology and cell aggregation of Pantoea agglomerans. P. agglomerans samples were isolated from human pressure injuries and cultures were exposed to low-level monochromatic and simultaneous dichromatic laser radiation to study the survival, cell aggregation, filamentation and morphology of bacterial cells in exponential and stationary growth phases. Fluence, wavelength and emission mode were those used in therapeutic protocols for wound healing. Data show no changes in morphology and cell aggregation, but dichromatic laser radiation decreased bacterial survival in exponential growth phase and monochromatic red and infrared lasers increased bacterial survival at the same fluence. Simultaneous dichromatic laser radiation induces biological effects that differ from those induced by monochromatic laser radiation and simultaneous dichromatic laser could be the option for treatment of infected pressure injuries by Pantoea agglomerans.

  12. Melatonin modulates monochromatic light-induced GHRH expression in the hypothalamus and GH secretion in chicks. (United States)

    Zhang, Liwei; Cao, Jing; Wang, Zixu; Dong, Yulan; Chen, Yaoxing


    To study the mechanism by which monochromatic lights affect the growth of broilers, a total of 192 newly hatched broilers, including the intact, sham-operated and pinealectomy groups, were exposed to white light (WL), red light (RL), green light (GL) and blue light (BL) using a light-emitting diode (LED) system for 2 weeks. The results showed that the GHRH-ir neurons were distributed in the infundibular nucleus (IN) of the chick hypothalamus. The mRNA and protein levels of GHRH in the hypothalamus and the plasma GH concentrations in the chicks exposed to GL were increased by 6.83-31.36%, 8.71-34.52% and 6.76-9.19% compared to those in the chicks exposed to WL (P=0.022-0.001), RL (P=0.002-0.000) and BL (P=0.290-0.017) in the intact group, respectively. The plasma melatonin concentrations showed a positive correlation with the expression of GHRH (r=0.960) and the plasma GH concentrations (r=0.993) after the various monochromatic light treatments. After pinealectomy, however, these parameters decreased and there were no significant differences between GL and the other monochromatic light treatments. These findings suggest that melatonin plays a critical role in GL illumination-enhanced GHRH expression in the hypothalamus and plasma GH concentrations in young broilers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Excitation of monochromatic and stable electron acoustic wave by two counter-propagating laser beams (United States)

    Xiao, C. Z.; Liu, Z. J.; Zheng, C. Y.; He, X. T.


    The undamped electron acoustic wave is a newly-observed nonlinear electrostatic plasma wave and has potential applications in ion acceleration, laser amplification and diagnostics due to its unique frequency range. We propose to make the first attempt to excite a monochromatic and stable electron acoustic wave (EAW) by two counter-propagating laser beams. The matching conditions relevant to laser frequencies, plasma density, and electron thermal velocity are derived and the harmonic effects of the EAW are excluded. Single-beam instabilities, including stimulated Raman scattering and stimulated Brillouin scattering, on the excitation process are quantified by an interaction quantity, η =γ {τ }B, where γ is the growth rate of each instability and {τ }B is the characteristic time of the undamped EAW. The smaller the interaction quantity, the more successfully the monochromatic and stable EAW can be excited. Using one-dimensional Vlasov-Maxwell simulations, we excite EAW wave trains which are amplitude tunable, have a duration of thousands of laser periods, and are monochromatic and stable, by carefully controlling the parameters under the above conditions.

  14. Dark Matter Decay to a Photon and a Neutrino: the Double Monochromatic Smoking Gun Scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Aisati, Chaïmae El; Hambye, Thomas; Scarna, Tiziana


    In the energy range from few TeV to 25 TeV, upper bounds on the dark matter decay rate into high energy monochromatic neutrinos have recently become comparable to those on monochromatic gamma-ray lines. This implies clear possibilities of a future double "smoking-gun" evidence for the dark matter particle, from the observation of both a gamma and a neutrino line at the same energy. In particular, we show that a scenario where both lines are induced from the same dark matter particle decay leads to correlations that can already be tested. We study this "double monochromatic" scenario by considering the complete list of lowest dimensional effective operators that could induce such a decay. Furthermore, we argue that, on top of lines from decays into two-body final states, three-body final states can also be highly relevant. In addition to producing a distinct hard photon spectrum, three-body final states also produce a line-like feature in the neutrino spectrum that can be searched for by neutrino telescopes.

  15. Impact of wave front and coherence optimization in coherent diffractive imaging. (United States)

    Ge, X; Boutu, W; Gauthier, D; Wang, F; Borta, A; Barbrel, B; Ducousso, M; Gonzalez, A I; Carré, B; Guillaumet, D; Perdrix, M; Gobert, O; Gautier, J; Lambert, G; Maia, F R N C; Hajdu, J; Zeitoun, P; Merdji, H


    We present single shot nanoscale imaging using a table-top femtosecond soft X-ray laser harmonic source at a wavelength of 32 nm. We show that the phase retrieval process in coherent diffractive imaging critically depends on beam quality. Coherence and image fidelity are measured from single-shot coherent diffraction patterns of isolated nano-patterned slits. Impact of flux, wave front and coherence of the soft X-ray beam on the phase retrieval process and the image quality are discussed. After beam improvements, a final image reconstruction is presented with a spatial resolution of 78 nm (half period) in a single 20 fs laser harmonic shot.

  16. Coherence switching of a degenerate VECSEL for multimodality imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Knitter, Sebastian; Redding, Brandon; Khokha, Mustafa K; Choma, Michael A; Cao, Hui


    We demonstrate a VECSEL (vertical external cavity surface emitting laser) based degenerate source with an adjustable degree of spatial coherence that is electrically pumped, mechanically compact and supports continuous-wave emission. The laser operation can be switched between a large number of mutually incoherent spatial modes and few-mode operation at little power loss. This technology allows multimodality imaging, where low spatial coherence illumination is used for traditional high-speed video-microscopy and high spatial coherence illumination is used to extract dynamic information of flow processes. The initial demonstration is performed on imaging embryo heart function in Xenopus, which is an important animal model for human heart disease.

  17. Dual energy CT: How well can pseudo-monochromatic imaging reduce metal artifacts?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuchenbecker, Stefan, E-mail:; Faby, Sebastian; Sawall, Stefan; Kachelrieß, Marc [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg 69120 (Germany); Lell, Michael [Friedrich-Alexander-University (FAU), Erlangen 91054 (Germany)


    Purpose: Dual Energy CT (DECT) provides so-called monoenergetic images based on a linear combination of the original polychromatic images. At certain patient-specific energy levels, corresponding to certain patient- and slice-dependent linear combination weights, e.g., E = 160 keV corresponds to α = 1.57, a significant reduction of metal artifacts may be observed. The authors aimed at analyzing the method for its artifact reduction capabilities to identify its limitations. The results are compared with raw data-based processing. Methods: Clinical DECT uses a simplified version of monochromatic imaging by linearly combining the low and the high kV images and by assigning an energy to that linear combination. Those pseudo-monochromatic images can be used by radiologists to obtain images with reduced metal artifacts. The authors analyzed the underlying physics and carried out a series expansion of the polychromatic attenuation equations. The resulting nonlinear terms are responsible for the artifacts, but they are not linearly related between the low and the high kV scan: A linear combination of both images cannot eliminate the nonlinearities, it can only reduce their impact. Scattered radiation yields additional noncanceling nonlinearities. This method is compared to raw data-based artifact correction methods. To quantify the artifact reduction potential of pseudo-monochromatic images, they simulated the FORBILD abdomen phantom with metal implants, and they assessed patient data sets of a clinical dual source CT system (100, 140 kV Sn) containing artifacts induced by a highly concentrated contrast agent bolus and by metal. In each case, they manually selected an optimal α and compared it to a raw data-based material decomposition in case of simulation, to raw data-based material decomposition of inconsistent rays in case of the patient data set containing contrast agent, and to the frequency split normalized metal artifact reduction in case of the metal

  18. Scattering and coherence in EUVL (United States)

    Milster, Tomas D.; Beaudry, Neil A.


    We illustrate the importance of considering scattering from the illuminator in extreme UV lithography systems. Our results indicate that a significant amount of amplitude modulation noise is present in the aerial image if scatter is present in a Koehler illuminator. The effect depends on the spatial frequency of the pattern on the mask, the numerical aperture of the projection camera, the coherence factor, and placement of the plane in the illuminator where the scattering occurs.

  19. Characteristics of a multi-keV monochromatic point x-ray source based on vacuum diode with laser-produced plasma as cathode

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Moorti; A Raghuramaiah; P A Naik; P D Gupta


    Temporal, spatial and spectral characteristics of a multi-keV monochromatic point x-ray source based on vacuum diode with laser-produced plasma as cathode are presented. Electrons from a laser-produced aluminium plasma were accelerated towards a conical point tip titanium anode to generate K-shell x-ray radiation. Approximately 1010 photons/pulse were generated in x-ray pulses of ∼ 18 to ∼ 28 ns duration from a source of ∼ 300 m diameter, at ℎ = 4.51 keV ( emission of titanium), with a brightness of ∼ 1020 photons/cm2 /s/sr. This was sufficient to record single-shot x-ray radiographs of physical objects on a DEF-5 x-ray film kept at a distance of up to ∼ 10 cm.

  20. Electromagnetic Energy Momentum Tensor in a Spatially Dispersive Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Fietz, Chris


    We derive a generalized Minkowski Energy Momentum Tensor for a monochromatic wave in a lossless medium exhibiting temporal and spatial dispersion. The Energy Momentum Tensor is then related to familiar expressions for energy density and energy flux, as well as new expressions for momentum density and momentum flux.

  1. High power coherent polarization locked laser diode. (United States)

    Purnawirman; Phua, P B


    We have coherently combined a broad area laser diode array to obtain high power single-lobed output by using coherent polarization locking. The single-lobed coherent beam is achieved by spatially combining four diode emitters using walk-off crystals and waveplates while their phases are passively locked via polarization discrimination. While our previous work focused on coherent polarization locking of diode in Gaussian beams, we demonstrate in this paper, the feasibility of the same polarization discrimination for locking multimode beams from broad area diode lasers. The resonator is designed to mitigate the loss from smile effect by using retro-reflection feedback in the cavity. In a 980 nm diode array, we produced 7.2 W coherent output with M2 of 1.5x11.5. The brightness of the diode is improved by more than an order of magnitude.

  2. Coherent phonon optics in a chip with an electrically controlled active device. (United States)

    Poyser, Caroline L; Akimov, Andrey V; Campion, Richard P; Kent, Anthony J


    Phonon optics concerns operations with high-frequency acoustic waves in solid media in a similar way to how traditional optics operates with the light beams (i.e. photons). Phonon optics experiments with coherent terahertz and sub-terahertz phonons promise a revolution in various technical applications related to high-frequency acoustics, imaging, and heat transport. Previously, phonon optics used passive methods for manipulations with propagating phonon beams that did not enable their external control. Here we fabricate a phononic chip, which includes a generator of coherent monochromatic phonons with frequency 378 GHz, a sensitive coherent phonon detector, and an active layer: a doped semiconductor superlattice, with electrical contacts, inserted into the phonon propagation path. In the experiments, we demonstrate the modulation of the coherent phonon flux by an external electrical bias applied to the active layer. Phonon optics using external control broadens the spectrum of prospective applications of phononics on the nanometer scale.

  3. Two-dimensional mapping of the asymmetric lateral coherence of thermal light. (United States)

    Paroli, B; Potenza, M A C


    We report in this work the first experimental verification of the asymmetric lateral coherence which is a measurement of the spatio-temporal coherence by using a wide-band Young interference experiment with a fixed off-axis slit. We demonstrate the coherence properties through the measurement of the real part of the coherence factor of thermal light. We extend our recent results obtained for betatron and undulator radiations providing a robust experimental method for the two-dimensional mapping of the two-point correlation function of broadband radiation preserving the phase information. The proposed method can be used as a high-sensitivity alternative to traditional interferometry with quasi-monochromatic radiation.

  4. Optical Coherence Tomography (United States)

    Huang, David

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a new method for noninvasive cross-sectional imaging in biological systems. In OCT, the longitudinal locations of tissue structures are determined by measuring the time-of-flight delays of light backscattered from these structures. The optical delays are measured by low coherence interferometry. Information on lateral position is provided by transverse scanning of the probe beam. The two dimensional map of optical scattering from internal tissue microstructures is then represented in a false-color or grayscale image. OCT is the optical analog of ultrasonic pulse-echo imaging, but with greatly improved spatial resolutions (a few microns). This thesis describes the development of this new high resolution tomographic imaging technology and the demonstration of its use in a variety of tissues under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. In vitro OCT ranging and imaging studies were performed using human ocular and arterial tissues, two clinically relevant examples of transparent and turbid media, respectively. In the anterior eye, precise measurements of cornea and anterior chamber dimensions were made. In the arterial specimens, the differentiation between fatty -calcified and fibromuscular tissues was demonstrated. In vivo OCT imaging in the retina and optic nerve head in human subjects was also performed. The delineation of retinal layers, which has not been possible with other noninvasive imaging techniques, is demonstrated in these OCT images. OCT has high spatial resolution but limited penetration into turbid tissue. It has potential for diagnostic applications where high resolution is needed and optical access is available, such as in the eye, skin, surgically exposed tissues, and surfaces that can be reached by various catheters and endoscopic probes. In particular, the measurement of fine retinal structures promises improvements in the diagnosis and management of glaucoma, macular edema and other vitreo-retinal diseases

  5. Acceleration of relativistic electrons due to resonant interaction with oblique monochromatic whistler-mode waves generated in the ionosphere. (United States)

    Kuzichev, Ilya; Shklyar, David


    One of the most challenging problems of the radiation belt studies is the problem of particles energization. Being related to the process of particle precipitation and posing a threat to scientific instruments on satellites, the problem of highly energetic particles in the radiation belts turns out to be very important. A lot of progress has been made in this field, but still some aspects of the energization process remain open. The main mechanism of particle energization in the radiation belts is the resonant interaction with different waves, mainly, in whistler frequency range. The problem of special interest is the resonant wave-particle interaction of the electrons of relativistic energies. Relativistic resonance condition provides some important features such as the so-called relativistic turning acceleration discovered by Omura et al. [1, 2]. This process appears to be a very efficient mechanism of acceleration in the case of interaction with the whistler-mode waves propagating along geomagnetic field lines. But some whistler-mode waves propagate obliquely to the magnetic field lines, and the efficiency of relativistic turning acceleration in this case is to be studied. In this report, we present the Hamiltonian theory of the resonant interaction of relativistic electrons with oblique monochromatic whistler-mode waves. We have shown that the presence of turning point requires a special treatment when one aims to derive the resonant Hamiltonian, and we have obtained two different resonant Hamiltonians: one to be applied far enough from the turning point, while another is valid in the vicinity of the turning point. We have performed numerical simulation of relativistic electron interaction with whistler-mode waves generated in the ionosphere by a monochromatic source. It could be, for example, a low-frequency transmitter. The wave-field distribution along unperturbed particle trajectory is calculated by means of geometrical optics. We show that the obliquity of

  6. The study of noise source identifying in wind tunnel with clean arithmetic based on spatial source coherence%基于相干声源CLEAN算法的常规风洞声源辨识研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵小见; 赵磊; 陈农


    The CLEAN arithmetic based on Spatial Source Coherence is developed and then applied to the wind tunnel test in the paper. The mechanism for this method is introducing a clean beam to instead the main lobe of beam picture iteratively, and getting rid of side lobe for background noise of wind tunnel or microphones distribution in phase array. The data from test in wind tunnel is optimized with this method. The results show that it improves the resolving power of low frequency noise and increases the signal-to-noise of the aero-acoustics test greatly. In the paper, coefficient K for judging the performance of phase array is also introduced, which including the effect to the resolving power both for frequency and distance from array to sound source plane. To some point, it is helpful to improve the efficiency for the coefficient K inducted.%发展应用了基于相干声源假设的CLEAN优化算法,该算法通过反复引入洁净波束来代替波束图上主瓣,逐步去掉由于背景噪声或者阵列阵元分布特点引入的旁瓣.用该算法对风洞实验结果进行了优化,提高了低频噪声的分辨率和试验的信噪比.还首次提出衡量相阵列声源分辨率的综合指标系数K,它综合反映了不同分析频率、不同阵列与声源平面距离对声源分辨率的影响,在一定程度上可以提高阵列设计的效率.

  7. Coherence-Resonance Chimeras in a Network of Excitable Elements. (United States)

    Semenova, Nadezhda; Zakharova, Anna; Anishchenko, Vadim; Schöll, Eckehard


    We demonstrate that chimera behavior can be observed in nonlocally coupled networks of excitable systems in the presence of noise. This phenomenon is distinct from classical chimeras, which occur in deterministic oscillatory systems, and it combines temporal features of coherence resonance, i.e., the constructive role of noise, and spatial properties of chimera states, i.e., the coexistence of spatially coherent and incoherent domains in a network of identical elements. Coherence-resonance chimeras are associated with alternating switching of the location of coherent and incoherent domains, which might be relevant in neuronal networks.

  8. An Unsupervised Classification of Hyperspectral Images Based on Pixels Reduction with Spatial Coherence Property%一种基于空间一致性降元的高光谱图像非监督分类

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳江; 张毅; 徐杭威; 柏连发


    为了提高分类精度和边缘辨识性,该文引入图像空间一致性降元(pixels reduction with spatial coherence property,PRSCP)及线性回归分析,提出了一种基于空间一致性降元的非监督分类.该方法从像元光谱相似性出发,利用像元最小关联窗口合并相邻相似像元为像块完成降元.使用线性关系建模像块内像元的光谱向量,并利用F检验判断像块数据的线性显著性.利用一元线性回归(one dimensional linear regression,ODLR)估计出像块的基准向量,根据基准向最合并相似(同类)像块完成分类.利用AVIRIS数据评估了该方法性能,实验结果表明:与K-MEANS和ISODATA方法相比,该方法精度高、边缘辨识度好及鲁棒性强.%In order to improve classification and edge accuracy, PRSCP and linear regression analysis are introduced; a new algorithm of unsupervised classification based on PRSCP is proposed. The algorithm procedure starts with the similarity of pixel spectral, and then makes use of minimum related window to combine similar pixels spatially adjacent into a block. Linear expression is applied to model the spectral vector of pixels in the same block, and significance of the linear expression is verified by F-statistic. The basic vector of block is estimated via ODLR, and blocks with similar basic vectors are combined into the same class. AVIRIS data is used to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm, which is also compared with K-MEANS and ISODATA. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms K-MEANS and ISODATA in terms of classification accuracy, edge and robustness.

  9. Goos-H\\"{a}nchen Shifts of Partially Coherent Light Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Li-Gang; Zubairy, M Suhail


    We investigate the Goos-H\\"{a}nchen (GH) shifts of partially coherent fields (PCFs) by using the theory of coherence. We derive a formal expression for the GH shifts of PCFs in terms of Mercer's expansion, and then clearly demonstrate the dependence of the GH shift of each mode of PCFs on spatial coherence and beam width. We discuss the effect of spatial coherence on the resultant GH shifts, especially for the cases near the critical angles, such as totally reflection angle.

  10. Coherent signal processing in optical coherence tomography (United States)

    Kulkarni, Manish Dinkarrao


    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a novel method for non-invasive sub-surface imaging of biological tissue micro-structures. OCT achieves high spatial resolution ( ~ 15 m m in three dimensions) using a fiber-optically integrated system which is suitable for application in minimally invasive diagnostics, including endoscopy. OCT uses an optical heterodyne detection technique based on white light interferometry. Therefore extremely faint reflections ( ~ 10 fW) are routinely detected with high spatial localization. The goal of this thesis is twofold. The first is to present a theoretical model for describing image formation in OCT, and attempt to enhance the current level of understanding of this new modality. The second objective is to present signal processing methods for improving OCT image quality. We present deconvolution algorithms to obtain improved longitudinal resolution in OCT. This technique may be implemented without increasing system complexity as compared to current clinical OCT systems. Since the spectrum of the light backscattered from bio-scatterers is closely associated with ultrastructural variations in tissue, we propose a new technique for measuring spectra as a function of depth. This advance may assist OCT in differentiating various tissue types and detecting abnormalities within a tissue. In addition to depth resolved spectroscopy, Doppler processing of OCT signals can also improve OCT image contrast. We present a new technique, termed color Doppler OCT (CDOCT). It is an innovative extension of OCT for performing spatially localized optical Doppler velocimetry. Micron-resolution imaging of blood flow in sub-surface vessels in living tissue using CDOCT is demonstrated. The fundamental issues regarding the trade- off between the velocity estimation precision and image acquisition rate are presented. We also present novel algorithms for high accuracy velocity estimation. In many blood vessels velocities tend to be on the order of a few cm

  11. Low luminance/eyes closed and monochromatic stimulations reduce variability of flash visual evoked potential latency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Kumar Subramanian


    Full Text Available Context: Visual evoked potentials are useful in investigating the physiology and pathophysiology of the human visual system. Flash visual evoked potential (FVEP, though technically easier, has less clinical utility because it shows great variations in both latency and amplitude for normal subjects. Aim: To study the effect of eye closure, low luminance, and monochromatic stimulation on the variability of FVEPs. Subjects and Methods: Subjects in self-reported good health in the age group of 18-30 years were divided into three groups. All participants underwent FVEP recording with eyes open and with white light at 0.6 J luminance (standard technique. Next recording was done in group 1 with closed eyes, group 2 with 1.2 and 20 J luminance, and group 3 with red and blue lights, while keeping all the other parameters constant. Two trials were given for each eye, for each technique. The same procedure was repeated at the same clock time on the following day. Statistical Analysis: Variation in FVEP latencies between the individuals (interindividual variability and the variations within the same individual for four trials (intraindividual variability were assessed using coefficient of variance (COV. The technique with lower COV was considered the better method. Results: Recording done with closed eyes, 0.6 J luminance, and monochromatic light (blue > red showed lower interindividual and intraindividual variability in P2 and N2 as compared to standard techniques. Conclusions: Low luminance flash stimulations and monochromatic light will reduce FVEP latency variability and may be clinically useful modifications of FVEP recording technique.

  12. Source mechanics for monochromatic icequakes produced during iceberg calving at Columbia Glacier, AK (United States)

    O'Neel, Shad; Pfeffer, W.T.


    Seismograms recorded during iceberg calving contain information pertaining to source processes during calving events. However, locally variable material properties may cause signal distortions, known as site and path effects, which must be eliminated prior to commenting on source mechanics. We applied the technique of horizontal/vertical spectral ratios to passive seismic data collected at Columbia Glacier, AK, and found no dominant site or path effects. Rather, monochromatic waveforms generated by calving appear to result from source processes. We hypothesize that a fluid-filled crack source model offers a potential mechanism for observed seismograms produced by calving, and fracture-processes preceding calving.

  13. Solar monochromatic images in magneto-sensitive spectral lines and maps of vector magnetic fields (United States)

    Shihui, Y.; Jiehai, J.; Minhan, J.


    A new method which allows by use of the monochromatic images in some magneto-sensitive spectra line to derive both the magnetic field strength as well as the angle between magnetic field lines and line of sight for various places in solar active regions is described. In this way two dimensional maps of vector magnetic fields may be constructed. This method was applied to some observational material and reasonable results were obtained. In addition, a project for constructing the three dimensional maps of vector magnetic fields was worked out.

  14. Directional and monochromatic thermal emitter from epsilon-near-zero conditions in semiconductor hyperbolic metamaterials (United States)

    Campione, Salvatore; Marquier, Francois; Hugonin, Jean-Paul; Ellis, A. Robert; Klem, John F.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Luk, Ting S.


    The development of novel thermal sources that control the emission spectrum and the angular emission pattern is of fundamental importance. In this paper, we investigate the thermal emission properties of semiconductor hyperbolic metamaterials (SHMs). Our structure does not require the use of any periodic corrugation to provide monochromatic and directional emission properties. We show that these properties arise because of epsilon-near-zero conditions in SHMs. The thermal emission is dominated by the epsilon-near-zero effect in the doped quantum wells composing the SHM. Furthermore, different properties are observed for s and p polarizations, following the characteristics of the strong anisotropy of hyperbolic metamaterials.

  15. Improvement of Image Quality in Transmission Computed Tomography Using Synchrotron Monochromatic X-Ray Sheet Beam (United States)


    7] T. Takeda, M. Kazama, T. Zeniya, T. Yuasa, M. Akiba, A. Uchida, K. Hyodo, T. Akatsuka, M. Ando, and Y. Itai , “Development of a Mono- chromatic X...Uyama (Springer-Verlag, Tokyo), pp. 103-110 (1998). [8] Y. Itai , T. Takeda, T. Akatsuka, T. Maeda, K. Hyodo, A. Uchida, T. Yuasa, M. Kazama, J. Wu...T. Yuasa, K. Hyodo, M. Ando, T. Akatsuka, and Y. Itai , “Performance Study of Monochromatic Synchro- tron X-ray Computed Tomography using a Linear

  16. Enhancing monochromatic multipole emission by a subwavelength enclosure of degenerate Mie resonances

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Jiajun


    Sound emission is inefficient at low frequencies as limited by source size. This letter presents enhancing emission of monochromatic monopole and multipole sources by enclosing the source with a subwavelength circular enclosure filled of an anisotropic material of a low radial sound speed. The anisotropy is associated with an infinite tangential density along the azimuth. Numerical simulations show that emission gain is produced at frequencies surrounding degenerate Mie resonant frequencies of the enclosure, and meanwhile the radiation directivity pattern is well preserved. The degeneracy is theoretically analyzed. A realization of the material is suggested by using a space-coiling structure.

  17. Response of vegetable organisms to quasi-monochromatic light of different duration, intensity and wavelength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budagovsky, A V; Solovykh, N V [I.V.Michurin All-Russian Recearch Institute of Fruit Crops Genetics and Breeding (Russian Federation); Budagovskaya, O N [I.V.Michurin All-Russia Research and Development Institute of Gardening, Michurinsk, Tambov region (Russian Federation); Budagovsky, I A [P N Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    By the example of vegetable organisms differing in structure and functional properties it is shown that their response to the action of quasi-monochromatic light from laser sources does not obey the Bunsen – Roscoe dose law. The dependence of biological effect on the irradiation time has the multimodal (multiextremal) form with alternating maxima and minima of the stimulating effect. Such a property manifests itself in the spectral ranges, corresponding to photoinduced conversion of chromoproteins of photocontrol systems and is probably related to the cyclic variations of metabolic activity in vegetable cells. (biophotonics)

  18. A monochromatic x-ray imaging system for characterizing low-density foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanier, Nicholas E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taccetti, Jose M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hamilton, Christopher E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    In High Energy Density (HED) laser experiments, targets often require small, low-density, foam components. However, their limited size can preclude single component characterization, forcing one to rely solely on less accurate bulk measurements. We have developed a monochromatic imaging a system to characterize both the density and uniformity of single component low-mass foams. This x-ray assembly is capable of determining line-averaged density variations near the 1% level, and provides statistically identical results to those obtained at the Brookhaven's NSLS. This system has the added benefit of providing two-dimensional density data, allowing an assessment of density uniformity.

  19. Directional and monochromatic thermal emitter from epsilon-near-zero conditions in semiconductor hyperbolic metamaterials (United States)

    Campione, Salvatore; Marquier, Francois; Hugonin, Jean-Paul; Ellis, A. Robert; Klem, John F.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Luk, Ting S.


    The development of novel thermal sources that control the emission spectrum and the angular emission pattern is of fundamental importance. In this paper, we investigate the thermal emission properties of semiconductor hyperbolic metamaterials (SHMs). Our structure does not require the use of any periodic corrugation to provide monochromatic and directional emission properties. We show that these properties arise because of epsilon-near-zero conditions in SHMs. The thermal emission is dominated by the epsilon-near-zero effect in the doped quantum wells composing the SHM. Furthermore, different properties are observed for s and p polarizations, following the characteristics of the strong anisotropy of hyperbolic metamaterials.

  20. Cohering power of quantum operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bu, Kaifeng, E-mail: [School of Mathematical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Kumar, Asutosh, E-mail: [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211019 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094 (India); Zhang, Lin, E-mail: [Institute of Mathematics, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Wu, Junde, E-mail: [School of Mathematical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)


    Highlights: • Quantum coherence. • Cohering power: production of quantum coherence by quantum operations. • Study of cohering power and generalized cohering power, and their comparison for differentmeasures of quantum coherence. • Operational interpretation of cohering power. • Bound on cohering power of a generic quantum operation. - Abstract: Quantum coherence and entanglement, which play a crucial role in quantum information processing tasks, are usually fragile under decoherence. Therefore, the production of quantum coherence by quantum operations is important to preserve quantum correlations including entanglement. In this paper, we study cohering power–the ability of quantum operations to produce coherence. First, we provide an operational interpretation of cohering power. Then, we decompose a generic quantum operation into three basic operations, namely, unitary, appending and dismissal operations, and show that the cohering power of any quantum operation is upper bounded by the corresponding unitary operation. Furthermore, we compare cohering power and generalized cohering power of quantum operations for different measures of coherence.

  1. Goos-Hänchen shift of partially coherent light fields in epsilon-near-zero metamaterials. (United States)

    Ziauddin; Chuang, You-Lin; Qamar, Sajid; Lee, Ray-Kuang


    The Goos-Hänchen (GH) shifts in the reflected light are investigated both for p and s polarized partial coherent light beams incident on epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) metamaterials. In contrary to the coherent counterparts, the magnitude of GH shift becomes non-zero for p polarized partial coherent light beam; while GH shift can be relatively large with a small degree of spatial coherence for s polarized partial coherent beam. Dependence on the beam width and the permittivity of ENZ metamaterials is also revealed for partial coherent light fields. Our results on the GH shifts provide a direction on the applications for partial coherent light sources in ENZ metamaterials.

  2. Goos-Hänchen shift of partially coherent light fields in epsilon-near-zero metamaterials (United States)

    Ziauddin; Chuang, You-Lin; Qamar, Sajid; Lee, Ray-Kuang


    The Goos-Hänchen (GH) shifts in the reflected light are investigated both for p and s polarized partial coherent light beams incident on epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) metamaterials. In contrary to the coherent counterparts, the magnitude of GH shift becomes non-zero for p polarized partial coherent light beam; while GH shift can be relatively large with a small degree of spatial coherence for s polarized partial coherent beam. Dependence on the beam width and the permittivity of ENZ metamaterials is also revealed for partial coherent light fields. Our results on the GH shifts provide a direction on the applications for partial coherent light sources in ENZ metamaterials.

  3. Statistical analysis of ocular monochromatic aberrations in Chinese population for adaptive optics ophthalmoscope design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junlei Zhao


    Full Text Available It is necessary to know the distribution of the Chinese eye’s aberrations in clinical environment to guide high-resolution retinal imaging system design for large Chinese population application. We collected the monochromatic wave aberration of 332 healthy eyes and 344 diseased eyes in Chinese population across a 6.0-mm pupil. The aberration statistics of Chinese eyes including healthy eyes and diseased eyes were analyzed, and some differences of aberrations between the Chinese and European race were concluded. On this basis, the requirement for adaptive optics (AO correction of the Chinese eye’s monochromatic aberrations was analyzed. The result showed that a stroke of 20μm and ability to correct aberrations up to the 8th Zernike order were needed for reflective wavefront correctors to achieve near diffraction-limited imaging in both groups for a reference wavelength of 550nm and a pupil diameter of 6.0mm. To verify the analysis mentioned above, an AO flood-illumination system was established, and high-resolution retinal imaging in vivo was achieved for Chinese eye including both healthy and diseased eyes.

  4. Dual-energy tissue cancellation in mammography with quasi-monochromatic x-rays. (United States)

    Marziani, M; Taibi, A; Tuffanelli, A; Gambaccini, M


    Dual-energy radiography has not evolved into a routine clinical examination yet due to intrinsic limitations of both dual-kVp imaging and single-exposure imaging with conventional x-ray sources. The recent introduction of novel quasi-monochromatic x-ray sources and detectors could lead to interesting improvements, especially in mammography where the complex structure of healthy tissues often masks the detectability of lesions. A dual-energy radiography technique based on a tissue cancellation algorithm has been developed for mammography, with the aim of maximizing the low intrinsic contrast of pathologic tissues while being able to minimize or cancel the contrast between glandular and fat tissues. Several images of a plastic test object containing various tissue equivalent inserts were acquired in the energy range 17-36 keV using a quasi-monochromatic x-ray source and a scintillator-coated CCD detector. Images acquired at high and low energies were nonlinearly combined to generate two energy-independent basis images. Suitable linear combinations of these two basis images result in the elimination of the contrast of a given material with respect to another. This makes it possible to selectively cancel certain details in the processed image.

  5. Frequency-locked pulse sequencer for high-frame-rate monochromatic tissue motion imaging. (United States)

    Azar, Reza Zahiri; Baghani, Ali; Salcudean, Septimiu E; Rohling, Robert


    To overcome the inherent low frame rate of conventional ultrasound, we have previously presented a system that can be implemented on conventional ultrasound scanners for high-frame-rate imaging of monochromatic tissue motion. The system employs a sector subdivision technique in the sequencer to increase the acquisition rate. To eliminate the delays introduced during data acquisition, a motion phase correction algorithm has also been introduced to create in-phase displacement images. Previous experimental results from tissue- mimicking phantoms showed that the system can achieve effective frame rates of up to a few kilohertz on conventional ultrasound systems. In this short communication, we present a new pulse sequencing strategy that facilitates high-frame-rate imaging of monochromatic motion such that the acquired echo signals are inherently in-phase. The sequencer uses the knowledge of the excitation frequency to synchronize the acquisition of the entire imaging plane to that of an external exciter. This sequencing approach eliminates any need for synchronization or phase correction and has applications in tissue elastography, which we demonstrate with tissue-mimicking phantoms.

  6. Constraining the monochromatic gamma-rays from dark matter annihilation by the LHC (United States)

    Esmaili, Arman; Khatibi, Sara; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba


    The installation of forward detectors in CMS and ATLAS turn the LHC into an effective photon-photon collider. The elastic scattering of the beam protons via the emission of photons, which can be identified by tagging the intact protons in the forward detectors, provides a powerful diagnostic of the central production of new particles through photon-photon annihilation. In this paper we study the central production of dark matter particles and the potential of the LHC to constrain the cross section of this process. By virtue of the crossing symmetry, this limit can immediately be used to constrain the production of monochromatic gamma rays in dark matter annihilation, a smoking gun signal under investigation in indirect dark matter searches. We show that with the integrated luminosity L =30 fb-1 in the LHC at center-of-mass energy √{s }=13 TeV , for dark matter masses ˜(50 - 600 ) GeV , a model-independent constraint on the cross section of dark matter annihilation to monochromatic gamma rays at the same order of magnitude as the current Fermi-LAT and the future limits from CTA can be obtained.

  7. Rod and Rod-driven Function in Achromatopsia and Blue Cone Monochromatism (United States)

    Moskowitz, Anne; Hansen, Ronald M.; Akula, James D.; Eklund, Susan E.; Fulton, Anne B.


    Purpose To evaluate rod photoreceptor and postreceptor retinal function in pediatric patients with achromatopsia (ACHR) and blue cone monochromatism (BCM) using contemporary electroretinographic (ERG) procedures. Methods Fifteen patients (age 1 to 20 years) with ACHR and six patients (age 4 to 22 years) with BCM were studied. ERG responses to full-field stimuli were obtained in scotopic and photopic conditions. Rod photoreceptor (Srod, Rrod) and rod-driven postreceptor (log σ, Vmax) response parameters were calculated from the a-wave and b-wave. The ERG records were digitally filtered to demonstrate the oscillatory potentials (OPs); a sensitivity parameter, log SOPA1/2, and an amplitude parameter, SOPAmax, were used to characterize the OP response. Response parameters were compared to those of 12 normal control subjects. Results As expected, photopic responses were non-detectable in patients with ACHR and BCM. In addition, mean scotopic photoreceptor (Rrod) and postreceptor (Vmax and SOPAmax) amplitude parameters were significantly reduced compared to those in normal controls. The flash intensity required to evoke a half maximum b-wave amplitude (log σ) was significantly increased. Conclusions The results of this study provide evidence that deficits in rod and rod mediated function occur in the primary cone dysfunction syndromes, achromatopsia and blue cone monochromatism. PMID:18824728

  8. Monochromatic computed tomography with a compact laser-driven X-ray source. (United States)

    Achterhold, K; Bech, M; Schleede, S; Potdevin, G; Ruth, R; Loewen, R; Pfeiffer, F


    A laser-driven electron-storage ring can produce nearly monochromatic, tunable X-rays in the keV energy regime by inverse Compton scattering. The small footprint, relative low cost and excellent beam quality provide the prospect for valuable preclinical use in radiography and tomography. The monochromaticity of the beam prevents beam hardening effects that are a serious problem in quantitative determination of absorption coefficients. These values are important e.g. for osteoporosis risk assessment. Here, we report quantitative computed tomography (CT) measurements using a laser-driven compact electron-storage ring X-ray source. The experimental results obtained for quantitative CT measurements on mass absorption coefficients in a phantom sample are compared to results from a rotating anode X-ray tube generator at various peak voltages. The findings confirm that a laser-driven electron-storage ring X-ray source can indeed yield much higher CT image quality, particularly if quantitative aspects of computed tomographic imaging are considered.

  9. Monochromatic light-emitting diode (LED source in layers hens during the second production cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Borille


    Full Text Available ABSTRACTLight is an important environmental factor for birds, allowing not only their vision, but also influencing their physiological responses, such as behavioral and reproductive activity. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the impact of different colors of monochromatic light (LED sources in laying hens production during the second laying cycle. The study was conducted in an experimental laying house during 70 days. A total of 300 laying hens Isa Brown® genetic strain, aged 95 weeks, in the second laying cycle were used in the study. The artificial light sources used were blue, yellow, green, red and white. The light regimen was continuous illumination of 17 h per day (12 h natural and 5 h artificial in a daily light regimen of 17L:5D (light: dark. The Latin Square design was adopted with five treatments (five colors divided into five periods, and five boxes, with six replicates of ten birds in each box. The production and egg quality were evaluated. The different colors of light source did not affect production parameters or egg quality (p > 0.05. The monochromatic light source may be considered as an alternative to artificial lighting in laying hens during the second production cycle.

  10. Constraining the monochromatic gamma-rays from dark matter annihilation by the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Esmaili, Arman; Najafabadi, Mojtaba Mohammadi


    The installation of forward detectors in CMS and ATLAS turn the LHC to an effective photon-photon collider. The elastic scattering of the beam-protons via the emission of photons, which can be identified by tagging the intact protons in the forward detectors, provides a powerful diagnostic of the central production of new particles through photon-photon annihilation. In this letter we study the central production of dark matter particles and the potential of LHC to constrain the cross section of this process. By virtue of the crossing symmetry, this limit can immediately be used to constrain the production of monochromatic gamma-rays in dark matter annihilation, a smoking gun signal under investigation in indirect dark matter searches. We show that with the integrated luminosity $\\mathcal{L}=30~{\\rm fb}^{-1}$ in LHC at center-of-mass energy $\\sqrt{s}=$ 13 TeV, for dark matter masses $\\sim (50-600)$ GeV, a model-independent constraint on the cross section of dark matter annihilation to monochromatic gamma-rays...

  11. Effects of monochromatic light on quality properties and antioxidation of meat in broilers. (United States)

    Ke, Y Y; Liu, W J; Wang, Z X; Chen, Y X


    Our previous study demonstrated that blue monochromatic light was better to promote the growth and development of broilers than red light. However, consumer research suggests that the eating quality of the meat is more important. The present study was, therefore, designed to further evaluate the effects of various monochromatic lights on the muscle growth and quality properties and antioxidation of meat. A total of 288 newly hatched Arbor Acre male broilers were exposed to blue light (BL), green light (GL), red light (RL), and white light (WL) by a light-emitting diode system for 49 d, respectively. Results showed that the broilers reared under BL significantly increased BW and carcass yield as compared with RL, WL, and GL (P 0.05). Compared with RL, the muscles of breast and thigh in GL and BL had higher pH, water-holding capacity, and protein content, whereas cooking loss, lightness value, shear value, and fat content were lower (P 0.05). These results suggest that BL better improves meat quality of Arbor Acre broilers by elevating antioxidative capacity than does RL.

  12. Spatially resolved in operando neutron scattering studies on Li-ion batteries (United States)

    Senyshyn, A.; Mühlbauer, M. J.; Dolotko, O.; Hofmann, M.; Pirling, T.; Ehrenberg, H.


    Spatially-resolved neutron diffraction has been applied to probe the lithium distribution in radial direction of a commercial Li-ion cell of 18650-type. The spatial evolution of selected Bragg reflections for LiCoO2 (positive electrode, "cathode") and graphite and lithium intercalated graphite (negative electrode, "anode") was observed and evaluated by taking beam attenuation and cell geometry effects into account. No evidences for lithium inhomogeneities have been found for the investigated set of cells. Computed neutron tomography using a monochromatic neutron beam confirmed the homogeneous lithium distribution. The relevance of the monochromatic beam to neutron imaging studies of Li-ion cells is discussed.

  13. Isolating quantum coherence with pathway-selective coherent multi-dimensional spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Tollerud, Jonathan O; Davis, Jeffrey A


    Coherent coupling between spatially separated systems has long been explored as a necessary requirement for quantum information and cryptography. Recent discoveries suggest such phenomena appear in a much wider range of processes, including light-harvesting in photosynthesis. These discoveries have been facilitated by developments in coherent multi-dimensional spectroscopy (CMDS) that allow interactions between different electronic states to be identified in crowded spectra. For complex systems, however, spectral broadening and multiple overlapping peaks limit the ability to separate, identify and properly analyse all contributions. Here we demonstrate how pathway-selective CMDS can overcome these limitations to reveal, isolate and allow detailed analysis of weak coherent coupling between spatially separated excitons localised to different semiconductor quantum wells. Selective excitation of the coherence pathways, by spectrally shaping the laser pulses, provides access to previously hidden details and enable...

  14. Goos-Hänchen shifts of partially coherent light fields. (United States)

    Wang, Li-Gang; Zhu, Shi-Yao; Zubairy, M Suhail


    The Goos-Hänchen (GH) shift refers to a lateral displacement (from the path expected from geometrical optics) along an interface in totally internal reflection. This phenomenon results from a coherence effect. In order to bring to light the role of coherence, the reflection of partially coherent light fields was investigated within the framework of the theory of coherence. A formal expression for the GH shifts of partially coherent light fields is obtained in terms of Mercer's expansion. It is shown that both the spatial coherence and the beam width have an important effect on the GH shift, especially near the critical angles (such as totally reflection angle). These results are important to observe the GH shifts of the beams with imperfect coherence, like x-ray and matter-wave beams.

  15. Skin Treatment with Pulsed Monochromatic UVA1 355 Device and Computerized Morphometric Analysis of Histochemically Identified Langerhans Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Zerbinati


    Full Text Available Fluorescent or metal halide lamps are widely used in therapeutic applications in dermatological diseases, with broadband or narrow band emission UVA/UVA1 (320–400 nm obtained with suitable passive filters. Recently, it has been possible for us to use a new machine provided with solid state source emitting pulsed monochromatic UVA1 355 nm. In order to evaluate the effects of this emission on immunocells of the skin, human skin samples were irradiated with monochromatic 355 nm UVA1 with different energetic fluences and after irradiation Langerhans cells were labeled with CD1a antibodies. The immunohistochemical identification of these cells permitted evaluating their modifications in terms of density into the skin. Obtained results are promising for therapeutical applications, also considering that a monochromatic radiation minimizes thermic load and DNA damage in the skin tissues.

  16. On Longitudinal Spectral Coherence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Leif


    It is demonstrated that the longitudinal spectral coherence differs significantly from the transversal spectral coherence in its dependence on displacement and frequency. An expression for the longitudinal coherence is derived and it is shown how the scale of turbulence, the displacement between...

  17. Coherent spectroscopies on ultrashort time and length scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider C.


    Full Text Available Three spectroscopic techniques are presented that provide simultaneous spatial and temporal resolution: modified confocal microscopy with heterodyne detection, space-time-resolved spectroscopy using coherent control concepts, and coherent two-dimensional nano-spectroscopy. Latest experimental results are discussed.

  18. Coherent imaging with pseudo-thermal incoherent light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gatti, A.; Bache, Morten; Magatti, D.


    We investigate experimentally fundamental properties of coherent ghost imaging using spatially incoherent beams generated from a pseudo-thermal source. A complementarity between the coher- ence of the beams and the correlation between them is demonstrated by showing a complementarity between ghos...

  19. Exact coherent structures for the turbulent cascade (United States)

    Eckhardt, Bruno; Zammert, Stefan


    The exact coherent structures that are connected with the transition to turbulence in interior flows usually extend across the full height of the domain. Using exact coherent states that are localized in the shear direction together with scaling ideas for the Navier-Stokes equation that combine length and Reynolds number, we show how such large scale structures can be morphed into smaller scale coherent structures. As the Reynolds number increases, more of these states with ever smaller scales appear, all the way down to the Kolmogorov scale. We present the structure and dynamical properties of several families of exact coherent solution in plane Couette flow, with different degrees of spatial localization: Some of them remain localized in the center and help to built the turbulence cascade, others are localized near the walls and contribute to shaping the boundary layer profile.

  20. Photosynthetic light harvesting: excitons and coherence. (United States)

    Fassioli, Francesca; Dinshaw, Rayomond; Arpin, Paul C; Scholes, Gregory D


    Photosynthesis begins with light harvesting, where specialized pigment-protein complexes transform sunlight into electronic excitations delivered to reaction centres to initiate charge separation. There is evidence that quantum coherence between electronic excited states plays a role in energy transfer. In this review, we discuss how quantum coherence manifests in photosynthetic light harvesting and its implications. We begin by examining the concept of an exciton, an excited electronic state delocalized over several spatially separated molecules, which is the most widely available signature of quantum coherence in light harvesting. We then discuss recent results concerning the possibility that quantum coherence between electronically excited states of donors and acceptors may give rise to a quantum coherent evolution of excitations, modifying the traditional incoherent picture of energy transfer. Key to this (partially) coherent energy transfer appears to be the structure of the environment, in particular the participation of non-equilibrium vibrational modes. We discuss the open questions and controversies regarding quantum coherent energy transfer and how these can be addressed using new experimental techniques.

  1. Co-doping of Ag into Mn:ZnSe Quantum Dots: Giving Optical Filtering effect with Improved Monochromaticity


    Zhiyang Hu; Shuhong Xu; Xiaojing Xu; Zhaochong Wang; Zhuyuan Wang; Chunlei Wang; Yiping Cui


    In optics, when polychromatic light is filtered by an optical filter, the monochromaticity of the light can be improved. In this work, we reported that Ag dopant atoms could be used as an optical filter for nanosized Mn:ZnSe quantum dots (QDs). If no Ag doping, aqueous Mn:ZnSe QDs have low monochromaticity due to coexisting of strong ZnSe band gap emission, ZnSe trap emission, and Mn dopant emission. After doping of Ag into QDs, ZnSe band gap and ZnSe trap emissions can be filtered, leaving o...

  2. Global coherence of dust density waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killer, Carsten; Melzer, André [Institut für Physik, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität Greifswald, 17489 Greifswald (Germany)


    The coherence of self-excited three-dimensional dust density waves has been experimentally investigated by comparing global and local wave properties. For that purpose, three-dimensional dust clouds have been confined in a radio frequency plasma with thermophoretic levitation. Global wave properties have been measured from the line-of-sight integrated dust density obtained from homogenous light extinction measurements. Local wave properties have been obtained from thin, two-dimensional illuminated laser slices of the cloud. By correlating the simultaneous global and local wave properties, the spatial coherence of the waves has been determined. We find that linear waves with small amplitudes tend to be fragmented, featuring an incoherent wave field. Strongly non-linear waves with large amplitudes, however, feature a strong spatial coherence throughout the dust cloud, indicating a high level of synchronization.

  3. Complex fermion coherent states

    CERN Document Server

    Tyc, T; Sanders, B C; Oliver, W D; Tyc, Tomas; Hamilton, Brett; Sanders, Barry C.; Oliver, William D.


    Whereas boson coherent states provide an elegant, intuitive and useful representation, we show that the desirable features of boson coherent states do not carry over very well to fermion fields unless one is prepared to use exotic approaches such as Grassmann fields. Specifically, we identify four appealing properties of boson coherent states (eigenstate of annihilation operator, displaced vacuum state, preservation of product states under linear coupling, and factorization of correlators) and show that fermion coherent states, and approximations to fermion coherent states, defined over the complex field, do not behave well for any of these four criteria.

  4. Detection limits for actinides in a monochromatic, wavelength-dispersive x-ray fluorescence instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Michael L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Havrilla, George J [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Recent developments in x-ray optics have made it possible to examine the L x-rays of actinides using doubly-curved crystals in a bench-top device. A doubly-curved crystal (DCC) acts as a focusing monochromatic filter for polychromatic x-rays. A Monochromatic, Wavelength-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (MWDXRF) instrument that uses DCCs to measure Cm and Pu in reprocessing plant liquors was proposed in 2007 by the authors at Los Alamos National Laboratory. A prototype design of this MWDXRF instrument was developed in collaboration with X-ray Optical Systems Inc. (XOS), of East Greenbush, New York. In the MWDXRF instrument, x-rays from a Rhodium-anode x-ray tube are passed through a primary DCC to produce a monochromatic beam of 20.2-keV photons. This beam is focused on a specimen that may contain actinides. The 20.2-keV interrogating beam is just above the L3 edge of Californium; each actinide (with Z = 90 to 98) present in the specimen emits characteristic L x-rays as the result of L3-shell vacancies. In the LANL-XOS prototype MWDXRf, these x-rays enter a secondary DCC optic that preferentially passes 14.961-keV photons, corresponding to the L-alpha-1 x-ray peak of Curium. In the present stage of experimentation, Curium-bearing specimens have not been analyzed with the prototype MWDXRF instrument. Surrogate materials for Curium include Rubidium, which has a K-beta-l x-ray at 14.961 keV, and Yttrium, which has a K-alpha-1 x-ray at 14.958 keV. In this paper, the lower limit of detection for Curium in the LANL-XOS prototype MWDXRF instrument is estimated. The basis for this estimate is described, including a description of computational models and benchmarking techniques used. Detection limits for other actinides are considered, as well as future safeguards applications for MWDXRF instrumentation.

  5. Image Enhancement By Partially Coherent Imaging (United States)

    Rhodes, William T.; Koizumi, M.


    A partially coherent Koehler-illumination imaging system equipped with complementary masks in source and pupil planes can be used to perform image enhancement operations such as directional or non-directional edge enhancement and emphasis of spatial bandpass features. With many objects the use of complementary masks results in high-contrast images. Underlying principles are explained and preliminary experimental results presented.

  6. Computational study of nonlinear plasma waves: 1: Simulation model and monochromatic wave propagation (United States)

    Matda, Y.; Crawford, F. W.


    An economical low noise plasma simulation model is applied to a series of problems associated with electrostatic wave propagation in a one-dimensional, collisionless, Maxwellian plasma, in the absence of magnetic field. The model is described and tested, first in the absence of an applied signal, and then with a small amplitude perturbation, to establish the low noise features and to verify the theoretical linear dispersion relation at wave energy levels as low as 0.000,001 of the plasma thermal energy. The method is then used to study propagation of an essentially monochromatic plane wave. Results on amplitude oscillation and nonlinear frequency shift are compared with available theories. The additional phenomena of sideband instability and satellite growth, stimulated by large amplitude wave propagation and the resulting particle trapping, are described.

  7. Energy dependence of CP-violation reach for monochromatic neutrino beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernabeu, Jose [IFIC, Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, E-46100, Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Espinoza, Catalina [IFIC, Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, E-46100, Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)], E-mail:


    The ultimate goal of future neutrino facilities is the determination of CP violation in neutrino oscillations. Besides |U(e3)|{ne}0, this will require precision experiments with a very intense neutrino source and energy control. With this objective in mind, the creation of monochromatic neutrino beams from the electron capture decay of boosted ions by the SPS of CERN has been proposed. We discuss the capabilities of such a facility as a function of the energy of the boost and the baseline for the detector. We compare the physics potential for two different configurations: (I) {gamma}=90 and {gamma}=195 (maximum achievable at present SPS) to Frejus; (II) {gamma}=195 and {gamma}=440 (maximum achievable at upgraded SPS) to Canfranc. We conclude that the SPS upgrade to 1000 GeV is important to reach a better sensitivity to CP violation iff it is accompanied by a longer baseline.

  8. A Photodegradation Study of Three Common Paint and Plaster Biocides under monochromatic UV Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minelgaite, Greta; Vollertsen, Jes; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning


    Photodegradation of the three common paint-and-plaster biocides (carbendazim, diuron and terbutryn) was investigated at controlled laboratory conditions. Samples prepared in two types of water (demineralized water and pond water) were subjected to 254 nm monochromatic UV light. Light intensity (W m......-2) in the experimental chamber was measured by a fiber optic spectrometer. The observed decline in biocide concentration was related with the light energy, accumulated during the time of degradation (kJ m-2), and 1st order photodegradation rate constants (m2 kJ-1) were determined. The obtained...... results demonstrated that diuron and terbutryn were readily degradable at the tested conditions, while carbendazim remained stable throughout the 28 – 34 hours of the experiments. Photodegradation rate constants of diuron and terbutryn were found to be slightly higher in demineralized water (0.0183 – 0...

  9. Monochromatic radiography of high energy density physics experiments on the MAGPIE generator. (United States)

    Hall, G N; Burdiak, G C; Suttle, L; Stuart, N H; Swadling, G F; Lebedev, S V; Smith, R A; Patankar, S; Suzuki-Vidal, F; de Grouchy, P; Harvey-Thompson, A J; Bennett, M; Bland, S N; Pickworth, L; Skidmore, J


    A monochromatic X-ray backlighter based on Bragg reflection from a spherically bent quartz crystal has been developed for the MAGPIE pulsed power generator at Imperial College (1.4 MA, 240 ns) [I. H. Mitchell et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1533 (2005)]. This instrument has been used to diagnose high energy density physics experiments with 1.865 keV radiation (Silicon He-α) from a laser plasma source driven by a ∼7 J, 1 ns pulse from the Cerberus laser. The design of the diagnostic, its characterisation and performance, and initial results in which the instrument was used to radiograph a shock physics experiment on MAGPIE are discussed.

  10. A compact design for monochromatic OSL measurements in the wavelength range 380-1020 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boetter-Jensen, L.; Poolton, N.R.J.; Willumsen, F.; Christiansen, H. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)


    The development and performance of a compact module is described that allows for the monochromatic illumination of samples in the wavelength range 380-1020 nm, enabling the measurement of energy-resolved optically stimulated luminescence. The unit is designed to couple directly to the existing automated Risoe TL/OSL dating apparatus, thus allowing for either routine scanning or more detailed thermo-optical investigations. The high throughput efficiency of the unit means that the existing 75 W tungsten-halogen lamp can be directly used for such measurements on both quartz and feldspar samples. The design allows for rapid spectral scanning with a choice of resolution of anywhere between 10 and 80 nm: stray light levels are less than 0.01%. The unit can equally be used for recording wavelength-resolved emission spectra, whether photo-excited or thermally stimulated; the capabilities of the system are demonstrated in the article. (author).

  11. Monochromatic radiography of high energy density physics experiments on the MAGPIE generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, G. N., E-mail:; Burdiak, G. C.; Suttle, L.; Stuart, N. H.; Swadling, G. F.; Lebedev, S. V.; Smith, R. A.; Patankar, S.; Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Grouchy, P. de; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Bennett, M.; Bland, S. N.; Pickworth, L.; Skidmore, J. [The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom)


    A monochromatic X-ray backlighter based on Bragg reflection from a spherically bent quartz crystal has been developed for the MAGPIE pulsed power generator at Imperial College (1.4 MA, 240 ns) [I. H. Mitchell et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1533 (2005)]. This instrument has been used to diagnose high energy density physics experiments with 1.865 keV radiation (Silicon He-α) from a laser plasma source driven by a ∼7 J, 1 ns pulse from the Cerberus laser. The design of the diagnostic, its characterisation and performance, and initial results in which the instrument was used to radiograph a shock physics experiment on MAGPIE are discussed.

  12. Parametric decay of a parallel propagating monochromatic whistler wave: Particle-in-cell simulations (United States)

    Ke, Yangguang; Gao, Xinliang; Lu, Quanming; Wang, Shui


    In this paper, by using one-dimensional (1-D) particle-in-cell simulations, we investigate the parametric decay of a parallel propagating monochromatic whistler wave with various wave frequencies and amplitudes. The pump whistler wave can decay into a backscattered daughter whistler wave and an ion acoustic wave, and the decay instability grows more rapidly with the increase of the frequency or amplitude. When the frequency or amplitude is sufficiently large, a multiple decay process may occur, where the daughter whistler wave undergoes a secondary decay into an ion acoustic wave and a forward propagating whistler wave. We also find that during the parametric decay a considerable part of protons can be accelerated along the background magnetic field by the enhanced ion acoustic wave through the Landau resonance. The implication of the parametric decay to the evolution of whistler waves in Earth's magnetosphere is also discussed in the paper.

  13. Statistical analysis of monochromatic whistler waves near the Moon detected by Kaguya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Katoh


    Full Text Available Observations are presented of monochromatic whistler waves near the Moon detected by the Lunar Magnetometer (LMAG on board Kaguya. The waves were observed as narrowband magnetic fluctuations with frequencies close to 1 Hz, and were mostly left-hand polarized in the spacecraft frame. We performed a statistical analysis of the waves to identify the distributions of their intensity and occurrence. The results indicate that the waves were generated by the solar wind interaction with lunar crustal magnetic anomalies. The conditions for observation of the waves strongly depend on the solar zenith angle (SZA, and a high occurrence rate is recognized in the region of SZA between 40° to 90° with remarkable north-south and dawn-dusk asymmetries. We suggest that ion beams reflected by the lunar magnetic anomalies are a possible source of the waves.

  14. Non-destructive characterization of minerals in ancient Greek ceramics using monochromatic neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siouris, I M [Department of Production and Management Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace Xanthi, 67100 Xanthis (Greece); Department of Informatics and Communication, Technological and Educational, Institute of Serres, SimLab, 62124 Serres (Greece)], E-mail:


    A collection of ancient Greek ceramic pieces originating from different excavations from Neos Scopos, Serres, in the North East of Greece has been studied at room temperature by means of non-destructive neutron diffraction using a monochromatic beam. Quantitative phase analyses revealed different compositions of the mineral fractions present, but a general similarity of the main materials is still recognizable. It is shown that the observed variations are partly due to the experimental set-up and they can be remedied by taking a sufficient number of measurements for different sample orientations while bathing the entire object in the beam. An additional reason for the observed anomaly in the mineral phase compositions may be the different heat treatments to which the mixtures of clays/pastes was subjected as well as the postproduction environmental conditions for the selected samples. The firing temperatures were estimated to be in the range of 850-1000 deg. C.

  15. Coherence properties of exciton-polariton OPO condensates in one and two dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spano, R.; Cuadra, J.; Anton, C.


    We give an overview of the coherence properties of exciton-polariton condensates generated by optical parametric scattering. Different aspects of the first-order coherence (g((1))) have been investigated. The spatial coherence extension of a two-dimensional (2D) polariton system, below and at the...

  16. Coherence properties of exciton-polariton OPO condensates in one and two dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spano, R.; Cuadra, J.; Anton, C.;


    We give an overview of the coherence properties of exciton-polariton condensates generated by optical parametric scattering. Different aspects of the first-order coherence (g((1))) have been investigated. The spatial coherence extension of a two-dimensional (2D) polariton system, below...

  17. Virtual monochromatic imaging in dual-source and dual-energy CT for visualization of acute ischemic stroke

    CERN Document Server

    Hara, Hidetake; Matsuzawa, Hiroki; Inoue, Toshiyuki; Abe, Shinji; Satoh, Hitoshi; Nakajima, Yasuo


    We have recently developed a phantom that simulates acute ischemic stroke. We attempted to visualize acute-stage cerebral infarction by applying virtual monochromatic images to this phantom using dual-energy CT (DECT). Virtual monochromatic images were created using DECT from 40 to 100 keV at every 10 keV and from 60 to 80 keV at every 1 keV, under three energy conditions of tube voltages with thin (Sn) filters. Calculation of the CNR values allowed us to evaluate the visualization of acute-stage cerebral infarction. The CNR value of a virtual monochromatic image was the highest at 68 keV under 80 kV / Sn 140 kV, at 72 keV under 100 kV / Sn 140 kV, and at 67 keV under 140 kV / 80 kV. The CNR values of virtual monochromatic images between 65 and 75 keV were significantly higher than those obtained for all other created energy images. Therefore, optimal conditions for visualizing acute ischemic stroke were achievable.

  18. Electron Spin Resonance of Single Crystals of Cystine Dihydrochloride Irradiated with Monochromatic UV Radiation at Various Wavelenghts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Thomsen, E.; Nielsen, S. O.


    Single crystals of cystine dihydrochloride were irradiated at room temperature with monochromatic uv radiation. The optical bandwidth was about 20 Å for each wavelength used. Essentially two ESR centers were observed, the relative yield being approximately 1. One center is identified as the RS...

  19. Virtual monochromatic imaging in dual-source and dual-energy CT for visualization of acute ischemic stroke (United States)

    Hara, Hidetake; Muraishi, Hiroshi; Matsuzawa, Hiroki; Inoue, Toshiyuki; Nakajima, Yasuo; Satoh, Hitoshi; Abe, Shinji


    We have recently developed a phantom that simulates acute ischemic stroke. We attempted to visualize an acute-stage cerebral infarction by using dual-energy Computed tomography (DECT) to obtain virtual monochromatic images of this phantom. Virtual monochromatic images were created by using DECT voltages from 40 to 100 keV in steps of 10 keV and from 60 to 80 keV in steps of 1 keV, under three conditions of the tube voltage with thin (Sn) filters. Calculation of the CNR values allowed us to evaluate the visualization of acute-stage cerebral infarction. The CNR value of a virtual monochromatic image was the highest at 68 keV under 80 kV / Sn 140 kV, at 72 keV under 100 kV / Sn 140 kV, and at 67 keV under 140 kV / 80 kV. The CNR values of virtual monochromatic images at voltages between 65 and 75 keV were significantly higher than those obtained for all other created images. Therefore, the optimal conditions for visualizing acute ischemic stroke were achievable.

  20. The Effect of the Optical Spatial Coherence in Young's Double Silt Experiment%光场空间相干性的杨氏双缝干涉实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕泽龙; 董洁丽; 陈丹阳; 姚昊


    Based on the method of rotating frosted glass, the coherence of optical fields has been modula-ted and the partially coherent optical source has been obtained. The affecting factors of the coherence of opti- cal fields has been analyzed by making use of Young's double slit experiment. The results show that the opti-cal coherence is affected by the incident facular width in frosted glass and isn't affected by the rotational speed of frosted glass.%利用旋转毛玻璃的方法对激光光场的相干性进行调制,获得空间部分相干的光源.同时利用杨氏双缝干涉实验对影响光场的相干性的因素进行分析.实验分析表明,照射至毛玻璃上的光斑宽度对光场相干性有很大影响,而毛玻璃的旋转速度对光场相干性基本没有影响.

  1. Confocal shift interferometry of coherent emission from trapped dipolar excitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repp, J. [Walter Schottky Institut and Physik-Department, Am Coulombwall 4a, Technische Universität München, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Schellingstr. 4, 80799 München (Germany); Center for NanoScience and Fakultät für Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Geschwister-Scholl-Platz 1, 80539 München (Germany); Schinner, G. J.; Schubert, E. [Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Schellingstr. 4, 80799 München (Germany); Center for NanoScience and Fakultät für Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Geschwister-Scholl-Platz 1, 80539 München (Germany); Rai, A. K.; Wieck, A. D. [Angewandte Festkörperphysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätsstraße 150, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Reuter, D. [Angewandte Festkörperphysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätsstraße 150, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Department Physik, Universität Paderborn, 33098 Paderborn (Germany); Wurstbauer, U.; Holleitner, A. W. [Walter Schottky Institut and Physik-Department, Am Coulombwall 4a, Technische Universität München, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Schellingstr. 4, 80799 München (Germany); and others


    We introduce a confocal shift-interferometer based on optical fibers. The presented spectroscopy allows measuring coherence maps of luminescent samples with a high spatial resolution even at cryogenic temperatures. We apply the spectroscopy onto electrostatically trapped, dipolar excitons in a semiconductor double quantum well. We find that the measured spatial coherence length of the excitonic emission coincides with the point spread function of the confocal setup. The results are consistent with a temporal coherence of the excitonic emission down to temperatures of 250 mK.

  2. SU-E-I-40: Phantom Research On Monochromatic Images Taken by Dual CBCT with Multiple Energy Sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, R [Duke University, Durham, NC - North Carolina (United States); Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Wang, H [Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Zhang, Y [Duke University, Durham, NC - North Carolina (United States); Mao, R [The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan (China); Ren, L; Yin, F [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)


    Purpose: To evaluate the quality of monochromatic images at the same virtual monochromatic energy using dual cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) with either kV/kV or MV/kV or MV/MV energy sets. Methods: CT images of Catphan 504 phantom were acquired using four different KV and MV settings: 80kV, 140kV, 4MV, 6MV. Three sets of monochromatic images were calculated: 80kV-140kV, 140kV-4MV and 4MV-6MV. Each set of CBCT images were reconstructed from the same selected virtual monochromatic energy of 1MeV. Contrast-to-Noise Ratios (CNRs) were calculated and compared between each pair of images with different energy sets. Results: Between kV/MV and MV/MV images, the CNRs are comparable for all inserts. However, differences of CNRs were observed between the kV/kV and kV/MV images. Delrin’s CNR ratio between kV/kV image and kV/MV image is 1.634. LDPE’s (Low-Density Polyethylene) CNR ratio between kV/kV and kV/MV images is 0.509. Polystyrene’s CNR ratio between kV/kV image and kV/MV image is 2.219. Conclusion: Preliminary results indicated that the CNRs calculated from CBCT images reconstructed from either kV/MV projections or MV/MV projections for the same selected virtual monochromatic energy may be comparable.

  3. Coherent Control of Four-Wave Mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yanpeng; Xiao, Min


    "Coherent Control of Four-Wave Mixing" discusses the frequency, temporal and spatial domain interplays of four-wave mixing (FWM) processes induced by atomic coherence in multi-level atomic systems. It covers topics in five major areas: the ultrafast FWM polarization beats due to interactions between multi-color laser beams and multi-level media; coexisting Raman-Rayleigh-Brillouin-enhanced polarization beats due to color-locking noisy field correlations; FWM processes with different kinds of dual-dressed schemes in ultra-thin, micrometer and long atomic cells; temporal and spatial interference between FWM and six-wave mixing (SWM) signals in multi-level electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) media; spatial displacements and splitting of the probe and generated FWM beams, as well as the observations of gap soliton trains, vortex solitons, and stable multicomponent vector solitons in the FWM signals. The book is intended for scientists, researchers, advanced undergraduate and graduate students in Nonlin...

  4. Cellular resolution volumetric in vivo retinal imaging with adaptive optics–optical coherence tomography◊ (United States)

    Zawadzki, Robert J.; Choi, Stacey S.; Fuller, Alfred R.; Evans, Julia W.; Hamann, Bernd; Werner, John S.


    Ultrahigh-resolution adaptive optics–optical coherence tomography (UHR-AO-OCT) instrumentation allowing monochromatic and chromatic aberration correction was used for volumetric in vivo retinal imaging of various retinal structures including the macula and optic nerve head (ONH). Novel visualization methods that simplify AO-OCT data viewing are presented, and include co-registration of AO-OCT volumes with fundus photography and stitching of multiple AO-OCT sub-volumes to create a large field of view (FOV) high-resolution volume. Additionally, we explored the utility of Interactive Science Publishing by linking all presented AO-OCT datasets with the OSA ISP software. PMID:19259248

  5. Cellular resolution volumetric in vivo retinal imaging with adaptive optics-optical coherence tomography. (United States)

    Zawadzki, Robert J; Choi, Stacey S; Fuller, Alfred R; Evans, Julia W; Hamann, Bernd; Werner, John S


    Ultrahigh-resolution adaptive optics-optical coherence tomography (UHR-AO-OCT) instrumentation allowing monochromatic and chromatic aberration correction was used for volumetric in vivo retinal imaging of various retinal structures including the macula and optic nerve head (ONH). Novel visualization methods that simplify AO-OCT data viewing are presented, and include co-registration of AO-OCT volumes with fundus photography and stitching of multiple AO-OCT sub-volumes to create a large field of view (FOV) high-resolution volume. Additionally, we explored the utility of Interactive Science Publishing by linking all presented AO-OCT datasets with the OSA ISP software.

  6. Coherent Raman spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Eesley, G L


    Coherent Raman Spectroscopy provides a unified and general account of the fundamental aspects of nonlinear Raman spectroscopy, also known as coherent Raman spectroscopy. The theoretical basis from which coherent Raman spectroscopy developed is described, along with its applications, utility, and implementation as well as advantages and disadvantages. Experimental data which typifies each technique is presented. This book is comprised of four chapters and opens with an overview of nonlinear optics and coherent Raman spectroscopy, followed by a discussion on nonlinear transfer function of matter

  7. Application Coherency Manager Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal describes an Application Coherency Manager that implements and manages the interdependencies of simulation, data, and platform information. It will...

  8. On -Coherent Endomorphism Rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Li-Xin Mao


    A ring is called right -coherent if every principal right ideal is finitely presented. Let $M_R$ be a right -module. We study the -coherence of the endomorphism ring of $M_R$. It is shown that is a right -coherent ring if and only if every endomorphism of $M_R$ has a pseudokernel in add $M_R; S$ is a left -coherent ring if and only if every endomorphism of $M_R$ has a pseudocokernel in add $M_R$. Some applications are given.

  9. Coherence measurement with digital micromirror device. (United States)

    Partanen, Henri; Turunen, Jari; Tervo, Jani


    We measure the complex-valued spatial coherence function of a multimode broad-area laser diode using Young's classical double slit experiment realized with a digital micromirror device. We use this data to construct the coherent modes of the beam and to simulate its propagation before and after the measurement plane. When comparing the results to directly measured intensity profiles, we find excellent correspondence to the extent that even small details of the beam can be predicted. We also consider the number of measurement points required to model the beam with sufficient accuracy.

  10. A Semantic Connected Coherence Scheme for Efficient Image Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Image processing is a comprehensively research topic with an elongated history. Segmenting an image is the most challenging and difficult task in image processing and analysis. The principal intricacy met in image segmentation is the ability of techniques to discover semantic objects efficiently from an image without any prior knowledge. One recent work presented connected coherence tree algorithm (CCTA for image segmentation (with no prior knowledge which discovered regions of semantic coherence based on neighbor coherence segmentation criteria. It deployed an adaptive spatial scale and a suitable intensity-difference scale to extract several sets of coherent neighboring pixels and maximize the probability of single image content and minimize complex backgrounds. However CCTA segmented images either consists of small, lengthy and slender objects or rigorously ruined by noise, irregular lighting, occlusion, poor illumination, and shadow.In this paper, we present a Cluster based Semantic Coherent Tree (CBSCT scheme for image segmentation. CBSCT’s initial work is on the semantic connected coherence criteria for the image segregation. Semantic coherent regions are clustered based on Bayesian nearest neighbor search of neighborhood pixels. The segmentation regions are extracted from the images based on the cluster object purity obtained through semantic coherent regions. The clustered image regions are post processed with non linear noise filters. Performance metrics used in the evaluation of CBSCT are semantic coherent pixel size, number of cluster objects, and purity levels of the cluster, segmented coherent region intensity threshold, and quality of segmented images in terms of image clarity with PSNR.

  11. Absence of Long-Range Coherence in the Parametric Emission from Photonic Wires


    Wouters, M.; Carusotto, I.


    We analytically investigate the spatial coherence properties of the signal emission from one-dimensional optical parametric oscillators. Because of the reduced dimensionality, quantum fluctuations are able to destroy the long-range phase coherence even far above threshold. The spatial decay of coherence is exponential and, for realistic parameters of semiconductor photonic wires in the strong exciton-photon coupling regime, it is predicted to occur on an experimentally accessible length scale.

  12. Effects of monochromatic light on mucosal mechanical and immunological barriers in the small intestine of broilers. (United States)

    Xie, D; Li, J; Wang, Z X; Cao, J; Li, T T; Chen, J L; Chen, Y X


    Our previous studies demonstrated that green and blue monochromatic lights were effective to stimulate immune response of the spleen in broilers. This study was designed to investigate the effects of monochromatic light on both gut mucosal mechanical and immunological barriers. A total of 120 Arbor Acre male broilers on post-hatching day (P) 0 were exposed to red light, green light (GL), blue light (BL), and white light (WL) for 49 d, respectively. As compared with broilers exposed to WL, the broilers exposed to GL showed that the villus height of small intestine was increased by 19.5% (P = 0.0205) and 38.8% (P = 0.0149), the crypt depth of small intestine was decreased by 15.1% (P = 0.0049) and 10.1% (P = 0.0005), and the ratios of villus height to crypt depth were increased by 39.3% (P < 0.0001) and 52.5% (P < 0.0001) at P7 and P21, respectively. Until P49, an increased villus height (33.6%, P = 0.0076), a decreased crypt depth (15.4%, P = 0.0201), and an increased villus height-to-crypt depth ratio (58.5%, P < 0.0001) were observed in the BL group as compared with the WL group. On the other hand, the numbers of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (27.9%, P < 0.0001 and 37.0%, P < 0.0001), goblet cells (GC, 22.1%, P < 0.0001 and 18.1%, P < 0.0001), and IgA(+) cells (14.8%, P = 0.0543 and 47.9%, P = 0.0377) in the small intestine were significantly increased in the GL group as compared with the WL group at P7 and P21, respectively. The numbers of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (36.2%, P < 0.0001), GC (26.5%, P < 0.0001), and IgA(+) cells (68.0%, P = 0.0177) in the BL group were also higher than those in the WL group at P49. These results suggest that both mucosal mechanical and immunological barriers of the small intestine may be improved by rearing broilers under GL at an early age and under BL at an older age.

  13. Text Coherence in Translation (United States)

    Zheng, Yanping


    In the thesis a coherent text is defined as a continuity of senses of the outcome of combining concepts and relations into a network composed of knowledge space centered around main topics. And the author maintains that in order to obtain the coherence of a target language text from a source text during the process of translation, a translator can…

  14. Reverse Coherent Information (United States)

    García-Patrón, Raúl; Pirandola, Stefano; Lloyd, Seth; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.


    In this Letter we define a family of entanglement distribution protocols assisted by feedback classical communication that gives an operational interpretation to reverse coherent information, i.e., the symmetric counterpart of the well-known coherent information. This leads to the definition of a new entanglement distribution capacity that exceeds the unassisted capacity for some interesting channels.

  15. Understanding Causal Coherence Relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, G.


    The research reported in this dissertation focuses on the cognitive processes and representations involved in understanding causal coherence relations in text. Coherence relations are the meaning relations between the information units in the text, such as Cause-Consequence. These relations can be m

  16. VCSELs for coherent PON

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Bevensee; Rodes, Roberto; Cheng, Ning;


    Recent advances and research on coherent technologies for access networks are discussed and put into context of user demands and standardization work.......Recent advances and research on coherent technologies for access networks are discussed and put into context of user demands and standardization work....

  17. VCSEL Based Coherent PONs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Bevensee; Rodes, Roberto; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio;


    We present a review of research performed in the area of coherent access technologies employing vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs). Experimental demonstrations of optical transmission over a passive fiber link with coherent detection using VCSEL local oscillators and directly modula...

  18. Coherent Scattering Imaging Monte Carlo Simulation (United States)

    Hassan, Laila Abdulgalil Rafik

    on detectability. Coherent scatter analysis using a wide slot setup is promising as an enhancement for screening mammography. Unlike conventional mammography which depends on attenuation difference, coherent scatter imaging gives new information based on tissues typing. A combination of the two methods would yield high spatial resolution from the conventional mammography and high contrast from coherent scatter imaging.

  19. Partially coherent ultrafast spectrography. (United States)

    Bourassin-Bouchet, C; Couprie, M-E


    Modern ultrafast metrology relies on the postulate that the pulse to be measured is fully coherent, that is, that it can be completely described by its spectrum and spectral phase. However, synthesizing fully coherent pulses is not always possible in practice, especially in the domain of emerging ultrashort X-ray sources where temporal metrology is strongly needed. Here we demonstrate how frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG), the first and one of the most widespread techniques for pulse characterization, can be adapted to measure partially coherent pulses even down to the attosecond timescale. No modification of experimental apparatuses is required; only the processing of the measurement changes. To do so, we take our inspiration from other branches of physics where partial coherence is routinely dealt with, such as quantum optics and coherent diffractive imaging. This will have important and immediate applications, such as enabling the measurement of X-ray free-electron laser pulses despite timing jitter.

  20. Tunable, all-optical quasi-monochromatic Thomson X-ray source

    CERN Document Server

    Khrennikov, K; Buck, A; Xu, J; Heigoldt, M; Veisz, L; Karsch, S


    Brilliant X-ray sources are of great interest for many research fields from biology via medicine to material research. The quest for a cost-effective, brilliant source with unprecedented temporal resolution has led to the recent realization of various high-intensity-laser-driven X-ray beam sources. Here we demonstrate the first all-laser-driven, energy-tunable and quasi-monochromatic X-ray source based on Thomson backscattering. This is a decisive step beyond previous results, where the emitted radiation exhibited an uncontrolled broad energy distribution. In the experiment, one part of the laser beam was used to drive a few-fs bunch of quasi-monoenergetic electrons from a Laser-Wakefield Accelerator (LWFA), while the remainder was scattered off the bunch in a near-counter-propagating geometry. When the electron energy was tuned from 10-50 MeV, narrow-bandwidth X-ray spectra peaking at 5-35keV were directly measured, limited in photon energy by the sensitivity curve of our X-ray detector. Due to the ultrashor...

  1. The capabilities of monochromatic EC neutrino beams with the SPS upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinoza, C; Bernabeu, J [IFIC, Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, E-46100, Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)], E-mail:, E-mail:


    The goal for future neutrino facilities is the determination of the U(e3) mixing and CP violation in neutrino oscillations. This will require precision experiments with a very intense neutrino source and energy control. With this objective in mind, the creation of monochromatic neutrino beams from the electron capture decay of boosted ions by the SPS of CERN has been proposed. We discuss the capabilities of such a facility as a function of the energy of the boost and the baseline for the detector. We conclude that the SPS upgrade to 1000 GeV is crucial to reach a better sensitivity to CP violation iff it is accompanied by a longer baseline. We compare the physics potential for two different configurations: I) {gamma} = 90 and {gamma} = 195 (maximum achievable at present SPS) to Frejus; II) {gamma} = 195 and {gamma} = 440 (maximum achievable at upgraded SPS) to Canfranc. The main conclusion is that, whereas the gain in the determination of U(e3) is rather modest, setup II provides much better sensitivity to CP violation.

  2. Modulatory Effect of Monochromatic Blue Light on Heat Stress Response in Commercial Broilers (United States)

    Abdo, Safaa E.; Mahmoud, Shawky


    In a novel approach, monochromatic blue light was used to investigate its modulatory effect on heat stress biomarkers in two commercial broiler strains (Ross 308 and Cobb 500). At 21 days old, birds were divided into four groups including one group housed in white light, a second group exposed to blue light, a 3rd group exposed to white light + heat stress, and a 4th group exposed to blue light + heat stress. Heat treatment at 33°C lasted for five h for four successive days. Exposure to blue light during heat stress reduced MDA concentration and enhanced SOD and CAT enzyme activities as well as modulated their gene expression. Blue light also reduced the degenerative changes that occurred in the liver tissue as a result of heat stress. It regulated, though variably, liver HSP70, HSP90, HSF1, and HSF3 gene expression among Ross and Cobb chickens. Moreover, the Cobb strain showed better performance than Ross manifested by a significant reduction of rectal temperature in the case of H + B. Furthermore, a significant linear relationship was found between the lowered rectal temperature and the expression of all HSP genes. Generally, the performance of both strains by most assessed parameters under heat stress is improved when using blue light. PMID:28698764

  3. Experimental and Numerical Studies on Wave Breaking Characteristics over a Fringing Reef under Monochromatic Wave Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-In Lee


    Full Text Available Fringing reefs play an important role in protecting the coastal area by inducing wave breaking and wave energy dissipation. However, modeling of wave transformation and energy dissipation on this topography is still difficult due to the unique structure. In the present study, two-dimensional laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the cross-shore variations of wave transformation, setup, and breaking phenomena over an idealized fringing reef with the 1/40 reef slope and to verify the Boussinesq model under monochromatic wave conditions. One-layer and two-layer model configurations of the Boussinesq model were used to figure out the model capability. Both models predicted well (r2>0.8 the cross-shore variation of the wave heights, crests, troughs, and setups when the nonlinearity is not too high (A0/h0<0.07 in this study. However, as the wave nonlinearity and steepness increase, the one-layer model showed problems in prediction and stability due to the error on the vertical profile of fluid velocity. The results in this study revealed that one-layer model is not suitable in the highly nonlinear wave condition over a fringing reef bathymetry. This data set can contribute to the numerical model verification.

  4. Optical theorem for two-dimensional (2D) scalar monochromatic acoustical beams in cylindrical coordinates. (United States)

    Mitri, F G


    The optical theorem for plane waves is recognized as one of the fundamental theorems in optical, acoustical and quantum wave scattering theory as it relates the extinction cross-section to the forward scattering complex amplitude function. Here, the optical theorem is extended and generalized in a cylindrical coordinates system for the case of 2D beams of arbitrary character as opposed to plane waves of infinite extent. The case of scalar monochromatic acoustical wavefronts is considered, and generalized analytical expressions for the extinction, absorption and scattering cross-sections are derived and extended in the framework of the scalar resonance scattering theory. The analysis reveals the presence of an interference scattering cross-section term describing the interaction between the diffracted Franz waves with the resonance elastic waves. The extended optical theorem in cylindrical coordinates is applicable to any object of arbitrary geometry in 2D located arbitrarily in the beam's path. Related investigations in optics, acoustics and quantum mechanics will benefit from this analysis in the context of wave scattering theory and other phenomena closely connected to it, such as the multiple scattering by a cloud of particles, as well as the resulting radiation force and torque.

  5. A new technique to study transient conductivity under pulsed monochromatic light in Cr-doped GaAs using acoustoelectric voltage measurement (United States)

    Tabib-Azar, Massood


    The transient conductivity of high-resistivity Bridgman-grown Cr-doped GaAs under pulsed monochromatic light is monitored using transverse acoustoelectric voltage (TAV) at 83 K. Keeping the photon flux constant, the height and transient time constant at the TAV are used to calculate the energy dependence of the trap density and its cross section, respectively. Two prominent trap profiles with peak trap densities of approximately 10 to the 17th/cu cm eV near the valence and the conduction bands are detected. These traps have very small capture cross sections in the range of 10 to the -23 to 10 to the -21st cm sq. A phenomenon similar to the persistent photoconductivity with transient time constants in excess of a few seconds in high-resistivity GaAs at T = 83 K is also detected using this technique. These long relaxation times are readily explained by the spatial separation of the photo-excited electron-hole pairs and the small capture cross section and large density of trap distribution near the conduction band.

  6. Unveiling spatial correlations in biophotonic architecture of transparent insect wings

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Pramod; Singh, Dhirendra P; Mandal, Sudip; Singh, Kamal P


    We probe the natural complex structures in the transparent insect wings by a simple, non-invasive, real time optical technique using both monochromatic and broadband femtosecond lasers. A stable, reproducible and novel diffraction pattern is observed unveiling long range spatial correlations and structural-symmetry at various length scales for a large variety of wings. While matching the sensitivity of SEM for such microstructures, it is highly efficient for extracting long range structural organization with potentially broad applicability.

  7. Thermoluminescence dependence on the wavelength of monochromatic UV-radiation in Cu-doped KCl and KBr at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez R, A.; Piters, T.; Aceves, R.; Rodriguez M, R.; Perez S, R., E-mail: [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Investigaciones en Fisica, Apdo. Postal 5-088, 83190 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)


    Thermoluminescence (Tl) dependence on the UV irradiation wavelengths from 200 to 500 nm in Cu-doped KCl and KBr crystals with different thermal treatment has been analyzed. Spectrum of the Tl intensity of each material show lower intensity at wavelengths longer than 420 nm. The Tl intensity depends on the irradiation wavelength. Structure of the Tl intensity spectrum of each sample is very similar to the structure of its optical absorption spectrum, indicating that at each wavelength, monochromatic radiation is absorbed to produce electronic transitions and electron hole pairs. Thermoluminescence of materials with thermal treatment at high temperature shows electron-hole trapping with less efficiency. The results show that Cu-doped alkali-halide materials are good detectors of a wide range of UV monochromatic radiations and could be used to measure UV radiation doses. (Author)

  8. Metal artifacts reduction using monochromatic images from spectral CT: Evaluation of pedicle screws in patients with scoliosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yang, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, The Affiliated Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing 210008 (China); Qian, Bangping, E-mail: [Spine Service, Drum Tower Hospital, Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing 210008 (China); Li, Baoxin, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, The Affiliated Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing 210008 (China); Qin, Guochu, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, The Affiliated Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing 210008 (China); Zhou, Zhengyang, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, The Affiliated Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing 210008 (China); Qiu, Yong, E-mail: [Spine Service, Drum Tower Hospital, Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing 210008 (China); Sun, Xizhao, E-mail: [Department of Radiology and Urology, The Affiliated Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, No. 321 Zhongshan Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Zhu, Bin, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, The Affiliated Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing 210008 (China)


    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of spectral CT in reducing metal artifacts caused by pedicle screws in patients with scoliosis. Materials and methods: Institutional review committee approval and written informed consents from patients were obtained. 18 scoliotic patients with a total of 228 pedicle screws who underwent spectral CT imaging were included in this study. Monochromatic image sets with and without the additional metal artifacts reduction software (MARS) correction were generated with photon energy at 65 keV and from 70 to 140 keV with 10 keV interval using the 80 kVp and 140 kVp projection sets. Polychromatic images corresponded to the conventional 140 kVp imaging were also generated from the same scan data as a control group. Both objective evaluation (screw width and quantitative artifacts index measurements) and subjective evaluation (depiction of pedicle screws, surrounding structures and their relationship) were performed. Results: Image quality of monochromatic images in the range from 110 to 140 keV (0.97 ± 0.28) was rated superior to the conventional polychromatic images (2.53 ± 0.54) and also better than monochromatic images with lower energy. Images of energy above 100 keV also give accurate measurement of the width of screws and relatively low artifacts index. The form of screws was slightly distorted in MARS reconstruction. Conclusions: Compared to conventional polychromatic images, monochromatic images acquired from dual-energy CT provided superior image quality with much reduced metal artifacts of pedicle screws in patients with scoliosis. Optimal energy range was found between 110 and 140 keV.

  9. A simple optical system for interpreting coherence theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, Damien P


    A new theoretical technique for understanding, analyzing and developing optical systems is presented. The approach is statistical in nature, where information about an object under investigation is discovered, by examining deviations from a known reference statistical distribution. A Fourier optics framework and a scalar description of the propagation of monochromatic light is initially assumed. An object (belonging to a known class of objects) is illuminated with a speckle field and the intensity of the resulting scattered optical field is detected at a series of spatial locations by point square law detectors. A new speckle field is generated (with a new diffuser) and the object is again illuminated and the intensities are again measured and noted. By making a large number of these statistical measurements - an ensemble averaging process (which in general can be a temporal or a spatial averaging process) - it is possible to determine the statistical relationship between the intensities detected in different...

  10. The Puzzle of Coherence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne Bendix; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Beedholm, Kirsten;


    of coherence in treatment and patient pathways. The aim of our study is to explore the role of health care providers in furthering coherence. Our ambition is to identify areas for improvement or change of collaborative practice between health care providers in municipalities, hospitals and general practice...... initiatives in health care. The present study will generate new, valuable insight into the areas of cross-sectorial health care collaboration. Our findings may facilitate change in current practice and improve the quality and coherence in patient pathways of EPCD. The findings of this study will be useful...

  11. Coherent diffractive {rho} production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyett, N.M.; Tovey, S.N. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics


    Coherent diffractive {rho} production by neutrinos occurs at low four-momentum transfer and high energy transfer. These interactions are generally understood to occur via the coupling of the weak charged current to the vector meson, which scatters diffractively from the target nucleus. Since coherent events are those in which the nucleus interacts as a whole, ie without breakup, and with small recoil energy, these events have a very sharp |t|-distribution. This presentation deals mostly with the Monte Carlo simulation of the coherent diffractive production of the {rho} production and in particular with the reconstruction algorithm (description and efficiency) and the |t| distribution. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  12. The Coherent Curriculum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael Thomas


    @@ What makes a coherent EFL curriculum? How can curriculum planners avoid a mismatch between policy and pragmatics to produce an effective decision-making process? In The Second Language Curriculum, Johnson describes the coherent curriculum as one in which decision outcomes from the various stages of development are mutually consistent and complementary,and learning outcomes reflect curriculum aims.The achievement of coherence is said to depend crucially in most educational contexts upon the formalisation of decision-making processes and products. This formalisation facilitates consensus among those involved and is a prerequisite for effective evaluation and subsequent renewal (1994: xiii)

  13. Co-doping of Ag into Mn:ZnSe Quantum Dots: Giving Optical Filtering effect with Improved Monochromaticity. (United States)

    Hu, Zhiyang; Xu, Shuhong; Xu, Xiaojing; Wang, Zhaochong; Wang, Zhuyuan; Wang, Chunlei; Cui, Yiping


    In optics, when polychromatic light is filtered by an optical filter, the monochromaticity of the light can be improved. In this work, we reported that Ag dopant atoms could be used as an optical filter for nanosized Mn:ZnSe quantum dots (QDs). If no Ag doping, aqueous Mn:ZnSe QDs have low monochromaticity due to coexisting of strong ZnSe band gap emission, ZnSe trap emission, and Mn dopant emission. After doping of Ag into QDs, ZnSe band gap and ZnSe trap emissions can be filtered, leaving only Mn dopant emission with improved monochromaticity. The mechanism for the optical filtering effect of Ag was investigated. The results indicate that the doping of Ag will introduce a new faster deactivation process from ZnSe conduction band to Ag energy level, leading to less electrons deactived via ZnSe band gap emission and ZnSe trap emission. As a result, only Mn dopant emission is left.

  14. Two-point optical coherency matrix tomography. (United States)

    Abouraddy, Ayman F; Kagalwala, Kumel H; Saleh, Bahaa E A


    The two-point coherence of an electromagnetic field is represented completely by a 4×4 coherency matrix G that encodes the joint polarization-spatial-field correlations. Here, we describe a systematic sequence of cascaded spatial and polarization projective measurements that are sufficient to tomographically reconstruct G--a task that, to the best of our knowledge, has not yet been realized. Our approach benefits from the correspondence between this reconstruction problem in classical optics and that of quantum state tomography for two-photon states in quantum optics. Identifying G uniquely determines all the measurable correlation characteristics of the field and, thus, lifts ambiguities that arise from reliance on traditional scalar descriptors, especially when the field's degrees of freedom are correlated or classically entangled.

  15. Negative and positive Goos-Hänchen shifts of partially coherent light fields (United States)

    Ziauddin, Chuang, You-Lin; Lee, Ray-Kuang


    The negative and positive Goos-Hänchen (GH) shifts in reflected light are revisited for a partial coherent light incident on a cavity. A three-level dilute gaseous atomic medium, which follows two-photon Raman transitions, is considered in a cavity. The anomalous (negative group index) and normal (positive group index) dispersions of the intracavity medium lead to negative and positive GH shifts, respectively. The effects of beam width, spatial coherence, and mode index of partial coherent light fields are studied on the negative and positive GH shifts. It is observed that the amplitude of negative and positive GH shifts are relatively large for a small range of beam width and for a small value of spatial coherence of partial coherent light beams. The amplitude of GH shifts becomes small for large beam width and spatial coherence of incident light. Further, the distortion in the reflected light field increases when the amplitude of the GH shifts increases and vice versa.

  16. Spectrum multiplexing and coherent-state decomposition in Fourier ptychographic imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Siyuan; Nanda, Pariksheet; Zheng, Guoan


    Information multiplexing is important for biomedical imaging and chemical sensing. In this paper, we report a microscopy imaging technique, termed state-multiplexed Fourier ptychography (FP), for information multiplexing and coherent-state decomposition. Similar to a typical Fourier ptychographic setting, we use an array of light sources to illuminate the sample from different incident angles and acquire corresponding low-resolution images using a monochromatic camera. In the reported technique, however, multiple light sources are lit up simultaneously for information multiplexing, and the acquired images thus represent incoherent summations of the sample transmission profiles corresponding to different coherent states. We show that, by using the state-multiplexed FP recovery routine, we can decompose the incoherent mixture of the FP acquisitions to recover a high-resolution sample image. We also show that, color-multiplexed imaging can be performed by simultaneously turning on R/G/B LEDs for data acquisition...

  17. Coherence in Industrial Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik; Lauridsen, Erik Hagelskjær


    The notion of coherence is used to illustrate the general finding, that the impact of environmental management systems and environmental policy is highly dependent of the context and interrelatedness of the systems, procedures and regimes established in society....

  18. Coherence for Modalities

    CERN Document Server

    Dosen, K


    Positive modalities in systems in the vicinity of S4 and S5 are investigated in terms of categorial proof theory. Coherence and maximality results are demonstrated, and connections with mixed distributive laws and Frobenius algebras are exhibited.

  19. Coherence in Industrial Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik; Lauridsen, Erik Hagelskjær


    The notion of coherence is used to illustrate the general finding, that the impact of environmental management systems and environmental policy is highly dependent of the context and interrelatedness of the systems, procedures and regimes established in society....

  20. Genuine Quantum Coherence

    CERN Document Server

    Streltsov, Alexander


    The basis of any quantum resource theory are free states and free operations, these are states and operations which can be created or performed at no cost. In the resource theory of quantum coherence free states are states which are diagonal in a fixed reference basis. This choice is natural in many experimental scenarios where the reference basis is singled out by the unavoidable decoherence. The corresponding free operations are called incoherent, they can be implemented as a generalized measurement which does not create any coherence. However, a general quantum operation admits different experimental realizations, and a quantum operation which seems incoherent in one experimental realization might create coherence in another. Starting from this observation, we propose the framework of genuine quantum coherence. This approach is based on a simple principle: we demand that a genuinely incoherent operation preserves all incoherent states. This simple condition automatically guarantees that the operation is in...

  1. Coherence expansion and polariton condensate formation in a semiconductor microcavity. (United States)

    Belykh, V V; Sibeldin, N N; Kulakovskii, V D; Glazov, M M; Semina, M A; Schneider, C; Höfling, S; Kamp, M; Forchel, A


    The dynamics of the expansion of the first order spatial coherence g(1) for a polariton system in a high-Q GaAs microcavity was investigated on the basis of Young's double slit experiment under 3 ps pulse excitation at the conditions of polariton Bose-Einstein condensation. It was found that in the process of condensate formation the coherence expands with a constant velocity of about 10(8)  cm/s. The measured coherence is smaller than that in a thermal equilibrium system during the growth of condensate density and well exceeds it at the end of condensate decay. The onset of spatial coherence is governed by polariton relaxation while condensate amplitude and phase fluctuations are not suppressed.

  2. Shifted-elementary-mode representation for partially coherent vectorial fields

    CERN Document Server

    Tervo, Jani; Vahimaa, Pasi; Wyrowski, Frank


    A representation of partially spatially coherent and partially polarized stationary electromagnetic fields is given in terms of mutually uncorrelated, transversely shifted, fully coherent and polarized elementary electric-field modes. This representation allows one to propagate non-paraxial partially coherent vector fields using techniques for spatially fully coherent fields, which are numerically far more efficient than methods for propagating correlation functions. A procedure is given to determine the elementary modes from the radiant intensity and the far-zone polarization properties of the entire field. The method is applied to quasihomogeneous fields with rotationally symmetric cosine-modulated radiant intensity distributions. This is an adequate model for fields emitted by, e.g., many light-emitting diodes.

  3. Partially coherent sources with circular coherence: comment. (United States)

    Hyde, Milo W; Bose-Pillai, Santasri R


    In [Opt. Lett.42, 1512 (2017)OPLEDP0146-959210.1364/OL.42.001512], the authors present a new class of non-uniformly correlated sources with circular coherence. They also describe a basic experimental setup for synthesizing this class of sources, which uses the Van Cittert-Zernike theorem. Here, we present an alternative way to analyze these sources and a different way to generate them.

  4. SU-D-BRA-06: Dual-Energy Chest CT: The Effects of Virtual Monochromatic Reconstructions On Texture Analysis Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, J; Duran, C; Stingo, F; Wei, W; Rao, A; Zhang, L; Court, L; Erasmus, J; Godoy, M [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)


    Purpose: To characterize the effect of virtual monochromatic reconstructions on several commonly used texture analysis features in DECT of the chest. Further, to assess the effect of monochromatic energy levels on the ability of these textural features to identify tissue types. Methods: 20 consecutive patients underwent chest CTs for evaluation of lung nodules using Siemens Somatom Definition Flash DECT. Virtual monochromatic images were constructed at 10keV intervals from 40–190keV. For each patient, an ROI delineated the lesion under investigation, and cylindrical ROI’s were placed within 5 different healthy tissues (blood, fat, muscle, lung, and liver). Several histogram- and Grey Level Cooccurrence Matrix (GLCM)-based texture features were then evaluated in each ROI at each energy level. As a means of validation, these feature values were then used in a random forest classifier to attempt to identify the tissue types present within each ROI. Their predictive accuracy at each energy level was recorded. Results: All textural features changed considerably with virtual monochromatic energy, particularly below 70keV. Most features exhibited a global minimum or maximum around 80keV, and while feature values changed with energy above this, patient ranking was generally unaffected. As expected, blood demonstrated the lowest inter-patient variability, for all features, while lung lesions (encompassing many different pathologies) exhibited the highest. The accuracy of these features in identifying tissues (76% accuracy) was highest at 80keV, but no clear relationship between energy and classification accuracy was found. Two common misclassifications (blood vs liver and muscle vs fat) accounted for the majority (24 of the 28) errors observed. Conclusion: All textural features were highly dependent on virtual monochromatic energy level, especially below 80keV, and were more stable above this energy. However, in a random forest model, these commonly used features were

  5. Coherence-Enhanced Spaser

    CERN Document Server

    Dorfman, Konstantin E; Voronine, Dmitri V; Genevet, Patrice; Capasso, Federico; Scully, Marlan O


    We investigate surface plasmon amplification in a silver nanoshell coupled to an externally driven three-level gain medium, and show that quantum coherence significantly enhances the generation of surface plasmons. Surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation is achieved in the absence of population inversion on the spasing transition, which reduces the pump requirements. The coherent drive allows us to control the dynamics, and holds promise for quantum control of nanoplasmonic devices.

  6. Optical Coherency Matrix Tomography (United States)


    optics has been studied theoretically11, but has not been demonstrated experimentally heretofore. Even in the simplest case of two binary DoFs6 (e.g...coherency matrix G spanning these DoFs. This optical coherency matrix has not been measured in its entirety to date—even in the simplest case of two...dense coding, etc. CREOL, The College of Optics & Photonics, University of Central Florida, Orlando , Florida 32816, USA. Correspondence and requests

  7. Space and Time Coherence of Acoustic Field in Shallow Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Liang-Hao; GONG Zai-Xiao; Wu Li-Xin


    New experimental measurements of signal coherence in shallow water are presented. For signals with Iow fre quencies of about 500 Hz in iso-velocity shallow water with a silt-sand bottom and a water depth of about 45 tn, the vertical coherence has no distinct depth dependence at ranges of 18.5, 55.5 and 92.5 kin, but it has obvious range dependence. The horizontal coherence lengths are all greater than 40 wavelengths, and the time coherence lengths are all greater than 510s at these ranges. These experimental results show that a low-frequency acoustic field has strong spatial coherence and temporal stability in iso-velocity shallow water.

  8. Does pupil constriction under blue and green monochromatic light exposure change with age? (United States)

    Daneault, Véronique; Vandewalle, Gilles; Hébert, Marc; Teikari, Petteri; Mure, Ludovic S; Doyon, Julien; Gronfier, Claude; Cooper, Howard M; Dumont, Marie; Carrier, Julie


    Many nonvisual functions are regulated by light through a photoreceptive system involving melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells that are maximally sensitive to blue light. Several studies have suggested that the ability of light to modulate circadian entrainment and to induce acute effects on melatonin secretion, subjective alertness, and gene expression decreases during aging, particularly for blue light. This could contribute to the documented changes in sleep and circadian regulatory processes with aging. However, age-related modification in the impact of light on steady-state pupil constriction, which regulates the amount of light reaching the retina, is not demonstrated. We measured pupil size in 16 young (22.8±4 years) and 14 older (61±4.4 years) healthy subjects during 45-second exposures to blue (480 nm) and green (550 nm) monochromatic lights at low (7×10(12) photons/cm2/s), medium (3×10(13) photons/cm2/s), and high (10(14) photons/cm2/s) irradiance levels. Results showed that young subjects had consistently larger pupils than older subjects for dark adaptation and during all light exposures. Steady-state pupil constriction was greater under blue than green light exposure in both age groups and increased with increasing irradiance. Surprisingly, when expressed in relation to baseline pupil size, no significant age-related differences were observed in pupil constriction. The observed reduction in pupil size in older individuals, both in darkness and during light exposure, may reduce retinal illumination and consequently affect nonvisual responses to light. The absence of a significant difference between age groups for relative steady-state pupil constriction suggests that other factors such as tonic, sympathetic control of pupil dilation, rather than light sensitivity per se, account for the observed age difference in pupil size regulation. Compared to other nonvisual functions, the light sensitivity of steady-state pupil constriction appears to

  9. Human wavelength discrimination of monochromatic light explained by optimal wavelength decoding of light of unknown intensity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhaoping

    Full Text Available We show that human ability to discriminate the wavelength of monochromatic light can be understood as maximum likelihood decoding of the cone absorptions, with a signal processing efficiency that is independent of the wavelength. This work is built on the framework of ideal observer analysis of visual discrimination used in many previous works. A distinctive aspect of our work is that we highlight a perceptual confound that observers should confuse a change in input light wavelength with a change in input intensity. Hence a simple ideal observer model which assumes that an observer has a full knowledge of input intensity should over-estimate human ability in discriminating wavelengths of two inputs of unequal intensity. This confound also makes it difficult to consistently measure human ability in wavelength discrimination by asking observers to distinguish two input colors while matching their brightness. We argue that the best experimental method for reliable measurement of discrimination thresholds is the one of Pokorny and Smith, in which observers only need to distinguish two inputs, regardless of whether they differ in hue or brightness. We mathematically formulate wavelength discrimination under this wavelength-intensity confound and show a good agreement between our theoretical prediction and the behavioral data. Our analysis explains why the discrimination threshold varies with the input wavelength, and shows how sensitively the threshold depends on the relative densities of the three types of cones in the retina (and in particular predict discriminations in dichromats. Our mathematical formulation and solution can be applied to general problems of sensory discrimination when there is a perceptual confound from other sensory feature dimensions.

  10. Does pupil constriction under blue and green monochromatic light exposure change with age? (United States)

    Daneault, Véronique; Vandewalle, Gilles; Hébert, Marc; Teikari, Petteri; Mure, Ludovic S.; Doyon, Julien; Gronfier, Claude; Cooper, Howard M.; Dumont, Marie; Carrier, Julie


    Many non-visual functions are regulated by light through a photoreceptive system involving melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells that are maximally sensitive to blue light. Several studies have suggested that the ability of light to modulate circadian entrainment and to induce acute effects on melatonin secretion, subjective alertness and gene expression, decreases during aging, particularly for blue light. This could contribute to the documented changes in sleep and circadian regulatory processes with aging. However, age-related modification in the impact of light on steady-state pupil constriction, which regulates the amount of light reaching the retina, is not demonstrated. We measured pupil size in 16 young (22.8±4y) and 14 older (61±4.4y) healthy subjects during 45s exposures to blue (480nm) and green (550nm) monochromatic lights at low (7×1012 photons/cm2/s), medium (3×1013 photons/cm2/s), and high (1014 photons/cm2/s) irradiance levels. Results showed that young subjects had consistently larger pupils than older subjects, for dark adaptation and during all light exposures. Steady-state pupil constriction was greater under blue than green light exposure in both age groups and increased with increasing irradiance. Surprisingly, when expressed in relation to baseline pupil size, no significant age-related differences were observed in pupil constriction. The observed reduction in pupil size in older individuals, both in darkness and during light exposure, may reduce retinal illumination and consequently affect non-visual responses to light. The absence of a significant difference between age groups for relative steady-state pupil constriction suggests that other factors such as tonic, sympathetic control of pupil dilation, rather than light sensitivity per se, account for the observed age difference in pupil size regulation. Compared to other nonvisual functions, the light sensitivity of steady-state pupil constriction appears to remain relatively

  11. Interferometric visibility and coherence (United States)

    Biswas, Tanmoy; García Díaz, María; Winter, Andreas


    Recently, the basic concept of quantum coherence (or superposition) has gained a lot of renewed attention, after Baumgratz et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 140401. (doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.140401)), following Åberg (, have proposed a resource theoretic approach to quantify it. This has resulted in a large number of papers and preprints exploring various coherence monotones, and debating possible forms for the resource theory. Here, we take the view that the operational foundation of coherence in a state, be it quantum or otherwise wave mechanical, lies in the observation of interference effects. Our approach here is to consider an idealized multi-path interferometer, with a suitable detector, in such a way that the visibility of the interference pattern provides a quantitative expression of the amount of coherence in a given probe state. We present a general framework of deriving coherence measures from visibility, and demonstrate it by analysing several concrete visibility parameters, recovering some known coherence measures and obtaining some new ones.

  12. Genuine quantum coherence (United States)

    de Vicente, Julio I.; Streltsov, Alexander


    Any quantum resource theory is based on free states and free operations, i.e. states and operations which can be created and performed at no cost. In the resource theory of coherence free states are diagonal in some fixed basis, and free operations are those which cannot create coherence for some particular experimental realization. Recently, some problems of this approach have been discussed, and new sets of operations have been proposed to resolve these problems. We propose here the framework of genuine quantum coherence. This approach is based on a simple principle: we demand that a genuinely incoherent operation preserves all incoherent states. This framework captures coherence under additional constrains such as energy preservation and all genuinely incoherent operations are incoherent regardless of their particular experimental realization. We also introduce the full class of operations with this property, which we call fully incoherent. We analyze in detail the mathematical structure of these classes and also study possible state transformations. We show that deterministic manipulation is severely limited, even in the asymptotic settings. In particular, this framework does not have a unique golden unit, i.e. there is no single state from which all other states can be created deterministically with the free operations. This suggests that any reasonably powerful resource theory of coherence must contain free operations which can potentially create coherence in some experimental realization.

  13. Development of a spatial filtering apparatus (United States)

    Wilson, Nicolle

    This thesis contains a discussion of the theoretical background for Fourier spatial filtering and a description of the design and construction of a portable in-class spatial filtering apparatus. A portable, in-class spatial filtering demonstration apparatus was designed and built. This apparatus uses liquid crystal display (LCD) panels from two projectors as the object and filter masks. The blue LCD panel from the first projector serves as the object mask, and the red panel from the second projector serves as the filter mask. The panels were extracted from their projectors and mounted onto aluminum blocks which are held in place by optical component mounts. Images are written to the LCD panels via custom open source software developed for this apparatus which writes independent monochromatic images to the video signal. The software has two monochromatic image windows, basic image manipulation tools, and two video feed input display windows. Two complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensors are positioned to record the reconstructed image of the object mask and the diffraction pattern created by the object mask. The object and filter mask can be digitally changed and the effects on the filtered image and diffraction pattern can be observed in real-time. The entire apparatus is assembled onto a rolling cart which allows it to be easily taken into classrooms.

  14. Tachyonic Dispersion in Coherent Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chong, Y D


    We propose a technique to realize a tachyonic band structure in a coherent network, such as an array of coupled ring resonators. This is achieved by adding "PT symmetric" spatially-balanced gain and loss to each node of the network. In a square-lattice network, the quasi-energy bandstructure exhibits a tachyonic dispersion relation, centered at either the center or corner of the Brillouin zone. There is one tachyonic hyperboloid in each gap, unlike in PT-symmetric tight-binding honeycomb lattices where the hyperboloids occur in pairs. The dispersion relation can be probed by measuring the peaks in transmission across a finite network as the gain/loss parameter is varied.

  15. Coherent polarization locking of a diode emitter array. (United States)

    Ng, S P; Phua, P B


    We present our work on the coherent combining of an array of diode emitters in a conventional diode bar configuration using the coherent polarization locking technique. An external laser cavity is designed so that the diode emissions from four diode emitters are spatially overlapped and passively phase locked via a series of birefringent walk-off crystals and a polarizing beam splitter. This concept was experimentally demonstrated up to 1030 mW of coherently combined power and was shown to increase the laser brightness of the diode bar by approximately 50 times.

  16. Research on the efficiency of coherent balanced detection (United States)

    Liu, Hongyang; Ai, Yong; Yang, Xiaobo; Chen, Yang; Ji, Fengzhu; Zhao, Xiaodan


    In the spatial coherent optical communication, after long distance transmission, the receiver needs to detect and extract the weak signal, and the balanced detection technology is the key technology in the coherent detection. Using balanced detection technology, not only can further improve the receiving sensitivity of coherent optical detection, but also can suppress the common mode intensity noise, so as to improve the output signal to noise ratio of the system. But the problems are (1) due to external causes (polarization control, input optical power loss error, atmospheric turbulence caused by decay, and so on),at both ends of the balanced detector's input signal can not keep consistent (2) two arms of balanced detector electronic devices (including photodiode and amplifier electronic components) are difficult to achieve perfectly matched. The paper is based on the principle of coherent optical detection, firstly, the advantage of balanced detection compared to single detection is detailed analysis, it is shown that balanced detector used in coherent optical communication system and with the improvement of communication rate, this advantage will more obvious. The theoretical and experimental results have verified several important factors that affect the efficiency of coherent balanced detection, namely, the consistency of the detection response, the atmospheric turbulence and the tracking jitter. It is of reference significant to study the balance detection technology in the spatial coherent optical communication.

  17. Spatial recurrence plots. (United States)

    Vasconcelos, D B; Lopes, S R; Viana, R L; Kurths, J


    We propose an extension of the recurrence plot concept to perform quantitative analyzes of roughness and disorder of spatial patterns at a fixed time. We introduce spatial recurrence plots (SRPs) as a graphical representation of the pointwise correlation matrix, in terms of a two-dimensional spatial return plot. This technique is applied to the study of complex patterns generated by coupled map lattices, which are characterized by measures of complexity based on SRPs. We show that the complexity measures we propose for SRPs provide a systematic way of investigating the distribution of spatially coherent structures, such as synchronization domains, in lattice profiles. This approach has potential for many more applications, e.g., in surface roughness analyzes.

  18. Goos-Hänchen shift of partially coherent light fields in epsilon-near-zero metamaterials


    Ziauddin,; You-Lin Chuang; Sajid Qamar; Ray-Kuang Lee


    The Goos-Hänchen (GH) shifts in the reflected light are investigated both for p and s polarized partial coherent light beams incident on epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) metamaterials. In contrary to the coherent counterparts, the magnitude of GH shift becomes non-zero for p polarized partial coherent light beam; while GH shift can be relatively large with a small degree of spatial coherence for s polarized partial coherent beam. Dependence on the beam width and the permittivity of ENZ metamaterials i...

  19. Stimulated coherent transition radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung-chi Lihn


    Coherent radiation emitted from a relativistic electron bunch consists of wavelengths longer than or comparable to the bunch length. The intensity of this radiation out-numbers that of its incoherent counterpart, which extends to wavelengths shorter than the bunch length, by a factor equal to the number of electrons in the bunch. In typical accelerators, this factor is about 8 to 11 orders of magnitude. The spectrum of the coherent radiation is determined by the Fourier transform of the electron bunch distribution and, therefore, contains information of the bunch distribution. Coherent transition radiation emitted from subpicosecond electron bunches at the Stanford SUNSHINE facility is observed in the far-infrared regime through a room-temperature pyroelectric bolometer and characterized through the electron bunch-length study. To measure the bunch length, a new frequency-resolved subpicosecond bunch-length measuring system is developed. This system uses a far-infrared Michelson interferometer to measure the spectrum of coherent transition radiation through optical autocorrelation with resolution far better than existing time-resolved methods. Hence, the radiation spectrum and the bunch length are deduced from the autocorrelation measurement. To study the stimulation of coherent transition radiation, a special cavity named BRAICER is invented. Far-infrared light pulses of coherent transition radiation emitted from electron bunches are delayed and circulated in the cavity to coincide with subsequent incoming electron bunches. This coincidence of light pulses with electron bunches enables the light to do work on electrons, and thus stimulates more radiated energy. The possibilities of extending the bunch-length measuring system to measure the three-dimensional bunch distribution and making the BRAICER cavity a broadband, high-intensity, coherent, far-infrared light source are also discussed.

  20. Adaptive optics optical coherence tomography in glaucoma. (United States)

    Dong, Zachary M; Wollstein, Gadi; Wang, Bo; Schuman, Joel S


    Since the introduction of commercial optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems, the ophthalmic imaging modality has rapidly expanded and it has since changed the paradigm of visualization of the retina and revolutionized the management and diagnosis of neuro-retinal diseases, including glaucoma. OCT remains a dynamic and evolving imaging modality, growing from time-domain OCT to the improved spectral-domain OCT, adapting novel image analysis and processing methods, and onto the newer swept-source OCT and the implementation of adaptive optics (AO) into OCT. The incorporation of AO into ophthalmic imaging modalities has enhanced OCT by improving image resolution and quality, particularly in the posterior segment of the eye. Although OCT previously captured in-vivo cross-sectional images with unparalleled high resolution in the axial direction, monochromatic aberrations of the eye limit transverse or lateral resolution to about 15-20 μm and reduce overall image quality. In pairing AO technology with OCT, it is now possible to obtain diffraction-limited resolution images of the optic nerve head and retina in three-dimensions, increasing resolution down to a theoretical 3 μm(3). It is now possible to visualize discrete structures within the posterior eye, such as photoreceptors, retinal nerve fiber layer bundles, the lamina cribrosa, and other structures relevant to glaucoma. Despite its limitations and barriers to widespread commercialization, the expanding role of AO in OCT is propelling this technology into clinical trials and onto becoming an invaluable modality in the clinician's arsenal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. SAR image effects on coherence and coherence estimation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickel, Douglas Lloyd


    Radar coherence is an important concept for imaging radar systems such as synthetic aperture radar (SAR). This document quantifies some of the effects in SAR which modify the coherence. Although these effects can disrupt the coherence within a single SAR image, this report will focus on the coherence between separate images, such as for coherent change detection (CCD) processing. There have been other presentations on aspects of this material in the past. The intent of this report is to bring various issues that affect the coherence together in a single report to support radar engineers in making decisions about these matters.

  2. Impact of primary aberrations on coherent lidar performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Qi; Rodrigo, Peter John; Iversen, Theis Faber Quist;


    In this work we investigate the performance of a monostatic coherent lidar system in which the transmit beam is under the influence of primary phase aberrations: spherical aberration (SA) and astigmatism. The experimental investigation is realized by probing the spatial weighting function...... of the lidar system using different optical transceiver configurations. A rotating belt is used as a hard target. Our study shows that the lidar weighting function suffers from both spatial broadening and shift in peak position in the presence of aberration. It is to our knowledge the first experimental...... effciency, the optimum truncation of the transmit beam and the spatial sensitivity of a CW coherent lidar system. Under strong degree of aberration, the spatial confinement is significantly degraded. However for SA, the degradation of the spatial confinement can be reduced by tuning the truncation...

  3. Wave-flume experiments of soft-rock cliff erosion under monochromatic waves (United States)

    Regard, Vincent; Astruc, Dominique; Caplain, Bastien


    We investigate how cliffs erode under wave attack. Rocky coast erosion works through cycles, each one corresponding to three successive phases: (i) notch creation at cliff toe by mechanical action of waves, (ii) cliff fracturation leading to collapse, and (iii) evacuation of scree aprons by waves and currents. We performed experiments in a 5m x 14cm x 25cm wave flume (15 cm water depth) to investigate how waves are eroding a rocky coast. The cliff is made of wet sand and models a relatively soft rock. We used 3 different grain size (D50 = 0.28-0.41-0.48 mm), changing the cliff rheology. Waves are monochromatic; their height and period differ for the various experiments. Actual wave parameters are estimated by capacitive probes located offshore. The experiments are monitored by two video cameras both on the side and above the flume. Pictures are taken at a rate of 1Hz during the first 4h and then the rate is decreased to 0.1Hz till the end of experiment (about 1 day). The monitoring ensure a confident characterization of experiments in terms of waves (surf similarity parameter ξ and the incident wave energy flux F) and in terms of sediment (Dean number Ω and Shields number θb at breakers). Experiments begin by an initial phase of quick cliff retreat. Then the system evolves with slower cliff retreat. We focus on bottom morphology which we characterize in function of wave forcing (ξ, F). We show that the bottom morphology mainly depends on ξ. For our reference sediment (Dm = 0.41 mm), we observed: (i) surging breakers on a steep terrace (type T1) for ξ > 0.65; (ii)collapsing breakers on a bared profile attached to the inner platform (type T2) for 0.55< ξ <0.6; (iii) spilling breakers on gentle terrace (type T3) for F < 1.3 W/m and 0.55< ξ <0.6. Another bottom morphology, type T4, displays two sub-systems, an outer system with a double-bar profile where breaking waves are plunging, and an inner system with a T1, T2 or T3 profile. Some of these bottom

  4. Coherence for Monoidal Endofunctors

    CERN Document Server

    Dosen, K


    The goal of this paper is to prove coherence results with respect to relational graphs for monoidal endofunctors, i.e. endofunctors of a monoidal category that preserve the monoidal structure up to a natural transformation that need not be an isomorphism. These results are proved first in the absence of symmetry in the monoidal structure, and then with this symmetry. In the later parts of the paper the coherence results are extended to monoidal endofunctors in monoidal categories that have diagonal or codiagonal natural transformations, or where the monoidal structure is given by finite products or coproducts. Monoidal endofunctors are interesting because they stand behind monoidal monads and comonads, for which coherence will be proved in a sequel to this paper.

  5. Coherence in Microchip Traps

    CERN Document Server

    Treutlein, P; Steinmetz, T; Hänsch, T W; Reichel, J; Treutlein, Philipp; Hommelhoff, Peter; Steinmetz, Tilo; H\\"ansch, Theodor W.; Reichel, Jakob


    We report the coherent manipulation of internal states of neutral atoms in a magnetic microchip trap. Coherence lifetimes exceeding 1 s are observed with atoms at distances of $4-130 \\mu$m from the microchip surface. The coherence lifetime in the microtrap is independent of atom-surface distance and agrees well with the results of similar measurements in macroscopic magnetic traps. Due to the absence of surface-induced decoherence, a miniaturized atomic clock with a relative stability in the $10^{-13}$ range can be realized. For applications in quantum information processing, we propose to use microwave near-fields in the proximity of chip wires to create potentials that depend on the internal state of the atoms.

  6. Effect of monochromatic and combined light colour on performance, blood parameters, ovarian morphology and reproductive hormones in laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rakibul Hassan


    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of monochromatic and combined light emitting diode (LED light colour on performance, ovarian morphology, and reproductive hormone and biochemical blood parameters in laying hens. A total of 600 Hy-line Brown pullets, 12 weeks of age, were divided (25×4×6 = birds × replications × treatments as follows: red (R, green (G, blue (B, and combinations of R→G and R→G→B treatments. Fluorescent white light (W was the control. The results showed that higher egg production was found under the monochromatic R and combination R→G treatments, and that heavier eggs were laid by the B and G treatments (P<0.05. Consequently, better feed conversion ratio was attained in the R→G treatment. Serum follicle stimulating hormone and 17β-estradiol levels were significantly higher in the R and R→G treatments. B treated birds came into production 15 days later than those treated with R light. Organ weight (ovary and stroma and ovarian follicle numbers (1-3 and 4-6 mm were significantly higher in R treated birds, as well as serum glucose and triglyceride contents. Serum IgG concentrations and the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio were not influenced by light colour. In these laying hens, 14 h R with 2 h G light in the later part of the day increased reproductive hormone levels, ovarian weight, and follicle number and hence increased egg production. Thus, these results suggest that a combination of R→G light may be comparable with monochromatic R light to enhance egg production in laying hens.

  7. Maintaining Web Cache Coherency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Document coherency is a challenging problem for Web caching. Once the documents are cached throughout the Internet, it is often difficult to keep them coherent with the origin document without generating a new traffic that could increase the traffic on the international backbone and overload the popular servers. Several solutions have been proposed to solve this problem, among them two categories have been widely discussed: the strong document coherency and the weak document coherency. The cost and the efficiency of the two categories are still a controversial issue, while in some studies the strong coherency is far too expensive to be used in the Web context, in other studies it could be maintained at a low cost. The accuracy of these analysis is depending very much on how the document updating process is approximated. In this study, we compare some of the coherence methods proposed for Web caching. Among other points, we study the side effects of these methods on the Internet traffic. The ultimate goal is to study the cache behavior under several conditions, which will cover some of the factors that play an important role in the Web cache performance evaluation and quantify their impact on the simulation accuracy. The results presented in this study show indeed some differences in the outcome of the simulation of a Web cache depending on the workload being used, and the probability distribution used to approximate updates on the cached documents. Each experiment shows two case studies that outline the impact of the considered parameter on the performance of the cache.

  8. Coherent light microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, Pietro; Zalevsky, Zeev


    This book deals with the latest achievements in the field of optical coherent microscopy. While many other books exist on microscopy and imaging, this book provides a unique resource dedicated solely to this subject. Similarly, many books describe applications of holography, interferometry and speckle to metrology but do not focus on their use for microscopy. The coherent light microscopy reference provided here does not focus on the experimental mechanics of such techniques but instead is meant to provide a users manual to illustrate the strengths and capabilities of developing techniques. Th

  9. Coherent states measurement entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Kwapien, J; Zyczkowski, K; Kwapien, Jaroslaw; Slomczynski, Wojciech; Zyczkowski, Karol


    Coherent states (CS) quantum entropy can be split into two components. The dynamical entropy is linked with the dynamical properties of a quantum system. The measurement entropy, which tends to zero in the semiclassical limit, describes the unpredictability induced by the process of a quantum approximate measurement. We study the CS--measurement entropy for spin coherent states defined on the sphere discussing different methods dealing with the time limit n \\to \\infty. In particular we propose an effective technique of computing the entropy by iterated function systems. The dependence of CS--measurement entropy on the character of the partition of the phase space is analysed.

  10. Coherent terahertz photonics. (United States)

    Seeds, Alwyn J; Fice, Martyn J; Balakier, Katarzyna; Natrella, Michele; Mitrofanov, Oleg; Lamponi, Marco; Chtioui, Mourad; van Dijk, Frederic; Pepper, Michael; Aeppli, Gabriel; Davies, A Giles; Dean, Paul; Linfield, Edmund; Renaud, Cyril C


    We present a review of recent developments in THz coherent systems based on photonic local oscillators. We show that such techniques can enable the creation of highly coherent, thus highly sensitive, systems for frequencies ranging from 100 GHz to 5 THz, within an energy efficient integrated platform. We suggest that such systems could enable the THz spectrum to realize its full applications potential. To demonstrate how photonics-enabled THz systems can be realized, we review the performance of key components, show recent demonstrations of integrated platforms, and give examples of applications.

  11. Steady state of a low-density ensemble of atoms in a monochromatic field taking into account recoil effects (United States)

    Prudnikov, O. N.; Il'enkov, R. Ya.; Taichenachev, A. V.; Tumaikin, A. M.; Yudin, V. I.


    A method has been developed for obtaining the steady-state solution of a quantum kinetic equation for the atomic density matrix in an arbitrarily polarized monochromatic field with the complete inclusion of recoil effects and degeneracy of atomic levels in the projection of the angular momentum. This method makes it possible to obtain the most general solution beyond the previously accepted approximations (semiclassical approximation, secular approximation, etc.). In particular, it has been shown that the laser cooling temperature is a function of not only the depth of the optical potential (as was previously thought), but also the mass of an atom.

  12. Amplified spontaneous emission spectrum at the output of a diode amplifier saturated by an input monochromatic wave (United States)

    Bogatov, A. P.; Drakin, A. E.; D'yachkov, N. V.; Gushchik, T. I.


    Expressions for the amplitudes of amplified spontaneous emission waves in a diode amplifier near the frequency ω0 of a 'strong' input monochromatic wave have been derived in terms of a random function of a stationary Gaussian process. We have found expressions for the spectral density of the amplitudes and shown that, on the red side of the spectrum with respect to frequency ω0, spontaneous emission waves obtain additional nonlinear gain, induced by the strong wave, whereas on the blue side of the spectrum an additional loss is induced. Such behaviour of the amplitudes of amplified waves agrees with previous results.

  13. Coherency matrix formulation for partially coherent imaging to evaluate the degree of coherence for image. (United States)

    Yamazoe, Kenji


    This paper defines a matrix from which coherence property of imaging by partially coherent Koehler illumination is determined. The matrix termed coherency matrix in imaging system is derived by the space average of a product of a column vector and its transpose conjugate where each row of the column vector represents mutually incoherent light. The coherency matrix in imaging system has similar properties to the polarization matrix that is utilized for calculating the light intensity and degree of polarization of polarized light. The coherency matrix in imaging system enables us to calculate not only image intensity but also degree of coherence for image. Simulation results of the degree of coherence for image given by the coherency matrix in imaging system correspond to the complex degree of coherence obtained by the van Cittert-Zernike theorem.

  14. Coherence Constraints and the Last Hidden Optical Coherence

    CERN Document Server

    Qian, Xiao-Feng; Vamivakas, A Nick; Eberly, Joseph H


    We have discovered a new domain of optical coherence, and show that it is the third and last member of a previously unreported fundamental triad of coherences. These are unified by our derivation of a parallel triad of coherence constraints that take the form of complementarity relations. We have been able to enter this new coherence domain experimentally and we describe the novel tomographic approach devised for that purpose.

  15. Quantitative evaluation of bone-mineral density loss using X-ray coherent scattering (United States)

    Barroso, Regina Cély; Oliveira, Luis Fernando; Castro, Carlos Roberto Ferreira; Lima, João Carlos; Braz, Delson; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Droppa, Roosevel; Tromba, Giuliana; Mancini, Lucia; Zanini, Franco; Rigon, Luigi; Dreossi, Diego


    In this work, we intend to relate the mineral to non-mineral bone scattering intensity ratio with the bone-mineral density (BMD) reduction. In this way, EDXRD can be a novel technique to measure BMD loss in function of the mineral and non-mineral scattering intensity. The scattering profiles were obtained at Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron (LNLS) at the X-ray diffraction beamline XD2. A double-crystal Si(1 1 1) pre-monochromator, upstream of the beamline, was used to select a small energy bandwidth (Δ λ/ λ≈10 -4) at 11 keV. The sample holder has a circle depression in the center to contain a range of bone and fat mixture ratios. The mixture consists of powdered cortical bone and fat, which together simulate in vivo bone. The diffraction patterns were carried out with 0.5 mm slits after and behind of the sample holder. The data were collected in 0.05° increments every 0.5 s. EDXRD results show an indication of different bone densities may be distinguished which suggested that X-ray coherent scattering technique may have a role in monitoring changes in BMD via changes in the related scattering intensity of mineral and non-mineral bone. The main aim of the Synchrotron Radiation for MEdical Physics (SYRMEP) project at the ELETTRA is the investigation and the development of innovative techniques for medical imaging. The beamline provides, at a distance of about 23 m from the source, a monochromatic, laminar section X-ray beam with a maximum area of about 160×5 mm 2 at 20 keV. The monochromator, that covers the entire angular acceptance of the beamline, is based on a double-Si (1 1 1) crystal system working in Bragg configuration. A micrometric vertical and horizontal translation stage allows the positioning and scanning of the sample with respect to the stationary beam. In this case, the detector is kept stationary in front of the beam, while the object is rotated in discrete steps in front of it. At each rotation, a projection is acquired. A goniometric

  16. Optical image processing by using a photorefractive spatial soliton waveguide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Bao-Lai, E-mail: [College of Physics Science & Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); Wang, Ying; Zhang, Su-Heng; Guo, Qing-Lin; Wang, Shu-Fang; Fu, Guang-Sheng [College of Physics Science & Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); Simmonds, Paul J. [Department of Physics and Micron School of Materials Science & Engineering, Boise State University, Boise, ID 83725 (United States); Wang, Zhao-Qi [Institute of Modern Optics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)


    By combining the photorefractive spatial soliton waveguide of a Ce:SBN crystal with a coherent 4-f system we are able to manipulate the spatial frequencies of an input optical image to perform edge-enhancement and direct component enhancement operations. Theoretical analysis of this optical image processor is presented to interpret the experimental observations. This work provides an approach for optical image processing by using photorefractive spatial solitons. - Highlights: • A coherent 4-f system with the spatial soliton waveguide as spatial frequency filter. • Manipulate the spatial frequencies of an input optical image. • Achieve edge-enhancement and direct component enhancement operations of an optical image.

  17. 对数螺旋型劳厄弯晶的X射线单色成像应用%Logarithmic Spiral Bent Laue Crystals for X-Ray Monochromatic Imaging Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毋玉芬; 肖沙里; 鲁建; 钱家渝; 刘利锋; 黄显宾


    Taking advantages of the monochromatic X-ray diffraction property of Laue crystals,an innovative use of logarithmic spiral bent Laue crystals for X-ray monochromatic imaging is investigated.According to the ray tracing method and the surface equation of the logarithmic spiral,the imaging principles and characteristics of the logarithmic spiral bent Laue crystals are studied,including the condition that the diffracted beam can be separated from the transmitted beam,the magnifications and the field of view (FOV).A logarithmic spiral bent quartz (1010) Laue crystal analyzer is developed.With the proposed crystal analyzer,the monochromatic backlight imaging experiment for the mesh grid with a diameter of 50 μm is carried out by taking an X-ray source of Cu target as the backlighter.The experimental results show that the spatial resolution of the analyzer is approximately 11.9 μm under a source diameter of 110 μm.Furthermore,the FOVs of the crystal analyzer are 22.3557 mm and 8.2602 mm in horizontal and vertical directions,respectively.%利用劳厄晶体研究了X射线的单色衍射性质,研究了对数螺旋型劳厄弯晶在等离子体X射线单色成像中的应用.根据光线追迹原理及对数螺旋线的表面方程,研究了对数螺旋型劳厄弯晶的单色成像原理,分析了单色衍射像不受透射白光X射线影响的准则,以及子午、弧矢放大倍数和单色成像视场等性能参数.研制了石英晶体(1010)对数螺旋劳厄弯晶分析器,以铜靶X射线源作为背光源,对网丝直径为50 μm的金属网格进行了单色背光成像实验.实验结果表明,当背光源尺寸为110 μm时,对数螺旋型劳厄弯晶的空间分辨力约为11.9μm,分析器在子午和弧矢方向的视场分别达到22.3557 mm和8.2602 mm.

  18. High-speed adaptive interferometer for optical coherence-domain reflectometry through turbid media. (United States)

    Peng, L; Yu, P; Nolte, D D; Melloch, M R


    Two-wave mixing in a dynamic holographic film acts as the adaptive beam combiner in a short-coherence interferometer that performs optical coherence-domain reflectometry (OCDR) through turbid media. This approach combines the high spatial resolution and sensitivity of coherence-domain reflectometry with photorefractive quantum-well-based adaptive homodyne detection. A depth resolution of 28 microm and penetration through 16 mean free paths in a turbid medium have been obtained in this adaptive OCDR application.

  19. Coherence Measurement of White Light Emission from Femtosecond Laser Propagation in Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Zhan; WANG Zhao-Hua; LING Wei-Jun; WEI Zhi-Yi; ZHANG Jie; LIU Yun-Quan; LI Kun; YUAN Xiao-Hui; HAO Zuo-Qiang; ZHENG Jun; LU Xin; LI Yu-Tong


    @@ Strong white light emission is observed from femtosecond laser propagation in air. The divergence angle of the white light emission is measured to be about 5mrad. Young's double-slits and a Michelson interferometer are used to investigate the coherence. The wavelength components of the white light emission are identified to have a good spatial coherence and a coherence time of about 0.5ps.

  20. The Coherence of Autism (United States)

    Hobson, R. Peter


    There is a growing body of opinion that we should view autism as fractionable into different, largely independent sets of clinical features. The alternative view is that autism is a coherent syndrome in which principal features of the disorder stand in intimate developmental relationship with each other. Studies of congenitally blind children…

  1. Bicartesian Coherence Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Dosen, K


    A survey is given of results about coherence for categories with finite products and coproducts. For these results, which were published previously by the authors in several places, some formulations and proofs are here corrected, and matters are updated. The categories investigated in this paper formalize equality of proofs in classical and intuitionistic conjunctive-disjunctive logic without distribution of conjunction over disjunction.

  2. Coherence without Additivity.



    The Dutch book argument is a coherence condition for the existence of subjective probabilities. This note gives a general framework of analysis for this argument in a nonadditive probability setting. Particular cases are given by comonotonic and affinely related Dutch books that lead to Choquet expectations and Min expectations.

  3. Coherently combining antennas (United States)

    Dybdal, Robert B. (Inventor); Curry, Samuel J. (Inventor)


    An apparatus includes antenna elements configured to receive a signal including pseudo-random code, and electronics configured to use the pseudo-random code to determine time delays of signals incident upon the antenna elements and to compensate the signals to coherently combine the antenna elements.

  4. Multiphoton coherent population oscillation

    CERN Document Server

    Sharypov, A V


    We study the bichromatic driving of a two-level system which displays long-lived coherent population oscillations (CPO). We show that under certain conditions, multiphoton parametric interaction leads to the appearance of CPO resonances at the subharmonic frequencies. In addition, in the region of the CPO resonances, there is strong parametric interaction between the weak sideband components of the electromagnetic field.

  5. Optical Coherence Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter E.


    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive imaging technique that provides real-time two- and three-dimensional images of scattering samples with micrometer resolution. Mapping the local reflectivity, OCT visualizes the morphology of the sample, in real time or at video rate. In addition...

  6. Coherent states in quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues, R D L; Fernandes, D


    We present a review work on the coherent states is non-relativistic quantum mechanics analysing the quantum oscillators in the coherent states. The coherent states obtained via a displacement operator that act on the wave function of ground state of the oscillator and the connection with Quantum Optics which were implemented by Glauber have also been considered. A possible generalization to the construction of new coherent states it is point out.

  7. Defining Coherent Vortices Objectively from the Vorticity

    CERN Document Server

    Haller, George; Farazmand, Mohammad; Huhn, Florian


    Rotationally coherent Lagrangian vortices are formed by tubes of deforming fluid elements that complete equal bulk material rotation relative to the mean rotation of the deforming fluid volume. We show that initial positions of such tubes coincide with tubular level surfaces of the Lagrangian-Averaged Vorticity Deviation (LAVD), the trajectory integral of the normed difference of the vorticity from its spatial mean. LAVD-based vortices are objective, i.e., remain unchanged under time-dependent rotations and translations of the coordinate frame. In the limit of vanishing Rossby numbers in geostrophic flows, cyclonic LAVD vortex centers are precisely the observed attractors for light particles. A similar result holds for heavy particles in anticyclonic LAVD vortices. We also establish a relationship between rotationally coherent Lagrangian vortices and their instantaneous Eulerian counterparts. The latter are formed by tubular surfaces of equal material rotation rate, objectively measured by the Instantaneous V...

  8. Implementation of dual-energy technique for virtual monochromatic and linearly mixed CBCTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Hao; Giles, William; Ren Lei; Bowsher, James; Yin Fangfang [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States)


    Purpose: To implement dual-energy imaging technique for virtual monochromatic (VM) and linearly mixed (LM) cone beam CTs (CBCTs) and to demonstrate their potential applications in metal artifact reduction and contrast enhancement in image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). Methods: A bench-top CBCT system was used to acquire 80 kVp and 150 kVp projections, with an additional 0.8 mm tin filtration. To implement the VM technique, these projections were first decomposed into acrylic and aluminum basis material projections to synthesize VM projections, which were then used to reconstruct VM CBCTs. The effect of VM CBCT on the metal artifact reduction was evaluated with an in-house titanium-BB phantom. The optimal VM energy to maximize contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) for iodine contrast and minimize beam hardening in VM CBCT was determined using a water phantom containing two iodine concentrations. The LM technique was implemented by linearly combining the low-energy (80 kVp) and high-energy (150 kVp) CBCTs. The dose partitioning between low-energy and high-energy CBCTs was varied (20%, 40%, 60%, and 80% for low-energy) while keeping total dose approximately equal to single-energy CBCTs, measured using an ion chamber. Noise levels and CNRs for four tissue types were investigated for dual-energy LM CBCTs in comparison with single-energy CBCTs at 80, 100, 125, and 150 kVp. Results: The VM technique showed substantial reduction of metal artifacts at 100 keV with a 40% reduction in the background standard deviation compared to a 125 kVp single-energy scan of equal dose. The VM energy to maximize CNR for both iodine concentrations and minimize beam hardening in the metal-free object was 50 keV and 60 keV, respectively. The difference of average noise levels measured in the phantom background was 1.2% between dual-energy LM CBCTs and equivalent-dose single-energy CBCTs. CNR values in the LM CBCTs of any dose partitioning are better than those of 150 kVp single-energy CBCTs. The

  9. The effect of pupil size on stimulation of the melanopsin containing retinal ganglion cells, as evaluated by monochromatic pupillometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Claus Jeppe; Sander, Birgit; Lund-Andersen, Henrik


    Purpose: To evaluate the influence of the size of the light exposed pupil in one eye on the pupillary light reflex of the other eye. Method: Using a monochromatic pupillometer, the left eye in each of 10 healthy subjects was exposed to 20¿s of monochromatic light of luminance 300¿cd/m(2), first red...... (660¿nm) and in a following session, blue (470¿nm) light. The consensual pupillary diameter in the right eye was continuously measured before, during, and after light exposure. Subsequently, Tropicamide 1% or Pilocarpine 2% was instilled into the left eye and when the pupil was either maximally dilated...... or contracted, the entire sequence of red and blue light exposure repeated. After at least 3¿days, when the effect of the eye drop had subsided, the entire experiment was repeated, this time employing the other substance. Results: Prior dilatation of the left pupil augmented the post light contraction to blue...

  10. Analysis of gas exchange, stomatal behaviour and micronutrients uncovers dynamic response and adaptation of tomato plants to monochromatic light treatments. (United States)

    O'Carrigan, Andrew; Babla, Mohammad; Wang, Feifei; Liu, Xiaohui; Mak, Michelle; Thomas, Richard; Bellotti, Bill; Chen, Zhong-Hua


    Light spectrum affects the yield and quality of greenhouse tomato, especially over a prolonged period of monochromatic light treatments. Physiological and chemical analysis was employed to investigate the influence of light spectral (blue, green and red) changes on growth, photosynthesis, stomatal behaviour, leaf pigment, and micronutrient levels. We found that plants are less affected under blue light treatment, which was evident by the maintenance of higher A, gs, Tr, and stomatal parameters and significantly lower VPD and Tleaf as compared to those plants grown in green and red light treatments. Green and red light treatments led to significantly larger increase in the accumulation of Fe, B, Zn, and Cu than blue light. Moreover, guard cell length, width, and volume all showed highly significant positive correlations to gs, Tr and negative links to VPD. There was negative impact of monochromatic lights-induced accumulation of Mn, Cu, and Zn on photosynthesis, leaf pigments and plant growth. Furthermore, most of the light-induced significant changes of the physiological traits were partially recovered at the end of experiment. A high degree of morphological and physiological plasticity to blue, green and red light treatments suggested that tomato plants may have developed mechanisms to adapt to the light treatments. Thus, understanding the optimization of light spectrum for photosynthesis and growth is one of the key components for greenhouse tomato production.

  11. Measurement of Monochromatic Emissivity of Cement Clinker with Various Fe2O3 Content at High Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.J.Ye; C.F.Ma; 等


    An applicatiopn of the optical pyrometer is studied for measuring monochromatic emissivities of cement clinker with various Fe2O3 contnet.The idsa of using “brightness temperature” is introduced into the eimssivity measurement.In this method,there is no need for measuring an actual temperature of sample surfaces,only with determining both brightness temperatures of a sample and a blackbody can the required emissivity be evaluated according to Wien's radiation law.In practice,the cement clinker is regarded as a greybody,the monochromatic emissivity is approximately equal to the total emissivity,so a single-colour optical pyrometer is applied for this purpose,Test measurements are carried out on 10 kinds of cement clinkers,Experimental data are treated by the least square method.As a result ,the emissivity variation with temperature at a certain Fe2O3 content is quite well represented by εn=a+bT.Furthermore,this work first reported that the eimissivities of cement clinker change consierably with Fe2O3 contents.In multiple cement production this conclusion is very important.

  12. Spatial planning


    Dimitrov, Nikola; Koteski, Cane


    The professional book ,, Space planning "processed chapters on: space, concept and definition of space, space as a system, spatial economics, economic essence of space, space planning, social determinants of spatial planning, spatial planning as a process, factors development and elements in spatial planning, methodology, components and content of spatial planning stages and types of preparation of spatial planning, spatial planning and industrialization, industrialization, urbanization and s...

  13. Spatial planning


    Dimitrov, Nikola; Koteski, Cane


    The professional book ,, Space planning "processed chapters on: space, concept and definition of space, space as a system, spatial economics, economic essence of space, space planning, social determinants of spatial planning, spatial planning as a process, factors development and elements in spatial planning, methodology, components and content of spatial planning stages and types of preparation of spatial planning, spatial planning and industrialization, industrialization, urbanization and s...

  14. Correcting lateral chromatic aberrations in non-monochromatic X-ray microscopy (United States)

    Falch, Ken Vidar; Detlefs, Carsten; Di Michiel, Marco; Snigireva, Irina; Snigirev, Anatoly; Mathiesen, Ragnvald H.


    Lateral chromatic aberration in microscopy based on refractive optics may be reduced significantly by adjustments to the illumination scheme. By taking advantage of a broadened bandwidth illumination, the proposed scheme could open for x-ray microscopy with spatial resolution in the range 150-200 nm at millisecond frame rates. The scheme is readily implemented and is achievable using only standard refractive x-ray lenses, which has the advantage of high efficiency. It also maximizes the transmission and removes the spatial filtering effects associated with absorption in x-ray lenses.

  15. Time reversal of continuous-wave, monochromatic signals in elastic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Brian E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Guyer, Robert A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ulrich, Timothy J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Johnson, Paul A [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Experimental observations of spatial focusing of continuous-wave, steady-state elastic waves in a reverberant elastic cavity using time reversal are reported here. Spatially localized focusing is achieved when multiple channels are employed, while a single channel does not yield such focusing. The amplitude of the energy at the focal location increases as the square of the number of channels used, while the amplitude elsewhere in the medium increases proportionally with the number of channels used. The observation is important in the context of imaging in solid laboratory samples as well as problems involving continuous-wave signals in Earth.

  16. The Research on the Non-monochromatic Lighting on Visibility of Michelson Interference Based on Matlab%基于MATLAB方法的非单色光迈克尔逊干涉研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    从光的干涉理论出发,分析了光源的非单色性对迈克尔逊等倾干涉条纹可见度的影响,并利用Matlab对等倾干涉条纹可见度进行了数值模拟和实验模拟,用直观的可视化图像将抽象的时间相干性理论形象化,同时对迈克尔逊干涉仪的理论教学和实践应用都有一定的指导意义.%According to the basic theory of optical interference,the changes of visibility of Michelson interferometer fringe was analyzed because of non-monochromatic light,which can realize the simulation of Michelson interferometer experiment.These computer pictures make the Abstract concept of temporal coherence of light visual.It also makes up for the drawback that theoretical teaching is divorced from practice.

  17. Coherent states for quantum gravity: towards collective variables

    CERN Document Server

    Oriti, Daniele; Sindoni, Lorenzo


    We investigate the construction of coherent states for quantum theories of connections based on graphs embedded in a spatial manifold, as in loop quantum gravity. We discuss the many subtleties of the construction, mainly related to the diffeomorphism invariance of the theory. Aiming at approximating a continuum geometry in terms of discrete, graph-based data, we focus on coherent states for collective observables characterizing both the intrinsic and extrinsic geometry of the hypersurface, and we argue that one needs to revise accordingly the more local definitions of coherent states considered in the literature so far. In order to clarify the concepts introduced, we work through a concrete example that we hope will be useful to applying coherent state techniques to cosmology.

  18. Observation of transverse coherent backscattering in disordered photonic structures

    CERN Document Server

    Brake, Sebastian; Leykam, Daniel; Desyatnikov, Anton; Denz, Cornelia


    We report on the experimental observation of weak localization in an optically induced disordered (2+1)-dimensional photonic structure. Our flexible method of optical induction is applied with a nondiffracting random intensity distribution. We focus on the analysis of a statistical output spectrum for many probe events with variance of the incoming beam's transverse spatial frequency. For particular spatial frequencies we find considerable signatures of transverse coherent backscattering.

  19. Phase-sensitive fluorescent imaging with coherent reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Field, Jeffrey J; Bartels, Randy A


    Optical imaging plays a critical role in advancing our understanding of three dimensional dynamics of biological systems. Coherent imaging (CI) methods exploit spatial phase information, encoded through propagation of coherent signal light emerging from a specimen, to extract a three-dimensional representation of the object from a single high-speed measurement. Until now, CI methods could not be applied to incoherent light, severely limiting their ability to image the most powerful biological probes available - fluorescent molecules - with sufficient speed and volume to observe important processes, such as neural processing in live specimens. We introduce a new imaging technique that transfers the spatial propagation phase of coherent illumination light to incoherent fluorescent light emission. The transfer of propagation phase allows CI techniques to be applied to fluorescent light imaging, and leads to large increases in imaging speed and depth of field. With this advance, biological imaging of fluorescent ...

  20. Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Mandel, Leonard


    This book presents a systematic account of optical coherence theory within the framework of classical optics, as applied to such topics as radiation from sources of different states of coherence, foundations of radiometry, effects of source coherence on the spectra of radiated fields, coherence theory of laser modes, and scattering of partially coherent light by random media. The book starts with a full mathematical introduction to the subject area and each chapter concludes with a set of exercises. The authors are renowned scientists and have made substantial contributions to many of the topi

  1. Quantum coherence: Reciprocity and distribution (United States)

    Kumar, Asutosh


    Quantum coherence is the outcome of the superposition principle. Recently, it has been theorized as a quantum resource, and is the premise of quantum correlations in multipartite systems. It is therefore interesting to study the coherence content and its distribution in a multipartite quantum system. In this work, we show analytically as well as numerically the reciprocity between coherence and mixedness of a quantum state. We find that this trade-off is a general feature in the sense that it is true for large spectra of measures of coherence and of mixedness. We also study the distribution of coherence in multipartite systems by looking at monogamy-type relation-which we refer to as additivity relation-between coherences of different parts of the system. We show that for the Dicke states, while the normalized measures of coherence violate the additivity relation, the unnormalized ones satisfy the same.

  2. Spectral coherence in windturbine wakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hojstrup, J. [Riso National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)


    This paper describes an experiment at a Danish wind farm to investigate the lateral and vertical coherences in the nonequilibrium turbulence of a wind turbine wake. Two meteorological masts were instrumented for measuring profiles of mean speed, turbulence, and temperature. Results are provided graphically for turbulence intensities, velocity spectra, lateral coherence, and vertical coherence. The turbulence was somewhat influenced by the wake, or possibly from aggregated wakes further upstream, even at 14.5 diameters. Lateral coherence (separation 5m) seemed to be unaffected by the wake at 7.5 diameters, but the flow was less coherent in the near wake. The wake appeared to have little influence on vertical coherence (separation 13m). Simple, conventional models for coherence appeared to be adequate descriptions for wake turbulence except for the near wake situation. 3 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Coherent branching feature bisimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Belder


    Full Text Available Progress in the behavioral analysis of software product lines at the family level benefits from further development of the underlying semantical theory. Here, we propose a behavioral equivalence for feature transition systems (FTS generalizing branching bisimulation for labeled transition systems (LTS. We prove that branching feature bisimulation for an FTS of a family of products coincides with branching bisimulation for the LTS projection of each the individual products. For a restricted notion of coherent branching feature bisimulation we furthermore present a minimization algorithm and show its correctness. Although the minimization problem for coherent branching feature bisimulation is shown to be intractable, application of the algorithm in the setting of a small case study results in a significant speed-up of model checking of behavioral properties.

  4. Investigation of spherical aberration effects on coherent lidar performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Qi; Rodrigo, Peter John; Iversen, Theis Faber Quist


    In this paper we demonstrate experimentally the performance of a monostatic coherent lidar system under the influence of phase aberrations, especially the typically predominant spherical aberration (SA). The performance is evaluated by probing the spatial weighting function of the lidar system...

  5. Quantum coherent switch utilizing commensurate nanoelectrode and charge density periodicities (United States)

    Harrison, Neil; Singleton, John; Migliori, Albert


    A quantum coherent switch having a substrate formed from a density wave (DW) material capable of having a periodic electron density modulation or spin density modulation, a dielectric layer formed onto a surface of the substrate that is orthogonal to an intrinsic wave vector of the DW material; and structure for applying an external spatially periodic electrostatic potential over the dielectric layer.

  6. Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography using a superluminescent light source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kowalevicz, Andrew M.; Ko, Tony; Hartl, Ingmar; Fujimoto, James G.; Pollnau, Markus; Salathé, René P.


    A superluminescent Ti:Al2O3 crystal is demonstrated as a light source for ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT). Single spatial mode, fiber coupled output powers of ~40 μW can be generated with 138 nm bandwidth using a 5 W frequency doubled, diode pumped laser, pumping a thin Ti:Al

  7. Average Number of Coherent Modes for Pulse Random Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Lazaruk, A M; Lazaruk, Alexander M.; Karelin, Nikolay V.


    Some consequences of spatio-temporal symmetry for the deterministic decomposition of complex light fields into factorized components are considered. This enables to reveal interrelations between spatial and temporal coherence properties of wave. An estimation of average number of the decomposition terms is obtained in the case of statistical ensemble of light pulses.

  8. Coherent Transient Systems Evaluation (United States)


    manuscript is submitted for publication with the understanding that the United States Government is authorized to reproduce and distribute reprints...for governmental purposes. 1.0 Introduction The continuous optical correlator presented here is based on the phenomena of coherent transients, also...Gating the Continuous Processor Programming the continuous processor is accomplished by illuminati , n, the material with ,.’ modulated light pulses: a

  9. Coherent laser vision system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastion, R.L. [Coleman Research Corp., Springfield, VA (United States)


    The Coherent Laser Vision System (CLVS) is being developed to provide precision real-time 3D world views to support site characterization and robotic operations and during facilities Decontamination and Decommissioning. Autonomous or semiautonomous robotic operations requires an accurate, up-to-date 3D world view. Existing technologies for real-time 3D imaging, such as AM laser radar, have limited accuracy at significant ranges and have variability in range estimates caused by lighting or surface shading. Recent advances in fiber optic component technology and digital processing components have enabled the development of a new 3D vision system based upon a fiber optic FMCW coherent laser radar. The approach includes a compact scanner with no-moving parts capable of randomly addressing all pixels. The system maintains the immunity to lighting and surface shading conditions which is characteristic to coherent laser radar. The random pixel addressability allows concentration of scanning and processing on the active areas of a scene, as is done by the human eye-brain system.

  10. Coherent electron cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Cooling intense high-energy hadron beams remains a major challenge in modern accelerator physics. Synchrotron radiation is still too feeble, while the efficiency of two other cooling methods, stochastic and electron, falls rapidly either at high bunch intensities (i.e. stochastic of protons) or at high energies (e-cooling). In this talk a specific scheme of a unique cooling technique, Coherent Electron Cooling, will be discussed. The idea of coherent electron cooling using electron beam instabilities was suggested by Derbenev in the early 1980s, but the scheme presented in this talk, with cooling times under an hour for 7 TeV protons in the LHC, would be possible only with present-day accelerator technology. This talk will discuss the principles and the main limitations of the Coherent Electron Cooling process. The talk will describe the main system components, based on a high-gain free electron laser driven by an energy recovery linac, and will present some numerical examples for ions and protons in RHIC and the LHC and for electron-hadron options for these colliders. BNL plans a demonstration of the idea in the near future.

  11. Effect of Monochromatic Light on Expression of Estrogen Receptor (ER) and Progesterone Receptor (PR) in Ovarian Follicles of Chicken. (United States)

    Liu, Lingbin; Li, Diyan; Gilbert, Elizabeth R; Xiao, Qihai; Zhao, Xiaoling; Wang, Yan; Yin, Huadong; Zhu, Qing


    Artificial illumination is widely used in modern poultry houses and different wavelengths of light affect poultry production and behaviour. In this study, we measure mRNA and protein abundance of estrogen receptors (ERs) and progesterone receptors (PRs) in order to investigate the effect of monochromatic light on egg production traits and gonadal hormone function in chicken ovarian follicles. Five hundred and fifty-two 19-wk-old laying hens were exposed to three monochromatic lights: red (RL; 660 nm), green (GL; 560 nm), blue (BL; 480 nm) and control cool white (400-760 nm) light with an LED (light-emitting diode). There were 4 identical light-controlled rooms (n = 138) each containing 3 replicate pens (46 birds per pen). Water was supplied ad libitum and daily rations were determined according to the nutrient suggestions for poultry. Results showed that under BL conditions there was an increase in the total number of eggs at 300 days of age and egg-laying rate during the peak laying period. The BL and GL extended the duration of the peak laying period. Plasma melatonin was lowest in birds reared under BL. Plasma estradiol was elevated in the GL-exposed laying hens, and GL and BL increased progesterone at 28 wk of age. In the granulosa layers of the fifth largest preovulatory follicle (F5), the third largest preovulatory follicle (F3) and the largest preovulatory follicle (F1), ERα mRNA was increased by BL and GL. Treatment with BL increased ERβ mRNA in granulosa layers of F5, F3 and F1, while GL increased ERβ mRNA in F5 and F3. There was a corresponding increase in abundance of the proteins in the granulosa layers of F5, with an increase in PR-B, generated via an alternative splice site, relative to PR-A. Treatment with BL also increased expression of PR mRNA in all of the granulosa layers of follicles, while treatment with GL increased expression of PR mRNA in granulosa layers of SYF(small yellow follicle), F5 and F1. These results indicate that blue and green

  12. Effect of Monochromatic Light on Expression of Estrogen Receptor (ER and Progesterone Receptor (PR in Ovarian Follicles of Chicken.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingbin Liu

    Full Text Available Artificial illumination is widely used in modern poultry houses and different wavelengths of light affect poultry production and behaviour. In this study, we measure mRNA and protein abundance of estrogen receptors (ERs and progesterone receptors (PRs in order to investigate the effect of monochromatic light on egg production traits and gonadal hormone function in chicken ovarian follicles. Five hundred and fifty-two 19-wk-old laying hens were exposed to three monochromatic lights: red (RL; 660 nm, green (GL; 560 nm, blue (BL; 480 nm and control cool white (400-760 nm light with an LED (light-emitting diode. There were 4 identical light-controlled rooms (n = 138 each containing 3 replicate pens (46 birds per pen. Water was supplied ad libitum and daily rations were determined according to the nutrient suggestions for poultry. Results showed that under BL conditions there was an increase in the total number of eggs at 300 days of age and egg-laying rate during the peak laying period. The BL and GL extended the duration of the peak laying period. Plasma melatonin was lowest in birds reared under BL. Plasma estradiol was elevated in the GL-exposed laying hens, and GL and BL increased progesterone at 28 wk of age. In the granulosa layers of the fifth largest preovulatory follicle (F5, the third largest preovulatory follicle (F3 and the largest preovulatory follicle (F1, ERα mRNA was increased by BL and GL. Treatment with BL increased ERβ mRNA in granulosa layers of F5, F3 and F1, while GL increased ERβ mRNA in F5 and F3. There was a corresponding increase in abundance of the proteins in the granulosa layers of F5, with an increase in PR-B, generated via an alternative splice site, relative to PR-A. Treatment with BL also increased expression of PR mRNA in all of the granulosa layers of follicles, while treatment with GL increased expression of PR mRNA in granulosa layers of SYF(small yellow follicle, F5 and F1. These results indicate that blue

  13. Low Illumination Light (LIL) Solar Cells: Indoor and Monochromatic Light Harvesting (United States)


    instrumentation , and sensors handbook Second Edition: Spatial, mechanical, thermal, and radiation measurement , Boca Raton (FL). CRC Press Taylor...Phosphor Components Used in Report 37 iv Appendix C. Quantum Efficiency Measurements of Single-Junction Solar Cells 41 Appendix D...575, and 600 nm. All have the same relative intensities between 470 to 500 nm. ...........39 Fig. C-1 QE measurements of single-junction PV solar

  14. 基于时空一致性的非结构化网格时变流场高效体绘制方法%High-Efficiency Volume Rendering of Unstructured-Grid Time-Varying Flows Using Temporal and Spatial Coherence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马千里; 刘涛; 王攀; 刘瑜; 李思昆


    The temporal and spatial coherence which is an important characteristic of unsteady flows plays an essential role in visualizing time-varying fields. This paper presents an approach for high- efficiency volume rendering of unstructured time-varying flows using the temporal and spatial coherence on the framework of the hardware-based ray casting algorithm (HRC). Firstly, a method is provided to analyze the temporal coherence of both the cell and the vertex data on unstructured grids. Then the cell and the vertex data temporal tables are built to achieve a lower time cost during rendering. Secondly, a novel texture structure is designed to separate the vertex data from the cell data, and a smart gradient matrix is used to reduce the pressure of GPU memory. The scheme of data management can effectively avoid rendering stalls and lead to a compact and efficient storage. The experiments demonstrate that our approach not only gains a much higher efficiency than the existing method, but also achieves a lower space cost, allowing rendering time-varying data on a larger mesh scale.%时空一致性是时变流场的重要性质,也是加速时变数据可视化算法的关键.以硬件加速的光线投射算法(HRC)为框架,设计并实现了一种基于时空一致性的非结构化网格时变流场高效体绘制方法.首先提出一种分析非结构化网格单元和顶点数据时间一致性的方法,分别建立单元和顶点数据时间表,以降低绘制过程中的计算开销;然后设计一种单元和顶点数据相分离的GPU纹理结构,并采用一种小巧的单元梯度矩阵来降低显存开销;同时,设计了一种合理的数据调度策略,既能有效地避免绘制停顿,又使显存纹理结构更为紧致、高效.实验结果表明,该方法不仅明显地提高了绘制效率,而且具有更优显存空间利用率,能实现更大网格规模的非结构化网格时变流场数据体绘制.

  15. Experimental measurement of the four-dimensional coherence function for an undulator x-ray source. (United States)

    Tran, C Q; Williams, G J; Roberts, A; Flewett, S; Peele, A G; Paterson, D; de Jonge, M D; Nugent, K A


    A full measurement of the four-dimensional coherence function from an undulator beam line is reported. The analysis is based on the observation that the data are consistent with a coherence function that is mathematically separable. The effective source size can be altered by changing the width of the exit slit, and the complete coherence function is presented for two settings. We find, to within experimental error, that the four-dimensional complex degree of coherence can be described as a real Gaussian function that depends only on the difference of the spatial coordinates.

  16. Quantum-orbit analysis of above threshold ionization by intense spatially inhomogeneous field

    CERN Document Server

    Shaaran, T; Lewenstein, M


    We perform a detailed analysis of above threshold ionization (ATI) in atoms within the strong field approximation (SFA) by considering spatially inhomogeneous monochromatic laser fields. The locally enhanced field induced by resonance plasmons is an example for such inhomogeneous fields. We investigate how the individual pairs of quantum orbits contribute to the photoelectron spectra and the angular electron momentum distributions. We demonstrate that the quantum orbits have a very different behavior in the spatially inhomogeneous field when compared to the homogeneous field. In the case of inhomogeneous fields, the ionization and rescattering times differ between neighboring cycles, despite the field being monochromatic. Indeed, the contributions from one cycle may lead to a lower cutoff, while another may develop a higher cutoff. Within our model, we show that the ATI cutoff extends far beyond the semiclassical cutoff, as a function of inhomogeneity strength. Furthermore, the angular momentum distributions ...

  17. Dynamics of Incoherent Photovoltaic Spatial Solitons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yi-Qi; LU Ke-Qing; ZHANG Mei-Zhi; LI Ke-Hao; LIU Shuang; ZHANG Yan-Peng


    Propagation properties of bright and dark incoherent beams are numerically studied in photovoltaic-photorefractive crystal by using coherent density approach for the first time.Numerical simulations not only exhibit that bright incoherent photovoltaic quasi-soliton,grey-like incoherent photovoltaic soliton,incoherent soliton doublet and triplet can be established under proper conditions,but also display that the spatial coherence properties of these incoherent beams can be significantly affected during propagation by the photovoltaic field.

  18. Cylindrical shock waves in rotational axisymmetric non-ideal dusty gas with increasing energy under the action of monochromatic radiation (United States)

    Sahu, P. K.


    The propagation of a cylindrical shock wave in a rotational axisymmetric non-ideal dusty gas under the action of monochromatic radiation with increasing energy, which has variable azimuthal and axial components of fluid velocity, is investigated. The dusty gas is assumed to be a mixture of non-ideal (or perfect) gas and small solid particles, in which solid particles are continuously distributed. Similarity solutions are obtained as well as the effects of the variation of the radiation parameters, the parameter of non-idealness of the gas, the mass concentration of solid particles in the mixture, the ratio of the density of solid particles to the initial density of the gas, and the piston velocity index are worked out in detail. The total energy of the shock wave is varying and increases with time. It is observed that the radiation parameter and the piston velocity index have opposite behaviour on the flow variables as well as the shock strength.

  19. Influence of monochromatic light on quality traits, nutritional, fatty acid, and amino acid profiles of broiler chicken meat. (United States)

    Kim, M J; Parvin, R; Mushtaq, M M H; Hwangbo, J; Kim, J H; Na, J C; Kim, D W; Kang, H K; Kim, C D; Cho, K O; Yang, C B; Choi, H C


    The role of monochromatic lights was investigated on meat quality in 1-d-old straight-run broiler chicks (n = 360), divided into 6 light sources with 6 replicates having 10 chicks in each replicate. Six light sources were described as incandescent bulbs (IBL, as a control) and light-emitting diode (LED) light colors as white light (WL), blue light, red light (RL), green light, and yellow light. Among LED groups, the RL increased the concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids (P light produced by LED responded similar to the IBL light in influencing nutrient contents of meat. Moreover, LED is not decisive in improving fatty acid composition of meat. However, the role of IBL in reducing n-6:n-3 ratio and enhancing n-3 cannot be neglected. Among LED, WL is helpful in improving essential and nonessential amino acid contents of broiler meat.

  20. Role of monochromatic light on daily variation of clock gene expression in the pineal gland of chick. (United States)

    Jiang, Nan; Wang, Zixu; Cao, Jing; Dong, Yulan; Chen, Yaoxing


    The avian pineal gland is a master clock that can receive external photic cues and translate them into output rhythms. To clarify whether a shift in light wavelength can influence the circadian expression in chick pineal gland, a total of 240 Arbor Acre male broilers were exposed to white light (WL), red light (RL), green light (GL) or blue light (BL). After 2weeks light illumination, circadian expressions of seven core clock genes in pineal gland and the level of melatonin in plasma were examined. The results showed after illumination with monochromatic light, 24h profiles of all clock gene mRNAs retained circadian oscillation, except that RL tended to disrupt the rhythm of cCry2. Compared to WL, BL advanced the acrophases of the negative elements (cCry1, cCry2, cPer2 and cPer3) by 0.1-1.5h and delayed those of positive elements (cClock, cBmal1 and cBmal2) by 0.2-0.8h. And, RL advanced all clock genes except cClock and cPer2 by 0.3-2.1h, while GL delayed all clock genes by 0.5-1.5h except cBmal2. Meanwhile, GL increased the amplitude and mesor of positive and reduced both parameters of negative clock genes, but RL showed the opposite pattern. Although the acrophase of plasma melatonin was advanced by both GL and RL, the melatonin level was significantly increased in GL and decreased in RL. This tendency was consistent with the variations in the positive clock gene mRNA levels under monochromatic light and contrasted with those of negative clock genes. Therefore, we speculate that GL may enhance positive clock genes expression, leading to melatonin synthesis, whereas RL may enhance negative genes expression, suppressing melatonin synthesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of monochromatic light sources on sex hormone levels in serum and on semen quality of ganders. (United States)

    Chang, Shen-Chang; Zhuang, Zi-Xuan; Lin, Min-Jung; Cheng, Chuen-Yu; Lin, Tsung-Yi; Jea, Yu-Shine; Huang, San-Yuan


    Light is an essential external factor influencing various physiological processes, including reproductive performance, in birds. Although several attempts have been made to understand the effect of light on poultry production, the effect of light of a particular wavelength (color) on the reproductive function in geese remains unclear. This study evaluated the effect of various monochromatic light sources on the levels of sex hormone and on semen quality of ganders. Of 30 male White Roman geese in their third reproductive season (average age=3 years), 27 were divided into three groups receiving monochromatic white or red or blue lights. The birds were kept in an environmentally controlled house with a lighting photoperiod of 7L:17D for six weeks as the adaptation period. The photoperiod was subsequently changed to 9L:15D and maintained for 24 weeks. Three ganders at the beginning of the study and three from each group at the end of the adjusting period and the 20th and 30th week of the study period were sacrificed, and their testes and blood samples were collected for determining the sex hormone levels. Semen samples were collected for determining semen quality parameters, including the semen collection index, sperm concentration, semen volume, sperm motility, sperm viability, sperm morphology, and semen quality factor. The results showed that the testosterone and estradiol levels remained unchanged in all three groups at all time points. The ratio of testosterone to estradiol of ganders exposed to white light was significantly higher than that of ganders exposed to red light at the 30th week (Plight were significantly the lowest (Plight were the highest (Plight may maintain a better semen quality than that with red or blue lights in ganders.

  2. Dual Energy CT (DECT Monochromatic Imaging: Added Value of Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstructions (ASIR in Portal Venography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqin Zhao

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of the adaptive statistical iterative reconstructions (ASIR on image quality in portal venography by dual energy CT (DECT imaging.DECT scans of 45 cirrhotic patients obtained in the portal venous phase were analyzed. Monochromatic images at 70keV were reconstructed with the following 4 ASIR percentages: 0%, 30%, 50%, and 70%. The image noise (IN (standard deviation, SD of portal vein (PV, the contrast-to-noise-ratio (CNR, and the subjective score for the sharpness of PV boundaries, and the diagnostic acceptability (DA were obtained. The IN, CNR, and the subjective scores were compared among the four ASIR groups.The IN (in HU of PV (10.05±3.14, 9.23±3.05, 8.44±2.95 and 7.83±2.90 decreased and CNR values of PV (8.04±3.32, 8.95±3.63, 9.80±4.12 and 10.74±4.73 increased with the increase in ASIR percentage (0%, 30%, 50%, and 70%, respectively, and were statistically different for the 4 ASIR groups (p<0.05. The subjective scores showed that the sharpness of portal vein boundaries (3.13±0.59, 2.82±0.44, 2.73±0.54 and 2.07±0.54 decreased with higher ASIR percentages (p<0.05. The subjective diagnostic acceptability was highest at 30% ASIR (p<0.05.30% ASIR addition in DECT portal venography could improve the 70 keV monochromatic image quality.

  3. Coherence filtering and revivals in x-ray waveguides: a communication-modes approach. (United States)

    Pelliccia, Daniele; Paganin, David M


    Waveguides for short-wavelength x-rays have been successfully employed for microbeam and nanobeam production and microscopy experiments. The coherence of hard x-ray sources is generally poor, and therefore the spatial coherence filtering characteristics of waveguides have been attractive for high-resolution microscopy experiments. To quantify the spatial coherence filtering properties of a waveguide, we here report a theoretical study of the propagation of a partially coherent beam in a waveguide in the paraxial approximation. By propagating the cross-spectral density function associated with the partially coherent field, we quantify in detail the evolution of the spatial coherence as the beam proceeds along the waveguide. The propagation is efficiently accomplished using the communication-modes formalism. The generality of the approach makes it suitable to study more complex phenomena such as the second-order Talbot self-imaging effect and coherence revivals in waveguides. Numerical results are shown for waveguides illuminated by partially coherent hard x-rays.

  4. Synthesizing time-evolving partially-coherent Schell-model sources (United States)

    Van Zandt, Noah R.; Hyde, Milo W.; Bose-Pillai, Santasri R.; Voelz, David G.; Xiao, Xifeng; Fiorino, Steven T.


    Time-evolving simulation of sources with partial spatial and temporal coherence is sometimes instructive or necessary to explain optical coherence effects. Yet, existing time-evolving synthesis techniques often require prohibitive amounts of computer memory. This paper discusses three methods for the synthesis of continuous or pulsed time-evolving sources with nearly arbitrary spatial and temporal coherence. One method greatly reduces computer memory requirements, making this type of synthesis more practical. The utility of all three methods is demonstrated via a modified form of Young's experiment. Numerical simulation and laboratory results for time-averaged irradiance are presented and compared with theory to validate the synthesis techniques.

  5. Coherence properties of the photoluminescence from CdS-ZnO nanocomposite thin films. (United States)

    Vasa, Parinda; Singh, B P; Ayyub, Pushan


    The application of semiconductor quantum dots in important new areas such as random lasing and quantum-information processing requires knowledge of the coherence of the optical emission from such systems. We report the first direct experimental estimation of the coherence in the light emitted by a nanoparticle ensemble. The photoluminescence from a two-phase nanocomposite CdS-ZnO thin film (with a characteristic grain size of 2-3 nm for both the chemical phases) possesses an appreciable degree of spatial and temporal coherence at room temperature. The degree of spatial coherence was estimated from the classical Young's double slit experiment. We also discuss a simple technique for estimating the degree of spectral coherence of the photoluminescence from thin films.

  6. Assisted distillation of quantum coherence

    CERN Document Server

    Chitambar, E; Rana, S; Bera, M N; Adesso, G; Lewenstein, M


    We introduce and study the task of assisted coherence distillation. This task arises naturally in bipartite systems where both parties work together to generate the maximal possible coherence on one of the subsystems. Only incoherent operations are allowed on the target system while general local quantum operations are permitted on the other, an operational paradigm that we call local quantum-incoherent operations and classical communication (LQICC). We show that the asymptotic rate of assisted coherence distillation for pure states is equal to the coherence of assistance, a direct analog of the entanglement of assistance, whose properties we characterize. Our findings imply a novel interpretation of the von Neumann entropy: it quantifies the maximum amount of extra quantum coherence a system can gain when receiving assistance from a collaborative party. Our results are generalized to coherence localization in a multipartite setting and possible applications are discussed.

  7. Volitional Control of Neuromagnetic Coherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Sacchet


    Full Text Available Coherence of neural activity between circumscribed brain regions has been implicated as an indicator of intracerebral communication in various cognitive processes. While neural activity can be volitionally controlled with neurofeedback, the volitional control of coherence has not yet been explored. Learned volitional control of coherence could elucidate mechanisms of associations between cortical areas and its cognitive correlates and may have clinical implications. Neural coherence may also provide a signal for brain-computer interfaces (BCI. In the present study we used the Weighted Overlapping Segment Averaging (WOSA method to assess coherence between bilateral magnetoencephalograph (MEG sensors during voluntary digit movement as a basis for BCI control. Participants controlled an onscreen cursor, with a success rate of 124 of 180 (68.9%, sign-test p < 0.001 and 84 out of 100 (84%, sign-test p < 0.001. The present findings suggest that neural coherence may be volitionally controlled and may have specific behavioral correlates.

  8. Quantum Coherence as a Resource

    CERN Document Server

    Streltsov, Alexander; Plenio, Martin B


    The coherent superposition of states, in combination with energy quantization, represents one of the most fundamental features that mark the departure of quantum mechanics from the classical realm. Quantum coherence in many-body systems embodies the essence of entanglement and is an essential ingredient for a plethora of physical phenomena in quantum optics, quantum information, solid state physics, and nanoscale thermodynamics. In recent years, research on the presence and functional role of quantum coherence in biological systems has also attracted a considerable interest. Despite the fundamental importance of quantum coherence, the development of a rigorous theory of quantum coherence as a physical resource has only been initiated recently. In this Colloquium we discuss and review the development of this rapidly growing research field that encompasses the characterization, quantification, manipulation, dynamical evolution, and operational application of quantum coherence.

  9. Improvement of the tuneable monochromatic gamma-ray source at the 15 MeV linac of the University of Gent (United States)

    Masschaele, B.; Jolie, J.; Mondelaers, W.; Materna, T.; Cauwels, P.; Dierick, M.


    It is shown how the tuneable gamma-ray source based on a bremsstrahlung source and a crystal, diffracting in Cauchois geometry, can be made intense and monochromatic using an asymmetrically cut Si crystal. The results and implications are here presented.

  10. Effect of monochromatic light stimuli during embryogenesis on muscular growth, chemical composition, and meat quality of breast muscle in male broilers. (United States)

    Zhang, L; Zhang, H J; Qiao, X; Yue, H Y; Wu, S G; Yao, J H; Qi, G H


    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of monochromatic light stimuli during embryogenesis on breast muscle growth, chemical composition, and meat quality of male broilers. Fertile broiler eggs (Arbor Acres; n = 1,320) were preweighed and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups in 3 modified incubators: 1) control group (in dark condition), 2) monochromatic green light group (560 nm), and 3) monochromatic blue light group (480 nm). The monochromatic lighting systems sourced from light-emitting diode lamps and were equalized at the intensity of 15 lx at eggshell level. After hatch, 120 male chicks from each group were placed in 6 replicates with 20 birds each. All of the birds were housed under white light (30 lx at bird-head level) with a light schedule of 23L:1D. At 21, 35, and 42 d of age, BW and breast muscle weight in the green light group were significantly increased compared with birds in the blue or dark groups (P dark condition or blue group at 42 d of market age (P dark condition (P 0.05). Green light stimuli tended to increase cooking loss (P = 0.08) and L* value of 24-h meat color (P = 0.09). These results suggest that green light stimuli during embryogenesis enhanced the posthatch BW of male broilers, increased breast muscle growth, and improved the feed conversion ratio, but it did not cause any noticeable changes in breast chemical composition or overall meat quality characteristics.

  11. Sensitivity and specificity of monochromatic photography of the ocular fundus in differentiating optic nerve head drusen and optic disc oedema: optic disc drusen and oedema. (United States)

    Gili, Pablo; Flores-Rodríguez, Patricia; Yangüela, Julio; Orduña-Azcona, Javier; Martín-Ríos, María Dolores


    Evaluation of the efficacy of monochromatic photography of the ocular fundus in differentiating optic nerve head drusen (ONHD) and optic disc oedema (ODE). Sixty-six patients with ONHD, 31 patients with ODE and 70 healthy subjects were studied. Colour and monochromatic fundus photography with different filters (green, red and autofluorescence) were performed. The results were analysed blindly by two observers. The sensitivity, specificity and interobserver agreement (k) of each test were assessed. Colour photography offers 65.5 % sensitivity and 100 % specificity for the diagnosis of ONHD. Monochromatic photography improves sensitivity and specificity and provides similar results: green filter (71.20 % sensitivity, 96.70 % specificity), red filter (80.30 % sensitivity, 96.80 % specificity), and autofluorescence technique (87.8 % sensitivity, 100 % specificity). The interobserver agreement was good with all techniques used: autofluorescence (k = 0.957), green filter (k = 0.897), red filter (k = 0.818) and colour (k = 0.809). Monochromatic fundus photography permits ONHD and ODE to be differentiated, with good sensitivity and very high specificity. The best results were obtained with autofluorescence and red filter study.

  12. Coherent methods for measuring ophthalmic surfaces (United States)

    Rottenkolber, Matthias; Podbielska, Halina


    Topographic analysis of the ophthalmic surfaces is an important task. Especially recently, when a laser assisted refractive surgery becomes more and more popular in a daily clinical praxis. Ophthalmologists need to know exact corneal parameters as a basis for proper operational approach, as well as for monitoring of the post-operative process. The fitting of the contact lenses can be more accurate when topography of both, cornea and contacts, can be precisely measured. We develop new coherent methods for measuring of the topography of curved optical surfaces. One of the proposed techniques is based on interferometry with a special distance measurement unit and spatial phase shifting interferogram evaluation. The other one uses deflectometry with spatial carrier frequency. The sensitivity of this method is adjustable and thus it closes the gap between the white light and interferometric measuring methods. The techniques proposed here can be suitable for measurement of the contact lenses or corneal surface.



    Pascal Mossay


    We consider a continuous spatial economy consisting of pure exchange local economies. Agents are allowed to change their location over time as a response to spatial utility differentials. These spatial adjustments toward higher utility neighborhoods lead the spatial economy to converge to a spatially uniform allocation of resources, provided that the matrix of price effects is quasi-negative definite. Furthermore our model provides a real time interpretation of the tâtonnement story. Also, sp...

  14. Spatially distributed effects of mental exhaustion on resting-state FMRI networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esposito, Fabrizio; Otto, Tobias; Zijlstra, Fred R H; Goebel, R.


    Brain activity during rest is spatially coherent over functional connectivity networks called resting-state networks. In resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, independent component analysis yields spatially distributed network representations reflecting distinct mental processes, such

  15. Coherent optics in students' laboratories (United States)

    Senderáková, Dagmar; Mesaros, Vladimir; Drzik, Milan


    Lasers provide us with unique kind of light - coherent light. Besides being the keystone of historical interferometric measuring methods, coherent waves, now accessible in a very easy way, become a base of new optical measuring and information processing methods. Moreover, holographic recording seems today to have become a common term, even among common, not especially optically educated people. The presentation deals with our attempt to take our students' interest in the coherence of light and getting them familiar with the phenomenon, indeed.

  16. Review of Entangled Coherent States

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, Barry C


    We review entangled coherent state research since its first implicit use in 1967 to the present. Entangled coherent states are important to quantum superselection principles, quantum information processing, quantum optics, and mathematical physics. Despite their inherent fragility they have produced in a conditional propagating-wave quantum optics realization. Fundamentally the states are intriguing because they are entanglements of the coherent states, which are in a sense the most classical of all states of a dynamical system.

  17. Coherent dynamics in semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Jørn Märcher


    Ultrafast nonlinear optical spectroscopy is used to study the coherent dynamics of optically excited electron-hole pairs in semiconductors. Coulomb interaction implies that the optical inter-band transitions are dominated, at least at low temperatures, by excitonic effects. They are further...... and molecular systems are found and studied in the exciton-biexciton system of semiconductors. At densities where strong exciton interactions, or many-body effects, become dominant, the semiconductor Bloch equations present a more rigorous treatment of the phenomena Ultrafast degenerate four-wave mixing is used...

  18. Optical coherence refractometry. (United States)

    Tomlins, Peter H; Woolliams, Peter; Hart, Christian; Beaumont, Andrew; Tedaldi, Matthew


    We introduce a novel approach to refractometry using a low coherence interferometer at multiple angles of incidence. We show that for plane parallel samples it is possible to measure their phase refractive index rather than the group index that is usually measured by interferometric methods. This is a significant development because it enables bulk refractive index measurement of scattering and soft samples, not relying on surface measurements that can be prone to error. Our technique is also noncontact and compatible with in situ refractive index measurements. Here, we demonstrate this new technique on a pure silica test piece and a highly scattering resin slab, comparing the results with standard critical angle refractometry.

  19. Objective Eulerian Coherent Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Serra, M


    We define objective Eulerian Coherent Structures (OECSs) in two-dimensional, non-autonomous dynamical systems as instantaneously most influential material curves. Specifically, OECSs are stationary curves of the averaged instantaneous material stretching-rate or material shearing-rate functionals. From these objective (frame-invariant) variational principles, we obtain explicit differential equations for hyperbolic, elliptic and parabolic OECSs. As illustration, we compute OECSs in an unsteady ocean velocity data set. In comparison to structures suggested by other common Eulerian diagnostic tools, we find OECSs to be the correct short-term cores of observed trajectory deformation patterns.

  20. The Puzzle of Coherence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne Bendix; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Beedholm, Kirsten;


    in general practice, outpatient clinics, home care and physiotherapy. Furthermore, field observations are conducted in general practice, home care and rehabilitation settings. Perspectives Knowledge about the practice of cross-sectorial collaboration is crucial to the future planning of collaborating...... initiatives in health care. The present study will generate new, valuable insight into the areas of cross-sectorial health care collaboration. Our findings may facilitate change in current practice and improve the quality and coherence in patient pathways of EPCD. The findings of this study will be useful...

  1. Coherent control of photocurrent in a disordered photovoltaic system

    CERN Document Server

    Liew, Seng Fatt; Sheehan, Stafford W; Goetschy, Arthur; Schmuttenmaer, Charles A; Stone, A Douglas; Cao, Hui


    Optical absorption is commonly considered an intrinsic property of a medium, independent of the details of the illumination source. However, for a spatially coherent illumination of a disordered medium, interference effects can modify the spatial distribution of light inside the medium, allowing the global or local absorption to be tuned by adjusting an input beam's spatial characteristics. Here we demonstrate the coherent control of absorption by using the wavefront shaping technique to modulate photocurrent in a dye-sensitized solar cell. The incident wavefront of a laser beam is optimized to concentrate light near the front side of the porous photoanode where the collection efficiency of photo-generated electrons is highest. Destructive interference reduces light leakage through open boundaries, facilitating light absorption and conversion to current. This technique provides a powerful tool for probing and controlling photochemical processes inside nominally opaque media by manipulating the internal spatia...

  2. Coherent Light induced in Optical Fiber by a Charged Particle (United States)

    Artru, Xavier; Ray, Cédric


    Coherent light production in an optical fiber by a charged particle (named PIGL, for particle-induced guided, light) is reviewed. From the microscopic point of view, light is emitted by transient electric dipoles induced in the fiber medium by the Coulomb field of the particle. The phenomenon can also considered as the capture of virtual photons of the particle field by the fiber. Two types of captures are distinguished. Type-I takes place in a uniform part of the fiber; then the photon keeps its longitudinal momentum pz . Type-II takes place near an end or in a non-uniform part of the fiber; then pz is not conserved. Type-I PIGL is not affected by background lights external to the fiber. At grazing incidence it becomes nearly monochromatic. Its circular polarization depends on the angular momentum of the particle about the fiber and on the relative velocity between the particle and the guided wave. A general formula for the yield of Type-II radiation, based on the reciprocity theorem, is proposed. This radiation can be assisted by metallic objects stuck to the fiber, via plasmon excitation. A periodic structure leads to a guided Smith-Purcell radiation. Applications of PIGL in beam diagnostics are considered.

  3. Delocalization and Sensitivity of Quantum Wavepacket in Coherently Perturbed Kicked Anderson Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Yamada


    Full Text Available Abstract: We consider quantum diffusion of the initially localized wavepacket in one-dimensional kicked disordered system with classical coherent perturbation. The wavepacket localizes in the unperturbed kicked Anderson model. However, the wavepacket get delocalized even by coupling with monochromatic perturbation. We call the state "dynamically delocalized state". It is numerically shown that the delocalized wavepacket spread obeying diffusion law, and the perturbation strength dependence of the diffusion rate is given. The sensitivity of the delocalized state is also shown by the time-reversal experiment after random change in phase of the wavepacket. Moreover, it is found that the diffusion strongly depend on the initial phase of the perturbation. We discuss a relation between the "classicalization" of the quantum wave packet and the time-dependence of the initial phase dependence. The complex structure of the initial phase dependence is related to the entropy production in the quantum system.

  4. Study of phase retrieval algorithm from partially coherent light (United States)

    Yan, Liu; Hong, Cheng; Wei, Sui; Wei, Zhang


    The goal of phase retrieval is to recover the phase information from intensity distribution which is an important topic in optics and image processing. The algorithm based on the transport of intensity equation only need to measure the spatial intensity of the center plane and adjacent light field plane, and reconstruct the phase object by solving second order differential equations. The algorithm is derived in the coherent light field. And the partially coherent light field is described more complex. The field at any point in the space experiences statistical fluctuations over time. Therefore, traditional TIE algorithms cannot be applied in calculating the phase of partially coherent light field. In this thesis, the phase retrieval algorithm is proposed for partially coherent light field. First, the description and propagation equation of partially coherent light field is established. Then, the phase is retrieved by TIE Fourier transform. Experimental results with simulated uniform and non-uniform illumination demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in phase retrieval for partially coherent light field.

  5. Perspective: Quantum or classical coherence? (United States)

    Miller, William H


    Some coherence effects in chemical dynamics are described correctly by classical mechanics, while others only appear in a quantum treatment--and when these are observed experimentally it is not always immediately obvious whether their origin is classical or quantum. Semiclassical theory provides a systematic way of adding quantum coherence to classical molecular dynamics and thus provides a useful way to distinguish between classical and quantum coherence. Several examples are discussed which illustrate both cases. Particularly interesting is the situation with electronically non-adiabatic processes, where sometimes whether the coherence effects are classical or quantum depends on what specific aspects of the process are observed.

  6. Coherent states on the circle

    CERN Document Server

    Chadzitaskos, G; Tolar, J


    We present a possible construction of coherent states on the unit circle as configuration space. In our approach the phase space is the product Z x S^1. Because of the duality of canonical coordinates and momenta, i.e. the angular variable and the integers, this formulation can also be interpreted as coherent states over an infinite periodic chain. For the construction we use the analogy with our quantization over a finite periodic chain where the phase space was Z_M x Z_M. Properties of the coherent states constructed in this way are studied and the coherent states are shown to satisfy the resolution of unity.

  7. Converting Coherence to Quantum Correlations. (United States)

    Ma, Jiajun; Yadin, Benjamin; Girolami, Davide; Vedral, Vlatko; Gu, Mile


    Recent results in quantum information theory characterize quantum coherence in the context of resource theories. Here, we study the relation between quantum coherence and quantum discord, a kind of quantum correlation which appears even in nonentangled states. We prove that the creation of quantum discord with multipartite incoherent operations is bounded by the amount of quantum coherence consumed in its subsystems during the process. We show how the interplay between quantum coherence consumption and creation of quantum discord works in the preparation of multipartite quantum correlated states and in the model of deterministic quantum computation with one qubit.

  8. Fourier phase in Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography. (United States)

    Uttam, Shikhar; Liu, Yang


    Phase of an electromagnetic wave propagating through a sample-of-interest is well understood in the context of quantitative phase imaging in transmission-mode microscopy. In the past decade, Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography has been used to extend quantitative phase imaging to the reflection-mode. Unlike transmission-mode electromagnetic phase, however, the origin and characteristics of reflection-mode Fourier phase are poorly understood, especially in samples with a slowly varying refractive index. In this paper, the general theory of Fourier phase from first principles is presented, and it is shown that Fourier phase is a joint estimate of subresolution offset and mean spatial frequency of the coherence-gated sample refractive index. It is also shown that both spectral-domain phase microscopy and depth-resolved spatial-domain low-coherence quantitative phase microscopy are special cases of this general theory. Analytical expressions are provided for both, and simulations are presented to explain and support the theoretical results. These results are further used to show how Fourier phase allows the estimation of an axial mean spatial frequency profile of the sample, along with depth-resolved characterization of localized optical density change and sample heterogeneity. Finally, a Fourier phase-based explanation of Doppler optical coherence tomography is also provided.

  9. Programmable and coherent crystallization of semiconductors

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Liyang


    The functional properties and technological utility of polycrystalline materials are largely determined by the structure, geometry, and spatial distribution of their multitude of crystals. However, crystallization is seeded through stochastic and incoherent nucleation events, limiting the ability to control or pattern the microstructure, texture, and functional properties of polycrystalline materials. We present a universal approach that can program the microstructure of materials through the coherent seeding of otherwise stochastic homogeneous nucleation events. The method relies on creating topographic variations to seed nucleation and growth at designated locations while delaying nucleation elsewhere. Each seed can thus produce a coherent growth front of crystallization with a geometry designated by the shape and arrangement of seeds. Periodic and aperiodic crystalline arrays of functional materials, such as semiconductors, can thus be created on demand and with unprecedented sophistication and ease by patterning the location and shape of the seeds. This approach is used to demonstrate printed arrays of organic thin-film transistors with remarkable performance and reproducibility owing to their demonstrated spatial control over the microstructure of organic and inorganic polycrystalline semiconductors.

  10. Coherent structures of electrokinetic instability in microflows (United States)

    Dubey, Kaushlendra; Gupta, Amit; Bahga, Supreet Singh


    Electrokinetic instabilities occur in fluid flow where gradients in electrical properties of fluids, such as conductivity and permittivity, lead to a destabilizing body force. We present an experimental investigation of electrokinetic instability (EKI) in a microchannel flow with orthogonal conductivity gradient and electric field, using time-resolved visualization of a passive fluorescent scalar. This particular EKI has applications in rapid mixing at low Reynolds number in microchannels. Previous studies have shown that such EKI can be characterized by the electric Rayleigh number (Rae) which is the ratio of diffusive and electroviscous time scales. However, these studies were limited to temporal power spectra and time-delay phase maps of fluorescence data at a single spatial location. In the current work, we use dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) of time-resolved snapshots of EKI to investigate the spatio-temporal coherent structures of EKI for a wide range of Rae . Our analysis yields spatial variation of modes in EKI along with their corresponding temporal frequencies. We show that EK instability with orthogonal conductivity-gradient and electric field can be characterized by transverse and longitudinal coherent structures which depend strongly on Rae .

  11. Correlation singularities of a partially coherent radially polarized beam in non-Kolmogorov turbulence (United States)

    Zhang, Yongtao; Zhao, Zhiguo; Ding, Chaoliang; Pan, Liuzhan


    We have investigated the correlation singularities of a partially coherent radially polarized beam propagating through non-Kolmogorov turbulence. An analytical expression for the radius of a ring dislocation is derived. It is shown that the dependence of the radius of a ring dislocation on spatial coherence width in non-Kolmogorov turbulence is quite different from that in free space. The relation between spatial coherence width and beam width affects the change trends of the radius of a ring dislocation versus spatial coherence width. For different value ranges of the power law, the change of the radius of a ring dislocation with power law has an opposite trend. It is also found that the propagation distance plays an important role in determining the change of the radius of a ring dislocation. Our results will be useful in measuring the statistical properties of a random medium or a random field.

  12. Short-Pulse Limits in Optical Instrumentation Design for the SLAC Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatchyn, R.


    The source properties of linac-driven X-Ray Free-Electron Lasers (XRFELs) operating in the Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) regime differ markedly from those of ordinary insertion devices on synchrotron storage rings. In the case of the 1.5 {angstrom} SLAC Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), the longitudinal output profile typically consists of a randomly-distributed train of fully-transversely-coherent micropulses of randomly varying intensity and an average length (corresponding to the source coherence length) two to three orders of magnitude smaller than the transverse diameter of the beam. Total pulse lengths are typically of the same order of size as the beam diameter. Both of these properties can be shown to significantly impact the performance of otherwise conventional synchrotron radiation optics; viz., mirrors, lenses, zone plates, crystals, multilayers, etc. In this paper we outline an analysis of short-pulse effects on selected optical components for the SLAC LCLS and discuss the implications for critical applications such as microfocusing and monochromatization.

  13. Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Heterodyne Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bredfeldt, J S; Vinegoni, C; Hambir, S; Boppart, S A


    A new interferometric technique is demonstrated for measuring Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) signals. Two forward-directed CARS signals are generated, one in each arm of an interferometer. The deterministic nature of the CARS process allows for these two signals, when spatially and temporally overlapped, to interfere with one another. Heterodyne detection can therefore be employed to increase the sensitivity in CARS signal detection. In addition, nonlinear CARS interferometry will facilitate the use of this spectroscopic technique for molecular contrast in Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT).

  14. Fermionic coherent states (United States)

    Combescure, Monique; Robert, Didier


    The aim of this paper is to give a self-contained and unified presentation of a fermionic coherent state theory with the necessary mathematical details, discussing their definition, properties and some applications. After defining Grassmann algebras, it is possible to get a classical analog for the fermionic degrees of freedom in a quantum system. Following the basic work of Berezin (1966 The Method of Second Quantization (New York: Academic); 1987 Introduction to Superanalysis (Dordrecht: Reidel Publishing Company)), we show that we can compute with Grassmann numbers as we do with complex numbers: derivation, integration, Fourier transform. After that we show that we have quantization formulas for fermionic observables. In particular, there exists a Moyal product formula. As an application, we consider explicit computations for propagators with quadratic Hamiltonians in annihilation and creation operators. We prove a Mehler formula for the propagator and Mehlig-Wilkinson-type formulas for the covariant and contravariant symbols of ‘metaplectic’ transformations for fermionic states. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Coherent states: mathematical and physical aspects’.

  15. Coherence for weak units

    CERN Document Server

    Joyal, André


    We define weak units in a semi-monoidal 2-category $\\CC$ as cancellable pseudo-idempotents: they are pairs $(I,\\alpha)$ where $I$ is an object such that tensoring with $I$ from either side constitutes a biequivalence of $\\CC$, and $\\alpha: I \\tensor I \\to I$ is an equivalence in $\\CC$. We show that this notion of weak unit has coherence built in: Theorem A: $\\alpha$ has a canonical associator 2-cell, which automatically satisfies the pentagon equation. Theorem B: every morphism of weak units is automatically compatible with those associators. Theorem C: the 2-category of weak units is contractible if non-empty. Finally we show (Theorem E) that the notion of weak unit is equivalent to the notion obtained from the definition of tricategory: $\\alpha$ alone induces the whole family of left and right maps (indexed by the objects), as well as the whole family of Kelly 2-cells (one for each pair of objects), satisfying the relevant coherence axioms.

  16. Coherence in Turbulence: New Perspective (United States)

    Levich, Eugene


    It is claimed that turbulence in fluids is inherently coherent phenomenon. The coherence shows up clearly as strongly correlated helicity fluctuations of opposite sign. The helicity fluctuations have cellular structure forming clusters that are actually observed as vorticity bands and coherent structures in laboratory turbulence, direct numerical simulations and most obviously in atmospheric turbulence. The clusters are named BCC - Beltrami Cellular Clusters - because of the observed nearly total alignment of the velocity and vorticity fields in each particular cell, and hence nearly maximal possible helicity in each cell; although when averaged over all the cells the residual mean helicity in general is small and does not play active dynamical role. The Beltrami like fluctuations are short-lived and stabilize only in small and generally contiguous sub-domains that are tending to a (multi)fractal in the asymptotic limit of large Reynolds numbers, Re → ∞. For the model of homogeneous isotropic turbulence the theory predicts the leading fractal dimension of BCC to be: DF = 2.5. This particular BCC is responsible for generating the Kolmogorov -5/3 power law energy spectrum. The most obvious role that BCC play dynamically is that the nonlinear interactions in them are relatively reduced, due to strong spatial alignment between the velocity field v(r, t) and the vorticity field ω(r, t) = curlv(r, t), while the physical quantities typically best characterizing turbulence intermittency, such as entrophy, vorticity stretching and generation, and energy dissipation are maximized in and near them. The theory quantitatively relates the reduction of nonlinear inter-actions to the BCC fractal dimension DF and subsequent turbulence intermittency. It is further asserted that BCC is a fundamental feature of all turbulent flows, e.g., wall bounded turbulent flows, atmospheric and oceanic flows, and their leading fractal dimension remains invariant and universal in these flows

  17. Optimization of a coherent soft x-ray beamline for coherent scattering experiments at NSLS-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro D.; Chubar, O.; Kaznatcheev, K.; Reininger, R.; Sanchez-Hanke, C.; Wang, S.


    The coherent soft x-ray and full polarization control (CSX) beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source - II (NSLS-II) will deliver 1013 coherent photons per second in the energy range of 0.2-2 keV with a resolving power of 2000. The source, a dual elliptically polarizing undulator (EPU), and beamline optics should be optimized to deliver the highest possible coherent flux in a 10-30 {micro}m spot for use in coherent scattering experiments. Using the computer code Synchrotron Radiation Workshop (SRW), we simulate the photon source and focusing optics in order to investigate the conditions which provide the highest usable coherent intensity on the sample. In particular, we find that an intermediate phasing magnet is needed to correct for the relative phase between the two EPUs and that the optimum phase setting produces a spectrum in which the desired wavelength is slightly red-shifted thus requiring a larger aperture than originally anticipated. This setting is distinct from that which produces an on-axis spectrum similar to a single long undulator. Furthermore, partial coherence calculations, utilizing a multiple electron approach, indicate that a high degree of spatial coherence is still obtained at the sample location when such an aperture is used. The aperture size which maximizes the signal-to-noise ratio of a double-slit experiment is explored. This combination of high coherence and intensity is ideally suited for x-ray ptychography experiments which reconstruct the scattering density from micro-diffraction patterns. This technique is briefly reviewed and the effects on the image quality of proximity to the beamline focus are explored.

  18. Robustness of a coherence vortex. (United States)

    Alves, Cleberson R; Jesus-Silva, Alcenisio J; Fonseca, Eduardo J S


    We study, experimentally and theoretically, the behavior of a coherence vortex after its transmission through obstacles. Notably, we find that such a vortex survives and preserves its effective topological charge. Despite suffering changes on the modulus of the coherence function, these changes disappear during propagation.

  19. Dynamics of generalized coherent states

    CERN Document Server

    De Martino, S; Illuminati, F; De Martino, S; De Siena, S; Illuminati, F


    We show that generalized coherent states follow Schr\\"{o}dinger dynamics in time-dependent potentials. The normalized wave-packets follow a classical evolution without spreading; in turn, the Schr\\"{o}dinger potential depends on the state through the classical trajectory. This feedback mechanism with continuous dynamical re-adjustement allows the packets to remain coherent indefinetely.


    On the basis of diffraction theory, quantum-mechanics and information theory, it is shown that the principle of coherent light recording is the...mechanical, magnetic or electric approaches. Photographic coherent light recording tests were made by the dynamic sweep tests on 16 mm Recordak Micro-File


    The purpose of this report is to summarize, define and demonstrate techniques necessary for the application of coherent light to the problems of...Investigations into such areas as the coherent light source itself, modulation, deflection or scanning techniques, readout techniques and the evaluation of recording media are reported.

  2. Quantum coherence of steered states (United States)

    Hu, Xueyuan; Milne, Antony; Zhang, Boyang; Fan, Heng


    Lying at the heart of quantum mechanics, coherence has recently been studied as a key resource in quantum information theory. Quantum steering, a fundamental notion originally considered by Schödinger, has also recently received much attention. When Alice and Bob share a correlated quantum system, Alice can perform a local measurement to ‘steer’ Bob’s reduced state. We introduce the maximal steered coherence as a measure describing the extent to which steering can remotely create coherence; more precisely, we find the maximal coherence of Bob’s steered state in the eigenbasis of his original reduced state, where maximization is performed over all positive-operator valued measurements for Alice. We prove that maximal steered coherence vanishes for quantum-classical states whilst reaching a maximum for pure entangled states with full Schmidt rank. Although invariant under local unitary operations, maximal steered coherence may be increased when Bob performs a channel. For a two-qubit state we find that Bob’s channel can increase maximal steered coherence if and only if it is neither unital nor semi-classical, which coincides with the condition for increasing discord. Our results show that the power of steering for coherence generation, though related to discord, is distinct from existing measures of quantum correlation.

  3. Coherence and correspondence in medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas G. Tape


    Full Text Available Many controversies in medical science can be framed as tension between a coherence approach (which seeks logic and explanation and a correspondence approach (which emphasizes empirical correctness. In many instances, a coherence-based theory leads to an understanding of disease that is not supported by empirical evidence. Physicians and patients alike tend to favor the coherence approach even in the face of strong, contradictory correspondence evidence. Examples include the management of atrial fibrillation, treatment of acute bronchitis, and the use of Vitamin E to prevent heart disease. Despite the frequent occurrence of controversy stemming from coherence-correspondence conflicts, medical professionals are generally unaware of these terms and the philosophical traditions that underlie them. Learning about the coherence-correspondence distinction and using the best of both approaches could not only help reconcile controversy but also lead to striking advances in medical science.

  4. Monochromatic backlighting of direct-drive cryogenic DT implosions on OMEGA (United States)

    Stoeckl, C.; Epstein, R.; Betti, R.; Bittle, W.; Delettrez, J. A.; Forrest, C. J.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Goncharov, V. N.; Harding, D. R.; Igumenshchev, I. V.; Jacobs-Perkins, D. W.; Janezic, R. T.; Kelly, J. H.; Kosc, T. Z.; McCrory, R. L.; Michel, D. T.; Mileham, C.; McKenty, P. W.; Marshall, F. J.; Morse, S. F. B.; Regan, S. P.; Radha, P. B.; Rice, B.; Sangster, T. C.; Shoup, M. J.; Shmayda, W. T.; Sorce, C.; Theobald, W.; Ulreich, J.; Wittman, M. D.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Petrasso, R. D.


    Backlighting is a powerful technique to observe the flow of cold and dense material in high-energy-density-plasma experiments. High-performance, direct-drive cryogenic deuterium-tritium (DT) implosions are a challenging backlighting configuration because of the low opacity of the DT shell, the high shell velocity, the small size of the stagnating shell, and the very bright self-emission of the hot core. A crystal imaging system with a Si Heα backlighter at 1.865 keV driven by ˜20-ps short pulses from OMEGA EP was developed to radiograph the OMEGA cryogenic implosions. The high throughput of the crystal imaging system makes it possible to record high-quality images with good photon statistics and a spatial resolution of ˜15 μm at 10% to 90% modulation. This imager has been used to study the evolution of preimposed mass-density perturbations in the ablator, to quantify the perturbations caused by the stalk that is used to mount the target, and to study the mix caused by laser imprint or small-scale debris on the target surface. Because of the very low opacity of DT relative to carbon, even 0.1% of mix of carbon into the DT ice can be reliably inferred from the images. With the current implosion designs, mix is only observed for an adiabat below α = 4.

  5. The Puzzle of Coherence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne Bendix; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Beedholm, Kirsten


    Background During the past decade, politicians and healthcare providers have strived to create a coherent healthcare system across primary and secondary healthcare sectors in Denmark. Nevertheless, elderly patients with chronic diseases (EPCD) continue to report experiences of poor-quality care...... to an acute care ward to discharge and later in meetings with healthcare providers in general practice, outpatient clinics, home care and physiotherapy. Furthermore, field observations were conducted in general practice, home care and rehabilitation settings. Research design An explorative design based...... on an interactionistic approach was used. As a consequence, the focus of data collection is the production of meaning happening between human beings in social interaction in the field of cross-sectorial collaboration. Research questions The research questions reflect the interactionistic approach as they concentrate...

  6. Optical coherence in astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Moret-Bailly, Jacques


    Many physicists and most astrophysicists assume that the photon is a small particle which, in a very low pressure gas can only interact with a single molecule. Thus, the interaction of light with this gas is incoherent. W. E.Lamb Jr, W. P. Schleich, M. O. Scully and C. H. Townes (Reviews of Modern Physics 71, S263, 1999) have criticized this view: In accordance with quantum electrodynamics the photon is a pseudo-particle resulting from the quantization of a deterministic exchange of energy between identical molecules and a normal mode of electromagnetic field. Following Lamb et al., we study models in which some variables have an unusual value for a spectroscopist: extremely low pressure hydrogen, but huge light paths, extremely hot sources. However, the magnitudes of the spectral radiances and column densities can be similar in astrophysics and in a laboratory using lasers. Thus, several coherent effects must be taken into account: superradiance, multiphoton interactions, impulsive stimulated Raman scatterin...

  7. Coherent Scatter Imaging Measurements (United States)

    Ur Rehman, Mahboob

    In conventional radiography, anatomical information of the patients can be obtained, distinguishing different tissue types, e.g. bone and soft tissue. However, it is difficult to obtain appreciable contrast between two different types of soft tissues. Instead, coherent x-ray scattering can be utilized to obtain images which can differentiate between normal and cancerous cells of breast. An x-ray system using a conventional source and simple slot apertures was tested. Materials with scatter signatures that mimic breast cancer were buried in layers of fat of increasing thickness and imaged. The result showed that the contrast and signal to noise ratio (SNR) remained high even with added fat layers and short scan times.

  8. Coherent imaging without phases

    CERN Document Server

    Moscoso, Miguel; Papanicolaou, George


    In this paper we consider narrow band, active array imaging of weak localized scatterers when only the intensities are recorded at an array with N transducers. We consider that the medium is homogeneous and, hence, wave propagation is fully coherent. This work is an extension of our previous paper, where we showed that using linear combinations of intensity-only measurements imaging of localized scatterers can be carried out efficiently using MUSIC or sparsity promoting optimization. Here we show the same strategy can be accomplished with only 3N-2 illuminations, therefore reducing enormously the data acquisition process. Furthermore, we show that in the paraxial regime one can form the images by using six illuminations only. In particular, this paraxial regime includes Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction. The key point of this work is that if one controls the illuminations, imaging with intensity-only can be easily reduced to a imaging with phases and, therefore, one can apply standard imaging techniques. Det...

  9. Quantum information and coherence

    CERN Document Server

    Öhberg, Patrik


    This book offers an introduction to ten key topics in quantum information science and quantum coherent phenomena, aimed at graduate-student level. The chapters cover some of the most recent developments in this dynamic research field where theoretical and experimental physics, combined with computer science, provide a fascinating arena for groundbreaking new concepts in information processing. The book addresses both the theoretical and experimental aspects of the subject, and clearly demonstrates how progress in experimental techniques has stimulated a great deal of theoretical effort and vice versa. Experiments are shifting from simply preparing and measuring quantum states to controlling and manipulating them, and the book outlines how the first real applications, notably quantum key distribution for secure communication, are starting to emerge. The chapters cover quantum retrodiction, ultracold quantum gases in optical lattices, optomechanics, quantum algorithms, quantum key distribution, quantum cont...

  10. Optical Coherence Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mette; Themstrup, Lotte; Banzhaf, Christina


    as the optical analogue to ultrasound. The inherent safety of the technology allows for in vivo use of OCT in patients. The main strength of OCT is the depth resolution. In dermatology, most OCT research has turned on non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) and non-invasive monitoring of morphological changes......Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has developed rapidly since its first realisation in medicine and is currently an emerging technology in the diagnosis of skin disease. OCT is an interferometric technique that detects reflected and backscattered light from tissue and is often described...... in a number of skin diseases based on pattern recognition, and studies have found good agreement between OCT images and histopathological architecture. OCT has shown high accuracy in distinguishing lesions from normal skin, which is of great importance in identifying tumour borders or residual neoplastic...

  11. Coherence in ultrafast laser-induced periodic surface structures (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Colombier, Jean-Philippe; Li, Chen; Faure, Nicolas; Cheng, Guanghua; Stoian, Razvan


    Ultrafast laser irradiation can trigger anisotropically structured nanoscaled gratinglike arrangements of matter, the laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSSs). We demonstrate here that the formation of LIPSS is intrinsically related to the coherence of the laser field. Employing several test materials that allow large optical excursions, we observe the effect of randomizing spatial phase in generating finite domains of ripples. Using three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain methods, we evaluate energy deposition patterns below a material's rough surface and show that modulated pattern, i.e., a spatially ordered electromagnetic solution, results from the coherent superposition of waves. By separating the field scattered from a surface rough topography from the total field, the inhomogeneous energy absorption problem is reduced to a simple interference equation. We further distinguish the contribution of the scattered near field and scattered far field on various types of inhomogeneous energy absorption features. It is found that the inhomogeneous energy absorption which could trigger the low-spatial-frequency LIPSSs (LSFLs) and high-spatial-frequency LIPSSs (HSFLs) of periodicity Λ >λ /Re(n ˜) are due to coherent superposition between the scattered far field (propagation) and the refracted field, while HSFLs of Λ λ ) related to a feedback-driven topography evolution. Those results strongly suggest the electromagnetic interpretation of LIPSSs in interplay with an evolving surface topography.

  12. Light-dependent magnetoreception in birds: increasing intensity of monochromatic light changes the nature of the response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bischof Hans-Joachim


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Radical Pair model proposes that magnetoreception is a light-dependent process. Under low monochromatic light from the short-wavelength part of the visual spectrum, migratory birds show orientation in their migratory direction. Under monochromatic light of higher intensity, however, they showed unusual preferences for other directions or axial preferences. To determine whether or not these responses are still controlled by the respective light regimes, European robins, Erithacus rubecula, were tested under UV, Blue, Turquoise and Green light at increasing intensities, with orientation in migratory direction serving as a criterion whether or not magnetoreception works in the normal way. Results The birds were well oriented in their seasonally appropriate migratory direction under 424 nm Blue, 502 nm Turquoise and 565 nm Green light of low intensity with a quantal flux of 8·1015 quanta s-1 m-2, indicating unimpaired magnetoreception. Under 373 nm UV of the same quantal flux, they were not oriented in migratory direction, showing a preference for the east-west axis instead, but they were well oriented in migratory direction under UV of lower intensity. Intensities of above 36·1015 quanta s-1 m-2 of Blue, Turquoise and Green light elicited a variety of responses: disorientation, headings along the east-west axis, headings along the north-south axis or 'fixed' direction tendencies. These responses changed as the intensity was increased from 36·1015 quanta s-1 m-2 to 54 and 72·1015 quanta s-1 m-2. Conclusion The specific manifestation of responses in directions other than the migratory direction clearly depends on the ambient light regime. This implies that even when the mechanisms normally providing magnetic compass information seem disrupted, processes that are activated by light still control the behavior. It suggests complex interactions between different types of receptors, magnetic and visual. The nature of the

  13. On polarization metrology (estimation) of the degree of coherence of optical waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelsky, O.V.; Hanson, Steen Grüner; Zenkova, C. Yu


    A new approach is proposed for estimating the degree of coherence of optical waves. The possibility of transformation of the spatial polarization distribution in the measured spatial intensity distribution for determining the degree of correlation of superposing waves, linearly polarized in the p...

  14. Time-coherent expansion of MEG/EEG cortical sources. (United States)

    David, Olivier; Garnero, Line


    In this study we estimated the spatial extent of cortical areas of time-coherent activity using the inverse problem in magneto/electroencephalography (MEEG). The model discussed here uses classical regularization tools in order to force the inverse solution to be piecewise coherent. First, the cortex was seeded by focal dipolar sources. Then, a time-coherent expansion (TCE) onto the cortical surface was performed in order to obtain surface source models composed of patches with uniform current density. Patches represent extended cortical regions with one single time course per active area. Results obtained from synthetic data show that using the TCE method is relevant even with a low signal-to-noise ratio, although the final estimation is often slightly biased. We applied the TCE method to evoked magnetic fields obtained after electrical stimulation of fingers in order to estimate the somatotopic cortical maps of the primary somatosensory cortex.

  15. Fiber-diffraction Interferometer using Coherent Fiber Optic Taper

    CERN Document Server

    Kihm, Hagyong


    We present a fiber-diffraction interferometer using a coherent fiber optic taper for optical testing in an uncontrolled environment. We use a coherent fiber optic taper and a single-mode fiber having thermally-expanded core. Part of the measurement wave coming from a test target is condensed through a fiber optic taper and spatially filtered from a single-mode fiber to be reference wave. Vibration of the cavity between the target and the interferometer probe is common to both reference and measurement waves, thus the interference fringe is stabilized in an optical way. Generation of the reference wave is stable even with the target movement. Focus shift of the input measurement wave is desensitized by a coherent fiber optic taper.

  16. Detection of Moving Objects with Fuzzy Color Coherence Vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Long Qiao


    Full Text Available Background subtraction is a popular method for detecting foreground that is widely adopted as the fundamental processing for advanced applications such as tracking and surveillance. Color coherence vector (CCV includes both the color distribution information (histogram and the local spatial relationship information of colors. So it overcomes the weakness of the conventional color histogram for the representation of an object. In this paper, we introduce a fuzzy color coherence vector (FCCV based background subtraction method. After applying the fuzzy c-means clustering to color coherence subvectors and color incoherence subvectors, we develop a region-based fuzzy statistical feature for each pixel based on the fuzzy membership matrices. The features are extracted from consecutive frames to build the background model and detect the moving objects. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  17. Invited Article: The coherent optical laser beam recombination technique (COLBERT) spectrometer: Coherent multidimensional spectroscopy made easier (United States)

    Turner, Daniel B.; Stone, Katherine W.; Gundogdu, Kenan; Nelson, Keith A.


    We have developed an efficient spectrometer capable of performing a wide variety of coherent multidimensional measurements at optical wavelengths. The two major components of the largely automated device are a spatial beam shaper which controls the beam geometry and a spatiotemporal pulse shaper which controls the temporal waveform of the femtosecond pulse in each beam. We describe how to construct, calibrate, and operate the device, and we discuss its limitations. We use the exciton states of a semiconductor nanostructure as a working example. A series of complex multidimensional spectra—displayed in amplitude and real parts—reveals increasingly intricate correlations among the excitons.

  18. Spatial Databases (United States)


    for a city . Spatial attributes are used to define the spatial location and extent of spatial objects [35]. The spatial attributes of a spatial object...regarding both geometry and thematic differentiation. It can be used to model 2.5D data (e.g., digital terrain model), as well as 3D data ( walkable ...within a city , if the coverage area of a wireless antenna is considered to be the visible area, then the union of coverage areas of all the antennas in

  19. Spatial Coherence and Intensity Properties of Quasihomogeneous Optical Sources, (United States)


    defined above. (U) By suppressing the time factor in Eq.(2) one can tbov-that the cross- spectral density function , W r, ,r 2), obeys the techniques for solving the Helmholtz equation, the cross- spectral density function in the optical far-field can be related to its values at all

  20. Coherent MUSIC technique for range/angle information retrieval: Application to a frequency modulated continuous wave MIMO radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belfiori, F.; Rossum, W. van; Hoogeboom, P.


    A coherent two-dimensional (2D) multiple signal classification (MUSIC) processing for the simultaneous estimation of angular and range target positions has been presented. A 2D spatial smoothing technique is also introduced to cope with the coherent behaviour of the received echoes, which may result

  1. Coherence Properties of the LCLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocko, Samuel


    The LINAC Coherent Light Source (LCLS), an X-Ray free-electron laser(FEL) based on the self amplified spontaneous emission principle, has recently come on-line. For many users it is desirable to have an idea of the level of transverse coherence of the X-Ray beam produced. In this paper, we analyze the output of GENESIS simulations of electrons traveling through the FEL. We first test the validity of an approach that ignores the details of how the beam was produced, and instead, by assuming a Gaussian-Schell model of transverse coherence, predicts the level of transverse coherence simply through looking at the beam radius at several longitudinal slices. We then develop a Markov chain Monte Carlo approach to calculating the degree of transverse coherence, which offers a {approx}100-fold speedup compared to the brute-force algorithm previously in use. We find the beam highly coherent. Using a similar Markov chain Monte Carlo approach, we estimate the reasonability of assuming the beam to have a Gaussian-Schell model of transverse coherence, with inconclusive results.

  2. Brain responses to violet, blue, and green monochromatic light exposures in humans: prominent role of blue light and the brainstem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Vandewalle

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Relatively long duration retinal light exposure elicits nonvisual responses in humans, including modulation of alertness and cognition. These responses are thought to be mediated in part by melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells which are more sensitive to blue light than violet or green light. The contribution of the melanopsin system and the brain mechanisms involved in the establishment of such responses to light remain to be established. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We exposed 15 participants to short duration (50 s monochromatic violet (430 nm, blue (473 nm, and green (527 nm light exposures of equal photon flux (10(13ph/cm(2/s while they were performing a working memory task in fMRI. At light onset, blue light, as compared to green light, increased activity in the left hippocampus, left thalamus, and right amygdala. During the task, blue light, as compared to violet light, increased activity in the left middle frontal gyrus, left thalamus and a bilateral area of the brainstem consistent with activation of the locus coeruleus. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results support a prominent contribution of melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells to brain responses to light within the very first seconds of an exposure. The results also demonstrate the implication of the brainstem in mediating these responses in humans and speak for a broad involvement of light in the regulation of brain function.

  3. Mapping the Ionization State of Laser-Irradiated Ar Gas Jets With Multi-Wavelength Monochromatic X-Ray Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugland, N L; Doppner, T; Kemp, A; Schaeffer, D; Glenzer, S H; Niemann, C


    Two-dimensional monochromatic images of fast-electron stimulated Ar K{alpha} and He-{alpha} x-ray self-emission have recorded a time-integrated map of the extent of Ar{sup {approx}6+} and Ar{sup 16+} ions, respectively, within a high density (10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} atomic density) Ar plasma. This plasma was produced by irradiating a 2 mm wide clustering Ar gas jet with an ultra-high intensity (10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}, 200 fs) Ti:Sapphire laser operating at 800 nm. Spherically bent quartz crystals in the 200 (for K{alpha}) and 201 (for He-{alpha}) planes were used as near-normal incidence reflective x-ray optics. We see that a large (830 {micro}m long) region of plasma emits K{alpha} primarily along the laser axis, while the He-{alpha} emission is confined to smaller hot spot (230 {micro}m long) region that likely corresponds to the focal volume of the f/8 laser beam. X-ray spectra from a Bragg spectrometer operating in the von Hamos geometry, which images in one dimension, indicate that the centroids of the K{alpha} and He-{alpha} emission regions are separated by approximately 330 {micro}m along the laser axis.

  4. Dual energy computed tomography quantification of carotid plaques calcification: comparison between monochromatic and polychromatic energies with pathology correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannelli, Lorenzo [University of Washington, Departments of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); MacDonald, Lawrence; Ferguson, Marina; Shuman, William P.; Xu, Dongxiang; Yuan, Chun; Mitsumori, Lee M. [University of Washington, Departments of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Mancini, Marcello; Ragucci, Monica; Monti, Serena [IRCCS Fondazione SDN, Naples (Italy)


    We compared carotid plaque calcification detection sensitivity and apparent cross-sectional area on CT as a function of CT beam energy using conventional CT techniques and virtual mono-energetic CT images generated from dual-energy acquisitions. Five ex-vivo carotid endarterectomy (CEA) specimens were imaged with dual-energy computed tomography. Virtual monochromatic spectrum (VMS) CT images were reconstructed at energies between 40-140 keV. The same specimens were imaged using conventional polyenergetic spectrum (PS) CT with peak beam energies 80, 100, 120, and 140 kVp. The histological calcium areas on each corresponding CEA specimen were traced manually on digitized images of Toluidine-Blue/Basic-Fuchsin stained plastic sections. 40 keV VMS CT images provided high detection sensitivity (97 %) similar to conventional PS CT images (∝96 %). The calcification size measured on CT decreased systematically with increasing CT beam energy; the rate of change was larger for the VMS images than for PS images. From a single dual-energy CT, multiple VMS-CT images can be generated, yielding equivalent detection sensitivity and size correlations as conventional PS-CT in CEA calcification imaging. VMS-CT at 80-100 keV provided the most accurate estimates of calcification size, as compared to histology, but detection sensitivity was reduced for smaller calcifications on these images. (orig.)

  5. Computer simulations on resonant fluorescence spectra in atomic gases in two monochromatic laser fields of arbitrary intensity and magnetic field (United States)

    Karagodova, Tamara Y.


    In the intense radiation fields with power density from 104W/cm2 to 109W/cm2 the essential modification of electronic states of atoms occurs displaying, in particular, in modifications of resonant fluorescence (rf) spectra. We use 'Fermi golden rule' for calculations of relative intensities and frequencies for rf multiplet for real multilevel initially unexcited atoms in two monochromatic laser fields of arbitrary intensity resonant to adjacent transitions of (Xi) or (Lambda) types and magnetic field, giving the level splittings of different values from Zeeman to Paschen-Back effect. The dependence of quasienergies on parameters obtained with the help of a sorting program permits us to define the values of parameters for which the states of the system are mixed and so to receive the correct probability amplitudes for instantaneous or adiabatic regimes of switching the perturbation. The analysis of the quasienergies and form of rf spectra permits us to get relations between the form of the spectra and modifications of electronic structure of the atom due to radiation fields and external magnetic field.

  6. An alignment method for the ATLAS end-cap TRT detector using a narrow monochromatic X-ray beam

    CERN Document Server

    Åkesson, T; Dixon, N; Dolgoshein, B A; Eerola, Paule Anna Mari; Farthouat, Philippe; Fedin, O; Froidevaux, Daniel; Gavrilenko, I; Hajduk, Z; Hauviller, Claude; Ivanov, V; Ivochkin, V G; Jelamkov, A; Konovalov, S V; Lichard, P; Lundberg, B; Muraviev, S; Nadtochy, A; Nevski, P; Peshekhonov, V D; Platonov, Yu P; Price, M; Romaniouk, A; Shchegelskii, V; Shmeleva, A; Smirnov, A; Smirnov, S; Sosnovtsev, V V


    The end-cap transition radiation tracker (TRT), consisting of 36 modules (wheels), is being constructed as a part of the ATLAS Inner Detector at the CERN LHC. This paper describes a method for determining the wire positions inside the straw proportional tubes (SPT), which are the basic building blocks of the ATLAS TRT, with an accuracy of better than 10 mu m. The procedure involves moving a narrow monochromatic X-ray beam across the straw and measuring the counting rate as a function of the position of the X-ray beam in the straw. To achieve this goal, a beam directing device (BDD), providing the possibility to direct the X-ray beam in a chosen direction within some solid angle and supplying an accurate angular measurement system, has been constructed. The results of the wire position measurements performed using this BDD on a full-scale mechanical prototype end-cap wheel of the TRT are presented in this paper. (11 refs).

  7. Successful treatment with 308-nm monochromatic excimer light and subsequent tacrolimus 0.03% ointment in refractory plasma cell cheilitis. (United States)

    Yoshimura, Kazuhiro; Nakano, Shunji; Tsuruta, Daisuke; Ohata, Chika; Hashimoto, Takashi


    Plasma cell cheilitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that presents with erythema, erosions, ulcers and occasional nodules within the mucosa, including the lips. It is histopathologically characterized by dense plasma cell infiltration in the lamina propria of the mucous membranes. Several treatments for plasma cell cheilitis have been reported, including topical steroids, topical antibiotics or topical tacrolimus. However, 308-nm monochromatic excimer light (MEL) has never been reported as a treatment option, while it was reported to be very effective in treating erosive oral lichen planus. We report a 62-year-old man who had chronic plasma cell cheilitis on the lower lip, which was refractory to topical and systemic corticosteroid. The lesion and severe pain were significantly improved by the treatment with nine sessions of 308-nm MEL twice per week with a total dose of 1120 mJ/cm(2). However, the lesion gradually worsened after treatment frequency was reduced to once per month. Subsequent tacrolimus 0.03% ointment cleared the lesion completely in a month and no recurrence was observed a year later. Refractory plasma cell cheilitis and concomitant severe pain quickly responded to 308-nm MEL when administrated twice per week. Because the long interval between each MEL treatment seemed ineffective to improve the lesion, appropriate frequency and adequate total dose of MEL treatment may be necessary for a successful treatment.

  8. The Effect of Monochromatic Infrared Photo Energy on the Irritability of Myofascial Trigger Spot of Rabbit Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ta-Shen Kuan


    Full Text Available Objective. To determine whether the vasodilatation effect of monochromatic infrared photo energy (MIRE had the potential for the treatment of myofascial trigger spot (MTrS in rabbits. Design. A randomized-controlled animal study. Subjects. Twelve adult New Zealand rabbits. Methods. For each rabbit, a MTrS (equivalent to a myofascial trigger point in humans in one side of the biceps femoris muscle was randomly selected for MIRE treatment (experimental side, while another MTrS in the other side (control side received a sham treatment. The intervention consisted of a daily 40 minutes treatment, three times per week for 2 weeks. The prevalence of endplate noise (EPN loci in the MTrS was assessed before, immediately after, and one week after the completion of the 2-week treatment. Results. MIRE could suppress the prevalence of EPN in the MTrS. The degree of reduction in EPN prevalence in the MTrS between the experimental side and the control side was significantly different immediately after MIRE treatment, but not significantly different one week after MIRE treatment. Conclusion. Our study suggests that MIRE may be a useful therapeutic option for the management of the myofascial trigger point in humans.

  9. Application of FEL technique for constructing high-intensity, monochromatic, polarized gamma-sources at storage rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldin, E.L.; Schneidmiller, E.A.; Ulyanov, Yu.N. [Automatic Systems Corporation, Samara (Russian Federation)] [and others


    A possibility to construct high-intensity tunable monochromatic{gamma}-source at high energy storage rings is discussed. It is proposed to produce {gamma}-quanta by means of Compton backscattering of laser photons on electrons circulating in the storage. The laser light wavelength is chosen in such a way that after the scattering, the electron does not leave the separatrix. So as the probability of the scattering is rather small, energy oscillations are damped prior the next scattering. As a result, the proposed source can operate in {open_quotes}parasitic{close_quote} mode not interfering with the main mode of the storage ring operation. Analysis of parameters of existent storage rings (PETRA, ESRF, Spring-8, etc) shows that the laser light wavelength should be in infrared, {lambda}{approximately} 10 - 400 {mu}m, wavelength band. Installation at storage rings of tunable free-electron lasers with the peak and average output power {approximately} 10 MW and {approximately} 1 kW, respectively, will result in the intensity of the {gamma}-source up to {approximately} 10{sup 14}s{sup -1} with tunable {gamma}-quanta energy from several MeV up to several hundreds MeV. Such a {gamma}-source will reveal unique possibilities for precision investigations in nuclear physics.

  10. International workshop on phase retrieval and coherent scattering. Coherence 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, K.A.; Fienup, J.R.; Van Dyck, D.; Van Aert, S.; Weitkamp, T.; Diaz, A.; Pfeiffer, F.; Cloetens, P.; Stampanoni, M.; Bunk, O.; David, C.; Bronnikov, A.V.; Shen, Q.; Xiao, X.; Gureyev, T.E.; Nesterets, Ya.I.; Paganin, D.M.; Wilkins, S.W.; Mokso, R.; Cloetens, P.; Ludwig, W.; Hignette, O.; Maire, E.; Faulkner, H.M.L.; Rodenburg, J.M.; Wu, X.; Liu, H.; Grubel, G.; Ludwig, K.F.; Livet, F.; Bley, F.; Simon, J.P.; Caudron, R.; Le Bolloc' h, D.; Moussaid, A.; Gutt, C.; Sprung, M.; Madsen, A.; Tolan, M.; Sinha, S.K.; Scheffold, F.; Schurtenberger, P.; Robert, A.; Madsen, A.; Falus, P.; Borthwick, M.A.; Mochrie, S.G.J.; Livet, F.; Sutton, M.D.; Ehrburger-Dolle, F.; Bley, F.; Geissler, E.; Sikharulidze, I.; Jeu, W.H. de; Lurio, L.B.; Hu, X.; Jiao, X.; Jiang, Z.; Lurio, L.B.; Hu, X.; Jiao, X.; Jiang, Z.; Naryanan, S.; Sinha, S.K.; Lal, J.; Naryanan, S.; Sinha, S.K.; Lal, J.; Robinson, I.K.; Chapman, H.N.; Barty, A.; Beetz, T.; Cui, C.; Hajdu, J.; Hau-Riege, S.P.; He, H.; Stadler, L.M.; Sepiol, B.; Harder, R.; Robinson, I.K.; Zontone, F.; Vogl, G.; Howells, M.; London, R.; Marchesini, S.; Shapiro, D.; Spence, J.C.H.; Weierstall, U.; Eisebitt, S.; Shapiro, D.; Lima, E.; Elser, V.; Howells, M.R.; Huang, X.; Jacobsen, C.; Kirz, J.; Miao, H.; Neiman, A.; Sayre, D.; Thibault, P.; Vartanyants, I.A.; Robinson, I.K.; Onken, J.D.; Pfeifer, M.A.; Williams, G.J.; Pfeiffer, F.; Metzger, H.; Zhong, Z.; Bauer, G.; Nishino, Y.; Miao, J.; Kohmura, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Koike, K.; Ebisuzaki, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Spence, J.C.H.; Doak, B


    The contributions of the participants have been organized into 3 topics: 1) phase retrieval methods, 2) X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy, and 3) coherent diffraction imaging. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations and of the posters.

  11. Dynamic evolution of coherent vortex dipole in atmospheric turbulence (United States)

    Li, Jinhong; Zeng, Jun


    The analytical expression for the cross-spectral density function of Gaussian Schell-model (GSM) beams with coherent vortex dipole (CVD) propagating through atmospheric turbulence is derived, which enables us to study the evolution process of CVD propagating through atmospheric turbulence, where the influences of the beams parameters and atmospheric turbulence parameters on the ratio of critical off-axis distance to the waist width are stressed. It shows that the evolution process of the CVD depends on the off-axis distance. The larger the off-axis distance is, the more the number of CVD is. When the off-axis distance is zero, the position of coherent vortices with positive and negative topological charge of CVD propagating through atmospheric turbulence is always symmetry. When the off-axis distance is big enough, compared with the situation at source plane, the orientation of the positive coherent vortex of inherent CVD and negative coherent vortex of that rotates 180° in the far field. The larger the structure constant and the waist width are, as well as the smaller the spatial correlation length and the inner scale are, the smaller the ratio ac/w0 is. Besides, the ratio ac/w0 will no longer change when the spatial correlation length or the inner scale increases to a certain value, whereas the outer scale has no effect on the ratio.

  12. A Calculation of Cosmological Scale from Quantum Coherence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindesay, J


    We use general arguments to examine the energy scales for which a quantum coherent description of gravitating quantum energy units is necessary. The cosmological dark energy density is expected to decouple from the Friedman-Lemaitre energy density when the Friedman-Robertson-Walker scale expansion becomes sub-luminal at R = c, at which time the usual microscopic interactions of relativistic quantum mechanics (QED, QCD, etc) open new degrees of freedom. We assume that these microscopic interactions cannot signal with superluminal exchanges, only superluminal quantum correlations. The expected gravitational vacuum energy density at that scale would be expected to freeze out due to the loss of gravitational coherence. We define the vacuum energy which generates this cosmological constant to be that of a zero temperature Bose condensate at this gravitational de-coherence scale. We presume a universality throughout the universe in the available degrees of freedom determined by fundamental constants during its evolution. Examining the reverse evolution of the universe from the present, long before reaching Planck scale dynamics one expects major modifications from the de-coherent thermal equations of state, suggesting that the pre-coherent phase has global coherence properties. Since the arguments presented involve primarily counting of degrees of freedom, we expect the statistical equilibrium states of causally disconnected regions of space to be independently identical. Thus, there is no horizon problem associated with the lack of causal influences between spatially separated regions in this approach. The scale of the amplitude of fluctuations produced during de-coherence of cosmological vacuum energy are found to evolve to values consistent with those observed in cosmic microwave background radiation and galactic clustering.

  13. Coherent control of quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeppe; Lodahl, Peter; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    In recent years much effort has been devoted to the use of semiconductor quantum dotsystems as building blocks for solid-state-based quantum logic devices. One importantparameter for such devices is the coherence time, which determines the number ofpossible quantum operations. From earlier...... measurements the coherence time of the selfassembledquantum dots (QDs) has been reported to be limited by the spontaneousemission rate at cryogenic temperatures1.In this project we propose to alter the coherence time of QDs by taking advantage of arecent technique on modifying spontaneous emission rates...

  14. Coherence in Linear Predicate Logic

    CERN Document Server

    Dosen, K


    Coherence with respect to Kelly-Mac Lane graphs is proved for categories that correspond to the multiplicative fragment without constant propositions of classical linear first-order predicate logic without or with mix. To obtain this result, coherence is first established for categories that correspond to the multiplicative conjunction-disjunction fragment with first-order quantifiers of classical linear logic, a fragment lacking negation. These results extend results published in previous two books by the authors, where coherence was established for categories of the corresponding fragments of propositional classical linear logic, which are related to proof nets, and which could be described as star-autonomous categories without unit objects.

  15. Coherent control of quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeppe; Lodahl, Peter; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    In recent years much effort has been devoted to the use of semiconductor quantum dotsystems as building blocks for solid-state-based quantum logic devices. One importantparameter for such devices is the coherence time, which determines the number ofpossible quantum operations. From earlier...... measurements the coherence time of the selfassembledquantum dots (QDs) has been reported to be limited by the spontaneousemission rate at cryogenic temperatures1.In this project we propose to alter the coherence time of QDs by taking advantage of arecent technique on modifying spontaneous emission rates...

  16. A theoretical model for the evolution of two-dimensional large-scale coherent structures in a mixing layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周恒; 马良


    By a proper combination of the modified weakly nonlinear theory of hydrodynamic stability and the energy method, the spatial evolution of the large-scale coherent structures in a mixing layer has been calculated. The results are satisfactory.

  17. Corticomuscular coherence analysis on hand movement distinction for active rehabilitation. (United States)

    Lou, Xinxin; Xiao, Siyuan; Qi, Yu; Hu, Xiaoling; Wang, Yiwen; Zheng, Xiaoxiang


    Active rehabilitation involves patient's voluntary thoughts as the control signals of restore device to assist stroke rehabilitation. Although restoration of hand opening stands importantly in patient's daily life, it is difficult to distinguish the voluntary finger extension from thumb adduction and finger flexion using stroke patients' electroencephalography (EMG) on single muscle activity. We propose to implement corticomuscular coherence analysis on electroencephalography (EEG) and EMG signals on Extensor Digitorum to extract their intention involved in hand opening. EEG and EMG signals of 8 subjects are simultaneously collected when executing 4 hand movement tasks (finger extension, thumb adduction, finger flexion, and rest). We explore the spatial and temporal distribution of the coherence and observe statistically significant corticomuscular coherence appearing at left motor cortical area and different patterns within beta frequency range for 4 movement tasks. Linear discriminate analysis is applied on the coherence pattern to distinguish finger extension from thumb adduction, finger flexion, and rest. The classification results are greater than those by EEG only. The results indicate the possibility to detect voluntary hand opening based on coherence analysis between single muscle EMG signal and single EEG channel located in motor cortical area, which potentially helps active hand rehabilitation for stroke patients.

  18. Corticomuscular Coherence Analysis on Hand Movement Distinction for Active Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin Lou


    Full Text Available Active rehabilitation involves patient’s voluntary thoughts as the control signals of restore device to assist stroke rehabilitation. Although restoration of hand opening stands importantly in patient’s daily life, it is difficult to distinguish the voluntary finger extension from thumb adduction and finger flexion using stroke patients’ electroencephalography (EMG on single muscle activity. We propose to implement corticomuscular coherence analysis on electroencephalography (EEG and EMG signals on Extensor Digitorum to extract their intention involved in hand opening. EEG and EMG signals of 8 subjects are simultaneously collected when executing 4 hand movement tasks (finger extension, thumb adduction, finger flexion, and rest. We explore the spatial and temporal distribution of the coherence and observe statistically significant corticomuscular coherence appearing at left motor cortical area and different patterns within beta frequency range for 4 movement tasks. Linear discriminate analysis is applied on the coherence pattern to distinguish finger extension from thumb adduction, finger flexion, and rest. The classification results are greater than those by EEG only. The results indicate the possibility to detect voluntary hand opening based on coherence analysis between single muscle EMG signal and single EEG channel located in motor cortical area, which potentially helps active hand rehabilitation for stroke patients.

  19. The feasibility of coherent energy transfer in microtubules. (United States)

    Craddock, Travis John Adrian; Friesen, Douglas; Mane, Jonathan; Hameroff, Stuart; Tuszynski, Jack A


    It was once purported that biological systems were far too 'warm and wet' to support quantum phenomena mainly owing to thermal effects disrupting quantum coherence. However, recent experimental results and theoretical analyses have shown that thermal energy may assist, rather than disrupt, quantum coherent transport, especially in the 'dry' hydrophobic interiors of biomolecules. Specifically, evidence has been accumulating for the necessary involvement of quantum coherent energy transfer between uniquely arranged chromophores in light harvesting photosynthetic complexes. The 'tubulin' subunit proteins, which comprise microtubules, also possess a distinct architecture of chromophores, namely aromatic amino acids, including tryptophan. The geometry and dipolar properties of these aromatics are similar to those found in photosynthetic units indicating that tubulin may support coherent energy transfer. Tubulin aggregated into microtubule geometric lattices may support such energy transfer, which could be important for biological signalling and communication essential to living processes. Here, we perform a computational investigation of energy transfer between chromophoric amino acids in tubulin via dipole excitations coupled to the surrounding thermal environment. We present the spatial structure and energetic properties of the tryptophan residues in the microtubule constituent protein tubulin. Plausibility arguments for the conditions favouring a quantum mechanism of signal propagation along a microtubule are provided. Overall, we find that coherent energy transfer in tubulin and microtubules is biologically feasible.

  20. Influence of ocular chromatic aberration and pupil size on transverse resolution in ophthalmic adaptive optics optical coherence tomography. (United States)

    Fernández, Enrique; Drexler, Wolfgang


    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) enables visualization of the living human retina with unprecedented high axial resolution. The transverse resolution of existing OCT approaches is relatively modest as compared to other retinal imaging techniques. In this context, the use of adaptive optics (AO) to correct for ocular aberrations in combination with OCT has recently been demonstrated to notably increase the transverse resolution of the retinal OCT tomograms. AO is required when imaging is performed through moderate and large pupil sizes. A fundamental difference of OCT as compared to other imaging techniques is the demand of polychromatic light to accomplish high axial resolution. In ophthalmic OCT applications, the performance is therefore also limited by ocular chromatic aberrations. In the current work, the effects of chromatic and monochromatic ocular aberrations on the quality of retinal OCT tomograms, especially concerning transverse resolution, sensitivity and contrast, are theoretically studied and characterized. The repercussion of the chosen spectral bandwidth and pupil size on the final transverse resolution of OCT tomograms is quantitatively examined. It is found that losses in the intensity of OCT images obtained with monochromatic aberration correction can be up to 80 %, using a pupil size of 8 mm diameter in combination with a spectral bandwidth of 120 nm full width at half maximum for AO ultrahigh resolution OCT. The limits to the performance of AO for correction of monochromatic aberrations in OCT are established. The reduction of the detected signal and the resulting transverse resolution caused by chromatic aberration of the human eye is found to be strongly dependent on the employed bandwidth and pupil size. Comparison of theoretical results with experimental findings obtained in living human eyes is also provided.