WorldWideScience

Sample records for monochromatic electromagnetic radiation

  1. Broadband EM radiation amplification by means of a monochromatically driven two-level system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatov, Andrey V.

    2017-02-01

    It is shown that a two-level quantum system possessing dipole moment operator with permanent non-equal diagonal matrix elements and driven by external semiclassical monochromatic high-frequency electromagnetic (EM) (laser) field can amplify EM radiation waves of much lower frequency.

  2. Relief Restoration of Complicated form Objects by Monochromatic Microwave Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmenko Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Article demonstrates possibility of monochromatic radiation usage for relief restoration. There is a problem with restoration when scanned object is not flat and it is not parallel to the scanning plane. It was discovered that two-dimensional phase distribution could be applied for distance determination. It is reliable way to solve problems listed above. In conclusion offered methods allow monochromatic microwave radiation usage for screening system development.

  3. Electromagnetic Radiation of Electrons in Periodic Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Potylitsyn, Alexander Petrovich

    2011-01-01

    Periodic magnetic structures (undulators) are widely used in accelerators to generate monochromatic undulator radiation (UR) in the range from far infrared to the hard X-ray region. Another periodic crystalline structure is used to produce quasimonochromatic polarized photon beams via the coherent bremsstrahlung mechanism (CBS). Due to such characteristics as monochromaticity, polarization and adjustability, these types of radiation is of large interest for applied and basic research of accelerator-emitted radiation. The book provides a detailed overview of the fundamental principles behind electromagnetic radiation emitted from accelerated charged particles (e.g. UR, CBS, radiation of fast electrons in Laser flash fields) as well as a unified description of relatively new radiation mechanisms which attracted great interest in recent years. This are the so-called polarization radiation excited by the Coulomb field of incident particles in periodic structures, parametric X-rays, resonant transition radiation a...

  4. Trace chemical characterization using monochromatic X-ray undulator radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eba; Numako; Iihara; Sakurai

    2000-06-01

    An efficient Johansson-type X-ray fluorescence spectrometer has been developed for advanced X-ray spectroscopic analysis with third-generation synchrotron radiation. Kalpha and Kbeta X-ray fluorescence spectra for trace metals have been collected by a Ge(220) analyzing crystal with a Rowland radius of 150 mm, under monochromatic X-ray excitation at the undulator beamline at the SPring-8. The energy resolution is approximately 10 eV for most of the K lines for 3d transition metals. In light of the greatly improved efficiency, as well as the excellent signal-to-background ratio, the relative and absolute detection limits achieved are 1 ppm and 1.2 ng of copper in a carbon matrix, respectively. The energy resolution of the present spectrometer permits the observation of some chemical effects in Kbeta spectra. It has been demonstrated that the changes in Kbeta5 and Kbeta'' intensity for iron and cobalt compounds can be used for the analysis of chemical states. Resonant X-ray fluorescent spectra are another important application of monochromatic excitation. In view of trace chemical characterization, the present spectrometer can be a good alternative to a conventional Si(Li) detector system when combined with highly brilliant X-rays.

  5. Nanofocusing of electromagnetic radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramotnev, D. K.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2014-01-01

    Nanofocusing of electromagnetic radiation, that is, reducing the cross sections of propagating optical modes far beyond the diffraction limit in dielectric media, can be achieved in tapered metal-dielectric waveguides that support surface plasmon-polariton modes. Although the main principles...

  6. Emission of monochromatic microwave radiation from a nonequilibrium condensation of excited magnons

    OpenAIRE

    Vannucchi, FS; Vasconcellos, AR; Luzzi,R.

    2013-01-01

    The observation of monochromatic emission of radiation from a nonequilibrium Bose-Einstein-like condensate of magnons suggests the possibility of creating a monochromatic microwave generator pumped by incoherent broadband sources. The device would have a tunable emitted frequency as a function of the applied constant magnetic field. We present an analysis of the mechanisms of interaction between the condensate of magnons and the radiation field producing the super-radiant emission of photons....

  7. Gravitational scattering of electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, J. T.; Janis, A. I.

    1980-01-01

    The scattering of electromagnetic radiation by linearized gravitational fields is studied to second order in a perturbation expansion. The incoming electromagnetic radiation can be of arbitrary multipole structure, and the gravitational fields are also taken to be advanced fields of arbitrary multipole structure. All electromagnetic multipole radiation is found to be scattered by gravitational monopole and time-varying dipole fields. No case has been found, however, in which any electromagnetic multipole radiation is scattered by gravitational fields of quadrupole or higher-order multipole structure. This lack of scattering is established for infinite classes of special cases, and is conjectured to hold in general. The results of the scattering analysis are applied to the case of electromagnetic radiation scattered by a moving mass. It is shown how the mass and velocity may be determined by a knowledge of the incident and scattered radiation.

  8. Conical electromagnetic radiation flux concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, E. R.

    1972-01-01

    Concentrator provides method of concentrating a beam of electromagnetic radiation into a smaller beam, presenting a higher flux density. Smaller beam may be made larger by sending radiation through the device in the reverse direction.

  9. Cellular Effects of Electromagnetic Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    8217-- - - .- . - .- ’*-_- - 7 - r - .STUDIES OF EXPOSURE TO AMPLITUDE-MODULATED FIELDS The electromagnetic fields to which naval personnel are exposed tend to...radiation) ,.- Biological effects of electromagnetic fields , 20. ABSTRACT (Contimee an revers side II neceesmv aiId identify by Wek numbe") , .P-Giant...cells of characean algae were examined for electrophysiological sequelae to acute electromagnetic field irradiation at 10 mW/cm Carrier frequencies

  10. Radiation leakage from electromagnetic oven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrahman Khalil

    2015-10-01

    Results & Discussions: The measurements have been done at some houses in Erbil city, according to the source of background radiation exist before measuring data. Our data compared with standard safe range of radiation data. Results showed that there is radiation leak form all type of electromagnetic oven and all at the order of safety compared with standard value.

  11. Nanocomposites for electromagnetic radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrunin, V. F., E-mail: VFPetrunin@mephi.ru [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    Specific features that characterize nanoparticles and which are due to their small size and allow one to enhance the interaction between the electromagnetic radiation and nanostructured materials and to develop the effective protection of man and equipment against harmful uncontrolled radiation are reported. Examples of the development of nanocomposite radar absorbing materials that can be used for protection of man and equipment are presented.

  12. Dichromatic and monochromatic laser radiation effects on survival and morphology of Pantoea agglomerans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomé, A. M. C.; Souza, B. P.; Mendes, J. P. M.; Soares, L. C.; Trajano, E. T. L.; Fonseca, A. S.

    2017-05-01

    Despite the beneficial effects of low-level lasers on wound healing, their application for treatment of infected injuries is controversial because low-level lasers could stimulate bacterial growth exacerbating the infectious process. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate in vitro effects of low-level lasers on survival, morphology and cell aggregation of Pantoea agglomerans. P. agglomerans samples were isolated from human pressure injuries and cultures were exposed to low-level monochromatic and simultaneous dichromatic laser radiation to study the survival, cell aggregation, filamentation and morphology of bacterial cells in exponential and stationary growth phases. Fluence, wavelength and emission mode were those used in therapeutic protocols for wound healing. Data show no changes in morphology and cell aggregation, but dichromatic laser radiation decreased bacterial survival in exponential growth phase and monochromatic red and infrared lasers increased bacterial survival at the same fluence. Simultaneous dichromatic laser radiation induces biological effects that differ from those induced by monochromatic laser radiation and simultaneous dichromatic laser could be the option for treatment of infected pressure injuries by Pantoea agglomerans.

  13. Measurement of advanced electromagnetic radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Bajlo, Darko

    2017-01-01

    For the purpose of detecting advanced electromagnetic radiation predicted by Wheeler-Feynman absorber theory for the case of incomplete absorption of retarded electromagnetic radiation, pulses in duration of 6 ns to 24 ns, wavelength from 91 cm to 200 cm where supplied to three different transmitting antennas. Detection was done with a λ/20 monopole antenna in the advanced time window at a time 2r/c before the arrival of the center of the retarded pulse. At distances ranging from 430 cm to 18...

  14. Heat Radiators for Electromagnetic Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Report proposes use of carbon/carbon composite radiators in electromagnetic coolant pumps of nuclear reactors on spacecraft. Carbon/carbon composite materials function well at temperatures in excess of 2,200 K. Aluminum has melting temperature of only 880 K.

  15. Radiation and propagation of electromagnetic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Tyras, George; Declaris, Nicholas

    1969-01-01

    Radiation and Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves serves as a text in electrical engineering or electrophysics. The book discusses the electromagnetic theory; plane electromagnetic waves in homogenous isotropic and anisotropic media; and plane electromagnetic waves in inhomogenous stratified media. The text also describes the spectral representation of elementary electromagnetic sources; the field of a dipole in a stratified medium; and radiation in anisotropic plasma. The properties and the procedures of Green's function method of solution, axial currents, as well as cylindrical boundaries a

  16. Compton Sources of Electromagnetic Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geoffrey Krafft,Gerd Priebe

    2011-01-01

    When a relativistic electron beam interacts with a high-field laser beam, intense and highly collimated electromagnetic radiation will be generated through Compton scattering. Through relativistic upshifting and the relativistic Doppler effect, highly energetic polarized photons are radiated along the electron beam motion when the electrons interact with the laser light. For example, X-ray radiation can be obtained when optical lasers are scattered from electrons of tens-of-MeV beam energy. Because of the desirable properties of the radiation produced, many groups around the world have been designing, building, and utilizing Compton sources for a wide variety of purposes. In this review article, we discuss the generation and properties of the scattered radiation, the types of Compton source devices that have been constructed to date, and the prospects of radiation sources of this general type. Due to the possibilities of producing hard electromagnetic radiation in a device that is small compared to the alternative storage ring sources, it is foreseen that large numbers of such sources may be constructed in the future.

  17. [Emission of electromagnetic radiation from selected computer monitors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyss, T

    1995-01-01

    The emission of electromagnetic fields from computer monitors was analysed. The data were compared with the permissible exposure level. EM radiation of chromatic monitors is higher than that of monochromatic ones. The radiation of magnetic fraction is insignificant. Both electric and magnetic fractions of EM radiation, 50 cm away from the monitor, are very low and do not exceed permissible values. It was observed that screen filters were effective in suppressing EM emission only at a short (up to 30 cm) distance from the monitor. At a distance of 50 cm they proved to be ineffective. Metallic-net filters were more effective than glass filters in suppressing EM radiation. It seems that EM fields generated by computer monitors are not harmful to computer operators if the distance is kept in safe limits.

  18. Plasma scattering of electromagnetic radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Sheffield, John

    1975-01-01

    Plasma Scattering of Electromagnetic Radiation covers the theory and experimental application of plasma scattering. The book discusses the basic properties of a plasma and of the interaction of radiation with a plasma; the relationship between the scattered power spectrum and the fluctuations in plasma density; and the incoherent scattering of low-temperature plasma. The text also describes the constraints and problems that arise in the application of scattering as a diagnostic technique; the characteristic performance of various dispersion elements, image dissectors, and detectors; and the ge

  19. X-ray Absorption Imaging of High-Intensity Discharge Lamps Using Monochromatic Synchrotron Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, John J.; Sansonetti, Craig J.; Hechtfischer, Ulrich; Adler, Helmar G.

    2002-10-01

    We will report results from the imaging of Hg vapor in high-intensity discharge lamps using synchrotron radiation and digital detectors. These measurements extend previous work on x-ray absorption imaging in arc lamps using an x-ray tube and a passive phosphor image plate detector^i. The large x-ray flux obtained from the Advanced Photon Source (Argonne National Laboratory) combined with the electronic gating capabilities of an intensified charge-coupled device detector have allowed us to obtain time-resolved Hg distributions with high spatial resolution. Monochromatic synchrotron radiation improves the accuracy over what can be obtained with quasi-continuum radiation from an x-ray tube source. ^iJ. J. Curry, M. Sakai, and J. E. Lawler, Journal of Applied Physics 84, 3066 (1998).

  20. electromagnetic radiation exposure from cellular base station

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    2DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL/ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING, FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, MINNA, ... electronic apparatus radiate electromagnetic energy ..... [11] Randerson, James, “Research fails to detect short-.

  1. Method and apparatus for measuring electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Been, J. F. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An apparatus and method are described in which the capacitance of a semiconductor junction subjected to an electromagnetic radiation field is utilized to indicate the intensity or strength of the radiation.

  2. [Mechanisms of electromagnetic radiation damaging male reproduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Lei; Chen, Hao-Yu; Wang, Shui-Ming

    2012-08-01

    More and more evidence from over 50 years of researches on the effects of electromagnetic radiation on male reproduction show that a certain dose of electromagnetic radiation obviously damages male reproduction, particularly the structure and function of spermatogenic cells. The mechanisms of the injury may be associated with energy dysmetabolism, lipid peroxidation, abnormal expressions of apoptosis-related genes and proteins, and DNA damage.

  3. Electron Spin Resonance of Single Crystals of Cystine Dihydrochloride Irradiated with Monochromatic UV Radiation at Various Wavelenghts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Thomsen, E.; Nielsen, S. O.

    1972-01-01

    Single crystals of cystine dihydrochloride were irradiated at room temperature with monochromatic uv radiation. The optical bandwidth was about 20 Å for each wavelength used. Essentially two ESR centers were observed, the relative yield being approximately 1. One center is identified as the RS...

  4. Apparatus for processing electromagnetic radiation and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatewood, George D. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Measuring apparatus including a ruled member having alternate transparent and opaque zones. An optical coupler connecting the ruled member with electromagnetic radiation-conversion apparatus. The conversion apparatus may include a photomultiplier and a discriminator. Radiation impinging on the ruled member will, in part, be converted to electrical pulses which correspond to the intensity of the radiation. A method of processing electromagnetic radiation includes providing a member having alternating dark and light zones, establishing movement of the member through the beam of electromagnetic radiation with the dark zones interrupting passage of radiation through the rule, providing an optical coupler to connect a portion of the radiation with a conversion station where the radiation portion is converted into an electrical pulse which is related to the intensity of the radiation received at the conversion station. The electrical pulses may be counted and the digitized signals stored or permanently recorded to produce positional information.

  5. Wireless Phones Electromagnetic Field Radiation Exposure Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    A. D. Usman; W. F.W. Ahmad; M. Z. A. A. Kadir; M. Mokhtar

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Inadequate knowledge of electromagnetic field emitted by mobile phones and increased usage at close proximity, created a lot of skepticism and speculations among end users on its safety or otherwise. Approach: In this study, near field electromagnetic field radiation measurements were conducted on different brand of mobile phones in active mode using a tri-axis isotropic probe and electric field meter. Results: The highest electromagnetic field exposure was recorded when th...

  6. Thermoluminescence dependence on the wavelength of monochromatic UV-radiation in Cu-doped KCl and KBr at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez R, A.; Piters, T.; Aceves, R.; Rodriguez M, R.; Perez S, R., E-mail: rperez@cifus.uson.mx [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Investigaciones en Fisica, Apdo. Postal 5-088, 83190 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2014-08-15

    Thermoluminescence (Tl) dependence on the UV irradiation wavelengths from 200 to 500 nm in Cu-doped KCl and KBr crystals with different thermal treatment has been analyzed. Spectrum of the Tl intensity of each material show lower intensity at wavelengths longer than 420 nm. The Tl intensity depends on the irradiation wavelength. Structure of the Tl intensity spectrum of each sample is very similar to the structure of its optical absorption spectrum, indicating that at each wavelength, monochromatic radiation is absorbed to produce electronic transitions and electron hole pairs. Thermoluminescence of materials with thermal treatment at high temperature shows electron-hole trapping with less efficiency. The results show that Cu-doped alkali-halide materials are good detectors of a wide range of UV monochromatic radiations and could be used to measure UV radiation doses. (Author)

  7. Electromagnetic radiation from a laser wakefield accelerator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khachatryan, A.G.; van Goor, F.A.; Boller, Klaus J.

    2008-01-01

    Coherent and incoherent electromagnetic radiation emitted from a laser wakefield accelerator is calculated based on Lienard-Wiechert potentials. It is found that at wavelengths longer than the bunch length, the radiation is coherent. The coherent radiation, which typically lies in the infrared range

  8. Electromagnetic radiation from a laser wakefield accelerator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khachatryan, A.G.; van Goor, F.A.; Boller, Klaus J.

    2008-01-01

    Coherent and incoherent electromagnetic radiation emitted from a laser wakefield accelerator is calculated based on Lienard-Wiechert potentials. It is found that at wavelengths longer than the bunch length, the radiation is coherent. The coherent radiation, which typically lies in the infrared

  9. LIGHT PRESSURE: Theoretical study of the light pressure force acting on a spherical dielectric particle of an arbitrary size in the interference field of two plane monochromatic electromagnetic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzatov, D. V.; Gaida, L. S.; Afanas'ev, Anatolii A.

    2008-12-01

    The light pressure force acting on a spherical dielectric particle in the interference field of two plane monochromatic electromagnetic waves is studied in detail for different particle radii and angles of incidence of waves.

  10. Detection of electromagnetic radiation using nonlinear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Harold Y.; Liu, Mengkun; Averitt, Richard D.; Nelson, Keith A.; Sternbach, Aaron; Fan, Kebin

    2016-06-14

    An apparatus for detecting electromagnetic radiation within a target frequency range is provided. The apparatus includes a substrate and one or more resonator structures disposed on the substrate. The substrate can be a dielectric or semiconductor material. Each of the one or more resonator structures has at least one dimension that is less than the wavelength of target electromagnetic radiation within the target frequency range, and each of the resonator structures includes at least two conductive structures separated by a spacing. Charge carriers are induced in the substrate near the spacing when the resonator structures are exposed to the target electromagnetic radiation. A measure of the change in conductivity of the substrate due to the induced charge carriers provides an indication of the presence of the target electromagnetic radiation.

  11. Radiation damage of LHCb electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Barsuk, S; Kirichenko, V; Korolko, I; Malyshev, S; Rusinov, V Yu; Tarkovski, E

    2000-01-01

    Addressed is an extensive irradiation test program carried on to establish proper design and materials to build electromagnetic calorimeter that matches radiation conditions of the LHCb experiment at CERN. The results obtained are compared with measurements by other groups.

  12. Electromagnetic wave collapse in a radiation background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marklund, Mattias; Brodin, Gert; Stenflo, Lennart

    2003-10-17

    The nonlinear interaction, due to quantum electrodynamical (QED) effects between an electromagnetic pulse and a radiation background, is investigated by combining the methods of radiation hydrodynamics with the QED theory for photon-photon scattering. For the case of a single coherent electromagnetic pulse, we obtain a Zakharov-like system, where the radiation pressure of the pulse acts as a driver of acoustic waves in the photon gas. For a sufficiently intense pulse and/or background energy density, there is focusing and the subsequent collapse of the pulse. The relevance of our results for various astrophysical applications are discussed.

  13. Electromagnetic radiation from beam-plasma instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, P. L.; Dawson, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    A computer simulation is developed for the generation of electromagnetic radiation in an electron beam-plasma interaction. The plasma is treated as a two-dimensional finite system, and effects of a continuous nonrelativistic beam input are accounted for. Three momentum and three field components are included in the simulation, and an external magnetic field is excluded. EM radiation generation is possible through interaction among Langmuir oscillations, ion-acoustic waves, and the electromagnetic wave, producing radiation perpendicular to the beam. The radiation is located near the plasma frequency, and polarized with the E component parallel to the beam. The scattering of Langmuir waves caused by ion-acoustic fluctuations generates the radiation. Comparison with laboratory data for the three-wave interactions shows good agreement in terms of the radiation levels produced, which are small relative to the plasma thermal energy.

  14. Majorana fermions coupled to electromagnetic radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Ohm, Christoph; Hassler, Fabian

    2013-01-01

    We consider a voltage-biased Josephson junction between two nanowires hosting Majorana zero modes which occur as topological protected zero-energy excitations at the junction. We show that two Majorana fermions localized at the junction, even though being neutral particles, interact with the electromagnetic field and generate coherent radiation similar to the conventional Josephson radiation. Within a semiclassical analysis of the radiation field, we find that the optical phase gets locked to...

  15. Cardiovascular Responses to Electromagnetic Radiation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye Samuel

    3Optoelectronics and Measurement Techniques Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, 9014 University of Oulu, ... much less man made electromagnetic activity. ... the heart rate remains constant, the mobile phone opening and closing can be reflected in the ..... permeability in mammalian brain 7 days days after.

  16. Majorana fermions coupled to electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohm, Christoph; Hassler, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    We consider a voltage-biased Josephson junction between two nanowires hosting Majorana zero modes which occur as topological protected zero-energy excitations at the junction. We show that two Majorana fermions localized at the junction, despite being neutral particles, interact with the electromagnetic field and generate coherent radiation similar to the conventional Josephson radiation. Within a semiclassical analysis of the radiation field, we find that the phase of the radiation gets locked to the superconducting phase difference and that the radiation is emitted at half the Josephson frequency. In order to confirm the coherence of the radiation, we study correlations of the radiation emitted by two spatially separated junctions in a dc-SQUID geometry taking into account decoherence due to spontaneous state-switches as well as due to quasi-particle poisoning.

  17. Foldable Frame Supporting Electromagnetic Radiation Collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to flexible frames supporting electromagnetic radiation collectors, such as antennas, antenna reflectors, deflectors or solar collectors, for celestial or terrestrial applications, which can be folded to be stored and/or transported. The method for stowing deforms...

  18. Stochastic electromagnetic radiation of complex sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naus, H.W.L.

    2007-01-01

    The emission of electromagnetic radiation by localized complex electric charge and current distributions is studied. A statistical formalism in terms of general dynamical multipole fields is developed. The appearing coefficients are treated as stochastic variables. Hereby as much as possible a prior

  19. Foldable Frame Supporting Electromagnetic Radiation Collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to flexible frames supporting electromagnetic radiation collectors, such as antennas, antenna reflectors, deflectors or solar collectors, for celestial or terrestrial applications, which can be folded to be stored and/or transported. The method for stowing deforms th...

  20. Electromagnetic Radiation and Motion of Real Particle

    CERN Document Server

    Klacka, J

    2000-01-01

    Relativistically covariant equation of motion for real dust particle under the action of electromagnetic radiation is derived. The particle is neutral in charge. Equation of motion is expressed in terms of particle's optical properties, standardly used in optics for stationary particles.

  1. Electricity generation using electromagnetic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halas, Nancy J.; Nordlander, Peter; Neumann, Oara

    2017-08-22

    In general, in one aspect, the invention relates to a system to create vapor for generating electric power. The system includes a vessel comprising a fluid and a complex and a turbine. The vessel of the system is configured to concentrate EM radiation received from an EM radiation source. The vessel of the system is further configured to apply the EM radiation to the complex, where the complex absorbs the EM radiation to generate heat. The vessel of the system is also configured to transform, using the heat generated by the complex, the fluid to vapor. The vessel of the system is further configured to sending the vapor to a turbine. The turbine of the system is configured to receive, from the vessel, the vapor used to generate the electric power.

  2. Simple dynamic electromagnetic radiation detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Been, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    Detector monitors gamma dose rate at particular position in a radiation facility where a mixed neutron-gamma environment exists, thus determining reactor power level changes. Device also maps gamma intensity profile across a neutron-gamma beam.

  3. Cylindrical shock waves in rotational axisymmetric non-ideal dusty gas with increasing energy under the action of monochromatic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, P. K.

    2017-08-01

    The propagation of a cylindrical shock wave in a rotational axisymmetric non-ideal dusty gas under the action of monochromatic radiation with increasing energy, which has variable azimuthal and axial components of fluid velocity, is investigated. The dusty gas is assumed to be a mixture of non-ideal (or perfect) gas and small solid particles, in which solid particles are continuously distributed. Similarity solutions are obtained as well as the effects of the variation of the radiation parameters, the parameter of non-idealness of the gas, the mass concentration of solid particles in the mixture, the ratio of the density of solid particles to the initial density of the gas, and the piston velocity index are worked out in detail. The total energy of the shock wave is varying and increases with time. It is observed that the radiation parameter and the piston velocity index have opposite behaviour on the flow variables as well as the shock strength.

  4. Applications of electromagnetic radiation in medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Miłowska

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent decades have been devoted to the intense search for the response to questions related to the impact of radiation on the human body. Due to the growing fashion for a healthy lifestyle, increasing numbers of works about the alleged dangers of electromagnetic waves and diseases that they cause appeared. However, the discoveries of 20th century, and knowledge of the properties of electromagnetic radiation have allowed to broaden the horizons of the use of artificial sources of radiation in many fields of science and especially in medicine. The aim of this paper is to show that although excessive radiation or high doses are dangerous to the human body, its careful and controlled use, does not pose a threat, and it is often necessary in therapy. The possibility of using ionizing radiation in radiotherapy, isotope diagnostics or medical imaging, and non-ionizing radiation in the treatment for dermatological disorders and cancers will be presented. The unique properties of synchrotron radiation result in using it on a large scale in the diagnosis of pathological states by imaging methods.

  5. [Applications of electromagnetic radiation in medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miłowska, Katarzyna; Grabowska, Katarzyna; Gabryelak, Teresa

    2014-05-08

    Recent decades have been devoted to the intense search for the response to questions related to the impact of radiation on the human body. Due to the growing fashion for a healthy lifestyle, increasing numbers of works about the alleged dangers of electromagnetic waves and diseases that they cause appeared. However, the discoveries of 20th century, and knowledge of the properties of electromagnetic radiation have allowed to broaden the horizons of the use of artificial sources of radiation in many fields of science and especially in medicine. The aim of this paper is to show that although excessive radiation or high doses are dangerous to the human body, its careful and controlled use, does not pose a threat, and it is often necessary in therapy. The possibility of using ionizing radiation in radiotherapy, isotope diagnostics or medical imaging, and non-ionizing radiation in the treatment for dermatological disorders and cancers will be presented. The unique properties of synchrotron radiation result in using it on a large scale in the diagnosis of pathological states by imaging methods.

  6. Classical electromagnetic radiation of the Dirac electron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanyi, G.

    1973-01-01

    A wave-function-dependent four-vector potential is added to the Dirac equation in order to achieve conservation of energy and momentum for a Dirac electron and its emitted electromagnetic field. The resultant equation contains solutions which describe transitions between different energy states of the electron. As a consequence it is possible to follow the space-time evolution of such a process. This evolution is shown in the case of the spontaneous emission of an electromagnetic field by an electron bound in a hydrogen-like atom. The intensity of the radiation and the spectral distribution are calculated for transitions between two eigenstates. The theory gives a self-consistent deterministic description of some simple radiation processes without using quantum electrodynamics or the correspondence principle.

  7. Does electromagnetic radiation accelerate galactic cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, D.

    1977-01-01

    The 'reactor' theories of Tsytovich and collaborators (1973) of cosmic-ray acceleration by electromagnetic radiation are examined in the context of galactic cosmic rays. It is shown that any isotropic synchrotron or Compton reactors with reasonable astrophysical parameters can yield particles with a maximum relativistic factor of only about 10,000. If they are to produce particles with higher relativistic factors, the losses due to inverse Compton scattering of the electromagnetic radiation in them outweigh the acceleration, and this violates the assumptions of the theory. This is a critical restriction in the context of galactic cosmic rays, which have a power-law spectrum extending up to a relativistic factor of 1 million.

  8. Radiation force and balance of electromagnetic momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, I.; Jiménez, J. L.; Roa-Neri, J. A. E.

    2016-07-01

    Some force densities can be expressed as a divergence of a stress tensor, as is the case with the electromagnetic force density. We have shown elsewhere that from the Maxwell equations several balance equations of electromagnetic momentum can be derived, depending on the form these equations are expressed in terms of fields E, D, B, H, and polarisations P and M. These balance equations imply different force densities and different stress tensors, providing a great flexibility to solve particular problems. Among these force densities we have found some proposed in the past with plausibility arguments, like the Einstein-Laub force density, while other proposed force densities appear as particular or limit cases of these general force densities, like the Helmholtz force density. We calculate the radiation force of an electromagnetic wave incident on a semi-infinite negligibly absorbing material using these balance equations, corroborating in this way that the surface integration of the stress tensor gives the same result that the calculation made through a volume integration of the force density, as done by Bohren. As is usual in applications of Gauss’s theorem, the surface on which the surface integral is to be performed must be chosen judiciously, and due care of discontinuities on the boundary conditions must be taken. Advanced undergraduates and graduate students will find a different approach to new aspects of the interaction of radiation with matter.

  9. Electromagnetic Radiation and Motion of a Particle

    CERN Document Server

    Klacka, J

    2003-01-01

    A relativistically covariant equation of motion for arbitrarily shaped dust particle under the action of electromagnetic radiation is derived. Thermal emission is considered, also. The particle is neutral in charge. The equation of motion is expressed in terms of particle's optical properties, standardly used in optics of stationary particles. Orbital motion and osculating orbital elements are discussed. Simple analytical equations for secular changes of osculating orbital elements are derived in detail for the special case known as the Poynting-Robertson effect -- both cases are considered: i) central acceleration is given by gravity and radial component of radiation pressure independent on particle's velocity, and, ii) central acceleration is given by gravity and the radiation force corresponds to the disturbing force. The latter case yields results which may be compared with secular orbital evolution in terms of orbital elements for arbitrarily shaped dust particle. Secular changes of orbital elements taki...

  10. Electromagnetic Radiation Hardness of Diamond Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Behnke, T; Ghodbane, N; Imhof, A; Martínez, C; Zeuner, W

    2002-01-01

    The behavior of artificially grown CVD diamond films under intense electromagnetic radiation has been studied. The properties of irradiated diamond samples have been investigated using the method of thermally stimulated current and by studying their charge collection properties. Diamonds have been found to remain unaffected after doses of 6.8 MGy of 10 keV photons and 10 MGy of MeV-range photons. This observation makes diamond an attractive detector material for a calorimeter in the very forward region of the proposed TESLA detector.

  11. Nature of electromagnetic radiation of a coal seam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frid, V.I.; Shabarov, A.N.; Proskuryakov, V.M.; Baranov, V.A. (Rossiiskaya Akademiya Nauk (Russian Federation))

    1992-03-01

    Analyzes feasibility of forecasting rock burst hazards on the basis of electromagnetic radiation of a coal seam. Electromagnetic radiation emitted by coal seams situated at depths from 300 to 750 m in a number of coal mines in the Kuzbass was investigated. The investigations were carried out both in coal seams prone to rock bursts and in those without rock burst hazards. Effects of the following factors on the level of electromagnetic radiation were analyzed: moisture content in coal seams, coal mechanical properties, porosity, state of stress, microcracking of coal seams caused by stress concentration, gas desorption from coal. Analyses show that electromagnetic emission supplied reliable information on rock burst hazards. Use of a frequency of about 100 Hz for measuring electromagnetic radiation is recommended. Rock burst forecasting based on measuring electromagnetic radiation of a coal seam was compared to methods based on measuring the rate of cuttings leaving test boreholes and the velocity of gas emitted from the boreholes. 11 refs.

  12. Large numbers hypothesis. II - Electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, P. J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper develops the theory of electromagnetic radiation in the units covariant formalism incorporating Dirac's large numbers hypothesis (LNH). A direct field-to-particle technique is used to obtain the photon propagation equation which explicitly involves the photon replication rate. This replication rate is fixed uniquely by requiring that the form of a free-photon distribution function be preserved, as required by the 2.7 K cosmic radiation. One finds that with this particular photon replication rate the units covariant formalism developed in Paper I actually predicts that the ratio of photon number to proton number in the universe varies as t to the 1/4, precisely in accord with LNH. The cosmological red-shift law is also derived and it is shown to differ considerably from the standard form of (nu)(R) - const.

  13. Behavior of Electric Current Subjected to ELF Electromagnetic Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    De Aquino, F

    2002-01-01

    Gravitational effects produced by ELF electromagnetic radiation upon the electric current in a conductor are studied. It is demonstrated that flux from high power density ELF radiation will cause transitory interruptions in electric current conduction.

  14. Collectivity and electromagnetic radiation in small systems

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Chun; Denicol, Gabriel S; Jeon, Sangyong; Gale, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Collective behaviour has been observed in hadronic measurements of high multiplicity proton+lead collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), as well as in (proton, deuteron, helium-3)+gold collisions at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC). To better understand the evolution dynamics and the properties of the matter created in these small systems, a systematic study of the soft hadronic observables together with electromagnetic radiation from these collisions is performed, using a hydrodynamic framework. Quantitative agreement is found between theoretical calculations and existing experimental hadronic observables. The validity of the fluid dynamical description is estimated by calculating Knudsen and inverse Reynolds numbers. Sizeable thermal yields are predicted for low $p_T$ photons. Further predictions of higher order charged hadron anisotropic flow coefficients and of thermal photon enhancement are proposed.

  15. Collectivity and electromagnetic radiation in small systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chun; Paquet, Jean-François; Denicol, Gabriel S.; Jeon, Sangyong; Gale, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Collective behavior has been observed in hadronic measurements of high multiplicity proton+lead collisions at the Large Hadron Collider, as well as in (proton, deuteron, helium-3) + gold collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. To better understand the evolution dynamics and the properties of the matter created in these small systems, a systematic study of the soft hadronic observables together with electromagnetic radiation from these collisions is performed by using a hydrodynamic framework. Quantitative agreement is found between theoretical calculations and existing experimental hadronic observables. The validity of the fluid-dynamical description is estimated by calculating Knudsen and inverse Reynolds numbers. Sizeable thermal yields are predicted for low-pT photons. Further predictions of higher-order charged hadron anisotropic flow coefficients and of thermal photon enhancement are proposed.

  16. Electromagnetic radiation accompanying gravitational waves from black hole binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgov, A.; Postnov, K.

    2017-09-01

    The transition of powerful gravitational waves, created by the coalescence of massive black hole binaries, into electromagnetic radiation in external magnetic fields is considered. In contrast to the previous calculations of the similar effect we study the realistic case of the gravitational radiation frequency below the plasma frequency of the surrounding medium. The gravitational waves propagating in the plasma constantly create electromagnetic radiation dragging it with them, despite the low frequency. The plasma heating by the unattenuated electromagnetic wave may be significant in hot rarefied plasma with strong magnetic field and can lead to a noticeable burst of electromagnetic radiation with higher frequency. The graviton-to-photon conversion effect in plasma is discussed in the context of possible electromagnetic counterparts of GW150914 and GW170104.

  17. Updating Plasma Scattering of Electromagnetic Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, J.

    2010-05-01

    The monograph Plasma Scattering of Electromagnetic Radiation was published by Academic Press in 1975. A Russian edition, Atomidzat, came out in 1978. An updated version is being prepared by D. Froula, S. Glenzer. N Luhmann, and J. Sheffield for publication in 2010 by Elsevier. The new version will discuss the broader applications of Thomson scattering, which include the full range of plasmas used in research and industry. The expansion of the field has been made possible by the growing number of powerful radiation sources (from X-rays to microwaves), detectors, and innovative techniques. When the book was published, the highest temperatures in laboratory plasmas were around 2 keV for the electrons. Compare this to today's 25 keV where the relativistic effects are dramatic. The application to low temperature plasmas with Te in the range of 1 - 30+ eV, important in industry, has grown. Important capabilities have been developed in the areas of energetic particle, micro-instability, and high energy density plasma measurements. For the future, we look forward to the use of scattering as a diagnostic on the large new fusion facilities-NIF, LMJ, and ITER.

  18. Electromagnetic Radiation and Motion of Really Shaped Particle

    CERN Document Server

    Klacka, J

    2001-01-01

    Relativistically covariant form of equation of motion for real particle (neutral in charge) under the action of electromagnetic radiation is derived. Various formulations of the equation of motion in the proper frame of reference of the particle are used. Main attention is devoted to the reformulation of the equation of motion in the general frame of reference, e. g., in the frame of reference of the source of electromagnetic radiation. This is the crucial form of equation of motion in applying it to motion of particles (cosmic dust, asteroids, ...) in the Universe if electromagnetic radiation acts on the particles. General relativistic equation of motion is presented.

  19. Quantum Larmor radiation from a moving charge in an electromagnetic plane wave background

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, Gen; 10.1142/S0217751X12501424

    2012-01-01

    We extend our previous work [Phys. Rev. D83 045030 (2011)], which investigated the first-order quantum effect in the Larmor radiation from a moving charge in a spatially homogeneous time-dependent electric field. Specifically, we investigate the quantum Larmor radiation from a moving charge in a monochromatic electromagnetic plane wave background based on the scalar quantum electrodynamics at the lowest order of the perturbation theory. Using the in-in formalism, we derive the theoretical formula of the total radiation energy from a charged particle in the initial states being at rest and being in a relativistic motion. Expanding the theoretical formula in terms of the Planck constant \\hbar, we obtain the first-order quantum effect on the Larmor radiation. The quantum effect generally suppresses the total radiation energy compared with the prediction of the classical Larmor formula, which is a contrast to the previous work. The reason is explained by the fact that the radiation from a moving charge in a monoc...

  20. Interactions of monochromatic visible light and near-IR radiation with cells: currently discussed mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karu, Tiina I.

    1995-05-01

    Biological responses of cells to visible and near IR (laser) radiation occur due to physical and/or chemical changes in photoacceptor molecules, components of respiratory chains (cyt a/a3 in mitochondria, and cyt d in E. coli). As a result of the photoexcitation of electronic states, the following physical and/or chemical changes can occur: alteration of redox properties and acceleration of electron transfer, changes in biochemical activity due to local transient heating of chromophores, one-electron auto-oxidation and O2- production, and photodynamic action and 1O2 production. Different reaction channels can be activated to achieve the photobiological macroeffect. The primary physical and/or chemical changes induced by light in photoacceptor molecules are followed by a cascade of biochemical reactions in the cell that do not need further light activation and occur in the dark (photosignal transduction and amplification chains). These reactions are connected with changes in cellular homeostasis parameters. The crucial step here is thought to be an alteration of the cellular redox state: a shift towards oxidation is associated with stimulation of cellular vitality, and a shift towards reduction is linked to inhibition. Cells with a lower than normal pH, where the redox state is shifted in the reduced direction, are considered to be more sensitive to the stimulative action of light than those with the respective parameters being optimal or near optimal. This circumstance explains the possible variations in observed magnitudes of low-power laser effects. Light action on the redox state of a cell via the respiratory chain also explains the diversity of low-power laser effects. Beside explaining many controversies in the field of low-power laser effects (i.e., the diversity of effects, the variable magnitude or absence of effects in certain studies), the proposed redox-regulation mechanism may be a fundamental explanation of some clinical effects of irradiation, for

  1. Behavior of Electric Current Subjected to ELF Electromagnetic Radiation

    OpenAIRE

    De Aquino, Fran

    2002-01-01

    Gravitational effects produced by ELF electromagnetic radiation upon the electric current in a conductor are studied. An apparatus has been constructed to test the behavior of current subjected to ELF radiation. The experimental results are in agreement with theoretical predictions and show that ELF radiation can cause transitory interruptions in electric current conduction.

  2. [Instrumental radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation dosimetry: general principals and modern methodology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perov, S Iu; Kudriashov, Iu B; Rubtsova, N B

    2012-01-01

    The modern experimental radiofrequency electromagnetic field dosimetry approach has been considered. The main principles of specific absorbed rate measurement are analyzed for electromagnetic field biological effect assessment. The general methodology of specific absorbed rate automated dosimetry system applied to establish the compliance of radiation sources with the safety standard requirements (maximum permissible levels and base restrictions) is described.

  3. [Dynamics of biomacromolecules in coherent electromagnetic radiation field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshcheniuk, N S; Apanasevich, E E; Tereshenkov, V I

    2014-01-01

    It is shown that induced oscillations and periodic displacements of the equilibrium positions occur in biomacromolecules in the absence of electromagnetic radiation absorption, due to modulation of interaction potential between atoms and groups of atoms forming the non-valence bonds in macromolecules by the external electromagnetic field. Such "hyperoscillation" state causes inevitably the changes in biochemical properties of macromolecules and conformational transformation times.

  4. Gravitational Stokes parameters. [for electromagnetic and gravitational radiation in relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anile, A. M.; Breuer, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    The electromagnetic and gravitational Stokes parameters are defined in the general theory of relativity. The general-relativistic equation of radiative transfer for polarized radiation is then derived in terms of the Stokes parameters for both high-frequency electromagnetic and gravitational waves. The concept of Stokes parameters is generalized for the most general class of metric theories of gravity, where six (instead of two) independent states of polarization are present.

  5. Detailed observations of the source of terrestrial narrowband electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, W. S.

    1982-01-01

    Detailed observations are presented of a region near the terrestrial plasmapause where narrowband electromagnetic radiation (previously called escaping nonthermal continuum radiation) is being generated. These observations show a direct correspondence between the narrowband radio emissions and electron cyclotron harmonic waves near the upper hybrid resonance frequency. In addition, electromagnetic radiation propagating in the Z-mode is observed in the source region which provides an extremely accurate determination of the electron plasma frequency and, hence, density profile of the source region. The data strongly suggest that electrostatic waves and not Cerenkov radiation are the source of the banded radio emissions and define the coupling which must be described by any viable theory.

  6. Electromagnetic Radiation Originating from Unstable Electron Oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Rasmussen, Jens; Pécseli, Hans

    1975-01-01

    Electromagnetic oscillations in the range 300 – 700 MHz were observed from an unmagnetized argon discharge with an unstable electron velocity distribution function.......Electromagnetic oscillations in the range 300 – 700 MHz were observed from an unmagnetized argon discharge with an unstable electron velocity distribution function....

  7. Effects of electromagnetic radiation on the hemorheology of rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhiwei; Tian, Tian; Xiao, Bo; Li, Wen

    2017-01-01

    The current work examines the effects of electromagnetic radiation on the hemorheology to provide an experimental basis for radiation protection. Electromagnetic radiation was generated by a Helmholtz coil constructed from copper wire. There were six rats altogether: three rats in the experimental group, and three rats in the control group. The rats in the experimental group were continuously exposed to radiation for 10 hours every day, and rats in the control group remained in a normal environment. After 30 days, the characteristics of hemorheology of the two groups were compared. The average plasma viscosity, whole blood high shear velocity, and whole blood low shear viscosity were lower in rats in the experimental group than in rats in the control group, while the whole blood shear viscosity was higher in the experimental group than in the control group. Results suggest that long term exposure to electromagnetic radiation does have certain impacts on the cardiovascular system, deeming it necessary to take preventative measures.

  8. Nonlinear fundamental and harmonic cyclotron resonant scattering of radiation belt ultrarelativistic electrons by oblique monochromatic EMIC waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Geng; Su, Zhenpeng; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Zhang, Min; Wang, Shui

    2017-02-01

    Cyclotron resonant scattering by electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves has been considered to be responsible for the rapid loss of radiation belt high-energy electrons. For parallel-propagating EMIC waves, the nonlinear character of cyclotron resonance has been revealed in recent studies. Here we present the first study on the nonlinear fundamental and harmonic cyclotron resonant scattering of radiation belt ultrarelativistic electrons by oblique EMIC waves on the basis of test particle simulations. Higher wave obliquity produces stronger nonlinearity of harmonic resonances but weaker nonlinearity of fundamental resonance. Compared to the quasi-linear prediction, these nonlinear resonances yield a more rapid loss of electrons over a wider pitch angle range. In the quasi-linear regime, the ultrarelativistic electrons are lost in the equatorial pitch angle range αeq87.5° at ψ = 20° and 40°. At the resonant pitch angles αeq<75°, the difference between quasi-linear and nonlinear loss timescales tends to decrease with the wave normal angle increasing. At ψ = 0° and 20°, the nonlinear electron loss timescale is 10% shorter than the quasi-linear prediction; at ψ = 40°, the difference in loss timescales is reduced to <5%.

  9. Aspects of electromagnetic radiation reaction in strong fields

    CERN Document Server

    Burton, D A

    2014-01-01

    With the recent advances in laser technology, experimental investigation of radiation reaction phenomena is at last becoming a realistic prospect. A pedagogical introduction to electromagnetic radiation reaction is given with the emphasis on matter driven by ultra-intense lasers. Single-particle, multi-particle, classical and quantum aspects are all addressed.

  10. Electromagnetic radiation and motion of arbitrarily shaped particle

    CERN Document Server

    Klacka, J

    2001-01-01

    Covariant form of equation of motion for arbitrarily shaped particle in the electromagnetic radiation field is presented. Equation of motion in the proper frame of the particle uses the radiation pressure cross section 3 $\\times$ 3 matrix. The obtained equation of motion is compared with known result.

  11. Monochromatic photography of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant. Plotting of isophotes of partial nebula radiation in the (OIII) and (NII)+H. cap alpha. lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitnik, T.G.; Toropova, M.S. (Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Gosudarstvennyj Astronomicheskij Inst. ' ' GAISh' ' )

    1982-11-01

    System of the isophotes of the 9' size in the west part of the Cyg Loop supernova remnant using monochromatic photographs in the (O3) and (N2)+Hsub(..cap alpha..) lines is obtained. A relative displacement of the regions of emission in these lines is discovered and explained by temperature reduction due to radiative losses behind the shock wave of the supernova explosion. The morphology difference between the (O3) and (N2)+Hsub(..cap alpha..) lines is explained. Anomalously large intensity ratios Isub((O3))/Isub(Hsub(..beta..)) are supposed to be due to spatial separation of the corresponding emission regions.

  12. Electromagnetic and nuclear radiation detector using micromechanical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thundat, Thomas G.; Warmack, Robert J.; Wachter, Eric A.

    2000-01-01

    Electromagnetic and nuclear radiation is detected by micromechanical sensors that can be coated with various interactive materials. As the micromechanical sensors absorb radiation, the sensors bend and/or undergo a shift in resonance characteristics. The bending and resonance changes are detected with high sensitivity by any of several detection methods including optical, capacitive, and piezoresistive methods. Wide bands of the electromagnetic spectrum can be imaged with picoJoule sensitivity, and specific absorptive coatings can be used for selective sensitivity in specific wavelength bands. Microcantilevers coated with optical cross-linking polymers are useful as integrating optical radiation dosimeters. Nuclear radiation dosimetry is possible by fabricating cantilevers from materials that are sensitive to various nuclear particles or radiation. Upon exposure to radiation, the cantilever bends due to stress and its resonance frequency shifts due to changes in elastic properties, based on cantilever shape and properties of the coating.

  13. [Adaptive changes in the body upon exposure to electromagnetic radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubkova, S M

    1996-01-01

    The chance to use electromagnetic exposures as active adaptogen and the detecting of adaptive changes following them were objects of our studies. The data of experimental and clinical studies significative the dependence of changes on the functional state of organism were seen. Particular attention is paid to the site of exposure and to the advantages in the action of electromagnetic exposures on areas overlaying the endocrine glands and control centers of central nerve system. In these conditions electromagnetic exposures play a part of trigger initiated natural processes of homeostatic regulation in the organism functional systems. It is shown that the course of electromagnetic exposures in wide frequency range until laser radiation (infrared and red) arises adaptive changes of the regulator systems, of the bioenergetic and the biosynthetic processes in myocardium, liver, brain, thymus and other tissues predetermined genetically and secured the power of the adaptive systems. The cross-adaptation effects underlie the electromagnetic exposures medical action.

  14. Electromagnetic THz Radiation Modeling by DPSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahani, Ehsan Kabiri; Kundu, Tribikram

    2012-03-01

    THz or T-ray imaging and spectroscopy are becoming increasingly popular nondestructive evaluation techniques for damage detection and characterization of materials. In order to understand the interaction between the T-ray electromagnetic waves and dielectric media a reliable model of electromagnetic wave propagation through dielectric materials must be developed. A recently developed semi-analytical method called the distributed point source method (DPSM) is extended to model electromagnetic wave propagation in THz range. Since T-ray signals generated by emitters or sources are close to Gaussian beams, the DPSM modeling is carried out for Gaussian beams generated by finite sized emitters. The DPSM generated results are compared with the analytical and experimental results. T-ray propagation in layered structures in absence of any anomaly and the interaction between the Gaussian beam and the spherical scatterer are also investigated.

  15. Electromagnetic radiation from laser wakefields in underdense plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue; Liu; Wei-Min; Wang; Zheng-Ming; Sheng

    2014-01-01

    It is demonstrated by simulations and analysis that a wakefield driven by an ultrashort intense laser pulse in underdense plasma can emit tunable electromagnetic radiation along the laser propagation direction. The profile of such a kind of radiation is closely associated with the structure of the laser wakefield. In general, electromagnetic radiation in the terahertz range with its frequency a few times the electron plasma frequency can be generated in the moderate intensity regime. In the highly nonlinear case, a chain of radiation pulses is formed corresponding to the nonlinear structure of the wake. Study shows that the radiation is associated with the self-modulation process of the laser pulse in the wakefield and resulting transverse electron momenta from modulated asymmetric laser fields.

  16. Study of electromagnetic radiation pollution in Jalandhar city, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basandrai, D.; Dhami, A. K.; Bedi, R. K.; Khan, S. A.

    2017-07-01

    Environment pollution from electromagnetic radiations emitted from cell phone towers is a new kind of health hazard, which has increase the public concern regarding the health implications of electromagnetic radiations on humans and animals. Long term consequences of these radiations are still unknown. So it become important to measure and maps the electromagnetic radiation level to analyze potential risk. The present study has been taken to estimate the RF pollution by measuring radiation power densities level near school, hospitals and old age home of Jalandhar City, India. The radiation exposure was measured using a handheld portable electrosmog meter. Results were compared with the safety guidelines issued by ICNIRP (International commission on non ionizing radiation protection) and Bio-initiative report, 2012. It has been found that the radiation exposure level in terms of power densities and corresponding specific absorption rate (SAR) are much below than ICNIRP guidelines for all schools, hospitals and old age home. But in the case of 3 schools, the results are quite alarming where the power density and SAR was found to be 79.6% and 4%, respectively higher in comparisons with safe biological limit.

  17. Effect of sheath potential on electromagnetic radiation emitted from the rear surface of a metallic foil target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In ultra-intense laser-matter interactions, intense electric fields formed at the rear surface of a foil target may have strong influences on the motion of energetic electrons, and thereby affect the electromagnetic emissions from the rear surface, usually ascribed to transition radiation. Due to the electric fields, transition radiation occurs twice and bremsstrahlung radiation also happens because the electrons will cross the rear surface twice and have large accelerations.In the optic region, transition radiation is dominant. The radiation spectrum depends on the electric field only when the electrons are monochromatic, and becomes independent of the electric field when the electrons have a broadband momentum distribution. Therefore, in an actual experiment, the electric field at the rear surface of a foil could not be studied just with the measurement of optic emissions. In the terahertz region, both bremsstrahlung and transition radiations should be taken into account, and the radiation power could be enhanced in comparison with that without the inclusion of bremsstrahlung radiation. The frequency at which the maximum terahertz radiation appears depends on the electric field.

  18. Influence of gravitation on the propagation of electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashhoon, B.

    1975-01-01

    The existence of a general helicity-rotation coupling is demonstrated for electromagnetic waves propagating in the field of a slowly rotating body and in the Goedel universe. This coupling leads to differential focusing of circularly polarized radiation by a gravitational field which is detectable for a rapidly rotating collapsed body. The electromagnetic perturbations and their frequency spectrum are given for the Goedel universe. The spectrum of frequencies is bounded from below by the characteristic rotation frequency of the Goedel universe. If the universe were rotating, the differential focusing effect would be extremely small due to the present upper limit on the anisotropy of the microwave background radiation.

  19. RESEARCH ON INDOOR ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION FIELD OF MULTIPLE ANTENNA SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Li; Lu Yanhui; Zou Peng; Zhou Xiaoping

    2012-01-01

    The complexity of the indoor environment brings great challenges to predict the electromagnetic radiation field of multiple antenna systems.Based on the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) algorithm,using the mobile phone shielding device as the multiple antenna systems example,the mobile phone shielding device's indoor electromagnetic radiation field is researched by measurment method and simulation method.The effectivity of prediction method is verified by comparing the prediciton results with the measurment results.About 80% of the error can be controlled less than ±4 dB.The quantitative research has certain guiding significance to the prediction of the multiple antenna systems radio wave propagation.

  20. Non-Thermal Electromagnetic Radiation Damage to Lens Epithelium

    OpenAIRE

    Bormusov, Elvira; P.Andley, Usha; Sharon, Naomi; Schächter, Levi; Lahav, Assaf; Dovrat, Ahuva

    2008-01-01

    High frequency microwave electromagnetic radiation from mobile phones and other modern devices has the potential to damage eye tissues, but its effect on the lens epithelium is unknown at present. The objective of this study was to investigate the non-thermal effects of high frequency microwave electromagnetic radiation (1.1GHz, 2.22 mW) on the eye lens epithelium in situ. Bovine lenses were incubated in organ culture at 35°C for 10-15 days. A novel computer-controlled microwave source was us...

  1. Non-thermal electromagnetic radiation damage to lens epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormusov, Elvira; P Andley, Usha; Sharon, Naomi; Schächter, Levi; Lahav, Assaf; Dovrat, Ahuva

    2008-05-21

    High frequency microwave electromagnetic radiation from mobile phones and other modern devices has the potential to damage eye tissues, but its effect on the lens epithelium is unknown at present. The objective of this study was to investigate the non-thermal effects of high frequency microwave electromagnetic radiation (1.1GHz, 2.22 mW) on the eye lens epithelium in situ. Bovine lenses were incubated in organ culture at 35°C for 10-15 days. A novel computer-controlled microwave source was used to investigate the effects of microwave radiation on the lenses. 58 lenses were used in this study. The lenses were divided into four groups: (1) Control lenses incubated in organ culture for 10 to15 days. (2) Electromagnetic radiation exposure group treated with 1.1 GHz, 2.22 mW microwave radiation for 90 cycles of 50 minutes irradiation followed by 10 minutes pause and cultured up to 10 days. (3) Electromagnetic radiation exposure group treated as group 2 with 192 cycles of radiation and cultured for 15 days. (4) Lenses exposed to 39.5°C for 2 hours 3 times with 24 hours interval after each treatment beginning on the second day of the culture and cultured for 11 days. During the culture period, lens optical quality was followed daily by a computer-operated scanning laser beam. At the end of the culture period, control and treated lenses were analyzed morphologically and by assessment of the lens epithelial ATPase activity. Exposure to 1.1 GHz, 2.22 mW microwaves caused a reversible decrease in lens optical quality accompanied by irreversible morphological and biochemical damage to the lens epithelial cell layer. The effect of the electromagnetic radiation on the lens epithelium was remarkably different from those of conductive heat. The results of this investigation showed that electromagnetic fields from microwave radiation have a negative impact on the eye lens. The lens damage by electromagnetic fields was distinctly different from that caused by conductive heat.

  2. Dynamics of Cometary Dust Particles in Electromagnetic Radiation Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herranen, Joonas; Markkanen, Johannes; Penttilä, Antti; Muinonen, Karri

    2016-10-01

    The formation of cometary dust tails and comae is based on solar radiation pressure. The pressure effects of electromagnetic radiation were originally conceptualized in Kepler's observations of the tails of comets and formulated mathematically by Maxwell in 1873. Today, the dynamics of cometary dust are known to be governed by gravity, electromagnetic forces, drag, solar wind, and solar radiation pressure.Solar radiation pressure has its roots in absorption, emission, and scattering of electromagnetic radiation. Due to modern advances in so-called integral equation methods in electromagnetics, a new approach of studying the effect of radiation pressure on cometary dust dynamics can be constructed. We solve the forces and torques due to radiation pressure for an arbitrarily shaped dust particle using volume integral equation methods.We then present a framework for solving the equations of motion of cometary dust particles due to radiative interactions. The solution is studied in a simplified cometary environment, where the radiative effects are studied at different orbits. The rotational and translational equations of motion are solved directly using a quaternion-based integrator. The rotational and translational equations of motion affect dust particle alignment and concentration. This is seen in the polarization of the coma. Thus, our direct dynamical approach can be used in modelling the observed imaging photo-polarimetry of the coma.In future studies, the integrator can be further extended to an exemplary comet environment, taking into account the drag, and the electric and magnetic fields. This enables us to study the dynamics of a single cometary dust particle based on fundamental physics.Acknowledgments. Research supported, in part, bythe European Research Council (ERC, grant Nr. 320773).

  3. Electromagnetic Radiation Measurements and Safety Issues of some Cellular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mousa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As the mobile telecommunication systems are tremendously growing allover the world then the numbers of handheld andbase stations are also rapidly growing and it became very popular to see these base stations distributed everywhere in theneighborhood and on roof tops which has caused a considerable amount of panic to the public in Palestine concerning witherthe radiated electromagnetic field from these base stations may cause any health effect or hazard. This paper focuses on theradiated electromagnetic energy from some typical mobile base stations around the city of Nablus. The exposure levels dueto these stations were measured and compared to some international standard guidelines like ICNIRP and FCC to see if itmeets these standards, this is in order to answer some of the public fear and concern. The results are presented and somecomments are made on the other sources of electromagnetic radiation in the 200 kHz to 3 GHz range.

  4. Current-voltage characteristic of a resonant tunneling diode under electromagnetic radiation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    N Hatefi Kargan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, current-voltage characteristic of a resonant tunneling diode under electromagnetic radiation has been calculated and compared with the results when there is no electromagnetic radiation...

  5. Vacuum amplification of the high-frequency electromagnetic radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Vilkovisky, G. A.

    1998-01-01

    When an electrically charged source is capable of both emitting the electromagnetic waves and creating charged particles from the vacuum, its radiation gets so much amplified that only the backreaction of the vacuum makes it finite. The released energy and charge are calculated in the high-frequency approximation. The technique of expectation values is advanced and employed.

  6. Electromagnetic radiation of superconducting cosmic strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogozin, D. A.; Zadorozhna, L. V.

    2013-12-01

    Cosmic strings are relics of the early Universe which can be formed during the phase transitions of fields with spontaneously broken symmetry in the early Universe. Their existence finds support in modern superstrings theories, both in compactification models and in theories with extended additional dimensions. Strings can hold currents, effectively become electrically superconducting wires of astrophysical dimensions. Superconducting cosmic strings can serve as powerful sources of non-thermal radiation in wide energy range. Mechanisms of radiation are synchrotron, synchrotron self-Compton and inverse-Compton on CMB photons radiation of electrons accelerated by bow shock wave, created by magnetosphere of relativistically moving string in intergalactic medium (IGM). Expected fluxes of radiation from the shocked plasma around superconducting cosmic strings are calculated for strings with various tensions and for different cases of their location. Possibilities of strings detection by existing facilities are estimated.

  7. Perspective of monochromatic gamma-ray line detection with the High Energy cosmic-Radiation Detection (HERD) facility onboard China's Space Station

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Xiaoyuan; Tsai, Yue-Lin Sming; Xu, Ming; Yuan, Qiang; Chang, Jin; Dong, Yong-Wei; Hu, Bing-Liang; Lü, Jun-Guang; Wang, Le; Wu, Bo-Bing; Zhang, Shuang-Nan

    2015-01-01

    HERD is the High Energy cosmic-Radiation Detection instrument proposed to operate onboard China's space station in the 2020s. It is designed to detect energetic cosmic ray nuclei, leptons and photons with a high energy resolution ($\\sim1\\%$ for electrons and photons and $20\\%$ for nuclei) and a large geometry factor ($>3\\, m^2sr$ for electrons and diffuse photons and $>2\\, m^2sr$ for nuclei). In this work we discuss the capability of HERD to detect monochromatic $\\gamma$-ray lines, based on simulations of the detector performance. It is shown that HERD will be one of the most sensitive instruments for monochromatic $\\gamma$-ray searches at energies between $\\sim10$ to a few hundred GeV. Above hundreds of GeV, Cherenkov telescopes will be more sensitive due to their large effective area. As a specific example, we show that a good portion of the parameter space of a supersymmetric dark matter model can be probed with HERD.

  8. Perspective of monochromatic gamma-ray line detection with the High Energy cosmic-Radiation Detection (HERD) facility onboard China's space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoyuan; Lamperstorfer, Anna S.; Tsai, Yue-Lin Sming; Xu, Ming; Yuan, Qiang; Chang, Jin; Dong, Yong-Wei; Hu, Bing-Liang; Lü, Jun-Guang; Wang, Le; Wu, Bo-Bing; Zhang, Shuang-Nan

    2016-05-01

    HERD is the High Energy cosmic-Radiation Detection instrument proposed to operate onboard China's space station in the 2020s. It is designed to detect energetic cosmic ray nuclei, leptons and photons with a high energy resolution (∼1% for electrons and photons and 20% for nuclei) and a large geometry factor (>3 m2 sr for electrons and diffuse photons and > [2]m2 sr for nuclei). In this work we discuss the capability of HERD to detect monochromatic γ-ray lines, based on simulations of the detector performance. It is shown that HERD will be one of the most sensitive instruments for monochromatic γ-ray searches at energies between ∼ 10 to a few hundred GeV. Above hundreds of GeV, Cherenkov telescopes will be more sensitive due to their large effective area. As a specific example, we show that a good portion of the parameter space of a supersymmetric dark matter model can be probed with HERD.

  9. Electromagnetism

    CERN Multimedia

    Without the electromagnetic force, you would not be solid. The atoms of your body are held together by electromagnetism: negatively charged electrons are held around the positively charged nucleus. Atoms share electrons to form molecules, so building up the structure of matter. As its name suggests, electromagnetism has a double nature: a moving electric charge creates a magnetic field. This intimate connection between electricity and magnetism was described by James Maxwell in 1864. The electromagnetic force can be both positive and negative : opposite charges attract, whereas like charges repel. Electromagnetic radiation, such as radio, microwaves, light and X-rays, is emitted by charges when they are made to move. For example, an oscillating current in a wire emits radio waves. Text for the interactive: Why do the needles move when you switch on the current ?

  10. Cancer and electromagnetic radiation therapy: Quo Vadis?

    CERN Document Server

    Makropoulou, Mersini

    2016-01-01

    In oncology, treating cancer with a beam of photons is a well established therapeutic technique, developed over 100 years, and today over 50% of cancer patients will undergo traditional X-ray radiotherapy. However, ionizing radiation therapy is not the only option, as the high-energy photons delivering their cell-killing radiation energy into cancerous tumor can lead to significant damage to healthy tissues surrounding the tumor, located throughout the beam's path. Therefore, in nowadays, advances in ionizing radiation therapy are competitive to non-ionizing ones, as for example the laser light based therapy, resulting in a synergism that has revolutionized medicine. The use of non-invasive or minimally invasive (e.g. through flexible endoscopes) therapeutic procedures in the management of patients represents a very interesting treatment option. Moreover, as the major breakthrough in cancer management is the individualized patient treatment, new biophotonic techniques, e.g. photo-activated drug carriers, help...

  11. Radiation (absorbing) boundary conditions for electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevensee, R. M.; Pennock, S. T.

    1987-01-01

    An important problem in finite difference or finite element computation of the electromagnetic field obeying the space-time Maxwell equations with self-consistent sources is that of truncating the outer numerical boundaries properly to avoid spurious numerical reflection. Methods for extrapolating properly the fields just beyond a numerical boundary in free space have been treated by a number of workers. This report avoids plane wave assumptions and derives boundary conditions more directly related to the source distribution within the region. The Panofsky-Phillips' relations, which enable one to extrapolate conveniently the vector field components parallel and perpendicular to a radial from the coordinate origin chosen near the center of the charge-current distribution are used to describe the space-time fields.

  12. Modern Classical Electrodynamics and Electromagnetic Radiation - Vacuum Field Theory Aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Bogolubov, N N

    2012-01-01

    The work is devoted to studying some new classical electrodynamics models of interacting charged point particles and related with them physical aspects. Based on the vacuum field theory no-geometry approach, developed in \\cite{BPT,BPT1}, the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian reformulations of some alternative classical electrodynamics models are devised. A problem closely related to the radiation reaction force is analyzed aiming to explain the Wheeler and Feynman reaction radiation mechanism, well known as the absorption radiation theory, and strongly dependent on the Mach type interaction of a charged point particle in an ambient vacuum electromagnetic medium. There are discussed some relationships between this problem and the one derived within the context of the vacuum field theory approach. The R. \\ Feynman's \\textquotedblleft heretical\\textquotedblright\\ approach \\cite{Dy1,Dy2} to deriving the Lorentz force based Maxwell electromagnetic equations is also revisited, its complete legacy is argued both by means o...

  13. Electrosmog. Effects of electromagnetic radiation. Elektrosmog. Die Wirkung elektromagnetischer Strahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nimtz, G. (Koeln Univ. (Germany)); Maecker, S. (Koeln Univ. (Germany). 2. Physikalisches Inst.)

    1994-01-01

    After a detailed explanation of the structure of electromagnetic fields, the authors discuss the mechanisms of interaction which affect biological systems in dependence of the size and frequency of electromagnetic fields. Natural and technical sources of radiation are discussed, as are the physical and physiological fundamentals from which limiting values and other protective measures are derived. The functions of national and international decision-making authorities are outlined, and addresses are given of public institutions in Germany to whom the reader may refer for further information. (orig./MG)

  14. Comment on "Electromagnetic Radiation under Explicit Symmetry Breaking"

    CERN Document Server

    Simovski, C; Belov, P; Krasnok, A

    2015-01-01

    Recently published paper [PRL 114, 147701 (2015)] contains several misleading statements and misinterpretations of known facts. The main massage of the paper [PRL 114, 147701 (2015)] is as follows: "We have shown that explicit symmetry breaking in the structural configuration of charges leads to symmetry breaking of the electric field which results in electromagnetic radiation due to non-conservative current within a localized region of space and time" seems to transcend mere empiricism, touching the theoretical foundations of electromagnetism. Moreover, basic mistakes are numerous in this article and its main claim is wrong. Below we prove it citing the paper and arguing against it.

  15. Electromagnetic radiation screening of semiconductor devices for long life applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, T. C.; Brammer, W. G.

    1972-01-01

    A review is presented of the mechanism of interaction of electromagnetic radiation in various spectral ranges, with various semiconductor device defects. Previous work conducted in this area was analyzed as to its pertinence to the current problem. The task was studied of implementing electromagnetic screening methods in the wavelength region determined to be most effective. Both scanning and flooding type stimulation techniques are discussed. While the scanning technique offers a considerably higher yield of useful information, a preliminary investigation utilizing the flooding approach is first recommended because of the ease of implementation, lower cost and ability to provide go-no-go information in semiconductor screening.

  16. Electromagnetic Energy Radiated from Mobile Phone Alters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. World Health Organization (WHO) has classified mobile phone radiation on ... include over expression of heat shock proteins, increased reactive oxygen ... on the electrocardiographic parameters in patients with history of ischemic heart disease, taking ..... has no effects on the defibrillators' function.[21] On the ...

  17. Time-delayed electromagnetic radiation reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Faci, Sofiane

    2016-01-01

    The Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac (LAD) equation has proved valuable in describing the motion of radiating electric charges but suffers from runaway, pre-acceleration and other ambiguities. The usual scheme is problematic because of locality, which leads to self-interaction with the propagating radiation (i.e. real photons). Instead, the present heuristic model relies on an infinitesimal time delay between the action of external forces and the inertial reaction by the charge. This yields a new and pathology-free equation of motion whereas the radiated energy-momentum is expressed as an infinite series that generalises Larmor's formula and leads to testable predictions using current and near future ultra-intense lasers. The time-delay hypothesis is to be put in parallel with recently observed delays of order $10^{-18}$s (attosecond) in photoemission by atoms and small molecules. Such behaviour is extended here to elementary charges which are supposed to exhibit delays given by the time taken by light to cross the char...

  18. Feed network and electromagnetic radiation source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardavan, Arzhang; Singleton, John; Linehan, Kevin E.; Ardavan, Houshang; Schmidt-Zwiefel, Andrea Caroline

    2017-01-17

    An antenna may include a volume polarization current radiator and a feed network. The volume polarization current radiator, includes a dielectric solid (such as a dielectric strip), and a plurality of closely-spaced excitation elements (24), each excitation element (24) being configured to induce a volume polarization current distribution in the dielectric solid proximate to the excitation element when a voltage is applied to the excitation element. The feed network is coupled to the volume polarization current radiator. The feed network also includes a plurality of passive power divider elements (32) and a plurality of passive delay elements (d1-d6) coupling the first port (30) and the plurality of second ports (108, 109, 164), the plurality of power divider elements (32) and the plurality of phase delay elements (d1-d6) being configured such that a radio-frequency signal that is applied to the first port (30) experiences a progressive change of phase as it is coupled to the plurality of second ports (108, 109, 164) so as to cause the volume polarization current distribution to propagate along the dielectric solid.

  19. Radiation-electromagnetic effect in germanium single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikoin, I.K.; Kikoin, L.I.; Lazarev, S.D.

    1980-10-01

    An experimental study was made of the radiation-electromagnetic effect in germanium single crystals when excess carriers were generated by bombardment with ..cap alpha.. particles, protons, or x rays in magnetic fields up to 8 kOe. The source of ..cap alpha.. particles and protons was a cyclotron and x rays were provided by a tube with a copper anode. The radiation-electromagnetic emf increased linearly on increase in the magnetic field and was directly proportional to the flux of charged particles at low values of the flux, reaching saturation at high values of the flux (approx.5 x 10/sup 11/ particles .cm/sup -2/ .sec/sup -1/). In the energy range 4--40 MeV the emf was practically independent of the ..cap alpha..-particle energy. The sign of the emf was reversed when samples with a ground front surface were irradiated. Measurements of the photoelectromagnetic and Hall effects in the ..cap alpha..-particle-irradiated samples showed that a p-n junction was produced by these particles and its presence should be allowed for in investigations of the radiation-electromagnetic effect. The measured even radiation-electromagnetic emf increased quadratically on increase in the magnetic field. An investigation was made of the barrier radiation-voltaic effect (when the emf was measured between the irradiated and unirradiated surfaces). Special masks were used to produce a set of consecutive p-n junctions in germanium crystals irradiated with ..cap alpha.. particles. A study of the photovoltaic and photoelectromagnetic effects in such samples showed that the method could be used to increase the efficiency of devices utilizing the photoelectromagnetic effect.

  20. Polymers and electromagnetic radiation fundamentals and practical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Schnabel, Wolfram

    2014-01-01

    This first book to cover the interaction of polymers with radiation from the entire electromagnetic spectrum adopts a multidisciplinary approach to bridge polymer chemistry and physics, photochemistry, photophysics and materials science. The text is equally unique in its scope, devoting equal amounts of attention to the three aspects of synthesis, characterization, and applications. The first part deals with the interaction of polymers with non-ionizing radiation in the frequency-range from sub-terahertz via infrared radiation to visible and ultraviolet light, while the second covers interaction with ionizing radiation from the extreme ultraviolet to X-ray photons. The result is a systematic overview of how both types of radiation can be used for different polymerization approaches, spectroscopy methods and lithography techniques. Authored by a world-renowned researcher and teacher with over 40 years of experience in the field, this is a highly practical and authoritative guide.

  1. Generation of radiation by intense plasma and electromagnetic undulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, C.

    1991-10-01

    We examine the characteristics of the classical radiation emission resulting from the interaction of a relativistic electron beam that propagates perpendicularly through a large amplitude relativistic plasma wave. Such a study is useful for evaluating the feasibility of using relativistic plasma waves as extremely short wavelength undulators for generating short wavelength radiation. The electron trajectories in a plasma wave undulator and in an ac FEL undulator are obtained using perturbation techniques. The spontaneous radiation frequency spectrum and angular distribution emitted by a single electron oscillating in these two undulators are then calculated. The radiation gain of a copropagating electromagnetic wave is calculated. The approximate analytic results for the trajectories, spontaneous radiation and gain are compared with 3-D simulation results. The characteristics of the plasma wave undulator are compared with the ac FEL undulator and linearly polarized magnetic undulator. 50 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Electromagnetic radiation from linearly and nonlinearly oscillating charge drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigor'ev, A. I.; Shiryaeva, S. O.

    2016-12-01

    It has been shown that analytic calculations of the intensity of electromagnetic radiation from an oscillating charged drop in the approximation linear in the oscillation amplitude (small parameter is on the order of 0.1) give only the quadrupole component of the total radiation. The dipole component can only be obtained in calculations using higher-order approximations. Nevertheless, the intensity of the dipole radiation turns out to be substantially higher (by 14-15 orders of magnitude). This is because the decomposition of radiation from a system of charges into multipole components (differing even in the rates of decrease in the potential with the distance) is carried out using the expansion in a substantially smaller parameter, viz., the ratio of the size of the emitting system (in our case, a drop of radius 10 μm) to the distance to the point of observation in the wave zone of the emission of radiation (emitted wavelength) of 100-1000 m. As a result, this second small parameter is on the order of 10-7 to 10-8. On the other hand, in accordance with the field theory, the ratio of intensities of quadrupole and dipole radiations is proportional to the squared ratio of the hydrodynamic velocity of the oscillating surface of a charged drop to the velocity of propagation of an electromagnetic signal in vacuum (velocity of light), which yields a ratio of 10-14 to 10-15.

  3. Geant4 electromagnetic physics updates for space radiation effects simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivantchenko, Anton; Nieminen, Petteri; Incerti, Sebastien; Santin, Giovanni; Ivantchenko, Vladimir; Grichine, Vladimir; Allison, John; Karamitos, Mathiew

    The Geant4 toolkit is used in many applications including space science studies. The new Geant4 version 10.0 released in December 2013 includes a major revision of the toolkit and offers multi-threaded mode for event level parallelism. At the same time, Geant4 electromagnetic and hadronic physics sub-libraries have been significantly updated. In order to validate the new and updated models Geant4 verification tests and benchmarks were extended. Part of these developments was sponsored by the European Space Agency in the context of research aimed at modelling radiation biological end effects. In this work, we present an overview of results of several benchmarks for electromagnetic physics models relevant to space science. For electromagnetic physics, recently Compton scattering, photoelectric effect, and Rayleigh scattering models have been improved and extended down to lower energies. Models of ionization and fluctuations have also been improved; special micro-dosimetry models for Silicon and liquid water were introduced; the main multiple scattering model was consolidated; and the atomic de-excitation module has been made available to all models. As a result, Geant4 predictions for space radiation effects obtained with different Physics Lists are in better agreement with the benchmark data than previous Geant4 versions. Here we present results of electromagnetic tests and models comparison in the energy interval 10 eV - 10 MeV.

  4. Tinnitus and cell phones: the role of electromagnetic radiofrequency radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Nascimento Medeiros

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Tinnitus is a multifactorial condition and its prevalence has increased on the past decades. The worldwide progressive increase of the use of cell phones has exposed the peripheral auditory pathways to a higher dose of electromagnetic radiofrequency radiation (EMRFR. Some tinnitus patients report that the abusive use of mobiles, especially when repeated in the same ear, might worsen ipsilateral tinnitus. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the available evidence about the possible causal association between tinnitus and exposure to electromagnetic waves. METHODS: A literature review was performed searching for the following keywords: tinnitus, electromagnetic field, mobile phones, radio frequency, and electromagnetic hypersensitivity. We selected 165 articles that were considered clinically relevant in at least one of the subjects. RESULTS: EMRFR can penetrate exposed tissues and safety exposure levels have been established. These waves provoke proved thermogenic effects and potential biological and genotoxic effects. Some individuals are more sensitive to electromagnetic exposure (electrosensitivity, and thus, present earlier symptoms. There may be a common pathophysiology between this electrosensitivity and tinnitus. CONCLUSION: There are already reasonable evidences to suggest caution for using mobile phones to prevent auditory damage and the onset or worsening of tinnitus.

  5. Energy harvesting devices for harvesting energy from terahertz electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novack, Steven D.; Kotter, Dale K.; Pinhero, Patrick J.

    2012-10-09

    Methods, devices and systems for harvesting energy from electromagnetic radiation are provided including harvesting energy from electromagnetic radiation. In one embodiment, a device includes a substrate and one or more resonance elements disposed in or on the substrate. The resonance elements are configured to have a resonant frequency, for example, in at least one of the infrared, near-infrared and visible light spectra. A layer of conductive material may be disposed over a portion of the substrate to form a ground plane. An optical resonance gap or stand-off layer may be formed between the resonance elements and the ground plane. The optical resonance gap extends a distance between the resonance elements and the layer of conductive material approximately one-quarter wavelength of a wavelength of the at least one resonance element's resonant frequency. At least one energy transfer element may be associated with the at least one resonance element.

  6. Electromagnetic radiation of charged particles in stochastic motion

    CERN Document Server

    Harko, Tiberiu

    2016-01-01

    The study of the Brownian motion of a charged particle in electric and magnetic fields fields has many important applications in plasma and heavy ions physics, as well as in astrophysics. In the present paper we consider the electromagnetic radiation properties of a charged non-relativistic particle in the presence of electric and magnetic fields, of an exterior non-electromagnetic potential, and of a friction and stochastic force, respectively. We describe the motion of the charged particle by a Langevin and generalized Langevin type stochastic differential equation. We investigate in detail the cases of the Brownian motion with or without memory in a constant electric field, in the presence of an external harmonic potential, and of a constant magnetic field. In all cases the corresponding Langevin equations are solved numerically, and a full description of the spectrum of the emitted radiation and of the physical properties of the motion is obtained. The Power Spectral Density (PSD) of the emitted power is ...

  7. The Development of a New Anti-electromagnetic Radiation Fabric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Shu-lin; WANG En-qing

    2009-01-01

    By the study of electromagnetic shielding principle, we have designed some new style fabrics for antielectromagnetic radiation through the research of raw materials and fabric texture, and solved the key technical problems such as the manufacture of composite yarn which composed of stainless steel filament and cotton yarn. As a newly developed high technology material, the new style anti-electromagnetic radiation fabric was woven by the special yarn composed of stainless filament and nature fiber. The new fabric overcomes the defect in the production and service of the shielding fabrics at present and satisfies the people's requirement the routine job and life. With further improvement, it can be widely used in aviation,navigation and military project, underground project and so on.

  8. Multipole charge conservation and implications on electromagnetic radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Seraj, Ali

    2016-01-01

    It is shown that conserved charges associated with a specific subclass of gauge symmetries of Maxwell electrodynamics are proportional to the well known electric multipole moments. The symmetries are residual gauge transformations surviving after fixing the Lorenz gauge, and have nontrivial charge. These "Multipole charges" receive contributions both from the charged matter and electromagnetic fields. The former is nothing but the electric multipole moment of the source. In a stationary configuration, there is a novel equipartition relation between the two contributions. The multipole charge, while conserved, can freely interpolate between the source and the electromagnetic field, and therefore can be propagated with the radiation. Using the multipole charge conservation, we obtain infinite number of constraints over the radiation produced by the dynamics of charged matter.

  9. A size limit for uniformly pulsating sources of electromagnetic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewdney, A.K.

    1979-01-01

    An extremal model for a uniformly pulsating source of electromagnetic radiation is developed, and a formula is obtained which relates the source variation to diameter, pulse width, and period. An upper limit on source diameter is derived from this formula, applied to three pulsars, and compared with standard estimates of their diameters. The use of the limit formula is shown to be no less justified, in general, than the size estimate based on the product of variation period and the speed of light.

  10. Electromagnetic Fields Radiated by a Circular Loop with Arbitrary Current

    CERN Document Server

    Salem, Mohamed A

    2014-01-01

    We present a rigorous approach to compute the electromagnetic fields radiated by a thin circular loop with arbitrary current. We employ a polar transmission representation along with a Kontorovich-Lebedev transform to derive integral representations of the field in the interior and exterior regions of a sphere circumscribing the loop. The convergence of the obtained expressions is discussed and comparison with full-wave simulation and other methods are shown.

  11. Tinnitus and cell phones: the role of electromagnetic radiofrequency radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Mohammad Javad Mortazavi; Seyed Ali Reza Mortazavi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Tinnitus is a multifactorial condition and its prevalence has increased on the past decades. The worldwide progressive increase of the use of cell phones has exposed the peripheral auditory pathways to a higher dose of electromagnetic radiofrequency radiation (EMRFR). Some tinnitus patients report that the abusive use of mobiles, especially when repeated in the same ear, might worsen ipsilateral tinnitus. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the availabl...

  12. Electromagnetic Radiation and Motion of Dust Particle A Simple Model

    CERN Document Server

    Klacka, J

    2000-01-01

    A simple model for motion of dust particle (meteoroid) under the action of (solar) electromagnetic radiation is presented. The particle of the form of plane mirror is taken into account and exact analytical results are presented. As for long-term orbital evolution, particle may spiral outwards the central body (Sun); initial conditions are important. As a consequence, motion of real dust particles may differ from that generally considered.

  13. PIC Simulation of Relativistic Electromagnetic Plasma Expansion with Radiation Damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Koichi; Liang, Edison; Wilks, Scott

    2004-11-01

    One of the unsolved problems in astrophysics is the acceleration of nonthermal high-energy particles. Nonthermal radiation is observed from pulsars, blazers, gamma-ray bursts and black holes. Recently, a new mechanism of relativistic nonthermal particle acceleration, called the Diamagnetic Relativistic Pulse Accelerator(DRPA), discovered using multi-dimensional Particle-in-Cell(PIC) simulations. When a plasma-loaded electromagnetic pulse expands relativistically, the self-induced drift current creates ponderomotive trap, which drags only the fast particles in the trap and leave slow ones behind. Here we study the effect of radiation on an electron-positron plasma accelerated by the DRPA, by introducing the radiation force in our 2D PIC code. In the radiation case, particles are accelerated by the EM pulse but decelerated by the radiation reaction simultaneously, whereas particles are accelerated indefinitely in the non-radiation case. We find that even with the radiation dumping the DRPA mechanism remains robust and particles are accelerated to over γ>100. After the simulation reaches the quasi-equilibrium state, kinetic energy becomes constant, and field energy is converted to radiation using particles as the transfer agent. We will also produce sample light waves of the radiation output.

  14. Study of electromagnetic radiation pollution in an Indian city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhami, A K

    2012-11-01

    Electromagnetic radiation emitted by cell phone towers is a form of environmental pollution and is a new health hazard, especially to children and patients. The present studies were taken to estimate the microwave/RF pollution by measuring radiation power densities near schools and hospitals of Chandigarh city in India. The cell phone radiations were measured using a handheld portable power density meter TES 593 and specific absorption rates were estimated from the measured values. These values of electromagnetic radiation in the environment were compared with the levels at which biological system of humans and animals starts getting affected. The values were also compared with the international exposure limits set by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). The highest measured power density was 11.48 mW/m(2) which is 1,148% of the biological limit. The results indicated that the exposure levels in the city were below the ICNIRP limit, but much above the biological limit.

  15. The dielectric response to the magnetic field of electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Shouvik; Mukhopadhyay, Sourabh; Datta, Prasanta Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Light–matter interaction in transparent dielectrics is revisited, including the magnetic force on bound charges in the Lorentz oscillator model. The parameter ranges of incident radiation and the medium on which the magnetic field of the electromagnetic radiation will have a significant effect are traced using Floquet theory. The analysis reveals that the threshold intensity for a significant response of the magnetic field of the radiation at the second harmonic of the incident radiation can be reduced to {10}12 {{W}}{{cm}}-2 for off resonant and even lower for resonant interaction. This phenomenon has already been observed indirectly in experiments [1, 2]. Induced magnetizing current due to the magnetic force is shown to originate from a modified dielectric response, which may be useful in future magneto-optic devices, solar energy harvesting, and studying the ultrafast dynamics in doped dielectrics.

  16. EFFECT OF VISIBLE RANGE ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATIONS ON ESCHERICHIA COLI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeemi, Samina T Yousuf; Shaukat, Saleem Farooq; Azeemi, Khawaja Shamsuddin; Khan, Idrees; Mahmood, Khalid; Naz, Farah

    2017-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the agent responsible for a range of clinical diseases. With emerging antimicrobial resistance, other treatment options including solar/photo-therapy are becoming increasingly common. Visible Range Radiation Therapy/Colour Therapy is an emerging technique in the field of energy/vibrational medicine that uses visible spectrum of Electromagnetic Radiations to cure different diseases. In this study, our goal was to understand the effect of Visible Range Electromagnetic Radiations on E. coli (in vitro) and therefore find out the most appropriate visible range radiation for the treatment of diseases caused by E. coli. A total of 6 non-repetitive E. coli isolates were obtained from urine samples obtained from hospitalized patients with UTI. Single colony of E. coli was inoculated in 3 ml of Lysogeny Broth (LB) and 40 μl of this E. coli suspension was poured into each of the plastic tubes which were then irradiated with six different wavelengths in the visible region (Table. 1) after 18 hours with one acting as a control. The Optical Densities of these irradiated samples were then measured. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy (TEFCAN ZEGA3) was carried out. The analysis of the microscopic and SEM images of irradiated E. coli samples with six different visible range radiations is representative of The fact that E. coli responded differently to every applied radiation in the visible region and the most profound inhibitory effects were that of 538nm Visible Range Radiation (Green) which proved to be bactericidal and 590nm Visible Range Radiation (yellow) which was bacteriostatic. The enhanced growth of E. coli with varying degrees was clearly observed in 610nm (orange), 644nm (red), 464nm (Purple) and 453nm (blue). It can be concluded that 538nm (Green) and 590nm (Yellow) can effectively be used for treating E. coli borne diseases.

  17. Electromagnetic Radiation: A Curriculum Unit for High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levandovsky, N.; Hawkins, I.; Malina, R. F.

    1994-05-01

    The main goal of the new satellite operations class offered by UC Berkeley in collaboration with San Francisco State University is to provide teachers with detailed information about the goals, phases, and results of NASA's Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) satellite mission. One of the outcomes of this class is to create new lesson plans, curricula for elective courses, and non-traditional teaching techniques and methods, all of which may be incorporated in schools in order to develop students' cognitive interest in science. The information about this unique NASA satellite mission may be presented to high school students in many different ways: class discussions, extra-curricular research assignments, expositions for school museums of science, computer animations, science conferences, educational games, etc. Another approach is to infuse the material related to this project directly into the existing science curricula. The unit ``Electromagnetic Radiation'' presents us with a variety of opportunities to include scientific information related to the EUVE mission in the most natural way. The following issues related to modern astrophysics may be introduced and discussed in this unit: the position that EUV radiation occupies on the electromagnetic spectrum, the sources that emit this type of radiation, the properties and characteristics of this radiation in comparison with other types of electromagnetic waves, and the methods used to detect and analyze EUV and other types of radiation during NASA missions. We will present an overview and a specific detailed example related to this curriculum unit. This work has been supported by NASA contract NAS5-29298. Class support has been provided by a NASA supplemental grant for education. Travel made possible by Research Corporation.

  18. Electromagnetic radiation generated by arcing in low density plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayner, Boris V.; Ferguson, Dale C.; Snyder, David B.; Doreswamy, C. V.

    1996-01-01

    An unavoidable step in the process of space exploration is to use high-power, very large spacecraft launched into Earth orbit. Obviously, the spacecraft will need powerful energy sources. Previous experience has shown that electrical discharges occur on the surfaces of a high-voltage array, and these discharges (arcs) are undesirable in many respects. Moreover, any high voltage conductor will interact with the surrounding plasma, and that interaction may result in electrical discharges between the conductor and plasma (or between two conductors with different potentials, for example, during docking and extravehicular activity). One very important aspect is the generation of electromagnetic radiation by arcing. To prevent the negative influence of electromagnetic noise on the operation of spacecraft systems, it seems necessary to determine the spectra and absolute levels of the radiation, and to determine limitations on the solar array bias voltage that depend on the parameters of LEO plasma and the technical requirements of the spacecraft equipment. This report describes the results of an experimental study and computer simulation of the electromagnetic radiation generated by arcing on spacecraft surfaces. A large set of high quality data was obtained during the Solar Array Module Plasma Interaction Experiment (SAMPIE, flight STS-62) and ground test. These data include the amplitudes of current, pulse forms, duration of each arc, and spectra of plasma waves. A theoretical explanation of the observed features is presented in this report too. The elaborated model allows us to determine the parameters of the electromagnetic noise for different frequency ranges, distances from the arcing site, and distinct kinds of plasma waves.

  19. [Influence of electromagnetic radiation on toxicity of Vipera lebetina obtusa venom].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiev, G A; Babaev, E I; Topchieva, Sh A; Chumburidze, T B; Nemsitsveridze, N G

    2009-11-01

    The aim of the article was to study the effect of electromagnetic radiation on toxicity of Vipera lebetina obtusa venom. It was found that mice intoxicated with snake venom, with moderate to high exposure to electromagnetic radiation and mice intoxicated with venom, which had not been exposed to the radiation showed the same symptoms of intoxication and death. At the same time, the longevity of mice intoxicated with venom exposed to electromagnetic radiation was higher. The longevity of mice in control group was 25+/-5 min. The longevity of mice intoxicated with exposed to electromagnetic radiation snake venom was from 29 to 60 min. The research showed that the longevity of mice intoxicated with snake venom rose with the level of electromagnetic radiation intensity the snake was exposed to. Accordingly, snake venom, with exposure to high intensity electromagnetic radiation is less toxic.

  20. Theory of electromagnetic insertion devices and the corresponding synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumail, Muhammad; Tantawi, Sami G.

    2016-07-01

    Permanent magnet insertion devices (IDs), which are the main radiation generating devices in synchrotron light sources and free-electron lasers, use a time-invariant but space-periodic magnetic field to wiggle relativistic electrons for short-wavelength radiation generation. Recently, a high power microwave based undulator has also been successfully demonstrated at SLAC which promises the advantage of dynamic tunability of radiation spectrum and polarization. Such IDs employ transverse elecromagnetic fields which are periodic in both space and time to undulate the electrons. In this paper we develop a detailed theory of the principle of electromagnetic IDs from first principles for both linear and circular polarization modes. The electromagnetic equivalent definitions of undulator period (λu) and undulator deflection parameter (K ) are derived. In the inertial frame where the average momentum of the electron is zero, we obtain the figure-8-like trajectory for the linear polarization mode and the circular trajectory for the circular polarization mode. The corresponding radiation spectra and the intensity of harmonics is also calculated.

  1. Radiation and scattering from imperfect cylindrical electromagnetic cloaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isic, G; Gajic, R; Novakovic, B; Popovic, Z V; Hingerl, K

    2008-02-04

    The design of electromagnetic invisibility cloaks is based on singular mappings prescribing zero or infinite values for material parameters on the inner surface of the cloak. Since this is only approximately feasible, an asymptotic analysis is necessary for a sound description of cloaks. We adopt a simple and effective approach for analyzing electromagnetic cloaks - instead of the originally proposed singular mapping, nonsingular mappings asymptotically approaching the ideal one are considered. Scattering and radiation from this type of imperfect cylindrical cloaks is solved analytically and the results are confirmed by full-wave finite element simulations. Our analysis sheds more light on the influence of this kind of imperfection on the cloaking performance and further explores the physics of cloaking devices.

  2. Human reactions to electromagnetic radiation in millimeter range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, E.A.; Belyy, M.U.; Sit' ko, S.P.

    1985-01-01

    The article deals with a problem that is on the boundary of different disciplines. The authors discovered previously unknown effects of low-energy electromagnetic radiation on the human body. A total of 188 subjects, both healthy and sick in terms of medical diagnosis, were submitted to sensory tests. The vast majority of healthy subjects did not react to radiation in the range of 27-78 GHz and power density of up to 10 mW/cm/sup 2/. The same situation was also observed in many cases with patients. However, exposure of very specific parts of the body of sick subjects to electromagnetic waves at a fixed frequency in the range of 45-65 GHz elicited a sensory reaction in the region of the organ with a marked impairment, and this was an organ that was spatially remote from the irradiated region. It was established that the zones on the surface of the body that are the most sensitive to radiation coincide with acupuncture zones that are known in reflex acupuncture therapy. In addition to presentation of experimental results, the authors also propose a theoretical interpretation of the demonstrated effects.

  3. Detection of electromagnetic radiation using micromechanical multiple quantum wells structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datskos, Panagiotis G [Knoxville, TN; Rajic, Slobodan [Knoxville, TN; Datskou, Irene [Knoxville, TN

    2007-07-17

    An apparatus and method for detecting electromagnetic radiation employs a deflectable micromechanical apparatus incorporating multiple quantum wells structures. When photons strike the quantum-well structure, physical stresses are created within the sensor, similar to a "bimetallic effect." The stresses cause the sensor to bend. The extent of deflection of the sensor can be measured through any of a variety of conventional means to provide a measurement of the photons striking the sensor. A large number of such sensors can be arranged in a two-dimensional array to provide imaging capability.

  4. Spectral responsivity calibration of the reference radiation thermometer at KRISS by using a super-continuum laser-based high-accuracy monochromatic source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yong Shim; Kim, Gun Jung; Park, Seongchong; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Bong-Hak

    2016-12-01

    We report on the calibration of the relative spectral responsivity of the reference radiation thermometer, model LP4, which is used for the experimental realisation of the international temperature scale of 1990 above 960 °C at the Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science. The relative spectral responsivity of LP4 is measured by using a monochromatic source consisting of a super-continuum laser and a double-grating monochromator. By monitoring the wavelength of the output beam directly with a calibrated wavelength-meter, we achieved a high-accuracy measurement of spectral responsivity with a maximum wavelength error of less than 3 pm, a narrow spectral bandwidth of less than 0.4 nm, and a high dynamic range over 8 decades. We evaluated the contributions of various uncertainty components of the spectral responsivity measurement to the uncertainty of the temperature scale based on a practical estimation approach, which numerically calculates the maximal effects of the variations of each component. As a result, we evaluate the uncertainty contribution from the spectral responsivity measurement to the temperature scale to be less than 64 mK (k  =  1) in a range from 660 °C to 2749 °C for the LP4 with a filter at 650 nm.

  5. Absorption of monochromatic and narrow band radiation in the visible and near IR by both mitochondrial and non-mitochondrial photoacceptors results in photobiomodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passarella, Salvatore; Karu, Tiina

    2014-11-01

    In addition to the major functions performed by in the cell, mitochondria play a major role in cell-light interaction. Accordingly it is generally accepted that mitochondria are crucial in cell photobiomodulation; however a variety of biomolecules themselves proved to be targets of light irradiation. We describe whether and how mitochondria can interact with monochromatic and narrow band radiation in the red and near IR optical regions with dissection of both structural and functional effects likely leading to photobiostimulation. Moreover we also report that a variety of biomolecules localized in mitochondria and/or in other cell compartments including cytochrome c oxidase, some proteins, nucleic acids and adenine nucleotides are light sensitive with major modifications in their biochemistry. All together the reported investigations show that the elucidation of the mechanism of the light interaction with biological targets still remains to be completed, this needing further research, however the light sensitivity of a variety of molecules strongly suggests that photobiomodulation could be used in both in photomedicine and in biotechnology.

  6. Electromagnetic radiation from a kicked sheet of charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, P. C.

    1986-03-01

    The plane-wave electromagnetic fields for a kicked sheet of charge are found and then compared with the fields obtained by superimposing the radiation fields of the individual charges in the plane. Unlike the case of the oscillating sheet of charge discussed in The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol. I [R. P. Feynman et al. (Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1963)], the plane-wave fields of the kicked sheet differ from the fields obtained by superposition of the individual radiation fields. The resolution of this problem requires consideration of relativistic effects even though the velocity of the sheet after the kick may be as small as desired. The relation between the solution for the kicked sheet and solution for the oscillating sheet is discussed, and it is shown how the two solutions are consistent if all contributions to the fields are taken into account.

  7. Radiation Bandwidth Improvement of Electromagnetic Band Gap Cavity Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaabane, Abdelhalim; Djahli, Farid; Attia, Hussein; Denidni, Tayeb. A.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, an electromagnetic band gap cavity antenna with improved radiation and impedance bandwidths is presented. The proposed antenna is constructed by placing a triple-layer heterogeneous printed-unprinted partially reflective surface (PRS) above a primary aperture-coupled patch antenna. The PRS unit-cell provides a positive gradient reflection phase behavior over the desired frequency range. A prototype antenna is fabricated and measured that highlighted its ability to achieve 3-dB gain bandwidth of about 35.9 %, from 7.93 GHz to 11.4 GHz, with a peak gain of 14.25 dBi at 8.5 GHz. In addition, the impedance bandwidth is 40.32 %, from 7.9 GHz to 11.89 GHz. Thus, the designed antenna outperforms many other competitors for improving the radiation bandwidth of planar antennas with the same presented concept.

  8. Geometrical Effects on the Electromagnetic Radiation from Lightning Return Strokes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, J. C.; Smith, D. A.; LeVine, D. M.; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The morphological difference between the electromagnetic radiation-field waveforms of "first" and "subsequent" return strokes in cloud-to-ground lightning flashes is well known and can be used to identify the formation of new channels to ground. This difference is generally believed due to the existence of branches on first-stroke channels, whereas subsequent strokes re-illuminate only the main channel of a previous stroke; but experimental evidence for this hypothesis is relatively weak. It has been argued for the influence of channel geometry on the fine structure of radiation from subsequent return strokes by comparing the field-change waveforms recorded at the same station from strokes within the same flash and between different flashes of both natural and triggered lightning. The present paper introduces new evidence for both of these hypotheses from a comparison of waveforms between sensors in different directions from the same stroke.

  9. Electromagnetic radiation of charged particles in stochastic motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harko, Tiberiu [Babes-Bolyai University, Department of Physics, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); University College London, Department of Mathematics, London (United Kingdom); Mocanu, Gabriela [Astronomical Institute of the Romanian Academy, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2016-03-15

    The study of the Brownian motion of a charged particle in electric and magnetic fields has many important applications in plasma and heavy ions physics, as well as in astrophysics. In the present paper we consider the electromagnetic radiation properties of a charged non-relativistic particle in the presence of electric and magnetic fields, of an exterior non-electromagnetic potential, and of a friction and stochastic force, respectively. We describe the motion of the charged particle by a Langevin and generalized Langevin type stochastic differential equation. We investigate in detail the cases of the Brownian motion with or without memory in a constant electric field, in the presence of an external harmonic potential, and of a constant magnetic field. In all cases the corresponding Langevin equations are solved numerically, and a full description of the spectrum of the emitted radiation and of the physical properties of the motion is obtained. The power spectral density of the emitted power is also obtained for each case, and, for all considered oscillating systems, it shows the presence of peaks, corresponding to certain intervals of the frequency. (orig.)

  10. Electromagnetic Radiation From An Equilibrium Quark -Gluon Plasma System

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, S S; Jha, Agam K.

    2006-01-01

    We study the electromagnetic radiation from a hot and slightly strong interacting fireball system of quark-gluon plasma using the Boltzmann distribution function for the incoming particles and Bose-Einstein distribution for gluon in first calculation of electromagnetic radiation and Fermi-Dirac distribution for quark, antiquark and Boltzmann distribution for gluon in our second calculation. The thermal photon emission rate is found that it is infrared divergent for massless quarks which are discussed by many authors and regulate this divergence using different cut-off in the qurak mass. However we remove this divergence using the same technique of Braaten and Pisarski in the thermal mass of the system by using our model calculation in the coupling parameter. Thus the production rate of the thermal photon is found to be smoothly worked by this cut-off technique of our model. The result is found to be matched with the most of the theoretical calculations and it is in the conformity with the experimental results...

  11. Oxygen-independent inactivation of Haemophilus influenzae transforming DNA by monochromatic radiation: action spectrum, effect of histidine and repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera-Juarez, E.; Setlow, J.K.; Swenson, P.A.; Peak, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    The action spectrum for the oxygen-independent inactivation of native transforming DNA from Haemophilus influenzae with near-uv radiation revealed a shoulder beginning at 334 and extending to 460 nm. The presence of 0.2 M histidine during irradiation produced a small increase in inactivation at 254, 290 and 313 nm, a large increase at 334 nm and a decrease in inactivation at 365, 405, and 460 nm. Photoreactivation did not reverse the DNA damage produced at pH 7.0 at 334, 365, 405 and 460 nm, but did reactivate the DNA after irradiation at 254, 290 and 313 nm. The inactivation of DNA irradiated at 254, 290 and 313 nm was considerably greater when the transforming ability was assayed in an excision-defective mutant compared with the wild type, although DNA irradiated at 334, 365, 405 and 460 nm showed smaller differences. These results suggest that the oxygen-independent inactivation of H. influenzae DNA at pH 7 by irradiation at 334, 365, 405 and 460 nm is caused by lesions other than pyrimidine dimers.

  12. Risks of carcinogenesis from electromagnetic radiation of mobile telephony devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakymenko, I; Sidorik, E

    2010-07-01

    Intensive implementation of mobile telephony technology in everyday human life during last two decades has given a possibility for epidemiological estimation of long-term effects of chronic exposure of human organism to low-intensive microwave (MW) radiation. Latest epidemiological data reveal a significant increase in risk of development of some types of tumors in chronic (over 10 years) users of mobile phone. It was detected a significant increase in incidence of brain tumors (glioma, acoustic neuroma, meningioma), parotid gland tumor, seminoma in long-term users of mobile phone, especially in cases of ipsilateral use (case-control odds ratios from 1.3 up to 6.1). Two epidemiological studies have indicated a significant increase of cancer incidence in people living close to the mobile telephony base station as compared with the population from distant area. These data raise a question of adequacy of modern safety limits of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) exposure for humans. For today the limits were based solely on the conception of thermal mechanism of biological effects of RF/MW radiation. Meantime the latest experimental data indicate the significant metabolic changes in living cell under the low-intensive (non-thermal) EMR exposure. Among reproducible biological effects of low-intensive MWs are reactive oxygen species overproduction, heat shock proteins expression, DNA damages, apoptosis. The lack of generally accepted mechanism of biological effects of low-intensive non-ionizing radiation doesn't permit to disregard the obvious epidemiological and experimental data of its biological activity. Practical steps must be done for reasonable limitation of excessive EMR exposure, along with the implementation of new safety limits of mobile telephony devices radiation, and new technological decisions, which would take out the source of radiation from human brain.

  13. Current-voltage characteristic of a resonant tunneling diode under electromagnetic radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Hatefi Kargan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available  In this paper, current-voltage characteristic of a resonant tunneling diode under electromagnetic radiation has been calculated and compared with the results when there is no electromagnetic radiation. For calculating current -voltage characteristic, it is required to calculate the transmission coefficient of electrons from the well and barrier structures of this device. For calculating the transmission coefficient of electrons at the presence of electromagnetic radiation, Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD method has been used and when there is no electromagnetic radiation Transfer Matrix Method (TMM and finite diffirence time domain method have been used. The results show that the presence of electromagnetic radiation causes resonant states other than principal resonant state (without presence of electromagnetic radiation to appear on the transmition coefficient curve where they are in distances from the principal peak and from each other. Also, the presence of electromagnetic radiation causes peaks other than principal peak to appear on the current-voltage characteristics of the device. Under electromagnetic radiation, the number of peaks on the current-voltage curve is smaller than the number of peaks on the current-voltage transmission coefficient. This is due to the fact that current-voltage curve is the result of integration on the energy of electrons, Thus, the sharper and low height peaks on the transmission coefficient do not appear on the current-voltage characteristic curve.

  14. The assessment of electromagnetic field radiation exposure for mobile phone users

    OpenAIRE

    Buckus Raimondas; Strukcinskiene Birute; Raistenskis Juozas

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aim. During recent years, the widespread use of mobile phones has resulted in increased human exposure to electromagnetic field radiation and to health risks. Increased usage of mobile phones at the close proximity raises questions and doubts in safety of mobile phone users. The aim of the study was to assess an electromagnetic field radiation exposure for mobile phone users by measuring electromagnetic field strength in different settings at the...

  15. Correlation of electromagnetic radiation emitted from coal or rock to supporting resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Hui-lin; WANG En-yuan; SONG Xiao-yan; ZHANG Hong-jie; LI Zhong-hui

    2009-01-01

    More accurate forecasting of rock burst might be possible from observations of electromagnetic radiation emitted in the mine. We analyzed experimental observations and field data from the Muchengjian coal mine to study the relationship between electromagnetic radiation signal intensity and stress during the fracturing of coal, or rock, and samples under load. The results show that the signal intensity is positively correlated with stress. In addition, we investigated the change in the electromagnetic radiation intensity, the supporting resistance in a real coal mine environment, and the coal or rock stress in the mining area. The data analysis indicates that: 1) electromagnetic radiation intensity can accurately reflect the distribution of stress in the mining area; and, 2) there is a correlation between electromagnetic radiation intensity and supporting resistance. The research has some practical guiding significance for rock burst forecasting and for the prevention of accidents in coal mines.

  16. Superconductors as transducers and antennas for gravitational and electromagnetic radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Chiao, R Y

    2002-01-01

    Type II superconductors will be considered as macroscopic quantum gravitational antennas, which can simultaneously also be used as efficient transducers for converting electromagnetic radiation into gravitational radiation, and vice versa. A Meissner-like effect, in which the Lense-Thirring field associated with a gravity wave is expelled from the interior of the superconductor, is predicted. An analysis of a process of natural impedance matching in type II superconductors such as YBCO based on the Ginzburg-Landau theory yields an estimate of the transducer conversion efficiency of the order of unity upon reflection of the wave. Thus efficient emitters and receivers of gravitational radiation can be constructed at microwave frequencies. A simple, Hertz-like experiment using YBCO and 12 GHz microwaves is being performed to test these ideas. Results of this experiment will be reported elsewhere. (PACS nos.: 03.65.Ud, 04.30.Db, 04.30.Nk, 04.80.Nn, 74.60-w, 74.72.Bk)

  17. Thermal electromagnetic radiation in heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, R.; van Hees, H.

    2016-08-01

    We review the potential of precise measurements of electromagnetic probes in relativistic heavy-ion collisions for the theoretical understanding of strongly interacting matter. The penetrating nature of photons and dileptons implies that they can carry undistorted information about the hot and dense regions of the fireballs formed in these reactions and thus provide a unique opportunity to measure the electromagnetic spectral function of QCD matter as a function of both invariant mass and momentum. In particular we report on recent progress on how the medium modifications of the (dominant) isovector part of the vector current correlator ( ρ channel) can shed light on the mechanism of chiral symmetry restoration in the hot and/or dense environment. In addition, thermal dilepton radiation enables novel access to a) the fireball lifetime through the dilepton yield in the low invariant-mass window 0.3 GeV ≤ M ≤ 0.7 GeV, and b) the early temperatures of the fireball through the slope of the invariant-mass spectrum in the intermediate-mass region (1.5 GeV < M < 2.5 GeV). The investigation of the pertinent excitation function suggests that the beam energies provided by the NICA and FAIR projects are in a promising range for a potential discovery of the onset of a first-order phase transition, as signaled by a non-monotonous behavior of both low-mass yields and temperature slopes.

  18. Thermal electromagnetic radiation in heavy-ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, R. [Texas A and M University, Cyclotron Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, College Station, TX (United States); Hees, H. van [Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Frankfurt (Germany); Frankfurt Institute of Advanced Studies (FIAS), Frankfurt (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    We review the potential of precise measurements of electromagnetic probes in relativistic heavy-ion collisions for the theoretical understanding of strongly interacting matter. The penetrating nature of photons and dileptons implies that they can carry undistorted information about the hot and dense regions of the fireballs formed in these reactions and thus provide a unique opportunity to measure the electromagnetic spectral function of QCD matter as a function of both invariant mass and momentum. In particular we report on recent progress on how the medium modifications of the (dominant) isovector part of the vector current correlator (ρ channel) can shed light on the mechanism of chiral symmetry restoration in the hot and/or dense environment. In addition, thermal dilepton radiation enables novel access to (a) the fireball lifetime through the dilepton yield in the low invariant-mass window 0.3 GeV ≤ M ≤ 0.7 GeV, and (b) the early temperatures of the fireball through the slope of the invariant-mass spectrum in the intermediate-mass region (1.5 GeV < M < 2.5 GeV). The investigation of the pertinent excitation function suggests that the beam energies provided by the NICA and FAIR projects are in a promising range for a potential discovery of the onset of a first-order phase transition, as signaled by a non-monotonous behavior of both low-mass yields and temperature slopes. (orig.)

  19. Thermal Electromagnetic Radiation in Heavy-Ion Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Rapp, R

    2016-01-01

    We review the potential of precise measurements of electromagnetic probes in relativistic heavy-ion collisions for the theoretical understanding of strongly interacting matter. The penetrating nature of photons and dileptons implies that they can carry undistorted information about the hot and dense regions of the fireballs formed in these reactions and thus provide a unique opportunity to measure the electromagnetic spectral function of QCD matter as a function of both invariant mass and momentum. In particular we report on recent progress on how the medium modifications of the (dominant) isovector part of the vector current correlator ($\\rho$ channel) can shed light on the mechanism of chiral symmetry restoration in the hot and/or dense environment. In addition, thermal dilepton radiation enables novel access to (a) the fireball lifetime through the dilepton yield in the low invariant-mass window $0.3 \\; \\mathrm{GeV} \\leq M \\leq 0.7 \\; \\mathrm{GeV}$, and (b) the early temperatures of the fireball through th...

  20. Red shift in spectra of galaxies as a consequence of gravitational radiation of the same level as electromagnetic

    OpenAIRE

    Fisenko, S. I.; Fisenko, I. S.

    2010-01-01

    In elaboration of the results presented earlier the red shift is also regarded in this investigation as a widening of electromagnetic radiation spectra, determined by the existence of gravitational radiation of a banded spectrum of the same level as electromagnetic.

  1. A metasurface for conversion of electromagnetic radiation to DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Badawe, Mohamed; Almoneef, Thamer S.; Ramahi, Omar M.

    2017-03-01

    We present a metasurface electromagnetic energy harvester based on electrically small resonators. An array of 8 × 8 cross resonators was designed to operate at 3GHz. Unlike earlier designs of metasurface harvesters where each resonator was connected to a single rectifier or load, in this work the received power by all resonators is channeled to a single rectifier which in turn channels the DC energy to a single 50 Ω resistive load. The critical advantage of the proposed structure is maximizing power density per diode which maximizes the diode turn-on time. We show through simulation and measurements that the proposed metasurface harvester provides Radiation to DC conversion efficiency of more than 40%.

  2. Electromagnetic radiation trapped in the magnetosphere above the plasma frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Shaw, R. R.

    1973-01-01

    An electromagnetic noise band is frequently observed in the outer magnetosphere by the Imp 6 spacecraft at frequencies from about 5 to 20 kHz. This noise band generally extends throughout the region from near the plasmapause boundary to near the magnetopause boundary. The noise typically has a broadband field strength of about 5 microvolts/meter. The noise band often has a sharp lower cutoff frequency at about 5 to 10 kHz, and this cutoff has been identified as the local electron plasma frequency. Since the plasma frequency in the plasmasphere and solar wind is usually above 20 kHz, it is concluded that this noise must be trapped in the low-density region between the plasmapause and magnetopause boundaries. The noise bands often contain a harmonic frequency structure which suggests that the radiation is associated with harmonics of the electron cyclotron frequency.

  3. [Experimental research on the electromagnetic radiation immunity of a kind of portable monitor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jun; Xiao, Dongping; Jian, Xin

    2010-11-01

    The paper is focused on a kind of portable monitor that is widely used in military hospitals. In order to study the electromagnetic radiation immunity of the monitor, the experiments of electromagnetic radiation caused by radio frequency continuous wave in reverberation chamber and by ultra wide band (UWB) electromagnetic pulse have been done. The study results show that UWB electromagnetic pulse interferes observably the operating state of the monitor. It should be paid high attention to take protective measures. The monitor tested has some electromagnetic immunity ability for radio frequency continuous wave radiation. The frequent abnormal phenomena are baseline drift and waveform distortion. The electromagnetic sensitivity of the monitor is related to the frequency of interference source. The monitor tested is most sensitive to the frequency of 390 MHz.

  4. Interaction of Charged Particles with Ultra Strong Electromagnetic Waves in the Radiation Dominant Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulanov, S. V.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Koga, J.; Tajima, T.

    2004-10-01

    The plasma particle interaction with a relativistically intense electromagnetic wave under the conditions when the radiation reaction effects are dominant is considered. We analyze the radiation damping effects on the electron motion inside the circularly polarized planar wave and inside a subcycle crossed-field electromagnetic pulse. We consider the ion acceleration due to the radiation pressure action on a thin plasma slab. The results of 2D and 3D PIC simulations are presented.

  5. Controlling Energy Radiations of Electromagnetic Waves via Frequency Coding Metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haotian; Liu, Shuo; Wan, Xiang; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Dan; Li, Lianlin; Cui, Tie Jun

    2017-09-01

    Metamaterials are artificial structures composed of subwavelength unit cells to control electromagnetic (EM) waves. The spatial coding representation of metamaterial has the ability to describe the material in a digital way. The spatial coding metamaterials are typically constructed by unit cells that have similar shapes with fixed functionality. Here, the concept of frequency coding metamaterial is proposed, which achieves different controls of EM energy radiations with a fixed spatial coding pattern when the frequency changes. In this case, not only different phase responses of the unit cells are considered, but also different phase sensitivities are also required. Due to different frequency sensitivities of unit cells, two units with the same phase response at the initial frequency may have different phase responses at higher frequency. To describe the frequency coding property of unit cell, digitalized frequency sensitivity is proposed, in which the units are encoded with digits "0" and "1" to represent the low and high phase sensitivities, respectively. By this merit, two degrees of freedom, spatial coding and frequency coding, are obtained to control the EM energy radiations by a new class of frequency-spatial coding metamaterials. The above concepts and physical phenomena are confirmed by numerical simulations and experiments.

  6. Living Organisms Coupling to Electromagnetic Radiation Below Thermal Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolc, Viktor; Freund, Friedemann

    2013-04-01

    Ultralow frequency (ULF) and extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic (EM) radiation is part of the natural environment. Prior to major earthquakes the local ULF and global ELF radiation field is often markedly perturbed. This has detrimental effects on living organisms. We are studying the mechanism of these effects on the biochemical, cellular and organismal levels. The transfer of electrons along the Electron Transfer Chain (ETC) controls the universal reduction-oxidation reactions that are essential for fundamental biochemical processes in living cells. In order for these processes to work properly, the ETC has to maintain some form of synchronization, or coherence with all biochemical reactions in the living cells, including energy production, RNA transcription, and DNA replication. As a consequence of this synchronization, harmful chemical conflict between the reductive and the oxidative partial reactions can be minimized or avoided. At the same time we note that the synchronization allows for a transfer of energy, coherent or interfering, via coupling to the natural ambient EM field. Extremely weak high frequency EM fields, well below the thermal noise level, tuned in frequency to the electron spins of certain steps in the ETC, have already been shown to cause aberrant cell growth and disorientation among plants and animals with respect to the magnetic and gravity vectors. We investigate EM fields over a much wider frequency range, including ULF known to be generated deep in the Earth prior to major earthquakes locally, and ELF known to be fed by lightning discharges, traveling around the globe in the cavity formed between the Earth's surface and the ionosphere. This ULF/ELF radiation can control the timing of the biochemical redox cycle and thereby have a universal effect on physiology of organisms. The timing can even have a detrimental influence, via increased oxidative damage, on the DNA replication, which controls heredity.

  7. [Effect of decimeter polarized electromagnetic radiation on germinating capacity of seeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polevik, N D

    2013-01-01

    The effect of a polarization structure of electromagnetic radiation on the germinating capacity of seeds of such weeds as Green foxtail (Setaria viridis) and Green amaranth (Amaranthus retroflexus) has been studied. Seeds have been exposed to impulse electromagnetic radiation in a frequency of 896 MHz with linear, elliptical right-handed and elliptical left-handed polarizations at different power flux density levels. It is determined that the effect of the right-handed polarized electromagnetic radiation increases and the influence of the left-handed polarized one reduces the germinating capacity of seeds compared to the effect of the linearly polarized electromagnetic radiation. It is shown that the seeds have an amplitude polarization selectivity as evinced by the major effect of the right-handed polarized radiation on seeds. An electrodynamic model as the right-handed elliptically polarized antenna with the given quantity of the ellipticity of polarization is suggested to use in description of this selectivity.

  8. A non-contact mine pressure evaluation method by electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Enyuan; He, Xueqiu; Liu, Xiaofei; Li, Zhonghui; Wang, Chao; Xiao, Dong

    2011-10-01

    An electromagnetic radiation evaluation method for the relative stress state of coal bed under stress was proposed in this paper. The stress distribution of mine roadway or working face, as well as high stress zone or stress gradient zone, was analyzed by the method. The main advantages of the technique are its characteristics of non-contact, orientability, and regional monitoring. Correlation analysis of electromagnetic radiation with relative stress was carried out in coal mines and tunnels. The results indicate that the electromagnetic radiation technology has a wide application prospect in the evaluation of mine pressure.

  9. Influence of electromagnetic radiation produced by mobile phone on some biophysical blood properties in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bediwi, Abu Bakr; Saad, Mohamed; El-kott, Attall F; Eid, Eman

    2013-04-01

    Effects of electromagnetic radiation produced by mobile phone on blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, hemolysis, Osmotic fragility, and blood components of rats have been investigated. Experimental results show that there are significant change on blood components and its viscosity which affects on a blood circulation due to many body problems. Red blood cells, White blood cells, and Platelets are broken after exposure to electromagnetic radiation produced by mobile phone. Also blood viscosity and plasma viscosity values are increased but Osmotic fragility value decreased after exposure to electromagnetic radiation produced by mobile phone.

  10. Hazards of Electromagnetic Radiation to Personnel on Air Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nursel Akçam

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study is to explain how the electromagnetic interference occur, its environmental hazards and protective method from this hazards. The hazards of electromagnetic interference on people was investigated. Related standards about Electromagnetic Compatibility and Electromagnetic Interference was researched. And also results were presented. More over information about MXF-484 V/UHF airborne radio used for application was given. Environmental effects of electromagnetic field occured by the varying frequency values on the MXF-484 V/UHF airborne radio of utility and attack helicopters were measured. Results of tests were compared according to MIL-STD-464 standard.

  11. PERCEPTION LEVEL EVALUATION OF RADIO ELECTRONIC MEANS TO A PULSE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The method for evaluating the perception level of electronic means to pulsed electromagnetic radiation is consid- ered in this article. The electromagnetic wave penetration mechanism towards the elements of electronic systems and the impact on them are determined by the intensity of the radiation field on the elements of electronic systems. The impact of electromagnetic radiation pulses to the electronic systems refers to physical and analytical parameters of the relationship between exposure to pulses of electromagnetic radiation and the sample parameters of electronic systems. A physical and mathematical model of evaluating the perception level of electronic means to pulsed electromagnetic radiation is given. The developed model was based on the physics of electronics means failure which represents the description of electro- magnetic, electric and thermal processes that lead to the degradation of the original structure of the apparatus elements. The conditions that lead to the total equation electronic systems functional destruction when exposed to electromagnetic radia- tion pulses are described. The internal characteristics of the component elements that respond to the damaging effects are considered. The ratio for the power failure is determined. A thermal breakdown temperature versus pulse duration of expo- sure at various power levels is obtained. The way of evaluation the reliability of electronic systems when exposed to pulses of electromagnetic radiation as a destructive factor is obtained.

  12. Plasma wakefields driven by intense, broadband, incoherent electromagnetic radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Trines, R M G M; Mendonça, J T; Mori, W B; Norreys, P A; Bingham, R

    2014-01-01

    Non-linear wave-driven processes in plasmas are normally described by either a monochromatic pump wave that couples to other monochromatic waves, or as a random phase wave coupling to other random phase waves. An alternative approach involves an incoherent, random or broadband pump coupling to monochromatic and/or coherent structures in the plasma. This approach can be implemented through the wave kinetic model. In this model, the incoming pump wave is described by either a bunch (for coherent waves) or a sea (for random phase waves) of quasi-particles. A particle-in-cell type code has been developed to perform numerical simulations of such interactions using the quasi-particle approach. This code allows for a comparatively easy description of both random phase and coherent pump pulses coupling to slow electrostatic plasma waves, while providing an extended range of powerful diagnostics leading to a deeper physical insight into the dynamics of the fast waves. As an example, the propagation of short, intense l...

  13. The electromagnetic radiation from semiconductor minerals in orebody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, M.; Nagahama, H.; Muto, J.; Nagase, T.

    2013-12-01

    In complex ore deposits composing semiconductor minerals, electromagnetic radiation in the radio frequency (30 kHz ~ 3 MHz) is induced by propagation of elastic waves [1]. Semiconductor minerals are divided into n- or p-type. When each p-type and n-type is joined, the resulting junction (p-n junction) has the rectifying property. Many natural orebodies show this property, but it has not been evaluated qualitatively. A lot of p-n junctions exist as which connect in parallel and in series in the orebody [2]. They can be regarded as a single p-n junction at large scale. Hence elucidating the electric property of micro p-n junction is required to understand the semiconductor properties of orebody. To discuss the electromagnetic emission from semiconductor minerals in the orebody associated with tectonic process, we measure the electric property of the semiconductor pyrite. Composition and electric properties of natural semiconductor minerals are heterogeneous due to the presence of impurities and defects. Therefore, it is needed to clarify the properties at each microscopic region. In this research, we apply electroetching method and SEM analysis to acquire composition characteristics and use an indentation probe to reveal microscopic electric properties. Sample of pyrite is from Waga-Sennin mine, Akita prefecture, Japan. The area of cross section is 1.4 cm2 with thickness of 0.38 mm2. In the electrolytic etching, the surface of samples showed etching figures and zonal structures with widths of about 10 -100 μm. According to the SEM analysis, Pb inclusions were observed to be precipitated parallel to crystallographic planes. The heterogeneous change in electric properties of each area was observed to be as etching figure. Thermal probing method clarified that the regions of n-p type differences were also coincidence well to etching figure patterns. P-type regions showed a higher solubility than n-type regions. At p-n junction regions, rectifying property was observed

  14. The effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation on sperm function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, B J; Nixon, B; King, B V; De Iuliis, G N; Aitken, R J

    2016-12-01

    Mobile phone usage has become an integral part of our lives. However, the effects of the radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) emitted by these devices on biological systems and specifically the reproductive systems are currently under active debate. A fundamental hindrance to the current debate is that there is no clear mechanism of how such non-ionising radiation influences biological systems. Therefore, we explored the documented impacts of RF-EMR on the male reproductive system and considered any common observations that could provide insights on a potential mechanism. Among a total of 27 studies investigating the effects of RF-EMR on the male reproductive system, negative consequences of exposure were reported in 21. Within these 21 studies, 11 of the 15 that investigated sperm motility reported significant declines, 7 of 7 that measured the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) documented elevated levels and 4 of 5 studies that probed for DNA damage highlighted increased damage due to RF-EMR exposure. Associated with this, RF-EMR treatment reduced the antioxidant levels in 6 of 6 studies that discussed this phenomenon, whereas consequences of RF-EMR were successfully ameliorated with the supplementation of antioxidants in all 3 studies that carried out these experiments. In light of this, we envisage a two-step mechanism whereby RF-EMR is able to induce mitochondrial dysfunction leading to elevated ROS production. A continued focus on research, which aims to shed light on the biological effects of RF-EMR will allow us to test and assess this proposed mechanism in a variety of cell types.

  15. The electromagnetic fields and the radiation of a spatio-temporally varying electric current loop

    CERN Document Server

    Lazar, Markus

    2013-01-01

    The electric and magnetic fields of a spatio-temporally varying electric current loop are calculated using the Jefimenko equations. The radiation and the nonradiation parts of the electromagnetic fields are derived in the framework of Maxwell's theory of electromagnetic fields. In this way, a new, exact, analytical solution of the Maxwell equation is found.

  16. Channeling and electromagnetic radiation of relativistic charged particles in metal-organic frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhevago, N. K.; Glebov, V. I.

    2017-06-01

    We have developed the theory of electromagnetic interaction of relativistic charged particles with metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). The electrostatic potential and electron number density distribution in MOFs were calculated using the most accurate data for the atomic form factors. Peculiarities of axial channeling of fast charged particles and various types of electromagnetic radiation from relativistic particles has been discussed.

  17. Variational formulation of the electromagnetic radiation-reaction problem

    CERN Document Server

    Tessarotto, M; Dorigo, M

    2008-01-01

    A fundamental issue in classical electrodynamics is represented by the search of the exact equation of motion for a classical charged particle under the action of its electromagnetic (EM) self-field - the so-called radiation-reaction equation of motion (RR equation). In the past, several attempts have been made assuming that the particle electric charge is localized point-wise (point-charge). These involve the search of possible so-called "regularization" approaches able to deal with the intrinsic divergences characterizing point-particle descriptions in classical electrodynamics. In this paper we intend to propose a new solution to this problem based on the adoption of a variational approach and the treatment of finite-size spherical-shell charges. The approach is based on three key elements: 1) the adoption of the relativistic synchronous Hamilton variational principle recently pointed out (Tessarotto et al, 2006); 2) the variational treatment of the EM self-field, for finite-size charges, taking into accou...

  18. Gauge Invariant Formulation of the Interaction of Electromagnetic Radiation and Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobe, Donald H.; Smirl, Arthur L.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a discussion in Perturbation theory in quantum mechanics for the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter. Advocates the use of electric dipole interaction whenever it can be used as compared to the vector potential interaction. (GA)

  19. Generation of high-power electromagnetic radiation by a beam-driven plasma antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annenkov, V. V.; Volchok, E. P.; Timofeev, I. V.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we study how efficiently electromagnetic radiation can be generated by a relativistic electron beam with a gigawatt power level during its injection into a thin magnetized plasma. It is shown that, if the transverse beam and plasma size is compared with the radiation wavelength and the plasma density is modulated along the magnetic field, such a beam-plasma system can radiate electromagnetic waves via the antenna mechanism. We propose a theoretical model describing generation of electromagnetic waves by this plasma antenna and calculate its main radiation characteristics. In the two-dimensional case theoretical predictions on the radiation efficiency are shown to be confirmed by the results of particle-in-cell simulations, and the three-dimensional variant of this theory is used to estimate the peak power of sub-terahertz radiation that can be achieved in beam-plasma experiments in mirror traps.

  20. PWO crystals for CMS electromagnetic calorimeter : studies of the radiation damage kinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Drobychev, G.; Auffray, E.; Dormenev, V.; Korzhik, M; Lecoq, P.; Lopatic, A.; Nédélec, P.; Peigneux, J. P.; D. Sillou

    2005-01-01

    Kinetics of radiation damage of the PWO crystals under irradiation and recovery were studied. Crystals were irradiated with dose corresponding to average one expected in the electromagnetic calorimeter (working dose irradiation). Radiation damage and recovery were monitored through measurements of PWO optical transmission. An approach is proposed which allows evaluating the influence of the PWO crystals properties on the statistical term in the energy resolution of the electromagnetic calorim...

  1. Expanding the use of real-time electromagnetic tracking in radiation oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Amish P; Kupelian, Patrick A; Willoughby, Twyla R; Meeks, Sanford L

    2011-11-15

    In the past 10 years, techniques to improve radiotherapy delivery, such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) for both inter- and intrafraction tumor localization, and hypofractionated delivery techniques such as stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), have evolved tremendously. This review article focuses on only one part of that evolution, electromagnetic tracking in radiation therapy. Electromagnetic tracking is still a growing technology in radiation oncology and, as such, the clinical applications are limited, the expense is high, and the reimbursement is insufficient to cover these costs. At the same time, current experience with electromagnetic tracking applied to various clinical tumor sites indicates that the potential benefits of electromagnetic tracking could be significant for patients receiving radiation therapy. Daily use of these tracking systems is minimally invasive and delivers no additional ionizing radiation to the patient, and these systems can provide explicit tumor motion data. Although there are a number of technical and fiscal issues that need to be addressed, electromagnetic tracking systems are expected to play a continued role in improving the precision of radiation delivery.

  2. Damage evolution law of coal-rock under uniaxial compression based on the electromagnetic radiation characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Peijian; Wang Enyuan; Liu Xiaofei; Huang Ning; Wang Siheng

    2013-01-01

    Based on electromagnetic radiation characteristics,the present research studied the damage evolution of rock under uniaxial compression.Besides,this research built the coal-rock damage evolution model considered residual strength.The applicability and accuracy of the model were verified through experiments.The results show that coal-rock damage evolution consists of four periods.The first period is from the beginning of compression to nearly 20% of the stress peak value,during which the damage variable changes stably about 0.1,and accordingly a few of electromagnetic radiation signals emerge.The second period is from about 20% to 70% of the stress peak value.The damage has stable development,and the parameter of electromagnetic radiation characteristics turns larger continuously with the increase of stress.The third period is when the damage has accelerated development,the coal-rock was broken which result from sharp increasing of the damage variable,meanwhile a great quantity of electromagnetic radiation signals emerge.The fourth period is after the coal-rock fracture,during which the damage variable corresponding to the parameter of electromagnetic radiation characteristics has a stable development.This research has great academic and realistic significance for further studies the electromagnetic radiation characteristics of coal-rock under loading and damage and the forecasting of coal-rock dynamic disasters.

  3. Electromagnetic Radiation : Variational Methods, Waveguides and Accelerators Including seminal papers of Julian Schwinger

    CERN Document Server

    Milton, Kimball A

    2006-01-01

    This is a graduate level textbook on the theory of electromagnetic radiation and its application to waveguides, transmission lines, accelerator physics and synchrotron radiation. It has grown out of lectures and manuscripts by Julian Schwinger prepared during the war at MIT's Radiation Laboratory, updated with material developed by Schwinger at UCLA in the 1970s and 1980s, and by Milton at the University of Oklahoma since 1994. The book includes a great number of straightforward and challenging exercises and problems. It is addressed to students in physics, electrical engineering, and applied mathematics seeking a thorough introduction to electromagnetism with emphasis on radiation theory and its applications.

  4. [Adaptation reactions of rat blood exposed to low intensity electromagnetic radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylov, V N; Deriugina, A V

    2010-06-01

    It is carried out research of action low-intensive electromagnetic radiations--low-intensive laser radiation and radiations of the highest frequency on normal animals and at modelling the stress-reaction, caused by introduction of adrenaline. Absence of effects of system of blood is noted at action low-intensive electromagnetic radiations on normal an organism and them correction action on alteration an organism, shown in restoration of the broken parameters--leukocyte the blood count, electrophoretic mobility of erythrocytes and phospholipide's structure of their membranes.

  5. PWO crystals for CMS electromagnetic calorimeter studies of the radiation damage kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    Drobychev, G Yu; Dormenev, V; Korzhik, M; Lecoq, P; Lopatic, A; Nédélec, P; Peigneux, J P; Sillou, D

    2005-01-01

    Kinetics of radiation damage of the PWO crystals under irradiation and recovery were studied. Crystals were irradiated with dose corresponding to average one expected in the electromagnetic calorimeter (working dose irradiation). Radiation damage and recovery were monitored through measurements of PWO optical transmission. An approach is proposed which allows evaluating the influence of the PWO crystals properties on the statistical term in the energy resolution of the electromagnetic calorimeter. The analysis also gives important information about the nature of the radiation damage mechanism in scintillation crystals. The method was used during development of technology of the mass production of radiation hard crystals and during development of methods for crystals certification

  6. Intense Cherenkov-type terahertz electromagnetic radiation from ultrafast laser-plasma interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Qiang-Lin; Liu Shi-Bing; Li Wei

    2008-01-01

    A Cherenkov-type terahertz electromagnetic radiation is revealed, which results efficiently from the collective effects in the time-domain of ultrafast pulsed electron current produced by ultrafast intense laser-plasma interaction.The emitted pulse waveform and spectrum, and the dependence of laser pulse parameters on the structure of the radiation field are investigated numerically. The condition of THz radiation generation in this regime and Cherenkov geometry of the radiation field are studied analytically.

  7. [The assessment of modulated radiofrequence electromagnetic radiation on cognitive function in rats of different ages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priakhin, E A; Triapitsyna, G A; Andreev, S S; Kolomiets, I A; Polevik, N D; Akleev, A V

    2007-01-01

    The modulated radiofrequence electromagnetic radiation influence on cognitive function of male uninbred Wister rat exposed at the age of sexual maturation (2 months) and at the age of morphofunctional maturity (3.5 months) was examined. Animals were subjected to pulse electromagnetic radiation (925 MHz) modulated as a GSM standard with the power density 1.2 mW/cm2 for 10 minutes every day for 12 days. At day 8 of exposure the cognitive function were examined with the Morris water maze. In the result of investigation it was determines that modulated radiofrequence electromagnetic radiation at the sexual maturation age did not affect the spatial learning and improve the visual orientation performance. Modulated radiofrequence electromagnetic exposure of animals at the sex maturity age did not affect the visual performance and improve the spatial performance of male rats.

  8. Electromagnetic radiation and nonlinear energy flow in an electron beam-plasma system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, D. A.; Stenzel, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that the unstable electron-plasma waves of a beam-plasma system can generate electromagnetic radiation in a uniform plasma. The generation mechanism is a scattering of the unstable electron plasma waves off ion-acoustic waves, producing electromagnetic waves whose frequency is near the local plasma frequency. The wave vector and frequency matching conditions of the three-wave mode coupling are experimentally verified. The electromagnetic radiation is observed to be polarized with the electric field parallel to the beam direction, and its source region is shown to be localized to the unstable plasma wave region. The frequency spectrum shows negligible intensity near the second harmonic of the plasma frequency. These results suggest that the observed electromagnetic radiation of type III solar bursts may be generated near the local plasma frequency and observed downstream where the wave frequency is near the harmonic of the plasma frequency.

  9. Electromagnetic foundations of solar radiation collection a technology for sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Sangster, Alan J

    2014-01-01

    This text seeks to illuminate, mainly for the electrical power engineers of the future, the topic of large scale solar flux gathering schemes, which arguably represent the major source of renewable power available. The aim of the content is to impart, from an electromagnetic perspective, a deep and sound understanding of the topic of solar flux collection, ranging from the characteristics of light to the properties of antennas. To do this five chapters are employed to provide a thorough grounding in relevant aspects of electromagnetism and electromagnetic waves including optics, electromagneti

  10. Research on the test method of using injection as an equivalent substitute for electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, X. D.; Wei, G. H.; Lu, X. F.; Li, K.

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a method to carry out high intensity radiated field (HIRF) effect experiments by using injection as an equivalent substitute for electromagnetic radiation. In allusion to typical interconnected system, the equal response voltage on the equipment cable port is regarded as an equivalent basis of injection and radiation methods. The equivalent relation formula between injected voltage and radiated field is derived theoretically. The conditions needed for extrapolating injected voltage in HIRF are confirmed, and the extrapolation method is proposed. On the basis of the above research, the electromagnetic environment effect test new method combined injection with radiation for interconnected system is summarized. The typical nonlinear interconnected system is selected as equipment under test, and the single frequency continuous wave radiation and injection effect experiments are carried out separately. The test results indicate that the relation between radiated field and injected voltage is linear, and the equivalent injected voltage used to substitute HIRF can be obtained by linear extrapolation.

  11. Scalable, Finite Element Analysis of Electromagnetic Scattering and Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwik, T.; Lou, J.; Katz, D.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper a method for simulating electromagnetic fields scattered from complex objects is reviewed; namely, an unstructured finite element code that does not use traditional mesh partitioning algorithms.

  12. Localization of non-stationary sources of electromagnetic radiation with the aid of phasometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersov, G. A.

    1978-01-01

    The possibility of localizing sources of electromagnetic radiation by measurement of the time of passage of the radiation or the measurement of its phase at various points of cosmic space, at which are located satellite observatories is examined. Algorithms are proposed for localization using two, three, and four astronomical observatories. The precision of the localization and several partial results of practical significance are deduced.

  13. Generation of ordinary mode electromagnetic radiation near the upper hybrid frequency in the magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashour-Abdalla, M.; Okuda, H.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown by means of plasma numerical simulations that long-wavelength ordinary mode electromagnetic radiation can be generated from short-wavelength electrostatic waves near the upper hybrid resonance frequency in an inhomogeneous plasma. A possible relation of this process to nonthermal continuum radiation in the magnetosphere is discussed.

  14. Orbital elements for motion of real particle under the action of electromagnetic radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Klacka, J

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of different types of osculating orbital elements for motion of real dust particle under the action of electromagnetic radiation in the central gravitational field is presented. It is shown that physically correct access is based on gravitational acceleration as the only radial acceleration -- ``radiation pressure'' is not included in the radial acceleration.

  15. Electromagnetic Radiation and Equation of Motion for Really Shaped Particle -- New Covariant Formulation

    CERN Document Server

    Klacka, J

    2001-01-01

    Relativistically covariant form of equation of motion for real particle (body) under the action of electromagnetic radiation is derived. Equation of motion in the proper frame of the particle uses the radiation pressure cross section 3 $\\times$ 3 matrix. Obtained covariant equation of motion is compared with another covariant equation of motion which was presented more than one year ago.

  16. Explicit symmetry breaking in electrodynamic systems and electromagnetic radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Sinha, Dhiraj

    2016-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the concept of symmetries in electromagnetism and explicit symmetry breaking. It begins with a brief background on the origin of the concept of symmetry and its meaning in fields such as architecture, mathematics and physics. Despite the extensive developments of symmetry in these fields, it has yet to be applied to the context of classical electromagnetism and related engineering applications. This book unravels the beauty and excitement of this area to scientists and engineers.

  17. Radiation characteristics of electromagnetic eigenmodes at the corrugated interface of a left-handed material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Mauro; Depine, Ricardo A

    2009-08-28

    We study the radiation characteristics of electromagnetic surface waves at a periodically corrugated interface between a conventional and a negatively refracting (or left-handed) material. In this case, and contrary to the surface plasmon polariton in a metallic grating, surface plasmon polaritons may radiate on both sides of the rough interface along which they propagate. We find novel radiation regimes which provide an indirect demonstration of other unusual phenomena characteristic of electromagnetic wave propagation in left-handed materials, such as negative refraction or backward wave propagation.

  18. Electromagnetically Induced Transparency and Absorption in Metamaterials: The Radiating Two-Oscillator Model and Experimental Confirmation

    CERN Document Server

    Tassin, Philippe; Zhao, Rongkuo; Jain, Aditya; Koschny, Thomas; Soukoulis, Costas M

    2012-01-01

    Several classical analogues of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in metamaterials have been demonstrated. A simple two-resonator model can describe their absorption spectrum qualitatively, but fails to provide information about the scattering properties-e.g., transmission and group delay. Here we develop an alternative model that rigourously includes the coupling of the radiative resonator to the external electromagnetic fields. This radiating two-oscillator model can describe both the absorption spectrum and the scattering parameters quantitatively. The model also predicts metamaterials with a narrow spectral feature in the absorption larger than the background absorption of the radiative element. This classical analogue of electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) is shown to occur when both the dissipative loss of the radiative resonator and the coupling strength are small. These predictions are subsequently demonstrated in experiments.

  19. [Fluorescence used to investigate the sensitivity of spinach chloroplast membrane to low intensity electromagnetic radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Gang; Yang, Yun-Jing; Lu, Hong

    2009-07-01

    A system for studying biological effect of radio frequency electromagnetic field was developed. The system can form an area where electromagnetic wave with large frequency range is well distributed. The strength of electromagnetic wave was measured easily. Electromagnetic wave in the system did not have effect on environment. The sensitivity of spinach chloroplast membrane to low intensity electromagnetic radiation of 300 MHz under power density of 5 mW x cm(-2) was studied by the spectral analysis method of fluorescence of 8-anilino-1-naphthalene-sulfonic acid (ANS) and the changes in chlorophyll a (Chla) fluorescence parameters of spinach chloroplast membrane. The result showed that the position of spectrum of ANS fluorescence of spinach chloroplast membrane did not change, but the intensity of ANS fluorescence was obviously increased under the action of electromagnetic radiation with power density of 1-5 mW x cm(-2). There was an increase in the intensity of ANS fluorescence with the increase in electromagnetic radiation. The increase of ANS fluorescence of spinach chloroplast membrane showed that low level electromagnetic field induced the decrease in fluidity of chloroplast membrane compared with control experiment. The cause of the change in the fluidity could be related to the polarization of chloroplast membrane under the electromagnetic field. The analysis of Chla fluorescence parameters of spinach chloroplast membrane indicated that low level electromagnetic field of 300 MHz made the fluorescence parameters F0 and F(VI/)F(V) decrease, and F(V)/Fo, Fv/F(m) and deltaF(V)/T increase. It was showed that low level electromagnetic field caused the change of non-active center of photosystem II of spinach chloroplast membrane to active center and the increase in potential active and photochemical efficiency of PSII, and promoted the transmit process of electron in photosynthesis of chloroplast membrane of photosynthesis cell in spinach leaf. The study confirmed

  20. Properties of an ultrarelativistic charged particle radiation in a constant homogeneous crossed electromagnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Bogdanov, O V; Lazarenko, G Yu

    2016-01-01

    The properties of radiation created by a classical ultrarelativistic scalar charged particle in a constant homogeneous crossed electromagnetic field are described both analytically and numerically with radiation reaction taken into account in the form of the Landau-Lifshitz equation. The total radiation naturally falls into two parts: the radiation formed at the entrance point of a particle into the crossed field (the synchrotron entrance radiation), and the radiation coming from the late-time asymptotics of a particle motion (the de-excited radiation). The synchrotron entrance radiation resembles, although does not coincide with, the ultrarelativistic limit of the synchrotron radiation: its distribution over energies and angles possesses almost the same properties. The de-excited radiation is soft, not concentrated in the plane of motion of a charged particle, and almost completely circularly polarized. The photon energy delivering the maximum to its spectral angular distribution decreases with increasing th...

  1. Lévy noise improves the electrical activity in a neuron under electromagnetic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Juan; Xu, Yong; Ma, Jun

    2017-01-01

    As the fluctuations of the internal bioelectricity of nervous system is various and complex, the external electromagnetic radiation induced by magnet flux on membrane can be described by the non-Gaussian type distribution of Lévy noise. Thus, the electrical activities in an improved Hindmarsh-Rose model excited by the external electromagnetic radiation of Lévy noise are investigated and some interesting modes of the electrical activities are exhibited. The external electromagnetic radiation of Lévy noise leads to the mode transition of the electrical activities and spatial phase, such as from the rest state to the firing state, from the spiking state to the spiking state with more spikes, and from the spiking state to the bursting state. Then the time points of the firing state versus Lévy noise intensity are depicted. The increasing of Lévy noise intensity heightens the neuron firing. Also the stationary probability distribution functions of the membrane potential of the neuron induced by the external electromagnetic radiation of Lévy noise with different intensity, stability index and skewness papremeters are analyzed. Moreover, through the positive largest Lyapunov exponent, the parameter regions of chaotic electrical mode of the neuron induced by the external electromagnetic radiation of Lévy noise distribution are detected.

  2. Radiated Electromagnetic Field Signature of Cracked and Polluted Porcelain Insulators%Radiated Electromagnetic Field Signature of Cracked and Polluted Porcelain Insulators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ehsan Azordegan; David R Swatek; Behzad Kordi

    2011-01-01

    Porcelain cap and pin insulators are by far the most popular suspension insulators in high voltage (HV) dis- tribution networks all around the world. Inspection and condition monitoring of HV insulators is also very important to the utility companies because of the critical and vital role that they play in distribution systems. In terms of safety, practicality and ease of use, remote detection methods are more popular among the line technicians. A new remote condition assessment method based on electromagnetic radiations from porcelain insulators is presented in this gaper. In a lab environment, a string of two porcelain insulators is energized by a 45 kV transformer. Electromagnetic radia- tions due tO the partial"discharge activities inside the porcelain insulator are captured by passive sensors and antennas. Two cases of defective insulators on a two insulator string are studied here. The first case focuses on the effect of con- taminated porcelain shells on radiation signature of partial discharges. A polluted porcelain shell with ESDD level of 0.03 mg/cmz was first tested. The second case studies the effect of cracks of an intentionally-cracked porcelain shell. The cracked insulator is also tested on a two insulator string. To compare the partial discharge radiation signature of different faulty insulators, phase resolved graphs were developed. The electromagnetic radiated signature of a polluted insulator and a cracked insulator was'calculated and compared using phase resolved graphs.

  3. Beam conditions for radiation generated by an electromagnetic Hermite-Gaussian model source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jia; XIN Yu; CHEN Yan-ru

    2011-01-01

    @@ Within the framework of the correlation theory of electromagnetic laser beams, the far field cross-spectral density matrix of the light radiated from an electromagnetic Hermite-Gaussian model source is derived.By utilizing the convergence property of Hermite polynomials, the conditions of the matrices for the source to generate an electromagnetic Hermite-Gaussian beam are obtained.Furthermore, in order to generate a scalar Hermite-Gaussian model beam, it is required that the source should be locally rather coherent in the spatial domain.

  4. Stored electromagnetic energy and quality factor of radiating structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capek, Miloslav; Jelinek, Lukas; Vandenbosch, Guy A. E.

    2016-04-01

    This paper deals with the old yet unsolved problem of defining and evaluating the stored electromagnetic energy-a quantity essential for calculating the quality factor, which reflects the intrinsic bandwidth of the considered electromagnetic system. A novel paradigm is proposed to determine the stored energy in the time domain leading to the method, which exhibits positive semi-definiteness and coordinate independence, i.e. two key properties actually not met by the contemporary approaches. The proposed technique is compared with an up-to-date frequency domain method that is extensively used in practice. Both concepts are discussed and compared on the basis of examples of varying complexity.

  5. A Study on the Influence of Electromagnetic Radiation on Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Xinlin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Being applied widely, electromagnetic wave is closely related with our life. But this material has brought pollutions to the environment as well as influences on functions of organisms. In order to explore the influence of electromagnetic radiation on nervous system, this paper takes adult mice on 35th day as research objects, designs a water maze experiment and explores features of escaping latency of mice in the control group and in the group with radiation. In this research, methods of building a GHz TEM cell and a simulation model of mouse head with AutoCAD 2010 and XFDTD are provided, verifying that the simulation model meets the needs of the experiment. It concludes that the electromagnetic radiation causes memory deterioration of mice, and exerts its certain influence on nervous system.

  6. Radiation-electromagnetic effect in germanium crystals irradiated with high-energy. cap alpha. particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikoin, I.K.; Babichenko, V.S.; Kikoin, L.I.; Lazarev, S.D.; Rzhanov, A.E.; Filippov, V.I.

    1984-05-01

    An experimental investigation was made of the radiation-electromagnetic effect in germanium crystals irradiated in a cyclotron with ..cap alpha.. particles of energies up to 40 MeV. The high excitation rate, the bulk nature of generation of nonequilibrium carriers and defects, and their spatial distributions gave rise to several special features in the dependence of the emf due to the radiation-electromagnetic effect on the particle flux, fluence, and parameters of samples. Theoretical calculations carried out allowing for the specific nature of the interaction of ..cap alpha.. particles with crystals agreed well with the experimental results. The radiation-electromagnetic effect could be used to obtain information on the nature of the spatial distribution of the density of nonequilibrium carriers along the trajectory of a particle in a crystal.

  7. Parallel Numerical Simulations of Three-Dimensional Electromagnetic Radiation with MPI-CUDA Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using parallel computation can enhance the performance of numerical simulation of electromagnetic radiation and get great runtime reduction. We simulate the electromagnetic radiation calculation based on the multicore CPU and GPU Parallel Architecture Clusters by using MPI-OpenMP and MPI-CUDA hybrid parallel algorithm. This is an effective solution comparing to the traditional finite-difference time-domain method which has a shortage in the calculation of the electromagnetic radiation on the problem of inadequate large data space and time. What is more, we use regional segmentation, subregional data communications, consolidation, and other methods to improve procedures nested parallelism and finally verify the correctness of the calculation results. Studying these two hybrid models of parallel algorithms run on the high-performance cluster computer, we draw the conclusion that both models are suitable for large-scale numerical calculations, and MPI-CUDA hybrid model can achieve higher speedup.

  8. Effects of Millimeter-Wave Electromagnetic Radiation on the Experimental Model of Migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivachenko, I B; Medvedev, D S; Molodtsova, I D; Panteleev, S S; Sokolov, A Yu; Lyubashina, O A

    2016-02-01

    Effects of millimeter-wave electromagnetic radiation (40 GHz frequency, 0.01 mW power) on the spontaneous fi ring of convergent neurons of the spinal trigeminal nucleus and their responses to electrical stimulation of the dura mater were studied in neurophysiological experiments on rats. Irradiation of the area of cutaneous receptive fields of spinal trigeminal nucleus reversibly inhibited both spontaneous discharges and activity induced by electrical stimulation of the dura mater. The second and third exposures to electromagnetic radiation with an interval of 10 min were ineffective. These results suggest that suppression of neuronal excitability in the spinal trigeminal ganglion can be a mechanism of the anti-migraine effects of electromagnetic radiation observed in clinical practice.

  9. Radiation reaction from electromagnetic fields in the neighborhood of a point charge

    CERN Document Server

    Singal, Ashok K

    2015-01-01

    From the electromagnetic field in the neighborhood of a "point charge" in arbitrary motion, it is shown that the Poynting flux across a spherical surface of vanishingly small radius, surrounding the charge in its instantaneous rest-frame, is nil. The absence of the Poynting flux in the neighborhood of such a charge explicitly shows that there are no radiative losses from an instantly stationary point charge. While this might appear to contradict Larmor's formula for radiation, nevertheless, it is in complete conformity with energy conservation. After all a charge stationary, even if for an instant, possesses no kinetic energy at the moment that could be lost into radiation. Further, from the rate of electromagnetic momentum flow, calculated using the Maxwell stress tensor, across a surface surrounding the charge, the radiation reaction is determined which turns out to be proportional to the first time derivative of the acceleration of the charge. The power loss due to radiation reaction, hitherto derived in t...

  10. Auger-electron spectra of F{sub 3}SiCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}Si(CH{sub 3}){sub 3} obtained by using monochromatized synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaoka, Shin-ichi, E-mail: nagaoka@ehimegw.dpc.ehime-u.ac.j [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Nitta, Akiko [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Tamenori, Yusuke [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute/SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun 679-5198 (Japan); Fukuzawa, Hironobu; Ueda, Kiyoshi [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Takahashi, Osamu [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Kakiuchi, Takuhiro [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Institute of Materials Structure Science (IMSS), High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Kitajima, Yoshinori; Mase, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Isao H. [Institute of Materials Structure Science (IMSS), High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan)

    2009-12-15

    A study on Auger-electron spectra of F{sub 3}SiCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}Si(CH{sub 3}){sub 3} was performed by using monochromatized synchrotron radiation. The normal Si:L{sub 23}VV Auger-electron spectrum was measured in the vapor phase and characterized through the ab initio molecular orbital calculation. The cascade Si:L{sub 23}VV Auger-electron spectra were also obtained by L{sub 23}-holes creation through Si:KL{sub 23}L{sub 23} Auger transitions after Si:1s photoexcitation in the vapor phase or its photoelectron emission in the condensed phase. Further the C:KVV and F:KVV Auger-electron spectra were measured and discussed in comparison with those of some related molecules.

  11. Generation of coherent electromagnetic radiation by superconducting films at nitrogen temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Lykov, A N

    2001-01-01

    One detected generation of coherent electromagnetic radiation by GdBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7 sub - sub x superconducting films within 1-10 MHz range at temperature of liquid nitrogen boiling. This type generation is caused by synchronization realized due to the feedback of abrupt changes of the Abrikosov's vortices produced by the external low-frequency magnetic field. Possibility to reach more intensive radiation due to increase of the area of superconducting film, as well as, via increase of amplitude and of frequency of electromagnetic field exciting a vortex system in films is the most important advantage of the given technique of generation

  12. Radiation reaction from electromagnetic fields in the neighborhood of a point charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singal, Ashok K.

    2017-03-01

    From the expression for the electromagnetic field in the neighborhood of a point charge, we determine the rate of electromagnetic momentum flow, calculated using the Maxwell stress tensor, across a surface surrounding the charge. From that we derive for a "point" charge the radiation reaction formula, which turns out to be proportional to the first time-derivative of the acceleration of the charge, identical to the expression for the self-force, hitherto obtained in the literature from the detailed mutual interaction between constituents of a small charged sphere. We then use relativistic transformations to arrive at a generalized formula for radiation reaction for a point charge undergoing relativistic motion.

  13. Electromagnetic processes in nucleus-nucleus collisions relating to space radiation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, John W.

    1992-01-01

    Most of the papers within this report deal with electromagnetic processes in nucleus-nucleus collisions which are of concern in the space radiation program. In particular, the removal of one and two nucleons via both electromagnetic and strong interaction processes has been extensively investigated. The theory of relativistic Coulomb fission has also been developed. Several papers on quark models also appear. Finally, note that the theoretical methods developed in this work have been directly applied to the task of radiation protection of astronauts. This has been done by parameterizing the theoretical formalism in such a fashion that it can be used in cosmic ray transport codes.

  14. INFORMATION-MEASURING SYSTEM FOR EVALUATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION POWER LEVELS INFLUENCE TO ITS WEAKENED BY PROTECTIVE SHIELDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Boiprav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An information-measuring system and realized on the basis of its methodology used for evaluation of electromagnetic radiation power levels passing via the protective shielding construction are described. It’s proposed to use the developed methodology for the testing of electromagnetic radiation shields for anechoic chambers

  15. Properties of an ultrarelativistic charged particle radiation in a constant homogeneous crossed electromagnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanov, O.V., E-mail: bov@tpu.ru [Physics Faculty, Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Department of Higher Mathematics and Mathematical Physics, Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Kazinski, P.O., E-mail: kpo@phys.tsu.ru [Physics Faculty, Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Department of Higher Mathematics and Mathematical Physics, Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Lazarenko, G.Yu., E-mail: lazarenko.georgijj@icloud.com [Physics Faculty, Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2017-05-15

    The properties of radiation created by a classical ultrarelativistic scalar charged particle in a constant homogeneous crossed electromagnetic field are described both analytically and numerically with radiation reaction taken into account in the form of the Landau–Lifshitz equation. The total radiation naturally falls into two parts: the radiation formed at the entrance point of a particle into the crossed field (the synchrotron entrance radiation), and the radiation coming from the late-time asymptotics of a particle motion (the de-excited radiation). The synchrotron entrance radiation resembles, although does not coincide with, the ultrarelativistic limit of the synchrotron radiation: its distribution over energies and angles possesses almost the same properties. The de-excited radiation is soft, not concentrated in the plane of motion of a charged particle, and almost completely circularly polarized. The photon energy delivering the maximum to its spectral angular distribution decreases with increasing the initial energy of a charged particle, while the maximum value of this distribution remains the same at the fixed photon observation angle and entrance angle of a charged particle. The ultraviolet and infrared asymptotics of the total radiation are also described. - Highlights: • Properties of an electron radiation in a crossed electromagnetic field are studied. • Spectral angular distribution of the synchrotron entrance radiation is described. • Spectral angular distribution of the de-excited radiation is described. • De-excited radiation is almost completely circularly polarized. • Photon energy at the maximum of the de-excited radiation decreases with increasing the initial energy of an electron.

  16. [Study on effects of bioelectric parameters of rats in electromagnetic radiation of HV transmission line].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Anying; Pang, Xiaofeng; Yuan, Ping

    2007-02-01

    With the development of economy and coming of information era, the chance of exposure to electromagnetic fields with various frequencies has been increased for every human. The effects of electromagnetic radiattion on human being's health are versatile. To study the effects of bioelctronic parameters of rats in the electromagnetic radiations of HV transmission line, EEG, ECG and CMAP were measured in rats exposed to simulating high-voltage transmission line electromagnetic radiation for over one year. Brain tissues were studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that no significant difference between exposed group and control group in EEG; however the FT-infrared spectra of brain tissues were different; the ECG of the exposed animals was considerably altered. Significant slowing of heart rate was observed in those rates exposed to EMFs; the latent period of CMAP in exposed group were not different compared with those of control group however there was a significant difference in wave amplitude of CMAP between the exposed group and control group. All results indicated that there must be some effects on bioelectric parameters of rats exposed to electromagnetic radiation of high-voltage transmission line for a long time.

  17. Food collection and response to pheromones in an ant species exposed to electromagnetic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammaerts, Marie-Claire; Rachidi, Zoheir; Bellens, François; De Doncker, Philippe

    2013-09-01

    We used the ant species Myrmica sabuleti as a model to study the impact of electromagnetic waves on social insects' response to their pheromones and their food collection. We quantified M. sabuleti workers' response to their trail, area marking and alarm pheromone under normal conditions. Then, we quantified the same responses while under the influence of electromagnetic waves. Under such an influence, ants followed trails for only short distances, no longer arrived at marked areas and no longer orientated themselves to a source of alarm pheromone. Also when exposed to electromagnetic waves, ants became unable to return to their nest and recruit congeners; therefore, the number of ants collecting food increases only slightly and slowly. After 180 h of exposure, their colonies deteriorated. Electromagnetic radiation obviously affects social insects' behavior and physiology.

  18. The Electromagnetic Dipole Radiation Field through the Hamiltonian Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likar, A.; Razpet, N.

    2009-01-01

    The dipole radiation from an oscillating charge is treated using the Hamiltonian approach to electrodynamics where the concept of cavity modes plays a central role. We show that the calculation of the radiation field can be obtained in a closed form within this approach by emphasizing the role of coherence between the cavity modes, which is…

  19. Radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation from cell phone causes defective testicular function in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyewopo, A O; Olaniyi, S K; Oyewopo, C I; Jimoh, A T

    2017-03-06

    Cell phones have become an integral part of everyday life. As cell phone usage has become more widespread, concerns have increased regarding the harmful effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation from these devices. The current study was undertaken to investigate the effects of the emitted radiation by cell phones on testicular histomorphometry and biochemical analyses. Adult male Wistar rats weighing 180-200 g were randomly allotted to control, group A (switched off mode exposure), group B (1-hr exposure), group C (2-hr exposure) and group D (3-hr exposure). The animals were exposed to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation of cell phone for a period of 28 days. Histomorphometry, biochemical and histological investigations were carried out. The histomorphometric parameters showed no significant change (p radiation of cell phone leads to defective testicular function that is associated with increased oxidative stress and decreased gonadotropic hormonal profile. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Point-source idealization in classical field theories. II. Mechanical energy losses from electromagnetic radiation reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kates, Ronald E.; Rosenblum, Arnold

    1982-05-01

    This paper compares the mechanical energy losses due to electromagnetic radiation reaction on a two-particle, slow-motion system, as calculated from (1) the method of matched asymptotic expansions and (2) the Lorentz-Dirac equation, which assumes point sources. The matching derivation of the preceding paper avoided the assumption of a δ-function source by using Reissner-Nordström matching zones. Despite the differing mathematical assumptions of the two methods, their results are in agreement with each other and with the electromagnetic-field energy losses calculated by the evaluation of flux integrals. Our purpose is eventually to analyze Rosenblum's use of point sources as a possible cause of disagreement between the analogous calculations of gravitational radiation on a slow-motion system of two bodies. We begin with the simpler electromagnetic problem.

  1. Radiation hardness qualification of PbWO4 scintillation crystals for the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Adzic, P; Andelin, D; Anicin, I; Antunovic, Z; Arcidiacono, R; Arenton, M W; Auffray, E; Argiro, S; Askew, A; Baccaro, S; Baffioni, S; Balazs, M; Bandurin, D; Barney, D; Barone, L M; Bartoloni, A; Baty, C; Beauceron, S; Bell, K W; Bernet, C; Besancon, M; Betev, B; Beuselinck, R; Biino, C; Blaha, J; Bloch, P; Borisevitch, A; Bornheim, A; Bourotte, J; Brown, R M; Buehler, M; Busson, P; Camanzi, B; Camporesi, T; Cartiglia, N; Cavallari, F; Cecilia, A; Chang, P; Chang, Y H; Charlot, C; Chen, E A; Chen, W T; Chen, Z; Chipaux, R; Choudhary, B C; Choudhury, R K; Cockerill, D J A; Conetti, S; Cooper, S; Cossutti, F; Cox, B; Cussans, D G; Dafinei, I; Da Silva Di Calafiori, D R; Daskalakis, G; David, A; Deiters, K; Dejardin, M; De Benedetti, A; Della Ricca, G; Del Re, D; Denegri, D; Depasse, P; Descamps, J; Diemoz, M; Di Marco, E; Dissertori, G; Dittmar, M; Djambazov, L; Djordjevic, M; Dobrzynski, L; Dolgopolov, A; Drndarevic, S; Drobychev, G; Dutta, D; Dzelalija, M; Elliott-Peisert, A; El Mamouni, H; Evangelou, I; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Fay, J; Fedorov, A; Ferri, F; Franci, D; Franzoni, G; Freudenreich, K; Funk, W; Ganjour, S; Gascon, S; Gataullin, M; Gentit, F X; Ghezzi, A; Givernaud, A; Gninenko, S; Go, A; Gobbo, B; Godinovic, N; Golubev, N; Govoni, P; Grant, N; Gras, P; Haguenauer, M; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Hansen, M; Haupt, J; Heath, H F; Heltsley, B; Hintz, W; Hirosky, R; Hobson, P R; Honma, A; Hou, G W S; Hsiung, Y; Huhtinen, M; Ille, B; Ingram, Q; Inyakin, A; Jarry, P; Jessop, C; Jovanovic, D; Kaadze, K; Kachanov, V; Kailas, S; Kataria, S K; Kennedy, B W; Kokkas, P; Kolberg, T; Korjik, M; Krasnikov, N; Krpic, D; Kubota, Y; Kuo, C M; Kyberd, P; Kyriakis, A; Lebeau, M; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Ledovskoy, A; Lethuillier, M; Lin, S W; Lin, W; Litvine, V; Locci, E; Longo, E; Loukas, D; Luckey, P D; Lustermann, W; Ma, Y; Malberti, M; Malclès, J; Maletic, D; Manthos, N; Maravin, Y; Marchica, C; Marinelli, N; Markou, A; Markou, C; Marone, M; Matveev, V; Mavrommatis, C; Meridiani, P; Milenovic, P; Miné, P; Missevitch, O; Mohanty, A K; Moortgat, F; Musella, P; Musienko, Y; Nardulli, A; Nash, J; Nedelec, P; Negri, P; Newman, H B; Nikitenko, A; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Obertino, M M; Organtini, G; Orimoto, T; Paganoni, M; Paganini, P; Palma, A; Pant, L; Papadakis, A; Papadakis, I; Papadopoulos, I; Paramatti, R; Parracho, P; Pastrone, N; Patterson, J R; Pauss, F; Peigneux, J-P; Petrakou, E; Phillips II, D G; Piroué, P; Ptochos, F; Puljak, I; Pullia, A; Punz, T; Puzovic, J; Ragazzi, S; Rahatlou, S; Rander, J; Razis, P A; Redaelli, N; Renker, D; Reucroft, S; Ribeiro, P; Rogan, C; Ronquest, M; Rosowsky, A; Rovelli, C; Rumerio, P; Rusack, R; Rusakov, S V; Ryan, M J; Sala, L; Salerno, R; Schneegans, M; Seez, C; Sharp, P; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Shiu, J G; Shivpuri, R K; Shukla, P; Siamitros, C; Sillou, D; Silva, J; Silva, P; Singovsky, A; Sirois, Y; Sirunyan, A; Smith, V J; Stöckli, F; Swain, J; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Takahashi, M; Tancini, V; Teller, O; Theofilatos, K; Thiebaux, C; Timciuc, V; Timlin, C; Titov, M; Topkar, A; Triantis, F A; Troshin, S; Tyurin, N; Ueno, K; Uzunian, A; Varela, J; Verrecchia, P; Veverka, J; Virdee, T; Wang, M; Wardrope, D; Weber, M; Weng, J; Williams, J H; Yang, Y; Yaselli, I; Yohay, R; Zabi, A; Zelepoukine, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L Y; Zhu, K; Zhu, R Y

    2010-01-01

    Ensuring the radiation hardness of PbWO4 crystals was one of the main priorities during the construction of the electromagnetic calorimeter of the CMS experiment at CERN. The production on an industrial scale of radiation hard crystals and their certification over a period of several years represented a difficult challenge both for CMS and for the crystal suppliers. The present article reviews the related scientific and technological problems encountered.

  2. Solving Electromagnetic Scattering and Radiation by FMM with Curvilinear RWG Basis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUJun; NIEZaiping; GONGXiaodong

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, fast multipole method (FMM) with curvilinear RWG basis is used to realize fast,accurate solution of electromagnetic scattering and radia-tion from 3-D conducting object. This method needs much less unknowns than traditional RWG basis and conformal rooftop basis, so is especially appropriate for efficient so-lution of scattering and radiation from target with large electrical sizes. Some typical numerical results are shown to demonstrate the validity and efficiency of the presentmethod.

  3. First-principles modeling of electromagnetic scattering by discrete and discretely heterogeneous random media

    CERN Document Server

    Mishchenko, Michael I; Yurkin, Maxim A; Bi, Lei; Cairns, Brian; Liu, Li; Panetta, R Lee; Travis, Larry D; Yang, Ping; Zakharova, Nadezhda T

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this Report is to formulate the general theoretical framework of electromagnetic scattering by discrete random media rooted in the Maxwell-Lorentz electromagnetics and discuss its immediate analytical and numerical consequences. Starting from the microscopic Maxwell-Lorentz equations, we trace the development of the first-principles formalism enabling accurate calculations of monochromatic and quasi-monochromatic scattering by static and randomly varying multiparticle groups. We illustrate how this general framework can be coupled with state-of-the-art computer solvers of the Maxwell equations and applied to direct modeling of electromagnetic scattering by representative random multi-particle groups with arbitrary packing densities. This first-principles modeling yields general physical insights unavailable with phenomenological approaches. We discuss how the first-order-scattering approximation, the radiative transfer theory, and the theory of weak localization of electromagnetic waves ...

  4. Non-thermal continuous and modulated electromagnetic radiation fields effects on sleep EEG of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitham S. Mohammed

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the alteration in the sleep EEG in rats due to chronic exposure to low-level non-thermal electromagnetic radiation was investigated. Two types of radiation fields were used; 900 MHz unmodulated wave and 900 MHz modulated at 8 and 16 Hz waves. Animals has exposed to radiation fields for 1 month (1 h/day. EEG power spectral analyses of exposed and control animals during slow wave sleep (SWS and rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep revealed that the REM sleep is more susceptible to modulated radiofrequency radiation fields (RFR than the SWS. The latency of REM sleep increased due to radiation exposure indicating a change in the ultradian rhythm of normal sleep cycles. The cumulative and irreversible effect of radiation exposure was proposed and the interaction of the extremely low frequency radiation with the similar EEG frequencies was suggested.

  5. Non-thermal continuous and modulated electromagnetic radiation fields effects on sleep EEG of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Haitham S; Fahmy, Heba M; Radwan, Nasr M; Elsayed, Anwar A

    2013-03-01

    In the present study, the alteration in the sleep EEG in rats due to chronic exposure to low-level non-thermal electromagnetic radiation was investigated. Two types of radiation fields were used; 900 MHz unmodulated wave and 900 MHz modulated at 8 and 16 Hz waves. Animals has exposed to radiation fields for 1 month (1 h/day). EEG power spectral analyses of exposed and control animals during slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep) revealed that the REM sleep is more susceptible to modulated radiofrequency radiation fields (RFR) than the SWS. The latency of REM sleep increased due to radiation exposure indicating a change in the ultradian rhythm of normal sleep cycles. The cumulative and irreversible effect of radiation exposure was proposed and the interaction of the extremely low frequency radiation with the similar EEG frequencies was suggested.

  6. Pulsed electromagnetic field radiation from a narrow slot antenna with a dielectric layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Štumpf, M.; De Hoop, A.T.; Lager, I.E.

    2010-01-01

    Analytic time domain expressions are derived for the pulsed electromagnetic field radiated by a narrow slot antenna with a dielectric layer in a two‐dimensional model configuration. In any finite time window of observation, exact pulse shapes for the propagated, reflected, and refracted wave constit

  7. Kinematic Fit for the Radiative Bhabha Calibration of BaBar's Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    For the radiative Bhabha calibration of BaBar's electromagnetic calorimeter, the measured energy of a photon cluster is being compared with the energy obtained via a kinematic fit involving other quantities from that event. The details of the fitting algorithm are described in this note, together with its derivation and checks that ensure that the fitting routine is working properly.

  8. Estimation of radiation effects in the front-end electronics of an ILC electromagnetic calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, V.; Postranecky, M.; Targett-Adams, C.; Warren, M.; Wing, M.

    2008-08-01

    The front-end electronics of the electromagnetic calorimeter of an International Linear Collider detector are situated in a radiation environment. This requires the effect of the radiation on the performance of the electronics, specifically FPGAs, to be examined. In this paper we study the flux, particle spectra and deposited doses at the front-end electronics of the electromagnetic calorimeter of a detector at the ILC. We also study the occupancy of the electromagnetic calorimeter. These estimates are compared with measurements, e.g. of the radiation damage of FPGAs, done elsewhere. The outcome of the study shows that the radiation doses and the annual flux is low enough to allow today's FPGAs to operate. The Single Event Upset rate, however, lies between 14 min and 12 h depending on the FPGA used and therefore needs to be considered in the design of the data acquisition system of the electromagnetic calorimeter. The occupancy is about 0.002 per bunch train not taking into account the effect of noise which depends on the choice of the detector.

  9. The measurable distinction between the spin and orbital angular momenta of electromagnetic radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H. Crichton

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available We show how the angular momentum of electromagnetic radiation may be decomposed into spin and orbital parts, of which the spin part is measurable in terms of Stokes parameters, thereby providing an unambiguous, gauge-invariant, distinction between the two parts.

  10. Nonionizing Electromagnetic Radiation Associated With Video-Display Terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, R. C.; Weiss, M. M.; Minneci, G.

    1980-10-01

    From time to time during the past several years, questions have been raised concerning the potential health implications associated with nonionizing electromagnetic energy emitted from video display terminals (VDTs). For example, so called "editor's cataract," has been attributed (by one investigator) to the use of these devices, presumably caused by the emission of microwave energy. Because of these questions and allegations, a study was undertaken to characterize the electromagnetic emissions from a number of VDTs considered representative of those commonly used. For each VDT a band of frequencies from 10kHz to 18GHz and a band of wavelengths from 200 to 800 nm were examined under normal operation conditions. In addition, the various controls associated with each device were adjusted in order to try to maximize the emissions. In all cases, the sweep frequencies and their first fifty or so harmonics, and the digital clock frequencies and their harmonics were detected but in no case did the individual levels or the sum of all levels even remotely approach any exposure standards or guidelines used in the United States or by any other nation. No levels of electromagnetic energy at frequencies normally considered microwave (greater than 1GHz) were detected that could be directly associated with any terminal. Although complaints of fatigue and eye strain may occur, these problems can generally be traced to local factors such as ambient lighting, glare, poor brightness and contrast, extended viewing time, poor biomechanical posture and, level of job interest and motivation. Based on current medical knowledge, there is no evidence to indicate, nor is it even a subject of speculation, that the emission levels associated with VDTs will have any deleterious effects on the health of those persons using such devices.

  11. Radiated electromagnetic emissions of DC-DC converters

    CERN Document Server

    Sammet, Jan Domenik

    2010-01-01

    A new powering scheme is considered to be mandatory for the CMS tracker at SLHC. The baseline solution of CMS foresees the use of DC-DC converters, allowing to provide larger currents while reducing losses. An important component of most converters are inductors, which, however, tend to radiate the switching noise generated by the converter. The radiated emissions of several converters have been measured and simulated. In addition noise susceptibility measurements with radiated noise and present CMS hardware have been performed. A summary of the results will be presented.

  12. Modern Classical Electrodynamics and Electromagnetic Radiation - Vacuum Field Theory Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The work is devoted to studying some new classical electrodynamics models of interacting charged point particles and related with them physical aspects. Based on the vacuum field theory no-geometry approach, developed in \\cite{BPT,BPT1}, the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian reformulations of some alternative classical electrodynamics models are devised. A problem closely related to the radiation reaction force is analyzed aiming to explain the Wheeler and Feynman reaction radiation mechanism, well ...

  13. Monochromatic X-ray propagation in multi-Z media for imaging and diagnostics including Kα Resonance Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Maximillian; Lim, Sara; Nahar, Sultana; Pradhan, Anil

    2016-05-01

    Aimed at monochromatic X-ray imaging and therapy, broadband, monochromatic, and quasi-monochromatic X-ray sources and propagation through low and high-Z (HZ) media were studied with numerically and experimentally. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using the software package Geant4, and a new code Photx, to simulate X-ray image contrast, depth of penetration, and total attenuation. The data show that monochromatic and quasi-monochromatic X-rays achieve improved contrast at lower absorbed radiation doses compared to conventional broadband 120 kV or CT scans. Experimental quasi-monochromatic high-intensity laser-produced plasma sources and monochromatic synchrotron beam data are compared. Physical processes responsible for X-ray photoexcitation and absorption are numerically modelled, including a novel mechanism for accelerating Kα resonance fluorescence via twin monochromatic X-ray beam. Potential applications are medical diagnostics and high-Z material detection. Acknowledgement: Ohio Supercomputer Center, Columbus, OH.

  14. Study Regarding Electromagnetic Radiation Exposure Generated By Mobile Phone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marica, Lucia; Moraru, Luminita

    2011-12-01

    Number of mobile phone users reached to 5 billion subscribers in 2010 [ABI Research, 2010]. A large number of studies illustrated the public concern about adverse effects of mobile phone radiation and possible health hazards. Position of mobile phone use in close proximity to the head leads the main radiation between the hand and the head. Many investigations studying the possible effects of mobile phone exposure, founded no measurable effects of short-term mobile phone radiation, and there was no evidence for the ability to perceive mobile phone EMF in the general population. In this study, field radiation measurements were performed on different brand and different models of mobile phones in active mode, using an EMF RF Radiation Field Strength Power Meter 1 MHz-8 GHz. The study was effectuated on both the 2G and 3G generations phones connected to the providers operating in the frequency range 450 MHz-1800 MHz. There were recorded values in outgoing call and SMS mode, incoming call and SMS mode. Results were compared with ICNIRP guidelines for exposure to general public.

  15. The ultra low frequency electromagnetic radiation observed in the topside ionosphere above boundaries of tectonic plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Athanasiou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present results of a comparison between ultra low frequency (ULF electromagnetic (EM radiation, recorded by an electric field instrument onboard the satellite detection of electromagnetic emissions transmitted from earthquake regions in the topside ionosphere, and the seismicity of regions with high and low seismic activity. In particular, we evaluated the energy variations of the ULF Ezelectric field component during a period of four years (2006-2009, in order to examine the possible relation of ULF EM radiation with seismogenic regions located in Central America, Indonesia, the Eastern Mediterranean Basin and Greece. As a tool for evaluating the ULF Ez energy variations we used singular spectrum analysis techniques. The results of our analysis clearly show a significant increase of the ULF EM energy emitted from regions of highest seismic activity at the boundaries tectonic plates. Furthermore, we found that higher electromagnetic radiation was detected in a region above the northern- western Greek Arc (R1 than above the adjacent region including Athens and its urban area. We interpret these results of the present study as suggesting that: i the seismogenic regions at the boundary of tectonic plates radiate ULF EM emissions observed by satellites in the topside ionosphere; and ii that this EM radiation is not only related with the occurrence time of great (M≥5 earthquakes, but it is often present in intermediate times and it appears as a quasi-permanent phenomenon.

  16. Radiation Protection of New Lightweight Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Materials Determined

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Weight savings as high as 80 percent could be achieved by simply switching from aluminum electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding covers for spacecraft power systems to EMI covers made from intercalated graphite fiber composites. Because EMI covers typically make up about one-fifth of the power system mass, this change would decrease the mass of a spacecraft power system by more than 15 percent. Intercalated graphite fibers are made by diffusing guest atoms or molecules, such as bromine, between the carbon planes of the graphite fibers. The resulting bromine-intercalated fibers have mechanical and thermal properties nearly identical to pristine graphite fibers, but their resistivity is lower by a factor of 5, giving them better electrical conductivity than stainless steel and making these composites suitable for EMI shielding.

  17. The endpoint formalism for the calculation of electromagnetic radiation and its applications in astroparticle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Huege, Tim; Falcke, Heino; Ludwig, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    We present the "endpoint" formalism for the calculation of electromagnetic radiation and illustrate its applications in astroparticle physics. We use the formalism to explain why the coherent radiation from the Askaryan effect is not in general Cherenkov radiation, as the emission directly results from the time-variation of the net charge in the particle shower. Secondly, we illustrate how the formalism has been applied in the air shower radio emission code REAS3 to unify the microscopic and macroscopic views of radio emission from extensive air showers. Indeed, the formalism is completely universal and particularly well-suited for implementation in Monte Carlo codes in the time- and frequency-domains. It easily reproduces well-known "classical mechanisms" such as synchrotron radiation, Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation and transition radiation in the adequate limits, but has the advantage that it continues to work in realistic, complex situations, where the "classical mechanisms" tend to no longer apply and adheri...

  18. Electromagnetic fields radiated from a lightning return stroke - Application of an exact solution to Maxwell's equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Vine, D. M.; Meneghini, R.

    1978-01-01

    A solution is presented for the electromagnetic fields radiated by an arbitrarily oriented current filament over a conducting ground plane in the case where the current propagates along the filament at the speed of light, and this solution is interpreted in terms of radiation from lightning return strokes. The solution is exact in the fullest sense; no mathematical approximations are made, and the governing differential equations and boundary conditions are satisfied. The solution has the additional attribute of being specified in closed form in terms of elementary functions. This solution is discussed from the point of view of deducing lightning current wave forms from measurements of the electromagnetic fields and understanding the effects of channel tortuosity on the radiated fields. In addition, it is compared with two approximate solutions, the traditional moment approximation and the Fraunhofer approximation, and a set of criteria describing their applicability are presented and interpreted.

  19. Radiation of de-excited electrons at large times in a strong electromagnetic plane wave

    CERN Document Server

    Kazinski, P O

    2013-01-01

    The late time asymptotics of the physical solutions to the Lorentz-Dirac equation in the electromagnetic external fields of simple configurations -- the constant homogeneous field, the linearly polarized plane wave (in particular, the constant uniform crossed field), and the circularly polarized plane wave -- are found. The solutions to the Landau-Lifshitz equation for the external electromagnetic fields admitting a two-parametric symmetry group, which include as a particular case the above mentioned field configurations, are obtained. General properties of the total radiation power of a charged particle are established. In particular, for a circularly polarized wave and constant uniform crossed fields, the total radiation power in the asymptotic regime is independent of the charge and the external field strength, when expressed in terms of the proper-time, and equals a half of the rest energy of a charged particle divided by its proper-time. The spectral densities of the radiation power formed on the late ti...

  20. Status of research on biological effects and safety of electromagnetic radiation: telecommunications frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, S.B.

    1994-06-01

    The possible adverse effects on human health of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) and microwave electromagnetic fields and radiation are of public concern. As the ambient electromagnetic environment continues to intensify (e.g. cellular and portable phones, wireless communications, LANs, PCNs) the effects of exposure from cumulative sources and prolonged exposure to low levels needs to be addressed. This review considers RF and microwave radiation above 100 kHz. It is acknowledged that there are several possible areas of biological interaction which have health implications and about which current knowledge is limited. Advice is based on the assessment of risks to health resulting from these exposures as derived from studies on the effects of RF radiation on animals and volunteers and from epidemiological studies of exposed populations. 360 refs., 9 tabs., 1 fig.

  1. Effects of GSM-Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation on Some Physiological and Biochemical Parameters in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khirazova, E E; Baizhumanov, A A; Trofimova, L K; Deev, L I; Maslova, M V; Sokolova, N A; Kudryashova, N Yu

    2012-10-01

    Single exposure of white outbred rats to electromagnetic radiation with a frequency 905 MHz (GSM frequency) for 2 h increased anxiety, reduced locomotor, orientation, and exploration activities in females and orientation and exploration activities in males. Glucocorticoid levels and antioxidant system activity increased in both males and females. In addition to acute effects, delayed effects of radiation were observed in both males and females 1 day after the exposure. These results demonstrated significant effect of GSM-range radiation on the behavior and activity of stress-realizing and stress-limiting systems of the body.

  2. Mobile phone electromagnetic radiation activates MAPK signaling and regulates viability in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyu-Sun; Choi, Jong-Soon; Hong, Sae-Yong; Son, Tae-Ho; Yu, Kweon

    2008-07-01

    Mobile phones are widely used in the modern world. However, biological effects of electromagnetic radiation produced by mobile phones are largely unknown. In this report, we show biological effects of the mobile phone 835 MHz electromagnetic field (EMF) in the Drosophila model system. When flies were exposed to the specific absorption rate (SAR) 1.6 W/kg, which is the proposed exposure limit by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), more than 90% of the flies were viable even after the 30 h exposure. However, in the SAR 4.0 W/kg strong EMF exposure, viability dropped from the 12 h exposure. These EMF exposures triggered stress response and increased the production of reactive oxygen species. The EMF exposures also activated extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling, but not p38 kinase signaling. Interestingly, SAR 1.6 W/kg activated mainly ERK signaling and expression of an anti-apoptotic gene, whereas SAR 4.0 W/kg strongly activated JNK signaling and expression of apoptotic genes. In addition, SAR 4.0 W/kg amplified the number of apoptotic cells in the fly brain. These findings demonstrate that the exposure limit on electromagnetic radiation proposed by ANSI triggered ERK-survival signaling but the strong electromagnetic radiation activated JNK-apoptotic signaling in Drosophila.

  3. Effect of electromagnetic radiation on the coils used in aneurysm embolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xianli; Wu, Zhongxue; Li, Youxiang

    2014-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of electromagnetic radiation in our daily lives on the coils used in aneurysm embolization. Faraday's electromagnetic induction principle was applied to analyze the effects of electromagnetic radiation on the coils used in aneurysm embolization. To induce a current of 0.5mA in less than 5 mm platinum coils required to stimulate peripheral nerves, the minimum magnetic field will be 0.86 μT. To induce a current of 0.5 mA in platinum coils by a hair dryer, the minimum aneurysm radius is 2.5 mm (5 mm aneurysm). To induce a current of 0.5 mA in platinum coils by a computer or TV, the minimum aneurysm radius is 8.6 mm (approximate 17 mm aneurysm). The minimum magnetic field is much larger than the flux densities produced by computer and TV, while the minimum aneurysm radius is much larger than most aneurysm sizes to levels produced by computer and TV. At present, the effects of electromagnetic radiation in our daily lives on intracranial coils do not produce a harmful reaction. Patients with coiled aneurysm are advised to avoid using hair dryers. This theory needs to be proved by further detailed complex investigations. Doctors should give patients additional instructions before the procedure, depending on this study.

  4. Response of two-phase droplets to intense electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, James F.; Maloney, Daniel J.; Lawson, William F.; Casleton, Kent H.

    1993-04-01

    The behavior of two-phase droplets subjected to high intensity radiation pulses is studied. Droplets are highly absorbing solids in weakly absorbing liquid medium. The objective of the study was to define heating thresholds required for causing explosive boiling and secondary atomization of the fuel droplet. The results point to mechanisms for energy storage and transport in two-phase systems.

  5. LFS-3 - new radiation hard scintillator for electromagnetic calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Kozlov, V A; Zavartsev, Yu D; Zavertyaev, M V; Zerrouk, A F

    2009-01-01

    Radiation damage of new heavy LFS-3 scintillating crystals has been studied using powerful $^{60}Co$ source at the dose rate of 4 Krad/min. No deterioration in optical transmission of LFS-3 crystals was observed after irradiation with the dose of 23 Mrad.

  6. Electromagnetic Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted from GSM Mobile Phones Decreases the Accuracy of Home Blood Glucose Monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Smj; Gholampour, M; Haghani, M; Mortazavi, G; Mortazavi, Ar

    2014-09-01

    Mobile phones are two-way radios that emit electromagnetic radiation in microwave range. As the number of mobile phone users has reached 6 billion, the bioeffects of exposure to mobile phone radiation and mobile phone electromagnetic interference with electronic equipment have received more attention, globally. As self-monitoring of blood glucose can be a beneficial part of diabetes control, home blood glucose testing kits are very popular. The main goal of this study was to investigate if radiofrequency radiation emitted from a common GSM mobile phone can alter the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. Forty five female nondiabetic students aged 17-20 years old participated in this study. For Control-EMF group (30 students), blood glucose concentration for each individual was measured in presence and absence of radiofrequency radiation emitted by a common GSM mobile phone (HTC touch, Diamond 2) while the phone was ringing. For Control- Repeat group (15 students), two repeated measurements were performed for each participant in the absence of electromagnetic fields. The magnitude of the changes between glucose levels in two repeated measurements (|ΔC|) in Control-Repeat group was 1.07 ± 0.88 mg/dl while this magnitude for Control-EMF group was 7.53 ± 4.76 mg/dl (P < 0.001, two-tailed test). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the electromagnetic interference in home blood glucose monitors. It can be concluded that electromagnetic interference from mobile phones has an adverse effect on the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. We suggest that mobile phones should be used at least 50 cm away from home blood glucose monitors.

  7. Electromagnetic Radiation in Multiply Connected Robertson-Walker Cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Tomaschitz, R

    1993-01-01

    Maxwell's equations on a topologically nontrivial cosmological background are studied. The cosmology is locally determined by a Robertson-Walker line element, but the spacelike slices are open hyperbolic manifolds, whose topology and geometry may vary in time. In this context the spectral resolution of Maxwell's equations in terms of horospherical elementary waves generated at infinity of hyperbolic space is given. The wave fronts are orthogonal to bundles of unstable geodesic rays, and the eikonal of geometric optics appears just as the phase of the horospherical waves. This fact is used to attach to the unstable geodesic rays a quantum mechanical momentum. In doing so the quantized energy-momentum tensor of the radiation field is constructed in a geometrically and dynamically transparent way, without appealing to the intricacies of the second quantization. In particular Planck's radiation formula, and the bearing of the multiply connected topology on the fluctuations in the temperature of the background rad...

  8. Electromagnetic Radiation in a Uniformly Moving, Homogeneous Medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Günther

    1972-01-01

    A new method of treating radiation problems in a uniformly moving, homogeneous medium is presented. A certain transformation technique in connection with the four-dimensional Green's function method makes it possible to elaborate the Green's functions of the governing differential equations in th...... in the rest system of the medium, whereas the final integrals determining the field may be calculated in the rest system of the source. ©1972 The American Institute of Physics...

  9. Determination of High-Frequency Current Distribution Using EMTP-Based Transmission Line Models with Resulting Radiated Electromagnetic Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mork, B; Nelson, R; Kirkendall, B; Stenvig, N

    2009-11-30

    Application of BPL technologies to existing overhead high-voltage power lines would benefit greatly from improved simulation tools capable of predicting performance - such as the electromagnetic fields radiated from such lines. Existing EMTP-based frequency-dependent line models are attractive since their parameters are derived from physical design dimensions which are easily obtained. However, to calculate the radiated electromagnetic fields, detailed current distributions need to be determined. This paper presents a method of using EMTP line models to determine the current distribution on the lines, as well as a technique for using these current distributions to determine the radiated electromagnetic fields.

  10. Electromagnetic Radiation in the Plasma Environment Around the Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayner, Boris V.; Ferguson, Dale C.

    1995-01-01

    As part of the SAMPIE (The Solar Array Module Plasma Interaction Experiment) program, the Langmuir probe (LP) was employed to measure plasma characteristics during the flight STS-62. The whole set of data could be divided into two parts: (1) low frequency sweeps to determine voltage-current characteristics and to find electron temperature and number density; (2) high frequency turbulence (HFT dwells) data caused by electromagnetic noise around the shuttle. The broadband noise was observed at frequencies 250-20,000 Hz. Measurements were performed in ram conditions; thus, it seems reasonable to believe that the influence of spacecraft operations on plasma parameters was minimized. The average spectrum of fluctuations is in agreement with theoretical predictions. According to purposes of SAMPIE, the samples of solar cells were placed in the cargo bay of the shuttle, and high negative bias voltages were applied to them to initiate arcing between these cells and surrounding plasma. The arcing onset was registered by special counters, and data were obtained that included the amplitudes of current, duration of each arc, and the number of arcs per one experiment. The LP data were analyzed for two different situations: with arcing and without arcing. Electrostatic noise spectra for both situations and theoretical explanation of the observed features are presented in this report.

  11. Radiation of planar electromagnetic waves by a line source in anisotropic metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Qiang; Jiang Weixiang; Cui Tiejun, E-mail: tjcui@seu.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of Millimeter Waves, Department of Radio Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2010-08-25

    We show experimentally that a line source in an anisotropic metamaterial directly radiates planar electromagnetic waves instead of cylindrical waves, when one component of the permeability tensor approaches zero. The impedance of this material can be perfectly matched to that of free space, which can significantly reduce the reflections between the source and the superstrate, as in traditional highly directive antennas based on zero index metamaterials. Such a unique property determines the two-way propagation of electromagnetic waves excited by a line source, instead of all-way propagation. From this feature, a highly directive emission of electromagnetic waves is achieved using the anisotropic metamaterial with arbitrary shape. We have designed and fabricated the anisotropic metamaterial in the microwave region, and observed the generation of plane waves and their highly directive emission. The proposed plane-wave emission is independent of the shape variance of the anisotropic metamaterial, which can be utilized in the design of conformal antennas.

  12. Radiation of planar electromagnetic waves by a line source in anisotropic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qiang; Jiang, Wei Xiang; Cui, Tie Jun

    2010-08-01

    We show experimentally that a line source in an anisotropic metamaterial directly radiates planar electromagnetic waves instead of cylindrical waves, when one component of the permeability tensor approaches zero. The impedance of this material can be perfectly matched to that of free space, which can significantly reduce the reflections between the source and the superstrate, as in traditional highly directive antennas based on zero index metamaterials. Such a unique property determines the two-way propagation of electromagnetic waves excited by a line source, instead of all-way propagation. From this feature, a highly directive emission of electromagnetic waves is achieved using the anisotropic metamaterial with arbitrary shape. We have designed and fabricated the anisotropic metamaterial in the microwave region, and observed the generation of plane waves and their highly directive emission. The proposed plane-wave emission is independent of the shape variance of the anisotropic metamaterial, which can be utilized in the design of conformal antennas.

  13. Time-scale invariances in preseismic electromagnetic radiation, magnetization and damage evolution of rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kawada

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the time-scale invariant changes in electromagnetic and mechanical energy releases prior to a rock failure or a large earthquake. The energy release processes are caused by damage evolutions such as crack propagation, motion of charged dislocation, area-enlargement of sheared asperities and repetitive creep-rate changes. Damage mechanics can be used to represent the time-scale invariant evolutions of both brittle and plastic damages. Irreversible thermodynamics applied to the damage mechanics reveals that the damage evolution produces the variations in charge, dipole and electromagnetic signals in addition to mechanical energy release, and yields the time-scale invariant patterns of Benioff electromagnetic radiation and cumulative Benioff strain-release. The irreversible thermodynamic framework of damage mechanics is also applicable to the seismo-magnetic effect, and the time-scale invariance is recognized in the remanent magnetization change associated with damage evolution prior to a rock failure.

  14. Bio-Soliton Model that predicts Non-Thermal Electromagnetic Radiation Frequency Bands, that either Stabilize or Destabilize Life Conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Geesink, J H

    2016-01-01

    Solitons, as self-reinforcing solitary waves, interact with complex biological phenomena such as cellular self-organisation. Soliton models are able to describe a spectrum of electromagnetism modalities that can be applied to understand the physical principles of biological effects in living cells, as caused by electromagnetic radiation. A bio-soliton model is proposed, that enables to predict which eigen-frequencies of non-thermal electromagnetic waves are life-sustaining and which are, in contrast, detrimental for living cells. The particular effects are exerted by a range of electromagnetic wave frequencies of one-tenth of a Hertz till Peta Hertz, that show a pattern of twelve bands, if positioned on an acoustic frequency scale. The model was substantiated by a meta-analysis of 240 published papers of biological radiation experiments, in which a spectrum of non-thermal electromagnetic waves were exposed to living cells and intact organisms. These data support the concept of coherent quantized electromagnet...

  15. Radiated electromagnetic emissions of DC-DC converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feld, L; Jussen, R; Karpinski, W; Klein, K; Sammet, J; Wlochal, M, E-mail: sammet@cern.ch [Physikalisches Institut IB, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    For the CMS tracker at SLHC a new powering scheme is considered to be mandatory to allow the detector to provide at least the same performance as today at the LHC. The baseline solution of CMS foresees the use of DC-DC converters to provide larger currents with smaller losses. An important component of most converters are inductors which, however, tend to radiate the switching noise generated by the converter. The emissions of different inductors have been measured and simulated, the coil design has been optimized and noise susceptibility measurements, with present CMS hardware, have been performed. This article summarizes the results.

  16. Ion Acceleration by the Radiation Pressure of Slow Electromagnetic Wave

    CERN Document Server

    Bulanov, S V; Kando, M; Pegoraro, F; Bulanov, S S; Geddes, C G R; Schroeder, C; Esarey, E; Leemans, W

    2012-01-01

    When the ions are accelerated by the radiation pressure of the laser pulse, their velocity can not exceed the laser group velocity, in the case when it is less than the speed of light in vacuum. This is demonstrated in two cases corresponding to the thin foil target irradiated by a high intensity laser light and to the hole boring by the laser pulse in the extended plasma accompanied by the collisionless shock wave formation. It is found that the beams of accelerated at the collisionless shock wave front ions are unstable against the Buneman-lke and the Weibel-like instabilities which result in the ion energy spectrum broadening.

  17. Effect of electromagnetic radiations on neurodegenerative diseases- technological revolution as a curse in disguise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Gulam M; Sheikh, Ishfaq A; Karim, Sajjad; Haque, Absarul; Kamal, Mohammad A; Chaudhary, Adeel G; Azhar, Essam; Mirza, Zeenat

    2014-01-01

    In the present developed world, all of us are flooded with electromagnetic radiations (EMR) emanating from generation and transmission of electricity, domestic appliances and industrial equipments, to telecommunications and broadcasting. We have been exposed to EMR for last many decades; however their recent steady increase from artificial sources has been reported as millions of antennas and satellites irradiate the global population round the clock, year round. Needless to say, these are so integral to modern life that interaction with them on a daily basis is seemingly inevitable; hence, the EMR exposure load has increased to a point where their health effects are becoming a major concern. Delicate and sensitive electrical system of human body is affected by consistent penetration of electromagnetic frequencies causing DNA breakages and chromosomal aberrations. Technological innovations came with Pandora's Box of hazardous consequences including neurodegenerative disorders, hearing disabilities, diabetes, congenital abnormalities, infertility, cardiovascular diseases and cancer to name few, all on a sharp rise. Electromagnetic non-ionizing radiations pose considerable health threat with prolonged exposure. Mobile phones are usually held near to the brain and manifest progressive structural or functional alterations in neurons leading to neurodegenerative diseases and neuronal death. This has provoked awareness among both the general public and scientific community and international bodies acknowledge that further systematic research is needed. The aim of the present review was to have an insight in whether and how cumulative electro-magnetic field exposure is a risk factor for neurodegenerative disorders.

  18. On Equation of Motion for Arbitrarily Shaped Particle under Action of Electromagnetic Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Klacka, J

    2002-01-01

    Arguments of astronomers against equation of motion for arbitrarily shaped particle under action of electromagnetic radiation are discussed. Each of the arguments is commented in detail from the point of view of the required physics. It is shown that the arguments of astronomers, including referees in several astronomical and astrophysical journals, are unacceptable from the physical point of view. Detail explanations should help astronomers in better physical understanding of the equation of motion. Relativistically covariant equation of motion for real dust particle under the action of electromagnetic radiation is derived. The particle is neutral in charge. Equation of motion is expressed in terms of particle's optical properties, standardly used in optics for stationary particles.

  19. Natural electromagnetic radiation of edge part of seam with rock burst hazard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proskuryakov, V.M.; Shabarov, A.N.; Frid, V.I. (VNIMI (USSR))

    1989-04-01

    Describes experimental use of measurement of electromagnetic radiation from rocks as a method of forecasting rock burst hazards. The experiments were performed at a Severokuzbassugol' mine using an EG-9 remote recording instrument developed by VNIMI. No boreholes are required; the instrument sensors are situated at 2-10 m intervals along the roadway. The experimental recordings were made in a face entry during hydraulic stress relief treatment of the coal. High levels of electromagnetic radiation correlated with high drill fines yields to indicate a high rock burst hazard level. A hazard zone that was found was rendered safe by drilling 2 sets of 90 mm diameter boreholes fanning out into the zone, first to a depth of 6 m, then to 12 m.

  20. Spin one-half particles in strong electromagnetic fields: spin effects and radiation reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Wen, Meng; Bauke, Heiko

    2016-01-01

    Various different classical models of electrons including their spin degree of freedom are commonly applied to describe the electron dynamics in strong electromagnetic fields. We demonstrate that different models can lead to different or even contradicting predictions how the spin degree of freedom modifies the electron's orbital motion when the electron moves in strong electromagnetic fields. This discrepancy is rooted in the model-specific energy dependency of the spin induced Stern-Gerlach force acting on the electron. The Frenkel model and the classical Foldy-Wouthuysen model are compared exemplarily in the nonrelativistic and the relativistic limits in order to identify parameter regimes where these classical models make different predictions. This allows for experimental tests of these models. In ultra strong laser setups at parameter regimes where effects of the Stern-Gerlach force become relevant also radiation reaction effects are expected to set in. We incorporate radiation reaction classically via ...

  1. [The application of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation under immobilization stress conditions (an experimental study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, Iu N; Bobrovnitskiĭ, I P; Nikoulina, L A; Mikhaĭlik, L V; Geniatulina, M S; Bobkova, A S

    2014-01-01

    The experiments carried out on outbred male white rats with the use of optical, electron-microscopic, biochemical, and radioimmunological methods have demonstrated that the application of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation (LI-EMR) with a flow density of 1 mcW/cm2 and a frequency of around 1,000 MHz both in the primary prophylaxis regime and as the therapeuticpreventive modality arrested the development of post-stress disorders in the rat testicles, liver, and thymus; moreover, it promoted activation of the adaptive, preventive, and compensatory processes. The data obtained provide a rationale for the application of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation to protect the organism from negative effects of stressful factors.

  2. Monitoring dynamic reactions of red blood cells to UHF electromagnetic waves radiation using a novel micro-imaging technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Ping; Yong, Junguang; Shen, Hongtao; Zheng, Xianrong

    2012-12-01

    Multiple state-of-the-art techniques, such as multi-dimensional micro-imaging, fast multi-channel micro-spetrophotometry, and dynamic micro-imaging analysis, were used to dynamically investigate various effects of cell under the 900 MHz electromagnetic radiation. Cell changes in shape, size, and parameters of Hb absorption spectrum under different power density electromagnetic waves radiation were presented in this article. Experimental results indicated that the isolated human red blood cells (RBCs) do not have obviously real-time responses to the ultra-low density (15 μW/cm(2), 31 μW/cm(2)) electromagnetic wave radiation when the radiation time is not more than 30 min; however, the cells do have significant reactions in shape, size, and the like, to the electromagnetic waves radiation with power densities of 1 mW/cm(2) and 5 mW/cm(2). The data also reveal the possible influences and statistical relationships among living human cell functions, radiation amount, and exposure time with high-frequency electromagnetic waves. The results of this study may be significant on protection of human being and other living organisms against possible radiation affections of the high-frequency electromagnetic waves.

  3. The radioprotective effects of Moringa oleifera against mobile phone electromagnetic radiation-induced infertility in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Bin-Meferij, Mashael Mohammed; El-kott, Attalla Farag

    2015-01-01

    The present study has investigated the effects of mobile phone electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on fertility in rats. The purpose of this study was to explore the capability of polyphenolic-rich Moringa oleifera leaf extract in protecting rat testis against EMR-induced impairments based on evaluation of sperm count, viability, motility, sperm cell morphology, anti-oxidants (SOD & CAT), oxidative stress marker, testis tissue histopathology and PCNA immunohistochemistry. The sample consisted of ...

  4. Acousto-optic modulation and deflection of terahertz electromagnetic radiation in nonpolar liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, P. A.; Voloshinov, V. B.; Gerasimov, V. V.; Knyazev, B. A.

    2017-07-01

    The results of a series of experiments on controlled deflection of electromagnetic radiation of a free-electron laser upon diffraction by an acoustic wave in nonpolar liquids are presented. Acoustic and optical properties of liquids that are transparent in the terahertz range are discussed. It is demonstrated that nonpolar liquids may turn out to be a more efficient acousto-optic interaction medium than dielectric crystals or semiconductors.

  5. Utilizing electromagnetic radiation for hair growth: a critical review of phototrichogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalia, Sunil; Lui, Harvey

    2013-01-01

    Hair loss has a high prevalence in the general population and can have significant medical and psychological sequelae. Pattern hair loss and alopecia areata represent the major reasons patients present to dermatologists in relation to hair loss. Because conventional treatment options are generally incompletely effective, novel methods for hair grown induction are being developed. The role of using electromagnetic radiation, including low-level laser therapy for the management of hair loss through phototrichogenesis, is reviewed in this article.

  6. Morphological aspects of poly-organic impact of radio frequency electromagnetic radiation in experiment

    OpenAIRE

    TASHPULATOVA GUZAL ALIEVNA; MAVLYAN-HODZHAEV RAVSHAN SHUKHRATOVICH

    2015-01-01

    The impact of radio frequency electromagnetic radiation (RFEMR) on morphological responses of some organs of experimental animals has been studied. The RFEMR effect was shown to manifest itself by pathological changes in the structure of the majority of organs and tissues with the critical impact of the micro-vascular bed impairment on not only morphological, metabolic but also many other homeostasis shifts that occurred.

  7. Gravitational Hertz experiment with electromagnetic radiation in a strong magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Kolosnitsyn, N I

    2015-01-01

    Brief review of principal ideas in respect of the high frequency gravitational radiation generated and detected in the laboratory condition is presented. Interaction of electro-magnetic and gravitational waves into a strong magnetic field is considered as a more promising variant of the laboratory GW-Hertz experiment. The formulae of the direct and inverse Gertsenshtein-Zeldovich effect are derived. Numerical estimates are given and a discussion of a possibility of observation of these effects in a lab is carried out.

  8. Electromagnetic radiation from nuclear collisions at RHIC energies

    CERN Document Server

    Turbide, Simon; Frodermann, Evan; Heinz, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    The hot and dense strongly interacting matter created in collisions of heavy nuclei at RHIC energies is modeled with relativistic hydrodynamics, and the spectra of real and virtual photons produced at mid-rapidity in these events are calculated. Several different sources are considered, and their relative importance is compared. Specifically, we include jet fragmentation, jet-plasma interactions, the emission of radiation from the thermal medium and from primordial hard collisions. Our calculations consistently take into account jet energy loss, as evaluated in the AMY formalism. We obtain results for the spectra, the nuclear modification factor (R_AA), and the azimuthal anisotropy (v_2) that agree with the photon measurements performed by the PHENIX collaboration at RHIC.

  9. Radiation of de-excited electrons at large times in a strong electromagnetic plane wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazinski, P.O., E-mail: kpo@phys.tsu.ru

    2013-12-15

    The late time asymptotics of the physical solutions to the Lorentz–Dirac equation in the electromagnetic external fields of simple configurations–the constant homogeneous field, the linearly polarized plane wave (in particular, the constant uniform crossed field), and the circularly polarized plane wave–are found. The solutions to the Landau–Lifshitz equation for the external electromagnetic fields admitting a two-parametric symmetry group, which include as a particular case the above mentioned field configurations, are obtained. Some general properties of the total radiation power of a charged particle are established. In particular, for a circularly polarized wave and constant uniform crossed fields, the total radiation power in the asymptotic regime is independent of the charge and the external field strength, when expressed in terms of the proper-time, and equals a half the rest energy of a charged particle divided by its proper-time. The spectral densities of the radiation power formed on the late time asymptotics are derived for a charged particle moving in the external electromagnetic fields of the simple configurations pointed above. This provides a simple method to verify experimentally that the charged particle has reached the asymptotic regime. -- Highlights: •Late time asymptotics of the solutions to the Lorentz–Dirac equation are studied. •General properties of the total radiation power of electrons are established. •The total radiation power equals a half the rest energy divided by the proper-time. •Spectral densities of radiation formed on the late time asymptotics are derived. •Possible experimental verification of the results is proposed.

  10. [Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism for studying the carcinogenicity of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields and radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voĭchuk, S I

    2014-01-01

    Medical and biological aspects of the effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic (EM) fields and radiation on human health are the important issues that have arisen as a result of anthropogenic impact on the biosphere. Safe use of man-made sources of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields and radiation in a broad range of frequencies--static, radio-frequency and microwave--is a subject of discussions and speculations. The main problem is the lack of understanding of the mechanism(s) of reception of EMFs by living organisms. In this review we have analyzed the existing literature data regarding the effects of the electromagnetic radiation on the model eukaryotic organism--yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. An attempt was made to estimate the probability of induction of carcinogenesis in humans under the influence of magnetic fields and electromagnetic radiation of extremely low frequency, radio frequency and microwave ranges.

  11. University Physics Students' Use of Models in Explanations of Phenomena Involving Interaction between Metals and Electromagnetic Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfors, Andreas; Ryder, Jim

    2001-01-01

    Examines third year university physics students' use of models when explaining familiar phenomena involving interaction between metals and electromagnetic radiation. Concludes that few students use a single model consistently. (Contains 27 references.) (DDR)

  12. Electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, Ian S

    1990-01-01

    The Manchester Physics Series General Editors: D. J. Sandiford; F. Mandl; A. C. Phillips Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester Properties of Matter B. H. Flowers and E. Mendoza Optics Second Edition F. G. Smith and J. H. Thomson Statistical Physics Second Edition F. Mandl Electromagnetism Second Edition I. S. Grant and W. R. Phillips Statistics R. J. Barlow Solid State Physics Second Edition J. R. Hook and H. E. Hall Quantum Mechanics F. Mandl Particle Physics Second Edition B. R. Martin and G. Shaw the Physics of Stars Second Edition A. C. Phillips Computing for Scient

  13. Rockburst Disaster Prediction of Isolated Coal Pillar by Electromagnetic Radiation Based on Frictional Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongbin Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the understanding that charges generated during coal cracking are due to coal particle friction, a microstructure model was developed by considering four different variation laws of friction coefficient. Firstly, the frictional energy release of coal sample during uniaxial compressive tests was investigated and discussed. Then electromagnetic radiation method was used to predict the potential rockburst disaster in isolated coal pillar mining face, Muchengjian Colliery. The results indicate that the friction coefficient of coal particles decreases linearly with the increase of axial loading force. In predicting the strain-type rockburst, the high stress state of coal must be closely monitored. Field monitoring shows that electromagnetic radiation signal became abnormal before the occurrence of rockburst during isolated coal pillar mining. Furthermore, rockburst tends to occur at the early and ending stages of isolated coal pillar extraction. Mine-site investigation shows the occurrence zone of rockburst is consistent with the prediction, proving the reliability of the electromagnetic radiation method to predict strain-type rockburst disaster.

  14. Radiation of de-excited electrons at large times in a strong electromagnetic plane wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazinski, P. O.

    2013-12-01

    The late time asymptotics of the physical solutions to the Lorentz-Dirac equation in the electromagnetic external fields of simple configurations-the constant homogeneous field, the linearly polarized plane wave (in particular, the constant uniform crossed field), and the circularly polarized plane wave-are found. The solutions to the Landau-Lifshitz equation for the external electromagnetic fields admitting a two-parametric symmetry group, which include as a particular case the above mentioned field configurations, are obtained. Some general properties of the total radiation power of a charged particle are established. In particular, for a circularly polarized wave and constant uniform crossed fields, the total radiation power in the asymptotic regime is independent of the charge and the external field strength, when expressed in terms of the proper-time, and equals a half the rest energy of a charged particle divided by its proper-time. The spectral densities of the radiation power formed on the late time asymptotics are derived for a charged particle moving in the external electromagnetic fields of the simple configurations pointed above. This provides a simple method to verify experimentally that the charged particle has reached the asymptotic regime.

  15. Rockburst disaster prediction of isolated coal pillar by electromagnetic radiation based on frictional effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tongbin; Yin, Yanchun; Xiao, Fukun; Tan, Yunliang; Zou, Jianchao

    2014-01-01

    Based on the understanding that charges generated during coal cracking are due to coal particle friction, a microstructure model was developed by considering four different variation laws of friction coefficient. Firstly, the frictional energy release of coal sample during uniaxial compressive tests was investigated and discussed. Then electromagnetic radiation method was used to predict the potential rockburst disaster in isolated coal pillar mining face, Muchengjian Colliery. The results indicate that the friction coefficient of coal particles decreases linearly with the increase of axial loading force. In predicting the strain-type rockburst, the high stress state of coal must be closely monitored. Field monitoring shows that electromagnetic radiation signal became abnormal before the occurrence of rockburst during isolated coal pillar mining. Furthermore, rockburst tends to occur at the early and ending stages of isolated coal pillar extraction. Mine-site investigation shows the occurrence zone of rockburst is consistent with the prediction, proving the reliability of the electromagnetic radiation method to predict strain-type rockburst disaster.

  16. Wireless Power Transfer by Means of Electromagnetic Radiation Within an Enclosed Space

    CERN Document Server

    Moffatt, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, wireless power transfer by means of electromagnetic radiation is investigated. Formulas are derived for the efficiency of the power transfer in free space, in the presence of reflecting surfaces, and within enclosed spaces. It is found that the presence of reflecting surfaces has the capacity to substantially enhance the efficiency of power transfer at long range. An upper limit is also found for the transferred power when constraints are imposed on certain forms of undesired absorption. For the sake of simplicity, only the efficiency of the radiative power transfer is considered. Losses due to resistance in the antenna structures or inefficiencies in RF to DC conversion are neglected.

  17. Cooling systems and hybrid A/C systems using an electromagnetic radiation-absorbing complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halas, Nancy J.; Nordlander, Peter; Neumann, Oara

    2015-05-19

    A method for powering a cooling unit. The method including applying electromagnetic (EM) radiation to a complex, where the complex absorbs the EM radiation to generate heat, transforming, using the heat generated by the complex, a fluid to vapor, and sending the vapor from the vessel to a turbine coupled to a generator by a shaft, where the vapor causes the turbine to rotate, which turns the shaft and causes the generator to generate the electric power, wherein the electric powers supplements the power needed to power the cooling unit

  18. COMBINED EFFECT OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION, DNA-INTERCALATORS, C60-FULLERENE AND CAFFEINE ON HUMAN BUCCAL EPITHELIUM CELLS

    OpenAIRE

    G. B. Skamrova; Prylutskyy, Yu I.; M. P. Evstigneev

    2014-01-01

    Now the number of physical and chemical biologically active damage factors dramatically increased. The ways to neutralize such effects have not been studied enough. In this work the techniques of visual assessment of chromatin granulation and of electronegativity of human buccal epithelium cell nuclei were used in order to study the combined effects of the exposure to low-intensity electromagnetic radiation of the millimeter range electromagnetic radiation and to the DNA-binding compounds, su...

  19. On extreme field limits in high power laser matter interactions: radiation dominant regimes in high intensity electromagnetic wave interaction with electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Bulanov, Sergei V; Kando, Masaki; Koga, James K; Nakamura, Tatsufumi; Bulanov, Stepan S; Zhidkov, Alexei G; Kato, Yoshiaki; Korn, Georg

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the key important regimes of electromagnetic field interaction with charged particles. Main attention is paid to the nonlinear Thomson/Compton scattering regime with the radiation friction and quantum electrodynamics effects taken into account. This process opens a channel of high efficiency electromagnetic energy conversion into hard electromagnetic radiation in the form of ultra short high power gamma ray flashes.

  20. Blackbody radiation, conformal symmetry, and the mismatch between classical mechanics and electromagnetism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Timothy H [Department of Physics, City College of the City University of New York, New York, NY 10031 (United States)

    2005-02-25

    The blackbody radiation problem within classical physics is reviewed. It is again suggested that conformal symmetry is the crucial unrecognized aspect, and that only scattering by classical electromagnetic systems will provide equilibrium at the Planck spectrum. It is pointed out that the several calculations of radiation scattering using nonlinear mechanical systems do not preserve the Boltzmann distribution under adiabatic change of a parameter, and this fact seems at variance with our expectations in connection with derivations of Wien's displacement theorem. By contrast, the striking properties of charged particle motion in a Coulomb potential or in a uniform magnetic field suggest the possibility that these systems will fit with classical thermal radiation. It may be possible to give a full scattering calculation in the case of cyclotron motion in order to provide the needed test of the connection between conformal symmetry and classical thermal radiation.

  1. Electromagnetic bound states in the radiation continuum for periodic double arrays of subwavelength dielectric cylinders

    CERN Document Server

    Ndangali, Friends R

    2010-01-01

    Electromagnetic bound states in the radiation continuum are studied for periodic double arrays of subwavelength dielectric cylinders in TM polarization. They are similar to localized waveguide mode solutions of Maxwell's equations for metal cavities or defects of photonic crystals, but, in contrast to the latter, their spectrum lies in the radiation continuum. The phenomenon is identical to the existence of bound sates in the radiation continuum in quantum mechanics, discovered by von Neumann and Wigner. In the formal scattering theory, these states appear as resonances with the vanishing width. For the system studied, the bound states are shown to exist at specific distances between the arrays in the spectral region where one or two diffraction channels are open. Analytic solutions are obtained for all bound states (below the radiation continuum and in it) in the limit of thin cylinders (the cylinder radius is much smaller than the wavelength). The existence of bound states is also established in the spectra...

  2. Electromagnetic and radiation environments: effects on pacemakers; Environnements electromagnetiques et radiatifs: effets sur les stimulateurs cardiaques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouton, J.; Trochet, R.; Vicrey, J.; Sauvage, M. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, 91 (France); Chauvenet, B.; Ostrovski, A.; Leroy, E. [Bureau National de Metrologie, LPRI, CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Haug, R. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Lab. de Physique des Gaz et des Plasma, SUPELEC, 91 - Orsay (France); Dodinot, B. [Centre de Stimulation Cardiaque, CHU de Brabois, 54 - Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France); Joffre, F. [CEA Saclay, Dept. d' Electronique et d' Instrumentation Nucleaire, LETI, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1999-07-01

    Nowadays, medical care development allows many people to share the benefits of implanted pacemakers (PM). PM can be perturbed and even fall in complete breakdowns in an electromagnetic and radiation environment. A stimuli-dependent patient can thus be seriously in danger. This article presents the effect of ionizing radiation from either a cobalt-60 source or from a linear accelerator (Saturne 43) on 12 pacemakers. It seems that technological progress make electronic circuits more sensitive to the cumulated dose of radiation. This survey shows that pacemakers have great difficulties to sustain ionizing radiation doses that are commonly delivered to patients during therapies. Usually perturbed functioning appears suddenly and means a strong shift of stimuli that might lead to heart failure.

  3. COMBINED EFFECT OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION, DNA-INTERCALATORS, C60-FULLERENE AND CAFFEINE ON HUMAN BUCCAL EPITHELIUM CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. Skamrova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Now the number of physical and chemical biologically active damage factors dramatically increased. The ways to neutralize such effects have not been studied enough. In this work the techniques of visual assessment of chromatin granulation and of electronegativity of human buccal epithelium cell nuclei were used in order to study the combined effects of the exposure to low-intensity electromagnetic radiation of the millimeter range electromagnetic radiation and to the DNA-binding compounds, such as: antibiotic doxorubicin, mutagens ethidium bromide and proflavine, as well as to caffeine and C60 -fullerene which are not directly interact with DNA. When the action of electromagnetic radiation and DNA-binding compounds is combined, a synergistic effect of reducing the cell response was observed in contrast to the effects caused by electromagnetic radiation and drugs separately. When cells were irradiated in the presence of C60 -fullerene or caffeine, a protective effect of compounds against electromagnetic radiation influence was observed. The obtained results may provide perspectives in the use of the C60 fullerene and caffeine as DNA-protectors under the action of electromagnetic radiation.

  4. Survival of prototype strains of somatic coliphage families in environmental waters and when exposed to UV low-pressure monochromatic radiation or heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Suk; Sobsey, Mark D

    2011-06-01

    The potential use of specific somatic coliphage taxonomic groups as viral indicators based on their persistence and prevalence in water was investigated. Representative type strains of the 4 major somatic coliphage taxonomic groups were seeded into reagent water and an ambient surface water source of drinking water and the survival of the added phages was measured over 90 days at temperatures of 23-25 and 4 °C. Microviridae (type strain PhiX174), Siphoviridae (type strain Lambda), and Myoviridae (type strain T4) viruses were the most persistent in water at the temperatures tested. The Microviridae (type strain PhiX174) and the Siphoviridae (type strain Lambda) were the most resistant viruses to UV radiation and the Myoviridae (type strain T4) and the Microviridae (type strain PhiX174) were the most resistant viruses to heat. Based on their greater persistence in water over time and their relative resistance to heat and/or UV radiation, the Myoviridae (type strain T4), the Microviridae (type strain PhiX174), and the Siphoviridae (type strain Lambda) were the preferred candidate somatic coliphages as fecal indicator viruses in water, with the Microviridae (type strain PhiX174) the most resistant to these conditions overall. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Broadband, monochromatic and quasi-monochromatic x-ray propagation in multi-Z media for imaging and diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Maximillian S.; Lim, Sara N.; Nahar, Sultana N.; Chowdhury, Enam; Pradhan, Anil K.

    2017-08-01

    With the advent of monochromatic and quasi-monochromatic x-ray sources, we explore their potential with computational and experimental studies on propagation through a combination of low and high-Z (atomic number) media for applications to imaging and detection. The multi-purpose code GEANT4 and a new code PHOTX are employed in numerical simulations, and a variety of x-ray sources are considered: conventional broadband devices with well-known spectra, quasi-monochromatic laser driven sources, and monochromatic synchrotron x-rays. Phantom samples consisting of layers of low-Z and high-Z material are utilized, with atomic-molecular species ranging from H2O to gold. Differential and total attenuation of x-ray fluxes from the different x-ray sources are illustrated through simulated x-ray images. Main conclusions of this study are: I. It is shown that a 65 keV Gaussian quasi-monochromatic source is capable of better contrast with less radiation exposure than a common 120 kV broadband simulator. II. A quantitative measure is defined and computed as a metric to compare the efficacy of any two x-ray sources, as a function of concentration of high-Z moieties in predominantly low-Z environment and depth of penetration. III. Characteristic spectral features of \

  6. The assessment of electromagnetic field radiation exposure for mobile phone users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckus, Raimondas; Strukcinskiene, Birute; Raistenskis, Juozas

    2014-12-01

    During recent years, the widespread use of mobile phones has resulted in increased human ex- posure to electromagnetic field radiation and to health risks. Increased usage of mobile phones at the close proximity raises questions and doubts in safety of mobile phone users. The aim of the study was to assess an electromagnetic field radiation exposure for mobile phone users by measuring electromagnetic field strength in different settings at the distance of 1 to 30 cm from the mobile user. In this paper, the measurements of electric field strength exposure were conducted on different brand of mobile phones by the call-related factors: urban/rural area, indoor/outdoor setting and moving/stationary mode during calls. The different types of mobile phone were placed facing the field probe at 1 cm, 10 cm, 20 cm and 30 cm distance. The highest electric field strength was recorded for calls made in rural area (indoors) while the lowest electric field strength was recorded for calls made in urban area (outdoors). Calls made from a phone in a moving car gave a similar result like for indoor calls; however, calls made from a phone in a moving car exposed electric field strength two times more than that of calls in a standing (motionless) position. Electromagnetic field radiation depends on mobile phone power class and factors, like urban or rural area, outdoor or indoor, moving or motionless position, and the distance of the mobile phone from the phone user. It is recommended to keep a mobile phone in the safe distance of 10, 20 or 30 cm from the body (especially head) during the calls.

  7. The assessment of electromagnetic field radiation exposure for mobile phone users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buckus Raimondas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. During recent years, the widespread use of mobile phones has resulted in increased human exposure to electromagnetic field radiation and to health risks. Increased usage of mobile phones at the close proximity raises questions and doubts in safety of mobile phone users. The aim of the study was to assess an electromagnetic field radiation exposure for mobile phone users by measuring electromagnetic field strength in different settings at the distance of 1 to 30 cm from the mobile user. Methods. In this paper, the measurements of electric field strength exposure were conducted on different brand of mobile phones by the call-related factors: urban/rural area, indoor/outdoor setting and moving/stationary mode during calls. The different types of mobile phone were placed facing the field probe at 1 cm, 10 cm, 20 cm and 30 cm distance. Results. The highest electric field strength was recorded for calls made in rural area (indoors while the lowest electric field strength was recorded for calls made in urban area (outdoors. Calls made from a phone in a moving car gave a similar result like for indoor calls; however, calls made from a phone in a moving car exposed electric field strength two times more than that of calls in a standing (motionless position. Conclusion. Electromagnetic field radiation depends on mobile phone power class and factors, like urban or rural area, outdoor or indoor, moving or motionless position, and the distance of the mobile phone from the phone user. It is recommended to keep a mobile phone in the safe distance of 10, 20 or 30 cm from the body (especially head during the calls.

  8. 用教学仪器测试电磁炉外泄电磁辐射%Testing Electromagnetic Cooker's Leakage of Electromagnetic Radiation with Teaching Instruments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨道生

    2012-01-01

    根据电磁感应原理,推导出电磁炉外泄电磁辐射中感生电场、磁场的幅值与测试电感线圈中产生的感生电动势有效值的关系,阐述了应用电感线圈、交流毫伏表和示波器测试电磁炉在周围空间产生的电磁场频率和周围空间中不同方位、不同距离的电磁场大小的方法和过程。同时还测试了不同工作状态下电磁炉最大外泄电磁辐射情况和使用不同大小的锅具时电磁炉最大外泄电磁辐射情况。%The paper presents the relations among induced electromotive force, magnetic amplitude and testing electromagnetic inductive choke in induction cooker's leakage of electromagnetic radiation based on electromagnetic induction principle, and elucidates electromagnetic field frequency around the cooker with electromagnetic inductive choke, AC Millivoltmeter and oscilloscope and testing methods and process for the electromagnetic field values in different directions and distances. Meanwhile, cooker's maxim electromagnetic leakages in different working states and using different sizes of cookers are tested.

  9. Near-field thermal radiation between homogeneous dual uniaxial electromagnetic metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jui-Yung; Basu, Soumyadipta; Yang, Yue; Wang, Liping, E-mail: liping.wang@asu.edu [School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Recently, near-field thermal radiation has attracted much attention in several fields since it can exceed the Planck blackbody limit through the coupling of evanescent waves. In this work, near-field radiative heat transfer between two semi-infinite dual uniaxial electromagnetic metamaterials with two different material property sets is theoretically analyzed. The near-field radiative heat transfer is calculated using fluctuational electrodynamics incorporated with anisotropic wave optics. The underlying mechanisms, namely, magnetic hyperbolic mode, magnetic surface polariton, electrical hyperbolic mode, and electrical surface polariton, between two homogeneous dual uniaxial electromagnetic metamaterials are investigated by examining the transmission coefficient and the spectral heat flux. The effect of vacuum gap distance is also studied, which shows that the enhancement at smaller vacuum gap is mainly due to hyperbolic mode and surface plasmon polariton modes. In addition, the results show that the contribution of s-polarized waves is significant and should not be excluded due to the strong magnetic response regardless of vacuum gap distances. The fundamental understanding and insights obtained here will facilitate the finding and application of novel materials for near-field thermal radiation.

  10. The Damage Mechanism and Protection of Electromagnetic Radiation%电磁辐射损伤机制与防护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝娜; 程红缨; 任为; 缪春玉

    2012-01-01

    电磁辐射可导致动物心血管、神经、生殖、免疫等多系统不同程度损伤,严重威胁人类健康,电磁损伤的诊断和防治已成为亟待解决的问题.本文针对电磁辐射对靶器官的损伤作一综述,为电磁辐射的预防、诊断、防治和护理提供依据.%Studies have shown that electromagnetic radiation can cause varying degrees of damage to the cardiovascular, nervous, reproductive and immune systems. Diagnosis and control of electromagnetic damage has become a serious problem and a threat to human health. In this paper, electromagnetic radiation damage to target organs is reviewed. Evidence is provided for, electromagnetic radiation prevention, diagnosis and the basis for medical treatment.

  11. Effects of 900 MHz electromagnetic radiation on ultrastructure of rats’ hippocampal neural stem cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-shui LUO

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effect of 900MHz electromagnetic radiation on the ultrastructure of rat hippocampal neural stem cells (NSCs in vitro in order to provide basic materials for studying the biological effects of electromagnetic wave on the central nervous system. Methods Rat NSCs were divided into sham group, Radi1 group and Radi2 group, and they were respectively exposed to 900 MHz electromagnetic wave at power density of 0, 1, and 3mW/cm2 in vitro. Cells in Radi1 group and Radi2 group were sub-grouped according to the way radiation was given: continuous irradiation, in which cells were exposed on the second day after culture for 2h per day for 6 consecutive days; single exposure to irradiation, in which cells were exposed for 12h on the sixth day after the culture. The ultrastructural changes on the surface of the cells were observed with atomic force microscope (AFM, whereas the ultrastructural changes in the cells were observed with transmission electron microscope (TEM. Results After 900 MHz electromagnetic radiation, when compared with the sham group (0mW/cm2, it was shown that the surface of neural stem cells in the exposure groups (1 and 3mW/cm2 became rough, and there were some changes such as "cavitation" and "fissure formation" in the membrane. The intracellular ultrastructure was found to have obviously disrupted in the exposure groups, such as homogenization of cytoplasm, obvious change organelle structure, morphological damage of structure of nucleus, nuclear membrane disappearance, and chromatin pyknosis, and the changes were more obvious in Radi2 group. Compared with the sham group, the surface roughness (Ra of cells in the exposure group was significantly intensified (P < 0.05, and it was higher in Radi2 group than that in Radi1 group (P < 0.05. Conclusion A 900MHz electromagnetic radiation may cause injury changes in NSCs membrane and ultrastructure in vitro, and the extent of injury may be related to the

  12. Radiating Fröhlich system as a model of cellular electromagnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šrobár, Fedor

    2015-01-01

    Oscillating polar entities inside the biological cells, most notably microtubules, are bound to emit electromagnetic radiation. This phenomenon is described by Fröhlich kinetic equations expressing, in terms of quantum occupancy numbers of each discrete collective oscillatory mode, the balance between incoming metabolic energy flow and losses due to linear and non-linear interactions with the thermal environs of the oscillators. Hitherto, radiation losses have not been introduced as part of the balance; it was assumed that they were proportional to the modal occupation numbers. It is demonstrated that this formulation is incorrect and the radiation losses must be taken into account in the kinetic equations explicitly. Results of a numerical study of kinetic equations, enlarged in this sense, are presented for the case of three coupled oscillators which was shown to evince the essential attributes of the Fröhlich systems. Oscillator eigenfrequencies were chosen, alternatively, to fall into the MHz and the THz frequency domains. It was found that large radiation levels destroy the main hallmark of the Fröhlich systems, the energy condensation in the lowest frequency mode. The system then functions as a convertor of metabolic energy into radiation. At more moderate radiation levels, both energy condensation and significant radiation can coexist. Possible consequences for the cell physiology are suggested.

  13. The Schrödinger Equation, the Zero-Point Electromagnetic Radiation, and the Photoelectric Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, H. M.; Kamimura, A.; Barreto, G. A.

    2016-04-01

    A Schrödinger type equation for a mathematical probability amplitude Ψ( x, t) is derived from the generalized phase space Liouville equation valid for the motion of a microscopic particle, with mass M and charge e, moving in a potential V( x). The particle phase space probability density is denoted Q( x, p, t), and the entire system is immersed in the "vacuum" zero-point electromagnetic radiation. We show, in the first part of the paper, that the generalized Liouville equation is reduced to a simpler Liouville equation in the equilibrium limit where the small radiative corrections cancel each other approximately. This leads us to a simpler Liouville equation that will facilitate the calculations in the second part of the paper. Within this second part, we address ourselves to the following task: Since the Schrödinger equation depends on hbar , and the zero-point electromagnetic spectral distribution, given by ρ 0{(ω )} = hbar ω 3/2 π 2 c3, also depends on hbar , it is interesting to verify the possible dynamical connection between ρ 0( ω) and the Schrödinger equation. We shall prove that the Planck's constant, present in the momentum operator of the Schrödinger equation, is deeply related with the ubiquitous zero-point electromagnetic radiation with spectral distribution ρ 0( ω). For simplicity, we do not use the hypothesis of the existence of the L. de Broglie matter-waves. The implications of our study for the standard interpretation of the photoelectric effect are discussed by considering the main characteristics of the phenomenon. We also mention, briefly, the effects of the zero-point radiation in the tunneling phenomenon and the Compton's effect.

  14. On the electromagnetic fields, Poynting vector, and peak power radiated by lightning return strokes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krider, E. P.

    1992-01-01

    The initial radiation fields, Poynting vector, and total electromagnetic power that a vertical return stroke radiates into the upper half space have been computed when the speed of the stroke, nu, is a significant fraction of the speed of light, c, assuming that at large distances and early times the source is an infinitesimal dipole. The initial current is also assumed to satisfy the transmission-line model with a constant nu and to be perpendicular to an infinite, perfectly conducting ground. The effect of a large nu is to increase the radiation fields by a factor of (1-beta-sq cos-sq theta) exp -1, where beta = nu/c and theta is measured from the vertical, and the Poynting vector by a factor of (1-beta-sq cos-sq theta) exp -2.

  15. Primordial Gravitational Waves and Rescattered Electromagnetic Radiation in the Cosmic Microwave Background

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Dong-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the interaction of primordial gravitational waves (GWs) with the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) plasma is important for observational cosmology. In this article, we provide an analysis of an effect apparently overlooked as yet. We consider a single free electric charge and suppose that it can be agitated by primordial GWs propagating through the CMB plasma, resulting in periodic, regular motion along particular directions. Light reflected by the charge will be partially polarized, and this will imprint a characteristic pattern on the CMB. We study this effect by considering a simple model in which anisotropic incident electromagnetic (EM) radiation is rescattered by a charge sitting in spacetime perturbed by GWs and becomes polarized. As the charge is driven to move along particular directions, we calculate its dipole moment to determine the leading-order rescattered EM radiation. The Stokes parameters of the rescattered radiation exhibit a net linear polarization. We investigate how this pol...

  16. The cross-linking influence of electromagnetic radiation on water-soluble polyacrylan compositions with biopolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Grabowska

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of examinations of the cross-linking influence of electromagnetic radiation - in a microwave range – on polyacrylancompositions with biopolymers, are presented in the hereby paper. The cross-linking process of the tested compositions was determined on the basis of the FT-IR spectroscopic methods. It was shown that microwave operations can lead to the formation of new cross-linkedstructures with strong covalent bonds. The adsorption process and formation of active centres in polymer molecules as well as in highsilica sand were found due to microwave radiations. In this process hydroxyl groups (-OH - present in a polymer - and silane groups (Si- O-H - present in a matrix - are mainly taking part. Spectroscopic and strength tests performed for the system: biopolymer binding agent – matrix indicate that the microwave radiation can be applied for hardening moulding sands with biopolymer binders.

  17. Low power radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation for the treatment of pain due to osteoarthritis of the knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Santosuosso

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Different techniques have been used in some rheumatic diseases to induce a therapeutic effect by heating deep tissues. These techniques are commonly known as ‘thermotherapy’ (1-4. It should be observed that adequate heating of deep tissues cannot be obtained by conduction or convection of heat because the skin and subcutaneous fat are good thermal insulators and because heating is reduced by blood flow in superficial vessels. Heating of deep tissues can instead be obtained by conversion of other forms of energy into heat. Conversion heat is generated by different types of radiations absorbed by deep tissues: when radiation interacts with tissues, some energy is converted into heat. High power radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF, which produces strong thermal energy, has been widely applied in medicine for ablative procedures (5-7.

  18. The impact of electromagnetic radiation on the degradation of magnetic ferrofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlík Marek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with magnetic nano-fluids, which are the part of transformer oil ITO 100 and their behavior is influenced by a permanent magnetic field. We performed an IRC analysis in the time domain on the three different samples. Measurements were made before and after radiation of an electromagnetic field. The main objective was to examine changes in the properties of the samples due to the influence of the electromagnetic field. The measurements depend on the orientation of the external magnetic field. This behavior occurs especially during the structuring of the nanoparticles in the sample exposed to the magnetic field. These processes change the polarization of the liquid because the nanoparticles concentration is contained in the fluid.

  19. Superluminal Propagation Caused by Radiative Corrections in a Uniform Electromagnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Shiba, Noburo

    2012-01-01

    We consider the effect of radiative corrections on the maximum velocity of propagation of neutral scalar fields in a uniform electromagnetic field. The propagator of neutral scalar fields interacting with charged fields depends on the electromagnetic field through charged particle loops. The kinetic terms of the scalar fields are corrected and the maximum velocity of the scalar particle becomes greater or less than unity. We show that the maximum velocity becomes greater than unity in a simple example, a neutral scalar field coupled with two charged Dirac fields by Yukawa interaction. The maximum velocity depends on the frame of reference and causality is not violated. We discuss the possibility of this superluminal propagation in the Standard Model.

  20. Health risks associated with residential exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarine, R J; Narad, R A

    1992-10-01

    Extremely low frequency electromagnetic radiation has received considerable attention recently as a possible threat to the health of persons living near high tension electric power lines, distribution substations, and even in close proximity to common household electric appliances. Results of epidemiological and laboratory research are examined to assess risks associated with magnetic fields generated by extremely low frequency electromagnetic sources. Health risks associated with such fields include a wide variety of ills ranging from disruption of normal circadian rhythms to childhood cancers. Risk assessment has been particularly difficult to determine in light of an ostensible lack of a dose-response relationship. Current media sensation fueled in part by an equivocal position adopted by the United States Environmental Protection Agency has contributed to the controversy. Recommendations for prudent avoidance of possible dangers are presented along with policy implications concerning health risks associated with magnetic fields.

  1. Removal of noises from electromagnetic radiation of coal or rock with EEMD-adaptive morphological filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Shi-hai; WANG En-yuan

    2012-01-01

    The electromagnetic radiation (EMR) signal collected by monitoring system during coal or rock dynamic disaster may be interferred easily by electromagnetic noises in mines.The noises have a direct influence on the recognition and analysis of the EMR signal features during the disaster.With the aim of removing these noises,an ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) adaptive morphological filter was proposed.From the result of the simulation and the experiment,it is shown that the method can restrain the random noise and white Gaussian noise mixed with EMR signal effectively.The filter is highly useful for improving the robustness of the coal or rock dynamic disaster monitoring system.

  2. Electromagnetic Coupling Between High Intensity LHC Beams and the Synchrotron Radiation Monitor Light Extraction System

    CERN Document Server

    Andreazza, W; Bravin, E; Caspers, F; Garlasch`e, M; Gras, J; Goldblatt, A; Lefevre, T; Jones, R; Metral, E; Nosych, A; Roncarolo_, F; Salvant, B; Trad, G; Veness, R; Vollinger, C; Wendt, M

    2013-01-01

    The CERN LHC is equipped with two Synchrotron Radiation Monitor (BSRT) systems used to characterise transverse and longitudinal beam distributions. Since the end of the 2011 LHC run the light extraction system, based on a retractable mirror, has suffered deformation and mechanical failure that is correlated to the increase in beam intensity. Temperature probes have associated these observations to a strong heating of the mirror support with a dependence on the longitudinal bunch length and shape, indicating the origin as electromagnetic coupling between the beam and the structure. This paper combines all this information with the aim of characterising and improving the system in view of its upgrade during the current LHC shutdown. Beam-based observations are presented along with electromagnetic and thermomechanical simulations and complemented by laboratory measurements, including the study of the RF properties of different mirror bulk and coating materials.

  3. [Use of terahertz electromagnetic radiation at nitric oxide frequencies for the correction of thyroid functional state during stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirichuk, V F; Tsymbal, A A

    2010-01-01

    The influence of terahertz electromagnetic radiation at nitric oxide frequencies (150.176-150.664 Ghz) on the functional activity of rat thyroid gland subjected to acute immobilization stress has been studied. It is shown that terahertz radiation totally normalizes thyroid activity in stressed animals within 30 min after application.

  4. The electromagnetic radiation from simple sources in the presence of a homogeneous dielectric sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, V. B.

    1973-01-01

    In this research, the effect of a homogeneous dielectric sphere on the electromagnetic radiation from simple sources is treated as a boundary value problem, and the solution is obtained by the technique of dyadic Green's functions. Exact representations of the electric fields in the various regions due to a source located inside, outside, or on the surface of a dielectric sphere are formulated. Particular attention is given to the effect of sphere size, source location, dielectric constant, and dielectric loss on the radiation patterns and directivity of small spheres (less than 5 wavelengths in diameter) using the Huygens' source excitation. The computed results are found to closely agree with those measured for waveguide-excited plexiglas spheres. Radiation patterns for an extended Huygens' source and for curved electric dipoles located on the sphere's surface are also presented. The resonance phenomenon associated with the dielectric sphere is studied in terms of the modal representation of the radiated fields. It is found that when the sphere is excited at certain frequencies, much of the energy is radiated into the sidelobes. The addition of a moderate amount of dielectric loss, however, quickly attenuates this resonance effect. A computer program which may be used to calculate the directivity and radiation pattern of a Huygens' source located inside or on the surface of a lossy dielectric sphere is listed.

  5. A Determination of the Risk of Intentional and Unintentional Electromagnetic Radiation Emitters Degrading Installed Components in Closed Electromagnetic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    technology relies on the use of the electromagnetic spectrum in order to transfer information from one point to another. This type of information... electromagnetic spectrum in order to transfer information from one point to another. This type of information transfer can be advantageous in various...technologies and their ability to transfer information from one place to another using the electromagnetic spectrum . While the benefits of wireless

  6. The effect of non ionising electromagnetic radiation on RAAF personnel during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, J A

    1994-05-01

    Did exposure to non ionising electromagnetic radiation during World War II in the short term have a stimulating effect on the anterior pituitary gland, and in turn on the gonads of both sexes, since the figures obtained appeared to affect the sexes equally? Is it that the long-term effect of microwave radiation on personnel is to cause adenoma and carcinoma? Is this long-term effect similar to the long-term effect of X-rays on infants, children and adolescents? According to Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine 1980 (page 1710): "X-rays to the head and neck in infancy, childhood or adolescence is associated with a high incidence of thyroid disease later in life. Nodular disease is found to be particularly common on 20% of patients at risk, and may not be apparent until 30 years or more after exposure. One-third of the nodular type are found to be carcinomatous." The effect of non ionising electromagnetic and microwave radiation on those who work in these fields certainly needs much more investigation. What will be the long-term effect of using micro-ovens on the rising generation?

  7. Changing of Bacteria Catalase Activity Under the Influence of Electro-Magnetic Radiation on a Frequency of Nitric Oxide Absorption and Radiation Molecular Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Shub

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of catalase activity degree changing in Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa is described under the influence of electro-magnetic radiation on a frequency of nitric oxide absorption and radiation molecular spectrum. The panoramic spectrometric measuring complex, developed in Central Scientific Research Institute of measuring equipment Public corporation, Saratov, was used while carrying out the research. Electromagnetic vibrations of extremely high frequencies were stimulated in this complex imitating the structure of nitric oxide absorption and radiation molecular spectrum. The growth of activity of the mentioned enzyme of the strains under research was detected. The most significant changes were observed under 60-minutes exposure.

  8. The Study on the Conductivity Performance and Shielding Effectiveness of Electro-magnetic Radiation of Polyethylene Film with Different Content of Carbon Black Particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Run-jun; LAI Kan; ZHANG Jian-chun; HUO Yan

    2004-01-01

    With the help of the testing apparatus made by ourselves for shielding electromagnetic radiation, the electric conductivity and shielding effectiveness of electromagnetic radiation of polyethylene film contained different content of carbon particles was systematically studied in this paper. The results indicate that the electric conductivity and shielding effectiveness of electromagnetic radiation of polyethylene /carbon film have closely relations with content of carbon black particles, which exists a critical content value as 14%~30% and its properties will have a tremendous change.

  9. [Change of cholinesterase relative activity under modulated ultra high frequency electromagnetic radiation in experiments in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashovkina, M S; Pashovkin, T N

    2011-01-01

    Changes in the activity of enzyme cholinesterase (ChE) have been experimentally investigated under the influence of amplitude-modulated super-high-frequency electromagnetic radiation (carrier frequency of 2.375 MHz; power flux density of 8 mW/cm2, 20 mW/cm2 and 50 mW/cm2; modulation frequency range 10 to 210 Hz; exposure time 5 min). The appearance of peaks of the cholinesterase increased relative activity, as well as the changes in the direction and intensity of the reaction associated with the modulation frequency and power flux are observed at equal power flux densities and exposure times.

  10. Military Handbook: Management and Design Guidance Electromagnetic Radiation Hardness for Air Launched Ordnance Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-15

    35 E-25. Composite Worst-Case Sueaeptibility Values for’CMOS Devices .......... . ... 3.-37 E-26. Typical Input-Output Trans3er Char;aceri; tic for 9615...system is attacted to the delivery aircraft until it Impacto a target, it is exposed to electromagnetic radiation from emitters aboard the delivery...hardness characteristics of the system. 18 ?41L-HDBK-335 (USA?) 15 JANUARY 1981 ii iii &Sb u C6 I too Iwo9 6 I 1 9~I n. II !- 00j6 Is a tic ,20 MIL

  11. Propolis Supplementation and the Changes in the Oxidative Metabolism of Blood Platelets Exposed to Electromagnetic Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrykowska Gabriela

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Electromagnetic radiation (EMR that has an effect on living organisms may be a source of oxidative stress. A lack of proper compensation by antioxidant defences on the part of proteins leading to an uncontrolled growth of reactive forms of oxygen, which may give rise to numerous health conditions. Various scientific studies have indicated that propolis has multiple valuable medicinal properties: antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, protective - in relation to liver parenchyma, as well as anti-cancer. Nonetheless, the results of studies concerned with its antioxidant capabilities are not explicit and require further tests and analyses.

  12. Seismoacoustic emission and electromagnetic radiation of fractured rocks in deep wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyanov, A. K.; D'Yakonov, B. P.; Martyshko, P. S.; Astrakhantsev, Yu. G.; Nachapkin, N. I.; Gavrilov, V. A.; Beloglazova, N. A.

    2011-01-01

    The results of simultaneous measurements in seismoacoustic emission (SAE) and electromagnetic radiation (EMR), carried out with the help of a program-apparatus complex developed at the Institute of Geophysics, Ural Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, are considered. Measurements have been carried out in the wells with varied structures located in Karelia, Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Area, and Kamchatka. It has been shown that intervals of fractured rocks are simultaneously recorded in anomalies of SAE and EMR signals. This fact allows us to detect these zones of high tensosensitivity in a geomedium volume for the purposes of monitoring in geodynamic phenomena in the Earth's crust.

  13. Reflection of electromagnetic radiation from plasma with an anisotropic electron velocity distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vagin, K. Yu., E-mail: vagin@sci.lebedev.ru; Uryupin, S. A., E-mail: uryupin@sci.lebedev.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2013-08-15

    The reflection of a test electromagnetic pulse from the plasma formed as a result of tunnel ionization of atoms in the field of a circularly polarized high-power radiation pulse is analyzed using the kinetic approach to describe electron motion. It is shown that the reflected pulse is significantly amplified due to the development of Weibel instability. The amplification efficiency is determined by the maximum value of the instability growth rate, which depends on the degree of anisotropy of the photoelectron distribution function.

  14. Solution of electromagnetic scattering and radiation problems using a spectral domain approach - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittra, R.; Ko, W. L.; Rahmat-Samii, Y.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents a brief review of some recent developments on the use of the spectral-domain approach for deriving high-frequency solutions to electromagnetics scattering and radiation problems. The spectral approach is not only useful for interpreting the well-known Keller formulas based on the geometrical theory of diffraction (GTD), it can also be employed for verifying the accuracy of GTD and other asymptotic solutions and systematically improving the results when such improvements are needed. The problem of plane wave diffraction by a finite screen or a strip is presented as an example of the application of the spectral-domain approach.

  15. "Millikan oil drops" as quantum transducers between electromagnetic and gravitational radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Chiao, R Y

    2007-01-01

    Pairs of Planck-mass-scale drops of superfluid helium coated by electrons (i.e., "Millikan oil drops"), when levitated in the presence of strong magnetic fields and at low temperatures, can be efficient quantum transducers between electromagnetic (EM) and gravitational (GR) radiation. A Hertz-like experiment, in which EM waves are converted at the source into GR waves, and then back-converted at the receiver from GR waves back into EM waves, should be practical to perform. This would open up observations of the gravity-wave analog of the Cosmic Microwave Background from the extremely early Big Bang, and also communications directly through the interior of the Earth.

  16. Spectral properties of Compton inverse radiation: Application of Compton beams

    CERN Document Server

    Bulyak, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Compton inverse radiation emitted due to backscattering of laser pulses off the relativistic electrons possesses high spectral density and high energy of photons - in hard x-ray up to gamma-ray energies - because of short wavelength of laser radiation as compared with the classical electromagnetic devices such as undulators. In this report, the possibility of such radiation to monochromatization by means of collimation is studied. Two approaches have been considered for the description of the spectral-angular density of Compton radiation based on the classical field theory and on the quantum electrodynamics. As is shown, both descriptions produce similar total spectra. On the contrary, angular distribution of the radiation is different: the classical approach predicted a more narrow radiation cone. Also proposed and estimated is a method of the `electronic' monochromatization based on the electronic subtraction of the two images produced by the electron beams with slightly different energies. A `proof-of-prin...

  17. [Changes in physico-chemical parameters of homeopathic remedies ferrum metallicum CH6 and ferrum metallicum CH30 after exposure to high frequency electromagnetic radiation of low intensity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, N M

    2005-01-01

    It is considered the microwaves electromagnetic radiation do not affect the materials, alive or not, when used in low power. In high power, the interaction effects would be the material warming (thermal effect). However, in the last years, the studies about electromagnetic radiation with low power (non thermal effect) in the human being have been increasing. It was found out the electromagnetic radiation, even with low power, can affect the living organisms and biosubstratum. In the present work the influence of electromagnetic radiation (2.45 GHz 500 W/cm2), on physical and chemical parameters of the homeopathic pharmaceutics products in shown.

  18. Forecasting the degree of rock burst hazard in areas of gas bearing coal seams by the electromagnetic radiation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proskuryakov, V.M.; Shabarov, A.N.; Frid, V.I. (Vsesoyuznyi Nauchno-Issledovatel' skii Institut Gornoi Geomekhaniki i Marksheiderskogo Dela (USSR))

    1991-02-01

    Presents results of investigations into emission of electromagnetic waves in zones of increased rock burst hazard conducted during drivage of a ventilation gallery in the Anzherskaya mine (Severokuzbassugol' association). Relationships between the emission of electromagnetic impulses, yield of drilling, gas yield rate, the distance between increased stress zones and seam denudation and time are discussed and presented in diagrams. Regularities of variation in electromagnetic radiation at various stress states in coal seam boundary parts with the gas yield factor taken into account were found. Suitability of recording electromagnetic radiation for forecasting rock burst hazards was shown and criteria for evaluating the degree of rock burst hazard for a coal seam in the Anzherskaya mine are presented. 3 refs.

  19. GLOBAL ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION POLLUTION: RISK ASSESSMENT FROM FIELD MEASUREMENTS AND ANIMAL EXPERIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkopoulou, A. F.; Margaritis, L. H.

    2009-12-01

    The extended use of wireless technology throughout the globe in almost all developed and non-developed countries has forced a large number of scientists to get involved in the investigation of the effects. The major issue is that unlike other forms of radiation exposure, this “non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation” was not present throughout the evolution of life in earth and therefore there are no adaptive mechanisms evolved. All organisms are vulnerable to the possible effects of radiation depending on the actual exposure level. “Safety limits” on the power density have been proposed but ongoing research has shown that these limits are not really safe for humans, not mentioning the entire population of living creatures on earth. The so called “Electrosmog Pollution” originating from the numerous radio and TV stations, communication satellite emission, but most importantly from mobile phone mast antennas, are of major concern, because it is gradually increasing at exponential rate. Therefore the key question is, do living organisms react upon their exposure to fields of non ionizing electromagnetic radiation? To have this question answered extensive research is being performed in various laboratories. One approach of our research includes field measurements within houses and classrooms, since a considerable proportion of the population in each country is exposed to the radiation coming from the nearby mast stations, in order to make a risk assessment. The measurements showed that in many cases the actual radiation present was potentially harmful. In other words, although the measured values were below the national safety levels, nevertheless they were above the levels of other countries. Therefore it has been suggested that a new cellular network should be constructed in order to minimize radiation levels in living areas and schools. Our experimental work is focusing on the elucidation of the effects of non-ionizing EMFs on mice exposed to mobile

  20. Radiation Damage in Silicon Detectors Caused by Hadronic and Electromagnetic Irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Fretwurst, E.; Stahl, J.; Pintilie, I.

    2002-01-01

    The report contains various aspects of radiation damage in silicon detectors subjected to high intensity hadron and electromagnetic irradiation. It focuses on improvements for the foreseen LHC applications, employing oxygenation of silicon wafers during detector processing (result from CERN-RD48). An updated survey on hadron induced damage is given in the first article. Several improvements are outlined especially with respect to antiannealing problems associated with detector storage during LHC maintenance periods. Open questions are outlined in the final section, among which are a full understanding of differences found between proton and neutron induced damage, process related effects changing the radiation tolerance in addition to the oxygen content and the lack of understanding the changed detector properties on the basis of damage induced point and cluster defects. In addition to float zone silicon, so far entirely used for detector fabrication,Czochralski silicon was also studied and first promising re...

  1. A New Agile Radiating System Called Electromagnetic Band Gap Matrix Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Abou Taam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Civil and military applications are increasingly in need for agile antenna devices which respond to wireless telecommunications, radars, and electronic warfare requirements. The objective of this paper is to design a new agile antenna system called electromagnetic band gap (EBG matrix. The working principle of this antenna is based on the radiating aperture theory and constitutes the subject of an accepted CNRS patent. In order to highlight the interest and the originality of this antenna, we present a comparison between it and a classical patch array only for the (one-dimensional 1D configuration by using a rigorous full wave simulation (CST Microwave software. In addition, EBG matrix antenna can be controlled by specific synthesis algorithms. These algorithms use inside their; optimization loop an analysis procedure to evaluate the radiation pattern. The analysis procedure is described and validated at the end of this paper.

  2. Effects of electromagnetic radiation of mobile phones on the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossmann, K-A; Hermann, D M

    2003-01-01

    With the increasing use of mobile communication, concerns have been expressed about the possible interactions of electromagnetic radiation with the human organism and, in particular, the brain. The effects on neuronal electrical activity, energy metabolism, genomic responses, neurotransmitter balance, blood-brain barrier permeability, cognitive function, sleep, and various brain diseases including brain tumors are reviewed. Most of the reported effects are small as long as the radiation intensity remains in the nonthermal range, and none of the research reviewed gives an indication of the mechanisms involved at this range. However, health risks may evolve from indirect consequences of mobile telephony, such as the sharply increased incidence rate of traffic accidents caused by telephony during driving, and possibly also by stress reactions which annoyed bystanders may experience when cellular phones are used in public places. These indirect health effects presumably outweigh the direct biological perturbations and should be investigated in more detail in the future.

  3. On Fundamental Properties Of The Classical Electromagnetic Zero-point Radiation And Its Implications

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuoka, Y

    2005-01-01

    There is a classical theory that can explain various quantum phenomena including the Casimir effect, the van der Waals force, the blackbody radiation, and so forth [1]. The classical theory is called “stochastic electrodynamics (SED)” and only the difference from conventional classical physics is the choice of the boundary condition for Maxwell equations. It requires random electromagnetic radiation called “zero-point field (ZPF),” which exists throughout space even at zero temperature. Thus, the ZPF is thought to be an universal background field which corresponds to the vacuum ground state in the language of quantum electrodynamics. In this paper, the fundamental properties, especially the symmetries, of the ZPF are studied at first. It is found that the requirement of the Lorentz invariance of the field might be incompatible with the formulation of classical electrodynamics. Secondly, the behavior of unrestricted charged particle immersed in the ZPF is considered. Unl...

  4. Can even monochromatic radiation ensure ideal invisibility?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozanov, Nikolai N [St. Petersburg State University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, St.-Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-31

    Discusses conclusions reached by A E Dubinov and D A Mytareva in their paper 'Invisible cloaking of material bodies using the wave flow method' (Usp. Fiz. Nauk 180 475 (2010) [Phys. Usp. 53 455 (2010)]) on whether the perfect optical cloaking of material objects is possible. (letters to the editors)

  5. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF LORANTHUS LONGIFLORUS ON LEARNING AND MEMORY OF RATS EXPOSED TO ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION (EMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Nagar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of mobile phone radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR with the brain is a serious concern of our society. In this study, we aimed to experiment on the antioxidative property of a parasitic plant Loranthus longiflorus (Loranthaceae to protect central nervous system against oxidative damages of mobile phone electromagnetic radiation (EMR. Healthy male albino wistar rats were exposed to RF-EMR by giving 5 min calling/ 5min interval for 1 hour per day for two month, Keeping a GSM (0.9 GHz/1.8 GHz mobile phone in Silent mode (no ring tone in the cage. After 15, 30, 45, 60 days exposure, three randomly picked animals from both groups were tested with using Morris water maze. Antioxidant compounds and their Neuroprotective action of Loranthus longiflorus bark sample collected from Ficus religiosa host trees were assessed. Rats which have been feed with Ethyl acetate Extract of Loranthus longiflorus (EAL bark (700mg/kg body weight, p.o.

  6. Measurement Of Electromagnetic Field Radiation In The Internet Halls And Educational Computer Laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanim Thiab Hasan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available     There are more concerns about possible health effects related to electromagnetic fields from computer monitors and other video display terminals because of the widespread using of computers in laboratories ,offices and internet halls. This research aims to detect the effect of electromagnetic field radiations in these halls and laboratories and study the successful ways of minimizing its negative  health  effect on human health. The research has been performed on both the mathematical calculations and practical measurements. The obtaining results show that the practical measurements are consistent with the  mathematical calculations results. Comparison of  these results with the safety standard guideline  limits shows that they are within the acceptable exposuring limits recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection  (ICNIRP and that means there is no health risk from exposure to these fields if the exposure is within the acceptable limits.     

  7. [Membranotropic effects of electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequency on Escherichia coli].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trchunian, A; Ogandzhanian, E; Sarkisian, E; Gonian, S; Oganesian, A; Oganesian, S

    2001-01-01

    It was found that "sound" electromagnetic radiations of extremely high frequencies (53.5-68 GHz) or millimeter waves (wavelength range of 4.2-5.6 mm) of low intensity (power density 0.01 mW) have a bactericidal effect on Escherichia coli bacteria. It was shown that exposure to irradiation of extremely high frequencies increases the electrokinetic potential and surface change density of bacteria and decreases of membrane potential. The total secretion of hydrogen ions was suppressed, the H+ flux from the cytoplasm to medium decreased, and the flux of N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide-sensitive potassium ions increased, which was accompanied by changes in the stoichiometry of these fluxes and an increase in the sensitivity of H+ ions to N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. The effects depended on duration of exposure: as the time of exposure increased, the bactericidal effect increased, whereas the membranotropic effects decreased. The effects also depended on growth phase of bacteria: the irradiation affected the cells in the stationary but not in the logarithmic phase. It is assumed that the H(+)-ATPase complex F0F1 is involved in membranotropic effects of electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequencies. Presumably, there are some compensatory mechanisms that eliminate the membranotropic effects.

  8. A Hybrid Solvers Enhanced Integral Equation Domain Decomposition Method for Modeling of Electromagnetic Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid solvers based on integral equation domain decomposition method (HS-DDM are developed for modeling of electromagnetic radiation. Based on the philosophy of “divide and conquer,” the IE-DDM divides the original multiscale problem into many closed nonoverlapping subdomains. For adjacent subdomains, the Robin transmission conditions ensure the continuity of currents, so the meshes of different subdomains can be allowed to be nonconformal. It also allows different fast solvers to be used in different subdomains based on the property of different subdomains to reduce the time and memory consumption. Here, the multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA and hierarchical (H- matrices method are combined in the framework of IE-DDM to enhance the capability of IE-DDM and realize efficient solution of multiscale electromagnetic radiating problems. The MLFMA is used to capture propagating wave physics in large, smooth regions, while H-matrices are used to capture evanescent wave physics in small regions which are discretized with dense meshes. Numerical results demonstrate the validity of the HS-DDM.

  9. [Detection of endotoxins of Gram-negative bacteria on the basis of electromagnetic radiation frequency spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhoded, V G; Kuleshova, N V; Sergieva, N V; Konev, Iu V; Trubnikova, I A; Sudzhian, E V

    2007-01-01

    Method of Gram-negative bacteria endotoxins detection on the basis of their own spectrum of electromagnetic radiation frequency was developed. Frequency spectrum typical for chemotype Re glycolipid, which is a part of lypopolysaccharides in the majority of Gram-negative bacteria, was used. Two devices--"Mini- Expert-DT" (manufactured by IMEDIS, Moscow) and "Bicom" (manufactured by Regumed, Germany)--were used as generators of electromagnetic radiation. Detection of endotoxin using these devices was performed by electropuncture vegetative resonance test. Immunoenzyme reaction with antibodies to chemotype Re glycolipid was used during analysis of preparations for assessment of resonance-frequency method specificity. The study showed that resonance-frequency method can detect lypopolysaccharides of different enterobacteria in quantities up to 0.1 pg as well as bacteria which contain lypopolysaccharides. At the same time, this method does not detect such bacteria as Staphylococcus aureus, Bifidobacterium spp., Lactobacillus spp., and Candida albicans. The method does not require preliminary processing of blood samples and can be used for diagnostics of endotoxinemia, and detection of endotoxins in blood samples or injection solutions.

  10. Exposure to non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation from mobile telephony and the association with psychiatric symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Denize Francisca da; Barros, Warley Rocha; Almeida, Maria da Conceição Chagas de; Rêgo, Marco Antônio Vasconcelos

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between exposure to non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone base stations and psychiatric symptoms. In a cross-sectional study in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, 440 individuals were interviewed. Psychiatric complaints and diagnoses were the dependent variables and distance from the individual's residence to the base station was considered the main independent variable. Hierarchical logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess confounding. An association was observed between psychiatric symptoms and residential proximity to the base station and different forms of mobile phone use (making calls with weak signal coverage, keeping the mobile phone close to the body, having two or more chips, and never turning off the phone while sleeping), and with the use of other electronic devices. The study concluded that exposure to electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone base stations and other electronic devices was associated with psychiatric symptoms, independently of gender, schooling, and smoking status. The adoption of precautionary measures to reduce such exposure is recommended.

  11. Disordered redox metabolism of brain cells in rats exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation or UHF electromagnetic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlaka, A P; Druzhyna, M O; Vovk, A V; Lukin, S М

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the changes of redox-state of mammalian brain cells as the critical factor of initiation and formation of radiation damage of biological structures in setting of continuous exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation or fractionated ultra high frequency electromagnetic radiation (UHF EMR) at non-thermal levels. The influence of low-intensity ionizing radiation was studied on outbred female rats kept for 1.5 years in the Chernobyl accident zone. The effects of total EMR in the UHF band of non-thermal spectrum were investigated on Wistar rats. The rate of formation of superoxide radicals and the rate of NO synthesis in mitochondria were determined by the EPR. After exposure to ionizing or UHF radiation, the levels of ubisemiquinone in brain tissue of rats decreased by 3 and 1.8 times, respectively. The content of NO-FeS-protein complexes in both groups increased significantly (р < 0.05). In the conditions of ionizing or EMR the rates of superoxide radical generation in electron-transport chain of brain cell mitochondria increased by 1.5- and 2-fold, respectively (р < 0.05). In brain tissue of rats kept in the Chernobyl zone, significant increase of NO content was registered; similar effect was observed in rats treated with UHFR (р < 0.05). The detected changes in the electron transport chain of mitochondria of brain cells upon low-intensity irradiation or UHF EMR cause the metabolic reprogramming of cell mitochondria that increases the rate of superoxide radical generation and nitric oxide, which may initiate the development of neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "The Chornobyl Nuclear Accident: Thirty Years After".

  12. Possible standoff detection of ionizing radiation using high-power THz electromagnetic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusinovich, Gregory S.; Sprangle, Phillip; Romero-Talamas, Carlos A.; Rodgers, John; Pu, Ruifeng; Kashyn, Dmytro G.; Antonsen, Thomas M., Jr.; Granatstein, Victor L.

    2012-06-01

    Recently, a new method of remote detection of concealed radioactive materials was proposed. This method is based on focusing high-power short wavelength electromagnetic radiation in a small volume where the wave electric field exceeds the breakdown threshold. In the presence of free electrons caused by ionizing radiation, in this volume an avalanche discharge can then be initiated. When the wavelength is short enough, the probability of having even one free electron in this small volume in the absence of additional sources of ionization is low. Hence, a high breakdown rate will indicate that in the vicinity of this volume there are some materials causing ionization of air. To prove this concept a 0.67 THz gyrotron delivering 200-300 kW power in 10 microsecond pulses is under development. This method of standoff detection of concealed sources of ionizing radiation requires a wide range of studies, viz., evaluation of possible range, THz power and pulse duration, production of free electrons in air by gamma rays penetrating through container walls, statistical delay time in initiation of the breakdown in the case of low electron density, temporal evolution of plasma structure in the breakdown and scattering of THz radiation from small plasma objects. Most of these issues are discussed in the paper.

  13. Electromagnetic radiation from filamentary sources in the presence of axially magnetized cylindrical plasma scatterers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Es’kin, V. A.; Ivoninsky, A. V.; Kudrin, A. V., E-mail: kud@rf.unn.ru; Popova, L. L. [Lobachevsky University (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-15

    Electromagnetic radiation from filamentary electric-dipole and magnetic-current sources of infinite length in the presence of gyrotropic cylindrical scatterers in the surrounding free space is studied. The scatterers are assumed to be infinitely long, axially magnetized circular plasma columns parallel to the axis of the filamentary source. The field and the radiation pattern of each source are calculated in the case where the source frequency is equal to one of the surface plasmon resonance frequencies of the cylindrical scatterers. It is shown that the presence of even a single resonant magnetized plasma scatterer of small electrical radius or a few such scatterers significantly affects the total fields of the filamentary sources, so that their radiation patterns become essentially different from those in the absence of scatterers or the presence of isotropic scatterers of the same shape and size. It is concluded that the radiation characteristics of the considered sources can efficiently be controlled using their resonance interaction with the neighboring gyrotropic scatterers.

  14. Interaction of electromagnetic radiation in the 20-200 GHz frequency range with arrays of carbon nanotubes with ferromagnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atdayev, Agylych; Danilyuk, Alexander L; Prischepa, Serghej L

    2015-01-01

    The interaction of electromagnetic radiation with a magnetic nanocomposite based on carbon nanotubes (CNT) is considered within the model of distributed random nanoparticles with a core-shell morphology. The approach is based on a system composed of a CNT conducting resistive matrix, ferromagnetic inductive nanoparticles and the capacitive interface between the CNT matrix and the nanoparticles, which form resonance resistive-inductive-capacitive circuits. It is shown that the influence of the resonant circuits leads to the emergence of specific resonances, namely peaks and valleys in the frequency dependence of the permeability of the nanocomposite, and in the frequency dependence of the reflection and transmission of electromagnetic radiation.

  15. Interaction of electromagnetic radiation in the 20–200 GHz frequency range with arrays of carbon nanotubes with ferromagnetic nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agylych Atdayev

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of electromagnetic radiation with a magnetic nanocomposite based on carbon nanotubes (CNT is considered within the model of distributed random nanoparticles with a core–shell morphology. The approach is based on a system composed of a CNT conducting resistive matrix, ferromagnetic inductive nanoparticles and the capacitive interface between the CNT matrix and the nanoparticles, which form resonance resistive–inductive–capacitive circuits. It is shown that the influence of the resonant circuits leads to the emergence of specific resonances, namely peaks and valleys in the frequency dependence of the permeability of the nanocomposite, and in the frequency dependence of the reflection and transmission of electromagnetic radiation.

  16. Electrons in strong electromagnetic fields: spin effects and radiation reaction (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauke, Heiko; Wen, Meng; Keitel, Christoph H.

    2017-05-01

    Various different classical models of electrons including their spin degree of freedom are commonly applied to describe the coupled dynamics of relativistic electron motion and spin precession in strong electromagnetic fields. The spin dynamics is usually governed by the Thomas-Bargmann-Michel-Telegdi equation [1, 2] in these models, while the electron's orbital motion follows the (modified) Lorentz force and a spin-dependent Stern-Gerlach force. Various classical models can lead to different or even contradicting predictions how the spin degree of freedom modifies the electron's orbital motion when the electron moves in strong electromagnetic fields. This discrepancy is rooted in the model-specific energy dependency of the spin induced relativistic Stern-Gerlach force acting on the electron. The Frenkel model [3, 4] and the classical Foldy-Wouthuysen model 5 are compared exemplarily against each other and against the quantum mechanical Dirac equation in order to identify parameter regimes where these classical models make different predictions [6, 7]. Our theoretical results allow for experimental tests of these models. In the setup of the longitudinal Stern-Gerlach effect, the Frenkel model and classical Foldy-Wouthuysen model lead in the relativistic limit to qualitatively different spin effects on the electron trajectory. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that in tightly focused beams in the near infrared the effect of the Stern-Gerlach force of the Frenkel model becomes sufficiently large to be potentially detectable in an experiment. Among the classical spin models, the Frenkel model is certainly prominent for its long history and its wide application. Our results, however, suggest that the classical Foldy-Wouthuysen model is superior as it is qualitatively in better agreement with the quantum mechanical Dirac equation. In ultra strong laser setups at parameter regimes where effects of the Stern-Gerlach force become relevant also radiation reaction effects are

  17. Electromagnetic field and radiation for a charge moving along a helical trajectory inside a waveguide with dielectric filling

    CERN Document Server

    Kotanjyan, A S

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the electromagnetic field generated by a point charge moving along a helical trajectory inside a circular waveguide with conducting walls filled by homogeneous dielectric. The parts corresponding to the radiation field are separated and the formulae for the radiation intensity are derived for both TE and TM waves. It is shown that the main part of the radiated quanta is emitted in the form of the TE waves. Various limiting cases are considered. The results of the numerical calculations show that the insertion of the waveguide provides an additional mechanism for tuning the characteristics of the emitted radiation by choosing the parameters of the waveguide and filling medium.

  18. Analysis of the Radiated Field in an Electromagnetic Reverberation Chamber as an Upset-Inducing Stimulus for Digital Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo

    2012-01-01

    Preliminary data analysis for a physical fault injection experiment of a digital system exposed to High Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) in an electromagnetic reverberation chamber suggests a direct causal relation between the time profile of the field strength amplitude in the chamber and the severity of observed effects at the outputs of the radiated system. This report presents an analysis of the field strength modulation induced by the movement of the field stirrers in the reverberation chamber. The analysis is framed as a characterization of the discrete features of the field strength waveform responsible for the faults experienced by a radiated digital system. The results presented here will serve as a basis to refine the approach for a detailed analysis of HIRF-induced upsets observed during the radiation experiment. This work offers a novel perspective into the use of an electromagnetic reverberation chamber to generate upset-inducing stimuli for the study of fault effects in digital systems.

  19. [Pulse-modulated Electromagnetic Radiation of Extremely High Frequencies Protects Cellular DNA against Damaging Effect of Physico-Chemical Factors in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gapeyev, A B; Lukyanova, N A

    2015-01-01

    Using a comet assay technique, we investigated protective effects of. extremely high frequency electromagnetic radiation in combination with the damaging effect of X-ray irradiation, the effect of damaging agents hydrogen peroxide and methyl methanesulfonate on DNA in mouse whole blood leukocytes. It was shown that the preliminary exposure of the cells to low intensity pulse-modulated electromagnetic radiation (42.2 GHz, 0.1 mW/cm2, 20-min exposure, modulation frequencies of 1 and 16 Hz) caused protective effects decreasing the DNA damage by 20-45%. The efficacy of pulse-modulated electromagnetic radiation depended on the type of genotoxic agent and increased in a row methyl methanesulfonate--X-rays--hydrogen peroxide. Continuous electromagnetic radiation was ineffective. The mechanisms of protective effects may be connected with an induction of the adaptive response by nanomolar concentrations of reactive oxygen species formed by pulse-modulated electromagnetic radiation.

  20. Extremely high frequency electromagnetic radiation enforces bacterial effects of inhibitors and antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadevosyan, Hasmik; Kalantaryan, Vitaly; Trchounian, Armen

    2008-01-01

    The coherent electromagnetic radiation (EMR) of the frequency of 51.8 and 53 GHz with low intensity (the power flux density of 0.06 mW/cm(2)) affected the growth of Escherichia coli K12(lambda) under fermentation conditions: the lowering of the growth specific rate was considerably (approximately 2-fold) increased with exposure duration of 30-60 min; a significant decrease in the number of viable cells was also shown. Moreover, the enforced effects of the N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD), inhibitor of H(+)-transporting F(0)F(1)-ATPase, on energy-dependent H(+) efflux by whole cells and of antibiotics like tetracycline and chloramphenicol on the following bacterial growth and survival were also determined after radiation. In addition, the lowering in DCCD-inhibited ATPase activity of membrane vesicles from exposed cells was defined. The results confirmed the input of membranous changes in bacterial action of low intensity extremely high frequency EMR, when the F(0)F(1)-ATPase is probably playing a key role. The radiation of bacteria might lead to changed metabolic pathways and to antibiotic resistance. It may also give bacteria with a specific role in biosphere.

  1. Primordial Gravitational Waves and Rescattered Electromagnetic Radiation in the Cosmic Microwave Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Hoon; Trippe, Sascha

    2016-10-01

    Understanding the interaction of primordial gravitational waves (GWs) with the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) plasma is important for observational cosmology. In this article, we provide an analysis of an apparently as-yet-overlooked effect. We consider a single free electric charge and suppose that it can be agitated by primordial GWs propagating through the CMB plasma, resulting in periodic, regular motion along particular directions. Light reflected by the charge will be partially polarized, and this will imprint a characteristic pattern on the CMB. We study this effect by considering a simple model in which anisotropic incident electromagnetic (EM) radiation is rescattered by a charge sitting in spacetime perturbed by GWs, and becomes polarized. As the charge is driven to move along particular directions, we calculate its dipole moment to determine the leading-order rescattered EM radiation. The Stokes parameters of the rescattered radiation exhibit a net linear polarization. We investigate how this polarization effect can be schematically represented out of the Stokes parameters. We work out the representations of gradient modes (E-modes) and curl modes (B-modes) to produce polarization maps. Although the polarization effect results from GWs, we find that its representations, the E- and B-modes, do not practically reflect the GW properties such as strain amplitude, frequency, and polarization states.

  2. Controlled formation of gold nanostructures on biopolymer films upon electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mescola, Andrea; Canale, Claudio; Fragouli, Despina; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2017-10-01

    The localized formation of gold nanostructures with controlled size and shape on chitosan films doped with gold precursor upon electromagnetic irradiation of various types is demonstrated here. Such controlled formation is achieved by tuning the wavelength, the energy and the interaction time of the radiation with the composite films. In particular, the use of a single UV nanosecond laser pulse results in the formation of gold sub-micron platelets with specific crystal structure, while increasing the number of pulses, further precursor reduction and photofragmentation induce the formation of gold nanoparticles. Using x-ray radiation as an alternative energy source, the reduction of the gold precursor and the subsequent formation of particles follow a different pathway. Specifically, x-ray-induced photo-reduction triggers the selective formation of gold sub-micron platelets with a very well defined {111} crystal phase. In this case, the density of crystal platelets increases by increasing the irradiation time of the films, while no photofragmentation process is observed. The gold structures pre-formed by x-ray radiation can be fragmented by subsequent pulsed UV laser irradiation forming nanoparticles with much narrower size distribution compared to that obtained via exclusive UV irradiation. Thanks to the perfect coupling between the natural polymeric matrix and gold nanostructures, the bionanocomposite systems developed could find various applications in biomaterial science and in biosensors field.

  3. A new formulation of electromagnetic wave scattering using an on-surface radiation boundary condition approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegsmann, Gregory A.; Taflove, Allen; Umashankar, Koradar R.

    1987-01-01

    A new formulation of electromagnetic wave scattering by convex, two-dimensional conducting bodies is reported. This formulation, called the on-surface radiation condition (OSRC) approach, is based upon an expansion of the radiation condition applied directly on the surface of a scatterer. It is now shown that application of a suitable radiation condition directly on the surface of a convex conducting scatterer can lead to substantial simplification of the frequency-domain integral equation for the scattered field, which is reduced to just a line integral. For the transverse magnetic case, the integrand is known explicitly. For the transverse electric case, the integrand can be easily constructed by solving an ordinary differential equation around the scatterer surface contour. Examples are provided which show that OSRC yields computed near and far fields which approach the exact results for canonical shapes such as the circular cylinder, square cylinder, and strip. Electrical sizes for the examples are ka = 5 and ka = 10. The new OSRC formulation of scattering may present a useful alternative to present integral equation and uniform high-frequency approaches for convex cylinders larger than ka = 1. Structures with edges or corners can also be analyzed, although more work is needed to incorporate the physics of singular currents at these discontinuities. Convex dielectric structures can also be treated using OSRC.

  4. Effects of radiation emitted by WCDMA mobile phones on electromagnetic hypersensitive subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Min Kyung

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the use of the third generation (3 G mobile phones on the rise, social concerns have arisen concerning the possible health effects of radio frequency-electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs emitted by wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA mobile phones in humans. The number of people with self-reported electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS, who complain of various subjective symptoms such as headache, dizziness and fatigue, has also increased. However, the origins of EHS remain unclear. Methods In this double-blind study, two volunteer groups of 17 EHS and 20 non-EHS subjects were simultaneously investigated for physiological changes (heart rate, heart rate variability, and respiration rate, eight subjective symptoms, and perception of RF-EMFs during real and sham exposure sessions. Experiments were conducted using a dummy phone containing a WCDMA module (average power, 24 dBm at 1950 MHz; specific absorption rate, 1.57 W/kg within a headset placed on the head for 32 min. Results WCDMA RF-EMFs generated no physiological changes or subjective symptoms in either group. There was no evidence that EHS subjects perceived RF-EMFs better than non-EHS subjects. Conclusions Considering the analyzed physiological data, the subjective symptoms surveyed, and the percentages of those who believed they were being exposed, 32 min of RF radiation emitted by WCDMA mobile phones demonstrated no effects in either EHS or non-EHS subjects.

  5. Structural and ultrastructural study of rat testes influenced by electromagnetic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almášiová, Viera; Holovská, Katarína; Cigánková, Viera; Račeková, Enikö; Fabianová, Kamila; Martončíková, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the influence of whole-body electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on testicular parenchyma of Wistar rats. Sexually mature rats were subjected to pulsed electromagnetic field at frequency of 2.45 GHz and mean power density 2.8 mW/cm(2) by 3-h daily applications for 3 wk. Tissue samples were obtained 3 h after the last irradiation and processed by histological techniques for light and transmission electron microscopy. Testes showed apparent degenerative changes of seminiferous epithelium. The seminiferous tubules were mostly irregular in shape, and seminiferous epithelium contained a number of empty spaces of different size. Subsequently, groups of sloughed epithelial cells were often found inside the lumina of tubules. Except for relatively unchanged Sertoli cells, some locations of basal compartment of seminiferous epithelium contained shriveled Sertoli cells with dark cytoplasm. These areas showed degenerative features including necrotizing and shriveled spermatogonia surrounded by empty irregular spaces, and undulating basement membrane. The intertubular spaces were enlarged but interstitial Leydig cells did not show any marked morphological changes. Evidence demonstrates the adverse effects of EMR on testicular parenchyma in rats.

  6. Polarization of low-frequency electromagnetic radiation in the lobes of Jupiter's magnetotail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, S. L.; Kennel, C. F.; Coroniti, F. V.; Scarf, F. L.; Kurth, W. S.

    1987-01-01

    The plasma wave instruments on the Voyager spacecraft have detected intense electromagnetic radiation within the lobes of Jupiter's magnetic tail down to the lowest frequency of the detector (10 Hz). During a yaw maneuver performed by Voyager 1 in the lobe of the Jovian magnetotail, a modulation appeared in the amplitudes of waves detected in the 10-, 17.8- and 31.1-Hz channels of the plasma wave analyzer, well below the local electron cyclotron frequency of 260 Hz. The lowest amplitudes occurred when the antenna axis was most nearly parallel to the magnetic field. Wave amplitudes in the 56.2-Hz and higher frequency channels remained nearly constant during the maneuver. From the cold-plasma theory of electromagnetic waves, it is concluded that the plasma frequency was between the 56.2- and 31.1-Hz channels where the parallel-polarized component of the spectrum cuts off. This implies a tail-lobe density between 0.000032 and 0.000015/cu cm. The left-hand cutoff frequency would then be below 10 Hz, consistent with either the Z-mode (L, X) or whistlers (R-mode) in the modulated channels.

  7. Structural and ultrastructural study of rat liver influenced by electromagnetic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holovská, K; Almášiová, V; Cigánková, V; Beňová, K; Račeková, E; Martončíková, M

    2015-01-01

    Mobile communication systems are undoubtedly an environmental source of electromagnetic radiation (EMR). There is an increasing concern regarding the interactions of EMR with the humans. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of EMR on Wistar rat liver. Mature rats were exposed to electromagnetic field of frequency 2.45 GHz and mean power density of 2.8 mW/cm2 for 3 h/d for 3 wk. Samples of the liver were obtained 3 h after the last irradiation and processed histologically for light and transmission electron microscopy. Data demonstrated the presence of moderate hyperemia, dilatation of liver sinusoids, and small inflammatory foci in the center of liver lobules. Structure of hepatocytes was not altered and all described changes were classified as moderate. Electron microscopy of hepatocytes revealed vesicles of different sizes and shapes, lipid droplets, and proliferation of smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Occasionally necrotizing hepatocytes were observed. Our observations demonstrate that EMR exposure produced adverse effects on rat liver.

  8. The effect of electromagnetic radiation in the mobile phone range on the behaviour of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Willie M U; Pitout, Ianthe L; Afullo, Thomas J O; Mabandla, Musa V

    2009-12-01

    Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) is emitted from electromagnetic fields that surround power lines, household appliances and mobile phones. Research has shown that there are connections between EMR exposure and cancer and also that exposure to EMR may result in structural damage to neurons. In a study by Salford et al. (Environ Health Perspect 111:881-883, 2003) the authors demonstrated the presence of strongly stained areas in the brains of rats that were exposed to mobile phone EMR. These darker neurons were particularly prevalent in the hippocampal area of the brain. The aim of our study was to further investigate the effects of EMR. Since the hippocampus is involved in learning and memory and emotional states, we hypothesised that EMR will have a negative impact on the subject's mood and ability to learn. We subsequently performed behavioural, histological and biochemical tests on exposed and unexposed male and female rats to determine the effects of EMR on learning and memory, emotional states and corticosterone levels. We found no significant differences in the spatial memory test, and morphological assessment of the brain also yielded non-significant differences between the groups. However, in some exposed animals there were decreased locomotor activity, increased grooming and a tendency of increased basal corticosterone levels. These findings suggested that EMR exposure may lead to abnormal brain functioning.

  9. Loranthus longiflorus protect central nervous system against oxidative damages of electromagnetic radiation on rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Nagar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The interaction of mobile phone radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR with the brain is a serious concern of our society. In this study, we aimed to experiment on the anti-oxidative property of a parasitic plant Loranthus longiflorus (Loranthaceae to protect central nervous system against oxidative damages of mobile phone electromagnetic field (EMF. Materials and Methods: Healthy male albino wistar rats were exposed to RF-EMR by giving 5 min calling/5 min interval for 1 hour per day for 2 months, keeping a GSM (0.9/1.8 GHz mobile phone in silent mode (no ring tone in the cage. After 15, 30, 45, 60 days exposure, three randomly picked animals from each group were tested with using behavioural model of CNS on rats. Results and Conclusion: Loranthus longiflorus bark extract could be effective in decreasing immobility (P < 0.05 and increased locomotor activity (P < 0.05. This result indicates the protective effect of Loranthus longiflorus bark against EMF induced oxidative damage of central nervous system.

  10. Electromagnetic malfunction of semiconductor-type electronic personal dosimeters caused by access control systems for radiation facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deji, Shizuhiko; Ito, Shigeki; Ariga, Eiji; Mori, Kazuyuki; Hirota, Masahiro; Saze, Takuya; Nishizawa, Kunihide

    2006-08-01

    High frequency electromagnetic fields in the 120 kHz band emitted from card readers for access control systems in radiation control areas cause abnormally high and erroneous indicated dose readings on semiconductor-type electronic personal dosimeters (SEPDs). All SEPDs malfunctioned but recovered their normal performance by resetting after the exposure ceased. The minimum distances required to prevent electromagnetic interference varied from 5.0 to 38.0 cm. The electric and magnetic immunity levels ranged from 35.1 to 267.6 V m(-1) and from 1.0 to 16.6 A m(-1), respectively. Electromagnetic immunity levels of SEPDs should be strengthened from the standpoint of radiation protection.

  11. Study of distribution of electromagnetic radiation of coal or rock before drivage face

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Z.; Wang, En.; He, X.; Liu, Z.; Jin, S.; Jia, H. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). School of Mining and Safety Engineering

    2007-03-15

    In order to study the electromagnetic radiation (EMR) signals at different depths in coal mine driving, working faces were experimentally tested with KBD5 EMR monitoring equipment. Based on the coupling rule of stress and electricity, the relativity of deformation and fracture process of coal or rock and intensity of EMR was analyzed theoretically. The results show that there is a good relation between EMR and the coal stress state, and there are various stress states and deformation and fracture states in coal seams of working faces. There are 4 typical EMR distribution types: that of coal seam exposed for a long time that of coal seam after taking coal and gas outburst prevention measures, that of coal seam newly exposed, and that of coal seam having structure. 14 refs., 7 figs.

  12. Study of BESIII electromagnetic calorimeter performance with radiative lepton pair events

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, Vindhyawasini; Ji, Xiaobin; Li, Weidong; Liu, Huaimin; Lou, Xinchou

    2016-01-01

    We study the photon detection efficiency and position resolution of the electromagnetic calorimeter (EMC) of the BESIII detector. The control samples of the initial-state-radiation (ISR) process of $e^+e^-\\rightarrow \\gamma \\mu^+\\mu^-$ at $J/\\psi$ and $\\psi(3770)$ resonances are used for the calibration of the photon cluster shapes and photon detection efficiency study. The photon detection efficiency is defined as the fraction of predicted photon, determined by performing a kinematic fit with the four momenta of two charged tracks only, matched with the actual photons in the EMC. The spatial resolution of the EMC is studied in polar ($\\theta$) and azimuthal ($\\phi$) angle directions in a cylindrical coordinate system centered at the interaction point, with z-axis along the beam direction.

  13. Propagation and linear mode conversion of magnetosonic and electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves in the radiation belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Richard B.; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi

    2016-10-01

    Magnetosonic waves and electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are important for electron acceleration and loss from the radiation belts. It is generally understood that these waves are generated by unstable ion distributions that form during geomagnetically disturbed times. Here we show that magnetosonic waves could be a source of EMIC waves as a result of propagation and a process of linear mode conversion. The converse is also possible. We present ray tracing to show how magnetosonic (EMIC) waves launched with large (small) wave normal angles can reach a location where the wave normal angle is zero and the wave frequency equals the so-called crossover frequency whereupon energy can be converted from one mode to another without attenuation. While EMIC waves could be a source of magnetosonic waves below the crossover frequency, magnetosonic waves could be a source of hydrogen band waves but not helium band waves.

  14. Continuous electromagnetic radiation monitoring in the environment: analysis of the results in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manassas, Athanasios; Boursianis, Achilles; Samaras, Theodoros; Sahalos, John N

    2012-09-01

    Non-ionising radiation-monitoring networks were initiated as a result of the public concerns about the potential health effects from telecommunication emissions. In the present study, the data acquired from such networks in Greece are used to assess the changes in the outdoor electromagnetic environment with respect to location and time. The study shows that there is a statistically significant difference between the urban (median electric field: 1.1 V m(-1)) and the rural (median electric field: 0.3 V m(-1)) installations of monitoring units and also shows that there is a median diurnal variation (daily maximum to minimum) of 20.2 and 33.8 % for the broadcasting and mobile telecommunication emissions, respectively. Moreover, there is a difference in the electric field between daytime and night, but not between morning and afternoon. The results are in line with previously published data from spot measurements, monitoring networks and personal exposimeter studies performed in several European countries.

  15. Radiation electromagnetic effect in germanium crystals under high-energy. cap alpha. -particle irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikoin, I.K.; Babichenko, V.S.; Kikoin, L.I.; Lazarev, S.D.; Rzhanov, A.E.; Filippov, V.I.

    1984-05-01

    Results of experimental investigation into radiation electromagnetic effect (REM) in samples of germanium crystals under approximately 40 MeV ..cap alpha..-particle irradiation in a cyclotron are presented. A high level of excitation, volumetric character of generation of non-equilibrium carriers and formation of defects as well as the form of their spatial distribution are shown to result in some peculiarities of the EMF of the REM effect on the particle flux, fluence and sample parameters. Agreement of theoretical calculations, conducted with account of specificity of ..cap alpha..-particle interaction with a crystal, and experimental data is obtained. It is revealed that the REM effect can be applied in obtaining data on spatial distribution of non-equilibrium carrier concentrations along the particle trajectory in the crystal.

  16. [Non-thermal effect of GSM electromagnetic radiation on quality of pea seeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselova, T V; Veselovskiĭ, V A; Deev, L I; Baĭzhumanov, A A

    2012-01-01

    The seeds with low level of room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) were selected from a lot of air-dry peas (Pisum sativum) with 62% germination. These strong seeds (95-97% germination percentage) in air-dry, imbibed or emerged states were exposed to 905 MHz GSM-band electromagnetic radiation (EMR). The following effects of EMR were observed. Fraction II with higher RTP level appeared in the air-dry seeds. The germination rate decreased 2-3 fold in the air-dry, swollen and sprouting seeds due to an increase in the ratio of the seedlings with morphological defects (from 3 to 38%) and suffocated seeds (from 1 to 15%). We suggest tentative mechanisms to account for the decreased fitness of peas under GSM-band EMR (905 MHz); also discussed is the role of non-enzymatic hydrolysis of carbohydrates and amino-carbonyl reaction in this process.

  17. Electromagnetic and heat transfer computations for non-ionizing radiation dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaras, T; Regli, P; Kuster, N

    2000-08-01

    Reliable information on the heat distribution inside biological tissues is essential for the planning and optimization of experiments which aim to study the effects of non-ionizing radiation (NIR). In electrodynamics, the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique has become the dominant technique for radiofrequency dosimetry. In order to obtain the electromagnetic field and heat distributions within the same simulation run without changing discretization, a heat diffusion solver has been directly integrated into an advanced electrodynamic FDTD kernel. The implementation enables both coupled and sequential simulations. It also includes the ability to work with complex bodies and to accelerate heat diffusion. This paper emphasizes the importance of this combination in the field of NIR dosimetry. Two examples from this area are given: the validation of dosimetry with temperature probes and the estimation of the highest thermal load during bioexperiments.

  18. Surface oscillations — A possible source of fracture induced electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovitch, A.; Frid, V.; Bahat, D.

    2007-02-01

    Radio frequency electromagnetic radiation (EMR) registered hundreds of kilometres away from an earthquake epicentre is detected hours before earthquakes. Yet, accurate earthquakes prediction by their self-induced EMR still remains in its infancy due in part to the lack of understanding of EMR's origin. Here we present a viable model of this origin, according to which EMR is emitted by an oscillating dipole created by ions moving collectively as a surface wave on both sides of the crack; when the crack halts, the EMR pulse amplitude decays by interaction with bulk phonons. The model is shown to be able to provide crack dimensions and velocities, to explain some general similarities of different fracturing processes and indicate the existence of a general failure mechanism. Results raise the hope of developing an EMR based genuine earthquake prediction system.

  19. An experiment to measure the one-way velocity of propagation of electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolen, P.; Torr, D. G.

    1982-01-01

    An experiment involving commercially available instrumentation to measure the velocity of the earth with respect to absolute space is described. The experiment involves the measurement of the one-way propagation velocity of electromagnetic radiation down a high-quality coaxial cable. It is demonstrated that the experiment is both physically meaningful and exceedingly simple in concept and in implementation. It is shown that with currently available commercial equipment one might expect to detect a threshold value for the component of velocity of the earth's motion with respect to absolute space in the equatorial plane of approximately 10 km/s, which greatly exceeds the velocity resolution required to detect the motion of the solar system with respect to the center of the galaxy.

  20. [Low-energy wideband electromagnetic radiation and manual therapy in the treatment of neurological manifestations of spinal osteochondrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afoshin, S A; Gerasimenko, M Iu

    2006-01-01

    It is shown that the advanced technique of low-energy wideband electromagnetic radiation improves vascular tonicity and peripheral circulation while a modified technique of manual therapy facilitates movements in the affected part of the spine and reduces tonicity of the muscles involved in the pathological process.

  1. How to Explain the Non-Zero Mass of Electromagnetic Radiation Consisting of Zero-Mass Photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabovich, Alexander M.; Gabovich, Nadezhda A.

    2007-01-01

    The mass of electromagnetic radiation in a cavity is considered using the correct relativistic approach based on the concept of a scalar mass not dependent on the particle (system) velocity. It is shown that due to the non-additivity of mass in the special theory of relativity the ensemble of chaotically propagating mass-less photons in the cavity…

  2. Radiation reaction dynamics in an electromagnetic wave and constant electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlee Jackson, E.

    1984-05-01

    The relativistic motion of a charged particle is studied when it is acted on simultaneously by a constant electric field and a plane electromagnetic wave, propagating in the direction of the electric field (x axis). The dynamics includes the radiation reaction (self-force) on the particle through a standard approximation of the Lorentz-Dirac equation. The interest is to determine the result of the competition between the average acceleration due to the electromagnetic wave (``radiation pressure'') and the acceleration due to the constant force of the static field. Each of these actions alone of course produce an unbounded particle energy asymptotically in time. However, it is proved first that, when the ``forces'' are in opposite directions, the particle can never accelerate (on the average) indefinitely in the x direction, regardless how weak the electric field (E0) is compared to the amplitude of the wave (A). It is then proved that all solutions converge to a region of zero area in a suitable velocity phase space and, if there exists a periodic solution [in the phase ξ=ω (t-x/c)] in a specified region of this phase space, then all solutions must converge to this solution asymptotically (ξ→+∞). In the case when (E0A2/ω2) has a specified bound (ω: wave frequency), an iterative method is developed which explicitly yields such a periodic solution, showing that the energy remains bounded. The direction of the average drift is determined in terms of (A,E0,ω). When the parameter (E0A2/ω2) is above this bound, a combination of numerical and analytic results are obtained which indicate that this periodic solution persists. These results indicate that all motions tend to states with bounded energy, regardless of the field strengths.

  3. Public safety assessment of electromagnetic radiation exposure from mobile base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhekail, Z O; Hadi, M A; Alkanhal, M A

    2012-09-01

    Exposure of the general public to electromagnetic radiation originating from randomly selected GSM/WCDMA base stations in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has been assessed in the context of the International Commission on Non-Ionising Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines. The purpose of the measurement was to record the maximum power density of signals to estimate possible worst case exposure at each measurement location. These power density measurements were carried out at 60 mobile base stations located in different regions of the city. For each of these sites, three sectors were operational, yielding a total of 180 sectors. Two positions were identified per site with the greatest power density values. Exposures from these base stations were generally found to be in the range of 0.313 to 0.00000149% of the ICNIRP general public reference level, and the greatest exposure near any of the base stations was 21.96 mW m(-2) for a wideband measurement in the 75-3000 MHz frequency range. Analysis of the measured data reveals several trends for different mobile bands with respect to maximum exposure in those locations. Additionally, a simplified calculation method for the electromagnetic fields was used to compare calculated and the measured data. It was determined, on the basis of both results of the measurements and calculations carried out for these selected base stations, that members of the public would not be exposed to in excess of a small fraction of the ICNIRP guidelines at any of those sites. These are first such measurements to be made in the Middle East and provide assurance that exposures in this region of the world do not seem to be any greater than elsewhere.

  4. Prostate tumor alignment and continuous, real-time adaptive radiation therapy using electromagnetic fiducials: clinical and cost-utility analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Martin M; Mate, Timothy P; Sylvester, John E

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy, utility, and cost effectiveness of a new electromagnetic patient positioning and continuous, real-time monitoring system, which uses permanently implanted resonant transponders in the target (Calypso 4D Localization System and Beacon transponders, Seattle, WA) to continuously monitor tumor location and movement during external beam radiation therapy of the prostate. This clinical trial studied 43 patients at 5 sites. All patients were implanted with 3 transponders each. In 41 patients, the system was used for initial alignment at each therapy session. Thirty-five patients had continuous monitoring during their radiation treatment. Over 1,000 alignment comparisons were made to a commercially available kV X-ray positioning system (BrainLAB ExacTrac, Munich, Germany). Using decision analysis and Markov processes, the outcomes of patients were simulated over a 5-year period and measured in terms of costs from a payer's perspective and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). All patients had satisfactory transponder implantations for monitoring purposes. In over 75% of the treatment sessions, the correction to conventional positioning (laser and tattoos) directed by an electromagnetic patient positioning and monitoring system was greater than 5 mm. Ninety-seven percent (34/35) of the patients who underwent continuous monitoring had target motion that exceeded preset limits at some point during the course of their radiation therapy. Exceeding preset thresholds resulted in user intervention at least once during the therapy in 80% of the patients (28/35). Compared with localization using ultrasound, electronic portal imaging devices (EPID), or computed tomography (CT), localization with the electromagnetic patient positioning and monitoring system yielded superior gains in QALYs at comparable costs. Most patients positioned with conventional tattoos and lasers for prostate radiation therapy were found by use of the electromagnetic patient positioning

  5. Scattering and Diffraction of Electromagnetic Radiation: An Effective Probe to Material Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yu-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Scattered electromagnetic waves from material bodies of different forms contain, in an intricate way, precise information on the intrinsic, geometrical and physical properties of the objects. Scattering theories, ever deepening, aim to provide dependable interpretation and prediction to the complicated interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter. There are well-established multiple-scattering formulations based on classical electromagnetic theories. An example is the Generalized Multi-particle Mie-solution (GMM), which has recently been extended to a special version ? the GMM-PA approach, applicable to finite periodic arrays consisting of a huge number (e.g., >>106) of identical scattering centers [1]. The framework of the GMM-PA is nearly complete. When the size of the constituent unit scatterers becomes considerably small in comparison with incident wavelength, an appropriate array of such small element volumes may well be a satisfactory representation of a material entity having an arbitrary structure. X-ray diffraction is a powerful characterization tool used in a variety of scientific and technical fields, including material science. A diffraction pattern is nothing more than the spatial distribution of scattered intensity, determined by the distribution of scattering matter by way of its Fourier transform [1]. Since all linear dimensions entered into Maxwell's equations are normalized by wavelength, an analogy exists between optical and X-ray diffraction patterns. A large set of optical diffraction patterns experimentally obtained can be found in the literature [e.g., 2,3]. Theoretical results from the GMM-PA have been scrutinized using a large collection of publically accessible, experimentally obtained Fraunhofer diffraction patterns. As far as characteristic structures of the patterns are concerned, theoretical and experimental results are in uniform agreement; no exception has been found so far. Closely connected with the spatial distribution of

  6. Measurement of DNA damage after exposure to 2450 MHz electromagnetic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyapa, R S; Ahern, E W; Straube, W L; Moros, E G; Pickard, W F; Roti Roti, J L

    1997-12-01

    Recent reports suggest that exposure to 2450 MHz electromagnetic radiation causes DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs) and double-strand breaks (DSBs) in cells of rat brain irradiated in vivo (Lai and Singh, Bioelectromagnetics 16, 207-210, 1995; Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 69, 513-521, 1996). Therefore, we endeavored to determine if exposure of cultured mammalian cells in vitro to 2450 MHz radiation causes DNA damage. The alkaline comet assay (single-cell gel electrophoresis), which is reportedly the most sensitive method to assay DNA damage in individual cells, was used to measure DNA damage after in vitro 2450 MHz irradiation. Exponentially growing U87MG and C3H 10T1/2 cells were exposed to 2450 MHz continuous-wave (CW) radiation in specially designed radial transmission lines (RTLs) that provided relatively uniform microwave exposure. Specific absorption rates (SARs) were calculated to be 0.7 and 1.9 W/kg. Temperatures in the RTLs were measured in real time and were maintained at 37 +/- 0.3 degrees C. Every experiment included sham exposure(s) in an RTL. Cells were irradiated for 2 h, 2 h followed by a 4-h incubation at 37 degrees C in an incubator, 4 h and 24 h. After these treatments samples were subjected to the alkaline comet assay as described by Olive et al. (Exp. Cell Res. 198, 259-267, 1992). Images of comets were digitized and analyzed using a PC-based image analysis system, and the "normalized comet moment" and "comet length" were determined. No significant differences were observed between the test group and the controls after exposure to 2450 MHz CW irradiation. Thus 2450 MHz irradiation does not appear to cause DNA damage in cultured mammalian cells under these exposure conditions as measured by this assay.

  7. Study of Electromagnetic Radiation and Specific Absorption Rate of Mobile Phones with Fractional Human Head Models via Green's Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nookala S. Rao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Electromagnetic Radiation from mobile hand set is identified as one of the side effects for increasing rate of brain tumor. Due to this reason, Mobile phone industries are attentive towards safety issues of human health. Specific Absorption Rate is one of the important parameter while modeling the radiation effect on human head. Brain material with homogeneity is treated as an equivalent model of human head. The radiation caused by antennas mounted on mobile set is assumed to be monopolar. Approach: Apart from the Specific Absorption Rate, period of exposure to radiation is an extremely important parameter while assessing the effects on brain tissue. Correlation between the amount of radiation versus spherical model of brain is a complex phenomena, addressed in various simulation models. In the present work the field distribution inside the head are modeled using Dyadic Greens Functions while describing the effect of radiation pattern. Multilayered homogeneous lossy spherical model is proposed as an equivalent to head. Results: In this paper we present the depth of penetration of radiation and its effect on brain tissue. In essence the amount of electromagnetic power absorbed by biological tissues for various exposure conditions and types of emitting sources, utilizing a detailed model of the human head. Conclusion: Bio-heat equation is used to predict heat distribution inside the brain when exposed to radiation. The medium is assumed to be homogeneous, isotropic, linear, non dispersive and stationary. A critical evaluation of the method is discussed.

  8. Experimental observations of nonlinearly enhanced 2omega-UH electromagnetic radiation excited by steady-state colliding electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intrator, T.; Hershkowitz, N.; Chan, C.

    1984-01-01

    Counterstreaming large-diameter electron beams in a steady-state laboratory experiment are observed to generate transverse radiation at twice the upper-hybrid frequency (2omega-UH) with a quadrupole radiation pattern. The electromagnetic wave power density is nonlinearly enhanced over the power density obtained from a single beam-plasma system. Electromagnetic power density scales exponentially with beam energy and increases with ion mass. Weak turbulence theory can predict similar (but weaker) beam energy scaling but not the high power density, or the predominance of the 2omega-UH radiation peak over the omega-UH peak. Significant noise near the upper-hybrid and ion plasma frequencies is also measured, with normalized electrostatic wave energy density W(ES)/n(e)T(e) approximately 0.01.

  9. Statistical analysis of electromagnetic radiation measurements in the vicinity of GSM/UMTS base station antenna masts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprivica, Mladen; Neskovic, Natasa; Neskovic, Aleksandar; Paunovic, George

    2014-01-01

    As a result of dense installations of public mobile base station, additional electromagnetic radiation occurs in the living environment. In order to determine the level of radio-frequency radiation generated by base stations, extensive electromagnetic field strength measurements were carried out for 664 base station locations. Base station locations were classified into three categories: indoor, masts and locations with installations on buildings. Having in mind the large percentage (47 %) of sites with antenna masts, a detailed analysis of this location category was performed, and the measurement results were presented. It was concluded that the total electric field strength in the vicinity of base station antenna masts in no case exceeded 10 V m(-1), which is quite below the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection reference levels. At horizontal distances >50 m from the mast bottom, the median and maximum values were <1 and 2 V m(-1), respectively.

  10. Analysis of rat testicular proteome following 30-day exposure to 900 MHz electromagnetic field radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehrimanesh, Masood; Kazemipour, Nasrin; Saeb, Mehdi; Nazifi, Saeed

    2014-12-01

    The use of electromagnetic field (EMF) generating apparatuses such as cell phones is increasing, and has caused an interest in the investigations of its effects on human health. We analyzed proteome in preparations from the whole testis in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats that were exposed to 900 MHz EMF radiation for 1, 2, or 4 h/day for 30 consecutive days, simulating a range of possible human cell phone use. Subjects were sacrificed immediately after the end of the experiment and testes fractions were solubilized and separated via high-resolution 2D electrophoresis, and gel patterns were scanned, digitized, and processed. Thirteen proteins, which were found only in sham or in exposure groups, were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. Among them, heat shock proteins, superoxide dismutase, peroxiredoxin-1, and other proteins related to misfolding of proteins and/or stress were identified. These results demonstrate significant effects of radio frequency modulated EMFs exposure on proteome, particularly in protein species in the rodent testis, and suggest that a 30-day exposure to EMF radiation induces nonthermal stress in testicular tissue. The functional implication of the identified proteins was discussed.

  11. Short-duration exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation alters the chlorophyll fluorescence of duckweeds (Lemna minor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senavirathna, Mudalige Don Hiranya Jayasanka; Takashi, Asaeda; Kimura, Yuichi

    2014-12-01

    Plants growing in natural environments are exposed to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (EMR) emitted by various communication network base stations. The environmental concentration of this radiation is increasing rapidly with the congested deployment of base stations. Although numerous scientific studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of EMR on the physiology of humans and animals, there have been few attempts to investigate the effects of EMR on plants. In this study, we attempted to evaluate the effects of EMR on photosynthesis by investigating the chlorophyll fluorescence (ChF) parameters of duckweed fronds. During the experiment, the fronds were tested with 2, 2.5, 3.5, 5.5 and 8 GHz EMR frequencies, which are not widely studied even though there is a potentially large concentration of these frequencies in the environment. The duckweed fronds were exposed to EMR for 30 min, 1 h and 24 h durations with electric field strength of 45-50 V/m for each frequency. The results indicated that exposure to EMR causes a change in the non-photochemical quenching of the duckweeds. The changes varied with the frequency of the EMR and were time-varying within a particular frequency. The temperature remained unchanged in the duckweed fronds upon exposure to EMR, which confirms that the effect is non-thermal.

  12. The effectiveness of electromagnetic terahertz radiation use in the treatment of patients with rapidly progressive periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelenova A.V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim: to increase the efficiency of treatment of patients with rapidly progressive periodontitis (RPP using electromagnetic radiation at terahertz frequencies of molecular spectrum of radiation and absorption of nitric oxide 150,176-150,664 GHz. Material and methods. The study involved 50 patients with RPP, which according to the method of therapy were divided into 2 groups: group 1 included patients receiving conventional therapy, group 2 consisted of patients who, along with traditional therapy received EHF-therapy device "Orbit" YAKUL.941526.001. The control group consisted of 20 healthy subjects with intact periodontium. For the non-invasive study of tissue blood flow in the periodontal tissue Doppler ultrasound was used MiniMax-Doppler-Phono. The study of the microvasculature of periodontitis has been conducted. To determine the reactivity of microvascular periodontal tissue reflex functional tests on the indirect effect of the cold were performed. Results. Reductions achieved values of periodontal indices, especially important index PMA, a significant increase in the linear blood flow indices, decreased pulse pressure gradient and the index followed appropriate reduction to their cold test. Conclusion. The proposed complex therapy can accelerate the relief of inflammation in the periodontal tissues of the complex, to improve the elastic properties of blood vessels, reduce their tone and restore microcirculation in periodontal tissues.

  13. Analysis of the electromagnetic radiation generated by a multipactor discharge occurring within a microwave passive component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, M; Quesada, F; Alvarez, A [Department of Information and Communication Technologies, Technical University of Cartagena, Cartagena (Murcia) (Spain); Gimeno, B [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada y Electromagnetismo-ICMUV, Universidad de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Miquel-Espanya, C; Raboso, D [European Space Agency (ESA), European Space Research and Technology Center (ESTEC), Noordwijk (Netherlands); Anza, S; Vicente, C; Gil, J [Aurora Software and Testing S.L., Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Taroncher, M; Reglero, M; Boria, V E, E-mail: benito.gimeno@uv.e [Departamento de Comunicaciones-ITEAM, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spain)

    2010-10-06

    Multipactoring is a non-linear phenomenon that appears in high-power microwave equipment operating under vacuum conditions and causes several undesirable effects. In this paper, a theoretical and experimental study of the RF spectrum radiated by a multipactor discharge, occurring within a realistic microwave component based on rectangular waveguides, is reported. The electromagnetic coupling of a multipactor current to the fundamental propagative mode of a uniform waveguide has been analysed in the context of the microwave network theory. The discharge produced under a single-carrier RF voltage regime has been approached as a shunt current source exciting such a mode in a transmission-line gap region. By means of a simple equivalent circuit, this model allows prediction of the harmonics generated by the discharge occurring in a realistic passive waveguide component. Power spectrum radiated by a third-order multipactor discharge has been measured in an E-plane silver-plated waveguide transformer, thus validating qualitatively the presented theory to simulate the noise generated by a single-carrier multipactor discharge.

  14. Effect of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation on structurization properties of bacterial lipopolysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigory E. Brill

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose — to investigate the effects of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation on the process of dehydration selforganization of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Material and Methods — The method of wedge dehydration has been used to study the structure formation of bacterial LPS. Image-phases analysis included their qualitative characteristics, as well as the calculation of quantitative indicators, followed by statistical analysis. Results — Low-intensity ultra high frequency (UHF radiation (1 GHz, 0.1 μW/cm2, 10 min has led to the changes in the suspension system of the LPS-saline reflected in the kinetics of structure formation. Conclusion — 1 GHz corresponds to the natural frequency of oscillation of water clusters and, presumably, the effect of UHF on structure of LPS mediates through the changes in water-salt environment. Under these conditions, properties of water molecules of hydration and possibly the properties of hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions in the molecule of LPS, which can affect the ability of toxin molecules to form aggregates change. Therefore the LPS structure modification may result in the change of its toxic properties.

  15. Oxidative changes and apoptosis induced by 1800-MHz electromagnetic radiation in NIH/3T3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Qingxia; Wang, Minglian; Wu, Shuicai; Ma, Xuemei; An, Guangzhou; Liu, Huan; Xie, Fei

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the potential adverse effects of mobile phone radiation, we studied reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage and apoptosis in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (NIH/3T3) after intermittent exposure (5 min on/10 min off, for various durations from 0.5 to 8 h) to an 1800-MHz GSM-talk mode electromagnetic radiation (EMR) at an average specific absorption rate of 2 W/kg. A 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate fluorescence probe was used to detect intracellular ROS levels, immunofluorescence was used to detect γH2AX foci as a marker for DNA damage, and flow cytometry was used to measure apoptosis. Our results showed a significant increase in intracellular ROS levels after EMR exposure and it reached the highest level at an exposure time of 1 h (p < 0.05) followed by a slight decrease when the exposure continued for as long as 8 h. No significant effect on the number of γH2AX was detected after EMR exposure. The percentage of late-apoptotic cells in the EMR-exposed group was significantly higher than that in the sham-exposed groups (p < 0.05). These results indicate that an 1800-MHz EMR enhances ROS formation and promotes apoptosis in NIH/3T3 cells.

  16. Analysis of emotionality and locomotion in radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation exposed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sareesh Naduvil; Kumar, Raju Suresh; Paval, Jaijesh; Kedage, Vivekananda; Bhat, M Shankaranarayana; Nayak, Satheesha; Bhat, P Gopalakrishna

    2013-07-01

    In the current study the modulatory role of mobile phone radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) on emotionality and locomotion was evaluated in adolescent rats. Male albino Wistar rats (6-8 weeks old) were randomly assigned into the following groups having 12 animals in each group. Group I (Control): they remained in the home cage throughout the experimental period. Group II (Sham exposed): they were exposed to mobile phone in switch-off mode for 28 days, and Group III (RF-EMR exposed): they were exposed to RF-EMR (900 MHz) from an active GSM (Global system for mobile communications) mobile phone with a peak power density of 146.60 μW/cm(2) for 28 days. On 29th day, the animals were tested for emotionality and locomotion. Elevated plus maze (EPM) test revealed that, percentage of entries into the open arm, percentage of time spent on the open arm and distance travelled on the open arm were significantly reduced in the RF-EMR exposed rats. Rearing frequency and grooming frequency were also decreased in the RF-EMR exposed rats. Defecation boli count during the EPM test was more with the RF-EMR group. No statistically significant difference was found in total distance travelled, total arm entries, percentage of closed arm entries and parallelism index in the RF-EMR exposed rats compared to controls. Results indicate that mobile phone radiation could affect the emotionality of rats without affecting the general locomotion.

  17. [Metabolic changes in cells under electromagnetic radiation of mobile communication systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakimenko, I L; Sidorik, E P; Tsybulin, A S

    2011-01-01

    Review is devoted to the analysis of biological effects of microwaves. The results of last years' researches indicated the potential risks of long-term low-level microwaves exposure for human health. The analysis of metabolic changes in living cells under the exposure of microwaves from mobile communication systems indicates that this factor is stressful for cells. Among the reproducible effects of low-level microwave radiation are overexpression of heat shock proteins, an increase of reactive oxygen species level, an increase of intracellular Ca2+, damage of DNA, inhibition of DNA reparation, and induction of apoptosis. Extracellular-signal-regulated kinases ERK and stress-related kinases p38MAPK are involved in metabolic changes. Analysis of current data suggests that the concept of exceptionally thermal mechanism of biological effects of microwaves is not correct. In turn, this raises the question of the need to revaluation of modern electromagnetic standards based on thermal effects of non-ionizing radiation on biological systems.

  18. Effect of Exposure to Non-ionizing Radiation (Electromagnetic Fields on Human System: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Rubya Souza C and acirc;mara

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The indiscriminate presence of radio base stations, which emit non-ionizing radiation (NIR, as well as the frequent use of mobile phones, can cause increased susceptibility of populations to the emergence of diseases such as cancers of the head and neck, biochemical, hematopoietic and hepatic changes, among others. Exposure to physical contamination, including NIR, has been implicated in numerous diseases, raising concerns about the widespread sources of exposure to this type of radiation. This paper reviews studies that have assessed associations between likely exposure to electromagnetic fields, such as radiofrequency transmissions, and many kinds of human diseases including cancer, as well as alerts to the current knowledge on the association between environmental exposure to NIR and the risk of development of adverse human health effects. This way, there appears to be an urgent need to reconsider exposure limits for low frequency and static magnetic fields, based on combined experimental and epidemiological research. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2014; 2(4.000: 187-190

  19. Effect of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation on structurization properties of bacterial lipopolysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brill G.E.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to investigate the effects of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation on the process of dehydration self-organization of bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Materials and Methods. The method of wedge dehydration has been used to study the structure formation of bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Image-phases analysis included their qualitative characteristics, as well as the calculation of quantitative indicators, followed by statistical analysis. Results. UHF-Radiation (1GHz, 0,1 uW/cm2, 10 min has led to the changes in the suspension system of the LPS-saline reflected in the kinetics of structure formation. Conclusion. 1 GHz corresponds to the natural frequency of oscillation of water clusters and, presumably, the effect of UHF on structure of LPS mediates through the changes in water-salt environment. Under these conditions, properties of water molecules of hydration and possibly the properties of hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions in the molecule of LPS, which can affect the ability of toxin molecules to form aggregates change. Therefore the lipopolysaccharide structure modification may result in the change of its toxic properties.

  20. Effect of 935-MHz phone-simulating electromagnetic radiation on endometrial glandular cells during mouse embryo implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenhui; Zheng, Xinmin; Qu, Zaiqing; Zhang, Ming; Zhou, Chun; Ma, Ling; Zhang, Yuanzhen

    2012-10-01

    This study examined the impact of 935MHz phone-simulating electromagnetic radiation on embryo implantation of pregnant mice. Each 7-week-old Kunming (KM) female white mouse was set up with a KM male mouse in a single cage for mating overnight after induction of ovulation. In the first three days of pregnancy, the pregnant mice was exposed to electromagnetic radiation at low-intensity (150 μW/cm(2), ranging from 130 to 200 μW/cm(2), for 2- or 4-h exposure every day), mid-intensity (570 μW/cm(2), ranging from 400 to 700 μW/cm(2), for 2- or 4-h exposure every day) or high-intensity (1400 μW/cm(2), ranging from 1200 to 1500 μW/cm(2), for 2- or 4-h exposure every day), respectively. On the day 4 after gestation (known as the window of murine embryo implantation), the endometrium was collected and the suspension of endometrial glandular cells was made. Laser scanning microscopy was employed to detect the mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular calcium ion concentration. In high-intensity, 2- and 4-h groups, mitochondrial membrane potential of endometrial glandular cells was significantly lower than that in the normal control group (Pelectromagnetic radiation and longer length of the radiation are required to inflict a remarkable functional and structural damage to mitochondrial membrane. Our data demonstrated that electromagnetic radiation with a 935-MHz phone for 4 h conspicuously decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and lowered the calcium ion concentration of endometrial glandular cells. It is suggested that high-intensity electromagnetic radiation is very likely to induce the death of embryonic cells and decrease the chance of their implantation, thereby posing a high risk to pregnancy.

  1. The study of biological effects of electromagnetic mobile phone radiation on experimental animals by combining numerical modeling and experimental research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Krstić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study biological effects of electromagneticradiation, it is essential to know the real values of field componentsthat penetrated the tissue. The study of biological effects is usuallyperformed on experimental animals. The biological effects observedon experimental animals should be linked with penetrating field inthe tissue. The penetrating electromagnetic field is almost impossibleto measure; therefore, modeling process must be carried out and thefield components in models of experimental animals could becalculated. This paper presents an approach to modeling of fieldpenetration and gives contribution to understanding the real effects of the fields and the sensitivity of tissues to electromagnetic radiation generated by mobile phone.

  2. Meridian is a three-dimensional network from bio-electromagnetic radiation interference: an interference hypothesis of meridian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jinxiang

    2012-03-01

    An electromagnetic radiation field within a biological organism is characterized by non-local interference. The interfering beams form a unitary tridimensional network with beams of varying intensity, also called striae, which are distributed on the organism surface. These striae are equivalent to semi-reflectors. The striae carry bio-information of corresponding organs and, thus, integrate all tissues, and organs of the organism. The longitudinal striae are classified as channels, while the transverse striae are collaterals. The acupoints are seen as the points where electromagnetic interfering striae intersect or converge. This hypothesis builds a foundation to understand the traditional Chinese medicine, including acupuncture, from the perspective of scientific knowledge.

  3. Monochromatic gamma emitter for low energy quanta

    CERN Document Server

    Tomova, Z R; Mironova, S A

    2004-01-01

    The possibility of creating of a monochromatic gamma emitter of low energy quanta is analyzed. The idea is based on Daning's scheme. Except for purely scientific problems the monochromator is actual for therapy of wide range of diseases.

  4. Adaptive Radiation Therapy for Postprostatectomy Patients Using Real-Time Electromagnetic Target Motion Tracking During External Beam Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Mingyao [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri (United States); Bharat, Shyam [Philips Research North America, Briarcliff Manor, New York (United States); Michalski, Jeff M.; Gay, Hiram A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri (United States); Hou, Wei-Hsien [St Louis University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Parikh, Parag J., E-mail: pparikh@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: Using real-time electromagnetic (EM) transponder tracking data recorded by the Calypso 4D Localization System, we report inter- and intrafractional target motion of the prostate bed, describe a strategy to evaluate treatment adequacy in postprostatectomy patients receiving intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and propose an adaptive workflow. Methods and Materials: Tracking data recorded by Calypso EM transponders was analyzed for postprostatectomy patients that underwent step-and-shoot IMRT. Rigid target motion parameters during beam delivery were calculated from recorded transponder positions in 16 patients with rigid transponder geometry. The delivered doses to the clinical target volume (CTV) were estimated from the planned dose matrix and the target motion for the first 3, 5, 10, and all fractions. Treatment adequacy was determined by comparing the delivered minimum dose (D{sub min}) with the planned D{sub min} to the CTV. Treatments were considered adequate if the delivered CTV D{sub min} is at least 95% of the planned CTV D{sub min}. Results: Translational target motion was minimal for all 16 patients (mean: 0.02 cm; range: −0.12 cm to 0.07 cm). Rotational motion was patient-specific, and maximum pitch, yaw, and roll were 12.2, 4.1, and 10.5°, respectively. We observed inadequate treatments in 5 patients. In these treatments, we observed greater target rotations along with large distances between the CTV centroid and transponder centroid. The treatment adequacy from the initial 10 fractions successfully predicted the overall adequacy in 4 of 5 inadequate treatments and 10 of 11 adequate treatments. Conclusion: Target rotational motion could cause underdosage to partial volume of the postprostatectomy targets. Our adaptive treatment strategy is applicable to post-prostatectomy patients receiving IMRT to evaluate and improve radiation therapy delivery.

  5. Adaptive radiation therapy for postprostatectomy patients using real-time electromagnetic target motion tracking during external beam radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingyao; Bharat, Shyam; Michalski, Jeff M; Gay, Hiram A; Hou, Wei-Hsien; Parikh, Parag J

    2013-03-15

    Using real-time electromagnetic (EM) transponder tracking data recorded by the Calypso 4D Localization System, we report inter- and intrafractional target motion of the prostate bed, describe a strategy to evaluate treatment adequacy in postprostatectomy patients receiving intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and propose an adaptive workflow. Tracking data recorded by Calypso EM transponders was analyzed for postprostatectomy patients that underwent step-and-shoot IMRT. Rigid target motion parameters during beam delivery were calculated from recorded transponder positions in 16 patients with rigid transponder geometry. The delivered doses to the clinical target volume (CTV) were estimated from the planned dose matrix and the target motion for the first 3, 5, 10, and all fractions. Treatment adequacy was determined by comparing the delivered minimum dose (Dmin) with the planned Dmin to the CTV. Treatments were considered adequate if the delivered CTV Dmin is at least 95% of the planned CTV Dmin. Translational target motion was minimal for all 16 patients (mean: 0.02 cm; range: -0.12 cm to 0.07 cm). Rotational motion was patient-specific, and maximum pitch, yaw, and roll were 12.2, 4.1, and 10.5°, respectively. We observed inadequate treatments in 5 patients. In these treatments, we observed greater target rotations along with large distances between the CTV centroid and transponder centroid. The treatment adequacy from the initial 10 fractions successfully predicted the overall adequacy in 4 of 5 inadequate treatments and 10 of 11 adequate treatments. Target rotational motion could cause underdosage to partial volume of the postprostatectomy targets. Our adaptive treatment strategy is applicable to post-prostatectomy patients receiving IMRT to evaluate and improve radiation therapy delivery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The correlated characteristics of micro-seismic and electromagnetic radiation signals on a deep blasting workface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengwu; Sun, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Chuan; Xu, Xiaomeng; Xie, Beijing; Li, Jing

    2016-12-01

    To date, both micro-seismic (MS) and electromagnetic radiation (EMR) techniques are used as normal, daily safety monitoring tools for coal or rock dynamic disasters in China. In previous studies, these two non-destructive techniques are usually analyzed independently; few works have been done to characterize the correlation or difference between them. This paper aims to analyze the correlated features of the MS and EMR signals obtained from a field site test on a deep blasting workface in Pingdingshan 10# coal colliery. The de-noised signals are firstly compared for their associated features, both in time synchronization and energy correlation, and then the mechanism for the correlated response is also investigated. The results show that: (1) MS and EMR signals have a higher time-synchronization and energy correlation. (2) The EMR signal in a blasting operation is a local signal, near to the location of the detectors. (3) The two orthogonal layout magnetic antennas (along the roadway and vertical to the coal wall) can detect a single pulse signal and group-occurring cluster signals. These two kinds of EMR signals result from coal crack evolution and resistance-capacitance (RC) oscillation circuits respectively, which are triggered by seismic longitudinal waves. (4) The seismic transverse wave, especially for the low frequency component of it, makes a rubbing friction effect on coal, producing a low-frequency electromagnetic oscillation signal. Affected by the power and propagation direction of the energy, the signal can only be captured by the antenna in the vertical direction of the coal wall.

  7. Biological and Health Effects of Electromagnetic (Nonionizing) Radiation. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halasz, Hisako, Comp.

    The environment we live in today is filled with human-created electromagnetic fields generated by a variety of sources, including radio and television transmitters, power lines, and visual display terminals. (In addition, there exists a natural background of electromagnetic fields.) The term "electromagnetic pollution" is often used to…

  8. BIOCHEMICAL MECHANISMS OF MIXED EFFECT OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION AND LOW POSITIVE TEMPERATURE ON ANIMALS’ ORGANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litovchenko O.L.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available At present, biochemical mechanisms of mixed effects of electromagnetic radiation (EMR and cold on the body are not adequately studied, so this problem is urgent for modern medicine. Purpose of study. Establishing pathognomonic criteria and biochemical mechanisms of adverse effect of EMR on the organism of laboratory animals in conditions of cold stress. Materials and methods. The laboratory subacute experiment was carried out on mature white male rats of WAG line, weighing 190-220 g for 1 month. The animals were divided into 4 groups of 10 animals in each group. The first group was subjected to the isolated action of electromagnetic radiation (frequency 70 kHz, tension 600 V/m at a comfortable air temperature of 25 ± 2 ° C. The second group was subjected to the mixed action of EMR and low temperature 4 ± 2°C. The third group served as a control with regard to the first group, and the fourth group - with regard to the second, at air temperature of 25 ± 2°C. Expositions were carried out 5 times a week (for 4:00 every day. To identify changes in biochemical parameters studied during the experiments, blood sampling was performed at the stages of 5, 15, 30 days and urine sampling – at the stages of 15, 30 days in dynamics. Blood serum was used as biomaterial. It was determined the content of malondialdehyde (MDA, conjugated diene, content of SH-groups, superoxide dismutase, ceruloplasmin, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL, triglycerides, atherogenic index was determined, the level of urea, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, content of chlorides, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, total protein, glucose, and catalase activity. Renal function was studied by the content of creatinine, cholinesterase, urea, uric acid, chlorides, potassium, sodium, calcium, phosphorus and glucose in urine. Results and discussion. The findings showed that the isolated action of EMR only led to a

  9. The results of the pilot project in Georgia to install a network of electromagnetic radiation before the earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machavariani, Kakhaber; Khazaradze, Giorgi; Turazashvili, Ioseb; Kachakhidze, Nino; Kachakhidze, Manana; Gogoberidze, Vitali

    2016-04-01

    The world's scientific literature recently published many very important and interesting works of VLF / LF electromagnetic emissions, which is observed in the process of earthquake preparation. This works reliable earthquake prediction in terms of trends. Because, Georgia is located in Trans Asian earthquake zone, VLF / LF electromagnetic emissions network are essential. In this regard, it was possible to take first steps. It is true that our university has Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation № DI / 21 / 9-140 / 13 grant, which included the installation of a receiver in Georgia, but failed due to lack of funds to buy this device. However, European friends helped us (Prof. Dr. PF Biagi and Prof. Dr. Aydın BÜYÜKSARAÇ) and made possible the installation of a receiver. Turkish scientists expedition in Georgia was organized in August 2015. They brought with them VLF / LF electromagnetic emissions receiver and together with Georgian scientists install near Tbilisi. The station was named GEO-TUR. It should be noted that Georgia was involved in the work of the European network. It is possible to completely control the earthquake in Georgia in terms of electromagnetic radiation. This enables scientists to obtain the relevant information not only on the territory of our country, but also on seismically active European countries as well. In order to maintain and develop our country in this new direction, it is necessary to keep independent group of scientists who will learn electromagnetic radiation ahead of an earthquake in Georgia. At this stage, we need to remedy this shortcoming, it is necessary and appropriate specialists to Georgia to engage in a joint international research. The work is carried out in the frame of grant (DI/21/9-140/13 „Pilot project of before earthquake detected Very Low Frequency/Low Frequency electromagnetic emission network installation in Georgia") by financial support of Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation.

  10. 电离辐射与电磁辐射的区别研究综述%Review on the Difference between Ionizing Radiation and Electromagnetic Radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄亚萍

    2015-01-01

    Both ionizing radiation and electromagnetic radiation are the invisible factors of environmental pollution, which can not be touched and or smelt , but they could bring the public fear, and have different working principle and influence. Therefore, from the concept, type and application, measurement and monitoring of national standards, biological effects, protection and so five aspects are summarized and the twowere compared, and putting forward the two types of radiation application should be different points, ionizing radiation mainly should strengthen the supervision and administration on the application of the radiation, and should strengthen environment automatic monitoring, electromagnetic radiation, should mainly positive research using advanced electromagnetic technology and reasonable planning of project construction. Both should improve the awareness of the radiation use enterprises and the public.%电离辐射和电磁辐射同为看不见、摸不着、闻不出的环境污染因素,它们都带给公众恐惧心理,却有着不同的工作原理及影响。为此,从概念、类型及应用、计量监测及国家标准、生物学效应、防护等五个方面对两者进行综述比较,提出两类辐射的应用应有不同的工作要点,电离辐射主要应加强对辐射应用的监督管理和环境自动监测,电磁辐射主要应积极研究使用先进减磁技术并合理规划项目建设,且都应提高辐射利用单位及公众的认识。

  11. RADCHARM++: A C++ routine to compute the electromagnetic radiation generated by relativistic charged particles in crystals and complex structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandiera, Laura; Bagli, Enrico; Guidi, Vincenzo [INFN Sezione di Ferrara and Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44121 Ferrara (Italy); Tikhomirov, Victor V. [Research Institute for Nuclear Problems, Belarusian State University, Minsk (Belarus)

    2015-07-15

    The analytical theories of coherent bremsstrahlung and channeling radiation well describe the process of radiation generation in crystals under some special cases. However, the treatment of complex situations requires the usage of a more general approach. In this report we present a C++ routine, named RADCHARM++, to compute the electromagnetic radiation emitted by electrons and positrons in crystals and complex structures. In the RADCHARM++ routine, the model for the computation of e.m. radiation generation is based on the direct integration of the quasiclassical formula of Baier and Katkov. This approach allows one taking into account real trajectories, and thereby the contribution of incoherent scattering. Such contribution can be very important in many cases, for instance for electron channeling. The generality of the Baier–Katkov operator method permits one to simulate the electromagnetic radiation emitted by electrons/positrons in very different cases, e.g., in straight, bent and periodically bent crystals, and for different beam energy ranges, from sub-GeV to TeV and above. The RADCHARM++ routine has been implemented in the Monte Carlo code DYNECHARM++, which solves the classical equation of motion of charged particles traveling through a crystal under the continuum potential approximation. The code has proved to reproduce the results of experiments performed at the MAinzer MIkrotron (MAMI) with 855 MeV electrons and has been used to predict the radiation spectrum generated by the same electron beam in a bent crystal.

  12. Lightning return stroke current radiation in presence of a conducting ground: 1. Theory and numerical evaluation of the electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfino, Federico; Procopio, Renato; Rossi, Mansueto

    2008-03-01

    The general theory describing the electromagnetic field radiated by a lightning stroke over a conducting ground is presented in this paper. The derivation of the Green functions necessary to solve the problem is discussed in detail, and the determination of the expressions for the electromagnetic field components is carried out in a form that minimizes the final computational costs. A method for the numerical evaluation of the electromagnetic field is then proposed, and it is shown that it can be used starting from any "engineering model" representation for the lightning current distribution along the channel. Such method is based on a new efficient evaluation of the so-called Sommerfeld's integrals appearing in the electromagnetic field expressions, without resorting to any kind of approximated formulas for them. The numerical treatment of the Sommerfeld's integrals is characterized by a proper subdivision of the integration domain, the use of the Romberg technique and the determination of a suitable upper bound for the error due to the integral truncation. In the second part of this work it will be shown how the results provided by the developed theory can be used in order to assess the validity of the most common simplified approach for the calculation of the lightning radiation over a lossy ground plane.

  13. Electromagnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... causes cancer. Some people worry that wireless and cellular phones cause cancer or other health problems. The phones do give off radio-frequency energy (RF), a form of electromagnetic radiation. So far, scientific evidence has not found a ...

  14. Characterization of radiated electromagnetic fields using equivalent sources - Application to the EMC of power printed circuit boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beghou, Lotfi; Pichon, Lionel; Costa, François

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an original methodology to characterize electromagnetic disturbances radiated from power electronic devices. The method is based on the substitution of the power device by an equivalent set of elemental dipoles (electric and magnetic dipoles). The set of dipoles radiates the same near-field. The dipoles are determined from a near field cartography of the fields obtained with a measurement bench. The dipoles parameters are determined by solving an inverse problem using a genetic algorithm. The efficiency of the approach is demonstrated on an academic DC-DC converter. Finally some results about the chopper are presented. The methodology has two advantages: first it allows one to define some threshold limitations for electromagnetic fields on the surroundings and secondly it gives the location of the real source distribution. To cite this article: L. Beghou et al., C. R. Physique 10 (2009).

  15. The radioprotective effects of Moringa oleifera against mobile phone electromagnetic radiation-induced infertility in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin-Meferij, Mashael Mohammed; El-Kott, Attalla Farag

    2015-01-01

    The present study has investigated the effects of mobile phone electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on fertility in rats. The purpose of this study was to explore the capability of polyphenolic-rich Moringa oleifera leaf extract in protecting rat testis against EMR-induced impairments based on evaluation of sperm count, viability, motility, sperm cell morphology, anti-oxidants (SOD & CAT), oxidative stress marker, testis tissue histopathology and PCNA immunohistochemistry. The sample consisted of sixty male Wistar rats which were divided into four equal groups. The first group (the control) received only standard diet while the second group was supplemented daily and for eight weeks with 200 mg/kg aqueous extract of Moringa leaves. The third group was exposed to 900 MHz fields for one hour a day and for (7) days a week. As for the fourth group, it was exposed to mobile phone radiation and received the Moringa extract. The results showed that the EMR treated group exhibited a significantly decrease sperm parameters. Furthermore, concurrent exposure to EMR and treated with MOE significantly enhanced the sperm parameters. However, histological results in EMR group showed irregular seminiferous tubules, few spermatogonia, giant multinucleated cells, degenerated spermatozoa and the number of Leydig cells was significantly reduced. PCNA labeling indices were significant in EMR group versus the control group. Also, EMR affects spermatogenesis and causes to apoptosis due to the heat and other stress-related EMR in testis tissue. This study concludes that chronic exposure to EMR marked testicular injury which can be prevented by Moringa oleifera leaf extract.

  16. A Technical Report on the Effect of Electromagnetic Radiation From a Mobile Phone on Mice Organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elgenaidi A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available To The Editor: Exposure to electromagnetic radiation (EMR from mobile phones can cause detrimental effects on cell function, chromosomal aberrations, and tissue injuries [1-6]. The rapid expansion of mobile phones has lead to widespread concern for their safety. We examined the histopathological effects of direct exposure to this EMR from mobile phones in adult male Swiss albino mice. The animals were obtained from the biotechnology center, Tripoli, Libya, weighing from 25-30 grams, aged 10-12 weeks. The experiments were approved by state authorities and fol¬lowed guidelines of Egyptian law for animal protection. Mice were fed standard diets and water ad libitum. Plastic cages (diameter 45 cm by 11 cm height were designed for this work. The roof of the cage was designed to receive the mobile phone from a distance of about 10 cm from the cage floor [7]. EMR was emitted from the Nokia 1112 device with a dimension of 104×44×17 in connection with Libyan network (Misurata, Libya. The distance between phone and mice was about 10 cm. The GSM mobile phones operate with microwave carrier frequencies in the GHz range (850–1900 MHz [8-10].

  17. Mobile phones electromagnetic radiation and NAD+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase as a mitochondrial marker in asthenozoospermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer M. Hagras

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available NAD+-dependent Isocitrate Dehydrogenase (NAD+-IDH could be one of the cell phone radiation targets. Enzyme activity alteration may lead to decline in sperm motility during radio-frequency electromagnetic waves (RF-EMW exposure. The current case control study aimed to investigate the possible relationship between mitochondrial NAD+-IDH activity in human seminal plasma and sperm motility among asthenozoospermic cellular phone users. A total number of ninety idiopathic infertile males referred from the Department of Dermatology and Andrology, were enrolled in this study. NAD+-IDH activity was measured in human seminal plasma by spectrophotometer. Computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA following WHO criteria has been used for semen analyses. The results showed that IDH activity was increased in patients with prolonged cell phone daily use ≥4 h/day. Its level, correlated negatively with either the motility ratio percentages (r = −0.46, p < 0.001 or the progressive motility percentages (r = −0.50, p < 0.001 in the study groups. The current study suggests that NAD+-IDH in human seminal plasma could be one of seminal plasma biomarkers reflecting the mitochondrial function of spermatozoa. Alteration of its level could reflect the defective motility of sperms among some cases of cellular phone users.

  18. Spatiotemporal multifractal characteristics of electromagnetic radiation in response to deep coal rock bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaobin, H.; Enyuan, W.; Xiaofei, L.

    2014-04-01

    Dynamic collapses of deeply mined coal rocks are severe threats to miners, in order to predict the collapses more accurately using electromagnetic radiation (EMR), we investigate the spatiotemporal multifractal characteristics and formation mechanism of EMR induced by underground coal mining. Coal rock in the burst-prone zone often exchanges materials and energy with its environment and gradually transits from its original stable equilibrium structure to a non-equilibrium dissipative structure with implicit spatiotemporal complexity or multifractal structures, resulting in temporal variation in multifractal EMR. The inherent law of EMR time series during damage evolution was analyzed by using time-varying multifractal theory. Results show that the time-varying multifractal characteristics of EMR are determined by damage evolutions process, the dissipated energy caused by damage evolutions such as crack propagation, fractal sliding and shearing can be regarded as the fingerprint of various EMR micro-mechanics. Dynamic spatiotemporal multifractal spectrum of EMR considers both spatial (multiple fractures) and temporal (dynamic evolution) characteristics of coal rocks, and records the dynamic evolution processes of rock bursts. Thus, it can be used to evaluate the coal deformation and fracture process. The study is of significance for us to in-depth understand EMR mechanism and to increase the accuracy of applying the EMR method to forecast dynamic disasters.

  19. Effects of Simulated Mobile Phone Electromagnetic Radiation on Fertilization and Embryo Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Qu, Zaiqing; Liu, Wenhui

    2016-12-16

    This study investigated the effects of 935-MHz electromagnetic radiation (ER) on fertilization and subsequent embryonic development in mice. Ovulating mice were irradiated at three ER intensities for 4 h/day (d) or 2 h/d for three consecutive days; the ova were then harvested for in vitro fertilization to observe the 6-h fertilization rate (6-FR), 72-h morula rate (72-MR), and 110-h blastula rate (110-BR). Compared with the control group, the 6-FR, 72-MR, and 110-BR were decreased in the low ER intensity group, but the differences were not significant; in the mid- and high-intensity ER groups, 72-MR and 110-BR in the 4 h/d and 2 h/d subgroups were decreased, showing significant differences compared with the control group. Moreover, the comparison between 4 h/d and 2 h/d subgroups showed significant differences. Mid- and high-intensity ER at 935 MHz can reduce the fertilization rate in mice, and reduce the blastulation rate, thus reducing the possibility of embryo implantation.

  20. Nonlinear electromagnetic quasinormal modes and Hawking radiation of a regular black hole with magnetic charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jin [Chongqing University, Department of Physics, Chongqing (China); Lin, Kai [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, CP 66318, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Yang, Nan [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Department of Physics, Wuhan (China)

    2015-03-01

    Based on a regular exact black hole (BH) from nonlinear electrodynamics (NLED) coupled to general relativity, we investigate the stability of such BH through the Quasinormal Modes (QNMs) of electromagnetic (EM) field perturbations and its thermodynamics through Hawking radiation. In perturbation theory, we can deduce the effective potential from a nonlinear EM field. The comparison of the potential function between regular and RN BHs could predict similar QNMs. The QNM frequencies tell us the effect of the magnetic charge q, the overtone n, and the angular momentum number l on the dynamic evolution of NLED EM field. Furthermore we also discuss the cases of near-extreme conditions of such a magnetically charged regular BH. The corresponding QNM spectrum illuminates some special properties in the near-extreme cases. For the thermodynamics, we employ the Hamilton-Jacobi method to calculate the near-horizon Hawking temperature of the regular BH and reveal the relationship between the classical parameters of the black hole and its quantum effects. (orig.)

  1. Biological stress responses to radio frequency electromagnetic radiation: are mobile phones really so (heat) shocking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotgreave, Ian A

    2005-03-01

    Cells phenotypically adapt to alterations in their intra- and extracellular environment via organised alterations to gene and protein expression. Many chemical and physical stimuli are known to drive such responses, including the induction of oxidative stress and heat shock. Increasing use of mobile telephones in our society, has brought focus on the potential for radio frequency (microwave) electromagnetic radiation to elicit biological stress responses, in association with potentially detrimental effects of this to human health. Here we review evidence suggesting altered gene and protein expression in response to such emissions, with particular focus on heat shock proteins. Non-thermal induction of heat shock proteins has been claimed by a number of investigations in in vitro cellular systems, and appears pleiotropic for many other regulatory events. However, many of these studies are flawed by inconsistencies in exposure models, cell types used and the independent reproducibility of the findings. Further, the paucity of evidence from in vivo experimentation is largely contradictory. Therefore, the validity of these effects in human health risk assessment remain unsubstantiated. Where possible, suggestions for further experimental clarification have been provided.

  2. Geogagnetic Activity and Effectiveness of Millimeter Electromagnetic Radiation in Unstable Angina Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshina, S. S.; Samsonov, S. N.; Afanasiyeva, T. N.; Tokayeva, L. K.; Petrova, V. D.; Dolgova, E. M.; Manykina, V. I.; Vodolagina, E. S.

    There had been performed a research of an effectiveness of millimeter electromagnetic radiation (MM EMR) use in patients with an unstable angina (UA) at periods of a lower (daily value of Kp-index 16,19±0,18) and a higher (daily value of Kp-index 17,25±0,21, ptreatment of the patients with an UA, enhances an antianginal effect of a drug therapy independently on the period of GA. The MM EMR at the period of a lower geomagnetic activity (LGA) enhances the decrease of diastolic blood pressure (BP), and at the period of a higher geomagnetic activity (HGA) - the decrease of systolic BP. At a HGA there were noted: a quick and more serious antianginal effect, maximal antihypertensive effect was achieved quicker, but (as opposed to the period of a LGA) there was no a pulse slowing effect of a MM EMR. Including the MM EMR into the treatment accelerates stabilization of the patients' condition only at a LGA. Positive effect on blood rheological properties is an independent effect of MM EMR, and it is in blood viscosity reduce in microcirculatory at both of the periods of GA. Normalization of blood viscosity under the MM EMR is only at the period of a LGA. So, the effect of MM EMR on a clinical condition of the patients is more evident at the period of a HGA, blood viscosity - at the period of a LGA.

  3. Influence of microwave frequency electromagnetic radiation on terpene emission and content in aromatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soran, Maria-Loredana; Stan, Manuela; Niinemets, Ülo; Copolovici, Lucian

    2014-09-15

    Influence of environmental stress factors on both crop and wild plants of nutritional value is an important research topic. The past research has focused on rising temperatures, drought, soil salinity and toxicity, but the potential effects of increased environmental contamination by human-generated electromagnetic radiation on plants have little been studied. Here we studied the influence of microwave irradiation at bands corresponding to wireless router (WLAN) and mobile devices (GSM) on leaf anatomy, essential oil content and volatile emissions in Petroselinum crispum, Apium graveolens and Anethum graveolens. Microwave irradiation resulted in thinner cell walls, smaller chloroplasts and mitochondria, and enhanced emissions of volatile compounds, in particular, monoterpenes and green leaf volatiles (GLV). These effects were stronger for WLAN-frequency microwaves. Essential oil content was enhanced by GSM-frequency microwaves, but the effect of WLAN-frequency microwaves was inhibitory. There was a direct relationship between microwave-induced structural and chemical modifications of the three plant species studied. These data collectively demonstrate that human-generated microwave pollution can potentially constitute a stress to the plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Synergistic interactions between silver decorated graphene and carbon nanotubes yield flexible composites to attenuate electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patangrao Pawar, Shital; Kumar, Sachin; Jain, Shubham; Gandi, Mounika; Chatterjee, Kaushik; Bose, Suryasarathi

    2017-01-01

    The need of today’s highly integrated electronic devices, especially working in the GHz frequencies, is to protect them from unwanted interference from neighbouring devices. Hence, lightweight, flexible, easy to process microwave absorbers were designed here by dispersing conductive multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and silver nanoparticles decorated onto two-dimensional graphene sheets (rGO@Ag) in poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL). In this study, we have shown how dielectric losses can be tuned in the nanocomposites by rGO@Ag nano-hybrid; an essential criterion for energy dissipation within a material resulting in effective shielding of the incoming electromagnetic (EM) radiation. Herein, the conducting pathway for nomadic charge transfer in the PCL matrix was established by MWNTs and the attenuation was tuned by multiple scattering due to the large specific surface area of rGO@Ag. The latter was possible because of the fine dispersion state of the Ag nanoparticles which otherwise often agglomerate if mixed separately. The effect of individual nanoparticles on microwave attenuation was systematically assessed here. It was observed that this strategy resulted in strikingly enhanced microwave attenuation in PCL nanocomposites in contrast to addition of individual particles. For instance, PCL nanocomposites containing both MWNTs and rGO@Ag manifested in a SET of -37 dB and, interestingly, at arelatively smaller fraction. The SE shown by this particular composite makes it a potential candidate for many commercial applications as reflected by its exceptional absorption capability (91.3%).

  5. The spatial statistics formalism applied to mapping electromagnetic radiation in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua, Jesus M; Rufo, Montaña; Jimenez, Antonio; Antolin, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    Determining the electromagnetic radiation levels in urban areas is a complicated task. Various approaches have been taken, including numerical simulations using different models of propagation, sampling campaigns to measure field values with which to validate theoretical models, and the formalism of spatial statistics. In the work, we present here that this latter technique was used to construct maps of electric field and its associated uncertainty from experimental data. For this purpose, a field meter and a broadband probe sensitive in the 100-kHz-3-GHz frequency range were used to take 1,020 measurements around buildings and along the perimeter of the area. The distance between sampling points was 5 m. The results were stored in a geographic information system to facilitate data handling and analysis, in particular, the application of the formalism of spatial statistical to the analysis of the distribution of the field levels over the study area. The spatial structure was analyzed using the variographic technique, with the field levels at non-sampled points being interpolated by kriging. The results indicated that, in the urban area analyzed in the present work, the linear density of sampling points could be reduced to a distance which coincides with the length of the blocks of buildings without the statistical parameters varying significantly and with the field level maps being reproduced qualitatively and quantitatively.

  6. Spatiotemporal multifractal characteristics of electromagnetic radiation in response to deep coal rock bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S.; Wang, E.; Liu, X.

    2014-08-01

    Dynamic collapses of deeply mined coal rocks are severe threats to miners; in order to predict collapses more accurately using electromagnetic radiation (EMR), we investigate the spatiotemporal multifractal characteristics and formation mechanism of EMR induced by underground coal mining. Coal rock in the burst-prone zone often exchanges materials (gas, water and coal) and energy with its environment and gradually transitions from its original stable equilibrium structure to a nonequilibrium dissipative structure with implicit spatiotemporal complexity or multifractal structures, resulting in temporal variation in multifractal EMR. The inherent law of EMR time series during damage evolution was analyzed by using time-varying multifractal theory. Results show that the time-varying multifractal characteristics of EMR are determined by damage evolution processes. Moreover, the dissipated energy caused by the damage evolutions, such as crack propagation, fractal sliding and shearing, can be regarded as the fingerprint of various EMR micro-mechanics. The dynamic spatiotemporal multifractal spectrum of EMR considers both spatial (multiple fractures) and temporal (dynamic evolution) characteristics of coal rocks and records the dynamic evolution processes of rock bursts. Thus, it can be used to evaluate the coal deformation and fracture process. The study is of significance for us to understand the EMR mechanism in detail and to increase the accuracy of the EMR method in forecasting dynamic disasters.

  7. Time-Varying Multifractal Characteristics and Formation Mechanism of Loaded Coal Electromagnetic Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shaobin; Wang, Enyuan; Li, Zhonghui; Shen, Rongxi; Liu, Jie

    2014-09-01

    Dynamic collapses of deeply mined coal rocks are severe threats to miners. To predict the collapses more accurately using electromagnetic radiation (EMR), we investigate the time-varying multifractal characteristics and formation mechanism of EMR induced by underground coal mining. A series of uniaxial compression and multi-stage loading experiments with coal samples of different mechanical properties were carried out. The EMR signals during their damage evolution were monitored in real-time; the inherent law of EMR time series was analyzed by fractal theory. The results show that the time-varying multifractal characteristics of EMR are determined by damage evolutions process, the dissipated energy caused by damage evolutions such as crack propagation, fractal sliding and shearing can be regard as the fingerprint of various EMR micro-mechanics. Based on the Irreversible thermodynamics and damage mechanics, we introduced the damage internal variable, constructed the dissipative potential function and established the coupled model of the EMR and the dissipative energy, which revealed the nature of dynamic nonlinear characteristics of EMR. Dynamic multifractal spectrum is the objective response of EMR signals, thus it can be used to evaluate the coal deformation and fracture process.

  8. Fractal characteristics and its application in electromagnetic radiation signals during fracturing of coal or rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chao; Xu Jiankun; Zhao Xiaoxia; Wei Mingyao

    2012-01-01

    The present study analyzed the electromagnetic radiation (EMR) time series of the destruction process of coal or rock sample under uniaxial loading and the monitoring process in working face by means of frac tal geometry,and results of the correlation dimension change curve of EMR time series were obtained.In the meantime,the current study also sought the fractal characteristic to the EMR signals by contrast to,the change curve of EMR signals and explored the precursory phenomenon of rock burst.This paper con cluded the main findings as followed:the EMR time series of the destruction process of coal or rock sam ple under uniaxial loading and the monitonng process in working face corresponded to fractal;the correlation dimension of EMR time series reflected the process of coal or rock damage deformation,that is,the inner damage of coal or rock made a change from random to order.In the field application,the correlation dimension served as a new index of forecasting the coal or rock dynamic disaster.

  9. Spatiotemporal multifractal characteristics of electromagnetic radiation in response to deep coal rock bursts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Shaobin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic collapses of deeply mined coal rocks are severe threats to miners, in order to predict the collapses more accurately using electromagnetic radiation (EMR, we investigate the spatiotemporal multifractal characteristics and formation mechanism of EMR induced by underground coal mining. Coal rock in the burst-prone zone often exchanges materials and energy with its environment and gradually transits from its original stable equilibrium structure to a non-equilibrium dissipative structure with implicit spatiotemporal complexity or multifractal structures, resulting in temporal variation in multifractal EMR. The inherent law of EMR time series during damage evolution was analyzed by using time-varying multifractal theory. Results show that the time-varying multifractal characteristics of EMR are determined by damage evolutions process, the dissipated energy caused by damage evolutions such as crack propagation, fractal sliding and shearing can be regarded as the fingerprint of various EMR micro-mechanics. Dynamic spatiotemporal multifractal spectrum of EMR considers both spatial (multiple fractures and temporal (dynamic evolution characteristics of coal rocks, and records the dynamic evolution processes of rock bursts. Thus, it can be used to evaluate the coal deformation and fracture process. The study is of significance for us to in-depth understand EMR mechanism and to increase the accuracy of applying the EMR method to forecast dynamic disasters.

  10. Stress and Fatigue in Operators Under Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation and Shift Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vangelova K.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to study the effect of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (EMR on stress indices, health complaints and fatigue of operators working fast-rotating extended shifts. Working conditions, job content, job control, social support, health complaints and fatigue were followed in 220 operators, 110 exposed to EMR and 110 control operators, matched by age and sex. The EMR was measured and time-weighted average (TWA was calculated. The excretion rates of stress hormones cortisol, adrenaline and noradrenaline were followed during the extended shifts in 36 operators, working at different levels of exposure and 24-hour exposure was calculated. The exposed group pointed more problems with the working conditions, including EMR, noise, currents and risk of accidents, more health complaints and higher level of fatigue. The most common health complaints were mental and physical exhaustion after work, pains in the chest, musculoskeletal complaints, headache, and apathy. High level EMR exposure (TWAmean = 3.10 μW/cm2, TWAmax = 137.00 μW/cm2 significantly increased the 24-hour excretion of cortisol and noradrenaline, whereas the increase of adrenaline excretion did not reach significance, as well as hormone excretion rates under low level exposure (TWAmean = 1.89 μW/cm2, TWAmax = 5.24 μW/cm2. In conclusion, higher number of health complaints, higher stress hormone excretion rates and fatigue were found in operators under EMR.

  11. [On prevention of a combined impact of electromagnetic radiation and climatic/weather factors on worker's organism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhmanov, R S; Gadzhiibragimov, D A; Gladilin, A V

    2012-01-01

    Under conditions of combined exposure of the electromagnetic radiation generated by the PC or the industrial frequency and impact of hot or high-level continental climate to the organism the need to assess microclimatic conditions of open areas and the introduction of preventive nutrition to enhance the body's natural resistance, prevention of obesity and diseases associated with increased blood pressure and the development of coronary heart disease has been established.

  12. Mathematical model of biological order state or syndrome in traditional Chinese medicine: based on electromagnetic radiation within the human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jinxiang; Huang, Jinzhao

    2012-03-01

    In this study, based on the resonator model and exciplex model of electromagnetic radiation within the human body, mathematical model of biological order state, also referred to as syndrome in traditional Chinese medicine, was established and expressed as: "Sy = v/ 1n(6I + 1)". This model provides the theoretical foundation for experimental research addressing the order state of living system, especially the quantitative research syndrome in traditional Chinese medicine.

  13. Nanocomposite synthesis by absorption of nanoparticles into macroporous hydrogels. Building a chemomechanical actuator driven by electromagnetic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, M A; Rivarola, C R; Miras, M C; Lescano, D; Barbero, C A

    2011-06-17

    Macroporous hydrogels irreversibly absorb solid nanoparticles from aqueous dispersions. A nanocomposite is made using a macroporous thermosensitive hydrogel (poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-(2-acrylamido-2-methyl propane sulfonic acid)) (poly(NIPAm-co-AMPS)) and conductive polymer (polyaniline, PANI) nanoparticles (PANI NPs). Macroporous gels of poly(NIPAm-co-AMPS) were made by a cryogelation technique. NPs of PANI were produced by precipitation polymerization. It is found that PANI NPs are easily absorbed into the macroporous hydrogels while conventional non-porous hydrogels do not incorporate NPs. It is shown that PANI NPs, dispersed in water, absorb NIR laser light or microwave radiation, increasing their temperature. Upon irradiation of the nanocomposite with microwaves or NIR laser light, the PANI NPs heat up and induce the phase transition of the thermosensitive hydrogel matrix and the internal solution is released. Other nano-objects, such as gold nanorods and PANI nanofibers, are also easily incorporated into the macroporous gel. The resulting nanocomposites also suffer a phase transition upon irradiation with electromagnetic waves. The results suggest that, using a thermosensitive matrix and conducting nanoparticles, mechanical/chemical actuators driven at a distance by electromagnetic radiation can be built. The sensitivity of the nanocomposite to electromagnetic radiation can be modulated by the pH, depending on the nature of the incorporated nanoparticles. Additionally, it is possible to make systems which absorb either NIR or microwaves or both.

  14. Nanocomposite synthesis by absorption of nanoparticles into macroporous hydrogels. Building a chemomechanical actuator driven by electromagnetic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, M A; Rivarola, C R; Miras, M C; Lescano, D; Barbero, C A, E-mail: cbarbero@exa.unrc.edu.ar [Programa de Materiales Avanzados, Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto, Ruta 8, km 601, Agencia postal No 3, 5800 Rio Cuarto (Argentina)

    2011-06-17

    Macroporous hydrogels irreversibly absorb solid nanoparticles from aqueous dispersions. A nanocomposite is made using a macroporous thermosensitive hydrogel (poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-(2-acrylamido-2-methyl propane sulfonic acid)) (poly(NIPAm-co-AMPS)) and conductive polymer (polyaniline, PANI) nanoparticles (PANI NPs). Macroporous gels of poly(NIPAm-co-AMPS) were made by a cryogelation technique. NPs of PANI were produced by precipitation polymerization. It is found that PANI NPs are easily absorbed into the macroporous hydrogels while conventional non-porous hydrogels do not incorporate NPs. It is shown that PANI NPs, dispersed in water, absorb NIR laser light or microwave radiation, increasing their temperature. Upon irradiation of the nanocomposite with microwaves or NIR laser light, the PANI NPs heat up and induce the phase transition of the thermosensitive hydrogel matrix and the internal solution is released. Other nano-objects, such as gold nanorods and PANI nanofibers, are also easily incorporated into the macroporous gel. The resulting nanocomposites also suffer a phase transition upon irradiation with electromagnetic waves. The results suggest that, using a thermosensitive matrix and conducting nanoparticles, mechanical/chemical actuators driven at a distance by electromagnetic radiation can be built. The sensitivity of the nanocomposite to electromagnetic radiation can be modulated by the pH, depending on the nature of the incorporated nanoparticles. Additionally, it is possible to make systems which absorb either NIR or microwaves or both.

  15. Sensitivity of spiral ganglion neurons to damage caused by mobile phone electromagnetic radiation will increase in lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in vitro model

    OpenAIRE

    Zuo, Wen-Qi; Hu, Yu-Juan; Yang, Yang; Zhao, Xue-Yan; Zhang,Yuan-Yuan; Kong, Wen; Kong, Wei-Jia

    2015-01-01

    Background With the increasing popularity of mobile phones, the potential hazards of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) on the auditory system remain unclear. Apart from RF-EMR, humans are also exposed to various physical and chemical factors. We established a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in vitro model to investigate whether the possible sensitivity of spiral ganglion neurons to damage caused by mobile phone electromagnetic radiation (at specific absorption ra...

  16. Toxicologic study of electromagnetic radiation emitted by television and video display screens and cellular telephones on chickens and mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastide, M.; Youbicier-Simo, B.J.; Lebecq, J.C.; Giaimis, J. [Laboratoire d' Immunologie et Parasitologie, Faculte de Pharmacie, Universite de Montpellier, Montpellier (France); Youbicier-Simo, B.J. [Tecnolab, Chateau de l' Orbize, Dracy-le-Fort (France)

    2001-07-01

    The effects of continuous exposure of chick embryos and young chickens to the electromagnetic fields (EMFs) emitted by video display units (VDUs) and GSM cell phone radiation, either the whole spectrum emitted or attenuated by a copper gauze, were investigated. Permanent exposure to the EMFs radiated by a VDU was associated with significantly increased fetal loss (47-68%) and markedly depressed levels of circulating specific antibodies (lgG), corticosterone and melatonin. We have also shown that under chronic exposure conditions, GSM cell phone radiation was harmful to chick embryos, stressful for healthy mice and, in this species, synergistic with cancer insofar as it depleted stress hormones. The same pathological results were observed after substantial reduction of the microwaves radiated from the cell phone by attenuating them with a copper gauze. (author)

  17. The research on algorithm of criterion limit of monitoring point under the effect of multi-electromagnetic radiation pollution sources in the spatial field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu,Bo; Wang,Huimin; Yuan,Haixia; Zhou,Jie

    2003-01-01

    In terms of algorithmic problem of criterion limit of monitoring point under the effect of multi-electromagnetic radiation pollution sources in the spatial field, we put up a formula of criterion limit of monitoring point based on distance factor algorithm. The algorithm not only can solve the computations of criterion limits of monitoring point at certain time under the effect of multi-electromagnetic radiation pollution sources, but can compute the criterion limits of all monitoring points at any time,which has important instructions for working out electromagnetic environment criterion.

  18. Rat testicular impairment induced by electromagnetic radiation from a conventional cellular telephone and the protective effects of the antioxidants vitamins C and E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Abdullah Al-Damegh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of electromagnetic radiation from conventional cellular phone use on the oxidant and antioxidant status in rat blood and testicular tissue and determine the possible protective role of vitamins C and E in preventing the detrimental effects of electromagnetic radiation on the testes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The treatment groups were exposed to an electromagnetic field, electromagnetic field plus vitamin C (40 mg/kg/day or electromagnetic field plus vitamin E (2.7 mg/kg/day. All groups were exposed to the same electromagnetic frequency for 15, 30, and 60 min daily for two weeks. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in the diameter of the seminiferous tubules with a disorganized seminiferous tubule sperm cycle interruption in the electromagnetism-exposed group. The serum and testicular tissue conjugated diene, lipid hydroperoxide, and catalase activities increased 3-fold, whereas the total serum and testicular tissue glutathione and glutathione peroxidase levels decreased 3-5 fold in the electromagnetism-exposed animals. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that the adverse effect of the generated electromagnetic frequency had a negative impact on testicular architecture and enzymatic activity. This finding also indicated the possible role of vitamins C and E in mitigating the oxidative stress imposed on the testes and restoring normality to the testes.

  19. Anticancer effects on leiomyosarcoma-bearing Wistar rats after electromagnetic radiation of resonant radiofrequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdikos, Antonios; Karkabounas, Spyridon; Metsios, Apostolos; Kostoula, Olga; Havelas, Konstantinos; Binolis, Jayne; Verginadis, Ioannis; Hatziaivazis, George; Simos, Ioannis; Evangelou, Angelos

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of a resonant low intensity static electromagnetic field (EMF), causing no thermal effects, on Wistar rats have been investigated. Sarcoma cell lines were isolated from leiomyosarcoma tumors induced in Wistar rats by the subcutaneous (s.c) injection of 3,4-benzopyrene. Furthermore, smooth muscle cells (SMC) were isolated from the aorta of Wistar rats and cultivated. Either leiomyosarcoma cells (LSC) or SMC were used to record a number of characteristic resonant radiofrequencies, in order to determine the specific electromagnetic fingerprint spectrum for each cell line. These spectra were used to compose an appropriate algorithm, which transforms the recorded radiofrequencies to emitted ones. The isolated LSC were cultured and then exposed to a resonant low intensity radiofrequency EMF (RF-EMF), at frequencies between 10 kHz to 120 kHz of the radiowave spectrum. The exposure lasted 45 consecutive minutes daily, for two consecutive days. Three months old female Wistar rats were inoculated with exposed and non-exposed to EMF LSC (4 x 10(6) LCS for animal). Inoculated with non-exposed to EMF cells animals were then randomly separated into three Groups. The first Group was sham exposed to the resonant EMF (control Group-CG), the second Group after the inoculation of LSC and appearance of a palpable tumor mass, was exposed to a non-resonant EMF radiation pattern, for 5 h per day till death of all animals (experimental control Group-ECG). The third Group of animals after inoculation of LSC and the appearance of a palpable tumor mass, was exposed to the resonant EMF radiation for 5 h per day, for a maximum of 60 days (experimental Group-I, EG-I). A fourth Group of animals was inoculated with LSC exposed to EMF irradiation and were not further exposed to irradiation (experimental Group-II, EG-II). Tumor induction was 100% in all Groups studied and all tumors were histologically identified as leiomyosarcomas. In the case of the EG-I, a

  20. Possible cause for altered spatial cognition of prepubescent rats exposed to chronic radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sareesh Naduvil; Kumar, Raju Suresh; Karun, Kalesh M; Nayak, Satheesha B; Bhat, P Gopalakrishna

    2015-10-01

    The effects of chronic and repeated radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RFEMR) exposure on spatial cognition and hippocampal architecture were investigated in prepubescent rats. Four weeks old male Wistar rats were exposed to RF-EMR (900 MHz; SAR-1.15 W/kg with peak power density of 146.60 μW/cm(2)) for 1 h/day, for 28 days. Followed by this, spatial cognition was evaluated by Morris water maze test. To evaluate the hippocampal morphology; H&E staining, cresyl violet staining, and Golgi-Cox staining were performed on hippocampal sections. CA3 pyramidal neuron morphology and surviving neuron count (in CA3 region) were studied using H&E and cresyl violet stained sections. Dendritic arborization pattern of CA3 pyramidal neuron was investigated by concentric circle method. Progressive learning abilities were found to be decreased in RF-EMR exposed rats. Memory retention test performed 24 h after the last training revealed minor spatial memory deficit in RF-EMR exposed group. However, RF-EMR exposed rats exhibited poor spatial memory retention when tested 48 h after the final trial. Hirano bodies and Granulovacuolar bodies were absent in the CA3 pyramidal neurons of different groups studied. Nevertheless, RF-EMR exposure affected the viable cell count in dorsal hippocampal CA3 region. RF-EMR exposure influenced dendritic arborization pattern of both apical and basal dendritic trees in RF-EMR exposed rats. Structural changes found in the hippocampus of RF-EMR exposed rats could be one of the possible reasons for altered cognition.

  1. Radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation exposure inside the metro tube infrastructure in Warszawa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryz, Krzysztof; Karpowicz, Jolanta

    2015-09-01

    Antennas from various wireless communications systems [e.g. mobile phones base transceiver stations (BTS) and handsets used by passengers, public Internet access, staff radiophone transmitters used between engine-drivers and traffic operators] emitting radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) are used inside underground metro public transportation. Frequency-selective exposimetric investigations of RF-EMR exposure inside the metro infrastructure in Warsaw (inside metro cars passing between stations and on platforms) were performed. The statistical parameters of exposure to the E-field were analyzed for each frequency range and for a total value (representing the wide-band result of measurements of complex exposure). The recorded exposimetric profiles showed the dominant RF-EMR sources: handsets and BTS of mobile communication systems (GSM 900 and UMTS 2100) and local wireless Internet access (WiFi 2G). Investigations showed that the GSM 900 system is the dominant source of exposure - BTS (incessantly active) on platforms, and handsets - used by passengers present nearby during the tube drive. The recorded E-field varies between sources (for BTS were: medians - 0.22 V/m and 75th percentile - 0.37 V/m; and for handsets: medians - 0.28 V/m and 75th percentile - 0.47 V/m). Maximum levels (peaks) of exposure recorded from mobile handsets exceeded 10 V/m (upper limit of used exposimeters). Broadband measurements of E-field, including the dominant signal emitted by staff radiophones (151 MHz), showed that the level of this exposure of engine-drivers does not exceed 2.5 V/m.

  2. Electromagnetic retarded interaction and symmetry violation of time reversal in high order stimulated radiation and absorption processes of light

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    It has been proved that when the retarded effect (or multiple moment effect) of radiation fields is taken into account,the high order stimulated radiation and stimulated absorption probabilities of light are not the same so that time reversal symmetry would be violated,though the Hamiltonian of electromagnetic interaction is still unchanged under time reversal. The reason to cause time reversal symmetry violation is that certain filial or partial transition processes of bound atoms are forbidden or cannot be achieved due to the law of energy conservation and the special states of atoms themselves. These restrictions would cause the symmetry violation of time reversal of other filial or partial transition processes which can be actualized really. The symmetry violation is also relative to the asymmetry of initial states of bound atoms before and after time reversal. For the electromagnetic interaction between non-bound atoms and radiation field,there is no such kind of symmetry violation of time reversal. In this way,the current formula on the parameters of stimulated radiation and absorption of light with time reversal sym-metry should be revised. A more reliable foundation can be established for the theories of laser and nonlinear optics in which non-equilibrium processes are in-volved.

  3. Electromagnetic retarded interaction and symmetry violation of time reversal in high order stimulated radiation and absorption processes of light

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEI XiaoChun

    2008-01-01

    It has been proved that when the retarded effect (or multiple moment effect) of radiation fields is taken into account, the high order stimulated radiation and stimulated absorption probabilities of light are not the same so that time reversal symmetry would be violated, though the Hamiltonian of electromagnetic interaction is still unchanged under time reversal.The reason to cause time reversal symmetry violation is that certain filial or partial transition processes of bound atoms are forbidden or cannot be achieved due to the law of energy conservation and the special states of atoms themselves.These restrictions would cause the symmetry violation of time reversal of other filial or partial transition processes which can be actualized really.The symmetry violation is also relative to the asymmetry of initial states of bound atoms before and after time reversal.For the electromagnetic interaction between non-bound atoms and radiation field, there is no such kind of symmetry violation of time reversal.In this way, the current formula on the parameters of stimulated radiation and absorption of light with time reversal sym-metry should be revised.A more reliable foundation can be established for the theories of laser and nonlinear optics in which non-equilibrium processes are in-volved.

  4. Enhanced electromagnetic dipole moments and radiative decays of massive neutrinos due to the seesaw-induced non-unitary effects

    CERN Document Server

    Xing, Zhi-zhong

    2012-01-01

    In a simple extension of the standard electroweak theory where the phenomenon of lepton flavor mixing is described by a 3x3 unitary matrix V, the electric and magnetic dipole moments of three active neutrinos are suppressed not only by their tiny masses but also by the Glashow-Iliopoulos-Maiani (GIM) mechanism. We show that it is possible to lift the GIM suppression if the canonical seesaw mechanism of neutrino mass generation, which allows V to be slightly non-unitary, is taken into account. In view of current experimental constraints on the non-unitarity of V, we find that the effective electromagnetic dipole moments of three neutrinos and the rates of their radiative decays can be maximally enhanced by a factor of O(10^2) and a factor of O(10^4), respectively. This nontrivial observation reveals an intrinsic and presumably significant correlation between the electromagnetic properties of massive neutrinos and the origin of their small masses.

  5. Parametric excitation of electromagnetic fields by two pump waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodin, G.; Lundberg, J.; Stenflo, L. (Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Plasma Physics)

    1991-01-01

    A collisionless plasma in the presence of two monochromatic electric fields is considered. By means of a kinetic analysis, a dispersion relation that governs the excitation of transverse electromagnetic fluctuations is derived and analysed. (orig.).

  6. 移动电话电磁辐射及防护%Electromagnetic Radiation of Mobile Telephone and Defence Against It

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李利锋

    2011-01-01

    随着信息技术的发展,移动电话的使用日益普及,移动电话电磁辐射污染问题也越来越受到人们的关注.为了减小移动电话对用户健康的影响,从移动电话电磁辐射的原理出发,结合国家电磁辐射防护标准,对用户提出了防护移动电话电磁辐射的建议,使用户尽量远离移动电话电磁辐射污染,以保护用户的身体健康.%With the development of information technology and the growing popularity of mobile phone, its electromagnetic radiation pollution of mobile phone is paid more attention. In order to reducing the effects of electromagnetic radiation of mobile phone on users, proceeding from the principle of electromagnetic radiation of mobile phone, a suggestion against electromagenetic radiation of mobile phone is made in combinnation with the relevant national standards of electromagnetic radiation protection. That is, the users should get away from the electromagnetic radiation pollution as far as possible to protect their health.

  7. A mirror for lab-based quasi-monochromatic parallel x-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanhhai; Lu, Xun; Lee, Chang Jun; Jung, Jin-Ho; Jin, Gye-Hwan; Kim, Sung Youb; Jeon, Insu

    2014-09-01

    A multilayered parabolic mirror with six W/Al bilayers was designed and fabricated to generate monochromatic parallel x-rays using a lab-based x-ray source. Using this mirror, curved bright bands were obtained in x-ray images as reflected x-rays. The parallelism of the reflected x-rays was investigated using the shape of the bands. The intensity and monochromatic characteristics of the reflected x-rays were evaluated through measurements of the x-ray spectra in the band. High intensity, nearly monochromatic, and parallel x-rays, which can be used for high resolution x-ray microscopes and local radiation therapy systems, were obtained.

  8. A mirror for lab-based quasi-monochromatic parallel x-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Thanhhai; Lu, Xun; Lee, Chang Jun; Jeon, Insu, E-mail: i-jeon@chonnam.ac.kr [School of Mechanical Engineering, Chonnam National University, 300 Yongbong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jin-Ho [Pro-optics Co., Ltd., 475 Ami-ri, Bubal-eup, Icheon 467-866 (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Gye-Hwan [Department of Radiology, Nambu University, 76 Chumdan Jungang 1-ro, Gwangsan-gu, Gwangju 506-706 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Youb [School of Mechanical and Advanced Materials Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, 100 Banyeon-ri, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    A multilayered parabolic mirror with six W/Al bilayers was designed and fabricated to generate monochromatic parallel x-rays using a lab-based x-ray source. Using this mirror, curved bright bands were obtained in x-ray images as reflected x-rays. The parallelism of the reflected x-rays was investigated using the shape of the bands. The intensity and monochromatic characteristics of the reflected x-rays were evaluated through measurements of the x-ray spectra in the band. High intensity, nearly monochromatic, and parallel x-rays, which can be used for high resolution x-ray microscopes and local radiation therapy systems, were obtained.

  9. Probing the early-time dynamics of relativistic heavy-ion collisions with electromagnetic radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Vujanovic, Gojko; Denicol, Gabriel S; Luzum, Matthew; Schenke, Bjoern; Jeon, Sangyong; Gale, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Using 3+1D viscous relativistic fluid dynamics, we show that electromagnetic probes are sensitive to the initial conditions and to the out-of-equilibrium features of relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Within the same approach, we find that hadronic observables show a much lesser sensitivity to these aspects. We conclude that electromagnetic observables allow access to dynamical regions that are beyond the reach of soft hadronic probes.

  10. The electromagnetic radiation fields of a relativistic electron avalanche with special attention to the origin of narrow bipolar pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooray, G. V.; Cooray, G. K.

    2011-12-01

    Gurevich et al. [1] postulated that the source of narrow bipolar pulses, a class of high energy pulses that occur during thunderstorms, could be a runaway electron avalanche driven by the intense electric fields of a thunderstorm. Recently, Watson and Marshall [2] used the modified transmission line model to test the mechanism of the source of narrow bipolar pulses. In a recent paper, Cooray and Cooray [3] demonstrated that the electromagnetic fields of accelerating charges could be used to evaluate the electromagnetic fields from electrical discharges if the temporal and spatial variation of the charges in the discharge is known. In the present study, those equations were utilized to evaluate the electromagnetic fields generated by a relativistic electron avalanche. In the analysis it is assumed that all the electrons in the avalanche are moving with the same speed. In other words, the growth or the decay of the number of electrons takes place only at the head of the avalanche. It is shown that the radiation is emanating only from the head of the avalanche where electrons are being accelerated. It is also shown that an analytical expression for the radiation field of the avalanche at any distance can be written directly in terms of the e-folding length of the avalanche. This makes it possible to extract directly the spatial variation of the e-folding length of the avalanche from the measured radiation fields. In the study this model avalanche was used to investigate whether it can be used to describe the measured electromagnetic fields of narrow bipolar pulses. The results obtained are in reasonable agreement with the two station data of Eack [4] for speeds of propagation around (2 - 2.5) x 10^8 m/s and when the propagation effects on the electric fields measured at the distant station is taken into account. [1] Gurevich et al. (2004), Phys. Lett. A., 329, pp. 348 -361. [2] Watson, S. S. and T. C. Marshall (2007), Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 34, L04816, doi: 10

  11. The applicability range of different forms of the radiation friction force in the ultrarelativistic electron interaction with electromagnetic wave (exact solutions)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulanov, S. S.; Esirkepov, T. Zh; Kando, M.; Koga, J. K.; Bulanov, S. V.

    2013-02-01

    When the effects of radiation reaction dominate the interaction of electrons with intense laser pulses, the electron dynamics changes qualitatively. The adequate theoretical description of this regime becomes crucially important with the use of the radiation friction force either in the Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac form, which possess unphysical runaway solutions, or in the Landau-Lifshitz form, which is a perturbation valid for relatively low electromagnetic wave amplitude. The goal of the present paper is to find the limits of the Landau-Lifshitz radiation force applicability in terms of the electromagnetic wave amplitude and frequency.

  12. [Effect of low-intensity 900 MHz frequency electromagnetic radiation on rat liver and blood serum enzyme activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nersesova, L S; Petrosian, M S; Gazariants, M G; Mkrtchian, Z S; Meliksetian, G O; Pogosian, L G; Akopian, Zh I

    2014-01-01

    The comparative analysis of the rat liver and blood serum creatine kinase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and purine nucleoside phosphorylase post-radiation activity levels after a total two-hour long single and fractional exposure of the animals to low-intensity 900 MHz frequency electromagnetic field showed that the most sensitive enzymes to the both schedules of radiation are the liver creatine kinase, as well as the blood serum creatine kinase and alkaline phosphatase. According to the comparative analysis of the dynamics of changes in the activity level of the liver and blood serum creatine kinase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and purine nucleoside phosphorylase, both single and fractional radiation schedules do not affect the permeability of a hepatocyte cell membrane, but rather cause changes in their energetic metabolism. The correlation analysis of the post-radiation activity level changes of the investigated enzymes did not reveal a clear relationship between them. The dynamics of post-radiation changes in the activity of investigated enzyme levels following a single and short-term fractional schedules of radiation did not differ essentially.

  13. First-principles modeling of electromagnetic scattering by discrete and discretely heterogeneous random media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.; Dlugach, Janna M.; Yurkin, Maxim A.; Bi, Lei; Cairns, Brian; Liu, Li; Panetta, R. Lee; Travis, Larry D.; Yang, Ping; Zakharova, Nadezhda T.

    2016-05-01

    the first-principles formalism enabling accurate calculations of monochromatic and quasi-monochromatic scattering by static and randomly varying multiparticle groups. We illustrate how this general framework can be coupled with state-of-the-art computer solvers of the Maxwell equations and applied to direct modeling of electromagnetic scattering by representative random multi-particle groups with arbitrary packing densities. This first-principles modeling yields general physical insights unavailable with phenomenological approaches. We discuss how the first-order-scattering approximation, the radiative transfer theory, and the theory of weak localization of electromagnetic waves can be derived as immediate corollaries of the Maxwell equations for very specific and well-defined kinds of particulate medium. These recent developments confirm the mesoscopic origin of the radiative transfer, weak localization, and effective-medium regimes and help evaluate the numerical accuracy of widely used approximate modeling methodologies.

  14. First-principles modeling of electromagnetic scattering by discrete and discretely heterogeneous random media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishchenko, Michael I., E-mail: michael.i.mishchenko@nasa.gov [NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, 2880 Broadway, New York, NY 10025 (United States); Dlugach, Janna M. [Main Astronomical Observatory of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 27 Zabolotny Str., 03680, Kyiv (Ukraine); Yurkin, Maxim A. [Voevodsky Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion, SB RAS, Institutskaya str. 3, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova 2, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Bi, Lei [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Cairns, Brian [NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, 2880 Broadway, New York, NY 10025 (United States); Liu, Li [NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, 2880 Broadway, New York, NY 10025 (United States); Columbia University, 2880 Broadway, New York, NY 10025 (United States); Panetta, R. Lee [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Travis, Larry D. [NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, 2880 Broadway, New York, NY 10025 (United States); Yang, Ping [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Zakharova, Nadezhda T. [Trinnovim LLC, 2880 Broadway, New York, NY 10025 (United States)

    2016-05-16

    of the first-principles formalism enabling accurate calculations of monochromatic and quasi-monochromatic scattering by static and randomly varying multiparticle groups. We illustrate how this general framework can be coupled with state-of-the-art computer solvers of the Maxwell equations and applied to direct modeling of electromagnetic scattering by representative random multi-particle groups with arbitrary packing densities. This first-principles modeling yields general physical insights unavailable with phenomenological approaches. We discuss how the first-order-scattering approximation, the radiative transfer theory, and the theory of weak localization of electromagnetic waves can be derived as immediate corollaries of the Maxwell equations for very specific and well-defined kinds of particulate medium. These recent developments confirm the mesoscopic origin of the radiative transfer, weak localization, and effective-medium regimes and help evaluate the numerical accuracy of widely used approximate modeling methodologies.

  15. The monitoring results of electromagnetic radiation of 110-kV high-voltage lines in one urban location in Chongqing P.R. China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qi-Zhong; Chen, Yu; Fu, Ting-Ting; Ding, Li; Han, Ling-Li; Li, Jian-Chao

    2012-03-01

    To understand electromagnetic radiation field strength and its influencing factors of certain 110-kV high-voltage lines in one urban area of Chongqing by measuring 110-kV high-voltage line's electromagnetic radiation level. According to the methodology as determined by the National Hygienic Standards, we selected certain adjacent residential buildings, high-voltage lines along a specific street and selected different distances around its vertical projection point as monitoring points. The levels of electromagnetic radiations were measured respectively. In this investigation within the frequency of 5-1,000 Hz both the electric field strength and magnetic field strength of each monitoring sites were lower than the public exposure standards as determined by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. However, the electrical field strength on the roof adjacent to the high-voltage lines was significantly higher than that as measured on the other floors in the same buildings (p electromagnetic radiation measurements of different monitoring points, under the same high-voltage lines, showed the location which is nearer the high-voltage line maintain a consistently higher level of radiation than the more distant locations (p Electromagnetic radiation generated by high-voltage lines decreases proportionally to the distance from the lines. The buildings can to some extent shield (or absorb) the electric fields generated by high-voltage lines nearby. The electromagnetic radiation intensity near high-voltage lines may be mitigated or intensified by the manner in which the high-voltage lines are set up, and it merits attention for the potential impact on human health.

  16. Electromagnetic interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Bosanac, Slobodan Danko

    2016-01-01

    This book is devoted to theoretical methods used in the extreme circumstances of very strong electromagnetic fields. The development of high power lasers, ultrafast processes, manipulation of electromagnetic fields and the use of very fast charged particles interacting with other charges requires an adequate theoretical description. Because of the very strong electromagnetic field, traditional theoretical approaches, which have primarily a perturbative character, have to be replaced by descriptions going beyond them. In the book an extension of the semi-classical radiation theory and classical dynamics for particles is performed to analyze single charged atoms and dipoles submitted to electromagnetic pulses. Special attention is given to the important problem of field reaction and controlling dynamics of charges by an electromagnetic field.

  17. Electromagnetic interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosanac, Slobodan Danko [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia). Physical Chemistry

    2016-07-01

    This book is devoted to theoretical methods used in the extreme circumstances of very strong electromagnetic fields. The development of high power lasers, ultrafast processes, manipulation of electromagnetic fields and the use of very fast charged particles interacting with other charges requires an adequate theoretical description. Because of the very strong electromagnetic field, traditional theoretical approaches, which have primarily a perturbative character, have to be replaced by descriptions going beyond them. In the book an extension of the semi-classical radiation theory and classical dynamics for particles is performed to analyze single charged atoms and dipoles submitted to electromagnetic pulses. Special attention is given to the important problem of field reaction and controlling dynamics of charges by an electromagnetic field.

  18. Radiation and scattering by thin-wire structures in the complex frequency domain. [electromagnetic theory for thin-wire antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    Piecewise-sinusoidal expansion functions and Galerkin's method are employed to formulate a solution for an arbitrary thin-wire configuration in a homogeneous conducting medium. The analysis is performed in the real or complex frequency domain. In antenna problems, the solution determines the current distribution, impedance, radiation efficiency, gain and far-field patterns. In scattering problems, the solution determines the absorption cross section, scattering cross section and the polarization scattering matrix. The electromagnetic theory is presented for thin wires and the forward-scattering theorem is developed for an arbitrary target in a homogeneous conducting medium.

  19. Generation and application of ultrashort coherent mid-infrared electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandel, Scott

    Particle accelerators are useful instruments that help address critical issues for the future development of nuclear energy. Current state-of-the-art accelerators based on conventional radio-frequency (rf) cavities are too large and expensive for widespread commercial use, and alternative designs must be considered for supplying relativistic beams to small-scale applications, including medical imaging, secu- rity screening, and scientific research in a university-scale laboratory. Laser-driven acceleration using micro-fabricated dielectric photonic structures is an attractive approach because such photonic microstructures can support accelerating fields that are 10 to 100 times higher than that of rf cavity-based accelerators. Dielectric laser accelerators (DLAs) use commercial lasers as a driving source, which are smaller and less expensive than the klystrons used to drive current rf-based accelerators. Despite the apparent need for compact and economical laser sources for laser-driven acceleration, the availability of suitable high-peak-power lasers that cover a broad spectral range is currently limited. To address the needs of several innovative acceleration mechanisms like DLA, it is proposed to develop a coherent source of mid-infrared (IR) electromagnetic radiation that can be implemented as a driving source of laser accelerators. The use of ultrashort mid-IR high peak power laser systems in various laser-driven acceleration schemes has shown the potential to greatly reduce the optical pump intensities needed to realize high acceleration gradients. The optical intensity needed to achieve a given ponderomotive potential is 25 times less when using a 5-mum mid-IR laser as compared to using a 1-mum near-IR solid-state laser. In addition, dielectric structure breakdown caused by multiphoton ionization can be avoided by using longer-wavelength driving lasers. Current mid-IR laser sources do not produce sufficiently short pulse durations, broad spectral bandwidths

  20. Effect of processing parameters on the electromagnetic radiation emission during plastic deformation and crack propagation in copper-zinc alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KUMAR Rajeev; MISRA Ashok

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents some investigations on the effect of processing parameters on the emission of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) during plastic deformation and crack propagation in copper-zinc alloys. Timing of the EMR emissions, maximum stress during crack instability, stress-intensity factor, elastic strain energy release rate, maximum EMR amplitude, RMS value of EMR amplitude, EMR frequency and electromagnetic energy release rate were analysed for the effect of rolling directions at different percentage of zinc content in Cu-Zn alloy specimens. The same parameters were also analysed for 68-32 Cu-Zn alloy specimens at different annealing temperatures and at different angles θ, to the rolling direction. EMR emissions are observed to be highly anisotropic in nature. At θ=45° to 60°, marked changes in mechanical and electromagnetic parameters were observed.Specimens annealed at 500 °C, just above the recrystallization temperature, and at 700 °C, when grain-size growth is rapid, EMR responses have been found to have well-defined patterns.

  1. Model for Electromagnetic Information Leakage

    OpenAIRE

    Mao Jian; Li Yongmei; Zhang Jiemin; Liu Jinming

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetic leakage will happen in working information equipments; it could lead to information leakage. In order to discover the nature of information in electromagnetic leakage, this paper combined electromagnetic theory with information theory as an innovative research method. It outlines a systematic model of electromagnetic information leakage, which theoretically describes the process of information leakage, intercept and reproduction based on electromagnetic radiation, and ana...

  2. Theory of the special Smith-Purcell radiation from a rectangular grating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Weihao, E-mail: liuwhao@ustc.edu.cn; He, Zhigang, E-mail: hezhg@ustc.edu.cn; Jia, Qika [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230029 (China); Li, Weiwei [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230029 (China); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, via E. Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati, RM (Italy)

    2015-12-15

    The recently uncovered special Smith-Purcell radiation (S-SPR) from the rectangular grating has significantly higher intensity than the ordinary Smith-Purcell radiation (SPR). Its monochromaticity and directivity are also much better. Here we explored the mechanism of the S-SPR by applying the fundamental electromagnetic theory and simulations. We have confirmed that the S-SPR is exactly from the radiating eigen modes of the grating. Its frequency and direction are well correlated with the beam velocity and structure parameters, which indicates its promising applications in tunable wave generation and beam diagnostic.

  3. Electron emission in energetic ion-atom collisions in the presence of coherent electromagnetic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciappina, M F [CONICET and Departamento de Fisica, Av. Alem 1253 (8000) BahIa Blanca (Argentina); Madsen, L B [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2006-12-28

    We consider the effect of a low-frequency electromagnetic field on the spectra of electron emission in energetic nonrelativistic ion-atom collisions. The field is assumed to have linear polarization and to be weak compared to the typical atomic field. The incorporation of the projectile interaction opens a new scenario to the combined study of electromagnetic and atomic interactions. Our work suggests that the electromagnetic field can have a profound effect on two of the most important structures that appear in the electron emission spectra: the electron capture into the continuum and binary encounter (BE) peaks. We show that in the BE peak region the result for the laser-assisted scattering depends on the theory applied for the collision part, the first Born approximation or the distorted wave Born approximation.

  4. [Effect of radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation on physiological features of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain UCM Y-517].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voĭchuk, S I; Podgorskiĭ, V S; Gromozova, E N

    2004-01-01

    Effect of electromagnetic radiation (40.68 MHz) on growth characteristics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain UCM Y-517 has been studied. Reliable increase of the specific growth rate (by 7-15%) and change of duration of growth phases as a result of irradiation of yeast population has been shown. The EMR effect has been found to depend on physiological state of the irradiated cells and composition of the irradiation performance medium: reliable effects were found only for the cells preliminarily grown on the dense nutrition medium in the late phase of delayed growth or on achieving the stationary growth phase. The role of radiation term and power as well as of temperature factor in EMR effect on the cells is discussed. It has been noted that the dependence of specific growth rate of yeast on the initial density of cells population acquire the nonlinear character as affected by EMR of radiofrequency range.

  5. Statistical analysis of electromagnetic radiation measurements in the vicinity of indoor microcell GSM/UMTS base stations in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprivica, Mladen; Petrić, Majda; Nešković, Nataša; Nešković, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    To determine the level of radiofrequency radiation generated by base stations of Global System for Mobile Communications and Universal Mobile Telecommunication System, extensive electromagnetic field strength measurements were carried out in the vicinity of 664 base station locations. These were classified into three categories: indoor, masts, and locations with installations on buildings. Although microcell base stations with antennas installed indoors typically emit less power than outdoor macrocell base stations, the fact that people can be found close to antennas requires exposure originating from these base stations to be carefully considered. Measurement results showed that maximum recorded value of electric field strength exceeded International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection reference levels at 7% of indoor base station locations. At the same time, this percentage was much lower in the case of masts and installations on buildings (0% and 2.5%, respectively).

  6. Combining the absorptive and radiative loss in metasurfaces for multi-spectral shaping of the electromagnetic scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wenbo; Huang, Cheng; Pu, Mingbo; Ma, Xiaoliang; Cui, Jianhua; Zhao, Bo; Luo, Xiangang

    2016-02-01

    The absorptive and radiative losses are two fundamental aspects of the electromagnetic responses, which are widely occurring in many different systems such as waveguides, solar cells, and antennas. Here we proposed a metasurface to realize the control of the absorptive and radiative loss and to reduce the radar cross section (RCS) in multi-frequency bands. The anti-phase gradient and absorptive metasurfaces were designed that consists of metallic square patch and square loop structure inserted with resistors, acting as an phase gradient material in the X and Ku band, while behaving as an absorber in the S band. The simulation and experiment results verified the double-band, wideband and polarization-independent RCS reduction by the absorptive and anti-phase gradient metasurfaces.

  7. [A Compact Source of Terahertz Radiation Based on Interaction of Electrons in à Quantum Well with an Electromagnetic Wave of a Corrugated Waveguide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchurova, L Yu; Namiot, V A; Sarkisyan, D R

    2015-01-01

    Coherent sources of electromagnetic waves in the terahertz frequency range are very promising for various applications, including biology and medicine. In this paper we propose a scheme of a compact terahertz source, in which terahertz radiation is generated due to effective interaction of electrons in a quantum well with an electromagnetic wave of a corrugated waveguide. We have shown that the generation of electromagnetic waves with a frequency of 1012 sec(-1) and an output power of up to 25. mW is possible in the proposed scheme.

  8. Electromagnetic Field Interaction With Transmission Lines From Classical Theory to HF Radiation Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Tkachenko, Sergey V

    2008-01-01

    The evaluation of the electromagnetic field coupling to transmission lines is an important problem in electromagnetic compatibility. The unabated increase in the operating frequency of electronic products and the emergence of sources of disturbances with higher frequency content (such as High Power Microwave and Ultra-Wide Band systems) have led to a breakdown of the TL approximation's basic assumptions for a number of applications. In the last decade or so, the generalization of the TL theory to take into account high frequency effects has emerged as an important topic of study in electromagn

  9. Radiation-free distal locking of intramedullary nails: evaluation of a new electromagnetic computer-assisted guidance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathopoulos, Ioannis; Karampinas, Panagiotis; Evangelopoulos, Dimitrios-Stergios; Lampropoulou-Adamidou, Kalliopi; Vlamis, John

    2013-06-01

    Distal locking of intramedullary nails (IMNs) is a difficult part of intramedullary nailing (IMN) that could be time-consuming and expose the surgeon, the surgery personnel and the patient to a considerable amount of radiation as fluoroscopy is usually guiding the procedure. Utilization of electromagnetic fields for that purpose offers an attractive alternative. The SURESHOT™ Distal Targeting System (Smith & Nephew, Inc., Memphis, TN, USA) is a novel commercially available radiation-free aiming system that utilizes computerized electromagnetic field tracking technology for the distal locking of IMNs. In order to evaluate the efficacy of the system we conducted the present study. Nineteen patients (six females-thirteen males, mean age 39.5 years, range 17-85 years) with closed diaphyseal fracture of the femur (eight patients) or the tibia (eleven patients) were treated with IMN using the SURESHOT™ Distal Targeting System for the distal interlocking. All targeting attempts were successful at first try and followed by correct positioning of the screws. Mean time for distal locking of tibial IMNs (two screws) was 219sec (range 200-250sec). Mean time for distal locking of femoral IMNs (two screws) was 249 (range 220-330sec). In the current study the SURESHOT™ Distal Targeting System proved to be accurate, fast and easy to learn.

  10. Effects of electromagnetic radiation exposure on stress-related behaviors and stress hormones in male wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi, Seyed Mohammad; Sahraei, Hedayat; Yaghmaei, Parichehreh; Tavakoli, Hassan

    2014-11-01

    Studies have demonstrated that electromagnetic waves, as the one of the most important physical factors, may alter cognitive and non-cognitive behaviors, depending on the frequency and energy. Moreover, non-ionizing radiation of low energy waves e.g. very low frequency waves could alter this phenomenon via alterations in neurotransmitters and neurohormones. In this study, short, medium, and long-term exposure to the extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) (1 and 5 Hz radiation) on behavioral, hormonal, and metabolic changes in male Wistar rats (250 g) were studied. In addition, changes in plasma concentrations for two main stress hormones, noradrenaline and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were evaluated. ELF-EMF exposure did not alter body weight, and food and water intake. Plasma glucose level was increased and decreased in the groups which exposed to the 5 and 1Hz wave, respectively. Plasma ACTH concentration increased in both using frequencies, whereas nor-adrenaline concentration showed overall reduction. At last, numbers of rearing, sniffing, locomotor activity was increased in group receiving 5 Hz wave over the time. In conclusions, these data showed that the effects of 1 and 5 Hz on the hormonal, metabolic and stress-like behaviors may be different. Moreover, the influence of waves on stress system is depending on time of exposure.

  11. An Insightful Problem Involving the Electromagnetic Radiation from a Pair of Dipoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Glenn S.

    2010-01-01

    The time-average power radiated by a pair of infinitesimal dipoles is examined as their spacing is varied. The results elucidate the effect of the interaction of the dipoles on their radiation. (Contains 4 figures.)

  12. Guidance as to restrictions on exposures to time varying electromagnetic fields and the 1988 recommendations of the International Non-Ionizing Radiation Committee

    CERN Document Server

    Dennis, J A

    1989-01-01

    Under a direction from the Health Ministers, NRPB is required to advise on the acceptability to the United Kingdom of standards recommended or proposed by certain international bodies relating to protection from both ionising radiations and non-ionising electromagnetic radiations. This document contains the Board's advice in response to guidelines recommended by the International Non-Ionizing Radiation Committee (INIRC) on limiting exposures to electromagnetic fields in the frequency range 100 kHz to 300 GHz (Health Physics, 54, 115 (1988)). The Board's advice, however, extends over all frequencies up to 300 GHz. It has been prepared after considering advice from the Medical Research Council and responses to consultative documents published by the Board in 1982 and 1986. The Board's advice is intended to protect against the thermal effects of the absorption of electromagnetic energy and against the possibilities of electric shock and burn. It consists of a set of basic restrictions both on the average rate of...

  13. Electromagnetic-wave radiation due to diastrophism of magma dike growth in Izu-Miyake volcanic eruptions in Japan in 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hata

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A large 10 cm per day diastrophism of the crust was experienced between Kozu and Niijima Islands during the Izu-Miyake volcanic eruptions in Japan on 3–4 August 2000. The diastrophism was detected through GPS observation. The seismometer also complied a swarm of earth-quakes at this time. Our electromagnetic wave data, observed at 223 Hz at the Omaezaki site, about 110 km and 150 km northwest of the Kozu and Miyake Islands, respectively, detected a clear, anomalous magnetic flux radiation that corresponded well with the seismographic and GPS data. Similar radiation was received for about one week preceding the big volcanic eruption that occurred on 18 August 2000. These observations indicate that the electromagnetic wave monitoring system has the potential to monitor and/or warn of volcanic activity, and the facts disclose one of the mysterious radiation mechanisms of electromagnetic waves emitted from the Earth.

  14. Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac versus Landau-Lifshitz radiation friction force in the ultrarelativistic electron interaction with electromagnetic wave (exact solutions)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulanov, Sergei V.; Esirkepov, Timur Zh.; Kando, Masaki; Koga, James K.; Bulanov, Stepan S.

    2011-11-01

    When the parameters of electron-extreme power laser interaction enter the regime of dominated radiation reaction, the electron dynamics changes qualitatively. The adequate theoretical description of this regime becomes crucially important with the use of the radiation friction force either in the Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac form, which possesses unphysical runaway solutions, or in the Landau-Lifshitz form, which is a perturbation valid for relatively low electromagnetic wave amplitude. The goal of the present paper is to find the limits of the Landau-Lifshitz radiation force applicability in terms of the electromagnetic wave amplitude and frequency. For this, a class of the exact solutions to the nonlinear problems of charged particle motion in the time-varying electromagnetic field is used.

  15. Human exposition to non ionizing electromagnetic radiations. Legislation and base stations measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso Alonso Alonso

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This work deals about measurement procedures of non-ionizing radiations and their recorded levels in practice. The analyzed radiation sources cover the most common broadcasting media such as AM and FM transmissions and the GSM mobile telephony base stations. These sources currently radiate locations with high density of population. Spanish radiation level regulations are briefly described and some possible improvements are pointed out. The measurement results are discussed.

  16. The Influence of Electromagnetic Radiation Generated by a Mobile Phone on the Skeletal System of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Sieroń-Stołtny

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was focused on the influence of electromagnetic field generated by mobile phone on the skeletal system of rats, assessed by measuring the macrometric parameters of bones, mechanical properties of long bones, calcium and phosphorus content in bones, and the concentration of osteogenesis (osteocalcin and bone resorption (NTX, pyridinoline markers in blood serum. The study was carried out on male rats divided into two groups: experimental group subjected to 28-day cycle of exposures in electromagnetic field of 900 MHz frequency generated by mobile phone and a control, sham-exposed one. The mobile phone-generated electromagnetic field did not influence the macrometric parameters of long bones and L4 vertebra, it altered mechanical properties of bones (stress and energy at maximum bending force, stress at fracture, it decreased the content of calcium in long bones and L4 vertebra, and it altered the concentration of osteogenesis and bone resorption markers in rats. On the basis of obtained results, it was concluded that electromagnetic field generated by 900 MHz mobile phone does not have a direct impact on macrometric parameters of bones; however, it alters the processes of bone mineralization and the intensity of bone turnover processes and thus influences the mechanical strength of bones.

  17. The influence of electromagnetic radiation generated by a mobile phone on the skeletal system of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieroń-Stołtny, Karolina; Teister, Łukasz; Cieślar, Grzegorz; Sieroń, Dominik; Śliwinski, Zbigniew; Kucharzewski, Marek; Sieroń, Aleksander

    2015-01-01

    The study was focused on the influence of electromagnetic field generated by mobile phone on the skeletal system of rats, assessed by measuring the macrometric parameters of bones, mechanical properties of long bones, calcium and phosphorus content in bones, and the concentration of osteogenesis (osteocalcin) and bone resorption (NTX, pyridinoline) markers in blood serum. The study was carried out on male rats divided into two groups: experimental group subjected to 28-day cycle of exposures in electromagnetic field of 900 MHz frequency generated by mobile phone and a control, sham-exposed one. The mobile phone-generated electromagnetic field did not influence the macrometric parameters of long bones and L4 vertebra, it altered mechanical properties of bones (stress and energy at maximum bending force, stress at fracture), it decreased the content of calcium in long bones and L4 vertebra, and it altered the concentration of osteogenesis and bone resorption markers in rats. On the basis of obtained results, it was concluded that electromagnetic field generated by 900 MHz mobile phone does not have a direct impact on macrometric parameters of bones; however, it alters the processes of bone mineralization and the intensity of bone turnover processes and thus influences the mechanical strength of bones.

  18. Statistical analysis of electromagnetic radiation measurements in the vicinity of GSM/UMTS base station installed on buildings in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprivica, Mladen; Slavkovic, Vladimir; Neskovic, Natasa; Neskovic, Aleksandar

    2016-03-01

    As a result of dense deployment of public mobile base stations, additional electromagnetic (EM) radiation occurs in the modern human environment. At the same time, public concern about the exposure to EM radiation emitted by such sources has increased. In order to determine the level of radio frequency radiation generated by base stations, extensive EM field strength measurements were carried out for 664 base station locations, from which 276 locations refer to the case of base stations with antenna system installed on buildings. Having in mind the large percentage (42 %) of locations with installations on buildings, as well as the inevitable presence of people in their vicinity, a detailed analysis of this location category was performed. Measurement results showed that the maximum recorded value of total electric field strength has exceeded International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection general public exposure reference levels at 2.5 % of locations and Serbian national reference levels at 15.6 % of locations. It should be emphasised that the values exceeding the reference levels were observed only outdoor, while in indoor total electric field strength in no case exceeded the defined reference levels.

  19. A Nano-satellite Mission to Study Charged Particle Precipitation from the Van Allen Radiation Belts caused due to Seismo-Electromagnetic Emissions

    CERN Document Server

    Sivadas, Nithin; Kannapan, Deepti; Yalamarthy, Ananth Saran; Dhiman, Ankit; Bhagoji, Arjun; Shankar, Athreya; Prasad, Nitin; Ramachandran, Harishankar; Koilpillai, R David

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, several attempts have been made to study the effects of seismo-electromagnetic emissions - an earthquake precursor, on the ionosphere and the radiation belts. The IIT Madras nano-satellite (IITMSAT) mission is designed to make sensitive measurements of charged particle fluxes in a Low Earth Orbit to study the nature of charged particle precipitation from the Van Allen radiation belts caused due to such emissions. With the Space-based Proton Electron Energy Detector on-board a single nano-satellite, the mission will attempt to gather statistically significant data to verify possible correlations with seismo-electromagnetic emissions before major earthquakes.

  20. [Corrective effects of electromagnetic radiation in a millimeter wavelength range on the parameters of oxidative stress after standard anti-helicobacterial therapy in patients with ulcer disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanishkina, E V; Podoprigorova, V G

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the possibilities of correction of oxidative stress parameters in the serum and gastroduodenal mucosa using electromagnetic radiation in a millimeter wavelength range in 127 patients with gastric and duodenal ulcer after eradication therapy. Control group included 230 healthy subjects. Parameter of lipid oxidation by free radicals were measured by direct methods (hemiluminescence and EPR-spectroscopy). The results show that standard eradication therapy does not influence parameters of oxidative stress. More pronounced effect of electromagnetic radiation in a millimeter wavelength range may be due to the correction of prooxidant-antioxidant and antioxidant disbalance. This observation provides pathogenetic substantiation for the inclusion of this physical method in modern therapeutic modalities.

  1. Remote detection of radioactive material using high-power pulsed electromagnetic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongsung; Yu, Dongho; Sawant, Ashwini; Choe, Mun Seok; Lee, Ingeun; Kim, Sung Gug; Choi, EunMi

    2017-05-09

    Remote detection of radioactive materials is impossible when the measurement location is far from the radioactive source such that the leakage of high-energy photons or electrons from the source cannot be measured. Current technologies are less effective in this respect because they only allow the detection at distances to which the high-energy photons or electrons can reach the detector. Here we demonstrate an experimental method for remote detection of radioactive materials by inducing plasma breakdown with the high-power pulsed electromagnetic waves. Measurements of the plasma formation time and its dispersion lead to enhanced detection sensitivity compared to the theoretically predicted one based only on the plasma on and off phenomena. We show that lower power of the incident electromagnetic wave is sufficient for plasma breakdown in atmospheric-pressure air and the elimination of the statistical distribution is possible in the presence of radioactive material.

  2. Time-scale invariances in preseismic electromagnetic radiation, magnetization and damage evolution of rocks

    OpenAIRE

    Kawada, Y.; H. Nagahama; Nakamura, N.

    2007-01-01

    International audience; We investigate the time-scale invariant changes in electromagnetic and mechanical energy releases prior to a rock failure or a large earthquake. The energy release processes are caused by damage evolutions such as crack propagation, motion of charged dislocation, area-enlargement of sheared asperities and repetitive creep-rate changes. Damage mechanics can be used to represent the time-scale invariant evolutions of both brittle and plastic damages. Irreversible thermod...

  3. Study of temporal variations of seismoacoustic emission and electromagnetic radiation in boreholes exposed to natural deformation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojanov, Alexandr; Astrakhantsev, Yurie; Nachapkin, Nilolay; Beloglasova, Nadegda; Bagenova, Evgenija; Vdovin, Alexey

    2013-04-01

    The investigation of the correlation between the deformation processes, seismoacoustic emission and electromagnetic radiation of the geo-environment is a timely problem due to many reasons. It is related to the discovery of the modulation effect of the high-frequency noise by the long-period deformation processes [1]. The possibility appeared to distinguish similar periods in the variations of the amplitude level of the seismic acoustic emission (SAE) and electromagnetic radiation (EMR) based on the known periodicities of the deformation processes. The investigation of the deformation processes is a complicated problem because the majority of currently applied methods give us information about deformations in the surface layer. In the conditions of the hierarchical block structure of the Earth's crust; such observations do not sufficiently reveal the distribution of deformations related to the accumulation and relaxation of stresses in the internal points of the medium. Therefore, the spatiotemporal distribution of the SAE and EMR in the boreholes carries significant information about the deformation processes in the Earth's crust directly reflecting the actual stresses and the structure of the investigated rock massive [2]. Geodynamical active zones along boreholes are characterized by anomalous (maximum) SAE and EMR values, moreover they change in time [3]. Simultaneous operational measurements of seismic acoustic emission and electromagnetic radiation were carried out in wells Kamchatskiy geodynamic testing ground and the Urals region. An analysis of amplitude-frequency spectra obtained by synchronous uninterrupted SAE and EMR measurements in boreholes allowed identifying latent periodicity of SAE and EMR signals and evaluating its connection with well-known deformation processes. As a result of realized investigations it was shown that simultaneous measurements of SAE and EMR in boreholes contain information on manifestation of deformation processes in fields

  4. High-Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse (HEMP) Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-09

    Electromagnetic Pulse Horizontal Electromagnetic Pulse Advanced Fast Electromagnetic Pulse Nuclear Weapons Effect Testing and Environments 16. SECURITY...TOP 01-2-620A 9 July 2015 G-1 APPENDIX G. ABBREVIATIONS. AFEMP Advanced Fast Electromagnetic ... Electromagnetic Pulse A burst of electromagnetic radiation from a nuclear explosion or a suddenly fluctuating magnetic field. The resulting electric and

  5. [Effect of Low-Intensity 900 MHz Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation on Rat Brain Enzyme Activities Linked to Energy Metabolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosyan, M S; Nersesova, L S; Gazaryants, M G; Meliksetyan, G O; Malakyan, M G; Bajinyan, S A; Akopian, J I

    2015-01-01

    The research deals with the effect of low-intensity 900 MHz frequency electromagnetic radiation (EMR), power density 25 μW/cm2, on the following rat brain and blood serum enzyme activities: creatine kinase (CK), playing a central role in the process of storing and distributing the cell energy, as well as alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) that play a key role in providing the conjunction of carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. The comparative analysis of the changes in the enzyme activity studied at different times following the two-hour single, as well as fractional, radiation equivalent of the total time showed that the most radiosensitive enzyme is the brain creatine kinase, which may then be recommended as a marker of the radio frequency radiation impact. According to the analysis of the changing dynamics of the CK, ALT and AST activity level, with time these changes acquire the adaptive character and are directed to compensate the damaged cell energy metabolism.

  6. The Effect of the Gravitational Mass on the Electromagnetic Radiation from an Oblique, Relativistically Rotating Dipole (Neutron Star)

    CERN Document Server

    AlMuhammad, Anwar S

    2002-01-01

    Relying on the magnetic dipole model of the pulsar, we use the extension of the work of Haxton-Ruffini [31] for single charges by DePaolis-Ingrosso-Qadir [32] for an obliquely rotating magnetic dipole, to incorporate the effect of the gravitational mass. So, by using the numerical and analytical solutions of the differential equation for the radiation, we construct the energy spectra for different masses of the dipole-NS. These spectra show that, in relatively low angular momentum l, the effect of the gravitational mass is very significant in suppressing the relativistic enhancement factor, which had been found [27, 28, 32], by two to three orders of magnitude, as the mass changes from 0.5 solar mass to 3 solar masses. It is an indication that most of the angular momentum of the NS is retained as rotational kinetic energy instead of being radiated as an electromagnetic energy. Also, the suppressing in radiation energy is more or less independent of the angular momentum, and the high rotational velocity. We al...

  7. Potential of Glassy Carbon and Silicon Carbide Photonic Structures as Electromagnetic Radiation Shields for Atmospheric Re-entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarevskiy,Nikolay; Shklover, Valery; Braginsky, Leonid; Hafner, Christian; Lawson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    During high-velocity atmospheric entries, space vehicles can be exposed to strong electromagnetic radiation from ionized gas in the shock layer. Glassy carbon (GC) and silicon carbide (SiC) are candidate thermal protection materials due to their high melting point and also their good thermal and mechanical properties. Based on data from shock tube experiments, a significant fraction of radiation at hypersonic entry conditions is in the frequency range from 215 to 415 THz. We propose and analyze SiC and GC photonic structures to increase the reflection of radiation in that range. For this purpose, we performed numerical optimizations of various structures using an evolutionary strategy. Among the considered structures are layered, porous, woodpile, inverse opal and guided-mode resonance structures. In order to estimate the impact of fabrication inaccuracies, the sensitivity of the reflectivity to structural imperfections is analyzed. We estimate that the reflectivity of GC photonic structures is limited to 38% in the aforementioned range, due to material absorption. However, GC material can be effective for photonic reflection of individual, strong spectral line. SiC on the other hand can be used to design a good reflector for the entire frequency range.

  8. Induced Mitogenic Activity in AML-12 Mouse Hepatocytes Exposed to Low-dose Ultra-Wideband Electromagnetic Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. B. Tchounwou

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Ultra–wideband (UWB technology has increased with the use of various civilian and military applications. In the present study, we hypothesized that low-dose UWB electromagnetic radiation (UWBR could elicit a mitogenic effect in AML-12 mouse hepatocytes, in vitro. To test this hypothesis, we exposed AML-12 mouse hepatocytes, to UWBR in a specially constructed gigahertz transverse electromagnetic mode (GTEM cell. Cells were exposed to UWBR for 2 h at a temperature of 23°C, a pulse width of 10 ns, a repetition rate of 1 kHz, and field strength of 5-20 kV/m. UWB pulses were triggered by an external pulse generator for UWBR exposure but were not triggered for the sham exposure. We performed an MTT Assay to assess cell viability for UWBR-treated and sham-exposed hepatocytes. Data from viability studies indicated a time-related increase in hepatocytes at time intervals from 8-24 h post exposure. UWBR exerted a statistically significant (p < 0.05 dose-dependent response in cell viability in both serum-treated and serum free medium (SFM -treated hepatocytes. Western blot analysis of hepatocyte lysates demonstrated that cyclin A protein was induced in hepatocytes, suggesting that increased MTT activity after UWBR exposure was due to cell proliferation. This study indicates that UWBR has a mitogenic effect on AML-12 mouse hepatocytes and implicates a possible role for UWBR in hepatocarcinoma.

  9. Identification of positrons and electrons in the cosmic radiation with the electromagnetic calorimeter ECAL for the AMS-02 experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2080883

    2011-07-19

    In May 2011 AMS-02 detector has been successfully installed on the International Space Station (ISS), where it will take data on cosmic radiation from 1 to 1000 GeV for at least 10 years. Among all scientific objectives of the experiment, one of the most important is the search for Dark Matter (DM), which constitutes 80% of the Universe matter, but its nature is still unknown. A DM signal can be identified by studying the combined fluxes of positrons, photons, antiprotons and antideuterium. Thanks to its high acceptance and its performances, AMS-02 detector can extend primary cosmic ray physics search to a new energy range with high accuracy. A key role for these measurements, in particular for the electromagnetic channels, is played by ECAL calorimeter. This subdetector has been developed to measure e− and e+ energy with an accuracy of few %. Thanks to its 3D shower reconstruction imaging capabilities, it also has a high separation power between electromagnetic and hadronic showers (e/p rejection), essent...

  10. Potential protection of green tea polyphenols against 1800 MHz electromagnetic radiation-induced injury on rat cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei-Li; Wen, Jian-Qiang; Fan, Yu-Bo

    2011-10-01

    Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) are harmful to public health, but the certain anti-irradiation mechanism is not clear yet. The present study was performed to investigate the possible protective effects of green tea polyphenols against electromagnetic radiation-induced injury in the cultured rat cortical neurons. In this study, green tea polyphenols were used in the cultured cortical neurons exposed to 1800 MHz EMFs by the mobile phone. We found that the mobile phone irradiation for 24 h induced marked neuronal cell death in the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) and TUNEL (TdT mediated biotin-dUTP nicked-end labeling) assay, and protective effects of green tea polyphenols on the injured cortical neurons were demonstrated by testing the content of Bcl-2 Assaciated X protein (Bax) in the immunoprecipitation assay and Western blot assay. In our study results, the mobile phone irradiation-induced increases in the content of active Bax were inhibited significantly by green tea polyphenols, while the contents of total Bax had no marked changes after the treatment of green tea polyphenols. Our results suggested a neuroprotective effect of green tea polyphenols against the mobile phone irradiation-induced injury on the cultured rat cortical neurons.

  11. Preparation of PbSeO3 as a new material, sensitive to the electromagnetic radiation in UV range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaev, V. V.; Smolyaninov, V. D.; Stoyanova, T. V.; Egorov, S. V.

    2016-08-01

    The new technology of the formation of photoresistive structures sensitive in ultraviolet range of electromagnetic spectrum based on lead selenide and lead selenite composite is discussed. Studies of photosensitivity were carried out using a set of LEDs in the visible and ultraviolet spectral range. Obtained structures show considerable sensitivity in ultraviolet and blue range of radiation, meanwhile that in red and yellow region of light turned to be small. The structures were formed by oxidation of PbSe crystals. Diffusion of the oxygen through the surface layer of PbSe was suggested to be a key mechanism of oxidation. Oxidation kinetics were studied by means of roentgen lines chemical shift and roentgen diffraction.

  12. Evaluation of the maximum permissible level of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation at mobile connection frequency (1 GHz) by changes in motor activity of Spirostomum Ambiguum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarapultseva, E I; Igolkina, J V; Litovchenko, A V

    2009-04-01

    Electromagnetic radiation at the mobile connection frequency (1 GHz) at maximum energy flow density (10 microW/cm(2)) permitted in Russia causes serious functional disorders in the studied unicellular hydrobionts infusoria Spirostomum ambiguum: reduction of their spontaneous motor activity. The form of biological reaction is uncommon: the effect is threshold, overall, and does not depend on the duration of microwave exposure.

  13. [The ultrastructure of Leydig cells under the influence of drinking mineral water and electromagnetic radiation under the stress conditions in the rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geniatulina, M S; Korolev, Yu N; Nikulina, L A

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was elucidate the peculiar features of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation (LI EMR) and mineral water (MW) on the ultrastructure of rat Leydig cells under conditions of immobilization stress. The experiments were carried out on outbred male rats with the use of electron microscopy. It has been demonstrated that the prophylactic consumption of drinking sulfate-containing mineral water and the application low-intensity electromagnetic radiation (with the flow power density of 1 mcW/cm2 and frequency around 1,000 Hz) or the combination of these two modalities under conditions of immobilization stress reduced the degree of ultrastructural derangement in the rat Leydig cells and stimulated the development of regenerative processes. In the cases of the single-factor impact, drinking mineral water exerted more pronounced action than low-intensity electromagnetic radiation on mitochondrial regeneration. In case of the simultaneous application of the two factors their protective action on the Leydig cells was much more conspicuous than that of either of them applied alone. It is concluded that drinking sulfate-containing mineral water in combination with the application of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation enhances resistance of the rat Leydig cells to stress.

  14. Effects of electromagnetic radiation from 3G mobile phone on heart rate, blood pressure and ECG parameters in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colak, Cengiz; Parlakpinar, Hakan; Ermis, Necip; Tagluk, Mehmet Emin; Colak, Cemil; Sarihan, Ediz; Dilek, Omer Faruk; Turan, Bahadir; Bakir, Sevtap; Acet, Ahmet

    2012-08-01

    Effects of electromagnetic energy radiated from mobile phones (MPs) on heart is one of the research interests. The current study was designed to investigate the effects of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) from third-generation (3G) MP on the heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP) and ECG parameters and also to investigate whether exogenous melatonin can exert any protective effect on these parameters. In this study 36 rats were randomized and evenly categorized into 4 groups: group 1 (3G-EMR exposed); group 2 (3G-EMR exposed + melatonin); group 3 (control) and group 4 (control + melatonin). The rats in groups 1 and 2 were exposed to 3G-specific MP's EMR for 20 days (40 min/day; 20 min active (speech position) and 20 min passive (listening position)). Group 2 was also administered with melatonin for 20 days (5 mg/kg daily during the experimental period). ECG signals were recorded from cannulated carotid artery both before and after the experiment, and BP and HR were calculated on 1st, 3rd and 5th min of recordings. ECG signals were processed and statistically evaluated. In our experience, the obtained results did not show significant differences in the BP, HR and ECG parameters among the groups both before and after the experiment. Melatonin, also, did not exhibit any additional effects, neither beneficial nor hazardous, on the heart hemodynamics of rats. Therefore, the strategy (noncontact) of using a 3G MP could be the reason for ineffectiveness; and use of 3G MP, in this perspective, seems to be safer compared to the ones used in close contact with the head. However, further study is needed for standardization of such an assumption.

  15. Effects of electromagnetic radiation on spatial memory and synapses in rat hippocampal CA1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuhong Li; Changhua Shi; Guobing Lu; Qian Xu; Shaochen Liu

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of mobile phone radiation on spatial learning, reference memory, and morphology in related brain regions. After the near-field radiation (0.52-1.08 W/kg) was delivered to 8-week-old Wistar rats 2 hours per day for 1 month, behavioral changes were examined using the Morris water maze. Compared with the sham-irradiated rats, the irradiated rats exhibited impaired performance. Morphological changes were investigated by examining synaptic ultrastructural changes in the hippocampus. Using the physical dissector technique, the number of pyramidal neurons, the synaptic profiles, and the length of postsynaptic densities in the CA1 region were quantified stereologically. The morphological changes included mitochondrial degenerations, fewer synapses, and shorter postsynaptic densities in the radiated rats. These findings indicate that mobile phone radiation can significantly impair spatial learning and reference memory and induce morphological changes in the hippocampal CA1 region.

  16. Effects of electromagnetic radiation on morphology and TGF-β3 expression in mouse testicular tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yaning; Wang, Xiaowu; Chen, Yongbin; Xu, Shenglong; Ding, Guirong; Shi, Changhong

    2013-08-09

    Exposure to electromagnetic pulses in certain doses may lead to increase in the permeability of the blood testes barrier (BTB) in mice, which in turn affects spermatogenesis, penetration and spermiation. TGF-β3 is a key molecule involved in BTB permeability via regulation of tight junction proteins, and it participates in regulating spermatogenesis, synthesis of steroids and production of the extracellular matrix in testicular tissue. Therefore, it is hypothesized that TGF-β3 plays important roles in electromagnetic pulse (EMP)-induced changes in BTB permeability. In the present study, we carried out whole-body irradiation on mice using EMP of different intensities. No obvious pathological changes or significant increase in apoptosis was detected in testicular tissues after exposure to 100 and 200 pulses of intensity 200kV/m; however, with 400 pulses we observed the degeneration and shrinkage of testicular tissues along with a significant increase in apoptotic rate. Moreover, in the 100- and 200-EMP groups, a non-significant increase in TGF-β3 mRNA and protein expression was observed, whereas in the 400-EMP group a significant increase was observed (P<0.05). These results indicate that increase in the apoptotic rate of testicular tissues and increase in TGF-β3 expression may be one of the mechanisms for EMP-induced increase in BTB permeability in mice.

  17. Discussion on the hazards and protection of electromagnetic radiation%关于电磁辐射危害及防护的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖

    2011-01-01

    Household appliances have already been the essential tools in peopleg daily life and work, appliances electromagnetic radiation can give users health hazards, household appliance user should pay more attention to the problem that how to prevent and reduce the electromagnetic radiation. Any charged objects have radiation to its surroundings. Household appliances" mainly components are the main source of electromagnetic radiation. Choose radiation appliances which have shielding function is crucial.%家电已经成为人们日常工作、生活所必不可少的重要工具,家电的电磁辐射会给用户带来健康危害,如何防止和降低家电的电磁辐射是家电用户应该关注的重要问题。任何带电物体都会对周围辐射电磁场,家电主要的带电元件是电磁辐射的主要来源,选择具有屏蔽功能的家电是防止和降低辐射的关键。

  18. The effect of electromagnetic radiation of wireless connections on morphology of amniotic fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, Vsevolod O.; Titova, Natalia; Azarhov, Olexand; Wójcik, Waldemar; GrÄ dz, Å.»aklin; Mussabekova, Assel

    2016-09-01

    The article considers the effect of wireless networks on the morphology of amniotic fluid (AF) to demonstrate possible risks involving pregnant women. The analysis of AF thesiograms after exposure of the model fluid to Wi-Fi, 3G and β- radiation was chosen as the research method. A comparative analysis of facies structures is carried out, and depth maps of the facies structure are created. This comparative analysis permits an evaluation of the efficiency of morphological changes. It is shown that AF control facies differ in the concentration of areas with a narrow peripheral area and ellipsoidal formations of crystalloids in circumferences center. After exposure of different types of radiation onto AF, the facies structures collapse and form their own conglomerates. The obtained results show that the considered types of radiation have a negative effect on AF.

  19. Radiation pressure and the distribution of electromagnetic force in dielectric media (II)

    CERN Document Server

    Zakharian, Armis R; Moloney, Jerome V

    2014-01-01

    Using the Finite-Difference-Time-Domain (FDTD) method, we compute the electromagnetic field distribution in and around dielectric media of various shapes and optical properties. With the aid of the constitutive relations, we proceed to compute the bound charge and bound current densities, then employ the Lorentz law of force to determine the distribution of force-density within the regions of interest. For a few simple cases where analytical solutions exist, these solutions are found to be in complete agreement with our numerical results. We also analyze the distribution of fields and forces in more complex systems, and discuss the relevance of our findings to experimental observations. In particular, we demonstrate the single-beam trapping of a dielectric micro-sphere immersed in a liquid under conditions that are typical of optical tweezers.

  20. Free electromagnetic radiation from the graphene monolayer with spatially modulated conductivity in THz range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasik, Vladimir; Wartak, Marek S.; Zhukov, Alexander V.; Belonenko, Mikhail B.

    2016-03-01

    An infinite graphene layer is known to support graphene surface plasmon polariton (GSP) confined at the interface between the two dielectric half-spaces. In the case of finite width graphene stripe, the termination of the graphene layer acts both as a scattering source and as a “mirror”, thus producing Fabry-Perot (FP)-type resonance. These resonant wavelengths in the presence of free-standing graphene stripe are investigated using the homogeneous convolution-type integral equation approach. The capabilities of the suggested numerical method are illustrated with the results for the transmission spectrum of TM electromagnetic waves travelling in the direction perpendicular to the graphene stripe. Special attention is paid to the case of spatially modulated conductivity of the graphene monolayer, and thus the feasibility of controlling the GSP response.

  1. Biomolecular structure manipulation using tailored electromagnetic radiation: a proof of concept on a simplified model of the active site of bacterial DNA topoisomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarukanont, Daungruthai; Coimbra, João T S; Bauerhenne, Bernd; Fernandes, Pedro A; Patel, Shekhar; Ramos, Maria J; Garcia, Martin E

    2014-10-21

    We report on the viability of breaking selected bonds in biological systems using tailored electromagnetic radiation. We first demonstrate, by performing large-scale simulations, that pulsed electric fields cannot produce selective bond breaking. Then, we present a theoretical framework for describing selective energy concentration on particular bonds of biomolecules upon application of tailored electromagnetic radiation. The theory is based on the mapping of biomolecules to a set of coupled harmonic oscillators and on optimal control schemes to describe optimization of temporal shape, the phase and polarization of the external radiation. We have applied this theory to demonstrate the possibility of selective bond breaking in the active site of bacterial DNA topoisomerase. For this purpose, we have focused on a model that was built based on a case study. Results are given as a proof of concept.

  2. [State of the reproductive systemin in male rats of 1st generation obtained from irradiated parents and exposed to electromagnetic radiation (897 MHz) during embryogenesis and postnatal development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereshchako, G G; Chueshova, N V; Gorokh, G A; Naumov, A D

    2014-01-01

    The consequences of prolonged exposure to electromagnetic radiation from cellular phone (897 MHz, daily 8 h/day) in male rats of the 1st generation obtained from irradiated parents and subjected to prolonged exposure to electromagnetic radiation of the range of mobile communications during ontogeny and postnatal development were studied. It has been found that irradiation causes a decrease in the number of births of animals, changing the sex ratio towards the increase in the number of males. It had a significant impact on the reproductive system of males, accelerating their sexual development, revealed at the age of two months. Radiation from cell phones led to significant disproportions in the cell number at different stages of spermatogenesis. It increased the number of mature spermatozoa which decreased viability.

  3. Plasma-Maser Instability of the Electromagnetic Radiation In The Presence Of Electrostatic Drift Wave Turbulence in Inhomogeneous Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahinder Singh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The generation mechanism of the electromagnetic radiation in case of inhomogeneous plasma on the basis of plasma-maser interaction in presence of drift wave turbulence is studied. The drift wave turbulence is taken as the low-frequency mode field and is found to be strongly in phase relation with thermal particles and may transfer its wave energy nonlinearly through a modulated field of high-frequency extraordinary mode (X-mode wave. It has been found that amplification of X-mode wave is possible at the expense of drift wave turbulent energy. This type of high-frequency instability can leads to auroral kilometric radiation (AKR. The growth rate of the X-mode wave, in the form of AKR, has been calculated with the involvement of spatial density gradient parameter. This result may be particularly important for stability of various drift modes in magnetically confined plasma as well as for transport of momentum and energy in such inhomogeneous plasma

  4. Change in the thermionic work function of semiconductor powders exposed to electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourasseau, S.; Martin, J. R.; Juillet, F.; Teichner, S. J.

    1977-01-01

    The variations of the thermoelectronic work function of titanium dioxide, submitted to an ultraviolet or visible and infrared radiation, in the presence of oxygen, are studied by the vibrating condenser method. It is shown that during the ultraviolet irradiation, a desorption of a first species of oxygen simultaneously occurs with the adsorption of a second species of oxygen and that this phenomenon is found for any structure of TiO2 (anatase or rutile) any texture, oxygen pressure, radiation intensity, and nature of introduced dopes.

  5. Electromagnetic transition from the 4$^+$ to 2$^+$ resonance in $^8$Be measured via the radiative capture in $^4$He+$^4$He

    CERN Document Server

    Datar, V M; Kumar, Suresh; Nanal, V; Pastore, S; Wiringa, R B; Behera, S P; Chatterjee, A; Jenkins, D; Lister, C J; Mirgule, E T; Mitra, A; Pillay, R G; Ramachandran, K; Roberts, O J; Rout, P C; Shrivastava, A; Sugathan, P

    2013-01-01

    An earlier measurement on the 4$^+$ to 2$^+$ radiative transition in $^8$Be provided the first electromagnetic signature of its dumbbell-like shape. However, the large uncertainty in the measured cross section does not allow a stringent test of nuclear structure models. The present paper reports a more elaborate and precise measurement for this transition, via the radiative capture in the $^4$He+$^4$He reaction, improving the accuracy by about a factor of three. The {\\it ab initio} calculations of the radiative transition strength with improved three-nucleon forces are also presented. The experimental results are compared with the predictions of the alpha cluster model and {\\it ab initio} calculations.

  6. Small Cell家庭网关电磁辐射环保性能分析%Environmental Analysis on Electromagnetic Radiation of Residential Gateway with Small Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊金州

    2014-01-01

    介绍了国内外电磁辐射标准以及Small Cell家庭网关和各种手机的发射功率,并通过理论计算证明Small Cell满足我国电磁辐射指标要求。然后对比安装Small Cell前后室内电磁功率密度,证明安装Small Cell覆盖后,室内电磁辐射的环保性能普遍得到改善。%This paper introduces the electromagnetic radiation standards of domestic and foreign countries, as well as the transmitting power of the residential gateway with Small Cell and various mobile phones. Through theoretical calculations, it is demonstrated that Small Cell confirms to the specifications of China’s electromagnetic radiation. Compared with the indoor electromagnetic power density without Small Cell, it proves that the Small Cell improves the indoor electromagnetic radiation environment in general.

  7. Theory of Fire Pathomechanism of Electromagnetic Radiation Damage%电磁辐射损伤火热病机论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕焕洲

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetic wave belonging to six qi is fire and is normally helpful; Electromagnetic radiation belonging to six excesses is fire evil and is harmful in excess. Fire evil of electromagnetic radiation causes diseases,damaging qi after damaging fur, damaging visceral qi after damaging defense qi, damaging spleen qi and kidney qi after damaging lung qi and heart qi. This article puts forward the viewpoint determining treatment from qi in the treatment of electromagnetic radiation damage.%电磁波乃六气之属,为火热之气,常则养人;电磁辐射乃六淫之属,为火热之邪,过则为灾.电磁辐射之火热外邪致病,先伤皮毛后伤气,先伤卫气后伤脏气,先伤肺心之气后伤脾肾之气,并提出了治疗电磁辐射损伤"从气论治"的观点.

  8. Status report on the tunable monochromatic gamma—ray source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.Bertschy; W.Mondelaers; 等

    1996-01-01

    The tunable monochromatic gamma-ray source at the Ghent 15MeV linac is described.The characteristics of the monochromatic beam are given,and some applications,as the detection of heavy elements in other materials,are presented.

  9. Discovering new information from historical artefacts. Using electromagnetic radiation and charged particles as a probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macková, A.; Šmit, Ž.; Giuntini, L.

    2016-06-01

    Archaeological artefacts included in cultural heritage contribute to the knowledge of our roots, which may help us to learn about our future. Although the connection between ancient times and nuclear technology seems farfetched, this paper will try to show how nuclear radiation of various kinds can be irreplaceable in the elemental composition analysis of an archaeological find.

  10. Effects of exposure to electromagnetic field radiation (EMFR generated by activated mobile phones on fasting blood glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Ayoub Meo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Extensive use of mobile phones has been accompanied by a common public debate about possible adverse effects on human health. No study has been published so far to establish any association between the fastest growing innovation of mobile phone and fasting blood glucose. The aim was to determine the effects of exposure to electromagnetic field radiation generated by mobile phones on fasting blood glucose in Wistar Albino rats. Materials and Methods: 40 Male Albino rats (Wistar Strain were divided into 5 equally numerous groups. Group A served as the control one, group B received mobile phone radiation for less than 15 min/day, group C: 15-30 min/day, group D: 31-45 min/day, and group E: 46-60 min/day for a total period of 3 months. Fasting blood glucose was determined by using Spectrophotometer and serum insulin by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. The Homeostatic Model (HOMA-B was applied for the assessment of β-cell function and (HOMA-IR for resistance to insulin. Results: Wister Albino rats exposed to mobile phone radiation for longer than 15 min a day for a total period of 3 months had significantly higher fasting blood glucose (p < 0.015 and serum insulin (p < 0.01 compared to the control group. HOMA-IR for insulin resistance was significantly increased (p < 0.003 in the groups that were exposed for 15-30 and 46-60 min/day compared to the control rats. Conclusion: The results of the present study show an association between long-term exposure to activated mobile phones and increase in fasting blood glucose and serum insulin in Albino rats.

  11. Electromagnetic waves and photons

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    We explore how the thermal ground states of two mixing and pure SU(2) Yang-Mills theories, SU(2)$_{\\tiny\\mbox{CMB}}$ of scale $\\Lambda_{\\tiny\\mbox{CMB}}\\sim 10^{-4}\\,$eV and SU(2)$_{e}$ of scale $\\Lambda_{e}\\sim 5\\times 10^5\\,$eV, associate either wave or particle aspects to electromagnetic disturbances during thermalisation towards the photon gas of a blackbody, in realising the photoelectric effect, and through the frequency dependence of the monochromatic, nonthermal beam structure in Thomson/Compton scattering.

  12. Effects of electromagnetic radiation exposure on bone mineral density, thyroid, and oxidative stress index in electrical workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunt H

    2016-02-01

    destruction and led to a decrease in OPG levels and an increase in RANK and RANKL levels. In line with the previous studies, long-term exposure to an electromagnetic field causes disorders in many organs and systems. Thus, it is considered that long-term exposure to an electromagnetic field affects bone and thyroid metabolism and also increases OSI by increasing the TOS and decreasing the antioxidant status. Keywords: bone mineral density, electromagnetic radiation, electrical workers, thyroid, RANK, RANKL

  13. Gravitation radiation observations

    OpenAIRE

    Glass, E. N.

    2017-01-01

    The notion of gravitational radiation begins with electromagnetic radiation. In 1887 Heinrich Hertz, working in one room, generated and received electromagnetic radiation. Maxwell's equations describe the electromagnetic field. The quanta of electromagnetic radiation are spin 1 photons. They are fundamental to atomic physics and quantum electrodynamics.

  14. [Possible mechanisms of aftereffects of GSM electromagnetic radiation on air-dry seeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselova, T V; Veselovskiĭ, V A

    2012-01-01

    Some physical treatments, such as microwave- and gamma-radiation and magnetic field, induce long-term transition of air-dry seeds from the fraction of strong seeds into the weak seed fraction, due to non-enzymatic hydrolysis ofbiomacromolecules. These physical factors make water molecules more active, which is followed by the release of water molecules from the hydration layer, disturbance of this layer structure, further activation of water molecules by means of the "domino effect," and accumulation of hydrolysis products.

  15. Variation in the thermionic work function of semiconductor powders exposed to electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourasseau, S.; Martin, J. R.; Juillet, F.; Teichner, S. J.

    1977-01-01

    The study of the variation of thermoelectronic work function potential of TiO2 in the presence of isobutane shows that this gas is not adsorbed on this solid, in either the presence or the absence of ultraviolet radiation. These results, as well as those obtained in a previous work, lead to the mechanism of the photo-oxidation of isobutane at room temperature, in which excited atomic oxygen is the active species.

  16. Nonlinear response of the quantum Hall system to a strong electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avetissian, H. K.; Mkrtchian, G. F.

    2016-12-01

    We study nonlinear response of a quantum Hall system in semiconductor-hetero-structures via third harmonic generation process and nonlinear Faraday effect. We demonstrate that Faraday rotation angle and third harmonic radiation intensity have a characteristic Hall plateaus feature. These nonlinear effects remain robust against the significant broadening of Landau levels. We predict realization of an experiment through the observation of the third harmonic signal and Faraday rotation angle, which are within the experimental feasibility.

  17. Computational Electromagnetic Studies for Low-Frequency Compensation of the Reflector Impulse-radiating Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    VHF antennas are character- 3 ized by physically large and unwieldy, or highly resonant structures that exhibit the ring-down effect previously...noise radar. • Multiple Resonance Antennas. These are antennas formed of multiple narrow-band radiating elements, each covering a portion of the desired...reflector, which is intended to suppress spurious currents and reduce the late-time response. The typical conically symmetric feed structure in a realized

  18. Beyond the electric-dipole approximation: A formulation and implementation of molecular response theory for the description of absorption of electromagnetic field radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    List, Nanna Holmgaard, E-mail: nhl@sdu.dk; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark); Kauczor, Joanna; Norman, Patrick, E-mail: panor@ifm.liu.se [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, Linköping SE 58183 (Sweden); Saue, Trond [Laboratoire de Chimie et Physique Quantiques, UMR 5626—CNRS/Université Toulouse III (Paul Sabatier), 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex (France)

    2015-06-28

    We present a formulation of molecular response theory for the description of a quantum mechanical molecular system in the presence of a weak, monochromatic, linearly polarized electromagnetic field without introducing truncated multipolar expansions. The presentation focuses on a description of linear absorption by adopting the energy-loss approach in combination with the complex polarization propagator formulation of response theory. Going beyond the electric-dipole approximation is essential whenever studying electric-dipole-forbidden transitions, and in general, non-dipolar effects become increasingly important when addressing spectroscopies involving higher-energy photons. These two aspects are examined by our study of the near K-edge X-ray absorption fine structure of the alkaline earth metals (Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, and Ra) as well as the trans-polyenes. In following the series of alkaline earth metals, the sizes of non-dipolar effects are probed with respect to increasing photon energies and a detailed assessment of results is made in terms of studying the pertinent transition electron densities and in particular their spatial extension in comparison with the photon wavelength. Along the series of trans-polyenes, the sizes of non-dipolar effects are probed for X-ray spectroscopies on organic molecules with respect to the spatial extension of the chromophore.

  19. Reply to Comments on ``Generation of focused, nonspherically decaying pulses of electromagnetic radiation''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardavan, H.

    2000-08-01

    The criticism made by Hannay [preceding Comment, Phys. Rev. E 62, 3008 (2000)] is unfounded since the steps, familiar from the subluminal regime, that are taken in his argument are not mathematically permissible when the distribution pattern of the source is moving and has volume elements that approach the observer with the speed of light and zero acceleration along the radiation direction. In the superluminal regime, the retarded time is a multivalued function of the observation time and so the retarded potential for the radiation from a localized source cannot be represented, as Hannay assumes, by an integral over all space whose integrand entails a differentiable retarded distribution of the source density. Contrary to what is claimed by Hewish [Comment in this issue, Phys. Rev. E 62, 3007 (2000)], moreover, there is no discrepancy between conventional antenna theory and the analysis that appears in Phys. Rev. E 58, 6659 (1998). The characteristics of the new type of emission predicted by this analysis, and received from pulsars, differ from those of the radiation that is produced by known leaky waveguides because there are at present no antennas in which the emitting electric current is both volume-distributed and has the time dependence of a traveling wave with an accelerated superluminal motion.

  20. Electromagnetic cloak to restore the antenna radiation patterns affected by nearby scatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teperik, Tatiana V.; de Lustrac, André

    2015-12-01

    We have theoretically verified the feasibility of the concept of mantle cloak for very high frequency (VHF) antenna communications. While the applicability of the concept has been demonstrated for an infinitely long cylindrical obstacle and infinitely long electric source [Y.R. Padooru, A.B. Yakovlev, and P.-Y. Chen and Andrea Alù, J. Appl. Phys., 112, 104902, (2012)], the use of this cloak in realistic conditions is not straightforward. In this paper as an electric source we consider a typical VHF monopole antenna mounted on ground plane together with a metallic cylindrical obstacle. The both ground plane and obstacle affect the antenna radiation scattering. Nevertheless, we could show that the mantle cloak can bee successfully applied to restore the radiation patterns of antenna even when the source, the cylindrical metallic obstacle, and the ground plane have finite length. We have studied the antenna adaptation in the presence of the cloaked obstacle and found that the complete radiation system is still functional in the bandwidth that is reduced only by 11%.

  1. Electromagnetic cloak to restore the antenna radiation patterns affected by nearby scatter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teperik, Tatiana V., E-mail: tatiana.teperik@u-psud.fr [Univ. Paris-Sud, Institut d’Electronique Fondamentale, UMR 8622, Orsay F-91405 (France); Donostia International Physics Center, Aptdo. 1072, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain); Lustrac, André de [Univ. Paris-Sud, Institut d’Electronique Fondamentale, UMR 8622, Orsay F-91405 (France); Univ. Paris-Ouest, 92410 Ville d’Avray (France)

    2015-12-15

    We have theoretically verified the feasibility of the concept of mantle cloak for very high frequency (VHF) antenna communications. While the applicability of the concept has been demonstrated for an infinitely long cylindrical obstacle and infinitely long electric source [Y.R. Padooru, A.B. Yakovlev, and P.-Y. Chen and Andrea Alù, J. Appl. Phys., 112, 104902, (2012)], the use of this cloak in realistic conditions is not straightforward. In this paper as an electric source we consider a typical VHF monopole antenna mounted on ground plane together with a metallic cylindrical obstacle. The both ground plane and obstacle affect the antenna radiation scattering. Nevertheless, we could show that the mantle cloak can bee successfully applied to restore the radiation patterns of antenna even when the source, the cylindrical metallic obstacle, and the ground plane have finite length. We have studied the antenna adaptation in the presence of the cloaked obstacle and found that the complete radiation system is still functional in the bandwidth that is reduced only by 11%.

  2. In vitro testing of cellular response to ultra high frequency electromagnetic field radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavicic, Ivan; Trosic, Ivancica

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether low-level, ultra high frequency (UHF) irradiation of 935 MHz influences the cell structure and growth of V79 cells. UHF field was generated inside a Gigahertz Transversal Electromagnetic Mode cell (GTEM-cell) with a Hewlett-Packard signal generator. The electric field strength was 8.2+/-0.3 V/cm and the average specific absorption rate (SAR) was calculated to be 0.12 W/kg. Cell samples were cultivated in a humidified atmosphere at 37 degrees C with 5% CO2. Prepared cell samples were exposed to a 935 MHz continuous wave frequency field for 1, 2, and 3 h. The structure of microtubule proteins has been determined using the immunocytochemical method. Cell growth was determined by cell counts for each hour of exposure during five post-exposure days. Negative- and positive-cell controls were included into the experimental procedure. In comparison with control cells, the microtubule structure clearly altered after 3h of irradiation (pgrowth was noted in cells exposed for 3h three days after irradiation (pcell growth.

  3. [Influence of 900 MHz frequency electromagnetic radiation on some blood indices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badzhinian, S A; Malakian, M G; Egiazarian, D E; Agdzhoian, R L; Abramian, L E

    2013-01-01

    The paper represents the results of research of some functional indices of blood plasma and erythrocytes in rats obtained on days 1 and 5 after exposure of the organism to low intensive electromagnetic irradiation (EMI) with 900 MHz frequency using the following two irradiation schemes: single 2 h/1 day and fractional 0.5 h/4 days. According to the data obtained, a significant increase of lipid peroxidation (LPO) intensity is registered in animal erythrocyte membranes after the influence of 900 MHz frequency EMI irrespective of the scheme applied. Inhibition of the activity of low-molecular non-enzymatic water-soluble blood antioxidants and enhancement of blood plasma LPO processes is observed on the background of a single prolonged exposure. Stimulation of the antioxidant activity with an abrupt decrease in the blood LPO activity takes place after exposure to fractional irradiation. Single long-lasting exposure, rather than intermittent shortterm exposure to 900 MHz frequency EMI facilitates the appearance of shifts in the activity of Ca(2+)-dependent K(+)-channels of erythrocytes and hyperpolarization of erythrocytes membranes.

  4. Electromagnetic radiation from VDT units: study of the effectiveness of an active shielding device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisto, R; Casciardi, S; Giliberti, C; Moleti, A

    1999-01-01

    Measurements of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields and low frequency magnetic fields emitted by a set of video display terminal (VDT) units are reported. The field values measured at the position normally occupied by the user are below the safety limits. This is because the field amplitudes decrease rapidly (following a 1/R3 law) with the distance from the source, as has been verified in this work. Measurements with a commercial shielding device consisting of small plastic balls filled with a water solution of rare earth elements were also performed. The only physical mechanism that could be hypothesized to produce an active suppression of the VDT field is that rare earth atoms, which probably were chosen due to their large magnetic moment, behave as oscillating magnetic dipoles capable of emitting a secondary magnetic field that, along some particular directions, has a phase that is opposite to that of the exciting field. Unfortunately, if one analyzes this mechanism quantitatively, it is easy to show that the secondary magnetic field is absolutely negligible, as was confirmed by experimental measurements performed in this study.

  5. Numerical compliance testing of human exposure to electromagnetic radiation from smart-watches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seon-Eui; Lee, Ae-Kyoung; Kwon, Jong-Hwa; Pack, Jeong-Ki

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the electromagnetic dosimetry for smart-watches. At present, the standard for compliance testing of body-mounted and handheld devices specifies the use of a flat phantom to provide conservative estimates of the peak spatial-averaged specific absorption rate (SAR). This means that the estimated SAR using a flat phantom should be higher than the SAR in the exposure part of an anatomical human-body model. To verify this, we numerically calculated the SAR for a flat phantom and compared it with the numerical calculation of the SAR for four anatomical human-body models of different ages. The numerical analysis was performed using the finite difference time domain method (FDTD). The smart-watch models were used in the three antennas: the shorted planar inverted-F antenna (PIFA), loop antenna, and monopole antenna. Numerical smart-watch models were implemented for cellular commutation and wireless local-area network operation at 835, 1850, and 2450 MHz. The peak spatial-averaged SARs of the smart-watch models are calculated for the flat phantom and anatomical human-body model for the wrist-worn and next to mouth positions. The results show that the flat phantom does not provide a consistent conservative SAR estimate. We concluded that the difference in the SAR results between an anatomical human-body model and a flat phantom can be attributed to the different phantom shapes and tissue structures.

  6. Skin Treatment with Pulsed Monochromatic UVA1 355 Device and Computerized Morphometric Analysis of Histochemically Identified Langerhans Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Zerbinati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent or metal halide lamps are widely used in therapeutic applications in dermatological diseases, with broadband or narrow band emission UVA/UVA1 (320–400 nm obtained with suitable passive filters. Recently, it has been possible for us to use a new machine provided with solid state source emitting pulsed monochromatic UVA1 355 nm. In order to evaluate the effects of this emission on immunocells of the skin, human skin samples were irradiated with monochromatic 355 nm UVA1 with different energetic fluences and after irradiation Langerhans cells were labeled with CD1a antibodies. The immunohistochemical identification of these cells permitted evaluating their modifications in terms of density into the skin. Obtained results are promising for therapeutical applications, also considering that a monochromatic radiation minimizes thermic load and DNA damage in the skin tissues.

  7. Impact of electromagnetic radiation emitted by monitors on changes in the cellular membrane structure and protective antioxidant effect of vitamin A - In vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicka, Małgorzata; Henrykowska, Gabriela; Zawadzka, Magdalena; Rutkowski, Maciej; Pacholski, Krzysztof; Buczyński, Andrzej

    2017-07-14

    The increasing number of devices emitting electromagnetic radiation (EMR) in people's everyday life attracted the attention of researchers because of possible adverse effects of this factor on living organisms. One of the EMR effect may be peroxidation of lipid membranes formed as a result of free radical process. The article presents the results of in vitro studies aimed at identifying changes in malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration - a marker of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant role of vitamin A during the exposure of blood platelets to electromagnetic radiation generated by liquid-crystal-display (LCD) monitors. Electromagnetic radiation emitted by LCD monitors is characterized by parameters: 1 kHz frequency and 220 V/m intensity (15 cm from display screen). The time of exposure was 30 and 60 min. The study was conducted on porcine blood platelets. The samples were divided into 6 groups: unexposed to radiation, unexposed + vitamin A, exposed for 30 min, exposed for 30 min + vitamin A, exposed for 60 min, exposed for 60 min + vitamin A. The MDA concentration in blood platelets increases significantly as compared to control values after 60 min of exposure to EMR. A significant decrease in MDA concentration after the addition of vitamin A was noticed. In the blood samples exposed to EMR for 30 and 60 min the MDA concentration was significantly increased by addition of vitamin A. The results show the possibly negative effect of electromagnetic radiation on the cellular membrane structure manifested by changes in malondialdehyde concentration and indicate a possible protective role of vitamin A in this process. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(5):695-703.

  8. 山地雷达站营区防电磁辐射污染规划%Anti-electromagnetic Radiation Project of Radar Station Subcamp in Mountainous Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荀平; 朱继磊; 王正刚; 陈振东

    2014-01-01

    Electromagnetic radiation pollution has a deep influence on fighting capacity of radar units. Taking mountain radar station as the research subject,this paper analyzed the reason of excessive electro-magnetic radiation in radar station,found the possibilities to reduce electromagnetic radiation pollution in camp planning ways.Four camp planning ways are proposed:First centralizing building layout in camp, lower the probabilities of electromagnetic contact;second,making use of green plants to assimilate the e-lectromagnetic ;third,choosing the building location reasonable,utilizing barriers to cover electromagnet-ic;forth,building camps in radar shadow produced by radar minimum detecting distance.The four plan-ning ways are hoped to provide recommendations on radar station construction and reduce the pollution of electromagnetic radiation.%雷达站电磁辐射污染问题已经深深影响到雷达部队的战斗力,以此为切入点,通过分析我军雷达部队营区电磁辐射超标的原因,以具有山地地形特征的雷达站营区为研究对象,从营区规划的角度来思考降低山地地区雷达站营区电磁辐射的可能性。提出了降低雷达站营区电磁辐射污染的4种规划方法:集中营区建筑布局,降低雷达波直接作用于人体的几率;做好营区绿化,利用植物对波的吸收衰减作用;合理选择建筑位置,利用地形遮蔽和利用雷达最小作用距离产生的盲区来建设雷达站的规划方法。旨在能够为建设雷达站、降低雷达站营区电磁辐射提供参考。

  9. A low-power, radiation-hard gigabit serializer for use in the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Denes, P; Bussat, J M; Wixted, R

    2000-01-01

    An integrated fiber-optic bit serializer and VCSEL driver has been constructed in radiation-hard complementary heterostructure GaAs FET (CHFET) technology. The serializer, which converts 20 parallel inputs into a high-speed serial output, consumes 60 mW at nominal supply voltage when operating at the Large Hadron Collider word rate of 40 MHz (0.8-GB/s serial rate). The integrated driver directly drives a VCSEL and provides 10-mA switched current and 5 mA of prebias. The complete digital optical link thus consumes 90 mW. (6 refs).

  10. Electromagnetic transition form factor and radiative corrections in decays of neutral pions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husek Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We briefly summarize experimental and theoretical results on the rare decay π0 → e+e−. The notorious 3.3σ discrepancy between the SM prediction and the experimental value provided by KTeV collaboration is discussed in the view of a complete set of NLO QED radiative corrections. We also present the Two-Hadron Saturation (THS scenario for the PVV correlator and apply it to the decay under discussion. The discrepancy then reduces down to 1.8σ.

  11. Electromagnetic on-aircraft antenna radiation in the presence of composite plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, S. H-T.; Rojas, R. G.

    1994-01-01

    The UTD-based NEWAIR3 code is modified such that it can model modern aircraft by composite plates. One good model of conductor-backed composites is the impedance boundary condition where the composites are replaced by surfaces with complex impedances. This impedance-plate model is then used to model the composite plates in the NEWAIR3 code. In most applications, the aircraft distorts the desired radiation pattern of the antenna. However, test examples conducted in this report have shown that the undesired scattered fields are minimized if the right impedance values are chosen for the surface impedance plates.

  12. Electromagnetic scattering and radiation from microstrip patch antennas and spirals residing in a cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volakis, J. L.; Gong, J.; Alexanian, A.; Woo, A.

    1992-01-01

    A new hybrid method is presented for the analysis of the scattering and radiation by conformal antennas and arrays comprised of circular or rectangular elements. In addition, calculations for cavity-backed spiral antennas are given. The method employs a finite element formulation within the cavity and the boundary integral (exact boundary condition) for terminating the mesh. By virtue of the finite element discretization, the method has no restrictions on the geometry and composition of the cavity or its termination. Furthermore, because of the convolutional nature of the boundary integral and the inherent sparseness of the finite element matrix, the storage requirement is kept very low at O(n). These unique features of the method have already been exploited in other scattering applications and have permitted the analysis of large-size structures with remarkable efficiency. In this report, we describe the method's formulation and implementation for circular and rectangular patch antennas in different superstrate and substrate configurations which may also include the presence of lumped loads and resistive sheets/cards. Also, various modelling approaches are investigated and implemented for characterizing a variety of feed structures to permit the computation of the input impedance and radiation pattern. Many computational examples for rectangular and circular patch configurations are presented which demonstrate the method's versatility, modeling capability and accuracy.

  13. Model for Electromagnetic Information Leakage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Jian

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic leakage will happen in working information equipments; it could lead to information leakage. In order to discover the nature of information in electromagnetic leakage, this paper combined electromagnetic theory with information theory as an innovative research method. It outlines a systematic model of electromagnetic information leakage, which theoretically describes the process of information leakage, intercept and reproduction based on electromagnetic radiation, and analyzes amount of leakage information with formulas.  

  14. Blackbody Radiation Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    at the indicated wavelength and temperature, Planck’s equation. This equation represents the monochromatic radiant intensity at a particular wavelength from a perfect radiator maintained at the indicated temperature.

  15. 电磁辐射污染的危害及防护%Hazards of Electromagnetic Radiation Pollution and Its Prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳昕

    2014-01-01

    电磁辐射污染被世界卫生组织列为继空气污染、水污染和噪声污染之后第四大污染,被称为“隐形杀手”。根据电磁辐射污染的成因,我们总结出了科学有效的防护措施。%Electromagnetic radiation pollution is regarded as the fourth biggest pollution following air pollution, water pollution, and noise pollution by the World Health Organization, and known as the“invisible killer”. According to the origin of electromagnetic radiation pollution, we summed up some scientific and effective protection measures.

  16. [Electromagnetic radiation of non-thermal intensity and short exposition as a sub-threshold irritant for the central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk'ianova, S N

    2013-01-01

    This work represents generalization and the analysis of the long-term own materials characterizing reaction of the brain on electromagnetic radiation of low intensity (energy flow density in the continuous regime or in the impulse approximately 500 microW/sm2) and a short exposition (approximately 30 min). A set of the experimental results received on separate neurons, formations and brain as a whole give an idea about the reaction of the central nervous system to the studied influence. Comparison of these data with the corresponding responses to the known incentives (light, sound, electric current) testifies to the electromagnetic radiation of low energy flow density and a short exposition as a sub-threshold irritant for the central nervous system.

  17. [Changes in the chromatin structure of lymphoid cells under the influence of low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation against the background of inflammatory process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gapeev, A B; Romanova, N A; Chemeris, N K

    2011-01-01

    Using the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis technique (comet assay), changes in chromatin structure of peripheral blood leukocytes and peritoneal neutrophils have been studied in mice exposed to low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation (42.2 GHz, 0.1 mW/cm2, 20 min at 1 h after induction of inflammation) against the background of the systemic inflammatory process. It was revealed that the exposure of mice with the developing inflammation leads to a pronounced decrease in the level of DNA damage to peripheral blood leukocytes and peritoneal neutrophils. It is supposed that the changes in the chromatin structure of lymphoid cells have a genoprotective character in the inflammatory process and can underlie the mechanisms of realization of antiinflammatory effects of the electromagnetic radiation.

  18. Adaptive Radiation Therapy for Post-Prostatectomy Patients Using Real-Time Electromagnetic Target Motion Tracking During External Beam Radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingyao; Bharat, Shyam; Michalski, Jeff M.; Gay, H; Hou, Wei-Hsien; Parikh, Parag J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Using real-time electromagnetic (EM) transponder tracking data recorded by the Calypso® 4D Localization System, we report inter- and intrafractional target motion of the prostate bed, describe a strategy to evaluate treatment adequacy in post-prostatectomy patients receiving intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and propose an adaptive workflow. Methods and Materials Tracking data recorded by Calypso EM transponders was analyzed for post-prostatectomy patients that underwent step-and-shoot IMRT. Rigid target motion parameters during beam delivery were calculated from recorded transponder positions in 16 patients with rigid transponder geometry. The delivered doses to the clinical target volume (CTV) were estimated from the planned dose matrix and the target motion for the first 3, 5, 10, and all fractions. Treatment adequacy was determined by comparing the delivered minimum dose (Dmin) with the planned Dmin to the CTV. Treatments were considered adequate if the delivered CTV Dmin is at least 95% of the planned CTV Dmin. Results Translational target motion was minimal for all 16 patients (mean: 0.02 cm; range: − 0.12 cm to 0.07 cm). Rotational motion was patient-specific, and maximum pitch, yaw, and roll were 12.2, 4.1, and 10.5 degrees, respectively. We observed inadequate treatments in 5 patients. In these treatments, we observed greater target rotations along with large distances between the CTV centroid and transponder centroid. The treatment adequacy from the initial 10 fractions successfully predicted the overall adequacy in 4 of 5 inadequate treatments and 10 of 11 adequate treatments. Conclusion Target rotational motion could cause under-dosage to partial volume of the post-prostatectomy targets. Our adaptive treatment strategy is applicable to post-prostatectomy patients receiving IMRT to evaluate and improve radiation therapy delivery. PMID:23021439

  19. Effect of 900 MHz Electromagnetic Radiation on the Induction of ROS in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortazavi S.M.J.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite numerous studies over a decade, it still remains controversial about the biological effects of RF EMF emitted by mobile phone telephony. Objective: Here we investigated the effect of 900 MHz GSM on the induction of oxidative stress and the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS in human mononuclear cells, monocytes and lymphocytes as defence system cells. Method: 6 ml Peripheral Blood samples were obtained from 13 healthy volunteers (21-30 year-old. Each sample was devided into 2 groups: one was exposed RF radiation emitted from a mobile phone simulator for 2 hour and the other used as control group which was not exposed to any fields. After that, mononuclear cells were isolated from peripheral blood by density gradient centrifugation in Ficoll-Paque. The intracellular ROS content in monocytes and lymphocytes was measured by the CM-H2DCFDA fluorescence probe using flowcytometry technique. Results: Our results showed significant increase in ROS production after exposure in population rich in monocytes. This effect was not significant in population rich in lymphocytes in comparison with non exposed cells. Conclusion: The results obtained in this study clearly showed the oxidative stress induction capability of RF electromagnetic field in the portion of PBMCs mostly in monocytes, like the case of exposure to micro organisms, although the advantages or disadvantages of this effect should be evaluated.

  20. Cancer incidence among welders: possible effects of exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic radiation (ELF) and to welding fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, R M

    1987-12-01

    Epidemiological studies of cancer incidence among welders disclose a pooled total of 146 cases of leukemia observed versus 159.46 expected, a risk ratio of 0.92, and 40 cases of acute leukemia observed versus 43.39 expected, a risk ratio of 0.92. For respiratory tract cancer, the pooled total is 1789 cases observed versus 1290.7 expected, a risk ratio of 1.39. Most electric welders are exposed to extremely low frequency electromagnetic radiation (ELF) (magnetic flux densities of up to 100,000 microT), a suspected leukemogen, and to concentrated metallic aerosols (up to 200 mg/m3), which can contain the putative respiratory tract carcinogens Cr(VI) and Ni. The two exposures are usually coincident, since welding with an electric current produces welding fumes. The observation of an excess risk for respiratory tract cancer strongly suggests significant exposure both to fumes and to ELF. The absence of increased risk for all leukemia or for acute leukemia among ELF-exposed welders does not support the hypothesis that the observed excess risk for leukemia or acute leukemia among workers in the electrical trades is due to their ELF exposure, which on the average is lower than that of welders.