WorldWideScience

Sample records for monochloroethylene vinyl chloride

  1. Studies Update Vinyl Chloride Hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1980-01-01

    Extensive study affirms that vinyl chloride is a potent animal carcinogen. Epidemiological studies show elevated rates of human cancers in association with extended contact with the compound. (Author/RE)

  2. 46 CFR 151.50-34 - Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer). 151.50-34... chloride (vinyl chloride monomer). (a) Copper, aluminum, magnesium, mercury, silver, and their alloys shall... equipment that may come in contact with vinyl chloride liquid or vapor. (b) Valves, flanges, and...

  3. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spormann, Alfred M [Stanford, CA; Muller, Jochen A [Baltimore, MD; Rosner, Bettina M [Berlin, DE; Von Abendroth, Gregory [Mannheim, DE; Meshulam-Simon, Galit [Los Angeles, CA; McCarty, Perry L [Stanford, CA

    2014-02-11

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  4. 21 CFR 177.1970 - Vinyl chloride-lauryl vinyl ether copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vinyl chloride-lauryl vinyl ether copolymers. 177... for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1970 Vinyl chloride-lauryl vinyl ether copolymers. The vinyl chloride-lauryl vinyl ether copolymers identified in...

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE TO VINYL CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryka Langauer-Lewowicka

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Vinyl chloride (VC monomer is a wellknown carcinogenic and mutagenic substance causes liver damages, angiosarcoma of the liver, acro – osteolysis, sclerodermalike changes in workers chronically exposed to this gas. There are following VC emitors to the environment: VC production plants, polymerization facilities and planes where polyvinyl products are fabricated. Because of that, the general population is coming into VC contact through polluted air, food and water. VC concentration in all mentioned sites is very low, often not detectable. There was found any health risk for the general population. The VC air concentration in the vicinity to antropogenic emitors is always higher. Such a situation may causes undesirable health effect for residents living in the neighbourhood. Epidemiological studies are performed to detect the adverse VC effect in selected cohorts. Non of the study did not confirmed cases of angiosarcoma among residents living near a vinyl chloride sites. VC production is growing permanently, so VC emission will be higher. Because of that health monitoring of general population and especially of selected groups seems to be necessary in the future.

  6. 29 CFR 1915.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1915.1017 Section 1915.1017 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1017 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this...

  7. 29 CFR 1926.1117 - Vinyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1926.1117 Section 1926.1117 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1117 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to...

  8. 42 CFR 84.250 - Vinyl chloride respirators; description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vinyl chloride respirators; description. 84.250... Respirators § 84.250 Vinyl chloride respirators; description. Vinyl chloride respirators, including all... escape from vinyl chloride atmospheres containing adequate oxygen to support life, are...

  9. Prenatal susceptibility to carcinogenesis by xenobiotic substances including vinyl chloride.

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, J M

    1981-01-01

    The carcinogenicity of vinyl chloride for experimental animals when administered transplacentally is reviewed in comparison with known transplacental carcinogens, including those that, like vinyl chloride, are dependent on enzyme-mediated metabolic conversion to a reactive intermediate in maternal or fetal tissues. Vinyl chloride is converted by mixed-function oxidases to the reactive metabolite chlorooxirane, the carcinogenicity of which is also reviewed. Vinyl chloride is unequivocally a tr...

  10. Retention of vinyl chloride in the human lung.

    OpenAIRE

    Krajewski, J.; Dobecki, M; Gromiec, J

    1980-01-01

    Experiments with volunteers showed that 42% of an inhaled dose of vinyl chloride is retained in the lungs. This value is independent of the concentration of vinyl chloride in the air. Elimination of vinyl chloride through the lungs is negligible since its concentration in expired air decreases immediately after the cessation of exposure.

  11. Kinetics of Vinyl Chloride Polymerization with Mixture of Initiators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Kinetic models for the rate constants of vinyl chloride polymerization in the presence of initiator mixtures were proposed. They may be used to design the initiator recipes for the vinyl chloride polymerization with uniform rate at different temperatures at which various grades of poly(vinyl chloride) will be prepared.

  12. 46 CFR 154.1740 - Vinyl chloride: Inhibiting and inerting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vinyl chloride: Inhibiting and inerting. 154.1740... Operating Requirements § 154.1740 Vinyl chloride: Inhibiting and inerting. When a vessel is carrying vinyl chloride, the master shall ensure that: (a) Section 154.1818 is met; or (b) Section 154.1710 is met,...

  13. 40 CFR 61.65 - Emission standard for ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants. 61.65 Section 61.65 Protection of Environment... AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.65 Emission standard for ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants. An owner or operator of an ethylene...

  14. 46 CFR 154.1745 - Vinyl chloride: Transferring operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vinyl chloride: Transferring operations. 154.1745 Section 154.1745 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Operating Requirements § 154.1745 Vinyl chloride: Transferring operations. A vessel carrying vinyl...

  15. THE COMPATIBILITY OF BLENDS OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) OR CHLORINATED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) WITH POLY(METHYL METHACRYLATE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qingguo; CHENG Rongshi

    1988-01-01

    IR spectral shifts of carbonyl vibrational absorption for ethyl acetate, which acts analogically as the structural unit of poly(methyl methacrylate), in cyclohexane, chloroform, chlorinated paraffins, poly(vinyl chloride) and chlorinated poly(vinyl chloride) were measured. The results suggest that there are specific interactions between the carbonyl groups and the chlorinated hydrocarbons which could be responsible for the apparent compatibility of poly(vinyl chloride) -poly(methyl methacrylate) and chlorinated poly(vinyl chloride) -poly(methyl methacrylate) blends. Additionally, the effects of the preparation mode of blend films on phase separation and observed compatibility are discussed.

  16. 40 CFR 61.63 - Emission standard for vinyl chloride plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standard for vinyl chloride... for Vinyl Chloride § 61.63 Emission standard for vinyl chloride plants. An owner or operator of a vinyl chloride plant shall comply with the requirements of this section and § 61.65. (a) Vinyl...

  17. PHASE EQUILIBRIUM FOR THE TERNARY SYSTEM VINYL CHLORIDE-CHLORINATED POLYETHYLENE-POLY (VINYL CHLORIDE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LOU Jianfeng; WENG Zhixue; HUANG Zhiming; PAN Zuren

    1991-01-01

    Swelling capacity of vinyl chloride (VC) in chlorinated polyethylene (CPE) with 25- 40 wt% Cl at temperature 30- 57 ℃ was studied and their relationships were correlated with Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption equations. A ternary phase diagram for VC-CPE-PVC was also established.In-situ polymerization conditions of CPE-g -VC were proposed and CPE content control was analyzed for the manufacturing process of CPE-g-VC graft product based on results of phase equilibrium study.

  18. Acetogenic microbial degradation of vinyl chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, P.M.; Chapelle, F.H.

    2000-01-01

    Under methanogenic conditions, microbial degradation of [1,2-14C]vinyl chloride (VC) resulted in significant (14 ?? 3% maximum recovery) but transient recovery of radioactivity as 14C-acetate. Subsequently, 14C- acetate was degraded to 14CH4 and 14CO2 (18 ?? 2% and 54 ?? 3% final recoveries, respectively). In contrast, under 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid (BES) amended conditions, 14C-acetate recovery remained high (27 ?? 1% maximum recovery) throughout the study, no 14CH4 was produced, and the final recovery of 14CO2 was only 35 ?? 4%. These results demonstrate that oxidative acetogenesis may be an important mechanism for anaerobic VC biodegradation. Moreover, these results (1) demonstrate that microbial degradation of VC to CH4 and CO2 may involve oxidative acetogenesis followed by acetotrophic methanogenesis and (2) suggest that oxidative acetogenesis may be the initial step in the net oxidation of VC to CO2 reported previously under Fe(III)-reducing, SO4-reducing, and humic acids- reducing conditions.Under methanogenic conditions, microbial degradation of [1,2-14C]vinyl chloride (VC) resulted in significant (14 ?? 3% maximum recovery) but transient recovery of radioactivity as 14C-acetate. Subsequently, 14C-acetate was degraded to 14CH4 and 14CO2 (18 ?? 2% and 54 ?? 3% final recoveries respectively). In contrast, under 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid (BES) amended conditions, 14C-acetate recovery remained high (27 ?? 1% maximum recovery) throughout the study, no 14CH4 was produced, and the final recovery of 14CO2 was only 35 ?? 4%. These results demonstrate that oxidative acetogenesis may be an important mechanism for anaerobic VC biodegradation. Moreover, these results (1) demonstrate that microbial degradation of VC to CH4 and CO2 may involve oxidative acetogenesis followed by acetotrophic methanogenesis and (2) suggest that oxidative acetogenesis may be the initial step in the net oxidation of VC to CO2 reported previously under Fe(III)-reducing, SO4-reducing, and

  19. Far-infrared laser action in vinyl chloride, vinyl bromide, and vinyl fluoride optically pumped by a CW N2O laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastaud, C.; Redon, M.; Belland, P.; Fourrier, M.

    1984-06-01

    This paper reports the first use of a N2O laser for optically pumping vinyl halides, to obtain new cw submillimeter laser lines. Eighteen far-infrared (FIR) emissions have been observed in vinyl chloride, twenty five in vinyl bromide and thirty eight in vinyl flouride.

  20. 46 CFR 154.1750 - Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system. 154... and Operating Requirements § 154.1750 Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system. A refrigeration system for butadiene or vinyl chloride must not use vapor compression unless it: (a) Avoids...

  1. Determination of Vinyl Chloride at ug/l. Level in Water by Gas Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellar, Thomas A.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    A quantitative method for the determination of vinyl chloride in water is presented. Vinyl chloride is transfered to the gas phase by bubbling inert gas through the water. After concentration on silica gel or Carbosieve-B, determination is by gas chromatography. Confirmation of vinyl chloride is by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. (Author/BT)

  2. 21 CFR 177.1960 - Vinyl chloride-hexene-1 copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vinyl chloride-hexene-1 copolymers. 177.1960... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1960 Vinyl chloride-hexene-1 copolymers. The vinyl chloride-hexene-1 copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section or...

  3. 21 CFR 178.2650 - Organotin stabilizers in vinyl chloride plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Organotin stabilizers in vinyl chloride plastics... AIDS, AND SANITIZERS Antioxidants and Stabilizers § 178.2650 Organotin stabilizers in vinyl chloride... vinyl chloride homopolymers and copolymers complying with the provisions of § 177.1950 or § 177.1980...

  4. KINETICS OF VINYL CHLORIDE (CO)POLYMERIZATION AT HIGH CONVERSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zu-ren Pan; Zhi-xue Weng; Zhi-ming Huang

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides a summarized review on the kinetics of vinyl chloride homopolymerization in the absence and presence of chain transfer agents, of VC/DAP(diallyl phthalate) copolymerization with chain extension and/or slightly crosslinking functions, and of vinylidene chloride/VC random copolymerization.Models of rate, degree of polymerization or molecular weight, copolymer composition, gel fraction and crosslinking density were proposed and interpreted mechanistically.

  5. The Vinyl Chloride Problem: Several Routes to One Compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechvatal, A.; And Others

    This unit is one of a group of units written to fit the Certificate of Sixth Year Studies (CSYS) chemistry course, but it could be used in most Sixth Form courses. These materials are designed for use in a group decision-making format with each of three groups representing a different manufacturing process which produces vinyl chloride. The unit…

  6. Telomerization of Vinyl Chloride with Chloroform Initiated by Ferrous Chloride-Dimethylacetamide under Ultrasonic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Qian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Telomerization of vinyl chloride with chloroform was investigated using ferrous chloride-dimethylacetamide system, and 42.1% yield, more than four times the one reported before, was achieved. The addition of ultrasound further improved the reaction and yield was raised to 51.9% with trace byproducts at highly reduced reaction time and temperature. Ferrous chloride-dimethylacetamide under ultrasonic irradiation acts as a very efficient catalyst system for the 1 : 1 telomerization.

  7. 29 CFR 1910.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... possible exposure conditions. (2) Protective garments shall be provided clean and dry for each use. (i... Required Authorized Personnel Only (3) Containers of polyvinyl chloride resin waste from reactors or other... which may be useful: A. For kidney dysfunction: urine examination for albumin, red blood cells,...

  8. Preparation of vinyl chloridevinyl ether copolymers via partial etherification from PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The chemical modifications of poly (vinyl chloride with aliphatic and aromatic alcohols compounds have been investigated at room temperature and atmospheric pressure, catalysed by a new green basic catalyst, the Maghnite-K+. The presence of ether groups in the products is proven by infra red spectroscopy (IR as well as by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR, and characterized by intrinsic viscosity as well as by gel permeation chromatography (GPC.

  9. [Evaluation of professional exposure to chloride vinyl monomer and vinyl idene chloride for a pharmaceutical packaging worker].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsi, F; De Grandis, D; Laurelli, R; Narda, R; Pietrantonio, E; Scarlini, E; Soldati, P S

    2007-01-01

    The study was conducted by Judicial Policy investigations of Prosecution's Office. The event was connected by a professional founded suspicion disease of a pharmaceutical worker. First information coming from the Authority indicated a chloride vinyl monomer (CVM) exposure. We applied a chemical risk assessment method to estimate real professional exposure. The method was based on the productive cycle, physical and chemical and toxicological properties. The method combined to environmental data permitted to formulate etiological hypothesis. The worker during drugs packaging was exposed to CVM and vinylidene chloride (CVDM) caused by blister warming and by glue deposition. We explain the evaluations by which we could consider the pollutant different distribution in workplaces.

  10. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BLENDS OF PAMAM DENDRIMERS WITH POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) AND POLY(VINYL ACETATE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybrid blends of poly(amidoamine) PAMAM dendrimers with two linear high polymers, poly(vinyl chloride), PVC, and poly(vinyl acetate), PVAc, are reported. The interaction between the blend components was studied using dynamic mechanical analysis, xenon nuclear magnetic resonacne ...

  11. Palladium-catalyzed conversion of aryl and vinyl triflates to bromides and chlorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoqiang; Hyde, Alan M; Buchwald, Stephen L

    2010-10-13

    The palladium-catalyzed conversion of aryl and vinyl triflates to aryl and vinyl halides (bromides and chlorides) has been developed using dialkylbiaryl phosphine ligands. A variety of aryl, heteroaryl, and vinyl halides can be prepared via this method in good to excellent yields.

  12. An improved palladium-catalyzed conversion of aryl and vinyl triflates to bromides and chlorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jun; Wang, Xinyan; Zhang, Yong; Buchwald, Stephen L

    2011-09-16

    A facile Pd-catalyzed conversion of aryl and vinyl triflates to aryl and vinyl halides (bromides and chlorides) is described. This method allows convenient access to a variety of aryl, heteroaryl, and vinyl halides in good to excellent yields and with greatly simplified conditions relative to our previous report. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  13. Chlorine Nuclear Quadrupole Hyperfine Structure in the Vinyl - Chloride Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Helen O.; Marshall, Mark D.; Messinger, Joseph P.

    2015-06-01

    The microwave spectrum of the vinyl chloride--hydrogen chloride complex, presented at last year's symposium, is greatly complicated by the presence of two chlorine nuclei as well as an observed, but not fully explained tunneling motion. Indeed, although it was possible at that time to demonstrate conclusively that the complex is nonplanar, the chlorine nuclear quadrupole hyperfine splitting in the rotational spectrum resisted analysis. With higher resolution, Balle-Flygare Fourier transform microwave spectra, the hyperfine structure has been more fully resolved, but appears to be perturbed for some rotational transitions. It appears that knowledge of the quadrupole coupling constants will provide essential information regarding the structure of the complex, specifically the location of the hydrogen atom in HCl. Our progress towards obtaining values for these constants will be presented.

  14. Plastics and carcinogenesis: The example of vinyl chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Wesley Brandt-Rauf

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The manufacture, use and disposal of various plastics can pose numerous health risks, including the risk of cancer. A model example of carcinogenic risk from plastics is provided by polyvinyl chloride, since it is composed of the known human carcinogen vinyl chloride (VC. In recent years, much has been learned about the molecular biological pathways of VC carcinogenesis. This has led to molecular epidemiologic studies of VC carcinogenesis in exposed human populations which have identified useful biomarkers of exposure, effect and susceptibility for VC. These studies have in turn provided the basis for new molecular approaches for the prevention and treatment of VC cancers. This model could have much wider applicability for many other carcinogenic exposures and many other human cancers.

  15. Physical and conductivity properties of poly (vinyl chloride) ionomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Nira; Panda, H. S.; Kapusetti, Govinda; Jaiswal, Shilpa; Bhattacharya, Subhratanu

    2011-02-01

    Poly (vinyl chloride)(PVC) is a cheapest plastic. Importance of PVC based ionomer has been gradually being popularizing due to compatibility of PVC with a number of salts to replace polyethylene oxide based ionomer. Under present investigation few of chloride group of PVC chain have been replaced by basic thiouronium group and these thiouronium groups are further oxidized to sulfonate group. Introduction of thiouronium group in PVC is confirmed through FTIR and further its oxidation to sulfonate group is also confirmed by FTIR. Conductivity in different stoichiometric ratio of PVCTU and PVCSO3H was studied and found that PVCTU: PVCSO3H in 1:1 ratio has conductivity near to pure PVC (10-9 Ohm-1 cm-1) and increases with proportion of PVCSO3Na in the mixture (10-6 Ohm-1 cm-1) for pure PVC, PVCTU has less conductivity not much significant.

  16. Role for acetotrophic methanogens in methanogenic biodegradation of vinyl chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, P.M.; Chapelle, F.H.

    1999-01-01

    Under methanogenic conditions, stream-bed sediment microorganisms rapidly degraded [1,2-14C]vinyl chloride to 14CH4 and 14CO2. Amendment with 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid eliminated 14CH4 production and decreased 14CO2 recovery by an equal molar amount. Results obtained with [14C]ethene, [14C]acetate, or 14CO2 as substrates indicated that acetotrophic methanogens were responsible for the production of 14CH4 during biodegradation of [1,2-14C]VC.Under methanogenic conditions, stream-bed sediment microorganisms rapidly degraded [1,2-14C]vinyl chloride to 14CH4 and 14CO2. Amendment with 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid eliminated 14CH4 production and decreased 14CO2 recovery by an equal molar amount. Results obtained with [14C]-ethene, [14C]acetate, or 14CO2 as substrates indicated that acetotrophic methanogens were responsible for the production of 14CH4, during biodegradation of [1,2-14C]VC.

  17. [Headspace GC/MS analysis of residual vinyl chloride and vinylidene chloride in polyvinyl chloride and polyvinylidene chloride products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Hiroyuki; Mutsuga, Motoh; Kawamura, Yoko; Suzuki, Masako; Aoyama, Taiki

    2005-02-01

    A headspace GC/MS analysis method for the simultaneous determination of residual vinyl chloride (VC) and vinylidene chloride (VDC) in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) products was developed. A test sample was swelled overnight with N,N-dimethylacetamide in a sealed vial. The vial was incubated for 1 hour at 90 degrees C, then the headspace gas was analyzed by GC/MS using a PLOT capillary column. The recoveries from spiked PVC and PVDC samples were 90.0-112.3% for VC and 85.2-108.3% for VDC. The determination limits were 0.01 microg/g for VC and 0.06/microg/g for VDC, respectively. By this method, VC was detected in two PVC water supply pipes at the levels of 0.61 and 0.01 microg/g. On the other hand, VC and VDC were not detected in any of the food container-packages or toys tested.

  18. Anaerobic mineralization of vinyl chloride in Fe(III)-reducing, aquifer sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, P.M.; Chapelle, F.H.

    1996-01-01

    Within anaerobic aquifer systems, reductive dehalogenation of polychlorinated ethenes commonly results in the accumulation of vinyl chloride, which is highly toxic and carcinogenic to humans. Anaerobic reduction of vinyl chloride is considered to be slow and incomplete. Here, we provide the first evidence for anaerobic oxidation of vinyl chloride under Fe(III)reducing conditions. Addition of chelated Fe(III) (as Fe-EDTA) to anaerobic aquifer microcosms resulted in mineralization of up to 34% of [1,2- 14C]vinyl chloride within 84 h. The results indicate that vinyl chloride can be mineralized under anaerobic, Fe(III)-reducing conditions and that the bioavailability of Fe(III) is an important factor affecting the rates of mineralization.

  19. 21 CFR 700.14 - Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including... Products § 700.14 Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol products. (a) Vinyl chloride has been used as an ingredient in cosmetic aerosol products including hair...

  20. 76 FR 76766 - Standard on Vinyl Chloride; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    .... OSHA-2011-0196] Standard on Vinyl Chloride; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB... collection requirements specified in the Standard on Vinyl Chloride (29 CFR 1910.1017). DATES: Comments must... brief description of the collection of information requirements contained in the Vinyl Chloride...

  1. Poly(vinyl chloride) composite emulsion resins modified by polyurethane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaolei ZHANG; Mingwang PAN; Shengnan XING; Jingsheng LI

    2008-01-01

    An ionomer-type of polyurethane (PU) emul-sion was prepared from toluene diisocyanate (TDI), polypropylene glycol (PPG) and dimethylol propionic acid (DMPA) following a self-emulsification process. The modified poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) emulsion resin was obtained by in situ emulsion copolymerization using the PU as seeds in an autoclave. The effects of PU molecular weight on the mechanical properties and thermal stability of the PU/PVC materials were investigated. The composite latex particles and composite materials were determined and characterized using a laser particle size analyzer, transmission electron microscopy or scanning electron microscopy. The study results showed that the PU/PVC hybrid emulsion particles possess a core/shell structure. When the general mechanical properties of the composite materials increase, the thermal stabilities decrease a little. The tough fractures on the surface of the PU/PVC composite sample following impact are quite obvious.

  2. Studies on poly (vinyl chloride/silica dioxide composite hollow fiber membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Shuo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly (vinyl chloride/silica dioxide composite hollow fiber membranes were prepared by using the method of immersion-precipitation process. The influences of stretching ratio on the formation of the interfacial microporous of poly (vinyl chloride/silica dioxide composite hollow fiber membranes were specifically investigated by scanning electron microscope, dynamic mechanical analysis, and finite element method. Results show that with the stretching ratio increasing, numerous IFM appear on the surface of membranes. Finite element method actually reflects the dynamic change of microporous structure of poly (vinyl chloride/silica dioxide composite hollow fiber membranes.

  3. 21 CFR 178.3790 - Polymer modifiers in semirigid and rigid vinyl chloride plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... in the introduction to this section and not more than 5 weight-percent of polymer units derived from... polymer units derived from the vinyl chloride polymers identified in the introduction to this section, not... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polymer modifiers in semirigid and rigid vinyl...

  4. Self-assembled hemocompatible coating on poly (vinyl chloride) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zha Zhengbao; Ma Yan; Yue Xiuli; Liu Meng [Nanobiotechnology Division, State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resources and Environment, School of Sciences, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Dai Zhifei, E-mail: zhifei.dai@hit.edu.cn [Nanobiotechnology Division, State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resources and Environment, School of Sciences, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2009-11-15

    A stable hemocompatible coating was fabricated by consecutive alternating adsorption of iron (III) and two kinds of polysaccharides, heparin (Hep) and dextran sulfate (DS), onto poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) surfaces via electrostatic interaction. The fluctuation of contact angles with the alternative deposition of iron (III) and polysaccharides verified the progressive buildup of the mulitilayer coating onto the PVC surface. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis revealed that the PVC surfaces were completely masked by iron-polysaccharides multilayer coatings. The activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) assay showed that both Hep/Fe{sup 3+}/Hep and DS/Fe{sup 3+}/Hep coated PVC were less thrombogenic than the uncoated one. Chromogenic assay for heparin activity proved definitively that the inhibition of locally produced thrombin was ascribed to the thromboresistance of the surface-bound heparin. Compared with the unmodified PVC surfaces, iron-polysaccharide multilayer coating presented a drastically reduced adhesion in vitro of platelets, polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMN) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Interestingly, the DS/Fe{sup 3+}/Hep coating was found to exhibit higher hydrophilicity and stability, hence lower non-specific protein adsorption in comparison with Hep/Fe{sup 3+}/Hep coating due to the incorporation of dextran sulfate into the multilayer coating.

  5. Creep Behaviour of Wood Flour/Poly(vinyl chloride) Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Mingyin; XUE Ping; ZHAO Yongsheng; WANG Kejian

    2009-01-01

    The experimental creep data were focused on wood-flour(WF)/poly vinyl chloride (PVC)composites with the variations in additive concentrations of wood flour,silane coupling agent, organomodified montmorillonite(OMMT)and nano-cacium carbonate(nano-CaCO_3).Their effects were analyzed using the Four-element Burger Model incorporating microscopic mechanisms.Total creep strain was low with increasing WF while elastic strain was high and plastic flow strain was low in modeling.Modification of WF with silane was beneficial to creep resistance,so did adding low ratio of OMMT(1.5 wt%)and nano-CaCO_3 in composites.Thus,it was effective in reducing creep either by stiffening the PVC matrix using rigid nano-particles or by improving their adhesion with resin.However,superfluous quantity of any additament did not benefit the improvement owing to either earlier destruction of their agglomerates or stress-concentrated cracks in the over-incrassated interface.

  6. Optimal control of batch emulsion polymerization of vinyl chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damslora, Andre Johan

    1998-12-31

    The highly exothermic polymerization of vinyl chloride (VC) is carried out in large vessels where the heat removal represents a major limitation of the production rate. Many emulsion polymerization reactors are operated in such a way that a substantial part of the heat transfer capacity is left unused for a significant part of the total batch time. To increase the reaction rate so that it matches the heat removal capacity during the course of the reaction, this thesis proposes the use of a sufficiently flexible initiator system to obtain a reaction rate which is high throughout the reaction and real-time optimization to compute the addition policy for the initiator. This optimization based approach provides a basis for an interplay between design and control and between production and research. A simple model is developed for predicting the polymerization rate. The model is highly nonlinear and open-loop unstable and may serve as an interesting case for comparison of nonlinear control strategies. The model is fitted to data obtained in a laboratory scale reactor. Finally, the thesis discusses optimal control of the emulsion polymerization reactor. Reduction of the batch cycle time is of major economic importance, as long as the quality parameters are within their specifications. The control parameterization had a major influence on the performance. A differentiable spline parameterization was applied and the optimization is illustrated in a number of cases. The best performance is obtained when the reactor temperature is obtained when the optimization is combined with some form of closed-loop control of the reactor temperature. 112 refs., 48 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Microbial mineralization of dichloroethene and vinyl chloride under hypoxic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Paul M.; Chapelle, Francis H.

    2011-01-01

    Mineralization of 14C-radiolabled vinyl chloride ([1,2-14C] VC) and cis-dichloroethene ([1,2-14C] cis-DCE) under hypoxic (initial dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations about 0.1 mg/L) and nominally anoxic (DO minimum detection limit = 0.01 mg/L) was examined in chloroethene-exposed sediments from two groundwater and two surface water sites. The results show significant VC and dichloroethene (DCE) mineralization under hypoxic conditions. All the sample treatments exhibited pseudo-first-order kinetics for DCE and VC mineralization over an extended range of substrate concentrations. First-order rates for VC mineralization were approximately 1 to 2 orders of magnitude higher in hypoxic groundwater sediment treatments and at least three times higher in hypoxic surface water sediment treatments than in the respective anoxic treatments. For VC, oxygen-linked processes accounted for 65 to 85% of mineralization at DO concentrations below 0.1 mg/L, and 14CO2 was the only degradation product observed in VC treatments under hypoxic conditions. Because the lower detection limit for DO concentrations measured in the field is typically 0.1 to 0.5 mg/L, these results indicate that oxygen-linked VC and DCE biodegradation can be significant under field conditions that appear anoxic. Furthermore, because rates of VC mineralization exceeded rates of DCE mineralization under hypoxic conditions, DCE accumulation without concomitant accumulation of VC may not be evidence of a DCE degradative “stall” in chloroethene plumes. Significantly, mineralization of VC above the level that could reasonably be attributed to residual DO contamination was also observed in several nominally anoxic (DO minimum detection limit = 0.01 mg/L) microcosm treatments.

  8. A Model Approach for Finding Cleaning Solutions for Plasticized Poly(Vinyl Chloride) Surfaces of Collections Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanz Landaluze, Jon; Egsgaard, Helge; Morales Munoz, Clara

    2014-01-01

    solutions for the plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) used in the study was found. In addition, a specific method to tailor cleaning mixtures for plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) objects was developed by means of Hildebrand solubility parameters and the formulation of a Plasticizer Index calculated......This study focused on developing a surface cleaning treatment for one type of commercially available plasticized poly(vinyl chloride). The effects of cleaning solutions on samples of plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) were examined by several methods. The sample surface, prior to and after artificial...

  9. Structure and Electrical Study of New Chemically Modified Poly(vinyl chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ammari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the structural and electrical properties of a new polymer obtained by functionalization of a commercial poly(vinyl chloride (PVC (Mw = 48000 by grafting aminoalkyl and aminoaryl groups. Modified poly(vinyl chloride was prepared in two steps. The structural properties of the polymer were systematically investigated by varieties of techniques as differential scanning calorimetric (DSC, thermogravimetry analysis (TG, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. The electrical properties of the polymer were studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS.

  10. Field and laboratory evidence for intrinsic biodegradation of vinyl chloride contamination in a Fe(III)-reducing aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, P.M.; Chapelle, F.H.; Wilson, J.T.

    1998-01-01

    Intrinsic bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes in anaerobic aquifers previously has not been considered feasible, due, in large part, to 1) the production of vinyl chloride during microbial reductive dechlorination of higher chlorinated contaminants and 2) the apparent poor biodegradability of vinyl chloride under anaerobic conditions. In this study, a combination of field geochemical analyses and laboratory radiotracer ([1,2-14C] vinyl chloride) experiments was utilized to assess the potential for intrinsic biodegradation of vinyl chloride contamination in an Fe(III)-reducing, anaerobic aquifer. Microcosm experiments conducted under Fe(III)-reducing conditions with material from the Fe(III)-reducing, chlorinated-ethene contaminated aquifer demonstrated significant oxidation of [1,2-14C] vinyl chloride to 14CO2 with no detectable production of ethene or other reductive dehalogenation products. Rates of degradation derived from the microcosm experiments (0.9-1.3% d-1) were consistent with field-estimated rates (0.03-0.2% d-1) of apparent vinyl chloride degradation. Field estimates of apparent vinyl chloride biodegradation were calculated using two distinct approaches; 1) a solute dispersion model and 2) a mass balance assessment. These findings demonstrate that degradation under Fe(III) reducing conditions can be an environmentally significant mechanism for intrinsic bioremediation of vinyl chloride in anaerobic ground-water systems.

  11. [Evaluating risk of health disorders in workers engaged into polyvinyl chloride, vinyl chloride and caustic soda production (according to data collected by polls)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'iakovich, O A

    2014-01-01

    The authors represent data of automated system for quantitative risk evaluation of main pathologic syndromes in workers engaged into polyvinyl chloride, vinyl chloride and caustic soda production. Vinyl chloride and mercury levels at the investigation time corresponded with MAC. Relationship was seen between value of arterial hypertension risk and duration of contact with both vinyl chloride and mercury. Risk values for functional disorders of liver, endocrine system and nervous system were in weak correlation with length of exposure to mercury at work. Workers exposed to mercury appeared to have lower self-estimation of health state and higher dissatisfaction with the work.

  12. The Effect of Protic Acid Identity on the Structures of Complexes with Vinyl Chloride: Fourier Transform Microwave Spectroscopy and Molecular Structure of the Vinyl Chloride-Hydrogen Chloride Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinger, Joseph P.; Leung, Helen O.; Marshall, Mark D.

    2014-06-01

    In all previous examples of complexes formed between protic acids and haloethylenes, we have observed similar modes of binding regardless of the specific identity of the acid, HF, HCl, or HCCH. Although details of the structures, such as hydrogen bond length and amount of deviation from linearity, do reflect the strength of the interaction and show clear correlations with the gas-phase acidity, the complexes of a given haloethylene with any of the acids have identical structural motifs. Vinyl chloride, on the other hand, has been observed to adopt different modes of binding in its interactions with HF and HCCH. The HF complex, reported two years ago, has a geometry with HF interacting across the double bond of vinyl chloride and forming a secondary interaction with the hydrogen cis to the chlorine atom, but in the complex with acetylene, reported last year, HCCH locates at one end of the vinyl chloride with the secondary interaction occurring with the geminal hydrogen atom. This variety continues and is expanded in the vinyl chloride-HCl complex. Ab initio theory predicts a complex that has the HCl molecule interacting across the double bond, but located out of the vinyl chloride plane. The microwave spectrum of the most abundant isotopologue of this complex is consistent with theoretical predictions and additionally shows the presence of large amplitude motion connecting two equivalent structures.

  13. Silver(Ⅰ)-mediated reaction of trimethylsilylated arylacetylenes with sulfonyl chlorides: Unexpected formation of vinyl sulfones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui Sheng Deng; Teng Fei Sun

    2012-01-01

    A novel reaction of trimethylsilylated arylacetylenes with sulfonyl chlorides was performed in the presence of silver nitrate or triflate.Conjugated vinyl sulfones as dramatic products were obtained in moderate yields and with Z-selectivity.A free radical mechanism has been proposed to account for the formation of the products.

  14. New insight into the formation of structural defects in poly(vinyl chloride)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purmova, J; Pauwels, KFD; van Zoelen, W; Vorenkamp, EJ; Schouten, AJ; Coote, ML; Pauwels, Kim F.D.; Coote, Michelle L.

    2005-01-01

    The monomer conversion dependence of the formation of the various types of defect structures in radical suspension polymerization of vinyl chloride was examined via both H-1 and C-13 NMR spectrometry. The rate coefficients for model propagation and intra- and intermolecular hydrogen abstraction reac

  15. Modeling of the Migration of Glycerol Monoester Plasticizers in Highly Plasticized Poly(vinyl chloride)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundsgaard, Rasmus; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Kristiansen, Jørgen K.;

    2009-01-01

    soybean oil (ESBO) with regard to their migration from three different types of poly(vinyl chloride) into isooctane at 20, 40, and 60 degrees C. Diffusion coefficients derived from the experimental migration data were evaluated against diffusion coefficients estimated from a model based solely...

  16. Research progress of vinyl chloride-vinyl acetate copolymer resin and its production situations at home and abroad%氯醋共聚树脂研究进展及国内外生产概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王祖芳; 黄东; 贺盛喜

    2013-01-01

    The development and research situations of vinyl chloride-vinyl acetate copolymer resins were introduced ,and the situations of vinyl chloride-vinyl acetate copolymer resin production enterprises at home and abroad were listed .%介绍了氯醋共聚树脂的发展及研究概况,列举了国内外氯醋共聚树脂主要生产企业的生产情况。

  17. FIELD AND LABORATORY EVIDENCE FOR INTRINSIC BIODEGRADATION OF VINYL CHLORIDE CONTAMINATION IN A FE(III)-REDUCING AQUIFER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intrinsic bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes in anaerobic aquifers previously has not been considered feasible, due, in large part, to 1) the production of vinyl chloride during microbial reductive dechlorination of higher chlorinated contaminants and 2) the apparent poor biod...

  18. Concurrent ethene generation and growth of Dehalococcoides containing vinyl chloride reductive dehalogenase genes during an enhanced reductive dechlorination field demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Durant, N. D.; Dennis, P.;

    2008-01-01

    Dehalococcoides bacteria that produce catabolic vinyl chloride (VC) reductive dehalogenase enzymes have been implicated as a requirement for successful biological dechlorination of VC to ethene in groundwater systems. Therefore, the functional genes in Dehalococcoides that produce VC reductase (e...

  19. ANALYSIS OF ADIPATE ESTER CONTENTS IN POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) PLASTICS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.; Otero, Amalia Dopazo

    2006-01-01

    Fourier transform (FT-) Raman spectroscopy excited with a 1064 nm laser can be used to determine the content of plasticizers in commercial flexible poly vinyl chloride (PVC) products. Our previous study [T. Nørbygaard, R.W. Berg, Analysis of phthalate ester content in PVC plastics by means of FT......-Raman Spectroscopy, Appl. Spectrosc. 58 (4) (2004) 410–413]—on detection of the presence of phthalate esters in PVC by FT-Raman spectroscopy — is here extended to the similar case of adipate esters (AEs) in samples of soft poly vinyl chloride plastics. Spectra of a range of adipate ester plasticizers (11 AEs......) in pure form are reported. We studied if qualitative and quantitative determination of the adipate ester content would be possible based on the use of proper reference samples. It was found that AEs as a group cannot be definitively identified by their characteristic Raman bands because other aliphatic...

  20. DFT study on the selective oxidation of vinyl chloride on different metal surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruipeng Ren; Ruixin Xi; Xianyong Pang; Yongkang Lü

    2011-01-01

    Selective epoxidation of vinyl chloride on Ag(111),Pt(111)and Rh(I 11)with pre-adsorbed atomic oxygen has been studied by density functional theory(DFT)calculation with the periodic slab model.The reaction energies and activation energies of the epoxidation reaction are determined.Because of the asymmetry of vinyl chloride,three competitive reaction pathways are investigated.The results indicate that the most possible reaction pathway is pathway Ⅲ.Compared the activation energies of the epoxidation reaction on Ag(111),Pt(111)and Rh(111),it is obvious that the reaction via OMMC(3)on Ag(111)is the most possible process.However,the selectivity to the target product over Ag(111)is the lowest among the three metals.The results also indicate that the formation of chloroacetaldehyde is more favorable than that of chloroepoxide.

  1. Humic acids as electron acceptors for anaerobic microbial oxidation of vinyl chloride and dichloroethene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, P.M.; Chapelle, F.H.; Lovley, D.R.

    1998-01-01

    Anaerobic oxidation of [1,2-14C]vinyl chloride and [1,2- 14C]dichloroethene to 14CO2 under humic acid-reducing conditions was demonstrated. The results indicate that waterborne contaminants can be oxidized by using humic acid compounds as electron acceptors and suggest that natural aquatic systems have a much larger capacity for contaminant oxidation than previously thought.

  2. Effects of polymorphisms in XRCC1 and APE1 on vinyl chloride-induced chromosome damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金伟

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of polymorphisms in XRCC1 and APE1 genes on vinyl chloride(VC)-induced chromosomal damage in peripheral lymphocytes.Methods In this study,317 workers occupationally exposed to VC were recruited from a factory in Shandong Province,China.The micronucleus(MN)frequency in peripheral lymphocytes was used as an indicator of chromosomal damage.Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and created restriction site

  3. Suzuki-Miyaura coupling of heteroaryl boronic acids and vinyl chlorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Ashish; Zhang, Kainan; Louie, Janis

    2012-01-07

    A protocol for the Suzuki-Miyaura coupling of heteroaryl boronic acids and vinyl chlorides that minimizes protodeboronation is described. A combination of catalytic amounts of Pd(OAc)(2) and SPhos in conjunction with CsF in isopropanol effectively affords a variety of coupled products. Surprisingly, a dramatic temperature dependence in product selectivity was observed. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  4. Effect of Nano ZnO on the Optical Properties of Poly(vinyl chloride) Films

    OpenAIRE

    Wasan Al-Taa’y; Mohammed Abdul Nabi; Yusop, Rahimi M.; Emad Yousif; Bashar Mudhaffar Abdullah; Jumat Salimon; Nadia Salih; Saiful Irwan Zubairi

    2014-01-01

    Optical properties of pure and doped poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) films, prepared by using casting technique, with different nanosize zinc oxide (ZnO) concentrations (1–20) wt% have been studied. Parameters such as extinction coefficient, refractive index, real and imaginary parts, Urbach energy, optical conductivity, infinitely high frequency dielectric constant, and average refractive index were studied by using the absorbance and transmittance measurement from computerized UV-visible spectro...

  5. Thermal, dielectric and mechanical study of poly(vinyl chloride/olive pomace composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Composites from PVC and chemically treated olive pomace have been prepared. The effect of the incorporation of virgin and benzylated olive pomace in the poly(vinyl chloride matrix on dielectric, mechanical and thermal stability properties, of /olive pomace composites was studied. The mechanical properties of the benzylated composites were improved. Furthermore, the thermal characterization of the different samples carried out by thermogravimetric analysis revealed an increase in the onset temperatures of decomposition for the treated composites. The dielectric investigation indicated that the samples containing olive pomace treated with the benzyl chloride can be used in electrical applications as insulators.

  6. Field and laboratory determination of a poly(vinyl/vinylidene chloride) additive in brick mortar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, S L; Newman, J H; Ptak, F L

    1990-02-01

    A polymerized vinyl/vinylidene chloride additive, used in brick mortar during the 60s and 70s, is detected at the building site by the field method, which employs a commercially available chloride test strip. The field test results can then be verified by the laboratory methods. In one method, total chlorine in the mortar is determined by an oxygen-bomb method and the additive chloride is determined by difference after water-soluble chlorides have been determined on a separate sample. In the second method, the polymerized additive is extracted directly from the mortar with tetrahydrofuran (THF). The difference in weight before and after extraction of the additive gives the weight of additive in the mortar. Evaporation of the THF from the extract leaves a thin film of the polymer, which gives an infrared "fingerprint" spectrum characteristic of the additive polymer.

  7. PARTICLE MORPHOLOGY OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) RESIN PREPARED BY SUSPENDED EMULSION POLYMERIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-zhong Bao; Zhen-li Wei; Zhi-xue Weng; Zhi-ming Huang

    2003-01-01

    Suspended emulsion polymerization was used to prepare poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) resin. Fine PVC particles were formed at low polymerization conversions. The amount of fine particles decreases as conversion increases and disappears at conversions greater than 30%. Scanning electron micrographs show that PVC grains are composed of loosely coalesced primary particles, especially for PVC resins prepared in the presence of poly(vinyl alcohol) dispersant. The size of primary particles increases and porosity decreases with the increase of conversion. In view of the particle features of PVC resin, a particle formation mechanism including the formation of primary particles and grains is proposed. The formation process of primary particles includes the formation of particle nuclei, coalescence of particle nuclei to form primary particles,and growth of primary particles. PVC grains are formed by the coagulation of primary particles. The loose coalescence of primary particles is caused by the colloidal stability of primary particles and the low swelling degree of vinyl chloride in the primary particles.

  8. Investigation of factors affecting the accumulation of vinyl chloride in polyvinyl chloride piping used in drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Ryan K; Lin, Po-Hsun; Edwards, Marc; Richardson, Ruth E

    2011-04-01

    Plastic piping made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and chlorinated PVC (CPVC), is being increasingly used for drinking water distribution lines. Given the formulation of the material from vinyl chloride (VC), there has been concern that the VC (a confirmed human carcinogen) can leach from the plastic piping into drinking water. PVC/CPVC pipe reactors in the laboratory and tap samples collected from consumers homes (n = 15) revealed vinyl chloride accumulation in the tens of ng/L range after a few days and hundreds of ng/L after two years. While these levels did not exceed the EPA's maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 2 μg/L, many readings that simulated stagnation times in homes (overnight) exceeded the MCL-Goal of 0 μg/L. Considerable differences in VC levels were seen across different manufacturers, while aging and biofilm effects were generally small. Preliminary evidence suggests that VC may accumulate not only via chemical leaching from the plastic piping, but also as a disinfection byproduct (DBP) via a chlorine-dependent reaction. This is supported from studies with CPVC pipe reactors where chlorinated reactors accumulated more VC than dechlorinated reactors, copper pipe reactors that accumulated VC in chlorinated reactors and not in dechlorinated reactors, and field samples where VC levels were the same before and after flushing the lines where PVC/CPVC fittings were contributing. Free chlorine residual tests suggest that VC may be formed as a secondary, rather than primary, DBP. Further research and additional studies need to be conducted in order to elucidate reaction mechanisms and tease apart relative contributions of VC accumulation from PVC/CPVC piping and chlorine-dependent reactions.

  9. Site-Specific Mobilization of Vinyl Chloride Respiration Islands by a Mechanism Common in Dehalococcoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwards Elizabeth A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vinyl chloride is a widespread groundwater pollutant and Group 1 carcinogen. A previous comparative genomic analysis revealed that the vinyl chloride reductase operon, vcrABC, of Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS is embedded in a horizontally-acquired genomic island that integrated at the single-copy tmRNA gene, ssrA. Results We targeted conserved positions in available genomic islands to amplify and sequence four additional vcrABC -containing genomic islands from previously-unsequenced vinyl chloride respiring Dehalococcoides enrichments. We identified a total of 31 ssrA-specific genomic islands from Dehalococcoides genomic data, accounting for 47 reductive dehalogenase homologous genes and many other non-core genes. Sixteen of these genomic islands contain a syntenic module of integration-associated genes located adjacent to the predicted site of integration, and among these islands, eight contain vcrABC as genetic 'cargo'. These eight vcrABC -containing genomic islands are syntenic across their ~12 kbp length, but have two phylogenetically discordant segments that unambiguously differentiate the integration module from the vcrABC cargo. Using available Dehalococcoides phylogenomic data we estimate that these ssrA-specific genomic islands are at least as old as the Dehalococcoides group itself, which in turn is much older than human civilization. Conclusions The vcrABC -containing genomic islands are a recently-acquired subset of a diverse collection of ssrA-specific mobile elements that are a major contributor to strain-level diversity in Dehalococcoides, and may have been throughout its evolution. The high similarity between vcrABC sequences is quantitatively consistent with recent horizontal acquisition driven by ~100 years of industrial pollution with chlorinated ethenes.

  10. Impact behaviour of an innovative plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) for the automotive industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, C. A.; Bahlouli, N.; Wagner-Kocher, C.; Ahzi, S.; Rémond, Y.

    2015-09-01

    Plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PPVC) is widely used in the automotive industry in the design of structural parts for crashworthiness applications. Thus, it is necessary to study and understand the influence of the mechanical response and mechanical properties of PPVC over a wide range of strain rate, from quasi-static to dynamic loadings. The process is also investigated using different sample thicknesses. In this work, the strain rate effect of a new PPVC is investigated over a wide range of strain rates at three temperatures and for three thicknesses. A modelling of the yield stress is also proposed. The numerical prediction is in good agreement with the experimental results.

  11. Knoevenagel condensation catalysed by poly(vinyl chloride) supported tetraethylenepentamine (PVC-TEPA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fen Dong; Yi Qun Li; Rong Feng Dai

    2007-01-01

    Poly(vinyl chloride) supported tetraethylenepentamine (PVC-TEPA) has been found to be an efficient catalyst for the Knoevenagel condensation. A wide range of aromatic aldehydes easily undergo condensations with ethyl cyanoacetate and malononitrile in the commercial 95% ethanol in refluxing using PVC-TEPA as catalyst to afford the desired products of good purity in moderate to excellent yields. A recycling study confirmed that the catalyst could be reused, the yield of the desired condensation product were not reduced. The merits of this protocol are environmentally benign, simple operation, convenient work-up and good yields. Furthermore, the catalyst can easily be recovered and reused at five times with comparable yields.

  12. Genome Sequence of the Ethene- and Vinyl Chloride-Oxidizing Actinomycete Nocardioides sp Strain JS614

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Nicholas V [University of Sydney, Australia; Wilson, Neil L [University of Sydney, Australia; Barry, Kerrie [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Dalin, Eileen [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Hammon, Nancy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, Shunsheng [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Israni, Sanjay [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kim, Edwin [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Larimer, Frank W [ORNL; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Richardson, Paul [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Schmutz, Jeremy [Stanford University; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Thompson, Sue [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Spain, Jim C [Georgia Institute of Technology; Gossett, James G [Cornell University; Mattes, Timothy E [University of Iowa

    2011-01-01

    Nocardioides sp. strain JS614 grows on ethene and vinyl chloride (VC) as sole carbon and energy sources and is of interest for bioremediation and biocatalysis. Sequencing of the complete genome of JS614 provides insight into the genetic basis of alkene oxidation, supports ongoing research into the physiology and biochemistry of growth on ethene and VC, and provides biomarkers to facilitate detection of VC/ethene oxidizers in the environment. This is the first genome sequence from the genus Nocardioides and the first genome of a VC/ethene-oxidizing bacterium.

  13. Poly(vinyl chloride-grafted multi-walled carbon nanotubes via Friedel-Crafts alkylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel approach was developed for the surface modification of the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs with high percentage of grafting (PG% by the grafting of polymer via the Friedel-Crafts alkylation. The graft reaction conditions, such as the amount of catalyst added, the reaction temperature, and the reaction time were optimized for the Friedel-Crafts alkylation of the MWCNTs with poly(vinyl chloride (PVC with anhydrous aluminum chloride (AlCl3 as catalyst in chloroform (CHCl3. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR, Raman, and thermogravimetric (TGA analysis showed that PVC had been successfully grafted onto MWCNTs both at the ends and on the sidewalls by the proposed Friedel-Crafts alkylation. The PVC grafted MWCNTs (PVC-MWCNTs could be dispersed well in organic solvent and the dispersion was more stable.

  14. DIELECTRIC AND PYROELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF THE COMPOSITES OF FERROELECTRIC CERAMIC AND POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Olszowy

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The dielectric and pyroelectric properties of lead zirconate titanate/poly(vinyl chloride [PZT/PVC] and barium titanate/poly(vinyl chloride [BaTiO3/ PVC] composites were studied. Flexible composites were fabricated in the thin films form (200-400 μm by hot-pressed method. Powders of PZT or BaTiO3 in the shape of ≤ 75 μm ceramics particles were dispersed in a PVC matrix, providing composites with 0-3} connectivity. Distribution of the ceramic particles in the polymer phase was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The analysis of the thermally stimulated currents (TSC have also been done. The changes of dielectric and pyroelectric data on composites with different contents of ceramics up to 40% volume were investigated. The dielectric constants were measured in the frequency range from 600 Hz to 6 MHz at room temperature. The pyroelectric coefficient for BaTiO3/PVC composite at 343 K is about 35 μC/m2K which is higher than that of β-PVDF (10 μC/m2 K.

  15. Preparation of hydrophilic vinyl chloride copolymer hollow fiber membranes with antifouling properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabzadeh, Saeid; Sano, Rie; Ishigami, Toru; Kakihana, Yuriko; Ohmukai, Yoshikage; Matsuyama, Hideto

    2015-01-01

    Hydrophilic vinyl chloride copolymer hollow fiber membranes with antifouling properties were prepared from brominated vinyl chloride-hydroxyethyl methacrylate copolymer (poly(VC-co-HEMA-Br)). The base membrane was grafted with two different zwitterionic monomers, (2-methacryloyloxyethylphosphorylcholine) (MPC) and [2-(methacryloyloxy) ethyl] dimethyl (3-sulfopropyl) ammonium hydroxide) (MEDSAH), and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA). The effect of the grafting on the base membrane hydrophilicity and antifouling properties was investigated. For comparison of the results, the pure water permeabilities and pore sizes at the outer surfaces of the grafted hollow fiber membranes were controlled to be similar. A poly(VC-co-HEMA-Br) hollow fiber membrane with similar pure water permeability and pore size was also prepared as a control membrane. A BSA solution was used as a model fouling solution for evaluation of the antifouling properties. Grafting with zwitterionic monomers and PEGMA improved the antifouling properties compared with the control membrane. The PEGMA grafted membrane showed the best antifouling properties among the grafted membranes

  16. Research Progress of Innovative Living Polymerization of Vinyl Chloride%PVC新型活性聚合研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裘炎

    2013-01-01

    Research progress of innovative living polymerization of vinyl chloride(VC) was presented, and copolymerization of VC was also involved. Polymerization mechanisms involved different kinds of catalyst were studied, which would provide theoretical and experimental basis for modifying living polymerization process of vinyl chloride.%介绍了氯乙烯新型活性聚合以及共聚研究进展,从不同催化剂角度研究其聚合机理,为今后PVC活性聚合工艺的改进提供理论和实验依据。

  17. POLYMER FILLER INTERACTIONS IN POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) FILLED WITH GLASS-BEADS - EFFECT OF GRAFTED POLY(METHYL METHACRYLATE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FOLKERSMA, R; CHALLA, G; SCHOUTEN, AJ

    1992-01-01

    Adhesion between filler and matrix has been studied using a model system composed of glass bead filled poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC). Stress-strain and volume-strain tests and scanning electron microscopy revealed that adhesion is improved by grafting poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), which is known to

  18. A novel biobased plasticizer of epoxidized cardanol glycidylether: Synthesis and application in soft poly(vinyl chloride) films

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel plasticizer derived from cardanol, epoxied cardanol glycidyl ether (ECGE), was synthesized and characterized by 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. Effects of the ECGE combined with dioctyl phthalate (DOP), a commercial plasticizer, in soft poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) films were studied. Dynamic mechanical a...

  19. Polymer-filler interactions in poly(vinyl chloride) filled with glass beads : effect of grafted poly(methyl methacrylate)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boven, Gert; Folkersma, Rudy; Challa, Ger; Schouten, Arend Jan; Bosma, Martin

    1992-01-01

    Adhesion between filler and matrix has been studied using a model system composed of glass bead filled poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC). Stress-strain and volume-strain tests and scanning electron microscopy revealed that adhesion is improved by grafting poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), which is known to

  20. Formation of 7-(2-oxoethyl) guanine from lipid peroxidation and vinyl chloride exposure in male sprague dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    With a development of a new sensitive LC-MS/MS method to analyze 7-(2-oxoethylguanine) (7OEG), we confirmed and differentiated 7-0EG DNA adduct formation endogenously from lipid peroxidation and exogenously from Vinyl Chloride (VC) exposure. VC is an industrial chemical that is ...

  1. Hydrogen ion-selective poly(vinyl chloride) membrane electrode based on a calix[4]arene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruoğlu, Demet; Canel, Esin; Memon, Shahabuddin; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Kiliç, Esma

    2003-02-01

    A hydrogen ion-selective poly(vinyl chloride) membrane electrode was constructed using 5,11,17,23-tetra-tert-butyl-25,26,27,28-tetracyanomethoxycalix[4]arene as a neutral carrier. The electrode showed an apparent Nernstian response in the 2-11.5 pH range with a slope of 54.0 +/- 0.2 mV/pH at 20 +/- degrees C. This electrode showed a rapid response of the emf to changes in the pH, high ion selectivity with respect to lithium, sodium and potassium, and characteristics similar to those reported for the conventional pH glass membrane electrode. It can be used as a potentiometric indicator electrode in hydrofluoric acid solutions. The effects of iodide, thiocyanate, perchlorate and bromide on the characteristics of the electrode were also considered.

  2. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF COMPOSITES COMPRISING MODIFIED HARDWOOD AND WOOD POLYMERS/POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxanda Bodîrlău

    Full Text Available Chemical modification of hardwood sawdust from ash-tree species was carried out with a solution of maleic anhydride in acetone. Wood polymers, lignin, and cellulose were isolated from the wood sawdust and modified by the same method. Samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, providing evidence that maleic anhydride esterifies the free hydroxyl groups of the wood polymer components. Composites comprising chemically modified wood sawdust and wood polymers (cellulose, lignin-as variable weight percentages-, and poly (vinyl chloride were obtained and further characterized by using FTIR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The thermal behavior of composites was investigated by using the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. In all cases, thermal properties were affected by fillers addition.

  3. Impact behaviour of an innovative plasticized poly(vinyl chloride for the automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard C.A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasticized poly(vinyl chloride (PPVC is widely used in the automotive industry in the design of structural parts for crashworthiness applications. Thus, it is necessary to study and understand the influence of the mechanical response and mechanical properties of PPVC over a wide range of strain rate, from quasi-static to dynamic loadings. The process is also investigated using different sample thicknesses. In this work, the strain rate effect of a new PPVC is investigated over a wide range of strain rates at three temperatures and for three thicknesses. A modelling of the yield stress is also proposed. The numerical prediction is in good agreement with the experimental results.

  4. Metal lanolin fatty acid as novel thermal stabilizers for rigid poly(vinyl chloride)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Yong; ZHENG Yuying; QIU Shangchang; ZENG Anran; LI Baoming

    2011-01-01

    The synergistic stabilization effect of different metal lanolin fatty acids as natural-based thermal stabilizers for poly(vinyl chloride)(PVC) including calcium lanolin fatty acid (Calan2), zinc lanolin fatty acid (Znlan2) and lanthanum lanolin fatty acid (Lalan3) were studied through Congo red testing, color measurements, FTIR analyses and thermal behavior in this paper. The results showed that Lalan3/Calan2/Znlan2 stabilizers exhibited more excellent thermal stabilization efficiency to PVC than Calan2/Znlan2 thermal stabilizers, and the optimal mass ratio of Lalan3/Calan2/Znlan2 was 8:9:3. At last, the effect of degradation mechanism on PVC and synergistic stabilization was also investigated by FTIR analyses and thermal behavior.

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL STABILITY OF THE POLYENE PREPARED BY DEHYDROCHLORINATION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-ming Zhang; Qing-zhong Guo; Tian-lu Chen

    2003-01-01

    A high-quality polyene can be obtained by extensive dehydrochlorination of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) in a liquid/solid two-phase system. The liquid phase is a tetrahydrofuran solution of PVC containing a small amount of poly(ethylene glycol) with molar mass of 400 g as a phase transfer catalyst. The solid phase is potassium hydroxide particles.The structure of the polyene is polyacetylene-like and has a long conjugated C=C sequence and a narrow dispersity of polyene sequences according to its FT-infrared and Raman spectra. The environmental stability of the polyene was also studied by IR, Raman spectra and elemental analysis. Experimental results demonstrated that the polyene was susceptible to air and could be changed into a material containing high concentrations of hydroxyl and carbonyl groups. The polyene sequences were shortened and its dispersity became broader due to the effect of dioxygen.

  6. New Flexible Flame Retardant Coatings Based on Siloxane Resin and Ethylene-Vinyl Chloride Copolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Wesolek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the effectiveness of a phosphorus-containing flame retardant based on siloxane resin and ethylene-vinyl chloride copolymer as a back-coating of fabrics. The possibility of improving flame retardant efficiency of this composition by introducing fumed silica, montmorillonite, carbon nanotubes, and graphite was evaluated. The effect of each additive on the efficiency of the composition was examined separately. Flammability tests of flame retardant-coated fabrics (natural and synthetic were carried out using pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry (PCFC, cone calorimetry, and limiting oxygen index determination. An assessment of the ignitability of upholstered furniture containing flame retardant fabric, resistance to washing, antifungal activity, and some of the utility properties of the final newly-developed flame-retardant coating was conducted.

  7. Aqueous leaching of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate and "green" plasticizers from poly(vinyl chloride).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastner, Joshua; Cooper, David G; Marić, Milan; Dodd, Patrick; Yargeau, Viviane

    2012-08-15

    A method was developed to assess leaching of several poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) plasticizers in aqueous media using gas chromatography (GC), and compared to a gravimetric standard test method (ASTM Method D1239). The GC method was a more direct measurement of plasticizer concentration in the aqueous phase. The leaching of commercial plasticizers, as well as several series of "green" candidate plasticizers, were assessed as a function of their molecular characteristics and compared to the industry standard PVC plasticizer, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP). It was found that plasticizers containing longer alkyl chains or non-polar branching emanating from polar structural units, increased the hydrophobicity of the molecule and reduced its aqueous leaching rate. Several "green" plasticizer candidates were found to minimize aqueous leaching to rates ten times below that of DEHP; notably dioctyl succinate (DOS), dihexyl maleate (DHM), methyl cyclohexyl diester (MCDE), diethylhexyl succinate (DEHS), hexanediol dibenzoate (C6), and the commercially available Hexamoll® DINCH.

  8. Morphology and properties of segregated-network chemically converted graphene-poly(vinyl chloride) composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Viet Hung; Dang, Thanh Truong; Hur, Seung Hyun; Kim, Eui Jung; Chung, Jin Suk

    2012-07-01

    The poly(vinyl chloride)-chemically converted graphene (PVC-CCG) composite prepared using colloidal blending, filtration and drying, and followed by compression molding at 175 degrees C, exhibited an electrical percolation threshold as low as 0.4 wt% and an electrical conductivity as high as 46.5 S/m corresponding to 4.0 wt% of CCG. The high electrical conductivity of the PVC-CCG composite was the result of minimizing the amount of surfactant using various methods. For example, the PVC latex was prepared using miniemulsion polymerization, and the CCG was synthesized via hydrazine reduction of graphene oxide at ambient temperature in order to diminish the irreversible agglomeration of CCG sheets during reduction. The morphology of the PVC-CCG composite, characterized using scanning electron microscopy in charge contrast mode, revealed that the CCG sheets created a segregated network in the PVC matrix.

  9. Modification of cycloolefin copolymer and poly(vinyl chloride) surfaces by superimposition of nano- and microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koponen, Hanna-Kaisa; Saarikoski, Inka; Korhonen, Tuulia; Pääkkö, Marjo; Kuisma, Risto; Pakkanen, Tuula T.; Suvanto, Mika; Pakkanen, Tapani A.

    2007-04-01

    Cycloolefin copolymer (COC) and poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) surfaces were patterned with nanopillars or with microbumps on which nanopillars were superimposed. The area of patterned surfaces was several square centimeters. Patterning was achieved by applying nanoporous anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane as a mask in injection molding or imprinting. Nanostructures superimposed on microstructures were achieved by patterning the AAO mask with microstructures before anodization. Micro- and nanometer-sized structures could then be transferred simultaneously to polymer surfaces. Structures were characterized by SEM, AFM, and contact profilometry. The effect of different-sized structures on properties of the polymer surface was studied by contact angle measurements. Relative to the smooth surface, the increase in water contact angle on a COC surface with nanostructures superimposed on microstructures was up to 50°.

  10. A comprehensive analysis of plausible genotoxic covariates among workers of a polyvinyl chloride plant exposed to vinyl chloride monomer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Alagamuthu Karthick; Balachandar, Vellingiri; Arun, Meyyazhagan; Ahamed, Shafi Ahammed Khan Mustaq; Kumar, Shanmugam Suresh; Balamuralikrishnan, Balasubramanium; Sankar, Kathannan; Sasikala, Keshavarao

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of chromosomal aberrations-including chromatid type aberrations (CTAs), chromosomal type aberrations, micronucleus (MN) comet assay, and XRCC1 399 Arg/Gln polymorphism-in peripheral blood lymphocytes of workers occupationally exposed to vinyl chloride monomer (VCM). A total of 52 workers and an equal number of controls were recruited into the study to explore the potential cytogenetic risk of occupational exposure to VCM. Questionnaires were administered to obtain details of habitual cigarette-smoking, alcohol-consumption pattern, and occupation, etc. The exposed subjects and controls were classified into two groups based on age (group I 8 and ≥8 years). CTA, MN, and comet assay frequency were significantly greater in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) factory workers (p < 0.05) with long-duration work. CTA, MN, and comet assay values were found to be increased with age in exposed subjects as well as in controls, with exposed subjects showing a statistically greater degree. An extensively greater MN frequency was observed in smokers exposed to VCM than in the control group (P < 0.05). The mean tail length of exposed subjects was greater compared with controls. The study on XRCC1 399 Arg/gln polymorphism in PVC factory workers showed less significant difference in allele frequency compared with controls. In conclusion, this results of work provides evidence for an apparent genotoxic effect associated with VCM exposure. Our results reinforce the greater sensitivity of cytogenetic assays for biomonitoring of occupationally exposed populations. Statistics indicate that workers exposed to VCM are at carcinogenic risk and should be monitored for long-term adverse effects from their exposure.

  11. Fabrication of low-fire-hazard flexible poly (vinyl chloride) via reutilization of heavy metal biosorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ye-Tang; Wang, De-Yi

    2017-10-05

    As a naturally abundant biopolymer, chitosan is considered to be a suitable adsorbent for stannate (SnO3(2-)) in tin plating wastewater. However, mass transfer of the adsorbent and its recycling remain challenging problems. Though flexible poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) is highly flammable due to the addition of plasticizers, the traditional flame retardant, antimony trioxide (Sb2O3), is potentially harmful. In this study, chitosan was anchored onto the surface of PVC resin to adsorb SnO3(2-) from wastewater. Thereafter, tin-doped chitosan-coated PVC resin was readily recycled and processed into a flexible PVC composite (modified fPVC). The limiting oxygen index value of the modified fPVC increased to 33.1%, and the peak heat release rate decreased to 161kW/m(2). In addition to reducing fire hazards, this approach also decreased the content of harmful hydrogen chloride gas released during the combustion of modified fPVC. Meanwhile, the tensile properties of modified fPVC were enhanced compared with those of the Sb2O3-treated sample. These results indicated the synthesis of an eco-friendly Sb2O3-free flexible PVC composite that poses a low fire hazard. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Production technology of suspension vinyl chloride-vinyl acetate copolymer resin and its progress%悬浮法氯乙烯-醋酸乙烯酯共聚树脂生产技术及进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马学莲; 任伟明

    2012-01-01

    The process technologies for production of suspension vinyl chloride-vinyl acetate copolymer resin were introduced.The new progress in domestic production technology for suspension vinyl chlorode-vinyl acetate copolymer resin was listed,and the development trend was also indicated.%介绍了悬浮法氯乙烯-醋酸乙烯酯共聚树脂生产工艺技术,列举了国内氯乙烯-醋酸乙烯酯共聚树脂生产技术的新进展,并指出了其工艺技术发展动态。

  13. Environmental Levels and Trends of 1,2-dichloroethane, vinyl chloride and chloroform in water, sediment and biota for the European and Arctic regions: literature study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korytar, P.; Leslie, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    Data on concentrations of chloroform, 1,2-dichloroethane and vinyl chloride in European and Arctic waters, sediments and biota were collected from scientific literature and monitoring programmes for the period 1980–2005 and are presented in this report.

  14. Ab initio heats of formation for chlorinated hydrocarbons: Allyl chloride, cis- and trans-1-chloropropene, and vinyl chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colegrove, Brenda Thies; Thompson, Tyler B.

    1997-01-01

    Ab initio molecular energies at several levels of theory (MP4/6-311G**//MP2/6-31G*, MP4/6-311+G**//MP2/6-31G*,G1, and G2) are used to determine the heats of formation of several chlorinated hydrocarbons (allyl chloride, cis- and trans-1-chloropropene, and vinyl chloride) from atomization and isodesmic reactions. More than one isodesmic reaction was investigated for each molecule. Inconsistencies between the results from isodesmic reactions for a given molecule indicated possible errors in the experimental heats of formation for some of the chlorinated molecules used as references in the isodesmic reactions (in particular 1-chloropropane and 2-chloropropane). To further examine this possibility we did a multivariate regression for the G2 calculated reaction enthalpies for the 30 isodesmic reactions. In the regression, the heats of formation of the hydrocarbons and CH3Cl were fixed at the experimental values. The heats of formation of all the other chlorinated hydrocarbons were varied. The heats of formation determined using this method were: ΔHf298(CH2Cl2)=-22.6 kcal/mole, ΔHf298(CHCl=Cl2)=5.0 kcal/mole, ΔHf298(CCl2=CH2)=-0.2 kcal/mole, ΔHf298(CH2Cl-CH3)=-27.0 kcal/mole, ΔHf298(c-CHCl=CH-CH3)=-3.1 kcal/mole, ΔHf298(t-CHCl=CH-CH3)=-2.8 kcal/mole, ΔHf298(CH2=CClCH3)=-5.4 kcal/mole, ΔHf298(CH2=CH-CH2Cl)=-0.8 kcal/mole, ΔHf298(CH2Cl-CH2-CH3) =-32.2 kcal/mole, ΔHf298(CH3-CHCl-CH3 )=-35.9 kcal/mole. The calculated heats of formation were used to derive the following Benson group enthalpy values: C-(Cl)(H)2(Cd)=-15.6 kcal/mole, Cd-(Cl)(H)=-1.3 kcal/mole, and cis-halogen-alkyl =-0.3 kcal/mole.

  15. Fracture inspection by BHTV logging through a vinyl chloride tube; Enbi pipe ga sonyusareta kosei deno BHTV ni yoru kiretsu chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horikawa, H.; Okabe, T.; Takasugi, S. [GERD Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Yamauchi, Y.; Imanishi, H. [Osaka Soil Test, Osaka (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    A borehole televiewer (BHTV) logging was conducted to investigate cracks in bored wells. The logging process shoots ultrasonic waves onto bore walls and utilizes reflection waves from the bore walls. If the bores are filled with muddy water, or the ultrasonic waves can pass through even if vinyl chloride tubes have been inserted after excavation, the state of the bore walls can be investigated in principle. Conventional optical scanners are, however, incapable of making this investigation. The BHTV logging can be used for identifying lithofacies from reflection intensities from bore walls (it depends on sound impedance of rocks), not to speak of finding cracks. As a result of making logging upon setting time windows from 105 to 145 {mu} sec in a bored well inserted with a vinyl chloride tube, cracks in the bore wall were identified clearly through the vinyl chloride tube. If the distance between the bore wall and the vinyl chloride tube becomes smaller, setting the time window becomes difficult, making reflection data acquisition more difficult. Impacts of decentering in the vinyl chloride tube on the data and the crack analysis result are small. The reflection intensity has decreased by about half as a result of having the circular vinyl chloride tube inserted. 5 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Gas Permeable Membranes Composed of Carboxylated Poly(vinyl chloride) and Polyurethane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Chun Won; Kim, Chai Gyun; Kim, Wan Young; Jeong, Yong Seob; Lee, Youn Sik [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-06-15

    Gas-permeable polymeric membranes containing carboxyl groups which are suitable for enzyme immobilization were investigated in order to use them as gas electrode membranes in biosensors. Carboxylated polyurethane (CPU) was synthesized via a reaction between 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)propionic acid as a chain extender and prepolymers prepared from polycarprolactone (Mn=2,000) and 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocynate. It was difficult to prepare membranes from the pure CPU because of its high elasticity and cohesion. However, transparent free-standing membranes were easily prepared from the blend solutions of CPU and carboxylated poly(vinyl chloride) (CPVC) in tetrahydrofuran. Both elasticity and cohesion of the CPU/CPVC membranes were decreased with increasing the content of CPVC. DSC experiment suggests that CPU and CPVC may be well mixed. Permeability coefficients for O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} (P{sub O2} and P{sub CO2}) in the membranes increased as the proportion of CPU increased. The addition of dioctyl phthalate (DOP), a plasticizer, significantly enhanced the P{sub O2} and P{sub CO2} which were 4.4 and 30 Barrer, respectively, in the CPU/CPVC (80/20 wt/wt) membranes containing 20% of DOP at 25 .deg. C and 100 psi. Thus this type of membranes may have a potential for the use as gas electrode membranes in biosensors

  17. MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF NANOSIZED TITANIUM DIOXIDE FILLED RIGID POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-xiang Zhang; Yi-hu Song; Qiang Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Nano-sized rod-like titanium dioxide (TiO2) filled rigid poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) nanocomposites were prepared by using injection-molding method.Vicat,Charpy impact and tensile tests as well as thermogravimetric and dynamic mechanical analyses were used to characterize the structure and properties of the nanocomposites.The results showed that nano-TiO2 could improve Vicar softening temperature and also improve thermal stability of PVC during the stages of dehydrochlorination and formation of carbonaceous conjugated polyene sequences,which can be ascribed to restriction of the nanoparticles on the segmental relaxation as being evidenced by raises in glass transition and β-relaxation temperatures of PVC upon filling TiO2.Addition of TiO2 nanoparticles less than 40 phr (parts per hundreds of resin) could significantly improve impact strength of the composites while the TiO2 agglomeration at high contents leads to a reduction in impact toughness.

  18. Mechanisms, Chemistry, and Kinetics of Anaerobic Biodegradation of cis-Dichloroethene and Vinyl Chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarty, P.L.; Spormann, A.M.

    2000-12-01

    Anaerobic biological processes can result in PCE and TCE destruction through conversion to cis-dichloroethene (cDCE) then to vinyl chloride (VC), and finally to ethene. Here, the chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) serve as electron acceptors in energy metabolism, requiring electron donors such as hydrogen from an external source. The purpose of this study was to learn more about the biochemistry of cDCE and VC conversion to ethene, to better understand the requirements for electron donors, and to determine factors affecting the rates of CAH degradation and organism growth. The biochemistry of reductive dehalogenation of VC was studied with an anaerobic mixed culture enriched on VC. In other studies on electron donor needs for dehalogenation of cDCE and VC, competition for hydrogen was found to occur between the dehalogenators and other microorganisms such as methanogens and homoacetogens in a benzoate-acclimated dehalogenating methanogenic mixed culture. Factors affecting the relative rates of destruction of the solvents and their intermediate products were evaluated. Studies using a mixed PCE-dehalogenating culture as well as the VC enrichment for biochemical studies suggested that the same species was involved in both cDCE and VC dechlorination, and that cDCE and VC competitively inhibited each other's dechlorination rate.

  19. Bioinert membranes prepared from amphiphilic poly(vinyl chloride)-g-poly(oxyethylene methacrylate) graft copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rajkumar; Patel, Madhumita; Ahn, Sung Hoon; Sung, Yong Kiel; Lee, Hyung-Keun; Kim, Jong Hak; Sung, Jung-Suk

    2013-04-01

    Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane was hydrophilically modified by grafting with poly(oxyethylene methacrylate) (POEM) using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The successful grafting of PVC main chain by POEM was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The molecular weight and hydrophilicity of membranes increased with the amount of POEM grafting, as characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and contact angle measurement, respectively. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis revealed the microphase-separated structure of PVC-g-POEM and the domain spacing increased from 59.3 to 86.1 nm with increasing grafting degree. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used for the direct visualization of the mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cell and bacteria adhesion on the membrane surface. Protein adsorption and eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell adhesion tests showed that the bioinert properties of membranes were significantly increased with POEM content. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Bioinert membranes prepared from amphiphilic poly(vinyl chloride)-g-poly(oxyethylene methacrylate) graft copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Rajkumar [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Patel, Madhumita [Department of Life Science, Dongguk University-Seoul, 3–26 Phil-dong, Chung-gu, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Sung Hoon [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Yong Kiel [ReSEAT Program, Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information, 206-9 Cheongyangni-dong, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyung-Keun [Korea Institute of Energy Research, 71-2 Jang-dong, Yuseong-gu, Dae-jeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Hak, E-mail: jonghak@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Jung-Suk, E-mail: sungjs@dongguk.edu [Department of Life Science, Dongguk University-Seoul, 3–26 Phil-dong, Chung-gu, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-01

    Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane was hydrophilically modified by grafting with poly(oxyethylene methacrylate) (POEM) using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The successful grafting of PVC main chain by POEM was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The molecular weight and hydrophilicity of membranes increased with the amount of POEM grafting, as characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and contact angle measurement, respectively. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis revealed the microphase-separated structure of PVC-g-POEM and the domain spacing increased from 59.3 to 86.1 nm with increasing grafting degree. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used for the direct visualization of the mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cell and bacteria adhesion on the membrane surface. Protein adsorption and eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell adhesion tests showed that the bioinert properties of membranes were significantly increased with POEM content. Highlights: ► TEM and SAXS analysis revealed the microphase-separated structure of graft copolymer membranes. ► Protein adsorption and eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell adhesion tests were performed on graft copolymer membranes. ► Boinert properties of membranes were significantly increased with POEM content.

  1. Thermochemical reaction mechanism of lead oxide with poly(vinyl chloride) in waste thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Si-Jia; Zhang, Hua; Shao, Li-Ming; Liu, Shu-Meng; He, Pin-Jing

    2014-12-01

    Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) as a widely used plastic that can promote the volatilization of heavy metals during the thermal treatment of solid waste, thus leading to environmental problems of heavy metal contamination. In this study, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) coupled with differential scanning calorimeter, TGA coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and lab-scale tube furnace experiments were carried out with standard PVC and PbO to explicate the thermochemical reaction mechanism of PVC with semi-volatile lead. The results showed that PVC lost weight from 225 to 230°C under both air and nitrogen with an endothermic peak, and HCl and benzene release were also detected. When PbO was present, HCl that decomposed from PVC instantly reacted with PbO via an exothermal gas-solid reaction. The product was solid-state PbCl2 at 501°C, PbCl2 melted, volatilized and transferred into flue gas or condensed into fly ash. Almost all PbCl2 volatilized above 900°C, while PbO just started to volatilize slowly at this temperature. Therefore, the chlorination effect of PVC on lead was apt to lower-temperature and rapid. Without oxygen, Pb2O was generated due to the deoxidizing by carbon, with oxygen, the amount of residual Pb in the bottom ash was significantly decreased.

  2. Vinyl chloride industry in the courtroom and corporate influences on the scientific literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedeli, Ugo; Mastroangelo, Giuseppe

    2011-06-01

    Pressure from the vinyl chloride (VC) industry on researchers involved in industry-sponsored studies and on regulatory agencies has been documented since 1970s. This commentary describes the influence of a lawsuit pursued by workers of an Italian VC plant on the recent scientific debate on VC exposure and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Original studies carried out by consultants of the public prosecutors and by independent researchers supported the above association. VC-industry consultants published two reviews during the lawsuit, claiming that liver angiosarcoma was the only VC-related cancer. The judges concluded that the evidence of the association between HCC and VC was still not convincing. After the trial, the risk of HCC was confirmed by a re-assessment of VC carcinogenicity from the International Agency for Research on Cancer, but other subsequent industry-funded reviews criticized the new evidence. Industry-funded authors cited each other, and rarely disclosed conflicts of interest. Based on a network of collaborating researchers, industrial interests can shape the literature enhancing the background noise surrounding the scientific evidence.

  3. Development of a Poly(vinyl chloride)-based Nitrate Ion-selective Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Meng-meng; YANG Hui-zhong

    2012-01-01

    The authors developed a nitrate ion-selective electrode(ISE) based on poly(vinyl chloride)(PVC) membrane with methyltrioctylammonium nitrate as a carrier and 1-decanol as a plasticizer.The performance of the nitrate-sensitive membranes was optimized by tuning the composition of components.The electrode exhibits a linear response with a Nernstian slope of (52±1.0) mV per decade for the nitrate ion concentration ranging from 5.8×10-5 mol/L to 1.0 mol/L.The electrode can be used to detect a low concentration of nitrate ions down to 3 × 10-5 mol/L in a pH range of 2.1-11.5 without any compensation.The advantage of the electrode includes simple preparation,short response time and good repeatability.The detection performance of the novel electrode on nitrate ions has been tested for water samples.

  4. Surface Modification of Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC) Using Low Pressure Argon and Oxygen Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Ghoranneviss; Sheila, Shahidi; Jakub, Wiener

    2010-04-01

    In this study, commercial poly vinyl chloride (PVC) films were treated by oxygen and argon plasmas in a cylindrical glass tube which was surrounded by a DC variable magnetic field, with different sample positions in the plasma reactor and also different exposure durations. Effects of the plasma treatment on the hydrophilic properties of the films were studied by measuring the water drop contact angle on the surface of the samples. The surface topography of the untreated and plasma treated films was analyzed and compared by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The optical characteristic changes in treated samples were investigated using reflective spectrophotometry. Also, the chemical changes which appeared on the surface of the samples were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results show that the plasma treated PVC becomes more hydrophilic with an enhanced wettability. A sharp decrease in the water contact angle may also be a consequence of the surface texturization. The aging effect on wettability of the samples was also investigated. The results show that the effect of oxygen plasma on the surface properties of the samples is more pronounced compared with that of argon plasma.

  5. Localized Plasticity in the Streamlined Genomes of Vinyl Chloride Respiring Dehalococcoides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMurdie, Paul J.; Behrens, Sebastien F.; Muller, Jochen A.; Goke, Jonathan; Ritalahti, Kirsti M.; Wagner, Ryan; Goltsman, Eugene; Lapidus, Alla; Holmes, Susan; Loffler, Frank E.; Spormann, Alfred M.

    2009-06-30

    Vinyl chloride (VC) is a human carcinogen and widespread priority pollutant. Here we report the first, to our knowledge, complete genome sequences of microorganisms able to respire VC, Dehalococcoides sp. strains VS and BAV1. Notably, the respective VC reductase encoding genes, vcrAB and bvcAB, were found embedded in distinct genomic islands (GEIs) with different predicted integration sites, suggesting that these genes were acquired horizontally and independently by distinct mechanisms. A comparative analysis that included two previously sequenced Dehalococcoides genomes revealed a contextually conserved core that is interrupted by two high plasticity regions (HPRs) near the Ori. These HPRs contain the majority of GEIs and strain-specific genes identified in the four Dehalococcoides genomes, an elevated number of repeated elements including insertion sequences (IS), as well as 91 of 96 rdhAB, genes that putatively encode terminal reductases in organohalide respiration. Only three core rdhA orthologous groups were identified, and only one of these groups is supported by synteny. The low number of core rdhAB, contrasted with the high rdhAB numbers per genome (up to 36 in strain VS), as well as their colocalization with GEIs and other signatures for horizontal transfer, suggests that niche adaptation via organohalide respiration is a fundamental ecological strategy in Dehalococccoides. This adaptation has been exacted through multiple mechanisms of recombination that are mainly confined within HPRs of an otherwise remarkably stable, syntenic, streamlined genome among the smallest of any free-living microorganism.

  6. Sifat elektrik dan termal nanokomposit poly(vinyl chloride (PVC/low density polyethylene (LDPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arum Yuniari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most serious problems encountered in poly(vinyl chloride (PVC processing is due to low thermal stability of the PVC. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of LDPE and flame retardant on to the electrical and thermal nanocomposites properties The nanocomposites were prepared using a laboplastomill with (15; 20; 25 and 30 phr LDPE and (30 and 35 phr flame retardant at 215 ºC and 50 rpm rotor speed. The thermal properties of nanocomposite was evaluated by TGA/DTA and DSC, electrical properties was evaluated by volume resistivity. Thermal analysis results revealed that decomposition of nanocomposites occured at 280 ºC. DSC results show that crystalisation temperatur (Tc at 250 ºC, melting temperature (Tm at 260 ºC and glass temperature (Tg at 60 ºC. The IR spectra of nanocomposites showed that there was absorption at 1579 cm-1 formed polyene (C=C. The electrical testing of nanocomposites fullfill the quality requirements of SNI 04-6504-2001 Lampu swaballast untuk pelayanan umum-persyaratan keselamatan ≥ 4 MΩ..

  7. Sol-Gel Transition in Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate-Plasticized Poly(vinyl chloride)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Hyung [Korea Food and Drug Administration, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nah, Jae Woon [Sunchon National University, Suncheon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kil Won [Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seong Hun [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hahn, Airan [Biotechnology and Environmenttal Eng. Div., Agency for Technology and Standards, Kwacheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-15

    The gelation for di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)-plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) was studied by measuring time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and a flow of the solutions in test tube. It was found that for the gelation there were three regimes. At Regime I, the solution rapidly changed to a gel, and the SAXS intensity showed a peak and the peak intensity increased, keeping the peak angle constant. Applying the SAXS intensity to the kinetic analysis of the liquid-liquid phase separation, it was revealed that the spinodal decomposition proceeded to develop a periodic length of 29.9 nanometer in size, a hydrogen-bonding-type association in polymer rich phase followed, and then it induced fast gelation rate. At Regime II, the gelation slowly occurred and the SAXS intensity was not observed, suggesting that a homogeneous gel network was formed by a hydrogen-bonding. At regime III, the solution was a homogeneous sol.

  8. Viscoelastic, Spectroscopic, and Microscopic Characterization of Novel Bio-Based Plasticized Poly(vinyl chloride Compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Chan Sin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasticized poly(vinyl chloride (PVC is one of the most widely consumed commodity plastics. Nevertheless, the commonly used plasticizers, particularly phthalates, are found to be detrimental to the environment and human health. This study aimed to investigate the ability of an alternative greener material, medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHA, a kind of biopolyester and its thermally degraded oligoesters, to act as a compatible bioplasticizer for PVC. In this study, mcl-PHA were synthesized by Pseudomonas putida PGA1 in shake flask fermentation using saponified palm kernel oil (SPKO and subsequently moderately thermodegraded to low molecular weight oligoesters (degPHA. SEM, ATR-FTIR, 1H-NMR, and DMA were conducted to study the film morphology, microstructure, miscibility, and viscoelastic properties of the PVC-PHA and PVC/degPHA binary blends. Increased height and sharpness of tan δmax⁡ peak for all binary blends reveal an increase in chain mobility in the PVC matrix and high miscibility within the system. The PVC-PHA miscibility is possibly due to the presence of specific interactions between chlorines of PVC with the C=O group of PHA as evidenced by spectroscopic analyses. Dynamic viscoelastic measurements also showed that mcl-PHA and their oligoesters could reduce the Tg of PVC, imparting elasticity to the PVC compounds and decreasing the stiffness of PVC.

  9. The molecular interfacial structure and plasticizer migration behavior of "green" plasticized poly(vinyl chloride).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxian; Li, Yaoxin; Hankett, Jeanne M; Chen, Zhan

    2015-02-14

    Tributyl acetyl citrate (TBAC), a widely-used "green" plasticizer, has been extensively applied in products for daily use. In this paper, a variety of analytical tools including sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG), coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS), contact angle goniometry (CA), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were applied together to investigate the molecular structures of TBAC plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) and the migration behavior of TBAC from PVC-TBAC mixtures into water. We comprehensively examine the effects of oxygen and argon plasma treatments on the surface structures of PVC-TBAC thin films containing various bulk percentages of plasticizers and the leaching behavior of TBAC into water. It was found that TBAC is a relatively stable PVC plasticizer compared to traditional non-covalent plasticizers but is also surface active. Oxygen plasma treatment increased the hydrophilicity of TBAC-PVC surfaces, but did not enhance TBAC leaching. However, argon plasma treatment greatly enhanced the leaching of TBAC molecules from PVC plastics to water. Based on our observations, we believe that oxygen plasma treatment could be applied to TBAC plasticized PVC products to enhance surface hydrophilicity for improving the biocompatibility and antibacterial properties of PVC products. The structural information obtained in this study will ultimately facilitate a molecular level understanding of plasticized polymers, aiding in the design of PVC materials with improved properties.

  10. Effect of Nano ZnO on the Optical Properties of Poly(vinyl chloride Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasan Al-Taa’y

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical properties of pure and doped poly(vinyl chloride (PVC films, prepared by using casting technique, with different nanosize zinc oxide (ZnO concentrations (1–20 wt% have been studied. Parameters such as extinction coefficient, refractive index, real and imaginary parts, Urbach energy, optical conductivity, infinitely high frequency dielectric constant, and average refractive index were studied by using the absorbance and transmittance measurement from computerized UV-visible spectrophotometer (Shimadzu UV-1601 PC in the spectral range 200–800 nm. This study reveals that the optical properties of PVC are affected by the doping of ZnO where the absorption increases and transmission decreases as ZnO concentration increases. The extinction coefficient, refractive index, real and imaginary parts, infinitely high frequency dielectric constant, and average refractive index values were found to increase with increasing impurity percentage. The Urbach energy values are found to be decreasing with increasing ZnO concentration. The optical conductivity increased with photon energy after being doped and with the increase of ZnO concentration.

  11. Photoinitiated decomposition of substituted ethylenes: The photodissociation of vinyl chloride and acrylonitrile at 193 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blank, D.A.; Suits, A.G.; Lee, Y.T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Ethylene and its substituted analogues (H{sub 2}CCHX) are important molecules in hydrogen combustion. As the simplest {pi}-bonded hydrocarbons these molecules serve as prototypical systems for understanding the decomposition of this important class of compounds. The authors have used the technique of photofragment translational spectroscopy at beamline 9.0.2.1 to investigate the dissociation of vinyl chloride (X=Cl) and acrylonitrile (X=CN) following absorption at 193 nm. The technique uses a molecular beam of the reactant seeded in helium which is crossed at 90 degrees with the output of an excimer laser operating on the ArF transition, 193.3 nm. The neutral photoproducts which recoil out of the molecular beam travel 15.1 cm where they are photoionized by the VUV undulator radiation, mass selected, and counted as a function of time. The molecular beam source is rotatable about the axis of the dissociation laser. The authors have directly observed all four of the following dissociation channels for both systems: (1) H{sub 2}CCHX {r_arrow} H + C{sub 2}H{sub 2}X; (2) H{sub 2}CCHX {r_arrow} X + C{sub 2}H{sub 3}; (3) H{sub 2}CCHX {r_arrow} H{sub 2} + C{sub 2}HX; and (4) H{sub 2}CCHX {r_arrow} HX + C{sub 2}H{sub 2}. They measured translational energy distributions for all of the observed channels and measured the photoionization onset for many of the photoproducts which provided information about their chemical identity and internal energy content. In the case of acrylonitrile, selective product photoionization provided the ability to discriminate between channels 2 and 4 which result in the same product mass combination.

  12. Aerobic bioremediation of 1,2 dichloroethane and vinyl chloride at field scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Gregory B.; Patterson, Bradley M.; Johnston, Colin D.

    2009-06-01

    Aerobic bioremediation of 1,2 dichloroethane (1,2 DCA) and vinyl chloride (VC) was evaluated at field scale in a layered, silty and fine-sand anaerobic aquifer. Maximum concentrations of 1,2 DCA (2 g/L) and VC (0.75 g/L) in groundwater were within 25% and 70% of pure compound solubility, respectively. Aerobic conditions were induced by injecting air into sparging wells screened 20.5-21.5 m below ground (17-18 m below the water table). Using a cycle of 23 h of air injection followed by three days of no air injection, fifty days of air injection were accumulated over a 12 month period which included some longer periods of operational shutdown. Oxygen and volatile organic compound probes, and multilevel samplers were used to determine changes of the primary contaminants and the associated inorganic chemistry at multiple locations and depths. Air (oxygen) was distributed laterally up to 25 m from the sparge points, with oxygen partial pressures up to 0.7 atmospheres (28-35 mg/L in groundwater) near to the sparge points. The dissolved mass of 1,2 DCA and VC was reduced by greater than 99% over the 590 m 2 trial plot. Significantly, pH declined from nearly 11 to less than 9, and sulfate concentrations increased dramatically, suggesting the occurrence of mineral sulfide (e.g., pyrite) oxidation. Chloride and bicarbonate (aerobic biodegradation by-products) concentration increases were used to estimate that 300-1000 kg of chlorinated hydrocarbons were biodegraded, although the ratio of 1,2 DCA to VC that was biodegraded remained uncertain. The mass biodegraded was comparable but less than the 400-1400 kg of chlorinated compounds removed from the aqueous phase within a 10,000 m 3 volume of the aquifer. Due to the likely presence of non-aqueous phase liquid, the relative proportion of volatilisation compared to biodegradation could not be determined. The aerobic biodegradation rates were greater than those previously estimated from laboratory-based studies.

  13. Fabrication of 3D interconnected porous TiO2 nanotubes templated by poly(vinyl chloride-g-4-vinyl pyridine) for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Joo Hwan; Koh, Jong Kwan; Seo, Jin Ah; Shin, Jong-Shik; Kim, Jong Hak

    2011-09-01

    Porous TiO2 nanotube arrays with three-dimensional (3D) interconnectivity were prepared using a sol-gel process assisted by poly(vinyl chloride-graft-4-vinyl pyridine), PVC-g-P4VP graft copolymer and a ZnO nanorod template. A 7 µm long ZnO nanorod array was grown from the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass via a liquid phase deposition method. The TiO2 sol-gel solution templated by the PVC-g-P4VP graft copolymer produced a random 3D interconnection between the adjacent ZnO nanorods during spin coating. Upon etching of ZnO, TiO2 nanotubes consisting of 10-15 nm nanoparticles were generated, as confirmed by wide-angle x-ray scattering (WAXS), energy-filtering transmission electron microscopy (EF-TEM) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The ordered and interconnected nanotube architecture showed an enhanced light scattering effect and increased penetration of polymer electrolytes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The energy conversion efficiency reached 1.82% for liquid electrolyte, and 1.46% for low molecular weight (Mw) and 0.74% for high Mw polymer electrolytes.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of foldable and magnetic field-sensitive, freestanding poly(vinyl acetate)/poly(vinyl chloride)/polyfuran composite and nanocomposite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarıtaş, Sevilay; Eşsiz, Serpil; Sarı, Bekir

    2017-07-01

    In this study, polyfuran and poly(vinyl acetate)/poly(vinyl chloride)/polyfuran ternary composites were synthesized via the chemical polymerization method. The temperature and magnetic field-sensitive novel composites and the nanocomposite were obtained in the form of powders and films. It was observed that the prepared novel conductive films have superior properties at a certain temperature range (25-50 °C) such as bending and folding. The structural properties, thermal behavior, surface morphology, internal structure, and surface roughness of the prepared samples were investigated by various characterization techniques. The conductivities of the samples were measured at room temperature and different temperatures by the four-point technique. X-ray Diffraction analysis results demonstrated that the PF and composites have an amorphous structure, whereas the nanocomposite is in crystalline form. The saturation magnetization (Ms) values of the magnetite and nanocomposite were found to be 58.9 and 5.3 emu g-1, respectively. It was found that magnetite-doped nanocomposite has superparamagnetic properties at room temperature.

  15. Improvement of the Thermal, Photo and Mechanical Properties of Poly (Vinyl Chloride in Presence of Poly (Glycidyl Methacrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abir S. Abdel-Naby

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Poly (vinyl chloride suffers from poor heat stability. The thermal degradation of the polymer leads to the evolution of hydrogen chloride gas, extensive discoloration of the polymer and lowering of physical and mechanical properties. Approach: Binary blends of Poly (Vinyl Chloride (PVC and Poly (Glycidyl Methacrylate (PGMA have been prepared by solution blending aimed at the improvement of thermal and mechanical properties. Results and Conclusion: Thermal properties of the blends were studied using Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, Thermogravimetry (TGA and potentiometric rate of dehydrochlorination. The increase of the PGMA content in the blend leads to thermal stability of the blend as shown from the thermogravimetry and the rate of dehydrochlorination results. All blends exhibited one major glass transition temperature (Tg whose position on the temperature scale was lowered with increased level of PGMA. The miscibility of blends was also confirmed by the use of Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM. The improvement of the mechanical properties of various blends of the two polymers was also obtained.

  16. Experimental study on the synthesis of vinyl/vinyl acetate/ vinyl chloride copolymer resin%乙烯-醋酸乙烯-氯乙烯共聚树脂合成试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘松涛; 缪晖

    2011-01-01

    Experiments on the synthesis of vinyl/ vinyl acetate/ vinyl chloride (EVA-g-VC) copolymer resin in 10 L polymerizer were introduced. Influences of types and dosages of EVA, swelling method of EVA and additives on the polymerization process and performances Of resin par- ticles were investigated. The processing properties of EVA-g-VC copolymer resin obtained could reach the level of foreign products.%介绍了在10L聚合釜中合成乙烯一醋酸乙烯一氯乙烯(EVA-g-VC)共聚树脂的试验情况。分别研究了EVA种类及用量、EVA的溶胀方法、助剂对聚合过程和树脂颗粒性能的影响规律,制得的EVA-g—VC共聚树脂的加工性能基本达到了国外同类产品水平。

  17. Analysis of phthalate ester content in poly(vinyl chloride) plastics by means of Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørbygaard, Thomas; Berg, Rolf W.

    2004-01-01

    Fourier transform (FT) Raman spectroscopy is applied to a range of phthalate ester plasticizers in pure form as well as in poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) samples. It is found that phthalate esters as a group can be identified by a set of six characteristic Raman bands. FT-Raman spectra of 22 phthalate...... esters are given. It is demonstrated that the presence of phthalate esters in PVC products is readily detectable by FT-Raman spectroscopy. By use of proper ref. samples quant. detn. of the phthalate ester content becomes possible as well....

  18. Analysis of phthalate ester content in poly(vinyl chloride) plastics by means of Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørbygaard, Thomas; Berg, Rolf W.

    2004-01-01

    Fourier transform (FT) Raman spectroscopy is applied to a range of phthalate ester plasticizers in pure form as well as in poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) samples. It is found that phthalate esters as a group can be identified by a set of six characteristic Raman bands. FT-Raman spectra of 22 phthalate...... esters are given. It is demonstrated that the presence of phthalate esters in PVC products is readily detectable by FT-Raman spectroscopy. By use of proper ref. samples quant. detn. of the phthalate ester content becomes possible as well....

  19. Effect of Palm Oil Bio-Based Plasticizer on the Morphological, Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Poly(Vinyl Chloride)

    OpenAIRE

    Kar Min Lim; Yern Chee Ching; Seng Neon Gan

    2015-01-01

    Flexible poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) was fabricated using a palm oil-based alkyd as a co-plasticizer to di-octyl phthalate (DOP) and di-isononyl phthalate (DiNP). The effects of the incorporation of the palm oil-based alkyd on morphological, thermal and mechanical properties of PVC compounds were studied. Results showed the incorporation of the alkyd enhanced the mechanical and thermal properties of the PVC compounds. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results showed that the polar...

  20. Studies of Recycling of Poly(vinyl chloride) in Molten Na, Ca ‖ NO3, OH Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Anatolii Fedorov; Yurii Chekryshkin; Aleksei Gorbunov

    2012-01-01

    The interaction of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) with components of molten inorganic systems at the temperature range 200–500°C was studied by a combination of thermogravimetric and differential-thermal methods. The results of this study show that the melts of alkali and alkaline-earth metal nitrates can be used for utilization of wastes of halogen-containing polymeric materials. It was established that unique solid products of interaction of PVC with components of the Ca(NO3)2–Ca(OH)2 mixes are...

  1. 高效聚结器在氯乙烯生产中的应用%Application of high effective coalescer in production of vinyl chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛丽萍; 范声朴; 张恒云

    2012-01-01

    介绍了氯乙烯深度脱水工艺及聚结器脱水原理,将高效聚结器应用于氯乙烯精馏工序中,实现了氯乙烯的深度脱水,满足了聚合工序的工艺要求,提高了产品的质量。%Deep dewatering process for vinyl chloride and the dewatering mechanism of coalescer were introduced.The application of high effective coalescer in vinyl chloride distillation procedure realized the deep dewatering of vinyl chloride,thus meeting the process requirement of polymerization procedure,and improving the product quality.

  2. Polyene Formation Catalyzed by Phosphotungstic Acid and Aluminum Chloride in Thin Films of Poly(Vinyl Alcohol)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretinnikov, O. N.; Sushko, N. I.; Maly, A. B.

    2016-01-01

    Formation of linear polyenes -(CH=CH) n - during thermal dehydration of thin layers (9-20 μm) of poly(vinyl alcohol) containing phosphotungstic-acid and aluminum-chloride catalysts was investigated. It was found that the concentration of long-chain ( n ≥ 8) polyenes in films containing phosphotungstic acid increased smoothly with increasing annealing time although the kinetics of the dehydration were independent of the film thickness. The polyene ( n ≥ 8) formation rate in films containing aluminum chloride dropped quickly with decreasing film thickness and increasing annealing time. As a result, long-chain polyenes practically did not form regardless of the annealing time for a film thickness of 11 μm.

  3. Poly(vinyl chloride) blend with biodegradable cellulose acetate in presence of N-(phenyl amino) maleimides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Naby, Abir S; Al-Ghamdi, Azza A

    2014-09-01

    Wider plastic applications of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) has raised serious problem to the environment. Since (PVC) waste products resist biodegradation and persist in the environment for longer time. The object of this study is to blend (PVC) with biodegradable cellulose acetate to thermally support the polymer during the molding process as well as to enhance the biodegradability of (PVC) waste products. Blending of poly(vinyl chloride) and cellulose acetate (CA) in presence of N-(phenyl amino) maleimides (R-PhAM) where (R=H, 4-NO2) led to improvement in the thermal stability of the blend film at high temperatures as shown from the high values of initial decomposition temperature (To) determined from their thermogravimetry (TG) curves. Also, blending (PVC) with (CA) led to improvement in the mechanical properties of the blend films as compared to (PVC). The crystalline regions of cellulose acetate enhanced the elasticity of the blend films as shown from their high Young's modulus values.

  4. Simulation and analysis of vinyl chloride distillation procedure%氯乙烯精馏过程的模拟与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何涛

    2012-01-01

    The two-tower distillation procedure of vinyl chloride was simulantly calculated by using Aspen Plus simulation software.The suitable operation parameters were obtained,and had a certain guiding significance for the industrial production of vinyl chloride.%采用Aspen Plus通用模拟软件模拟计算了氯乙烯双塔精馏过程,得到了适宜的操作参数,对氯乙烯的工业生产具有一定的指导意义。

  5. Exploring a new method for the biological monitoring of plastic workers exposed to the vinyl chloride monomer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azari, Mansour Rezazadeh; Tayefeh-Rahimian, Raana; Jafari, Mohamad Javad; Souri, Hamid; Shokoohi, Yasser; Tavakol, Alaheh; Yazdanbakhsh, Zahra

    2016-12-01

    Vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) is widely used in the production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics. VCM is recognized as a confirmed human and animal carcinogenic compound. Recent studies have reported poor health of plastic workers, even having exposure at concentrations below the permissible limit to VCM. There has not been any study regarding exposed workers to VCM in Iran. Similarly, no information exists as to the biological monitoring of such workers. The main purpose of this study was to conduct a thorough occupational and biological monitoring of Iranian plastic workers exposed to VCM.A total of 100 workers from two plastic manufacturing plants (A and B) in Tehran along with 25 unexposed workers as controls were studied. The personal monitoring of all nonsmoking workers exposed to VCM at two plastic manufacturing plants (A and B) was performed in the morning shift (8 a.m. to 4 p.m.) according to the National Institute For Occupational Safety And Health method no. 1007.Biological monitoring of workers was carried out through collection of exhaled breath of all exposed and control workers in Tedlar bags and with a subsequent analysis using gas chromatography-flame ionization detector.Not only the mean occupational exposure of workers to VCM at plant A was higher than the respective threshold limit value but also the statistical significance was higher than workers at plant B. Similarly, VCM concentration in exhaled breath of workers at plant A was also statistically significantly higher than at plant B. Correlation of occupational exposure of all workers to vinyl chloride with its concentration in exhaled breath was statistically significant.This is the first study on biological monitoring for exposed plastic workers to VCM using exhaled breath. On the basis of the results in this study, a novel method of biological monitoring of plastic workers was proposed.

  6. Uranium Adsorbent Fibers Prepared by Atom-Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP) from Poly(vinyl chloride)- co -chlorinated Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC- co -CPVC) Fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Suree; Yue, Yanfeng; Kuo, Li-Jung; Mehio, Nada; Li, Meijun; Gill, Gary; Tsouris, Costas; Mayes, Richard T.; Saito, Tomonori; Dai, Sheng

    2016-04-20

    The need to secure future supplies of energy attracts researchers in several countries to a vast resource of nuclear energy fuel: uranium in seawater (estimated at 4.5 billion tons in seawater). In this study, we developed effective adsorbent fibers for the recovery of uranium from seawater via atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) from a poly- (vinyl chloride)-co-chlorinated poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC-co-CPVC) fiber. ATRP was employed in the surface graft polymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) and tert-butyl acrylate (tBA), precursors for uranium-interacting functional groups, from PVC-co-CPVC fiber. The [tBA]/[AN] was systematically varied to identify the optimal ratio between hydrophilic groups (from tBA) and uranyl-binding ligands (from AN). The best performing adsorbent fiber, the one with the optimal [tBA]/[AN] ratio and a high degree of grafting (1390%), demonstrated uranium adsorption capacities that are significantly greater than those of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) reference fiber in natural seawater tests (2.42-3.24 g/kg in 42 days of seawater exposure and 5.22 g/kg in 49 days of seawater exposure, versus 1.66 g/kg in 42 days of seawater exposure and 1.71 g/kg in 49 days of seawater exposure for JAEA). Adsorption of other metal ions from seawater and their corresponding kinetics were also studied. The grafting of alternative monomers for the recovery of uranium from seawater is now under development by this versatile technique of ATRP.

  7. Effect of Low Pressure Nitrogen DC Plasma on Optical Properties of Biaxial-Oriented Polypropylene (BOPP), Poly Methyl Methacrylate (PMMA) and Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC) Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, S. H.; Ghoranneviss, M.; Faryadras, S.

    2012-06-01

    In this paper properties of Biaxial-Oriented Polypropylene, Poly Vinyl Chloride and Poly Methyl Methacrylate samples treated by DC glow discharge of N2 plasma have been investigated by UV-Vis_NIR spectrophotometer. It was found that plasma treatment change chemical structure of polymer surfaces. In addition, absorption coefficient, refractive index and extinction coefficient of all treated samples have been slightly changed.

  8. FORMATION OF 7-(2-0XOETHYL)GUANINE FROM LIPID PEROXIDATION AND VINYL CHLORIDE EXPOSURE IN MALE SPRAGUE DAWLEY RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinyl Chloride (VC) is a known human and animal carcinogen that induces hepatic angiosarcomas. Other than occupational exposure and smoking, VC is also found in Superfund sites at ppb concentrations. VC is metabolized to chloroethylene oxide by CYP450 2E1 to induce four major DNA...

  9. Fatigue characterization of Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC) foam core sandwich composite using the G-control method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manca, Marcello; Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, Leif A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents experimental results from cyclic crack propagation tests performed on sandwich specimens with glass/epoxy face sheets and Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC) foam cores using the G-controlled cyclic energy release rate (ΔG) test procedure. The face material was tested in tension......, compression and shear to determine in-plane and out-of-plane mechanical properties, such as Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio and shear modulus. These properties were then used in an analytical model of the mixed-mode bending sandwich specimen to calculate compliance and energy release rate. Finite element...... analysis was used to determine the mode-mixity of the crack loading. Experimental crack growth cyclic tests were carried out on pre-cracked mixed-mode bending sandwich specimens with H45, H100 and H160 PVC foam cores under two mode-mixities (mode I and mode II dominant). Post-mortem analysis was performed...

  10. Effect of chemical and physical doping with iodine on the optical and dielectric properties of poly(vinyl chloride)

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ghamaz, N. A.; Ghaly, H. A.

    2016-03-01

    Iodination of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) was prepared by addition of I2 or I- through physical adsorption and chemical modification techniques forming (PVC-I2) (composite I) and (PVC-I-) (composite II), respectively. Investigations were performed using TGA, DSC, FTIR, UV-vis absorbance analyses and ac conductivity measurements. The activation energy of decomposition, ΔEd, was found to be 215.15 kJ/mole and 43.1 kJ/mole for PVC and composite II, respectively. Both direct and indirect optical transitions near the absorption edge are observed. Addition of I2 or I- decreases the optical energy gap for PVC. The chemical replacement of Cl- ion in PVC matrix with I- ion in composite II increases the electrical conductivity by two orders. A possible conduction mechanisms are suggested.

  11. Polymer-clay nanocomposites obtained by solution polymerization of vinyl benzyl triammonium chloride in the presence of advanced functionalized clay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Raluca Ianchis; Dan Donescu; Ludmila Otilia Cinteza; Violeta Purcar; Cristina Lavinia Nistor; Critian Petcu; Cristian Andi Nicolae; Raluca Gabor; Silviu Preda

    2014-05-01

    Polymer-clay nanocomposites were synthesized by solution polymerization method using advanced functionalized clay and vinyl benzyl trimethyl ammonium chloride as monomer. First stage consisted in the silylation of a commercial organo-modified clay-Cl 20A using alkoxysilanes with different chain lengths. In the second step, the synthesis and characterization of polymer-nanocomposites were followed. To evaluate the clay functionalization process as well as the final polymer-clay products, thermogravimetric,X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and three test liquid contact angles analyses were used. The loss of ammonium ions from commercial clay, the grafting degree, the lengths and the nature of alkyl chain influence the dispersion of the advanced modified clay into the polymer solution and, furthermore, the properties of the final polymer-clay nanocomposite film.

  12. Elucidation of the Mechanisms and Environmental Relevance of cis-Dichloroethene and Vinyl Chloride Biodegradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    glutathione (GS-CH2OH) to S- formyl glutathione (GS- CHO). The protein encoded by Bpro_3129 was elevated in abundance in WT cells degrading CAP+cDCE, versus...substrate and prosthetic-group free radicals generated during the enzymatic cycle.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 311(1152): 579...of cytochrome P-450 by vinyl fluoride, fluroxene, and acetylene. Evidence for a radical intermediate in olefin oxidation.” Biochemistry 21(6): 1331

  13. Biodegradable surfactant stabilized nanoscale zero-valent iron for in situ treatment of vinyl chloride and 1,2-dichloroethane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Yu-Ting; Wu, Shian-chee; Yang, Shi-Wei; Che, Choi-Hong [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lien, Hsing-Lung, E-mail: lien.sam@nuk.edu.tw [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, De-Huang [Chinese Petroleum Corporation, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biodegradable surfactant stabilized nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) is tested. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vinyl chloride and 1,2-dichloroethane are remediated by NZVI in the field. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multiple functions of biodegradable surfactants are confirmed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biodegradable surfactants stabilize NZVI and facilitate the bioremediation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NZVI creates reducing conditions beneficial to an anaerobic bioremediation. - Abstract: Nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) stabilized with dispersants is a promising technology for the remediation of contaminated groundwater. In this study, we demonstrated the use of biodegradable surfactant stabilized NZVI slurry for successful treatment of vinyl chloride (VC) and 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) in a contaminated site in Taiwan. The biodegradable surfactant stabilized NZVI was coated with palladium and synthesized on-site. From monitoring the iron concentration breakthrough and distribution, it was found that the stabilized NZVI is capable of transporting in the aquifer at the test plot (200 m{sup 2}). VC was effectively degraded by NZVI while the 1,2-DCA degradation was relatively sluggish during the 3-month field test. Nevertheless, as 1,2-DCA is known to resist abiotic reduction by NZVI, the observation of 1,2-DCA degradation and hydrocarbon production suggested a bioremediation took place. ORP and pH results revealed that a reducing condition was achieved at the testing area facilitating the biodegradation of chlorinated organic hydrocarbons. The bioremediation may be attributed to the production of hydrogen gas as electron donor from the corrosion of NZVI in the presence of water or the added biodegradable surfactant serving as the carbon source as well as electron donor to stimulate microbial growth.

  14. Research progress on deep application of vinyl chloride monomer%氯乙烯单体深加工应用的研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红海; 李婧; 吴天祥

    2011-01-01

    概述了国内外氯乙烯单体深加工的研究现状,简述了工业上氯乙烯单体生产聚氯乙烯、共聚物、聚偏二氯乙烯、氯化聚氯乙烯、1,1,1,3,3-五氟丙烷和氯乙醛等深加工途径以及产品的应用前景。%Research progress in the deep proccssing of vinyl chloridc monomer at homc and abroad was summarized. The dcrivativcs of vinyl chloride monomer and their application prospccts wcrc also introduced, such as potyvinyl chloride(PVC), copolymcr, polyvinylidcnc chloride, chlorinated polyvinyl chloride, 1,1,1,3,3- pcntafluoropropanc and chloroacetaldchydc.

  15. Photostabilizing Efficiency of Poly(vinyl chloride in the Presence of Organotin(IV Complexes as Photostabilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa M. Ali

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Three organotin complexes containing furosemide as a ligand (L, Ph3SnL, Me2SnL2 and Bu2SnL2, were synthesized and characterized. Octahedral geometry was proposed for the Me2SnL2 and Bu2SnL2, while the Ph3SnL complex has trigonal bipyramid geometry. The synthesized organotin complexes (0.5% by weight were used as additives to improve the photostability of poly(vinyl chloride, PVC, (40 μm thickness upon irradiation. The changes imposed on functional groups, weight loss and viscosity average molecular weight of PVC films were monitored. The experimental results show that the rate of photodegradation was reduced in the presence of the organotin additives. The quantum yield of the chain scission was found to be low (9.8 × 10−7 when Ph3SnL was used as a PVC photostabilizer compared to controlled PVC (5.18 × 10−6. In addition, the atomic force microscope images for the PVC films containing Ph3SnL2 after irradiation shows a smooth surface compared to the controlled films. The rate of PVC photostabilization was found to be highest for Ph3SnL followed by Bu2SnL2 and Me2SnL2. It has been suggested that the organotin complexes could act as hydrogen chloride scavengers, ultraviolet absorbers, peroxide decomposers and/or radical scavengers.

  16. Hydration effects and antifouling properties of poly(vinyl chloride-co-PEGMA) membranes studied using molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Abdul Rajjak; Rajabzadeh, Saeid; Matsuo, Ryuichi; Takaba, Hiromitsu; Matsuyama, Hideto

    2016-04-01

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) membranes are widely used in water treatment because of their low cost and chemical stability. However, PVC membranes can become fouled, and this restricts their applications in membrane technology. In order to enhance the antifouling property of PVC membranes, copolymers such as poly(vinyl chloride-co-poly(ethylene glycol)methyl ether methacrylate) (poly(VC-co-PEGMA)) with different PEGMA segment percentages were synthesized in our previous work. Experimentally, it was observed that the poly(VC-co-PEGMA) copolymer has better antifouling properties than those of PVC membranes. Here, we explore effect of the PEGMA segment percentage on the surface hydration properties of poly(VC-co-PEGMA) copolymers. Density functional theory calculations and molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to understand the interactions between PVC and PEGMA. Model structures of these systems were validated by comparing the simulated values of their volumetric properties with the experimental values. MD studies showed that increasing PEGMA percentage in the copolymer increases the interaction with water molecules, leading to improved resistance to fouling. The antifouling mechanism is also discussed with respect to surface hydration and water dynamicity. This study could form a basis for the systematic studies of polymeric membranes as well as their stability from the extent of solvent-polymer, solvent-solvent, and polymer-polymer interactions.

  17. Water vapor permeation and dehumidification performance of poly(vinyl alcohol)/lithium chloride composite membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Bui, Duc Thuan

    2015-10-09

    Thin and robust composite membranes comprising stainless steel scaffold, fine and porous TiO2 and polyvinyl alcohol/lithium chloride were fabricated and studied for air dehumidification application. Higher hydrophilicity, sorption and permeation were observed for membranes with increased lithium chloride content up to 50%. The permeation and sorption properties of the membranes were investigated under different temperatures. The results provided a deeper insight into the membrane water vapor permeation process. It was specifically noted that lithium chloride significantly reduces water diffusion energy barrier, resulting in the change of permeation energy from positive to negative values. Higher water vapor permeance was observed for the membrane with higher LiCl content at lower temperature. The isothermal air dehumidification tests show that the membrane is suitable for dehumidifying air in high humid condition. Additionally, results also indicate a trade-off between the humidity ratio drop with the water vapor removal rate when varying air flowrate.

  18. Technical reformation of vinyl chloride synthesis and rectification system%氯乙烯合成及精馏系统技术改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘胜军; 张磊

    2012-01-01

    通过增加转化器台数、对回收单体进行精制处理、为石墨泵增加变频器、对氯乙烯蒸发式冷凝器加装远传信号等技术改造,提高了氯乙烯合成及精馏系统的生产效率和产品质量,增加了产能,降低了劳动强度。%Technical reformation was made,including increasing the number of converters,purifying the recovered monomer,adding transducer to the graphite pumps,and adding remote signaller to vinyl chloride evaporative condenser.Thus,the production efficency of vinyl chloride synthesis and rectification system and the quality of obtained product were improved,the production capacity was increased and the labour intensity was decreased.

  19. Modification of mixed dehydration of raw material for synthesis of vinyl chloride%氯乙烯合成原料气混合脱水改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文泽

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces the characteristics and deficiencies of the process of purifying the raw materials for the synthesis of vinyl chloride by calcium carbide method. Based on the analysis of the production status of the original equipment ,the improvement measures and the plan of the freezing dehydration process for the synthesis of vinyl chloride were put forward.%介绍了电石法氯乙烯合成原料气净化及混合冷冻脱水工艺的特点及不足之处。通过对原装置的生产状况进行分析提出了氯乙烯合成冷冻脱水工艺的改进措施及方案。

  20. Radiotracer studies on calcium ion-selective electrode membranes based on poly(vinyl chloride) matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craggs, A; Moody, G J; Thomas, J D; Willcox, A

    Radiotracer studies with (45)Ca and (36)Cl demonstrate that PVC matrix membranes containing Orion 92-20-02 liquid calcium ion-exchanger are permselective to counter-cations. Diffusion coefficients are quoted for the migration of (45)Ca between pairs of calcium solutions and are discussed in terms of solution concentration, membrane thickness and concentration level of sensor in the membrane. Migration of calcium ions from calcium chloride solution to a Group (II) metal chloride solution through a PVC membrane containing calcium liquid ion-exchanger is discussed in terms of solvent extraction and electrode selectivity coefficient parameters. Thus, magnesium, strontium and barium ions appear to inhibit migration through the membrane by their low affinity for the membrane liquid ion-exchanger sites, while the inhibition by beryllium ions is attributed to site blockage by the strong affinity of dialkylphosphate sites for beryllium.

  1. Separation and analysis of low molecular weight plasticizers in poly(vinyl chloride) tubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qian; Storm, Birgit Kjærside

    2005-01-01

    The separation of plasticizers in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) used in medical applications was carried out in different solvents and compared by studying the remaining PVC after separation using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravime...... on extracted diisooctyl phthalate (DOP) concentration were obtained from different methods. Analysis on one kind of the used tubes showed that 64-67% of DOP migrated to the patient, but bis(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DOA) was 70-100% retained....

  2. Discrimination of poly(vinyl chloride) samples with different plasticizers and prediction of plasticizer contents in poly(vinyl chloride) using near-infrared spectroscopy and neural-network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeki, Kazumitsu; Funatsu, Kimito; Tanabe, Kazutoshi

    2003-02-01

    In the recycling of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), it is required to discriminate every plasticizer for quality control. For this purpose, the near-infrared spectra were measured for 41 kinds of PVC samples with different plasticizers (DINP, DOP, DOA, TOTM and Polyester) and different plasticizer contents (0-49%). A neural-network analysis was applied to the near-infrared spectra pretreated by second-derivative processing. They were discriminated from one another. The neural-network analysis also allowed us to propose a calibration model which predicts the contents of plasticizers in PVC. The correlation coefficient (R) and the root-mean-square error of prediction (RMSEP) for the DINP calibration model were found to be 0.999 and 0.41 wt%, respectively. In comparison, a partial least-squares regression analysis was carried out. The R and RMSEP of the DINP calibration model were calculated to be 0.993 and 1.27 wt%, respectively. It is found that a near-infrared spectra measurement combined with a neural-network analysis is useful for plastic recycling.

  3. Discussion on the operation and management measures of converter in vinyl chloride production%氯乙烯转化器的运行管理措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁捷才

    2012-01-01

    The converter in vinyl chloride production manufacturing, maintenance and production operation management measures were introduced in this paper.And some suggestions of improving converter operation were proposed.%介绍了氯乙烯转化器制造、检修及生产运行管理措施,提出了提高转化器运行效果的建议。

  4. Poly(vinyl chloride)-supported Pd(II) complex as an efficient catalyst for Heck and Cu-free Sonogashira reactions under aerobic conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Bakherad; Ali Keivanloo; Shahrzad Samangooei

    2014-01-01

    A novel poly(vinyl chloride)-supported Pd complex was found to be a highly active catalyst for the Heck and Sonogashira reactions of aryl halides under aerobic conditions. The complex is thermally stable, and can be easily recovered and reused. The catalyst was recycled for the Heck and So-nogashira reactions for five runs without appreciable loss of its catalytic activity, and with negligible metal leaching.

  5. Preparation of zinc hydroxystannate-decorated graphene oxide nanohybrids and their synergistic reinforcement on reducing fire hazards of flexible poly (vinyl chloride)

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Tingting; Chen, Laicheng; Li, Zhiwei; Yu, Laigui; Wu, Zhishen; Zhang, Zhijun

    2016-01-01

    A novel flame retardant, zinc hydroxystannate-decorated graphene oxide (ZHS/GO) nanohybrid, was successfully prepared and well characterized. Herein, the ZHS nanoparticles could not only enhance the flame retardancy of GO with the synergistic flame-retardant effect of ZHS but also prevent the restack of GO to improve the mechanical properties of poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) matrix. The structure characterization showed ZHS nanoparticles were bonded onto the surface of GO nanosheets and the ZHS...

  6. Analysis of abnormal phenomena in vinyl chloride synthesis%氯乙烯转化工序异常现象分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李强; 王霞

    2013-01-01

    The abnormal phenomena such as leakage and corrosion of converter ,serious loss and sublimation of mercuric chloride catalyst in vinyl chloride synthesis process were introduced .The causes of the phenomena were analyzed ,and the improving methods were given .%  介绍了氯乙烯转化工序出现的转化器泄漏、腐蚀,触媒氯化汞流失、升华损失严重等异常现象,分析了问题的原因并提出了改进方案。

  7. 电石路线氯乙烯生产技术新进展%Recent technological progress in production of vinyl chloride by calcium carbide process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高旭东

    2011-01-01

    探讨了在电石法PVC生产中从电石生产、乙炔发生、乙炔清净、电石渣浆清液循环、电石渣浆中乙炔回收、乙炔脱水、氯乙烯合成一直到氯乙烯脱水干燥这一系列生产过程中的技术新进展情况,指出我国电石法PVC已不再是“低水平建设”。探讨了生产工艺中还须改进之处。%The recent technological progresses in the production of vinyl chloride by calcium carbide process, such as calcium carbide production, acetylene production, acetylene purification, recycling of calcium carbide sludge supernatant, recovery of acetylene in calcium carbide sludge, acetylene dewatering, vinyl chloride synthesis and vinyl chloride dewatering and drying, were reviewed. It was indicated that the technological level of calcium carbide method PVC production in China was no longer low. Some shortcomings of the production process were pointed out.

  8. End-of-life treatment of poly(vinyl chloride) and chlorinated polyethylene by dehydrochlorination in ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glas, Daan; Hulsbosch, Joris; Dubois, Philippe; Binnemans, Koen; De Vos, Dirk E

    2014-02-01

    There is an urgent need for green technologies to remove halogens from halogenated polymers at the end of their lifetime. Ionic liquids (ILs) were used to dehydrochlorinate and/or dissolve the chlorinated polymers poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) and chlorinated polyethylene (CPE). The dehydrochlorination activity of an IL depends mainly on its anion and is related to the high hydrogen-bond-accepting ability (β value) of the anion. Different phosphonium ILs successfully dissolve and dehydrochlorinate PVC and CPE at temperatures from 80 °C. PVC is dehydrochlorinated up to 98 % after 60 min in tetrabutylphosphonium chloride ([P4444 ][Cl]) at 180 °C. PVC pieces stabilized by calcium stearate (4 mm(3) ) are dehydrochlorinated more slowly; conversions of 85 and 96 % are reached after 1 and 8 h, respectively. Smaller pieces are dehydrochlorinated faster. High loadings, for example, 0.3 g stabilized PVC in 0.5 g IL, can be applied with only a minor loss of conversion. [P4444 ][Cl] proved to be stable during several consecutive reactions; after each run more than 99 % of the IL can be recovered. The structure of the dehydrochlorinated PVC was studied by (13) C cross-polarization magic-angle spinning NMR and FTIR spectroscopy; the removal of Cl and the formation of double bonds were confirmed. Carefully dehydrochlorinated CPE was processed further by acyclic diene metathesis depolymerization with ethylene and the Hoveyda-Grubbs second-generation catalyst to yield α,ω-dienes such as 1,5-hexadiene and 1,6-heptadiene. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Sliding of poly(vinyl chloride) on metals studied by Auger electron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, S. V.

    1974-01-01

    The sliding of polyvinyl chloride on nickel, iron and S-Monel has been studied by Auger electron spectroscopy. Polymer was not transferred to the metals, rather shear appeared to take place at the interface. The metal was progressively chlorinated as the polymer made multiple passes on the surface. The thickness of this chlorine film was the order of one atomic layer. Electron-induced desorption studies indicate that the chlorine is chemisorbed to the metal. These results are interpreted as evidence for mechanically induced and/or thermal degradation of the polymer during sliding. Degradation products of HCl and Cl2 which chemisorb to the metal are evolved near the interface.

  10. Experimental and theoretical study of X-ray absorption around the chlorine L edge in vinyl chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawerk, Elie, E-mail: elie.kawerk@etu.upmc.fr [Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, UMR 7614, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Université Libanaise, Faculté des Sciences II Fanar, Laboratoire de Physique Appliquée, 90656 Jdeidet el Metn (Lebanon); Carniato, Stéphane [Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, UMR 7614, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Iwayama, Hiroshi; Shigemasa, Eiji [Ultraviolet Synchrotron Orbital Radiation Facility, Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); Piancastelli, Maria Novella [Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, UMR 7614, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Wassaf, Joseph; Khoury, Antonio [Université Libanaise, Faculté des Sciences II Fanar, Laboratoire de Physique Appliquée, 90656 Jdeidet el Metn (Lebanon); Simon, Marc [Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, UMR 7614, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ► We measured the X-ray absorption spectrum of C{sub 2}H{sub 3}Cl around the chlorine L edge. ► Ab-initio calculations of the spectrum shed light on eventual electronic resonances. ► Vibrational substructures for particular core excited states are considered. ► The potential energy surfaces of the core excited electronic states are evaluated. ► Sharp or narrow spectral bands are associated to bound or dissociative surfaces. -- Abstract: We present a combined experimental and theoretical study of the high-resolution chlorine L edge X-ray absorption spectrum in gas-phase vinyl chloride (C{sub 2}H{sub 3}Cl). With the help of ab-initio calculations, we interpret the experimental spectrum and attribute each band to its corresponding electronic transitions terminating at states characterized by an either binding or dissociative potential energy surface (PES). Vibrational substructures in some specific core-excited electronic states are taken into account.

  11. Novel gadolinium poly(vinyl chloride) membrane sensor based on a new S-N Schiff's base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Emami, Mahdi; Rezapour, Morteza; Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Maddah, Bozorgmehr; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud; Hosseini, Morteza; Talebpoui, Zahra

    2003-10-24

    In this work, a novel gadolinium membrane sensor based on new S-N Schiff',s base (2-[{l_brace}3-[(2-sulfanylphenyl)imino)-1-methylbutylideneamino]phenyl hydrosulfide (SMPH) is presented. The sensor displays a linear dynamic range between 1.0x10{sup -1} and 1.0x10{sup -5} M, with a nice Nernstian slope of 19.8{+-}0.3 mV per decade and a detection limit of 3.0x10{sup -6} M. The best performance was obtained with a membrane composition of 33% poly(vinyl chloride), 61% benzyl acetate, 2% sodium tetraphenyl borate and 5% SMPH. The potentiometric response of the sensor is independent of the pH of the solution in the pH range of 4.0-8.0. The sensor possesses the advantages of short conditioning time, very fast response time, and especially, very good selectivity towards a large number of cations, such as Sm(III), Ce(III), La(III), Cu(II), Pb(II) and Hg(II). The electrode can be used for at least 9 weeks without any considerable divergence in the potentials. It was used as an indicator electrode in potentiometric titration of Gd(III) ions with EDTA, and recovery of Gd(III) from various binary mixtures. The electrode was also applied to the determination of Gd(III) in a urine sample.

  12. Study of polarization and relaxation phenomena of polyblend films of poly(vinyl chloride) and poly(methyl methacrylate)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alkesh Pal; P K Khare

    2013-02-01

    Thermally stimulated discharge current (TSDC) studies were carried out on pure poly(methyl methacrylate), poly(vinyl chloride) and polyblends (of various weight ratios, 100:0, 90:10, 80:20 and 70:30) as a function of polarizing fields at constant temperature, to study the polarization and relaxation phenomena in them. For PVC and different blends a peak around 140–180 °C and for PMMA two peaks at around 95 and 165 °C were observed. No regular variation in peak position for PMMA and blends was observed. The various TSDC parameters i.e. activation energy, charge released and relaxation times were calculated. In the blend samples it is suggested that the chains are so entangled that in the total polarization the dipolar contribution is less and the observed polarization seems to be mainly due to the formation of induced dipoles and an increase in free volume and mobility of charge carriers due to a plasticization effect.

  13. A novel reutilization method for waste printed circuit boards as flame retardant and smoke suppressant for poly (vinyl chloride).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiu, Fu-Rong; Weng, Huiwei; Qi, Yingying; Yu, Gending; Zhang, Zhigang; Zhang, Fu-Shen

    2016-09-05

    In this study, a novel reutilization method for waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) as flame retardant and smoke suppressant for poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) was successfully testified. A supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) process was applied to treat waste PCBs before they could be used as flame retardants of PVC. The results indicated that SCWO conditions had a significant effect on the flame retarding and smoke suppressing properties of waste PCBs for PVC. Cu2O, CuO, and SnO2 were the main active ingredients in waste PCBs-derived flame retardants. A conversion of Cu elements (Cu(0)→Cu(+)→Cu(2+)) during SCWO process with the increase of reaction temperature was found to be the key influence factor for the flame retarding properties of SCWO-treated PCBs. The experiment results also showed that there was a synergistic effect of flame retardancy between Cu(+) and Cu(2+). After the optimized SCWO treatment, SCWO-treated PCBs significantly improved the flame retardancy and smoke suppression of PVC. Limiting oxygen index (LOI) and char yield (CY) increased with increasing SCWO-treated PCBs content in PVC, while smoke density rating (SDR) and maximum smoke density (MSD) decreased markedly. The mechanical properties of PVC samples were influenced in different degree by adding different content SCWO-treated PCBs.

  14. Antimicrobial filtration with electrospun poly(vinyl alcohol) nanofibers containing benzyl triethylammonium chloride: Immersion, leaching, toxicity, and filtration tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong-Ann; Kim, Song-Bae

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial electrospun poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanofibers were synthesized by impregnating benzyl triethylammonium chloride (BTEAC) as an antimicrobial agent into PVA nanofibers. The BTEAC-PVA nanofibers were heat-methanol treated during the preparation for various tests. The BTEAC-PVA nanofibers became more hydrophilic than the PVA nanofibers due to incorporation of BTEAC. Through heat-methanol treatment, thermal property, crystallinity, and water stability of BTEAC-PVA nanofibers were improved considerably. The immersion test shows that heat-methanol treatment has an advantage over heat treatment to maintain BTEAC content in BTEAC-PVA nanofibers. The acute toxicity test demonstrates that the 24-h EC50 and 48-h EC50 values (EC50 = median effective concentration) of BTEAC to Daphnia magna were 113 and 90 mg/L, respectively. The leaching test indicates that the BTEAC concentration leached from BTEAC-PVA nanofibers was far below the concentration affecting the immobilization of D. magna. For antimicrobial filtration tests, the BTEAC-PVA nanofibers were deposited onto glass fiber filter. The antimicrobial filtration test was conducted against bacteria (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus) and bacteriophages (MS2, PhiX174), demonstrating that the BTEAC-PVA nanofibers could enhance the removal of E. coli and S. aureus considerably but not the removal of MS2 and PhiX174 under dynamic flow conditions.

  15. Fabrication and characterization of a novel hydrophobic CaCO3 grafted by hydroxylated poly(vinyl chloride) chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Lixia; Yang, Simei; Luo, Xin; Lei, Jingxin; Cao, Qiue; Wang, Jiliang

    2015-12-01

    The hydroxylated PVC (PVC-OH) was successfully synthesized by a suspension polymerization of vinyl chloride (VC), butyl acrylate (BA) and hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA). Novel hydrophobic CaCO3 was then prepared by a urethane formation reaction between methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) and the sbnd OH groups both in the PVC-OH chains and on the surface of pristine CaCO3 particles. The effect of the PVC-OH content on the grafting ratio of treated CaCO3 particles was extensively investigated. Combining the result of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) with that of water contact angle, it can be concluded that the hydrophobicity of CaCO3 had been efficiently improved by the PVC-OH segments grafted on the surface of CaCO3 particles. X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal gravity analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were also used to study crystalline behaviors, thermal stability and surface morphology of the modified CaCO3 particles, respectively. The change of specific surface area implying surface modification was investigated as well.

  16. A polytetrafluoroethylene porous membrane and dimethylhexadecylamine quaternized poly (vinyl benzyl chloride) composite membrane for intermediate temperature fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuan-Cheng; Xu, Chenxi; Zou, Linling; Scott, Keith; Liu, Jiyan

    2015-10-01

    A composite material for phosphoric acid (PA) loaded membrane was prepared using a porous polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) thin film. N, N-Dimethylhexadecylamine partially quaternized poly (vinyl benzyl chloride) (qPVBzCl-) was synthesized as the substrate for the phosphoric acid loaded polymer membrane. SEM observation indicated that the pores were filled with the qPVBzCl-. The maximum PA loading level was calculated to be 4.67-5.12 per repeat unit on average. TGA results showed that resultant composite membrane was stable in the intermediate temperature from 100 °C to 200 °C. The composite membrane tensile stress was 56.23 MPa, and the Young's Modulus was 0.25 GPa, and the fractured elongation was 23%. The conductivity of the composite membrane after the PA addition (H3PO4@PTFE/qPVBzCl-) increased from 0.085 S cm-1 to 0.11 S cm-1 from 105 °C to 180 °C. The peak power density of the H2/O2 at 175 °C under low humidity condition (<1%) for H3PO4@PTFE/qPVBzCl- membranes was 360 mW cm-2.

  17. Sodium dodecyl sulfate coated poly (vinyl) chloride: an alternative support for solid phase extraction of some transition and heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marahel, Farzaneh; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Shokrollahi, Ardeshir; Montazerozohori, Morteza; Davoodi, Shahnaz

    2009-01-01

    A simple and relatively fast approach for developing a solid phase extraction has been described and used for determination of trace quantities of some heavy and transition metal ions with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-coated poly vinyl chloride (PVC) modified with bis(2-hydroxyacetophenone)-1,4-butanediimine (BHABDI) ligand. The adsorbed ions were stripped from the solid phase by 10 mL of 3M nitric acid as eluent. The eluting solution was analyzed for metals content (cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead and zinc) by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The main factors such as pH, amount of ligand and PVC, amount and type of surfactant, and condition of eluting solutions on the sorption recovery of metal ions have been investigated in detail. The relative standard deviation was found in the range of 1.0-3.2% for 0.2 microg mL(-1)of metals ions. After optimization of the extraction condition and the instrumental parameters, a detection limit was found to be in the range of 1.2-3.1 microg L(-1), with enrichment factor of 50 was achieved. The method was successfully applied for the determination of these metals contents in real samples with satisfactory results.

  18. Mechanical and interfacial properties of poly(vinyl chloride) based composites reinforced by cassava stillage residue with different surface treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjuan; Gan, Tao; Li, Qian; Su, Jianmei; Lin, Ye; Wei, Yongzuo; Huang, Zuqiang; Yang, Mei

    2014-09-01

    Cassava stillage residue (CSR), a kind of agro-industrial plant fiber, was modified by coupling agent (CA), mechanical activation (MA), and MA-assisted CA (MACA) surface treatments, respectively. The untreated and different surface treated CSRs were used to prepare plant fibers/polymer composites (PFPC) with poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) as polymer matrix, and the properties of these CSR/PVC composites were compared. Surface treated CSR/PVC composites possessed better mechanical properties, water resistance and dimensional stability compared with the untreated CSR/PVC composite, attributing to the improvement of interfacial properties between CSR and PVC matrix. MACA-treated CSR was the best reinforcement among four types of CSRs (untreated, MA-treated, CA-treated, and MACA-treated CSRs) because MACA treatment led to the significant improvement of dispersion, interfacial adhesion and compatibility between CSR and PVC. MACA treatment could be considered as an effective and green method for enhancing reinforcement efficiency of plant fibers and the properties of PFPC.

  19. Analysis of citrates and benzoates used in poly(vinyl chloride) by supercritical fluid extraction and gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, R M; Marín, M L; Sánchez, A; Jiménez, A

    2002-03-15

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) has been demonstrated to be a useful tool in the determination of additives in polymeric materials. This paper describes the determination of some citrates and benzoates in poly(vinyl chloride) blended with 33-34% of plasticizer using off-line SFE followed by gas chromatography. Experimental factors affecting SFE have been studied by gravimetric analysis, followed by analysis of the extracts using a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector. The extraction process is governed by the solubility of the plasticizers in the supercritical fluid or by their diffusion through the polymer matrix, which depend on the pressure and temperature used. Maximum extraction (>99%) is obtained at pressures and temperatures higher than 40 MPa and 80 degrees C, respectively. Due to purge losses, the collection efficiency of plasticizers into a liquid solvent ranges from 85 to 90%. The applicability of the SFE method is demonstrated using real samples and comparing the results with those obtained by conventional Soxhlet extraction.

  20. In vitro investigation of the effect of plasticizers on the blood compatibility of medical grade plasticized poly (vinyl chloride).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Rui; Wang, Hong; Wu, Xia; Cao, Ye; He, Zeng; He, Yuliang; Liu, Jiaxin

    2013-08-01

    This paper reports the results of an in vitro investigation into the blood response of medical grade poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC), and two types of plasticized PVC in tubing or sheet form, with di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and di(isononyl) cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (HEXAMOLL(®) DINCH) as plasticizer, were selected for assessment of complement activation, coagulation system and platelet activation. The results of the study show that not only the plasticizers at PVC surface have an influence on complement activation, but also the incubation condition such as incubation time and the diameter of PVC tubing. Under static status, C3a, C5a and SC5b-9 concentration in the blood were higher after contacting with PVC plasticized with DEHP (PVC1) than after contacting with PVC plasticized with DINCH (PVC2). However, under dynamic circulation, the results were totally converse, which may be due to smaller diameter and higher shear rate of PVC2. In addition, there was a significant increase of activated partial thrombin time (APTT) and decrease of FIX concentration after plasma contacting with the PVC tubing, which indicated that the intrinsic pathway may be impacted when blood contacted with PVC tubing. However, there was no significant difference of APTT, FIX concentration and CD62p expression rate between the two materials. Moreover, the migration in the DINCH system was considerably lower than for DEHP, which indicates that DINCH could be a promising alterative plasticizer of DEHP.

  1. Effect of Palm Oil Bio-Based Plasticizer on the Morphological, Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Poly(Vinyl Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar Min Lim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Flexible poly(vinyl chloride (PVC was fabricated using a palm oil-based alkyd as a co-plasticizer to di-octyl phthalate (DOP and di-isononyl phthalate (DiNP. The effects of the incorporation of the palm oil-based alkyd on morphological, thermal and mechanical properties of PVC compounds were studied. Results showed the incorporation of the alkyd enhanced the mechanical and thermal properties of the PVC compounds. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR results showed that the polar –OH and –C=O groups of alkyd have good interaction with the –C–Cl group in PVC via polar interaction. The morphological results showed good incorporation of the plasticizers with PVC. Improved tensile strength, elastic modulus, and elongation at break were observed with increasing amount of the alkyd, presumably due to chain entanglement of the alkyd with the PVC molecules. Thermogravimetric analysis results confirmed that the alkyd has improved the thermostability of the PVC compounds.

  2. Effect of polymer concentration on the morphology and mechanical characteristics of electrospun cellulose acetate and poly (vinyl chloride nanofiber mats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethwel Tarus

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose Acetate (CA and Poly (Vinyl Chloride (PVC nanofiber mats were electrospun into nanofibers. The morphology and mechanical properties of nanofiber mats were evaluated versus different solution concentrations. Solutions were prepared in mixed solvent systems of 2:1 (w/w Acetone/N,N-Dimethylacetamide (DMAc and 3:2 (w/w Acetone/N,N-Dimethylformamide (DMF for CA and 1:1 (w/w Tetrahydrofuran/DMF for PVC. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM images revealed that a beaded fibrous structure could be electrospun beginning at 10% CA in both Acetone/DMAc and Acetone/DMF solvent systems. The experimental results showed that smooth fibers were achievable at 14% CA in Acetone/DMAc and at 16% CA in Acetone/DMF solvent systems. For PVC, beaded fibers were formed at 12% PVC and smooth fibers were formed beginning at 14% PVC. Tensile strength tests showed that mechanical properties of the nonaligned nanofiber mats were influenced by solution concentration. With increasing solution concentration, the tensile strengths, break strains and initial moduli of the CA nanofiber mats increased. The effect of solution concentration on the tensile strengths of nanofiber mats was quite significant while it did not have any considerable effect on the tensile properties of the cast films.

  3. Pyrolysis of poly(vinyl chloride) and-electric arc furnacedust mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Harahsheh, Mohammad; Al-Otoom, Awni; Al-Makhadmah, Leema; Hamilton, Ian E; Kingman, Sam; Al-Asheh, Sameer; Hararah, Muhanned

    2015-12-15

    An investigation into the pyrolysis kinetics of PVC mixed with electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) was performed. Mixtures of both materials with varying PVC ratios (1:1, 1:2, 1:3) were prepared and pyrolyzed in a nitrogen atmosphere under dynamic heating conditions at different heating rates (5, 10, 30 and 50 °C/min). The pyrolysis process proceeded through two main decomposition steps; the first step involved the release of HCl which reacted with the metal oxides present in the dust, subsequently forming metal chlorides and water vapor. Benzene was also found to release as detected by TGA-MS. The remaining hydrocarbons in the polymer backbone decomposed further in the second step releasing further volatile hydrocarbons. Different models were used to fit the kinetic data namely the integral, the Van Krevelen, and Coats and Red fern methods. The presence of EAFD during PVC decomposition resulted in a considerable decrease in the activation energy of the reaction occurring during the first decomposition region. Furthermore, iron oxides were retained in the pyrolysis residue, whilst other valuable metals, including Zn and Pb, were converted to chlorides that are recoverable by leaching in water. It is believed that EAFD can be utilized as an active catalyst to produce energy gases such as propyneas evident from the TGA-MS.

  4. Solid-phase extraction of cobalt(II) from lithium chloride solutions using a poly(vinyl chloride)-based polymer inclusion membrane with Aliquat 336 as the carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagaya, Shigehiro; Cattrall, Robert W; Kolev, Spas D

    2011-01-01

    The extraction of cobalt(II) from solutions containing various concentrations of lithium chloride, hydrochloric acid, and mixtures of lithium chloride plus hydrochloric acid is reported using a poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)-based polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) containing 40% (w/w) Aliquat 336 as a carrier. The extraction from lithium chloride solutions and mixtures with hydrochloric acid is shown to be more effective than extraction from hydrochloric acid solutions alone. The solution concentrations giving the highest amounts of extraction are 7 mol L(-1) for lithium chloride and 8 mol L(-1) lithium chloride plus 1 mol L(-1) hydrochloric acid for mixed solutions. Cobalt(II) is easily stripped from the membrane using deionized water. The cobalt(II) species extracted into the membrane are CoCl(4)(2-) for lithium chloride solutions and HCoCl(4)(-) for mixed solutions; these form ion-pairs with Aliquat 336. It is also shown that both lithium chloride and hydrochloric acid are extracted by the PIM and suppress the extraction of cobalt(II) by forming ion-pairs in the membrane (i.e. R(3)MeN(+)·HCl(2)(-) for hydrochloric acid and R(3)MeN(+)·LiCl(2)(-) for lithium chloride).

  5. Determination of residual vinyl chloride monomer in artificial leather by GC-MS method%GC-MS法测定人造革残留氯乙烯单体

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芳; 魏孟媛; 刘敏华; 周婵

    2012-01-01

    建立了测定聚氯乙烯人造革中的残留氯乙烯的顶空气相色谱-质谱法(GC-MS).采用N,N-二甲基乙酰胺(DMA)溶解聚氯乙烯人造革样品,在70℃下平衡30 min,顶空进样进行气相色谱-质谱分析.结果显示,在0.2~20 μg范围内,该方法线性关系良好,相关系数r=0.999.对样品进行3组不同浓度水平的加标测定(n=6),平均回收率为88%~92%,相对标准偏差(RSD)小于5.5%,检出限为0.2 mg/kg.该方法简便、快速,准确,可用于测定聚氯乙烯人造革中氯乙烯单体含量.%The method for determination of residual vinyl chloride monomer in polyvinyl chloride artificial leather by headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is established. The polyvinyl chloride artificial leather is dissolved by N, N-dimethylacet-amide( DMA). The sample is injected into the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS) with headspace sampler after equilibrating at 70T for 30 min. The calibration curve of vinyl chloride is linear in the range of 0.2 ~ 20 μg, and the correlation coefficient r is 0.999. The average recoveries of vinyl chloride are in the range of 88% -92% with relative standard deviations (n=6) less than 5.5% in three levels respectively. The detection limit of the method is 0.2 mg/kg. The method is simple, convenient and accurate which is suitable for determining the residual vinyl chloride monomer in polyvinyl chloride artificial leather.

  6. Surface modification of poly (vinyl chloride) by long-distance and direct argon RF plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the effects of long- distance and direct argon radio frequency (RF) plasma surface treatment on polyvinyl chloride (PVC) films in terms of changes in surface wettability and surface chemistry. The surface properties are characterized by the water contact angle measurement, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanism is further analyzed and the role of all kinds of active species, e.g. electrons, ions and free radicals involved in plasma surface modification is further evaluated. Results show that the long-distance and direct RF plasma treatments modify the PVC surface in morphology and composition, and both modifications cause surface oxidation of PVC films, in the forming of functional groups enhancing polymer wettability. The effect of the long-distance argon RF plasma is more notable. This suggests that long-distance argon RF plasma could restrain the ion and electron eroding effect and enhance free radical reaction.

  7. Novel thermally stable poly(vinyl chloride) composites for sulfate removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadagouda, Mallikarjuna N., E-mail: Nadagouda.mallikarjuna@epa.gov [Water Supply and Water Resources Division, National Risk Management Research Laboratory U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 26 W. Martin Luther King Drive Cincinnati, Ohio 45268 (United States); Pressman, Jonathan; White, Colin; Speth, Thomas F.; McCurry, Daniel L. [Water Supply and Water Resources Division, National Risk Management Research Laboratory U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 26 W. Martin Luther King Drive Cincinnati, Ohio 45268 (United States)

    2011-04-15

    Graphical abstract: Barium carbonate and/or barium carbonate-loaded silica aero-gels dispersed polyvinyl chloride (PVC) composites were prepared by dissolving PVC in tetrahydrofuran (THF), dispersing BaCO{sub 3} and/or BaCO{sub 3}-loaded silica aero-gels, re-precipitating the PVC with water at room temperature. The PVC composites were then characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray mapping, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. The obtained composites had better thermal properties than the control PVC. The composites were tested for sulfate removal and found to significantly reduce sulfate when compared with control PVC. - Abstract: BaCO{sub 3} dispersed PVC composites were prepared through a polymer re-precipitation method. The composites were tested for sulfate removal using rapid small scale column test (RSSCT) and found to significantly reduce sulfate concentration. The method was extended to synthesize barium carbonate-loaded silica aero-gels-polyvinyl chloride (PVC) polymer composites. The PVC composites were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray mapping, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. The method has advantages over conventional sulfate precipitation (sulfate removal process) using BaCO{sub 3} wherein clogging of the filter can be avoided. The method is environmentally friendly and does not interfere with natural organic matter as the conventional resin does. Some of the composites were thermally more stable as compared with the pure PVC discussed in the literature.

  8. Surface modification of poly(vinyl chloride) by physisorbed free radical initiation for reduced plasticizer migration and antimicrobial properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Kathryn

    Poly(vinyl chloride), PVC, is a particularly important commodity polymer that accounts for an annual world-wide production of 26 million tons. It is used frequently in the medical field as blood storage bags, endotracheal and dialysis tubing and intravenous catheters. Common plasticizers, namely di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), are added to PVC to improve the processability and flexibility by lowering the glass transition temperature. However, most phthalate plasticizers are potential carcinogens. There has been extensive research on PVC with surface coatings to improve biocompatibility, surface crosslinking to create a barrier to the plasticizer leaching and surface grafting of hydrophilic polymers for both biocompatibility and reduced plasticizer migration. A novel surface grafting technique is the grafting of hydrophilic monomers by physisorbed free radical initiators. This modification method can be applied to PVC to attach vinyl hydrophilic monomers by the "grafting from" method. This approach, extending on earlier work involving polymer brush formation on poly(dimethylsiloxane), involves a two-step process: physisorption of a hydrophobic free radical initiator onto a polymer surface followed by radical polymerization of hydrophilic monomers in water. The key step is creating a hydrophobic/hydrophilic diffusional barrier that promotes radical reactions at the polymer surface. Polymers that have been successfully grafted from PVC films and tubing include: poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA), poly(dimethylacrylamide) (PDMA), poly(hydroxyethyl acrylate) (PHEA), poly(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA), poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), and poly(4-vinylpyridine) (P4VP). Characterization methods performed include bulk chemical composition by transmission infrared spectroscopy, surface composition using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, surface wettability by tensiometry and capillary rise, film thickness determination by infrared, gravimetric analysis and UV

  9. Physical and chemical basics of modification of poly(vinyl chloride) by means of polyisocyanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islamov, Anvar; Fakhrutdinova, Venera; Abdrakhmanova, Lyailya

    2016-01-01

    This research presents data relating to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) modification by means of reactive oligomer and measures technological, physical and mechanical properties of the modified composites. Polyisocyanate (PIC) has been chosen as the modifying reactive oligomer. It has been shown that insertion of the oligomer has a double effect on PVC. Primarily, PIC produces a plasticizing effect on PVC and in particular leads to an increase in thermal stability and melt flow index at the stage of processing. In addition, the molded PVC composites possess higher strength properties and lower deformability when exposed to temperature because of chemical transformations of PIC in polymer matrix and, as the result, the formation of cross-linked systems takes place. In this case, semi-interpenetrating structures are formed based on cross-linked products of PIC chemical transformations homogeneously distributed in the PVC matrix. It has been determined by means of IR-spectroscopy that the basic products of PIC curing are compounds with urea and biuret groups which leads to modifying effect on PVC especially: increase in strength, thermal and mechanical properties, and chemical resistance.

  10. Reduced migration from flexible poly(vinyl chloride) of a plasticizer containing beta-cyclodextrin derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ong Yong; Chung, Jae Woo; Kwak, Seung-Yeop

    2008-10-01

    The migration of endocrine-disrupting di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) poses a serious threat to public health and the environment. In this study, we successfully prepared a plasticizerwith reduced DEHP migration by directly incorporating 2,3,6-per-O-benzoyl-beta-cyclodextrin (Bz-beta-CD) into DEHP. Bz-beta-CD was prepared by esterification between the hydroxyl groups of beta-CD and benzoyl chloride. The presence of this cyclodextrin is expected to facilitate formation of stable complexes through pi-pi association with DEHP molecules. The flexible PVC was prepared with a gelation-fusion process that uses the prepared migration-resistant plasticizer, and its properties (flexibility, thermal stability, and clarity) were evaluated by carrying out DSC and tensile testing, TGA, and haze testing, respectively. No significant changes in the physical properties of the flexible PVC were observed when Bz-beta-CD was added. DEHP migration tests were carried out for the flexible PVC according to the ISO 3826:1993(E) test method, and the quantity of migrated DEHP was then determined with UV-vis spectroscopy. It was found that the addition of Bz-beta-CD decreases the levels of DEHP migration from the flexible PVC samples by almost 40%. We investigated the molecular interaction between Bz-beta-CD and DEHP using molecular mechanics simulations, and we conclude that this reduction in DEHP migration is due to the formation of stabilized pi-pi attractive association and inclusion complexes of Bz-beta-CD and DEHP in flexible PVC.

  11. Effect of the XRCC1 codon 399 polymorphism on the repair of vinyl chloride metabolite-induced DNA damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yongliang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent epidemiologic evidence suggests that the common polymorphism at amino acid residue 399 of the x-ray cross complementing-1 (XRCC1 protein, a key component of the base excision repair (BER pathway for DNA damage, plays a significant role in the genetic variability of individuals in terms of the mutagenic damage they experience following exposure to the carcinogen vinyl chloride (VC. The aim of this study was to provide support for the biological plausibility of these epidemiologic observations with experimental data derived from cell lines in culture from individuals who were either homozygous wild-type or homozygous variant for this XRCC1 polymorphism following exposure to chloroethylene oxide (CEO, the active metabolite of VC, with measurement of the induced etheno-DNA adducts before and after repair. Materials and Methods: Immortalized lymphoblast cell lines from seven VC workers (four homozygous wild-type and three homozygous variant for the 399 XRCC1 polymorphism were exposed to CEO, and etheno-adenosine (εA adduct levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA pre-exposure and at 0, 4, 8 and 24 h following exposure. Results: The average εA adduct levels were statistically significantly higher in the variant cells compared to the wild-type cells at 8 and 24 h following exposure (P< 0.05 with an overall average repair efficiency of 32% in the variant cells compared to 82% in the wild-type cells. Conclusion: These results are consistent with the epidemiologic findings of the types of VC-induced biomarkers observed in exposed individuals and the mutational spectra found in the resultant tumors as well as the key role that BER, especially XRCC1, plays in this carcinogenic pathway.

  12. Evaluation in vinyl chloride monomer-exposed workers and the relationship between liver lesions and gene polymorphisms of metabolic enzymes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shou-Min Zhu; Xue-Feng Pen; Jun-Xiang Wan; Zhao-Lin Xia

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To analyze occupational health hazards exposure to doses lower than the Chinese occupational health standard in a selected VC polymerization plant in China,and also to elucidate the relationship between genetic polymorphisms and genetic susceptibility on liver lesions of workers exposed to vinyl chloride monomer (VCM).METHODS: In order to explore the mechanism of VCM-related health effects, we used a case-control design to investigate the association between the genetic polymorphisms of metabolic enzymes and liver lesions in workers occupationally exposed to VCM. Genotypes of CYP2E1, GSTT1, GSTM1, ALDH2 and ADH2 were identified using PCR and PCR-RFLP.RESULTS: Even when the concentration of VCM was lower than the current Chinese occupational health standard,neurasthenia, pharyngeal irritation, liver ultrasonography abnormalities and hemoglobin disorders were significantly higher in exposure subjects compared to non-exposure subjects, and the relative risks (RR and 95% CI) were 1.74 (1.06-2.85), 1.97 (1.56-2.48), 10.69 (4.38-26.12),and 2.07 (1.20-3.57). CYP2E1 c1c2/c2c2 genotype was significantly associated with liver damages (OR 3.29, 95% CI 1.51-7.20, P<0.01).CONCLUSION: The incidences of neurasthenia and liver ultrasonography abnormalities significantly increase when the cumulative exposure dose increases. The genotypes of metabolic enzymes (CYP2E1 c1c2/c2c2, null GSTT1 and ADH2 1-1) play important roles in VCM metabolism.Polymorphisms of CYP 2E1, GSTT1 and ADH2 may be a major reason of genetic susceptibility in VCM-induced hepatic damage.

  13. Blends of nitrile butadiene rubber/poly (vinyl chloride: The use of maleated anhydride castor oil based plasticizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indiah Ratna Dewi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, much attention has been focused on research to replace petroleum-based plasticizers, with biodegradable materials, such as biopolymer which offers competitive mechanical properties. In this study, castor oil was modified with maleic anhydride (MAH to produce bioplasticizer named maleated anhydride castor oil (MACO, and used in nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR/poly vinyl chloride (PVC blend. The effect of MACO on its cure characteristics and mechanical properties of NBR/PVC blend has been determined. The reactions were carried out at different castor oil (CO/xylene ratios, i.e. 1:0 and 1:1 by weight, and fixed CO/MAH ratio, 1:3 by mole. DOP, CO, and MACO were added into each NBR/PVC blend according to the formula. It was found that the viscosity and safe process level of NBR/PVC blend is similar from all plasticizer, however, MACO (1:0 showed the highest cure rate index (CRI. MACO-based plasticizer gave a higher value of the mechanical properties of the NBR/PVC blend as compared to DOP based plasticizer. MACO (1:1 based plasticizer showed a rather significance performance compared to another type of plasticizers both before and after aging. The value of hardness, elongation at break, tensile strength, and tear strength were 96 Shore A, 155.91 %, 19.15 MPa, and 74.47 MPa, respectively. From this result, NBR/PVC blends based on MACO plasticizer can potentially replace the DOP, and therefore, making the rubber blends eco-friendly.

  14. A novel reutilization method for waste printed circuit boards as flame retardant and smoke suppressant for poly (vinyl chloride)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiu, Fu-Rong, E-mail: xiu_chem@hotmail.com [College of Ecological Environment and Urban Construction, Fujian University of Technology, Fuzhou 350108 (China); Weng, Huiwei; Qi, Yingying; Yu, Gending; Zhang, Zhigang [College of Ecological Environment and Urban Construction, Fujian University of Technology, Fuzhou 350108 (China); Zhang, Fu-Shen [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2016-09-05

    Highlights: • We report a novel electronic waste-based flame retardant for PVC. • The SCWO-treated PCBs significantly improves the flame retardancy of PVC. • The flame retardant mechanism of SCWO-treated PCBs was studied. • Appropriate amount flame retardant does not degrade the mechanical property of PVC. - Abstract: In this study, a novel reutilization method for waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) as flame retardant and smoke suppressant for poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) was successfully testified. A supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) process was applied to treat waste PCBs before they could be used as flame retardants of PVC. The results indicated that SCWO conditions had a significant effect on the flame retarding and smoke suppressing properties of waste PCBs for PVC. Cu{sub 2}O, CuO, and SnO{sub 2} were the main active ingredients in waste PCBs-derived flame retardants. A conversion of Cu elements (Cu{sup 0} → Cu{sup +} → Cu{sup 2+}) during SCWO process with the increase of reaction temperature was found to be the key influence factor for the flame retarding properties of SCWO-treated PCBs. The experiment results also showed that there was a synergistic effect of flame retardancy between Cu{sup +} and Cu{sup 2+}. After the optimized SCWO treatment, SCWO-treated PCBs significantly improved the flame retardancy and smoke suppression of PVC. Limiting oxygen index (LOI) and char yield (CY) increased with increasing SCWO-treated PCBs content in PVC, while smoke density rating (SDR) and maximum smoke density (MSD) decreased markedly. The mechanical properties of PVC samples were influenced in different degree by adding different content SCWO-treated PCBs.

  15. Antibacterial and physical properties of poly(vinyl chloride)-based film coated with ZnO nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X H; Xing, Y G; Li, W L; Jiang, Y H; Ding, Y L

    2010-06-01

    Nanoparticles of ZnO and their application in coating systems have attracted a great deal of attention in recent years because of its multifunction property, especially antibacterial activity. In this study, antibacterial and physical properties of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) based film coated with ZnO nanoparticles were investigated. It was found that the antibacterial action should be attributed to the killing effect property of ZnO nanoparticles. The ZnO-coated films treated by shaking for 10 h exhibited a similar high antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus as the untreated ZnO-coated films. This result indicated that the ZnO nanoparticles adhered very well to the plastic film. The antibacterial activity of the ZnO-coated film to inactivate E. coli or S. aureus was improved by UV irradiation. The analysis of physical properties of the ZnO-coated films revealed that the nano-ZnO particles showed less effects on the tensile strength and elongation at break of the film. The ultraviolet (UV) light fastness of the ZnO-coated PVC film was improved, which may be attributed to the absorption of ZnO nanoparticles against UV light. Water vapor transmission of the ZnO-coated film decreased from 128 to 85 g/m(2) · 24 h, whereas the thickness of film increased from 6.0 μm with increasing the amount of nano-ZnO particles coated from 0 to 187.5 μg/cm(2). This research revealed that the PVC film coated with nano-ZnO particles has a good potential to be used as an active coating system for food packaging.

  16. Reanalysis of updated mortality among vinyl and polyvinyl chloride workers: Confirmation of historical evidence and new findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crosignani Paolo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The production of vinyl chloride (VC and polyvinyl chloride (PVC involves the use of various chemicals, some known to be toxic and potentially or definitely carcinogenic. The related potential risk often has not been properly investigated. Updated cancer mortality among different subgroups of workers employed in a VC-PVC production plant located in Porto Marghera (Italy was re-analyzed using an internal reference group of workers with low (or null exposure to VC. Methods Mortality of 1658 male workers was analyzed by Poisson regression. Relative risks (RRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for blue collar workers and their specific subgroups of PVC baggers, PVC compound, autoclave and other blue collar workers were calculated using technicians and clerks as an internal reference group. The follow-up covered the period 1972–1999. Results Significantly increased mortality rates were observed for all causes of death among the whole blue collar workforce (RR = 1.55; 95% CI = 1.03–2.35; 229 deaths, PVC baggers (1.72; 95% CI = 1.04–2.83; 49 deaths and PVC compound workers (1.71; 95% CI = 1.09–2.67; 72 deaths. Liver cancer, including angiosarcoma, was increased among autoclave workers (9.57; 95% CI = 3.71–24.68; 7 deaths and cardiovascular diseases among PVC baggers (2.25; 95% CI = 1.08–4.70; 12 deaths. Hemolymphopoietic system tumors, leukemias and lymphomas prevalently, were found only among exposed workers, with 4, 4 and 6 deaths observed among PVC baggers, PVC compound and other blue collar workers, respectively. An excess of lung cancer was found among PVC baggers. Conclusion This cohort analysis, based on internal comparison, confirmed previously reported specific risk excesses for liver tumors and liver cirrhosis among autoclave workers and for lung cancer among PVC baggers, and revealed PVC compound workers as a possible new at risk group for all causes, all tumors and for liver and lung tumors. In conclusion

  17. Evaluation of the effect of the concentration of plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on the quantity of residual monomer vinyl chloride in PVC chest drainage tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kicheva, Y I; Richter, H; Popova, E

    2004-08-01

    The effect of amount of plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) amount on the amount of residual monomer vinyl chloride (VC) was determined in samples of plasticised polyvinyl chloride (PVC) with different concentration of plasticiser (22.32-33.05%), before and after sterilisation by a titrimetric method. The titrimetric method was used to determine the VC concentration in a KMnO4 solution where the samples were kept immersed under the same conditions for 2 h. The influence of PVC film extracts with different amounts of DEHP on mouse fibroblast cells L-929 in a culture medium was evaluated by using quantitative tests: the amount of cells (protein determination), viability (MTT test) and proliferation (incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine (BrDU). The amount of vinyl chloride before and after heat sterilisation at 120 degrees C for 30 min was found to be almost the same for all samples and without any dependence on the concentration of DEHP. The extracts of the PVC films which were tested have no toxic effect on cells in a culture medium.

  18. Foaming of Foamed Poly(vinyl chloride) Artificial Leather%聚氯乙烯泡沫人造革的发泡问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓光华

    2001-01-01

    Foaming mechanism of poly(vinyl chloride) artificial leather wasreviewed,factors influencing the foaming in release paper process and calendaring were analyzed.Key parameters to be controlled in the production were pointed out.%论述了聚氯乙烯(PVC)人造革的发泡机理,分析了离型纸工艺和压延工艺中的对发泡有影响的因素,提出了生产中需要控制的要点。

  19. VINYL POLYMERIZATION OF NORBORNENE CATALYZED BY[2-(2-BENZIMIDAZOLYL)-6-((1-ARYLIMINOETHYL)PYRIDYL)]NICKEL CHLORIDE/MAO SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-song Shi; Wei-wei Zuo

    2008-01-01

    The catalytic system of[2-(2-benzimidazolyl)-6-((1-arylirninoethyl)pyridyl)]nickel chloride/MAO (methylalu-minoxane)was found to be good active for vinyl polymerization of norbornene and provided polymers with relative narrow molecular distributions.Various reaction parameters,such as the ratios of nickel precursor to MAO or monomer norbornene,and the nature of the ligands in complexes were carefully investigated to realize their effects on the catalytic activities,polymer molecular weight and molecular weight distributions.

  20. Ionic conduction in poly(vinyl chloride)/poly(ethyl methacrylate)-based polymer blend electrolytes complexed with different lithium salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajendran, S.; Prabhu, M. Ramesh; Rani, M. Usha [Department of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi, 630 003 (India)

    2008-06-01

    Poly(vinyl chloride)/poly(ethyl methacrylate)-based polymer blend electrolytes comprising propylene carbonate as a plasticizer and a lithium salt LiX (X = BF{sub 4}{sup -}, ClO{sub 4}{sup -}, CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}{sup -}) are prepared by a solvent casting technique. The electrolytes are subjected to characterization by ionic conductivity, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetic/differential thermal analysis. The electrolytes that contain LiBF{sub 4} exhibit maximum conductivity and are thermally stable up to 254 C. (author)

  1. Multiple lines of evidence to demonstrate vinyl chloride aerobic biodegradation in the vadose zone, and factors controlling rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, B. M.; Aravena, R.; Davis, G. B.; Furness, A. J.; Bastow, T. P.; Bouchard, D.

    2013-10-01

    A field-based investigation was conducted at a contaminated site where the vadose zone was contaminated with a range of chlorinated hydrocarbons. The investigation consisted of groundwater and multilevel soil-gas monitoring of a range of contaminants and gases, along with isotope measurements and microbiology studies. The investigation provided multiple lines of evidence that demonstrated aerobic biodegradation of vinyl chloride (VC) was occurring in the vadose zone (i) above the on-site source zone, and (ii) above the downgradient off-site groundwater plume location. Data from both the on-site and off-site locations were consistent in showing substantially greater (an order of magnitude greater) rates of VC removal from the aerobic vadose zone compared to more recalcitrant contaminants trichloroethene (TCE) and tetrachloroethene (PCE). Soil gas VC isotope analysis showed substantial isotopic enrichment of VC (δ13C - 5.2 to - 10.9‰) compared to groundwater (δ13C - 39.5‰) at the on-site location. Soil gas CO2 isotope analysis at both locations showed that CO2 was highly isotopically depleted (δ13C - 28.8 to - 33.3‰), compared to soil gas CO2 data originating from natural sediment organic matter (δ13C = - 14.7 to - 21.3‰). The soil gas CO2 δ13C values were consistent with near-water table VC groundwater δ13C values (- 36.8 to - 39.5‰), suggesting CO2 originating from aerobic biodegradation of VC. Bacteria that had functional genes (ethene monooxygenase (etnC) and epoxyalkane transferase (etnE) involved in ethene metabolism and VC oxidation were more abundant at the source zone where oxygen co-existed with VC. The distribution of VC and oxygen vadose zone vapour plumes, together with long-term changes in soil gas CO2 concentrations and temperature, provided information to elucidate the factors controlling aerobic biodegradation of VC in the vadose zone. Based on the overlapping VC and oxygen vadose zone vapour plumes, aerobic vapour biodegradation

  2. Multiple lines of evidence to demonstrate vinyl chloride aerobic biodegradation in the vadose zone, and factors controlling rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, B M; Aravena, R; Davis, G B; Furness, A J; Bastow, T P; Bouchard, D

    2013-10-01

    A field-based investigation was conducted at a contaminated site where the vadose zone was contaminated with a range of chlorinated hydrocarbons. The investigation consisted of groundwater and multilevel soil-gas monitoring of a range of contaminants and gases, along with isotope measurements and microbiology studies. The investigation provided multiple lines of evidence that demonstrated aerobic biodegradation of vinyl chloride (VC) was occurring in the vadose zone (i) above the on-site source zone, and (ii) above the downgradient off-site groundwater plume location. Data from both the on-site and off-site locations were consistent in showing substantially greater (an order of magnitude greater) rates of VC removal from the aerobic vadose zone compared to more recalcitrant contaminants trichloroethene (TCE) and tetrachloroethene (PCE). Soil gas VC isotope analysis showed substantial isotopic enrichment of VC (δ¹³C -5.2 to -10.9‰) compared to groundwater (δ¹³C -39.5‰) at the on-site location. Soil gas CO₂ isotope analysis at both locations showed that CO₂ was highly isotopically depleted (δ¹³C -28.8 to -33.3‰), compared to soil gas CO₂ data originating from natural sediment organic matter (δ¹³C= -14.7 to -21.3‰). The soil gas CO2 δ¹³C values were consistent with near-water table VC groundwater δ¹³C values (-36.8 to -39.5‰), suggesting CO₂ originating from aerobic biodegradation of VC. Bacteria that had functional genes (ethene monooxygenase (etnC) and epoxyalkane transferase (etnE)) involved in ethene metabolism and VC oxidation were more abundant at the source zone where oxygen co-existed with VC. The distribution of VC and oxygen vadose zone vapour plumes, together with long-term changes in soil gas CO₂ concentrations and temperature, provided information to elucidate the factors controlling aerobic biodegradation of VC in the vadose zone. Based on the overlapping VC and oxygen vadose zone vapour plumes, aerobic vapour

  3. Selective oxidation of vinyl chloride on Ag2O(100), Cu2O(100), and Au2O(100) surfaces: A density functional theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Rui-Peng; Cheng, Lu; Lv, Yong-Kang

    2014-12-01

    Vinyl chloride (VC) is the simplest asymmetric olefin molecule and is greatly harmful to the environment and human health. To find an effective oxidation approach to decrease VC emission, the selective oxidation reaction of the VC molecule on Ag2O(100), Cu2O(100), and Au2O(100) surfaces has been investigated by using density functional theory in the present work. Five different reaction pathways in two steps on the three surfaces have been proposed and discussed. The result shows that the formation of chloroacetadehyde is more favored than the formation of chloroethylene epoxide and acetyl chloride, and the activation energy of chloroacetadehyde formation on the Ag2O(100) surface is lower than that on the other two surfaces.

  4. Palladium Nanoparticles Immobilized on Poly(vinyl chloride-Supported Pyridinium as an Efficient and Recyclable Catalyst for Suzuki-Miyaura Cross-Coupling Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The palladium nanoparticles immobilized on the polymeric surface of poly(vinyl chloride-supported pyridinium (PVC-Py-Pd0 were achieved by a simple procedure by applying the corresponding functionalized polymer and palladium chloride in ethanol solution. The as-prepared catalyst (PVC-Py-Pd0 was found to be air and moisture stable and exhibits significant catalytic activity for Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction of various aryl halides and phenylboronic acid under milder operating conditions. The procedure presented here showed several merits such as short reaction time, simple experimental and isolated procedure and excellent yields of products. Furthermore, the catalyst can be easily recovered and reused for at least six times with consistent activities.

  5. Safety interlock control technology for vinyl chloride synthesis device and its application%氯乙烯合成装置安全连锁控制技术及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华斌; 张顺利

    2013-01-01

    针对影响氯乙烯合成装置安全生产的主要因素,采用了安全连锁控制技术,保障了氯乙烯合成装置的安全、有序、可控运行。%Based on the main factors of influencing the safe production of vinyl chloride syn-thesis device ,a safety interlock control technology was used ,and could ensure the safe ,orderly and controllable running of vinyl chloride synthesis device .

  6. Studies on the Safety of Vinyl Chloride Tank Farm in Process Design%氯乙烯罐区工艺设计中的安全性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈志洵; 孙天山

    2012-01-01

    本研究依据氯乙烯物料的相关物理及化学特性,对氯乙烯罐区工艺设计过程进行研究。讨论了氯乙烯储罐、氯乙烯物料装卸方式、物料和公用工程管线以及自控仪表的设置方案,并做出相应分析。为氯乙烯罐区工艺设计提供借鉴和参考。%In the research, based on the physical and chemical characteristics of Vinyl Chloride, the process of Vinyl Chloride Tank Farm design was studied. The Factors of Vinyl Chloride tank, Loading-unloading way, Materials and Public project Piping line, and Automatic-control instrument be focused and analyzed, which may give a reference to the Design of Vinyl Chloride Tank Farm Process.

  7. Summary of Production and Market of Poly(vinyl chloride) in the World (Ⅱ)%国内外聚氯乙烯生产及市场概况(Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘岭梅

    2001-01-01

    Production and market situation of poly(vinyl chloride ) (PVC) in China and Asia were introduced, and the development trend of PVC in China was put forward.%分析了亚洲及中国的PVC树脂的生产及市场概况,并提出了我国 PVC树脂的发展方向。

  8. 氯乙烯转化器4年零泄漏经验总结%Summary on experiences in the four-year zero leakage of vinyl chloride converter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂修林

    2012-01-01

    从设备制造及工艺操作两方面具体介绍了减少氯乙烯转化器泄漏的措施。%Measures to decrease thc leakage of vinyl chloride converter were introduced in detail in terms of equipment manufacture and process operation.

  9. Energy saving innovation of heat water circular process of vinyl chloride converter%氯乙烯转化器热水循环工艺的节能改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学会; 李英

    2011-01-01

    介绍了氯乙烯转化工序转化器热水循环工艺的节能改造方案及内容。%Energy innovation project and contents of heat water circular process of vinyl chloride converter were introduced.

  10. A NEW LC-MS/MS METHOD FOR THE DETECTION AND QUANTIFICATION OF ENDOGENOUS AND VINYL CHLORIDE INDUCED 7-(2-0XOETHYL)GUANINE IN SPRAGUE DAWLEY MALE RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinyl chloride (VC) is an industrial chemical that is known to be carcinogenic to animals and humans. VC primarily induces hepatic angiosarcomas following high exposures (≥50 ppm). VC is also found in Superfund sites at ppb concentrations as a result of microbial metabolism of tr...

  11. 电石乙炔法生产聚氯乙烯的节能措施%Energy saving measures in poly vinyl chloride synthesis by calcium carbide-acetylene method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦军

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the energy saving measures for reference in poly vinyl chloride production by calcium carbide-acetylene method with respect to acetylene,VCM and polymer plants.%从乙炔车间、VCM车间、聚合车间着手,介绍了电石乙炔法生产聚氯乙烯的节能措施.

  12. FINITE ELEMENT SIMULATION FOR YIELD STRESS OF HARD POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)/ACRYLONITRILE-BUTADIENE-STYRENE BLENDS AT DIFFERENT CROSSHEAD SPEEDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei-hua Du; Jie Yu; Peng-fei Lin; Yi-hu Song; Qiang Zneng

    2011-01-01

    Hard poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) blends were prepared using injectionmolding and influence of crosshead speed on mechanical properties was examined.Based on morphology parameters obtained from transmission electron microscopy photography and the material parameters from true stress-strain curves of neat PVC and ABS,yield stresses of the blends at different crosshead speeds were simulated employing a two-dimensional nine-particle model based on the finite element analysis (FEA).The FEA results were compared with the experimental yielding stress and the good agreement validated the simulation approach.The FEA approach allowed establishing a yielding criterion related to local yielding of the interstitial matrix between ABS particles.

  13. A highly selective fluorescent sensor for Cu{sup 2+} based on 2-(2'-hydroxyphenyl)benzoxazole in a poly(vinyl chloride) matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Xiaobing [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China); Peng Jing [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China); He Chunlian [Medical college, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410006 (China); Shen Guoli [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China); Yu Ruqin [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China)]. E-mail: rqyu@hnu.cn

    2006-05-17

    This paper describes a copper selective optical chemical sensor based on static quenching of the fluorescence of 2-(2'-hydroxyphenyl)benzoxazole entrapped in a poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane. The effect of the composition of the sensing membrane was studied, and experimental conditions were optimized. The sensors exhibit stable response over the concentration range from 4.0 x 10{sup -8} M to 5.0 x 10{sup -5} M Cu{sup 2+} at pH 4.0-6.5, and a high selectivity. The response time for Cu{sup 2+} with concentration {<=}5 x 10{sup -6} M is less than 7 min. The optode can be regenerated using 0.1 M HCl and acetate buffer solution. The sensor has been used for direct measurement of copper content in river water samples with a relative error less than 4% with reference to that obtained by atomic absorption spectrometry.

  14. Improved thermal stability of poly(vinyl chloride) by nanoscale layered double hydroxide particles grafted with toluene-2,4-di-isocyanate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Jun [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), Laboratory of New Materials, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Chen Guangming, E-mail: chengm@iccas.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), Laboratory of New Materials, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Yang Jiping, E-mail: jyang@buaa.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Ding Liping [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), Center for Physiochemical Analysis and Measurement (CPAM), Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2009-12-15

    A novel interlamellar surface modification of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) via covalent bonding by toluene-2,4-di-isocyanate (TDI) has been successfully obtained, and poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)/TDI-modified LDH nanocomposites have been prepared via solution intercalation process. After the interlamellar modification, TDI was grafted to the surface hydroxyl groups of LDHs with nitrate, dodecyl sulfate or stearate anion as counterion anion. The structures of the TDI-modified LDHs and the nanocomposites were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The enhanced thermal stability of PVC/TDI-modified LDH nanocomposites was confirmed by means of conventional Congo Red test and dynamic thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). In addition, the thermal degradation mechanism was briefly discussed on the basis of the above experimental results.

  15. Surface characterization of poly(vinyl chloride) urinary catheters functionalized with acrylic acid and poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate using gamma-radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islas, Luisa [Departamento de Química de Radiaciones y Radioquímica, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Ruiz, Juan-Carlos [División de Ciencias Básicas e Ingeniería, Depto. de Ingeniería de Procesos e Hidráulica, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, 09340 México D.F. (Mexico); Muñoz-Muñoz, Franklin [Facultad de Ingeniería, Arquitectura y Diseño, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Carretera Transpeninsular Ensenada-Tijuana 3917, Ensenada, B.C. C.P 22860 (Mexico); Isoshima, Takashi [Nano Medical Engineering Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Burillo, Guillermina, E-mail: burillo@nucleares.unam.mx [Departamento de Química de Radiaciones y Radioquímica, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico)

    2016-10-30

    Highlights: • Polymer grafting using gamma-radiation allowed for acrylic acid and poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate to graft on the inner and outer surface of poly(vinyl chloride) urinary catheters. • HR-XPS revealed the different compositional percentages of the compounds present on the surface of the catheter. • Catheters that were grafted with PEGMA had the roughest surface as observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser microscopy (CLM). - Abstract: Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) urinary catheters were modified with either a single or binary graft of acrylic acid (AAc) and/or poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA) using gamma-radiation from {sup 60}Co to obtain PVC-g-AAc, PVC-g-PEGMA, [PVC-g-AAc]-g-PEGMA, and [PVC-g-PEGMA]-g-AAc copolymers. The outer and inner surfaces of the modified catheters were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal laser microscopy (CLM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XPS analyses, by examining the correlation between the variation of the C{sub 1s} and O{sub 1s} content at the catheter’s surface, revealed that the catheter’s surfaces were successfully grafted with the chosen compounds, with those that were binary grafted showing a slightly more covered surface as was evidenced by the disappearance of PVC’s Cl peak. The SEM and CLM analyses revealed that catheters that had been grafted with PEGMA had a rougher outer surface as compared to those that had only been grafted with AAc. In addition, these imaging techniques showed that the inner surface of the singly grafted catheters, whether they had been grafted with AAc or PEGMA, retained some smoothness at the analyzed grafting percentages, while the binary grafted catheters showed many protuberances and greater roughness on both outer and inner surfaces.

  16. [To the question of the optimization of methods for detection of vinyl chloride and 1,2-dichloroethane, and their metabolites in biological fluids in workers involved in production of polyvinyl chloride].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhurba, O M; Alekseenko, A N

    2014-01-01

    There is considered the improvement of methodological approaches to the gas chromatographic methods- of the detection of vinyl chloride and 1,2-dichloroethane and their metabolites--chloroethanol and monochloroacetic acid in biological fluids. There were evaluated such metrological characteristics of methods, as repeatability, interlaboratoty precision, relevance and accuracy. The value of relative expanded uncertainty does not exceed 30%. There are reported optimal regimes of gas chromatographic analysis, conditions for sample preparation. The results of the contents ofthese chemical compounds and their metabolites in biological fluids from persons working in contact with chlorinated hydrocarbons are presented These techniques can be used for the detection ofthe fact of exposure to toxic substances, assessment of the level of exposure and biomonitoring.

  17. Evaluation of liver enzyme levels in workers exposed to vinyl chloride vapors in a petrochemical complex: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolati Mandana

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyvinyl chloride is used in production and manufacturing of many essential tools (e.g. plastic pipes, photography films, etc.. Its production is impossible without the use of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM, which can cause liver damage in long-term. In this study we intend to assess the effects of mild to moderate long term exposure to VCM on liver and to assess the importance of liver enzyme measurements as a screening tool. Methods In this study, liver enzyme levels of 52 workers were compared to 48 control workers using the T-test. The cases all worked in a PVC production unit in a petrochemical complex and the controls were randomly selected from office personnel of the same complex. A questionnaire was also filled in about information such as age, weight, work history, etc. in both groups. Results Mean comparisons for ALP and GGT using T-test showed statistically significant differences between the two groups. For AST, ALT and bilirubin (total, direct the mean was higher in the case group but this difference was not statistically significant. Discussion This study showed that mild exposure to VCM can cause mild liver cholestasis. So, using cholestasis assessment tests such as ALP and GGT should be considered in periodic assessment of liver function in PVC producing units.

  18. Simulation and Revamp of Vinyl Chloride Distillation Process%氯乙烯精馏工艺流程的模拟计算及技术改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李群生; 于颖; 郭增昌

    2012-01-01

    A vinyl chloride distillation process for 250 kt/a polyvinyl chloride installation adopting calcium carbide method was simulated and optimized using Aspen Plus software. Appropriate operation parameters such as feed position, reflux ratio and distillate ratio were obtained through sensitivity analysis. The design parameters for the low-boiler tower and high-boiler tower were calculated by computer simulation and the results were as follows: actual plate numbers of 34 and 40, reflux ratios of 2 and 0.8, feed positions of the sixteenth and fourteenth plates, and distillate ratios of 0.1-0.3 and 0.8-0.9, respectively. Based on the parameters, the low-boiler tower and high-boiler tower were revamped by employing efficient guide sieve trays. After the revamping, the energy consumption and cooling water consumption of the low-boiler tower reduced by 50% and 6.6 t/h respectively, while those of the high-boiler tower reduced by 36% and 42 t/h respectively. The mass fraction of the vinyl chloride in the products was above 99.99%.%采用Aspen Plus化工流程模拟软件对250kt/a聚氯乙烯装置的精馏过程进行模拟和优化,对回流比、进料位置及馏出比等操作参数进行灵敏度分析.模拟计算得到低沸塔和高沸塔的设计参数分别为:实际塔板数34和40、回流比2.0和0.8、进料位置第16和第14块塔板、馏出比0.1~0.3和0.8~0.9.以设计参数为基础.采用高效导向筛板对低沸塔和高沸塔进行改造,低沸塔能耗降低50%,冷凝水用量节省6.6t/h;高沸塔能耗降低36%,冷凝水用量节省42t/h;产品中氯乙烯的含量达99.99% (w)以上,改造效果良好.

  19. Precise analysis of esters content in production surroundings of vinyl chloride-vinyl acetate copolymer resins%氯醋共聚树脂生产环境空间中酯类物质含量的精密分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶滢; 康静; 李蓉

    2013-01-01

    通过改变气相色谱分析条件,提高了氯乙烯-醋酸乙烯酯共聚树脂生产环境空间中醋酸乙烯酯、丙烯酸丁酯、丙烯酸异辛酯分析结果的精密度和分析速度,对安全生产意义重大。%Through modifying the gas chromatographic analysis conditions, the analysis precision and analysis speed of contents of vinyl acetate, butyl acrylate and 2-ethylhexyl acrylate in the production sur-roundings of vinyl chloride-vinyl acetate copolymer resins were improved.The improvement had impor-tant significance for safe production.

  20. A novel biobased polyester plasticizer prepared from palm oil and its plasticizing effect on poly (vinyl chloride)

    OpenAIRE

    Jia Puyou; Zhang Meng; Hu Lihong; Zhou Yonghong

    2016-01-01

    In this study, palm oil was the first time to convert into a novel polyester plasticizer for polyvinyl chloride (PVC). In the first stage, palm oil was converted into palm oil monoglyceride (POM) by alcoholysis with glycerol. Next, a novel palm oil monoglycerides based polyester plasticizer (POMP) was synthesized from POM and maleic anhydride through esterification and condensation reaction. The structure of POMP was characterized with FTIR, 1H NMR and GPC. Then PVC blends were prepared using...

  1. Improvements on process of pressure swing adsorbing tail gas from vinyl chloride rectification%变压吸附氯乙烯精馏尾气工艺改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林涛海

    2011-01-01

    介绍了变压吸附氯乙烯精馏尾气的工艺改进情况,改进后的工艺采用分路回收方法,实现了氯乙烯、乙炔和氢气的分别回收,该工艺运行平稳,可降低转化系统负荷,且氯乙烯和乙炔均达到了零排放,具有一定的经济效益和环境效益。%Improvements on process of pressure swing adsorbing tail gas from vinyl chloride rectification were proposed. In the improved process, components were recovered separately, reali- zing the separate recovery of vinyl chloride, acetylene and hydrogen. After improvement, the process operation was stable, the load of conversion system was reduced, and zero discharge of vinyl chloride and acetylene were accomplished, thus achieving better economic and environmental re- suits.

  2. Biodegradation of vinyl chloride, cis-dichloroethene and 1,2-dichloroethane in the alkene/alkane-oxidising Mycobacterium strain NBB4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Nga B; Coleman, Nicholas V

    2011-11-01

    Mycobacterium chubuense strain NBB4 can grow on both alkanes and alkenes as carbon sources, and was hypothesised to be an effective bioremediation agent for chlorinated aliphatic pollutants. In this study, the ability of NBB4 to biodegrade vinyl chloride (VC), cis-dichloroethene (cDCE) and 1,2-dichloroethane (DCA) was investigated under pure-culture conditions and in microcosms. Ethene-grown NBB4 cells were capable of biodegrading VC and cDCE, while ethane-grown cells could biodegrade cDCE and DCA. The stoichiometry of inorganic chloride release (1 mol/mol in each case) indicated that VC was completely dechlorinated, while cDCE and DCA were only partially dechlorinated, yielding chloroacetate in the case of DCA, and unknown metabolites in the case of cDCE. The apparent maximum specific activities (k) of whole cells against ethene, cDCE, ethane and DCA were 93 ± 4.6, 89 ± 18, 39 ± 5.5, and 4.8 ± 0.9 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively, while the substrate affinities (K(S)) of whole cells with the same substrates were 2.0 ± 0.15, 46 ± 11, 11 ± 0.33 and 4.0 ± 3.2 μM, respectively. In microcosms containing contaminated aquifer sediments and groundwater, NBB4 cells removed 85-95% of the pollutants (cDCE or DCA at 2 mM) within 24 h, and the cells remained viable for >1 month. Due to its favourable kinetic parameters, and robust survival and biodegradation activities, strain NBB4 is a promising candidate for bioremediation of chlorinated aliphatic pollutants.

  3. Aerobic degradation of mixtures of tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, dichloroethylenes, and vinyl chloride by toluene-o-xylene monooxygenase of Pseudomonas stutzeri OX1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, H; Ryoo, D; Barbieri, P; Wood, T K

    2001-07-01

    A recombinant strain of Escherichia coli (JM109/pBZ1260) expressing constitutively toluene-o-xylene monooxygenase (ToMO) of Pseudomonas stutzeri OX1 degraded binary mixtures (100 microM each) of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) with either trichloroethylene (TCE), 1,1-dichloroethylene (1,1-DCE), cis-dichloroethylene (cis-DCE), trans-1,2-dichloroethylene (trans-DCE), or vinyl chloride (VC). PCE degradation was 8-20% for these binary mixtures, while TCE and trans-DCE with PCE were degraded at 19%, 1,1-DCE at 37%, cis-DCE at 97%, and VC at 27%. The host P. stutzeri OXI was also found to degrade binary mixtures of PCE/TCE, PCE/cis-DCE, and PCE/VC when induced with toluene. Degradation of quaternary mixtures of PCE/TCE/trans-DCE/VC and PCE/TCE/cis-DCE/VC by JM109/pBZ1260 were also investigated as well as mixtures of PCE/TCE/trans-DCE/1,1-DCE/cis-DCE/VC; when all the chlorinated compounds were present, the best degradation occurred with 24-51% removal of each. For these degradation reactions, 39-85% of the stoichiometric chloride expected from complete degradation of the chlorinated ethenes was detected. The time course of PCE/TCE/1,1-DCE degradation was also measured for a mixture of 8, 17, and 6 microM, respectively; initial degradation rates were 0.015, 0.023. and 0.029 nmol/min x mg protein, respectively. This indicates that for the first time an aerobic enzyme can degrade mixtures of all chlorinated ethenes, including the once--so it was believed-completely recalcitrant PCE.

  4. Exposure of Daphnia magna to trichloroethylene (TCE) and vinyl chloride (VC): evaluation of gene transcription, cellular activity, and life-history parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houde, Magali; Douville, Mélanie; Gagnon, Pierre; Sproull, Jim; Cloutier, François

    2015-06-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a ubiquitous contaminant classified as a human carcinogen. Vinyl chloride (VC) is primarily used to manufacture polyvinyl chloride and can also be a degradation product of TCE. Very few data exist on the toxicity of TCE and VC in aquatic organisms particularly at environmentally relevant concentrations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sub-lethal effects (10 day exposure; 0.1; 1; 10 µg/L) of TCE and VC in Daphnia magna at the gene, cellular, and life-history levels. Results indicated impacts of VC on the regulation of genes related to glutathione-S-transferase (GST), juvenile hormone esterase (JHE), and the vitelline outer layer membrane protein (VMO1). On the cellular level, exposure to 0.1, 1, and 10 µg/L of VC significantly increased the activity of JHE in D. magna and TCE increased the activity of chitinase (at 1 and 10 µg/L). Results for life-history parameters indicated a possible tendency of TCE to affect the number of molts at the individual level in D. magna (p=0.051). Measurement of VG-like proteins using the alkali-labile phosphates (ALP) assay did not show differences between TCE treated organisms and controls. However, semi-quantitative measurement using gradient gel electrophoresis (213-218 kDa) indicated significant decrease in VG-like protein levels following exposure to TCE at all three concentrations. Overall, results indicate effects of TCE and VC on genes and proteins related to metabolism, reproduction, and growth in D. magna.

  5. Ultrafast synthesis of ultrahigh molar mass polymers by metal-catalyzed living radical polymerization of acrylates, methacrylates, and vinyl chloride mediated by SET at 25 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percec, Virgil; Guliashvili, Tamaz; Ladislaw, Janine S; Wistrand, Anna; Stjerndahl, Anna; Sienkowska, Monika J; Monteiro, Michael J; Sahoo, Sangrama

    2006-11-01

    Conventional metal-catalyzed organic radical reactions and living radical polymerizations (LRP) performed in nonpolar solvents, including atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), proceed by an inner-sphere electron-transfer mechanism. One catalytic system frequently used in these polymerizations is based on Cu(I)X species and N-containing ligands. Here, it is reported that polar solvents such as H(2)O, alcohols, dipolar aprotic solvents, ethylene and propylene carbonate, and ionic liquids instantaneously disproportionate Cu(I)X into Cu(0) and Cu(II)X(2) species in the presence of a diversity of N-containing ligands. This disproportionation facilitates an ultrafast LRP in which the free radicals are generated by the nascent and extremely reactive Cu(0) atomic species, while their deactivation is mediated by the nascent Cu(II)X(2) species. Both steps proceed by a low activation energy outer-sphere single-electron-transfer (SET) mechanism. The resulting SET-LRP process is activated by a catalytic amount of the electron-donor Cu(0), Cu(2)Se, Cu(2)Te, Cu(2)S, or Cu(2)O species, not by Cu(I)X. This process provides, at room temperature and below, an ultrafast synthesis of ultrahigh molecular weight polymers from functional monomers containing electron-withdrawing groups such as acrylates, methacrylates, and vinyl chloride, initiated with alkyl halides, sulfonyl halides, and N-halides.

  6. A selective optical sensor for beryllium determination based on incorporating of 1,8-dihydroxyanthrone in a poly (vinyl chloride) membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiraghi, Assadollah; Babaee, Saeed; Roshdi, Mina

    2011-06-15

    A new optical sensor was fabricated for determination of beryllium ions. The optode membrane was prepared by incorporation of 1,8-dihydroxyanthrone and sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) in a plasticized poly (vinyl chloride) membrane containing ortho-nitrophenyl octyl ether (o-NPOE) as a plasticizer. Color of the sensing membrane in contact with Be(2+) ions at pH 10.5, was changed from orange to red. The different variables affecting uptake efficiency were evaluated and optimized. Under the optimum conditions (i.e. 28.0% PVC, 60.0% o-NPOE, 8.0% 1,8-dihydroxyanthrone, 4.0% NaTPB and response time of 6 min), the proposed sensor displayed a linear range of 0.1-5 μg mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.03 μg mL(-1). Also the precision (RSD%) was better than 2.9% for 7 replicate determinations of 1 μg mL(-1) Be in various membranes. The selectivity of the probe was studied for some cations and anions. Experimental results showed that the sensor was high selective in the presence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as a masking agent and could be used as an effective tool in analyzing the beryllium content of water samples.

  7. 秸秆/聚氯乙烯复合材料的初步研究%Studies on Wheat Straw/Poly (vinyl chloride) Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨鸣波; 李忠明; 冯建民; 张雁

    2000-01-01

    A novel disposal technique for wheat straw was developed by compounding the straw with poly(vinyl chloride) for the purpose of developing a new material which has the potential to substitute for natural wood. Effects of straw content and interfacial treatment agent on the mechanical properties, processability and the morphology of the composite were extensively studied. Results showed that tensile strength, flexural strength and notched impact strength decreased a little, increasing the straw content from 0 to 60wt`, and that the interfacial active agent caused effective compatibility between the straw and the plastic matrix. Through scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation, the straw in the composite with an appropriate concentration of interfacial treatment agent was well-distributed, while for the composite without interfacial treatment agent, a straw coalescence phenomenon appeared.%本文介绍了一种新型的秸秆处理方法,即将秸秆与聚氯乙烯复合制备替代木材使用的秸秆/塑料复合材料。主要从秸秆含量、处理剂含量对复合材料的力学性能和成型加工性能的影响,以及复合材料的形态等方面进行了研究。

  8. Correlation of chromosome damage and promoter methylation status of the DNA repair genes MGMT and hMLH1 in Chinese vinyl chloride monomer (VCM-exposed workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen Wu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the association of the methylation status of MGMT and hMLH1 with chromosome damage induced by vinyl chloride monomer (VCM. Materials and Methods: Methylation of MGMT and hMLH1 was measured in 101 VCM-exposed workers by methylation-specifi c PCR. Chromosome damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes was measured by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. The subjects were divided into chromosome damaged and non-damaged groups based on the normal reference value of micronuclei frequencies determined for two control groups. Results: MGMT promoter methylation was detectable in 5 out of 49 chromosome damaged subjects, but not in the chromosome non-damaged subjects; there was a signifi cant difference in MGMT methylation between the two groups (p < 0.05. Conclusions: We detected aberrant promoter methylation of MGMT in a small number of chromosome damaged VCM-exposed workers, but not in the chromosome non-damaged subjects. This preliminary observation warrants further investigation in a larger study.

  9. Effects of Rice Hull Particle Size and Content on the Mechanical Properties and Visual Appearance of Wood Plastic Composites Prepared from Poly(vinyl chloride)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nawadon Petchwattana; Sirijutaratana Covavisaruch

    2013-01-01

    This research aims to develop Wood Plastic Composites (WPCs) from rice hull and poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC).The influences of the rice hull particle size and content on the mechanical properties and the visual appearance of the WPC decking board were investigated.The experimental results revealed that the impact strength tended to decrease with increasing rice hull content.The composites with larger particle sizes exhibited higher impact strength.Under tensile and flexure load,higher rice hull content induced greater modulus and ultimate strength when the rice hull was applied at less than 60 phr.Beyond this concentration,the modulus and the strength dropped due to the formation of rice hull agglomerates.The smaller particles of the milled rice hull,the greater tendency there was for them to act as a pigment to form a darker shade close that of the rice hull on the composite decking board.The larger particle sizes were 106 μm and beyond simply embedded in the white PVC matrix.

  10. Adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains to untreated and oxygen-plasma treated poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) from endotracheal intubation devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triandafillu, K; Balazs, D J; Aronsson, B-O; Descouts, P; Tu Quoc, P; van Delden, C; Mathieu, H J; Harms, H

    2003-04-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia is a life threatening complication in mechanically ventilated patients that requires the ability of the bacteria to adhere to, and colonize the endotracheal intubation device. New strategies to prevent or reduce these nosocomial infections are greatly needed. We report here the study of a set of P. aeruginosa clinical isolates, together with specific mutants, regarding their adhesion on native and chemically modified poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) surfaces from endotracheal intubation devices. The adhesion of the different strains to untreated PVC varied widely, correlating with several physico-chemical characteristics known to influence the attachment of bacteria to inert surfaces. The adhesion patterns were compared to the calculations obtained with the DLVO theory of colloidal stability. These results illustrate the importance of testing different clinical isolates when investigating bacterial adhesion. Oxygen plasma treatment of the PVC pieces yielded a hydrophilic surface and reduced the number of adhering bacteria by as much as 70%. This reduction is however unlikely to be sufficient to prevent P. aeruginosa colonization of endotracheal intubation devices.

  11. Hydrogenation induced deviation of temperature and concentration dependences of polymer-solvent interactions in poly(vinyl chloride) and a new eco-friendly plasticizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Rongchun; Wang, Xiaoliang; Sun, Pingchuan; Chen, Wei; Shen, Jianyi; Xue, Gi

    2015-06-01

    As a substitute for di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DOP), a new eco-friendly plasticizer, di(2-ethylhexyl) cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DEHHP), was systematically studied in this work, mainly focusing on its interaction with poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC). The temperature and concentration dependences of polymer-solvent interactions in PVC/DEHHP were systematically investigated by rheology, low-field NMR and molecular dynamics simulations, and the results were quite different from those in PVC/DOP. With temperature increasing or PVC concentration decreasing, rheology experiments revealed that polymer-solvent interactions in PVC/DEHHP were weaker than that in PVC/DOP. Low-field 1H NMR results showed that the number of polymer-solvent complexes decreased as temperature increased. A faster decreasing rate of this number made the polymer-solvent interactions weaker in PVC/DEHHP than in PVC/DOP. Molecular dynamics simulations were further performed to study the role of polymer-solvent hydrogen bonding interactions in the systems. The radial distribution function showed that heating and dilution both resulted in faster molecular motions, and disassociation of the hydrogen bonds in the simplex hydrogen bonding system. Therefore, heating and dilution had an equivalent effect on the polymer-solvent interactions.

  12. Microbial mineralization of cis-dichloroethene and vinyl chloride as a component of natural attenuation of chloroethene contaminants under conditions identified in the field as anoxic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    Chlororespiration is a key component of remediation at many chloroethene-contaminated sites. In some instances, limited accumulation of reductive dechlorination daughter products may suggest that natural attenuation is not adequate for site remediation. This conclusion is justified when evidence for parent compound (tetrachloroethene, PCE, or trichloroethene, TCE) degradation is lacking. For many chloroethene-contaminated shallow aquifer systems, however, non-conservative losses of the parent compounds are clear but the mass balance between parent compound attenuation and accumulation of reductive dechlorination daughter products is incomplete. Incomplete mass balance indicates a failure to account for important contaminant attenuation mechanisms, and is consistent with contaminant degradation to non-diagnostic mineralization products. An ongoing technical debate over the potential for mineralization of dichloroethene (DCE) and vinyl chloride (VC) to CO2 in the complete absence of diatomic oxygen has largely obscured the importance of microbial DCE/VC mineralization at dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations below the current field standard (DO < 0.1-0.5 milligrams per liter) for nominally anoxic conditions. This study demonstrates that oxygen-based microbial mineralization of DCE and VC can be substantial under field conditions that are frequently characterized as "anoxic." Because mischaracterization of operant contaminant biodegradation processes can lead to expensive and ineffective remedial actions, a modified framework for assessing the potential importance of oxygen during chloroethene biodegradation was developed.

  13. Surface characterization of poly(vinyl chloride) urinary catheters functionalized with acrylic acid and poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate using gamma-radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islas, Luisa; Ruiz, Juan-Carlos; Muñoz-Muñoz, Franklin; Isoshima, Takashi; Burillo, Guillermina

    2016-10-01

    Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) urinary catheters were modified with either a single or binary graft of acrylic acid (AAc) and/or poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA) using gamma-radiation from 60Co to obtain PVC-g-AAc, PVC-g-PEGMA, [PVC-g-AAc]-g-PEGMA, and [PVC-g-PEGMA]-g-AAc copolymers. The outer and inner surfaces of the modified catheters were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal laser microscopy (CLM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XPS analyses, by examining the correlation between the variation of the C1s and O1s content at the catheter's surface, revealed that the catheter's surfaces were successfully grafted with the chosen compounds, with those that were binary grafted showing a slightly more covered surface as was evidenced by the disappearance of PVC's Cl peak. The SEM and CLM analyses revealed that catheters that had been grafted with PEGMA had a rougher outer surface as compared to those that had only been grafted with AAc. In addition, these imaging techniques showed that the inner surface of the singly grafted catheters, whether they had been grafted with AAc or PEGMA, retained some smoothness at the analyzed grafting percentages, while the binary grafted catheters showed many protuberances and greater roughness on both outer and inner surfaces.

  14. Concentration effects on biotic and abiotic processes in the removal of 1,1,2-trichloroethane and vinyl chloride using carbon-amended ZVI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Bradley M.; Lee, Matthew; Bastow, Trevor P.; Wilson, John T.; Donn, Michael J.; Furness, Andrew; Goodwin, Bryan; Manefield, Mike

    2016-05-01

    A permeable reactive barrier, consisting of both zero valent iron (ZVI) and a biodegradable organic carbon, was evaluated for the remediation of 1,1,2-trichloroethane (1,1,2-TCA) contaminated groundwater. During an 888 day laboratory column study, degradation rates initially stabilized with a degradation half-life of 4.4 ± 0.4 days. Based on the accumulation of vinyl chloride (VC) and limited production of 1,1-dichloroethene (1,1-DCE) and 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA), the dominant degradation pathway was likely abiotic dichloroelimination to form VC. Degradation of VC was not observed based on the accumulation of VC and limited ethene production. After a step reduction in the influent concentration of 1,1,2-TCA from 170 ± 20 mg L- 1 to 39 ± 11 mg L- 1, the degradation half-life decreased 5-fold to 0.83 ± 0.17 days. The isotopic enrichment factor of 1,1,2-TCA also changed after the step reduction from - 14.6 ± 0.7‰ to - 0.72 ± 0.12‰, suggesting a possible change in the degradation mechanism from abiotic reductive degradation to biodegradation. Microbiological data suggested a co-culture of Desulfitobacterium and Dehalococcoides was responsible for the biodegradation of 1,1,2-TCA to ethene.

  15. Effect of Fe(III) on 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane degradation and vinyl chloride accumulation in wetland sediments of the Aberdeen proving ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, E.J.P.; Voytek, M.A.; Lorah, M.M.

    2004-01-01

    1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane (TeCA) contaminated groundwater at the Aberdeen Proving Ground discharges through an anaerobic wetland in West Branch Canal Creek, MD, where dechlorination occurred. Two microbially mediated pathways, dichloroelimination and hydrogenolysis, account for most of the TeCA degradation at this site. The dichloroelimination pathways led to the formation of vinyl chloride (VC), a recalcitrant carcinogen of great concern. The effect of adding Fe(III) to TeCA-amended microcosms of wetland sediment was studied. Differences were identified in the TeCA degradation pathway between microcosms treated with amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide (AFO-treated) and untreated (no AFO) microcosms. TeCA degradation was accompanied by a lower accumulation of VC in AFO-treated microcosms than no AFO microcosms. The microcosm incubations and subsequent experiments with the microcosm materials showed that AFO treatment resulted in lower production of VC by shifting TeCA degradation from dichloroelimination pathways to production of a greater proportion of chlorinated ethane products, and decreasing the microbial capability to produce VC from 1,2-dichloroethylene. VC degradation was not stimulated in the presence of Fe(III). Rather, VC degradation occurred readily under methanogenic conditions and was inhibited under Fe(III)-reducing conditions.

  16. Preparation of zinc hydroxystannate-decorated graphene oxide nanohybrids and their synergistic reinforcement on reducing fire hazards of flexible poly (vinyl chloride)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tingting; Chen, Laicheng; Li, Zhiwei; Yu, Laigui; Wu, Zhishen; Zhang, Zhijun

    2016-04-01

    A novel flame retardant, zinc hydroxystannate-decorated graphene oxide (ZHS/GO) nanohybrid, was successfully prepared and well characterized. Herein, the ZHS nanoparticles could not only enhance the flame retardancy of GO with the synergistic flame-retardant effect of ZHS but also prevent the restack of GO to improve the mechanical properties of poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) matrix. The structure characterization showed ZHS nanoparticles were bonded onto the surface of GO nanosheets and the ZHS nanoparticles were well distributed on the surface of GO. Subsequently, resulting ZHS/GO was introduced into flexible PVC and fire hazards and mechanical properties of PVC nanocomposites were investigated. Compared to neat PVC, thermogravimetric analysis exhibited that the addition of ZHS/GO into PVC matrix led to an improvement of the charring amount and thermal stability of char residue. Moreover, the incorporation of 5 wt.% ZHS/GO imparted excellent flame retardancy to flexible PVC, as shown by increased limiting oxygen index, reduced peak heat release rate, and total heat release tested by an oxygen index meter and a cone calorimeter, respectively. In addition, the addition of ZHS/GO nanohybrids decreased the smoke products and increased the tensile strength of PVC. Above-excellent flame-retardant properties are generally attributed to the synergistic effect of GO and ZHS, containing good dispersion of ZHS/GO in PVC matrix, the physical barrier of GO, and the catalytic char function of ZHS.

  17. Rapid and nondestructive analysis of phthalic acid esters in toys made of poly(vinyl chloride) by direct analysis in real time single-quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenbacher, Thorsten; Schwack, Wolfgang

    2009-09-01

    In the European Community, selected phthalic acid esters (PAE) are restricted in their use for the manufacture of toys and childcare articles to a content of 0.1% by weight. As PAE are mainly used as plasticisers for poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), a rapid screening method for PVC samples with direct analysis in real time ionisation and single-quadrupole mass spectrometry (DART-MS) was developed. Using the ions for the protonated molecules, a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.05% was obtained for benzyl butyl phthalate, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and diisononyl phthalate, while for dibutyl phthalate, di-n-octyl phthalate and diisodecyl phthalate the LOD was 0.1%. Validation of identification by the presence of ammonium adducts and characteristic fragment ions was possible to a content of >or=1% for all PAE, except for benzyl butyl phthalate (>or=5%). Based on the fragment ions, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate could clearly be distinguished from di-n-octyl phthalate, if the concentrations were >r=5% and >or=1% at measured DART helium temperatures of 130 and 310 degrees C, respectively. The complete analysis of one sample only took about 8 min. At the generally used gas temperature of 130 degrees C, most toy and childcare samples did not sustain damage if their shape fitted into the DART source. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Dielectric behavior of CaCu3Ti4O12: Poly Vinyl Chloride ceramic polymer composites at different temperature and frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Pratap Singh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the efforts have been made to obtain relatively high dielectric constant polymer-ceramic composite by incorporating the giant dielectric constant material, calcium copper titanate (CCTO in a PVC polymer matrix. We have prepared composites of CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO ceramic and Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC polymer in various ratios (by volume in addition to pure CCTO. For this, CCTO was prepared by the conventional oxide route (solid-state reaction method. The structural, the microstructural and the dielectric properties of the composites were studied using X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscope, and impedance analyzer respectively. The study of dielectric constant and dielectric loss of the pure CCTO and the composites reveal that there is good range of dielectric constants and dielectric losses for the studied composites. The pure sample of CCTO exhibits giant dielectric constant at low frequency within the studied temperature range. As frequency increases, dielectric constant drastically decreases and approaching a constant value at 1 MHz. Above the intermediate temperature, the dielectric constant and dielectric loss for pure CCTO is more frequency dependent than its composites.

  19. A selective optical sensor for beryllium determination based on incorporating of 1,8-dihydroxyanthrone in a poly (vinyl chloride) membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiraghi, Assadollah [Faculty of Chemistry, Tarbiat Moallem University, Mofatteh Ave., No.49, P. O. Box 15614, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Babaee, Saeed, E-mail: Safnba@Gmail.com [Faculty of Chemistry, Tarbiat Moallem University, Mofatteh Ave., No.49, P. O. Box 15614, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Roshdi, Mina [Faculty of Chemistry, Tarbiat Moallem University, Mofatteh Ave., No.49, P. O. Box 15614, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    A new optical sensor was fabricated for determination of beryllium ions. The optode membrane was prepared by incorporation of 1,8-dihydroxyanthrone and sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) in a plasticized poly (vinyl chloride) membrane containing ortho-nitrophenyl octyl ether (o-NPOE) as a plasticizer. Color of the sensing membrane in contact with Be{sup 2+} ions at pH 10.5, was changed from orange to red. The different variables affecting uptake efficiency were evaluated and optimized. Under the optimum conditions (i.e. 28.0% PVC, 60.0% o-NPOE, 8.0% 1,8-dihydroxyanthrone, 4.0% NaTPB and response time of 6 min), the proposed sensor displayed a linear range of 0.1-5 {mu}g mL{sup -1} with a detection limit of 0.03 {mu}g mL{sup -1}. Also the precision (RSD%) was better than 2.9% for 7 replicate determinations of 1 {mu}g mL{sup -1} Be in various membranes. The selectivity of the probe was studied for some cations and anions. Experimental results showed that the sensor was high selective in the presence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as a masking agent and could be used as an effective tool in analyzing the beryllium content of water samples.

  20. Biodegradable and biocompatible epoxidized vegetable oil modified thermostable poly(vinyl chloride): thermal and performance characteristics post biodegradation with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Achromobacter sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Gautam; Bordoloi, Naba K; Rai, Sudhir K; Mukherjee, Ashis K; Karak, Niranjan

    2012-03-30

    The increased production of municipal solid waste by the disposal of plastic materials heightens the urgency to develop biodegradable materials for daily use. In vitro-biodegradation study on poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) plasticized by epoxidized Mesua ferrea L. seed oil at three different weight percentages (PVC/ENO ratio of 75/25, 50/50 and 25/75) was conducted by using Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Achromobacter sp. bacteria. The test bacterial species were able to grow on the polymer matrix by using it as a source of energy; however the pristine PVC did not support the microbial growth. The PVC/ENO material of 25/75 ratio showed the highest percent (%) of biodegradation compared to other tested systems. The bacterial count and the dry biomass post 180 days of inoculation in 25/75 plasticized PVC suggested bacterial growth at the expense of degradation of the system. The tensile strength of 25/75 PVC/ENO system, post 180 days of inoculation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Achromobacter sp. decreased by about 53% and 43% respectively. Further, surface erosion phenomenon and structural change of the matrix after bacterial growth, as studied by FTIR and SEM analysis of PVC/ENO of 25/75 ratio exhibited noticeable deterioration post 180 days of inoculation.

  1. Aluminum-phthalocyanine chloride associated to poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic anhydride) nanoparticles as a new third-generation photosensitizer for anticancer photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlmann, Luis Alexandre; Ma, Beatriz Chiyin; Longo, João Paulo Figueiró; Almeida Santos, Maria de Fátima Menezes; Azevedo, Ricardo Bentes

    2014-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy is generally considered to be safer than conventional anticancer therapies, and it is effective against different kinds of cancer. However, its clinical application has been significantly limited by the hydrophobicity of photosensitizers. In this work, a system composed of the hydrophobic photosensitizer aluminum-phthalocyanine chloride (AlPc) associated with water dispersible poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic anhydride) nanoparticles is described. AlPc was associated with nanoparticles produced by a method of solvent displacement. This system was analyzed for its physicochemical characteristics, and for its photodynamic activity in vitro in cancerous (murine mammary carcinoma cell lineage 4T1, and human mammary adenocarcinoma cells MCF-7) and noncancerous (murine fibroblast cell lineage NIH/3T3, and human mammary epithelial cell lineage MCF-10A) cell lines. Cell viability and the elicited mechanisms of cell death were evaluated after the application of photodynamic therapy. This system showed improved photophysical and photochemical properties in aqueous media in comparison to the free photosensitizer, and it was effective against cancerous cells in vitro.

  2. Anion recognition using newly synthesized hydrogen bonding disubstituted phenylhydrazone-based receptors: poly(vinyl chloride)-based sensor for acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vinod K; Goyal, Rajendra N; Sharma, Ram A

    2008-08-15

    A potentiometric acetate-selective sensor, based on the use of butane-2,3-dione,bis[(2,4-dinitrophenyl)hydrazone] (BDH) as a neutral carrier in poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) matrix, is reported. Effect of various plasticizers and cation excluder, cetryaltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was studied. The best performance was obtained with a membrane composition of PVC:BDH:CTAB ratio (w/w; mg) of 160:8:8. The sensor exhibits significantly enhanced selectivity toward acetate ions over a wide concentration range 5.0 x 10(-6) to 1.0 x 10(-1)M with a lower detection limit of 1.2 x 10(-6)M within pH range 6.5-7.5 with a response time of acetate ion. The proposed electrode shows fairly good discrimination of acetate from several inorganic and organic anions. It was successfully applied to direct determination of acetate within food preservatives. Total concentration of acetic acid in vinegar samples were determined by direct potentiometry and the values agreed with those mentioned by the manufacturers.

  3. Kinetics and inhibition of reductive dechlorination of trichloroethene, cis-1,2-dichloroethene and vinyl chloride in a continuously fed anaerobic biofilm reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popat, Sudeep C; Deshusses, Marc A

    2011-02-15

    Anaerobic bioreactors containing Dehalococcoides spp. can be effective for the treatment of trichloroethene (TCE) contamination. However, reductive dehalogenation of TCE often results in partial conversion to harmless ethene, and significant production of undesired cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) and vinyl chloride (VC) is frequently observed. Here, a detailed modeling study was conducted focusing on the determination of biokinetic constants for the dechlorination of TCE and its reductive dechlorination intermediates cis-DCE and VC as well as any biokinetic inhibition that may exist between these compounds. Dechlorination data from an anaerobic biotrickling filter containing Dehalococcoides spp. fed with single compounds (TCE, cis-DCE, or VC) were fitted to the model to determine biokinetic constants. Experiments with multiple compounds were used to determine inhibition between the compounds. It was found that the Michaelis-Menten half-saturation constants for all compounds were higher than for cells grown in suspended cultures, indicating a lower enzyme affinity in biofilm cells. It was also observed that TCE competitively inhibited the dechlorination of cis-DCE and had a mild detrimental effect on the dechlorination of VC. Thus, careful selection of biotreatment conditions, possibly with the help of a model such as the one presented herein, is required to minimize the production of partially dechlorinated intermediates.

  4. Characterization of emissions of dioxins and furans from ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride monomer and polyvinyl chloride facilities in the United States. Consolidated report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, W F; Berger, T C; Borrelli, F E; Garrity, P J; Jacobs, R A; Ledvina, J; Lewis, J W; McCreedy, R L; Smith, T P; Tuhovak, D R; Weston, A F

    2001-01-01

    This is the consolidated report of emissions of PCDD/F from facilities in the organic chemical manufacturing chain leading to polyvinyl chloride. Data have been gathered from facilities in the US and Canada from a number of manufacturers and at various steps in the manufacturing process. Estimates of US emissions or transfers of PCDD/F were generated on an "Upper Bound" and "Most Likely" basis. The Most Likely estimate of US emissions of PCDD/F to the open environment, that is, air, water and land surface by facilities in this chain, based on evaluation of non-detects at one-half the detection limit is about 12 g I-TEQ per year. On this same basis, an estimated 19 g is disposed of in secure landfills.

  5. Formation of linear polyenes in poly(vinyl alcohol) films catalyzed by phosphotungstic acid, aluminum chloride, and hydrochloric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretinnikov, O. N.; Sushko, N. I.; Malyi, A. B.

    2016-07-01

    Formation of linear polyenes-(CH=CH)n-via acid-catalyzed thermal dehydration of polyvinyl alcohol in 9- to 40-µm-thick films of this polymer containing hydrochloric acid, aluminum chloride, and phosphotungstic acid as dehydration catalysts was studied by electronic absorption spectroscopy. The concentration of long-chain ( n ≥ 8) polyenes in films containing phosphotungstic acid is found to monotonically increase with the duration of thermal treatment of films, although the kinetics of this process is independent of film thickness. In films containing hydrochloric acid and aluminum chloride, the formation rate of polyenes with n ≥ 8 rapidly drops as film thickness decreases and the annealing time increases. As a result, at a film thickness of less than 10-12 µm, long-chain polyenes are not formed at all in these films no matter how long thermal duration is. The reason for this behavior is that hydrochloric acid catalyzing polymer dehydration in these films evaporates from the films during thermal treatment, the evaporation rate inversely depending on film thickness.

  6. 40 CFR 61.64 - Emission standard for polyvinyl chloride plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.64 Emission standard for polyvinyl chloride plants. An owner or operator of a polyvinyl chloride plant shall comply with the requirements of this section and § 61.65. (a... is not to exceed 0.02 g vinyl chloride/kg (0.04 lb vinyl chloride/ton) of polyvinyl chloride...

  7. SYNTHESIS OF BARIUM TANNATE FROM EUCALYPTUS BARK AND ITS USE AS A THERMAL STABILIZER FOR POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein A Shnawa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work tannin was isolated from the outer bark of the eucalyptus tree, then treated with Ba(OH2 to synthesize barium tannate (Ba-tan. The derivative was evaluated as a thermal stabilizer for polyvinyl chloride (PVC. PVC was mixed with Ba-tan thermally at four percentages (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 2.5% w/w. The samples were pressed thermally to films having thickness ranging between 0.25 and 0.30 mm. The effect of Ba-tan was studied by monitoring the weight of samples under iso-thermal conditions at 250 oC. Thermal stability of PVC increased with increasing Ba-tan percent. Samples weight curves also indicated that the additive had been suitably active to increase the resistance of PVC against thermal degradation, where the degradation rates decreased from about 0.21 % wt/min. at 0.5% of Ba-tan on PVC to reach to 0.05% wt/min. for the 2.5% treated sample. The ability of Ba-tan to react with and remove HCl from the system of polymer during thermal conditioning of samples and during the measurement led to this effect. Therefore the present results demonstrate the performance of this derivative as a thermal stabilizer.

  8. A novel biobased polyester plasticizer prepared from palm oil and its plasticizing effect on poly (vinyl chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Puyou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, palm oil was the first time to convert into a novel polyester plasticizer for polyvinyl chloride (PVC. In the first stage, palm oil was converted into palm oil monoglyceride (POM by alcoholysis with glycerol. Next, a novel palm oil monoglycerides based polyester plasticizer (POMP was synthesized from POM and maleic anhydride through esterification and condensation reaction. The structure of POMP was characterized with FTIR, 1H NMR and GPC. Then PVC blends were prepared using POMP as a plasticizer, melting behavior, thermal property, compatibility, mechanical properties and mechanism of plasticization of PVC blends were systematically studied. Melting behavior indicated that POMP could decrease the torque and the melt viscosity of PVC blends that was conducive to process. With the content of POMP increasing from 5 g to 15 g in PVC blends, the plasticized PVC blends demonstrated better compatibility, the degradation temperature (Td increased from 252.6°C to 257.0°C, the glass transition temperature (Tg decreased from 55°C to 49.5°C. Plasticization was put into effect by interaction of the electron cloud between the PVC chain and POMP molecule. This study may lead to the development of new type of PVC plasticizer based on vegetable oil.

  9. Copper Complex in Poly(vinyl chloride) as a Nitric Oxide-Generating Catalyst for the Control of Nitrifying Bacterial Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonoputri, Vita; Gunawan, Cindy; Liu, Sanly; Barraud, Nicolas; Yee, Lachlan H; Lim, May; Amal, Rose

    2015-10-14

    In this study, catalytic generation of nitric oxide by a copper(II) complex embedded within a poly(vinyl chloride) matrix in the presence of nitrite (source of nitric oxide) and ascorbic acid (reducing agent) was shown to effectively control the formation and dispersion of nitrifying bacteria biofilms. Amperometric measurements indicated increased and prolonged generation of nitric oxide with the addition of the copper complex when compared to that with nitrite and ascorbic acid alone. The effectiveness of the copper complex-nitrite-ascorbic acid system for biofilm control was quantified using protein analysis, which showed enhanced biofilm suppression when the copper complex was used in comparison to that with nitrite and ascorbic acid treatment alone. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and LIVE/DEAD staining revealed a reduction in cell surface coverage without a loss of viability with the copper complex and up to 5 mM of nitrite and ascorbic acid, suggesting that the nitric oxide generated from the system inhibits proliferation of the cells on surfaces. Induction of nitric oxide production by the copper complex system also triggered the dispersal of pre-established biofilms. However, the addition of a high concentration of nitrite and ascorbic acid to a pre-established biofilm induced bacterial membrane damage and strongly decreased the metabolic activity of planktonic and biofilm cells, as revealed by CLSM with LIVE/DEAD staining and intracellular adenosine triphosphate measurements, respectively. This study highlights the utility of the catalytic generation of nitric oxide for the long-term suppression and removal of nitrifying bacterial biofilms.

  10. Improved permeation performance and fouling-resistance of Poly(vinyl chloride/Polycarbonate blend membrane with added Pluronic F127

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supateekan Pacharasakoolchai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to prepare and characterize poly(vinyl chloride (PVC/polycarbonate (PC blend membranes for use in ultrafiltration. Pluronic F127 was used as an additive to modify the membrane surface of the PVC/PC blended membranes. The PVC/PC blend membrane was first prepared using the phase inversion method from a casting solution of PVC with small amount of PC in N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP and water as the non-solvent. The morphologies structure and properties, such as tensile strength, water flux, and bovine serum albumin (BSA rejection of the blend membrane were studied. Increased amounts of PC resulted in an increase in the water flux and ability to reject protein. A concentration of 0.75 wt% PC provided the best improvement in tensile strength of blend membrane. Addition of different amounts of pluronic F127 to the casting solution of PVC/PC with a PC concentration of 0.75 wt% resulted in a decrease in the water contact angle that demonstrated the improvement of hydrophilicity of blend membrane. Scanning electron microscopy photographs showed that the modified PVC/PC membranes had a bigger pore volume in the porous sub-layer compared to the PVC/PC control membrane. The PVC/PC membrane with added Pluronic F127 exhibited a much higher flux and rejection of BSA in a protein filtration experiment than the PVC/PC membrane. An increase in flux recovery ratio of PVC/PC/pluronic 127 blend membrane indicated that the modified membranes could reduce membrane fouling useful for ultrafiltration.

  11. Electroanalytical studies on cadmium(II) selective potentiometric sensors based on t-butyl thiacalix[4]arene and thiacalix[4]arene in poly(vinyl chloride)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Vinod K. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee 247667, Uttaranchal (India)], E-mail: vinodfcy@iitr.ernet.in; Jain, Ajay K. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee 247667, Uttaranchal (India); Ludwig, Rainer [Institute for Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Freie Universitaet, Berlin 14195 (Germany); Maheshwari, Gaurav [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee 247667, Uttaranchal (India)

    2008-01-01

    Cd{sup 2+}-selective sensors have been fabricated from poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) matrix membranes containing t-butyl thiacalix[4]arene (I) and thiacalix[4]arene (II) as electroactive materials. The addition of sodium tetraphenylborate and the plasticizer 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether has been found to improve the performance of the sensors substantially. The membranes of various compositions of the two thiacalixarenes have been investigated and it was found that the best performance was obtained for the membrane of composition II:PVC:NaTPB:NPOE in the ratio 5:120:3:150. The sensor shows a linear potential response for Cd{sup 2+} over a wide activity range 3.2 x 10{sup -6} to 1.0 x 10{sup -1} M with Nernstian compliance (29.5 mV decade{sup -1} of activity) in pH range 4.5-6.5 and a fast response time of {approx}8 s. The potentiometric selectivity coefficient values determined by matched potential method indicate excellent selectivity for Cd{sup 2+} ions over mono-, di- and trivalent interfering cations. The sensor exhibits adequate shelf life ({approx}3 months) with good reproducibility (S.D. {+-}0.2 mV) and can also be used in partially non-aqueous media having up to 20% (v/v) methanol, ethanol or acetone content with no significant change in the value of slope or working activity range. The sensor has been used in the potentiometric titration of Cd{sup 2+} with EDTA. The sensor could be successfully used for the quantification of cadmium in river water samples.

  12. Characterization of emissions of dioxins and furans from ethylene dichloride (EDC), vinyl chloride (VCM) and polyvinylchloride (PVC) manufacturing facilities in the United States. I. Resin, treated wastewater, and ethylene dichloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, W F; Berger, T C; Borrelli, F E; Garrity, P J; Jacobs, R A; Lewis, J W; McCreedy, R L; Tuhovak, D R; Weston, A F

    1998-01-01

    Under the auspices of its Dioxin Characterization Program, members of The Vinyl Institute (VI), have analyzed for potential polychlorinated dibenzodioxin/furan (PCDD/F) concentrations in polyvinylchloride (PVC) resins, treated wastewater effluent and ethylene dichloride (EDC) product at EDC, vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) and PVC manufacturing facilities in the U.S. and Canada. No 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD) was detected in any sample analyzed under the program to date. Trace concentrations (low pg/g) of PCDD/F were detected in only a few samples of PVC resins and EDC product. Treated wastewater contained low ppq concentrations of PCDD/F. All concentrations are expressed as Toxic Equivalents (TEQ). Extrapolation of these data shows that the contribution of EDC/VCM/PVC manufacturing via these media constitutes substantially less than 1 percent of the estimated annual U.S. dioxin releases to the environment.

  13. PVC树脂中残留氯乙烯含量分析方法的改进%Improvements on a method for the analysis of residual vinyl chloride content in PVC resins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶滢

    2013-01-01

      分析了用固上顶空气相色谱法测定PVC树脂中残留氯乙烯的影响因素,并对分析方法进行了优化,使其便于操作,并提高了检测效率和准确度。%Factors of influencing the determination of residual vinyl chloride content in PVC resin powers by using head-space gas chromatography were analyzed .The analysis method was opti-mized and was easy to operate with high efficiency and accuracy .

  14. 氯乙烯聚合安全设计与安全生产控制%Safety design and safety production control on the polymerization of vinyl chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春明; 于香格

    2012-01-01

    A large quantity of dangerous chemicals existing in PVC production plant were intro- duced as well as how to select technological plans during the safety design of vinyl chloride poly-merization and the available safety mesures.%介绍了聚氯乙烯装置中存在的大量危险化学品,在氯乙烯聚合安全设计中如何优化技术方案以及采取的安全可靠措施。

  15. Improvements on pressure swing adsorption units for separation of vinyl chloride rectification tail gas%氯乙烯精馏尾气分离变压吸附装置的改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明

    2012-01-01

    The application of pressure swing adsorption units in the separation of vinyl chloride rectification tail gas was introduced.Problems existed in the pressure swing adsorption units were analyzed and modifications were made,achieving good results.%介绍了变压吸附装置在氯乙烯精馏尾气分离中的中应用,分析了存在的问题并进行了改造,取得了较好的效果。

  16. 氯乙烯精馏尾气吸附装置运行总结%Summary on the running of adsorption units for vinyl chloride rectification tail gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何屏; 黄婷

    2013-01-01

    The running situation of adsorption units for vinyl chloride rectification tail gas in Guangxi Liuhua chlor -alkali Co .,Ltd .was introduced .Measures were proposed to solve the problems existed in operation .%介绍了广西柳化氯碱有限公司氯乙烯精馏尾气吸附装置的运行情况,针对装置运行过程中出现的一些问题提出了解决方案。

  17. 基于改进 NSGA-Ⅱ算法的氯乙烯精馏过程多目标优化%Multi-Objective Optimization Based on the Improved NSGA-ⅡZlgorithm for Vinyl Chloride Rectification Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周怡; 苏成利

    2016-01-01

    针对氯乙烯精馏过程中氯乙烯产品纯度低、能耗高的现状,研究了一种新的改进型非支配排序遗传算法(Improved Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm,NSGA-Ⅱ),用于解决氯乙烯精馏过程多目标优化问题。首先建立了氯乙烯精馏的模拟流程,然后通过对高低沸塔中进料位置、回流比等主要影响因素进行灵敏度分析,在考虑其机理模型及实际生产状况等多种约束条件的基础上,建立了以氯乙烯纯度和能耗为目标的多目标优化函数,最后利用改进 NSGA-Ⅱ对目标函数进行求解。实验结果表明,相比于 NSGA-Ⅱ,该改进算法能得到分布更为均匀的 Pareto 最优解集,为氯乙烯精馏过程中参数的选择提供了有力支撑。%A new improved non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II)is studied aiming at solving the low purity, high energy consumption problems existed in vinyl chloride rectification process.The method can be used to solve the multi-objective optimization problem of vinyl chloride rectification process.The multi-objective optimization function with the energy consumption and purity of vinyl chlorides based on considering the various constraints of the mechanism model and the actual production conditions were established through the sensitivity analysis for the main operating parameters such as the feeding position and reflux ratio of high and low boiling tower and so on.Finally,the objective function is solved by using the improved NSGA-II.Compared to the NSGA-II,the experimental results show that the improved algorithm can get more uniform distribution of Pareto optimal solution set,which provides a strong support for the selection of parameters in the process of vinyl chloride distillation.

  18. Degradation of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and accumulation of vinyl chloride in wetland sediment microcosms and in situ porewater: Biogeochemical controls and associations with microbial communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorah, M.M.; Voytek, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    The biodegradation pathways of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (TeCA) and 1,1,2-trichloroethane (112TCA) and the associated microbial communities in anaerobic wetland sediments were evaluated using concurrent geochemical and genetic analyses over time in laboratory microcosm experiments. Experimental results were compared to in situ porewater data in the wetland to better understand the factors controlling daughter product distributions in a chlorinated solvent plume discharging to a freshwater tidal wetland at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Microcosms constructed with wetland sediment from two sites showed little difference in the initial degradation steps of TeCA, which included simultaneous hydrogenolysis to 112TCA and dichloroelimination to 1,2-dichloroethene (12DCE). The microcosms from the two sites showed a substantial difference, however, in the relative dominance of subsequent dichloroelimination of 112TCA. A greater dominance of 112TCA dichloroelimination in microcosms constructed with sediment that was initially iron-reducing and subsequently simultaneously iron-reducing and methanogenic caused approximately twice as much vinyl chloride (VC) production as microcosms constructed with sediment that was methanogenic only throughout the incubation. The microcosms with higher VC production also showed substantially more rapid VC degradation. Field measurements of redox-sensitive constituents, TeCA, and its anaerobic degradation products along flowpaths in the wetland porewater also showed greater production and degradation of VC with concurrent methanogenesis and iron reduction. Molecular fingerprinting indicated that bacterial species [represented by a peak at a fragment size of 198 base pairs (bp) by MnlI digest] are associated with VC production from 112TCA dichloroelimination, whereas methanogens (190 and 307 bp) from the Methanococcales or Methanobacteriales family are associated with VC production from 12DCE hydrogenolysis. Acetate-utilizing methanogens

  19. Dichloroethene and Vinyl Chloride Degradation Potential in Wetland Sediments at Twin Lakes and Pen Branch, Savannah River National Laboratory, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Paul M.

    2007-01-01

    A series of 14C-radiotracer-based microcosm experiments was conducted to assess the mechanisms and products of degradation of dichloroethene (DCE) and vinyl chloride (VC) in wetland sediments at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River National Laboratory. This project investigated the potential for biotic and abiotic DCE and VC degradation in wetland sediments from the Twin Lakes area of the C-BRP investigative unit and from the portion of Pen Branch located directly down gradient from the CMP investigative unit. Substantial degradation of [1,2-14C] DCE and [1,2-14C] VC to 14CO2 was observed in all viable sediment microcosms prepared under oxic conditions. These results indicate that microbial mineralization processes, involving direct oxidation or cometabolic oxidation, are the primary mechanisms of DCE and VC biodegradation in Twin Lake and Pen Branch sediments under oxic conditions. Substantial degradation of [1,2-14C] DCE and [1,2-14C] VC was observed in all viable sediment microcosms incubated under anoxic conditions. Production of 14CO2 was observed in all sediment microcosms under anoxic conditions. In general, the accumulation of mineralization products (14CO2 and 14CH4) was comparable to the accumulation of those reduced daughter products (14C-VC, 14C-ethene or 14C-ethane) traditionally identified with chloroethene reductive dechlorination. These results indicate that microbial mineralization processes can be an important component of DCE and VC degradation in Twin Lake and Pen Branch sediments under anoxic conditions. These results demonstrate that an evaluation of the efficiency of in situ DCE and VC biodegradation in Twin Lakes and Pen Branch that is based solely on the observed accumulation of reduced daughter products may underestimate substantially the total extent of contaminant biodegradation and, thus, the contribution of biodegradation to overall contaminant attenuation. No evidence of abiotic degradation of [1,2-14C] DCE or [1,2-14C] VC

  20. Potential for Microbial Degradation of cis-Dichloroethene and Vinyl Chloride in Streambed Sediment at the U.S. Department of Energy, Kansas City Plant, Missouri, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Paul M.

    2009-01-01

    A series of carbon-14 (14C) radiotracer-based microcosm experiments was conducted to assess the mechanisms and products of degradation of cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) and vinyl chloride (VC) in streambed sediments at the U.S. Department of Energy, Kansas City Plant in Kansas City, Missouri. The focus of the investigation was the potential for biotic and abiotic cis-DCE and VC degradation in surficial and underlying hyporheic sediment from the Blue River and its tributaries, Indian Creek and Boone Creek. Substantial degradation of [1,2-14C] cis-DCE and [1,2-14C] VC to 14C-carbon dioxide (14CO2) was observed in all viable surficial sediment microcosms prepared under oxic conditions. No significant accumulation of reductive dechlorination products was observed under these oxic incubation conditions. The results indicate that microbial mineralization processes involving direct oxidation or co-metabolic oxidation are the primary mechanisms of cis-DCE and VC biodegradation in oxic stream sediment at the Kansas City Plant. Substantial mineralization of [1,2-14C] VC also was observed in all viable surficial sediment microcosms incubated in the absence of detectable oxygen (dissolved oxygen concentrations less than 25 micrograms per liter). In general, the accumulation of mineralization products (14CO2 and 14C-methane [14CH4]) predominated with only trace-level detection of the reductive dechlorination product, 14C-ethene. In contrast, microbial degradation of [1,2-14C] cis-DCE by reductive dechlorination or mineralization was not significant in the absence of detectable oxygen. The potential for [1,2-14C] VC biodegradation also was significant in sediments from the deeper hyporheic zones under oxic conditions and in the absence of detectable oxygen. In this study, microbial degradation of [1,2-14C] cis-DCE was not significant in hyporheic sediment treatments under either oxygen condition. Taken together, the results indicate that microbial mineralization processes in

  1. Vinyl Record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartmanski, Dominik; Woodward, Ian

    2017-01-01

    . This relational process means that both the material affordances and entanglements of vinyl allow us to feel, handle, experience, project, and share its iconicity. The materially mediated meanings of vinyl enabled it to retain currency in independent and collector’s markets and thus resist the planned...

  2. Degradation of 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane by Microbial Consortia in Wetland Sediment: Controls on 1,2-Dichloroethane and Vinyl Chloride Accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorah, M. M.; Voytek, M. A.

    2001-05-01

    Concurrent geochemical analyses of porewater and genetic analyses of wetland sediment over time in laboratory microcosm experiments are being used to define biodegradation pathways of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (PCA) and associated critical microorganisms in anaerobic wetland sediments. These experiments were conducted to better understand factors controlling in situ daughter product distribution as part of a study of natural attenuation of a chlorinated solvent plume that is discharging to a freshwater tidal wetland at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Possible biodegradation pathways of PCA under anaerobic conditions include (1) sequential hydrogenolysis of PCA to 1,1,2-trichloroethane (TCA), 1,2-dichloroethane (DCA), chloroethane, and ethane; (2) hydrogenolysis of PCA to TCA followed by dichloroelimination of TCA to vinyl chloride (VC); and (3) dichloroelimination of PCA to cis- and trans-1,2-dichloroethene (DCE) and subsequent hydrogenolysis of DCE to VC. Elucidation of factors controlling the occurrence of these diverse pathways is critical because of differing toxicity and persistence of the daughter products. Microcosm experiments were conducted in March and July 1999 using wetland sediment and porewater collected at two contaminated sites in the study area-one characterized as predominantly methanogenic (WB23) and one characterized as mixed iron-reducing and methanogenic (WB30)-and amended only with PCA or TCA. Microcosm water was analyzed for volatile organic compounds, methane, ferrous iron, and sulfate, while genetic analyses of the corresponding microcosm sediment were used to obtain profiles of bacteria and methanogenic communities at each time step. All PCA-amended microcosms showed simultaneous production of TCA (from hydrogenolysis) and DCE (from dichloroelimination) from day 1. Subsequently, DCA became the predominant daughter product in microcosms constructed with WB23 sediment, which showed high methane production throughout the experiment

  3. 氯乙烯悬浮聚合原辅材料质量对聚合工艺和产品质量的影响%Influences of qualities of raw and auxiliary materials for suspension polymerization of vinyl chloride on polymerization process and product quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴宝娈; 齐树东; 张春明

    2011-01-01

    Requirements on raw and auxiliary materials for the suspension polymerization of vinyl chloride were introduced as well as their influences on the polymerization process and product quality.%介绍了氯乙烯悬浮聚合原辅材料质量要求及其对聚合工艺和产品质量的影响。

  4. Development and application of an LC-MS/MS method for the detection of the vinyl chloride-induced DNA adduct N2,3-ethenoguanine in tissues of adult and weanling rats following the exposure to [13C2]-VC

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the 1970s exposure to vinyl chloride (VC) was shown to cause liver angiosarcoma in VC workers. We have developed a new LC-MS/MS method for analyzing the promutagenic DNA adduct N2,3-ethenoguanine and have applied this to DNA from tissues of both adult and weanling rats expose...

  5. Recycling of tail gas from low boiling tower for calcium carbide-process vinyl chloride rectification%电石法氯乙烯精馏低塔尾气的利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐复兴

    2012-01-01

    以40万t/a电石法聚氯乙烯装置为例,对氯乙烯精馏低塔尾气回收进行了详细的计算,表明以变压吸附的方法综合回收精馏尾气可获得显著的经济效益。%The recycling of tail gas from low boiling tower for vinyl chloride rectification for 400 kt/a plant of calcium carbide-process PVC is calculated in detail. It is shown that the recycling of these tail gas by adopting pressure swing adsorption method can obtain great economic benefits.

  6. Active film of poly(vinyl chloride)/silver: synthesis, characterization and evaluation as antimicrobial active packaging; Filme ativo de poli(cloreto de vinila)/prata: sintese, caracterizacao e avaliacao como embalagem ativa antimicrobiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, Lilian R.; Rangel, Ellen T.; Machado, Fabricio, E-mail: lilianrodribraga@gmail.com [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), Brasilia, DF, (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The antimicrobial films based on poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) mediated silver (1, 2, 4 and 8 wt%) were evaluated as antimicrobial active packaging using the casting method. The structure of the active films was characterized by SEM, EDX-XRF, XRD, FTIR and TG. FTIR spectra confirmed the PVC-Ag interaction due to the presence of new bands at 1745 cm{sup -1} and 1165 cm{sup -1} bands, which are absent in the PVC control. The FRX-EDX spectrum confirmed the presence of silver ions in all the films. TG and SEM results showed that the increased concentration of silver provided an improved thermal stability and presence of pores in the active films, respectively. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by disk diffusion method for Bacillus subtilis, Fusarium solani and Apergillus niger, which proved the efficiency of the films active. (author)

  7. Application of Triton X-100 coated poly vinyl chloride as new solid phase for preconcentration of Fe3+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ ions and their flame atomic absorption spectrometric determinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrorang Ghaedi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A selective, sensitive and efficient method for preconcentration of trace amounts of Cu(II, Fe(II and Zn(II ions based on the uptake of their complexes with 3-((indolin-3-yl(phenylmethylindoline (IYPMI loaded on Triton X-100 coated poly vinyl chloride has been reported. The influences of the analytical parameters including pH, ligand amount, surfactant type and concentration, eluting condition and sample volume on metal ions recovery were investigated. The method has been successfully applied for the extraction of these ions content in some real samples of soil and plants. The extraction efficiency was > 97% with low relative standard deviation (RSD < 2.4% and the preconcentration factor of 90 (5 mL elution volume for a 450 mL of sample volume.

  8. Ionic conductivity and diffusion coefficient of barium-chloride-based polymer electrolyte with poly(vinyl alcohol)–poly(4-styrenesulphonic acid) polymer complex

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MAYANK PANDEY; GIRISH M JOSHI; NARENDRA NATH GHOSH

    2017-08-01

    A composite polymer electrolyte comprising poly(vinyl alcohol)–poly(4-styrenesulphonic acid) with bariumchloride dihydrate (BaCl$_2$·2H$_2$O) salt complex has been synthesized following the usual solution casting. The ionic conductivity of polymer electrolyte was analysed by impedance spectroscopy. The highest room temperature (at 30$^{\\circ}$C) conductivity evaluated was 9.38 $\\times$ 10$^{−6}$ S cm$^{−1}$ for 20 wt% loading of BaCl$_2$ in the polymer electrolyte. This has been referred to as the optimum conducting composition. The temperature-dependent ionic conductivity of the polymer electrolyte exhibits the Arrhenius relationship, which represents the hopping of ions in polymer composites. Cation and anion diffusion coefficients are evaluated using the Trukhan model. The transference number and enhanced conductivity imply that the charge transportation is due to ions. Therefore this polymer electrolyte can be further studied for the development of electrochemical device applications.

  9. Influences of Initiators on Conversions of Vinyl Chloride Micro-Suspension Polymerizations and Particle Size Distributions of Poly(vinyl chloride) Resins%引发剂对氯乙烯微悬浮聚合转化率和聚氯乙烯粒径分布的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾瑞; 蒋岳芳; 包永忠

    2016-01-01

    Vinyl chloride(VC) micro-suspension polymerizations(MSP) were carried out using a water-soluble initiator of ammonia persulfate (APS) and an oil-soluble initiator of 2,2'-azobis-(2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile) (ABVN), respectively, and their performances were compared with those of VC suspension polymerization (SP) initiated by ABVN and VC emulsion polymerization (EP) initiated by APS. Influences of initiator types on the particles size distribution of the resulted PVC latexes and the rheological behavior of plasticized PVC pastes were also investigated. It was found that VC MSP exhibited a higher conversion than SP, and lower conversion than EP after the same polymerization time under the same initiation condition. PVC latex prepared by MSP using APS as the initiator contained a greater number nano scale particles (size smaller than 100 nm), while almost no nano scale PVC particles were observed in PVC latex prepared by MSP using ABVN as the initiator. The above kinetics and size distribution differences were attributed to the different partition of primary free-radicals in water/micelles/monomer (sub) droplets, and the different nucleation modes. The plasticized paste prepared from MSP PVC using APS as the initiator showed pseduoplastic behavior and greater apparent viscosity, while the plasticized paste prepared from MSP PVC using ABVN as the initiator showed dilatant behavior.%分别采用水溶性过硫酸铵(APS)和油溶性偶氮二异庚腈(ABVN)引发剂进行氯乙烯(VC)微悬浮聚合,并与APS引发的VC乳液聚合以及ABVN引发的VC悬浮聚合情况进行比较,考察了引发剂类型对聚氯乙烯(PVC)乳胶粒子粒径分布和增塑糊流变特性的影响.结果表明:引发剂浓度相同时,VC微悬浮聚合转化率大于悬浮聚合,而小于VC乳液聚合;APS引发微悬浮聚合得到的PVC乳胶粒子存在数目较多的纳米级粒子,而ABVN引发微悬浮聚合得到的PVC基本不存在纳米级粒子;引发剂和分解产生的初

  10. Flow-injection potentiometry by poly(vinyl chloride)-membrane electrodes with diphosphoryl-dicarboxylicacid-p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene ionophore for the determination of Th(IV) ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizani, Farhang; Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Yaftian, Mohammad R; Matt, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    A new coated ion-selective electrode for the determination of trace thorium ions by flow-injection potentiometry (FIP) has been developed. A poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)-based membrane was coated on a graphite electrode. The optimum membrane contained 5 wt% diphosphoryl-dicarboxylicacid-p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene (L) as the ionophore, 59 wt% dioctyl phthalate (DOP), 33 wt% PVC and 3 wt% additive sodium tetraphenylborate. The response was linear from 2.0 × 10(-7) to 1.0 × 10(-2) M with a slope of 13.9 mV decade(-1) and a limit of detection of 9.0 × 10(-8) M. The pH-independent region ranged from 3.15 to 6.5, and the lifetime was longer than 8 weeks when used in the flow injection analysis (FIA) system. Selectivity coefficients for several ions were obtained by the separate solutions method. Results showed that, for all cations used, the selectivity coefficients were in the order of 10(-3), or smaller. The flow cell is simple to construct and free from memory effect problems over long periods of use. The proposed sensor was successfully applied to the direct determination of thorium in both real and synthetic samples.

  11. Poly(vinyl chloride)-g-poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) graft copolymers templated synthesis of mesoporous TiO{sub 2} thin films for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Rajkumar; Ahn, Sung Hoon; Seo, Jin Ah; Kim, Sang Jin; Kim, Jong Hak, E-mail: jonghak@yonsei.ac.kr [Yonsei University, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    A poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) main chain was grafted with poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) containing a quaternary amine group using atom transfer radical polymerization. The successful synthesis of a PVC-g-PDMAEMA graft copolymer was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance, thermogravimetric analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. The PVC-g-PDMAEMA graft copolymer was used as a structure-directing agent (SDA) for the fabrication of a mesoporous thin film containing a titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) layer. To control the porosity of the resultant inorganic layer, the ratio of SDA to TTIP as well as the concentration of the sol-gel was varied. The structure and porosity of the mesoporous film were characterized by XRD and SEM analysis. The mesoporous TiO{sub 2} film fabricated on the FTO surface was used as a photoanode for the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). DSSC performance was the greatest when using TiO{sub 2} film with a higher porosity and lower interfacial resistance. The highest energy conversion efficiency reached 3.2 % at 100 mW/cm{sup 2}, which was one of the highest reported values for a quasi-solid-state DSSC with 600-nm-thick TiO{sub 2} film.

  12. Preparation and characterization of a magneto-polymeric nanocomposite: Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles in a grafted, cross-linked and plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Fernandez, Oliverio S. [Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada, Boulevard Enrique Reyna Hermosillo No. 140, Saltillo, Coahuila Mexico, C.P. 25253 (Mexico)], E-mail: oliverio@ciqa.mx; Rodriguez-Calzadiaz, C.A.; Yanez-Flores, Isaura G.; Montemayor, Sagrario M. [Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada, Boulevard Enrique Reyna Hermosillo No. 140, Saltillo, Coahuila Mexico, C.P. 25253 (Mexico)

    2008-07-15

    In this work two kind of materials: (1) grafted, cross-linked and plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) 'plastic films' and (2) magnetic plastic films 'magneto-polymeric nanocomposites' were prepared. Precursor solutions or 'plastisols' used to obtain the plastic films were obtained by mixing PVC (emulsion grade) as polymeric matrix, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DOP) as plasticizer, a thermal stabilizer based in Ca/Zn salts, and a cross-linking agent, 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) or 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (ATES), at several concentrations. Flexible films were obtained from the plastisols using static casting. The stress-strain behavior and the gel content (determined by Soxhlet extraction with boiling THF) of the flexible films were measured in order to evaluate the effect of the cross-linking agent and their content on the degree of cross-linking. The magneto-polymeric nanocomposites were obtained by mixing the optimum composition of the plastisols (analyzed previously) with magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4})-based ferrofluid and DOP. Later, flexible films were obtained by static casting of the plastisol/ferrofluid systems. The magnetic films were characterized by the above-mentioned techniques and X-ray diffraction, vibrating sample magnetometry and thermogravimetrical analy0009s.

  13. Cohort mortality study of vinyl chloride exposed workers in Porto Marghera during production, polymerization and bagging; Indagine epidemiologica sui lavoratori di Porto Marghera esposti a cloruro di vinile nelle fasi di produzione, polimerizzazione e insacco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirastu, R. [Rome, Univ. (Italy). Dipt di Biologia Umana e Animale; Chellini, E. [Centro per lo Studio e la Prevenzione Oncologica, Florence (Italy); Carnevale, F. [Unita` Sanitaria Locale 10, Florence (Italy). Servizio di Prevenzione, Igiene e Sicurezza nei Luoghi di Lavoro; De Santis, M.; Comba, P. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Igiene Ambientale; Bracci, C. [CGIL Lazio, Rome (Italy). Sindacato Pensionati Italiani

    1997-09-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate cause specific mortality among workers employed in vinyl chloride manufacture, polymerization and bagging in Porto Marghera between start of operation and June 30, 1995. The cohort includes 1.658 subjects employed by the companies running the petrochemical plant in Porto Marghera (Montedison and Enichem) and 272 members of three cooperatives of baggers who operated in the plant. The study detected an increased mortality from liver cancer, especially among autoclave workers, and an increase in lung cancer among baggers. In the whole study period, in the Montedison-Enichem cohort, 11 deaths from liver cancer were observed versus 5.7 expected; among autoclave workers 6 deaths were observed versus 0.8 expected. Four further cases were detected by `Best Evidence` procedures. Altogether 5 cases were angiosarcomas, 5 hepato-carcinomas, 3 cases of liver cancer occurred in cirrhotic subjects and in 2 cases histology was not known. The increase in lung cancer risk among baggers is present both in the Montedison-Enichem cohort and among the members of the cooperatives. The results of the present study will soon be supplemented with those concerning the cohorts in the plants located in Ferrara, Ravenna, Rosignano, Terni and Brindisi.

  14. Comparison of CO{2} laser and atmospheric plasma treatments on thermal stability and structural modifications of microporous poly(vinyl chloride)/Silica composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, C.; Etienne, S.; Bour, J.; Ruch, D.; Aubriet, F.

    2008-09-01

    Several ways using surface modification are commonly used to enhance thermal stability of polymer matrices. In this study, Continuous-Wave carbon dioxide (CW CO{2}) laser irradiation and atmospheric pressure non-thermal He plasma treatment on microporous poly(vinyl chlo-ride)/Silica composite have been investigated and compared. On one hand the alternative was based on the efficiency of the thermal energy afforded by CW CO{2} laser irradiation and induced photodegradation processes to release HCl and form polyene sequences under well-controlled condition. On the other hand atmospheric plasma treatment involved surface modification by formation of unstable radicals, inducing crosslinking and dehydrochlorination. In both cases a global thermal stabilization of the composite was noticed by partial dehydrochlorination of PVC, even for short exposure time. The main effects observed after laser irradiation were related to the formation of a very dense structure on surface with very low chlorine content and an important chlorine atoms in-depth gradient on the cross section up to 150 μm in thickness; whereas atmospheric He plasma treatment led to a homogeneous decrease of the chlorine in-depth content due to the plasma interpenetration in the porous microstructure. Structural and chemical modifications both on extreme surface and in the thickness have been investigated respectively by Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM) coupled with an Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Composites thermal stability and investigation on chlorine release have been evaluated by Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) coupled with Mass Spectrometry (MS).

  15. Nutrient Release Characteristics of Vinyl Chloride-Vinyl acetate Copolymers Coated Slow-Release Nitrogen Fertilizer and Its Effect on Soil Mineral Nitrogen%氯醋树脂型缓释氮肥的养分释放特征及对土壤矿质氮的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马洪波; 许仙菊; 宁运旺; 汪吉东; 张辉; 张永春

    2014-01-01

    Objective] The aim was to explore release characteristics of vinyl chlo-ride-vinyl acetate copolymer control ed-release N fertilizer and the effects on mineral nitrogen in soils. [Method] Vinyl chloride-vinyl acetate copolymer and hydroxyl-modi-fied VC/VAc were taken as coating materials to prepare slow release fertilizer. Nutri-ent release characteristics of VC/VAc slow release fertilizer was evaluated by water immersion method and the effects of VC/VAc slow release fertilizer on mineral ni-trogen were researched by pot experiment. [Result] The release periods of VC-VAc control ed-release urea and hydroxyl-modified VC/VAc coated urea were 60 and 50 d, respectively. Furthermore, the content of ammonium nitrogen reached the peak on the 30th d and the content of nitrate nitrogen reached the peak on the 60th d in soils in treatments with VC/VAc and hydroxyl-modified VC/VAc; the content of nitrate nitrogen rose again on the 120th d in the treatment with VC/VAc. In terms of wheat yield, different treatments showed insignificant differences and rice yield in the treatment with VC/VAc was significantly higher than that in the treatment with hy-droxyl-modified VC/VAc (P<0.05). [Conclusion] The release days of slow control ed-release fertilizer vary upon pot experiment method and water immersion method. Slow control ed-release fertilizer is not suitable for monoculture, due to long fertilizer efficiency, but multiple cropping would be optimal for its role to be ful y exploited.%[目的]探讨氯醋树脂型缓释氮肥的养分释放特征及对土壤矿质氮的影响。[方法]以氯醋树脂和羟基改性的氯醋树脂为新型包膜材料制备包膜缓释氮肥,用水浸泡法来评价氯醋树脂型缓释氮肥的养分释放特征和用盆栽试验法研究氯醋树脂型缓释氮肥对土壤矿质氮的影响。[结果]氯醋树脂缓释氮肥的释放期为60 d,羟基改性的氯醋树脂缓释氮肥为50 d,氯醋树脂和羟基改性的氯醋树脂缓释

  16. Analysis of plasticizers in poly(vinyl chloride) medical devices for infusion and artificial nutrition: comparison and optimization of the extraction procedures, a pre-migration test step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Lise; Cueff, Régis; Bourdeaux, Daniel; Breysse, Colette; Sautou, Valérie

    2015-02-01

    Medical devices (MDs) for infusion and enteral and parenteral nutrition are essentially made of plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The first step in assessing patient exposure to these plasticizers, as well as ensuring that the MDs are free from di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), consists of identifying and quantifying the plasticizers present and, consequently, determining which ones are likely to migrate into the patient's body. We compared three different extraction methods using 0.1 g of plasticized PVC: Soxhlet extraction in diethyl ether and ethyl acetate, polymer dissolution, and room temperature extraction in different solvents. It was found that simple room temperature chloroform extraction under optimized conditions (30 min, 50 mL) gave the best separation of plasticizers from the PVC matrix, with extraction yields ranging from 92 to 100% for all plasticizers. This result was confirmed by supplemented Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR) and gravimetric analyses. The technique was used on eight marketed medical devices and showed that they contained different amounts of plasticizers, ranging from 25 to 36% of the PVC weight. These yields, associated with the individual physicochemical properties of each plasticizer, highlight the need for further migration studies.

  17. 聚氯乙烯/偏高岭土基地聚物复合材料的制备和性能%Preparation and Properties of Poly(vinyl chloride)/Metakaolin Based Geopolymer Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋晓玲; 崔学民; 林坤圣; 马学莲; 黄东

    2014-01-01

    采用聚氯乙烯(PVC)树脂与处于地聚合初期凝胶阶段的偏高岭土基地聚物混合、熔融加工的方法制备了PVC/偏高岭土基地聚物复合材料,研究地聚物含量对 PVC 复合材料加工塑化、力学性能、热性能及断面形貌的影响。发现少量地聚物(如≤8%(wt))的引入可促进 PVC 树脂的塑化,地聚物分散尺寸较小,在基体中分散较均匀,并与 PVC基体有良好的界面结合,可有效发挥地聚物刚性粒子对 PVC 的增强增韧作用,复合材料有较好的力学性能,其中以4%(wt)的地聚物含量为最佳,其材料的抗冲击强度达到了9.16 kJ×m-2,比纯PVC材料提高了约40%。当地聚物含量过高时,PVC 树脂塑化困难,地聚物分散尺寸增大,与 PVC 基体界面作用减弱,导致复合材料拉伸强度和韧性的下降。随着地聚物含量的增加,PVC复合材料抵抗热变形的能力增加,维卡软化温度升高。%Poly(vinyl chloride)/metokaolin based geopolymer composites were prepared by mixing and melting the poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) resin with initial gel stage geopolymer. Influences of geopolymer content on fusion, mechanical and heat deformation properties, and morphology of fractured section of PVC/geopolymer composites were investigated. It was found that the incorporation of lower content of geopolymer (i.e, ≤8%(wt)) would improve the plasticizing process of PVC resin, and small geopolymer particles are formed and well disperse in PVC matrix with good interface adhesive. In this case, compared with pure PVC, the geopolymer composites have good mechanical properties when their geopolymer contents are less then 8%(wt), and among them, the geapolymer composite with 4%(wt) geopolymer is the best, its impact strength reaches 9.16 kJ×m-2, which is abont 40%higher than that of pure PVC. When the geopolymer content is too high, the plasticization of PVC becomes difficult, the size of geopolymer particles

  18. OPC 技术在氯乙烯聚合过程软测量中的应用%Application of OPC Technology in Soft Measurement of Vinyl Chloride Polymerization Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱鹏飞; 夏陆岳; 周猛飞; 潘海天

    2014-01-01

    For the application of soft measurement technology , the OPC technology-based method was de-signed.This method contains a server station and an operator station which operating independently .The serv-er station connecting with control system can read online data , calculate target variables through the soft meas-urement model and can write values into control system before having results fed back to the control system and sent via OPC server .The operator station connecting with server station via the industrial Ethernet can ex-change data with OPC server through OPC client so as to monitor target variables .Applying this method to on-line monitoring reaction rate and conversion of a vinyl chloride polymerization process proves the stability and reliability of this method .%针对软测量技术的应用问题,设计了基于OPC通信技术的解决方案。服务器站与操作站独立运行,服务器站计算机与控制系统连接,进行现场数据采集与软测量模型计算,计算出目标变量,并将结果反馈给控制系统,再由OPC服务器发送。操作站计算机通过工业以太网与服务器站计算机连接,利用OPC客户端与OPC服务器进行数据交换,实现对目标变量的监控。将该方案应用于氯乙烯聚合过程聚合速率与单体转化率的在线检测中,运行结果表明该方案稳定可靠。

  19. Vinyl Chloride Monitors Move on Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1974

    1974-01-01

    A variety of new instruments which better comply with new worker exposure standards is presented. The instruments tend to be relatively inexpensive, portable, and reasonably simple to operate. Various models are listed with price ranges, manufacturer name and addresses, and detailed descriptions of various models available. (EB)

  20. Solubility parameter of poly(vinyl chloride)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlfarth, Ch.

    This document is part of Subvolume D2 'Polymer Solutions - Physical Properties and their Relations I (Thermodynamic Properties: PVT -Data and miscellaneous Properties of polymer Solutions) of Volume 6 `Polymers' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII `Advanced Materials and Technologies'.

  1. APPLICATION OF TRITON X-100 COATED POLY VINYL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ... of Cu(II), Fe(II) and Zn(II) ions based on the uptake of their complexes with ... Poly vinyl chloride high molecular weight was purchased from Fluka .... 7.0 and then the charge intensity of the functional groups of solid materials played a crucial.

  2. 21 CFR 177.1360 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers... acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers. Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers (CAS Reg. No. 26221-27-2... accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers...

  3. Vinyl ether silicones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzig, C.; Dauth, J.; Deubzer, B.; Weis, J. [Wacker-Chemie GmbH, Burghausen (Germany)

    1995-12-01

    Siloxanes with vinyl ether groups are prepared by hydrosilylation reaction of dihydrosiloxanes with divinyl ethers in excess. Different stoichiometry, produces linear copolymers of different viscosities and double bond concentrations always with an active vinyl ether group at each chain end. Polymerisations triggered by UV light were done with mixtures of these compounds and a series of onium salts. Very fast cure is observed even with low doses at 290 nm. V.E. silicones are found to cure essentially quantitative. The comparison with other highly reactive cationic monomers revealed that compounds are among the fastest curing prepolymers in cationic chemistry.

  4. Vintage Vinyl Record Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project in which his ninth-grade art students utilized a vinyl record as an unusual medium to create a work that exhibited solid design, great creativity, and strong craftsmanship. Students presented their pieces to the class for critique, explained the process, the media, and their feelings about their…

  5. Mechanical properties of epoxidized natural rubber toughen ed poly(vinyl chloride)%环氧化天然橡胶增韧聚氯乙烯力学性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桂强; 贺继东; 赵强; 易芬莲; 李思东

    2001-01-01

    The mechanical properties of epoxidized natural rubber(EN R-50)toughened poly(vinyl chloried) (PVC) were studied.The effects of plasticize r DOP and antio xidant 4010 on PVC/ENR-50 toughened system were researched.The results showed th at ENR had good toughening effect on PVC,decreased the strength a little.DOP acted either plasticizer or toughener to PVC,but it decre ased the efficiency of ENR toughened PVC.Antioxidant 4010 improved the mechanic al properties on PVC/ENR-50 blends.%对环氧化度为50%的环氧化天然橡胶(ENR-50)增韧 聚氯乙烯(PVC)体系的力学性能进行了研究,并分析了防老剂4010与增塑剂DOP对PVC/ENR增韧体系性能的影响。结果表明:ENR有较好的增韧效果,且对PVC的强度影响不大;DOP既可增塑也可增韧,但DOP的加入将影响ENR对PVC的增韧作用;防老剂4010可阻止ENR的老化,改善PVC/ENR-50共混物的性能。

  6. Improvement of Alone liquefaction transform device in vinyl liquefaction device%单独液化装置在氯乙烯装置上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何波

    2012-01-01

    Alone in the application of vinyl liquefaction device transformation, vinyl chloride production system is beneficial to the stable operation and to improve the quality of vinyl chloride monomer.The problems and reform measures are introduced.%应用单独液化,有利于氯乙烯生产系统的稳定运行及氯乙烯单体质量的改善。介绍了在改造过程中出现的问题及整改措施。

  7. A new multifunctional initiator system for the living cationic polymerization of vinyl ethers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Xiaochun; Goethals, Eric J.; Loontjens, Ton; Derks, Frank

    2000-01-01

    Combination of hexa(chloromethyl)melamine (HCMM) and zinc chloride was found to be a multifunctional initiator system for the living cationic polymerization of isobutyl vinyl ether. HCMM was synthesized by reaction of hexa(methoxymethyl)melamine and boron trichloride. Characterization of the polymer

  8. Removal of Pendant Groups of Vinyl Polymers by Argon Plasma Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewoud, L.M.H.; Terlingen, J.G.A.; Engbers, G.H.M.; Feijen, J.

    1999-01-01

    Poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc) and poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) were treated with an argon plasma to create unsaturated bonds at the surface. By use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared measurements, it was shown that the pendant groups of these polymers are removed by the arg

  9. 纳米水滑石/氧化锌/氧化镁复合改性聚氯乙烯的燃烧特性%Combustion Properties of Poly(vinyl chloride)/Nano Hydrotalcite/ZnO/MgO Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏虎; 包永忠; 黄志明

    2011-01-01

    采用原位悬浮聚合制备了聚氯乙烯/纳米水滑石(PVC/HT)复合材料,并进一步与ZnO、MgO复合.采用锥形量热仪分析了PVC/HT/ZnO/MgO复合材料的燃烧特性.结果表明,HT、ZnO、MgO在PVC基体中分散良好,HT/ZnO/MgO对降低PVC燃烧过程中的热释放速率和烟雾释放速率有良好的协同作用.PVC/HT/ZnO/MgO(95/5/3/3)复合材料的最大热释放速率和最大烟雾释放速率比纯PVC降低了50%以上,残留率明显提高.PVC/HT/ZnO/MgO复合材料的拉伸强度和缺口冲击强度均大于PVC/ZnO/MgO复合材料.%In this paper, poly(vinyl chloride)/nano hydrotalcite (PVC/HT) composites were prepared by in-situ suspension polymerization, which were further blended with ZnO and MgO.The combustion properties of PVC/HT/ZnO/MgO composites were investigated using cone calorimetry. It was found that HT, ZnO and MgO were well dispersed in PVC matrix. ZnO and MgO had the synergistic effect with HT on reducing the heat and smoke release rates during combustion. Compared to neat PVC, the peak heat and smoke release rates of PVC/HT/ZnO/MGO(95/5/3/3) composite decreased more than 50 %, and the char yield was obviously increased.It was also found that tensile and impact strength of PVC/HT/ZnO/MgO composites were greater than that of PVC/ZnO/MgO composites.

  10. Properties and Application of Nanocrystalline Poly (vinyl chloride)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuanxi XIONG; Hong YANG; Lijie DONG; Qihong LIU; Qingmin LIU

    2004-01-01

    The structure and properties of nanocrystalline PVC were investigated. The crystalline region of nanocrystalline PVC was observed by TEM to be 80 nm. The melting point of nanocrystalline PVC was found to be 128℃ which is obviously lower than typical PVC (210℃). The X-ray diagram indicated that the crystal existed in nanocrystalline PVC. The evident effect of self-plasticizing and reinforcement appeared when nanocrystalline PVC was added. The optimum amount for self-plasticizing is about 10%. The maximal impact strength of 95.1 kJ/m2 was achieved by adding 20% nanocrystalline PVC and tensile strength with 56.2 MPa which was 122% of pure PVC was obtained after adding 5% nanocrystalline PVC.

  11. PYRIDINATION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) via A HOMOLYTIC PATHWAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sa(a)d Moulay; Zakia Zeffouni

    2007-01-01

    PVC was subjected to a chemical modification aiming at replacing the chlorine atoms by pyridine groups via a homolytic route. Pyridine groups were peculiarly affixed to the PVC matrix via a carbon-carbon bond rather than a carbonnitrogen one. PVC was first iodinated using the Conant-Finkelstein reaction, followed by the application of the homolytic conditions of Minisci to generate pyridinated PVC with a varying degree of substitution. The extent of substitution was not high; the reaction on 30% iodinated PVC afforded a degree of modification no greater than 3%.

  12. Novel Thermally Stable Poly (vinyl chloride) Composites for Sulfate Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    BaCO3 dispersed PVC composites were prepared through a polymer re-precipitation method. The composites were tested for sulfate removal using rapid small scale column test (RSSCT) and found to significantly reduce sulfate concentration. The method was extended to synthe...

  13. Enthalpy of dilution of poly(vinyl chloride) in cyclohexanone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlfarth, Ch.

    This document is part of Subvolume D2 'Polymer Solutions - Physical Properties and their Relations I (Thermodynamic Properties: PVT -Data and miscellaneous Properties of polymer Solutions) of Volume 6 `Polymers' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII `Advanced Materials and Technologies'.

  14. 21 CFR 177.1950 - Vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... covered flask and contents are suspended in a thermostated bath and are kept, with continual shaking at... on a steam bath under a stream of nitrogen to a small volume (approximately 50-60 milliliters). The...) of sodium peroxide is then added to the cup. The bomb is assembled and ignition is conducted in the...

  15. 21 CFR 177.1980 - Vinyl chloride-propylene copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... covered flask and contents are suspended in a thermostated bath and are kept, with continual shaking, at... on a steam bath under a stream of nitrogen to a small volume (approximately 50-60 milliliters). The... quantitatively transferred to a 22-milliliter Parr bomb fusion cup and gently evaporated to dryness. To the...

  16. Effects of vinyl chloride monomer on cell cycle and expression of mir-21 and mir-192 in liver of rat%氯乙烯亚慢性染毒对大鼠肝细胞周期及mir-21和mir-192表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁洁; 胡君阳; 高怡; 田凤洁; 吕懿; 仇玉兰

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the sub-chronic toxicity effects of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) on cell cycle and the expression of cell cycle related microRNA 21 (mir-21)and microRNA 192 (mir-192) of rat liver.Methods Thirty-two healthy sprague dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into three VCM exposure groups (5 mg/kg,25 mg/kg and 125 mg/kg) and a control group (25 mg/kg clean air).The rats were exposed by intraperitoneal injection three times a week (every other day) for three months.The flow cytometry was used to measure the percent of each phase(G0/G1,S,and G2/M).The mir-21 and mir-192 was extracted and then quantified using real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR.Results The percentage of each phase of cell cycle was not significantly different among four groups (all P > 0.05).The proportion of S-phase cells in 125 mg/kg group was higher than the control group(t =-4.363,P =0.024).Besides,the expressions of mir-21 varied significantly among four groups (H =16.064,P =0.001) and,furthermore,decreased significantly in both 25 mg/kg and 125 mg/kg group when they were compared with control and 5 mg/kg group (all P <0.05).Meanwhile,the expressions of mir-192 also varied significantly (H =15.939, P =0.001),and decreased significantly in both 25 mg/kg and 125 mg/kg group,compared with control and 5 mg/kg group (all P < 0.05).Conclusions VCM subchronic exposure induced the increase of S-phase cells and decrease of the expression of mir-21 and mir-192.%目的 探讨氯乙烯(vinyl chloride monomer,VCM)亚慢性染毒对大鼠肝细胞周期以及microRNA21(mir-21)和microRNA192 (mir-192)表达量的影响.方法 将32只健康斯普拉-道来(sprague dawley,SD)大鼠随机分为三个实验组(5 mg/kg组,25 mg/kg组和125 mg/kg组)与一个对照组(25 mg/kg清洁空气组),每组8只.采用腹腔注射进行VCM染毒,每周3次(隔日染毒).染毒12周,处死大鼠并摘取肝组织.制备肝单细胞悬液,使用流式细胞技术检测G0/G1期、S期和G2/M期肝细

  17. Solubility parameter of poly(vinyl acetate-co-vinyl chloride)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlfarth, Ch.

    This document is part of Subvolume D2 'Polymer Solutions - Physical Properties and their Relations I (Thermodynamic Properties: PVT -Data and miscellaneous Properties of polymer Solutions) of Volume 6 `Polymers' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII `Advanced Materials and Technologies'.

  18. Synthesis and biocidal activity of modified poly(vinyl alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Refaie Kenawy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Functionalized polymers and their polymer nature give them more advantages than the corresponding small molecules. In this respect, polymeric ammonium and phosphonium salts were prepared by chemical modifications of poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA aiming to explore their antimicrobial activities against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The modifications were performed by chloroacetylation with chloroacetyl chloride. Incorporation of the ammonium and phosphonium salts was conducted by the reaction of chloroacetylated poly(vinyl alcohol (CPVA with triethylamine (TEA, triphenylphosphine (TPP, and tributylphosphine (TBP. The antimicrobial activity of the polymers against variety of test microorganisms was examined by the cut plug and viable cell counting methods of shake cultures of 10 times dilute nutrient broth and Sabouraud’s media, seeded with the test microorganisms. It was found that the immobilized polymers exhibited antimicrobial activity against the Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella sp. and Salmonella typhi and Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and B. cereus and the dermatophyte fungus (Trichophyton rubrum. The growth inhibition of the test microorganisms (ratio of surviving cell number, M/C varied according to the composition of the active group in the polymer and the test organism. It increased by increasing the concentration of the polymer. Triphenyl phosphonium salt of the modified poly(vinyl alcohol exhibited the most biocidal activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria after 24 h.

  19. Preparation of a novel ZHS-MF composite flame retardant and its application in flexible poly(vinyl chloride)%一种新型ZHS-MF复合阻燃剂的制备及其在软质PVC中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志伟; 黄永山; 李小红; 张治军

    2013-01-01

    采用化学沉淀法合成了纳米羟基锡酸锌(ZHS),然后以纳米ZHS为无机核,以三聚氰胺-甲醛树脂(MF)为有机壳层,构筑了一种新型的ZHS-MF复合阻燃剂,并将其用作软质聚氯乙烯(PVC)的阻燃添加剂进行了阻燃性能研究.XRD、TEM、FTIR、TG测试结果表明,所制备的产物为MF包覆ZHS的复合结构,ZHS质量分数约为35%.极限氧指数(LOI)测试结果表明,随着阻燃剂ZHS-MF添加量的增加,PVC的LOI逐渐上升,由纯PVC的23.8%上升到29.6%,表明ZHS-MF对PVC具有很好的阻燃效果.在相同LOI条件下ZHS-MF中ZHS实际含量比实际需要的ZHS明显减少,说明MF的包覆层与ZHS起到了协同阻燃作用.烟密度等级(SDR)测试结果表明,在ZHS-MF添加量为15%时,经MF包覆的ZHS对PVC的抑烟性能优于未包覆的ZHS,说明MF的包覆层与ZHS起到了协同抑烟作用.%ZnSn(OH)6(ZHS)nanocubes were synthesized using a chemical precipitation method.Then a novel composite flame retardant,ZHS-MF was prepared by means of coating melamine-formaldehyde resin(MF)on the surface of the ZHS.Study on fire-retardant mechanism of ZHS-MF filled with flexible poly(vinyl chloride)(PVC).According to XRD,TEM,FTIR,TG results,MF resins have been successfully coated on ZHS surface.The mass fraction of ZHS is about 35%.The limiting oxygen index(LOI)results show that LOI of flexible PVC increases from 23.8% to 29.6% with the increasing of ZHS-MF,which indicates ZHS-MF is a highly effective flame retardant for flexible PVC.In the meantime,the MF shell could increase the flame retarding efficiency of ZHS-MF and decrease the dosage of nano-ZHS under the same LOI condition.The smoke density rating(SDR)results show that the SDR values of the samples treated with ZHS-MF are lower than that for those treated with ZHS alone when the addition of flame retardant ZHS-MF is 15%,which indicates the shell of MF and the core of ZHS have synergistic smoke suppression.

  20. Amine and Titanium (IV Chloride, Boron (III Chloride or Zirconium (IV Chloride-Promoted Baylis-Hillman Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Cong Cui

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The Baylis-Hillman reactions of various aryl aldehydes with methyl vinyl ketone at temperatures below -20oC using Lewis acids such as titanium (IV chloride, boron (III chloride or zirconium (IV chloride in the presence of a catalytic amount of selected amines used as a Lewis bases afford the chlorinated compounds 1 as the major product in very high yields. Acrylonitrile can also undergo the same reaction to give the corresponding chlorinated product in moderate yield. A plausible reaction mechanism is proposed. However, if the reaction was carried out at room temperature (ca. 20oC, then the Z-configuration of the elimination product 3, derived from 1, was formed as the major product.

  1. Conjugate Addition of Nucleophiles to the Vinyl Function of 2-Chloro-4-vinylpyrimidine Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucjan Strekowski

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Conjugate addition reaction of various nucleophiles across the vinyl group of 2-chloro-4-vinylpyrimidine, 2-chloro-4-(1-phenylvinylpyrimidine and 2-chloro-4-vinylquinazoline provides the corresponding 2-chloro-4-(2-substituted ethylpyrimidines and 2-chloro-4-(2-substituted ethylquinazolines. Treatment of these products, without isolation, with N-methylpiperazine results in nucleophilic displacement of chloride and yields the corresponding 2,4-disubstituted pyrimidines and quinazolines.

  2. Chloride transference during electrochemical chloride extraction process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Chemical titration method and lab-made chloride probes were jointly adopted to investigate the effects of water-to-cement (W/C) ratio and the impressed current density on chloride transport for cement-based materials during electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE) process.The dissolution of bound chlorides and the effect of current density on dissolution were analyzed.The variations of chloride concentration at different depths and the chloride transference process were monitored.Test results show that W/C ratios adopted have slight influence on chloride extraction,while chloride extraction efficiency is mainly determined by the impressed current density.During ECE process a portion of bound chloride ions dissolved and the amount of bound chlorides released is directly proportional to current density.

  3. Tribenzylammonium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waly Diallo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of the title salt, C21H21NH+·Cl−, were isolated as a side product from the reaction involving [(C6H5CH23NH]2[HPO4] and Sn(CH33Cl in ethanol. Both the cation and the anion are situated on a threefold rotation axis. The central N atom in the cation has a slightly distorted tetrahedral environment, with angles ranging from 107.7 to 111.16 (10°. In the crystal, the tribenzylammonium cations and chloride anions are linked through N—H...Cl and C—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, leading to the formation of infinite chains along [001]. The crystal studied was a merohedral twin.

  4. BARRIER PROPERTIES OF VINYLIDENE CHLORIDE COPOLYMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yuesheng; WENG Zhixue; HUANG Zhiming; PAN Zuren

    1996-01-01

    The permeability coefficients of a series of copolymers of vinylidene chloride (VDC)with methyl acrylate (MA), butyl acrylate (BA) or vinyl chloride (VC) (as comonomer)to oxygen and carbon dioxide have been measured at 1.0 MPa and 30℃, while those to water vapor have been measured at 30℃ and 100% relative humidity. All the copolymers are semicrystalline. VDC/MA copolymers have lower melting temperature compared with VDC/BA copolymers, while that melting temperature of VDC/VC copolymer is higher than that of VDC/acrylate copolymers with the same VDC content. The barrier property of the copolymers is predominantly controlled by crystallite, free volume fraction, and cohesive energy. The permeability coefficients of VDC/MA copolymers to oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor were successfully correlated with the ratio of free volume to cohesive energy.

  5. Metabolism and mutagenicity of halogenated olefins--a comparison of structure and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henschler, D

    1977-01-01

    Chlorinated ethylenes are metabolized in mammals, as a first step, to epoxides. The fate of these electrophilic intermediates may be reaction with nucleophiles (alkylation), hydrolysis, or intramolecular rearrangement. The latter reaction has been studied in the whole series of chlorinated epoxiethanes. The rearrangement products found were: acyl chlorides (tetrachloro-, trichloro-, and 1,1-dichloroethylenes), or chlorinated aldehydes (1,2-dichloroethylenes, cis- and trans-, vinyl chloride). The metabolities found in vivo are identical with, or further derivatives of these rearrangment products, with one important exception: trichloroethylene. With this compound, in vivo rearrangement yields chloral exclusively. The mechanism of the different rearrangement has been identified as a Lewis acid catalysis. All chlorinated ethylenes have been investigated in a tissue-mediated mutagenicity testing system. The prominent molecular feature of those with mutagenic effects (trichloro-, 1,1-dichloro-, and monochloroethylene) is unsymmetric chlorine substitution which renders the epoxides unstable, whereas symmetric substitution confers relative stability and nonmutagenic property. PMID:348459

  6. 21 CFR 175.270 - Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins. 175.270 Section 175... Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.270 Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins. Poly(vinyl fluoride... the purpose of this section, poly(vinyl fluoride) resins consist of basic resins produced by the...

  7. Cel vinyls: materials and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, S J

    1983-12-01

    Many commercial uses of media are applicable to medical/scientific media production and illustration, not the least of which are techniques pioneered in the commercial cartooning field. Whether or not the illustrative effort culminates in a "cartoon," the production techniques of the cartooning industry cannot be overlooked by the illustrator faced with providing projection graphics, whether animated or still, for slides, motion pictures, television or even print media. When Walt Disney introduced Mickey Mouse as "Steamboat Willie" in 1928, his technology opened the door for exploration of cartooning media by all artists. Only in comparatively recent years have these tools been used by the scientific illustrator. In this article cel vinyl acrylics or cartoon colors will be discussed: the rationale for the use of this medium, materials and methods, and considerations related to the photography of this art form.

  8. Effect of chain structure on hydrogen bonding in vinyl acetate - vinyl alcohol copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merekalova, Nadezhda D.; Bondarenko, Galina N.; Denisova, Yuliya I.; Krentsel, Liya B.; Litmanovich, Arkadiy D.; Kudryavtsev, Yaroslav V.

    2017-04-01

    FTIR spectroscopy and semi-empirical AM1 method are used to study hydrogen bonding in multiblock and random equimolar copolymers of vinyl acetate and vinyl alcohol. An energetically beneficial zip-holder complex, built on multiple inter- and intrachain hydroxyl-hydroxyl bonds and an intrachain hydroxyl-acetyloxy bond, can be formed between two vinyl alcohol sequences. As a result, multiblock copolymers reveal stronger degree of association that affects crystallinity, as well as various rheological and relaxation properties discussed in the literature. Macromolecular complexes in random copolymers are weak and tend to be destroyed in the presence of residual DMF solvent and adsorbed water. Nevertheless, a rather stable interchain quaternary complex can be formed that includes vinyl alcohol and vinyl acetate units and DMF and water molecules. For a single chain it is shown that an H-bond between neighboring vinyl alcohol and vinyl acetate monomer units mostly engages a carbonyl oxygen atom of the vinyl acetate, if the vinyl alcohol belongs to a short (case. On the whole, the quantum chemistry calculations shed much light on the origin of distinctions in the copolymer FTIR spectra, which may seem subtle when considered standalone.

  9. Radiation-induced synthesis of vinyl copolymer based nanocomposites filled with reactive organic montmorillonite clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Kyum; Kwen, Hai-Doo; Choi, Seong-Ho

    2012-05-01

    Vinyl copolymer-clay nanocomposites were prepared by γ-irradiation-initiated radical polymerization using a mixture of styrene (St) and divinyl benzene (DVB) in the presence of reactive organic montmorillonite clay (OMMT) in methanol at room temperature. Reactive OMMT was synthesized by a cation exchange reaction of Na+-MMT and 1-[(4-ethylphenyl)methyl]-3-butyl-imidazolium chloride as a reactive organic modifier in an aqueous solution. The microstructures of the nanocomposites were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The thermal stability was examined by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). As a result, the reactive OMMT was a good additive material for preparing vinyl copolymer-clay nanocomposites.

  10. Production of Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) fibers with encapsulated natural deep eutectic solvent (NADES) using electrospinning

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Functionalized electrospun fibers are of great interest for biomedical applications such as in the design of drug delivery systems. Nevertheless, in some cases the molecules of interest have poor solubility in water or have high melting temperatures. These drawbacks can be overcome using deep eutectic solvents. In this work, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), a common biodegradable biopolymer, was used to produce new functionalized fibers with the eutectic mixture choline chloride:citric acid in a mo...

  11. Novel synthesis and DC electrical studies of polyindole/poly(vinyl acetate) composite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, D. J.; Dhokane, G. R.

    2015-01-01

    Novel one pot synthesis of polyindole/poly(vinyl acetate) composite films was prepared chemically. The monomer indole was polymerized using oxidant cupric chloride. As-synthesized composites were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The DC conductivity measurements were done through two probe technique. The DC conductivity value was found to be 8.648 × 10-6 S/cm at 383 K. The transference number measurement shows that ionic conductivity was dominant over electronic conductivity.

  12. Degradable vinyl polymers for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delplace, Vianney; Nicolas, Julien

    2015-10-01

    Vinyl polymers have been the focus of intensive research over the past few decades and are attractive materials owing to their ease of synthesis and their broad diversity of architectures, compositions and functionalities. Their carbon-carbon backbones are extremely resistant to degradation, however, and this property limits their uses. Degradable polymers are an important field of research in polymer science and have been used in a wide range of applications spanning from (nano)medicine to microelectronics and environmental protection. The development of synthetic strategies to enable complete or partial degradation of vinyl polymers is, therefore, of great importance because it will offer new opportunities for the application of these materials. This Review captures the most recent and promising approaches to the design of degradable vinyl polymers and discusses the potential of these materials for biomedical applications.

  13. 40 CFR 721.3140 - Vinyl epoxy ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vinyl epoxy ester. 721.3140 Section... Substances § 721.3140 Vinyl epoxy ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance vinyl epoxy ester (PMN P-85-527) is subject to reporting under...

  14. Designer discodermolide segments via ozonolysis of vinyl phosphonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollat du Jourdin, Xavier; Noshi, Mohammad; Fuchs, P L

    2009-02-01

    To apply our collection of enantiopure 7-ring vinyl sulfones to probe the anticancer SAR of a series of computer-designed (+)-discodermolide analogs, the ozonolytic reactivity of transposed cyclic vinyl phosphonates was explored. Successful preparation of the desired aldehyde-esters and lactones from vinyl phosphonates via an oxidative cleavage-phosphite/methanol exchange sequence is described.

  15. 49 CFR 179.102-4 - Vinyl fluoride, stabilized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vinyl fluoride, stabilized. 179.102-4 Section 179...-4 Vinyl fluoride, stabilized. Each tank used to transport vinyl fluoride, stabilized, must comply... subchapter), Type 304, 304L, 316 or 316L, in which case impact tests are not required; or (2) Steel complying...

  16. 21 CFR 177.1350 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers. 177.1350 Section... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1350 Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers. Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers may be safely used as articles or components of...

  17. Atmospheric fate of methyl vinyl ketone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Praske, Eric; Crounse, John D; Bates, Kelvin H

    2015-01-01

    First generation product yields from the OH-initiated oxidation of methyl vinyl ketone (3-buten-2-one, MVK) under both low and high NO conditions are reported. In the low NO chemistry, three distinct reaction channels are identified leading to the formation of (1) OH, glycolaldehyde, and acetyl...

  18. Intramolecular crosslinking of poly(vinyl alcohol)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebben, Bert; Berg, van den Hans W.A.; Bargeman, Dick; Smolders, Cees A.

    1985-01-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) is crosslinked in dilute solution (c=0.1 wt%) with glutaraldehyde. The reaction product is characterized by viscometry and gel permeation chromatography (g.p.c.). The intrinsic viscosity decreases with increasing degree of crosslinking and does not depend on temperature. G.p.c. r

  19. Heat Bonding of Irradiated Ethylene Vinyl Acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, D. H.

    1986-01-01

    Reliable method now available for joining parts of this difficult-tobond material. Heating fixture encircles ethylene vinyl acetate multiplesocket part, providing heat to it and to tubes inserted in it. Fixtures specially designed to match parts to be bonded. Tube-and-socket bonds made with this technique subjected to tensile tests. Bond strengths of 50 percent that of base material obtained consistently.

  20. Reduction of Ice Consumption in Vinyl Sulphone Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Rajaraman

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional Vinyl Sulphone manufacturing generates corrosive and acidic gases and liquid effluent, which is highly toxic with high BOD, COD and TDS values. Gaseous emissions can be effectively scrubbed. However, liquid effluent requires large quantity of lime to neutralise and it generates large quantity of gypsum containing organic impurities.The reduction or elimination of ice usage in dye industry is a key to reduce liquid effluent generated in the process. This paper describes the use of external cooling in the form of jacket or heat exchanger in the dumping step of the manufacturing process whereby the direct addition of ice in the dumping vessel is eliminated. Only the water needed for decomposing excess of chlorosulphonic acid needs to be added. The reduced amount of water in this step would result in less effluent generation. Moreover, the dilution of spent acid is reduced which can find some use at other places. Additional advantage is that the HCl recovery is easier from concentrated spent acid. This paper also shows that the yield of the desired product ASC ( Acetyl Sulphonyl Chloride obtained experimentally is higher than that found in the conventional process.

  1. Visible-Light-Promoted Nickel- and Organic-Dye-Cocatalyzed Formylation Reaction of Aryl Halides and Triflates and Vinyl Bromides with Diethoxyacetic Acid as a Formyl Equivalent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, He; Li, Xiangmin; Yu, Chenguang; Zhang, Yueteng; Mariano, Patrick S; Wang, Wei

    2017-02-01

    A simple formylation reaction of aryl halides, aryl triflates, and vinyl bromides under synergistic nickel- and organic-dye-mediated photoredox catalysis is reported. Distinct from widely used palladium-catalyzed formylation processes, this reaction proceeds by a two-step mechanistic sequence involving initial in situ generation of the diethoxymethyl radical from diethoxyacetic acid by a 4CzIPN-mediated photoredox reaction. The formyl-radical equivalent then undergoes nickel-catalyzed substitution reactions with aryl halides and triflates and vinyl bromides to form the corresponding aldehyde products. Significantly, besides aryl bromides, less reactive aryl chlorides and triflates and vinyl halides serve as effective substrates for this process. Since the mild conditions involved in this reaction tolerate a plethora of functional groups, the process can be applied to the efficient preparation of diverse aromatic aldehydes. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Chloride ingress prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    Prediction of chloride ingress into concrete is an important part of durability design of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride containing environment. This paper presents experimentally based design parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash...... in marine atmospheric and submersed South Scandinavian environment. The design parameters are based on sequential measurements of 86 chloride profiles taken over ten years from 13 different types of concrete. The design parameters provide the input for an analytical model for chloride profiles as function...

  3. Nitroethylation of vinyl triflates and bromides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Salinas, Rosaura; Walvoord, Ryan R; Tcyrulnikov, Sergei; Kozlowski, Marisa C

    2013-08-02

    A two-carbon homologation of vinyl triflates and bromides for the synthesis of homoallylic nitro products is described. This palladium-catalyzed double coupling of nitromethane exploits the anion stabilizing and leaving group properties of nitromethane, generating the homo allyl nitro products via a tandem cross-coupling/π-allylation sequence. The resultant process provides a mild and convenient entry to nitroethylated products, which are versatile precursors to β,γ-unsaturated carbonyls, homoallylic amines, and nitrile oxides.

  4. PHOTOCOPOLYMERIZATION OF MALEIC ANHYDRIDE AND VINYL ACETATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaofang; LI Shanjun; QIN Anwei; YU Tongyin

    1990-01-01

    The charge-transfer complex of maleic anhydride and vinyl acetate was copolymerized under UV light. The chain composition and structure of the copolymer were analyzed with conductometry and NMR, and the chain sequence was determined as alternating. The copolymerization rates at different feed ratios, temperatures and in different solvents were investigated, giving evidence to the very active involvement of the CT complexes in the copolymerization. Terpolymerization with acrylonitrile also showed that the complex mechanism was a proper one for this system.

  5. Catalytic intermolecular hydroamination of vinyl ethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahadi, Nirmal K; Tunge, Jon A

    2009-12-01

    This manuscript details the development of a palladium-catalyzed hydroamination of vinyl ethers. It is proposed that palladium catalyzes the hydroamination via Bronsted base catalysis, where palladium is protonated by the relatively acidic sulfonamide to generate a palladium hydride as well as the active anionic sulfonamide nucleophile. Thus, this process is distinct from known palladium-catalyzed hydroaminations of styrene derivatives that utilize less acidic amines.

  6. Millimeter Wave Spectrum and Astronomical Search for Vinyl Formate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, E. R.; Kolesniková, L.; Tercero, B.; Cabezas, C.; Alonso, J. L.; Cernicharo, J.; Guillemin, J.-C.

    2016-11-01

    Previous detections of methyl and ethyl formate make other small substituted formates potential candidates for observation in the interstellar medium. Among them, vinyl formate is one of the simplest unsaturated carboxylic ester. The aim of this work is to provide direct experimental frequencies of the ground vibrational state of vinyl formate in a large spectral range for astrophysical use. The room-temperature rotational spectrum of vinyl formate has been measured from 80 to 360 GHz and analyzed in terms of Watson’s semirigid rotor Hamiltonian. Two thousand six hundred transitions within J = 3-88 and K a = 0-28 were assigned to the most stable conformer of vinyl formate and a new set of spectroscopic constants was accurately determined. Spectral features of vinyl formate were then searched for in Orion KL, Sgr B2(N), B1-b, and TMC-1 molecular clouds. Upper limits to the column density of vinyl formate are provided.

  7. Hydrotelluration of alkynes: a unique route to Z-vinyl organometallics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira Maurício L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrotelluration reaction of alkynes is reviewed. The transformation of vinylic tellurides into reactive vinyl organometallics and the coupling reactions of vinylic tellurides with alkynes and organometallics are presented.

  8. Thermal Cloud Point Fractionation of Poly(vinyl alcohol-co-vinyl acetate): Partition of Nanogels in the Fractions

    OpenAIRE

    Gérard Riess; Leonard I. Atanase

    2011-01-01

    Poly(vinyl acetate-co-vinyl alcohol) (PVA), well-known as emulsion stabilizers, are obtained by partial hydrolysis of poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc). Their thermal cloud point fractionation was performed in aqueous medium between 40 and 75 °C. This fractionation was carried out in order to get an insight in the partition of the initially present nanogels in the different fractions. All the fractions were characterized by size exclusion chromatography (SEC), NMR and dynamic light scattering (DLS) ...

  9. Oral drug delivery system based on interpolymer complex formation between poly(acrylic acid) and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Germishuizen, A

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available system based on interpolymer complex formation between poly(acrylic acid) and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) 13 July 2005 André Germishuizen Supporting the Manufacturing and Materials Industry in its quest for global competitiveness CSIR... approved polymers square4 Polyacids - crosslinked poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) - poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) - poly(vinyl acetate phthalate) (PVAP) - cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) square4 Polybases - poly(vinyl pyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) (PVP...

  10. Studies on thermal analysis and optical parameters of Cu doped poly(vinyl acetate)/polyindole composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, D. J.; Dhokane, G. R.

    2015-05-01

    This article reports investigation on optical parameters and thermal analysis of Cu doped poly(vinyl acetate)/polyindole composites using cupric chloride as an oxidant. The study's complex optical parameters were determined through ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy. Thermal analysis was done through thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The optical band gap values were found in the range 3.4381-4.8646 eV that reflects that synthesized composites have the potential to have application in optical devices and solar cells. The optical conductivity of composites is calculated to be 1.608 × 107 S-1.

  11. Lithium Sulfuryl Chloride Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primary batteries , Electrochemistry, Ionic current, Electrolytes, Cathodes(Electrolytic cell), Anodes(Electrolytic cell), Thionyl chloride ...Phosphorus compounds, Electrical conductivity, Calibration, Solutions(Mixtures), Electrical resistance, Performance tests, Solvents, Lithium compounds

  12. Production of methyl-vinyl ketone from levulinic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumesic, James A [Verona, WI; West,; Ryan, M [Madison, WI

    2011-06-14

    A method for converting levulinic acid to methyl vinyl ketone is described. The method includes the steps of reacting an aqueous solution of levulinic acid, over an acid catalyst, at a temperature of from room temperature to about 1100 K. Methyl vinyl ketone is thereby formed.

  13. Cinchonidinium chloride monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Feng Ni

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title salt, C19H23N2O+·Cl−·H2O, the ions and the water molecule are held together by O—H...Cl, N—H...Cl, O—H...O, O—H...N and C—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional framework. The vinyl group is disordered over two orientations with refined occupancies of 0.564 (16 and 0.436 (16. The cell parameters of the title compound have been reported previously [Griffiths (1952. Acta Cryst. 5, 290–291].

  14. Ambient gold-catalyzed O-vinylation of cyclic 1,3-diketone: A vinyl ether synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Yumeng; Dong, Boliang; Shi, Xiaodong

    2013-01-01

    Gold-catalyzed O-vinylation of cyclic 1,3-diketones has been achieved for the first time, which provides direct access to various vinyl ethers. A catalytic amount of copper triflate was identified as the significant additive in promoting this transformation. Both aromatic and aliphatic alkynes are suitable substrates with good to excellent yields.

  15. Ambient gold-catalyzed O-vinylation of cyclic 1,3-diketone: A vinyl ether synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumeng Xi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Gold-catalyzed O-vinylation of cyclic 1,3-diketones has been achieved for the first time, which provides direct access to various vinyl ethers. A catalytic amount of copper triflate was identified as the significant additive in promoting this transformation. Both aromatic and aliphatic alkynes are suitable substrates with good to excellent yields.

  16. Effect of Added Poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) during Condensation on Properties of Poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide) Pulp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jin-chun; YOU Xiu-lan; CAO Yu-tong; LIU Zhao-feng

    2009-01-01

    Poly (p-phenylene terephthalamide) (PPTA) pulp was prepared by polycondensation of the p-phenylene diamine (PPDA) with terephthaloyl chloride (TPC) in the completely anhydrous solvent system of N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP) having calcium chloride, in the presence of poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) having a viscosity average molecular weight lower than 40 000. It was confirmed that the polycondensation could be accelerated, the inherent viscosity of the polymer could be increased, and the polymers could be fibrillated more easily by the addition of the PVP. FTIR and X-ray spectra proved that PVP had not combined into molecular chains of the resultant PPTA pulps. The morphology of the resultant pulps, the effect of viscosity average molecular weight, amount and adding mode of PVP on inherent viscosity, specific surface area,and mean length of the resultant pulps were discussed in detail. And the friction and wear properties of the compound reinforced by the resultant pulps were simply investigated.

  17. Preparation of Syndiotactic Poly(vinyl alcohol)/Poly(vinyl pivalate/vinyl acetate) Microspheres with Radiopacity Using Suspension Copolymerization and Saponification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok Lyoo, Won; Wook Cha, Jin; Young Kwak, Kun; Jae Lee, Young; Yong Jeon, Han; Sik Chung, Yong; Kyun Noh, Seok

    2010-06-01

    To prepare Poly(vinyl pivalate/vinyl acetate) [P(VPi/VAc)] microspheres with radiopacity, the suspension copolymerization approach in the presence of aqueous radiopaque nanoparticles was used. After, The P(VPi/VAc) microspheres with radiopacity were saponified in heterogeneous system, and then P(VPi/VAc) microspheres without aggregates were converted to s-PVA/P(VPi/VAc) microspheres of skin/core structure through the heterogeneous surface saponification. Radiopacity of microspheres was confirmed with Computed tomography (CT).

  18. Effects of Toluene, Acrolein and Vinyl Chloride on Motor Activity of Drosophila Melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The data generated by current high-throughput assays for chemical toxicity require information to link effects at molecular targets to adverse outcomes in whole animals. In addition, more efficient methods for testing volatile chemicals are needed. Here we begin to address these ...

  19. COMMON CONFORMATIONAL EFFECTS IN THE P53 PROTEIN OF VINYL CHLORIDE-INDUCED MUTATIONS. (R826685)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  20. MOLECULAR EPIDEMIOLOGY OF P53 PROTEIN MUTATIONS IN WORKERS EXPOSED TO VINYL CHLORIDE. (R825361)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  1. Radiotracer studies on ion-selective membranes based on poly(vinyl chloride) matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, A M; Moody, G J; Thomas, J D; Willcox, A

    1977-10-01

    Radiotracer studies with (45)Ca, (89)Sr and (133)Ba have provided evidence that the permeation of magnesium, strontium and barium ions through PVC membranes containing Orion 92-20-02 liquid ion-exchanger is inhibited by their low affinity for the liquid ion-exchanger sites. Experiments with (7)Be indicate a strong affinity of the membrane for beryllium ions with corresponding inhibition of permeation. When acid is present in the solution on one side of the membrane, preferential permeation by protons may lead to transport of ions against their concentration gradient in order to maintain the balance of charge.

  2. Migration of additives from poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) tubes into aqueous media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qian; Storm, Birgit Kjærside

    2005-01-01

    The stability and migration product of medical PVC tubes plasticized with polyadipates were investigated by ageing in phosphate buffer at pH 1.679 and water at different temperatures. Changes in the PVC tubes were studied by wtaer absorption, weight loss, Fourier infrared spectroscopy (FTIR...... from PVC matrix occurred. When the tube was aged at 110 C, significant degradation of both polyadipates and PVC were observed. Adipic acid and 1,4-butanediol monomers and oligomers of polyadipate were the major migration products from polyadipates in the water ageing solution, while only a relatively...

  3. Rare Earth Stearates as Thermal Stabilizers for Rigid Poly(vinyl chloride)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Yuying; Cai Weilong; Fu Minglian; Wang Canyao; Zhang Xing

    2005-01-01

    A series of stearates with different rare-earth ion were investigated as thermal stabilizers for rigid PVC at 180 ℃ in air. Their stabilizing efficiency was based on measuring the rate of dehydrochlorination. The resulted revealed the higher stabilizing efficiency of the investigated rare-earth stearates as thermal stabilizers for rigid PVC compared with the thermal stabilizers for industry: calcium stearate, zinc stearate, butyl stannum mercaptide, phosphite esters, β-diketone and epoxidized sunflower oil. This was well illustrated by longer incubation period (TS) values and lower rate of dehydrochlorination. The stable efficiency was affected by the nature of rare-earth element's individual electronic shell. The mechanism for the stabilizing effect of rare-earth stearates was proposed. The result was experimentally proved based on IR spectrum.

  4. Thermal behavior of epoxidized cardanol diethyl phosphate as novel renewable plasticizer for poly(vinyl chloride)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel plasticizer, epoxidized cardanol diethyl phosphate (ECEP), based on cardanol was synthesized. Chemical structure of ECEP was characterized by fourier transform infrared (FTIR), 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance(1H NMR) and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance(13C NMR) spectroscopy. Effects of ECEP sub...

  5. Synthesis and application of a natural plasticizer based on cardanol for poly(vinyl chloride)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A natural plasticizer with multifunctional groups, similar in structure to phthalates, cardanol derivatives glycidyl ether (CGE) was synthesized from cardanol by a two-step modification process and characterized by FT-IR, 1-HNMR, and 13-CNMR. The resulting product was incorporated to PVC (CGE/PVC), ...

  6. Enhancement of mechanical properties of poly(vinyl chloride with polymethyl methacrylate-grafted halloysite nanotube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Halloysite nanotubes(HNTs grafted with Polymethyl methacrylate(PMMA were synthesized via radical polymerization. The properties of PMMA-grafted HNTs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The results showed that PMMA grafted to the surfaces of HNTs successfully. Then, PVC/PMMA-grafted HNTs nanocomposites were prepared by melt compounding. The morphology, mechanical properties and thermal properties of the nanocomposites were investigated. PMMA-grafted HNTs can effectively improve the toughness, strength and modulus of PVC. The glass transition and thermal decomposition temperatures of PVC phase in PVC/PMMA-grafted HNTs nanocomposites are shifted toward slightly higher temperatures. The grafted HNTs were uniformly dispersed in PVC matrix as revealed by TEM photos. The fracture surfaces of the nanocomposites exhibited plastic deformation feature indicating ductile fracture behaviors. The improvement of toughness of PVC by PMMA-grafted HNTs was attributed to the improved interfacial bonding by grafting and the toughening mechanism was explained according to the cavitation mechanism.

  7. Effects of Toluene, Acrolein and Vinyl Chloride on Motor Activity of Drosophila Melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The data generated by current high-throughput assays for chemical toxicity require information to link effects at molecular targets to adverse outcomes in whole animals. In addition, more efficient methods for testing volatile chemicals are needed. Here we begin to address these ...

  8. Synthesis, characterization and application of enrofloxacin complexes as thermal stabilizers for rigid poly(vinyl chloride).

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Gamel, Nadia E A; Mohamed, Riham R; Zayed, M A

    2012-02-14

    Synthesis and characterization of both binary Co(II)- (1), Ni(II)- (2) complexes with enrofloxacin drug (HL(1)) and ternary Co(II)- (3), Ni(II)- (4) complexes in presence of DL-alanine (H(2)L(2)) are reported using physico-chemical techniques. The antimicrobial activity of these complexes has been screened against two gram-positive and two gram-negative bacteria. Antifungal activity against two different fungi has been evaluated and compared with reference drug. All the binary and ternary complexes showed remarkable potential antimicrobial activity higher than the recommended standard agents. Ni(II)-complexes exhibited higher potency as compared to the parent drug against bacterial and fungal strain. In addition, it was of interest to investigate the reported complexes as thermal stabilizers and co-stabilizers for rigid PVC in air at 180 °C. Their high stabilizing efficiency is detected by their high induction period values (T(s)) compared with some of the common reference stabilizers used industrially, such as dibasic lead carbonate (DBLC) and calcium-zinc soap. Blending these complexes with some of the reference stabilizers in different ratios had a synergistic effect on both induction period as it gave better thermal stability and lower extent of discoloration. The stabilizing efficiency is attributed at least partially to the ability of the metal complex stabilizer to be incorporated in the polymeric chains, thus disrupting the chain degradation and replace the labile chlorine atoms on PVC chains by a relatively more s moiety of the inorganic stabilizer. Their amenability to use as a biomedical additives for PVC, has afforded them great potential for various medical applications.

  9. Factors Affecting Cis-Dichloroethene and Vinyl Chloride Biological Transformation Under Anaerobic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    Scientific). Total mass values were determined with Henry’s law constants (8). DNA isolation. Genomic DNA was extracted from 1 mL of culture samples using a...toxic cyanobacteria in water by use of competitive PCR followed by sequence-specific labeling of oligonucleotide probes. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64...using non-linear least-squares fit (14) to the experimental data. DNA isolation and competitive PCR. For the Victoria, Pinellas, and KB-1/VC genomic DNA

  10. Theoretical study of structural and electronic properties of poly(vinyl chloride nanotube inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assad Kareen Edaan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The structural and electronic properties of inclusion or interconnection between NT and PVC were studied by quantum semiepirical approximation method using (PM3 self-consistent ?eld molecular orbital method. The total structural energy, HOMO level energy, LUMO level energy, band gap?(E?_g ?=E?_HOMO-E_LUMO, and dipole moment of the compounds were calculated. Increasing the distance between NT and PVC led to decline the total energy difference which led to better interconnection between NT and PVC and vice versa when the distant is decreased. Therefore the more stable compound is f. The best electronic energies were obtained at the structures 3c and 3b in the first distance respectively. The dipole moments for all structures have the following trend: b> d > c > e > f > a> g.

  11. Elucidation of the Mechanisms and Environmental Relevance of cis-Dichloroethene and Vinyl Chloride Biodegradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    AFB, OK; (2) supernatant from the anaerobic sludge digester of the Ithaca Area Wastewater Treatment Plant, Ithaca, NY; (3) groundwater from three... Enzyme activities in cell extracts of JS666 Table 3-6: Genes highly upregulated by cDCE compared to glycolate Table 3-7: Proteins upregulated by cDCE...cell extracts Table 3-10: Summary of substrates tested on different overexpressed enzymes Table 3-11: Ratios of selected proteins identified in

  12. THE EFFECT OF BLOWING AGENTS ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE EXTRUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Garbacz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The cellular extrusion is a method for manufacturing profiles, bars, low density cellu-lar coatings and other cellular products that have no hollow cavities on the surface and show minimal processing shrinkage, while their properties are similar to those of products produced by conventional extrusion. The paper deals with cellular extrusion of PVC. The investigation of the process was conducted using state-of-the-art endothermic and exothermic blowing agents that were dosed in up to 1.5% by weight. The experiments involved measuring output, energy consumption and energy efficiency of the process.

  13. THE EFFECT OF BLOWING AGENTS ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) EXTRUSION

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garbacz, Tomasz; Jachowicz, Tomasz; Tor-Świątek, Aneta

    2016-01-01

    .... The paper deals with cellular extrusion of PVC. The investigation of the process was conducted using state-of-the-art endothermic and exothermic blowing agents that were dosed in up to 1.5% by weight...

  14. On the Degradation Mechanism of Low-Voltage Underground Cable with Poly(Vinyl Chloride) Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawancy, H. M.; Hassan, M.

    2016-06-01

    A study has been undertaken to determine the degradation mechanism leading to localized short-circuit failures of an underground low-voltage cable with PVC insulation. It is shown that that the insulation of outer sheath and conductor cores has been cracked by thermal degradation involving dehydrochlorination, oxidation, and loss of plasticizers leading to current leakage between the cores. Most evidence points out that overheating due to poor connection of copper wires as well as a chemically active soil has caused the observed degradation.

  15. ACETYLENE INHIBITION OF TRICHLOROETHENE AND VINYL CHLORIDE REDUCTIVE DECHLORINATION. (R828772)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  16. RAFT Polymerization of Vinyl Esters: Synthesis and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Harrisson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is the first comprehensive review on the study and use of vinyl ester monomers in reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT polymerization. It covers all the synthetic aspects associated with the definition of precision polymers comprising poly(vinyl ester building blocks, such as the choice of RAFT agent and reaction conditions in order to progress from simple to complex macromolecular architectures. Although vinyl acetate was by far the most studied monomer of the range, many vinyl esters have been considered in order to tune various polymer properties, in particular, solubility in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2. A special emphasis is given to novel poly(vinyl alkylates with enhanced solubilities in scCO2, with applications as reactive stabilizers for dispersion polymerization and macromolecular surfactants for CO2 media. Other miscellaneous uses of poly(vinyl esters synthesized by RAFT, for instance as a means to produce poly(vinyl alcohol with controlled characteristics for use in the biomedical area, are also covered.

  17. Preparation and characterization of chitosan/poly(Vinyl alcohol)/poly(Vinyl pyrrolidone) electrospun fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Guiping; YANG Dongzhi; ZHOU Yingshan; JIN Yu; NIE Jun

    2007-01-01

    Ultrafine fibers of chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol)/poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (CS/PVA/PVP) were prepared via electrospinning.The structure and morphology of CS/PVA/PVP ultrafine fibers was characterized by the Fourier transform inflared (FT-IR) spectroscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM).Furthermore.the effects of the concentration of PVA,PVP and the electrospinning voltage on the morphology of ultrafine fibers were investigated by the SEM.When the concentration of PVA was at the range of 30wt%-40wt%,ultrafine fibers could be obtained.The diameter distributions of ultrafine fibers decreased when the electrospinning voltage increased from 20to 30kV. The rough surface fibers could be obtained after etching with CHCl3.

  18. Influence of Halogen Variation on Structure and Interactions in Vinyl Halide (H_2C=CHX)\\cdotsCO_2 (x = F, Cl, Br) Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderton, Ashley M.; Christenholz, Cori L.; Dorris, Rachel E.; Peebles, Rebecca A.; Peebles, Sean A.

    2016-06-01

    Chirped-pulse and resonant cavity Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy have been used to investigate dimers of CO_2 with vinyl fluoride (VF), vinyl chloride (VCl) and vinyl bromide (VBr). For all three complexes, CO_2 is aligned adjacent to the X-C-H end (X = F, Cl, Br) of the ethylene subunit, with C-X\\cdotsC and C-H\\cdotsO contacts. For VF\\cdotsCO_2, a second isomer is also observed, with CO_2 roughly parallel to the H-C=C-F side of VF; however, there is no spectroscopic indication that similar structures are present for VCl\\cdotsCO_2 or VBr\\cdotsCO_2. For vinyl fluoride\\cdotsCO_2, a full structural analysis has previously been published, while for the Cl- and Br-containing species, insufficient data are presently available for complete structure determinations. However, structural information from ab initio calculations, 35Cl/37Cl and 79B/81Br isotopic substitution, and analysis of chlorine and bromine nuclear quadrupole coupling constants will be presented. In addition, for this series of dimers containing C-H\\cdotsO contacts, further insight into the nature of the weak interactions may be obtained from Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM) and other ab initio} analyses that are presently in progress. C. L. Christenholz, R. E. Dorris, R. A. Peebles, S. A. Peebles, J. Phys. Chem. A, 118, (2014), 8765-8772.

  19. Compatibility of Soybean Protein and Poly (vinyl alcohol)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈婕; 肖茹; 顾利霞

    2004-01-01

    Bicomponent fibers were wet-spun from soybean protein and poly (vinyl alcohol). The fiber was brittle and showed a high frequency of breakage upon drawing and the bad compatibility between soybean protein and poly (vinyl alcohol) was thought to be the causes for the poor drawability. Our effort was then to study the soybean protein and poly (vinyl alcohol) solution, with the aim of trying to improve the components' compatibility and to determine the proper solution condition for dissolving them.The effects of alkali, sodium sulfite and urea on the compatibility of the solution were examined.

  20. Piezoresistive Properties of Polyvinyl Chloride Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toprakci, Hatice Aylin Karahan

    Textile based sensors provide an interface between the user and the electronic system by converting any type of physiological or environmental signal into electrical signals. Common applications include health monitoring, rehabilitation, multimedia, and surveillance. In this research we demonstrate fabrication of piezoresistive sensors on textile fabrics through application of a screen-printed conductive nanocomposite layer of plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), and carbon nanofiber (CNF). In order to understand the behavior of conductive plastisol, morphological, mechanical and electrical properties of composite films were investigated for different molecular weights of PVC. Homogeneous filler dispersion and good filler/polymer interphase were observed without any dominant filler orientation. Mechanical and electrical properties were found to be affected by CNF, plasticizer content and matrix molecular weight. CNFs were found to provide substantial bridging in the matrix and enhance strength. These nanostructured composite sensors were found to be sensitive under different levels of strain which can be monitored by change in electrical resistance. Finally, we demonstrate the fabrication of piezoresistive sensors on textile fabrics through application of a screen-printed conductive nanocomposite layer of conductive plastisol. Conductive plastisol was found to show good adhesion to fabric with homogeneous CNF distribution. As in composite films, samples were found to show negative piezoresistance at different levels of strain. Strain level and filler concentration were found to affect the piezoresistive behavior and sensitivity of the printed sensors.

  1. chloride mass balance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agadaga

    1Geology Department, Faculty of Sciences and Techniques, University ... characterization of groundwater, rainfall and the unsaturated zone were also carried out using a .... 2008 in collaboration with the Senegal National Meteorological .... [Cl]sm is estimated as average chloride concentration in ..... sands of Australia.

  2. Chloride ingress prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    and time, and where both the surface chloride concentration and the diffusion coefficient are allowed to vary in time; the Mejlbro-Poulsen model is the general solution to Fick’s 2nd law. The paper also presents conversion formulas for the four decisive but rather abstract parameters to parameters, which...

  3. Palladium- (and nickel-) catalyzed vinylation of aryl halides†

    OpenAIRE

    DENMARK, SCOTT E.; Butler, Christopher R.

    2008-01-01

    Functionalized styrenes are extremely useful building blocks for organic synthesis and for functional polymers. One of the most general syntheses of styrenes involves the combination of an aryl halide with a vinyl organometallic reagent under catalysis by palladium or nickel complexes. This Feature Article provides the first comprehensive summary of the vinylation methods currently available along with a critical comparison of the efficiency, cost and scope of the methods.

  4. Copper-catalyzed Decarboxylative Hydroboration: Synthesis of Vinyl Boronic Esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irudayanathan, Francis Mariaraj; Raja, Gabriel Charles Edwin; Kim, Han-Sung; Na, Kyungsu; Lee, Sunwoo [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Vinyl boronic esters were synthesized from aryl alkynyl carboxylic acids and bis(pinacolato)diboron using a copper-catalyzed decarboxylative reaction. The reaction was conducted with CuI (10 mol %), bis-[2-(diphenylphosphino)phenyl]ether(20 mol %), and LiOMe (20 mol %) in DMSO at 50 .deg. C for 16 h. This method provided the desired vinyl boronic esters in good-to-moderate yields and showed good functional group tolerance.

  5. Wearing ambidextrous vinyl gloves does not impair manual dexterity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabek, Tomas; Boucek, Charles D; Buffington, Charles W

    2013-01-01

    Universal precautions mandate that health care workers wear gloves to prevent the unintended spread of bloodborne pathogens. Gloves may affect manual dexterity, generally delaying task completion. Our previous study showed that wearing the wrong size latex surgical glove degraded manual dexterity. The use of non-sterile and non-latex gloves may limit certain risks and be more cost-effective. However, such gloves may produce different results. We hypothesized that ambidextrous vinyl examination gloves would degrade manual dexterity compared with bare hands. We studied 20 random subjects from a medical environment. Subjects performed a standard battery of Grooved Pegboard tasks while bare-handed, wearing ambidextrous non-sterile vinyl gloves that were their preferred size, a size too small, and a size too large. The order was randomized with a Latin Square design to minimize the effects of time, boredom, and fatigue on the subjects. Subjects were also invited to comment on the fit of different size gloves. Wearing vinyl gloves of both the preferred size and a size up or down failed to affect manual dexterity vs. bare hands on time to insert pegs, and pegs dropped during insertion or removal. In contrast, the time to remove pegs was reduced by wearing preferred size vinyl gloves compared with performing the task with bare hands (P<0.05). Subjects reported a generally poor fit in all sizes. Vinyl gloves that were too small caused significant hand discomfort. Vinyl gloves surprisingly do not degrade manual dexterity even when worn in ill-fitting sizes. Wearing a preferred size vinyl glove vs. bare hands may improve dexterity in selected tasks. Choosing a comfortable, large size seems the best strategy when the preferred size is unavailable. Thinner vinyl gloves may improve grip and may not degrade touch as much as latex surgical gloves and may thus represent a reasonable choice for selected tasks.

  6. Electrospinning of poly(vinyl alcohol)-water-soluble quaternized chitosan derivative blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipour, Shiva M; Nouri, Mahdi; Mokhtari, Javad; Bahrami, S Hagir

    2009-12-14

    Defect free mats containing a cationic polysaccharide, chitosan derivative such as N-[(2-hydroxy-3-trimethylammonium)propyl] chitosan chloride (HTCC), have been prepared using electrospinning of an aqueous solution of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-HTCC blends. HTCC, a water-soluble derivative of chitosan, was synthesized via the reaction between glycidyl-trimethylammonium chloride and chitosan. Solutions of PVA-HTCC Blends were electrospun. The morphology, diameter and structure of the produced electrospun nanofibres were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The average fibre diameter was in the range of 200-600 nm. SEM images showed that the morphology and diameter of the nanofibres were mainly affected by weight ratio of the blend and applied voltage. The results revealed that increasing HTCC content in the blends decreases the average fibre diameter. These observations were discussed on the basis of shear viscosities and conductivities of the spinning solutions. Microbiological assessment showed that the PVA-HTCC mats have a good antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, and Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli.

  7. Chemical modification of poly(vinyl alcohol): evaluation of hydrophilic/lipophilic balance; Poli(alcool vinilico) modificado com cadeias hidrocarbonicas: avaliacao do balanco hidrofilo/lipofilo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranha, Isabele B.; Lucas, Elizabete F. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas Eloisa B. Mano]. E-mail: elucas@ima.ufrj.br

    2001-12-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) terpolymers have been obtained by reaction of partially hydrolized poly(vinyl alcohol) with different acid chlorides. The objective is the preparation of polymers with slight differences in their hydrophilic/lipophilic balance and in the interfacial activities of their solutions. The chemical modifications were characterized by means of {sup 1}H NMR and the polymer properties were evaluated in terms of changes in solubility and surface tension. By chemical modification, polymers with low percentage of hydrophobic group were obtained. The water-soluble polymers obtained did not have the surface tension of their solutions altered. The solubility of the modified polymers decreased markedly, even with low contents of hydrophobic groups. (author)

  8. Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of Anti-Vinyl Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raston, Paul; Bunn, Hayley

    2016-06-01

    Vinyl alcohol can exist in two rotameric forms, known as syn- and anti- vinyl alcohol, where syn is the most stable. Both rotamers have been observed in the interstellar medium towards Sagittarius B2(N) making them of particular astrophysical importance. Vinyl alcohol has been subject to various spectroscopic investigations, however, the anti rotamer has only been obsvered in the microwave region. We report the high resolution (0.001 wn) FTIR spectrum of anti-vinyl alcohol collected at the infrared beamline facility of the Australian Synchrotron. Vinyl alcohol was produced via the pyrolysis of 2-chloroethanol at 900°C, and its far infrared spectrum reveals the presence of the strong νb{15} fundamental and hot band of anti-vinyl alcohol. Rotational and centrifugal distortion constants of this higher energy rotamer have since been determined for the νb{15} and 2νb{15} states, and the ground state constants have been refined. B. E. Turner, A. J. Apponi, ApJ 561, 207 (2001) M. Rodler, J. Mol. Spec. 114, 23 (1985) D-L Joo, et al., J. Mol. Spec. 197, 68 (1999)

  9. Benzalkonium Chloride and Glaucoma

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Carol A.; Kaufman, Paul L.; Kiland, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Glaucoma patients routinely take multiple medications, with multiple daily doses, for years or even decades. Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is the most common preservative in glaucoma medications. BAK has been detected in the trabecular meshwork (TM), corneal endothelium, lens, and retina after topical drop installation and may accumulate in those tissues. There is evidence that BAK causes corneal and conjunctival toxicity, including cell loss, disruption of tight junctions, apoptosis and preapo...

  10. Synthesis of styrenes by palladium(II)-catalyzed vinylation of arylboronic acids and aryltrifluoroborates by using vinyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindh, Jonas; Sävmarker, Jonas; Nilsson, Peter; Sjöberg, Per J R; Larhed, Mats

    2009-01-01

    One Heck of a reaction: Treatment of arylboronic acids or aryltrifluoroborates with vinyl acetate by using a palladium(II) catalyst gives the corresponding styrenes (see scheme). No palladium reoxidant is needed and the vinylation is performed under non-inert conditionsReactions of aromatic and heteroaromatic boronic acids or aryltrifluoroborate salts with vinyl acetate in the presence of a palladium(II) catalyst give the corresponding styrenes in good yields. This Heck reaction proceeds with microwave heating in less than 30 min at 140 degrees C in the absence of base and tolerates a variety of substituents. No palladium reoxidant is needed and the vinylation is performed under non-inert conditions. Mass spectrometry (electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESIMS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS)) was used to identify cationic palladium-containing complexes in ongoing reactions. The key intermediates that have been detected, together with experiments that used deuterated vinyl acetate, support the existence of catalytically active palladium hydride species, and that it is the arylation of ethylene, not vinyl acetate, which generates the styrene product. The mechanism of the reaction is discussed in terms of the palladium(II) intermediates mentioned above.

  11. Dispersibility and emulsion-stabilizing effect of cellulose nanowhiskers esterified by vinyl acetate and vinyl cinnamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sèbe, Gilles; Ham-Pichavant, Frédérique; Pecastaings, Gilles

    2013-08-12

    The surface of cotton cellulose nanowhiskers (CNW's) was esterified by vinyl acetate (VAc) and vinyl cinnamate (VCin), in the presence of potassium carbonate as catalyst. Reactions were performed under microwave activation and monitored by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The supramolecular structure of CNW's before and after modification was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Distinctively from the acetylation treatment, an increase in particles dimensions was noted after esterification with VCin, which was assigned to π-π stacking interactions that may exist between cinnamoyl moieties. The dispersibility and emulsion stabilizing effect of acylated CNW's was examined in ethyl acetate, toluene, and cyclohexane, three organic solvents of medium to low polarity. The acylated nanoparticles could never be dispersed in toluene nor cyclohexane, but they formed stable dispersions in ethyl acetate while remaining dispersible in water. Stable ethyl acetate-in-water, toluene-in-water, and cyclohexane-in-water emulsions were successfully prepared with CNW's grafted with acetyl moieties, whereas the VCin-treated particles could stabilize only the cyclohexane-in-water emulsions. The impact of esterification treatment on emulsion stability and droplets size was particularly discussed.

  12. Oxomemazine hydro-chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddegowda, M S; Butcher, Ray J; Akkurt, Mehmet; Yathirajan, H S; Ramesh, A R

    2011-08-01

    IN THE TITLE COMPOUND [SYSTEMATIC NAME: 3-(5,5-dioxo-phen-othia-zin-10-yl)-N,N,2-trimethyl-propanaminium chloride], C(18)H(23)N(2)O(2)S(+)·Cl(-), the dihedral angle between the two outer aromatic rings of the phenothia-zine unit is 30.5 (2)°. In the crystal, the components are linked by N-H⋯Cl and C-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds and C-H⋯π inter-actions.

  13. Kinetics of UV curable alkyl 3-mercaptopropionate-vinyl silizane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiale SONG; Lixin CHEN; Yazhou WANG; Weiwei CHEN; Rumin WANG

    2008-01-01

    Photopolymerization of vinyl-containing liquid silizane preceramic monomers copolymerized with thiol monomers, based on a step-growth radical polymerization mechanism, is a novel, rapid, inexpensive and simple tech-nique for producing preceramic structures from liquid pre-cursors. The kinetics of alkyl 3-mercptopropionate-vinyl silizane under UV irradiation is investigated by using real-time Fourier transform infrarcd (FT-IR) and photo-dif-ferential scanning calorimetry (photo-DSC). The experi-mental results show preliminarily that: (1) about 80% conversion of vinyl group has been achieved in the pres-ence of a low concentration photoinitiator under UV irra-diation; (2) by increasing the functionalities of the thiol group, the peak rate of copolymerization increases and the final conversion of the vinyl group decreases; (3) the copolymerization is primarily a bimolecular radical ter-mination process; (4) the copolymerization is first-order, i.e., its rate is proportional to the vinyl group concentra-tion and independent of the concentration of thiol group.

  14. A facile synthesis of radioiodinated (Z)-vinyl iodides via vinylboronates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabalka, George W. E-mail: Kabalka@utk.edu; Akula, Murthy R.; Zhang, Jinhua

    2003-05-01

    A direct radioiodination of (Z)-vinylboronic acid esters to the corresponding vinyl iodides using Na{sup 123}I and chloramine-T is described. The boronates were prepared from vinyl iodides via palladium coupling reactions.

  15. Synthesis and characterisation of polymeric nanofibers poly (vinyl alcohol and poly (vinyl alcohol/silica using indigenous electrospinning set up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sasipriya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous design and fabrication horizontal of electrospinning set up was developed to facilitate with double drum conveyor belt system to make ease in harvesting nanofibers rapidly. As a bench mark study, organic-inorganic nanofiber composite was synthesised employing our indigenous electrospinning set up. The aqueous solution of poly (vinyl alcohol and poly (vinyl alcohol/silica sol were employed to produce nanofiber mats in order to vary the experimental parameters such as voltage, solvent effect and the effect of catalyst. The synthesised pure electro spun poly (vinyl alcohol and poly (vinyl alcohol/silica sol fibers were characterized by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Atomic force microscopy (AFM and Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR. According to the results, the fine polymeric nanofibers were achieved in the size range of 100-500 nm for pure poly (vinyl alcohol fiber and 100-700 nm for polyvinyl alcohol/silica and the constitution of silica in rendering better fiber mats with this double drum set up.

  16. Synthesis and characterisation of polymeric nanofibers poly (vinyl alcohol) and poly (vinyl alcohol)/silica using indigenous electrospinning set up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasipriya, K.; Suriyaprabha, R.; Prabu, P.; Rajendran, V., E-mail: veerajendran@gmail.com [Centre for Nanoscience and Technology, K. S. Rangasamy College of Technology, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2013-11-01

    Indigenous design and fabrication horizontal of electrospinning set up was developed to facilitate with double drum conveyor belt system to make ease in harvesting nanofibers rapidly. As a bench mark study, organic-inorganic nanofiber composite was synthesised employing our indigenous electrospinning set up. The aqueous solution of poly (vinyl alcohol) and poly (vinyl alcohol)/silica sol were employed to produce nanofiber mats in order to vary the experimental parameters such as voltage, solvent effect and the effect of catalyst. The synthesised pure electro spun poly (vinyl alcohol) and poly (vinyl alcohol)/silica sol fibers were characterized by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR). According to the results, the fine polymeric nanofibers were achieved in the size range of 100-500 nm for pure poly (vinyl alcohol) fiber and 100-700 nm for polyvinyl alcohol/silica and the constitution of silica in rendering better fiber mats with this double drum set up. (author)

  17. Determination of vinyl orientation of mouse neuroglobin by 2D nuclear Overhauser spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Yuan Zhou; Xiao Yan Wei

    2007-01-01

    1H NMR has been used to determine the 2-, 4-vinyl orientation of heme active site from oxidized mouse neuroglobin (mNgb).The NOEs between 3-methyl and Hα, Hβ of 2-vinyl, together with the NOEs between 5-methyl and Hα, Hβ of 4-vinyl, allowed the unambiguous determination of trans and cis orientations for the 2- and 4-vinyl groups in the mNgb, respectively.

  18. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Robert; Curcija, Charlie; Arasteh, Dariush; Goudey, Howdy; Kohler, Christian; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2011-07-07

    The subject of glass solar reflectance and its contribution to permanent vinyl siding distortion has not been extensively studied, and some phenomena are not yet well understood. This white paper presents what is known regarding the issue and identifies where more research is needed. Three primary topics are discussed: environmental factors that control the transfer of heat to and from the siding surface; vinyl siding properties that may affect heat build-up and permanent distortion; and factors that determine the properties of reflected solar radiation from glass surfaces, including insulating window glass. Further research is needed to fully characterize the conditions associated with siding distortion, the scope of the problem, physical properties of vinyl siding, insulating window glass reflection characteristics, and possible mitigation or prevention strategies.

  19. Radiation-chemical preparation of poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duflot, Anastasia V.; Kitaeva, Natalia K.; Duflot, Vladimir R.

    2015-02-01

    This work reports the usage of method of radiation-chemical synthesis to prepare cross-linked hydrogels from poly(vinyl alcohol) modified with glycidyl methacrylate. Synthesis kinetics of modified poly(vinyl alcohol) and properties of hydrogels were studied. The gel fraction, swelling, mechanical properties, and water content of the hydrogels were measured. It was found that gel fraction increases with increasing radiation dose, concentration of modified poly(vinyl alcohol), and reaches 60%. It was established by differential scanning calorimetry that a fraction of the "bound" water in hydrogels is 50-70% and independent of gel fraction content. In addition to "bound" and "free" states, water in hydrogels is also present in the intermediate state.

  20. Laboratory millimeter wave spectrum and astronomical search for vinyl acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesniková, L.; Peña, I.; Alonso, J. L.; Cernicharo, J.; Tercero, B.; Kleiner, I.

    2015-05-01

    Context. The recent discovery of methyl acetate in Orion KL makes vinyl acetate, CH3C=OOCH=CH2, a potential molecule in the interstellar medium. We obtained very accurate spectroscopic constants in a comprehensive laboratory analysis of its rotational spectra which can be used to predict those transition frequencies towards interstellar sources. Aims: We present the experimental study and theoretical analysis of the ground torsional state of vinyl acetate in a large spectral range for astrophysical use. Methods: The room-temperature rotational spectrum of vinyl acetate has been measured from 125 to 305 GHz to provide direct frequencies to the astronomical community. Additional measurements have also been made using a broadband CP-FTMW spectrometer in the region of 6-18 GHz. Transition lines, corresponding to the most stable conformer, have been observed and assigned. All the rotational transitions revealed the A-E splitting due to the methyl internal rotation and had to be treated with a specific internal rotation code (BELGI-Cs). Results: We analyzed 2508 transitions up to J'' = 75 for vt = 0 for the most stable conformer of vinyl acetate. The new lines were globally fitted with previously published data and 24 parameters of the Hamiltonian were accurately determined. The spectral features of vinyl acetate were then searched for in Orion KL. Using the whole line survey of Orion KL (80-280 GHz) obtained with the IRAM 30 m radio telescope we can provide only an upper limit to the column density of vinyl acetate. However, using the ALMA science verification data we obtain a tentative detection of this species that will require further search at other frequencies to confirm its presence in this high mass star forming region. Table 2 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/577/A91

  1. 40 CFR 721.8658 - Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium compound (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8658 Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified polymer of vinyl acetate and...

  2. 21 CFR 175.350 - Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer. 175.350... COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.350 Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer. A copolymer of vinyl acetate and crotonic acid may be safely used as a coating or as a component of a...

  3. Acetylation of cellulose nanowhiskers with vinyl acetate under moderate conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Nihat Sami; Tingaut, Philippe; Ozmen, Nilgül; Henry, Nathan; Harper, David; Dadmun, Mark; Sèbe, Gilles

    2009-10-08

    A novel and straightforward method for the surface acetylation of cellulose nanowhiskers by transesterification of vinyl acetate is proposed. The reaction of vinyl acetate with the hydroxyl groups of cellulose nanowhiskers obtained from cotton linters was examined with potassium carbonate as catalyst. Results indicate that during the first stage of the reaction, only the surface of the nanowhiskers was modified, while their dimensions and crystallinity remained unchanged. With increasing reaction time, diffusion mechanisms controlled the rate, leading to nanowhiskers with higher levels of acetylation, smaller dimensions, and lower crystallinity. In THF, a solvent of low polarity, the suspensions from modified nanowhiskers showed improved stability with increased acetylation.

  4. An in vitro study of the bond strength of five adhesives used for vinyl polysiloxane impression materials and tray materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Surender; Gandhi, Udey Vir; Banerjee, Saurav

    2014-03-01

    Although stock trays often provide mechanical retention for elastomeric impression materials, manufacturers typically recommend the use of an adhesive, whether a stock or custom tray is used. The mention of the bond strength on the adhesive packaging is not available, therefore the clinician has no idea whatsoever of the ideal adhesive. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of three vinyl polysiloxane (VPS) materials, one with a poly(methyl methacrylate) autopolymerizing (PMMA) specimen and another with a light-polymerizing tray material (VLC), using the adhesive recommended by the manufacturer of the impression material, and two universal adhesives. A total of ninety specimens (15 × 15 × 20 mm) were used, 45 specimens were made in PMMA and rest 45 was made in VLC. Five paint-on adhesives (Coltene, Caulk, 3M, universal Zhermack and universal GC) were applied. Three impression materials, Affinis, Reprosil, and 3M, were mixed and injected into a perforated poly vinyl chloride cylinder. Tray specimens were positioned against the open cylinder end in contact with the VPS material. Tensile strength tests were conducted until adhesive separation failure. Mean values and standard errors of the adhesive strength were recorded in MPa for each material combination. GC paint-on universal adhesive provided significantly higher adhesive strength values.

  5. Chloride on the Move

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bo

    2017-01-09

    Chloride (Cl−) is an essential plant nutrient but under saline conditions it can accumulate to toxic levels in leaves; limiting this accumulation improves the salt tolerance of some crops. The rate-limiting step for this process – the transfer of Cl− from root symplast to xylem apoplast, which can antagonize delivery of the macronutrient nitrate (NO3−) to shoots – is regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) and is multigenic. Until recently the molecular mechanisms underpinning this salt-tolerance trait were poorly defined. We discuss here how recent advances highlight the role of newly identified transport proteins, some that directly transfer Cl− into the xylem, and others that act on endomembranes in ‘gatekeeper’ cell types in the root stele to control root-to-shoot delivery of Cl−.

  6. Benzalkonium chloride and glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Carol A; Kaufman, Paul L; Kiland, Julie A

    2014-01-01

    Glaucoma patients routinely take multiple medications, with multiple daily doses, for years or even decades. Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is the most common preservative in glaucoma medications. BAK has been detected in the trabecular meshwork (TM), corneal endothelium, lens, and retina after topical drop installation and may accumulate in those tissues. There is evidence that BAK causes corneal and conjunctival toxicity, including cell loss, disruption of tight junctions, apoptosis and preapoptosis, cytoskeleton changes, and immunoinflammatory reactions. These same effects have been reported in cultured human TM cells exposed to concentrations of BAK found in common glaucoma drugs and in the TM of primary open-angle glaucoma donor eyes. It is possible that a relationship exists between chronic exposure to BAK and glaucoma. The hypothesis that BAK causes/worsens glaucoma is being tested experimentally in an animal model that closely reflects human physiology.

  7. Photoinduced crystallization of calcium carbonate from a homogeneous precursor solution in the presence of partially hydrolyzed poly(vinyl alcohol)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Takashi; Naka, Kensuke

    2015-04-01

    Photoinduced crystallization of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) was demonstrated by the photodecarboxylation of ketoprofen (KP, 2-(3-benzoylphenyl)propionic acid) under alkaline conditions (pH 10). In this method, a homogeneous solution comprising KP, calcium chloride, ammonia, and partially hydrolyzed poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVAPS, degree of saponification: 86.5-89.0 mol %) was used as the precursor solution and was exposed to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation for different time periods. Thermogravimetric analysis of the obtained xerogels showed that increasing the UV irradiation time increased the amount of CaCO3 formed and the complete conversion of calcium ions to calcite was achieved after 50 min of UV irradiation. Furthermore, solid phase analyses suggested that nanometer-to-micron-sized calcite crystals were formed and dispersed in the obtained PVAPS matrix.

  8. Mechanical and morphological characterization of novel vinyl plastisols with epoxidized linseed oil as natural-based plasticizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenollar, O.; Balart, R.; Sánchez-Nácher, L.; García-Sanoguera, D.; Boronat, T.

    2010-06-01

    Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) is one of the most commonly used plastics in the current market due to its low cost and versatility in processing, combined with its satisfactory physical and chemical properties. However, there is an important problem associated to the use of plasticized PVC. This problem is regarding to the toxicity of the most common plasticized used like DOP, DEHP, DINP, due to its possible migration. This problem limits the use of the plasticized PVC in the industry. In this work we have used epoxidized linseed oil (ELO) as a non toxic plasticizer for PVC. This type of natural oil is characterized by acting as both plasticizer and stabilizer of PVC. With this purpose, ELO have been added to PVC. The processing conditions (temperature and time of curing) are vital to determine the final properties of the material. A study of the processing conditions shows the adequate temperature and time to achieve the optimum properties.

  9. Synthesis and properties of a novel pH sensitive poly(N-vinyl-pyrrolidone-co-sulfadiazine hydrogel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Sulfadiazine monomer (SDM was synthesized by the reaction of sulfadiazine with acryloyl chloride. The SDM was characterized by 1H-NMR and IR spectra. A novel hydrogel with –SO2NH- group was obtained by the radical copolymerization of SDM with N-vinyl-pyrrolidone (NVP. Effects of the reaction temperature, reaction time, the monomer ratio, and the amount of the cross-linker on the pH sensitivity of the hydrogel were investigated. Results indicate that the hydrogel shows strong pH sensitivity in the pH range of 6.5 to 7.2. It also exhibits a good swelling reversibility at buffer solutions of pH 6.5 and 7.2. At last, drugs tests demonstrated the release effect of the hydrogel in pH range of 6.5 to 7.2.

  10. Synthesis, properties and applications of interacting blends of acrylated novalac epoxy resin based poly(ester-amides and vinyl ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragnesh N. Dave

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Epoxy resin based unsaturated poly(ester-amide resins (UPEAs were prepared by the reported method. These UPEAs were then treated with acryloyl chloride to afford acrylated UPEAs resin (i.e. AUPEAs. Interacting blends of equal proportional AUPEAs and vinyl ester epoxy (VE resin were prepared. APEAs and AUPEAs were characterized by elemental analysis, molecular weight determined by vapor pressure osmometer and by IR spectral study and by thermogravimetry. The curing of interacting blends was monitored on differential scanning calorimeter (DSC. Based on DSC data in situ glass reinforced composites of the resultant blends have been prepared and characterized for mechanical, electrical and chemical properties. Unreinforced blends were characterized by thermogravimetry (TGA.

  11. Effect of hygroscopic materials on water vapor permeation and dehumidification performance of poly(vinyl alcohol) membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Bui, T. D.

    2017-01-16

    In this study, two hygroscopic materials, inorganic lithium chloride (LiCl) and organic triethylene glycol (TEG) were separately added to poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) to form blend membranes for air dehumidification. Water vapor permeation, dehumidification performance and long-term durability of the membranes were studied systematically. Membrane hydrophilicity and water vapor sorbability increased significantly with higher the hygroscopic material contents. Water vapor permeance of the membranes increased with both added hygroscopic material and absorbed water. Water permeation energy varied from positive to negative with higher hygroscopic content. This observation is attributed to a lower diffusion energy and a relatively constant sorption energy when hygroscopic content increases. Comparatively, PVA/TEG has less corrosive problems and is more environmentally friendly than PVA/LiCl. A membrane with PVA/TEG is observed to be highly durable and is suitable for dehumidification applications.

  12. Electro-optical properties of one pot synthesized polyindole in the presence of poly(vinyl acetate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, D. J.; Dhokane, G. R.

    2015-05-01

    Polyindole was prepared in the presence of poly(vinyl acetate) through a chemical polymerization technique. The indole monomer was polymerized using ferric chloride as an oxidant. Electrical conductivity measurements were performed through a two probe technique. The prepared composites were analyzed by x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDAX), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) spectroscopy. The DC conductivity was found to be 4.46 × 10-6 S/cm at 383 K. An attempt has been made to investigate the electrooptical properties of PIN/PVAc composite films.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  13. Identification and characterization of vinylpyrrolidone-vinylimidazolium chloride copolymers in cosmetic products by pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmahl, E; Ruess, W

    1993-04-01

    Synopsis Commercially available copolymers of 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone and 1-vinyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, known as 'Luviquat' types in the cosmetic industry, were analysed for their composition using a combination of pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method. This is a report on the determined pyrolytic products and the fast identification of the analysed polymers both in raw materials and cosmetic products. Calibration with defined material ensures the determination of monomer ratios with good reproducibility. Résumé Les copolymères de chlorure de 1-vinyle-2-pyrolidone et de 1-vinyle-3-methylimidazolium disponibles dans le commerce, connus dans l'industrie cosmétique sous la dénomination de copolymères de vinyle, ont été analysés à laide d'une méthode combinant la pyrolyse, la spectrométrie de mass et la chromatographie en phase gazeuse. Cet article constitue un rapport sur les produits déterminés par pyrolyse et sur la rapidité d'identification des polymères analysés à la fois dans des matières premières et dans des produits cosmétiques. Le calibrage avec un matériel défini assure une bonne détermination des taux de monomères dotés d'une reproductibilité.

  14. Influence of Suspended Emulsion Polymerization Conditions on Particle Characteristics of Polyvinyl Chloride Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包永忠; 魏真理; 翁志学; 黄志明

    2003-01-01

    Suspended emulsion polymerization of vinyl chloride was carried out in a 5 L autoclave. The influence of agitation, polymerization conversion, dispersant and surfactant on the average particle size (PS) and particle size distribution (PSD), particle morphology and porosity of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) resin was investigated. It showed that the agitator had great influence on the smooth operation of polymerization, PS and PSD. The PS increased and PSD became narrow as polymerization conversion became high. The porosity decreased with the increase of conversion. A convenient choice of additives, both dispersants and non-ionic surfactants, allows one to adjust PS and PSD. The PS decreased with the addition of polyvinyl alcohol or hydroxypropyl methylcellulose dispersants,and increased with the addition of Span surfactants. The addition of dispersants or surfactants also affected the morphology and porosity of resin, and PVC resin with looser agglomeration and homogeneous distribution of primary particles was prepared.

  15. Study of y-irradiated benzothiazole-doped polyvinyl chloride by positron annihilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misheva, M. [Faculty of Physics, Sofia Univ. (Bulgaria); Djourelov, N. [Inst. of Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Sofia (Bulgaria); Sertova, N.; Petkov, I.; Deligeorgiev, T. [Faculty of Chemistry, Sofia Univ. (Bulgaria)

    2001-07-01

    Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) films containing different (0 / 4) weight percentage of 2-aryl substituted benzothiazole (BT) are studied by positron lifetime and Doppler broadening of annihilation line measurements. The effects of gamma-irradiation dose and of BT contents on positron annihilation parameters are studied. The positron lifetimes and intensities depend on irradiation dose only for BT-doped films. The ortho-positronium intensities for pure and doped PVC decrease with dose increasing in a similar way. The influence of doping is significant only at first doping with 0.125 wt% BT and is weak afterwards. Some of the observed changes of the parameters are explained by the protonation of BT and its conversion into [BTH{sup +}.Cl{sup -}] complexes by the interaction with hydrogen chloride - a product of PVC photodegradation. (orig.)

  16. Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of Syn-Vinyl Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raston, Paul; Bunn, Hayley

    2016-06-01

    Vinyl alcohol has been extensively studied in both the microwave and mid-IR spectral regions, where 9 out of 15 vibrational modes have been identified. Here we present the first far-IR spectrum of vinyl alcohol, collected below 700 wn at the Australian Synchrotron. The high resolution (0.001 wn) spectrum reveals the νb{11} and νb{15} fundamentals of syn-vinyl alcohol at 489 wn and 407 wn, in addition to two hot bands of the νb{15} mode at 369 wn and 323 wn. High J transitions in the R-branch of the νb{15} band were found to be perturbed by an a-axis Coriolis interaction with the nearby νb{11} state. The νb{15} torsional mode of syn-vinyl alcohol was fit using a Watson's A-reduced Hamiltonian to yield rotational, centrifugal distortion, and Coriolis coupling parameters. S. Saito, Chem. Phys. Lett. 42, 3 (1976) M. Rodler et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 106, 4029 (1948) Y. Koga et al., J. Mol. Spec. 145, 315 (1991) D-L. Joo et al., J. Mol. Spec. 197, 68 (1999)

  17. A Kinetic Study of the Emulsion Polymerization of Vinyl Acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, N.; Nyhagen, L.

    1973-01-01

    The emulsion polymerization of vinyl acetate was studied at 50°C. It was found that the rate of polymerization was proportional to the 0.5 power of the initiator concentration and the 0.25 power of the number of particles. The number of particles was proportional to the power 0.5 ± 0.05 of the em...

  18. Aerobic Oxidation of Methyl Vinyl Ketone in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG,Xiao-Yue(欧阳小月); JIANG,Huan-Feng(江焕峰); CHENG,Jin-Sheng(程金生); ZHANG,Qun-Jian(张群健)

    2002-01-01

    Aerobic oxidation of methyl vinyl ketone to acetal in supercritical carbon dioxide are achieved in high conversion and high selectivity when oxygen pressure reaches 0.5MPa. The effects of cocatalysts,additive, pressure and temperature of the reaction are studied in detail.

  19. [On the problem of the study of the chemical air pollution with chlororganic hydrocarbons at productions of polyvinyl chloride and epichlorohydrin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taranenko, N A; Meshakova, N M; Zhurba, O M; Telezhkin, V V

    2014-01-01

    Hygienic assessment of working conditions at the chemical productions of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and epichlorohydrin (EPCH) in East Siberia has shown that the employees are exposed to the chlororganic hydrocarbons of hazard category 1-2, out of them there were found to be more toxical pollutants such as vinyl chloride, 1.2-dicloroethane in the production of polyvinyl chloride; allyl chloride and epichlorohydrin in the production of epichlorohydrin. Multistageness of the technological processes, the absence of the isolation of main stages of the technological processes as well as the heating microclimate contribute to the chemical pollution of the air environment. In spite of the significant improvement of the hygienic situation at the productions mentioned in the recent 10 years according to the chemical factor due to the introduction of the complex of curative measures, the working conditions of the employees still belonged to the harmful category. According to the content of the harmful chemical substances in the air of the working zone and the parameters of microclimate, the working conditions of the employees working at the production of epichlorohydrin and in the shop of vinyl chloride production must be qualified as the harmful ones of the first category of the hazard and danger (Class 3.1), in the production shop for PVC- as the harmful ones which correspond to the second category of the hazard and danger (Class 3.2).

  20. Laser Spectroscopy of Vinyl Alcohol Embedded in Helium Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, Hayley; Raston, Paul; Douberly, Gary E.

    2017-06-01

    Vinyl alcohol has two rotameric forms, known as syn- and anti-vinyl alcohol, where syn is the most stable. While both have been investigated by microwave and far-infrared spectroscopy, only the syn rotamer has been investigated by mid-infrared spectroscopy. This is due to the low anti rotamer population (15%) at room temperature, in addition to the closeness in proximity of the mid-infrared bands between the rotamers; this results in overlapping bands that are dominated by syn-vinyl alcohol absorptions. In this investigation we increase the anti-vinyl alcohol population to 40% by using a high temperature "pyrolysis" source, and eliminate the spectral overlap by recording the spectra at low temperature in helium nanodroplets. We observe a number of bands of both rotamers in the OH, CH, and CO stretching regions that display rotational substructure. A highlight of this work is the observation of a Fermi dyad in the OH stretching region of anti-vinyl alcohol. Anharmonic frequency calculations suggest that this is due to a near degeneracy of the OH stretching state (νb{1}) with a triple combination involving νb{7}, νb{8}, and νb{9}. M. Rodler, J. Mol. Spec. 114, 23 (1985);S. Saito, Chem. Phys. Lett. 42, 3 (1976) H. Bunn, R. Hudson, A. S. Gentleman, and P. L. Raston, ACS Earth Space Chem. DOI: 10.1021/acsearthspacechem.6b00008 (2017) D-L Joo, A. J. Merer, D. J. Clouthier, J. Mol. Spec. 197, 68 (1999)

  1. Fabrication of antibacterial blend film from poly (vinyl alcohol) and quaternized chitosan for packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Dongying; Wang, Lijuan, E-mail: donglinwlj@163.com

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • HTCC/PVA blend films were prepared through a simple mixing method. • The blend films had greater elongation at break and good optical transmittance. • The blend films had low oxygen permeability and water vapor permeability. • The films had good activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. - Abstract: Blend films from poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) containing N-(2-hydroxy) propyl-3-trimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan (HTCC) were prepared via a simple mixing and casting method. The films were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction measurements (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and ultraviolet-visible measurements (UV–vis). The effects of HTCC amount on mechanical properties, oxygen permeability, water vapor permeation, and antibacterial properties against Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) of the films were investigated. FTIR and XRD analysis show that HTCC and PVA in the blend films interacted by hydrogen bonding. SEM and UV–vis analysis reveal the good compatibility between HTCC and PVA. Compared with pure PVA film, the blend films had greater elongation at break, lower water permeability, and higher antibacterial activity. The HTCC addition decreased the tensile strength and the light transmittance. The results suggest that HTCC/PVA blend films have a potential as packaging materials.

  2. Studies on the Self-condensing Vinyl Living Radical Polymerization of a Novel Acrylate Inimer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A novel acrylate inimer, 2-(2-chloroacetyloxy) ethyl acrylate, was prepared by the reaction of 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate with chloroacetyl chloride in the presence of triethylamine. The self-condensing vinyl living radical polymerization of the inimer was studied and the hyperbranched macromolecules containing ester linkages on their backbone were prepared. All the polymerization products were characterized by 1H NMR. The polymerization degree and the branching parameter were calculated based on the 1H NMR spectra. It has been shown that this inimer exhibits a very distinctive polymerization behavior. Similar to step-growth polymerization, the polymerization degree of the products formed increased exponentially during the early stage of the polymerization, and then the increasing rate slowed down. However, the inimer remained present throughout the polymerization consistent with conventional free radical polymerization. Also, if much longer polymerization time was used, the polymerization system would become gel due to the crosslinking reaction derived from radical-radical recombination. As a result of the unequal reactivity of -CH2Cl and >CHCl, an almost linear product was obtained at a molar ratio of bipy to inimer=0.05, while a relatively high ratio of bipy to inimer 1 favored the formation of the branched structure. The macromolecules formed at a high ratio of bipy to inimer 1 exhibited an excellent solubility in organic solvents such as acetone.

  3. Volatile organic compounds of polyethylene vinyl acetate plastic are toxic to living organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Tingzhu Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic products readily evaporate; as a result, hazardous gases enter the ecosystem, and cause cancer in humans and other animals. Polyethylene vinyl acetate (PEVA) plastic has recently become a popular alternative to PVC since it is chlorine-free. In order to determine whether PEVA is harmful to humans, this research employed the freshwater oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus as a model to compare their oxygen intakes while they were exposed to the original stock solutions of PEVA, PVC or distilled water at a different length of time for one day, four days or eight days. During the exposure periods, the oxygen intakes in both PEVA and PVC groups were much higher than in the distilled water group, indicating that VOCs in both PEVA and PVC were toxins that stressed L. variegatus. Furthermore, none of the worms fully recovered during the24-hr recovery period. Additionally, the L. variegatus did not clump together tightly after four or eight days' exposure to either of the two types of plastic solutions, which meant that both PEVA and PVC negatively affected the social behaviors of these blackworms. The LD50 tests also supported the observations above. For the first time, our results have shown that PEVA plastic has adverse effects on living organisms, and therefore it is not a safe alternative to PVC. Further studies should identify specific compounds causing the adverse effects, and determine whether toxic effect occurs in more complex organisms, especially humans.

  4. Study on All-Solid-State Chloride Sensor Based on Tin Oxide/Indium Tin Oxide Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jui-Fu; Chou, Jung-Chuan; Sun, Tai-Ping; Hsiung, Shen-Kan; Kao, Hui-Ling

    2011-03-01

    An all-solid-state chloride electrode based on a tin oxide (SnO2)/indium tin oxide (ITO) glass was developed in this study. The sensing membrane of the electrode was prepared by mixing poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), bis(2-ethylhexyl) sebacate (DOS), [4,5-dimethy-l-3,6-bis(dodecyloxy)-1,2-phenylene] bis(mercury chloride) (ETH9033), and tridodecylmethyl ammonium chloride (TDDMACl). The mixed solution was mixed with tetrahydrofuran (THF), and then dropped on the sensing window of SnO2/ITO glass. According to the experimental results, the optimal weight ratio were PVC:DOS:ETH9033:TDDMACl=33:66:2:5. At this optimum weight ratio, the sensitivity was 54 mV/dec while the range of linear concentrations of NaCl solutions was between 10-4 and 1 M. The lower detection limit of the sensor reached 8×10-5 M and the response time was less than 1 s. The selectivity coefficient was consistent with the theory of Hofmeister lipophilicity. The lifetime was over 60 days and the repeatability was over 50 times. Moreover, the chloride ion sensor was successfully applied to detecting chloride ions in rinsing solutions for contact lenses, and the experimental results revealed that the correlation coefficient was 0.99.

  5. Parameters Affecting Hydrogen Chloride Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    contain sea salt, which is hygroscopic because of the magnesium chloride present, or ammonium bisulfate , which mostly comes from sulfur pollution and is...boosters release hydrogen chloride as a combustion product, and hydrazines or nitric acid can be spilled from liquid fuel motors. Monitoring the...solubility constant, and the second is the acid ionization constant. From experimental work, the product of the two constants is well established (Reference

  6. Chloride channels in stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-ping ZHANG; Hao ZHANG; Dayue Darrel DUAN

    2013-01-01

    Vascular remodeling of cerebral arterioles,including proliferation,migration,and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs),is the major cause of changes in the cross-sectional area and diameter of the arteries and sudden interruption of blood flow or hemorrhage in the brain,ie,stroke.Accumulating evidence strongly supports an important role for chloride (Clˉ) channels in vascular remodeling and stroke.At least three Clˉ channel genes are expressed in VSMCs:1) the TMEM16A (or Ano1),which may encode the calcium-activated Clˉ channels (CACCs); 2) the CLC-3 Clˉ channel and Clˉ/H+ antiporter,which is closely related to the volume-regulated Clˉ channels (VRCCs); and 3) the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR),which encodes the PKA-and PKC-activated Clˉ channels.Activation of the CACCs by agonist-induced increase in intracellular Ca2+ causes membrane depolarization,vasoconstriction,and inhibition of VSMC proliferation.Activation of VRCCs by cell volume increase or membrane stretch promotes the production of reactive oxygen species,induces proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of VSMCs.Activation of CFTR inhibits oxidative stress and may prevent the development of hypertension.In addition,Clˉ current mediated by gammaaminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor has also been implicated a role in ischemic neuron death.This review focuses on the functional roles of Clˉ channels in the development of stroke and provides a perspective on the future directions for research and the potential to develop Clˉ channels as new targets for the prevention and treatment of stroke.

  7. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution....

  8. Biodegradable polymers by reactive blending trans-esterification of thermoplastic starch with poly (vinyl acetate) and poly (vinyl acetate-co-butyl acrylate)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vargha, V

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Wheat starch was reacted with poly (vinyl acetate) and with poly (vinyl acetate-co-butyl acrylate) in an internal mixer at 150 _C in the absence of catalyst, and in the presence of sodium carbonate, zinc-acetate and titanium (IV) but oxide...

  9. Isoquinoline-mediated S-vinylation and N-vinylation of benzo[d]oxazole-2-thiol and benzo[d]thiazole-2-thiol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Issa Yavari; Samira Nasiri-Gheidari; Anvar Mirzaei

    2012-01-01

    An effective route to S-vinylated andN-vinylated benzo[d]oxazole-2(3H)-thiones and benzo[d]thiazole-2(3H)-thionesis described via reaction ofacetylenic esters and benzo[d] oxazole-2-thiol and benzo [d]thiazole-2-thiol in the presence of 15 mol% of isoquinoline.

  10. CHLORIDE WASHER PERFORMACE TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, J; David Best, D; Robert Pierce, R

    2007-11-30

    Testing was performed to determine the chloride (Cl-) removal capabilities of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) designed and built Cl- washing equipment intended for HB-Line installation. The equipment to be deployed was tested using a cerium oxide (CeO2) based simulant in place of the 3013 plutonium oxide (PuO2) material. Two different simulant mixtures were included in this testing -- one having higher Cl- content than the other. The higher Cl- simulant was based on K-Area Interim Surveillance Inspection Program (KIS) material with Cl- content approximately equal to 70,000 ppm. The lower Cl- level simulant was comparable to KIS material containing approximately 8,000-ppm Cl- content. The performance testing results indicate that the washer is capable of reducing the Cl- content of both surrogates to below 200 ppm with three 1/2-liter washes of 0.1M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. Larger wash volumes were used with similar results - all of the prescribed test parameters consistently reduced the Cl- content of the surrogate to a value below 200 ppm Cl- in the final washed surrogate material. The washer uses a 20-micron filter to retain the surrogate solids. Tests showed that 0.16-0.41% of the insoluble fraction of the starting mass passed through the 20-micron filter. The solids retention performance indicates that the fissile masses passing through the 20-micron filter should not exceed the waste acceptance criteria for discard in grout to TRU waste. It is recommended that additional testing be pursued for further verification and optimization purposes. It is likely that wash volumes smaller than those tested could still reduce the Cl- values to acceptable levels. Along with reduced wash volumes, reuse of the third wash volume (in the next run processed) should be tested as a wash solution minimization plan. A 67% reduction in the number of grouted paint pails could be realized if wash solution minimization testing returned acceptable results.

  11. Methyltriphenylphosphonium Methylcarbonate, an All-In-One Wittig Vinylation Reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattelan, Lisa; Noè, Marco; Selva, Maurizio; Demitri, Nicola; Perosa, Alvise

    2015-12-07

    The methyltriphenylphosphonium methylcarbonate salt [Ph3 PCH3 ][CH3 OCO2 ], obtained directly by quaternarization of triphenylphosphine with dimethylcarbonate, is a latent ylide that promotes Wittig vinylation of aldehydes and ketones. Alkenes are obtained simply by mixing [Ph3 PCH3 ][CH3 OCO2 ] and the carbonyl and heating in a solvent (no base, no halides, and no inorganic byproducts). Deuterium exchange experiments and the particularly short anion-cation distance measured by XRD in [Ph3 PCH3 ][CH3 OCO2 ] allowed to explain the nature and reactivity of this species. Green chemistry metrics (atom economy, mass index, environmental factor) indicate that this vinylation procedure is more efficient than comparable ones. Deuterated [Ph3 PCD3 ][CH3 OCO2 ] promoted the synthesis of deuterated olefins. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Weak acidity of vinyl CH bonds enhanced by halogen substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Norman C; Matlin, Albert R

    2014-02-21

    As shown by the rates of proton-deuteron exchange in ethylenes with halogen substituents, the weak acidity of vinyl CH bonds is enhanced by halogen substitution. Relative rates of exchange in basic deuterium oxide reflect the relative acidities. Substitution in the α position has the strongest effect. Less electronegative halogens such as bromine increase the acidity more than does fluorine. The vinyl CH acid strengths correlate closely with the energies of deprotonation of isolated molecules into isolated anions, as computed with the MP2/cc-pVQZ model. The smaller deprotonation energies are associated with the stronger acids. Atomic charges from a natural bond order analysis done with the MP2/aug-cc-pVQZ model show that the negative charge becomes more dispersed in the anions of the stronger acids. Results are given for 13 haloethylenes and for 6 halogen-substituted butadienes, cyclopropenes, and a cyclobutene.

  13. Poly[aqua(μ-vinyl-phospho-nato)cadmium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congiardo, Laura K Byington; Mague, Joel T; Funk, Aaron R; Yngard, Ria; Knight, D Andrew

    2011-04-01

    The title compound, [Cd(C(2)H(3)O(3)P)(H(2)O)](n), was obtained from vinyl-phospho-nic acid and cadmium nitrate. The vinyl groups project into the inter-lamellar space and the structure is held together via van der Waals forces. The Cd(2+) ion is six-coordinate and the geometry is best described as distorted octa-hedral, with O-Cd-O angles falling within the range 61.72 (13)-101.82 (14)°. Five of the coordinated oxygen atoms originate from the phospho-nate group and the sixth from a bound water molecule. Cd-O distances lie between 2.220 (3) and 2.394 (2) Å. The water mol-ecule is hydrogen bonded to a phospho-nate oxygen atom.

  14. Oil recovery with vinyl sulfonic acid-acrylamide copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, C.J.; Falk, D.O.

    1973-12-18

    An aqueous polymer flood containing sulfomethylated alkali metal vinyl sulfonate-acrylamide copolymers was proposed for use in secondary or tertiary enhanced oil recovery. The sulfonate groups on the copolymers sustain the viscosity of the flood in the presence of brine and lime. Injection of the copolymer solution into a waterflooded Berea core, produced 30.5 percent of the residual oil. It is preferred that the copolymers are partially hydrolyzed.

  15. Study on the preirradiation polymerization of vinyl monomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu-Ming, Liu; Yue-Qi, Yang; Zue-Teh, Ma

    This paper presents mainly the polymerization, copolymerization and crosslinking of monomers off-source induced by peroxides which are formed by high energy irradiation of vinyl monomers such as styrene (St), acrylonitrile (AN), methylmethacrylate (MMA), vinyl acetate (VAc) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). The peroxides produced by irradiation of the above-mentioned monomers can not only induce the monomers themselves, but also another non-irradiated monomer to carry out copolymerization efficiently. The activation energy of peroxide formation, the apparent activation energy of polymerization and the activation energy of peroxide initiation by irradiation of vinyl monomers are: Ef(MMA) = 11, Ef(St) = 9.6, Ef(AN) = 8.5, EMMA = EVA = 11.4, Ei(MMA) = Ei(VA) = 13 kcal/mol. The rate of decomposition of monomer peroxides is smoother than that of BPO during the polymerization and so a smooth kinetic progress is obtained. The initiating ability of forming peroxides by irradiation of the vinyl monomers depends mainly on the chemical structure of the monomers. For instance, the main structure of peroxides formed during preirradiation MMA are: alternating peroxy-copolymer ? and random peroxy-copolymer ? Owing to the peroxy-bond which is unstable and in which homolytic breakage easily occurs to yield a pair of radicals, RO . is formed within the above-mentioned structural compounds, so that they possess stronger initiating reactivity. It is quite evident that the initiating reactivity of AN peroxide will be greatly reduced because of the conjugate double bond. In other words, the initiating ability of AN peroxide is lower than MMA peroxide and St peroxide.

  16. Development of high performance vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this study was to develop high performance catalysts for the synthesis of vinyl acetate monomer (VAM). By systematic variation of different preparation parameters a multitude of shell catalysts consisting of PdAu nanoparticles supported on a bentonite carrier was explored. In order to investigate the influence of these alterations on catalytic performance, a catalyst classification was accomplished in a high-throughput Temkin test unit by comparison with a highly efficient commer...

  17. Composite Gels Based on Poly (Vinyl alcohol) for Biomedical Uses

    OpenAIRE

    Hoppe, Cristina Elena; Alvarez, Vera Alejandra; Maiolo, Sebastián; Gonzalez, Jimena Soledad

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogels are being studied for several biomedical applications such as joint replacement, wound dressings and controlled drug-releasing devices, among others. Reinforced PVA hydrogels show good mechanical properties and are a suitable option to replace cartilages. Furthermore, these materials can prevent loss of body fluids, be a barrier against bacteria and also permeable to oxygen, for these all interesting properties, they are used like wound dressing...

  18. Visible Light Sensitization of Vinyl Azides by Transition Metal Photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farney, Elliot P.; Yoon, Tehshik P.

    2014-01-01

    Irradiation of vinyl and aryl azides with visible light in the presence of Ru photocatalysts results in the formation of reactive nitrenes, which can undergo a variety of C–N bond-forming reactions. The ability to use low-energy visible light instead of UV in the photochemical activation of azides avoids competitive photodecomposition processes that have long been a significant limitation on the synthetic utility of these reactions. PMID:24281908

  19. Amphiphilic vinyl polymers effectively prolong liposome circulation time in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torchilin, V P; Shtilman, M I; Trubetskoy, V S; Whiteman, K; Milstein, A M

    1994-10-12

    Newly synthesized amphiphilic polyacrylamide and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone), single terminus-modified with long-chain fatty acyl groups, are able to incorporate into the liposomal membrane, and similar to poly(ethylene glycol) prolong liposome circulation in vivo and decrease liposome accumulation in the liver. Protective efficacy of modified polymers increases with the increase in the length of acyl moiety and decreases for higher molecular weight polymers. The data on amphiphilic polymer-modified liposome biodistribution are presented.

  20. Efficient use of Ethylene Oxide in Vinyl Sulphone Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavi M. Pandya, Prof. Bharat H. Shah

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Vinyl sulphone production includes mainly 4 unit processes which are Chlorosulphonation, Reduction, Condensation, and Esterification. Vinyl sulphone is the highest export dye intermediate. Vinyl sulphone industry in India received a set back in the late nineties due to world competition and insistence on environmental regulations by the controlling authorities. Excess of ethylene oxide is used in condensation, Which is hazardous and it is used in excess as large quantity of Ethylene oxide is reacted with water as a side reaction forming glycols, and also ethylene oxide is soluble in water. So ethylene oxide is wasted in water and increases the volume of reactor. This paper describes to minimize the quantity of water which is causing excess use of ethylene oxide in condensation reaction. Before condensation reaction there are two unit processes Chlorosulphonation and reduction from which we try to limit the quantity of water, so that water coming to condensation reaction is minimized to reduce the side reaction of ethylene oxide and water.

  1. Scientists Toast the Discovery of Vinyl Alcohol in Interstellar Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's 12 Meter Telescope at Kitt Peak, AZ, have discovered the complex organic molecule vinyl alcohol in an interstellar cloud of dust and gas near the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. The discovery of this long-sought compound could reveal tantalizing clues to the mysterious origin of complex organic molecules in space. Vinyl Alcohol and its fellow isomers "The discovery of vinyl alcohol is significant," said Barry Turner, a scientist at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Charlottesville, Va., "because it gives us an important tool for understanding the formation of complex organic compounds in interstellar space. It may also help us better understand how life might arise elsewhere in the Cosmos." Vinyl alcohol is an important intermediary in many organic chemistry reactions on Earth, and the last of the three stable members of the C2H4O group of isomers (molecules with the same atoms, but in different arrangements) to be discovered in interstellar space. Turner and his colleague A. J. Apponi of the University of Arizona's Steward Observatory in Tucson detected the vinyl alcohol in Sagittarius B -- a massive molecular cloud located some 26,000 light-years from Earth near the center of our Galaxy. The astronomers were able to detect the specific radio signature of vinyl alcohol during the observational period of May and June of 2001. Their results have been accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journal Letters. Of the approximately 125 molecules detected in interstellar space, scientists believe that most are formed by gas-phase chemistry, in which smaller molecules (and occasionally atoms) manage to "lock horns" when they collide in space. This process, though efficient at creating simple molecules, cannot explain how vinyl alcohol and other complex chemicals are formed in detectable amounts. For many years now, scientists have been searching for the right mechanism to explain how the building

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Rotational spectrum of vinyl formate (CH2=CHOCHO) (Alonso+,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, E. R.; Kolesnikova, L.; Tercero, B.; Cabezas, C.; Alonso, J. L.; Cernicharo, J.; Guillemin, J.-C.

    2017-02-01

    Previous detections of methyl and ethyl formate make other small substituted formates potential candidates for observation in the interstellar medium. Among them, vinyl formate is one of the simplest unsaturated carboxylic ester. The aim of this work is to provide direct experimental frequencies of the ground vibrational state of vinyl formate in a large spectral range for astrophysical use. The room-temperature rotational spectrum of vinyl formate has been measured from 80 to 360GHz and analyzed in terms of Watson's semirigid rotor Hamiltonian. Two thousand six hundred transitions within J=3-88 and Ka=0-28 were assigned to the most stable conformer of vinyl formate and a new set of spectroscopic constants was accurately determined. Spectral features of vinyl formate were then searched for in Orion KL, Sgr B2(N), B1-b, and TMC-1 molecular clouds. Upper limits to the column density of vinyl formate are provided. (1 data file).

  3. Exposures to polyvinyl chloride, methyl ketone and other chemicals. The pulmonary and non-pulmonary effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleru, U G; Onyekwere, C

    1992-01-01

    As part of the continuing assessment of the health impact of exposures in the emerging industries of Nigeria, a study was conducted to determine the relative impact of exposures encountered in four operations of a shoe factory. The health impact assessment consisted of spirometric lung function evaluations and environmental measurement for polyvinyl chloride (1.6 +/- 5 ppm). The study showed that there were differences among exposure subgroups with respect to pulmonary, neurological and dermal toxicities and that these differences were dictated by the types of exposure encountered. Pulmonary toxicity was most severe in the vinyl chloride-exposed subgroup. Neurological impact was most severe in the leather and methylethyl ketone-exposed subgroup and dermal toxicity most severe in the subgroup exposed to plasticizers and stabilizers. There existed substantial deficits in lung function (forced expiratory volume, forced vital capacity FEV1, FVC) among the subgroups relative to normal, non-industrially exposed Nigerians of similar age and height. The deficits in lung function, particularly in FVC, paralleled the variations in the prevalence of restrictive lung disease, which for the whole study group was 56.5 cases per 1000 person-years. The vinyl chloride-exposed subgroup had the highest prevalence of restrictive lung disease, 92.6 cases per 100 person-years. Step-wise multiple regression suggested that 27% of the deficit in FEV1 was explainable by the number of exposures. The use of person-years as a denominator gives a better estimate of risk than the total number of subjects as it incorporates both the number exposed and the total exposure experience.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Modifying theophylline microparticle surfaces via the sequential deposition of poly(vinyl alcohol-co-vinyl acetate) copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanjun; Alas'ad, Mannar A; Jones, Stuart A

    2014-03-10

    The aim of this study was to investigate the manner in which amphiphilic poly(vinyl alcohol-co-vinyl acetate) copolymers (PVA-Ac) assembled on drug surfaces and use this information to generate a novel bi-layer polymer coating for a theophylline microparticle. Three grades of PVA-Ac, differing in hydrolysis degree and monomer distribution, were synthesised, characterised by nuclear magnetic resonance and shown to interact with theophylline when suspended in water. PVA-Ac deposition at the solid/liquid interface was driven by polymer hydrogen bond formation in a process that induced consequential structural changes in the macromolecule architecture. The most hydrophobic grades of the copolymer appeared to adsorb in a multistage process that passed through a series of equilibrium points. The PVA-Ac surface allowed two grades of the copolymer to be sequentially adsorbed and this resulted in the fabrication of a microparticle with desirable characteristics for pharmaceutical formulation production.

  5. High Performance Fatty Acid-Based Vinyl Ester Resin for Liquid Molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    novolac epoxy, and Epon 828, a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A ( DGEBA ), were purchased from Hexion Specialty Chemicals and was used to synthesize vinyl... DGEBA vinyl ester resins with n~0.1 and containing no styrene, CN 151 and RDX 26936, were obtained from Sartomer and Cytec Surface Specialties Inc...Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A ( DGEBA ) Methacrylic Acid Figure 1: The reaction of DGEBA and methacrylic acid to produce the vinyl ester 2.3

  6. P-chiral phosphine-sulfonate/palladium-catalyzed asymmetric copolymerization of vinyl acetate with carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Akifumi; Kageyama, Takeharu; Goto, Hiroki; Carrow, Brad P; Ito, Shingo; Nozaki, Kyoko

    2012-08-01

    Utilization of palladium catalysts bearing a P-chiral phosphine-sulfonate ligand enabled asymmetric copolymerization of vinyl acetate with carbon monoxide. The obtained γ-polyketones have head-to-tail and isotactic polymer structures. The origin of the regio- and stereoregularities was elucidated by stoichiometric reactions of acylpalladium complexes with vinyl acetate. The present report for the first time demonstrates successful asymmetric coordination-insertion (co)polymerization of vinyl acetate.

  7. Validation of human physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for vinyl acetate against human nasal dosimetry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinderliter, P M; Thrall, K D; Corley, R A; Bloemen, L J; Bogdanffy, M S

    2005-05-01

    Vinyl acetate has been shown to induce nasal lesions in rodents in inhalation bioassays. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for vinyl acetate has been used in human risk assessment, but previous in vivo validation was conducted only in rats. Controlled human exposures to vinyl acetate were conducted to provide validation data for the application of the model in humans. Five volunteers were exposed to 1, 5, and 10 ppm 13C1,13C2 vinyl acetate via inhalation. A probe inserted into the nasopharyngeal region sampled both 13C1,13C2 vinyl acetate and the major metabolite 13C1,13C2 acetaldehyde during rest and light exercise. Nasopharyngeal air concentrations were analyzed in real time by ion trap mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Experimental concentrations of both vinyl acetate and acetaldehyde were then compared to predicted concentrations calculated from the previously published human model. Model predictions of vinyl acetate nasal extraction compared favorably with measured values of vinyl acetate, as did predictions of nasopharyngeal acetaldehyde when compared to measured acetaldehyde. The results showed that the current PBPK model structure and parameterization are appropriate for vinyl acetate. These analyses were conducted from 1 to 10 ppm vinyl acetate, a range relevant to workplace exposure standards but which would not be expected to saturate vinyl acetate metabolism. Risk assessment based on this model further concluded that 24 h per day exposures up to 1 ppm do not present concern regarding cancer or non-cancer toxicity. Validation of the vinyl acetate human PBPK model provides support for these conclusions.

  8. Convenient procedures for the α-metallation of vinylic ethers and thioethers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkruijsse, H.D.; Brandsma, L.; Schleyer, P. von R.

    1987-01-01

    Ethyl vinyl ether H2C=CHOC2H5 and the analogous cyclic vinylic ethers dehydrofuran and 2,3-dihydropyran can be potassiated at −20°C in the α-position with a 1/1/1 molar mixture of BuLi, t-BuOK and TMEDA in hexane. Methyl vinyl sulfide is potassiated very smoothly by a 1/1 molar mixture of BuLi and t

  9. Electrochemical Chloride extraction using external electrodes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2006-01-01

    Electrochemical methods for the removal of chloride from concrete have been developed and the methods are primarily designed for situations where corrosion has started due to an increased chloride concentration in the vicinity of the reinforcement. In these methods the reinforcement is used...... as the cathode. However, some unwanted side effects can occur, including alkali-silica reaction and in some cases hydrogen embrittlement. It is also suggested also to use electrochemical chloride extraction in a preventive way in constructions where chloride induced corrosion is likely to be a problem after...... a period of time, i.e. remove the chlorides before the chloride front reaches the reinforcement. If the chlorides are removed from outer few centimetres from the surface, the chloride will not reach the reinforcement and cause damage. By using the electrochemical chloride removal in this preventive way...

  10. In vitro conversion of vinyl to formyl groups in naturally occurring chlorophylls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughlin, Patrick C; Willows, Robert D; Chen, Min

    2014-08-14

    The chemical structural differences distinguishing chlorophylls in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms are either formyl substitution (chlorophyll b, d, and f) or the degree of unsaturation (8-vinyl chlorophyll a and b) of a side chain of the macrocycle compared with chlorophyll a. We conducted an investigation of the conversion of vinyl to formyl groups among naturally occurring chlorophylls. We demonstrated the in vitro oxidative cleavage of vinyl side groups to yield formyl groups through the aid of a thiol-containing compound in aqueous reaction mixture at room temperature. Heme is required as a catalyst in aqueous solution but is not required in methanolic reaction mixture. The conversion of vinyl- to formyl- groups is independent of their position on the macrocycle, as we observed oxidative cleavages of both 3-vinyl and 8-vinyl side chains to yield formyl groups. Three new chlorophyll derivatives were synthesised using 8-vinyl chlorophyll a as substrate: 8-vinyl chlorophyll d, [8-formyl]-chlorophyll a, and [3,8-diformyl]-chlorophyll a. The structural and spectral properties will provide a signature that may aid in identification of the novel chlorophyll derivatives in natural systems. The ease of conversion of vinyl- to formyl- in chlorophylls demonstrated here has implications regarding the biosynthetic mechanism of chlorophyll d in vivo.

  11. Lubiprostone: a chloride channel activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Brian E; Levy, L Campbell

    2007-04-01

    In January 2006 the Food and Drug Administration approved lubiprostone for the treatment of chronic constipation in men and women aged 18 and over. Lubiprostone is categorized as a prostone, a bicyclic fatty acid metabolite of prostaglandin E1. Lubiprostone activates a specific chloride channel (ClC-2) in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract to enhance intestinal fluid secretion, which increases GI transit and improves symptoms of constipation. This article reviews the role of chloride channels in the GI tract, describes the structure, function, and pharmacokinetics of lubiprostone, and discusses clinically important data on this new medication.

  12. Chloride : The queen of electrolytes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berend, Kenrick; van Hulsteijn, Leonard Hendrik; Gans, Rijk O. B.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Channelopathies, defined as diseases that are caused by mutations in genes encoding ion channels, are associated with a wide variety of symptoms and have been documented extensively over the past decade. In contrast, despite the important role of chloride in serum, textbooks in general d

  13. 1,5-Diaminotetrazolium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Qiao Meng

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, CH5N6+·Cl−, crystallized with two indepedent 1,5-diaminotetrazolium cations and two independent chloride anions in the asymmetric unit. In the crystal, there are a number of N—H...Cl hydrogen-bonding interactions, which generate a three-dimensional network.

  14. 21 CFR 173.375 - Cetylpyridinium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.375 Cetylpyridinium chloride. Cetylpyridinium chloride (CAS Reg. No... Nutrition's Library, Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy., College Park, MD 20740, or...

  15. Commercial Application of the CTV-IV Type Catalyst for Synthesis of Vinyl Acetate Developed by Shanghai Petrochemical Research Instit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The CTV-IV type catalyst for synthesis of vinyl acetate developed by the SINOPEC Shanghai Petrochemical Research Institute (SPRI) has been successfully applied on the #2 vinyl acetate unit at SINOPEC's Shanghai Petrochemical Company.

  16. Progress of Carbonation in Chloride Contaminated Concretes

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yaocheng; Basheer, P. A.M.; Nanukuttan, S; Bai, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Concretes used in marine environment are generally under the cyclic effect of CO2 and chloride ions (Cl-). To date, the influence of carbonation on ingress of chloride ions in concretes has been widely studied; in comparison, study on the influence of Cl- on the progress of carbonation is limited. During the study, concretes were exposed to independent and combined mechanisms of carbonation and chloride ingress regimes. Profiles of apparent pH and chloride concentration were used to indicate ...

  17. Synthesis of novel well-defined poly(vinyl acetate)-b-poly(acrylonitrile) and derivatized water-soluble poly(vinyl alcohol)-b-poly(acrylic acid) block copolymers by cobalt-mediated radical polymerization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debuigne, A.; Warnant, J.; Jerome, R.; Voets, I.K.; Keizer, de A.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Detrembleur, C.

    2008-01-01

    Poly(vinyl acetate)¿Co(acac)2 macroinitiators, prepared by cobalt-mediated radical polymerization of vinyl acetate (VAc), were used to synthesize well-defined poly(vinyl acetate)-b-poly(acrylonitrile) (PVAc-b-PAN) block copolymers. Different solvents and temperatures were tested for the polymerizati

  18. Cystic Fibrosis (CF): Chloride Sweat Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Chloride Sweat Test KidsHealth > For Parents > Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Chloride Sweat Test Print A A A ... It Is A chloride sweat test helps diagnose cystic fibrosis (CF) , an inherited disorder that makes kids sick ...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... mineral bischofite. It is prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in aqueous... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O,...

  20. 75 FR 33824 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China Determination On the basis of the record\\1\\ developed in the subject... order on barium chloride from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... Barium Chloride from China: Investigation No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review). By order of the...

  1. 75 FR 19657 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of... chloride from China. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it will proceed with a full review... revocation of the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China would be likely to lead...

  2. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely used for color... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Stannous chloride. 172.180 Section 172.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  3. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  4. Acetalization of Poly(vinyl alcohol) /Soybean Protein Fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Dong-yan; FU Chang-fei; GU Li-xia

    2008-01-01

    Acetalizatioin on the blend fibers of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and soybean protein (SP) was studied by using dialdehydes as cross-linking agents. The optimal acetalization conditions were determined by Latin square experiment, where the modified fibers with good mechanical properties can be achieved by treating in 41 g/L dialdehyde solution at 67 ℃ for 9 min. The cross-linking reactions of PVA and SP with dialdehydes were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Tensile test and boiling water shrinkage measurements showed that the physical properties of PVA/SP fibers crosslinked by dialdehydes were improved comparing with those formalized fibers.

  5. Nanophotothermolysis of Poly-(vinyl Alcohol Capped Silver Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathy SurajKumar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractLaser-induced thermal fusion and fragmentation of poly-(vinyl alcohol (PVA-capped silver nanoparticles in aqueous medium have been reported. PVA-capped silver nanoparticles with an average size of 15 nm were prepared by chemical reduction technique. The laser-induced photo-fragmentation of these particles has been monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The morphological changes induced by thermal and photochemical effects were found to influence the optical properties of these nanoparticles.

  6. Tensile Properties of Poly (N-vinyl caprolactam) Gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgret, Leslie D.; Hinkley, Jeffrey A.

    2004-01-01

    N-vinyl caprolactam was copolymerized with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate using a free-radical initiator in alcohol/water solution. The resulting gels were thermally-responsive in water, undergoing an approximate fivefold reversible volume shrinkage between room temperature and ca. 50 C. Tensile testing showed that the stress-strain behavior was qualitatively different in the collapsed state above the temperature-induced transition. At the higher temperature, gels were stiffer, more ductile, and showed greater time dependence. Implications for the design of gel actuators are briefly discussed.

  7. Methyl vinyl glycolate as a diverse platform molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sølvhøj, Amanda Birgitte; Taarning, Esben; Madsen, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Methyl vinyl glycolate (methyl 2-hydroxybut-3-enoate, MVG) is available by zeolite catalyzed degradation of mono- and disaccharides and has the potential to become a renewable platform molecule for commercially relevant catalytic transformations. This is further illustrated here by the development...... and various long-chain terminal olefins give unsaturated α-hydroxy fatty acid methyl esters in good yields. [3,3]-Sigmatropic rearrangements of MVG also proceed in good yields to give unsaturated adipic acid derivatives. Finally, rearrangement of the allylic acetate of MVG proceeds in acceptable yield...

  8. Vibrational Spectroscopic and Thermodynamic Investigation of Poly (vinyl butyral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiful Islam Ansari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A detailed study was performed to investigate the normal modes of vibration and their dispersions in poly (vinyl butyral by using Urey-Bradley force field and Wilson’s GF matrix method as modified by Higgs. It provides detailed interpretation of FTIR. Characteristic feature of dispersion curves such as regions of high density–of–states, repulsion and character mixing of dispersion modes are discussed. Predictive values of heat capacity as a function of temperature between 0-350 K have been evaluated.

  9. Kinetic theory of self-condensing vinyl polymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This review introduces the kinetic theory of self-condensing vinyl polymerization (SCVP),including the SCVP of AB inimers,the SCVP with non-equal reactivity between A and B groups,the SCVP in the presence of a small amount of multifunctional initiators,also the SCVP of both inimers and comonomers.The analytical expressions of various molecular parameters for the resulting hyperbranched polymers,such as the molecular size distribution function,the average molecular weight,the polydispersity index and the degree of branching,are reviewed systematically.

  10. Polystyrene-supported Selenomethyl-sulfonates:Efficient Reagents for Stereocontrolled Synthesis of Substituted Vinyl Sulfones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Ming XU; Lu Ling WU; Xian HUANG

    2004-01-01

    Polystyrene-supported selenomethyl-sulfonates have been prepared. These novel reagents were treated with LDA to produce selenium stabilized carbanions, which reacted with alkyl halide and epoxides, followed by selenoxide syn-elimination, to give E-vinyl sulfones and γ-hydroxy-substituted-E-vinyl sulfones respectively.

  11. Nickel N-heterocyclic carbene complexes in the vinyl polymerization of norbornene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berding, J.; Lutz, M.; Spek, A.L.; Bouwman, E.

    2010-01-01

    Vinyl polymerized norbornene has some useful properties such as good mechanical strength, optical transparency and heat resistance. Several transition metal complexes have been described in the literature as active catalysts for the vinyl polymerization of norbornene. We now report the use of three

  12. 40 CFR 721.9965 - Fatty acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... esters. 721.9965 Section 721.9965 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9965 Fatty acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl esters. (a) Chemical... acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl esters (PMN P-97-482; CAS No. 184785-38-4) is subject to reporting under...

  13. 21 CFR 73.3127 - Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3127 Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products. (a) Identity. The color additives are formed by... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction...

  14. Value of embolization of brain arteriovenous malformations with ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xin-xin; SONG Lu; WU Na; LIU Zhen-guo

    2010-01-01

    @@ T° the Editor We are interested in a recent article "Embolization of brain arteriovenous malformations with ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer: technical aspects" written by GAO et al.1 Ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (Onyx) is a novel liquid embolic material used to cure brain arteriovenous malformations. They performed the embolization on 115 patients and they found that the complications of the treatment are scarce.

  15. Sorption of poly(vinyl alcohol) and its cationic derivative on silica oxide: effect of charge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liesiene, J.; Matulioniene, J.; Aniulyte, J.; Keizer, de A.

    2005-01-01

    Adsorption of poly(vinyl alcohol)-based cationic polyelectrolyte (DEAE-PVA) as well as unmodified poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) onto silica oxide surface was studied by means of reflectometry. The study was focused on the effect of charge of polymer segments on their adsorption on silica oxide. The resu

  16. Synthesis of Higher Fatty Acid Starch Esters using Vinyl Laurate and Stearate as Reactants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junistia, Laura; Sugih, Asaf K.; Manurung, Robert; Picchioni, Francesco; Janssen, Leon P. B. M.; Heeres, Hero J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the synthesis of long-chain fatty esters of corn starch (starch laurate and starch stearate) with a broad range in degree of substitution (DS = 0.24-2.96). The fatty esters were prepared by reacting the starch with vinyl laurate or vinyl stearate in the presence of basic catalys

  17. The Vinyl Acetate Content of Packaging Film: A Quantitative Infrared Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allpress, K. N.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Presents an experiment used in laboratory technician training courses to illustrate the quantitative use of infrared spectroscopy which is based on industrial and laboratory procedures for the determination of vinyl acetate levels in ethylene vinyl acetate packaging films. Includes three approaches to allow for varying path lengths (film…

  18. Vinyl acetate induces intracellular acidification in mouse oral buccal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, Tetsuji; Wagner, Mark; Melvin, James E; Bogdanffy, Matthew S

    2005-08-14

    Vinyl acetate exposure in drinking water has been associated with tumor formation in the upper gastrointestinal tract of rats and mice. One potential mechanism for inducing carcinogenesis involves acidification of the intracellular environment due to the metabolism of vinyl acetate to acetic acid. Prolonged intracellular acidification is thought to produce cytotoxic and/or mitogenic responses that are the sentinel pharmacodynamic steps toward cancer. To determine whether exposure to vinyl acetate affects the intracellular pH of intact oral cavity tissue, isolated mouse oral buccal epithelium was loaded with the pH-sensitive dye BCECF, and then exposed to vinyl acetate concentrations ranging from 10 to 1000 microM for up to 4 min. Extracellular vinyl acetate exposure induced a progressive intracellular acidification that was reversible upon removal of the vinyl acetate. The rate of the acidification was concentration-dependent and increased exponentially within the concentration range tested. The magnitude of the vinyl acetate-induced acidification was inhibited by pretreatment with the carboxylesterase inhibitor bis(p-nitrophenyl)phosphate. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that vinyl acetate contributes to the generation and progression of oral cavity tumors via a process of intracellular acidification. Such a process has been proposed to have practical dose-response thresholds below which the intracellular environment can be maintained within homeostatic bounds and the contribution of exposure to carcinogenic risk is negligible.

  19. Enhanced Oxidative Bioremediation of cis-Dichloroethene (cis-DCE) and Vinyl Chloride (VC) using Electron Shuttles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    incorporation of titanium into primary minerals such as magnetite which later weathered to hematite . Some of the grains showed evidence of weathering or...to be a weathering product of a primary mineral, both of which suggest that the phase is hematite . The phase is composed of 68.7% iron, 29.4% oxygen...0.1398 0.0014 100 Primary 100 µm iron oxide, possible hematite (Fe2O2.6) P i 1 0 il i (F Ti O )DTSB-3-10_7 34.29 29.65 26.62 0 90.55 37.87 32.74 29.39 0

  20. Optimization of pH and direct imaging conditions of complexed methylene blue sensitized poly(vinyl chloride) films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Ushamani; N G Leenadeenja; K Sreekumar; C Sudha Kartha; Rani Joseph

    2003-04-01

    Significant results of our experimental investigations on the dependence of pH on real time transmission characteristics on recording media fabricated by doping PVC with complexed methylene blue are presented. The optimum pH value for faster bleaching was found to be 4.5. In typical applications, the illumination from one side, normal to the surface of this material, initiates a chemical sequence that records the incident light pattern in the polymer. Thus direct imaging can be successfully done on this sample. The recorded letters were very legible with good contrast and no scattering centres. Diffraction efficiency measurements were also carried out on this material.

  1. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Poly (Vinyl Chloride) Modified by Silica Fume/Acrylic Core-Shell Impact Modifier Blends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jian; MA Baoguo; LI Xiangguo; JIAN Shouwei; TAN Hongbo

    2012-01-01

    This research explored replacing acrylic core-shell impact modifier (AIM) by silica fume to toughen PVC.100%,75%,50% and 25% of AIM (8 phr) were substituted by silica fume in PVC respectively,and then processed by dry blending and twin-screw extrusion.Severe silica fume agglomeration was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) in the PVC matrix when 8 phr pure silica fume was used and processed by screw speed of 20 rpm.Its tensile strength was thereby reduced by 38% comparing to unmodified PVC.The silica fume was successfully dispersed while the screw speed was slowed down to 10 rpm to give a stronger screw torque and a longer melt residential time in the extruder.The tensile strength was ‘recovered' to a level comparable to unmodified PVC.Impact test were performed on all formulations extruded at 10 rpm screw speed and synergetic toughening effect was found with 50% substitution and it had the impact strength that was comparable to 8 phr pure AIM toughened PVC.

  2. Lead-selective poly(vinyl chloride) electrodes based on some synthesized benzo-substituted macrocyclic diamides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Sayed Yahya; Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Sharghi, Hashem

    2009-12-15

    A series of recently synthesized benzo- and pyridine-substituted macrocyclic diamides were studied to characterize their abilities as lead ion carriers in PVC membrane electrodes. The electrode based on 3,15,21-triaza-4,5;13,14-dibenzo-6,9,12-trioxabicycloheneicosa-1,17,19-triene-2,16-dione exhibits a Nernstian response for Pb2+ ions over a wide concentration range (1.3 x 10(-2) to 3.6 x 10(-6) mol L(-1)) with a limit of detection of 2.0 x 10(-6) mol L(-1) (0.4 ppm). The response time of the sensor is approximately 16 s, and the membrane can be used for more than two months without observing any deviation. The electrode revealed comparatively good selectivities with respect to many cations including alkali earth, transition and heavy metal ions. The proposed sensor could be used in pH range of 3.7-6.5. It was used as an indicator electrode in potentiometric titration of chromate ions with a lead ion solution.

  3. Enhanced Oxidative Bioremediation of cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) and Vinyl Chloride (VC) using Electron Shuttles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Toxicity No clinical signs, gross lesions or histopathological changes were reported in dogs fed indigo carmine at up to 2 percent in the diet...Broadway Suite 900 Denver, CO 80290 Client Sam pie I D 581-5 581-15 581-20 582-7 582-15 582-20 5812-7 Laboratory Results Client Proj Name

  4. Investigation of fatigue and mechanical properties of the pipe grade poly(vinyl chloride using recycled scraps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J-M. Lee

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effect of using pre-consumer PVC scraps on static and long-term mechanical properties is studied. The degradation characteristics of mixing virgin PVC with crushed pre-consumer and PVC pipe scraps are analyzed using various tools including Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA, X-ray fluorescence (XRF and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. The variation of static mechanical properties as a function of adding pre-consumer PVC pipe scraps is investigated using the degradation analyses of recycled PVC scraps. In addition, fatigue tests are executed to evaluate the long-term durability of blending virgin PVC and recycled PVC scraps, and the fracture surface is investigated in detail to reveal the variation of the fracture mechanisms.

  5. 1-[(Diethylaminocarbonylmethyl]-2-[hydroxy(6-methoxyquinolin-4-ylmethyl]-5-vinyl-1-azoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane chloride monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Qing Chen

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C26H36N3O3+·Cl−·H2O, the molecular structure of the cation is stabilized by a number of C—H...O intramolecular interactions. In the crystal structure, O—H...Cl and C—H...Cl hydrogen bonds link the ions into a ribbon-like structure along the a axis.

  6. Characterization of Microbes Capable of Using Vinyl Chloride and Ethene as Sole Carbon and Energy Sources by Anaerobic Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Microbiol. 50, 639-644. Tchobanoglous, G., Burton, F.L., Stensel, H.D., Metcalf and Eddy, I., 2003. Wastewater Engineering: Treatment and Reuse , fourth...which then underwent partial oxidation. This pathway was subsequently published in a widely cited review article (Vogel et al., 1987). Two years later...LIST OF SCIENTIFIC/TECHNICAL PRESENTATIONS Articles in Peer-Reviewed Journals Fullerton, H., Crawford, M., Bakenne, A., Freedman, D. L. and Zinder

  7. ANTIFOULING PROPERTIES OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) MEMBRANES MODIFIED BY AMPHIPHILIC COPOLYMERS P(MMA-b-MAA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-dong Liu; Yong-hua Zhang; Li-feng Fang; Bao-ku Zhu; Li-ping Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Three well-defined diblock copolymers ofpoly(methyl methacrylate-b-methaerylic acid) (P(MMA-b-MAA)) were synthesized using atom transfer radical polymerization method and varying poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) chain lengths.These copolymers were blended with PVC to fabricate porous membranes via phase inversion process.Membrane morphologies were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM),and chemical composition changes of the membrane surfaces were measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).Static and dynamic protein adsorption experiments were used to evaluate antifouling properties of the blend membranes.It was found that,the blend membranes containing longer PMAA arm length showed lower static protein adsorption,higher water permeation flux and better protein solution flux recovery.

  8. INVESTIGATION ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INTRINSIC VISCOSITY AND MOLECULAR WEIGHT OF POLY (VINYL CHLORIDE-DIETHYL MALEATE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Changren; PAN Hongqing; LIN Shenghe; QIAN Jun; DUAN Qin

    1987-01-01

    A poly (vinylchloride-diethyl maleate) copolymer has been fractionated by repeated precipitation method. All fractions and the unfractionated sample have been characterized by viscometry, dynamic osmometry, Zimm static osmometry, light scattering and gel permeation chromatography. After correction for polydispersity, a [η] ~ M relationship for monodisperse polymer solutions has been obtained:[η] = 1.99 × 10-3M0.87 (ml/g, at 25℃, in cyclohexanone)For the copolymer solution in THF, the second virial coefficient A2 decreases as the molecular weight increases. The relationship is A2 = 2 slope (-M(n) RT)-1/2.

  9. Effects of copper amine treatments on mechanical, biological and surface/interphase properties of poly (vinyl chloride)/wood composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Haihong

    2005-11-01

    The copper ethanolamine (CuEA) complex was used as a wood surface modifier and a coupling agent for wood-PVC composites. Mechanical properties of composites, such as unnotched impact strength, flexural strength and flexural toughness, were significantly increased, and fungal decay weight loss was dramatically decreased by wood surface copper amine treatments. It is evident that copper amine was a very effective coupling agent and decay inhibitor for PVC/wood flour composites, especially in high wood flour loading level. A DSC study showed that the heat capacity differences (DeltaCp) of composites before and after PVC glass transition were reduced by adding wood particles. A DMA study revealed that the movements of PVC chain segments during glass transition were limited and obstructed by the presence of wood molecule chains. This restriction effect became stronger by increasing wood flour content and by using Cu-treated wood flour. Wood flour particles acted as "physical cross-linking points" inside the PVC matrix, resulting in the absence of the rubbery plateau of PVC and higher E', E'' above Tg, and smaller tan delta peaks. Enhanced mechanical performances were attributed to the improved wetting condition between PVC melts and wood surfaces, and the formation of a stronger interphase strengthened by chemical interactions between Cu-treated wood flour and the PVC matrix. Contact angles of PVC solution drops on Cu-treated wood surfaces were decreased dramatically compared to those on the untreated surfaces. Acid-base (polar), gammaAB, electron-acceptor (acid) (gamma +), electron-donor (base) (gamma-) surface energy components and the total surface energies increased after wood surface Cu-treatments, indicating a strong tendency toward acid-base or polar interactions. Improved interphase and interfacial adhesion were further confirmed by measuring interfacial shear strength between wood and the PVC matrix.

  10. UV enhanced gas-solid synthesis of chlorinated poly vinyl chloride characterized by a UV-Vis online analysis method☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qianli Yang; Wei Lu; Lin Bai; Binhang Yan; Yi Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic characteristics of UV enhanced gas–solid PVC chlorination process were revealed by a UV–Vis spectral online analysis method. Experimental results showed an instantaneous increase of the chlorination rate as soon as UV light was affiliated, which demonstrated the intensified effect of UV radiation on PVC chlorination directly. Different affiliation methods of UV light were then studied, proving that continuous UV radiation could enhance the chlorination process significantly while intermittent UV radiation was able to initiate the chlorination reac-tion once it was conducted. Besides, experiments were carried out to study the influences of parameters on the chlorination process such as UV wavelength, chlorination temperature, partial pressure of chlorine gas and PVC raw materials. Among all the parameters, chlorination temperature and partial pressure of chlorine gas were testified as two key factors to determine the chlorination performance. Thermal analysis of CPVC products showed that their corresponding properties such as the glass transition temperature (Tg) and the homogeneity of chlorine distribution in polymer phase were improved with the increase of chlorine content.

  11. Specific migration of IRGASTAB 17 MOK and DBP from rigid and plasticized poly(vinyl chloride into organic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amara A.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is the determination of the specific migration of an plasticizer and an organotin heat stabilizer (IRGASTAB 17 MOK from plasticized and rigid (PVC into organic liquids hexane and ethanol simulating fatty food. The migration test conditions were 10 days at 40°C and 2 hours at 70°C. FTIR and UV-Visible at 490 nm spectroscopy and gas chromatography were used to investigate the migration phenomena. The influence of various parameters such as temperature, time of contact and the nature of food simulant were considered. The results show that plasticizer accelerates the heat stabilizer migration. On the other hand that gas chromatography could be substituted by FTIR spectroscopy to investigate the DBP migration phenomena. It is a simple, low cost and rapid method which can be used.

  12. Nano level detection of Cd(II) using poly(vinyl chloride) based membranes of Schiff bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vinod K; Al Khayat, Maysoon; Singh, Ashok K; Pal, Manoj K

    2009-02-16

    The construction and performance characteristics of polymeric membrane electrodes based on two neutral ionophores, 2,2'-(1Z,1'Z)-(1E,1'E)-(1,2-phenylenebis(methan-1-yl-1-ylidene))bis(azaan-1-yl-1-ylidene)bis(methylene)bis(azan-1-yl-1-ylidene)bis(methan-1-yl-ylidene)diphenol (L(1)) and 4,4'-(1E,1'E)-(butane-1,4-diylbis(azan-1-yl-1-ylidene))bis(methan-1-yl-1-ylidene)dinaphthalen-1-ol (L(2)) for quantification of cadmium ions, are described. The influences of membrane compositions on the potentiometric response of the electrodes have been found to substantially improve the performance characteristics. The best performance was obtained with the electrode having a membrane composition (w/w) of (L(1)) (2.6%):PVC (31.6%):DOP (63.2%):NaTPB (2.6%). The proposed electrode exhibits Nernstian response in the concentration range 5.0 x 10(-9) to 1.0 x 10(-1)M Cd(2+) with limit of detection 3.1 x 10(-9), performs satisfactorily over wide pH range (2.0-8.5) with a fast response time (11s). The electrode has been found to work satisfactorily in partially non-aqueous media up to 40% (v/v) content of methanol, ethanol and acetonitrile and could be used for a period of 2.5 months. The analytical usefulness of the proposed electrode has been evaluated by its application in the determination of cadmium in cigarette samples. The practical utility of the membrane electrode has also been observed in the presence of surfactants.

  13. Oil recovery with sulfomethylated poly (lower alkyl vinyl ether/maleic anhydride)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, C.J.; Falk, D.O.

    1973-05-22

    Lower alkyl vinyl ether e.g., methyl vinyl ether, propyl vinyl ether, isopropyl vinyl ether, hexyl vinyl ether, is copolymerized conventionally with maleic anhydride, the resulting copolymer is treated with ammonia or ammonium hydroxide to form the partial amide-ammonium salt, and this salt is in turn treated with formaldehyde and thereafter or simultaneously with ammonium or alkali metal salt sulfite (including bisulfites, etc.) to form an at least partially sulfomethylated copolymer. Aqueous solutions of the sulfomethylated copolymer are useful in increasing the viscosity of drive fluids used in the supplemented recovery of petroleum from subterranean formations. In general, enhancing the polyionic character of mobility control agents used in supplemented recovery of petroleum provides enhanced recovery. Achieving this enhancement of polyionic character through use of sulfonate groups provides a mobility control agent with good ability to sustain viscosity in the presence of brine and lime, usually present in the connate waters of petroleum-bearing formations. (7 claims)

  14. Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Unsaturated Polyester/Vinyl Ester Blends Cured at Room Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardhyananta, H.; Puspadewa, F. D.; Wicaksono, S. T.; Widyastuti; Wibisono, A. T.; Kurniawan, B. A.; Ismail, H.; Salsac, A. V.

    2017-05-01

    Unsaturated polyester (UP) resin containing aromatic ring was blended with vinyl ester (VE) at wide range composition (10, 20, 30, 40,and 80 wt.%) using mechanical blending method. The blends were cured at room temperature using methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP) (4 wt.%) as catalyst initiator without the presence of catalystaccelerator. The effect of vinyl ester composition on theenhancement of mechanical and thermal properties of unsaturated polyester/vinyl ester blends was investigated. The polymer blends were characterized by Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR)spectroscopy, tensile testing, hardness testing, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). IR spectra showed UP and VE peaks. The curing copolymerization reactionoccurred at vinyl (C=C) bonds. The addition of vinyl esters enhanced mechanical and thermal properties. The UP/VE blends showed homogeneous morphology, transparent and copolymer thermoset blend.

  15. Preparation of semisynthetic (+)-tubocurarine chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghaway, J; Soine, T O

    1979-05-01

    Semisynthetic (+)-tubocurarine chloride (II) was prepared by monoquaternization of (+)-tubocurine. The method involved treating (+)-tubocurine with a 0.5 M equivalent of hydrochloric acid prior to quaternization with methyl iodide, followed by neutralization and iodide-chloride ion-exchange. Column chromatography and crystallization procedures were utilized for pure semisynthetic II preparation. The neuromuscular junction blocking activities of the semisynthetic and commercial II were determined by the in vivo cat hypoglossal nerve-tongue muscle preparation. No delectable differences among physical constants, spectral data, and neuromuscular junction blocking activities were noted between the commercial product and the semisynthetic II. This result substantiates the chemical and biological data for the well-accepted new formula for II. The unexplained M + n14 mass spectral peaks shown by the curare-type bases are characteristic of the molecular species rather than a result of contaminants.

  16. Poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) hydrogels study for ophthalmologic area utilization; Estudo de hidrogeis de poli(vinil pirrolidona) (PVP) para utilizacao na area oftalmologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, Renata Hage; Rogero, Sizue Ota; Lugao, Ademar Benevolo [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: farmahage@yahoo.com.br; Cruz, Aurea S. [Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: aurcruz@ial.sp.gov.br; Sacramento, Rogerio S.; Lima Filho, Acacio A. Souza; Schor, Paulo [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP)/Escola Paulista de Medicina, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: rogeroftalmo@yahoo.com.br

    2005-07-01

    Poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) hydrogels produced by radiation-induced crosslinking were studied to compose drug delivery system to be used in the eye surface and to manufacture ophthalmic plugs. Some formulations with PVP and poly ethylene glycol (PEG) with different molar mass (300 and 600) were prepared utilizing 0.85% sodium chloride aimed to control the swelling capacity. The obtained hydrogels were characterized by gel fraction and swelling assays. The gel fraction and swelling results indicated no difference in the formulation containing or not NaCl. The gel fraction results varied from 62 to 81% and the swelling degree from 130 to 420%. In vitro assay of cytotoxicity by neutral red uptake method was the first biocompatibility test performed. The results showed no evidence of toxicity in the studied hydrogels. (author)

  17. Synthesis and characterization of mesoporous poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) containing palladium nanoparticles as a novel heterogeneous organocatalyst for Heck reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbasi, Roozbeh Javad; Negahdari, Meysam

    2014-04-01

    Mesoporous poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (MPVP) was prepared through a nanocasting technique based on mesoporous silica KIT-6 as sacrificial templates, and served as an efficient scaffold for supporting Pd nanoparticles. The physical and chemical properties of Pd-MPVP were characterized using FT-IR, XRD, BET, DRS UV-Vis, SEM, TEM and TGA techniques. The application of this novel purely organic heterogeneous catalyst, which combine the advantage of organic polymers and mesoporous materials, was investigated for Csbnd C bond formation through the Heck coupling reaction of aryl iodides, bromides and chlorides with styrene. It was observed that the activity of this catalyst decreased just 5% after nine regeneration processes were performed. This unique result opens new perspectives for application of purely organic mesoporous polymers as structurally defined hydrophobic catalyst in catalytic reactions.

  18. Effect of crosslinking functionality on microstructure, mechanical properties, and in vitro cytocompatibility of cellulose nanocrystals reinforced poly (vinyl alcohol)/sodium alginate hybrid scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anuj; Lee, Yujin; Kim, Doyeon; Rao, Kummara Madhusudana; Kim, Jisoo; Park, Soyoung; Haider, Adnan; Lee, Do Hyun; Han, Sung Soo

    2017-02-01

    Cellulose nanocrystals reinforced poly (vinyl alcohol)/sodium alginate hybrid scaffolds were fabricated by using freeze casting and freeze drying method. In this study, the effect of crosslinking agents such as calcium chloride, orthophosphoric acid, and borax on morphological, structural, thermal, mechanical, and cytocompatibility (cell adhesion and proliferation) properties was investigated. The results showed that the change in type of crosslinking agent significantly changed the properties of the hybrid scaffolds. Based on this study, borax-crosslinked hybrid scaffold showed good fibrous porous structure with high porosity (95.2%), highest water uptake capacity, good thermal stability, mechanical stability (storage modulus), and in vitro cell adhesion and proliferation with fibroblast (NIH3T3) cells. This primarily research study explores the way for further use of this crosslinking agent to design and fabricate scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Isolation and Characterization of 1,3-Bis(vinylbenzylthymine: Copolymerization with Vinylbenzyl Thymine Ammonium Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngoc Chau H. Vy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel bioinspired molecule, 1,3-bis(vinylbenzylthymine (bisVBT, was isolated as a by-product during the synthesis of 1-(4-vinylbenzylthymine (VBT and analyzed with various techniques: NMR, IR, and Single-Crystal X-ray Diffraction. In addition to embodying all the desired characteristics of VBT (i.e., having the ability to undergo a 2π+2π photodimerization reaction upon UV irradiation, a derivatization site, hydrogen bonding sites, and aromatic stacking ability the bisVBT monomer has the added benefit of having two vinyl groups for cross-polymerization. Copolymerizing the bisVBT monomer with the charged monomer vinylbenzyl triethylammonium (VBA chloride, different copolymers/terpolymers/cross-linked network were obtained, as it was shown by the absence of the vinyl resonance in the NMR spectra. Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC showed an indication of materials with low degree of cross-linking. A Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC method was improved to better characterize the molecular weight distributions of the cationic structures. Preliminary qualitative cross-linking studies were performed on bisVBT-VBA copolymers, and a comparison with VBT-VBA copolymers is presented.

  20. Oxomemazine hydro­chloride

    OpenAIRE

    Siddegowda, M. S.; Butcher, Ray J.; Mehmet Akkurt; Yathirajan, H.S.; Ramesh, A. R.

    2011-01-01

    In the title compound [systematic name: 3-(5,5-dioxophenothiazin-10-yl)-N,N,2-trimethylpropanaminium chloride], C18H23N2O2S+·Cl−, the dihedral angle between the two outer aromatic rings of the phenothiazine unit is 30.5 (2)°. In the crystal, the components are linked by N—H...Cl and C—H...Cl hydrogen bonds and C—H...π interactions.

  1. Shock compression of polyvinyl chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neogi, Anupam; Mitra, Nilanjan

    2016-04-01

    This study presents shock compression simulation of atactic polyvinyl chloride (PVC) using ab-initio and classical molecular dynamics. The manuscript also identifies the limits of applicability of classical molecular dynamics based shock compression simulation for PVC. The mechanism of bond dissociation under shock loading and its progression is demonstrated in this manuscript using the density functional theory based molecular dynamics simulations. The rate of dissociation of different bonds at different shock velocities is also presented in this manuscript.

  2. Controlled free radical polymerization of vinyl acetate with cobalt acetoacetonate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohammad Ali Semsarzadeh; Sahar Amiri

    2012-03-01

    The polymerization of vinyl acetate with the complex catalyst of cobalt acetoacetonate [Co (acac)2] and DMF ligand with benzoyl peroxide initiator has been successfully carried out in bulk and in solution. The bulk polymerization has been used in a new route consisting of a one-step polymer formation in a fine capillary tube. In this process, the high rate of propagation was used to carry out the reaction in a microcapillary tube. Under 60°C, the colour-free reaction without solid catalyst impurity was 95% complete within a few hours. The high molecular weight of polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) with its relatively low molecular distribution without unreacted monomer provided a new method in microprocessing of the controlled radical polymerization of vinyl acetate in a one-step polymerization process. PVAc polymerization systems showed induction time, which was reduced in this reaction with using complex of DMF/ Co(acac)2. The kinetics of the reaction with a smaller degree of branching from this catalyst indicated that the electronegativity of the transition metal and diffusion of the homogeneous catalyst with DMF are important factors of fast polymerization in the bulk. Thermal properties of the polymer indicated a lower glass transition state. The easily reformed or stretched microsolid polymer demonstrated 20% crystallinity.

  3. Rubber-like poly(vinyl alcohol) gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nambu, Masao (Nippon Oil Co. Ltd., Yokohama (Japan). Central Technical Research Lab.)

    1990-09-01

    Anomalous poly (vinyl alcohol) gel has been found in our laboratory since 1980. The gel is prepared by repeated freezing (or freeze-dehydration) of aqueous poly (vinyl alcohol). Experiments establish the fact that anomalous gel is never produced in the course of freezing, but during sustained thawing the gelation does occur. Moreover, it was found that the softening point of the gel increases at 37degC. It is assumed that crystal nuclei are generated on freezing, then on thawing, some of them grow to very fine crystals which act as polymer network-knots (cross-linking). Additional freezing provide other seeds, which grow similarly, and these are accumulated until rubber-like gel is produced. The gel was always water-resistant at 37degC, and the potassium permanganate consumption of the extracted water layer remained far below the official restricted value for medical materials. The gel can be sterilized with gamma-rays or chlorhexidine. Moreover, it satisfies the official standards of acute toxicity, pyrogen, intracutaneous reaction, hemolyzation, and intracorporeal implantation, respectively. Applications to adhesion-preventing membrane (for joint or pericardium), tamponade (for jaw defects), electrode (for electroretinogram or artificial inner ear), artificial denture base and phantoms for magnetic resonance imaging were examined. (author) 54 refs.

  4. Cobalt-Catalyzed Vinylation of Organozinc Reagents with Aldehydes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; JinXian

    2001-01-01

    Transtion metal catalyzed vinylation of organic halides are known to be a very convenient method for forming carbon-carbon bonds at unsubstituted vinylic position. The versatility of stilbenes is well known because of its various biological active components, the variety of its reactions in organic syntheses, and its ability to function as a bonding partner for metals in complexes.  Many methods have been described for the synthesis of stilbenes. The reduction, dehydrogenation, and elimination reactions leading to stilbenes without formation of new carbon-carbon bonds are known to be a very convenient methods. Synthetically more important are the dimerization reactions: oxidative or eleminative dimerization of a suitable methylarene often constitutes the method of choice for the preparation of a symmetric stilbene. Meerwein arylation and Heck reaction are prominent examples for the synthesis of stilbenes from arenes and styrenes. Moreover, condensation reactions of a nucleophilic with an electrophilic arylmethyl compound include Knoevenagel type reactions and the very general Wittig and Wittig-Horner reactions are also known methods.  ……

  5. Far-infrared Spectroscopic Characterization of Anti-vinyl Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, Hayley; Soliday, Rebekah M.; Sumner, Isaiah; Raston, Paul L.

    2017-09-01

    We report a detailed analysis of the high-resolution far-infrared spectrum of anti-vinyl alcohol, which has been previously identified toward Sagittarius B2(N). The ν 15 OH torsional fundamental investigated here is more than 200 cm‑1 removed from the next nearest vibration, making it practically unperturbed and ideal to help refine the ground state rotational constants that were previously determined from 25 microwave lines. We assigned 1335 lines within the ν 15 fundamental centered at 261.5512 cm‑1, with J and K a ranges of 1–59 and 0–16, respectively. The microwave and far-infrared line positions were fit with Watson-type A- and S-reduced Hamiltonians, with the inclusion of quartic and select sextic distortion terms. This resulted in a significant refinement of the ground state constants, in addition to the determination of the {ν }15=1 state constants for the first time. The spectroscopic parameters are in good agreement with the results from anharmonic coupled-cluster calculations, and should be useful in searches for rotationally and/or vibrationally warm anti-vinyl alcohol in interstellar molecular clouds.

  6. The Kinetics of Cellulose Grafting with Vinyl Acetate Monomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Borbély

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose is a natural raw material recurring in a great quantity. The demand touse it more and more widely is increasing. The production of cellulose derivates started asearly as the 19th century, however the modification of these materials meant the breakingup the fibrous structure, which made their use more difficult in paper industry. Themodified cellulose made by graft copolymerization, however, keeps its fibrous character,which provides a great advantage regarding its use. Grafting of industrial cellulose pulpwith vinyl-acetate allows for the production of grafted wood cellulose fibres that have athermoplastic layer on their surface. The binder fibre (fibrid produced in this way can beexcellently used for producing synthetic papers.In the first part of my experiments I dealt with choosing the parameters of graftcopolymerization which are best suited to various uses and after that I studied thedependence of graft reaction on the composition and properties of industrial celluloseapplied. The selection of the suitable reaction parameters was followed by the study ofreaction speed and activation energy. I have stated that the gross reaction of graftingindustrial cellulose with vinyl-acetate monomer is a second order reaction, which is provenby the fact that the invert of the momentary monomer concentration of the system plottedagainst time is a linear function. The rise of the curves, that is, the reaction speed increaseswhen the temperature in the range of 293–323 K is increasing, while the average activationenergy decreases.

  7. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M

    2015-08-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense.

  8. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense. PMID:26048979

  9. Developing chloride resisting concrete using PFA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhir, R.K.; El-Mohr, M.A.K.; Dyer, T.D. [Univ. of Dundee (United Kingdom). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1997-11-01

    PFA concrete mixes were designed to optimize resistance to chloride ingress. Chloride binding capacity, intrinsic permeability and their concomitant influence on the coefficient of chloride diffusion have been investigated. PFA replacements up to 67% and exposure concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 5.0 mole/liter were used. Chloride binding capacity was found to increase with increasing PFA replacement up to 50% and to then decline. It increased with chloride exposure concentration as well as water/binder ratio. The coefficient of chloride diffusion of concrete samples was found to be dependent on both the intrinsic permeability of the concrete and the ability of its cement matrix to bind chlorides.

  10. Highly reflective and adhesive surface of aluminized polyvinyl chloride film by vacuum evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Denian; Tai, Qile; Feng, Qiang; Li, Qi; Xu, Xizhe; Li, Hairong; Huang, Jing; Dong, Lijie; Xie, Haian; Xiong, Chuanxi

    2014-08-01

    Aluminized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) film with high reflectivity and strong adhesion was facilely fabricated by vacuum evaporation. The technical study revealed that both alkali-pretreatment of the PVC matrix and thermal annealing after aluminization could greatly promote the peeling adhesion force of this metal/polymer composite by producing interfacial active chemical groups and removing the inner stress, respectively. Reflectivity test and AFM study indicated that the reflecting capacitance of the aluminum coating was closely related to the surface roughness, which can be easily controlled by modulating deposition of aluminum. Moreover, the formation of aluminum layer follows an island model process, and a continuous and smooth coating with highest reflectivity and lowest surface resistance was achieved at deposition time of 60 s. We anticipate that the cost-effective metallized PVC film by this strategy may find extensive applications in light harvesting, solar energy, and flexible mirrors, among others.

  11. Impact of Industrial Grade Modified PVA to Vinyl Acetate Semi-continuous Emulsion Polymerization and Properties of Final Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindaugas DUBININKAS

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Successful vinyl acetate radical emulsion polymerization in water with different type of industrial grade poly(vinyl alcohol were produced by semi continuous way. The poly(vinyl alcohol type has crucial impact on dispersion rheological as well on films and bonding strength properties. It should be stated that the films containing modified poly (vinyl alcohol has better water resistance and mechanical properties. Poly(vinyl alcohol with higher ethylene moieties content and high hydrolization degree determines extremely low viscosity of final dispersion.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.1.3823

  12. Separator Membrane from Crosslinked Poly(Vinyl Alcohol and Poly(Methyl Vinyl Ether-alt-Maleic Anhydride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charu Vashisth Rohatgi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we report separator membranes from crosslinking of two polymers, such as poly vinyl alcohol (PVA with an ionic polymer poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic anhydride (PMVE-MA. Such interpolymer-networked systems were extensively used for biomedical and desalination applications but they were not examined for their potential use as membranes or separators for batteries. Therefore, the chemical interactions between these two polymers and the influence of such crosslinking on physicochemical properties of the membrane are systematically investigated through rheology and by critical gel point study. The hydrogen bonding and the chemical interaction between PMVE-MA and PVA resulted in highly cross-linked membranes. Effect of the molecular weight of PVA on the membrane properties was also examined. The developed membranes were extensively characterized by studying their physicochemical properties (water uptake, swelling ratio, and conductivity, thermal and electrochemical properties using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA, thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. The DSC study shows the presence of a single Tg in the membranes indicating compatibility of the two polymers in flexible and transparent films. The membranes show good stability and ion conductivity suitable for separator applications.

  13. Hydrolysis of cupric chloride in aqueous ammoniacal ammonium chloride solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limpo, J. L.

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Cupric solubility in the CuCl2-NH4Cl-NH3-H2O system for chloride concentrations lower than 4 molal in the temperature range 25-60 °C was studied. The experimental results show that for chloride concentration between 3.0 and 1.0 molal the cupric solubility is determined by the solubility of the cupric hydroxychloride Cu(OH1.5Cl0.5. For a chloride concentration value of 4.0 molal, there are two cupric compounds, the hydroxychloride Cu(OH1.5Cl0.5 or the diammine chloride Cu(NH32Cl2, on which the solubility of Cu(II depends, according to the temperature and the value of the ratio [NH3]Total/[Cu]Total.

    Se estudia la solubilidad del Cu(II en el sistema CuCl2-NH4Cl-NH3-H2O para concentraciones de cloruro inferiores a 4 molal en el intervalo de temperaturas 25-60 °C. Los resultados experimentales muestran que, para concentraciones de cloruros comprendidas entre 3,0 y 1,0 molal, la solubilidad cúprica viene determinada por la solubilidad del hidroxicloruro cúprico, Cu(OH1.5Cl0.5. Para concentraciones de cloruro 4,0 molal, existen dos compuestos cúpricos, el hidroxicloruro, Cu(OH1.5Cl0.5 o el cloruro de diamina, Cu(NH32Cl2, de los que, de acuerdo con la temperatura y con el valor de la relación [NH3]Total/[Cu]Total depende la solubilidad del Cu(II.

  14. Thermodynamic properties (enthalpy, bond energy, entropy, and heat capacity) and internal rotor potentials of vinyl alcohol, methyl vinyl ether, and their corresponding radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Gabriel; Kim, Chol-Han; Bozzelli, Joseph W

    2006-06-29

    Vinyl alcohols (enols) have been discovered as important intermediates and products in the oxidation and combustion of hydrocarbons, while methyl vinyl ethers are also thought to occur as important combustion intermediates. Vinyl alcohol has been detected in interstellar media, while poly(vinyl alcohol) and poly(methyl vinyl ether) are common polymers. The thermochemical property data on these vinyl alcohols and methyl vinyl ethers is important for understanding their stability, reaction paths, and kinetics in atmospheric and thermal hydrocarbon-oxygen systems. Enthalpies , entropies , and heat capacities (C(p)()(T)) are determined for CH(2)=CHOH, C(*)H=CHOH, CH(2)=C(*)OH, CH(2)=CHOCH(3), C(*)H=CHOCH(3), CH(2)=C(*)OCH(3), and CH(2)=CHOC(*)H(2). Molecular structures, vibrational frequencies, , and C(p)(T) are calculated at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) density functional calculation level. Enthalpies are also determined using the composite CBS-Q, CBS-APNO, and G3 methods using isodesmic work reactions to minimize calculation errors. Potential barriers for internal rotors are calculated at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level and used to determine the hindered internal rotational contributions to entropy and heat capacity. The recommended ideal gas phase values calculated in this study are the following (in kcal mol(-1)): -30.0, -28.9 (syn, anti) for CH(2)=CHOH; -25.6, -23.9 for CH(2)=CHOCH(3); 31.3, 33.5 for C(*)H=CHOH; 27.1 for anti-CH(2)=C(*)OH; 35.6, 39.3 for C(*)H=CHOCH(3); 33.5, 32.2 for CH(2)=C(*)OCH(3); 21.3, 22.0 for CH(2)=CHOC(*)H(2). Bond dissociation energies (BDEs) and group additivity contributions are also determined. The BDEs reveal that the O-H, O-CH(3), C-OH, and C-OCH(3) bonds in vinyl alcohol and methyl vinyl ether are similar in energy to those in the aromatic molecules phenol and methyl phenyl ether, being on average around 3 kcal mol(-1) weaker in the vinyl systems. The keto-enol tautomerization enthalpy for the interconversion of vinyl alcohol to acetaldehyde is

  15. Reaction products and mechanisms for the reaction of n-butyl vinyl ether with the oxidants OH and Cl: Atmospheric implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmenar, Inmaculada; Martín, Pilar; Cabañas, Beatriz; Salgado, Sagrario; Tapia, Araceli; Martínez, Ernesto

    2015-12-01

    A reaction product study for the degradation of butyl vinyl ether (CH3(CH2)3OCHdbnd CH2) by reaction with chlorine atoms (Cl) and hydroxyl radicals (OH) has been carried out using Fourier Transform Infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR) and/or Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry with a Time of Flight analyzer (GC-TOFMS). The rate coefficient for the reaction of butyl vinyl ether (BVE) with chlorine atoms has also been evaluated for the first time at room temperature (298 ± 2) K and atmospheric pressure (708 ± 8) Torr. The rate coefficient obtained was (9.9 ± 1.5) × 10-10 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 and this indicates the high reactivity of butyl vinyl ether with Cl atoms. However, this value may be affected by the dark reaction of BVE with Cl2. The results of a qualitative study of the Cl reaction show that the main oxidation products are butyl formate (CH3(CH2)3OC(O)H), butyl chloroacetate (CH3(CH2)3OC(O)CH2Cl and formyl chloride (HCOCl). Individual yields in the ranges ∼16-40% and 30-70% in the absence and presence of NOx, respectively, have been estimated for these products. In the OH reaction, butyl formate and formic acid were identified as the main products, with yields of around 50 and 20%, respectively. Based on the results of this work and a literature survey, the addition of OH radicals and Cl atoms at the terminal C atom of the double bond in CH3(CH2)3OCHdbnd CH2 has been proposed as the first step in the reaction mechanism for both of the studied oxidants. The tropospheric lifetime of butyl vinyl ether is very short and, as a consequence, it will be rapidly degraded and will only be involved in tropospheric chemistry at a local level. The degradation products of these reactions should be considered when evaluating the atmospheric impact.

  16. In situ fabricated platinum—poly(vinyl alcohol) nanocomposite thin film: a highly reusable ‘dip catalyst’ for hydrogenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divya Madhuri, U.; Kesava Rao, V.; Hariprasad, E.; Radhakrishnan, T. P.

    2016-04-01

    A simple protocol for the in situ generation of platinum nanoparticles in a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) thin film is developed. Chloroplatinic acid as well as potassium platinum(II) chloride are used as precursors and the film is fabricated by spin coating followed by mild thermal annealing. The chemical process occurring inside the film, wherein the polymer itself acts as the reducing agent, is explored through different spectroscopy and microscopy techniques. The Pt-PVA film, <100 nm thick and containing ˜1 nm size Pt nanoparticles, is shown to be a highly efficient catalyst for the reduction of methylene blue using sodium borohydride. The ease of retrieval and reuse of the thin film is highlighted by the term ‘dip catalyst’. The reaction yield, kinetics and rate are reproducible through several reuses of the same catalyst film. Turnover number (TON = number of mols of product/number of mols of catalyst) and turnover frequency (TOF = TON/reaction time) are significantly higher than those reported earlier for this reaction using metal nanocatalysts. Utility of Pt-PVA film as an efficient catalyst for other hydrogenation reactions is demonstrated.

  17. Synthesis, characterization and reactivity ratios of poly N-(p-bromophenyl-2-methacrylamide-Co-N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Thirumoolan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The methacrylamide monomer, N-(p-bromophenyl-2-methacrylamide (PBPMA was synthesized by reacting p-bromoaniline dissolved in ethylmethylketone (EMK with methacryloyl chloride in the presence of triethylamine. The copolymers of PBPMA with N-Vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (NVP were synthesized by free radical solution polymerization using EMK as a solvent at 70 ± 1 °C and benzoyl peroxide as a free radical initiator. The copolymerization behavior was studied in a wide composition interval with the mole fractions of PBPMA ranging from 0.20 to 0.80 in the feed. The copolymers were characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and GPC. The solubility was tested in various polar and non polar solvents. The thermogravimetric analysis of the polymers showed that the thermal stability of the copolymer increases with PBPMA content. The copolymer composition was determined by elemental analysis. The monomer reactivity ratios were determined by the application of conventional linearization methods such as Fineman–Ross, Kelen–Tudos methods, and a non-linear error-in-variable model (EVM method using a computer program.

  18. Cross-metathesis reaction of α- and β-vinyl C-glycosides with alkenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Šnajdr

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cross-metathesis of α- and β-vinyl C-deoxyribosides and α-vinyl C-galactoside with various terminal alkenes under different conditions was studied. The cross-metathesis of the former proceeded with good yields of the corresponding products in ClCH2CH2Cl the latter required the presence of CuI in CH2Cl2 to achieve good yields of the products. A simple method for the preparation of α- and β-vinyl C-deoxyribosides was also developed. In addition, feasibility of deprotection and further transformations were briefly explored.

  19. Design, Sustainable Synthesis, and Programmed Reactions of Templated N-Heteroaryl-Fused Vinyl Sultams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laha, Joydev K; Sharma, Shubhra; Kirar, Seema; Banerjee, Uttam C

    2017-09-15

    A de novo design and synthesis of N-heteroaryl-fused vinyl sultams as templates for programming chemical reactions on vinyl sultam periphery or (hetero)aryl ring is described. The key features include rational designing and sustainable synthesis of the template, customized reactions of vinyl sultams at C═C bond or involving N-S bond cleavage, and reactions on the periphery of the heteroaryl ring for late-stage diversification. The simple, easy access to the template coupled with opportunities for the synthesis of diversely functionalized heterocyles from a single template constitutes a rare study in contemporary organic synthesis.

  20. Oxomemazine hydro­chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddegowda, M. S.; Butcher, Ray J.; Akkurt, Mehmet; Yathirajan, H. S.; Ramesh, A. R.

    2011-01-01

    In the title compound [systematic name: 3-(5,5-dioxo­phen­othia­zin-10-yl)-N,N,2-trimethyl­propanaminium chloride], C18H23N2O2S+·Cl−, the dihedral angle between the two outer aromatic rings of the phenothia­zine unit is 30.5 (2)°. In the crystal, the components are linked by N—H⋯Cl and C—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds and C—H⋯π inter­actions. PMID:22090928

  1. Simple chloride sensors for continuous groundwater monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorn, Paul; Mortensen, John

    2012-01-01

    The development of chloride sensors which can be used for continuous, on-line monitoring of groundwater could be very valuable in the management of our coastal water resources. However, sensor stability, drift, and durability all need to be addressed in order for the sensors to be used...... in continuous application. This study looks at the development of a simple, inexpensive chloride electrode, and evaluates its performance under continuous use, both in the laboratory and in a field test in a monitoring well. The results from the study showed a consistent response to changing chloride...... sensor remained responsive even at low chloride concentrations, where the conductivity electrode was no longer responding to changing chloride levels. With the results, it is believed that the simple chloride sensor could be used for continuous monitoring of groundwater quality....

  2. Radiation processed hydrogel of poly (vinyl alcohol) with biodegradable polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, M N K; Alam, A K M M; Dafader, N C; Haque, M E; Akhtar, F; Ahmed, M U; Rashid, H; Begum, R

    2006-01-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) can be modified to polymer hydrogels by radiation crosslinking and can be used in different biomedical applications. A study was done on the optimization of ingredients concentration for preparing good quality PVA hydrogels with natural polysaccharides. The synthesized hydrogels were also characterized by measuring the different physical properties e.g. gel fraction, swelling and absorption rate. Besides these, sterility test were also performed. Good quality hydrogels were obtained from PVA and natural polysaccharides solutions with 27 kGy radiation dose. There is an influence of natural polysaccharides on the gel fraction of hydrogel. The increase in the amount of polysaccharide causes a decrease in gel fraction that is decrease in the crosslinking density of PVA hydrogel network. The prepared hydrogels were found to be sterile.

  3. Myoglobin entrapment in poly(vinyl alcohol dense membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. C. S. Figueiredo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Our goal in this study was the immobilization of myoglobin in poly(vinyl alcohol dense membranes. Glutaraldehyde was investigated both as the crosslinking agent, aiming to increase the membrane stability in aqueous medium, and as the vehicle to bind myoglobin and PVA. Reaction and membrane synthesis were carried simultaneously in mild operating conditions in order to maintain the native protein folding. Membrane characterization comprised the water swelling degree, DSC, TGA, UV-visible spectroscopy, FTIR analysis and oxygen transport in a dialysis cell. The incorporation of myoglobin in the film decreased the water swelling degree and improved the membrane thermal properties compared to unmodified PVA membrane. The reduction of ferric iron in the prosthetic group of the protein to the ferrous form was observed. The increased affinity between oxygen and the immobilized myoglobin did not favor the release of this solute from the biocarrier.

  4. Synthesis and properties of physically crosslinked poly (vinyl alcohol) hydrogels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Ru-yin; XIONG Dang-sheng

    2008-01-01

    The present study is an investigation of the properties of poly (vinyl alcohol), which would be a better contact lens material than conventional HEMA in some ways. A transparent PVA hydrogel was prepared from a PVA solution in a mixed solvent consisting of water and a water-miscible organic solvent, DMSO, by the freezing-thawing method. The water content, visible light transmittance, mechanical and swelling properties of the hydrogels were evaluated as a function of PVA concentration and number of freeze-thaw cycles. The results show that the properties of PVA hydrogels depend on the polymer concentration, the number of freeze-thaw cycles and the addition of the organic solvent.

  5. UV recording with vinyl acetate and muicle dye film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxqui-Lopez, S.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Santacruz-Vazquez, V.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.; Ordoñez-Padilla, J.

    2015-03-01

    Nowadays, there are many types of holographic recording medium some of them are photopolymer systems that generally consist of a polymeric host matrix, photopolymerizable momomer, photosensitizing dye and charge transfer agent but some of them have an undesirable feature, the toxicity of their components. Therefore, the present research study material recording, vinyl acetate is selected as polymeric matrix and natural dye from "muicle plant" is used as the photoinitiation these components are not toxic. The films are fabricated using gravity settling method at room temperature by this method, uniform films is obtained with good optical quality. To characterize the medium, been obtained when the coherent reed light (632.8 nm) was sent normally to the grating.

  6. Stabilization of Candida rugosa lipase during transacetylation with vinyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Abir B; Gupta, Munishwar N

    2010-04-01

    An optimally prepared Candida rugosa lipase aggregate cross-linked with bovine serum albumin, was found to overcome acetaldehyde deactivation during transacetylation of a series of benzyl alcohols with vinyl acetate. The formulation, under the same reaction conditions, exhibited 4-30x enhancement in the reaction rate as compared to the celite immobilized lyophilized formulation and 25-133x enhancement as compared to the free lyophilized enzyme depending upon the alcohol chosen. The racemic 1-phenylethanol, taken as one of the alcohols, underwent a more efficient enantioselective transacetylation giving 80% enantiomeric excess of the product, (R)-1-phenylethyl acetate, at 38% conversion (E = 15) within 24h while the enzyme immobilized on celite gave 83% enantiomeric excess at 18% conversion (E = 13) during the same period of time.

  7. Facile heme vinyl posttranslational modification in a hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preimesberger, Matthew R; Wenke, Belinda B; Gilevicius, Lukas; Pond, Matthew P; Lecomte, Juliette T J

    2013-05-21

    Iron-protoporphyrin IX, or b heme, is utilized as such by a large number of proteins and enzymes. In some cases, notably the c-type cytochromes, this group undergoes a posttranslational covalent attachment to the polypeptide chain, which adjusts the physicochemical properties of the holoprotein. The hemoglobin from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (GlbN), contrary to the archetypical hemoglobin, modifies its b heme covalently. The posttranslational modification links His117, a residue that does not coordinate the iron, to the porphyrin 2-vinyl substituent and forms a hybrid b/c heme. The reaction is an electrophilic addition that occurs spontaneously in the ferrous state of the protein. This apparently facile type of heme modification has been observed in only two cyanobacterial GlbNs. To explore the determinants of the reaction, we examined the behavior of Synechocystis GlbN variants containing a histidine at position 79, which is buried against the porphyrin 4-vinyl substituent. We found that L79H/H117A GlbN bound the heme weakly but nevertheless formed a cross-link between His79 Nε2 and the heme 4-Cα. In addition to this linkage, the single variant L79H GlbN also formed the native His117-2-Cα bond yielding an unprecedented bis-alkylated protein adduct. The ability to engineer the doubly modified protein indicates that the histidine-heme modification in GlbN is robust and could be engineered in different local environments. The rarity of the histidine linkage in natural proteins, despite the ease of reaction, is proposed to stem from multiple sources of negative selection.

  8. Chloride Ion Critical Content in Reinforced Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Chloride ion critical content was studied under soaking and cycle of dry and wet conditions,with three electrochemical nondestructive measuring techniques, i e, half-cell potential, A C impedance, and time potential. The experimental results show that chloride ion critical content is primarily determined by the water cement ratio, while for the same concrete mixture the chloride ion critical content in soaking conditions is larger than that in a cycle of dry and wet conditions.

  9. Chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, O.M.; Hansen, P.F.; Coats, A.M.; Glasser, F.P.

    1999-09-01

    In this paper chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar is followed by electron probe microanalysis. The influence of several paste and exposure parameters on chloride ingress are examined (e.g., water-cement ratio, silica fume addition, exposure time, and temperature). The measurements are modelled on Fick's law modified by a term for chloride binding. Inclusion of chloride binding significantly improves the profile shape of the modelled ingress profiles. The presence of fine aggregate and formation of interfacial transition zones at paste-aggregate boundaries does not significantly affect diffusion rates.

  10. Green process to recover magnesium chloride from residue solution of potassium chloride production plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin WANG; Yunliang HE; Yanfei WANG; Ying BAO; Jingkang WANG

    2008-01-01

    The green process to recover magnesium chlor-ide from the residue solution of a potassium chloride pro-duction plant, which comes from the leach solution of a potash mine in Laos, is designed and optimized. The res-idue solution contains magnesium chloride above 25 wt-%, potassium chloride and sodium chloride together below 5 wt-% and a few other ions such as Br-, SO2-4and Ca2+. The recovery process contains two steps: the previous impurity removal operation and the two-stage evapora-tion-cooling crystallization procedure to produce magnes-ium chloride. The crystallized impurity carnallite obtained from the first step is recycled to the potassium chloride plant to recover the potassium salt. The developed process is a zero discharge one and thus fulfills the requirements for green chemical industrial production. The produced magnesium chloride is up to industrial criteria.

  11. Does a Second Halogen Atom Affect the Nature of Intermolecular Interactions in Protic Acid-Haloethylene Complexes? in (E)-1-CHLORO-2-FLUOROETHYLENE-HYDROGEN Chloride it Depends on how you Look at it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Helen O.; Marshall, Mark D.

    2016-06-01

    As part of a systematic study of the effect of chlorine substitution on the structures of protic acid haloethylene complexes, the structure of the (E)-1-chloro-2-fluoroethylene-hydrogen chloride complex has been investigated using ab initio quantum chemistry calculations and microwave spectroscopy. Although theory predicts a non-planar equilibrium structure for this species, it is only 7 cm-1 lower in energy than the planar geometry connecting the two equivalent minima on either side of the haloethylene plane, and the observed spectrum is consistent with a planar, average structure, likely the result of zero-point averaging. The geometry is very similar to the fluorine binding, vinyl fluoride-hydrogen chloride complex, suggesting that the substitution of chlorine for a hydrogen trans to the fluorine atom has very little effect on intermolecular interactions in this case. On the other hand, vinyl chloride-hydrogen chloride adopts a non-planar, chlorine binding configuration so that alternatively one could say that the presence of fluorine has a large effect on protic acid-chlorine interactions.

  12. Does a Second Halogen Atom Affect the Nature of Intermolecular Interactions in Protic Acid-Haloethylene Complexes? in (Z)-1-CHLORO-2-FLUOROETHYLENE-HYDROGEN Chloride it Most Certainly DOES!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Hannah K.; Leung, Helen O.; Marshall, Mark D.

    2016-06-01

    As part of a systematic study of the effect of chlorine substitution on the structures of protic acid-haloethylene complexes, the structure of the (Z)-1-chloro-2-fluoroethylene-hydrogen chloride complex has been investigated using ab initio quantum chemistry calculations and microwave spectroscopy. Although theory predicts a non-planar equilibrium structure for this species, it is only 6 cm-1 lower in energy than the planar geometry connecting the two equivalent minima on either side of the haloethylene plane, and the observed spectrum is consistent with a planar, average structure, likely the result of zero-point averaging. The geometry is unlike that of any previously characterized protic acid-haloethylene complex with a bifurcated primary interaction in which the hydrogen of the acid interacts with both the fluorine and the chlorine atoms on the haloethylene and there is no evidence for a secondary interaction involving the electron rich region of the acid. This structure can be contrasted to those of vinyl fluoride-hydrogen chloride (fluorine bound, planar ``top-binding,'' across the double bond), vinyl chloride-hydrogen chloride (chlorine bound, non-planar) and (Z)-1-chloro-2-fluoroethylene-acetylene (chlorine bound, planar ``side-binding,'' at one end of the double bond).

  13. Reactivity of vinyl ethers and vinyl ribosides in UV-initiated free radical copolymerization with acceptor monomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichavant, Loic; Guillermain, Céline; Coqueret, Xavier

    2010-09-13

    The reactivity of various vinyl ethers and vinyloxy derivatives of ribose in the presence of diethyl fumarate or diethyl maleate was investigated for evaluating the potential of donor-acceptor-type copolymerization applied to unsaturated monomers derived from renewable feedstock. The photochemically induced polymerization of model monomer blends in the bulk state was monitored by infrared spectroscopy. The method allowed us to examine the influence of monomer pair structure on the kinetic profiles. The simultaneous consumption of both monomers was observed, supporting an alternating copolymerization mechanism. A lower reactivity of the blends containing maleates compared with fumarates was confirmed. The obtained kinetic data revealed a general correlation between the initial polymerization rate and the Hansen parameter δ(H) associated with the H-bonding aptitude of the donor monomer.

  14. MODIFICATION OF ETHYLENE-VINYL ACETATE COPOLYMER AND ITS EFFECTS ON THE PERMEABILITY OF SOME STEROIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LINWu; FANGZhen; JINZhao-Ying

    1989-01-01

    Ethyleae-vinyl acetate copolymer ( EVA ) was mechanically blended with methylvinyl siloxane in order to increase the permeability of some steroids and to obtain an ideal material with membrane-controlled release of steroids from the intrauterine devices

  15. 1, 3-Dipolar Cycloaddition Reaction between Vinyl Acetate and N-Alkyl Hydroxypyridinium Halide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    1, 3 Dipolar cycloaddition reaction between vinyl acetate and 3-hydroxypyridiniun betaine was performed under solid-liquid phase transfer catalytic condition. This reaction has been successfully used on the synthesis of an analogue of Bao-Gong-Teng A.

  16. Improved adhesion performances of aramid fibers with vinyl epoxy via supercritical carbon dioxide modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, M. L.; Kong, H. J.; Yu, M. H.; Teng, C. Q.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, aramid fibers were treated under supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) with isocyanate terminated liquid nitrile rubber to improve the adhesion performances of vinyl epoxy composites. The interfacial shear strength (IFSS) of vinyl epoxy composites was investigated by micro-bond test. The results indicate that the surface modification of aramid fibers in SCCO2 was an efficient method to increase the adhesion performances between fibers and vinyl epoxy. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were adopted to investigate the surface structure and composition of aramid fibers. The flexural strength and interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) of treated aramid fibers/vinyl epoxy composites was improved by 18.1% and 28.9% compared with untreated aramid fibers, respectively. Furthermore, the fractured surfaces of the composites were observed by SEM, which showed that the interfacial adhesion of composites has been remarkably changed.

  17. Laser induced augmentation of silver nanospheres to nanowires in ethanol fostered by Poly Vinyl Pyrrolidone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastian, Suneetha, E-mail: sunikutty@gmail.com; Linslal, C.L.; Vallabhan, C.P.G.; Nampoori, V.P.N.; Radhakrishnan, P.; Kailasnath, M.

    2014-11-30

    Highlights: • Silver nanospheres are synthesised in ethanol containing Poly Vinyl Pyrrolidone which acts as a polymeric capping agent to nanoparticles thus improving its stability. • Laser irradiation onto the colloidal solution of silver nanoparticles produced well defined nanowires through ripening mechanism promoted by Poly Vinyl Pyrrolidone. • Nanowires so formed are having an average length of 8.7 μm and width of 160 nm. - Abstract: Stable uniform silver nanospheres having an average diameter of 45 nm are synthesised in ethanol containing Poly Vinyl Pyrrolidone using Laser Ablation in Liquid technique. Further irradiation of the nanocolloidal solution by focussed laser beam produced stable well defined silver nanowires through ripening mechanism fostered by the presence of Poly Vinyl Pyrrolidone. Confirmation of the mechanism is obtained from Transmission Electron Microscopic images of the nanocolloidal solution irradiated for different time durations.

  18. Julia Olefination as a General Route to Phenyl (alpha-Fluoro)vinyl Sulfones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Maggie; Ghosh, Arun K; Zajc, Barbara

    2008-04-01

    Mild and efficient synthesis of phenyl (alpha-fluoro)vinyl sulfones via condensation of aldehydes and a ketone with a novel benzothiazolyl based bis-sulfone reagent is reported and this proceeds with moderate to good Z-stereoselectivity.

  19. Comparing polyaluminum chloride and ferric chloride for antimony removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Meea; Kamei, Tasuku; Magara, Yasumoto

    2003-10-01

    Antimony has been one of the contaminants required to be regulated, however, only limited information has been collected to date regarding antimony removal by polyaluminium chloride (PACl) and ferric chloride (FC). Accordingly, the possible use of coagulation by PACl or FC for antimony removal was investigated. Jar tests were used to determine the effects of solution pH, coagulant dosage, and pre-chlorination on the removal of various antimony species. Although high-efficiency antimony removal by aluminum coagulation has been expected because antimony is similar to arsenic in that both antimony and arsenic are a kind of metalloid in group V of the periodic chart, this study indicated: (1) removal density (arsenic or antimony removed per mg coagulant) for antimony by PACl was about one forty-fifth as low as observed for As(V); (2) although the removal of both Sb(III) and Sb(V) by coagulation with FC was much higher than that of PACl, a high coagulant dose of 10.5mg of FeL(-1) at optimal pH of 5.0 was still not sufficient to meet the standard antimony level of 2 microg as SbL(-1) for drinking water when around 6 microg as SbL(-1) were initially present. Consequently, investigation of a more appropriate treatment process is necessary to develop economical Sb reduction; (3) although previous studies concluded that As(V) is more effectively removed than As(III), this study showed that the removal of Sb(III) by coagulation with FC was much more pronounced than that of Sb(V); (4) oxidation of Sb(III) with chlorine decreased the ability of FC to remove antimony. Accordingly, natural water containing Sb(III) under anoxic condition should be coagulated without pre-oxidation.

  20. Electrochemical Behavior of Copper in Thionyl Chloride Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    lithium - thionyl chloride batteries . Thionyl chloride is known *3 to react...electrolyte for lithium - thionyl chloride batteries . 8R. K. McAlpine and B. A. Soule, Prescott and Johnson’s Qualitative Chemical Analysis, D. Van...black carbon electrodes, cupric chloride appears to be a useful cathode additive for lithium - thionyl chloride batteries . Preliminary results2l