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Sample records for monocarp frasera speciosa

  1. Size-Dependent Flowering in relation to Grazing in a Short-Lived Monocarpic Perennial

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    Diana E. Marco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In short-lived monocarpic perennials flowering probability depends on size and relative growth. Reproducing at a smaller size results in a higher prereproductive survival and shorter generation time but also may lead to lower fecundity. Conversely, reproducing at a larger size allows greater fecundity but leads to higher mortality during the prolonged vegetative period. Herbivory may influence the above described relationships via alterations in size at reproduction and survival. Here we use field data to explore in detail the reproduction of the short-lived monocarpic perennial C. vulgare under seasonal grazing. Vegetative plants were marked in paddocks with and without winter grazing, and their size, growth, and flowering status were recorded during a growing season in a field grazing experiment. Grazing increased both survival of vegetative plants and flowering probability, but it did not affect flowering size. The increase in flowering probability is a result of differential plant growth and size and may be related to greater resource availability, including light (necessary for flowering induction in C. vulgare in grazed paddocks.

  2. Two New Phenolic Glucosides from Lagerstroemia speciosa

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    Janggyoo Choi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Two new phenolic glucosides, 1-O-benzyl-6-O-E-caffeoyl-β-d-glucopyranoside and 1-O-(7S,8R-guaiacylglycerol-(6-O-E-caffeoyl-β-d-glucopyranoside, were isolated from the aerial parts of Lagerstroemia speciosa, along with ten known compounds. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined based on 1D- and 2D-NMR, Q-TOF MS and optical rotation spectroscopic data. All of the compounds showed moderate inhibitory activities against nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-treated RAW264.7 cells, with IC50 values of 69.5–83.3 μM.

  3. Alkaloids from flowers and leaves of Erythrina speciosa Andrews; Alcaloides de flores e folhas de Erythrina speciosa Andrews

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    Faria, Terezinha de Jesus; Cafeu, Mariana Carrara; Akiyoshi, Gisele; Ferreira, Dalva Trevisan; Galao, Olivio Fernandes; Andrei, Cesar Cornelio [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: tjfaria@uel.br; Pinge Filho, Phileno; Paiva, Manoel Ronaldo Carvalho [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Patologicas; Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Animal e Vegetal; Barbosa, Aneli de Melo [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Setor de Quimica de Produtos Naturais

    2007-05-15

    In vitro bioassays with leave extracts of Erythrina speciosa showed promising activity against Trypanosoma cruzi. From the flowers of E. speciosa two alkaloids were isolated: erysotrine and erythartine. The leaves furnished one alkaloid, nororientaline. The structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. This is the first report about the investigation of alkaloids in flowers and leaves of this species, as well the first report of nororientaline occurrence in this plant. (author)

  4. Chemical Constituents from Roots of Millettia speciosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Man-qin Fu; Geng-sheng Xiao; Yu-juan Xu; Ji-jun Wu; Yu-long Chen; Samuel-X Qiu

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the chemical constituents from the roots of Mil/ettia speciosa.Methods The chemical constituents were isolated and purified by silica gel,Sephadex LH-20,and ODS column chromatography.The structures were identified by means of spectral data.Results Fifteen compounds were isolated and identified as naringenin (1),liquiritigenin (2),garbanzol (3),7-hydroxy-6,4'-dimethoxyisoflavone (4),calycosin (5),2',5',7-trihydroxy-4'-methoxyisoflavone (6),2'-hydroxybiochanin A (7),6-methoxycalopogonium isoflavone A (8),demethylmedicarpin (9),4,4'-dihydroxy-2'-methoxychalcone (10),2',4'-dihydroxy-4-methoxychalcone (11),rhododendrol (12),secoisolariciresinol (13),bisdihydrosiringenin (14),and polystachyol (15).Conclusion All compounds are obtained from this plant for the first time.

  5. Pharmacological and toxicological evaluation of Alpinia speciosa

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    V. L. M. Mendonça

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpinia speciosa Schum or A. nutans is a plant of the Zingiberanceae family, Known popularly as "colony" (colônia and used as a diuretic and to control hypertensión. We have determinated the concentration of Na+ and K+ found in the alcoholic extract and in the tea concoction. They contained 51.0mEq Na+, and 132 mEq K+ in the extract, and 0,0 mEq of Na+ and 26 mEq K+ in the tea. Phytochemical analysis of the leaves demonstrated the presence of catecquic tanins, phenols and alkaloids, and also some essential oils. When injected intra-peritoneally the hydroalcoholic extract, in range of 100 a 1400 mg/Kg, (or 2500-18000 mg/Kg orally produced in mice: writhing, psychomorot excitation, hypokinesis and pruritus. The LD50 by ip was 0.760 + or - 0.126 g/Kg and 10.0 + or - 2.5 g/Kg by oral administration for the hydroalcoholic extract. Subacute toxicity made injecting daily for 30 days the LD10 in rats caused an increase in transaminases and lactate dehydrogenase, whereas other parameters such as nlood glucose, urea and creatinine were normal. A histopathological analysis of liver, spleen, gut, lung and heart showed no alterations. The drug also produced a prolongation of the sleeping time. The hydroalcoholic extract induced int he rat and in the dog a dose-dependent fall in blood pressure in doses of 10 to 30 mg/Kg. In isolated atria the extract induced a reduction of the frequnecy and in the inotropic responses. Neither the extract nor the tea had an effect on the diuresis of the rat.

  6. A monocarpic tree species in a polycarpic world: how can Tachigali vasquezii maintain itself so successfully in a tropical rain forest community?

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    Poorter, L.; Zuidema, P.A.; Peña-Claros, M.; Boot, R.

    2005-01-01

    1. Although monocarpy is rare among long-lived plant species that grow in stable habitats, one monocarpic species, Tachigali vasquezii, is extremely abundant in the rain forests of the Bolivian Amazon. We analyse how T. vasquezii is able to maintain itself successfully by comparing its life-history

  7. Visitantes florais de Lagerstroemia speciosa Pers: (Lythraceae Floral visitors in Lagerstroemia speciosa Pers: (Lythraceae

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    Maria de Jesus Vitali-Veiga

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out with Lagerstroemia speciosa Pers. on floral reproductive systems, diversity and constancy of visiting insects at different hours of day, the behaviour of these insects at the flowers and the influence of these environmental factors in relation to their visits. The fenology, anthesis and others particularity of this vegetal species was studied. A great diversity of insects was verified visiting the flowers with the predominance of bees. The most frequent and constant species encountered were: Nannotrigona testaceicornis (Lepeletier, 1836 (40,2%, Tetragonisca angustula (Latreille, 1811 (16,9%, Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 (11,8%, Plebeia droryana (Friese, 1900 (9,1 % e Exomalopsis fulvofasciata (Smith, 1879 (8,5%. The blossoms possessis features of melittophily syndrome and diurnal anthesis. The environmental factors influence the insects foraging activity, mainly temperature, light, time of day, humidity and wind speed. The effective pollinators were the large insects like Bombus morio (Swederus, 1787, Bombus atratus (Franklin, 1913, Centris tarsata (Smith, 1874, Centris flavifrons Fabricius, 1775, Xylocopa suspecta Camargo & Moure, 1988, Xylocopa frontalis (Olivier, 1789 and Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841.

  8. Hancornia speciosa latex for biomedical applications: physical and chemical properties, biocompatibility assessment and angiogenic activity.

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    Almeida, Luciane Madureira; Floriano, Juliana Ferreira; Ribeiro, Thuanne Pires; Magno, Lais Nogueira; da Mota, Lígia Souza Lima Silveira; Peixoto, Nei; Mrué, Fátima; Melo-Reis, Paulo; Lino Junior, Ruy de Souza; Graeff, Carlos Frederico de Oliveira; Gonçalves, Pablo José

    2014-09-01

    The latex obtained from Hancornia speciosa is used in folk medicine for treatment of several diseases, such as acne, warts, diabetes, gastritis and inflammation. In this work, we describe the biocompatibility assessment and angiogenic properties of H. speciosa latex and its potential application in medicine. The physical-chemical characterization was carried out following different methodologies (CHN elemental analyses; thermogravimetric analyses and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy). The biocompatibility was evaluated through cytotoxicity and genotoxicity tests in fibroblast mouse cells and the angiogenic properties were evaluated using the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay model. The physical-chemical results showed that the structure of Hancornia speciosa latex biomembrane is very similar to that of Hevea brasiliensis (commercially available product). Moreover, the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity assays showed that H. speciosa latex is biocompatible with life systems and can be a good biomaterial for medical applications. The CAM test showed the efficient ability of H. speciosa latex in neovascularization of tissues. The histological analysis was in accordance with the results obtained in the CAM assay. Our data indicate that the latex obtained from H. speciosa and eluted in water showed significant angiogenic activity without any cytotoxic or genotoxic effects on life systems. The same did not occur with H. speciosa latex stabilized with ammonia. Addition of ammonia does not have significant effects on the structure of biomembranes, but showed a smaller cell survival and a significant genotoxicity effect. This study contributes to the understanding of the potentialities of H. speciosa latex as a source of new phytomedicines.

  9. Diversity and genetic structure in natural populations of Hancornia speciosa var. speciosa Gomes in northeastern Brazil Diversidade e estrutura genética em populações naturais de Hancornia speciosa var. speciosa Gomes no nordeste do Brasil

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    Georgia Vilela Martins

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Hancornia speciosa Gomes is a fruit tree native from Brazil that belongs to Apocinaceae family, and is popularly known as Mangabeira. Its fruits are widely consumed raw or processed as fruit jam, juices and ice creams, which have made it a target of intense exploitation. The extractive activities and intense human activity on the environment of natural occurrence of H. speciosa has caused genetic erosion in the species and little is known about the ecology or genetic structure of natural populations. The objective of this research was the evaluation of the genetic diversity and genetic structure of H. speciosa var. speciosa. The genetic variability was assessed using 11 allozyme loci with a sample of 164 individuals distributed in six natural populations located in the States of Pernambuco and Alagoas, Northeastern Brazil. The results showed a high level of genetic diversity within the species (e= 0.36 seeing that the most of the genetic variability of H. speciosa var. speciosa is within its natural populations with low difference among populations ( or = 0.081. The inbreeding values within ( = -0.555 and among populations ( =-0.428 were low showing lacking of endogamy and a surplus of heterozygotes. The estimated gene flow ( m was high, ranging from 2.20 to 13.18, indicating to be enough to prevent the effects of genetic drift and genetic differentiation among populations. The multivariate analyses indicated that there is a relationship between genetic and geographical distances, which was confirmed by a spatial pattern analysis using Mantel test (r = 0.3598; p = 0.0920 with 1000 random permutations. The high genetic diversity index in these populations indicates potential for in situ genetic conservation.Hancornia speciosa Gomes é uma árvore frutífera nativa do Brasil, pertencente à família Apocinaceae, e é conhecida popularmente como Mangabeira. Seus frutos são amplamente consumidos in natura ou processados como sucos, sorvetes e

  10. Argyreia speciosa (Linn. f. sweet: A comprehensive review

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    V J Galani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Argyreia speciosa (Linn. f. Sweet is a popular Indian medicinal plant, which has long been used in traditional Ayurvedic Indian medicine for various diseases. This plant is pharmacologically studied for nootropic, aphrodisiac, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antihyperglycemic, antidiarrheal, antimicrobial, antiviral, nematicidal, antiulcer, anticonvulsant, analgesic and central nervous depressant activities. A wide range of phytochemical constituents have been isolated from this plant. A comprehensive account of the morphology, phytochemical constituents and pharmacological activities reported are included in view of the many recent findings of importance on this plant.

  11. Effect of the down-regulation of the high Grain Protein Content (GPC) genes on the wheat transcriptome during monocarpic senescence

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    Cantu, Dario; Pearce, Stephen P; Distelfeld, Assaf;

    2011-01-01

    -regulation of the NAC transcription factor Grain Protein Content (GPC) in transgenic wheat plants delays senescence (>3 weeks) and reduces the concentration of protein, Zn and Fe in the grain (>30%), linking senescence and nutrient remobilization. Based on the early and rapid up-regulation of GPC in wheat flag leaves...... ratios between transgenic and wild type plants showed a high correlation (R = 0.83) between qRT-PCR and Illumina results, providing independent validation of the mRNA-seq approach. A set of differentially expressed genes were analyzed across an early senescence time-course.Conclusions: Monocarpic...

  12. Effect of the down-regulation of the high Grain Protein Content (GPC genes on the wheat transcriptome during monocarpic senescence

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    Christiansen Michael W

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing the nutrient concentration of wheat grains is important to ameliorate nutritional deficiencies in many parts of the world. Proteins and nutrients in the wheat grain are largely derived from the remobilization of degraded leaf molecules during monocarpic senescence. The down-regulation of the NAC transcription factor Grain Protein Content (GPC in transgenic wheat plants delays senescence (>3 weeks and reduces the concentration of protein, Zn and Fe in the grain (>30%, linking senescence and nutrient remobilization. Based on the early and rapid up-regulation of GPC in wheat flag leaves after anthesis, we hypothesized that this transcription factor is an early regulator of monocarpic senescence. To test this hypothesis, we used high-throughput mRNA-seq technologies to characterize the effect of the GPC down-regulation on the wheat flag-leaf transcriptome 12 days after anthesis. At this early stage of senescence GPC transcript levels are significantly lower in transgenic GPC-RNAi plants than in the wild type, but there are still no visible phenotypic differences between genotypes. Results We generated 1.4 million 454 reads from early senescing flag leaves (average ~350 nt and assembled 1.2 million into 30,497 contigs that were used as a reference to map 145 million Illumina reads from three wild type and four GPC-RNAi plants. Following normalization and statistical testing, we identified a set of 691 genes differentially regulated by GPC (431 ≥ 2-fold change. Transcript level ratios between transgenic and wild type plants showed a high correlation (R = 0.83 between qRT-PCR and Illumina results, providing independent validation of the mRNA-seq approach. A set of differentially expressed genes were analyzed across an early senescence time-course. Conclusions Monocarpic senescence is an active process characterized by large-scale changes in gene expression which begins considerably before the appearance of visual

  13. A conserved role for the NAM/miR164 developmental module reveals a common mechanism underlying carpel margin fusion in monocarpous and syncarpous eurosids.

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    Aurelie Chantal Marie Vialette-Guiraud

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of angiosperms are syncarpous- their gynoecium is composed of two or more fused carpels. In Arabidopsis thaliana, this fusion is regulated through the balance of expression between CUP SHAPED COTYLEDON (CUC genes, which are orthologues of the Petunia hybrida transcription factor NO APICAL MERISTEM (NAM, and their post-transcriptional regulator miR164. Accordingly, the expression of a miR164-insensitive form of Ar. thaliana CUC2 causes a radical breakdown of carpel fusion. Here, we investigate the role of the NAM/miR164 genetic module in carpel closure in monocarpous plants. We show that the disruption of this module in monocarpous flowers of Ar. thaliana aux1-22 mutants causes a failure of carpel closure, similar to the failure of carpel fusion observed in the wild-type genetic background. This observation suggested that closely related mechanisms may bring about carpel closure and carpel fusion, at least in Ar. thaliana. We therefore tested whether these mechanisms were conserved in a eurosid species that is monocarpous in its wild-type form. We observed that expression of MtNAM, the NAM ortholog in the monocarpous eurosid Medicago truncatula, decreases during carpel margin fusion, suggesting a role for the NAM/miR164 module in this process. We transformed M. truncatula with a miR164-resistant form of MtNAM and observed, among other phenotypes, incomplete carpel closure in the resulting transformants. These data confirm the underlying mechanistic similarity between carpel closure and carpel fusion which we observed in Ar. thaliana. Our observations suggest that the role of the NAM/miR164 module in the fusion of carpel margins has been conserved at least since the most recent common ancestor of the eurosid clade, and open the possibility that a similar mechanism may have been responsible for carpel closure at much earlier stages of angiosperm evolution. We combine our results with studies of early-diverging angiosperms to speculate

  14. Intraspecific diversity in Sinningia speciosa (Gesneriaceae: Sinningieae), and possible origins of the cultivated florist's gloxinia.

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    Zaitlin, David

    2012-01-01

    The florist's gloxinia is a familiar houseplant in the Gesneriaceae, the botanical family that includes the African violet (Saintpaulia) and other ornamental species. The gloxinia's wild progenitor is Sinningia speciosa (Lodd.) Hiern, a Brazilian endemic. Although it has been cultivated for almost 200 years, little is known about the genetic diversity in S. speciosa, how the wild populations relate to one another or even where the cultivated forms originated. Using available wild collections, preliminary phenetic and phylogenetic investigations were conducted to elucidate the interspecific relationships within S. speciosa and to infer the origins of the cultivars. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was applied to 24 accessions of S. speciosa (17 wild collections, seven cultivars) and one accession each of Sinningia guttata and Sinningia macrophylla. A maximum likelihood (ML) tree was also calculated from an alignment of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer sequence from the same 26 accessions. Dice/UPGMA and principal coordinates analysis of the AFLP data partitioned S. speciosa into several distinct clusters, one of which included S. macrophylla. All cultivated 'gloxinias' grouped together in a major cluster with plants from Rio de Janeiro. The AFLP results were compared with a phylogenetic analysis of the ribosomal spacer region, which was informative in S. speciosa. The ML tree generally supported the AFLP results, although several clades lacked strong statistical support. Independent analyses of two different data sets show that S. speciosa is a diverse species comprised of several lineages. Genetic distance estimates calculated from the AFLP data were positively correlated with geographic distances between populations, indicating that reproductive isolation could be driving speciation in this taxon. Molecular markers are under development for population genetic studies in S. speciosa, which will make it possible to define

  15. Primera cita de Sternopsylla distincta speciosa (Siphonaptera: Ischnopsyllidae para la provincia de Jujuy, Argentina

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    Analía G. AUTINO

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se cita por primera vez para Jujuy la presencia de pulgas ectoparásitas de murciélagos, habiéndose registrado a Sternopsylla distincta speciosa Johnson sobre Tadarida brasiliensis (Geoffroy (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae. Además se presentan comentarios sobre caracteres de morfología externa y estructuras genitales de las subespecies Sternopsylla distincta speciosa Johnson y Sternopsylla distincta distincta (Rothschild.

  16. Characterization of nutrient deficiency in Hancornia speciosa Gomes seedlings by omitting micronutrients from the nutrient solution

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    Layara Alexandre Bessa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Mangaba tree is a fruit tree belonging to the Apocynaceae family and is native to Brazil. The production of seedlings of this species is limited by a lack of technical and nutritional expertise. To address this deficiency, this study aimed to characterize the visual symptoms of micronutrient deficiency and to assess growth and leaf nutrient accumulation in H. speciosa seedlings supplied with nutrient solutions that lack individual micronutrients. H. speciosa plants were grown in nutrient solution in a greenhouse according to a randomized block design, with four replicates. The treatments consisted of a group receiving complete nutrient solution and groups treated with a nutrient solution lacking one of the following micronutrients: boron (B, copper (Cu, iron (Fe, manganese (Mn, zinc (Zn, and molybdenum (Mo. The visual symptoms of nutrient deficiency were generally easy to characterize. Dry matter production was affected by the omission of micronutrients, and the treatment lacking Fe most limited the stem length, stem diameter, root length, and number of leaves in H. speciosa seedlings as well as the dry weight of leaves, the total dry weight, and the relative growth in H. speciosa plants. The micronutrient contents of H. speciosa leaves from plants receiving the complete nutrient solution treatment were, in decreasing order, Fe>Mn>Cu>Zn>B.

  17. Beneficial Insect Attraction to Milkweeds (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis) in Washington State, USA.

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    James, David G; Seymour, Lorraine; Lauby, Gerry; Buckley, Katie

    2016-06-29

    Native plant and beneficial insect associations are relatively unstudied yet are important in native habitat restoration programs for improving and sustaining conservation biological control of arthropod pests in agricultural crops. Milkweeds (Asclepias spp.) are currently the focus of restoration programs in the USA aimed at reversing a decline in populations of the milkweed-dependent monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus); however, little is known of the benefits of these plants to other beneficial insects. Beneficial insects (predators, parasitoids, pollinators) attracted to two milkweed species (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis) in central Washington State, WA, USA were identified and counted on transparent sticky traps attached to blooms over five seasons. Combining all categories of beneficial insects, means of 128 and 126 insects per trap were recorded for A. speciosa and A. fascicularis, respectively. Predatory and parasitic flies dominated trap catches for A. speciosa while parasitic wasps were the most commonly trapped beneficial insects on A. fascicularis. Bees were trapped commonly on both species, especially A. speciosa with native bees trapped in significantly greater numbers than honey bees. Beneficial insect attraction to A. speciosa and A. fascicularis was substantial. Therefore, these plants are ideal candidates for habitat restoration, intended to enhance conservation biological control, and for pollinator conservation. In central Washington, milkweed restoration programs for enhancement of D. plexippus populations should also provide benefits for pest suppression and pollinator conservation.

  18. Beneficial Insect Attraction to Milkweeds (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis in Washington State, USA

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    David G. James

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Native plant and beneficial insect associations are relatively unstudied yet are important in native habitat restoration programs for improving and sustaining conservation biological control of arthropod pests in agricultural crops. Milkweeds (Asclepias spp. are currently the focus of restoration programs in the USA aimed at reversing a decline in populations of the milkweed-dependent monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus; however, little is known of the benefits of these plants to other beneficial insects. Beneficial insects (predators, parasitoids, pollinators attracted to two milkweed species (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis in central Washington State, WA, USA were identified and counted on transparent sticky traps attached to blooms over five seasons. Combining all categories of beneficial insects, means of 128 and 126 insects per trap were recorded for A. speciosa and A. fascicularis, respectively. Predatory and parasitic flies dominated trap catches for A. speciosa while parasitic wasps were the most commonly trapped beneficial insects on A. fascicularis. Bees were trapped commonly on both species, especially A. speciosa with native bees trapped in significantly greater numbers than honey bees. Beneficial insect attraction to A. speciosa and A. fascicularis was substantial. Therefore, these plants are ideal candidates for habitat restoration, intended to enhance conservation biological control, and for pollinator conservation. In central Washington, milkweed restoration programs for enhancement of D. plexippus populations should also provide benefits for pest suppression and pollinator conservation.

  19. Social Functioning of Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Users in Malaysia.

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    Singh, Darshan; Müller, Christian P; Vicknasingam, Balasingam K; Mansor, Sharif M

    2015-01-01

    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is an indigenous plant known for its traditional medicinal use, and for its addiction potential, in Southeast Asia. In recent years, kratom and its major alkaloid, mitragynine, spread worldwide with largely unknown effects on behavior and mental health. Recent studies show that kratom use can lead to dependence and that mitragynine works as an addictive drug in animal studies. Nevertheless, kratom preparations were also suggested as a less harmful substitute in opiate withdrawal. Potential side-effects of prolonged kratom use, however, are currently unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the social functioning of regular kratom users in Malaysia. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in three northern states of Peninsular Malaysia investigating 293 regular kratom consumers using the Addiction Severity Index in a snowball sampling technique. Findings showed that regular kratom users do not experience major impairments in their social functioning, despite being dependent on kratom for prolonged periods. Our findings suggest that chronic kratom administration does not significantly impair social functioning of users in a natural context in Malaysia.

  20. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Argyreia speciosa in rats.

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    Habbu, P V; Shastry, R A; Mahadevan, K M; Joshi, Hanumanthachar; Das, S K

    2008-01-22

    The present study has been designed to evaluate the liver protective and in-vivo antioxidant role of Ethanolic extract (EtAS) and Ethyl acetate extract (EAAS) of roots of Argyreia speciosa, an important 'rasayana' herb in Indian System of medicine, in CCl(4)-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats. Animals were treated with EtAS and EAAS at doses of 200 mg and 400 mg/kg body weight p.o. along with CCl(4) (0.7 ml/kg in olive oil, 1:1 v/v i.p. on every alternate days) for seven days. Serum biochemical parameters such as SGOT, SGPT, ALP, cholesterol, total and direct bilirubin were determined. Antioxidant status in liver was determined by measuring the activities of Super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and peroxidase. Histopathological study of isolated liver specimens was also carried out to know the protection offered by the extracts. There was a significant rise in the levels of serum GOT, GPT, and ALP and other biochemical parameters, decrease in the levels of SOD, catalase and peroxidase after administration of CCl(4). Suspensions of EtAS and EAAS (200 and 400 mg/kg) successfully prevented the alterations of these effects in rats (pEtAS and EAAS showed recovery on ballooning degeneration and centrolobular bridging necrosis was occasionally present. Data also showed that these extracts possessed strong antioxidant activity, and were comparable to Silymarin, a well known liver protecting herbal formulation.

  1. PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF THE PETROLEUM ETHER EXTRACT OF THE LEAVES OF Lagerstroemia speciosa Linn

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    S.M. Mizanur Rahman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Two new compounds, normal alcohol containing of higher carbons and isomer of β-sitosterol were isolated for the first time from the petroleum extract of the leaves of Lagerstroemia speciosa. The structure of the compound has been established on the basis of UV, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and mass spectra and identified as nonanol and isomer of β-sitosterol.   Keywords: Lagerstroemia speciosa, petroleum ether extracts, isolation, 1-nonanol, 2 β-sitostero, spectral analyses.

  2. Medicinal plant extracts on the control of Diabrotica speciosa (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae Extratos de plantas medicinais no controle de Diabrotica speciosa (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae

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    F.S. Barbosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the insecticidal effect of aqueous, alcoholic, and oil extracts from leaves of eight medicinal plants against Diabrotica speciosa prepared at five concentrations. The extracts that used commercial soybean oil as solvent showed the highest D. speciosa mortality due to the solvent itself, regardless of the used plants and their concentrations. Thus, commercial soybean oil was discarded as solvent since at these volumes it would cause serious phytotoxicity problems. After 24 hours of exposure of the pest to the extracts, the highest D. speciosa mortality values were observed for Copaifera langsdorfii and Chenopodium ambrosioides extracts, both in 5% alcohol, and Artemisia verlotorum, in 10% water. However, in the last mortality assessment (48 h, C. langsdorfii extract in 5% alcohol showed higher mortality of this pest, followed by C. ambrosioides extract in 5% alcohol, compared to the remaining plants.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito inseticida de extratos aquosos, alcoólicos e oleosos de folhas de oito plantas medicinais contra Diabrotica speciosa preparadas em cinco concentrações. Os extratos que utilizaram óleo de soja comercial como solvente apresentaram as maiores mortalidades de D. speciosa em função do próprio óleo, independentemente das plantas utilizadas em suas concentrações. Sendo assim, o óleo de soja comercial foi descartado como solvente, pois nestes volumes acarretaria sérios problemas de fitotoxidade. Após 24 horas de exposição da praga aos extratos, os maiores valores de mortalidade de D. speciosa foram observados nos extratos de Copaifera Langsdorfii e de Chenopodium ambrosioides, ambos em álcool 5%, e de Artemisia verlotorum, em água 10%. Entretanto, na última avaliação de mortalidade (48 h, o extrato de C. langsdorfii em álcool a 5% apresentou maior mortalidade dessa praga, seguida pelo extrato alcoólico a 5% de C. ambrosioides comparada às demais plantas.

  3. The evaluation of antinociceptive activity of alkaloid, methanolic, and aqueous extracts of Malaysian Mitragyna speciosa Korth leaves in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Azadeh Sabetghadam; Surash Ramanathan; Sharif Mahsufi Mansor

    2010-01-01

    Mitragyna speciosa Korth is a medicinal plant indigenous to Thailand and Malaysia and has been known for its narcotic and coca-like effects. Many studies have been performed on the antinociceptive effect of the plant extracts of Thai origin; however, limited studies have been reported till date on M. speciosa extracts of Malaysian origin. Various concentrations of alkaloid (5-20 mg/kg), methanolic (50-200 mg/kg), and aqueous (100-400 mg/kg) extracts of Malaysian M. speciosa leaves were prepar...

  4. Antidiabetes and Anti-Obesity Activity of Lagerstroemia speciosa

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    Guy Klein

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Lagerstroemia speciosa (Lythraceae, a Southeast Asian tree more commonly known as banaba, have been traditionally consumed in various forms by Philippinos for treatment of diabetes and kidney related diseases. In the 1990s, the popularity of this herbal medicine began to attract the attention of scientists worldwide. Since then, researchers have conducted numerous in vitro and in vivo studies that consistently confirmed the antidiabetic activity of banaba. Scientists have identified different components of banaba to be responsible for its activity. Using tumor cells as a cell model, corosolic acid was isolated from the methanol extract of banaba and shown to be an active compound. More recently, a different cell model and the focus on the water soluble fraction of the extract led to the discovery of other compounds. The ellagitannin Lagerstroemin was identified as an effective component of the banaba extract responsible for the activity. In a different approach, using 3T3-L1 adipocytes as a cell model and a glucose uptake assay as the functional screening method, Chen et al. showed that the banaba water extract exhibited an insulin-like glucose transport inducing activity. Coupling HPLC fractionation with a glucose uptake assay, gallotannins were identified in the banaba extract as components responsible for the activity, not corosolic acid. Penta-O-galloyl-glucopyranose (PGG was identified as the most potent gallotannin. A comparison of published data with results obtained for PGG indicates that PGG has a significantly higher glucose transport stimulatory activity than Lagerstroemin. Chen et al. have also shown that PGG exhibits anti-adipogenic properties in addition to stimulating the glucose uptake in adipocytes. The combination of glucose uptake and anti-adipogenesis activity is not found in the current insulin mimetic drugs and may indicate a great therapeutic potential of PGG.

  5. QUALITY CONTROL STUDIES OF ARGYREIA SPECIOSA SWEET LEAVES

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    Sahu Alakh N

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The plant Argyreia speciosa Sweet (Syn: Argyreia nervosa Burm. f., is a woody climber which belongs to the family Convulvulaceae. The plant is commonly known as Elephant creeper in English and in Hindi, it is known as ‘Vryddhadaru”. It has been used as a “Rasayana” drug (rejuvenating drugs in the traditional Ayurvedic system of medicines. Authentication and identification has been done taxonomically. The quality control studies of the leaves have been performed as per WHO guidelines-1998. The leaf has been heart-shaped up to 1foot across, back with silvery hairs on the lower surface, glabrous above, white tomentose beneath and long stalked. The most distinct anatomical character in TS of petiole has been the occurrence of intra-xylary phloem, where the xylem is above and the phloem is below. Unicellular trichomes are numerous and are present in the dorsal side only. These palisade cells are rectangular in nature where the length is twice its breadth. Total ash (15.5% w/w, acid insoluble ash (3.6% w/w, water soluble ash (2.18% w/w, alcohol soluble extractive (1.66% w/w, water soluble extractive (3.56% w/w and moisture content (14.07% of the crude drug have been obtained. A fingerprint of fluorescence has been observed in fluorescence analysis. Chlorinated pesticide in first and second elute from column have been 0.034 and 0.081mg/kg of the crude drug respectively. Phosphated pesticides are found to be 0.012, 0.095 and 0.004mg/kg respectively from first, second and third elute. The heavy metals content have been negligible.

  6. Antistress activity of Argyreia speciosa roots in experimental animals

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    Nikunj B Patel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The antistress effect of a seven-day treatment (100 and 200 mg / kg, p.o. of the hydroalcoholic extract of Argyreia speciosa root (ASE was evaluated by using the swimming endurance test, acetic acid-induced writhing test, pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsion test, anoxic tolerance test, cold-restraint, stress-induced gastric ulcers, aspirin-induced ulcers, and biochemical, and histopathological changes in the cold-restraint stress test. The immunomodulatory activity was also evaluated for the same doses, and treatment of ASE was done using the hemagglutination test. Both the doses of ASE showed antistress activity in all the tested models. The ASE-treated animals showed a decrease in immobility time and an increase in anoxic tolerance time in swimming endurance and the anoxic tolerance tests, respectively. The effect of glacial acetic acid and pentylenetetrazole were also reduced by decreasing the number of writhing responses and increasing the onset of convulsions, respectively. In the cold restrained stress and aspirin-induced gastric ulcer models, ASE showed a significant reduction in the ulcer index. Pretreatment with ASE significantly ameliorated the cold stress-induced variations in biochemical levels such as increased plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, total protein, and cortisol. ASE was also effective in preventing the pathological changes in the adrenal gland, due to cold restrained stress, in rats. In mice immunized with sheep red blood cells, the treatment groups subjected to restraint stress prevented the humoral immune response to the antigen. The immunostimulating activity of the ASE was indicated by an increase in the antibody titer in mice pre-immunized with sheep red blood cells and subjected to restraint stress. The findings of the present investigations indicate that the ASE has significant antistress activity, which may be due to the immunostimulating property and increased resistance, nonspecifically, against all

  7. An evidence-based systematic review of kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbricht, Catherine; Costa, Dawn; Dao, Julie; Isaac, Richard; LeBlanc, Yvonne C; Rhoades, Jenna; Windsor, Regina C

    2013-06-01

    An evidence-based systematic review of kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration consolidates the safety and efficacy data available in the scientific literature using a validated, reproducible grading rationale. This article includes written and statistical analysis of clinical trials, plus a compilation of expert opinion, folkloric precedent, history, pharmacology, kinetics/dynamics, interactions, adverse effects, toxicology, and dosing.

  8. Evaluation of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of Hancornia speciosa latex in Allium cepa root model.

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    Ribeiro, T P; Sousa, T R; Arruda, A S; Peixoto, N; Gonçalves, P J; Almeida, L M

    2016-02-01

    The latex obtained from Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Mangabeira tree) is widely used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of diseases, including diarrhea, ulcer, gastritis, tuberculosis, acne and warts. In this study, the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity effects of H. speciosa latex on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa were examined. Onion bulbs were exposed to different concentrations of latex and then submitted to microscopic analysis using Giemsa stain. Water was used as a negative control and sodium azide as a positive control. The results showed that, under the testing conditions, the mitotic index (MI) of the onion roots submitted to latex treatment did not differ significantly from the negative control, which suggests that the latex is not cytotoxic. Low incidence of chromosome aberrations in the cells treated with H. speciosa latex was also observed, indicating that the latex does not have genotoxic effect either. The MI and the chromosome aberration frequency responded to the latex concentration, requiring more studies to evaluate the dosage effect on genotoxicity. The results indicate that in tested concentrations H. speciosa latex is probably not harmful to human health and may be potentially used in medicine.

  9. Lagerstroemia speciosa ‘Big Pink’, an improved pink flowered queen’s crape myrtle

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    Technical Abstract Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers., commonly called Pride-of-India, queen’s or giant crape myrtle, is a large shrub or small tree widely used as a tropical ornamental, with landscape utility limited to USDA Hardiness Zones 10-11. This paper describes a pink-flowered seedling selec...

  10. Manejo de Diabrotica speciosa com atrativos naturais em horta orgânica Natural attractios for management of Diabrotica speciosa in a organic home garden

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    João José Stüpp

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O controle de insetos associados ao cultivo de hortaliças é predominantemente realizado através de pesticidas sintéticos. Entretanto, os riscos do uso indiscriminado dos pesticidas sobre a saúde humana e o meio ambiente deve ser considerado. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a eficácia de atrativos naturais no controle da vaquinha Diabrotica speciosa (Germar (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, uma praga de importância econômica na América Latina. Os seguintes tratamentos foram testados: raiz de taiuiá (Cayaponia sp, frutos verdes de porongo/cuia (Lagenaria sp, extrato de folhas de couve-chinesa (Brassica pekinensis, fermentado de frutas, vinagre tinto e água como testemunha. O delineamento foi inteiramente ao acaso, com seis repetições. Os preparados foram acondicionados em armadilhas com garrafas PET de 2.000 ml, com oito aberturas laterais e distribuídas aleatoriamente na área experimental. Frutos verdes de porongo apresentaram captura de adultos de D. speciosa 5,4 vezes maior que raízes de taiuiá e as raízes de taiuiá capturaram 19,7 vezes mais adultos do que a testemunha. Ambas as iscas foram acondicionadas na forma sólida, suspensas internamente na garrafa PET. A menor atratividade foi apresentada pelo extrato aquoso de couve-chinesa, que não diferiu da testemunha. Independentemente do atrativo utilizado, o pico populacional da D. speciosa ocorreu nos meses de fevereiro e março.The control of insects associated with home garden vegetable crops is usually done by sintetic pesticides. However, the risks of the indiscriminate use of pesticides on human health and the environment need to be considered. The objective of this work was to study the attractive efficacy of natural substances on D. speciosa, a very important pest in Latin America. The following treatments were tested: roots of Cayaponia sp., green fruits of Lagenaria sp., water extract of Brassica pekinensis, extract of fermented fruits, red vinegar and water as a

  11. The Impact of Global Climate Change on the Geographic Distribution and Sustainable Harvest of Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Apocynaceae) in Brazil.

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    Nabout, João Carlos; Magalhães, Mara Rúbia; de Amorim Gomes, Marcos Aurélio; da Cunha, Hélida Ferreira

    2016-04-01

    The global Climate change may affect biodiversity and the functioning of ecosystems by changing the appropriate locations for the development and establishment of the species. The Hancornia speciosa, popularly called Mangaba, is a plant species that has potential commercial value and contributes to rural economic activities in Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of global climate change on the potential geographic distribution, productivity, and value of production of H. speciosa in Brazil. We used MaxEnt to estimate the potential geographic distribution of the species in current and future (2050) climate scenarios. We obtained the productivity and value of production for 74 municipalities in Brazil. Moreover, to explain the variation the productivity and value of production, we constructed 15 models based on four variables: two ecological (ecological niche model and the presence of Unity of conservation) and two socio-economic (gross domestic product and human developed index). The models were selected using Akaike Information Criteria. Our results suggest that municipalities currently harvesting H. speciosa will have lower harvest rates in the future (mainly in northeastern Brazil). The best model to explain the productivity was ecological niche model; thus, municipalities with higher productivity are inserted in regions with higher environmental suitability (indicated by niche model). Thus, in the future, the municipalities harvesting H. speciosa will produce less because there will be less suitable habitat for H. speciosa, which in turn will affect the H. speciosa harvest and the local economy.

  12. The Impact of Global Climate Change on the Geographic Distribution and Sustainable Harvest of Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Apocynaceae) in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabout, João Carlos; Magalhães, Mara Rúbia; de Amorim Gomes, Marcos Aurélio; da Cunha, Hélida Ferreira

    2016-04-01

    The global Climate change may affect biodiversity and the functioning of ecosystems by changing the appropriate locations for the development and establishment of the species. The Hancornia speciosa, popularly called Mangaba, is a plant species that has potential commercial value and contributes to rural economic activities in Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of global climate change on the potential geographic distribution, productivity, and value of production of H. speciosa in Brazil. We used MaxEnt to estimate the potential geographic distribution of the species in current and future (2050) climate scenarios. We obtained the productivity and value of production for 74 municipalities in Brazil. Moreover, to explain the variation the productivity and value of production, we constructed 15 models based on four variables: two ecological (ecological niche model and the presence of Unity of conservation) and two socio-economic (gross domestic product and human developed index). The models were selected using Akaike Information Criteria. Our results suggest that municipalities currently harvesting H. speciosa will have lower harvest rates in the future (mainly in northeastern Brazil). The best model to explain the productivity was ecological niche model; thus, municipalities with higher productivity are inserted in regions with higher environmental suitability (indicated by niche model). Thus, in the future, the municipalities harvesting H. speciosa will produce less because there will be less suitable habitat for H. speciosa, which in turn will affect the H. speciosa harvest and the local economy.

  13. UAE, MAE, SFE-CO2 and classical methods for the extraction of Mitragyna speciosa leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orio, Laura; Alexandru, Lavinia; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Mantegna, Stefano; Barge, Alessandro

    2012-05-01

    Mitragyna speciosa, a tropical plant indigenous to Southeast Asia, is well known for its psychoactive properties. Its leaves are traditionally chewed by Thai and Malaysian farmers and manual labourers as it causes a numbing, stimulating effect. The present study aims to evaluate alkaloid yield and composition in the leaf extracts. For this purpose we have compared several non-conventional extraction techniques with classic procedures (room temperature or under heating). Dried M. speciosa leaves belonging to three batches of different origin (from Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia) were extracted using ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction SFE-CO(2), using methanol, ethanol, water and binary mixtures. The extracts were compared using an HPLC/ESI-MS analysis of mitragynine and four other related alkaloids which were present in the alkaloid fraction. The extraction technique influences both the raw product yield and the relative alkaloid content of M. speciosa leaves. Of the several methods tested, MAE in a closed vessel at 110 °C (60 W, methanol/water 1:1) gave the highest alkaloid fraction amount, while UAE with an immersion horn at 25 °C (21.4 kHz, 50 W, methanol) showed the best yield for mitragynine. This work may prove to be a useful contribution to forensic, toxicological and pharmacognosy studies. Although the potential applications of M. speciosa alkaloids clearly need further investigation, these results may facilitate the scaling-up of their extraction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The botanical origin of kratom (Mitragyna speciosa; Rubiaceae) available as abused drugs in the Japanese markets.

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    Maruyama, Takuro; Kawamura, Maiko; Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri; Takayama, Hiromitsu; Goda, Yukihiro

    2009-07-01

    Kratom is the leaves of Mitragyna speciosa (Rubiaceae). Recently, kratom has been sold in street shops or on the Internet in Japan for the purpose of abuse due to its opium-like effects. In this study, we investigated the botanical origin of the commercial kratom products using the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis of rDNA in preparation for future regulation of this product. In addition, a previously reported method to authenticate the plant, utilizing polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was applied to the same products in order to estimate the method's accuracy and utility. The ITS sequence analysis of the commercial kratoms revealed that most of them were derived from M. speciosa or closely related plants, while the others were made from the same tribe plant as M. speciosa. The reported PCR-RFLP method could clearly distinguish kratoms from the other psychoactive plants available in the Japanese markets and also from related plants. The authentication method is considered to be useful for the practical regulation of the plant due to its wide range of application, high accuracy and simplicity.

  15. Effect of Argyreia speciosa root extract on cafeteria diet-induced obesity in rats

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    Shiv Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : To evaluate the antiobesity effects of the ethanolic extract of Argyreia speciosa roots in rats fed with a cafeteria diet (CD. Materials and Methods : Obesity was induced in albino rats by feeding them a CD daily for 42 days, in addition to a normal diet. Body weight and food intake was measured initially and then every week thereafter. On day 42, the serum biochemical parameters were estimated and the animals were sacrificed with an overdose of ether. The, liver and parametrial adipose tissues were removed and weighed immediately. The liver triglyceride content was estimated. The influence of the extract on the pancreatic lipase activity was also determined by measuring the rate of release of oleic acid from triolein. Results : The body weight at two-to-six weeks and the final parametrial adipose tissue weights were significantly lowered (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively in rats fed with the CD with Argyreia speciosa extract 500 mg/kg/day as compared to the CD alone. The extract also significantly reduced (P < 0.01 the serum contents of leptin, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL, and triglycerides, which were elevated in rats fed with CD alone. In addition, the extract inhibited the induction of fatty liver with the accumulation of hepatic triglycerides. The extract also showed inhibition of pancreatic lipase activity by using triolein as a substrate. Conclusions : The ethanolic extract of Argyreia speciosa roots produces inhibitory effects on cafeteria diet-induced obesity in rats.

  16. Nuclear DNA content in Sinningia (Gesneriaceae); intraspecific genome size variation and genome characterization in S. speciosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitlin, David; Pierce, Andrew J

    2010-12-01

    The Gesneriaceae (Lamiales) is a family of flowering plants comprising >3000 species of mainly tropical origin, the most familiar of which is the cultivated African violet (Saintpaulia spp.). Species of Gesneriaceae are poorly represented in the lists of taxa sampled for genome size estimation; measurements are available for three species of Ramonda and one each of Haberlea, Saintpaulia, and Streptocarpus, all species of Old World origin. We report here nuclear genome size estimates for 10 species of Sinningia, a neotropical genus largely restricted to Brazil. Flow cytometry of leaf cell nuclei showed that holoploid genome size in Sinningia is very small (approximately two times the size of the Arabidopsis genome), and is small compared to the other six species of Gesneriaceae with genome size estimates. We also documented intraspecific genome size variation of 21%-26% within a group of wild Sinningia speciosa (Lodd.) Hiern collections. In addition, we analyzed 1210 genome survey sequences from S. speciosa to characterize basic features of the nuclear genome such as guanine-cytosine content, types of repetitive elements, numbers of protein-coding sequences, and sequences unique to S. speciosa. We included several other angiosperm species as genome size standards, one of which was the snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus L.; Veronicaceae, Lamiales). Multiple measurements on three accessions indicated that the genome size of A. majus is ~633 × 10⁶ base pairs, which is approximately 40% of the previously published estimate.

  17. Identification of Phenolic Compounds from Hancornia speciosa (Apocynaceae Leaves by UHPLC Orbitrap-HRMS

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    Katherine Xavier Bastos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Apocynaceae is a botanical family distributed mainly in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In Brazil, they comprise about 90 genera and 850 species, inhabiting various types of vegetation. Within this large botanical family, the genus Hancornia is considered monotypic, with its only species Hancornia speciosa Gomes. Antihypertensive, antidiabetic, and antiviral activities are described for this species. Despite having been the target of some studies, knowledge of its chemical composition is still limited. In this study, the phenolics of H. speciosa leaves were analyzed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC coupled to Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS. As a result, 14 compounds were identified viz. protocatechuic acid, catechin, and quercetin, and another 14 were putatively identified viz. B- and C-type procyanidins, while just one compound remained unknown. From the identified compounds, 17 are reported for the first time viz. coumaroylquinic acid isomers and eriodyctiol. The results show that Hancornia speciosa can serve as source of valuable phenolics.

  18. Limitation of mitragynine biosynthesis in Mitragyna speciosa (Roxb.) Korth. through tryptamine availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoonratanaa, Tossaton; Wungsintaweekul, Juraithip; Pathompak, Pathamaporn; Georgiev, Milen I; Choi, Young Hae; Verpoorte, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Metabolite profiles of Mitragyna speciosa were determined by means of 1H NMR-based and HPLC-based analyses. The results indicated that high contents of secologanin, caffeic acid, gallic acid, epigallocatechin, and mitragynine were accumulated in leaves. In M. speciosa, feedings of tryptamine, tryptophan, phenylalanine or tyrosine significantly increased the mitragynine contents. Feedings of tryptamine and loganin also enhanced the mitragynine accumulation, but feeding of loganin only did not affect the mitragynine level. The mRNA levels of anthranilate synthase alpha subunit (ASA), tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC), and strictosidine synthase (STR) were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in control plants and those exposed to methyl jasmonate (MJ; 10 microM). All genes responded to MJ after a 24-h treatment. The mitragynine contents were also enhanced and corresponded to the transcript levels. From the present results we conclude that a high content of secologanin together with a undetectable level of tryptamine in M. speciosa feature the limitation of mitragynine biosynthesis. Additionally, expression of all the genes limits production of an essential precursor for mitragynine production.

  19. Is there a missing link? Effects of root herbivory on plant-pollinator interactions and reproductive output in a monocarpic species.

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    Ghyselen, C; Bonte, D; Brys, R

    2016-01-01

    Herbivores can have a major influence on plant fitness. The direct impact of herbivory on plant reproductive output has long been studied, and recently also indirect effects of herbivory on plant traits and pollinator attraction have received increasing attention. However, the link between these direct and indirect effects has seldom been studied. In this study, we investigated effects of root herbivory on plant and floral traits, pollination success and reproductive outcome in the monocarpic perennial Cynoglossum officinale. We exposed 119 C. officinale plants to a range of root herbivore damage by its specialist herbivore Mogulones cruciger. We assessed the effect of herbivory on several plant traits, pollinator foraging behaviour and reproductive output, and to elucidate the link between these last two we also quantified pollen deposition and pollen tube growth and applied a pollination experiment to test whether seed set was pollen-limited. Larval root herbivory induced significant changes in plant traits and had a negative impact on pollinator visitation. Infested plants were reduced in size, had fewer flowers and received fewer pollinator visits at plant and flower level than non-infested plants. Also, seed set was negatively affected by root herbivory, but this could not be attributed to pollen limitation since neither stigmatic pollen loads and pollen tube growth nor the results of the hand-pollination experiment differed between infested and non-infested plants. Our observations demonstrate that although herbivory may induce significant changes in flowering behaviour and resulting plant-pollinator interactions, it does not necessarily translate into higher rates of pollen limitation. The observed reductions in reproductive output following infection can mainly be attributed to higher resource limitation compared to non-infested plants.

  20. Trap attributes influencing capture of Diabrotica speciosa (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae on common bean fields Atributos da armadilha influenciam captura de Diabrotica speciosa (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae em feijoeiro

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    Maurício Ursi Ventura

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Refinements in trap characteristics may improve ability to monitor and mass-trap beetles. Field assays were conducted in common bean fields to assess responses of Diabrotica speciosa (Germar to some trap characteristics. Golden yellow plastic cups (750 mL traps caught more D. speciosa females and males than did clear traps. Carrot slices in Petri dishes baited with Lagenaria vulagaris L. powder (cucurbitacin source - 0.28% caught more beetles than did dishes with carrot alone. Dispensers for the floral volatile attractant 1,4-dimethoxybenze were also compared. Rubber septa dispenser attracted more beetles than did control (dental wicks saturated with acetone. Captures on dental wick, starch matrix and feminine pad dispensers were intermediate and did not differ from those on rubber septa and unbaited controls. Perforated bottle traps (2000 mL, when baited with the floral attractant, caught more beetles than did window bottle traps (both traps contained L. vulgaris powder in most assessments done from two to ten days after trap placement in the field. Traps with the insecticide carbaryl captured more beetles than did traps without it, 2-4 and 8-10 days after trap placement in the field, but not in the remaining periods (0-2, 4-6 and 6-8 days. Traps baited with 1,4-dimethoxybenzene captured more beetles than did the unbaited ones in all assessments (each other day from two to ten days after trap placement in the field. Finally, similar amounts of beetles were captured using plastic bottle traps (2000 mL: perforated, window (both with cucurbitacin and sticky (without cucurbitacin traps, when were baited with the floral attractant.Refinamentos em caraterísticas de armadilhas podem incrementar sua habilidade para monitorar e capturar em massa os insetos. Experimentos foram conduzidos em lavoura de feijoeiro para verificar as respostas de Diabrotica speciosa (Germar a algumas características de armadilhas. Armadilhas de copos plástico (750 m

  1. Invertebrate assemblages in the lower Klamath River, with reference to Manayunkia speciosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakauskas, David M.; Wilzbach, Margaret A.

    2012-01-01

    The freshwater polychaete, Manayunkia speciosa Leidy (Canalipalpata Sabellidae), is the intermediate host for two myxozoan pathogens (Ceratomyxa shasta and Parvicapsula minibicornis) that cause substantial mortalities of juvenile salmon in the Pacific Northwest, particularly in the Klamath River below Iron Gate Dam in California. Information on the distribution of M. speciosa in the Klamath River may facilitate targeted control of polychaete populations to disrupt the parasites that affect fish populations. We sampled invertebrate assemblages in the lower Klamath River in the summer and fall of 2005 and 2006 to estimate distribution patterns of M. speciosa and to characterize assemblage structure of invertebrates in reaches where the polychaete was both collected and not collected. The polychaete was most often found in a reach of river extending 100 km downstream from the Shasta River (river km 185-287). The reach in which it was found supported high taxonomic richness of invertebrates and a high abundance of filtering collectors including marine relicts such as sponges, unioinid mussels, and bryozoans. We suggest that the large, stable substrate on which these were found represents primary, optimal habitat for the polychaete, also a marine relict. Reaches above and below the zone where we collected polychaetes showed a general trend of reduced taxonomic richness as distance away from the polychaete zone increased, and also showed differing relative abundances of non-insect taxa and functional feeding groups. Differences in invertebrate assemblages between years were coincident with large differences in water flows. We suggest flows and food resources may play important roles in invertebrate distribution patterns.

  2. The evaluation of antinociceptive activity of alkaloid, methanolic, and aqueous extracts of Malaysian Mitragyna speciosa Korth leaves in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabetghadam, Azadeh; Ramanathan, Surash; Mansor, Sharif Mahsuti

    2010-05-01

    Mitragyna speciosa Korth is a medicinal plant indigenous to Thailand and Malaysia and has been known for its narcotic and coca-like effects. Many studies have been performed on the antinociceptive effect of the plant extracts of Thai origin; however, limited studies have been reported till date on M. speciosa extracts of Malaysian origin. Various concentrations of alkaloid (5-20 mg/kg), methanolic (50-200 mg/kg), and aqueous (100-400 mg/kg) extracts of Malaysian M. speciosa leaves were prepared and orally administered to nine groups of rats. Morphine (5 mg/kg, s.c.) and aspirin (300 mg/kg, p.o.) were used as control. Antagonism of the antinociceptive activity was evaluated by pretreatment with naloxone at a dose of 2 mg/kg (i.p.). Results showed that oral administration of the alkaloid (20 mg/kg), methanolic (200 mg/kg), and aqueous (400 mg/kg) extracts significantly prolonged the latency of nociceptive response compared with control groups in both hot plate and tail flick tests (P < 0.05). Antinociceptive action of the alkaloid (20 mg/kg), methanolic (200 mg/kg), and aqueous (400 mg/kg) extracts was significantly blocked by naloxone. In conclusion, these results suggest the presence of antinociceptive effect in various extracts of Malaysian M. speciosa leaves. In addition, the antinociceptive effective doses vary depending on the type of solvents used for extraction.

  3. Molecular evidence of undescribed Ceratonova sp. (Cnidaria: Myxosporea) in the freshwater polychaete, Manayunkia speciosa, from western Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakauskas, David M.; Snipes, Robert Benjamin; Thompson, Ann M.; Schloesser, Donald W.

    2016-01-01

    We used PCR to screen pooled individuals of Manayunkia speciosa from western Lake Erie, Michigan, USA for myxosporean parasites. Amplicons from positive PCRs were sequenced and showed a Ceratonova species in an estimated 1.1% (95% CI = 0.46%, 1.8%) of M. speciosa individuals. We sequenced 18S, ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2 and most of the 28S rDNA regions of this Ceratonova sp., and part of the protein-coding EF2 gene. Phylogenetic analyses of ribosomal and EF2 sequences showed the Lake Erie Ceratonova sp. is most similar to, but genetically distinct from, Ceratonova shasta. Marked interspecific polymorphism in all genes examined, including the ITS barcoding genes, along with geographic location suggests this is an undescribed Ceratonova species. COI sequences showed M. speciosa individuals in Michigan and California are the same species. These findings represent a third parasite in the genus Ceratonovapotentially hosted by M. speciosa.

  4. The evaluation of antinociceptive activity of alkaloid, methanolic, and aqueous extracts of Malaysian Mitragyna speciosa Korth leaves in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Sabetghadam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitragyna speciosa Korth is a medicinal plant indigenous to Thailand and Malaysia and has been known for its narcotic and coca-like effects. Many studies have been performed on the antinociceptive effect of the plant extracts of Thai origin; however, limited studies have been reported till date on M. speciosa extracts of Malaysian origin. Various concentrations of alkaloid (5-20 mg/kg, methanolic (50-200 mg/kg, and aqueous (100-400 mg/kg extracts of Malaysian M. speciosa leaves were prepared and orally administered to nine groups of rats. Morphine (5 mg/kg, s.c. and aspirin (300 mg/kg, p.o. were used as control. Antagonism of the antinociceptive activity was evaluated by pretreatment with naloxone at a dose of 2 mg/kg (i.p.. Results showed that oral administration of the alkaloid (20 mg/kg, methanolic (200 mg/kg, and aqueous (400 mg/kg extracts significantly prolonged the latency of nociceptive response compared with control groups in both hot plate and tail flick tests (P < 0.05. Antinociceptive action of the alkaloid (20 mg/kg, methanolic (200 mg/kg, and aqueous (400 mg/kg extracts was significantly blocked by naloxone. In conclusion, these results suggest the presence of antinociceptive effect in various extracts of Malaysian M. speciosa leaves. In addition, the antinociceptive effective doses vary depending on the type of solvents used for extraction.

  5. VARIABILIDADE GENÉTICA DE MATRIZES DE Erythrina speciosa A PARTIR DE CARACTERES MORFOLÓGICOS

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    Renata Aparecida Monteiro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Erythrina speciosa is specie suitable for forest recuperation programm. As its seeds coats are impermeable to water absorption, the aim of this work was to study the change of biometric characters during seed germination and analyse the physiological quality of E. speciosa seeds from different sources. Therefore, seeds were collected from Capão Bonito and Ribeirão Grande, two municipilties of São Paulo State, Brazil, and were scarified. For each replicate were used 15 seeds. The germination test was conducted at 25 °C with photoperiod of 12 hours, using vermiculite packed in seedling boxes. We evaluated the germination percentage, germination speed index, seedling stem diameter and number of leaves. The results showed that the seeds of different sources showed wide variability in biometric characteristics, external dimensions and fresh weight, but such data did not correlate with seed germination and growth of seedlings in the nursery, so it is not necessary separate the seeds for seedling production process.

  6. STATE OF THE ART OF SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE ON Hancornia speciosa: TRENDS AND GAPS

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    LUCIANE MADUREIRA DE ALMEIDA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The economic and scientific interest in Hancornia speciosa (mangabeira has been growing in recent years, mainly due to the marketing of fruit and extraction of natural compounds with high pharmacological potential. In this study, a scientometric survey about mangabeira was carried out in order to promote and direct future studies on the species. As a result, low scientific productivity associated with this species was found, with only 131 articles published in the last 69 years. In addition, this study identified some trends in bibliographic production on mangabeira, among them: the increasing number of articles over the years; scientific dissemination in nationwide journals; the main focus of this study is associated with agronomic studies; the experimental approach is more frequent and usually associated with populations of restricted geographical distribution; and the scientific production is mainly from education institutions. Furthermore, this study also allowed the identification of some gaps in knowledge about mangabeira, among them the difficulty in describing and characterizing botanical lines; lack of analysis of the genetic diversity of widely distributed populations; lack of management and conservation projects for the species; lack of description of cultivation, collection and preservation techniques of fruits; and lack of identification of natural compounds responsible for its pharmacological activity. It is expected that the data generated in this study will serve to direct future studies on H. speciosa.

  7. Comportamento alimentar de adultos de Diabrotica speciosa na presença de extratos aquosos de Meliaceae Feeding behavior of Diabrotica speciosa adults on Meliaceae aqueous extracts

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    Rita de Cássia Andrade dos Santos Seffrin

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente experimento foi selecionar extratos com atividade antialimentar sobre Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824. O consumo foliar de insetos adultos foi determinado, em laboratório, sob condições de livre escolha. Folhas de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris foram cortadas em formato circular e tratadas com extratos aquosos de folíolos e de pecíolos com caule de: Cedrela fissilis Vell., Cabralea canjerana (Vell. Mart, Melia azedarach L. var. azedarach, Trichilia claussenii C. DC., Trichilia catigua A. Juss. e Trichilia elegans A. Juss., dispostos em placas de Petri, e um inseto liberado e mantido no interior da placa por 24 horas. A área foliar consumida foi determinada após este período. O extrato de folíolos de M. azedarach var. azedarach apresentou maior efeito antialimentar que o extrato de pecíolos com caule. Entretanto, a área foliar consumida nas folhas tratadas com o extrato de pecíolos com caule foi menor do que nas tratadas com extratos de folíolos, indicando maior efeito antialimentar. O índice KOGAN & GOEDEN (1970 mostrou efeito fagodeterrente para todos os extratos, mas não mostrou diferenças significativas entre eles.The aim of this research was to select extracts with insect antifeedant activity. Leaf consumption by adults of Diabrotica speciosa was determined under laboratory conditions with free choice. Bean leaf had been cut in circular format and treated with aqueous extracts of leaflets, petioles with stems of Cedrela fissilis Vell., Cabralea canjerana (Vell. Mart, Melia azedarach L. var. azedarach, Trichilia claussenii C. DC., Trichilia catigua A. Juss. e Trichilia elegans A. Juss, arranged in Petri plates, and an insect released and kept within the plate for 24 hours. The consumed leaf area was determined after this period. The leaflet extract of M. azedarach var. azedarach showed greater antifeedant activity tham the extract of petiole with stems. However, the consumed leaf area in the leaves

  8. Rapid detection by direct analysis in real time-mass spectrometry (DART-MS) of psychoactive plant drugs of abuse: the case of Mitragyna speciosa aka "Kratom".

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    Lesiak, Ashton D; Cody, Robert B; Dane, A John; Musah, Rabi A

    2014-09-01

    Mitragyna speciosa, also known commonly as "Kratom" or "Ketum", is a plant with psychoactive properties that have been attributed to the presence of various indole alkaloids such as mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine. M. speciosa use is gaining popularity internationally as a natural and legal alternative to narcotics. As a drug of abuse, its detection and identification are not straightforward, since M. speciosa plant material is not particularly distinctive. Here, we show that direct analysis in real time-mass spectrometry (DART-MS) can be used not only to rapidly identify M. speciosa plant material and distinguish it from other plants, but also to distinguish between M. speciosa plant varieties, based on differences between their chemical profiles. The method is rapid and the analysis expeditious. Plant material such as that found at a crime scene can be analyzed directly with no sample pre-preparation steps. Furthermore, we show that the basis set of principal components that permit characterization of the plant material can be used to positively identify M. speciosa.

  9. Antiamnesic potentiality of Argyreia speciosa (Burm.f Boj. in mice

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    Habbu P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Several ′rasayana′ herbs that are enlisted in Indian system of medicine have been in use for the treatment of age-related neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer′s disease (AD. Roots of Argyreia speciosa are used in several Ayurvedic preparations as brain tonic and nervine tonic. The present work was undertaken to justify the traditional claim of the plant as nootropic and antiamnesic agent in mice. The ethyl acetate and ethanolic fractions (EtAS of roots were selected for the study. Exteroceptive behavioural models such as elevated plus maze and Water maze were used to assess the short-term memory, whereas, scopolamine and natural ageing- induced amnesia served as interoceptive models. The whole brain acetyl cholinesterase activity was measured to assess the effect of A. speciosa on the central cholinergic system. Scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, i.p. increased the transfer latency significantly ( P< 0.01 in young mice on the first and second day as compared to control indicating the impairment of memory. Pretreatment with EAAS (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o. significantly ( P< 0.01 attenuated scopolamine and ageing-induced amnesia. Escape latency time was recorded in the water maze model as an index of acquisition, and trials were conducted for 4 days. The mean time spent in target quadrant (TSTQ during retrieval trial on fifth day was taken as the index of retrieval (memory. EAAS (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o. administered before the training trial (from day 1 to day 4, significantly ( P< 0.01 attenuated scopolamine and ageing-induced decrease in TSTQ during the retrieval test on the fifth day. EAAS (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o. significantly produced reduction in whole brain acetyl cholinesterase (AChE activity of both young and aged mice thus exhibiting anti-AChE activity in whole brain homogenate compared to Piracetam, scopolamine and control groups of mice. The results indicate that A. speciosa has significant nootropic and antiamnesic activity

  10. Effect of Argyreia speciosa root extract on cafeteria diet-induced obesity in rats.

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    Kumar, Shiv; Alagawadi, K R; Rao, M Raghavendra

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the antiobesity effects of the ethanolic extract of Argyreia speciosa roots in rats fed with a cafeteria diet (CD). Obesity was induced in albino rats by feeding them a CD daily for 42 days, in addition to a normal diet. Body weight and food intake was measured initially and then every week thereafter. On day 42, the serum biochemical parameters were estimated and the animals were sacrificed with an overdose of ether. The, liver and parametrial adipose tissues were removed and weighed immediately. The liver triglyceride content was estimated. The influence of the extract on the pancreatic lipase activity was also determined by measuring the rate of release of oleic acid from triolein. The body weight at two-to-six weeks and the final parametrial adipose tissue weights were significantly lowered (P cafeteria diet-induced obesity in rats.

  11. Supercritical extraction of pupunha (Guilielma speciosa oil in a fixed bed using carbon dioxide

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    Araújo M.E.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The pupunha (Guilielma speciosa is the fruit of a palm tree typical of the Brazilian Northern region, whose stem is used as a source of heart of palm. The fruit, which is about 65% pulp, is a source of oil and carotenes. In the present work, an analysis of the kinetics of supercritical extraction of oil from the pupunha pulp is presented. Carbon dioxide was used as solvent. The extractions were carried out at 25 MPa and 323 K and 30 MPa and 318 K. The chemical composition of the extracts in terms of fatty acids was determined by gas chromatography. The amount of oleic acid, a saturated fatty acid, in the CO2 extracts was larger than that in the extract obtained with hexane. The overall extraction curves were modeled using the single-parameter model proposed in the literature to describe the desorption of toluene from activated coal.

  12. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using extract of Parkia speciosa Hassk pods assisted by microwave irradiation

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    Is Fatimah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports an investigation of the microwave-assisted synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs using extract of stinky bean (Parkia speciosa Hassk pods (BP. The formation of Ag NPs was identified by instrumental analysis consists of UV–vis spectrophotometry, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and particle size analysis. Furthermore, Ag NPs were used as antibacterial agents against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results indicate rapid formation of Ag NPs during microwave irradiation with similar properties to those obtained through the aging method. In general, the use of microwave irradiation yields larger particles, and it is affected by volume ratio of the extract to the AgNO3 solution. The prepared materials demonstrated antibacterial activity.

  13. Purification, characterization and in vitro antioxidant activities of polysaccharide from Chaenomeles speciosa.

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    Xie, Xianfei; Zou, Guolin; Li, Chenghai

    2016-11-01

    A water-soluble polysaccharide named as CSP-2 was isolated and purified from Chaenomeles speciosa by DEAE-Sepharose and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. CSP-2 was composed of galactose (Gal), rhamnose (Rha), glucose (Glc) and xylose (Xyl) with a relative molar ratio of 3.8:1.6:1.2:0.4. The average molecular weight of CSP-2 was estimated to be about 4.6×10(4)Da. The in vitro antioxidant assay showed that CSP-2 exhibited remarkable antioxidant activities to scavenge the DPPH radical, superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical and ABTS radical and significant cytoprotective effects on H2O2-induced PC12 cells injury in a concentration-dependent manner. Overall, CSP-2 may be useful as a naturally potential antioxidant agent for application in food and medicinal fields.

  14. Responses to simulated nitrogen deposition by the neotropical epiphytic orchid Laelia speciosa

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    Edison A. Díaz-Álvarez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Potential ecophysiological responses to nitrogen deposition, which is considered to be one of the leading causes for global biodiversity loss, were studied for the endangered endemic Mexican epiphytic orchid, Laelia speciosa, via a shadehouse dose-response experiment (doses were 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 kg N ha−1 yr−1 in order to assess the potential risk facing this orchid given impending scenarios of nitrogen deposition. Lower doses of nitrogen of up to 20 kg N ha yr−1, the dose that led to optimal plant performance, acted as fertilizer. For instance, the production of leaves and pseudobulbs were respectively 35% and 36% greater for plants receiving 20 kg N ha yr−1 than under any other dose. Also, the chlorophyll content and quantum yield peaked at 0.66 ± 0.03 g m−2 and 0.85 ± 0.01, respectively, for plants growing under the optimum dose. In contrast, toxic effects were observed at the higher doses of 40 and 80 kg N ha yr−1. The δ13C for leaves averaged −14.7 ± 0.2‰ regardless of the nitrogen dose. In turn, δ15N decreased as the nitrogen dose increased from 0.9 ± 0.1‰ under 2.5 kg N ha−1yr−1 to −3.1 ± 0.2‰ under 80 kg N ha−1yr−1, indicating that orchids preferentially assimilate NH4+ rather than NO3− of the solution under higher doses of nitrogen. Laelia speciosa showed a clear response to inputs of nitrogen, thus, increasing rates of atmospheric nitrogen deposition can pose an important threat for this species.

  15. Hypoglycemic activity of Lagerstroemia speciosa L. extract on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat: Underlying mechanism of action

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    Barun Kanti Saha, Md. Nurul Huda Bhuiyan, Kishor Mazumder and K.M. Formuzul Haque

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The hypoglycemic effect of Lagerstroemia speciosa L. leaves hot water extract on chemically induced diabetes in rat was investigated. Experimental result showed that, streptozotocin significantly (p<0.001 elevated the normal blood sugar level whereas treatment with hot water extract depressed the streptozotocin-induced high blood sugar level about 43.20% as compare to diabetic controls. Treatment with hot water extract increased the activity of shunt enzyme glucose–6-phosphate dehydrogenase (33.81% and glutathione level (31.25% and depression of the activity of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes glucose-6-phasphatase (31.63% and fructose–1,6-bisphosphatase (27.40%. These studies thus strongly suggest that the hot water extract of L. speciosa leave attributed its prominent hypoglycemic activity on experimental diabetic rats through suppression of gluconeogenesis and stimulation of glucose oxidation using the pentose phosphate pathway.

  16. Anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extract and bioactive compounds identified from the fruits of Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Apocynaceae).

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    Torres-Rêgo, Manoela; Furtado, Allanny Alves; Bitencourt, Mariana Angélica Oliveira; Lima, Maira Conceição Jerônimo de Souza; Andrade, Rafael Caetano Lisbôa Castro de; Azevedo, Eduardo Pereira de; Soares, Thaciane da Cunha; Tomaz, José Carlos; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; da Silva-Júnior, Arnóbio Antônio; Zucolotto, Silvana Maria; Fernandes-Pedrosa, Matheus de Freitas

    2016-08-05

    Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Apocynaceae), popularly known as "mangabeira," has been used in folk medicine to treat inflammatory disorders, hypertension, dermatitis, diabetes, liver diseases and gastric disorders. Although the ethnobotany indicates that its fruits can be used for the treatment of ulcers and inflammatory disorders, only few studies have been conducted to prove such biological activities. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory properties of the aqueous extract of the fruits of H. speciosa Gomes as well as its bioactive compounds using in vivo experimental models. The bioactive compounds were identified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) and Liquid Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS). The anti-inflammatory properties were investigated through in vivo tests, which comprised xylene-induced ear edema, carrageenan-induced peritonitis and zymosan-induced air pouch. The levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-α were determined using ELISA. Rutin and chlorogenic acid were identified in the extract as the main secondary metabolites. In addition, the extract as well as rutin and chlorogenic acid significantly inhibited the xilol-induced ear edema and also reduced the cell migration in both carrageenan-induced peritonitis and zymosan-induced air pouch models. Reduced levels of cytokines were also observed. This is the first study that demonstrated the anti-inflammatory activity of the extract of H. speciosa fruits against different inflammatory agents in animal models, suggesting that its bioactive molecules, especially rutin and chlorogenic acid are, at least in part, responsible for such activity. These findings support the widespread use of Hancornia speciosa in popular medicine and demonstrate that its aqueous extract has therapeutical potential for the development of herbal drugs with anti-inflammatory properties.

  17. Freshwater polychaetes (Manayunkia speciosa) near the Detroit River, western Lake Erie: Abundance and life‐history characteristics

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    Schloesser, Donald W.; Malakauskas, David M.; Malakauskas, Sarah J.

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater polychaetes are relatively rare and little-studied members of the benthos of lakes and rivers. We studied one polychaete species (Manayunkia speciosa) in Lake Erie near the mouth of the Detroit River. Abundances at one site were determined between 1961 and 2013 and life‐history characteristics at two sites were determined seasonally (March–November) in 2009–2010 and 2012–2013. Life‐history characteristics included abundances, length‐frequency distributions, presence/absence of constructed tubes, sexual maturity, and number and maturation of young of year (YOY) in tubes. Long-term abundances decreased in successive time periods between 1961 and 2003 (mean range = 57,570 to 2583/m2) but few changes occurred between 2003 and 2013 (mean = 5007/m2; range/y = 2355–8216/m2). Seasonal abundances varied substantially between sites and years, but overall, abundances were low in March–April, high in May–August, and low in September–November. Although reproduction was continuous throughout warmer months, en masse recruitment, as revealed by length–frequency distributions, occurred in a brief period late‐June to mid-July, and possibly in early-September. All life history characteristics, including tube construction, were dependent on water temperatures (> 5 °C in spring and < 15 °C in fall). These results generally agree with and complement laboratory studies of M. speciosa in the Pacific Northwest where M. speciosa hosts parasites that cause substantial fish mortalities. Although abundance ofM. speciosa near the mouth of the Detroit River was 33-fold lower in 2013 than it was in 1961, this population has persisted for five decades and, therefore, has the potential to harbor parasites that may cause fish mortalities in the Great Lakes.

  18. SUBSTRATES FOR PRODUCTION AND GROWTH OF MANGABA (Hancornia speciosa Gomes SEEDLINGS PRODUÇÃO E CRESCIMENTO DE MUDAS DE MANGABEIRA (Hancornia speciosa Gomez EM DIFERENTES SUBSTRATOS

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    Maria Eloisa Cardoso da Rosa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gomez seedlings were transplanted eleven months after emergence to the following substrates: soil (Oxisol, soil + 33% calcined sugar-cane bagasse, and soil + 66% calcined sugar-cane bagasse, with and without lime and fertilizer. At 70, 100 and 130 days after transplanting, plants were evaluated for height and number of leaf pairs. At the end of the experiment – 130 days – roots and aerial part dry matter were weighed. The addition of 0.5 kg.m-3 of 10-10-10 fertilizer to the soil was the best treatment. Root dry matter was slightly higher than aerial part dry matter on some treatments. Roots have developed more than aerial parts. In general, substrates with pH values between 5.2 and 5.5 promote higher growth of mangaba seedlings, but those with pH between 6.0 and 6.8 cause seedling growth reduction.

    KEY-WORDS: Mangaba; native fruit trees; lime; fertilizer; substrate.

    Mudas de mangabeira (Hancornia speciosa Gomez com onze meses de idade foram submetidas a diferentes combinações de substratos: solo apenas (Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo, solo + 33% de bagacilho de cana calcinado, e solo + 66% de bagacilho de cana calcinado, os quais receberam ou não calagem e adubação. Após a aplicação dos tratamentos, foram avaliados aos 70, 100 e 130 dias, o diâmetro basal das mudas, a altura de plantas e o número de pares de folhas, bem como o peso seco da parte aérea e da raiz, ao final do experimento. Pôde-se verificar que a adição de 0,5 kg.m-3 do adubo químico 10-10-10 ao solo foi o melhor tratamento, nas condições estudadas. Houve uma tendência de superioridade do peso seco da raiz, em relação à parte aérea, em parte dos tratamentos, evidenciando um maior desenvolvimento da raiz das mudas de mangaba, em rela

  19. Efeitos do envelhecimento precoce no vigor de sementes de Chorisia speciosa St. Hil. - Bombacaceae Effects of accelerating aging on the seed vigor of Chorisia speciosa St. Hil. - Bombacaceae

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    Silmara Cristina Fanti

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência do envelhecimento precoce no vigor de sementes de paineira (Chorisia speciosa St. Hil. - Bombacaceae. Adotou-se o método da câmara de envelhecimento (45ºC e 100% de umidade relativa, sendo utilizadas para cada período de envelhecimento (0, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 e 144 horas quatro subamostras de 50 sementes, distribuídas em caixas tipo ";gerbox";. Decorridos os períodos de envelhecimento, as sementes foram submetidas às seguintes avaliações: teste de germinação (27 ºC, teste de condutividade elétrica e avaliação de plântulas. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise de variância e ao teste de Tukey. Nos períodos de 48, 72, 96 e 120 horas de envelhecimento, foram obtidos valores estatisticamente inferiores de porcentagem de germinação em relação ao experimento-controle. A permanência das sementes por 144 horas em câmara de envelhecimento levou à perda total da viabilidade. O decréscimo na germinação foi diretamente proporcional ao aumento na lixiviação eletrolítica dos solutos celulares das sementes. A partir de 72 horas de envelhecimento precoce, detectou-se redução significativa na porcentagem de plântulas emergidas. O período de 72 horas de envelhecimento mostrou-se adequado para ser utilizado em trabalhos futuros de avaliação de vigor de sementes de paineira, pois é possível detectar diferenças significativas, em relação ao experimento-controle (sementes não envelhecidas, dos parâmetros porcentagem de germinação, porcentagem de plântulas emergidas e condutividade elétrica.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of accelerated aging on the seed vigor of paineira (Chorisia speciosa St. Hil.- Bombacaceae. The aging chamber technique was used (45ºC and 100% R.U. and four replications of 50 seeds were distributed on gerbox for each aging time (0, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 and 144h. After the aging periods, the seeds were submitted to germination

  20. A novel interaction between plant-beneficial rhizobacteria and roots: colonization induces corn resistance against the root herbivore Diabrotica speciosa.

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    Franciele Santos

    Full Text Available A number of soil-borne microorganisms, such as mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobacteria, establish mutualistic interactions with plants, which can indirectly affect other organisms. Knowledge of the plant-mediated effects of mutualistic microorganisms is limited to aboveground insects, whereas there is little understanding of what role beneficial soil bacteria may play in plant defense against root herbivory. Here, we establish that colonization by the beneficial rhizobacterium Azospirillum brasilense affects the host selection and performance of the insect Diabrotica speciosa. Root larvae preferentially orient toward the roots of non-inoculated plants versus inoculated roots and gain less weight when feeding on inoculated plants. As inoculation by A. brasilense induces higher emissions of (E-β-caryophyllene compared with non-inoculated plants, it is plausible that the non-preference of D. speciosa for inoculated plants is related to this sesquiterpene, which is well known to mediate belowground insect-plant interactions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing that a beneficial rhizobacterium inoculant indirectly alters belowground plant-insect interactions. The role of A. brasilense as part of an integrative pest management (IPM program for the protection of corn against the South American corn rootworm, D. speciosa, is considered.

  1. A novel interaction between plant-beneficial rhizobacteria and roots: colonization induces corn resistance against the root herbivore Diabrotica speciosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Franciele; Peñaflor, Maria Fernanda G V; Paré, Paul W; Sanches, Patrícia A; Kamiya, Aline C; Tonelli, Mateus; Nardi, Cristiane; Bento, José Mauricio S

    2014-01-01

    A number of soil-borne microorganisms, such as mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobacteria, establish mutualistic interactions with plants, which can indirectly affect other organisms. Knowledge of the plant-mediated effects of mutualistic microorganisms is limited to aboveground insects, whereas there is little understanding of what role beneficial soil bacteria may play in plant defense against root herbivory. Here, we establish that colonization by the beneficial rhizobacterium Azospirillum brasilense affects the host selection and performance of the insect Diabrotica speciosa. Root larvae preferentially orient toward the roots of non-inoculated plants versus inoculated roots and gain less weight when feeding on inoculated plants. As inoculation by A. brasilense induces higher emissions of (E)-β-caryophyllene compared with non-inoculated plants, it is plausible that the non-preference of D. speciosa for inoculated plants is related to this sesquiterpene, which is well known to mediate belowground insect-plant interactions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing that a beneficial rhizobacterium inoculant indirectly alters belowground plant-insect interactions. The role of A. brasilense as part of an integrative pest management (IPM) program for the protection of corn against the South American corn rootworm, D. speciosa, is considered.

  2. Human perceptions of landscape change: The case of a monodominant forest of Attalea speciosa Mart ex. Spreng (Northeast Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Gabriela M A; Ramos, Marcelo A; Araújo, Elcida L; Baldauf, Cristina; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2016-05-01

    From the perception of human populations, we can assess the changes occurring in certain landscapes and the factors that cause those changes. Such studies have proven helpful in increasing the knowledge of the history of a landscape, recognizing past formations and projecting its future. Our research objective was to determine how a landscape dominated by the palm tree Attalea speciosa, a species of ecological, economic, and cultural importance, has been changing over time by synthesizing and comparing historical documents and local perceptions. This study was conducted in Araripe Environmental Protection Area, Northeast Region, Brazil. To understand local landscape change, we interviewed active harvesters in four communities in which A. speciosa use has been documented. Historical documents were evaluated as a complement to the interview data. According to local informants, areas previously used for cultivation and animal husbandry that were abandoned or decimated by droughts in the region may have fostered the expansion of a monodominant A. speciosa forest. Furthermore, other forms of landscape management resulting from human population growth may also have affected the current and past distribution of this forest.

  3. 大花紫薇开花及花粉特性研究%Study on the Characteristics of Florescence and Pollen in Lagerstroemia speciosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任翔翔; 张启翔; 潘会堂; 蔡明

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] To study the characteristics of florescence and pollen in Lagerstroemia speciosa. [Method] The process of flower opening and pollen tube germination of Lagerstroemia speciosa was observed and the pollen viability was determined through in vitro germination. [Result] Sepals of L.speciosa started to diverge at 4:30 am, at 7: 00 am petals flatten up, anther diverged, and the stigma secreted a large number of mucus, it was the best time for artificial pollination. Boric acid and sucrose had a great effect on in vitro pollen germination of L.speciosa, the combination which made highest rate of pollen germination, was sucrose 150 g/L + boric acid 20 mg/L + CaCl2 10 mg/L. Through the fluorescence microscope, it was known that four hours after flowering, a lot of pollen grains germinated on the stigma, six hours after flowering, lots of pollen tubes entered the style and reached to 1/4 length of the style, 12 hours after flowering, pollen tubes concentrated into a beam forward, and reached to 1/2 length of the style, 24 hours after flowering, lots of pollen tubes entered the ovary in a beam and then fertilized and produced seeds. [Conclusion] The results provide some basis for utilizing L.speciosa to breed.

  4. Chemical Composition and Bioactivities of Two Common Chaenomeles Fruits in China: Chaenomeles speciosa and Chaenomeles sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Jing; Zhao, Chengcheng; Li, Xia; Chen, Xuetao; Mao, Xinhui; Huang, Hanhan; Wang, Tingting; Gao, Wenyuan

    2016-08-01

    Contents of total flavonoids, total phenolics, total triterpenes, total condensed tannin and total saponins in peels, flesh and endocarps of Chaenomeles speciosa (CSP) and Chaenomeles sinensis (CSS) were determined by colorimetric method, while 5 phenolics (vanillic, gallic, chlorogenic, ferulic and p-coumaric acids), 2 triterpenes (oleanolic and ursolic acids), and 3 flavonoids (rutin, catechin and epicatechin) were identified and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) and HPLC, and antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of them also were evaluated as well as their digestive characteristics. In the correlation analysis, total phenolics, vanillic acid, catechin, ursolic acid and oleanolic acid all contribute to DPPH(·) scavenge capacity, gallic acid contributes to total ferric reducing antioxidant power, while total triterpenes, total saponins, chlorogenic acid and ferullic acid contribute to α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. In the principal component analysis, endocarps of CSP and CSS both show better quality than their peels and flesh, respectively. In vitro digestion can increase contents of total flavonoids, total condensed tannin and total saponins, while contents of total phenolics and total triterpenes decreased greatly. Our study would contribute to the full use of discarded parts of the 2 Chaenomeles and be helpful to establish a good foundation for further research of CSP and CSS.

  5. Anti-Fatigue and Antioxidant Activity of the Polysaccharides Isolated from Millettiae speciosae Champ. Leguminosae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao-Ning; Liang, Jia-Li; Chen, Han-Bin; Liang, Ye-Er; Guo, Hui-Zhen; Su, Ze-Ren; Li, Yu-Cui; Zeng, Hui-Fang; Zhang, Xiao-Jun

    2015-10-21

    Millettiae speciosae Champ. Leguminosae (MSC), is a well-known Chinese herb traditionally used as food material and medicine for enhancing physical strength. Our preliminary study found that the aqueous extract of this herb (MSE) had an anti-fatigue effect. In this paper, we further separated MSE into total polysaccharides (MSP) and supernatant (MSS) by alcohol precipitation, and explored which fraction was active for its anti-fatigue effect. Mice were orally administered with MSP or MSS at the doses of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg for 20 days and the anti-fatigue effect was assessed by exhaustive swimming exercise (ESE). The biochemical parameters related to fatigue after ESE and the in vitro antioxidant activity of active fraction were determined. Our results showed that MSP, instead of MSS, significantly extended the swimming time to exhaustion (p antioxidant test revealed that MSP dose-dependently scavenged ·OH and DPPH free radicals. Taken together, these findings strongly suggested that MSP was able to alleviate physical fatigue by increasing energy resources and decreasing accumulation of detrimental metabolites. The antioxidant activity may crucially contribute to the observed anti-fatigue effect of MSP.

  6. A case report of inpatient detoxification after kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirter, Laura; Morris, Siobhan

    2010-01-01

    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) has been used for medicinal and recreational purposes. It has reported analgesic, euphoric and antitussive effects via its action as an agonist at opioid receptors. It is illegal in many countries including Thailand, Malaysia, Myanmar, South Korea and Australia; however, it remains legal or uncontrolled in the UK and USA, where it is easily available over the Internet. We describe a case of kratom dependence in a 44-year-old man with a history of alcohol dependence and anxiety disorder. He demonstrated dependence on kratom with withdrawal symptoms consisting of anxiety, restlessness, tremor, sweating and cravings for the substance. A reducing regime of dihydrocodeine and lofexidine proved effective in treating subjective and objective measures of opioid-like withdrawal phenomena, and withdrawal was relatively short and benign. There are only few reports in the literature of supervised detoxification and drug treatment for kratom dependence. Our observations support the idea that kratom dependence syndrome is due to short-acting opioid receptor agonist activity, and suggest that dihydrocodeine and lofexidine are effective in supporting detoxification.

  7. Development of indirect competitive ELISA for quantification of mitragynine in Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa (Roxb.) Korth.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limsuwanchote, Supattra; Wungsintaweekul, Juraithip; Keawpradub, Niwat; Putalun, Waraporn; Morimoto, Satoshi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki

    2014-11-01

    Monoclonal antibody (MAb) against mitragynine (MG), an analgesic alkaloid from Kratom leaves (Mitragyna speciosa), was produced. MG was coupled to carrier proteins employing either 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide/N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC/NHS), a zero-length cross linker or a 5-carbon length glutaraldehyde cross linker. To confirm the immunogenicity, the hapten numbers were determined using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Preparation of the MAb was accomplished by the electrofusion method. Hybridoma 1A6 that was constructed from the fusion between splenocytes of EDC/NHS conjugate immunized mice and SP2/0-Ag14 myeloma cells was selected, cloned twice and expanded. The cross-reactivities (CRs) of this MAb 1A6 with a series of indole alkaloids were 30.54%, 24.83% and 8.63% for speciogynine, paynantheine and mitraciliatine, respectively. Using this MAb, an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) was developed with a measurement range of 32.92-250 μg/mL. Quantitative analysis of the MG contents in plant samples by icELISA correlated well with the standard high performance liquid chromatography method (R(2)=0.994). The MAb against mitragynine provided a tool for detection of MG in Kratom preparations.

  8. Subchronic Toxicity Study of Standardized Methanolic Extract of Mitragyna Speciosa Korth in Sprague-Dawley Rats

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    Mohd Ulul Ilmie Ahmad Nazri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mitragyna speciosa Korth, or better known as ketum, has long been used by traditional folk around Southeast Asia to prevent fatigue from working under hot tropical weather and as a replacement of opium, which can then cause addiction. To date, no findings have been reported of the toxic effect of ketum subchronically (28 days. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the toxicity of subchronic effect of standardised methanolic extract of ketum (SMEMS in Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were orally administered with 100, 200, and 500 mg/kg of SMEMS for 28 days. Body weights were recorded daily. They were terminated at day 28 to obtain data for haematology, biochemistry, and histopathology of the brain, liver, kidney, lung, heart, sciatic nerve, and spinal cord. The SMEMS affected body weight compared to control group. Biochemistry findings showed that liver and kidney were affected with the abnormal values in AST, creatinine, globulin, glucose, total protein, and urea. However, SMEMS produced toxic effect more to liver, kidney, and lung than other organs as observed histopathologically. The results suggested subchronic exposure of ketum is toxic to the physiology of the animals.

  9. Flow variation and substrate type affect dislodgement of the freshwater polychaete, Manayunkia speciosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakauskas, David M.; Wilson, Sarah J.; Wilzbach, Margaret A.; Som, Nicholas A.

    2013-01-01

    We quantified microscale flow forces and their ability to entrain the freshwater polychaete, Manayunkia speciosa, the intermediate host for 2 myxozoan parasites (Ceratomyxa shasta and Parvicapsula minibicornis) that cause substantial mortalities in salmonid fishes in the Pacific Northwest. In a laboratory flume, we measured the shear stress associated with 2 mean flow velocities and 3 substrates and quantified associated dislodgement of polychaetes, evaluated survivorship of dislodged polychaetes, and observed behavioral responses of the polychaetes in response to increased flow. We used a generalized linear mixed model to estimate the probability of polychaete dislodgement for treatment combinations of velocity (mean flow velocity  =  55 cm/s with a shear velocity  =  3 cm/s, mean flow velocity  =  140 cm/s with a shear velocity  =  5 cm/s) and substrate type (depositional sediments and analogs of rock faces and the filamentous alga, Cladophora). Few polychaetes were dislodged at shear velocities affected by both substrate type and velocity. After accounting for substrate, odds of dislodgement were 8× greater at the higher flow. After accounting for velocity, probability of dislodgement was greatest from fine sediments, intermediate from rock faces, and negligible from Cladophora. Survivorship of dislodged polychaetes was high. Polychaetes exhibited a variety of behaviors for avoiding increases in flow, including extrusion of mucus, burrowing into sediments, and movement to lower-flow microhabitats. Our findings suggest that polychaete populations probably exhibit high resilience to flow-mediated disturbances.

  10. Effect of Argyreia speciosa extract on learning and memory paradigms in mice

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    N S Vyawahare

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Argyreia speciosa (AS on learning and memory paradigms in mice. Radial arm maze and morris water maze were the screening tests used to assess the activity of the extract. Piracetam served as a reference standard. The mice pretreated with AS 200 or AS 400 mg/kg or Piracetam (150mg/kg showed a decrease in number of days required to make the mice learned, time taken to find food by the learned mice in radial arm maze. In morris water maze, the mice treated with the above mentioned doses showed a significant reduction in the number of days required to make the mice learned, escape latency of learned mice and number of circles completed before it escapes on to the platform. The results suggest facilitation of spatial learning and memory processes and thereby validated its traditional claim of being tonic in dullness of intellect.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of flavanoid sulphates and other fractions of Argyreia speciosa (Burm.f) Boj.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habbu, P V; Mahadevan, K M; Shastry, R A; Manjunatha, H

    2009-02-01

    Antimicrobial activity of flavanoid sulphates and different fractions of A. speciosa root was studied against bacteria, fungi and Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 Rv sensitive strain by in vitro and in vivo assays. Flavanoid sulphates such as quercetin 3'7 di-O methyl 3- sulphate and kaempferol 7-O methyl 3-sulphate were isolated from the n-butanol fraction of 80% methanolic extract of the plant. The structures of the isolated flavanoids were confirmed by spectral studies. Ethyl acetate (EAAS) fraction and flavanoid sulphates inhibited the growth of M. tuberculosis Rv sensitive strain at MIC values 50 and 25 microg/ml, respectively. Ethanolic fraction (EtAS) showed significant inhibition of gram positive organism with a MIC of 31.25 microg/ml. More inhibition was observed with a less MIC (2 microg/ml) for flavanoid sulphates against Klebsiella pneumoniae, a gram negative organism and it is almost comparable with the standards. Interestingly, chloroform fraction alone exhibited significant antifungal activity with a MIC of 100 microg/ml. A synergistic effect between flavanoids sulphates and commercially available antitubercular drugs was observed with FIC index of 0.443 +/- 0.245, 0.487 +/- 0.247 for isoniazid and 0.468 +/- 0.333, 0.417 +/- 0.345 for rifampicin, whereas EAAS fraction showed partial synergistic effect. A synergistic effect was observed for EAAS fraction and flavanoids sulphates with FIC index EtAS were survived.

  12. Management of Diabetes and Its Complications with Banaba (Lagerstroemia speciosa L. and Corosolic Acid

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    Toshihiro Miura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Banaba (Lagerstroemia speciosa L. extracts have been used for many years in folk medicine to treat diabetes, with the first published research study being reported in 1940. This paper summarizes the current literature regarding Banaba and its constituents. The hypoglycemic effects of Banaba have been attributed to both corosolic acid as well as ellagitannins. Studies have been conducted in various animal models, human subjects, and in vitro systems using water soluble Banaba leaf extracts, corosolic acid, and ellagitannins. Corosolic acid has been reported to decrease blood sugar levels within 60 min in human subjects. Corosolic acid also exhibits antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant activities. The beneficial effects of Banaba and corosolic acid with respect to various aspects of glucose and lipid metabolism appear to involve multiple mechanisms, including enhanced cellular uptake of glucose, impaired hydrolysis of sucrose and starches, decreased gluconeogenesis, and the regulation of lipid metabolism. These effects may be mediated by PPAR and other signal transduction factors. Banaba extract, corosolic acid, and other constituents may be beneficial in addressing the symptoms associated with metabolic syndrome, as well as offering other health benefits.

  13. Impact and hardness optimisation of composite materials inspired by the babassu nut (Orbignya speciosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staufenberg, Gerrit; Graupner, Nina; Müssig, Jörg

    2015-08-20

    The babassu nut is the fruit of the babassu palm Orbignya speciosa. The combination of hardness and impact strength is difficult to acquire for artificial materials, making the babassu nut a promising source for biomimetic inspiration. Unnotched Charpy impact tests, Shore D hardness tests and scanning electron microscopy were used for mechanical and microscopical analysis of the pericarp. Four major principles were found for a biomimetic approach: a hard core ((1); endocarp) is embedded in a soft outer layer of high impact strength ((2); epicarp) and is reinforced with fibres of variable fineness (3), some of which are oriented radial to the core (4). Biomimetic fibre-reinforced composites were produced using abstracted mechanisms of the babassu nut based on regenerated cellulose fibres (lyocell, L) with two different fineness values as reinforcement embedded in a polylactide (PLA) core matrix and polypropylene (PP) based outer layers. The biomimetic fibre composite reaches a significantly higher impact strength that is 1.6 times higher than the reference sample produced from a PLA/PP/L-blend. At the same time the hardness is slightly increased compared to PP/L.

  14. Factor Analytical Investigation of Krathom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) Withdrawal Syndrome in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saingam, Darika; Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; Geater, Alan F; Lerkiatbundit, Sanguan

    2016-01-01

    Krathom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) is an addictive and illicit substance used in Thailand and other Southeast Asian countries. It has become the most commonly used substance among villagers. The study aimed to explore the factor structure of the krathom withdrawal syndrome based on the findings of an earlier qualitative study. The current study was divided into two stages. Cross-sectional data collections were employed in both phases. The samples comprised, respectively, 196 and 330 krathom users aged over 25 years. The characteristics of krathom withdrawal symptoms and signs were identified and the factor structure examined using exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was used to examine the construct validity and multivariate linear regression was used to identify factors predicting the intensity of krathom withdrawal symptoms. The final scale comprised 20 items with four factors: craving-fatigue syndrome; musculoskeletal system and insomnia; mood symptoms; and autonomic nervous system/physical sickness. Symptoms and signs of krathom withdrawal similar to those of the withdrawal syndrome of opioid substances appear to be present in regular krathom users. The krathom withdrawal intensity is predicted by duration of krathom use, frequency, and daily amount of krathom use.

  15. Efeitos da terra diatomácea sobre Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae em batata inglesa Effects of diatomaceous earth on Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae in potato

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    Franscinely Aparecida Assis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A espécie Diabrotica speciosa é um crisomelídeo responsável por causar danos consideráveis à batateira, o que torna indispensável seu controle com inseticidas para minimizar os prejuízos causados à cultura. Assim, objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar os efeitos da terra diatomácea sobre o comportamento alimentar e a mortalidade de D. speciosa em batata inglesa em condições de laboratório. Adotou-se o DIC com três tratamentos e oito repetições, sendo: 1 - testemunha; 2 - TD polvilhada (0,5 g/vaso e 3 - TD pulverizada a 1%. As batateiras, cv. Emeraude, foram polvilhadas ou pulverizadas com TD, 30 dias após o plantio e, 24 horas após a aplicação, as plantas foram fornecidas aos insetos, sem e com chance de escolha. Houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos, sendo a menor porcentagem de folíolos com injúrias observada em plantas que receberam a aplicação de TD pulverizada (teste sem chance de escolha e TD polvilhada ou pulverizada (teste com chance de escolha. Também houve redução do número de injúrias foliares às 24 e às 48 horas (TD polvilhada ou pulverizada e, às 72 horas, a redução foi observada somente com a aplicação da TD polvilhada. Com relação à ação inseticida da TD, foi verificado seu efeito após 48 horas, tanto via polvilhamento, quanto via pulverização. Assim, a aplicação de TD pode auxiliar no manejo de D. speciosa, contribuindo para conferir proteção às plantas de batata inglesa e aumentar a mortalidade desse inseto-praga.The species D. speciosa is a chrysomelid responsible for causing considerable damage on potato plant, making its control with insecticides essential to minimize the damage caused to this culture. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of diatomaceous earth (DE on feeding behavior and mortality of D. speciosa in potato under laboratory conditions. A completely randomized design was used with three treatments and eight replicates being: 1

  16. Virulence of entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae for the control of Diabrotica speciosa germar (coleoptera: chrysomelidae Virulência de nematoides entomopatogênicos (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae e Heterorhabditidae para o controle de Diabrotica speciosa germar (coleoptera: chrysomelidae

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    Viviane Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs are used in biological control of soil insects and show promise in the control of D. speciosa. The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential of native and exotic entomopathogenic nematode isolates in the control of D. speciosa under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Results showed that all of EPNs caused larval mortality. The most virulent were Heterorhabditis sp. RSC01 (94%, Steinernema glaseri (84%, Heterorhabditis sp. JPM04 (82% and Heterorhabditis amazonensis RSC05 (78%. There was no effect of the Heterorhabditis sp. RSC01 and S. glaseri isolates on eggs. The maximum mortality of D. speciosa larvae by Heterorhabditis sp. RSC01 was observed at a concentration of 300 IJ/ insect, while by S. glaseri observed the highest mortality at the concentration of 200 IJ/ insect. The Heterorhabditis sp. RSC01 isolate caused over 80% pupal mortality at a concentration of 250 IJ/insect. The virulence of Heterorhabditis sp. RSC01 and S. glaseri was affected by temperature. The Heterorhabditis sp. RSC01 isolate caused reduction in larva survival under greenhouse conditions at all of the tested concentrations and there was no difference in mortality among different concentrations of infectid juveniles.Os nematóides entomopatogênicos são utilizados no controle biológico de pragas de solo, e são promissores para o controle de D. speciosa. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o potencial de espécies nativas e exóticas de isolados de nematóides entomopatogênicos para o controle de D. speciosa, em condições de laboratório e de casa de vegetação. Verificou-se que todos os nematóides causaram mortalidade larval. Os mais virulentos foram Heterorhabditis sp. RSC01 (94%, Steinernema glaseri (84%, Heterorhabditis sp. JPM04 (82% e Heterorhabditis amazonensis RSC05 (78%. Não houve efeito dos isolados Heterorhabditis sp. RSC01 e S. glaseri em ovos. A mortalidade máxima de larvas de D. speciosa por

  17. Qualidade pós-colheita de frutos de diferentes clones de mangabeira (Hancornia speciosa Gomes Postharvest quality of fruits from different mangabeira clones (Hancornia speciosa Gomes

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    Florisvaldo Gama de Souza

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a qualidade pós-colheita de frutos de diferentes clones de mangabeira (Hancornia speciosa Gomes para consumo como fruto fresco e/ou industrializado, foram avaliados 10 clones: Ipojuca 3, 4 e 5 (IPJ 3, 4 e 5; Nizia Floresta 1, 6 e 8 (NIF 1, 6 e 8; Parnamirim 11 (PAR 11; Rio Tinto 7 (RIT 7; Extremoz 1 (EXT 1 e Touros 48 (TOU 48, oriundos de um Jardim Clonal instalado em 1996 do Banco Ativo de Germoplasma da Estação Experimental de Mangabeira, pertencente a EMEPA - Empresa Estadual de Pesquisa Agropecuária da Paraíba, situada em João Pessoa, PB. As mangabas foram colhidas manualmente em estádio de maturidade fisiológica, acondicionadas em caixas plásticas de transporte forradas no fundo com espuma de poliestireno e transportadas ao Laboratório de Fisiologia e Tecnologia Pós-colheita da Embrapa Agroindústria Tropical, onde foram caracterizadas física, físico-química e quimicamente. As características de qualidade analisadas foram: massa total do fruto; comprimento, diâmetro, firmeza, número de sementes; rendimento de polpa + casca; percentagem de sementes; pH; acidez total titulável (ATT; sólidos solúveis totais (SST; relação SST/ATT; vitamina C total; açúcares solúveis totais; açúcares redutores, fenólicos poliméricos, oligoméricos e dímeros. A análise de variância revelou diferenças estatísticas para todas as características pelo Teste F. De um modo geral os frutos de mangabeira dos clones avaliados apresentaram características superiores às observadas na literatura, especialmente quanto aos padrões estabelecidos pela I.N. nº 1 de 07/01/2000 do MAPA. Dentre os materiais genéticos avaliados pode-se destacar os clones RIT 8 e TOU 48 como os mais promissores para o mercado de frutas in natura, e os clones IPJ 3 e NIF 6 para o processamento agroindustrial.This work aimed to evaluate the postharvest quality of fruits from different mangabeira clones (Hancornia speciosa Gomes for

  18. Ribosomal DNA identification of Nosema/Vairimorpha in freshwater polychaete, Manayunkia speciosa, from Oregon/California and the Laurentian Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakauskas, David M; Altman, Emory C; Malakauskas, Sarah J; Thiem, Suzanne M; Schloesser, Donald W

    2015-11-01

    We examined Manayunkia speciosa individuals from the Klamath River, Oregon/California and Lake Erie, Michigan, USA for the presence of Microsporidia. We identified microsporidian spores and sequenced their SSU, ITS, and part of the LSU rDNA. Phylogenetic analysis of SSU rDNA indicated spores from both populations belonged to the Nosema/Vairimorpha clade. PCR showed an infection prevalence in Lake Erie M. speciosa of 0.6% (95% CI=0.5%, 0.7%). This represents the first known example of molecularly characterized Nosema/Vairimorpha isolates infecting a non-arthropod host. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Estudos da associação micorrízica arbuscular em mudas de mangabeira (Hancornia speciosa Gomes)

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Carneiro Costa, Cynthia

    2004-01-01

    A associação micorrízica em mangabeira (Hancornia speciosa Gomes) foi estudada em cinco experimentos utilizando isolados de Gigaspora albida Schenck & Smith e Glomus etunicatum. Becker & Gerd. Em casa de vegetação foram avaliados: dependência micorrízica, densidade de inóculo necessária para promover o crescimento de mudas e influência do estresse hídrico nas trocas gasosas, na concentração de solutos e na atividade microbiana do solo; em campo foram determinados: espécies, número...

  20. Conservação pós-colheita de mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gomes Postharvest conservation of mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gomes

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    Marcelo Augusto Gutierrez Carnelossi

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se o presente trabalho com o objetivo de caracterizar física e quimicamente os frutos da mangaba quando estão "de caída" ou "de vez" e estudar o efeito de diferentes temperaturas de armazenamento sobre a conservação pós-colheita desse fruto. Os frutos foram selecionados e armazenados em câmaras frias nas temperaturas de 6, 18 e 25 ± 2ºC. Durante o período de armazenamento, foram retiradas amostras a cada 1, 3, 5, 7 e 9 dias, para determinações dos teores de vitamina C, pH, acidez titulável e sólidos solúveis (ºBrix, atividade de água, condutividade, resistividade e difusividade. Verificou-se que mangabas de caída apresentaram teores de vitamina C e sólidos solúveis superiores aos frutos "de vez". O armazenamento a 6ºC foi eficiente na manutenção das características físico-químicas de mangabas "de vez", ao passo que, para mangabas "de caída", as características físico-químicas foram mantidas por um período de até três dias, quando submetidas às temperaturas de 18ºC e 25ºC. Observaram-se diminuição da atividade de água e aumento da condutividade térmica da mangaba durante o período de armazenamento refrigerado. Assim, a condutividade térmica, a resistividade e a atividade de água podem ser utilizadas como parâmetros de acompanhamento pós-colheita dos frutos de mangaba, quando armazenados sob refrigeração.The present work had the objective of characterizing physico-chemical parameters of the mangaba fruits, either "fallen" or "of the time", and to study the effect of the storage of mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gomes at different temperatures on its postharvest conservation. The fruits were selected and stored in cold chambers at 6, 18 and 25 ± 2ºC. During storage, samples were removed at 3, 5, 7 and 9 days, for determination of vitamin C content, pH, total acidity and soluble solids (ºBrix content, water activity, conductivity, resistivity and difusivity. It was verified that "fallen

  1. Crude ethanol extract from babassu (Orbignya speciosa: cytotoxicity on tumoral and non-tumoral cell lines

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    Magdalena N. Rennó

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant-derived substances have been considered as important sources of drugs, including antineoplasic agents. Babassu mesocarp is popularly used in Brazil as a food additive, and in popular medicine against several conditions, such as inflammations, menstrual pains and leukaemia. From babassu Orbignya speciosa (Mart. Barb. Rodr. [Arecaceae (Palmae] epicarp/mesocarp, an ethanol extract was prepared and named OSEME, which was tested on the viability,morphology and metabolism of several cell lines, such as the leukaemic cell lines, HL-60, K562 and the latter multidrug resistant counterpart K562-Lucena 1, the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7, the mouse fibroblast cell line 3T3-L1 and fresh human lymphocytes. OSEME promoted a dose-dependent decrease on the viability of all cells. This effect was much more pronounced on the tumoral cell lines than on non-tumoral cells, a phenomenon revealed by the dose of OSEME which promotes half of maximal effect (ID50. The decrease on viability was followed by shrinkage of cells, alteration on their morphology, and a markedly nuclear condensation. Curiously, stimulation of 6-phosphofructokinase activity (6.6-times was observed on HL-60 cells, treated with OSEME, when compared to control treated with ethanol (vehicle. These results support evidences to suggest OSEME as a promising source of novel antineoplasic agents.Substâncias derivadas de plantas têm sido usadas como importante fonte de agentes antineoplásicos. O mesocarpo do babaçu é popularmente usado no Brasil como suplemento alimentar e na medicina popular para o tratamento de várias afecções, tais como: inflamações, cólicas menstruais e leucemia. A partir do epicarpo/mesocarpo do babaçu Orbignya speciosa (Mart. Barb. Rodr. [Arecaceae (Palmae] foi preparado um extrato etanólico, denominado OSEME, o qual foi incubado com as seguintes linhagens humanas leucêmicas: HL-60, K562 e a sua derivada resistente a múltiplas drogas, K562-Lucena 1; al

  2. Inhibitory effects of kratom leaf extract (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) on the rat gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittrakarn, Somsmorn; Sawangjaroen, Kitja; Prasettho, Supaporn; Janchawee, Benjamas; Keawpradub, Niwat

    2008-02-28

    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) is an indigenous plant of Thailand used traditionally in folk medicine although it is claimed to cause addiction. It is used to treat diarrhea, however, there is no scientific evidence to support the use. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of methanolic extract of kratom leaves on the rat gastrointestinal tract. Kratom extract at 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg (p.o.) caused a dose dependent protection against castor oil-induced diarrhea in rats and also inhibited intestinal transit. The antidiarrheal effect was not antagonized by naloxzone. The inhibition of intestinal transit by kratom extract was significantly different from the control when treated with a single dose for 1 day. For longer-term treatments of 15 and 30 days, kratom extract did not decrease the intestinal transit time indicating that adaptation had occurred. Kratom extract at a dose level of 200 and 400 mg/kg for 30 days and morphine at 3 mg/kg (i.p.) caused a decrease in the increment of body weight that was significantly different from the control and kratom extract at lower doses (50 and 100 mg/kg). However it had no effect on the level of plasma cholecystokinin. The results suggested that methanolic kratom extract exhibited its antidiarrheal effect on rat gastrointestinal tract. The effects may occur via pathways in addition to the action on opioid receptors. High does of kratom extract decreased the increment of body weight similar to the effect of morphine.

  3. Efeito de diferentes substratos na produção de mudas de mangabeira (Hancornia speciosa

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    Elisângela Aparecida da Silva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A mangabeira (Hancornia speciosa Gomes é uma espécie frutífera nativa do Cerrado, que devido às características dos seus frutos apresenta enorme potencial de aceitação pelo mercado consumidor, além de apresentar expressivo potencial produtivo. Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de diferentes substratos na produção de mudas de mangabeira em sacos de polietileno e determinar o melhor substrato para a propagação da espécie. O trabalho foi conduzido em casa de vegetação na Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul, Unidade Universitária de Cassilândia. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições e 15 plantas por parcela. Foram testadas cinco misturas de substratos: A (areia lavada + Plantmax® + solo, 1:1:3 v:v:v; B (casca de arroz carbonizada + Plantmax® + solo, 1:1:3; C (casca de arroz carbonizada + húmus de minhoca + solo, 1:1:3; D (esterco bovino + Plantmax® + solo, 1:1:3, e E (esterco bovino + solo, 2:3. Foram avaliados os parâmetros: porcentagem de germinação, índice de velocidade de emergência (IVE, porcentagem de mortalidade, altura da muda (cm, diâmetro do colo (mm, comprimento da raiz (cm, número de folhas/planta, índice de clorofila foliar (CCI, massa seca, parte aérea da raiz e total (g/planta. As melhores características para uma muda sadia e de boa qualidade para pegamento no campo foram obtidas com os substratos D e E, sendo estes os recomendados para a produção de mudas de mangabeira em sacos de polietileno.

  4. Antinociceptive Action of Isolated Mitragynine from Mitragyna Speciosa through Activation of Opioid Receptor System

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    Mohamad Aris Mohd Moklas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cannabinoids and opioids systems share numerous pharmacological properties and antinociception is one of them. Previous findings have shown that mitragynine (MG, a major indole alkaloid found in Mitragyna speciosa (MS can exert its antinociceptive effects through the opioids system. In the present study, the action of MG was investigated as the antinociceptive agent acting on Cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 and effects on the opioids receptor. The latency time was recorded until the mice showed pain responses such as shaking, licking or jumping and the duration of latency was measured for 2 h at every 15 min interval by hot plate analysis. To investigate the beneficial effects of MG as antinociceptive agent, it was administered intraperitoneally 15 min prior to pain induction with a single dosage (3, 10, 15, 30, and 35 mg/kg b.wt. In this investigation, 35 mg/kg of MG showed significant increase in the latency time and this dosage was used in the antagonist receptor study. The treated groups were administered with AM251 (cannabinoid receptor-1 antagonist, naloxone (non-selective opioid antagonist, naltrindole (δ-opioid antagonist naloxonazine (µ1-receptor antagonist and norbinaltorpimine (κ-opioid antagonist respectively, prior to administration of MG (35 mg/kg. The results showed that the antinociceptive effect of MG was not antagonized by AM251; naloxone and naltrindole were effectively blocked; and norbinaltorpimine partially blocked the antinociceptive effect of MG. Naloxonazine did inhibit the effect of MG, but it was not statistically significant. These results demonstrate that CB1 does not directly have a role in the antinociceptive action of MG where the effect was observed with the activation of opioid receptor.

  5. Anti-Fatigue and Antioxidant Activity of the Polysaccharides Isolated from Millettiae speciosae Champ. Leguminosae

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    Xiao-Ning Zhao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Millettiae speciosae Champ. Leguminosae (MSC, is a well-known Chinese herb traditionally used as food material and medicine for enhancing physical strength. Our preliminary study found that the aqueous extract of this herb (MSE had an anti-fatigue effect. In this paper, we further separated MSE into total polysaccharides (MSP and supernatant (MSS by alcohol precipitation, and explored which fraction was active for its anti-fatigue effect. Mice were orally administered with MSP or MSS at the doses of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg for 20 days and the anti-fatigue effect was assessed by exhaustive swimming exercise (ESE. The biochemical parameters related to fatigue after ESE and the in vitro antioxidant activity of active fraction were determined. Our results showed that MSP, instead of MSS, significantly extended the swimming time to exhaustion (p < 0.05, indicating that MSP is responsible for the anti-fatigue effect of MSE. In addition, MSP treatment increased the levels of glucose (Glu and muscle glycogen, whereas it decreased the accumulations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN and lactic acid (Lac. Moreover, ESE increased the levels of creatine phosphokinase (CK, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH, and malondialdehyde (MDA but reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione (GSH in plasma. In contrast, MSP inhibited all the above changes relating to fatigue. Furthermore, an in vitro antioxidant test revealed that MSP dose-dependently scavenged ·OH and DPPH free radicals. Taken together, these findings strongly suggested that MSP was able to alleviate physical fatigue by increasing energy resources and decreasing accumulation of detrimental metabolites. The antioxidant activity may crucially contribute to the observed anti-fatigue effect of MSP.

  6. Genetic variation detected by RAPD markers in natural populations of babassu palm (Attalea speciosa Mart.).

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    Santos, M F; Damasceno-Silva, K J; Carvalhaes, M A; Lima, P S C

    2015-06-10

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of management on the genetic structure of natural populations of Attalea speciosa in the State of Piauí, Brazil, using random-amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Three babassu populations under different management systems were selected. Polymerase chain reactions were performed for 20 RAPD primers. A total of 146 bands were generated, 141 of which were polymorphic (96.58%), with a variation of 4 and 12 loci and an average of 7 bands per primer. A dendrogram revealed a clear separation between the three populations (0.57). Data reliability and node consistency were verified by bootstrap values and the cophenetic correlation coefficient (88.15%). Coefficients of similarity between pairs of genotypes ranged from 0.26 to 0.86, with a mean of 0.57. Nei's genetic diversity index (HE) value of the population sampled in Teresina was 0.212, of Esperantina it was 0.195, and of José de Freitas it was 0.207. After the HE was decomposed, the complete diversity was found to be 0.3213. Genetic differentiation between populations was 0.362, and the estimation of gene flow between populations was low (0.879). Analysis of molecular variance revealed that 59.52% of the variation was contained within populations, and 40.48% was between populations. RAPD markers were effective for genetic diversity analysis within and between natural babassu populations, and exhibited a high level of polymorphism. Genetic diversity was the highest within populations; variability was lower in the managed populations than in the undisturbed populations.

  7. Nanostructured systems containing babassu (Orbignya speciosa oil as a potential alternative therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia

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    de Sousa VP

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Valeria Pereira de Sousa,1 Joanne Crean,2 Vinícius Raphael de Almeida Borges,1 Carlos Rangel Rodrigues,1 Lidia Tajber,2 Fabio Boylan,2 Lucio Mendes Cabral1 1Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland Abstract: The oil of babassu tree nuts (Orbignya speciosa is a potential alternative for treatment and prophylaxis of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Improved results can be obtained by drug vectorization to the hyperplastic tissue. The main objective of this work was the preparation and characterization of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA nanoparticle and clay nanosystems containing babassu oil (BBS. BBS was extracted from the kernels of babassu tree nuts and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as well as 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance. BBS-clay nanosystems were obtained by adding polyvinylpyrrolidone, Viscogel B8®, and BBS at a 2:1:1 mass ratio and characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, infrared spectroscopy, and laser diffraction. The PLGA-BBS nanoparticles were prepared by the precipitation-solvent evaporation method. Mean diameter, polydispersity, zeta potential, and scanning electron microscopic images of the nanosystems were analyzed. Thermogravimetric analysis showed successful formation of the nanocomposite. PLGA nanoparticles containing BBS were obtained, with a suitable size that was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Both nanostructured systems showed active incorporation yields exceeding 90%. The two systems obtained represent a new and potentially efficient therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Keywords: babassu oil, nanocomposite, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid, nanoparticles, benign prostatic hyperplasia, treatment, nanotechnology

  8. In vitro and in vivo effects of three different Mitragyna speciosa korth leaf extracts on phase II drug metabolizing enzymes--glutathione transferases (GSTs).

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    Azizi, Juzaili; Ismail, Sabariah; Mordi, Mohd Nizam; Ramanathan, Surash; Said, Mohd Ikram Mohd; Mansor, Sharif Mahsufi

    2010-01-20

    In the present study, we investigate the effects of three different Mitragyna speciosa extracts, namely methanolic, aqueous and total alkaloid extracts, on glutathione transferase-specific activity in male Sprague Dawley rat liver cytosol in vitro and in vivo. In the in vitro study, the effect of Mitragyna speciosa extracts (0.01 to 750 microg/mL) against the specific activity of glutathione transferases was examined in rat liver cytosolic fraction from untreated rats. Our data show concentration dependent inhibition of cytosolic GSTs when Mitragyna speciosa extract was added into the reaction mixture. At the highest concentration used, the methanolic extract showed the highest GSTs specific activity inhibition (61%), followed by aqueous (50%) and total alkaloid extract (43%), respectively. In in vivo study, three different dosages; 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg for methanolic and aqueous extracts and 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg for total alkaloid extract were given orally for 14 days. An increase in GST specific activity was generally observed. However, only Mitragyna speciosa aqueous extract with a dosage of 100 mg/kg showed significant results: 129% compared to control.

  9. In Vitro and in Vivo Effects of Three Different Mitragyna speciosa Korth Leaf Extracts on Phase II Drug Metabolizing Enzymes—Glutathione Transferases (GSTs

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    Sharif Mahsufi Mansor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigate the effects of three different Mitragyna speciosa extracts, namely methanolic, aqueous and total alkaloid extracts, on glutathione transferase-specific activity in male Sprague Dawley rat liver cytosol in vitro and in vivo. In the in vitro study, the effect of Mitragyna speciosa extracts (0.01 to 750 µg/mL against the specific activity of glutathione transferases was examined in rat liver cytosolic fraction from untreated rats. Our data show concentration dependent inhibition of cytosolic GSTs when Mitragyna speciosa extract was added into the reaction mixture. At the highest concentration used, the methanolic extract showed the highest GSTs specific activity inhibition (61%, followed by aqueous (50% and total alkaloid extract (43%, respectively. In in vivo study, three different dosages; 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg for methanolic and aqueous extracts and 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg for total alkaloid extract were given orally for 14 days. An increase in GST specific activity was generally observed. However, only Mitragyna speciosa aqueous extract with a dosage of 100 mg/kg showed significant results: 129% compared to control.

  10. Effects of drying method and particle size on the antioxidant properties of leaves and teas of Morus alba, Lagerstroemia speciosa and Thunbergia laurifolia

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    Eric Wei Chiang Chan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant properties (AOP of leaves and teas of Morus alba L., Lagerstroemia speciosa (L. Pers. and Thunbergia laurifolia Lindl. as affected by microwave, oven and freeze drying were assessed. Total phenolic content (TPC, radical scavenging ability expressed as ascorbic acid equivalent capacity (AEAC and ferric reducing power (FRP were screened using the Folin-Ciocalteu, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and potassium ferricyanide assays, respectively. The effects of particle size were also investigated. Microwave drying resulted in enhanced AOP in M. alba and T. laurifolia. Oven drying resulted in declined AOP in T. laurifolia with M. alba and L. speciosa relatively unchanged. Significant increase in AOP was observed in freeze-dried leaves of M. alba with L. speciosa and T. laurifolia showing no change or slight increase. TPC, AEAC and FRP of ground microwave-, oven- and freeze-dried leaves of M. alba extracted with 50% methanol were significantly higher than shredded leaves. For tea infusions extracted with hot water, three categories were recognised, i.e. species with shredded leaves yielding stronger AOP (M. alba, species with ground leaves yielding stronger AOP (L. speciosa, and species with ground and shredded leaves yielding comparable AOP (T. laurifolia.

  11. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Aqueous, Methanolic and Alkaloid Extracts from Mitragyna Speciosa (Rubiaceae Family Leaves

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    Mohd I. Mohd. Said

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Mitragyna speciosa leaf extracts are lacking. In this study the antioxidant properties of water, methanolic and alkaloid M. speciosa leaf extracts were evaluated using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. The amount of total phenolics and flavanoid contents were also estimated. The DPPH IC50 values of the aqueous, alkaloid and methanolic extracts were 213.4, 104.81 and 37.08 μg/mL, respectively. The total phenolic content of the aqueous, alkaloid and methanolic extracts were 66.0 mg, 88.4, 105.6 mg GAE/g, respectively, while the total flavanoid were 28.2, 20.0 and 91.1 mg CAE/g respectively. The antioxidant activities were correlated with the total phenolic content. This result suggests that the relatively high antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract compared to aqueous and alkaloid extract could be possibly be due to its high phenolic content. The aqueous, alkaloid and methanolic extracts were screened for antimicrobial activity. The extracts showed antimicrobial activity against Salmonella typhi and Bacillus subtilis. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of extracts determined by the broth dilution method ranged from 3.12 to 6.25 mg/mL. The alkaloid extract was found to be most effective against all of the tested organisms.

  12. Efficiency of vegetable extracts for the control of Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, in the laboratory

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    Flávio Roberto de Mello Garcia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Vulgarly known as “vaquinha”, Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824 spread itself to the majority of Brazilian states, and it became distinguished as one of the most serious pests affecting beans and maize. The aim of this study was to evaluate the insecticidal activity of the crude watery extracts of nine vegetable species on “vaquinha” adults. The laboratory experiment was carried out in completely randomized delineation, with ten treatments and four repetitions. For such, a bottle was used, containing five insect specimens and a common bean leaf (Phaseolus vulgaris Linnaeus previously immersed in the extract, covered with a clipping of porous cloth and fixed by a rubber band. The evaluated variable was the number of surviving D. speciosa specimens. The treatments consisted of salvia (Salvia officinalis Linnaeus, cravo (Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb, moscada nut (Myristica fragans Houtt, cinamomo (Melia azedarach Linnaeus, timbo (Ateleia glazioveana Baill, eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora Hook, cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, figueira (Ficus microcarpa Linnaeus f., rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linnaeus and control (distilled water alone. The evaluations of survival were carried out every 24 hours over a period of 10 days. For the live specimen number, two-way analysis of variance (10 extracts x 11 times after application was used. The averages were grouped by the Duncan test on the level of 5% of probability. The most efficient extracts were timbo, moscada nut and cinamomo, with efficiency percentages varying between 80.4% and 100%.

  13. A comparative study of cambium histology of Ceiba speciosa (A. St.-Hil.) Ravenna (Malvaceae) under urban pollution.

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    de Vasconcellos, Thaís Jorge; Da Cunha, Maura; Callado, Cátia Henriques

    2017-05-01

    Air pollution is considered to be one of the main causes of forest decline. The cambium is responsible for increase in tree girth, and its functioning is determined by environmental pressures. This study compared cambium histology of Ceiba speciosa (A. St.-Hil.) Ravenna (Malvaceae) in polluted and preserved sites in the Atlantic Rainforest domain. Samples were obtained during periods of cambial activity and dormancy and were processed and examined according to standard light microscopy techniques. In addition to differences typically observed in cambium during periods of activity and dormancy, the fusiform initials were shorter in trees of the polluted site. Furthermore, cambial rays were shorter, but larger, in the polluted site. It should be noted that all parameters related to cambial rays showed significant differences between the study sites. This is the first report of the effects of pollution on cambial activity in a South American species. The results suggest a tolerance of C. speciosa to pollution and reveal this species to be an important biomarker for environmental monitoring studies.

  14. Effects of Mitragynine and a Crude Alkaloid Extract Derived from Mitragyna speciosa Korth. on Permethrin Elimination in Rats

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    Kachamas Srichana

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Detoxification and elimination of permethrin (PM are mediated by hydrolysis via carboxylesterase (CES. Mitragyna speciosa (kratom contains mitragynine (MG and other bioactive alkaloids. Since PM and MG have the same catalytic site and M. speciosa is usually abused by adding other ingredients such as pyrethroid insecticides, the effects of MG and an alkaloid extract (AE on the elimination of PM were investigated in rats. Rats were subjected to single and multiple pretreatment with MG and AE prior to receiving a single oral dose (460 mg/kg of PM. Plasma concentrations of trans-PM and its metabolite phenoxybenzylalcohol (PBAlc were measured. The elimination rate constant (kel and the elimination half-life (t1/2 el of PM were determined, as well as the metabolic ratio (PMR. A single and multiple oral pretreatment with MG and AE altered the plasma concentration-time courses of both trans-PM and PBAlc during 8–22 h, decreased the PMRs, delayed elimination of PM, but enhanced elimination of PBAlc. Results indicated that PM–MG or AE toxicokinetic interactions might have resulted from the MG and AE interfering with PM hydrolysis. The results obtained in rats suggest that in humans using kratom cocktails containing PM, there might be an increased risk of PM toxicity due to inhibition of PM metabolism and elimination.

  15. IN VITRO EFFECT OF MITRAGYNINE (A MAJOR ALKALOID OF MITRAGYNA SPECIOSA KORTH ON AMINOPYRINE METABOLISM IN RAT HEPATOCYTES

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    Rukhsana Anwar, Abas Hj Hussin , Sabariah Ismail* and Sharif Mahsufi Mansor

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Mitragyna speciosa Korth. is a member of the Rubiaceae family. More than 25 alkaloids have been isolated from Mitragyna speciosa. Mitragynine is the major alkaloid of this plant and is responsible for antinociceptive action. No single study is available about the effect of mitragynine on aminopyrine N-demethylase activity in rat hepatocytes. Experiments were undertaken to evaluate the effect of mitragynine in different age groups (adult & old of Sprague- Dawley (SD male and female rat hepatocytes. In vitro this evaluation was assessed by different concentration of mitragynine (0.0025µM-250µM. Hepatocytes were prepared by collagenase perfusion technique. Aminopyrine N-demethylase activity was determined by measuring the quantity of formaldehyde formed. Results showed that a significant increase in aminopyrine N-demethylase activity was observed in the adult male, female and old female SD rat hepatocytes treated with 250µM mitragynine (p< 0.05. However, the old male rat did not show any significant change at any concentration of mitragynine. In conclusion this study indicates the induction of hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes by mitragynine is affected by the aging process in male but unaffected in female.

  16. Analysis of lipid profile and atherogenic index in hyperlipidemic rat (Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout, 1769) that given the methanolic extract of Parijoto (Medinilla speciosa)

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    Sa'adah, Noor Nailis; Purwani, Kristanti Indah; Nurhayati, Awik Puji Dyah; Ashuri, Nova Maulidina

    2017-06-01

    Diet of high lipids cause hyperlipidemia, which marked by an increase of total cholesterols, triglycerides, LDL-C, and decreasing of HDL-C. Hyperlipidemia lead the occurrence of atherosclerosis, one of factors that trigger cardiovascular disease, as hypertention; coronary heart and stroke. Parijoto (M. speciosa) is endemic plants in Asia with a distribution center in Malaysia, Indonesia and Philippines. Parijoto contain phytochemical components such as flavonoids, saponins and kardenolin. Flavonoid potensial as an antioxidants and can improve the hyperlipidemia condition. This study was aimed to determine lipid profiles and atherogenic index of hyperlipidemic Wistar rats (R. norvegicus Berkenhout, 1769) which given the methanolic extract of Parijoto (M. speciosa). The research was done with pre and post test randomized control group design. Rats were given a mixture of duck yolk and reused cooking oil (1:1) orally as much as 1% of body weight (BW) for 30 days. After hyperlipidemia achieved, rats were divided into 5 group: normal rats, hyperlipidemic rats, hyperlipidemic rats were given the methanolic extract of Parijoto (M. speciosa) 500 mg/kg, 1000 mg/kg, and 1500 mg/kg BW. Blood samples were collected when rats in hyperlipidemia conditions and after treatment with the methanolic extract of Parijoto (M. speciosa) for 30 days. The data of total cholesterol, HDL-Cholesterol, LDL-Cholesterol level, and atherogenic index were analyzed using ANOVA followed by Tukey test at 5% significance level. The result showed that giving of methanolic extract of Parijoto (M. speciosa) in hyperlipidemic rats reduced the total cholesterol, LDL-Cholesterol levels, and increased of HDL-cholesterol levels significantly (p<0.01), so atherogenic index reduced significantly too (p<0.01). Total cholesterol and LDL-Cholesterol levels were positively correlated with the atherogenic index, whereas HDL-cholesterol levels were negatively correlated with the atherogenic index.

  17. GERMINAÇÃO IN VITRO DE MANGABEIRA (Hancornia speciosa Gomez EM DIFERENTES MEIOS DE CULTURA

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    PINHEIRO CARLOS SIZENANDO ROSSITER

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudos de meios de cultura que facilitem a germinação de sementes recalcitrantes são de grande importância para a fruticultura. A mangabeira (Hancornia speciosa Gomez é uma fruteira nativa da região Nordeste do Brasil. Sua propagação por métodos tradicionais é dificultada pelo fato de suas sementes serem recalcitrantes e a polpa do fruto ter uma ação inibitória sobre a germinação das sementes. Na tentativa de maximizar a percentagem de germinação in vitro desta espécie, foi testada a influência da sacarose (0; 10; 30; 60 e 90 g/L, do ácido giberélico (0; 0.1; 0.3 e 0.5 mg/L e de diferentes meios de germinação (água destilada, água de coco; MS sólido e MS líquido. Também foi testado o efeito da escarificação (sementes com ou sem tegumento. As sementes obtidas de frutos maduros foram escarificadas ou não, e inoculadas em meios contendo os diferentes tratamentos. A taxa de germinação foi calculada trinta dias após a inoculação das sementes. Sementes sem tegumento obtiveram maior percentagem de germinação em todos os meios de cultura estudados, sendo que a maior percentagem foi obtida no tratamento MS líquido. A adição de sacarose tanto em meio MS sólido quanto em MS líquido não favorece a germinação e pode prejudicar em concentrações iguais ou maiores que 20g/L. A maior percentagem de sementes germinadas em MS suplementado com GA3, tanto em meio líquido como em meio sólido, ocorreu na concentração de 0,1 mg/L. Maiores taxas de germinação in vitro de sementes de mangabeira podem ser obtidas através da retirada do seu tegumento e posterior inoculação em meio MS líquido suplementado com 0,1 mg/L GA3.

  18. Seletividade de herbicidas em mudas das espécies nativas Acacia polyphylla, Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Fabaceae, Ceiba speciosa e Luehea divaricata (Malvaceae Herbicides selectivity on seedlings of native species Acacia polyphylla, Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Fabaceae, Ceiba speciosa and Luehea divaricata (Malvaceae

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    P.A. Monquero

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou a seletividade de herbicidas sobre espécies nativas de florestas estacionais semideciduais de São Paulo, amplamente utilizadas em projetos de restauração de ecossistemas naturais degradados: Acacia polyphylla e Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Fabaceae, e Ceiba speciosa e Luehea divaricata (Malvaceae. Os tratamentos consistiram de uma testemunha sem herbicida e da aplicação de herbicidas imazapyr (125, 250, 500, 1.000, 2.000 e 3.000 g ha-1, sulfentrazone (100, 200, 400, 800, 1.400 e 2.400 g ha-1, glyphosate (90, 180, 360, 720, 1.440 e 2.160 g ha-1 e metribuzin (360, 720, 1.920, 2.880, 5.760 e 8.400 g ha-1 . Foram avaliados os sintomas de fitotoxicidade aos 30 dias após aplicação (DAA e a biomassa seca da parte aérea. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições por tratamento. Cada parcela experimental foi constituída de uma muda com 30 cm de altura. Os resultados permitem concluir que, entre os herbicidas testados, o glyphosate foi o menos seletivo às espécies arbóreas, razão pela qual são sugeridas aplicações dirigidas desse produto. As espécies estudadas diferiram em relação à seletividade dos herbicidas avaliados. Para C. speciosa, o imazapyr foi o herbicida mais seletivo, seguido do sulfentrazone. O herbicida metribuzin foi seletivo para A. polyphylla. Quanto a E. contortisiliquum, o metribuzin foi menos tóxico, seguido pelo sulfentrazone. Para L. divaricata, somente o herbicida sulfentrazone foi seletivo.We aimed to evaluate the selectivity of the herbicides imazapyr, glyphosate, metribuzin, and sulfentrazone, when applied on four native species of semideciduous forests from southeastern Brazil: Acacia polyphylla and Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Fabaceae, and Ceiba speciosa and Luehea divaricata (Malvaceae. We did a randonmized design with four replicates per treatment: the application of imazapyr (125, 250, 500, 1000, 2000 and 3000 g ha-1, sulfentrazone (100

  19. FLORAL ANATOMY OF ALPINIA SPECIOSA AND HEDYCHIUM CORONARIUM (ZINGIBERACEAE WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO THE NATURE OF LABELLUM AND EPIGYNOUS GLANDS

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    SHARAWY Sherif Mohamed

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The floral anatomy of Alpinia speciosa Schum. and Hedychium coronarium Koenig. (Zingiberaceae was investigated for an understanding of the structure and nature of the labellum and epigynous glands. The observation presented in this study supported the classical view of the labellum as a double structure rather than a triple or five-parted structure, as were proposed previously. The dorsal carpellary bundles in the studied species only continue into the style, fade out in the stigmatic tissue without feeding sepals or labellum as suggested in the previous studies. The glands in both studied species are found with very prominent masses of vascular tissue. The presence of vascular tissue seems to be connected with the more organized nature of the gland. Furthermore, the present study appears that the glands are not merely epidermal emergence of the ovary and similar to nectarines which may be vascularized.

  20. Study on the Formula of Chaenomeles speciosa Juice%宣木瓜饮料的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王安全; 孙汉巨; 张学良; 谢慧明

    2012-01-01

    [目的]以宣木瓜为主要原料,并添加黄精、山药、葛根和枸杞等药食同源的成分作为辅料,旨在开发一种具有清心润肺、健脾开胃、舒筋活络功效的功能性饮料.[方法]首先以感官评分为指标,通过单因素试验确定木瓜、白砂糖、黄精、山药、葛根和枸杞等成分的最适添加量,在此基础上通过正交试验优化该饮料的配方.[结果]该饮料的最佳配方为宣木瓜果肉8.00%,白砂糖8.00%,黄精0.20%,羧甲基纤维素钠0.20%,山药0.10%,葛根0.06%,枸杞0.02%.其关键生产工艺条件为:在35 MPa下均质1次,90 ~95℃下杀菌20 min.[结论]研制的宣木瓜饮料各质量指标均符合国家标准,具有推广价值.%[Objective] The aim was to develop a functional beverage with the functions of clearing away the heart fire, moistening lung, stomach-invigorate, stimulating the circulation of the blood and causing the muscles and joints to relax with C. Speciosa as main raw materials and Po-lygonatum sibiricum, Chinese yam, roots of kudzu vine and Chinese wolfberry as auxiliary materials. [ Method ] Firstly, the optimum additive a-mount of C. Speciosa, white granulated sugar, P. Sibiricum, Chinese yam, roots of kudzu vine and Chinese wolfberry were determined in single factor experiments by means of sensory score. Based on this, the formula of C. Speciosa was optimized in orthogonal design experiments. [ Result] The optimum formula was as follows; fresh fruit of Xuan Papaya 8.00% , white granulated sugar 8.00% ,P. Sibiricum 0.20% and CMC-Na 0.20% , Chinese yam 0.10% , roots of kudzu vine 0. 06% , Chinese wolfberry 0. 02%. The critical process conditions of the production were homogenization for one time under the pressure of 35 Mpa and sterilization under temperature of 90 -95℃ for 20 min. [ Conclusion] Each quality index of C. Speciosa juice is in line with national standard and has promotional value.

  1. Potency of Parkia speciosa Hassk seed extract for green synthesis of CdO nanoparticles and its characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permana, Y. N.; Yulizar, Y.

    2017-04-01

    CdO Nanoparticles (CdO NPs) have been green synthesized via sol-gel method using aqueous extract of Parkia speciosa Hassk (PSH) seed as the base source and stabilizing agent. The structural and optical properties of the formed CdO were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis DRS). The optical band gap of CdO NPs was estimated by UV-Vis DRS spectroscopy and calculated from reflectance spectrum ~2.00 eV. FTIR spectrum showed the functional groups of active compound of PSH seed extract which plays a role in the CdO NPs formation.

  2. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Properties as Well as the Phenolic Content of the Extract from Hancornia speciosa Gomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Uilson P; Campos, Jaqueline F; Torquato, Heron Fernandes V; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar Julian; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre; Estevinho, Leticia M; de Picoli Souza, Kely; Dos Santos, Edson Lucas

    2016-01-01

    Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Apocynaceae) is a fruit tree, popularly known as mangabeira, and it is widely distributed throughout Brazil. Several parts of the plant are used in folk medicine, and the leaf and bark extracts have anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, antidiabetic, and antimicrobial properties. In this study, we investigated the chemical composition of the ethanolic extract of Hancornia speciosa leaves (EEHS) and its antioxidant, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic activities as well as the mechanisms involved in cell death. The chemical compounds were identified by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The antioxidant activity of the EEHS was investigated using the method that involves the scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radicals as well as the inhibition of oxidative hemolysis and lipid peroxidation induced by 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) in human erythrocytes. The antimicrobial activity was determined by calculating the minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration, minimum fungicidal concentration, and zone of inhibition. Kasumi-1 leukemic cells were used to assess the cytotoxic activity and mechanisms involved in cell death promoted by the EEHS. The chemical compounds identified were quinic acid, chlorogenic acid, catechin, rutin, isoquercitrin, kaempferol-rutinoside, and catechin-pentoside. The EEHS demonstrated antioxidant activity via the sequestration of free radicals, inhibition of hemolysis, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes incubated with an oxidizing agent. The antimicrobial activity was observed against American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and hospital strains of bacteria and fungi, filamentous fungi and dermatophytes. The cytotoxic activity of the EEHS was induced by apoptosis, reduction of the mitochondrial membrane potential, and activation of cathepsins. Together, these results indicate the presence of phenolic compounds and flavonoids in the EEHS and

  3. Evaluation of the Effects of Mitragyna speciosa Alkaloid Extract on Cytochrome P450 Enzymes Using a High Throughput Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Elina Raja Aziddin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The extract from Mitragyna speciosa has been widely used as an opium substitute, mainly due to its morphine-like pharmacological effects. This study investigated the effects of M. speciosa alkaloid extract (MSE on human recombinant cytochrome P450 (CYP enzyme activities using a modified Crespi method. As compared with the liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method, this method has shown to be a fast and cost-effective way to perform CYP inhibition studies. The results indicated that MSE has the most potent inhibitory effect on CYP3A4 and CYP2D6, with apparent half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 values of 0.78 µg/mL and 0.636 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, moderate inhibition was observed for CYP1A2, with an IC50 of 39 µg/mL, and weak inhibition was detected for CYP2C19. The IC50 of CYP2C19 could not be determined, however, because inhibition was < 50%. Competitive inhibition was found for the MSE-treated CYP2D6 inhibition assay, whereas non-competitive inhibition was shown in inhibition assays using CYP3A4, CYP1A2 and CYP2C19. Quinidine (CYP2D6, ketoconazole (CYP3A4, tranylcypromine (CYP2C19 and furafylline (CYP1A2 were used as positive controls throughout the experiments. This study shows that MSE may contribute to an herb-drug interaction if administered concomitantly with drugs that are substrates for CYP3A4, CYP2D6 and CYP1A2.

  4. Eficiência de extratos vegetais no controle de Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, em laboratório

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    Junir Antonio Lutinski

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2010v23n1p83 Vulgarmente conhecida como “vaquinha”, Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824 ocorre na maioria dos estados brasileiros, destacando-se como uma das mais importantes pragas do feijoeiro e do milho. Visando avaliar a atividade inseticida de extratos brutos aquosos de nove espécies vegetais sobre os adultos deste inseto, realizou-se este trabalho. O experimento, conduzido em laboratório, foi realizado sob delineamento completamente casualizado, com dez tratamentos e quatro repetições. Para tal, utilizou-se um frasco, contendo em seu interior cinco espécimes adultos e uma folha de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris Linnaeus previamente imersa no extrato, tampado com um recorte de pano poroso e fixado por uma borracha. A variável avaliada foi número de espécimes de D. speciosa vivos. Os tratamentos consistiram em extratos de salvia (Salvia officinalis Linnaeus, cravo (Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb, noz-moscada (Myristica fragans Houtt, cinamomo (Melia azedarach Linnaeus, timbó (Ateleia glazioveana Baill, eucalipto (Eucalyptus citriodora Hook, canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, figueira (Ficus microcarpa Linnaeus f., alecrim (Rosmarinus officinalis Linnaeus e a testemunha (apenas água destilada. As avaliações de sobrevivência foram realizadas a cada 24 horas, durante 10 dias. Sobre o número de espécimes vivos efetuou-se a análise de variância em bifatorial (10 extratos x 11 horários após a aplicação. As médias foram agrupadas pelo teste de Duncan ao nível de 5% de probabilidade de erro. Os extratos mais eficientes foram o timbó, noz-moscada e cinamomo, com porcentagens de eficiência variando entre 80,4% e 100%.

  5. Ocorrência e potencial biotecnológico de leveduras associadas aos frutos de Attalea speciosa

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    Stella Costa Santos do Vale

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O Babaçu (Attalea speciosa Mart ex. Spreng, é uma palmeira oleaginosa pertencente à família Arecaceae, das partes que compõem o fruto do babaçu, 15% do peso total do fruto correspondem ao epicarpo; 20% ao mesocarpo e 58% ao endocarpo (incluindo as amêndoas, sendo a amêndoa sua componente mais utilizada. Às leveduras estão intimamente associadas a uma grande variedade de insetos e de plantas. Dentre todos os órgãos dos vegetais em que há registro da existência de leveduras, os frutos representam importantes micro-habitats naturais para uma diversidade significativa de espécies de leveduras. O objetivo de este trabalho foi isolar e testar as habilidades enzimáticas de linhagens de leveduras associadas as amêndoas de Orbignya speciosa, e seu possível potencial biotecnológico para utilização com fins industriais. Foram realizadas 10 coletas, com sete dias de intervalo entre cada uma, durante 3 meses, onde foram obtidos 15 amêndoas por coleta. Foram isoladas 84 linhagens de leveduras. Atividade enzimática foi avaliada e dentre as oitenta e quatro linhagens de leveduras testadas quanto a capacidades de hidrolisar a caseína em meio protease, 26,04 % apresentaram potencial enzimático em pH ácido, 31,92% em pH neutro e 28,56% em pH alcalino, demonstrando potencial enzimático em diferentes pHs.A atividade lipolítica também foi satisfatória onde, sessenta e duas linhagens produtores de lipases podem ter uso potencial para testes de emprego comercial de lipases microbianas. Já a atividade celulolítica foi mais limitada, apenas dezenove linhagens se mostraram degradantes de celulose.

  6. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Properties as Well as the Phenolic Content of the Extract from Hancornia speciosa Gomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Uilson P.; Campos, Jaqueline F.; Torquato, Heron Fernandes V.; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar Julian; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre; Estevinho, Leticia M.; de Picoli Souza, Kely

    2016-01-01

    Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Apocynaceae) is a fruit tree, popularly known as mangabeira, and it is widely distributed throughout Brazil. Several parts of the plant are used in folk medicine, and the leaf and bark extracts have anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, antidiabetic, and antimicrobial properties. In this study, we investigated the chemical composition of the ethanolic extract of Hancornia speciosa leaves (EEHS) and its antioxidant, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic activities as well as the mechanisms involved in cell death. The chemical compounds were identified by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The antioxidant activity of the EEHS was investigated using the method that involves the scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radicals as well as the inhibition of oxidative hemolysis and lipid peroxidation induced by 2,2’-azobis (2-amidinopropane) in human erythrocytes. The antimicrobial activity was determined by calculating the minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration, minimum fungicidal concentration, and zone of inhibition. Kasumi-1 leukemic cells were used to assess the cytotoxic activity and mechanisms involved in cell death promoted by the EEHS. The chemical compounds identified were quinic acid, chlorogenic acid, catechin, rutin, isoquercitrin, kaempferol-rutinoside, and catechin-pentoside. The EEHS demonstrated antioxidant activity via the sequestration of free radicals, inhibition of hemolysis, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes incubated with an oxidizing agent. The antimicrobial activity was observed against American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and hospital strains of bacteria and fungi, filamentous fungi and dermatophytes. The cytotoxic activity of the EEHS was induced by apoptosis, reduction of the mitochondrial membrane potential, and activation of cathepsins. Together, these results indicate the presence of phenolic compounds and flavonoids in the EEHS

  7. Synthesis, characterization and application of Lagerstroemia speciosa embedded magnetic nanoparticle for Cr(VI) adsorption from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Shalini; Agrawal, Shashi Bhushan; Mondal, Monoj Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Lagerstroemia speciosa bark (LB) embedded magnetic nanoparticles were prepared by co-precipitation of Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) salt solution with ammonia and LB for Cr(VI) removal from aqueous solution. The native LB, magnetic nanoparticle (MNP), L. speciosa embedded magnetic nanoparticle (MNPLB) and Cr(VI) adsorbed MNPLB particles were characterized by SEM-EDX, TEM, BET-surface area, FT-IR, XRD and TGA methods. TEM analysis confirmed nearly spherical shape of MNP with an average diameter of 8.76nm and the surface modification did not result in the phase change of MNP as established by XRD analysis, while led to the formation of secondary particles of MNPLB with diameter of 18.54nm. Characterization results revealed covalent binding between the hydroxyl group of MNP and carboxyl group of LB particles and further confirmed its physico-chemical nature favorable for Cr(VI) adsorption. The Cr(VI) adsorption on to MNPLB particle as an adsorbent was tested under different contact time, initial Cr(VI) concentration, adsorbent dose, initial pH, temperature and agitation speed. The results of the equilibrium and kinetics of adsorption were well described by Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second-order model, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters suggest spontaneous and endothermic nature of Cr(VI) adsorption onto MNPLB. The maximum adsorption capacity for MNPLB was calculated to be 434.78mg/g and these particles even after Cr(VI) adsorption were collected effortlessly from the aqueous solution by a magnet. The desorption of Cr(VI)-adsorbed MNPLB was found to be more than 93.72% with spent MNPLB depicting eleven successive adsorption-desorption cycles. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Induction and analysis of the alkaloid mitragynine content of a Mitragyna speciosa suspension culture system upon elicitation and precursor feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad Zuldin, Nor Nahazima; Said, Ikram Md; Mohd Noor, Normah; Zainal, Zamri; Jin Kiat, Chew; Ismail, Ismanizan

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of different concentrations and combinations of the phytohormones 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D), kinetin, 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) on callus induction and to demonstrate the role of elicitors and exogenous precursors on the production of mitragynine in a Mitragyna speciosa suspension culture. The best callus induction was achieved from petiole explants cultured on WPM that was supplemented with 4 mg L⁻¹ 2,4-D (70.83%). Calli were transferred to liquid media and agitated on rotary shakers to establish Mitragyna speciosa cell suspension cultures. The optimum settled cell volume was achieved in the presence of WPM that contained 3 mg L⁻¹ 2,4-D and 3% sucrose (9.47 ± 0.4667 mL). The treatment of cultures with different concentrations of yeast extract and salicylic acid for different inoculation periods revealed that the highest mitragynine content as determined by HPLC was achieved from the culture treated with 250 mg L⁻¹ yeast extract (9.275 ± 0.082 mg L⁻¹) that was harvested on day 6 of culturing; salicylic acid showed low mitragynine content in all concentrations used. Tryptophan and loganin were used as exogenous precursors; the highest level of mitragynine production was achieved in cultures treated with 3  μM tryptophan and harvested at 6 days (13.226 ± 1.98 mg L⁻¹).

  9. Induction and Analysis of the Alkaloid Mitragynine Content of a Mitragyna speciosa Suspension Culture System upon Elicitation and Precursor Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Nahazima Mohamad Zuldin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effects of different concentrations and combinations of the phytohormones 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D, kinetin, 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP, and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA on callus induction and to demonstrate the role of elicitors and exogenous precursors on the production of mitragynine in a Mitragyna speciosa suspension culture. The best callus induction was achieved from petiole explants cultured on WPM that was supplemented with 4 mg L−1 2, 4-D (70.83%. Calli were transferred to liquid media and agitated on rotary shakers to establish Mitragyna speciosa cell suspension cultures. The optimum settled cell volume was achieved in the presence of WPM that contained 3 mg L−1 2,4-D and 3% sucrose (9.47±0.4667 mL. The treatment of cultures with different concentrations of yeast extract and salicylic acid for different inoculation periods revealed that the highest mitragynine content as determined by HPLC was achieved from the culture treated with 250 mg L−1 yeast extract (9.275±0.082 mg L−1 that was harvested on day 6 of culturing; salicylic acid showed low mitragynine content in all concentrations used. Tryptophan and loganin were used as exogenous precursors; the highest level of mitragynine production was achieved in cultures treated with 3 μM tryptophan and harvested at 6 days (13.226±1.98 mg L−1.

  10. Efeito do estresse hídrico e envelhecimento precoce na viabilidade de sementes osmocondicionadas de paineira (Chorisia speciosa Water stress and accelerated aging effects on the viability of osmoconditioned Chorisia speciosa seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silmara Cristina Fanti

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência do condicionamento osmótico em aumentar a tolerância de sementes de paineira (Chorisia speciosa St. Hil. ao estresse hídrico e ao envelhecimento precoce. As sementes foram condicionadas em solução de KNO3 (0,1M a 20ºC durante 24 horas, e desidratadas a 27ºC até atingirem o peso inicial, apresentado antes do tratamento. Em seguida, foram expostas ao estresse hídrico simulado com soluções de PEG 6000 nos potenciais osmóticos de 0,0, -0,1, -0,2, -0,3, -0,4, -0,5, -0,6 e -0,7 MPa e aos efeitos do envelhecimento precoce (45ºC e 100% UR durante 0, 24, 48, 72, 96 e 120 horas. Nas sementes condicionadas e submetidas ao estresse hídrico, os valores médios de porcentagem e velocidade de germinação foram estatisticamente superiores aos obtidos em sementes não condicionadas. Além disso, o condicionamento osmótico aumentou o limite máximo de tolerância ao estresse hídrico. As sementes condicionadas foram mais sensíveis ao envelhecimento precoce.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of osmotic conditioning on the tolerance increase of seeds of Chorisia speciosa St. Hil. to water stress and accelerated aging. The seeds previously scarified (punction were primed in KNO3 (0.1M solutions at 20ºC during 24 hours. After that, the seeds were dried (at 27ºC until the initial moisture level, presented before the pre-imbibition, was reached. Primed and non primed seeds were exposed to water stress simulated with PEG 6000 solutions, with 0.0, -0.1, -0.2, -0.3, -0.4, -0.5, -0.6 and -0.7 MPa of osmotic potentials and to accelerated aging at 45ºC and 100% of RU during 0, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours. The mean values of rate and germination percentage were higher in primed seed than in non primed ones. The tolerance limit to water stress was extended for primed seed. Primed seeds were more sensible to accelerated aging.

  11. Métodos de extração e concentrações no efeito inseticida de Ruta graveolens L., Artemisia verlotorum Lamotte e Petiveria alliacea L. a Diabrotica speciosa Germar Extraction methods and concentrations for the insecticidal effect of Ruta graveolens L., Artemisia verlotorum Lamotte, and Petiveria alliacea L. against Diabrotica speciosa Germar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.S. Barbosa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o melhor método de extração e concentração para Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae, Artemisia verlotorum Lamotte (Asteraceae e Petiveria alliacea L. (Phytolaccaceae quanto ao efeito inseticida a Diabrotica speciosa Germar (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae. Os extratos que utilizaram óleo de soja comercial, pelo menos como um dos solventes, apresentaram maior mortalidade de D. speciosa em suas testemunhas (solvente = óleo, nas três plantas estudadas, em relação às suas concentrações. O extrato aquoso de R. graveolens, a 5% de concentração, apresentou maior mortalidade corrigida de D. speciosa (32,5% que os extratos de A. verlotorum em água (10% de concentração (20,3% e P. alliacea em álcool etílico (2% de concentração (12,5%. O método de extração com água é simples, sendo passível de utilização por pequenos agricultores. A R. graveolens é planta facilmente cultivada, sendo, portanto, boa alternativa de controle dessa praga.The aim of this work was to determine the best extraction method and concentration for Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae, Artemisia verlotorum Lamotte (Asteraceae and Petiveria alliacea L. (Phytolaccaceae concerning their insecticidal effect against Diabrotica speciosa Germar (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae. Extracts using commercial soybean oil as at least one of the solvents resulted in higher D. speciosa mortality in controls (solvent = oil of the three studied plants, relative to their treatment concentrations. R. graveolens extract in water, at 5% concentration, showed higher D. speciosa corrected mortality (32.5% than A. verlotiorum extracts in water (10% concentration (20.3% and P. alliacea in ethanol (2% concentration (12.5%. The extraction method with water is simple and can be used by small farmers. R. graveolens is an easily cultivated plant and constitutes, therefore, a good alternative to control this plague.

  12. Chemical constituents of Chaenomeles speciosa (Sweet.) Nakai%皱皮木瓜的化学成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹凯; 高慧媛; 李行诺; 吴立军

    2006-01-01

    目的 对皱皮木瓜(Chaenomeles speciosa(Sweet.)Nakai)果实的乙醇提取物的乙酸乙酯萃取部分进行化学成分研究.方法 利用多种色谱方法进行成分分离;根据物理化学性质和波谱学手段对分离得到的化合物进行结构鉴定.结果 分离得到7个化合物,分别鉴定为齐敦果酸(oleanolic acid,1)、白桦酸(betulinic acid,2)、3-O-乙酰坡模酸(3-O-acetyl pomolic acid,3)、绿原酸乙酯(ethyl chlorogenate,4)、原儿茶酸(protocatechuic acid,5)、没食子酸(gallic acid,6)、曲酸(kojic acid,7).结论 化合物4~7为木瓜属中首次分离得到的化合物.

  13. Notes from the Field: Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exposures Reported to Poison Centers - United States, 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Mehruba; Law, Royal; Schier, Josh

    2016-07-29

    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a plant consumed throughout the world for its stimulant effects and as an opioid substitute (1). It is typically brewed into a tea, chewed, smoked, or ingested in capsules (2). It is also known as Thang, Kakuam, Thom, Ketum, and Biak (3). The Drug Enforcement Administration includes kratom on its Drugs of Concern list (substances that are not currently regulated by the Controlled Substances Act, but that pose risks to persons who abuse them), and the National Institute of Drug Abuse has identified kratom as an emerging drug of abuse (3,4). Published case reports have associated kratom exposure with psychosis, seizures, and deaths (5,6). Because deaths have been attributed to kratom in the United States (7), some jurisdictions have passed or are considering legislation to make kratom use a felony (8). CDC characterized kratom exposures that were reported to poison centers and uploaded to the National Poison Data System (NPDS) during January 2010-December 2015. The NPDS is a national database of information logged by the country's regional poison centers serving all 50 United States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico and is maintained by the American Association of Poison Control Centers. NPDS case records are the result of call reports made by the public and health care providers.

  14. Phytoremediation of dyes using Lagerstroemia speciosa mediated silver nanoparticles and its biofilm activity against clinical strains Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai Saraswathi, V; Kamarudheen, Neethu; BhaskaraRao, K V; Santhakumar, K

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare silver nanoparticles by a green method using the aqueous leaves extract of Lagerstroemia speciosa. The prepared silver nanoparticles were characterized, studied for its photocatalytic and biofilm inhibition studies. The maximum absorbance peak was found at 427nm and thus confirming the formation of silver nanoparticles. The average size of silver nanoparticles synthesized was found to be 12nm using XRD and it was spherical in shape. The nanoparticles synthesized was investigated for photocatalytic activity for to two different dye molecules, methyl orange and methylene blue showing 310 and 290min degradation time respectively. The silver nanoparticles biofilm inhibition assay against clinical strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed lowest accumulation at a lower concentration. The biofilm inhibition was also studied by visual interpretation through Scanning Electron Microscopy states that 50μgmL(-1) exerts the highest inhibition compared against the control. This evident helps to analysis the silver nanoparticles for various applications in future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Preferência alimentar de Diabrotica speciosa (Germ. e Cerotoma sp. por genótipos de soja

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    Lara Fernando Mesquita

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a preferência para alimentação de Diabrotica speciosa Germ. e Cerotoma sp. por diferentes genótipos de soja Glycine max L., sob condições de laboratório. Em testes com e sem chance de escolha utilizando-se discos foliares, os genótipos BR-82-12547, GO-BR-83-37004 e IAC 8 foram os mais preferidos e danificados; os genótipos PI 274454, PI 229358 e IAC 742832 destacaram-se como os menos preferidos nos dois testes, sugerindo serem resistentes aos dois crisomelídeos. Em testes com e sem chance de escolha, utilizando-se extratos aquosos das folhas, os genótipos IAC-8, PI 229358 e BR-82-12547 mostraram-se os mais preferidos, já PI 274454 e IAC 742832 evidenciaram ser resistentes às duas espécies de inseto.

  16. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of lambs fed babassu cake (Orbignya speciosa) as a replacement for elephant grass silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Janaina Barros; Alves, Kaliandra Souza; Mezzomo, Rafael; Ribeiro Dos Santos Neta, Ernestina; Gomes, Daiany Íris; Sampaio Oliveira, Luis Rennan; Silva, Josiane Costa; Ramos de Carvalho, Francisco Fernando

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the effect of the partial replacement of elephant grass silage with babassu cake (Orbignya speciosa) on the carcass characteristics and meat quality of feedlot lambs. Forty-five castrated male Santa Ines sheep (19.08 ± 0.41 kg) approximately 4 months old were distributed in a completely randomized design, with five treatments 0.0, 12.5, 25.0, 37.5 and 50 % (%DM) replacement of babassu cake with silage forming isoproteic diets formulated at a ratio of 40 % roughage to 60 % concentrate. All of the studied animals were slaughtered at the end of the experiment. The liver weights and yields increased with the inclusion of babassu cake. The weight of the shoulder increased from 2.31 to 2.61 kg, while the loin yield decreased from 7.38 to 6.64 % with the inclusion of babassu cake, both linearly. The body length, thoracic perimeter, rump perimeter and carcass compactness index showed high and positive correlations with the hot and cold carcass weights. The myofibrillar fragmentation index decreased linearly as a function of the inclusion level of babassu cake, but other quality variables were not affected. The replacement of up to 50 % of the elephant grass silage with babassu cake in the diet of lambs does not cause negative effects on carcass characteristics or meat quality.

  17. Ethnobotany of babassu palm ( Attalea speciosa Mart. in the Tucuruí Lake Protected Areas Mosaic - eastern Amazon

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    Fábio Ribeiro Araújo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Documenting the ethnobotanical knowledge of populations living in protected areas is important both for science and for the effective conservation of these areas, as it can help to clarify the level of dependency that human communities have on local plant resources. Babassu (Attalea speciosa, Arecaceae is one of the most important non-timber forest resources of rural communities in the Amazon. We explored the ethnobotanical knowledge and uses of babassu by riverine populations inhabiting the Tucuruí Lake Protected Areas Mosaic in the eastern Amazon, by examining the diversity, purposes and descriptions of its uses and aspects of its extraction. Data were collected in 2010 and 2014 from 193 families. A total of 1,226 use records were cited representing 60 different uses. Records were classified into nine use-categories; utensils and tools was the most important category, followed by construction and human food. The use with the greatest purpose consensus value among the informants was thatch. Babassu proved to be an important resource for the livelihood of the local communities in providing shelter, food and reliable energy. Most informants lacked knowledge about sustainable practices and management of this resource.

  18. PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE PROTEOLYTIC ENZYME FROM THE LATEX OF THE MILKWEED, ASCLEPIAS SPECIOSA TORR. SOME COMPARISONS WITH OTHER PROTEASES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnick, Theodore; Davis, Alva R.; Greenberg, David M.

    1940-01-01

    1. A study has been made of the properties of a hitherto unreported proteolytic enzyme from the latex of the milkweed, Asclepias speciosa. The new protease has been named asclepain by the authors. 2. The results of chemical, diffusion, and denaturation tests indicate that asclepain is a protein. 3. Like papain, asclepain dots milk and digests most proteins, particularly if they are dissolved in concentrated urea solution. Unlike papain, asclepain did not clot blood. 4. The activation and inhibition phenomena of asclepain resemble those of papain, and seem best explained on the assumption that free sulfhydryl in the enzyme is necessary for proteolytic activity. The sulfhydryl of asclepain appears more labile than that of papain. 5. The measurement of pH-activity curves of asclepain on casein, ovalbumin, hemoglobin, edestin, and ovovitellin showed no definite digestion maxima for most of the undenatured proteins, while in urea solution there were well defined maxima near pH 7.0. Native hemoglobin and ovovitellin were especially undigestible, while native casein was rapidly attacked. 6. Temperature-activity curves were determined for asclepain on hemoglobin, casein, and milk solutions. The optimum temperature was shown to increase with decreasing time of digestion. PMID:19873154

  19. Feeding behavior of hummingbirds and perching birds on Erythrina speciosa Andrews (Fabaceae) flowers in an urban area, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil Comportamento alimentar de beija-flores e Passeriformes nas flores de Erytrhina speciosa Andrews (Fabaceae) em uma área urbana de Londrina, Paraná, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Baza Mendonça; Luiz dos Anjos

    2006-01-01

    Nine species of birds - seven hummingbirds (Trochilidae) and two Passeriformes - were observed visiting the flowers of Erythrina speciosa Andrews (Fabaceae), a hummingbird-pollinated species present on the campus of Londrina State University, Paraná State, Brazil. Nectar in bagged flowers bore little relationship with nectar in flowers opened to foragers either regarding quantity or diurnal pattern of availability. Birds were more frequent early in the morning and their activity on flowers fu...

  20. Determination of organic acid components from fruits of Chaenomeles speciosa by GC-MS%皱皮木瓜果实中有机酸成分的GC-MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚复俊; 陈玲; 卢笑丛; 王有为

    2005-01-01

    The constituents and contents of esterifing derivatives of organic and aqueous phases in extracts from Chaenomeles speciosa (Sweet) Nakai fruits were analysed by GC-MS. The results indicated that there were 15 and 17 compounds in organic and aqueous phases, respectively. Besides there were common fatty acids, there were a lof of binary acids and ternary acids. The contents of malic acid and citric acid in aqueous and organic phases reached to 64.007%, 70.492% and 30.305%, 22.121% respectively. Therefore, malic acid and citric acid are the major constituents of organic acids in C. speciosa fruits.

  1. Impact of the nutrients N and K and soluble sugars on Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) and Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) populations in potato crops, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae); Impacto dos nutrientes N e K e de acucares soluveis sobre populacoes de Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) e Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) na cultura da batata, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azeredo, Edson Henrique de [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Pinheiral, RJ (Brazil). Pro-Reitoria de Extensao], e-mail: edsonhenrique.azeredo@bol.com.br; Lima, Eduardo [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Agronomia. Dept. de Solos; Cassino, Paulo Cesar Rodrigues [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Centro Integrado de Manejo de Pragas C.R.G.

    2004-03-15

    Impact of the nutrients N and K and soluble sugars on Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) and Agrotis ipsilon (Huefnagel) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) populations in potato crops, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae). The occurrence of Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824) and Agrotis ipsilon (Huefnagel, 1767) on the potato cultivars Achat and Monalisa, influenced by nitrogen and potassium dosage, and minimum quantity of soluble sugars, was studied. The following parameters were evaluated: concentration of mineral nutrient and sugar in green leaf, senescent leaf, leaf in abscission, stem, tubercle and total plant using extracts of infusion in ethanol 80%. The largest infestation of D. speciosa larvae was on Monalisa cultivar at 150 kg.ha{sup -1} of N + K with 27.03% at P< 0,05. It was observed that the effect of the dosage of N + K in the increment of the concentration of soluble sugars increased the damages in the tubercles and stems by A. ipsilon. The infestation by these species increased to 58.82% on the Monalisa cultivar, when the nitrogen dosage increased from zero to 150 kg.ha{sup -1}, in the absence of potassium. On the other hand, high dosage of K reduced the damages by A. ipsilon on Monalisa cultivar. However, it did not influence the storage of soluble sugar. The results indicated that in Achat cultivar the accumulated soluble sugar was reduced, probably sensitized by elevation of potassic fertilization dosing, differing from Monalisa cultivar, in which the influence was by nitrogen dosing. (author)

  2. Primary research on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in rhizosphere of Chaenomeles speciosa in Xuancheng%宣木瓜丛枝菌根真菌的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱秀芹; 杨安娜; 郑艳; 韦小艳; 汪建中

    2009-01-01

    目的:调查安徽省宣城市宣木瓜丛枝菌根(AM)真菌资源.方法:用碱解离、酸性品红染色法处理根样并研究其浸染状况;用湿筛沉淀法分离宣木瓜根际土壤中的丛枝菌根真菌孢子并进行孢子计数和种类鉴定.结果:宣木瓜可被AM真菌浸染形成典型AM;初步分离鉴定出隶属4属的18种AM真菌,其中球囊霉属Glomus 11种,无梗囊霉属Acaulospora 3种,盾巨孢囊霉属Scutellospora 3种,内养囊霉属Entrophospora 1种.结论:宣木瓜根际土壤AM真菌资源较为丰富,其中球囊霉属Glomus真菌为宣木瓜根际土壤中AM真菌的优势类群.%Objective: Objective : To investigate the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi resources in rhizosphere of Chaenomeles speciosa in Xuancheng, Anhui province. Method: Roots were stained with acid fuchsin and then mounted and observed under a microscope; Spores were extracted from the rhizosphere soil using wet-sieving method. Result: C. speciosa could be colonized and formed typical arbuscular mycorrhizas with AM fingi. 18 species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were identified, belonging to four genera, 11 species of Glomus, 3 species of Acaulospora, 3 species of Scutellospora and 1 species of Entrophospora. Glomus were the dominant AM fungi in the rhizosphere. Conclusion : The resources of AM fungi in rhiszophere of C. speciosa were very abundant. Fungi from Glomus were possible the dominant AMF in the rhizosphere.

  3. A casual alien plant new to Mediterranean Europe: Ceiba speciosa (Malvaceae in the suburban area of Palermo (NW Sicily, Italy

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    Pasta, Salvatore

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The abiotic and biotic characteristics of the first sites where floss silk tree behaves as a casual alien plant in the Mediterranean Europe are described. The species was probably first planted in botanical gardens of southern France few decades before mid XIX century. It was introduced in Palermo in 1896, a city which appears to match very well its climatic requirements. According to the available information on its biology and ecology in both its original and secondary range, the floss silk tree should not become an invasive alien plant in the Mediterranean. Nevertheless, several gaps need to be filled in order to increase our understanding of future trends of Ceiba speciosa in southern Europe, in particular, the eventual role of pollinators and seed dispersers outside the species’ natural range.Se describen las caracteristicas abióticas y bióticas de los primeros sitios del mediterráneo europeo donde el árbol palo borracho se encuentra creciendo como especie alóctona casual. Con respecto a la historia de su introducción, esta especie fue probablemente plantada en los jardines botánicos del sur de Francia unos pocos decenios antes de la mitad del siglo XIX. En 1896, sin embargo, fue introducida en Palermo, ciudad que parece satisfacer muy bien sus requerimientos climáticos. De acuerdo con la información disponible, tanto dentro como fuera de su área de distribución natural, el palo borracho no debería convertirse en planta invasora en el mediterráneo. Sin embargo, algunos vacíos de información deben ser completados antes de establecer su potencial invasor de una manera definitiva, particularmente, el posible papel de agentes polinizadores y dispersores fuera del área de distribución natural de la especie.

  4. In vivo antioxidant and antiulcer activity of Parkia speciosa ethanolic leaf extract against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats.

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    Rami Al Batran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The current study was carried out to examine the gastroprotective effects of Parkia speciosa against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa injury in rats. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sprague Dawley rats were separated into 7 groups. Groups 1-2 were orally challenged with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC; group 3 received 20 mg/kg omeprazole and groups 4-7 received 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of ethanolic leaf extract, respectively. After 1 h, CMC or absolute ethanol was given orally to groups 2-7. The rats were sacrificed after 1 h. Then, the injuries to the gastric mucosa were estimated through assessment of the gastric wall mucus, the gross appearance of ulcer areas, histology, immunohistochemistry and enzymatic assays. Group 2 exhibited significant mucosal injuries, with reduced gastric wall mucus and severe damage to the gastric mucosa, whereas reductions in mucosal injury were observed for groups 4-7. Groups 3-7 demonstrated a reversal in the decrease in Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS staining induced by ethanol. No symptoms of toxicity or death were observed during the acute toxicity tests. CONCLUSION: Treatment with the extract led to the upregulation of heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70 and the downregulation of the pro-apoptotic protein BAX. Significant increases in the levels of the antioxidant defense enzymes glutathione (GSH and superoxide dismutase (SOD in the gastric mucosal homogenate were observed, whereas that of a lipid peroxidation marker (MDA was significantly decreased. Significance was defined as p<0.05 compared to the ulcer control group (Group 2.

  5. Comparison of three chromatographic techniques for the detection of mitragynine and other indole and oxindole alkaloids in Mitragyna speciosa (kratom) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei; Carrell, Emily J; Ali, Zulfiqar; Avula, Bharathi; Avonto, Cristina; Parcher, Jon F; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2014-06-01

    Leaves of the Southeast Asian plant Mitragyna speciosa are used to suppress pain and mitigate opioid withdrawal syndromes. The potential threat of abuse and ready availability of this uncontrolled psychoactive plant have led to the need for improved analytical techniques for the detection of the major active components, mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine. Three independent chromatographic methods coupled to two detection systems, GC with MS, supercritical fluid chromatography with diode array detection, and HPLC with MS and diode array detection, were compared for the analysis of mitragynine and other indole and oxindole alkaloids in M. speciosa plants. The indole alkaloids included two sets of diastereoisomers: (i) paynantheine and 3-isopaynantheine and (ii) mitragynine, speciogynine, and speciociliatine. Two oxindole alkaloid diastereoisomers, corynoxine and corynoxine B, were also studied. The HPLC and supercritical fluid chromatography methods successfully resolved the major components with slightly different elution orders. The GC method was less satisfactory because it was unable to resolve mitragynine and speciociliatine. This separation was difficult by GC with a liquid stationary phase because these diastereoisomers differ only in the orientation of an interior hydrogen atom. The observed lack of resolution of the indole alkaloid diastereoisomers coupled with the likeness of the mass and tandem mass spectra, calls into question proposed GC methods for the analysis of mitragynine based on solely GC with MS separation and identification.

  6. Supplementation of Superfine Powder Prepared from Chaenomeles speciosa Fruit Increases Endurance Capacity in Rats via Antioxidant and Nrf2/ARE Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ka Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chaenomeles speciosa fruit is a traditional herb medicine widely used in China. In this study, superfine powder of C. speciosa fruit (SCE, ground by supersonic nitrogen airflow at −140°C, was investigated to assess its in vitro antioxidant activity and in vivo antiphysical fatigue activity. SCE was homogenous (d<10 μm and rich in antioxidants like polyphenols, saponins, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, ascorbic acid, and SOD. According to the in vitro experiments, SCE displayed promising antioxidant activity with powerful FARP, SC-DPPH, and SC-SAR activities. According to the in vivo experiments, rats supplemented with SCE had prolonged exhaustive swimming time (57% compared to the nonsupplemented rats. Meanwhile, compared to the nonsupplemented rats, the SCE-supplemented rats had higher levels of blood glucose and liver and muscular glycogen and lower levels of LA and BUN. Lower MDA, higher antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px activities, and upregulated Nrf2/ARE mediated antioxidant enzymes (HO-1, Trx, GCLM, and GCLC expression were also detected in the supplemented group. This study indicates that SCE is a potent antioxidant and antifatigue agent, and SCE could be a promising raw material for the food and pharmaceutical industries.

  7. Expressões ecofisiológicas de germoplasma de Hancornia speciosa Gomes cultivado no Litoral de Pernambuco Physiological expressions in Hancornia speciosa Gomes germoplasm from the coastal region, Pernambuco, Brazil

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    Rejane Jurema Mansur Custódio Nogueira

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar in loco as relações hídricas e respectivas correlações em quatro acessos de mangaba (M-UFRPE 1, M-UFRPE 2, M-UFRPE 3 e M-UFRPE 4 cultivados na região litorânea do Estado de Pernambuco. As medidas foram tomadas em folhas adultas, completamente expandidas, em duas situações de exposição à luminosidade: exposição solar plena e sombreamento natural. As variáveis analisadas foram: temperatura foliar (Tf, transpiração (E e resistência difusiva (Rs. Verificou-se que as folhas sombreadas de M-UFRPE 2 transpiraram mais do que as expostas diretamente ao sol, diferindo do comportamento dos demais acessos. A Rs em folhas expostas ao sol variou de 1,1 a 4,5s.cm-1, enquanto que nas folhas sombreadas, essa variação foi de 1,7 a 3,5s.cm-1. Os efeitos de ExRs foram inversos e altamente significativos para ambos os tratamentos estudados. Para as folhas expostas ao sol, a Tf, e a E foram influenciadas muito mais pela umidade relativa do que pela radiação fotossinteticamente ativa.A study was carried out with tropical fruit germoplasm (Hancornia speciosa Gomes to evaluate "in loco" water relations and their respectives correlations in four acesses (M-UFRPE 1, M-UFRPE 2, M-UFRPE 3 and M-UFRPE 4 cultivated at the coastal region, in Brazil. The datas were taken from fully expanded adults leaves. Two treatments were studied: leaves fully exposed to the sun and shadow leaves. The following characters were analized: leaf temperature (Tf, transpiration (E and diffusive resistance (Rs. The shadow leaves of the M-UFRPE 2 showed higher transpiration rate than fully exposed leaves to the sun. This behaviour was different compared to the other treatment. The variation between fully exposed leaves to the sun and shadow leaves for Rs was 1.1 to 4.5s.cm-1 and 1.7 to 3.5s.cm-1, respectively. The ExRs correlation was more significant and negative. The Tf and E correlation was longer influenced by relative humidity than photosynthetically

  8. Studies on the phase I and II metabolism and the toxicological analysis of the alkaloids of the herbal drug of abuse Mitragyna speciosa Korth. (Kratom) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography coupled to low- and high-resolution linear ion trap mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp, Anika-Anina

    2011-01-01

    In the presented studies, the herbal drug Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) was investigated regarding its metabolism and its toxicological analysis in rat and human urine. Depending on the plant species and plant parts the three most abundant alkaloids of Mitragyna speciosa are MG, PAY and the MG diastereomer SG. Further alkaloids are the MG diastereomers SC and MC and ISO-PAY the diastereomer of PAY. The diastereomers of MG and PAY were mainly metabolized by hydrolysis of the methylester in p...

  9. Comportamento de larvas de Diabrotica speciosa (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae em resposta ao CO2 e a plântulas de espécies cultivadas Behavioral responses of Diabrotica speciosa (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae larvae to CO2 and seedlings of host plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Pereira

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available As respostas de larvas de Diabrotica speciosa (Germar (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae ao CO2 e o comportamento destas larvas quando expostas a plantas hospedeiras e não hospedeiras foram estudadas em laboratório. Larvas de primeiro ínstar de D. speciosa foram utilizadas. Num primeiro bioensaio, as larvas preferiram o tratamento com CO2, que foi gerado a partir da reação de bicarbonato de potássio com ácido acético em oposição a água destilada. Quando se observou o comportamento das larvas em relação a plantas hospedeiras, verificou-se que ocorreu um número significativamente maior de "mudanças de direção" em milho e milho pipoca do que em feijão, soja, trigo e sorgo. Este parâmetro foi inferior no sorgo em relação a todos os outros tratamentos. Valores similares foram verificados em milho pipoca e milho (26,2 e 24,2, respectivamente. Em relação a distância percorrida, foram verificadas maiores distâncias na aveia em comparação com milho pipoca, milho, feijão e sorgo. Após o contato das larvas com sorgo, elas não apresentaram comportamento de busca, pois a larva caía da plântula ou não se movia .Responses of Diabrotica speciosa (Germar (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae larvae to CO2 and their behavior when exposed to host and non host plants were studied in the laboratory. First instar larvae of D. speciosa were used. In a first bioassay, larvae preferred the treatment with CO2, from the reaction of the potassium bicarbonate and acetic acid, in opposition to distillated water. When the behavior of the larvae was observed in response to host plants, a significant higher number of turns was found in corn and popcorn than in common beans, soybean, wheat and sorghum. Sorghum differed from all other treatments with a lower number of turns. Similar values were found in popcorn and corn. The greater distances ranged were found on oats in comparison to pop corn, corn, common beans and sorghum. After contact with sorghum seedlings

  10. Feeding behavior of hummingbirds and perching birds on Erythrina speciosa Andrews (Fabaceae flowers in an urban area, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil Comportamento alimentar de beija-flores e Passeriformes nas flores de Erytrhina speciosa Andrews (Fabaceae em uma área urbana de Londrina, Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Baza Mendonça

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Nine species of birds - seven hummingbirds (Trochilidae and two Passeriformes - were observed visiting the flowers of Erythrina speciosa Andrews (Fabaceae, a hummingbird-pollinated species present on the campus of Londrina State University, Paraná State, Brazil. Nectar in bagged flowers bore little relationship with nectar in flowers opened to foragers either regarding quantity or diurnal pattern of availability. Birds were more frequent early in the morning and their activity on flowers further declined, apparently following the pattern of nectar availability. The manner to which birds probed the flowers and, in consequence, their role on pollination were greatly determined by morphological traits and approaching behavior of birds. E. speciosa seemed best suited for pollination by long-billed hummingbirds but some short to medium-billed species may play some role on its pollination.Nove espécies de aves - sete beija-flores (Trochilidae e duas aves Passeriformes - foram observados visitando as flores de Erythrina speciosa Andrews (Fabaceae, uma espécie polinizada por beija-flores presente no campus da Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Paraná, Brasil. O néctar em flores ensacadas apresentou pouca relação com aquele em flores expostas aos visitantes, tanto em termos de quantidade como em temos de padrão diurno de disponibilidade. As aves foram mais freqüentes de manhã e sua atividade nas flores diminuiu no transcorrer do dia, coincidindo com o padrão de disponibilidade de néctar. O comportamento de visita das aves e, em conseqüência, sua atuação na polinização da espécie foram em grande parte determinadas por características morfológicas e comportamentais destas. E. speciosa parece ser adaptada para polinização por beija-flores de bicos longos, embora espécies com bicos de comprimento curto a médio possam ter algum papel em sua polinização.

  11. 中药木瓜中总糖及还原糖的含量测定%Determination of total sugar and reducing sugar in Chaenomeles speciosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛丹; 黄豆豆; 姚风艳; 孙连娜

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish a method for determination of total sugar and reducing sugar in Chaenomeles speciosa and to detect the content of sugar with the methods. Methods The content of total sugar was determined by phenol-sulfuric acid method. The concentration of reducing sugar was determined by 3, 5-dinitrosalicylic acid method. Results The content of total sugar in Chaenomeles speciosa was 12.06%. The optimum determination wavelength of DNS colorimetry was 560 nm. The proper volume of DNS sample was 5.0 mL. The best time for colour reaction in the condition of boiling water bath was kept for 5 min. The content of reducing sugar in Chaenomeles speciosa was 11.58%. The content of polysaccharides was 2.51%. Conclusion Phenol-sulfuric acid method and DNS method can be used for the determination of total sugar and reducing sugar. The content of total sugar and reducing sugar indicate the content of polysaccharides in some degree.%目的:建立中药木瓜药材中总糖及还原糖的测定方法并对其含量进行测定,由此计算推测出药材中多糖含量。方法采用苯酚-浓硫酸法测定总糖含量,采用3,5-二硝基水杨酸法(DNS法)测定还原糖的含量。结果木瓜总糖含量为12.06%。DNS法测定还原糖的最佳条件为院测定波长560 nm,DNS最佳用量为5.0 mL,沸水浴加热5 min。测得药材中还原糖含量为11.58%。木瓜原药材中多糖含量为2.51%。结论苯酚浓硫酸法及DNS法可用于总糖及还原糖含量的测定,总糖和还原糖含量的高低在一定程度上可以反映多糖含量的多少。

  12. A δ(15)N assessment of nitrogen deposition for the endangered epiphytic orchid Laelia speciosa from a city and an oak forest in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Álvarez, Edison A; Reyes-García, Casandra; de la Barrera, Erick

    2016-09-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen deposition poses a major threat to global biodiversity. Tropical epiphytic plants are especially at risk given their reliance on atmospheric sources of nutrients. The leaf, pseudobulb, and root carbon and nitrogen content, C:N ratio, as well as the nitrogen isotopic composition were studied for individuals of Laelia speciosa from a city and from an oak forest in Mexico. The nitrogen content of leaves was similar between the city and the oak forest, reaching 1.3 ± 0.2 % (dry mass). The δ(15)N of leaves, pseudobulbs, and roots reached 5.6 ± 0.2 ‰ in the city, values found in sites exposed to industrial and vehicular activities. The δ(15)N for plant from the oak forest amounted to -3.1 ± 0.3 ‰, which is similar to values measured from sites with low industrial activities. Some orchids such as Laelia speciosa produce a single pseudobulb per year, i.e., a water and nutrient storage organ, so the interannual nitrogen deposition was studied by considering the ten most recent pseudobulbs for plants from either site formed between 2003 and 2012. The C:N ratio of the ten most recent pseudobulbs from the oak forest, as well as that of the pseudobulbs formed before 2010 for plants in the city were indistinguishable from each other, averaging 132.4 ± 6.5, while it was lower for the two most recent pseudobulbs in the city. The δ(15)N values of pseudobulbs from the oak forest averaged ‒4.4 ± 0.1 ‰ for the entire series. The δ(15)N ranged from 0.1 ± 1.6 ‰ for the oldest pseudobulb to 4.7 ± 0.2 ‰ for the pseudobulb formed in the city from 2008 onwards. Isotopic analysis and the C:N ratio for L. speciosa revealed that rates of nitrogen deposition were higher in the city than in the forest. The δ(15)N values of series of pseudobulbs showed that it is possible to track nitrogen deposition over multiple years.

  13. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of extracts from Cassia alata, Eleusine indica, Eremomastax speciosa, Carica papaya and Polyscias fulva medicinal plants collected in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagnia, Bertrand; Fedeli, Donatella; Casetti, Rita; Montesano, Carla; Falcioni, Giancarlo; Colizzi, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of the population around the world has always used medicinal plants as first source of health care to fight infectious and non infectious diseases. Most of these medicinal plants may have scientific evidence to be considered in general practice. The aim of this work was to investigate the antioxidant capacities and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol extracts of leaves of Cassia alata, Eleusine indica, Carica papaya, Eremomastax speciosa and the stem bark of Polyscias fulva, collected in Cameroon. Chemiluminescence was used to analyze the antioxidant activities of plant extracts against hydrogen peroxide or superoxide anion. Comet assays were used to analyze the protection against antioxidant-induced DNA damage induced in white blood cells after treating with hydrogen peroxide. Flow cytometry was used to measure γδ T cells proliferation and anti-inflammatory activity of γδ T cells and of immature dendritic cells (imDC) in the presence of different concentrations of plant extracts. Ethanol extracts showed strong antioxidant properties against both hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion. Cassia alata showed the highest antioxidant activity. The effect of plant extracts on γδ T cells and imDC was evidenced by the dose dependent reduction in TNF-α production in the presence of Cassia alata, Carica papaya, Eremomastax speciosa Eleusine indica, and Polyscias fulva. γδ T cells proliferation was affected to the greatest extent by Polyscias fulva. These results clearly show the antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory activities of plant extracts collected in Cameroon. These properties of leaves and stem bark extracts may contribute to the value for these plants in traditional medicine and in general medical practice.

  14. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of extracts from Cassia alata, Eleusine indica, Eremomastax speciosa, Carica papaya and Polyscias fulva medicinal plants collected in Cameroon.

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    Bertrand Sagnia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The vast majority of the population around the world has always used medicinal plants as first source of health care to fight infectious and non infectious diseases. Most of these medicinal plants may have scientific evidence to be considered in general practice. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to investigate the antioxidant capacities and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol extracts of leaves of Cassia alata, Eleusine indica, Carica papaya, Eremomastax speciosa and the stem bark of Polyscias fulva, collected in Cameroon. METHODS: Chemiluminescence was used to analyze the antioxidant activities of plant extracts against hydrogen peroxide or superoxide anion. Comet assays were used to analyze the protection against antioxidant-induced DNA damage induced in white blood cells after treating with hydrogen peroxide. Flow cytometry was used to measure γδ T cells proliferation and anti-inflammatory activity of γδ T cells and of immature dendritic cells (imDC in the presence of different concentrations of plant extracts. RESULTS: Ethanol extracts showed strong antioxidant properties against both hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion. Cassia alata showed the highest antioxidant activity. The effect of plant extracts on γδ T cells and imDC was evidenced by the dose dependent reduction in TNF-α production in the presence of Cassia alata, Carica papaya, Eremomastax speciosa Eleusine indica, and Polyscias fulva. γδ T cells proliferation was affected to the greatest extent by Polyscias fulva. CONCLUSION: These results clearly show the antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory activities of plant extracts collected in Cameroon. These properties of leaves and stem bark extracts may contribute to the value for these plants in traditional medicine and in general medical practice.

  15. Conhecimento e usos do babaçu (Attalea speciosa Mart. e Attalea eichleri (Drude A. J. Hend. entre os Mebêngôkre-Kayapó da Terra Indígena Las Casas, estado do Pará, Brasil Knowledge and use of babassu (Attalea speciosa Mart. and Attalea eichleri ​​(Drude A.J. Hend. among Mebengokre-kayapó from Las Casas Indigenous Land, Pará state, Brazil

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    Sol Elizabeth González-Pérez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O babaçu (A. speciosa é uma das espécies que se destacam na subsistência de diversos povos e populações tradicionais que habitam o cerrado, região que ocupa aproximadamente 24% do território brasileiro. Neste estudo, efetuado entre o povo indígena Kayapó, foi feito um levantamento sobre os usos do babaçu na aldeia Las Casas, na Terra Indígena Las Casas, a qual está localizada dentro dos municípios de Pau D´Arco, Floresta do Araguaia e Redenção, no estado do Pará. Os dados foram obtidos através de entrevistas semi-estruturadas com 25 interlocutores e a importância deste recurso para os Kayapó foi analisada com base nos tipos de usos mencionados, calculando o índice de diversidade de uso entre os indígenas. Os informantes reconheceram duas etnoespécies como babaçu, A. speciosa (rõn tire e A. eichleri (rõn ne com aproximadamente dez usos em cinco categorias: alimentação, construção, cosmético, doméstico e ritual. Os resultados obtidos para o valor de diversidade do informante (IDs foram de 22,89 para A. speciosa e 10, 35 para A. eichleri. Estes valores demonstram que os informantes possuem menor dependência dos recursos oferecidos por A. eichleri, quando comparada aos oferecidos por A. speciosa, e ainda que os valores entre as duas espécies sejam discrepantes, a importância delas está relacionada principalmente ao aproveitamento da amêndoa para a produção de óleo para usos rituais e cosméticos.The babassu palm (A. speciosa is a species that stands out in the economy and livelihood of the people who live in the Cerrado biome, which is approximately 24% of Brazilian territory. A survey on the use and knowledge of babassu was carried out in the village of Las Casas, in Las Casas Indigenous Land. This village is located in the municipalities of Pau D'Arco, Floresta do Araguaia and Redenção. The importance of babassu for the community was analyzed by taking into account the types of uses registered and their

  16. CONTROLE QUÍMICO DO PULGÃO VERDE (Myzus persicae Sulzer, 1776 E DA VAQUINHA (Diabrotica speciosa Germ., 1824 NA CULTURA DO TOMATE RASTEIRO CHEMICAL CONTROL OF THE GREEN PEACH APHID (Myzus persicae, SULZER AND TOMATO LEAF BEETLE (Diabrotica speciosa, GERMAR IN TOMATO PLANTS

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    Danilo Couto

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O efeito de cinco inseticidas aplicados no tomateiro (Lycopersicum sculentum Mill, visando ao controle do pulgão verde, Myzus persicae SULZER e de vaquinha, Diabrotica speciosa GERM, foi testado em um experimento realizado na área experimental do Departamento de Horticultura da Escota de Agronomia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, no período de maio a setembro de 1994. Os tratamentos foram aplicados via pulverização e constaram de Bulldock 125 SC (dosagem de 100 ml/ 100 1 de água; Bulldock 50 CE (25 e 30 ml/100 l de água; Tamaron BR (100 ml/ 100 l de água; Orthene 750 BR (100 ml/ l00 1 de água e Folidol 600 (100 ml/l00 1 de água; e ainda uma testemunha (sem inseticida. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que todos os tratamentos foram eficientes no controle de M. persicae até sete dias após a aplicação. Aos 14 dias após a aplicação, o Bulldock 50 CE na dosagem de 25 ml/ 100 l de água e o Folidol 600 a 100 ml/ 100 l de água não apresentaram eficiência satisfatória. Com relação à D. speciosa, todos esses produtos foram igualmente eficientes até sete dias após aplicação.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Myzus persicae; diabrotica speciosa; tomateiro; controle químico.

    A trial to control the green peach aphid myzus persicae and tomato leaf beetle Diabrotica speciosa was carried out in Goi

  17. Avaliação da aplicação exógena de poliaminas no crescimento de calos de mangabeira (Hancornia speciosa Gomes Evaluation of exogenous application of polyamines on callus growth of mangaba tree (Hancornia speciosa Gomes

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    Chrystiane Borges Fráguas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar o efeito das poliaminas espermidina e espermina no crescimento de calos Hancornia speciosa Gomes. Calos com 0,5 cm de diâmetro foram inoculados em meio Murashige & Skoog (1962 (MS a 50% + 100 mg L-1 de caseína hidrolisada + 200 mg L-1 de levedura de cerveja, variando os tratamentos:A: 1 mmol de espermina + 2 mg L-1 de 2,4-D (ácido 2,4 diclorofenoxiacético + 0,5 mg L-1 de NAA (ácido naftalenoacético; B: 1 mmol de espermidina + 2 mg L-1 de 2,4-D + 0,5 mg L-1 de NAA; C: 2 mg L-1 de 2,4-D + 0,5 mg L-1 de NAA. Não houve influência das poliaminas no crescimento dos calos. observou-se, nos calos tratados com espermidina, maior concentração celular de putrescina (582,37 µg g mf-1 aos 60 dias, maior teor de espermidina (502,54 µg g mf-1 e espermina (868,53 µg g mf-1 aos 40 dias de cultivo, quando se aplicou a própria poliamina. Conclui-se que a aplicação exógena de poliaminas em Hancornia speciosa não proporciona aumento no crescimento de calos. A oxidação promovida por longos períodos de cultivo in vitro induz aumento nos níveis de putrescina.The effect of polyamines spermine and spermidine in the calluses growth of Hancornia speciosa Gomes was studied. Calluses with 0.5 cm diameter were inoculated in Murashige & Skoog (1962 (MS medium 50% + hidrolizated casein 100 mg L-1 + yeast 200 mg L-1, according to the treatments: A: spermine 1 mmol + 2.4-D 2 mg L-1 + NAA 0.5 mg L-1, B: spermidine 1 mmol + 2.4-D 2 mg L-1 + NAA 0.5 mg L-1, C: 2.4-D 2 mg L-1 + NAA 0.5 mg L-1. There was not polyamine influence in the calluses growth. It was observed in the treated calluses with spermidine larger cellular putrescine concentration (582.37 µg g mf-1 at 60 days, larger spermidine concentration (502.54 µg g mf-1 and spermine (868.53 µg g mf-1 at 40 days of cultivation, when the own polyamine was applied. It was concluded that the exogenous polyamine application in Hancornia speciosa does not provide an

  18. Plant-determined variation in the cardenolide content, thin-layer chromatography profiles, and emetic potency of monarch butterflies,Danaus plexippus L. Reared on milkweed plants in California: 2.Asclepias speciosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brower, L P; Seiber, J N; Nelson, C J; Lynch, S P; Holland, M M

    1984-04-01

    The pattern of variation in gross cardenolide concentration of 111Asclepias speciosa plants collected in six different areas of California is a positively skewed distribution which ranges from 19 to 344 μg of cardenolide per 0.1 g dry weight with a mean of 90 μg per 0.1 g. Butterflies reared individually on these plants in their native habitats ranged from 41 to 547 μg of cardenolide per 0.1 g dry weight with a mean of 179 μg. Total cardenolide per butterfly ranged from 54 to 1279 μg with a mean of 319 μg. Differences in concentrations and total cardenolide contents in the butterflies from the six geographic areas appeared minor, and there were no differences between the males and the females, although the males did weigh significantly more than females. The uptake of cardenolide by the butterflies was found to be a logarithmic function of the plant concentration. This results in regulation: larvae which feed on low-concentration plants produce butterflies with increased cardenolide concentrations relative to those of the plants, and those which feed on high-concentration plants produce butterflies with decreased concentrations. No evidence was adduced that high concentrations of cardenolides in the plants affected the fitness of the butterflies. The mean emetic potencies of the powdered plant and butterfly material were 5.62 and 5.25 blue jay emetic dose fifty units per milligram of cardenolide and the number of ED50 units per butterfly ranged from 0.28 to 6.7 with a mean of 1.67. Monarchs reared onA. speciosa, on average, are only about one tenth as emetic as those reared onA. eriocarpa. UnlikeA. eriocarpa which is limited to California,A. speciosa ranges from California to the Great Plains and is replaced eastwards byA. syriaca L. These two latter milkweed species appear to have a similar array of chemically identical cardenolides, and therefore both must produce butterflies of relatively low emetic potency to birds, with important ecological implications

  19. Principal component and Tucker3 analyses of high performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection fingerprints of crude extracts of Erythrina speciosa Andrews leaves

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    Kaori Soares, Patricia [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, CP 6154, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Bruns, Roy Edward, E-mail: bruns@iqm.unicamp.br [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, CP 6154, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Spacino Scarminio, Ieda [Laboratorio de Quimiometria em Ciencias Naturais, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, CP 6001, 86051-990 Londrina, PR (Brazil)

    2012-07-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simultaneous chromatographic, spectroscopic and mixture proportion correlations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tucker3 analysis of chromatographic, spectral and solvent mixture proportions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HPLC-DAD spectral characterization of chromatographic peaks. - Abstract: Mixtures of ethanol, dichloromethane, hexane and acetone obtained according to a statistical design have been used to extract substances from Erythrina speciosa Andrew leaves for chromatographic fingerprinting. The plant extracts from each mixture were analyzed by HPLC-DAD providing UV-vis spectra for each chromatographic peak. These chromatograms and spectra for the design mixtures were then treated with principal component (PCA), Tucker3 and PARAFAC analyses. PCA indicated the existence of five different chromatographic fingerprints for the leave extracts depending on the solvent mixture composition. Different chromatographic peak areas were strongly correlated with the mixture proportions of acetone, dichloromethane and ethanol. Tucker3 and PARAFAC analyses were very useful for identifying simultaneous correlations between chromatographic peak areas, spectral band absorbances and solvent proportions. The acetone proportion was highly correlated with the area of the 3.69 min retention time peak and the spectral absorbances between 250 and 260 nm, consistent with the presence of natural polyphenols. The dichloromethane mixture proportion was strongly correlated with the 12.19 min chromatographic peak area and a single spectral absorbance at 201 nm. This spectral absorption is characteristic of the electronic structures of terpenes and alkaloids.

  20. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Potential of Palm Leaf Extracts from Babaçu (Attalea speciosa, Buriti (Mauritia flexuosa, and Macaúba (Acrocomia aculeata

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    Adriana Idalina Torcato de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Babaçu (A. speciosa, Buriti (M. flexuosa, and Macaúba (A. aculeata are palm trees typical of the ecotone area between Cerrado and the Amazon rainforest. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of the extracts prepared from the leaves of those palms as well as determine their chemical compositions. The ethanol extracts were prepared in a Soxhlet apparatus and tested by disk diffusion and agar dilution technique against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and Candida parapsilosis. However, there was no significant activity at concentrations of 25, 50, and 100 mg·Ml−1. Moreover, the phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, catechins, steroids, triterpenes, and saponins. Gas chromatography (GC/MS analysis also identified organic acids, such as capric (decanoic acid, lauric (dodecanoic acid, myristic (tetradecanoic acid, phthalic (1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, palmitic (hexadecanoic acid, stearic (octadecanoic acid, linoleic (9,12-octadecadienoic acid (omega-6, linolenic (octadecatrienoic acid (omega-3, and the terpenes citronellol and phytol. Based on the chemical composition in the palm leaf extracts, the palms have the potential to be useful in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries.

  1. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Potential of Palm Leaf Extracts from Babaçu (Attalea speciosa), Buriti (Mauritia flexuosa), and Macaúba (Acrocomia aculeata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Talal Suleiman; do Nascimento, Guilherme Nobre L.; da Silva, Juliana Fonseca Moreira

    2016-01-01

    Babaçu (A. speciosa), Buriti (M. flexuosa), and Macaúba (A. aculeata) are palm trees typical of the ecotone area between Cerrado and the Amazon rainforest. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of the extracts prepared from the leaves of those palms as well as determine their chemical compositions. The ethanol extracts were prepared in a Soxhlet apparatus and tested by disk diffusion and agar dilution technique against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and Candida parapsilosis. However, there was no significant activity at concentrations of 25, 50, and 100 mg·Ml−1. Moreover, the phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, catechins, steroids, triterpenes, and saponins. Gas chromatography (GC/MS) analysis also identified organic acids, such as capric (decanoic) acid, lauric (dodecanoic) acid, myristic (tetradecanoic) acid, phthalic (1,2-benzenedicarboxylic) acid, palmitic (hexadecanoic) acid, stearic (octadecanoic) acid, linoleic (9,12-octadecadienoic) acid (omega-6), linolenic (octadecatrienoic) acid (omega-3), and the terpenes citronellol and phytol. Based on the chemical composition in the palm leaf extracts, the palms have the potential to be useful in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:27529077

  2. Organosulfide profile and hydrogen sulfide-releasing capacity of stinky bean (Parkia speciosa) oil: Effects of pH and extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tocmo, Restituto; Liang, Dong; Wang, Chenhui; Poh, Jerlin; Huang, Dejian

    2016-01-01

    Stinky beans (Parkia speciosa) were hydrodistilled and solvent-extracted and the oil obtained was analyzed by GC-MS/FID. Nine cyclic and one acyclic organosulfides were identified comprising 36% of total volatiles. Solvent extracts contained significantly (p oil (444 ppm). The concentrations of organosulfides are highly dependent on the pH values of the matrix, with control sample (pH 5.40) giving the highest total organosulfides (424 ppm) followed by that of pH 7.0 (234 ppm), pH 9.0 (195 ppm), and pH 3.0 (152 ppm). The H2S-releasing capacity, expressed as diallyl trisulfide equivalents (DATS-E in mmol DATS/g), corresponded well with the differences in organosulfide concentrations as affected by pH with control having the highest value (24.35) followed pH 7.0 (7.27), pH 9.0 (3.27), and pH 3.0 (1.80). We conclude that stinky bean oil is a potent H2S-releasing agent that could have health-beneficial properties.

  3. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Potential of Palm Leaf Extracts from Babaçu (Attalea speciosa), Buriti (Mauritia flexuosa), and Macaúba (Acrocomia aculeata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Adriana Idalina Torcato; Mahmoud, Talal Suleiman; do Nascimento, Guilherme Nobre L; da Silva, Juliana Fonseca Moreira; Pimenta, Raphael Sanzio; de Morais, Paula Benevides

    2016-01-01

    Babaçu (A. speciosa), Buriti (M. flexuosa), and Macaúba (A. aculeata) are palm trees typical of the ecotone area between Cerrado and the Amazon rainforest. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of the extracts prepared from the leaves of those palms as well as determine their chemical compositions. The ethanol extracts were prepared in a Soxhlet apparatus and tested by disk diffusion and agar dilution technique against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and Candida parapsilosis. However, there was no significant activity at concentrations of 25, 50, and 100 mg·Ml(-1). Moreover, the phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, catechins, steroids, triterpenes, and saponins. Gas chromatography (GC/MS) analysis also identified organic acids, such as capric (decanoic) acid, lauric (dodecanoic) acid, myristic (tetradecanoic) acid, phthalic (1,2-benzenedicarboxylic) acid, palmitic (hexadecanoic) acid, stearic (octadecanoic) acid, linoleic (9,12-octadecadienoic) acid (omega-6), linolenic (octadecatrienoic) acid (omega-3), and the terpenes citronellol and phytol. Based on the chemical composition in the palm leaf extracts, the palms have the potential to be useful in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries.

  4. The effect of silicon foliar application on the development of Seasonal ornamental plants. Part I: Sanvitalia speciosa 'Sunbini', Verbena 'Patio Blue' and Portulaca umbraticola 'Duna Red'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Dębicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Silicon is known as an element stimulating plant immunity and resistance to unfavorable conditions. Additional treatment with silicon may also cause a positive change in plant performance, improving the quality of ornamental plants. In the years 2009-2010, a two-factorial experiment was conducted involving three cultivars of seasonal ornamental plant species: creeping zinnia Sanvitalia speciosa 'Sunbini', vervain Verbena 'Patio Blue', and purslane Portulaca umbraticola 'Duna Red'. The first experimental factor was the concentration of Actisil preparation being an equivalent of 60, 120, and 180 mg Si×dm-3, applied three times by spraying, the second one was the type of medium: peat substrate and peat substrate with sand. The experiment proved the beneficial effect of fertilization with silicon on plant development of Verbena and the number of shoots of all examined plant species. The higher concentrations of Actisil were applied, the higher number of shoots the plants developed. Plants treated with Actisil also produced a higher number of buds and flowers or inflorescences featuring an increased diameter. Plants cultivated in peat substrate flowered better.

  5. Principal component and Tucker3 analyses of high performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection fingerprints of crude extracts of Erythrina speciosa Andrews leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Patricia Kaori; Bruns, Roy Edward; Scarminio, Ieda Spacino

    2012-07-29

    Mixtures of ethanol, dichloromethane, hexane and acetone obtained according to a statistical design have been used to extract substances from Erythrina speciosa Andrew leaves for chromatographic fingerprinting. The plant extracts from each mixture were analyzed by HPLC-DAD providing UV-vis spectra for each chromatographic peak. These chromatograms and spectra for the design mixtures were then treated with principal component (PCA), Tucker3 and PARAFAC analyses. PCA indicated the existence of five different chromatographic fingerprints for the leave extracts depending on the solvent mixture composition. Different chromatographic peak areas were strongly correlated with the mixture proportions of acetone, dichloromethane and ethanol. Tucker3 and PARAFAC analyses were very useful for identifying simultaneous correlations between chromatographic peak areas, spectral band absorbances and solvent proportions. The acetone proportion was highly correlated with the area of the 3.69 min retention time peak and the spectral absorbances between 250 and 260 nm, consistent with the presence of natural polyphenols. The dichloromethane mixture proportion was strongly correlated with the 12.19 min chromatographic peak area and a single spectral absorbance at 201 nm. This spectral absorption is characteristic of the electronic structures of terpenes and alkaloids.

  6. Impacto dos nutrientes N e K e de açúcares solúveis sobre populações de Diabrotica speciosa (Germar (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae e Agrotis ipsilon (Hüfnagel (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae na cultura da batata, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae Impact of the nutrients N and K and soluble sugars on Diabrotica speciosa (Germar (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae and Agrotis ipsilon (Hüfnagel (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae populations in potato crops, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Henrique de Azeredo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a ocorrência de Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824 (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae e de Agrotis ipsilon (Hüfnagel, 1767 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae em plantas de batata, cultivares Achat e Monalisa, influenciadas por dosagens de nitrogênio e potássio, e teor mínimo de açúcares solúveis. Os seguintes parâmetros foram avaliados: concentração de nutrientes minerais e açúcar em folha verde, folha senescente, folha em abcisão, haste, tubérculo e planta total usando extratos de infusão em etanol 80%. A maior infestação por larvas de D. speciosa foi na cultivar Monalisa a 150 kg.ha-1 de N + K com 27,03% a PThe occurrence of Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824 and Agrotis ipsilon (Hüfnagel, 1767 on the potato cultivars Achat and Monalisa, influenced by nitrogen and potassium dosage, and minimum theor of soluble sugars, was studied. The following parameters were evaluated: concentration of mineral nutrient and sugar in green leaf, senescent leaf, leaf in abscission, stem, tubercle and total plant using extracts of infusion in ethanol 80%. The largest infestation of D. speciosa larvae was on Monalisa cultivar at 150 kg.ha-1 of N + K with 27.03% at P< 0,05. It was observed that the effect of the dosage of N + K in the increment of the concentration of soluble sugars increased the damages in the tubercles and stems by A. ipsilon. The infestation by these species increased to 58.82% on the Monalisa cultivar, when the nitrogen dosage increased from zero to 150 kg.ha-1, in the absence of potassium. On the other hand, high dosage of K reduced the damages by A. ipsilon on Monalisa cultivar. However, it did not influence the storage of soluble sugar. The results indicated that in Achat cultivar the accumulated soluble sugar was reduced, probably sensibilized by elevation of potassic fertilization dosing, differing from Monalisa cultivar, in which the influence was by nitrogen dosing.

  7. Physiological functioning of Lagerstroemia speciosa L. under heavy roadside traffic: an approach to screen potential species for abatement of urban air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, H; Savita; Sharma, R; Sinha, S; Kumar, M; Kumar, P; Verma, A; Sharma, S K

    2017-05-01

    The mitigation potential of avenue tree species needs a sound understanding, especially for landscape planning or planting tree species on roadside, especially in city limits where there is huge traffic due to more number of vehicles. A preliminary study was conducted to investigate the impact of heavy traffic movement and pollution thereof on physiological functioning of Lagerstroemia speciosa trees planted on roadside in terms of carbon absorption, mitigation potential and adaptive behavior. Trees on roadside exhibited reduced carbon assimilation (36.7 ± 2.4%) and transpiration rate (42.14 ± 2.9%), decreased stomatal conductance (66.85 ± 3.87%), increased stomatal resistance (212.2 ± 11.25%), more leaf thickness (40.54 ± 3.25) and water use efficiency (9.4 ± 0.87%), and changes in lead (179.31 ± 10.24%) and proline (15.61 ± 1.92%) concentration in leaf tissues when compared to less traffic area (FRI campus). The impacts were also witnessed in the form of enhanced vapour pressure deficit of air (63.18 ± 4.94%) and leaf (45.72 ± 3.25%), and air temperature (3.2 ± 0.16%) and leaf temperature (9.0 ± 0.82%) along roadside trees. It was inferred that heavy traffic movements interrupt the physiological functioning of trees due to alteration in the surrounding environment as compared to non-traffic areas. The present study provides baseline information to further explore and identify the potential avenue tree species having significant mitigation potential and adaptive efficiency to heavy traffic movements for improving urban environment.

  8. Adaptogenic and in vitro antioxidant activity of flavanoids and other fractions of Argyreia speciosa (Burm.f) Boj. in acute and chronic stress paradigms in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habbu, P V; Mahadevan, K M; Kulkarni, P V; Daulatsingh, C; Veerapur, V P; Shastry, R A

    2010-01-01

    Argyreia speciosa (sweet) (Burm.f.) Boj. is an Ayurvedic rasayana plant used as an adaptogen. The present study reports the investigations done on the adaptogenic property of ethanol (EtAS; 100 and 200 mg/kg; po), ethyl acetate (EAAS; 100 and 200 mg/kg; po) fraction and flavanoids such as quercetin and kaempferol (25 mg/kg; po) of the root. Immobilization induced acute stress (AS; 3 days) and chronic stress (CS; 7 days) and swimming induced stress models were used to screen the anti-stress effect of the plant fractions and isolated flavanoids. The tested doses of EtAS and isolated flavanoids were able to produce significant effects in normalizing altered serum biochemical parameters and the severity of ulcer in both AS and CS models. Higher dose of EtAS, quercetin and kaempferol (25 mg/kg; po) were found to be significant in restoring the hypertrophy of adrenal gland and atrophy of spleen and thymus gland only in CS model. Greater swimming time was noted in the mice pretreated with tested doses of flavanoids and EtAS. In addition, levels of adrenal ascorbic acid and cortisol were restored compared to stress control group. EtAS exhibited significant scavenging effect of DPPH, hydroxyl radical and LPO. Thus, EtAS, quercetin and kaempferol are capable of increasing the capacity to tolerate non-specific stress in experimental animals, as evident from restoration of large number of parameters in the stress models studied. Bioactivity of EtAS may be due to the synergetic action of isolated flavanoids. Improvement in stress markers may be due its prolong effect of resistance to stress and partly due to free radical scavenging activity.

  9. OCORRÊNCIA DE Diabrotica speciosa (COLEOPTERA: CHRYSOMELIDAE NA CULTURA DO GIRASSOL NO MUNICÍPIO DE IPANGUAÇU/RN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danila Kelly Pereira Neri

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A planta do girassol destaca-se entre as oleoginosas pelo seu elevado teor de óleo nas sementes e por suas características agronômicas desejáveis, tanto que vem se ampliando seu cultivo como fonte de matéria-prima para produção de biodiesel em diversas regiões do Brasil. Seu cultivo na região Nordeste ainda é incipiente, mas há grande perspectiva de crescimento devido aos incentivos governamentais, visando à produção de biodiesel. Apesar da importância, ainda são poucos os trabalhos de pesquisas que tratam dessa cultura, e em especial de sua entomofauna. Neste contexto, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a ocorrência de besouros atacando a cultura do girassol em diferentes genótipos comerciais. O trabalho foi desenvolvido no IFRN do município de Ipanguaçu/RN. A semeadura se deu em 03/07/2008, seguindo-se todas as práticas culturais recomendadas para a cultura. O delineamento adotado foi em Blocos Casualizados com cinco tratamentos (genótipos e quatro repetições. A parcela experimental foi constituída por quatro linhas com sete metros de comprimento, espaçadas por 0,7 m entre linhas e 0,31 m entre plantas, totalizando 19,6 m2 e 90 plantas, sendo adotada como área útil para avaliação as duas fileiras centrais de plantas. As amostragens foram semanais de 14/07 a 08/09, avaliando-se visualmente 5 plantas por parcela. A espécie de besouro mais freqüentemente coletada foi Diabrotica speciosa, presente durante as três primeiras semanas da cultura.

  10. BAP e substratos na aclimatização de plântulas de gloxínia (Sinningia speciosa Lood. Hiern. provenientes de cultura de tecidos BAP and substrates on gloxinia (Sinningia speciosa Lood. Hiern. plantlets from tissue culture acclimatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Bortolotti da Silva

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A gloxínia é uma planta ornamental cultivada pela exoticidade e variação de coloração de suas flores. Objetivou-se avaliar a influência residual da citocinina 6-Benzilaminopurina (BAP usada durante a cultura in vitro sobre o processo de aclimatização de gloxínia (Sinningia speciosa Lood. Hiern.. As concentrações de 0,0; 0,5; 1 e 2,0 mg L-1 de BAP, em cultivo in vitro, foram combinadas com os substratos: vermiculita, plantmax® e vermiculita + plantmax®, durante o processo de aclimatização. Após o processo de inoculação in vitro, o material foi transferido para sala de crescimento com temperatura de 26 ± 1ºC, intensidade luminosa de 35 m mol m² s-1 e fotoperíodo de 16 horas, permanecendo nessas condições por 60 dias. Após esse período, as plantas obtidas foram plantadas nos diferentes substratos. As avaliações foram efetuadas após 120 dias, em casa-de-vegetação, registrando-se o número de brotos, peso da matéria fresca do sistema radicular, peso da matéria seca da planta e número de flores. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos com o cultivo em substrato plantmax® ou plantmax�� + vermiculita advinda de meio de cultura in vitro isento de BAP.The present work aimed to evaluate the influence of concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP used in acclimatization of gloxinia (Sinningia speciosa Lood. Hiern. Concentrations of BAP (0.0; 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0 mg L-1 in vitro and substrates (vermiculite, plantmax®, and vermiculite+plantmax® were tested for acclimatization in every possible combination. After in vitro inoculation, the material was transferred to a growth chamber with temperature of 26±1ºC and light intensity of 35 m mol m-2 s-1 for 16 hours, remaining under these conditions for 60 days. After that period, the plants obtained were transferred to pots containing substrates in a greenhouse. The evaluations were performed 120 days after cultivation. It were measured number of shoots, roots dry weight, above

  11. Feeding preference of Diabrotica speciosa (Ger. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae by broccoli leaves from natural, organic and conventional farming systems/ Preferência alimentar de Diabrotica speciosa (Ger. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae por folhas de brócolos cultivado em sistema natural, orgânico e convencional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Manuel O. J. Neves

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiple-choice laboratory tests were achieved to compare feeding preference of Diabrotica speciosa (Ger. to leaves of broccoli (Brassica oleraceae L. var. italica from natural, conventional and organic farming systems. Natural farming systems included incorporation of the elephant grass Pennisetum purpureum Schumacher cv. Napier (50 ton/ha, Bokashi compost (1.5 ton/ha and spray of EM 4 (Natural 1, or the incorporation of the Bokashi compost (1.5 ton /ha and spray of EM 4 (Natural 2, and in the conventional, NPK + borax were incorporated in the planting + dressing N and organic compost (1 kg/ plant was incorporated in the organic system. Organic compost was prepared using crop residues of corn (Zea mays L., soybean [Glycine max (L. Mer.], and cattle manure. Leaf discs were collected and placed in cages in multiple-choice tests. Beetles preferred mostly broccoli leaves from conventional farming system than leaves from Natural (1 and 2 and Organic farming systems. Feeding on leaves from Natural 1, Natural 2 and Organic farming system were 68, 67 and 57% of the feeding on leaves from Conventional farming system.Testes de múltipla escola foram realizados para comparar a preferência alimentar de Diabrotica speciosa (Ger. por folhas de brócolos (Brassica oleraceae L. var. italica cultivado em sistema natural, convencional e orgânico. No sistema natural de cultivo houve a incorporação de capim elefante Pennisetum purpureum Schumacher cv. Napier (50 ton/ha, composto Bokashi (1,5 ton/ha e pulverização de EM 4 (Natural 1, ou a incorporação do composto Bokashi (1,5 ton/ha e pulverização do EM 4 (Natural 2, no sistema convencional houve a incorporação do NPK + borax + N em cobertura, e no sistema orgânico incorporouse composto orgânico (1 kg/planta. O composto orgânico foi preparado utilizando-se resíduos de milho (Zea mays L. e soja [Glycine max (L. Mer.] e esterco de gado. Folhas foram retiradas das plantas das quais foram separados

  12. Efeito de diferentes meios de cultura na germinação in vitro de sementes de mangabeira (Hancornia speciosa Gomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kívia Soares de Oliveira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A mangabeira, pertencente à família Apocynaceae, é uma espécie nativa do Cerrado e dos tabuleiros costeiros, sendo bastante conhecida pela importância social, econômica e cultural. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes meios de cultura na germinação in vitro de sementes de mangabeira, visando contribuir cientificamente para o conhecimento da espécie. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: T1 - vermiculita (+40 mL de água; T2 - vermiculita + areia (1:1 + 40 mL de água; T3 - vermiculita + areia barrada (1:1 + 40 mL de água; T4 - vermiculita + MS básico (40 ml; T5 - vermiculita + ½ MS (40 ml; T6 - areia (+40 mL de água; T7 - areia barrada (+40 mL de água; e T8 - areia + areia barrada (1:1 + 40 mL de água. Para tanto, realizou-se um experimento com oito tratamentos, incluindo oito repetições com 80 sementes por tratamento. Foram analisadas as seguintes variáveis: porcentagem de germinação, tempo médio de germinação e índice de velocidade de germinação. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado e as médias, comparadas pelo teste de Tukey a 5% de significância. Observaram-se diferenças significativas para a porcentagem de germinação, sendo T3 estatisticamente superior, e para o IVG, com o melhor resultado, os tratamentos T1, T2 e T3. Entretanto, os valores de tempo médio de germinação não apresentaram diferença significativa. Diante dos resultados, pôde-se concluir que os tratamentos dotados de vermiculita e combinações, T1, T2 e T3, exercem influência positiva na emergência de Hancornia speciosa Gomes.

  13. Efeito da irrigação e da ontogenia sobre a estimativa da área foliar de Hancornia speciosa Gómez (mangabeira Effect of irrigation and ontogeny in estimating the leaf area of Hancornia speciosa Gómez (mangabeira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Almeida Lobo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A estimativa da área foliar por meio de curvas de regressão que empregam o produto do comprimento pela largura do limbo como variável independente, é uma prática comumente empregada na análise de crescimento vegetal. Entretanto, dependendo da natureza do material vegetal e das condições de cultivo, é possível a ocorrência de variações que afetam essa relação alométrica, o que implica a não universalidade de uma única curva de regressão. Devido a esse problema, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo realizar uma avaliação do efeito da irrigação e da ontogenia sobre a estimativa da área foliar da Hancornia speciosa, para testar a hipótese de que a irrigação afetaria tal relação alométrica. Verificou-se que os modelos de regressão obtidos para as plantas irrigadas e para as não irrigadas diferiram entre si, sendo que houve a necessidade da inclusão da área foliar específica no modelo de estimativa da área foliar das plantas não irrigadas. A não inclusão dessa variável no modelo de regressão acarretou uma diferença de estimativa que se incrementou com a redução da área foliar específica. Em folhas recém-expandidas de plantas irrigadas e não irrigadas, verificou-se diferença na área foliar específica devida à alteração na massa seca e não associada à largura dos tecidos foliares.Leaf area estimation by regression curves using the product of the length by the breadth of the leaf blade as an independent variable is commonly used in plant growth analysis. However, depending on the nature of the plant species and the farming conditions,it is possible to find variations which affect this allometric relationship, leading to non-universality of a single regression curve. Due to this problem, the present work aimed to evaluate the effect of irrigation and ontogeny in estimating the leaf area of Hancornia speciosa to test the hypothesis that the irrigation would affect such allometric relationship. It

  14. Desenvolvimento e qualidade nutricional de mudas de mangabeiras cultivadas em substratos contendo fibra de coco e adubação fosfatada Development and nutritional quality of hancornia speciosa seedlings cultivated in mixture containing coconut fiber and fertilized with phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Jardelino Dias

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Para a produção de mudas de qualidade, é necessária a utilização de substratos com propriedades físicas, químicas e biológicas que condicionem a germinação adequada das sementes e o estabelecimento das mudas. Neste sentido, foi realizado um experimento no Centro de Ciências Agrárias, da Universidade Federal da Paraíba, com o objetivo de avaliar o crescimento e a composição mineral de mudas de mangabeiras (Hancornia speciosa em substratos compostos por diferentes proporções de fibra de coco (0% a 40%, esterco bovino (0% a 25%, terra vegetal (25% a 70% e 15% de areia, fertilizados com superfosfato triplo (0; 5,5 e 11 g dm-3. A terra vegetal e a fibra de coco exerceram efeitos benéficos às mudas com o aumento de suas proporções no substrato. A adição do esterco e do superfosfato triplo inibiu a produção de matéria seca e a área foliar das mudas. Houve aumento dos teores de nutrientes nas mudas com o aumento da concentração de esterco nos substratos. Pela estimativa dos resultados, o substrato que proporciona maior crescimento e composição mineral mais equilibrada nas mudas de mangabeira deve ser constituído por 14% de esterco, 56% de terra vegetal, 15% de fibra de coco, 15% de areia e 4 g dm-3 de superfosfato triplo.In order to produce good quality seedlings it is necessary to use a mixture that presents appropriate physical, chemical and biological properties, which supplies the necessary conditions for the germination and the seedling's establishment. This experiment was carried out at the Agricultural Sciences Center, Paraíba Federal University (Brazil, whose objective was to evaluate the growth and the mineral composition of Hancornia speciosa seedlings in substrata composed by concentrations of coconut fiber from 0% to 40%, manure bovine from 0% to 25%, soil from 25% to 70%, sand 15% and triple superphosphate between 0 and 11 g dm-3. The soil and coconut fiber had beneficial effects on the H. speciosa

  15. Nonprenylated Xanthones from Gentiana lutea, Frasera caroliniensis, and Centaurium erythraea as Novel Inhibitors of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Waltenberger

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aberrant proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC plays a major role in restenosis, the pathological renarrowing of the blood vessel lumen after surgical treatment of stenosis. Since available anti-proliferative pharmaceuticals produce unfavorable side effects, there is high demand for the identification of novel VSMC proliferation inhibitors. A natural product screening approach using a resazurin conversion assay enabled the identification of gentisin (1 from Gentiana lutea as a novel inhibitor of VSMC proliferation with an IC50 value of 7.84 µM. Aiming to identify further anti-proliferative compounds, 13 additional nonprenylated xanthones, isolated from different plant species, were also tested. While some compounds showed no or moderate activity at 30 µM, 1-hydroxy-2,3,4,5-tetramethoxyxanthone (4, swerchirin (6, and methylswertianin (7 showed IC50 values between 10.2 and 12.5 µM. The anti-proliferative effect of 1, 4, 6, and 7 was confirmed by the quantification of DNA synthesis (BrdU incorporation in VSMC. Cell death quantification (determined by LDH release in the culture medium revealed that the compounds are not cytotoxic in the investigated concentration range. In conclusion, nonprenylated xanthones are identified as novel, non-toxic VSMC proliferation inhibitors, which might contribute to the development of new therapeutic applications to combat restenosis.

  16. Conhecimento e usos do babaçu (Attalea speciosa Mart. e Attalea eichleri (Drude) A. J. Hend.) entre os Mebêngôkre-Kayapó da Terra Indígena Las Casas, estado do Pará, Brasil Knowledge and use of babassu (Attalea speciosa Mart. and Attalea eichleri ​​(Drude) A.J. Hend.) among Mebengokre-kayapó from Las Casas Indigenous Land, Pará state, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Sol Elizabeth González-Pérez; Márlia Coelho-Ferreira; Pascale de Robert; Claudia Leonor López Garcés

    2012-01-01

    O babaçu (A. speciosa) é uma das espécies que se destacam na subsistência de diversos povos e populações tradicionais que habitam o cerrado, região que ocupa aproximadamente 24% do território brasileiro. Neste estudo, efetuado entre o povo indígena Kayapó, foi feito um levantamento sobre os usos do babaçu na aldeia Las Casas, na Terra Indígena Las Casas, a qual está localizada dentro dos municípios de Pau D´Arco, Floresta do Araguaia e Redenção, no estado do Pará. Os dados foram obtidos atrav...

  17. Comprehensive evaluation of multi-quality characteristic indexes of Chaenomeles speciosa and C.sinensis fruits%皱皮木瓜与光皮木瓜品质多性状指标综合评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘世尧; 白志川; 李加纳

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the 8 main quality characteristic indexes of fruit-using Chaenomeles speciosa and C. sinensis fruits produced in Chongqing and explore the comprehensive assessment for the fresh eating-quality of the samples based on the theory of fuzzy comprehensive. Method: The total sugar content, titratable acid content, ascorbic acid content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of fresh samples were determined, and the oleanolic acid, ureolic acid, total flavones and total saponins content of dried sample were determined by HPLC and colorimetry method. The fuzzy probability method was used to comprehensively evaluate their fresh eating-quality of the fruit-using C. speciosa and C. sinensis fruits produced in Chongqing. Result: The mean SOD activity of C. speciosa and C. sinensis fresh fruits separately was 15.99 U·mg-1 and 27.40 U· mg-1, respectively. And the fresh fruit titratable acid content, total sugar content, ascorbic acid content separately was 0. 357 g·L-1, 0. 854 mg·L-1, 1.118 mg·L-1 and 0.252 g ·L-1, 0.845 mg·L-1, 1.260 mg·L-1, respectively. The oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, total flavones and total saponins content was 0.320%, 0.461%, 43.90 mg·g-1, 23.11 mg·g-1 and 0.255%, 0.176%, 41.24mg·g-1, 15.01 mg·g-1, respectively. The Chaenomeles speciosa and C. sinensis sample quality mean comprehensive evaluation value was 0. 599 and 0. 367 based on the fuzzy probability method. Conclusion: The edible quality of fruit-using C. speciosa fruits are better than C. sinensis fruits produced in Chongqing. And the fuzzy probability method could be used to quality comprehensive evaluation of samples containing many trait parameters.%目的:对重庆产果用型皱皮木瓜和光皮木瓜的8项鲜食品质指标进行全面测定,并基于模糊综合评判原理探索样品鲜食品质综合评价方法.方法:分别以重庆产皱皮木瓜与光皮木瓜样品为试材,以总糖、可滴定酸、抗坏血酸含量.超氧化物歧化酶活

  18. 超声波法加工低糖保健型宣木瓜果脯工艺的研究%Study on processing technologies of healthy low-sugared Chaenomeles speciosa S by ultrasonic for sugar permeability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍亚华; 姜绍通; 许晖; 石亚中; 吴姗姗; 钱时权

    2012-01-01

    以宣木瓜鲜果为原料,益寿糖替代传统的蔗糖,并利用超声波渍糖技术,加工低糖保健型宣木瓜果脯。实验采用对比法研究了鲜果片的漂烫工艺,并对护色、去涩、硬化以及超声波渗糖等关键加工工艺进行了优化。结果表明,鲜果片100℃烫漂处理4min后立即冷却,用2.5%NaCl、0.5%柠檬酸、4%δ-葡萄糖酸内酯配制的混合溶液常温浸泡12h进行护色、去涩、硬化处理,采用水料比为4:1的清水浸泡果片脱盐120min,再在300W的超声波45℃条件下,45%益寿糖液渗糖5h,所得果脯感官评价最好。%Sugar-free Chaenomeles speciosa S was processed from fresh fruit by ultrasonic technology of sugar permeability isomalt.The effect of blanching was researched by comparative experiment,and the technological of color fixing,acerbity removing and hardening on the produce technology of Chaenomeles speciosa S low-preserved were optimized.Results showed that the slices were bleached in boiling water for 4min and then immediately cooled,following color fixing,acerbity removering and hardening by soaking for 12h in a solution containing salt 2.5%,citric acid 0.5%and glucono-delta-lactone 4% at room temperature,it carry out the desalinization with a water material ration 4:1 for 120min after fresh fruit slices have been soaked in the uncontaminated water,then sugaring with 45% isomalt was done at 45℃ in a 300W ultrasonic field for 5h.The finished product was good in color,flavor,taste and appearance.

  19. Following “the Roots” of Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa): The Evolution of an Enhancer from a Traditional Use to Increase Work and Productivity in Southeast Asia to a Recreational Psychoactive Drug in Western Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinosi, Eduardo; Martinotti, Giovanni; Simonato, Pierluigi; Singh, Darshan; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Roman-Urrestarazu, Andres; Bersani, Francesco Saverio; Vicknasingam, Balasingam; Piazzon, Giulia; Li, Jih-Heng; Yu, Wen-Jing; Kapitány-Fövény, Máté; Farkas, Judit; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Corazza, Ornella

    2015-01-01

    The use of substances to enhance human abilities is a constant and cross-cultural feature in the evolution of humanity. Although much has changed over time, the availability on the Internet, often supported by misleading marketing strategies, has made their use even more likely and risky. This paper will explore the case of Mitragyna speciosa Korth. (kratom), a tropical tree used traditionally to combat fatigue and improve work productivity among farm populations in Southeast Asia, which has recently become popular as novel psychoactive substance in Western countries. Specifically, it (i) reviews the state of the art on kratom pharmacology and identification; (ii) provides a comprehensive overview of kratom use cross-culturally; (iii) explores the subjective experiences of users; (iv) identifies potential risks and side-effects related to its consumption. Finally, it concludes that the use of kratom is not negligible, especially for self-medication, and more clinical, pharmacological, and socioanthropological studies as well as a better international collaboration are needed to tackle this marginally explored phenomenon. PMID:26640804

  20. Following "the Roots" of Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa): The Evolution of an Enhancer from a Traditional Use to Increase Work and Productivity in Southeast Asia to a Recreational Psychoactive Drug in Western Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinosi, Eduardo; Martinotti, Giovanni; Simonato, Pierluigi; Singh, Darshan; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Roman-Urrestarazu, Andres; Bersani, Francesco Saverio; Vicknasingam, Balasingam; Piazzon, Giulia; Li, Jih-Heng; Yu, Wen-Jing; Kapitány-Fövény, Máté; Farkas, Judit; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Corazza, Ornella

    2015-01-01

    The use of substances to enhance human abilities is a constant and cross-cultural feature in the evolution of humanity. Although much has changed over time, the availability on the Internet, often supported by misleading marketing strategies, has made their use even more likely and risky. This paper will explore the case of Mitragyna speciosa Korth. (kratom), a tropical tree used traditionally to combat fatigue and improve work productivity among farm populations in Southeast Asia, which has recently become popular as novel psychoactive substance in Western countries. Specifically, it (i) reviews the state of the art on kratom pharmacology and identification; (ii) provides a comprehensive overview of kratom use cross-culturally; (iii) explores the subjective experiences of users; (iv) identifies potential risks and side-effects related to its consumption. Finally, it concludes that the use of kratom is not negligible, especially for self-medication, and more clinical, pharmacological, and socioanthropological studies as well as a better international collaboration are needed to tackle this marginally explored phenomenon.

  1. Following “the Roots” of Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa: The Evolution of an Enhancer from a Traditional Use to Increase Work and Productivity in Southeast Asia to a Recreational Psychoactive Drug in Western Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cinosi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of substances to enhance human abilities is a constant and cross-cultural feature in the evolution of humanity. Although much has changed over time, the availability on the Internet, often supported by misleading marketing strategies, has made their use even more likely and risky. This paper will explore the case of Mitragyna speciosa Korth. (kratom, a tropical tree used traditionally to combat fatigue and improve work productivity among farm populations in Southeast Asia, which has recently become popular as novel psychoactive substance in Western countries. Specifically, it (i reviews the state of the art on kratom pharmacology and identification; (ii provides a comprehensive overview of kratom use cross-culturally; (iii explores the subjective experiences of users; (iv identifies potential risks and side-effects related to its consumption. Finally, it concludes that the use of kratom is not negligible, especially for self-medication, and more clinical, pharmacological, and socioanthropological studies as well as a better international collaboration are needed to tackle this marginally explored phenomenon.

  2. Cloning and Functional Analysis of GAI Homologous Gene in Sinningia Speciosa%大岩桐 GA I同源基因的克隆及功能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费元; 钟丹; 韩雪; 庞基良

    2014-01-01

    Taking the floral buds RNA of Sinningia speciosa ,the full-length cDNA of GA I homologous gene is cloned by rapid-amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technology ,and named SsGA I .The SsGA I has an open reading frame (ORF) of 1689 bp length encoding 562 amino acids as well as the typical plant DELLA domain and GRAS domain .The protein homologous analysis indicates that SsGAI is similar to VvGAI(Vitis vinifera) and GhGAI(Gossypium hirsutum) with the similarity of 68% and 64% .SsGA I gene expressed highly in the sepals ,but is silence in the stem .Placing SsGA I under the control of CaMV35S promoter and ectopic expressing in tobaccos ,the transgenic tobacco plants exhibit novel phenotypes with dwarf plant ,increased petal number and late flowering .These results indicate that SsGA I is involved in the plant height and floral organ development of transgenic tobaccos .%以大岩桐(Sinningia speciosa)花蕾RNA为模板,利用RACE技术克隆了大岩桐 GA I同源基因的全长cDNA ,命名为 SsGA I(在GenBank中登录号为:FJ594773).序列分析表明,SsGA I的 ORF长度为1689 bp ,编码562个氨基酸,含有典型的植物DELLA结构域以及GRAS结构域.蛋白同源性分析表明,SsGA I与葡萄的VvGA I及陆地棉的GhGA I相似性分别为68%、64%.SsGA I基因在花萼中的相对表达量最高,在茎中表达沉默.将 SsGA I置于CaM V35S启动子控制下在烟草中异位表达,转基因烟草表现出植株矮化,花瓣数增加,花期延迟等新表型,表明 SsGA I参与了转基因烟草株高及花器官的发育.

  3. Study on processing technology of low-sugar Chaenomeles speciosa S.Nakai jam based on fuzzy comprehensive evaluation%基于模糊综合评判法的低糖宣木瓜果酱制作工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍亚华; 许晖; 石亚中; 吴姗姗; 钱时权

    2012-01-01

    The jam was processed by using Chaenomeles speciosa S.Nakai as the raw material,Isomalt and Aspartame(100:1) as sugar substitutes,low methoxyl pectin and CaCl2(4:1) as thickeners,citric acid as sour agent.The sensory evaluation results of the Chaenomeles speciosa S.Nakai jam were analyzed by fuzzy mathematics.And then the optimal technology was investigated.The results showed that when the sweetener,thickener and sour agent were 20%,0.6%,0.2%,and boiling time was 30min,the sensory evaluation result of the jam was belonged to gradeⅠ,excellent quality.%以宣木瓜为原料,益寿糖和阿斯巴甜(质量比为100:1)为甜味剂代替传统的蔗糖,低甲氧基果胶和CaCl2(质量比为4:1)为增稠剂,柠檬酸为酸味剂,研制低糖果酱,采用模糊综合评判法对所得果酱进行感官评定,并在此基础上对加工工艺进行优化。结果表明,甜味剂、增稠剂、酸味剂用量分别为20%、0.6%和0.2%,浓缩时间为30min时,所制得的果酱感官质量属于Ⅰ级,质量优。

  4. Study on Processing Technology and Recipe of Compound and Clarified Juice of Chaenomeles speciosa S.Nakai and Crisp Pear%澄清型宣木瓜酥梨复合果汁加工工艺及复配研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓佳; 董明; 曹彬彬; 杨瑾

    2011-01-01

    以宣木瓜和砀山酥梨为主要原料,对澄清型宣木瓜酥梨复合果汁生产工艺及其配方进行研究.通过单因素试验确定宣木瓜的最佳澄清工艺条件为:壳聚糖添加量0.3g·L-1,澄清时间40 min,澄清温度40℃;采用正交试验,通过感观评定确定澄清型宣木瓜酥梨复合果汁的最优配方为:宣木瓜汁25 mL,梨汁25 mL,蔗糖含量4%,蜂蜜含量2%;添加稳定剂的最优组合为0.06%海藻酸钠+0.01%黄原胶+0.03% CMC-NA.%Using the Chaenomeles speciosa S.Nakai and crisp pear as the main materials, the production process and the formulation of compound and clarified juice were studied. The optimum technological conditions which were obtained through the single factor experiment were as follows: chitosan 0.3 g · L-1, clarification time 40 min, clarification temperature 40 ℃. Based on the orthogonal test design, by sensory evaluation experiment the optimal formulation of the juice were Chaenomeles speciosa S.Nakai juice 25 mL, crisp pear juice 25 mL, sucrose content 4%, honey content 2%. And the optimal additions of stabilizers were sodium alginate 0.06%+xanthan gum 0.01%+CMC-NA 0.03%.

  5. 响应面法优化超声辅助提取宣木瓜总皂苷提取工艺研究%Optimization of Ultrasound-assisted Extraction of Total Triterpenoid Saponins from Chaenomeles speciosa Using Response Surface Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘国波; 杨小明; 丁艳; 李媛媛; 韩邦兴

    2012-01-01

    对宣木瓜总皂苷的超声辅助提取工艺优化进行研究.在单因素试验基础上,选择提取时间、温度、乙醇浓度和料液比为自变量,以宣木瓜总皂苷得率为响应值,采用Central Composite Design试验设计方法,研究各自变量及其交互作用对宣木瓜总皂苷提取率的影响.利用Design Expert软件得到回归方程的预测模型并进行响应面分析,确定超声辅助提取宣木瓜总皂苷的最佳条件为时间61.69 min,温度62.34℃,乙醇浓度70.49%,料液比1∶30.57 g/mL,在此条件下,总皂苷提取率达到1.55%.验证实验表明,所得模型方程能较好地预测实验结果.%Response surface methodology was used to optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction of total triterpenoid saponins from Chaenomeles speciosa. The extraction efficiency of total triterpenoid saponins was investigated with respecting to four variables including time, temperature, ethanol concentration and liquid-to-solid ratio. On the basis of a series of one-factor-at-a-tirrje experiments, a polynomial regression model equation was fitted by the combined use of Box-Behnken experimental design and regression analysis. By analyzing the regression model using response surface analysis,the optimum extraction conditions of total triterpenoid saponins from C. speciosa were identified as follows ;61.69 min extraction time,62. 34 ^extraction temperature,70. 49% ethanol concentration and 1 = 30.57 g/mL solid-to-liquid ratio,and the extration efficiency of total triterpenoid saponins was up to 1. 55% under the optimized conditions. Confirmatory experiments indicated the good prediction ability of the established model.

  6. 分级醇沉宣木瓜多糖含量、分子量测定和活性初步研究%Preliminary Investigation of the Amount, the Molecular Weight and the Activity of Polysaccharides f rom Chaenomeles Speciosa Fruits in Ethanol Fractional Precipitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田冰梅; 谢晓梅; 沈盼盼; 杨沫; 张圣龙; 唐庆九

    2015-01-01

    Chaenomeles speciosa fruits were extracted using water .The extracts were precipitated with 20% ~95% (φ) ethanol , respectively .The amount of total polysaccharide was measured with phenol-sulfuric acid method .A method using high-perform-ance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) equipped with multiangle laser-light-scattering photometry (MALLS) and differ-ential refractometry (RI) was presented for determining the molecular weight and molecular weigh distribution .RAW264.7 macrophage were cultured and stimulated with the polysaccharides in vitro and the production of nitric oxide in the cells was de-termined by the Griess assay .The aim of the study is to determine the amount and the molecular weight of the polysaccharides from Chaenomeles speciosa fruits ,and preliminary investigate the immunomodulatory activity ,The study provided the basis da-tas for the further research of Chaenomeles speciosa fruits .,and provided a simple and system method for the research of natural polysaccharide .The ethanol fractional precipitation showed that the order of total polysaccharide content was 95% >80% >40%≥60% >20% .The results indicated that most polysaccharide from Chaenomeles speciosa fruits might be precipitated when eth-anol concentration was up to 95% (φ) and the crude polysaccharide purity had risen from 35.1% to 45.0% when the concentra-tion of ethanol increased from 20% to 95% .HPSEC-MALLS-RI system showed that all the polysaccharide samples had the sim-ilar compositions .They appeared three chromatographic peaks and the retention time were not apparently different .The Mw were 6.570 × 104 g・mol-1and 1.393 × 104 g・mol-1 respectively ,and one less than 10 000 which was failure to obtain accurate values .The molecular weight of the first two polysaccharide distribution index(Mw/Mn )were 1.336 and 1.639 respectively .The polysaccharide samples had not exhibited immunomodulatory activity assessed on the basis of nitric oxide production by RAW264.7 macrophage

  7. 不同浓度指数施肥对美丽异木棉等3个树种幼苗生长的影响%Effects of different concentrations of exponential fertilization on the growth of Chorisia speciosa and other two tree species seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁晓纲; 刘喻娟; 张晓珊; 张应中; 蔡坚; 贾朋; 陈清凤

    2013-01-01

    Based on the growing model of plant, and considering the stability of nutrient content in the plant,an exponential fertilization trial was conducted to research the effects of different nitrogen levels of Chorisia speciosa, Rhodoleia championii Hook.f.’ and Tabebuia chrysotricha. It was indicated that nitrogen exponential fertilization could bring a significant impact on seedling growth, root growth and leaf growth. (1) Effects of varied nitrogen exponential fertilization treatments on seedling growth of three species were quite different. The height’ ground diameter and biomass of C. speciosa. fertilized by 5 000 mg/seedling, R. championii Hook.f.’ fertilized by 4 000 mg/seedling and T. chrysotricha fertilized by 4 000 mg/seedling achieved the best effect. With the nitrogen intake, seedling growth indexes of different species had different performance. (2) Effects of varied nitrogen exponential fertilization treatments on root growth of three species were quite different. The volume and surface area, projection area of C. speciosa and R. championii Hook. f.’ presented a trend that firstly rised followed by declining and a second rising. With the nitrogen intaken, the root length, average diameter of roots, number of roots, furcation, and crossing number of different tree seedling species had different performance. (3)Effects of varied nitrogen exponential fertilization treatments on leaf length/width ratio of three seedlings presented similar, with the increase in the amount of Nitrogen Fertilizer, the changing trend of leaf length/width ratio kept steady. But the changing trend of leaf area, leaf perimeter and perforation number performed different.%  基于植物生长模型,考虑到植株体内养分含量的稳定性,本实验采用指数施肥法对美丽异木棉、红花荷和黄花风铃木3种华南地区常见园林树种幼苗进行N素指数施肥试验。结果表明,氮素指数施肥能给植物的生长、植物的根系和叶

  8. Intraspecific inversions pose a challenge for the trnH-psbA plant DNA barcode.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara A Whitlock

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The chloroplast trnH-psbA spacer region has been proposed as a prime candidate for use in DNA barcoding of plants because of its high substitution rate. However, frequent inversions associated with palindromic sequences within this region have been found in multiple lineages of Angiosperms and may complicate its use as a barcode, especially if they occur within species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we evaluate the implications of intraspecific inversions in the trnH-psbA region for DNA barcoding efforts. We report polymorphic inversions within six species of Gentianaceae, all narrowly circumscribed morphologically: Gentiana algida, Gentiana fremontii, Gentianopsis crinita, Gentianopsis thermalis, Gentianopsis macrantha and Frasera speciosa. We analyze these sequences together with those from 15 other species of Gentianaceae and show that typical simple methods of sequence alignment can lead to misassignment of conspecifics and incorrect assessment of relationships. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Frequent inversions in the trnH-psbA region, if not recognized and aligned appropriately, may lead to large overestimates of the number of substitution events separating closely related lineages and to uniting more distantly related taxa that share the same form of the inversion. Thus, alignment of the trnH-psbA spacer region will need careful attention if it is used as a marker for DNA barcoding.

  9. Seizure and Coma Following Kratom (Mitragynina speciosa Korth) Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Nelsen, Jamie L.; Lapoint, Jeff; Hodgman, Michael J.; Aldous, Kenneth M.

    2010-01-01

    Reports of toxicity secondary to Kratom are rare and lack of diagnostic testing in human specimens has prevented confirmatory explanation of observed clinical effects. We present a novel case of serious human toxicity following Kratom use confirmed via quantitative analysis of urine by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. A 64 year-old male was witnessed to have a seizure at home following kratom consumption. Upon arrival to the emergency de...

  10. Seizure and coma following Kratom (Mitragynina speciosa Korth) exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelsen, Jamie L; Lapoint, Jeff; Hodgman, Michael J; Aldous, Kenneth M

    2010-12-01

    Reports of toxicity secondary to Kratom are rare and lack of diagnostic testing in human specimens has prevented confirmatory explanation of observed clinical effects. We present a novel case of serious human toxicity following Kratom use confirmed via quantitative analysis of urine by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. A 64 year-old male was witnessed to have a seizure at home following kratom consumption. Upon arrival to the emergency department (ED), the patient was unresponsive. While in the ED, the patient sustained a second seizure. He was intubated to protect his airway. The remainder of his hospital course was uneventful. A urine specimen was collected shortly after admission and sent for analysis. The mitragynine concentration in the urine was 167 ± 15 ng/ml. We report a rare case of Kratom toxicity characterized by a seizure and coma confirmed by urinary analysis of mitragynine by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. The proposed mechanism for this reaction is unclear but suggested mechanisms include adenosine binding or stimulation of adrenergic and/or serotonergic receptors similar to tramadol.

  11. 资木瓜总苷对佐剂性关节炎大鼠滑膜肥大细胞脱颗粒和类胰蛋白酶表达的影响%Effects of Total Saponins of Chaenomeles speciosa on the Number and Degranulation Ratio of Mast Cells and Expression of Tryptase in Synovium of Rats with Adjuvant Arthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李世刚; 刘朝霞; 张永琦; 陈燕

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察资木瓜总苷(TSCS)对佐剂性关节炎(AA)大鼠滑膜组织病理改变、滑膜肥大细胞脱颗粒及类胰蛋白酶表达的影响,探讨肥大细胞功能与TSCS治疗大鼠AA的关系.方法:雄性Wistar大鼠随机分为正常对照组、模型组和TSCS 组(200 mg·kg-1),每组15只,致炎后第3天开始ig给药,1次/d,模型组和正常对照组给予等容积生理盐水,持续21 d.除正常对照组外,其余大鼠足部注射弗氏完全佐剂诱导建立AA模型,检测大鼠体质量和足跖体积变化,HE染色评价滑膜组织病理改变,TB染色观察滑膜肥大细胞数量及其脱颗粒情况,免疫组化法检测滑膜组织中类胰蛋白酶表达情况.结果:TSCS能明显增加AA大鼠体质量,减轻足跖肿胀度,显著减轻滑膜组织炎性细胞浸润、滑膜细胞增生和滑膜纤维组织增生,有效抑制滑膜肥大细胞数量和脱颗粒率,显著抑制滑膜组织类胰蛋白酶表达.相关分析显示,滑膜肥大细胞数量及脱颗粒率均与滑膜组织病理改变总评分呈明显的正相关.结论:TSCS具有治疗大鼠AA和调节滑膜肥大细胞功能的作用,由于两者存在明显的正相关性,因此TSCS可能通过抑制滑膜肥大细胞功能,对AA大鼠起治疗作用.%Objective: To observe the effects of total saponins of Chaenomeles speciosa ( TSCS) on synovial pathology, synovial mast cell degranulation and tryptase expression and to investigate the relationship between the functions of mast cells and effects of TSCS on adjuvant arthritis (AA) in rats. Method; Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal control group, model group and TSCS group (200 mg'kg"') , n = 15 in each group. AA was induced by injection of 0. 1 mL Freund's complete adjuvant in left hind limb footpad. Normal control group and model group received saline treatment, while rats in the TSCS group were treated once a day for 21 days. The body weight and paw volume of the rats were measured every six days

  12. Organogênese direta em explantes caulinares de mangabeira (Hancornia speciosa Gomes Direct organogenesis in nodal explants of mangabeira (Hancornia speciosa Gomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Pereira Soares

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A mangabeira, espécie nativa do Cerrado, destaca-se por possuir um grande potencial como planta frutífera e produtora de borracha. No entanto, suas sementes apresentam recalcitrância, dificultando sua propagação, o que torna evidente a necessidade da obtenção de mudas por via assexuada. Neste contexto, o cultivo in vitro apresenta-se como uma alternativa a ser utilizada. Com o presente trabalho, visou-se estabelecer uma metodologia de micropropagação da mangabeira via organogênese direta. Para a obtenção de brotações, segmentos caulinares com até duas gemas laterais foram inoculados em meio de cultura WPM, suplementado com diferentes concentrações de BAP (0,0; 1,0; 2,0; 3,0; 4,0 e 5,0 mg L-1. Para o enraizamento, brotações foram inoculadas em meio WPM, suplementado com 0,1% de carvão ativado e diferentes concentrações de ANA (0,0; 1,0; 2,0 e 3,0 mg L-1 ou AIB (0,0; 1,0; 2,0; 3,0 e 4,0 mg L-1. As brotações inoculadas permaneceram em sala de crescimento por 15 dias, quando foram transferidas para meio WPM sem reguladores de crescimento. As concentrações de 5,0 mg L-1 e 3,0 mg L-1 de BAP foram as mais eficientes na indução, respectivamente, de brotações e gemas. O maior comprimento das brotações foi verificado em meio suplementado com 1,0 mg L-1 ou 2,0 mg L-1 de BAP. A maior formação de calos ocorreu em meio suplementado com 4,0 mg L-1 dessa citocinina. A auxina ANA não se mostrou eficiente, nas concentrações testadas, no enraizamento in vitro de brotações de mangabeira. Na presença de 3,0 mg L-1 de AIB, 20% das brotações enraizaram.The mangabeira presents potential for fruit and rubber production. Since the seeds are recalcitrant which makes difficult its propagation, new approaches are needed in order to obtain plants through asexual methods. In this context, the process of in vitro culture presents as an alternative for the mangabeira propagation. The objective of the present work was to establish a micropropagation methodology of mangabeira through direct organogenesis. To obtain shoots, nodal segments collected from in vitro germinated seedlings were inoculated in WPM medium supplemented with different concentrations of BAP (0.0; 1.0; 2.0; 3.0; 4.0 e 5.0 mg L-1. For root induction, shoots were inoculated in WPM medium supplemented with 0.1% activated charcoal and different concentrations of NAA (0.0; 1.0; 2.0 e 3.0 mg L-1 or IBA (0.0; 1.0; 2.0; 3.0 e 4.0 mg L-1. The inoculated shoots were maintained in for 15 days a growth room after which were transferred to a free grow regulator WPM medium. The concentrations of 5.0 mg L-1 and 3.0 mg L-1 BAP were the most eficient for shoots and buds induction, respectively. Higher shoot length was observed in medium suplemented with 1.0 mg L-1 or 2,0 mg L-1 BAP. The higher callus formation occurred in medium suplemented with 4.0 mg L-1 BAP. The use of NAA was not efficient, in all tested concentrations, to induce in vitro root formation in shoots. In presence of 3.0 mg L-1 IBA, 20% of the shoots developed roots.

  13. Conservação pós-colheita de mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gomes)

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Augusto Gutierrez Carnelossi; Waleska Fernanda Ferreira Toledo; Daniella Cecília Lemos Souza; Moema de Lima Lira; Gabriel Francisco da Silva; Jalali,Vahideh Rabani R; Pedro Roberto Almeida Viégas

    2004-01-01

    Conduziu-se o presente trabalho com o objetivo de caracterizar física e quimicamente os frutos da mangaba quando estão "de caída" ou "de vez" e estudar o efeito de diferentes temperaturas de armazenamento sobre a conservação pós-colheita desse fruto. Os frutos foram selecionados e armazenados em câmaras frias nas temperaturas de 6, 18 e 25 ± 2ºC. Durante o período de armazenamento, foram retiradas amostras a cada 1, 3, 5, 7 e 9 dias, para determinações dos teores de vitamina C, pH, acidez tit...

  14. Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa): ¿droga emergente o bala mágica?

    OpenAIRE

    Giner García, Ricardo; López Briz, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    En los últimos años, un número indeterminado y creciente de sustancias con actividad psicotrópica están siendo introducidas en contextos recreativos a través del mercado tecnológico que suponen internet y las nuevas tecnologías, tratando de franquear las barreras legislativas existentes en materia sanitaria. Son productos que bien proceden directamente de especies naturales o son modi? caciones de estas a partir de síntesis química. El kratom, procedente de la planta de or...

  15. Qualidade pós-colheita de frutos de diferentes clones de mangabeira (Hancornia speciosa Gomes)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Florisvaldo Gama de Souza; Raimundo Wilane de Figueiredo; Ricardo Elesbão Alves; Geraldo Arraes Maia; Ivaldo Antônio de Araújo

    2007-01-01

    ...); Nizia Floresta 1, 6 e 8 (NIF 1, 6 e 8); Parnamirim 11 (PAR 11); Rio Tinto 7 (RIT 7); Extremoz 1 (EXT 1) e Touros 48 (TOU 48), oriundos de um Jardim Clonal instalado em 1996 do Banco Ativo de Germoplasma...

  16. Mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gomez ice cream prepared with fat replacers and sugar substitutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazielle Gebrim Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of replacing shortening and sugar on the physical and chemical properties of mangaba ice cream and its acceptability were evaluated. Ice cream formulations were tested with the following fat replacers: Selecta Light, Litesse, and Dairy Lo and the following sugar substitutes: Lactitol and Splenda. All formulations were subjected to physical, chemical, and microbiological analyses and evaluated by acceptability tests. In the sensory analysis, it was observed a larger acceptance of the formulations containing Selecta Light (SL and the combination of Litesse, Lactiol, and Splenda (LLS. The largest reduction in total energetic value (50% was observed in the formulation LLS. The use of fat and/or sugar substitutes caused a reduction in the air incorporation (overrun and affected viscosity. The highest melting speed was observed in the formulation with Dairy-Lo, Lactitol, and Splenda. All formulations showed good levels of global acceptability and appearance. The substitution of shortening for fat replacers caused a reduction in air incorporation and changes in ice-cream viscosity. The low-fat mangaba ice-cream elaborated with Selecta Light was the best formulation in terms of viscosity and air incorporation when compared with the control. It also showed a good level of acceptability and low fat content.

  17. Crescimento inicial de mangabeira (Hancornia speciosa Gomes em diferentes meios de germinação in vitro Initial growth of mangabeira (Hancornia speciosa Gomes in different culture medium of in vitro germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana da Silva Lédo

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi determinar as condições mais favoráveis para a germinação in vitro de sementes e o crescimento inicial de plântulas de mangabeira. Após assepsia, sementes oriundas de frutos maduros foram inoculadas em tubos de ensaio contendo os seguintes tratamentos: T1-15 mL de meio de cultura MS; T2-15 mL de meio de cultura MS + 2,0 g L-1 de carvão ativado; T3-15 mL de meio de cultura ½ MS; e T4-15 mL de meio de cultura ½ MS + 2,0 g L-1 de carvão ativado. Todos os meios de cultura foram gelificados com 0,3 g L-1 de Phytagel® e suplementados com 3,0 g L-1 de sacarose. O experimento foi instalado em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos e oito repetições, sendo cada parcela experimental composta de dez tubos de ensaio contendo uma semente cada. Não houve diferença significativa dos tratamentos para a porcentagem de germinação aos 20 dias, que variou de 95 a 100%. Quanto ao comprimento da raiz principal, observou-se que o meio de cultura constituído de ½ MS com 2,0 g L-1 de carvão ativado proporcionou maior crescimento quando comparado com os demais tratamentos. Aos 50 dias, não foi observada a formação de plântulas anormais e nem diferenças significativas do comprimento da parte aérea das plântulas. Entretanto, a diluição em 50% dos sais do meio MS associada à presença de carvão ativado induziu maior crescimento da raiz principal (8,50 cm quando comparado com meio MS, na presença (6,19 cm ou ausência (6,00 cm de carvão ativado.The objective of this study was to determine the most favorable conditions for the in vitro germination of mangaba seeds and initial development of plantlets. After asepsis, emerging seeds of mature fruits were inoculated in tubes contend the next treatments: T1-15 mL of MS culture medium; T2-15 mL of MS culture medium + 2.0 g L-1 of activated charcoal; T3-15 mL of ½ MS culture medium; and T4-15 mL of ½ MS culture medium + 2.0 g L-1 of activated charcoal. All the culture medium were gellified with 0.3 g L-1 of Phytagel® and supplemented with 3.0 g L-1 of sucrose. The statistical design was completely randomized with four treatments, eight repetitions and ten seeds by experimental unit. There was not significant difference of the treatments for the germination percentage at twenty days, which varied from 95 to 100%. The ½ MS with 2.0 g L-1 of activated charcoal promoted higher growth the main root when compared with the others treatments. After 50 days, abnormal plantlets were not observed and neither significant difference were verified among the length of the aerial part. However, the dilution in 50% of the MS culture medium associate to the presence of activated charcoal induced higher growth of the main root (8.50 cm when compared with MS culture medium in the presence (6.19 cm or absence (6.00 cm of activated charcoal.

  18. Mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gomez ice cream prepared with fat replacers and sugar substitutes Sorvete de mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gomez preparado com substitutos de gordura e açúcar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazielle Gebrim Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of replacing shortening and sugar on the physical and chemical properties of mangaba ice cream and its acceptability were evaluated. Ice cream formulations were tested with the following fat replacers: Selecta Light, Litesse, and Dairy Lo and the following sugar substitutes: Lactitol and Splenda. All formulations were subjected to physical, chemical, and microbiological analyses and evaluated by acceptability tests. In the sensory analysis, it was observed a larger acceptance of the formulations containing Selecta Light (SL and the combination of Litesse, Lactiol, and Splenda (LLS. The largest reduction in total energetic value (50% was observed in the formulation LLS. The use of fat and/or sugar substitutes caused a reduction in the air incorporation (overrun and affected viscosity. The highest melting speed was observed in the formulation with Dairy-Lo, Lactitol, and Splenda. All formulations showed good levels of global acceptability and appearance. The substitution of shortening for fat replacers caused a reduction in air incorporation and changes in ice-cream viscosity. The low-fat mangaba ice-cream elaborated with Selecta Light was the best formulation in terms of viscosity and air incorporation when compared with the control. It also showed a good level of acceptability and low fat content.O efeito da substituição de gordura vegetal hidrogenada e sacarose nas propriedades físicas, químicas e aceitabilidade de sorvete com mangaba foi avaliado. As formulações de sorvete foram testadas com os substitutos de gordura: Selecta Light, Litesse e Dairy-Lo e os substitutos de sacarose: Lactitol e Splenda. As formulações foram submetidas às análises físicas, químicas, microbiológicas e teste de aceitação. Verificou-se no teste sensorial uma maior aceitação das formulações elaboradas com Selecta Light (SL e combinação de Litesse, Lactitol e Splenda (LLS. A maior redução do valor energético (50% foi observada na formulação LLS. A substituição de gordura, açúcar ou ambos promoveu a redução da incorporação de ar e afetou a viscosidade dos sorvetes elaborados. A maior velocidade de derretimento ocorreu na formulação com a combinação Dairy-Lo, Lactitol e Sucralose. Todas as formulações tiveram bom nível de aceitação global e aparência. A substituição da gordura vegetal hidrogenada por substitutos de gordura promoveu uma redução da incorporação de ar e alterações da viscosidade dos sorvetes. Sorvete com mangaba, de reduzido valor energético, elaborado com Selecta Light teve o melhor desempenho quanto à viscosidade e incorporação de ar, em comparação ao controle, bom nível de aceitação e baixo teor de gordura.

  19. A wind-oriented sticky trap for evaluating the behavioural response of diabrotica speciosa (germar) to bitter cucurbit extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbitacins attract many species of Luperini leaf beetles, for which they have been studied and applied in traps and toxic baits. Males and females feed avidly on these compounds, but field trials reveal that males are far more attracted to them than females. A wind oriented baited sticky trap was...

  20. Environ: E00662 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00662 Chaenomeles speciosa fruit Crude drug Chaenomeles speciosa [TAX:106546] Same as: D09192 Rosaceae... (rose family) Chaenomeles speciosa fruit (x-section, dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Rosace...ae (rose family) E00662 Chaenomeles lagenaria fruit ...

  1. Quantitative analysis of mitragynine, codeine, caffeine, chlorpheniramine and phenylephrine in a kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) cocktail using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittrakarn, Somsmorn; Penjamras, Pimpimol; Keawpradub, Niwat

    2012-04-10

    A simple HPLC technique for determining mitragynine, codeine, caffeine, chlorpheniramine and phenylephrine in 'kratom cocktail' was developed. The analytical method for mitragynine, codeine and caffeine used an Eclipse XDB-C8 column. A Lichrospher CN column was using for analysing chlorpheniramine and phenylephrine. The correlation coefficient of each standard was between 0.9957 and 0.9993. The precision of the methods were between 0.700 and 7.108% RSD. The concentration of mitragynine, codeine, caffeine, chlorpheniramine and phenylephrine in 'kratom cocktail' was 90.021, 234.174, 73.986, 7.053 and 1.486 mg/L, respectively.

  2. Diferentes Composições de Substratos no Crescimento de Mudas de Genótipos de Mangabeira (Hancornia speciosa GOMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Jardelino Dias

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar efeitos de substratos no crescimento e mortalidade de mudas de mangabeira. O experimeto foi realizado em Teresina–PI, sob delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, no esquema fatorial 6 x 10, seis composições de substratos e dez genótipos de mangabeira, com três repetições. Os substratos foram: 1. Areia (90% + Esterco Curtido (EC – 10% + Osmocote (1,0 g L-1; 2. Terra Vegetal (TV + Osmocote (1,0 g L-1 + Supersimples (SS – 1,5 kg m-3; 3. TV (50% + Casca de Arroz Carbonizada (CAC – 50% + SS (1,5 kg m-3; 4. TV (80% + Fibra de Coco (FC – 20% + SS (1,5 kg m-3; 5. TV (75% + CAC (25% + SS (1,5 kg m-3; 6. TV (75% + FC (25% + SS (1,5 kg m-3; os genótipos (E-SPA, E-IAA, E-IAA2, E-FCPS, E-KTS, E-TBS, E-ASM, E-CFOF, E-MBN e E-IBM da coleção de germoplasma da EMEPA. Sendo seis épocas de avaliações (30, 60, 90, 120, 150 e 180 dias após transplantio. Os substratos 3 e 4 proporcionam melhor crescimento das mudas de mangabeira. O substrato 4 promove a menor mortalidade das mudas. A combinação do genótipo E-KTS x substrato 6 resulta na maior taxa de mortalidade

  3. Estudo da estabilidade do extrato hidrossolúvel "leite" de babaçu (Orbygnia speciosa pasteurizado e armazenado sob refrigeração

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Lorena Aguiar Carneiro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver a tecnologia de conservação do extrato hidrossolúvel de babaçu baseado na pasteurização e na refrigeração. O extrato hidrossolúvel extraído da amêndoa de babaçu, também conhecido no Norte e Nordeste do Brasil como "leite" de babaçu, é um líquido branco ou levemente amarelado, de sabor e aroma muito semelhantes ao do leite de coco comum. O leite de babaçu extraído através de prensagem foi peneirado, pré-aquecido, adicionado de estabilizante carboximetilcelulose e homogeneizado em liquificador industrial. O leite de babaçu homogeneizado foi dividido em duas porções, adicionando-se em uma destas 0,4 % de metabissulfito de sódio, 0,4 % de sorbato de potássio e 0,01 % de ácido cítrico, e outra foi mantida sem conservantes (controle. Os leites sem e com conservantes foram envasados em garrafas de vidro e pasteurizados em banho-maria à temperatura de 90ºC por 30 minutos, resfriados à temperatura ambiente e mantidos sob refrigeração a 5ºC, durante 60 dias. As formulações foram caracterizadas físico-quimicamente quanto ao pH, sólidos solúveis (oBrix, acidez, açúcares totais e redutores, umidade, cinzas, gorduras e proteínas. Durante o armazenamento, a cada 15 dias, foram realizadas análises físico-químicas (pH, acidez total titulável e atividade de água, colorimétricas e microbiológicas. Os resultados mostram que houve pouca variação nos parâmetros físico-químicos; entretanto, microbiologicamente o leite de babaçu apresentou crescimento microbiano a partir dos 30 dias, atingindo valores elevados, acima dos padrões microbiológicos estabelecidos pela legislação, após os 60 dias de armazenamento.

  4. Playing with the performer in Medieval music: Machaut’s ideas on love and order in Quant vraie Amour / O series summe rata / Super omnes speciosa (Motet 17)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaart, J.

    2009-01-01

    Machaut’s seventeenth motet might be one of his earliest works. Under its simple appearance it hides essential poetic reflections about the problematic relationship between paradoxical Love and the regular order of the universe, a problem which he kept pondering all his life. This problem is express

  5. Effect of different stress conditions on the stability of quercetin-loaded lipid microparticles produced with babacu ( Orbignya speciosa oil: evaluation of their potential use in food applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Pinheiro Silva CAZADO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipid micro and nanoparticles have been extensively investigated as carriers for hydrophobic bioactives in food systems because they can simultaneously increase the dispersibility of these lipophilic substances and help improve their bioavailability. In this study, lipid microparticles of babacu oil and denatured whey protein isolate were produced, and their ability to protect quercetin against degradation was evaluated over 30 days of storage. Additionally, the lipid microparticles were subjected to the typical stress conditions of food processing (presence of sucrose, salt, and thermal stresses, and their physico-chemical stability was monitored. The data show that the babacu microparticles efficiently avoided the oxidation of quercetin because 85% of the initial amount of the flavonoid was preserved after 30 days. The particles were notably stable up to a temperature of 70 °C for 10 minutes at relatively high concentrations of salt and sucrose. The type of stirring (mechanical or magnetic also strongly affected the stability of the dispersions.

  6. Taxa de multiplicação e efeito residual de diferentes fontes de citocinina no cultivo in vitro de Hancornia speciosa Gomes Proliferation rate and residual effect of different sources of cytokinin on in vitro culture of Hancornia speciosa Gomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Pereira Soares

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A mangabeira destaca-se por possuir um grande potencial como planta frutífera. Suas sementes apresentam recalcitrância, dificultando sua propagação, o que torna evidente a necessidade da obtenção de mudas por via assexuada. Neste contexto, a cultura de tecidos apresenta-se como uma alternativa a ser utilizada. Entre os fatores que afetam a morfogênese in vitro, as citocininas merecem destaque, pois influenciam na diferenciação de gemas e no crescimento das brotações. Assim sendo, avaliou-se, neste trabalho, a influência de três diferentes fontes de citocinina (6-benzilaminopurina BAP, cinetina CIN e thidiazuron TDZ na indução de brotações in vitro de mangabeira, bem como o efeito residual dessa classe de reguladores no enraizamento e na multiplicação em subcultivos sucessivos. Os resultados mostraram que, entre as citocininas testadas, a 6-benzilaminopurina foi a que induziu maior número de brotações (1,98, gemas (19,22 e folhas (18,86 por explante, tendo promovido a formação de brotos de maior comprimento (4,55 cm. As brotações oriundas de meio WPM basal apresentaram maior facilidade de enraizamento. A 6-benzilaminopurina foi responsável pela maior taxa de multiplicação (9,61 de brotações de mangabeira. Os subcultivos sucessivos diminuíram a capacidade de multiplicação de explantes caulinares da espécie.The mangabeira stands out for having a strong potential for fruit production. Its seeds present recalcitrance, making its propagation difficult, which makes much clear the need to obtain seedlings through asexual methods. In this context, the tissue culture presents as an alternative to be used. Among the factors that affect in vitro morphogenesis, the cytokinins should be highlighted as it influences the differentiation of buds and shoot growth. In this context the influence of three different sources of cytokinins (6-benzylaminopurine BAP, kinetin CIN and thidiazuron TDZ was evaluated on the induction of in vitro mangabeira shoots, as well as the residual effect of this type of regulator on rooting and multiplication in successive subcultures. The results showed that among the tested cytokinins, the 6-benzylaminopurine was the one that induced a higher number of shoots (1.98, buds (19.22 and leaves (18.86 per explant, promoting the formation of shoots with higher length (4.55 cm. The shoots from basal WPM medium rooted easier. The 6-benzylaminopurine was responsible for the highest rate of multiplication (9.61 of mangabeira shoots. Sucessive subcultures decreased the capacity of shoot multiplication.

  7. Síntese verde, caracterização e atividade biológica de nanopartículas de prata obtidas utilizando extratos de Hancornia speciosa Gomes - Apocynaceae (mangabeira)

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Luciane Dias da

    2015-01-01

    A síntese de nanopartículas metálicas (NPMs) por sistemas biológicos é conhecida como síntese verde ou biossíntese e pode ser realizada utilizando organismos procarióticos e eucarióticos ou partes deles. Nessa estratégia de síntese, ao invés do uso de agentes tóxicos para a redução do íon metálico, a obtenção das NPMs é mediada por componentes biológicos capazes de reduzir o metal. Nesse contexto, o presente trabalho utiliza extratos aquosos produzidos a partir do fruto (casca, polpa e sement...

  8. Effects of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine (the alkaloids of Mitragyna speciosa Korth on 4-methylumbelliferone glucuronidation in rat and human liver microsomes and recombinant human uridine 5′-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase isoforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munirah Haron

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glucuronidation catalyzed by uridine 5′- diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT is a major phase II drug metabolism reaction which facilitates drug elimination. Inhibition of UGT activity can cause drug-drug interaction. Therefore, it is important to determine the inhibitory potentials of drugs on glucuronidation. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the inhibitory potentials of mitragynine, 7-hydroxymitragynine, ketamine and buprenorphine, respectively on 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU glucuronidation in rat liver microsomes, human liver microsomes and recombinant human UGT1A1 and UGT2B7 isoforms. Materials and Methods: The effects of the above four compounds on the formation of 4-MU glucuronide from 4-MU by rat liver microsomes, human liver microsomes, recombinant human UGT1A1 and UGT2B7 isoforms were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Results: For rat liver microsomes, ketamine strongly inhibited 4-MU glucuronidation with an IC 50 value of 6.21 ± 1.51 mM followed by buprenorphine with an IC 50 value of 73.22 ± 1.63 mM. For human liver microsomes, buprenorphine strongly inhibited 4-MU glucuronidation with an IC 50 value of 6.32 ± 1.39 mM. For human UGT1A1 isoform, 7-hydroxymitragynine strongly inhibited 4-MU glucuronidation with an IC 50 value of 7.13 ± 1.16 mM. For human UGT2B7 isoform, buprenorphine strongly inhibited 4-MU glucuronidation followed by 7-hydroxymitragynine and ketamine with respective IC 50 values of 5.14 ± 1.30, 26.44 ± 1.31, and 27.28 ± 1.18 mM. Conclusions: These data indicate the possibility of drug-drug interaction if 7-hydroxymitragynine, ketamine, and buprenorphine are co-administered with drugs that are UGT2B7 substrates since these three compounds showed significant inhibition on UGT2B7 activity. In addition, if 7-hydroxymitragynine is to be taken with other drugs that are highly metabolized by UGT1A1, there is a possibility of drug-drug interaction to occur.

  9. Eliciting maize defense pathways aboveground attracts belowground biocontrol agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filgueiras, Camila Cramer; Willett, Denis S.; Pereira, Ramom Vasconcelos; Moino Junior, Alcides; Pareja, Martin; Duncan, Larry W.

    2016-01-01

    Plant defense pathways mediate multitrophic interactions above and belowground. Understanding the effects of these pathways on pests and natural enemies above and belowground holds great potential for designing effective control strategies. Here we investigate the effects of aboveground stimulation of plant defense pathways on the interactions between corn, the aboveground herbivore adult Diabrotica speciosa, the belowground herbivore larval D. speciosa, and the subterranean ento-mopathogenic nematode natural enemy Heterorhabditis amazonensis. We show that adult D. speciosa recruit to aboveground herbivory and methyl salicylate treatment, that larval D. speciosa are relatively indiscriminate, and that H. amazonensis en-tomopathogenic nematodes recruit to corn fed upon by adult D. speciosa. These results suggest that entomopathogenicnematodes belowground can be highly attuned to changes in the aboveground parts of plants and that biological control can be enhanced with induced plant defense in this and similar systems. PMID:27811992

  10. Micropropagation of Ferula assa-foetida L. (a medicinal plant) via direct somatic embryogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozbeh, S.; Otroshy, M.; Bozorgipoor, R.; Ebrahimi, M.; Moeini Najafabadi, A.; Struik, P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Ferula assa-foetida is a medicinal plant from the Apiaceae family. It is a monocarpic plant and only flowers once during its growth period and then it dries forever and that is one of the main problems of multiplication. The experiment was carried out to examine the effect of explants, medium and

  11. Lead and cadmium in leaves of deciduous trees in Beijing, China: Development of a metal accumulation index (MAI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yanju [Beijing Center for Physical and Chemical Analysis, Beijing 100089 (China) and Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)]. E-mail: liuyanju@hotmail.com; Zhu Yongguan [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Ding Hui [Beijing Center for Physical and Chemical Analysis, Beijing 100089 (China)

    2007-01-15

    Lead and cadmium uptake was investigated for common deciduous street trees in Beijing in this study. Species having Cd accumulation included Populus tomentosa, Sophora japonica and Catalpa speciosa. P. tomentosa had the highest ratios between leaf and soil Cd (0.848), followed by S. japonica (0.536), C. speciosa (0.493), Paulownia tomentosa (0.453) and Juglans regia (0.415). Pb levels were high in leaves of C. speciosa, J. regia and Pa. tomentosa. S. japonica had the highest ratio between leaf Pb and soil Pb (0.146), followed by Pa. tomentosa (0.143), Ginko biloba (0.103) and C. speciosa (0.095). A predictive foliar metal accumulation index (MAI) was developed and C. speciosa was calculated to have the highest MAI value (53.8). This suggests that C. speciosa would be a good choice for planting in areas of Beijing where soil contamination with Cd and Pb may be a problem. - Catalpa speciosa had the highest MAI value.

  12. Allometry of the babassu palm growing on a slash-and-burn agroecosystem of the eastern periphery of Amazonia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christoph Gehring; Marcelo Luís C. Zelarayán; Rosângela B. Almeida; Flávio Henrique R. Moraes

    2011-01-01

    Babassu (Attalea speciosa C.Martius, Arecaceae) is a palm with extraordinary socioeconomic and ecologic importance in large areas of tropical Brazil, especially in frequently burned and degraded landscapes...

  13. Pavonia Julianae et Paullinia Bernhardi, Novae species Surinamenses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uittien, H.

    1936-01-01

    E sectione Peltaea, Pavoniae speciosae H.B.K. proxima, sed forma folorium, indumento, involucri phyllis peltatis diversa. Suffrutex, caule minute stellato-piloso glabrescente, linea singula pilis simplicibus longioribus vestita in primo internodio ramulorum lateralium adaxiale notato. Folia breviter

  14. Modular organization of flowering plants and its implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Savinykh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Three categories of modules (elementary, universal and essential development in the flowering plant give them the following advantages: 1 wide range of elements for the body construction; 2 a high degree of autonomy of parts – universal and essential modules; 3 possibility of the existence in the form of monocarpic annual plants and policarpic annual plants of vegetative origin; 4 integration of individuals and their parts in the environment; 5 successful existence in specific not always optimal habitat conditions.

  15. Agave tequilana MADS genes show novel expression patterns in meristems, developing bulbils and floral organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado Sandoval, Silvia del Carmen; Abraham Juárez, María Jazmín; Simpson, June

    2012-03-01

    Agave tequilana is a monocarpic perennial species that flowers after 5-8 years of vegetative growth signaling the end of the plant's life cycle. When fertilization is unsuccessful, vegetative bulbils are induced on the umbels of the inflorescence near the bracteoles from newly formed meristems. Although the regulation of inflorescence and flower development has been described in detail for monocarpic annuals and polycarpic species, little is known at the molecular level for these processes in monocarpic perennials, and few studies have been carried out on bulbils. Histological samples revealed the early induction of umbel meristems soon after the initiation of the vegetative to inflorescence transition in A. tequilana. To identify candidate genes involved in the regulation of floral induction, a search for MADS-box transcription factor ESTs was conducted using an A. tequilana transcriptome database. Seven different MIKC MADS genes classified into 6 different types were identified based on previously characterized A. thaliana and O. sativa MADS genes and sequences from non-grass monocotyledons. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of the seven candidate MADS genes in vegetative, inflorescence, bulbil and floral tissues uncovered novel patterns of expression for some of the genes in comparison with orthologous genes characterized in other species. In situ hybridization studies using two different genes showed expression in specific tissues of vegetative meristems and floral buds. Distinct MADS gene regulatory patterns in A. tequilana may be related to the specific reproductive strategies employed by this species.

  16. 6-year periodicity and variable synchronicity in a mass-flowering plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakishima, Satoshi; Yoshimura, Jin; Murata, Hiroko; Murata, Jin

    2011-01-01

    Periodical organisms, such as bamboos and periodical cicadas, are very famous for their synchronous reproduction. In bamboos and other periodical plants, the synchronicity of mass-flowering and withering has been often reported indicating these species are monocarpic (semelparous) species. Therefore, synchronicity and periodicity are often suspected to be fairly tightly coupled traits in these periodical plants. We investigate the periodicity and synchronicity of Strobilanthes flexicaulis, and a closely related species S. tashiroi on Okinawa Island, Japan. The genus Strobilanthes is known for several periodical species. Based on 32-year observational data, we confirmed that S. flexicaulis is 6-year periodical mass-flowering monocarpic plant. All the flowering plants had died after flowering. In contrast, we found that S. tashiroi is a polycarpic perennial with no mass-flowering from three-year individual tracking. We also surveyed six local populations of S. flexicaulis and found variation in the synchronicity from four highly synchronized populations (>98% of plants flowering in the mass year) to two less synchronized one with 11-47% of plants flowering before and after the mass year. This result might imply that synchrony may be selected for when periodicity is established in monocarpic species. We found the selective advantages for mass-flowering in pollinator activities and predator satiation. The current results suggest that the periodical S. flexicaulis might have evolved periodicity from a non-periodical close relative. The current report should become a key finding for understanding the evolution of periodical plants.

  17. Optimization of Extraction Technology of Saponin of Chaenomeles Speciosa by Orthogonal Test Design and Investgiation its Anti-inflamatory Immunologic Mechanism on Rats Adjuvant Arthritis%资木瓜皂苷提取工艺优化及对大鼠佐剂性关节炎抗炎免疫机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨兴海; 吴杰

    2010-01-01

    目的:研究资木瓜皂苷(SCS)提取工艺的优化及对大鼠佐剂性关节炎(AA)抗炎作用及免疫机制.方法:以SCS的提取总量为考察指标,采取正交试验法考察乙醇浓度、溶媒用量、提取时间、提取次数4个因素,每个因素设置三个水平.流式细胞术检测SCS对AA外周血CD4+、CD8+表达水平,MTT法检测SCS对AA外周T淋巴细胞增殖的影响.结果:SCS最佳提取工艺为乙醇浓度70%,溶媒容量10倍,提取时间1 h,重复提取3次,提取得率为1.7%,对SCS得率有明显影响是提取次数及乙醇浓度;SCS能降低AA外周血CD4+表达水平,对CD8+表达水平无明显影响,对AA外周T淋巴细胞增殖有抑制作用.结论:最佳提取条件为A2B1C2D3,SCS通过抑制T淋巴细胞增殖和降低CD8+表达水平而发挥抗炎免疫作用.

  18. Alpha-tocopherol content in 62 edible tropical plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, L S; Mohamed, S

    2001-06-01

    Vitamin E was determined by the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. All the plants tested showed differences in their alpha-tocopherol content and the differences were significant (p drumstick Moringa oleifera leaves (90.0 mg/kg), green chili Capsicum annum (87 mg/kg), Allium fistulosum leaves (74.6 mg/kg), and bell pepper Capsicum annum (71.0 mg/kg). alpha-Tocopherol was not detected in Brassica oleracea, Phaeomeria speciosa, Pachyrrhizus speciosa, Pleurotus sajor-caju, and Solanum melongena.

  19. Current distribution, habitat, and status of Category 2 candidate plant species on and near the U.S. Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomquist, Kevin W. [EG& G Energy Measurements, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Lindemann, Tim A. [EG& G Energy Measurements, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Lyon, Glen E. [EG& G Energy Measurements, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Steen, Dan C. [EG& G Energy Measurements, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Wills, Cathy A. [EG& G Energy Measurements, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Flick, Sarah A. [EG& G Energy Measurements, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Ostler, W. Kent [EG& G Energy Measurements, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Results of surveys conducted between 1991 and 1995 were used to document the distribution and habitat of 11 Category 2 candidate plant species known to occur on or near the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Approximately 200 areas encompassing about 13,000 ha were surveyed. Distributions of all species except Frasera-pahutensis and Phaceliaparishii were increased, and the ranges of Camissonia megalantha, Galium hilendiae ssp. kingstonense, Penstemon albomarginatus, and Penstemon pahutensis were expanded. The status of each species was assessed based on current distribution population trends, and potential threats. Recommendations were made to reclassi& the following five species to Category 3C: Arctomecon merriamii, F. pahutensis, P. pahutensis, Phacelia beatleyae, and Phaceliaparishii. Two species, C. megalantha and Cymopterus ripIeyi var. saniculoides, were recommended for reclassification to Category 3B status. No recommendation was made to reclassify Astragalus funereus, G. hilendiae ssp. kingstonense, P. albomarginatus, or Penstemon fruticiformis var. amargosae from their current Category 2 status. Populations of these four species are not threatened on NTS, but the NTS populations represent only a.small portion of each species’ range and the potential threats of mining or grazing activities off NTS on these species was notassessed. Conservation measures recommended included the development of an NTS ecosystem conservation plan, continued conduct of preactivity and plant surveys on NTS, and protection of plant type localities on NTS.

  20. Detection of NAM-A1 Natural Variants in Bread Wheat Reveals Differences in Haplotype Distribution between a Worldwide Core Collection and European Elite Germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Cormier

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In wheat, remobilization of nitrogen absorbed before anthesis and regulation of monocarpic senescence is a major issue in breeding for nutrient use efficiency. We identified natural variants of NAM-A1, a gene having the same role as its well-characterized homoeolog NAM-B1, a NAC transcription factor associated with senescence kinetics and nutrient remobilization to the grain. Differences in haplotype frequencies between a worldwide core collection and a panel of European elite varieties were assessed and discussed. Moreover, hypotheses for the loss of function of the most common haplotype in elite European germplasm are discussed.

  1. Evaluation of in vitro absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) properties of mitragynine, 7-hydroxymitragynine, and mitraphylline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitragyna speciosa (Kratom) is a popular herb in Southeast Asia which is traditionally used to treat withdrawal symptoms associated with opiate addiction. Mitragynine, 7-hydroxymitragynine and mitraphylline are reported to be the central nervous system (CNS) active alkaloids which bind to the opiat...

  2. Niche specialization of reef-building corals in the mesophotic zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper, Timothy F.; Ulstrup, Karin Elizabeth; Dandan, Sana S.

    2011-01-01

    The photobiology of two reef corals and the distribution of associated symbiont types were investigated over a depth gradient of 0–60 m at Scott Reef, Western Australia. Pachyseris speciosa hosted mainly the same Symbiodinium C type similar to C3 irrespective of sampling depth. By contrast...

  3. Drug: D09192 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 11] Chaenomeles sinensis [TAX:36622], Chaenomeles speciosa [TAX:106546] Same as: E00214 E00662 Rosaceae (ros...drugs D09192 Chaenomeles fruit Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Rosaceae (rose family) D09192 Chaenomeles fruit PubChem: 96025872 ...

  4. Revision of the genus Rennellia Korth. (Rubiaceae-Rubioideae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johansson, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    In this revision of the genus Rennellia Korth. four species are recognized: R. elliptica Korth., R. amoena (Bremek.) J.T. Johansson comb, nov., R. speciosa (Wall, ex Kurz) J.D. Hooker, and R. morindiformis (Korth.) Ridley. Rennellia includes shrubs and small trees with white to pale bluish or pale v

  5. 75 FR 76284 - Pesticide Tolerance Crop Grouping Program II; Revisions to General Tolerance Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... standards are technical standards (e.g., materials specifications, test methods, and sampling procedures... spp. Pepper, nonbell, Capsicum chinese Jacq., 8-10B, 8-10C C. annuum L. var. annuum, C. frutescens L..., Cydonia oblonga Mill. Quince, Chinese, Chaenomeles speciosa (Sweet) Nakai, Quince, Japanese, Chaenomeles...

  6. Development of orodispersible films with selected Indonesian medicinal plant extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Johanna; Eugresya, Gabriella; Hinrichs, Wouter; Tjandrawinata, Raymond; Avanti, Christina; Frijlink, H.W.; Woerdenbag, Herman

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on the incorporation into orodispersible films (ODFs) of the dried extracts of five selected Indonesian medicinal plants: Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers. (LS), Phyllanthus niruri L. (PN), Cinnamomum burmanii Blume (CB), Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ZO) and Phaleria macrocarpa (Sc

  7. Novel synthetic products from the common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L) and their potential in the rural farm economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The common milkweed is of the family Asclepiadaceae which comprises over 200 genera and 2500 species including Asclepias syriaca L and its near relatives, A. speciosa and A. tuberosa. Asclepias syriaca, or the common milkweed, is a perennial that is native to the Americas and is so named because of...

  8. Study on Orchid Diversity in Gunung Simpang Nature Reserve, West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DWI MURTI PUSPITANINGTYAS

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Gunung Simpang Nature Reserve is located in West Java Province. It covers a 15.000 hectare area of highland forest, the altitude range between 800 to 1823 m asl. Orchid inventory and exploration were conducted to study orchid diversity in this conservation areas. Living plant was collected for ex situ conservation purpose in Botanic Garden. Observation on the population of terrestrial and epiphyte orchid was also done to study the dominant orchid in that area. It was recorded that there were 137 orchid species belonging to 51 genera, 95 species of which were epiphytes and 42 other species were terrestrial orchids. 134 species of which were collected in Cibodas Botanic Garden, which is suitable place for highland plant. The most dominant terrestrial orchid was Plocoglottis javanica. Other species were also abundantly found, such as Phaius pauciflorus, Liparis rheedii, Diglyphosa latifolia, Neuwiedia zollingeri var. javanica, Calanthe ceciliae, C. speciosa and Phaius callosus. Some epiphyte orchids were very common found, that are Agrostophyllum majus, Coelogyne speciosa, Dendrobium mutabile, Agrostophyllum bicuspidatum, Pholidota ventricosa and Eria javanica. Some attractive orchids are potential for ornamental plant, such as Vanda tricolor, Phaius callosus, Phaius tankervilleae, Arundina graminifolia, Bulbophyllum lobbii, Coelogyne speciosa, Calanthe ceciliae, Calanthe triplicata and Calanthe speciosa.

  9. Molecular phylogenetics of the species-rich angiosperm genus Goniothalamus (Annonaceae) inferred from nine chloroplast DNA regions: Synapomorphies and putative correlated evolutionary changes in fruit and seed morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chin Cheung; Thomas, Daniel C; Saunders, Richard M K

    2015-11-01

    A phylogenetic study of the genus Goniothalamus (Annonaceae) is presented using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches, with 65 species sampled (48.5% of the genus) based on sequences of nine chloroplast DNA regions (11,214 aligned positions). The resultant phylogeny clearly indicates that Goniothalamus is monophyletic. Preliminary research initially focused on identifying synapomorphies and estimating the phylogenetic signal of selected morphological characters based on parsimony and likelihood ancestral character state reconstructions. This prescreening of characters enabled 40 to be selected for further study, and of these 15 are shown here to demonstrate significant phylogenetic signal and to provide clear synapomorphies for several infrageneric clades. Although floral structure in Goniothalamus is comparatively uniform, suggesting a common basic pattern of pollination ecology, fruit and seed morphology in the genus is very diverse and is presumably associated with different patterns of frugivory. The present study assesses correlations amongst fruit and seed characters which are putatively of functional importance with regard to frugivory and dispersal. One-way phylogenetic ANOVA indicates significant phylogenetically independent correlation between the following fruit and seed characters: fruits borne on older branches and/or on the main trunk have larger monocarps than fruits borne on young branches; and monocarps that contain seeds with a hairy testa are larger than those with glabrous seeds. We discuss fruit morphologies and potential explanations for the inferred correlations, and suggest that they may be the result of adaptation to different frugivores (birds, larger non-volant animal and primate seed dispersers, respectively).

  10. Potential bud bank responses to apical meristem damage and environmental variables: matching or complementing axillary meristems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Klimešová

    Full Text Available Soil nutrients, dormant axillary meristem availability, and competition can influence plant tolerance to damage. However, the role of potential bud banks (adventitious meristems initiated only after injury is not known. Examining Central European field populations of 22 species of short-lived monocarpic herbs exposed to various sources of damage, we hypothesized that: (1 with increasing injury severity, the number of axillary branches would decrease, due to axillary meristem limitation, whereas the number of adventitious shoots (typically induced by severe injury would increase; (2 favorable environmental conditions would allow intact plants to branch more, resulting in stronger axillary meristem limitation than in unfavorable conditions; and (3 consequently, adventitious sprouting would be better enabled in favorable than unfavorable conditions. We found strong support for the first hypothesis, only limited support for the second, and none for the third. Our results imply that whereas soil nutrients and competition marginally influence plant tolerance to damage, potential bud banks enable plants to overcome meristem limitation from severe damage, and therefore better tolerate it. All the significant effects were found in intraspecific comparisons, whereas interspecific differences were not found. Monocarpic plants with potential bud banks therefore represent a distinct strategy occupying a narrow environmental niche. The disturbance regime typical for this niche remains to be examined, as do the costs associated with the banks of adventitious and axillary reserve meristems.

  11. Potential bud bank responses to apical meristem damage and environmental variables: matching or complementing axillary meristems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimešová, Jitka; Malíková, Lenka; Rosenthal, Jonathan; Šmilauer, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Soil nutrients, dormant axillary meristem availability, and competition can influence plant tolerance to damage. However, the role of potential bud banks (adventitious meristems initiated only after injury) is not known. Examining Central European field populations of 22 species of short-lived monocarpic herbs exposed to various sources of damage, we hypothesized that: (1) with increasing injury severity, the number of axillary branches would decrease, due to axillary meristem limitation, whereas the number of adventitious shoots (typically induced by severe injury) would increase; (2) favorable environmental conditions would allow intact plants to branch more, resulting in stronger axillary meristem limitation than in unfavorable conditions; and (3) consequently, adventitious sprouting would be better enabled in favorable than unfavorable conditions. We found strong support for the first hypothesis, only limited support for the second, and none for the third. Our results imply that whereas soil nutrients and competition marginally influence plant tolerance to damage, potential bud banks enable plants to overcome meristem limitation from severe damage, and therefore better tolerate it. All the significant effects were found in intraspecific comparisons, whereas interspecific differences were not found. Monocarpic plants with potential bud banks therefore represent a distinct strategy occupying a narrow environmental niche. The disturbance regime typical for this niche remains to be examined, as do the costs associated with the banks of adventitious and axillary reserve meristems.

  12. Comprehensive methodology for identification of Kratom in police laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczuk, Anna Paulina; Łozak, Anna; Zjawiony, Jordan Kordian

    2013-12-10

    Leaves of Mitragyna speciosa Korth (Rubiaceae), commonly known as Kratom, are a popular narcotic product among recreational users all over the world. This product is widely distributed on the Internet and via smart-shops and is often a subject of examination in police laboratories. A major psychoactive component of Kratom is mitragynine which occurs exclusively in this species. The variety of combinations among M. speciosa products, cases of plant or chemical composition adulteration, give rise to a need to develop an universal methodology for identification of both, plant material and its active metabolite, mitragynine. Herein we propose a comprehensive authentication procedure which involves the microscopic analysis of plant material and inexpensive mitragynine detection using thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The developed methodology was successfully applied for the plant material investigation. Five samples of dried, shredded or powdered Kratom leaves, purchased via the Internet and one sample delivered by police have been identified.

  13. Una especie nueva de Discococcus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae para la Región Neotropical A new species of Discococcus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae from the Neotropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Granara de Willink

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran la hembra adulta y los estados inmaduros de Discococcus huapi sp. nov. encontrados sobre Stipa speciosa Trinius et Ruprecht en Neuquén; se incluye también una clave de las especies de Discococcus Ferris; este género se cita por primera vez para la región Neotropical.Adult female and inmature stages of Discococcus huapi n. sp. are described and illustrated; it was found on Stipa speciosa Trinius et Ruprecht from Neuquén province; a key of the species of Discococcus Ferris is included; this genus is cited for the first time for the Neotropical Region.

  14. Edema induced by Bothrops asper (Squamata: Viperidae) snake venom and its inhibition by Costa Rican plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badilla, Beatriz; Chaves, Fernando; Mora, Gerardo; Poveda, Luis J

    2006-06-01

    We tested the capacity of leaf (Urera baccifera, Loasa speciosa, Urtica leptuphylla, Chaptalia nutans, and Satureja viminea) and root (Uncaria tomentosa) extracts to inhibit edema induced by Bothrops asper snake venom. Edema-forming activity was studied plethysmographically in the rat hind paw model. Groups of rats were injected intraperitoneally with various doses of each extract and, one hour later, venom was injected subcutaneously in the right hind paw. Edema was assessed at various time intervals. The edematogenic activity was inhibited in those animals that received an injection U. tomentosa, C. nutans or L. speciosa extract. The extract of U. baccifera showed a slight inhibition of the venom effect. Extract from S. viminea and, to a lesser extent that of U. leptuphylla, induced a pro-inflammatory effect, increasing the edema at doses of 250 mg/kg at one and two hours.

  15. Effects of Different Substrate Composition on Growth of Gesneriaceae Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhijing QIU; Chunqing ZOU; Zhengjun SHI; Yaoliang DAI; Ruixing XIE

    2014-01-01

    The cultivation experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of dif-ferent proportions of peat soil, perlite, vermiculite and yel ow mud on growth of Gesneriaceae species (Chirita gueilinensis, Sinningia speciosa, Lysionotus pauci-florus, Hemiboea henryi, Aeschynanthus acuminatus, Saintpaulia ionantha). The growth traits of each plant growing in 7 different matrix materials were investigated. The plant height, crown width and chlorophyl content of each plant were mea-sured. The results showed that the best substrate ratio was peat soil∶vermiculite=2∶1 for C. gueilinensis, L. pauciflorus and H. henryi; peat soil∶perlite∶vermiculite = 2∶1∶1 for S. ionantha; peat soil∶vermiculite∶yel ow mud=2∶1∶1 for S. speciosa; peat soil∶per-lite∶vermiculite∶yel ow mud=2∶1∶1∶1 for A. acuminatus.

  16. Premilinary Studies on Phytochemical Screening of Ulam and Fruit from Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliwirianis N.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkaloids, saponins, steroid, terpenoid, flavonoids, phenolic distribution in 14 Malaysian favourite ulam and fruit belonging to different families were assessed and compared. The plants investigated were parkia speciosa (petai, solanum torvum (terung pipit, pithecellobium bubalinum (kerdas, moringa oleifera (kacang kelor, dryobalanops oblongifolia (keladan, cosmos caudatus (ulam raja, mentha arvensis (pudina, ocimum sp. (selasih, cymbopogon nardus (serai wangi, eugenia polyantha (serai kayu, Barringtonia scortechinii, (Putat, musa sp. (pisang, talinum paniculatum (akar som and phyllanthus acidus (cermai. Moringa oleifera leaf and dryobalanops oblongifolia fruit were found contain positive reactions of alkaloids. All the samples studied also show high content of saponin except in bark and seed of parkia speciosa and stem of phyllanthus acidus. Meanwhile, results of the phytochemical screening on saponins, steroids, terpenoids, phenolic and flavonoids showed that cosmos caudatus, ocimum sp., mentha arvensis, barringtonia scortechinii and moringa oleifera were the active compounds present in the leaves of the plant.

  17. A coincidence of addiction to "Kratom" and severe primary hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheleg, Sergey V; Collins, Gregory B

    2011-12-01

    Here we present a case of a coincidence of addiction to "Kratom" (botanically known as Mitragyna speciosa Korth) and developed severe primary hypothyroidism. We are discussing a possibility that high dose of indole alkaloid mitragynine (the major alkaloid identified from "Kratom") might reduce the normal response of the thyroid gland to thyroid-stimulating hormone resulting in primary hypothyroidism. Further experimental investigations of mitragynine as a possible suppressor of thyroid gland function would be a matter of interest.

  18. Effects of Five Bangladeshi Plant Extracts on In vitro Thrombolysis and Cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Raju; Emran, Talha Bin; Paul, Arkajyoti; Siddique, Mohammad Kutub Uddin; Khan, Mohammad Arfad; Rahman, Md. Golamur; Sarwar, Md. Shahid; Nasir Uddin, Mir Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Piper Betle, Pterospermum acerifolium, Saraca indica, Argyreia speciosa, and Rhaphidophora glauca are medicinal plants commonly used as traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases. To examine, whether organic extracts of these plants possess thrombolytic properties with minimal or no toxicity is our main aim of the study. Materials and Methods: In vitro thrombolytic model was used to check the clot lysis effects using streptokinase (SK) as a positive control and water as a negative control. Cytotoxicity was screened by brine shrimp lethality bioassay using vincristine sulfate (VS) as positive control. Results: Among herbal drugs, different organic extracts of P. betle, P. acerifolium, S. indica, A. speciosa, and R. glauca showed significant (P Piper betle, Pterospermum acerifolium, Saraca indica, Argyreia speciosa, and Rhaphidophora glauca were subjected to comparative antithrombotic and toxicity based analysis. In comparative study, Saraca indica showed highest clot lysis (49.70 ± 1.69%) activity among the other plant with lowest toxicity (LC50: 478.40 ± 6.98) Abbreviations Used: h: Hour; min: Minutes; sec: Second; kg: Kilogram; g: Gram; μg: Microgram; L: Liter; mL: Millilitre; μL: Micro liter; μg/mL: Microgram per Milliliter; mg/kg: Milligram per kilogram; %: Percent; °C: Degree Celsius; et al.: et alliori (and others); w/w: Weight by Weight; v/v: Volume by Volume; SEM: Standard Error Mean; LC50: lethal concentration at 50% PMID:27365985

  19. Phylogenetic analysis, genetic diversity and relationships between the recently segregated species of Corynandra and Cleoserrata from the genus Cleome using DNA barcoding and molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamboli, Asif Shabodin; Patil, Swapnil Mahadeo; Gholave, Avinash Ramchandra; Kadam, Suhas Kishor; Kotibhaskar, Shreya Vijaykumar; Yadav, Shrirang Ramchandra; Govindwar, Sanjay Prabhu

    2016-01-01

    Cleome is the largest genus in the family Cleomaceae and it is known for its various medicinal properties. Recently, some species from the Cleome genus (Cleome viscosa, Cleome chelidonii, Cleome felina and Cleome speciosa) are split into genera Corynandra (Corynandra viscosa, Corynandra chelidonii, Corynandra felina), and Cleoserrata (Cleoserrata speciosa). The objective of this study was to obtain DNA barcodes for these species for their accurate identification and determining phylogenetic relationships. Out of 10 screened barcoding regions, rbcL, matK and ITS1 regions showed higher PCR efficiency and sequencing success. This study added matK, rbcL and ITS1 barcodes for the identification of Corynandra chelidonii, Corynandra felina, Cleome simplicifolia and Cleome aspera species in existing barcode data. Corynandra chelidonii and Corynandra felina species belong to the Corynandra genus, but they are not grouped with the Corynandra viscosa species, however clustered with the Cleome species. Molecular marker analysis showed 100% polymorphism among the studied plant samples. Diversity indices for molecular markers were ranged from He=0.1115-0.1714 and I=0.2268-0.2700, which indicates a significant amount of genetic diversity among studied species. Discrimination of the Cleome and Corynandra species from Cleoserrata speciosa was obtained by two RAPD primers (OPA-4 and RAPD-17) and two ISSR primers (ISSR-1 and ISSR-2). RAPD and ISSR markers are useful for the genetic characterization of these studied species. The present investigation will be helpful to understand the relationships of Cleome lineages with Corynandra and Cleoserrata species.

  20. Taxonomic Notes on Livistona (Palmae) in Flora of China%《Flora of China》中蒲葵属之分类订正

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海桑

    2011-01-01

    Based on the lectotype of Livistona chinensis,the holotypes of L.fengkaiensis and L.jenkinsiana,the isoneotype of L.saribus and the isotype of L.speciosa,the status of those species in Flora of China was reviewed.L.speciosa has obovate,elliptical or ovoid fruits,but L.jenkinsiana has reniform or subglobose fruits.Livistona jenkinsiana in Flora of China should be L.speciosa Kurz which was misidentitfied as L.saribus in Chinese taxonomic literature,such as Flora of Hainan,Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae,Flora Fujianica and Flora Yunnanica.L.saribus in Flora of China,which originates with Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae,is not endemic to China.In China,L.speciosa is endemic to Yunnan,Guangdong,Hainan and Fujian,and L.chinensis is endemic to Guangdong and Taiwan,yet Livistona jenkinsiana and L.saribus were introduced to China only by certain botanical gardens.%通过调查,对Livistona chinensis的后选模式、L.fengkaiensis和L.jenkinsiana的主模式、L.saribus的等新模式、L.speciosa的等模式与《Flora of China》中的上述种类作比较,证实《Flora of China》中的L.jenkinsiana是L.speciosa Kurz,后者被中国分类学文献(如《海南植物志》、《中国植物志》、《福建植物志》、《云南植物志》)误定为L.saribus.L.speciosa的果倒卵形、椭圆形或卵形,而L.jenkinsiana的果肾形或近球形.源于《中国植物志》的L.saribus 并非原产于中国.在中国,L.speciosa原产于云南、广东、海南和福建,L.chinensis原产于广东和台湾,而L.jenkinsiana 和L.saribus仅被引种至中国的植物园.

  1. Floração sincrônica e sistemas reprodutivos em quatro espécies de Kielmeyera Mart. (Guttiferae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros Mariluza A. Granja e

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram investigados a floração sincrônica e os sistemas reprodutivos de Kielmeyera abdita Saddi, K. coriacea Mart.,K. speciosa St. Hil. e K. variabilis Mart., que são espécies de cerrado e ocorrem freqüentemente na Fazenda Água Limpa da Universidade de Brasília, Brasília (DF. As quatro espécies de Kielmeyerasão simpátricas e o período de floração se extende por dois ou tres meses. K. abdita, K. coriacea eK. variabilis,florescem em sincronia durante o período seco (agosto - dezembro e K speciosa floresce isoladamente durante o período chuvoso (fevereriro - maio. A floração convergente dessa três espécies, sugere que as mesmas estão envolvidas em um processo de mutualismo floral, no qual atraem grande número de polinizadores, incrementando os níveis de polinização cruzada. Todas as espécies têm morfologia floral similar, com corolas abertas de cor albo-rósea (K. abdita, K. coriacea, K. speciosa ou alva (K. variabilis, contrastando com estames em pincel, de cor amarelo - forte, que apresentam glândulas apicais produtoras de perfume doce peculiar a Kielmeyera. A presença de andromonoecia é marcante exceto em K. speciosa. As flores apresentam síndrome de entomofilia, sendo visitadas por 21 espécies de abelhas, porém só as abelhas fêmeas Xylocopa hirsutissima Maidl e X. frontalis (Olivier, foram consideradas polinizadores efetivos, devido à alta freqüência e eficiência na coleta de pólen. Com relação aos sistemas reprodutivos, foi constatado que as espécies de Kielmeyera são xenogâmicas e auto-incompatíveis. Os tubos polínicos resultantes de autopolinização foram bloqueados no ovário, sugerindo auto-incompatibilidade de ação tardia. A percentagem de frutos resultantes de polinização cruzada ( K.abdita 33%, K. coriacea 48,5%, K.speciosa 41,5% e K.variabilis 36,5% foi maior que a de polinização natural (K.abdita 13,3%, K. coriacea 30%, K.speciosa 23% e K.variabilis 30%. Isto sugere que apesar da

  2. REPELÊNCIA E DETERRÊNCIA ALIMENTAR DE VAQUINHAS POR ÓLEOS DE NIM E CINAMOMO APLICADOS EM FOLHAS DE FEIJOEIRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRUNO HENRIQUE SARDINHA DE SOUZA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the repellent and deterrent effect of the application of concentra- tions of neem and chinaberry oil on bean leaves on the leaf beetles Diabrotica speciosa (Germar and Cero- toma arcuata (Olivier. The concentrations of neem oil tested were 0.625, 1.25, 2.50, 5.00, 10.00 and 20,00 mL, corresponding respectively to 1, 2, 4, 8, 17 and 33 ppm of azadirachtin A and the concentrations of china- berry oil used were the same used to neem oil, corresponding, however, to 1.875, 3.75, 7.50, 15.00, 30.00 and 60.00 mg mL-1 of chinaberry extract, respectively. For the free-choice tests, glass containers were used as are- nas, whereas for the no-choice tests Petri dishes were used, where in both one insect per treatment was released in the center. Attractiveness was evaluated in predetermined time periods, in addition to the leaf consumption, at the end of the experiment. Neem oil is repellent to D. speciosa and C. arcuata, with more efficient results at the 5.00, 10.00 and 20.00 mL concentrations. All concentrations of neem oil reduce leaf consumption of both insects, except in the no-choice test with D. speciosa, in which only the 10.00 and 20.00 mL concentrations are deterrent. Chinaberry oil provides high repellent activity on both leaf beetle species, and the 10.00 and 20.00 mL concentrations stood out. The 10.00 and 20.00 mL concentrations of chinaberry oil are deterrent to D. spe- ciosa and C. arcuata.

  3. In vitro evaluation of the cytotoxic and apoptogenic properties of aloe whole leaf and gel materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Plessis, Lissinda H; Hamman, Josias H

    2014-04-01

    Aloe gel and whole-leaf materials have shown biological effects with potential therapeutic applications, and recently, their drug-absorption enhancement properties have been discovered. It is important to establish a safety profile for these materials before they can be used in pharmaceutical products. The aim of the study was to investigate the in vitro cytotoxicity of Aloe vera, Aloe marlothii, Aloe speciosa and Aloe ferox against human hepatocellular (HepG2), human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) and human adenocarcinoma epithelial cells (HeLa). Flow cytometry was used to measure cell viability, apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aloe gel materials investigated only decreased cell viability at concentrations of >10 mg/mL and exhibited half-maximal cytotoxic concentration (CC(50)) values above 1000 mg/mL, except for A. vera gel in HepG2 cells (CC(50) = 269.3 mg/mL). A. speciosa whole-leaf material showed a significant decrease in viability of Hela cells, whereas the other whole-leaf materials did not show a similar effect. The aloe gel materials in general showed low levels of apoptosis, whereas A. vera and A. speciosa whole-leaf materials caused a dose-dependent increase of apoptosis in HeLa cells. None of the aloe materials investigated exhibited a significant increase in ROS. It can be concluded that the selected aloe materials caused only limited reduction in cell viability with limited in vitro cytotoxicity effects. Further, neither significant apoptosis effects were observed nor induction of ROS.

  4. Evaluation of the cardiotoxicity of mitragynine and its analogues using human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Lu

    Full Text Available Mitragynine is a major bioactive compound of Kratom, which is derived from the leave extracts of Mitragyna speciosa Korth or Mitragyna speciosa (M. speciosa, a medicinal plant from South East Asia used legally in many countries as stimulant with opioid-like effects for the treatment of chronic pain and opioid-withdrawal symptoms. Fatal incidents with Mitragynine have been associated with cardiac arrest. In this study, we determined the cardiotoxicity of Mitragynine and other chemical constituents isolated using human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs.The rapid delayed rectifier potassium current (IKr, L-type Ca2+ current (ICa,L and action potential duration (APD were measured by whole cell patch-clamp. The expression of KCNH2 and cytotoxicity was determined by real-time PCR and Caspase activity measurements. After significant IKr suppression by Mitragynine (10 µM was confirmed in hERG-HEK cells, we systematically examined the effects of Mitragynine and other chemical constituents in hiPSC-CMs. Mitragynine, Paynantheine, Speciogynine and Speciociliatine, dosage-dependently (0.1∼100 µM suppressed IKr in hiPSC-CMs by 67%∼84% with IC50 ranged from 0.91 to 2.47 µM. Moreover, Mitragynine (10 µM significantly prolonged APD at 50 and 90% repolarization (APD50 and APD90 (439.0±11.6 vs. 585.2±45.5 ms and 536.0±22.6 vs. 705.9±46.1 ms, respectively and induced arrhythmia, without altering the L-type Ca2+ current. Neither the expression, and intracellular distribution of KCNH2/Kv11.1, nor the Caspase 3 activity were significantly affected by Mitragynine.Our study indicates that Mitragynine and its analogues may potentiate Torsade de Pointes through inhibition of IKr in human cardiomyocytes.

  5. Revision of the genus Rennellia Korth. (Rubiaceae-Rubioideae)

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    In this revision of the genus Rennellia Korth. four species are recognized: R. elliptica Korth., R. amoena (Bremek.) J.T. Johansson comb, nov., R. speciosa (Wall, ex Kurz) J.D. Hooker, and R. morindiformis (Korth.) Ridley. Rennellia includes shrubs and small trees with white to pale bluish or pale violet flowers in panicle-, umbel-, or spike-like cymes. The pedicels and ovaries are nearly always connate. Rennellia is confined to tropical rain forests in SE Asia, Sumatra, and Borneo. The genus...

  6. The performance of activated carbons from sugarcane bagasse, babassu, and coconut shells in removing residual chlorine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaguaribe, E.F.; Araujo, L.P. [Paraiba Univ., Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude. Lab. de Carvao Ativado]. E-mail:emersonjaguaribe@globo.com; Medeiros, L.L.; Barreto, M.C.S. [Paraiba Univ., Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: luciana-lucena@bol.com.br

    2005-03-01

    The capacity of activated carbons obtained from different raw materials, such as sugarcane bagasse, babassu (Orbygnia speciosa), and coconut (Cocus nucifera) shells, to remove residual chlorine is studied. The influence of particle size and time of contact between particles of activated carbon and the chlorinated solution were taken into account. The adsorptive properties of the activated carbons were measured by gas adsorption (BET method), using an ASAP 2010 porosimeter, and liquid phase adsorption, employing iodine and methylene blue adsorbates. The activated carbon from sugarcane bagasse was the only adsorbent capable of removing 100% of the residual chlorine. (author)

  7. Antineoplastic agents, 301. An investigation of the Amaryllidaceae genus Hymenocallis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, G R; Pettit, G R; Groszek, G; Backhaus, R A; Doubek, D L; Barr, R J; Meerow, A W

    1995-05-01

    Seven species (and one cultivated variety) of Hymenocallis (Amaryllidaceae) and the related Pancratium maritima, representing a broad geographical selection, were investigated as sources of pancratistatin [1] now undergoing preclinical development as an anticancer agent. Pancratistatin [1] was found to be a constituent of H. speciosa (Singapore), H. variegated (Singapore), H. pedalis (Seychelles), H. expansa (Bermuda), H. sonoranensis (Mexico), and P. maritimum (Israel). Only two species of Hymenocallis failed to yield one or more of the related cell-growth inhibitory isocarbostyrils such as narciclasine [3a], 7-deoxynarciclasine [3b], and 7-deoxy-trans-dihydronarciclasine [2].

  8. Drogas emergentes (III): plantas y hongos alucinógenos

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Se ha observado un aumento del consumo de sustancias vegetales con efecto alucinógeno, algunas de ellas asociadas a ceremonias religiosas ancestrales, siendo muchas de estas sustancias legales o con una regulación parcial. Salvia divinorum es un potente agonista de los receptores kappa, con propiedades disociativas y alucinógenas, de inicio rápido y corta duración. El Kratom (Mytragyna speciosa), posee como alcaloide principal la mitraginina, con efectos estimulantes a dosis bajas (efecto coc...

  9. Edema induced by Bothrops asper (Squamata: Viperidae) snake venom and its inhibition by Costa Rican plant extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Badilla, Beatriz; Chaves, Fernando; Mora, Gerardo; Poveda, Luis J.

    2014-01-01

    Se investigó la capacidad de los extractos de las hojas de Urera baccifera, Loasa speciosa, Urtica leptuphylla, Chaptalia nutans, Satureja viminea y de la raíz de Uncaria tomentosa para inhibir el edema inducido por el veneno de Bothrops asper por métodos pletismométricos. Los grupos de ratas fueron inyectados intraperitonealmente con varias dosis de cada extracto y una hora mas tarde se inyectó veneno por vía subcutánea en la pata trasera derecha de la rata. Se evaluó el edema en distintos i...

  10. 交通环境对城市行道树叶片叶绿素的影响%Effects of traffic environment in urban on roadside tree leaves' chlorophyll content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李寒娥

    2002-01-01

    本文以南方常见的三种城市行道树:阴香(Cinnamomum burmanii (Nees) Bl.), 大叶紫薇 (Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers.),芒果 (Mangifera indica L.)作为供试材料,测定其在不同的生长季节的叶绿素含量,研究发现交通环境导致城市行道树叶绿素a和叶绿素b含量下降,但二者下降的比例视不同树种而异.

  11. Fenoles totales y actividad antioxidante en hojas de dos especies colombianas del género Meriania (melastomataceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana M Ocampo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron las hojas de las especies Meriania speciosa y Meriania nobilis, obteniendo extractos de diferente polaridad, a los que se les realizaron diversas pruebas cualitativas. Se determinó el contenido de fenoles totales y se evaluó la actividad captadora de radicales con DPPH (FRS50: capacidad captadora de radicales que reduce en un 50% al radical DPPH en microplacas de 96 pozos. Este estudio determinó que las dos especies presentan una buena actividad antioxidante. Los extractos que mayor actividad antioxidante mostraron fueron: butanol con FRS50 de 7,6 ± 0,8 y 23,4 ± 2,4; acuoso con FRS50 de 28,5 ± 2,9 y 63,0 ± 2,6 y hexano 2 con FRS50 de 17,0 ± 2,6 y 18,2 ± 2,5 mg/L, para las especies M. speciosa y M. nobilis respectivamente. Los extractos que presentaron un alto contenido de fenoles totales fueron: metanol 2 con valor de 0,47 ±0,06 y 0,40 ± 0,03 mg equivalentes de ácido gálico (EAG/g extracto seco (ES y el extracto acuoso: 0,16 ± 0,06 y 0,12 ± 0,03 mg EAG/g ES para las especies M. speciosa y M. nobilis respectivamente. El extracto butanólico de la especie M. speciosa mostró la mayor actividad antioxidante con un FRS50 de 7,6 mg/L ± 0,8, este valor es comparable con el valor hallado para la quercetina FRS50: 4,2 mg/L ± 0,4, lo que indica que este extracto es promisorio en el contenido de metabolitos secundarios que exhiben actividad antioxidante y para la fabricación de productos agroquímicos, cosméticos y farmacéuticos.

  12. Unravelling the role of host plant expansion in the diversification of a Neotropical butterfly genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Melanie; Elias, Marianne

    2016-06-16

    Understanding the processes underlying diversification is a central question in evolutionary biology. For butterflies, access to new host plants provides opportunities for adaptive speciation. On the one hand, locally abundant host species can generate ecologically significant selection pressure. But a diversity of host plant species within the geographic range of each population and/or species might also eliminate any advantage conferred by specialization. This paper focuses on four Melinaea species, which are oligophagous on the family Solanaceae: M. menophilus, M. satevis, M. marsaeus, and finally, M. mothone. We examined both female preference and larval performance on two host plant species that commonly occur in this butterfly's native range, Juanulloa parasitica and Trianaea speciosa, to determine whether the different Melinaea species show evidence of local adaptation. In choice experiments, M. mothone females used both host plants for oviposition, whereas all other species used J. parasitica almost exclusively. In no choice experiment, M. mothone was the only species that readily accepted T. speciosa as a larval host plant. Larval survival was highest on J. parasitica (82.0 % vs. 60.9 %) and development took longer on T. speciosa (14.12 days vs. 13.35 days), except for M. mothone, which did equally well on both host plants. For all species, average pupal weight was highest on J. parasitica (450.66 mg vs. 420.01 mg), although this difference was least apparent in M. mothone. We did not find that coexisting species of Melinaea partition host plant resources as expected if speciation is primarily driven by host plant divergence. Although M. mothone shows evidence of local adaptation to a novel host plant, T. speciosa, which co-occurs, it does not preferentially lay more eggs on or perform better on this host plant than on host plants used by other Melinaea species and not present in its distributional range. It is likely that diversification in this

  13. A catalogue of the Chrysididae (Insecta, Hymenoptera) types deposited in the Zoological Museum, Moscow Lomonosov State University, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Paolo; Antropov, Alexander V; Xu, Zaifu

    2015-07-23

    A critical and annotated catalogue of 52 types of Chrysididae belonging to 32 species deposited in the Zoological Museum of Moscow Lomonosov State University is given. The lectotypes of Chrysis sabulosa Radoszkowski, 1877 and Ellampus (Philoctetes) fedtschenkoi Semenov, 1932 are designated. New synonyms are proposed for (valid name first): Omalus imbecillus (Mocsáry, 1889) = Ellampus kozhevnikovi Semenov, 1932, syn. nov., and Chrysis speciosa Radoszkowski, 1877 = C. fulvicornis Mocsáry, 1889, syn. nov. The status of Hedychridium erschovi (Radoszkowski, 1877), stat. resurr. is revalidated.

  14. Population dinamic of snap bean pests on four growing seasons and its influence on productive parameters / Flutuação populacional de insetos associados ao feijão-vagem c.v. UEL-1 em quatro épocas de plantio e seu efeito sobre as características produtivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Mitsuo Takada

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Insect pests of snap beans in northern Paraná state – Brazil were monitored during four growing seasons: March – May, May – June, August – September, September – November. Adults of leafhopper (Empoasca kraemeri, whiteffly (Bemisia tabaci and corn rootworm (Diabrotica speciosa were monitored weekly using a cone trap. Leafhoppers nymphs were counted in mid height trifoliate leaves. The productive parameters evaluated in harvesting were: number of pods / plant; number of marketable pods; number of damaged pods divided in bent pods, empty pods or bored pods. Insect infestation were lower in August – September growing period, which yielded higher percent of marketable pods. The highest population of leafhopper occurred in March – May period, when the percent of curved pods were also the highest. Maximum population of whitefly occurred in early season of March – May growing period. Leaf beetle (D. speciosa population did not surpass de damage threshold in any growing period, but was higher in March – May season.Objetivou-se conhecer a flutuação populacional dos principais insetos que atacam a cultura do feijãovagem UEL-1 cultivado em diferentes épocas, e seu efeito sobre as características das vagens. Os plantios foram conduzidos na fazenda-escola da Universidade Estadual de Londrina, em quatro diferentes períodos: março-maio; maio-junho; agosto-setembro; setembro-novembro. Foram avaliados semanalmente os adultos da cigarrinha-verde (Empoasca kraemeri, mosca-branca (Bemisia tabaci e vaquinha (Diabrotica speciosa com auxílio de cone entomológico. Contagens de ninfas de E. kraemeri foram realizadas em trifólios do estrato médio da planta. Ao final de cada safra, avaliou-se o número de vagens/planta, de vagens com tamanho comercial, de vagens encurvadas, chochas e perfuradas. As menores populações de insetos ocorreram no plantio de agosto-setembro, quando obteve-se maior porcentagem de vagens com qualidade comercial

  15. Metabolism studies of the Kratom alkaloid speciociliatine, a diastereomer of the main alkaloid mitragynine, in rat and human urine using liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Anika A; Wissenbach, Dirk K; Weber, Armin A; Zapp, Josef; Maurer, Hans H

    2011-03-01

    Mitragyna speciosa (Kratom) is currently used as a drug of abuse. When monitoring its abuse in urine, several alkaloids and their metabolites must be considered. In former studies, mitragynine (MG), its diastereomer speciogynine (SG), and paynantheine and their metabolites could be identified in rat and human urine using LC-MS(n). In Kratom users' urines, besides MG and SG, further isomeric compounds were detected. To elucidate whether the MG and SG diastereomer speciociliatine (SC) and its metabolites represent further compounds, the phase I and II metabolites of SC were identified first in rat urine after the administration of the pure alkaloid. Then, the identified rat metabolites were screened for in the urine of Kratom users using the above-mentioned LC-MS(n) procedure. Considering the mass spectra and retention times, it could be confirmed that SC and its metabolites are so far the unidentified isomers in human urine. In conclusion, SC and its metabolites can be used as further markers for Kratom use, especially by consumption of raw material or products that contain a high amount of fruits of the Malaysian plant M. speciosa.

  16. From Kratom to mitragynine and its derivatives: physiological and behavioural effects related to use, abuse, and addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Zurina; Muzaimi, Mustapha; Navaratnam, Visweswaran; Yusoff, Nurul H M; Suhaimi, Farah W; Vadivelu, Rajakumar; Vicknasingam, Balasingam K; Amato, Davide; von Hörsten, Stephan; Ismail, Nurul I W; Jayabalan, Nanthini; Hazim, Ammar I; Mansor, Sharif M; Müller, Christian P

    2013-02-01

    Kratom (or Ketum) is a psychoactive plant preparation used in Southeast Asia. It is derived from the plant Mitragyna speciosa Korth. Kratom as well as its main alkaloid, mitragynine, currently spreads around the world. Thus, addiction potential and adverse health consequences are becoming an important issue for health authorities. Here we reviewed the available evidence and identified future research needs. It was found that mitragynine and M. speciosa preparations are systematically consumed with rather well defined instrumentalization goals, e.g. to enhance tolerance for hard work or as a substitute in the self-treatment of opiate addiction. There is also evidence from experimental animal models supporting analgesic, muscle relaxant, anti-inflammatory as well as strong anorectic effects. In humans, regular consumption may escalate, lead to tolerance and may yield aversive withdrawal effects. Mitragynine and its derivatives actions in the central nervous system involve μ-opioid receptors, neuronal Ca²⁺ channels and descending monoaminergic projections. Altogether, available data currently suggest both, a therapeutic as well as an abuse potential.

  17. Chagas' disease in the Amazon Basin: V. Periurban palms as habitats of Rhodnius robustus and Rhodnius pictipes - triatomine vectors of Chagas' disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Miles

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi infected Rhodnius robustus and/or Rhodnius pictipes were commonly found, in large numbers, in the Brazilian Amazonian palms Maximiliana regia ("inajá", Acrocomia sclerocarpa ("mucajá" and Orbignya speciosa ("babaçu". The common opossum, Didelphis marsupialis, was the animal most frequently associated with triatomine infested palms. R. pictipes, frequently light-attracted into houses from palm trees, was the probable source of an acute case of Chagas' disease in the vicinity of Belém. It is considered that triatomine infested palms are likely to cause some cases of acute Chagas' disease in the States of Amazonas and Rondônia. Possible control methods are suggested.Rhodnius robustus e/ou Rhodnius pictipes, infectados com Trypanosoma cruzi foram comumente encontrados, em grande numero, nas palmeiras Maximiliana regia (inaja, Acrocomia sclerocarpa (mucaja e Orbignya speciosa (babacu na Amazonia brasileira. O marsupial Didelphis marsupialis foi o animal encontrado mais frequentemente nas palmeiras associadas a alta prevalencia de triatomineos. R. pictipes que e atraido pela luz nas residencias de palmeiras vizinhas, provavelmente e a fonte de um caso agudo de doenca de Chagas nas vizinhancas de Belem. Sugere-se que as palmeiras albergando triatomineos poderiam ser relacionadas com infeccoes humanas de doenca de Chagas nos Estados de Amazonas e Rondonia. Sugere-se, tambem, possiveis metodos de controle.

  18. Effects of temperature and food on the development of Dysdercus maurus Distant (Hemiptera, Pyrrhocoridae); Efeitos da temperatura e do alimento no desenvolvimento de Dysdercus maurus Distant (Hemiptera, Pyrrhocoridae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Fabio Souto [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Ambientais], e-mail: fbio_almeida@yahoo.com.br; Goncalves, Lenicio [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Animal. Area de Biologia], e-mail: lencygon@globo.com

    2007-10-15

    Dysdercus maurus Distant, 1901 (Hemiptera, Pyrrhocoridae) is an important pest on Gossypium spp. (cotton tree), Citrus sinensis Osbeck (Rutaceae) and Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae) crops. This insect also feeds on seeds of Chorisia speciosa St. Hil. (Bombacaceae). This work aimed to evaluate the effects of temperature and food on the development of D. maurus. Eight treatments were carried out, in six of them bugs were fed with seeds of C. speciosa and kept at 15, 18, 20, 25 and 30 {+-} 1 deg C, 80 {+-} 3% RH and 12h photo phase or in laboratory conditions (23.5 {+-} 2.6 deg C, 73.3 {+-} 9.9 % RH), and in the other two treatments bugs were fed with seeds of cotton variety IAC-22 and kept at 25 or 30 deg C. In all treatments five immature stages were observed. The increase of temperature caused reduction in the developmental time. The temperature of 15 deg C disabled nymphal eclosion and was also lethal to those nymphs ecloded at other temperatures. The lower mortality of nymphs occurred in the temperature of 25 deg C with cotton as food (24.07%). The lower threshold temperature (Tb) occurred for the first instar (11.54 deg C) and the higher for the second instar (15.33 deg C). The females of D. maurus required more degree-days (329.93 degree-days) than males (300.49 degree-days) until adult emergence. (author)

  19. Distribution, host range, and climatic constraints on Centistes gasseni (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a South American parasitoid of cucumber beetles, Diabrotica spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera Walsh, G; Athanas, M M; Salles, L A B; Schroder, R F W

    2003-12-01

    The genus Diabrotica includes a large number of pest species, including some of the most important crop pests of the Americas. The parasitoid Centistes gasseni Shaw is the first braconid to be described parasitizing Diabrotica in South America, and high natural infestations are reported. Field and experimental observations on the host range, distribution and biology of this parasitoid are described. Centistes gasseniwas collected in southern Brazil, eastern Paraguay and northeastern Argentina, in a region comprising humid lowlands and highlands, and cool temperate to warm subtropical climates, with regular rainfall in excess of 1300 mm. Three Diabroticaspecies, D. limitata (Sahlberg), D. speciosa (Germar) and D. viridula (Fabricius) were found to host the parasitoid, with mean percent parasitism of 5.4, 2.0 and 1.0%, respectively. Diabrotica speciosa and D. viridula are the two most important pest Diabroticaspecies in South America. Laboratory experiments with field-collected beetles and parasitoid cocoons indicated that C. gasseni overwinters in adult host beetles, remaining dormant in its live host below developmental temperatures. A potential distribution of C. gasseni in North America is proposed based on its known climatic range and the distribution of the main pest species of adult overwintering North American Diabrotica.

  20. Indole Alkaloids from Plants as Potential Leads for Antidepressant Drugs: A Mini Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Hazrulrizawati A.; Ramli, Aizi N. M.; Yusoff, Mashitah M.

    2017-01-01

    Depression is the most common illness observed in the elderly, adults, and children. Antidepressants prescribed are usually synthetic drugs and these can sometimes cause a wide range of unpleasant side effects. Current research is focussed on natural products from plants as they are a rich source of potent new drug leads. Besides Hypericum perforatum (St. John’s wort), the plants studied include Passiflora incarnata L. (passion flower), Mitragyna speciosa (kratom), Piper methysticum G. Forst (kava) and Valeriana officinalis L. Harman, harmol, harmine, harmalol and harmaline are indole alkaloids isolated from P. incarnata, while mitragynine is isolated from M. speciosa. The structure of isolated compounds from P. methysticum G. Forst and V. officinalis L. contains an indole moiety. The indole moiety is related to the neurotransmitter serotonin which is widely implicated for brain function and cognition as the endogenous receptor agonist. An imbalance in serotonin levels may influence mood in a way that leads to depression. The moiety is present in a number of antidepressants already on the market. Hence, the objective of this review is to discuss bioactive compounds containing the indole moiety from plants that can serve as potent antidepressants. PMID:28293192

  1. 基于触角感器的部分芫菁属、种分类地位和关系分析(鞘翅目:芫菁科)%Analysis of the taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships of Mylabrini species (Coleoptera, Meloidae) based on antennal sensilla morphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀敏; 任国栋; 王新谱

    2013-01-01

    In order to clarify the obscure taxonomic relationships within the genus Pseudabris of the family Mylabrini, antennal sensilla of six representative species were photographed under a scanning electron microscope to document, analyze and compare their morphological traits, variation and distribution. A possible phylogenetic tree based on 14 antenatal characters revealed the following taxonomy; ( Hycleus cichorii + H. phaleratus) + ( (P. hingstoni + P. longiventris) ) + (Mylabris calida + M. speciosa)).%针对斑芫菁族分类系统中伪斑芫菁属Pseudabris分类关系的不确定,选择该族6个代表种,对其触角感器的形态特征、类型变化和分布位置做了记述、分析比较,提供了扫描电镜照片;基于14个触角特征的分析数据,构建了该族3个属和6个种可能的系统发育树.属间关系:沟芫菁属Hycleus+(伪斑芫菁Pseudabris+苹斑芫菁Mylabris);种间关系:(眼斑沟芫菁H cichorii+大斑沟芫菁指名亚种H.phaleratus)+((长角伪斑芫菁P.hingstoni+长腹伪斑芫菁P.longiventris)+(苹斑芫菁M.calida+丽斑芫菁M.speciosa)).

  2. Characteristics of postharvest quality in regional fruits treate with ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Josenilda M.; Villar, Heldio P. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN/CNEN-NE), Recife, PE (Brazil)], e-mail: jmnilda@cnen.gov.br; Correia, Lidia C.S.A.; Maciel, Maria Ines S. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)], e-mail: aidil_alencar@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: marines@ufrpe.br

    2009-07-01

    In order to investigate the effects of irradiation on the main characteristics of quality postharvest of three cultivated species of the Northeast Region of Brazil, experiments with cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. var. Nanum), sapodilla (Manilkara sapodilla (L) Van Royen) and mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gomes) have been performed. Cashew peduncles stored for fourteen days under 6.5 deg C had presented best results in the sensorial analyses for external appearance, flavour and aroma when irradiated with 1 kGy. sapodillas irradiated with doses of 300, 600 and 900 Gy have not displayed harmed sensorial qualities when stored under 20 deg C during twelve days. Doses up to 800 Gy had not harmed the external and internal appearance of mangabas after being stored for a fortnight under 13 deg C. Chemical characteristics of TSS, TTA, pH and solid/acidity ratio have not been affected significantly by the different doses applied to the three studied species. Amount of ascorbic acid was lower in the irradiated fruits, with significant differences for the species Anacardium occidentale L. var. Nanum and Hancornia speciosa Gomes. (author)

  3. Species-specific associations between overstory and understory tree species in a semideciduous tropical forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviana Maluf Souza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the occurrence of associations between overstory and understory tree species in a semideciduous tropical forest. We identified and measured all trees of nine canopy species with diameter at breast height ≥4.8 cm in a 10.24 ha plot and recorded all individuals beneath their canopies ("understory individuals" within the same diameter class. The total density of understory individuals did not significantly differ under different overstory species. One overstory species (Ceiba speciosa showed higher understory species richness compared with five other species. There was a strong positive association between three overstory species (Esenbeckia leiocarpa, Savia dictyocarpa, and C. speciosa and the density of seven understory species (Balfourodendron riedelianum, Chrysophyllum gonocarpum, E. leiocarpa, Holocalyx balansae, Machaerium stipitatum, Rhaminidium elaeocarpum, and S. dictyocarpa. These results probably reflect the outcome of a complex set of interactions including facilitation and competition, and further studies are necessary to better understand the magnitude and type of the effects of individual overstory species on understory species. The occurrence of species-specific associations shown here reinforces the importance of non-random processes in structuring plant communities and suggest that the influence of overstory species on understory species in high-diversity forests may be more significant than previously thought.

  4. Anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extracts of five Costa Rican medicinal plants in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badilla, B; Mora, G; Poveda, L J

    1999-12-01

    The anti-inflammatory properties of Loasa speciosa and Loasa triphylla (Loasaceae), Urtica leptuphylla and Urera baccifera (Urticaceae), and Chaptalia nutans (Asteracene) were studied using the carregeenan induced rat paw edema model. Aqueous extracts of each plant were made according to the ethnobotanical use. The hippocratic assay was made with female rats; the dose used was 500 mg/kg i.p. and the control group received 0.5 ml of n.s.s.. All the animals treated showed hypothermia, and those treated with the extracts of Chaptalia nutans, Urera baccifera and Urtica leptuphylla showed an increased colinergic activity. Acute toxicities of the aqueous extracts were studied in mice an the mean lethal doses ranged between 1.0226 and 1.2022 g/kg. The extracts of Urera baccifera, Chaptalia nutans, Loasa speciosa and Loasa triphylla (500 mg/kg i.p.) showed an anti-inflammatory activity comparable with that of indomethacin. The extracts of U. baccifera and C. nutans, which showed the greatest anti-inflammatory activity, did not show it when used orally (500 mg/kg p.o.).

  5. Major Phytochemical as γ-Sitosterol Disclosing and Toxicity Testing in Lagerstroemia Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirikhansaeng, Prapaparn

    2017-01-01

    Medicinal plants in genus Lagerstroemia were investigated for phytochemical contents by GC-MS and HPLC with ethanol and hexane extracts and their toxicity MTT and comet assay on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). γ-Sitosterol is the major component found in all species at 14.70–34.44%. All of the extracts, except for L. speciosa ethanol extract, showed high percentages of cell viability. The IC50 value, 0.24 mg/mL, of ethanol L. speciosa extract predicted an LD50 of 811.78 mg/kg, which belongs to WHO Class III of toxic chemicals. However, in-depth toxicity evaluation by the comet assay showed that the four tested species induced significant (p < 0.05) DNA damage in PBMCs. γ-Sitosterol was previously reported to possess antihyperglycemic activity by increasing insulin secretion in response to glucose. Nonetheless, consumers should consider its toxicity, and the amount of consumption should be of concern.

  6. SEROSURVEILLANCE OF AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS SUBTYPE H5N1 WITH HAEMAGGLUTINATION-INHIBITION ON WILD AQUATIC BIRDS IN PULAU DUA SERANG NATURAL RESERVES, BANTEN PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Murtini

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Further detailed research is required to obtain deeper information on the role of wild birds on the distribution of Avianinfluenza in Asia. A research has been carried out on February–June 2007 focused on blood sampling (serosurveillanceof wild birds in Pulau Dua Nature Reserves (CAPD, Serang, Banten. The research is aimed to investigate the infectionof AI virus sub-tye H5N1 on the studied wild birds. The blood samples were taken from studied aquatic birds, followedby HI (haemagglutination-inhibition test. A total of 183 samples represent 7 water bird species were taken i.e Cattleegret Bubulcus ibis, Javan pond-heron Ardeola speciosa, Little egret Egretta garzetta, Intermediate egret Egrettaintermedia, Black-crowned night heron Nycticorax nycticorax, Great egret Casmerodius albus and Grey heron Ardeacinerea. The result revealed that 41 (23.27% samples showed the present of AIV antibodies serotype H5N1 which isidentified as positive. Data showed 5 positive-test species, including B. ibis (29.27%, E. garzetta (29.27%, E.intermedia (4.88%, Ardeola speciosa (7.32%, and N. nycticorax (29.27%. A total of 41.46% were infected adultindividual, whereas 58.54% were juveniles.

  7. Tombamento de mudas de espécies florestais causado por Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc Damping-off of forest species caused by Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Gonçalves Mafia

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou avaliar a gama de hospedeiros de Sclerotium rolfsii por inoculação controlada das seguintes espécies florestais nativas e exóticas: Anadenanthera peregrina (angico-vermelho, Chorisia speciosa (paineira-rosa, Clitoria fairchildiana (sombreiro, Copaifera langsdorffii (copaíba, Delonix regia (flamboyant-vermelho, Enterolobium contortisiliquum (orelha-de-negro, Leucaena leucocephala (leucena, Mabea fistulifera (canudo-de-pito, Platymiscium pubescens (tamboril-da-mata, Senna macranthera (fedegoso, Spathodea campanulata (espatódea e Tabebuia avellanedae (ipê-roxo, bem como comprovar o tombamento de mudas em pré e pós-emergência. Todas as espécies foram suscetíveis ao tombamento de mudas causado por S. rolfsii, em pré e em pós-emergência.The host range of Sclerotium rolfsii was evaluated by controlled inoculation of the following native and exotic forest species: Anadenanthera peregrina (angico vermelho, Chorisia speciosa (paineira rosa, Clitoria fairchildiana (sombreiro, Copaifera langsdorffii (copaíba, Delonix regia (flamboyant vermelho, Enterolobium contortisiliquum (orelha de negro, Leucaena leucocephala (leucena, Mabea fistulifera (canudo-de-pito, Platymiscium pubescens (tamboril da mata, Senna macranthera (fedegoso, Spathodea campanulata (espatódea e Tabebuia avellanedae (ipê roxo. The fungus caused damping-off in pre and post emergence in all tested species.

  8. [Textual research on the Chinese names of three medicinal plants from Chaenomeles Lindl].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hua-sheng; Wang, De-qun

    2009-07-01

    Mugua was commonly used Chinese Materia Medica in past generations, the original plant of that is the same as the Chenomeles speciosa (Sweet) Nakai from the Rosaceae family; Mingzha in ancient times was misunderstood as and mixed with Mugua used as a herb, which comes from Ch. sinensis (Thouin) Kochne; Tiegenghaitang was used, as an ornamental flower before the Qing dynasty, the original plant of that corresponds with Ch. japonica (Thunb.) Lindl. In the attached images of Zhiwumingshitukao of the Qing dynasty, the name of Mugua was transposed. It has affected Japanese and some Chinese scholars in succession, which lead to the confused situation that mistook Mugua as the Chinese name of Ch. sinensis (Thouin) Kochne as well as Tiegenghaitang as the Chinese name of Ch. speciosa (Sweet) Nakai in current literature. It is proposed that it be decided to change the Chinese name of Ch. sinensis (Thouin)Koehne to Mugua, Ch. sinensis (Thouin) Koehne to Mingzha as well as Ch. japonica (Thunb.) Lindl. to Tiegenghaitang.

  9. Tolerance Levels of Roadside Trees to Air Pollutants Based on Relative Growth Rate and Air Pollution Tolerance Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SULISTIJORINI

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Motor vehicles release carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and particulate matters to the air as pollutants. Vegetation can absorb these pollutants through gas exchange processes. The objective of this study was to examine the combination of the relative growth rate (RGR and physiological responses in determining tolerance levels of plant species to air pollutants. Physiological responses were calculated as air pollution tolerance index (APTI. Eight roadside tree species were placed at polluted (Jagorawi highway and unpolluted (Sindangbarang field area. Growth and physiological parameters of the trees were recorded, including plant height, leaf area, total ascorbate, total chlorophyll, leaf-extract pH, and relative water content. Scoring criteria for the combination of RGR and APTI method was given based on means of the two areas based on two-sample t test. Based on the total score of RGR and APTI, Lagerstroemia speciosa was categorized as a tolerant species; and Pterocarpus indicus, Delonix regia, Swietenia macrophylla were categorized as moderately tolerant species. Gmelina arborea, Cinnamomum burmanii, and Mimusops elengi were categorized as intermediate tolerant species. Lagerstroemia speciosa could be potentially used as roadside tree. The combination of RGR and APTI value was better to determinate tolerance level of plant to air pollutant than merely APTI method.

  10. APPLICATION OF CHEMOMETRICS FOR IDENTIFICATION OF PSYCHOACTIVE PLANTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczuk, Anna Paulina; Łozak, Anna; Kiljan, Monika; Mętrak, Krystyna; Zjawiony, Jordan Kordian

    2015-01-01

    Drug market changes dynamically causing many analytical challenges for police experts. Among illicit substances there are synthetic designer products but also herbal material. Plant material is usually in fine-cut or powdered form, thus difficult to identify. For such fragmented material classic taxonomical identification methods using anatomical and morphological features of the plant cannot be employed. The aim of the study was to develop an identification method of the powdered material with employment of multidimensional data analysis techniques. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was chosen as a method of data exploration. The study was conducted on four plants controlled in Poland: Salvia divinorum, Mitragyna speciosa, Psychotria viridis and Calea zacatechichi. The compatibility of grouping features of selected species was compared in two variants: chemical and elemental composition. In a first variant, GC-MS chromatograms of extracts were analyzed and in the second, elements composition with the AAS and the ICP-MS techniques. The GC-MS method, based on the qualitative interpretation of results, allows for clear differentiation of samples with regard to their species affiliation. Even the plants belonging to the same family Rubiaceae, P. viridis and M. speciosa formed homogeneous and clearly separated clusters. Additionally, the cluster analysis was performed, as a method confirming sample grouping.

  11. Revisiting Amazonian Plants for Skin Care and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Burlando

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This review concerns five species of trees and palm trees that occur as dominant plants in different rainforest areas of the Amazon region. Due to their abundance, these species can be exploited as sustainable sources of botanical materials and include Carapa guianensis Aubl., family Meliaceae; Eperua falcata Aubl., family Fabaceae; Quassia amara L., family Simaroubaceae; and Attalea speciosa Mart. and Oenocarpus bataua Mart., family Arecaceae. For each species, the general features, major constituents, overall medicinal properties, detailed dermatological and skin care applications, and possible harmful effects have been considered. The major products include seed oils from A. speciosa and C. guianensis, fruit oil from O. bataua, and active compounds such as limonoids from C. guianensis, flavonoids from E. falcata, and quassinoids from Q. amara. The dermatologic and cosmetic applications of these plants are growing rapidly but are still widely based on empiric knowledge. Applications include skin rehydration and soothing; anti-inflammatory, antiage, and antiparasite effects; hair care; burn and wound healing; and the amelioration of rosacea and psoriasis conditions. Despite a limited knowledge about their constituents and properties, these species appear as promising sources of bioactive compounds for skin care and health applications. An improvement of knowledge about their properties will provide added value to the exploitation of these forest resources.

  12. Fungos micorrízicos arbusculares e adubação fosfatada em mudas de mangabeira Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and phosphorus supply on seedlings of mangabeira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Maria Carneiro Costa

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA e da adubação fosfatada em mudas de mangabeira (Hancornia speciosa Gomes. O experimento, em casa de vegetação, utilizou delineamento inteiramente casualizado em fatorial com dois tratamentos de solo nativo oriundo de pomar com mangabeiras, desinfestado com brometo de metila e não-desinfestado, seis doses de P (3*, 3, 48, 93, 138 e 183 mg dm-3 e três tratamentos de inoculação, Gigaspora albida Schenck & Smith, Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gerdemann e controle sem inoculação, com quatro repetições. O tratamento 3* não recebeu solução nutritiva e os demais receberam solução nutritiva de Hoagland sem fósforo por ocasião da inoculação. Após 150 dias, observou-se aumento na altura, biomassa e área foliar nos tratamentos com G. albida, em solo desinfestado. Respostas à inoculação ocorreram nas mudas cultivadas com a menor dose de P, nos dois tratamentos de solo. A mangabeira mostrou-se dependente da micorrização apenas na menor dose de P em solo desinfestado. Nos demais níveis de P, a dependência variou em função do FMA e da condição do solo. A associação com G. albida proporcionou melhor desenvolvimento das mudas de mangabeira.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of the association of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and phosphorus fertilization on seedlings of "mangaba" (Hancornia speciosa. The experiment, at a greenhouse, was in a completely randomized factorial design with two treatments of the native soil from an H. speciosa orchard, fumigated with methyl bromite and non-fumigated, six doses of P (3*, 3, 48, 93, 138 and 183 mg dm-3 and three inoculation treatments, Gigaspora albida Schenck & Smith, Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gerdemann and an uninoculated control, with four replicates. The treatment 3* did not receive nutrient solution and the others received Hoagland nutrient solution without phosphorus

  13. Seasonal Variations of Mercury Levels in Selected Medicinal Plants Originating from Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordak, M; Wesolowski, M; Radecka, I; Muszynska, E; Bujalska-Zazdrozny, M

    2016-10-01

    The presence of mercury in the living cells may be caused by environmental pollution with this element, which is referred to as a toxic xenobiotic. Many literature reports have provided evidence for toxic effects of low levels of mercury in the human body. Therefore, it seems essential to investigate mercury content in food and in natural environment, particularly its seasonal variations. The objective of this study was to determine trace amounts of mercury in 45 samples of 20 medicinal plant species collected in northern Poland, in various seasons of the year, i.e., in autumn 2012 and then spring 2013. The results obtained showed that the levels of mercury in the herbs were lower in spring (3.66-34.89 ng/g) than in autumn (4.55-81.54 ng/g). The statistically significant correlation (p mercury in herbs collected in spring and autumn indicates hazardous accumulation of the element in plants in autumn. The highest levels of mercury were found in leaves and plants growing in the vicinity of busy streets. Perennials plants have a significantly higher mercury levels as compared to those of monocarpic plants. Furthermore, commonly used herbal plants have a significantly higher mercury levels as compared to those less common.

  14. The influence of herbivory on pre- and postzygotic stages of reproduction following open, self, and outcross pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghyselen, Céline; Bonte, Dries; Brys, Rein

    2015-12-01

    Herbivory affects pollination success and reproductive output in plants. However, the different stages in the process from pollination to seed maturation have hardly been investigated within the context of herbivory. Herbivory might affect these stages via its effect on geitonogamous pollination and thereby the proportion of self pollen delivered to the stigma and/or via its effect on the nutritional capacity of the maternal plant. Plants of monocarpic Cynoglossum officinale were experimentally subjected to root herbivory and exposed to natural open pollination in combination with self and outcross hand pollination. We quantified pollen germination, pollen tube competition intensity, pollen tube attrition, fruit set, and seed initiation, abortion, and maturation. Although root herbivory did not affect pollen germination or pollen tube attrition, fruit set and seed initiation and maturation were negatively affected by herbivory, but for seed initiation only in the case of outcross- and open-pollinated flowers. The intensity of pollen tube competition positively affected seed initiation, but only in plants infested with the herbivore. Our study demonstrates that herbivory did not affect the early stages following pollination, but significantly impacted later postpollination stages such as fruit set and seed maturation and selection based on pollen tube competition intensity on zygote development. Our findings suggest that decreased nutritional capacity of the mother plant in response to root herbivory rather than herbivory effects on pollen quality was responsible for the lower fruit and seed production in infested plants. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  15. The utility of Bambusoideae (Poaceae, Poales) leaf blade anatomy for identification and systematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leandro, T D; Shirasuna, R T; Filgueiras, T S; Scatena, V L

    2016-04-19

    Bambusoideae is a diverse subfamily that includes herbaceous (Olyreae) and woody (Arundinarieae and Bambuseae) bamboos. Species within Bambusae are particularly difficult to identify due to their monocarpic lifecycle and the often long durations between mass flowering events; whereas the herbaceous bamboos are pluricarpic, but often are found with no reproductive structures. The leaf blade anatomy of 16 sympatric species of native Brazilian bamboos (Olyreae and Bambuseae) from the Atlantic Rainforest was studied in order to detect useful features for their identification. All the studied species share the following features: epidermis with a single stratum of cells; adaxial bulliform cells; mesophyll with arm cells, rosette cells, and fusoid cells; and collateral vascular bundles. Herbaceous bamboos share two features: papillae scattered on the abaxial surface and parallel-sided arrays of bulliform cells; whereas woody bamboos share: centrally organized papillae and fan-shaped arrays of bulliform cells. Also within the woody bamboos, intercostal fibers and a midrib with only one vascular bundle (simple midrib) characterize the subtribe Arthrostylidiinae; whereas a midrib with more than one vascular bundle (complex midrib) and a stomatal apparatus with two pappilae per subsidiary cell characterize the subtribe Chusqueinae. There are also diagnostic features for the sampled species, such as: papillae shape, and the outline and structure of the midrib. An identification key for all the studied species is provided based on the anatomical features.

  16. Interactions Between Temperature and Sugars in the Regulation of Leaf Senescence in the Perennial Herb Arabis alpina L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Astrid Wingler; Emma Josefine Stangberg; Triambak Saxena; Rupal Mistry

    2012-01-01

    Annual plants usually flower and set seed once before senescence results in the death of the whole plant (monocarpic senescence).Leaf senescence also occurs in polycarpic perennials; even in "evergreen" species individual leaves senesce.In the annual model Arabidopsis thaliana sugars accumulate in the senescent leaves and senescence is accelerated by high sugar availability.Similar to A.thaliana,sugar contents increased with leaf age in the perennial Arabis alpina grown under warm conditions (22 ℃day/18 night).At 5 ℃,sugar contents in non-senescent leaves were higher than at a warm temperature,but dependent on the accession,either sugars did not accumulate or their contents decreased in old leaves.In A.alpina plants grown in their natural habitat in the Alps,sugar contents declined with leaf age.Growth at a cold temperature slightly delayed senescence in A.alpina.In both warm and cold conditions,an external glucose supply accelerated senescence,but natural variation was found in this response.In conclusion,sugar accumulation under warm conditions could accelerate leaf senescence in A.alpina plants,but genotype-specific responses and interactions with growth temperature are likely to influence senescence under natural conditions.

  17. Persistence of Late Carboniferous tropical vegetation during glacially driven climatic and sea-level fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Michele, W.A.; Pfefferkorn, H.; Phillips, T.L. [Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC (United States). Dept. of Paleobiology

    1996-10-01

    The Late Carboniferous glaciation reached its peak during the latter part of the Westphalian. In the tropical Illinois basin this was the time of deposition of the Carbondale and lower Modesto Formations, characterized by the cyclic repetition of major coal deposits, black shales, limestone, gray shales and sandstones. These lithological changes evidence repeated major fluctuations in climate and sealevel. Floras from coals, known from coal balls and palynology, characteristically were composed of three major plant communities: the wettest sites were dominated by monocarpic lycopsids, intermediate sites were dominated by polycarpic lycopsids, and areas subject to fires and intermittent flooding were dominated by medullosans and the small lycopsid Paralycopodites. Clastic-substrate environments were dominated by ferns and pteridosperms and conform to a single biozone, indicating their compositional unit and distinctness from earlier and later assemblages. The composition of lowland floras is poorly known from times between the deposition of coals and associated terrestrial rocks, intervals during which most of the lowlands were flooded and marine rocks were being deposited. Consequently, the temporally intermittent recurrence of lowland floras despite repeated, widespread environmental disruption may be explained either by vegetational persistence and migration of floras, or repeated disruption and reassembly. Several lines of evidence suggest persistence as a likely explanation.

  18. Bamboo Flowering from the Perspective of Comparative Genomics and Transcriptomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Prasun; Chakraborty, Sukanya; Dutta, Smritikana; Pal, Amita; Das, Malay

    2016-01-01

    Bamboos are an important member of the subfamily Bambusoideae, family Poaceae. The plant group exhibits wide variation with respect to the timing (1-120 years) and nature (sporadic vs. gregarious) of flowering among species. Usually flowering in woody bamboos is synchronous across culms growing over a large area, known as gregarious flowering. In many monocarpic bamboos this is followed by mass death and seed setting. While in sporadic flowering an isolated wild clump may flower, set little or no seed and remain alive. Such wide variation in flowering time and extent means that the plant group serves as repositories for genes and expression patterns that are unique to bamboo. Due to the dearth of available genomic and transcriptomic resources, limited studies have been undertaken to identify the potential molecular players in bamboo flowering. The public release of the first bamboo genome sequence Phyllostachys heterocycla, availability of related genomes Brachypodium distachyon and Oryza sativa provide us the opportunity to study this long-standing biological problem in a comparative and functional genomics framework. We identified bamboo genes homologous to those of Oryza and Brachypodium that are involved in established pathways such as vernalization, photoperiod, autonomous, and hormonal regulation of flowering. Additionally, we investigated triggers like stress (drought), physiological maturity and micro RNAs that may play crucial roles in flowering. We also analyzed available transcriptome datasets of different bamboo species to identify genes and their involvement in bamboo flowering. Finally, we summarize potential research hurdles that need to be addressed in future research.

  19. Phylogeny of the basal angiosperm genus Pseuduvaria (Annonaceae) inferred from five chloroplast DNA regions, with interpretation of morphological character evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yvonne C F; Smith, Gavin J D; Saunders, Richard M K

    2008-07-01

    Phylogenetic relationships within the magnoliid basal angiosperm genus Pseuduvaria (Annonaceae) are investigated using chloroplast DNA sequences from five regions: psbA-trnH spacer, trnL-F, matK, rbcL, and atpB-rbcL spacer. Over 4000 nucleotides from 51 species (of the total 53) were sequenced. The five cpDNA datasets were analyzed separately and in combination using maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML), and Bayesian methods. The phylogenetic trees constructed using all three phylogenetic methods, based on the combined data, strongly support the monophyly of Pseuduvaria following the inclusion of Craibella phuyensis. The trees generated using MP were less well resolved, but relationships are similar to those obtained using the other methods. ML and Bayesian analyses recovered trees with short branch lengths, showing five main clades. This study highlights the evolutionary changes in seven selected morphological characters (floral sex, stamen and carpel numbers, inner petal color, presence of inner petal glands, flowering peduncle length, and monocarp size). Although floral unisexuality is ancestral within the genus, several evolutionary lineages reveal reversal to bisexuality. Other phylogenetic transitions include the evolution of sapromyophily, and fruit-bat frugivory and seed dispersal, thus allowing a wide range of adaptations for species survival.

  20. Characterization of Palm Oil as Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorey, Neeraj; Ghosh, Shankha; Srivastava, Priyank; Kumar, Vivek

    2017-08-01

    The various sources of energy from which mechanical energy is obtained are non-renewable and are thus considered to be unsustainable. These sources include the various fossil fuels like the petroleum, coal and the natural gas. The burning of fossil fuels led to the production of the greenhouse gases increasing the levels of CO2 in the atmosphere. The adverse effects are the global warming and the ozone layer depletion. In a nation like India, where consumable oils are still transported in, it is advantageous to investigate the likelihood of utilising such non-palatable oils as a part of CI motors which are not by and by used as cooking oil. Palm oil (otherwise called dendê oil, from Portuguese) is a consumable vegetable oil got from the monocarp (ruddy mash) of the product of the oil palms. The major objective is to provide a cheap and effective alternative to diesel. This paper is an exploration of the capability of the palm oil as a practical, modest and effective hotspot for the generation of biodiesel. the paper is based on the characterisation of palm oil compare to diesel.

  1. Water relations of Chusquea ramosissima and Merostachys claussenii in Iguazu National Park, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sonali; Holbrook, Noel M; Montti, Lía; Goldstein, Guillermo; Cardinot, Gina Knust

    2009-04-01

    Bamboos are prominent components of many tropical ecosystems, yet little is known about the physiological mechanisms utilized by these gigantic forest grasses. Here, we present data on the water transport properties of Chusquea ramosissima and Merostachys claussenii, monocarpic bamboo grasses native to the subtropical Atlantic forests of Argentina. C. ramosissima and M. claussenii differed in their growth form and exhibited contrasting strategies of water transport. Maximum xylem hydraulic conductivity of C. ramosissima culms was 2-fold higher than that of M. claussenii. C. ramosissima cavitated at relatively high water potentials (50% loss of conductivity at >or=1 MPa), whereas M. claussenii was more drought tolerant (50% loss at

  2. Computer simulation of sphenopsid architecture. Part II. Calamites multiramis Weiss, as an example of Late Paleozoic arborescent Sphenopsids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daviero; Lecoustre

    2000-04-01

    A late Carboniferous arborescent sphenopsid has been modelled for the first time with the AMAP 1 system. The natural entity consisting of the three form species 'Calamites multiramis/Annularia stellata/Calamostachys tuberculata' (respectively the trunk/branches and foliage/cones) representing the aerial part of this plant is reconstructed and its architecture modelled. The different growth stages are extrapolated, generating a dynamic view that did not exist until now. The model is based on the hypothesis that the modelled part is not preformed but results from the successive production and elongation of internodes. This growth led to old ontogenetic stages of the plant in agreement with Remy and Remy's reconstruction (Remy, W., Remy, R., 1977. Die Floren des Erdaltertums. Verlag Glückauf, Essen, 468 pp.). With its verticillate sterile organs and cone-shaped fructifications similar to the extant herbaceous relative Equisetum, this calamite is distinguished from the latter taxon by having possible 'throw-away' phyllomorphic branches. We assumed the presence of a restricted zone of branches located in the apical part of the trunk. Moreover, the production of reproductive organs that succeeds the vegetative stage implies a major photosynthetic phase associated with a monocarpical form of development of the fossil plant.

  3. 五种观花树种光合与叶绿素荧光特征研究%Study of Photosynthetic and Chlorophyll Characteristics of Five Kinds of Flowering View Tree Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    官莉莉; 邓绍龙; 杨振意; 钟泳林; 陈红跃

    2012-01-01

    Photosynthesis is an important physiological indicator of trees. Chlorophyll fluorescence is an effective probe for monitoring the Photosynthesis of trees. In thispaper, Photosynthetic and chlorophyll characteristics of five flowering view tree species including Lagertstroemia speciosa, Bauhinia variegata, Cassia fistula, Michelia chapensis and M. maudiae had been measured. The results were as follows; The photosynthetic rate of B. variegata speciosa and C. fistula were higher than that of M. chapensis and M. maudiae. For the ETR、 PS II and Y(II) ,the former tree species were also broadly higher than that of the later ones. On the whole, the former tree species may suitable for wider living site.%光合作用是树木的重要生理指标之一.叶绿素荧光是监测植物光合作用的有效探针.文章对大叶紫薇(Lagertstroemia speciosa)、宫粉紫荆(Bauhinia variegata)、腊肠树(Cassia fistula)、乐昌含笑(Michelia chapensis、深山含笑(M.maudiae)这五种观花树种的2年生苗木进行了光合特征及叶绿素荧光特征指标的测定,比较了各参数的差异.结果表明:大叶紫薇、宫粉紫荆和腊肠树总体上具有较高的光合指标,而乐昌含笑和深山含笑则相对较低;大叶紫薇、宫粉紫荆和腊肠树总体上的相对电子传递速率ETR、PS Ⅱ的实际量子产量Y(Ⅱ)以及非调节性能量耗散的量子产量Y(NO)相对较高于乐昌含笑和深山含笑,而调节性能量耗散的量子产量Y(NPQ)和非光化学淬灭系数NPQ则相反.总体上看,大叶紫薇、宫粉紫荆和腊肠树具有更高的光合效能和环境适应能力.

  4. Fluctuations in coral health of four common inshore reef corals in response to seasonal and anthropogenic changes in water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Nicola K; Tay, Jason K L; Low, Jeffrey; Larson, Ole; Todd, Peter A

    2015-04-01

    Environmental drivers of coral condition (maximum quantum yield, symbiont density, chlorophyll a content and coral skeletal growth rates) were assessed in the equatorial inshore coastal waters of Singapore, where the amplitude of seasonal variation is low, but anthropogenic influence is relatively high. Water quality variables (sediments, nutrients, trace metals, temperature, light) explained between 52 and 83% of the variation in coral condition, with sediments and light availability as key drivers of foliose corals (Merulina ampliata, Pachyseris speciosa), and temperature exerting a greater influence on a branching coral (Pocillopora damicornis). Seasonal reductions in water quality led to high chlorophyll a concentrations and maximum quantum yields in corals, but low growth rates. These marginal coral communities are potentially vulnerable to climate change, hence, we propose water quality thresholds for coral growth with the aim of mitigating both local and global environmental impacts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Orchid Inventory and the Host in Meru Betiri National Park – East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DWI MURTI PUSPITANINGTYAS

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Meru Betiri National Park is located in southern part of East Java Province. Inventory of orchid species was conducted to study orchid diversity in Meru Betiri National Park, especially in Bandealit coastal area. Observation of orchid within host trees was also done to study the preference host trees for orchid growth. It was recorded that there were 25 orchid species belonging to 20 genera. Twenty species of which are epiphyte and 5 species are terrestrial. The most common epiphyte orchids were Pomatocalpa latifolia, Pomatocalpa spicata, Rhynchostylis retusa, Micropera pallida and Grosourdya appendiculata. While terrestrial orchid was only found in a small number, with common terrestrial orchids were Corymborkis veratrifolia and Goodyera rubicunda. The most preference host trees for epiphyte orchid were Tectona grandis (Teak, Clausena indica, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Mangifera indica (Mango, but there is no specific relationship between host trees and epiphyte orchid.

  6. Mitragynine concentrations in two fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, Olwen; Roider, Gabriele; Stöver, Andreas; Graw, Matthias; Musshoff, Frank; Sachs, Hans; Bicker, Wolfgang

    2017-02-01

    Two cases of fatalities are reported of which the recreational use of Mitragyna speciosa ("kratom") could be confirmed. One of these cases presents with one of the highest postmortem mitragynine concentrations published to date. Our results show that even extremely high mitragynine blood concentrations following the consumption of kratom do not necessarily have to be the direct cause of death in such fatalities as a result of an acute overdose. The two cases are compared with regard to the differences in mitragynine concentrations detected and the role of mitragynine in the death of the subjects. Irrespective of the big differences in mitragynine concentrations in the postmortem blood samples, mitragynine was not the primary cause of death in either of the two cases reported here. Additionally, by rough estimation, a significant difference in ratio of mitragynine to its diastereomers in the blood and urine samples between the two cases could be seen.

  7. Assessment of air pollution stress on some commonly grown tree species in industrial zone of Durgapur, West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayek, S; Satpati, S; Gupta, S; Saha, R N; Datta, J K

    2011-01-01

    The present study deals with the biochemical responses of some selected tree species with respect to increased air pollution in Durgapur industrial city in India. Areas in vicinity to industries possess very high concentrations of suspended particulate matter (571 microg/m3), SOx (132 microg/m3) and NOx (97 microg/m3) which shows significant correlations (p Air Pollution Toblerance Index (APTI) and Tectona grandis (6.13 +/- 0.276), Lagerstroemia speciosa (7.075 +/- 0.18) and Delonix regia (6.87 +/- 0.079) were sensitive with lower APTI values. Therefore, plant species with higher APTI value, being more resistant, can be used as pollutant absorbent to reduce the pollution level and are suitable for plantations in industrial areas.

  8. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso Bailão

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi, Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru, Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita, Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga, Genipa americana L. (jenipapo, Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba, Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti, Myrciaria cauliflora (DC Berg (jabuticaba, Psidium guajava L. (goiaba, Psidium spp. (araçá, Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira, Spondias mombin L. (cajá, Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum, among others are reported here.

  9. Pachyseris inattesa sp. n. (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Scleractinia: a new reef coral species from the Red Sea and its phylogenetic relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tullia Isotta Terraneo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A new scleractinian coral species, Pachyseris inattesa sp. n., is described from the Red Sea. Despite a superficial resemblance with some species in the agariciid genus Leptoseris with which it has been previously confused, P. inattesa sp. n. has micro-morphological characters typical of the genus Pachyseris. This genus, once part of the Agariciidae, is comprised of five extant species and is widely distributed throughout the tropical Indo-Pacific. It is currently incertae sedis as a result of recent molecular analysis and appears to be closely related to the Euphylliidae. A molecular phylogenetic reconstruction including P. inattesa sp.n., the genus type species P. rugosa, and P. speciosa, all present in the Red Sea, was performed using the mitochondrial intergenic spacer between COI and 16S-rRNA. The results confirm that P. inattesa sp. n. is a monophyletic lineage closely related to the other Pachyseris species examined.

  10. Pachyseris inattesa sp. n. (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Scleractinia): a new reef coral species from the Red Sea and its phylogenetic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terraneo, Tullia I; Berumen, Michael L; Arrigoni, Roberto; Waheed, Zarinah; Bouwmeester, Jessica; Caragnano, Annalisa; Stefani, Fabrizio; Benzoni, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    A new scleractinian coral species, Pachyseris inattesa sp. n., is described from the Red Sea. Despite a superficial resemblance with some species in the agariciid genus Leptoseris with which it has been previously confused, P. inattesa sp. n. has micro-morphological characters typical of the genus Pachyseris. This genus, once part of the Agariciidae, is comprised of five extant species and is widely distributed throughout the tropical Indo-Pacific. It is currently incertae sedis as a result of recent molecular analysis and appears to be closely related to the Euphylliidae. A molecular phylogenetic reconstruction including P. inattesa sp. n., the genus type species P. rugosa, and P. speciosa, all present in the Red Sea, was performed using the mitochondrial intergenic spacer between COI and 16S-rRNA. The results confirm that P. inattesa sp. n. is a monophyletic lineage closely related to the other Pachyseris species examined.

  11. Análise Faunística de Insetos Associados à Cultura do Quiabeiro [Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench] em Plantio Comercial, no Município de Canindé de São Francisco, SE, Brasil

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    Daniele Cristina Silva

    2016-08-01

    Abstract. This research aims to study the entomofauna associated with the commercial cultivation of okra in municipality of Canindé do São Francisco, Sergipe State, Brazil, through faunal analysis. The species Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biotype B, Aphis gossypii (Glover, Phenacoccus sp., Icerya purchasi (Maskell and Lagria villosa (Fabricius were the okra key pests. Diabrotica speciosa (Germar and Gryllus assimilis (Fabricius were plagues of secondary importance. And Leptoglossus zonatus (Dallas, Nezaraviridula L., Pachycoris torridus (Scopoli and Oxycarenus hyalinipennis (Costa were sporadic pests. Four species of predatory insects were found, a constant and dominant (Cycloneda sanguinea L. a dispersed, but constant (Eriopis connexa German and two rare (Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville and Psyllobora confluens F..

  12. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailão, Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso; Devilla, Ivano Alessandro; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Borges, Leonardo Luiz

    2015-10-09

    Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi), Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru), Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita), Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga), Genipa americana L. (jenipapo), Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba), Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti), Myrciaria cauliflora (DC) Berg (jabuticaba), Psidium guajava L. (goiaba), Psidium spp. (araçá), Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira), Spondias mombin L. (cajá), Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum), among others are reported here.

  13. Inventory and mapping of red-listed vascular flora in Hernani municipality (Gipuzkoa, Basque Country.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANZ-AZKUE, I., DÍEZ-LÓPEZ, J., OLARIAGA-IBARGUREN, I.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 119 new chorological reports are given for 7 red-listed species, namely, Dryopteris aemula, Hymenophyllum tunbrigense, Prunus lusitanica, Soldanella villosa, Stegnogramma pozoi, Vandenboschia speciosa, and Veratrum album. Comments on their ecology and local distribution maps are provided. The number of subpopulations of S. villosa (52 and T. speciosum (38 found is remarkable. In several streams, the gametophyte phase of T. speciosum, rarely reported in the Iberian Peninsula, exceeds the sporophyte generation in number of individuals, which probably has important conservation and genetic diversity implications. It is proposed that the Urumea Site of Communitary Interest be extended to cover the streams that discharge into it, or alternatively, threatened plant microreserves be established at the Apaizeta, Azketa and Kartola streams.

  14. Pachyseris inattesa sp. n. (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Scleractinia): A new reef coral species from the red sea and its phylogenetic relationships

    KAUST Repository

    Terraneo, Tullia I.

    2014-08-13

    A new scleractinian coral species, Pachyseris inattesa sp. n., is described from the Red Sea. Despite a superficial resemblance with some species in the agariciid genus Leptoseris with which it has been previously confused, P. inattesa sp. n. has micro-morphological characters typical of the genus Pachyseris. This genus, once part of the Agariciidae, is comprised of five extant species and is widely distributed throughout the tropical Indo-Pacific. It is currently incertae sedis as a result of recent molecular analysis and appears to be closely related to the Euphylliidae. A molecular phylogenetic reconstruction including P. inattesa sp. n., the genus type species P. rugosa, and P. speciosa, all present in the Red Sea, was performed using the mitochondrial intergenic spacer between COI and 16S-rRNA. The results confirm that P. inattesa sp. n. is a monophyletic lineage closely related to the other Pachyseris species examined. © Tullia I. Terraneo et al.

  15. Torrefaction of babassu: A potential utilization pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Rousset

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Because of its energy and mechanical properties, babassu shell is a promising energy crop for the future. Its production potential in Brazil is estimated at 6.8 million tons of fruits/year. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of torrefaction on the main energy and mechanical properties of Orbignya speciosa (Babassu. Three different torrefaction temperatures (220, 250, and 280°C and two different durations (15 and 30 minutes were employed. The influence of sample orientation was taken into account. The results showed that the energy properties of babassu are greatly improved during heat treatment. Torrefaction also led to uniform resistance to babassu shell compression. It was found that low temperature treatment was sufficient to envisage grinding and babassu use in pulverulent form.

  16. Candida sergipensis, a new asexual yeast species isolated from frozen pulps of tropical fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Rita C; Resende, Maria A; Pimenta, Raphael S; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

    2004-07-01

    Sixteen strains of the new yeast species Candida sergipensis have been isolated from frozen pulps of the tropical fruits umbú ( Spondias tuberosa Avr. Cam.) and mangaba ( Hancornia speciosa Gom.). Candida sergipensis was one of the prevalent species in the yeast community of these substrates. The new asexual ascomycetous yeast is phylogenetically related to Candida spandovensis and Candida sorbophila, species belonging to the Wickerhamiella clade, as evidenced by the sequences of the D1/D2 domains of their large subunit ribosomal DNAs. The species C. sergipensis and C. spandovensis can be separated on the basis of growth on 50% glucose agar, xylose and succinate, negative for the first species and positive for the second. The type culture is strain UFMG-R188 (CBS 9567).

  17. Development of Microsatellite Markers for Lagerstroemia indica (Lythraceae and Related Species

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    Yang Liu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed and characterized to analyze genetic diversity within Lagerstroemia cultivars and related species. Methods and Results: Using simple sequence repeat (SSR-enriched libraries, 11 species-specific polymorphic genomic SSRs were developed from L. indica ‘Hong Die Fei Wu’. All primers were tested on 48 L. indica individuals from China, the United States, and France. The primers amplified four to 12 alleles per locus, including di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide repeats. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.1875 to 0.7609 and 0.2836 to 0.8385, respectively. The primers were also highly cross-transferrable to L. subcostata, L. limii, L. fauriei, L. caudata, and L. speciosa. Conclusions: The new primers will enlarge the bank of SSRs available to genetic research of Lagerstroemia. These SSR markers will facilitate population genetics and molecular marker-assisted selection of L. indica.

  18. First report of Rhodnius montenegrensis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae infection by Trypanosoma rangeli

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    Dionatas Ulises de Oliveira Meneguetti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study reports for the first time the infection of Rhodnius montenegrensis by Trypanosoma rangeli. Methods: The triatomines were manually collected in Attalea speciosa in the municipality of Buritis, Rondônia. The identification of the trypanosomatid species was confirmed by multiplex PCR. Results: All of the collected triatomines were R. montenegrensis. The analysis confirmed that all of the adults were infected with the epimastigote form of T. rangeli. Conclusions: This report of a new vector of T. rangeli raises a warning for the State of Rondônia because the simultaneous presence of T. rangeli with T. cruzi in the same geographic region enables the occurrence of mixed infections in hosts and vectors, which complicates the differential diagnosis.

  19. Opioid receptors and legal highs: Salvia divinorum and Kratom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Kavita M; McCurdy, Christopher R; Boyer, Edward W

    2008-02-01

    Salvia divinorum and Mitragyna speciosa ("Kratom"), two unscheduled dietary supplements whose active agents are opioid receptor agonists, have discrete psychoactive effects that have contributed to their increasing popularity. Salvia divinorum contains the highly selective kappa- opioid receptor agonist salvinorin A; this compound produces visual hallucinations and synesthesia. Mitragynine, the major alkaloid identified from Kratom, has been reported as a partial opioid agonist producing similar effects to morphine. An interesting minor alkaloid of Kratom, 7-hydroxymitragynine, has been reported to be more potent than morphine. Both Kratom alkaloids are reported to activate supraspinal mu- and delta- opioid receptors, explaining their use by chronic narcotics users to ameliorate opioid withdrawal symptoms. Despite their widespread Internet availability, use of Salvia divinorum and Kratom represents an emerging trend that escapes traditional methods of toxicologic monitoring. The purpose of this article is to familiarize toxicologists and poison control specialists with these emerging psychoactive dietary supplements.

  20. Leaf growth dynamics in four plant species of the Patagonian Monte, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanella, M Victoria; Bertiller, Mónica B

    2013-07-01

    Studying plant responses to environmental variables is an elemental key to understand the functioning of arid ecosystems. We selected four dominant species of the two main life forms. The species selected were two evergreen shrubs: Larrea divaricata and Chuquiraga avellanedae and two perennial grasses: Nassella tenuis and Pappostipa speciosa. We registered leaf/shoot growth, leaf production and environmental variables (precipitation, air temperature, and volumetric soil water content at two depths) during summer-autumn and winter-spring periods. Multiple regressions were used to test the predictive power of the environmental variables. During the summer-autumn period, the strongest predictors of leaf/shoot growth and leaf production were the soil water content of the upper layer and air temperature while during the winter-spring period, the strongest predictor was air temperature. In conclusion, we found that the leaf/shoot growth and leaf production were associated with current environmental conditions, specially to soil water content and air temperature.

  1. Cardenolide connection between overwintering monarch butterflies from Mexico and their larval food plant,Asclepias syriaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiber, J N; Brower, L P; Lee, S M; McChesney, M M; Cheung, H T; Nelson, C J; Watson, T R

    1986-05-01

    The majority (85%) of 394 monarch butterflies sampled from overwintering sites in Mexico contain the same epoxy cardenolide glycosides, including most conspicuously a novel polar glycoside with a single genin-sugar bridge (aspecioside), as occur in the milkweedsAsclepias speciosa andA. syriaca. This cardenolide commonality was established by isolating aspecioside and syriobioside from the wings of overwintering monarchs and the two plant species, and comparing Chromatographie and NMR spectrometric characteristics of the isolates. When combined with the migratory pattern of monarchs and the distribution of these two milkweed species, this chemical evidence lends strong support to the hypothesis thatA. syriaca is the major late summer food plant of monarchs in eastern North America. This finding may be of ecological importance, forA. syriaca contributes less cardenolide and cardenolides of lower emetic potency to monarchs than most milkweeds studied to date.

  2. Shell selection of hermit crabs is influenced by fluid drag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casillas, Barbara; Ledesma, Rene; Alcaraz, Guillermina; Zenit, Roberto

    2010-11-01

    The flow around gastropod shells used by hermit crabs (Calcinus californiensis) was visualized experimentally. These crabs choose their shells according to many factors; we found that the choice of shell (shape and weight) is directly related to the drag caused over them by the exposure to wave action. Tests were conducted in a wind tunnel to investigate flow differences for shells of various shapes. A particle image velocimetry (PIV) system was used to visualize the flow field. The images above show the flow field around two types of shells (Thais speciosa and Nerita scabircosta) for Reynolds numbers of O(10^5). Using a control volume analysis, the drag coefficient was inferred. Several shell geometries, orientations and mean flow velocities were tested. In this talk, the flow and drag force will be shown for the different arrangements. A discussion of the relation between drag and shape will be presented.

  3. Metabolism by grasshoppers of volatile chemical constituents from Mangifera indica and Solanum paniculatum leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Clécio S; Ramos, Natália S M; Da Silva, Rodolfo R; Da Câmara, Cláudio A G; Almeida, Argus V

    2012-12-01

    The chemical volatiles from plant leaves and their biological activities have been extensively studied. However, no studies have addressed plant-chemical volatiles after undergoing the digestive process in host insects. Here we describe for the first time chemical profiles of volatile constituents from Solanum paniculatum and Mangifera indica leaves metabolized by grasshoppers. Both profiles were qualitatively and quantitatively different from the profiles of non-metabolized leaves. The amount of nerolidol, the major constituent of S. paniculatum leaves, decreased and other sesquiterpenes, such as spathulenol, were formed during the digestive process of the grasshopper Chromacris speciosa. In M. indica, the presence of phenylpropanoids was observed (dillapiole, Z-asarone, E-asarone and γ-asarone) in the leaves metabolized by the grasshopper Tropidacris collaris, but these compounds were not found in the non-metabolized leaves.

  4. Pachyseris inattesa sp. n. (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Scleractinia): a new reef coral species from the Red Sea and its phylogenetic relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terraneo, Tullia I.; Berumen, Michael L.; Arrigoni, Roberto; Waheed, Zarinah; Bouwmeester, Jessica; Caragnano, Annalisa; Stefani, Fabrizio; Benzoni, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new scleractinian coral species, Pachyseris inattesa sp. n., is described from the Red Sea. Despite a superficial resemblance with some species in the agariciid genus Leptoseris with which it has been previously confused, P. inattesa sp. n. has micro-morphological characters typical of the genus Pachyseris. This genus, once part of the Agariciidae, is comprised of five extant species and is widely distributed throughout the tropical Indo-Pacific. It is currently incertae sedis as a result of recent molecular analysis and appears to be closely related to the Euphylliidae. A molecular phylogenetic reconstruction including P. inattesa sp. n., the genus type species P. rugosa, and P. speciosa, all present in the Red Sea, was performed using the mitochondrial intergenic spacer between COI and 16S-rRNA. The results confirm that P. inattesa sp. n. is a monophyletic lineage closely related to the other Pachyseris species examined. PMID:25152672

  5. Phylogeny of Catalpa (Bignoniaceae) inferred from sequences of chloroplast ndhF and nuclear ribosomal DNA%根据叶绿体ndhF和核核糖体DNA序列推断梓属(紫葳科)的系统发育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建华

    2008-01-01

    Phylogenetics of Chilopsis and Catalpa (Bignoniaceae) was elucidated based on sequences of chloroplast ndhF and the nrDNA ITS region. In Bignoniaceae, Chilopsis and Catalpa are most closely related as sister genera. Our data supported section Macrocatalpa of the West Indies and section Catalpa of eastern Asian and North American continents. Within section Catalpa, Catalpa ovata of eastern Asia form a clade with North American species, C. speciosa and C. bignonioides, while the other eastern Asian species comprise a clade where C. duclouxii is sister to the clade of C. bungei and C. fargesii. The Caribbean species of Catalpa diverged early from the continental species. More studies are needed to test whether the phylogenetic pattern is common in eastern Asian-North American disjunct genera with species in the West Indies.

  6. Miospores from the Frasnian-Famennian Boundary deposits in Eastern Europe (the Pripyat Depression, Belarus and the Timan-Pechora Province, Russia) and comparison with Western Europe (Northern France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obukhovskaya; Avkhimovitch; Streel; Loboziak

    2000-11-01

    A zonal subdivision of the Frasnian-Famennian transitional deposits in the Pripyat Depression and Timan-Pechora Province, based on a detailed palynological study, has been completed. The data obtained on miospores and conodonts from the Timan-Pechora Province enable a correlation to be made with the Standard Conodont Zonation. The lateral extent of the palynozones in Eastern Europe and the correlation with Western Europe are discussed. The following previously published new combinations are validated: Auroraspora speciosa (Naumova) Obukhovskaya, comb. nov., Corbulispora viminea (Nekriata) Obukhovskaya and Nekriata, comb. nov., Cristatisporites imperpetuus (Sennova) Obukhovskaya, comb. nov., Cymbosporites acanthaceus (Kedo) Obukhovskaya, comb. nov., Grandispora subsuta (Nazarenko) Obukhovskaya, comb. nov., and Verrucosisporites evlanensis (Naumova) Obukhovskaya, comb. nov.

  7. The pharmacology and toxicology of kratom: from traditional herb to drug of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Marcus L; Kaufman, Nellie C; Grundmann, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Mitragyna speciosa (Rubiaceae), commonly known as kratom, is a tropical tree with a long history of traditional use in parts of Africa and Southeast Asia. In recent years, kratom has gained popularity for use as a recreational drug across the globe. Relatively new to the illicit market and used in a manner different from its traditional applications, preparations of kratom are touted by many as a safe and legal psychoactive product that improves mood, relieves pain, and may provide benefits in opiate addiction. Available literature was reviewed for M. speciosa via PubMed, Google Scholar, CINAHL, and EBSCO to summarize its traditional uses, phytochemical composition, pharmacology and toxicology of proposed active constituents, and potential for misuse and abuse. Research has demonstrated that both stimulant and sedative dose-dependent effects do exist, but a growing concern for the drug's effects and safety of use has resulted in national and international attention primarily due to an increase in hospital visits and deaths in several countries that are said to have been caused by extracts of the plant. The main active alkaloid substances in kratom, mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine, present with a range of CNS stimulant and depressant effects mediated primarily through monoaminergic and opioid receptors. Recently, Palm Beach County, located in the southeastern corridor of Florida, has considered regulating kratom due to public safety concerns following the death of a young adult. At the local, state, and even federal levels, governments are now being confronted with the task of determining the safety and the possible regulation of kratom extracts. There are currently no standard analytical screening techniques for mitragynine and its metabolites following ingestion limiting its detection to more sophisticated techniques like liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine kratom use. The growing concern of the abuse potential of kratom requires careful

  8. Photocatalytic reduction of organic pollutant under visible light by green route synthesized gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Bharat C; Paul, Debajyoti; Gupta, Tarun; Tetgure, Sandesh R; Garole, Vaman J; Borse, Amulrao U; Garole, Dipak J

    2017-05-01

    We report a rapid method of green chemistry approach for synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using Lagerstroemia speciosa leaf extract (LSE). L. speciosa plant extract is known for its effective treatment of diabetes and kidney related problems. The green synthesis of AuNPs was complete within 30min at 25°C. The same could also be achieved within 2min at a higher reaction temperature (80°C). Both UV-visible spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy results suggest that the morphology and size distribution of AuNPs are dependent on the pH of gold solution, gold concentration, volume of LSE, and reaction time and temperature. Comparison between Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectra of LSE and the synthesized AuNPs indicate an active role of polyphenolic functional groups (from gallotannins, lagerstroemin, and corosolic acid) in the green synthesis and capping of AuNPs. The green route synthesized AuNPs show strong photocatalytic activity in the reduction of dyes viz., methylene blue, methyl orange, bromophenol blue and bromocresol green, and 4-nitrophenol under visible light in the presence of NaBH4. The non-toxic and cost effective LSE mediated AuNPs synthesis proposed in this study is extremely rapid compared to the other reported methods that require hours to days for complete synthesis of AuNPs using various plant extracts. Strong and stable photocatalytic behavior makes AuNPs attractive in environmental applications, particularly in the reduction of organic pollutants in wastewater. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Diatomeas (Bacillariophyceae de Ambientes Acuáticos de Altura de la Provincia de Catamarca, Argentina II Diatoms (Bacillariophyceae from high altitude aquatic environments of Catamarca Province in Argentina. II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora I. Maidana

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available En esta contribución al conocimiento de las diatomeas de humedales de altura, se analizaron 14 muestras pertenecientes a distintos cuerpos de agua de la Provincia de Catamarca (Argentina, entre los 2420 y 4240 m s. n. m. Se identificaron 208 taxones infragenéricos de los cuales 90 son nuevas citas para la Provincia de Catamarca. Se mencionan por primera vez para Argentina los géneros: Frankophila y Microcostatus y las especies: Achnanthes thermalis var. rumrichorum Lange-Bertalot; Amphora mira Krasske; Brachysira atacamae Hustedt; Frankophila similioides Lange-Bertalot & Rumrich; Gomphonema punae Lange-Bertalot & Rumrich; Haloroundia speciosa Diaz & Maidana; Luticola mollis Lange-Bertalot& Rumrich; Mastogloia atacamae Hustedt; Microcostatus andinus Lange-Bertalot & Rumrich; Navicula atacamana Patrick; Navicula parinacota Rumrich & Lange-Bertalot; Planothidium chilense (Hustedt Lange-Bertalot; Staurosira pseudoconstruens (Marciniak Lange-Bertalot; Surirella chilensis var constricta Hustedt y Surirella wetzellii Hustedt. Además se propone una nueva combinación: Ulnaria ulna var. constricta.In this research focusing the diatoms of high topographic wetlands, 14 samples of different freshwater bodies (between 2,420 and 4,240 m a. s. l. were studied. Two hundred and eight infrageneric taxa were identified, 90 of them are new records for the Catamarca province. The genera: Frankophila and Microcostatus and the species Achnanthes thermalis var. rumrichorum Lange-Bertalot; Amphora mira Krasske; Brachysira atacamae Hustedt; Frankophila similioides Lange-Bertalot & Rumrich; Gomphonema punae Lange-Bertalot & Rumrich; Haloroundia speciosa Diaz & Maidana; Luticola mollis Lange-Bertalot & Rumrich; Mastogloia atacamae Hustedt; Microcostatus andinus Lange-Bertalot& Rumrich; Navicula atacamana Patrick; Navicula parinacota Rumrich & Lange-Bertalot; Planothidium chilense (Hustedt Lange-Bertalot; Staurosira pseudoconstruens (Marciniak Lange-Bertalot; Surirella

  10. Symbiodinium genotypic and environmental controls on lipids in reef building corals.

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    Timothy F Cooper

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lipids in reef building corals can be divided into two classes; non-polar storage lipids, e.g. wax esters and triglycerides, and polar structural lipids, e.g. phospholipids and cholesterol. Differences among algal endosymbiont types are known to have important influences on processes including growth and the photobiology of scleractinian corals yet very little is known about the role of symbiont types on lipid energy reserves. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The ratio of storage lipid and structural lipid fractions of Scott Reef corals were determined by thin layer chromatography. The lipid fraction ratio varied with depth and depended on symbiont type harboured by two corals (Seriatopora hystrix and Pachyseris speciosa. S. hystrix colonies associated with Symbiodinium C1 or C1/C# at deep depths (>23 m had lower lipid fraction ratios (i.e. approximately equal parts of storage and structural lipids than those with Symbiodinium D1 in shallow depths (<23 m, which had higher lipid fraction ratios (i.e. approximately double amounts of storage relative to structural lipid. Further, there was a non-linear relationship between the lipid fraction ratio and depth for S. hystrix with a modal peak at ∼23 m coinciding with the same depth as the shift from clade D to C types. In contrast, the proportional relationship between the lipid fraction ratio and depth for P. speciosa, which exhibited high specificity for Symbiodinium C3 like across the depth gradient, was indicative of greater amounts of storage lipids contained in the deep colonies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study has demonstrated that Symbiodinium exert significant controls over the quality of coral energy reserves over a large-scale depth gradient. We conclude that the competitive advantages and metabolic costs that arise from flexible associations with divergent symbiont types are offset by energetic trade-offs for the coral host.

  11. PLANTAS SILVESTRES CON POTENCIALIDAD ORNAMENTAL DE LOS BOSQUES MONTANO BAJOS DEL ORIENTE ANTIOQUEÑO, COLOMBIA NATIVE PLANTS WITH ORNAMENTAL POTENTIAL IN THE LOW MONTANE FORESTS OF EASTERN ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA

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    Jorge Alberto Sierra Escobar

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se realizó en cinco municipios del altiplano del oriente antioqueño (La Ceja, El Retiro, Guarne, Rionegro, y El Carmen de Viboral, además del municipio de Envigado vereda Pantanillo y el corregimiento de Santa Elena de la ciudad de Medellín, los cuales se encuentran localizados en el extremo norte de la cordillera central de Los Andes colombianos. El estudio consistió en seleccionar, dentro de algunas áreas boscosas, especies de hierbas y arbustos con follaje, flores o frutos llamativos que por su belleza presentaran alto potencial ornamental. Con esta finalidad se seleccionaron 26 especies de las cuales se recolectaron semillas, esquejes y estacas para proceder a determinar protocolos de reproducción sexual y vegetativa, determinándose las exigencias ecológicas, protocolos y potencialidades de 11 especies de plantas y arbustos como: Besleria sp., Cleome speciosa, Columnea sp., Gaultheria erecta, entre otras, las cuales presentaron características ornamentales deseables que se espera sean explotadas.This study was conducted in five towns in the high plains of eastern Antioquia (La Ceja, El Retiro, Guarne, Rionegro, and Carmen de Viboral, as well as the Pantanillo neighborhood of the Envigado municipality and the Santa Elena township of Medellin, which are located in the northern limit of the central mountain range of the Andes (Colombia. The study consisted of selecting within forested areas species of herbs and shrubs with attractive leaves, flowers or fruits that might have high ornamental potential for their beauty. To this end, were selected 26 species for which seeds, cuttings, and stakes were collected to begin determining protocols for sexual and vegetative propagation, eventually determining the ecological requirements, protocols, and potentials for 11 species of plants and shrubs, such as: Besleria sp., Cleome speciosa, Columnea sp., Gaultheria erecta, among others, which presented desirable ornamental

  12. In vitro thrombolytic potential of root extracts of four medicinal plants available in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Fahad; Islam, Ariful; Bulbul, Latifa; Moghal, Mizanur Rahman; Hossain, Mohammad Salim

    2014-01-01

    Context: Thrombus formation inside the blood vessels obstructs blood flow through the circulatory system leading hypertension, stroke to the heart, anoxia, and so on. Thrombolytic drugs are widely used for the management of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis patients, but they have certain limitations. Medicinal plants and their components possessing antithrombotic activity have been reported before. However, plants that could be used for thrombolysis has not been reported so far. Aims: This study's aim was to evaluate the thrombolytic potential of selected plants’ root extracts. Settings and Design: Plants were collected, dried, powdered and extracted by methanol and then fractionated by n-hexane for getting the sample root extracts. Venous blood samples were drawn from 10 healthy volunteers for the purposes of investigation. Subjects and Methods: An in vitro thrombolytic model was used to check the clot lysis potential of four n-hexane soluble roots extracts viz., Acacia nilotica, Justicia adhatoda, Azadirachta indica, and Lagerstroemia speciosa along with streptokinase as a positive control and saline water as a negative control. Statistical Analysis Used: Dunnett t-test analysis was performed using SPSS is a statistical analysis program developed by IBM Corporation, USA. on Windows. Results: Using an in vitro thrombolytic model, A. nilotica, L. speciosa, A. indica, and J. adhatoda at 5 mg extract/ml NaCl solution concentration showed 15.1%, 15.49%, 21.26%, and 19.63% clot lysis activity respectively. The reference streptokinase showed 47.21%, and 24.73% clot lysis for 30,000 IU and 15,000 IU concentrations, respectively whereas 0.9% normal saline showed 5.35% clot lysis. Conclusions: The selected extracts of the plant roots possess marked thrombolytic properties that could lyse blood clots in vitro; however, in vivo clot dissolving properties and active components responsible for clot lysis are yet to be discovered. PMID:25538351

  13. Comparative embryology of eleven species of stony corals (Scleractinia.

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    Nami Okubo

    Full Text Available A comprehensive understanding of coral reproduction and development is needed because corals are threatened in many ways by human activity. Major threats include the loss of their photosynthetic symbionts (Symbiodinium caused by rising temperatures (bleaching, reduced ability to calcify caused by ocean acidification, increased storm severity associated with global climate change and an increase in predators caused by runoff from human agricultural activity. In spite of these threats, detailed descriptions of embryonic development are not available for many coral species. The current consensus is that there are two major groups of stony corals, the "complex" and the "robust". In this paper we describe the embryonic development of four "complex" species, Pseudosiderastrea tayamai, Galaxea fascicularis, Montipora hispida, and Pavona Decussata, and seven "robust" species, Oulastrea crispata, Platygyra contorta, Favites abdita, Echinophyllia aspera, Goniastrea favulus, Dipsastraea speciosa (previously Favia speciosa, and Phymastrea valenciennesi (previously Montastrea valenciennesi. Data from both histologically sectioned embryos and whole mounts are presented. One apparent difference between these two major groups is that before gastrulation the cells of the complex corals thus far described (mainly Acropora species spread and flatten to produce the so-called prawn chip, which lacks a blastocoel. Our present broad survey of robust and complex corals reveals that prawn chip formation is not a synapomorphy of complex corals, as Pavona Decussata does not form a prawn chip and has a well-developed blastocoel. Although prawn chip formation cannot be used to separate the two clades, none of the robust corals which we surveyed has such a stage. Many robust coral embryos pass through two periods of invagination, separated by a return to a spherical shape. However, only the second of these periods is associated with endoderm formation. We have therefore

  14. In vitro thrombolytic potential of root extracts of four medicinal plants available in Bangladesh

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    Fahad Hussain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Thrombus formation inside the blood vessels obstructs blood flow through the circulatory system leading hypertension, stroke to the heart, anoxia, and so on. Thrombolytic drugs are widely used for the management of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis patients, but they have certain limitations. Medicinal plants and their components possessing antithrombotic activity have been reported before. However, plants that could be used for thrombolysis has not been reported so far. Aims: This study′s aim was to evaluate the thrombolytic potential of selected plants′ root extracts. Settings and Design: Plants were collected, dried, powdered and extracted by methanol and then fractionated by n-hexane for getting the sample root extracts. Venous blood samples were drawn from 10 healthy volunteers for the purposes of investigation. Subjects and Methods: An in vitro thrombolytic model was used to check the clot lysis potential of four n-hexane soluble roots extracts viz., Acacia nilotica, Justicia adhatoda, Azadirachta indica, and Lagerstroemia speciosa along with streptokinase as a positive control and saline water as a negative control. Statistical Analysis Used: Dunnett t-test analysis was performed using SPSS is a statistical analysis program developed by IBM Corporation, USA. on Windows. Results: Using an in vitro thrombolytic model, A. nilotica, L. speciosa, A. indica, and J. adhatoda at 5 mg extract/ml NaCl solution concentration showed 15.1%, 15.49%, 21.26%, and 19.63% clot lysis activity respectively. The reference streptokinase showed 47.21%, and 24.73% clot lysis for 30,000 IU and 15,000 IU concentrations, respectively whereas 0.9% normal saline showed 5.35% clot lysis. Conclusions: The selected extracts of the plant roots possess marked thrombolytic properties that could lyse blood clots in vitro; however, in vivo clot dissolving properties and active components responsible for clot lysis are yet to be discovered.

  15. Dormancy as exaptation to protect mimetic seeds against deterioration before dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancalion, Pedro H. S.; Novembre, Ana D. L. C.; Rodrigues, Ricardo R.; Marcos Filho, Júlio

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Mimetic seeds simulate the appearance of fleshy fruits and arilled seeds without producing nutritive tissues as a reward for seed dispersers. In this strategy of seed dispersal, seeds may remain attached to the mother plant for long periods after maturity, increasing their availability to naïve seed dispersers. The hypothesis that seed coat impermeability in many tropical Fabaceae with mimetic seeds serves as an exaptation to protect the seeds from deterioration and rotting while awaiting dispersal was investigated. Methods Seed coat impermeability was evaluated in five mimetic-seeded species of tropical Fabaceae in south-eastern Brazil (Abarema langsdorffii, Abrus precatorius, Adenanthera pavonina, Erythrina velutina and Ormosia arborea) and in Erythrina speciosa, a ‘basal’ species in its genus, which has monochromatic brown seeds and no mimetic displays. Seed hardness was evaluated as a defence against accelerated ageing (humid chamber at 41 °C for 144 h). Seed development and physiological potential of O. arborea was evaluated and the effect of holding mature seeds in pods on the mother plant in the field for a period of 1 year under humid tropical conditions was compared with seeds stored under controlled conditions (15 °C and 40 % relative air humidity). Key Results All five mimetic-seeded species, and E. speciosa, showed strong coat impermeability, which protected the seeds against deterioration in accelerated ageing. Most O. arborea seeds only became dormant 2 months after pod dehiscence. Germination of seeds after 1 year on the plant in a humid tropical climate was 56 %, compared with 80 % for seeds stored in controlled conditions (15 °C, 45 % relative humidity). Seedling shoot length after 1 year did not differ between seed sources. Conclusions Dormancy acts in mimetic-seeded species as an exaptation to reduce seed deterioration, allowing an increase in their effective dispersal period and mitigating the losses incurred by low

  16. Influence of the palm tree species on the variability of Rhodnius nasutus Stål, 1859 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Fernando Braga Stehling; Paula, Alexandre Silva de; Belisário, Carlota Josefovicz; Lorenzo, Marcelo Gustavo; Bezerra, Cláudia Mendonça; Harry, Myriam; Diotaiuti, Liléia

    2011-07-01

    This work evaluated the occurrence and genetic structure of Rhodnius nasutus sampled in two sites using morphometry and microsatellites. These sites, presented distinct abiotic features and palm trees: (i) nine Attalea speciosa palm trees, so called babaçu, were sampled from the Meruoca Mountain Ridge, a sloping region of reminiscent forest in the state of Ceará, Brazil, and (ii) 17 Copernicia prunifera palm trees, so called carnaúba, were sampled in the scrub savanna region (Sobral district) that surrounds the mountain ridge. Of the twenty-six palm trees dissected, 70.6% of carnauba and 88.9% of babaçu were infested by R. nasutus. The micro-climatic data where R. nasutus were sheltered demonstrated that the babaçu and carnaúba palm trees presented significant differences (p < 0.05) in relation to the external environment, except for temperature and relative humidity regulation, suggesting that the architecture of the babaçu crown keeps a more stable micro-environment. The morphometric studies of the F1 generation demonstrated that insects from the babaçu (A. speciosa) were significantly larger (p = 0.000) than those collected in carnaúba (C. prunifera) palm trees. Also, microsatellite analysis demonstrated a high genetic differentiation between the two groups of R. nasutus (R(st) = -0.77). Our results suggest that the difference in size between the populations is probably related to an incipient process of genetic drift in populations associated to each palm tree, probably also driven by the different climatic features observed in these micro-environments.

  17. Growth habit of the late Paleozoic rhizomorphic tree-lycopsid family Diaphorodendraceae: phylogenetic, evolutionary, and paleoecological significance.

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    Dimichele, William A; Elrick, Scott D; Bateman, Richard M

    2013-08-01

    Rhizomorphic lycopsids evolved the tree habit independently of all other land plants. Newly discovered specimens allow radical revision of our understanding of the growth architectures of the extinct Paleozoic sister-genera Synchysidendron and Diaphorodendron. Detailed descriptions of six remarkable adpression specimens from the Pennsylvanian of the USA and three casts from the late Mississippian of Scotland are used to revise and reanalyze a previously published morphological cladistic matrix and to reinterpret their remarkable growth forms. Contrary to previous assertions, Synchysidendron resembled Diaphorodendron in having a distinct and relatively complex growth habit that emphasized serially homologous, closely spaced, deciduous lateral branches at the expense of reduced monocarpic crown branches. Lateral branches originated through several strongly anisotomous dichotomies before producing during extended periods large numbers of Achlamydocarpon strobili. The comparatively large diameter of abscission scars remaining on the main trunk and the emergence of branches above the horizontal plane suggest that the lateral branch systems were robust. Lateral branches were borne in two opposite rows on the main trunk and continued upward into an isotomously branched, determinate crown; their striking distichous arrangement caused preferred orientation of fallen trunks on bedding planes. This discovery identifies the plagiotropic growth habit, dominated by serial lateral branches, as ubiquitous in the Diaphorodendraceae and also as unequivocally primitive within Isoetales s.l., a conclusion supported by both the revised morphological cladistic analysis and relative first appearances of taxa in the fossil record. Previously assumed complete homology between crown branching in Lepidodendraceae and that of all earlier-divergent genera requires reassessment. Saltational phenotypic transitions via modification of key developmental switches remains the most credible

  18. In Situ Conservation of Some Rare and Endemic Species of Iridaceae Family in National Botanical Garden of Georgia

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    Tamar Nadiradze

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article covers some information on anthropogenic influence upon natural ecosystems that is considered to be one of the strongest factors for reducing biodiversity of Georgian flora. With this purpose, some species of fam. Iridaceae that need to be protected under in situ conditions are being studied. The paper focuses on the fam. Iridaceae. This family is particularly interesting as it unites a considerable number of valuable, beautifully flowering plants with ornamental leaves, representing different biomorphs. Particularly rare and endangered species are: Iris iberica, I. Grossheimii, I. Lycotis, I. Camillae, I. Elegantissima, etc. We have carried out complex studies of bio-ecological peculiarities of bulbous geophytes and ephemeroids of genus Iridodictyum winogradowii, Ir. Reticulatum, Siphonastilis lasica and Iuno caucasica. There has been studied rhythm of growth and development of vital cycle of monocarpic shootings and ways of their propagation in the sub arid zone of East Georgia. There should be mentioned that they have perfectly adapted to the conditions. Such rare species of rootstock plants like Iris iberica, I. Carthalinical. Aphylla, I. graminea, I. imbricata, I. timofejewii, I. prilipkoana, I. musulmanica, Siphonastilis lazica and others even give abundant self-seedlings that undoubtedly makes it possible to protect them from being finally extinct. All the investigated plants can be recommended for using in landscape architecture under the conditions of East Georgia that will contribute to conservation of the valuable genofond of relict and endemic plants of Georgian flora. The work deals with the results of in situ conservation of some of rare and endemic species of fam. Iridaceae from Iridaceae Juss family. According to IUCN categories, the studied taxaare discussed as the endangered species in nature.

  19. Neighbour Origin and Ploidy Level Drive Impact of an Alien Invasive Plant Species in a Competitive Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Müller-Schärer, Heinz; Schaffner, Urs

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of the potential mechanisms driving the spread and naturalization of alien plant species has increased over the past decades, but specific knowledge on the factors contributing to their increased impact in the introduced range is still urgently needed. The native European plant Centaurea stoebe occurs as two cytotypes with different life histories (monocarpic diploids, allo-polycarpic tetraploids). However, only tetraploids have been found in its introduced range in North America, where C. stoebe has become a most prominent plant invader. Here, we focus on the ploidy level of C. stoebe and origin of neighbouring community in explaining the high impact during the invasion of new sites in the introduced range. We conducted a mesocosm experiment under open-field conditions with the diploid (EU2x) and tetraploid (EU4x) cytotype of Centaurea stoebe from its native European (EU) range, and with the invasive tetraploid (NA4x) cytotype from the introduced North American (NA) range in competition with EU (old) or NA (new) neighbouring plant communities. In the presence of competition, the biomass of EU neighbouring community was reduced to a comparable level by all three geo-cytotypes of C. stoebe. In contrast, the biomass of the NA neighbouring community was reduced beyond when competing with tetraploid, but not with diploid C. stoebe. The fact that the biomass of all three geo-cytotypes of C. stoebe was correlated with the biomass of the EU neighbouring community, but not with that of the NA neighbouring community suggests that different mechanisms underlie the competitive interactions between C. stoebe and its old vs. new neighbouring communities, such as competition for the same limiting resources at home vs competition through novel allelo-chemicals or differential resource uptake strategies in the introduced range. We therefore caution to simply use the ecosystem impact assessed at home to predict impact in the introduced range.

  20. Belowground fungal associations and water interact to influence the compensatory response of Ipomopsis aggregata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsup, Cassandra M; Paige, Ken N

    2016-02-01

    Although the concept that some plants benefit from being eaten is counterintuitive, there is now considerable evidence demonstrating enhanced fitness following herbivory. It has been assumed that plants growing in high resource conditions are the ones best able to compensate for herbivory. However, just the opposite has been found for dicotyledonous plants exhibiting patterns of overcompensation, with most occurring in resource-poor conditions. Long-term studies of the monocarpic biennial, scarlet gilia, Ipomopsis aggregata growing in resource-poor conditions have shown that ungulate herbivory by mule deer and elk can result in a threefold increase in plant fitness over uneaten controls. These observations led us to hypothesize that fungal associations would facilitate the compensatory response most commonly observed in this Arizona population of scarlet gilia; perhaps mutualistic associations with fungi, such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, would explain the phenomenon of overcompensation altogether. Fungal removal experiments, using Captan®, a commercially available fungicide, showed that a reduction in fungal abundance altered the compensatory response following ungulate herbivory, particularly in years in which water was limited, increasing fitness compensation from equal compensation to overcompensation. A multifactorial experiment revealed that the interactive effects of water and fungicide maximized fruit production following herbivory. Our results are counter to the “modification of tolerance hypothesis” in which plants associating with mycorrhizal fungi will have higher tolerance to herbivory. It is likely that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and dark septate endophytes compete with plants for photosynthates following herbivory, thereby limiting the magnitude of compensation. Thus, fungi appear to be parasitic on scarlet gilia following ungulate herbivory.

  1. Neighbour Origin and Ploidy Level Drive Impact of an Alien Invasive Plant Species in a Competitive Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Sun

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the potential mechanisms driving the spread and naturalization of alien plant species has increased over the past decades, but specific knowledge on the factors contributing to their increased impact in the introduced range is still urgently needed. The native European plant Centaurea stoebe occurs as two cytotypes with different life histories (monocarpic diploids, allo-polycarpic tetraploids. However, only tetraploids have been found in its introduced range in North America, where C. stoebe has become a most prominent plant invader. Here, we focus on the ploidy level of C. stoebe and origin of neighbouring community in explaining the high impact during the invasion of new sites in the introduced range. We conducted a mesocosm experiment under open-field conditions with the diploid (EU2x and tetraploid (EU4x cytotype of Centaurea stoebe from its native European (EU range, and with the invasive tetraploid (NA4x cytotype from the introduced North American (NA range in competition with EU (old or NA (new neighbouring plant communities. In the presence of competition, the biomass of EU neighbouring community was reduced to a comparable level by all three geo-cytotypes of C. stoebe. In contrast, the biomass of the NA neighbouring community was reduced beyond when competing with tetraploid, but not with diploid C. stoebe. The fact that the biomass of all three geo-cytotypes of C. stoebe was correlated with the biomass of the EU neighbouring community, but not with that of the NA neighbouring community suggests that different mechanisms underlie the competitive interactions between C. stoebe and its old vs. new neighbouring communities, such as competition for the same limiting resources at home vs competition through novel allelo-chemicals or differential resource uptake strategies in the introduced range. We therefore caution to simply use the ecosystem impact assessed at home to predict impact in the introduced range.

  2. Estruturas de Reprodução de Peperomia parnassifolia Miq. (Piperaceae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i1.1401 Reproductive structures of Peperomia parnassifolia Miq. (Piperaceae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i1.1401

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maísa de Carvalho Iwazaki

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Peperomia parnassifolia Miq. trata-se de espécie herbácea que também ocorre em remanescentes florestais de Maringá, Brasil. Os órgãos reprodutivos e o caule dessa espécie são objetos do presente estudo. O material botânico fresco e fixado em FAA 50/FPA 50 foi seccionado em micrótomo de rotação, segundo técnicas usuais. O eixo da inflorescência tem estrutura polistélica. As brácteas são peltadas com mesofilo homogêneo. O gineceu é unicarpelar, com estigma bilobado, estilete sólido, ovário de estrutura simples e óvulo reto, crassinucelado e unitegumentado. A parede da antera apresenta epiderme, endotécio, uma camada média e tapete secretor uninucleado. O fruto é uma baga e a semente é perispérmica. Essa planta reproduz-se vegetativamente mediante estolãoPeperomia parnassifolia Miq. is a herbaceous species that occurs in forest remnants in Maringá, Brazil, among other places. The stem and reproductive organs of this species are the objects of the present study. Samples of botanical material (fresh or fixed in FAA 50/FPA 50 were cut using a rotation microtome, in accordance with usual practice. The spike axis features a polystelic structure. Bracts are peltate with a homogeneous mesophyll. The gynoecium is monocarpous, has a stigma with two lobes, solid style, ovary with simple structure and an atropous, crassinucellate and unitegmic ovule. The anther wall consists of epidermis, endothecium, one middle layer and a uninucleate secretory tapetum. The fruit is a berry and its seed is perispermic. This plant reproduces vegetatively by stolon

  3. The Westphalian D fossil lepidodendrid forest at Table Head, Sydney Basin, Nova Scotia: Sedimentology, paleoecology and floral response to changing edaphic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, J.H.; Gibling, M.R.; Eble, C.F.; Scott, A.C.; MacNeil, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Strata of Westphalian D age on the western coast of the Sydney Basin expose a fossil forest of approximately 30 lepidodendrid trees within one of several clastic splits of the Harbour Seam. A mutidisciplinary approach was employed to interpret the origins of the coal bed, the depositional history of the site and the response of the fossil forest to changing edaphic conditions. The megaspore and miospore records indicate that the mire vegetation was dominated by arboreous lycopsids, especially Paralycopodites, with subdominant tree ferns. Petrographic, palynological and geochemical evidence suggest that the Harbour coal bed at Table Head originated as a rheotrophic (cf. planar) mire (eutric histosol). The mire forest is interpreted to have been engulfed by prograding distributary-channel sediments; sparse protist assemblages are suggestive of a freshwater delta-plain lake environment occasionally in contact with brackish waters. Lepidodendrids persisted as site colonizers of clastic substrates even after burial of the rheotrophic peatland and influenced the morphology of deposited sediment, but apparently were unable to colonize distributary channels. Equivocal taxonomic data (compression fossils) show the fossil forest to have been composed of both monocarpic (Lepidodendron) and polycarpic (Diaphorodendron, Paralycopodites, ?Sigillaria) lycopsids, genera recorded in the palynology of the uppermost ply of the underlying coal bed. Comparatively rare within the clastic beds of the fossil forest, however, is the stem compression of Paralycopodites, whose dispersed megapores and miospores dominate the underlying coal bed. Tree diameter data recorded equivalent to breast height indicate a forest of mixed age. These data would appear to suggest that some lepidodendrids employing a polycarpic reproductive strategy were better able to cross the ecological barrier imposed between peat and clastic substrates. Foliar compressions indicate that an understory or stand of

  4. Environmental and genetic sources of diversification in the timing of seed germination: implications for the evolution of bet hedging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Andrew M; Johnston, Mark O

    2006-11-01

    Environmental variation that is not predictably related to cues is expected to drive the evolution of bet-hedging strategies. The high variance observed in the timing of seed germination has led to it being the most cited diversification strategy in the theoretical bet-hedging literature. Despite this theoretical focus, virtually nothing is known about the mechanisms responsible for the generation of individual-level diversification. Here we report analyses of sources of variation in timing of germination within seasons, germination fraction over two generations and three sequential seasons, and the genetic correlation structure of these traits using almost 10,000 seeds from more than 100 genotypes of the monocarpic perennial Lobelia inflata. Microenvironmental analysis of time to germination suggests that extreme sensitivity to environmental gradients, or microplasticity, even within a homogeneous growth chamber, may act as an effective individual-level diversification mechanism and explains more than 30% of variance in time to germination. The heritability of within-season timing of germination was low (h(2) = 0.07) but significant under homogeneous conditions. Consistent with individual-level diversification, this low h(2) was attributable not to low additive genetic variance, but to an unusually high coefficient of residual variation in time to germination. Despite high power to detect additive genetic variance in within-season diversification, it was low and indistinguishable from zero. Restricted maximum likelihood detected significant genetic variation for germination fraction (h(2) = 0.18) under homogeneous conditions. Unexpectedly, this heritability was positive when measured within a generation by sibling analysis and negative when measured across generations by offspring-on-parent regression. The consistency of dormancy fraction over multiple delays, a major premise of Cohen's classic model, was supported by a strong genetic correlation (r = 0

  5. Switching on flowers: transient LEAFY induction reveals novel aspects of the regulation of reproductive development in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris eWagner

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Developmental fate decisions in cell populations fundamentally depend on at least two parameters: a signal that is perceived by the cell and the intrinsic ability of the cell to respond to the signal. The same regulatory logic holds for phase transitions in the lifecycle of an organism, for example the switch to reproductive development in flowering plants. Here we have tested the response of the monocarpic plant species Arabidopsis thaliana to a signal that directs flower formation, the plant specific transcription factor LEAFY (LFY. Using transient steroid-dependent LEAFY (LFY activation in lfy null mutant Arabidopsis plants, we show that the plant’s competence to respond to the LFY signal changes during development. Very early in the life cycle, the plant is not competent to respond to the signal. Subsequently, transient LFY activation can direct primordia at the flanks of the shoot apical meristem to adopt a floral fate. Finally, the plants acquire competence to initiate the flower-patterning program in response to transient LFY activation. Similar to a perennial life strategy, we did not observe reprogramming of all primordia after perception of the transient signal, instead only a small number of meristems responded, followed by reversion to the prior developmental program. The ability to initiate flower formation and to direct flower patterning in response to transient LFY upregulation was dependent on the known direct LFY target APETALA1 (AP1. Prolonged LFY or activation could alter the developmental gradient and bypass the requirement for AP1. Prolonged high AP1 levels, in turn, can also alter the plants’ competence. Our findings shed light on how plants can fine-tune important phase transitions and developmental responses.

  6. Estruturas de Reprodução de Peperomia parnassifolia Miq. (Piperaceae = Reproductive structures of Peperomia parnassifolia Miq. (Piperaceae

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    Jonathas Henrique Georg de Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Peperomia parnassifolia Miq. trata-se de espécie herbácea que também ocorre em remanescentes florestais de Maringá, Brasil. Os órgãos reprodutivos e o caule dessa espécie são objetos do presente estudo. O material botânico fresco e fixado em FAA 50/FPA 50 foi seccionado em micrótomo de rotação, segundo técnicas usuais. O eixo da inflorescência tem estrutura polistélica. As brácteas são peltadas com mesofilo homogêneo. O gineceu é unicarpelar, com estigma bilobado, estilete sólido, ovário de estrutura simples e óvulo reto,crassinucelado e unitegumentado. A parede da antera apresenta epiderme, endotécio, uma camada média e tapete secretor uninucleado. O fruto é uma baga e a semente é perispérmica. Essa planta reproduz-se vegetativamente mediante estolão.Peperomia parnassifolia Miq. is a herbaceous species that occurs in forest remnants in Maringá, Brazil, among other places. The stem and reproductive organs of this species are the objects of the present study. Samples of botanical material (fresh or fixed in FAA50/FPA 50 were cut using a rotation microtome, in accordance with usual practice. The spike axis features a polystelic structure. Bracts are peltate with a homogeneous mesophyll. The gynoecium is monocarpous, has a stigma with two lobes, solid style, ovary with simple structure and an atropous, crassinucellate and unitegmic ovule. The anther wall consists of epidermis, endothecium, one middle layer and a uninucleate secretory tapetum. The fruit is a berry and its seed is perispermic. This plant reproduces vegetatively by stolon.

  7. Phylogenetic Reconstruction, Morphological Diversification and Generic Delimitation of Disepalum (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pui-Sze; Thomas, Daniel C; Saunders, Richard M K

    2015-01-01

    infer that the monocarp fruit stalks are likely to have evolved independently from those in other Annonaceae genera and may facilitate effective dispersal by providing a color contrast within the fruit.

  8. Significance of microhabitat heterogeneity in the spatial pattern and size-class structure of Anastatica hierochuntica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazy, Ahmad K.; Kabiel, Hanan F.

    2007-05-01

    Anastatica hierochuntica L. (Brassicaceae) is a desert monocarpic annual species characterized by a topochory/ombrohydrochory type of seed dispersal. The hygrochastic nature of the dry skeletons (dead individuals) permits controlling seed dispersal by rain events. The amount of dispersed seeds is proportional to the intensity of rainfall. When light showers occur, seeds are released and remain in the site. Seeds dispersed in the vicinity of the mother or source plant (primary type of seed dispersal) resulted in clumped pattern and complicated interrelationships among size-classes of the population. Following heavy rainfall, most seeds are released and transported into small patches and shallow depressions which collect runoff water. The dead A. hierochuntica skeletons demonstrate site-dependent size-class structure, spatial pattern and spatial interrelationships in different microhabitats. Four microhabitat types have been sampled: runnels, patches and simple and compound depressions in two sites (gravel and sand). Ripley's K-function was used to analyze the spatial pattern in populations of A. hierochuntica skeletons in the study microhabitats. Clumped patterns were observed in nearly all of the study microhabitats. Populations of A. hierochuntica in the sand site were more productive than in the gravel site and usually had more individuals in the larger size-classes. In the compound-depression microhabitat, the degree of clumping decreased from the core zone to the intermediate zone then shifted into overdispersed pattern in the outer zone. At the within size-class level, the clumped pattern dominated in small size classes but shifted into random and overdispersed patterns in the larger size classes. Aggregation between small and large size-classes was not well-defined but large individuals were found closer to the smaller individuals than to those of their own class. In relation to the phytomass and the size-class structure, the outer zone of the simple

  9. Agave as a model CAM crop system for a warming and drying world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, J. Ryan

    2015-01-01

    As climate change leads to drier and warmer conditions in semi-arid regions, growing resource-intensive C3 and C4 crops will become more challenging. Such crops will be subjected to increased frequency and intensity of drought and heat stress. However, agaves, even more than pineapple (Ananas comosus) and prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica and related species), typify highly productive plants that will respond favorably to global warming, both in natural and cultivated settings. With nearly 200 species spread throughout the U.S., Mexico, and Central America, agaves have evolved traits, including crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), that allow them to survive extreme heat and drought. Agaves have been used as sources of food, beverage, and fiber by societies for hundreds of years. The varied uses of Agave, combined with its unique adaptations to environmental stress, warrant its consideration as a model CAM crop. Besides the damaging cycles of surplus and shortage that have long beset the tequila industry, the relatively long maturation cycle of Agave, its monocarpic flowering habit, and unique morphology comprise the biggest barriers to its widespread use as a crop suitable for mechanized production. Despite these challenges, agaves exhibit potential as crops since they can be grown on marginal lands, but with more resource input than is widely assumed. If these constraints can be reconciled, Agave shows considerable promise as an alternative source for food, alternative sweeteners, and even bioenergy. And despite the many unknowns regarding agaves, they provide a means to resolve disparities in resource availability and needs between natural and human systems in semi-arid regions. PMID:26442005

  10. Intra-individual variation and evolution of modular structure in Draba plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorieva, Olga V; Cherdantsev, Vladimir G

    2014-09-01

    We studied the evolution of quantitative traits related to shoot system architecture in a large genus Draba (Brassicaceae) making emphasis on the dynamics of relationship between individual and intra-individual variation. The results suggest that selection leading to origin of different life forms arises mainly from a necessity of moderation of the non-adaptive contest between the egoistic plant modules, taking care of self-reproduction of their own. We separated two evolutionary trends, one leading to the formation of short-lived monocarpic, and the other to long-lived polycarpic forms from the short-lived polycarpic plants. The first trend concerns with transformation of the innovation shoots into the axillary inflorescences by shortening of their vegetative developmental phase, while the second one - with individuation of the plant modules owing to acquisition of the capacity of rooting and separating from the mother plant. In both trends, the turning points of the evolution are those of originating of the negative for individual plants interactions between the plant modules being indirect non-adaptive consequences of the previous adaptive evolution and initiating selection for rebuilding of the plant modular structure. The difference between selection operating on intra-individual and individual variations is that, in the first case, combining of the characters of different individuals is infeasible. This leaves no choice for the evolution but to change the developmental mechanisms. In the case considered in this work, this is a change in shoot architecture using the material afforded by the natural variability of developmental pathways of the plant modules. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Phylogenetic Reconstruction, Morphological Diversification and Generic Delimitation of Disepalum (Annonaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pui-Sze Li

    . We furthermore infer that the monocarp fruit stalks are likely to have evolved independently from those in other Annonaceae genera and may facilitate effective dispersal by providing a color contrast within the fruit.

  12. Agave as a model CAM crop system for a warming and drying world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, J Ryan

    2015-01-01

    As climate change leads to drier and warmer conditions in semi-arid regions, growing resource-intensive C3 and C4 crops will become more challenging. Such crops will be subjected to increased frequency and intensity of drought and heat stress. However, agaves, even more than pineapple (Ananas comosus) and prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica and related species), typify highly productive plants that will respond favorably to global warming, both in natural and cultivated settings. With nearly 200 species spread throughout the U.S., Mexico, and Central America, agaves have evolved traits, including crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), that allow them to survive extreme heat and drought. Agaves have been used as sources of food, beverage, and fiber by societies for hundreds of years. The varied uses of Agave, combined with its unique adaptations to environmental stress, warrant its consideration as a model CAM crop. Besides the damaging cycles of surplus and shortage that have long beset the tequila industry, the relatively long maturation cycle of Agave, its monocarpic flowering habit, and unique morphology comprise the biggest barriers to its widespread use as a crop suitable for mechanized production. Despite these challenges, agaves exhibit potential as crops since they can be grown on marginal lands, but with more resource input than is widely assumed. If these constraints can be reconciled, Agave shows considerable promise as an alternative source for food, alternative sweeteners, and even bioenergy. And despite the many unknowns regarding agaves, they provide a means to resolve disparities in resource availability and needs between natural and human systems in semi-arid regions.

  13. Agave as a model CAM crop system for a warming and drying world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ryan eStewart

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As climate change leads to drier and warmer conditions in semi-arid regions, growing resource-intensive C3 and C4 crops will become more challenging. Such crops will be subjected to increased frequency and intensity of drought and heat stress. However, agaves, even more than pineapple (Ananas comosus and prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica and related species, typify highly productive plants that will respond favorably to global warming, both in natural and cultivated settings. With nearly 200 species spread throughout the U.S., Mexico, and Central America, agaves have evolved traits, including crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM, that allow them to survive extreme heat and drought. Agaves have been used as sources of food, beverage, and fiber by societies for hundreds of years. The varied uses of Agave, combined with its unique adaptations to environmental stress, warrant its consideration as a model CAM crop. Besides the damaging cycles of surplus and shortage that have long beset the tequila industry, the relatively long maturation cycle of Agave, its monocarpic flowering habit, and unique morphology comprise the biggest barriers to its widespread use as a crop suitable for mechanized production. Despite these challenges, agaves exhibit potential as crops since they can be grown on marginal lands, but with more resource input than is widely assumed. If these constraints can be reconciled, Agave shows considerable promise as an alternative source for food, alternative sweeteners, and even bioenergy. And despite the many unknowns regarding agaves, they provide a means to resolve disparities between natural and human systems in semi-arid regions.

  14. Biochemical Benefits, Diagnosis, and Clinical Risks Evaluation of Kratom

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    Dimy Fluyau

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundKratom (Mitragyna speciosa is a tropical tree with a long history of traditional use in parts of Africa and Southeast Asia. Kratom is also known as Thom, Thang, and Biak. Its leaves and the teas brewed from them have long been used by people in that region to manage pain and opioid withdrawal and to stave off fatigue. Kratom is actually consumed throughout the world for its stimulant effects and as an opioid substitute (in form of tea, chewed, smoked, or ingested in capsules. Some case reports have associated kratom exposure with psychosis, seizures, intrahepatic cholestasis, other medical conditions, and deaths. The clinical manifestations of kratom effects are not well defined and the clinical studies are limited. Data research suggest that both stimulant and sedative dose-dependent effects do exist, in addition to antinociceptive, antidepressant activity, anxiolytic-like effects, and anorectic effects, but a growing concern for the drug’s effects and safety of use has resulted in national and international attention primarily due to an increase in hospital visits and deaths in several countries that are believed to have been caused by extracts of the plant. There is a dearth of double blind controlled studies. In this study, we aim to use existing literature to clarify both benefits and risks of kratom as well as its diagnosis evaluation as kratom misuse is an emerging trend in the Western world.MethodsLiterature review using databases such as Embase, Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Mendeley from 2007 to 2017 were evaluated by all authors to analyze current state on benefits, risks, and diagnosis evaluation of kratom (M. speciosa.ResultsData analysis suggested that kratom possesses some benefits such as stimulant and sedative effects as wells as antinociceptive effects. It seems to inhibit pro-inflammatory mediator release and vascular permeability and can enhance immunity. In addition, it may be an antidepressant and

  15. SURVEY OF THE MAIN SOYBEAN POPULATION PESTS IN GOIÂNIA, BRAZIL LEVANTAMENTO POPULACIONAL DAS PRINCIPAIS PRAGAS DA CULTURA DE SOJA EM GOIÂNIA

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    Antônio Lopes da Silva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    In this work a survey of some of the insect pests which attack the soybean crop in Goiânia, County State Goiás, Brazil, was made to verify the populational fluctuations of the following species: Anticarsia gemmatilis Hueb., 1818; Plusia nu Guen., 1852; Elasmopalpus lignosellus Zeller, 1848; Spodoptera frugiperda Srnith, 1797; Diabrotica speciosa Germ., 1824; Epicauta spp.; Mocis latipes Guen., 1852; Nezara viridula L., 1758. The insects were collected through the use of light traps, of the “Luiz de Queiroz” type, rnodified, with ultraviolet fluorescent lamp bulbs, and use of traps “Malaise” type, by sunlight insect intrabits from 1975 to 1977. The results indicated that Anticarsia gemmatilis and Elasmopalpus lignosellus appeared during the entire year with acme populationals in order; in March and April, Plusia nu appeared from February to June of each year. Spodoptera frugiperda showed acme populational from November to January and Mocis latipes with maximum population in November and February. Diabrotica speciosa and Epicauta spp. both occurred during the soybean crop cycle respectively, with populations peaks from November to March. Nezara viridula which occurred from January to June with larger population from April to May. This information will indicate the best time for control of these insect pests under the condition of this study.

    No presente trabalho, procurou-se por meio de armadilhas luminosas modelo "Luiz de Queiroz" providas de lâmpadas fluorescentes ultravioleta e armadilhas de intercaptação modelo "Malaise", realizar um levantamento de insetos para estudar a flutuação populacional das principais pragas que ocorrem na cultura da soja no município de Goiânia - GO, durante tr

  16. Quantificação de metabólitos secundários e avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana e antioxidante de algumas plantas selecionadas do Cerrado de Mato Grosso

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    G.A. LIMA NETO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Extratos etanólicos de Luehea paniculata, Anadenanthera colubrina, Cariniana rubra, Hancornia speciosa, Qualea grandiflora, Kielmeyera coriaceae e Palicourea rigida, coletadas no Cerrado de Mato Grosso foram submetidos à análise fitoquímica preliminar para identificação das principais classes de metabolitos secundários e à quantificação do teor de compostos fenólicos totais, flavonoides e cumarinas. O estudo também descreve a atividade antimicrobiana, antioxidante e a toxicidade preliminar frente a larvas de Artemia salina. Os extratos de C. rubra e Q. grandiflora foram os mais ativos contra as cepas fúngicas de C. neoformans (CIM 3,91 µg/mL, C. krusei(CIM 15,63 µg/mL, C. parapsilosis (CIM 31,25 µg/mL e C. albicans (CIM 62,5 µg/mL, ambos com os mesmos resultados para estes microrganismos. Em relação às cepas bacterianas a mais sensível foi S. aureus com CIM de 250 µg/mL para todos os extratos testados. Luhea paniculata e Q. grandiflora foram as espécies vegetais mais ativas contra E. coli (CIM 500 e 250 µg/mL, respectivamente e E. faecalis (CIM 250 e 500 µg/mL, respectivamente. No teste do DPPH, merece destaque as espécies K. coriaceae (Ca (IC50 = 0,72 ± 0,51 μg /mL, K. coriaceae (Fo (IC50 = 1,34 ± 0,53 μg /mL, H. speciosa (Fo(IC50 = 1,03 ± 0,52 μg /mL, Q. grandiflora (Fo (IC50 = 1,31 ± 0,19 μg /mL e P. rigida (Fo (IC50 = 1,39 ± 0,53 μg /mL. Com exceção de L. paniculata(Fo, que apresentou IC50 de 14,40 ± 0,34 μg /mL e teor de flavonoides de 295,5 mg/g, todas as espécies que tiverem significativa atividade no teste do DPPH, também apresentaram teor de flavonoides semelhante ao padrão, ou seja, H. speciosa (Fo (280,5 mg/g, Q. grandiflora(Fo (260,5 mg/g, K. coriaceae (Ca (250,5 mg/g, K. coriaceae (Fo (235,5 mg/g. Quanto à determinação de fenóis totais e cumarinas os resultados foram inferiores quando comparados aos padrões.

  17. Biochemical Benefits, Diagnosis, and Clinical Risks Evaluation of Kratom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluyau, Dimy; Revadigar, Neelambika

    2017-01-01

    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a tropical tree with a long history of traditional use in parts of Africa and Southeast Asia. Kratom is also known as Thom, Thang, and Biak. Its leaves and the teas brewed from them have long been used by people in that region to manage pain and opioid withdrawal and to stave off fatigue. Kratom is actually consumed throughout the world for its stimulant effects and as an opioid substitute (in form of tea, chewed, smoked, or ingested in capsules). Some case reports have associated kratom exposure with psychosis, seizures, intrahepatic cholestasis, other medical conditions, and deaths. The clinical manifestations of kratom effects are not well defined and the clinical studies are limited. Data research suggest that both stimulant and sedative dose-dependent effects do exist, in addition to antinociceptive, antidepressant activity, anxiolytic-like effects, and anorectic effects, but a growing concern for the drug's effects and safety of use has resulted in national and international attention primarily due to an increase in hospital visits and deaths in several countries that are believed to have been caused by extracts of the plant. There is a dearth of double blind controlled studies. In this study, we aim to use existing literature to clarify both benefits and risks of kratom as well as its diagnosis evaluation as kratom misuse is an emerging trend in the Western world. Literature review using databases such as Embase, Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Mendeley from 2007 to 2017 were evaluated by all authors to analyze current state on benefits, risks, and diagnosis evaluation of kratom (M. speciosa). Data analysis suggested that kratom possesses some benefits such as stimulant and sedative effects as wells as antinociceptive effects. It seems to inhibit pro-inflammatory mediator release and vascular permeability and can enhance immunity. In addition, it may be an antidepressant and anorectic. However, kratom can cause

  18. Curcubitocin containing baits for Diabrotica spp. management/ Iscas contendo cucurbitacinas para o manejo de Diabrotica spp.

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    Mauricio Ursi Ventura

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabrotica speciosa is a very important pest throughout Latin America, which management strategies are restrict to chemical control. We revise the usage of baits, containing semiochemicals, as management strategy for Diabrotica spp. Initially, we described the importance of baits for several orders of agricultural importance. The cucurbitacins are basic elements for Diabrotica spp. baits. These chemicals occur in some botanical families, especially Cucurbitaceae. The Carbamate insecticide Carbaril showed the best results for addition in the baits. Flowers volatile substances and pheromones also may be added to the baits to enhance attraction. Commercial baits are available for north-American species. For bait development is necessary to establish plant adherent formulations that promote the control during some weeks. We found in the literature that starch matrix may be suitable for this proposal.Diabrotica speciosa é praga de grande importância na América Latina, cujas estratégias de manejo restringem-se ao controle químico. A utilização de iscas, contendo semioquímicos como estratégia para manejo de Diabrotica spp. é revisada. Inicialmente, descreve-se a importância das iscas para diversas ordens de importância agrícola. As cucurbitacinas são elementos básicos das iscas para Diabrotica spp. Estas substâncias ocorrem em várias famílias botânicas, especialmente, Cucurbitaceae. O inseticida carbamato Carbaril apresenta os melhores resultados quando adicionado às iscas. Substâncias voláteis de flores e feromônios também podem ser adicionados às iscas e, desta forma, aumentar sua atratividade. Iscas comerciais existem para as espécies norte americanas. Para o desenvolvimento das iscas é necessário que se estabeleçam formulações aderentes às plantas que promovam o controle durante um tempo razoável no campo. Pelas informações da literatura, formulações contendo matrizes de amido podem ter estas características.

  19. Effect of plant extracts used in folk medicine on cell growth and differentiation of Herpetomonas samuelpessoai (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae cultivated in defined medium Efeito de extratos de plantas utilizadas na medicina popular no crescimento e diferenciação celular de Herpetomonas samuelpessoai (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae cultivada em meio definido

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    Fabiola Barbieri Holetz

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the effect of 15 medicinal plants on cell growth and differentiation of Herpetomonas samuelpessoai, a non-pathogenic trypanosomatid, used as biological model for its similar antigens to Trypanosoma cruzi. Crude extracts (1,000 g/ml or essential oil (250 g/ml were added in a defined medium. Cell growth was estimated by counting in Neubauer’s chamber and cell differentiation was examined by light microscope. Ocimum gratissimum, Lippia alba, Piper regnellii, Stryphnodendron adstringens, and Tanacetum vulgare showed antiprotozoan activity, Psidium guajava and Punica granatum a lower activity and Achillea millefolium, Eugenia uniflora, Mikania glomerata, Plantago major, and Spilanthes acmella had no activity. In contrast, Arctium lappa, Erythrina speciosa, and Sambucus Canadensis stimulated H. samuelpessoai growth. Only L. alba and S. acmella stimulated cell differentiation in this flagellate. These results indicate that medicinal plants possess active compounds against H. samuelpessoai. Thus, this protozoan seems to be a suitable model for screening plants containing trypanocidal drugsNeste trabalho, verificou-se o efeito de 15 plantas medicinais no crescimento e diferenciação celular de Herpetomonas samuelpessoai, um tripanosomatídeo não patogênico utilizado como modelo biológico, que apresenta antígenos semelhantes aos do Trypanosoma cruzi. Extratos brutos (1.000 g/ml ou óleo essencial (250 µg/ml foram adicionados ao meio definido. O crescimento celular foi determinado pela contagem em câmara de Newbauer e a diferenciação celular examinada por microscopia ótica. Ocimum gratissimum, Lippia alba, Piper regnellii, Stryphnodendron adstringens, e Tanacetum vulgare mostraram atividade antiprotozoário, Psidium guajava e Punica granatum menor atividade e Achillea millefolium, Eugenia uniflora, Mikania glomerata, Plantago major, e Spilanthes acmella não apresentaram atividade. Por outro lado, Arctium lappa

  20. Resistance to Nitrogen Dioxide of 18 Kinds of Landscape Species in South China%华南18个景观树种抗N02能力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘先华; 张卫强; 李召青; 郭乐东; 周平

    2013-01-01

    为探讨18个华南景观树种抗NO2污染能力,以2~3a生实生苗为材料,通过人工气候室的盆栽试验,在NO2质量体积浓度为2.05 mg/m3的胁迫处理下,测定了叶片表观伤害症状、叶片气体交换参数及相对叶绿素含量等生理生态指标.采用隶属函数法及系统聚类分析法对其抗NO2污染能力进行了综合评价.结果表明,复羽叶栾树(Koelreuteria bipinnata)、穗花棋盘脚(Barringtonia racemosa)和广宁红山茶(Camellia chekiangoleosa)抗N02污染能力强;大花紫薇(Lagerstroemia speciosa)、紫薇(Lagerstroemia indica)、木棉(Bombax ceiba)、杜鹃红山茶(Camellia azalea)、深山含笑(Michelia maudiae)和澳洲火焰木(Brachychiton acerifolius)抗NO2污染能力较强;腊肠树(Cassia fistula)、仪花(Lysidice rhodostegia)和红花荷(Rhodoleia championii)抗N02污染能力中等;火焰木(Spathodea campanulata)、蓝花风铃木(Tabebuia pentaphylla)、樱花(Prunus serrulata)、红花羊蹄甲(Bauhinia blakeana)和美丽异木棉(Chorisia speciosa)抗NO2污染能力较弱,蓝花楹(Jacaranda mimosifolia)抗NO2污染能力弱.研究结果为华南重度酸污染地区景观树种选择提供参考.

  1. Inventario preliminar y nuevos registros de Psychodidae no Phlebotominae (Diptera, Nematocera para Argentina, con especial referencia a la Patagonia Preliminary inventory and new records of non Phlebotominae Psychodidae (Diptera, Nematocera for Argentina, with special emphasis to the Patagonian region

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    Guillermo H. Omad

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La familia Psychodidae incluye pequeños dípteros nematóceros de distribución cosmopolita. Phlebotominae, en virtud de su importancia sanitaria, ha recibido una adecuada atención y han sido descriptas más de 400 especies para América del Sur. Por el contrario, la contraparte no Phlebotominae de la familia ha sido pobremente estudiada y su conocimiento en la región es escaso. El conocimiento de las Psychodidae no Phlebotominae en la Argentina es escaso, ya que el mismo se restringe a 19 especies agrupadas en 9 géneros. El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar una lista actualizada de Psychodidae para Argentina, donde se amplía el número de géneros a 11, con aproximadamente 24 especies, se registran a su vez nueve especies aún no descriptas y se incluyen cuatro nuevos registros para la Argentina: Alepia copelata Quate, Alepia truncata Bravo, Trichomyia aurea Duckhouse y Trichomyia figuieroai Duckhouse; y tres para la provincia de Chubut: Desmioza speciosa (Tonnoir, Nemoneura confraga Quate & Brown y Nemoneura dealbata Tonnoir. Los sitios de muestreo para este trabajo se realizaron en diferentes zonas de las provincias de Chubut (Parque Nacional Los Alerces, Río Negro y Neuquén (Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi, Buenos Aires y Misiones.The family Psychodidae includes small cosmopolitan nematoceran flies. The Phlebotominae have received widespread attention due to their public health importance, and over 400 species have been described in South America. Nevertheless, the non Phlebotominae members of the family have been poorly studied, and their knowledge in the region is poor. In Argentina, the non Phlebotominae Psychodidae are scarcely known, with 19 recorded species included in 9 genera. The aim of this contribution is to present an updated list of Psychodidae from Argentina, extending the number of genera to 11 with approximately 24 species, including nine as yet undescribed taxa and four new records for the country: Alepia copelata

  2. Revisão sistemática, análise cladística e biogeografia dos gêneros Tribotropis e Hypselotropis (Coleoptera, Anthribidae, Anthribinae, Ptychoderini Systematic revision, cladistic analysis and biogeography of the genera Tribotropis and Hypselotropis (Coleoptera, Anthribidae, Anthribinae, Ptychoderini

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    José Ricardo M. Mermudes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Os gêneros Tribotropis Jekel, 1855 e Hypselotropis Jekel, 1855 são revisados. Com base nos resultados da análise cladística que incluiu 41caracteres e 22 táxons, o gênero Tribotropis é parafilético com relação a Hypselotropis, desta forma apresenta-se a proposta de sinonímia de Tribotropis syn. nov., sinônimo júnior. O gênero Hypselotropis, sinônimo sênior, e 17 espécies são redescritos, incluindo as espécies anteriormente alocadas em Tribotropis: Hypselotropis apollinaris (Jordan, 1939 comb. nov.; H. colombiana (Mermudes, 2004 comb. nov.; H. compressicornis (Jordan, 1895 comb. nov.; H. conicollis (Jekel, 1855 comb. nov.; H. limodes (Jordan, 1939 com. nov.; H. prasinata (Fahraeus, 1839 comb. nov.; H. punctulata (Jekel, 1855 comb. nov.; H. pustulata (Fabricius, 1801 comb. nov; H. speciosa (Jekel, 1855 comb. nov.; H. subvittata (Jordan, 1937 comb. nov.; H. suffusa (Jordan, 1895 comb. nov.; e H. vittata (Kirsch, 1889 comb. nov. Chave para identificação das espécies, ilustrações e mapas de distribuição são fornecidos. A biogeografia baseada nos padrões de distribuição das espécies é discutida.The genera Tribotropis Jekel, 1855 and Hypselotropis Jekel, 1855 are revised. Based on results of cladistic analysis that included 41 characters and 22 taxa, the genus Tribotropis resulted paraphyletic in relation to Hypselotropis, thus the former is proposed as a synonym of the latter. The genus Hypselotropis and 17 species are redescribed, including the species previously allocated in Tribotropis: Hypselotropis apollinaris (Jordan, 1939 comb. nov.; H. colombiana (Mermudes, 2004 comb. nov.; H. compressicornis (Jordan, 1895 comb. nov.; H. conicollis (Jekel, 1855 comb. nov.; H. limodes (Jordan, 1939 com. nov.; H. prasinata (Fahraeus, 1839 comb. nov.; H. punctulata (Jekel, 1855 comb. nov.; H. pustulata (Fabricius, 1801 comb. nov; H. speciosa (Jekel, 1855 comb. nov.; H. subvittata (Jordan, 1937 comb. nov.; H. suffusa (Jordan, 1895

  3. Anatomy, Morphology, and Cladistic Analysis of Monsonia L. (Geraniaceae.

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    Aldasoro, Juan Jose

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetip relationships among the 25 species of the old-world genus Monsonia are explored by means of a cladistic analysis. After a detailed revision, 20 morphological and anatomical characters were selected, including some new ones from nectaries, androecium, and mericarps. Phylogenetic analysis yielded 9 most parsimonious trees. The strict consensus tree showed two major clades: one is formed by the 9 species of Monsonia sect. Monsonia, characterised by plumose awns, plus Sarcocaulon; and a second with the 16 species of Monsonia sect. Olopetalum which share the type of mericarp detaching, consistency of columella and the thick mericarp walls. Consequently, some doubts about the monophyly of Monsonia exists. However, the current infrageneric classification of Monsonia is supported after transferring M. longipes and M. speciosa to sect. Olopetalum. Several characters of the mericarp are related to zoochory, which seems to be a derived syndrome in Monsonia, as in the other Geraniaceae.Se exploran mediante un an41isis cladístico las relaciones filogenéticas entre las 25 especies incluidas en el genero Monsonia. Tras una detallada revisi6n se seleccionan 20 caracteres morfológicos y anatómicos, entre ellos algunos previamente no descritos sobre los nectarios, el androceo y los mericarpos. El análisis filogenético produjo nueve árboles más parsimoniosos. El árbol de consenso estricto muestra dos clados principales: uno, formado por las nueve especies de Monsonia sect. Monsonia, caracterizadas por las aristas plumosas y las tres de Sarcocaulon que se usaron como grupo externo; y el segundo, formado por las 16 especies de Monsonia sect. Olopetalum, que comparten el tipo de separación del mericarpo, la consistencia de la columela y las paredes gruesas en el mericarpo. Como consecuencia surgen nuevas dudas sobre la monofilia de Monsonia. Sin embargo, nuestros datos apoyan la clasificación subgenérica actual de Monsonia si se incluyen M

  4. Evaluation Of Batu Bumbun Sanctuary Ecosystem And Management Strategy Affected By Climate Change In Mahakam Watershed Kutai Kartanegara Indonesia

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    Lariman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Batu Bumbun Sanctuary Middle Mahakam Lake is very important for the fishermen community and Mahakam Irrawaddy Dolphin life concerned to its function as the source of fish and as the feeding ground of Irrawaddy Dolphin Orcaella brevirostris. The changes in the forest function and the climate such as rainfall and water surfaces are predicted to have caused suppression in the ecosystem of Batu Bumbun Sanctuary. The aim of this study is to evaluate the current ecosystem changes of Batu Bumbun Sanctuary and suggest a suitable management strategy as a way to conserve its function. The research was conducted during the dry season April June and rainy season November December 2014 by using survey methods. The measured parameters were including water quality DO pH temperature TSS TDS alkalinity and clarity vegetation composition rainfall water surface elevation and sediment. The data of fish community were analysed by using Shanon-Wiener index. The result showed that 1 The current condition of Batu Bumbun biophysical ecosystem has been experiencing a heavy degradation showed by a high fluctuation of the water surface in two extreme seasons such as the flood in rainy seasons and silt up in the dry season. 2 The vegetation composition in the riverbanks was composed of five species including Bungur Lagerstroemia speciosa Rambai Punai Chaetocarpus Castano carpus Kendikara Dillenia excelsa Kademba Mytragina speciosa and Rengas Gluta renghas. The dominant tree species was Putat Barringtonia asiatica and Perupuk Lophopetalum javanicum. 3 Batu Bumbun Sanctuary has been experiencing a heavy siltation caused by silt material that piles up the weeds during the rainy season. Since 1985 Batu Bumbun was predicted to have rates of silting around 8 cmyear. From those result it can be concluded that Batu Bumbun has been experiencing a heavy degradation showed by a high fluctuation of water surface vegetation composition and heavy siltation. Then the most suitable

  5. Reserve carbohydrates and lipids from the seeds of four tropical tree species with different sensitivity to desiccation

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    Juliana Iura de Oliveira Mello

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of water content for the conservation and storage of seeds, and the involvement of soluble carbohydrates and lipids for embryo development, a comparative study was carried out among the seeds of Inga vera (ingá, Eugenia uniflora (pitanga, both classified as recalcitrant, and Caesalpinia echinata (brazilwood and Erythrina speciosa (mulungu, considered as orthodox seeds. Low concentrations of cyclitols (0.3-0.5%, raffinose family oligosaccharides (ca. 0.05% and unsaturated fatty acids (0-19% were found in the seeds of ingá and pitanga, while larger amounts of cyclitols (2-3% and raffinose (4.6-13% were found in brazilwood and mulungu, respectively. These results, in addition to higher proportions of unsaturated fatty acids (53-71% in orthodox seeds, suggested that sugars and lipids played important role in water movement, protecting the embryo cell membranes against injuries during dehydration.Os compostos de reserva das sementes, além de suprirem energia para o desenvolvimento embrionário, desempenham importantes funções relacionadas à proteção celular contra secagem e congelamento. Considerando a importância do teor de água para a conservação e para o armazenamento de sementes de espécies arbóreas e o envolvimento dos carboidratos solúveis e de lipídios nesses processos, foi realizada uma análise comparativa desses compostos em sementes de Inga vera (ingá e Eugenia uniflora (pitanga, consideradas recalcitrantes, e em Caesalpinia echinata (pau-brasil e Erythrina speciosa (mulungu, com comportamento ortodoxo. Baixas concentrações de ciclitóis (0,3-0,5%, de oligossacarídeos da série da rafinose (0,05% e de ácidos graxos insaturados (0-19% foram encontradas em sementes de ingá e pitanga, enquanto maiores quantidades de ciclitóis (2-3% e de rafinose (4,6-13% foram encontradas nas sementes de pau-brasil e mulungu, respectivamente. Estes resultados, juntamente com as altas proporções de

  6. First records of Chrysomelidae (Insecta, Coleoptera on blueberries in Argentina: new associations between native chrysomelids and an exotic crop Primeros registros de Chrysomelidae (Insecta, Coleoptera sobre arándanos en Argentina: nuevas asociaciones entre crisomélidos nativos y un cultivo exótico

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    Nora Cabrera

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum L. (Ericaceae, is a shrub native to the northern Hemisphere introduced in Argentina, where it occupies small cultivated areas mainly in the provinces of Buenos Aires, Entre Ríos and Tucumán. At present, little is known about insects associated with this crop in Argentina. The aim of this study was to identify the species of Chrysomelidae present in blueberry crops in different regions of Argentina, and to present new chrysomelids-blueberry associations. Identification diagnosis, geographical distribution, association with other plants and aspects of their biology is given for each species. Seven species of crop-damaging Chrysomelidae were recorded in blueberry crops of Buenos Aires and Entre Rios. They belong to the subfamilies Galerucinae: Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, Disonychodes exclamationis (Boheman, Caeporis stigmula Germar, and Cacoscelis melanoptera Germar; Eumolpinae: Percolaspis varia (Lefèvre, and Spintherophyta semiaurata (Klug; and Cryptocephalinae: Lexiphanes coenobita Suffrian.El arándano, Vaccinium corymbosum L. (Ericaceae, es un arbusto nativo del hemisferio Norte, que fue introducido en la Argentina donde ocupa pequeñas áreas cultivadas, principalmente en las provincias de Buenos Aires, Entre Ríos y Tucumán. Hasta la actualidad, se conoce poco sobre los insectos asociados con este cultivo. El objetivo de este trabajo es relevar las especies de crisomélidos presentes en los cultivos de arándano de diferentes regiones, y aportar nuevas asociaciones crisomélidos-arándano para la Argentina. Para cada especie registrada, se brinda la diagnosis para su reconocimiento, su distribución geográfica, la asociación con otras plantas y algunos aspectos de su biología. Se registraron siete especies de Chrysomelidae que utilizan el arándano como recurso alimenticio en las provincias de Buenos Aires y Entre Ríos: subfamilia Galerucinae: Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, Disonychodes

  7. Seleção de matrizes e clones de mangabeira para o cultivo in vitro Selection of parents and clones of mangabeira for in vitro cultivation

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    Luana de Lima Machado

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Altas taxas de mortalidade em viveiro de mudas de mangabeira (Hancornia speciosa impedem seu uso na reversão do processo de degradação das terras e na manutenção da produtividade e integridade ambiental do Cerrado. O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar matrizes e clones, provenientes de propagação sexuada e assexuada, com potencial de propagação in vitro, para produção de mudas de mangabeira. Foram coletados frutos de 11 matrizes e de cada matriz selecionaram-se 24 sementes em bom estado fitossanitário. Após a desinfecção, as sementes foram inoculadas em meio MS, sem reguladores de crescimento, obtendo-se uma média de germinação de 92,4%, e as matrizes não apresentaram diferença significativa entre si. Na fase de multiplicação, em meio MS, com os reguladores de crescimento BAP (6-benzilaminopurina e AIB (ácido indol-3-butírico, ambos na concentração de 1,28 mg L-1, a melhor matriz foi a C1 e o melhor clone foi o C1 15. Em todas as fases foi observada alta variabilidade, em menor porcentagem na matriz e maior porcentagem no clone dentro da matriz. A seleção deve ser realizada principalmente nos clones dentro da matriz.High tax of mortality of mangabeira (Hancornia speciosa seedlings in greenhouse conditions hinders its use on the reversion of the degradation of the natural vegetation, as well as on the preservation of the production and environmental integrity. The objective of this work was to select better mother plants and clones from sexual and assexual propagation, with potential to survive in vitro, for producing mangaba seedlings. Fruits were collected from 11 mother plants and from each plant, 24 seeds without aparent diseases were selected. After superficial desinfection, seeds were inoculated in MS medium without growth regulators and having a germination of 92.4% without significant difference between mother plants. On multiplication phase, with MS medium, with growth regulators BAP (6-benzilaminopurine

  8. Macroevolutionary constraints to tolerance: trade-offs with drought tolerance and phenology, but not resistance.

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    Pearse, Ian S; Aguilar, Jessica; Schroder, John; Strauss, Sharon Y

    2017-08-24

    Plant tolerance of herbivory, i.e., the ability to recover after damage, is an important component of how plants cope with herbivores. Tolerance has long been hypothesized to be constrained evolutionarily by plant resistance to herbivores, traits that allow plants to cope with stressful growing conditions, and traits that influence the timing of damage in relation to reproduction. Variation in tolerance and resistance can be caused by differences in the identity of the plant (e.g. genotype, species, clade) and by the context of the herbivore threat (e.g. identity of the herbivore, type of damage it causes, abiotic conditions in which the plant is growing). To date, the vast majority of studies have explored trade-offs with tolerance within species. Here, we test hypotheses of constraints on tolerance using comparative approaches in a clade of mustards, emphasizing the variety of contexts in which damage is realistically tolerated. We estimated tolerance to leaf damage, tolerance to apical clipping at the bolting stage- simulating browsing-, and resistance to a specialist and generalist lepidopteran herbivore for a group of native mustards, grown in field soils unique to each population and in a common potting soil. Resistance to herbivores was soil dependent, while surprisingly, tolerance was not. Phylogenetic signal in resistance to specialist and generalist lepidopteran herbivores was present, but only when plants were grown in field soils. Tolerance had low phylogenetic signal. Tolerance to leaf damage was unrelated to tolerance to simulated browse. We found no evidence for a resistance-tolerance trade-off, and some evidence for a soil-dependent positive correlation between tolerance and resistance to both herbivores. Drought-tolerant species had poorer ability to tolerate browse damage, and earlier flowering species tended to be less tolerant to leaf damage. Our results suggest that tolerance trades off with traits that allow mostly annual, monocarpic

  9. Sensitization and cross-reaction patterns in Danish Compositae-allergic patients.

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    Paulsen, E; Andersen, K E; Hausen, B M

    2001-10-01

    Results of aimed patch testing with constituents of sesquiterpene lactone (SL) mix, Compositae mix (CM) and other Compositae extracts and allergens in 190 Compositae-allergic patients detected in an 8-year period are presented. Feverfew of CM elicited positive reactions most frequently, followed by tansy, wild chamomile, yarrow and arnica, whereas dehydrocostus lactone of SL was the most frequent elicitor of positive reactions, followed by alantolactone and costunolide. Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema) and marguerite (Argyranthemum frutescens) were the most important suspected sensitizers in both occupationally and nonoccupationally exposed, and cross-reactions between chrysanthemum and feverfew/tansy/chamomile may partly explain the high prevalence of positive reactions to the 3 last mentioned. In the nonoccupationally sensitized group, garden plants such as feverfew, blanket flower (Gaillardia), elecampane (Inula helenium), large yellow ox-eye (Telekia speciosa) and cosmea (Cosmos) were additional important allergenic plants. The 3 last mentioned were picked up by SL mix. Most of the lettuce-sensitized persons were CM-positive. 19% of the occupationally sensitized group were negative to both SL and CM, making very aimed patch testing necessary, notably when suspecting rare sensitizers such as Gerbera and star of the veldt (Osteospermum). The significance of the weeds dandelion, dog fennel and ox-eye daisy as sensitizers is not clarified, but they are probably less important than cultivated plants.

  10. Kratom abuse in Ramathibodi Poison Center, Thailand: a five-year experience.

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    Trakulsrichai, Satariya; Tongpo, Achara; Sriapha, Charuwan; Wongvisawakorn, Sunun; Rittilert, Panee; Kaojarern, Sming; Wananukul, Winai

    2013-01-01

    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth), a native tree in Southeast Asia, is misused as an abuse drug and becomes legally widespread to several countries. Currently, it is available through the online market or by some shops. The clinical manifestations of Kratom's effects are not well-defined and the clinical studies are limited. This study was designed to identify the characteristics of Kratom poisoning and withdrawal cases from Kratom exposure cases in Ramathibodi Poison Center (RPC), Thailand, during a five-year period. We used a retrospective review of Kratom exposure cases from the RPC toxic surveillance system. A total of 52 Kratom exposure cases were identified. The trend of case consultations has been increasing. There were Kratom poisoning cases (76.9%) and withdrawal cases (23.1%). Common presenting symptoms in the poisoning group were palpitation (22.5%), followed by seizure (17.5%). For the withdrawal group, the common presenting symptoms were myalgia (33.3%), insomnia (16.67%), fatigue (16.67%), and chest discomfort (16.67%). There was a baby with withdrawal symptoms who was delivered from a chronic Kratom-abusing mother, suggesting possible exposure via the transplacental route. There were no deaths in either group. Kratom abuse can cause either poisoning or withdrawal. Most cases in both groups had good prognostic outcome.

  11. Metabolism studies of the Kratom alkaloids mitraciliatine and isopaynantheine, diastereomers of the main alkaloids mitragynine and paynantheine, in rat and human urine using liquid chromatography-linear ion trap-mass spectrometry.

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    Philipp, Anika A; Wissenbach, Dirk K; Weber, Armin A; Zapp, Josef; Maurer, Hans H

    2011-05-01

    Mitragyna speciosa (Kratom in Thai), native in Southeast Asia, is increasingly misused as a herbal drug of abuse. During metabolism studies on the Kratom alkaloids mitragynine, its diastereomers speciogynine and speciociliatine as well as paynantheine in rats and humans, further isomeric compounds were detected in Kratom users' urine. The question arose whether these compounds were formed from the low abundant, isomeric alkaloids mitraciliatine (MC) and isopaynantheine (ISO-PAY). Therefore, the aim of the presented study was to identify using liquid chromatography-linear ion trap-mass spectrometry their phase I and II metabolites in rat urine after administration of pure MC or ISO-PAY, to confirm their formation in humans, and finally to confirm whether the above-mentioned isomeric compounds in human urine represent MC and ISO-PAY and/or their metabolites. The metabolic pathways of both alkaloids in rats were found to be comparable to those of their corresponding diastereomers. In the human urines tested, not all metabolites found in rats could be detected because of the much lower amounts of MC and ISO-PAY in Kratom. However, all the above-mentioned so far unknown isomeric compounds could be identified in the human urine samples as MC, ISO-PAY and/or their metabolites. The used LC separation was also suitable for the differentiation of all other Kratom alkaloids and their metabolites in human urine.

  12. Phase I and II metabolites of speciogynine, a diastereomer of the main Kratom alkaloid mitragynine, identified in rat and human urine by liquid chromatography coupled to low- and high-resolution linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

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    Philipp, Anika A; Wissenbach, Dirk K; Weber, Armin A; Zapp, Josef; Maurer, Hans H

    2010-11-01

    Mitragyna speciosa (Kratom in Thai), a Thai medical plant, is misused as herbal drug of abuse. Besides the most abundant alkaloids mitragynine (MG) and paynantheine (PAY), several other alkaloids were isolated from Kratom leaves, among them the third abundant alkaloid is speciogynine (SG), a diastereomer of MG. The aim of this present study was to identify the phase I and II metabolites of SG in rat urine after the administration of a rather high dose of the pure alkaloid and then to confirm these findings using human urine samples after Kratom use. The applied liquid chromatography coupled to low- and high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS-MS) provided detailed information on the structure in the MS(n) mode particularly with high resolution. For the analysis of the human samples, the LC separation had to be improved markedly allowing the separation of SG and its metabolites from its diastereomer MG and its metabolites. In analogy to MG, besides SG, nine phase I and eight phase II metabolites could be identified in rat urine, but only three phase I and five phase II metabolites in human urine. These differences may be caused by the lower SG dose applied by the user of Kratom preparations. SG and its metabolites could be differentiated in the human samples from the diastereomeric MG and its metabolites comparing the different retention times determined after application of the single alkaloids to rats. In addition, some differences in MS(2) and/or MS(3) spectra of the corresponding diastereomers were observed.

  13. Pharmacology of kratom: an emerging botanical agent with stimulant, analgesic and opioid-like effects.

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    Prozialeck, Walter C; Jivan, Jateen K; Andurkar, Shridhar V

    2012-12-01

    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a plant indigenous to Thailand and Southeast Asia. Kratom leaves produce complex stimulant and opioid-like analgesic effects. In Asia, kratom has been used to stave off fatigue and to manage pain, diarrhea, cough, and opioid withdrawal. Recently, kratom has become widely available in the United States and Europe by means of smoke shops and the Internet. Analyses of the medical literature and select Internet sites indicate that individuals in the United States are increasingly using kratom for the self-management of pain and opioid withdrawal. Kratom contains pharmacologically active constituents, most notably mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine. Kratom is illegal in many countries. Although it is still legal in the United States, the US Drug Enforcement Administration has placed kratom on its "Drugs and Chemicals of Concern" list. Physicians should be aware of the availability, user habits, and health effects of kratom. Further research on the therapeutic uses, toxic effects, and abuse potential of kratom and its constituent compounds are needed.

  14. Studies on the metabolism of mitragynine, the main alkaloid of the herbal drug Kratom, in rat and human urine using liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

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    Philipp, Anika A; Wissenbach, Dirk K; Zoerntlein, Siegfried W; Klein, Oliver N; Kanogsunthornrat, Jidapha; Maurer, Hans H

    2009-08-01

    Mitragynine (MG) is an indole alkaloid of the Thai medicinal plant Mitragyna speciosa (Kratom in Thai) and reported to have opioid agonistic properties. Because of its stimulant and euphoric effects, Kratom is used as a herbal drug of abuse. The aim of the presented study is to identify the phase I and II metabolites of MG in rat and human urine after solid-phase extraction (SPE) using liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry providing detailed structure information in the MSn mode particularly with high resolution. The seven identified phase I metabolites indicated that MG was metabolized by hydrolysis of the methylester in position 16, O-demethylation of the 9-methoxy group and of the 17-methoxy group, followed, via the intermediate aldehydes, by oxidation to carboxylic acids or reduction to alcohols and combinations of some steps. In rats, four metabolites were additionally conjugated to glucuronides and one to sulfate, but in humans, three metabolites to glucuronides and three to sulfates.

  15. Soil microbial biomass in an agroforestry system of Northeast Brazil

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    Rosane C. Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Agroforestry systems (AFS are considered alternative land use options to help prevent soil degradation and improve soil microbial biomass and organic C status. However, it is unclear how different densities of babassu palm [Attalea speciosa (syn. Orbignya phalerata], which is an important tree in Northeast Brazil, affect the soil microbial biomass. We investigated the soil microbial biomass C and activity under AFS with different densities of babassu palm associated with Brachiaria brizantha grass. Soil microbial biomass C (MBC, soil microbial biomass N (MBN, MBC:total organic C ratio, fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis and dehydrogenase activity showed highest values in plots with high density of babassu palm. On the other hand, the respiratory quotient (qCO2 was significantly greater in plots without babassu palm. Brachiaria brizantha in monoculture may promote C losses from the soil, but AFS with high density of babassu palm may increase the potential of soils to accumulate C.Keywords: Enzyme activity, tropical soil, babassu palm, silvopastoral system, soil quality.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(341-48

  16. Corosolic acid ameliorates acute inflammation through inhibition of IRAK-1 phosphorylation in macrophages

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    Kim, Seung-Jae; Cha, Ji-Young; Kang, Hye Suk; Lee, Jae-Ho; Lee, Ji Yoon; Park, Jae-Hyung; Bae, Jae-Hoon; Song, Dae-Kyu; Im, Seung-Soon

    2016-01-01

    Corosolic acid (CA), a triterpenoid compound isolated from Lagerstroemia speciosa L. (Banaba) leaves, exerts anti-inflammatory effects by regulating phosphorylation of interleukin receptor- associated kinase (IRAK)-2 via the NF-κB cascade. However, the protective effect of CA against endotoxic shock has not been reported. LPS (200 ng/mL, 30 min) induced phosphorylation of IRAK-1 and treatment with CA (10 μM) significantly attenuated this effect. In addition, CA also reduced protein levels of NLRP3 and ASC which are the main components of the inflammasome in BMDMs. LPS-induced inflammasome assembly through activation of IRAK-1 was down-regulated by CA challenge. Treatment with Bay11-7082, an inhibitor of IκB-α, had no effect on CA-mediated inhibition of IRAK-1 activation, indicating that CA-mediated attenuation of IRAK-1 phosphorylation was independent of NF-κB signaling. These results demonstrate that CA ameliorates acute inflammation in mouse BMDMs and CA may be useful as a pharmacological agent to prevent acute inflammation. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(5): 276-281] PMID:26615974

  17. Mitragynine attenuates withdrawal syndrome in morphine-withdrawn zebrafish.

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    Beng-Siang Khor

    Full Text Available A major obstacle in treating drug addiction is the severity of opiate withdrawal syndrome, which can lead to unwanted relapse. Mitragynine is the major alkaloid compound found in leaves of Mitragyna speciosa, a plant widely used by opiate addicts to mitigate the harshness of drug withdrawal. A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the effect of mitragynine on anxiety behavior, cortisol level and expression of stress pathway related genes in zebrafish undergoing morphine withdrawal phase. Adult zebrafish were subjected to two weeks chronic morphine exposure at 1.5 mg/L, followed by withdrawal for 24 hours prior to tests. Using the novel tank diving tests, we first showed that morphine-withdrawn zebrafish display anxiety-related swimming behaviors such as decreased exploratory behavior and increased erratic movement. Morphine withdrawal also elevated whole-body cortisol levels, which confirms the phenotypic stress-like behaviors. Exposing morphine-withdrawn fish to mitragynine however attenuates majority of the stress-related swimming behaviors and concomitantly lower whole-body cortisol level. Using real-time PCR gene expression analysis, we also showed that mitragynine reduces the mRNA expression of corticotropin releasing factor receptors and prodynorphin in zebrafish brain during morphine withdrawal phase, revealing for the first time a possible link between mitragynine's ability to attenuate anxiety during opiate withdrawal with the stress-related corticotropin pathway.

  18. Antioxidant extracts of African medicinal plants induce cell cycle arrest and differentiation in B16F10 melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gismondi, Angelo; Canuti, Lorena; Impei, Stefania; Di Marco, Gabriele; Kenzo, Maurice; Colizzi, Vittorio; Canini, Antonella

    2013-09-01

    African ethnomedicine is essentially based on the traditional use of vegetal extracts. Since these natural drugs have shown health giving properties, in the present study we increased further the scientific basis supporting these data. We investigated the effects, on murine B16F10 melanoma cells, of plant extracts that were directly obtained by a Cameroon 'traditional healer'. After a preliminary study on the antioxidant functions of these compounds, already abundant in literature, Moringa oleifera Lam., Eremomastax speciosa (Hochst.) Cufod and Aframomum melegueta K. Schum extracts were individually analyzed. We performed laboratory assessments on these medicinal preparations in order to clearly demonstrate their antineoplastic features. All the treatments caused in tumor cells a great reduction in growth and proliferation rate, cell cycle arrest, increase of p53, p21WAF1/Cip1 and p27Kip1 protein levels and induction of differentiation. These results, on the bioactivity and the biochemical characteristics of African plant extracts, may increase the comprehension of indigenous therapeutic practices and represent the first step for the individuation of new inexpensive and natural drugs able to prevent and contrast cancer onset.

  19. The Bignoniaceae Juss. family (ipes in the municipal district of Lavras, Minas Gerais

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    Mariana Esteves Mansanares

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bignoniaceae family has 120 genera and 800 species with pantropical distribution, occurring mainly in the neotropics. About 32 genera and 350 species occur in Brazil, which is considered the center of diversity of the family. In Minas Gerais, some surveys indicate the occurrence of species such as Dolichandra unguis-cati, Fridericia speciosa and Handroanthus chrysotrichus. Lavras studies show 58 species. The municipality is located in a transition zone between savanna and semideciduous forest, with rugged terrain, which promotes a diversity of vegetation physiognomy. The objective was to catalog the species of native and exotic Bignoniaceae of Lavras, Minas Gerais, besides the elaboration of an identification key for them. Data were collected from all herbarium specimens with record collection in the city incorporated in the Herbarium ESAL; species cited in phytosociological studies of the county and registration of ornamental species found in parks, gardens and nurseries of the city were also raised. The specimens were identified in situ, by comparisons, consultations with specialists and specialized taxonomic literature. Fifty eight species (51 native and seven exotic were found, distributed in 21 genera, of which Jacaranda (10 species was the most common, followed by Fridericia (8 species and Handroanthus (7 species. Among the ornamental species stood out Handroanthus impetiginosus (Purple-ipe and Handroanthus serratifolius (Yellow-ipe. The number of species was superior to other localities, the largest similarity observed was with species of Itacolomi State Park, Minas Gerais.

  20. Avaliação da qualidade de amostras comerciais de leite de janaguba (Himatanthus drasticus (Mart. Plumel em Fortaleza – Ceará

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    F.P. SOARES

    Full Text Available RESUMO Os fitoterápicos à base de leite de janaguba (Himatanthus drasticus (Mart. Plumel, usados para o tratamento de câncer, úlcera gástrica e outras doenças, são muito vendidos em mercados públicos de Fortaleza (CE. No entanto, registros mencionam que é comum a troca deste leite por látex de mangabeira (Hancornia speciosa Gomes. O trabalho objetivou avaliar a qualidade físico-química, química e microbiológica de amostras comerciais do leite de janaguba. Dez amostras comerciais foram adquiridas de um mercado de Fortaleza; quatro amostras autênticas de látex de janaguba foram obtidas da chapada do Araripe e uma amostra de látex de mangabeira foi obtida em Paracuru (CE. Foram determinados o aspecto geral, densidade, pH, resíduo seco, volume de sedimentação, perfil cromatográfico e qualidade microbiológica das amostras. Os resultados mostraram elevada contaminação microbiológica nas preparações comerciais e adulteração em seis destas amostras, o que aponta a urgente implantação de uma efetiva farmacovigilância dos fitoterápicos a fim de tornar seu consumo mais seguro e racional.

  1. ESPÉCIES FLORESTAIS DE RESTINGAS COMO POTENCIAIS INSTRUMENTOS PARA GESTÃO COSTEIRA E TECNOLOGIA SOCIAL EM CARAVELAS, BAHIA (BRASIL

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    Henrique Machado Dias

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Caravelas, located in southern Bahia state, the main vegetation formations are the mangrove forests and ‘restingas’ (sandbanks presenting, the latter, a high degree of degradation. The aim of this paper is to describe the main forest species of these ‘restingas’ and their direct uses associated with the recovery and management of degraded areas and creation of jobs and income, making thus an important tool for integrated coastal zone. For this, elaborate floral listings and field visits were necessary for recognizing the environment. In the selection of species, a literature about the use, management and value of each species were used, and from there, four species with potential for generating jobs and income along of this proposal were recognized: Mangaba ( Hancornia speciosa , Pitanga ( Eugenia uniflora , Mangaba ( Anacardium occidentale and Aroeira ( Schinus terebinthifolius . The first three are associated with the use of its fruit food, serving these ‘aroeiras’ as pepper trees, with a high value on the world market, and cashew, because of its fertile structure. The identification of products provided sustainable use of species and environment and the Non-Timber Forest Products can be strategic in coastal management, making it an instrument to subsidize social inclusion through the creation of jobs and income, under the movement of Social Technology, contributing to reduce the social vulnerability of traditional coastal communities.

  2. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of Chinese herb fructus chaenomelis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuhu Du; Lina Chen; Kunfang Ma; Hongjian Ji

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To establish reliable methods for evaluating the quality of Chinese herb fructus chaenomelis. Methods: Qualitative analysis by Thin layer chromatography (TLC) , reference substances were Chaenomeles speciosa (Sweet) Nakai and oleanolic acid, a ethanol solution. In the system of high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC), a Prontosil Eurobond C18 column (250 mm×4.0 the flow rate was 1.0 ml/min with UV detected at 210 nm, the column temperature was maintained at room temperature. Results:In the system of TLC, oleanolic acid was separated successfully. In HPLC, the linear ranges of oleanotic acid and ursolic acid were 5.89-13.73 μg (R=0.9990)and 6.84~15.96 μg (R=0.9990), respectively. The average recoveries of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid were 97.52% (RSD=2.58% ), 98.21% (RSD=2.23%), respectively. Conclusion: The established TLC method can easily distinguish Chinese herb fructus chaenomelis from other commonly used crude drugs of the same family .The HPLC method for determining oleanolic acid and ursolic acid is simple, reproducible, accurate and feasible. The methods reported in this paper can be used scientifically and effectively to evaluate the quality of Chinese herb fructus chaenomelis.

  3. Screening of some plants used in the Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holetz, Fabíola Barbiéri; Pessini, Greisiele Lorena; Sanches, Neviton Rogério; Cortez, Diógenes Aparício Garcia; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Filho, Benedito Prado Dias

    2002-10-01

    Extracts of 13 Brazilian medicinal plants were screened for their antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeasts. Of these, 10 plant extracts showed varied levels of antibacterial activity. Piper regnellii presented a good activity against Staphylococus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, a moderate activity on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a weak activity against Escherichia coli. Punica granatum showed good activity on S. aureus and was inactive against the other standard strains. Eugenia uniflora presented moderate activity on both S. aureus and E. coli. Psidium guajava,Tanacetum vulgare, Arctium lappa, Mikania glomerata, Sambucus canadensis, Plantago major and Erythrina speciosa presented some degree of antibacterial activity. Spilanthes acmella, Lippia alba, and Achillea millefolium were considered inactive. Five of the plant extracts presented compounds with Rf values similar to the antibacterial compounds visible on bioautogram. Of these, three plants belong to the Asteraceae family. This may mean that the same compounds are responsible for the antibacterial activity in these plants. Anticandidal activity was detected in nine plant extracts (P. guajava, E. uniflora, P. granatum, A. lappa, T. vulgare, M. glomerata, L. alba, P. regnellii, and P. major). The results might explain the ethnobotanical use of the studied species for the treatment of various infectious diseases.

  4. Palynological analysis of camelid coprolites: seasonality in the use of the site Cerro Casa de Piedra 7 (Santa Cruz, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez, Nadia Jimena; Burry, Lidia Susana; Fugassa, Martín Horacio; Civalero, María Teresa; Aschero, Carlos Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Palynological, palaeoparasitological and paleobotanical studies of coprolites found in archaeological sites from Perito Moreno National Park (47°57‧S72°05‧W) yielded information on diet, palaeoenvironment and health. These studies allowed adding evidence to the reconstruction of life history of the hunter-gatherers that inhabited Patagonia during the Holocene. We examined the season of the year when camelid Lama guanicoe coprolites (5400 ± 64 yr 14C BP to 9640 ± 190 yr 14C BP) were deposited at Cerro Casa de Piedra 7 (site CCP7). The study used palynological evidence and comparison with pollen spectra of modern feces collected during summer, fall, winter and spring of 2010. The dominant types were: pollen of Nothofagus, Empetrum rubrum, Asteraceae subfam. Asteroideae, Nassauvia, Caryophyllaceae and Poaceae; fern spores; remains of Eimeria macusaniensis; and plant remains of Poaceae, Festuca pallescens, Stipa speciosa, Armeria maritima, Gaultheria mucronata and E. rubrum. Pollen spectra of modern and fossil feces were used for multivariate analysis. Coprolites associated to fall and winter modern feces. These results and those obtained from pollen concentration values and the presence of pollen types indicators of seasonality, allowed the determination of summer, fall and winter coprolites. However, caution must be taken with the seasonality results of coprolites dated earlier than 9000 years BP since the environmental conditions differed from now. The site was probably a camelid shelter during the unfavorable seasons.

  5. Nutritive value and in situ rumen degradability of Marandu palisade grass at different locations within the pasture in a silvopastoral system with different babassu palm densities

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    Xerxes M. Tosta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritive value and in situ rumen degradability of grass collected from different locations within the pasture in a silvopastoral system with different densities of trees. The silvopastoral system consisted of Urochloa (syn. Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu and the babassu palm, Orbignya sp. (now: Attaleia speciosa. We used a completely randomized design with a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement for nutritional value (3 differently shaded locations and 3 palm tree densities and a 3 x 3 x 3 factorial arrangement for dry matter (DM disappearance (3 locations, 3 palm densities and 3 incubation times. There was no effect of location within the pasture nor of palm tree density on the concentrations of NDF, ADF, lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose. However, location influenced the concentrations of crude protein (CP and DM, with highest CP in material grown in full sunlight. At all densities, DM disappearance at 96 h for pasture grown in full sunlight exceeded that for pasture grown in full shade. These factors need to be compounded with the possible depressant effect of trees on DM production of pasture when considering the benefits of silvopastoral systems.Keywords: Digestibility, fiber, Northeast Brazil, protein, tree-grass associations, Urochloa  brizantha.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(3187-193

  6. Characterization, antioxidant potential and cytotoxic study of mangaba fruits

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    Carolina Fagundes Assumpção

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The mangaba (Hancornia speciosa stands out and has a great potential for economic exploitation and researches have suggested relevant results regarding the nutritional and functional value of this food. Therefore, the objective of this study was to chemically and physicochemically characterize the mangaba fruit harvested in the Middle Araguaia region. It was evaluated the chemical composition, antioxidant activity, volatile compounds, preliminary photochemical studies of phenolic components and the cytotoxic potential of ethanolic extract fruits against Artemia salina. The mean pH, the total titratable acidity and the value for reducing sugars conclude that the mangaba possesses the characteristics appropriate for both fresh consumption and for processing. Between the mean values measured, the fruits presented high fiber content and a low caloric value. The analysis of the antioxidant potential revealed a significant activity and in the volatile compounds analysis, esters were the major class presents. The result of the phytochemical screening revealed that phenols, flavonoids and tannins were present in the ethanolic extract of mangaba and a significant activity in the cytotoxicity assay was observed.

  7. A LITERATURE REVIEW ON ARGYREIA NERVOSA (BURM. F. BOJER

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    Meher Ashutosh

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Various herbal drugs individually or in combination have been recommended for the treatment of different diseases. Argyreia nervosa Burm. F. (Syn. Argyreia speciosa commonly known as ‘Vridha daraka’ in Sanskrit belongs to family Convolvulaceae has been used in different system of traditional medication for the treatment of diseases and ailments of human beings. It is reported to contain several phytochemical constituents like Alkaloids, Carbohydrate, Tannins, amber-colored resin, Sterols, Saponin. Economically it is used as folklore medicine as well as for ornamental purpose. Argyreia nervosa is an important source of compounds like 1-triacontanol, ß-sitosterol, epifriedeline, Kaemperol-3-o-l-rhamnopyranoside, agroclavine, ergine, isoergine, isolysergic acid amide, pennidavine, caffeic acid, Et-caffeate, chanoclavine-I, chanoclavine-II, racemic chanoclavine-I, festuclavine, lysergine, lysergol, isolysergol, molliclavine, penniclavine, steoclavine, isosetoclavine, tetradecanyl palminate, 5,8-oxidotetraco san-10-one, stigmasteryl p-hydroxycinnamate, n-tricontanol, β-sitosterol and p-hydroxy innamoyloctadecanolate which are useful as Aphrodisiac, Immunomodulators, Hepatoprotective, Hypoglycemic, Anti Inflammatory, Anticonvulsant and Nootropic etc.

  8. Immunomodulatory and Antimicrobial Activity of Babassu Mesocarp Improves the Survival in Lethal Sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Dayanna S.; Barcellos, Priscila S.; Gonçalves, Azizedite G.

    2016-01-01

    Attalea speciosa syn Orbignya phalerata Mart. (babassu) has been used in the treatment of inflammatory and infectious diseases. Aim of the study. To investigate the antimicrobial and immunological activity of babassu mesocarp extract (EE). Material and Methods. The in vitro antimicrobial activity was evaluated by disk diffusion assay and by determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The flavonoids and phenolic acids content were determined by chromatography. The in vivo assays were performed in Swiss mice submitted to sepsis by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). The mice received EE subcutaneously (125 or 250 mg/Kg), 6 hours after the CLP. The number of lymphoid cells was quantified and the cytokines production was determined by ELISA after 12 h. Results. EE was effective as antimicrobial to E. faecalis, S. aureus, and MRSA. EE is rich in phenolic acids, a class of compounds with antimicrobial and immunological activity. An increased survival can be observed in those groups, possibly due to a significant inhibition of TNF-α and IL-6. Conclusions. The EE showed specific antimicrobial activity in vitro and an important antiseptic effect in vivo possibly due to the antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activity. PMID:27630733

  9. Bioplaguicidas de origen vegetal en Costa Rica.

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    Jaime García

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo cita los nombres, ordenados por su principal acción plaguicida, de poco más de un centenar de plantas con algún tipo de potencial bioplaguicida en Costa Rica. Posteriormente se presenta la situación de la oferta y la demanda actual de estos productos, destacando las principales limitaciones que experimenta su desarrollo comercial, así como el potencial que posee el país en esta materia, basado en su extraordinaria biodiversidad. Además, se hace mención de las entidades involucradas en esta temática. Finalmente se hacen algunas consideraciones adicionales relacionadas con la toxicidad de estos productos y sobre la importancia de los conocimientos etnobotánicos en esta materia. Entre las especies de plantas que más se mencionan en la bibliografía consultada están Allium sativum, Annona reticulata, Azadirachta indica, Capsicum frutescens, Chenopodium Ambrosiodes, Gliricidia sepium, Quassia amara y Ryania speciosa. Se resalta el hecho de que hasta la fecha, tanto su uso artesanal como su desarrollo comercial son mínimos, en relación con el potencial existente en el país. Con excepción de dos productos, los pocos bioplaguicidas de origen vegetal que se comercializan son importados.

  10. Experiences of Kratom Users: A Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swogger, Marc T; Hart, Elaine; Erowid, Fire; Erowid, Earth; Trabold, Nicole; Yee, Kaila; Parkhurst, Kimberly A; Priddy, Brittany M; Walsh, Zach

    2015-01-01

    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a psychoactive plant that has been used since at least 1836 in folk medicine in Southeast Asian countries. More recently, kratom has become widely available in the West and is used for both recreational and medicinal purposes. There has, however, been little scientific research into the short- and long-term effects of kratom in humans, and much of the information available is anecdotal. To supplement the increasing scientific understanding of kratom's pharmacology and research into its effects in animals, we report the results of a qualitative analysis of first-hand descriptions of human kratom use that were submitted to, and published by, a psychoactive substance information website (Erowid.org). Themes that emerged from these experience reports indicate that kratom may be useful for analgesia, mood elevation, anxiety reduction, and may aid opioid withdrawal management. Negative response themes also emerged, indicating potential problems and unfavorable "side" effects, especially stomach upset and vomiting. Based on our analyses, we present preliminary hypotheses for future examination in controlled, quantitative studies of kratom.

  11. Morphological and phylogenetic comparisons amongst powdery mildews on Catalpa in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Roger T A; Henricot, Béatrice; Henrici, Alick; Beales, Paul

    2006-06-01

    Three species of powdery mildew, Erysiphe elevata, E. catalpae, and Neoerysiphe galeopsidis were identified on Catalpa species in England in 2004. A new disease record, N. galeopsidis was the first Catalpa mildew to appear (in June), but it was later out-competed by E. elevata that caused the most serious damage. Both mildews also attacked C. speciosa, C. xerubescens and a new host, xChitalpa tashkentensis, a Chilopsis xCatalpa hybrid. No powdery mildew was detected on C. bungei, C. ovata, or C. fargesii. Identifications of the pathogens using morphological data were fully supported by DNA analysis yielding characteristic rDNA ITS sequences. The sequences placed E. catalpae within the E. aquilegiae clade. The sequences for E. elevata from southern England and France closely matched those from Hungary and North America, confirming the recent spread of this pathogen from the USA. It eventually overran N. galeopsidis and its sudden appearance in the UK could be due to greater aggressiveness and to the production of more ascomata especially during autumns with delayed leaf fall as in 2001. A further species, Oidium hiratae (i.e. Podosphaera sp.), though described from a 1978 UK collection on C. bignonioides, was not detected in the field.

  12. Agronomic, morphogenic and structural characteristics of Marandu grass in silvopastoral systems composed of babassu palm and grass monoculture

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    Rosane Cláudia Rodrigues

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the agronomic, morphogenic and structural characteristics of palisadegrass (Urochloa brizantha in silvopastoral systems (SSP’s composed of babassu palms (Attalea speciosa and grass monoculture in the Pre-Amazon region of the state of Maranhão, Brazil. The study followed a completely randomized design, with the arrangement in split plots with six replicates for the evaluation of agronomic characteristics and 30 repetitions for the morphogenic and structural characteristics. The plots were divided into pasture environments with different palm densities (monoculture, 80, 131, 160 palms.ha-¹, and the subplots were divided into the different seasons (rainy and dry. Total forage production was affected (P 0.05 by pastoral system during the rainy season, but in the dry period, higher responses were obtained in SSPs. Overall, SSPs with 80 palms.ha-¹ favored the agronomic characteristics of pastures. Morphogenic and structural characteristics were favored by increasing palm densities. Leaf senescence and duration were not affected by the system.

  13. Adverse effects of herbal medicines: an overview of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posadzki, Paul; Watson, Leala K; Ernst, Edzard

    2013-02-01

    This overview of systematic reviews (SRs) aims to evaluate critically the evidence regarding the adverse effects of herbal medicines (HMs). Five electronic databases were searched to identify all relevant SRs, with 50 SRs of 50 different HMs meeting our inclusion criteria. Most had only minor weaknesses in methods. Serious adverse effects were noted only for four HMs: Herbae pulvis standardisatus, Larrea tridentate, Piper methysticum and Cassia senna. The most severe adverse effects were liver or kidney damage, colon perforation, carcinoma, coma and death. Moderately severe adverse effects were noted for 15 HMs: Pelargonium sidoides, Perna canaliculus, Aloe vera, Mentha piperita, Medicago sativa, Cimicifuga racemosa, Caulophyllum thalictroides, Serenoa repens, Taraxacum officinale, Camellia sinensis, Commifora mukul, Hoodia gordonii, Viscum album, Trifolium pratense and Stevia rebaudiana. Minor adverse effects were noted for 31 HMs: Thymus vulgaris, Lavandula angustifolia Miller, Boswellia serrata, Calendula officinalis, Harpagophytum procumbens, Panax ginseng, Vitex agnus-castus, Crataegus spp., Cinnamomum spp., Petasites hybridus, Agave americana, Hypericum perforatum, Echinacea spp., Silybum marianum, Capsicum spp., Genus phyllanthus, Ginkgo biloba, Valeriana officinalis, Hippocastanaceae, Melissa officinalis, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Cnicus benedictus, Salvia hispanica, Vaccinium myrtillus, Mentha spicata, Rosmarinus officinalis, Crocus sativus, Gymnema sylvestre, Morinda citrifolia and Curcuma longa. Most of the HMs evaluated in SRs were associated with only moderately severe or minor adverse effects.

  14. 莲不同药用部位化学成分研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵小亮; 章军; 马小军; 王智民; 刘安

    2012-01-01

    莲(Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn)为睡莲科(Nymphaeaceae)莲属(Nelumbo)植物,具有多个通用名(Indian lotus,Chinesewater lily,sacred lotus等)和学名(Nelumbium nelumbo,N.speciosa,N.speciosum,Nymphaea nelumbo等)[1].该属植物有2种,分别为美洲黄莲(Nelumbo pentapetala Fernald.)和中国莲(Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn).美洲黄莲以美国东北部为中心,分布在北美;中国莲以中国为中心,分布在亚洲、大洋洲.我国仅有中国莲一种,为多年生水生草本植物,在湖南、湖北、浙江、江苏等地有广泛种植.在临床应用中,莲有多个部位入药,包括荷叶、莲子(种胚及莲子心)、藕、莲房和荷花(翼瓣及雄蕊),不同部位药用价值并不完全相同[1-2].

  15. The Microbial Signature Provides Insight into the Mechanistic Basis of Coral Success across Reef Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggat, William; Bongaerts, Pim

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT For ecosystems vulnerable to environmental change, understanding the spatiotemporal stability of functionally crucial symbioses is fundamental to determining the mechanisms by which these ecosystems may persist. The coral Pachyseris speciosa is a successful environmental generalist that succeeds in diverse reef habitats. The generalist nature of this coral suggests it may have the capacity to form functionally significant microbial partnerships to facilitate access to a range of nutritional sources within different habitats. Here, we propose that coral is a metaorganism hosting three functionally distinct microbial interactions: a ubiquitous core microbiome of very few symbiotic host-selected bacteria, a microbiome of spatially and/or regionally explicit core microbes filling functional niches (100,000 phylotypes). We find that this coral hosts upwards of 170,000 distinct phylotypes and provide evidence for the persistence of a select group of bacteria in corals across environmental habitats of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. We further show that a higher number of bacteria are consistently associated with corals on mesophotic reefs than on shallow reefs. An increase in microbial diversity with depth suggests reliance by this coral on bacteria for nutrient acquisition on reefs exposed to nutrient upwelling. Understanding the complex microbial communities of host organisms across broad biotic and abiotic environments as functionally distinct microbiomes can provide insight into those interactions that are ubiquitous niche symbioses and those that provide competitive advantage within the hosts’ environment. PMID:27460792

  16. The Microbial Signature Provides Insight into the Mechanistic Basis of Coral Success across Reef Habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Hernandez-Agreda

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available For ecosystems vulnerable to environmental change, understanding the spatiotemporal stability of functionally crucial symbioses is fundamental to determining the mechanisms by which these ecosystems may persist. The coral Pachyseris speciosa is a successful environmental generalist that succeeds in diverse reef habitats. The generalist nature of this coral suggests it may have the capacity to form functionally significant microbial partnerships to facilitate access to a range of nutritional sources within different habitats. Here, we propose that coral is a metaorganism hosting three functionally distinct microbial interactions: a ubiquitous core microbiome of very few symbiotic host-selected bacteria, a microbiome of spatially and/or regionally explicit core microbes filling functional niches (100,000 phylotypes. We find that this coral hosts upwards of 170,000 distinct phylotypes and provide evidence for the persistence of a select group of bacteria in corals across environmental habitats of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. We further show that a higher number of bacteria are consistently associated with corals on mesophotic reefs than on shallow reefs. An increase in microbial diversity with depth suggests reliance by this coral on bacteria for nutrient acquisition on reefs exposed to nutrient upwelling. Understanding the complex microbial communities of host organisms across broad biotic and abiotic environments as functionally distinct microbiomes can provide insight into those interactions that are ubiquitous niche symbioses and those that provide competitive advantage within the hosts’ environment.

  17. Organelle_PBA, a pipeline for assembling chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes from PacBio DNA sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soorni, Aboozar; Haak, David; Zaitlin, David; Bombarely, Aureliano

    2017-01-07

    The development of long-read sequencing technologies, such as single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing by PacBio, has produced a revolution in the sequencing of small genomes. Sequencing organelle genomes using PacBio long-read data is a cost effective, straightforward approach. Nevertheless, the availability of simple-to-use software to perform the assembly from raw reads is limited at present. We present Organelle-PBA, a Perl program designed specifically for the assembly of chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes. For chloroplast genomes, the program selects the chloroplast reads from a whole genome sequencing pool, maps the reads to a reference sequence from a closely related species, and then performs read correction and de novo assembly using Sprai. Organelle-PBA completes the assembly process with the additional step of scaffolding by SSPACE-LongRead. The program then detects the chloroplast inverted repeats and reassembles and re-orients the assembly based on the organelle origin of the reference. We have evaluated the performance of the software using PacBio reads from different species, read coverage, and reference genomes. Finally, we present the assembly of two novel chloroplast genomes from the species Picea glauca (Pinaceae) and Sinningia speciosa (Gesneriaceae). Organelle-PBA is an easy-to-use Perl-based software pipeline that was written specifically to assemble mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes from whole genome PacBio reads. The program is available at https://github.com/aubombarely/Organelle_PBA .

  18. Grazing behavior and spatial distribution of feces of Young bulls in silvopastoral systems and Marandu monoculture in the Pre-Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Alves de Araújo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the grazing behavior and the spatial distribution of feces of F1 young bulls from the cross between Nellore and Guzera on pastures of Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu in silvopastoral systems composed of babassu palm (Attalea speciosa and Marandu monoculture in the Pre-Amazon region of the state of Maranhão. Animals were evaluated in four systems consisting of 0, 80, 131, 160 palms ha-1, characterizing monoculture (mono, low density of palm trees (LD, medium density of palm trees (MD and high density of palm trees (HD during the rainy (RE and dry (DE periods. Five animals (repetitions were used in each system, with 231-303 days of age and 180±15 kg body weight. Determinations of behavioral patterns were made by instant sampling, at 10 min intervals. In each system, we demarcated 50 squares of 100 m2, which served as useful area to evaluate the dispersion of feces. The grazing behavior was influenced by the sward structure, which, in turn, was influenced by densities of palm trees, due to shading. The distribution of feces was affected by both the presence of babassu plantations and periods. The silvopastoral systems made the environment more pleasant to animals, since activities considered more stressful and avoided during the daytime were performed by animals of these environments, unlike animals in the monoculture system.

  19. Ecological aspects of Rhodnius nasutus Stål, 1859 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae in palms of the Chapada do Araripe in Ceará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Braga Stehling Dias

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to present aspects related to the ecology of Rhodnius nasutus Stål, 1859 in palms from Chapada do Araripe in Ceará, Brazil. The following five species of palms were investigated: babaçu (Attalea speciosa, buriti (Mauritia flexuosa, carnaúba (Copernicia prunifera, catolé (Syagrus oleracea and macaúba-barriguda (Acrocomia intumescens. Fifth palms were dissected (10 specimens for each species. The overall infestation index was 86%, with a total of 521 triatomines collected. The Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas, 1909 Index was 16.8% and two insects presented mixed infection with Trypanosoma rangeli Tejera, 1920. A precipitin test showed that R. nasutus from palms of Chapada do Araripe are associated with opossum and bird although other possible bloodmeals were observed. Our results showing a high index of infestation of the palms as well as T. cruzi infection, the association of R. nasutus with the most diverse species of palms and proximity of these palms to houses demonstrate the importance of this area for sylvatic T. cruzi transmission and suggest the need for epidemiological surveillance in the region of the Chapada do Araripe.

  20. Immunomodulatory and Antimicrobial Activity of Babassu Mesocarp Improves the Survival in Lethal Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth S. B. Barroqueiro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Attalea speciosa syn Orbignya phalerata Mart. (babassu has been used in the treatment of inflammatory and infectious diseases. Aim of the study. To investigate the antimicrobial and immunological activity of babassu mesocarp extract (EE. Material and Methods. The in vitro antimicrobial activity was evaluated by disk diffusion assay and by determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC to Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. The flavonoids and phenolic acids content were determined by chromatography. The in vivo assays were performed in Swiss mice submitted to sepsis by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP. The mice received EE subcutaneously (125 or 250 mg/Kg, 6 hours after the CLP. The number of lymphoid cells was quantified and the cytokines production was determined by ELISA after 12 h. Results. EE was effective as antimicrobial to E. faecalis, S. aureus, and MRSA. EE is rich in phenolic acids, a class of compounds with antimicrobial and immunological activity. An increased survival can be observed in those groups, possibly due to a significant inhibition of TNF-α and IL-6. Conclusions. The EE showed specific antimicrobial activity in vitro and an important antiseptic effect in vivo possibly due to the antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activity.

  1. Here today, gone tomorrow…and back again? A review of herbal marijuana alternatives (K2, Spice), synthetic cathinones (bath salts), kratom, Salvia divinorum, methoxetamine, and piperazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Christopher D; Carreiro, Stephanie P; Babu, Kavita M

    2012-03-01

    Despite their widespread Internet availability and use, many of the new drugs of abuse remain unfamiliar to health care providers. The herbal marijuana alternatives, like K2 or Spice, are a group of herbal blends that contain a mixture of plant matter in addition to chemical grade synthetic cannabinoids. The synthetic cathinones, commonly called "bath salts," have resulted in nationwide emergency department visits for severe agitation, sympathomimetic toxicity, and death. Kratom, a plant product derived from Mitragyna speciosa Korth, has opioid-like effects, and has been used for the treatment of chronic pain and amelioration of opioid-withdrawal symptoms. Salvia divinorum is a hallucinogen with unique pharmacology that has therapeutic potential but has been banned in many states due to concerns regarding its psychiatric effects. Methoxetamine has recently become available via the Internet and is marked as "legal ketamine." Moreover, the piperazine derivatives, a class of amphetamine-like compounds that includes BZP and TMFPP, are making a resurgence as "legal Ecstasy." These psychoactives are available via the Internet, frequently legal, and often perceived as safe by the public. Unfortunately, these drugs often have adverse effects, which range from minimal to life-threatening. Health care providers must be familiar with these important new classes of drugs. This paper discusses the background, pharmacology, clinical effects, detection, and management of synthetic cannabinoid, synthetic cathinone, methoxetamine, and piperazine exposures.

  2. Potential Malaysia agricultural waste materials for the biosorption of cadmium(II) from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foo, L.P.Y.; Tee, C.Z.; Raimy, N.R.; Hassell, D.G.; Lee, L.Y. [University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Semenyih, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2012-04-15

    Biosorption of cadmium(II) ions (Cd{sup 2+}) onto Ananas comosus (AC) peel, Parkia speciosa (PS) pods and Psidium guajava (PG) peel were investigated in this study. Batch sorption experiments were performed by investigating the effect of initial pH. It was found that Cd{sup 2+} uptake was highly dependent on the initial pH and Cd{sup 2+} removal efficiency was highest for PG peel, followed by AC peel and PS pods. Biosorption experiments were carried out using different initial Cd{sup 2+} concentration and the experimental data obtained was fitted to both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The experimental data was found to best fit the Langmuir isotherm, and adsorption capacities of 18.21 mg/g (AC peel), 25.64 mg/g (PS pods) and 39.68 mg/g (PG peel) were obtained. Comparison with published adsorption capacities for other low-cost biosorbents indicates that PS pods and PG peel have potential as low-cost biosorbent materials for the removal of Cd{sup 2+} from aqueous solution. (orig.)

  3. 中国北方城市常见绿化植物夏季气孔导度影响因素及模型比较%Impact factors and model comparison of summer stomatal conductance of six common greening species in cities of Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴大千; 徐飞; 郭卫华; 王仁卿; 张治国

    2007-01-01

    利用Jarvis和Ball两种常规气孔导度模拟模型和人工神经网络模型(ANN)对中国北方城市常见的6种绿化植物的夏季气孔导度变化动态进行了模拟.结果表明:贴梗海棠(Chaenomeles speciosa)和龙爪槐(Sophora japonica)的最优模拟模型为Ball模型,木兰(Magnolia liliflora)最优模拟模型为Jarvis模型,而日本樱花(Prunus yedoensis)、金钟花(Forsythia viridissima)、紫荆(Cercis chinensis)的最优模拟模型为ANN模型.这表明ANN模型可以有效的改善气孔导度环境响应行为的数值模拟.环境因子的多元逐步回归结果和人工神经网络模型敏感性分析表明PAR是夏季气孔导度环境因子中最敏感的要素,而Ta则是其中最不敏感的要素.

  4. Diversity and symbiotic effectiveness of beta-rhizobia isolated from sub-tropical legumes of a Brazilian Araucaria Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammel, Daniel R; Cruz, Leonardo M; Carrer, Helaine; Cardoso, Elke J B N

    2013-12-01

    While the occurrence of Betaproteobacteria occupying the nodules of tropical legumes has been shown, little is known about subtropical areas. Araucaria Forest is a subtropical endangered ecosystem, and a better understanding of the legume-rhizobial symbionts may allow their use in land reclamation. The 16S rRNA gene of bacteria isolated from nine leguminous species was sequenced and their nodulation tested in Mimosa scabrella and Phaseolus vulgaris. 196 isolates were identified as eight genotypes: Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Bradyrhizobium sp1-2, Rhizobium, and Burkholderia sp1-3. The majority of the isolates from native plants (87 %) were taxonomically related to β-rhizobia, namely Burkholderia, however the legumes Galactia crassifolia and Collea speciosa were nodulated by both α and β-rhizobia, and Acacia dealbata, an exotic plant, only by α-rhizobia. The nifH genes of some isolates were sequenced and N-fixing potential shown by the acetylene reduction test. Most of the isolates nodulated the test plants, some were effective in M. scabrella, but all presented low efficiency in the exotic promiscuous legume P. vulgaris. Pantoea and Pseudomonas did not nodulate and probably are endophytic bacteria. The presented data shows diversity of α, β and γ-Proteobacteria in nodules of subtropical legumes, and suggests host specificity with β-rhizobia. Potential isolates were found for M. scabrella, indicating that a high N-fixing strain may be further inoculated in plants for use in reforestation.

  5. 佛山市禅城区行道树调查研究%An Investigation on Roadside Trees of Chancheng District of Foshan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪斌; 陈李利; 周贱平; 钟惠红; 余凤英

    2007-01-01

    通过对佛山市禅城区205条道路的调查,结果表明,禅城区共应用了58种(含变种)乔木作行道树,其分别属26科44属,其中乡土树种占65.52%,常绿乔木占74.14%;47种生长良好;细叶榕(Ficusmicrocarpa )、芒果(Mangifera indica )、大叶榕(Ficus virens var.sublanceolata )、大花紫薇(Lagerstroemia speciosa)、垂叶榕(Ficus benjamina )、木棉(Bombax ceiba)、高山榕(Ficus altissima)、阴香(Cinnamomum burmanii )、白兰花(Michelia alba )以及红花羊蹄甲(Bauhinia blakeana )等10种乔木是禅城区行道树种群的骨干树种.

  6. Medicinal Plants from Northeastern Brazil against Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Alan Bezerra; Alves, Daniela Ribeiro; Rodrigues, Ana Livya Moreira; dos Santos, Leonardo Hunaldo; de Menezes, Jane Eire Silva Alencar

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been linked with oxidative stress, acetylcholine deficiency in the brain, and inflammatory processes. In the northeast region of Brazil, various plants are used to treat several diseases associated with these processes; then an antioxidant test was performed with those plants in a previous work and twelve species with higher antioxidant activity were selected for AChE inhibition evaluation. The phenolic compounds content was determined by Folin–Ciocalteu test and flavonoid content with AlCl3 reagent using UV-visible spectrophotometry. The antioxidant activity was assessed analyzing the inhibitory activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS) and by the β-carotene/linoleic acid system and acetylcholinesterase inhibition using qualitative and quantitative tests. The combination of better acetylcholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant activities pointed out six species, in descending order, as the best potential sources of therapeutic agents against AD: Hancornia speciosa > Myracrodruon urundeuva > Copaifera langsdorffii > Stryphnodendron coriaceum > Psidium guajava > Mangifera indica. Besides, the phenolic compounds in the species probably contribute to these activities. However, further pharmacological studies to assess the specific applications of these plants against AD are required to confirm these results. PMID:28316633

  7. Medicinal Plants from Northeastern Brazil against Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penido, Alexandre Batista; De Morais, Selene Maia; Ribeiro, Alan Bezerra; Alves, Daniela Ribeiro; Rodrigues, Ana Livya Moreira; Dos Santos, Leonardo Hunaldo; de Menezes, Jane Eire Silva Alencar

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been linked with oxidative stress, acetylcholine deficiency in the brain, and inflammatory processes. In the northeast region of Brazil, various plants are used to treat several diseases associated with these processes; then an antioxidant test was performed with those plants in a previous work and twelve species with higher antioxidant activity were selected for AChE inhibition evaluation. The phenolic compounds content was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu test and flavonoid content with AlCl3 reagent using UV-visible spectrophotometry. The antioxidant activity was assessed analyzing the inhibitory activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS) and by the β-carotene/linoleic acid system and acetylcholinesterase inhibition using qualitative and quantitative tests. The combination of better acetylcholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant activities pointed out six species, in descending order, as the best potential sources of therapeutic agents against AD: Hancornia speciosa > Myracrodruon urundeuva > Copaifera langsdorffii > Stryphnodendron coriaceum > Psidium guajava > Mangifera indica. Besides, the phenolic compounds in the species probably contribute to these activities. However, further pharmacological studies to assess the specific applications of these plants against AD are required to confirm these results.

  8. Medicinal Plants from Northeastern Brazil against Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Batista Penido

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD has been linked with oxidative stress, acetylcholine deficiency in the brain, and inflammatory processes. In the northeast region of Brazil, various plants are used to treat several diseases associated with these processes; then an antioxidant test was performed with those plants in a previous work and twelve species with higher antioxidant activity were selected for AChE inhibition evaluation. The phenolic compounds content was determined by Folin–Ciocalteu test and flavonoid content with AlCl3 reagent using UV-visible spectrophotometry. The antioxidant activity was assessed analyzing the inhibitory activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and 2,2-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS and by the β-carotene/linoleic acid system and acetylcholinesterase inhibition using qualitative and quantitative tests. The combination of better acetylcholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant activities pointed out six species, in descending order, as the best potential sources of therapeutic agents against AD: Hancornia speciosa > Myracrodruon urundeuva > Copaifera langsdorffii > Stryphnodendron coriaceum > Psidium guajava > Mangifera indica. Besides, the phenolic compounds in the species probably contribute to these activities. However, further pharmacological studies to assess the specific applications of these plants against AD are required to confirm these results.

  9. Food habits and radionuclide tissue concentrations of Nevada desert bighorn sheep, 1972--1973

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.W.; Smith, D.D.; Bernhardt, D.E.; Giles, K.R.; Helvie, J.B.

    1976-06-01

    The botanical composition of the diet and radionuclide content of selected tissues of desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) collected during the 1972 and 1973 hunting seasons were determined by analyzing rumen contents, and lung, liver, kidney, and bone tissues. Botanical examination of the rumen contents showed that grass exceeded 50 percent of the diet of 10 to 14 animals collected in 1972 and 12 of 18 animals collected in 1973. Desert needlegrass (Stipa speciosa), Indian rice grass (Oryzopsis hymenoides), and squirrel tail (Sitanion hystrix) were the major grasses utilized. The dominant shrub species consumed included the joint firs (Ephedra viridis) and (Ephedra nevadensis), Mohave yucca (Yucca schidigera), and cliff rose (Cowania mexicana). With the exception of potassium-40, gamma-emitting radionuclides were not detected in desert bighorn sheep tissue. The tritium levels reported were within environmental levels. Strontium-90 levels averaged 4.9 and 4.1 pCi/gram of bone ash for 1972 and 1973, respectively, continuing the downward trend observed in recent years. Uranium levels were similar to those reported from cattle grazing the same general geographic areas. The daily consumption for one year of 500 grams of liver containing the highest levels of plutonium and uranium would result in a dose to the human bone, the tissue expected to receive the highest dose, of approximately 1 mrem/year. This is less than 1% of the radiation protection guides for the general population.

  10. The Middle Triassic megafossil flora of the Basin Creek Formation, Nymboida Coal Measures, New South Wales, Australia. Part 3. Fern-like foliage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, W.B.K. [Noonee Nyrang, Wellington, NSW (Australia)

    2003-01-31

    Two quarries in the Basin Creek Formation of the Middle Triassic Nymboida Coal Measures have yielded numerous examples of fern-like foliage. No affiliated fertile material is available to place the fronds in a natural classification. Twenty three species in twelve genera are described as morpho-taxa in Order and Family Incertae Sedis. Plants described in this paper are: Cladophlebis conferta sp. nov., C octonerva sp. nov., C. paucinerva sp. nov., C. relallachfisp. nov., C. sinuala sp. nov., C. lenuoinnula sp. nov., Diconymba sparnosa gen. et sp. nov., Gouldianum alelhopleroides gen. et sp. nov., Leconama stachyophylla gen. et sp. nov., Micronymbopteris repens gen. et sp. nov., Nymbiella lacerata gen. et sp. nov., Nymboidiantum glossophyllum (Tenison-Woods) gen. et comb. nov., N. multilobatum gen. et sp. nov., N. elegans gen. et sp. nov., N. fractiflexum gen. et sp. nov., N. robustum gen. et sp. nov., Nymbophlebis polymorpha gen. et sp. nov., Nymbopteron dejerseyi (Retallack) gen. et comb. nov.,N. foleyi gen. et sp. nov., N. uncinatum gen. et sp. nov., Nymborhipteris radiata gen. et sp. nov., Ptilotonymba curvinervia gen. et sp. nov. and Sphenopteris speciosa sp. nov. The diversity of this new material demonstrates the remarkable recovery of Gondwana vegetation following the end-Permian extinction event.

  11. Faunistic analyses of grasshoppers (Orthoptera, Acridoidea in a florest fragment near the Uruguay River, Chapecó, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kátia Matiotti da Costa

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the work was to describe the grasshopper community (Orthoptera and Acridoidea through the analysis of the fauna, in the Lajeado Monte Alegre region, on the bank of the Uruguay River, in the town of Chapecó, Santa Catarina. The collections were carried out on weekly basis, from October 2001 to September 2002, with the use of ground traps, buttnets, insect umbrellas and collections from leaves. The rates of abundance, frequency, constancy, dominance and diversity were measured. In total, 713 acridoids were collected, corresponding to 18 species, 17 genera, and 3 families. From the Acrididae family 13 species were sampled: Abracris flavolienata, Allotruxalis strigata, Amblytropidia sola, Amblytropidia sp., Cylindrotettix chacoensis, Dichroplus misionensis, Eurotettix lilloanus, Metaleptea brevicornis adspersa, Orphulella punctata, Parorphula graminea, Rhammatocerus brunneri, Ronderosia bergi and Schistocerca flavofasciata. From the Romaleidae family, 4 species: Staleochlora viridicata, Chromacris speciosa, Zoniopoda tarsata and Xyleus discoideus. From the Tridactylidae family, 2 unidentified nymphs were collected. The dominant species was A. strigata.

  12. Rapid High-throughput Species Identification of Botanical Material Using Direct Analysis in Real Time High Resolution Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesiak, Ashton D; Musah, Rabi A

    2016-10-02

    We demonstrate that direct analysis in real time-high resolution mass spectrometry can be used to produce mass spectral profiles of botanical material, and that these chemical fingerprints can be used for plant species identification. The mass spectral data can be acquired rapidly and in a high throughput manner without the need for sample extraction, derivatization or pH adjustment steps. The use of this technique bypasses challenges presented by more conventional techniques including lengthy chromatography analysis times and resource intensive methods. The high throughput capabilities of the direct analysis in real time-high resolution mass spectrometry protocol, coupled with multivariate statistical analysis processing of the data, provide not only class characterization of plants, but also yield species and varietal information. Here, the technique is demonstrated with two psychoactive plant products, Mitragyna speciosa (Kratom) and Datura (Jimsonweed), which were subjected to direct analysis in real time-high resolution mass spectrometry followed by statistical analysis processing of the mass spectral data. The application of these tools in tandem enabled the plant materials to be rapidly identified at the level of variety and species.

  13. Two new species of Chrysopathes (Cnidaria : Anthozoa : Antipatharia) from the western Atlantic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opresko, Dennis M [ORNL; Loiola, L. de Laia [Arraial Dajuda Eco Parque

    2008-02-01

    Two new species of Chrysopathes are described, C. oligocrada from Yucatan and Brazil, and C. micracantha from the southeastern coast of the U.S. and Brazil. Chrysopathes oligocrada is characterized by lateral pinnules mostly 7 8 mm long (to 2 cm); 18 21 primary pinnules per cm; anterior-most primary pinnules with no more than one secondary pinnule (absent on some); some posterior primaries with a single secondary pinnule; lateral primary pinnules usually simple, rarely with a single subpinnule; tertiary pinnules absent; pinnular spines to 0.07 mm. This species is similar to C. formosa Opresko 2003 from the Pacific; the latter species differing in density of pinnulation (15 18 per cm) and size of the spines (to 0.16 mm). Chrysopathes micracantha is characterized by lateral pinnules mostly 5 6 mm long (to 2 cm); 24 33 primary pinnules per cm; anterior and posterior primary pinnules with as many as two subopposite secondary pinnules; lateral primary pinnules usually simple but with subpinnules on the thicker branches and stem; tertiary pinnules rarely present; pinnular spines to 0.1 mm. Chrysopathes micracantha is similar to C. speciosa Opresko 2003 from the Pacific, the latter species differing in a greater number of secondary pinnules per primary (three or more) and in size of the spines (to 0.18 mm).

  14. A Review of Natural Stimulant and Non‐stimulant Thermogenic Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badmaev, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and overweight are major health issues. Exercise and calorie intake control are recognized as the primary mechanisms for addressing excess body weight. Naturally occurring thermogenic plant constituents offer adjunct means for assisting in weight management. The controlling mechanisms for thermogenesis offer many intervention points. Thermogenic agents can act through stimulation of the central nervous system with associated adverse cardiovascular effects and through metabolic mechanisms that are non‐stimulatory or a combination thereof. Examples of stimulatory thermogenic agents that will be discussed include ephedrine and caffeine. Examples of non‐stimulatory thermogenic agents include p‐synephrine (bitter orange extract), capsaicin, forskolin (Coleus root extract), and chlorogenic acid (green coffee bean extract). Green tea is an example of a thermogenic with the potential to produce mild but clinically insignificant undesirable stimulatory effects. The use of the aforementioned thermogenic agents in combination with other extracts such as those derived from Salacia reticulata, Sesamum indicum, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Cissus quadrangularis, and Moringa olifera, as well as the use of the carotenoids as lutein and fucoxanthin, and flavonoids as naringin and hesperidin can further facilitate energy metabolism and weight management as well as sports performance without adverse side effects. © 2016 The Authors Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26856274

  15. Ecological aspects of Rhodnius nasutus Stål, 1859 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) in palms of the Chapada do Araripe in Ceará, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Fernando Braga Stehling; Bezerra, Cláudia Mendonça; Machado, Evandro Marques de Menezes; Casanova, Cláudio; Diotaiuti, Liléia

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this work is to present aspects related to the ecology of Rhodnius nasutus Stål, 1859 in palms from Chapada do Araripe in Ceará, Brazil. The following five species of palms were investigated: babaçu (Attalea speciosa), buriti (Mauritia flexuosa), carnaúba (Copernicia prunifera), catolé (Syagrus oleracea) and macaúba-barriguda (Acrocomia intumescens). Fifth palms were dissected (10 specimens for each species). The overall infestation index was 86%, with a total of 521 triatomines collected. The Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas, 1909 Index was 16.8% and two insects presented mixed infection with Trypanosoma rangeli Tejera, 1920. A precipitin test showed that R. nasutus from palms of Chapada do Araripe are associated with opossum and bird although other possible bloodmeals were observed. Our results showing a high index of infestation of the palms as well as T. cruzi infection, the association of R. nasutus with the most diverse species of palms and proximity of these palms to houses demonstrate the importance of this area for sylvatic T. cruzi transmission and suggest the need for epidemiological surveillance in the region of the Chapada do Araripe.

  16. Immunomodulatory and Antimicrobial Activity of Babassu Mesocarp Improves the Survival in Lethal Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroqueiro, Elizabeth S B; Prado, Dayanna S; Barcellos, Priscila S; Silva, Tonicley A; Pereira, Wanderson S; Silva, Lucilene A; Maciel, Márcia C G; Barroqueiro, Rodrigo B; Nascimento, Flávia R F; Gonçalves, Azizedite G; Guerra, Rosane N M

    2016-01-01

    Attalea speciosa syn Orbignya phalerata Mart. (babassu) has been used in the treatment of inflammatory and infectious diseases. Aim of the study. To investigate the antimicrobial and immunological activity of babassu mesocarp extract (EE). Material and Methods. The in vitro antimicrobial activity was evaluated by disk diffusion assay and by determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The flavonoids and phenolic acids content were determined by chromatography. The in vivo assays were performed in Swiss mice submitted to sepsis by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). The mice received EE subcutaneously (125 or 250 mg/Kg), 6 hours after the CLP. The number of lymphoid cells was quantified and the cytokines production was determined by ELISA after 12 h. Results. EE was effective as antimicrobial to E. faecalis, S. aureus, and MRSA. EE is rich in phenolic acids, a class of compounds with antimicrobial and immunological activity. An increased survival can be observed in those groups, possibly due to a significant inhibition of TNF-α and IL-6. Conclusions. The EE showed specific antimicrobial activity in vitro and an important antiseptic effect in vivo possibly due to the antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activity.

  17. A REVIEW ON ANTIULCER MEDICINAL PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamble Rahul Devidas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Peptic ulcer is the most common gastrointestinal disorder in clinical practice. Peptic ulcer is a conglomerate of heterogeneous disorders, which manifests itself as a break in the lining of the gastrointestinal mucosa bathed by acid and/or pepsin. A number of drugs including proton pump inhibitors and H2 receptor antagonists are available for the treatment of peptic ulcer, but these drugs has shown incidence of relapses, side effects, and drug interactions. Thus the development of new antiulcer drugs and the search for novel molecules has been extended to herbal drugs that offer better protection and decreased relapse. Medicinal plants provide an effective and safer way in disease management. Many medicinal plants exhibit antiulcer activity and found useful in the treatment of peptic ulcer. In this review attempts have been made to know about some plants which may be used in treatment or prevention of peptic ulcer. Various plants like Nerium indicum, Ocimum sanctum, Argyreia speciosa, Bauhinia purpurea, Benincasa hispida and Croton zambesicus proved active in antiulcer therapy.

  18. Investigation of some characteristics of polyhydroxy milkweed triglycerides and their acylated derivatives in relation to lubricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry-O'kuru, Rogers E; Biresaw, Girma; Cermak, Steven C; Gordon, Sherald H; Vermillion, Karl

    2011-05-11

    Most industrial lubricants are derived from nonrenewable petroleum-based sources. As useful as these lubricants are, their unintended consequences are the pollution of the Earth's environment as a result of the slow degradation of the spent materials. Native seed oils, on the other hand, are renewable and are also biodegradable in the environment, but these oils often suffer a drawback in having lower thermal stability and a shorter shelf life because of the intrinsic -C═C- unsaturation in their structures. This drawback can be overcome, yet the inherent biodegradative property retained, by appropriate derivatization of the oil. Pursuant to this, this study investigated derivatized polyhydroxy milkweed oil to assess its suitability as lubricant. The milkweed plant is a member of the Asclepiadaceae, a family with many genera including the common milkweeds, Asclepias syriaca L., Asclepias speciosa L., Asclepias tuberosa L., etc. The seeds of these species contain mainly C-18 triglycerides that are highly unsaturated, 92%. The olefinic character of this oil has been chemically modified by generating polyhydroxy triglycerides (HMWO) that show high viscosity and excellent moisturizing characteristics. In this work, HMWO have been chemically modified by esterifying their hydroxyl groups with acyl groups of various chain lengths (C2-C5). The results of investigation into the effect of the acyl derivatives' chemical structure on kinematic and dynamic viscosity, oxidation stability, cold-flow (pour point, cloud point) properties, coefficient of friction, wear, and elastohydrodynamic film thickness are discussed.

  19. Responses of Sap Flux Density to Changing Atmospheric Humidity in Three Common Street Tree Species in Bangkok, Thailand

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    Pantana Tor-ngern

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Efficient water management in urban landscape is imperative under the projected increases in drought stress under future climate. Because different tree species have different stomatal regulations to prevent water loss under water limitation, comparative study of species-specific responses of water use to changing weather conditions will benefit selective planting of urban trees for sustainable urban greening management. Here, we performed a simple and short-term investigation of water use characteristics of three common street tree species in Bangkok, a major city in Southeast Asia. Species included Pterocarpus indicus (Pi, Swietenia macrophylla (Sm and Lagerstroemia speciosa (Ls. We used self-constructed heat dissipation probes to track water uptake rates, expressed as sap flux density (JS, in stems of potted trees and examined their diurnal variations with changing atmospheric humidity, represented by vapor pressure deficit (D. The results implied that two of the three species: Pi and Sm, may be selected for planting because their Js was less sensitive to changing D compared to Ls. The sap flux density of Ls increased more rapidly with rising D, implying higher sensitivity to drought in Ls, compared to the other two species. Nevertheless, further study on large trees and under longer period of investigation, covering both dry and wet seasons, is required to confirm this finding.

  20. Characterization of the effects of macronutrient deficiencies in mangabeira seedlings

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    Layara Alexandre Bessa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the mineral nutrition requirements of mangabeira (Hancornia speciosa Gomes is relatively scarce and rudimentary because there is a lack of consistent data concerning its nutritional demands at different developmental stages. The aim of this research was to characterize the visual symptoms of macronutrient deficiencies and to evaluate the effects of these deficiencies on the growth, the production of dry matter, and the leaf content of mangabeira. To achieve this goal, a greenhouse experiment was conducted at the Goiano Federal Institute (Instituto Federal Goiano in Rio Verde - GO, from January to June 2011 in which mangabeira plants were arranged in a random block design and grown in nutrient solutions. This experiment was replicated four times. The plants were treated with either a complete nutrient solution or a nutrient solution from which the individual macronutrient of interest (nitrogen (N, phosphorous (P, potassium (K, magnesium (Mg, calcium (Ca, or sulfur (S had been omitted. The omission of a macronutrient from the nutrient solution resulted in morphological alterations that were characteristic symptoms of the particular nutritional deficiency and caused decreases in growth and dry matter mass production. The accumulation of macronutrients displayed the following order in mangabeira leaves: N>K>Ca>P>S>Mg.

  1. Rapid High-throughput Species Identification of Botanical Material Using Direct Analysis in Real Time High Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesiak, Ashton D.; Musah, Rabi A.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that direct analysis in real time-high resolution mass spectrometry can be used to produce mass spectral profiles of botanical material, and that these chemical fingerprints can be used for plant species identification. The mass spectral data can be acquired rapidly and in a high throughput manner without the need for sample extraction, derivatization or pH adjustment steps. The use of this technique bypasses challenges presented by more conventional techniques including lengthy chromatography analysis times and resource intensive methods. The high throughput capabilities of the direct analysis in real time-high resolution mass spectrometry protocol, coupled with multivariate statistical analysis processing of the data, provide not only class characterization of plants, but also yield species and varietal information. Here, the technique is demonstrated with two psychoactive plant products, Mitragyna speciosa (Kratom) and Datura (Jimsonweed), which were subjected to direct analysis in real time-high resolution mass spectrometry followed by statistical analysis processing of the mass spectral data. The application of these tools in tandem enabled the plant materials to be rapidly identified at the level of variety and species. PMID:27768072

  2. Screening of some plants used in the Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases

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    Fabíola Barbiéri Holetz

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of 13 Brazilian medicinal plants were screened for their antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeasts. Of these, 10 plant extracts showed varied levels of antibacterial activity. Piper regnellii presented a good activity against Staphylococus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, a moderate activity on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a weak activity against Escherichia coli. Punica granatum showed good activity on S. aureus and was inactive against the other standard strains. Eugenia uniflora presented moderate activity on both S. aureus and E. coli. Psidium guajava,Tanacetum vulgare, Arctium lappa, Mikania glomerata, Sambucus canadensis, Plantago major and Erythrina speciosa presented some degree of antibacterial activity. Spilanthes acmella, Lippia alba, and Achillea millefolium were considered inactive. Five of the plant extracts presented compounds with Rf values similar to the antibacterial compounds visible on bioautogram. Of these, three plants belong to the Asteraceae family. This may mean that the same compounds are responsible for the antibacterial activity in these plants. Anticandidal activity was detected in nine plant extracts (P. guajava, E. uniflora, P. granatum, A. lappa, T. vulgare, M. glomerata, L. alba, P. regnellii, and P. major. The results might explain the ethnobotanical use of the studied species for the treatment of various infectious diseases.

  3. Identification of Cannabis sativa L. using the 1-kbTHCA synthase-fluorescence in situ hybridization probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeangkhwoa, Pattraporn; Bandhaya, Achirapa; Umpunjun, Puangpaka; Chuenboonngarm, Ngarmnij; Panvisavas, Nathinee

    2017-03-01

    This study reports a successful application of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique in the identification of Cannabis sativa L. cells recovered from fresh and dried powdered plant materials. Two biotin-16-dUTP-labeled FISH probes were designed from the Cannabis-specific tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase (THCAS) gene and the ITS region of the 45S rRNA gene. Specificity of probe-target hybridization was tested against the target and 4 non-target plant species, i.e., Humulus lupulus, Mitragyna speciosa, Papaver sp., and Nicotiana tabacum. The 1-kb THCA synthase hybridization probe gave Cannabis-specific hybridization signals, unlike the 700-bp Cannabis-ITS hybridization probe. Probe-target hybridization was also confirmed against 20 individual Cannabis plant samples. The 1-kb THCA synthase and 700-bp Cannabis-ITS hybridization probes clearly showed 2 hybridization signals per cell with reproducibility. The 1-kb THCA synthase probe did not give any FISH signal when tested against H. lupulus, its closely related member of the Canabaceae family. It was also showed that 1-kb THCA synthase FISH probe can be applied to identify small amount of dried powdered Cannabis material with an addition of rehydration step prior to the experimental process. This study provided an alternative identification method for Cannabis trace. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Artrópodes fitófagos e predadores associados em 20 acessos Luffa sp. em sistema orgânico Phytophagous and predators arthropods associated in 20 accesses of Luffa sp in organic system

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    Germano Leão Demolin Leite

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos desta pesquisa foram verificar os artrópodes fitófagos e seus predadores em 20 acessos de bucha vegetal Luffa sp. (Cucurbitaceae, a distribuição destes no dossel das plantas em cultivo orgânico e a produção de frutos dos acessos. O experimento foi em blocos casualizados com 20 tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram os acessos P159, P304, P466, P03, P570, P569, P467, P30, P446, P495, P125, P263, P644 e P32, provenientes da Embrapa (CENARGEN, DF, e P01, P02, P04, P05, P06 e P07, obtidos em Porteirinha-MG. As parcelas foram compostas por quatro plantas de Luffa sp. A maior abundância de Diabrotica speciosa (Germar (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae foi observada nas folhas do acesso P467 em referência aos demais acessos de Luffa sp. Trigona spinipes (Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Apidae foi mais observada nas flores dos acessos P01, P03, P30, P32, P263 e P569 e menos abundantes nos acessos P05, P125, P159, P304, P446 e P570. Os acessos de Luffa sp. com maior número de frutos/planta foram P01, P03, P05, P06, P07, P30, P32, P125, P263, P446 e P570. Os predadores aranhas e Coccinellidae (Coleoptera bem como o fitófago Cicadellidae (Hemiptera preferiram atacar a face adaxial, sendo que não se detectou diferença estatística entre as faces para os demais artrópodes. T. spinipes esteve mais presente na parte apical do dossel das plantas. Com esses resultados, o acesso P06 é o mais indicado para o cultivo, pois foi um dos que apresentou maiores produtividades e menores taxas de ataque de insetos.The objectives of this research were to verify the phytophagous arthropods and their predators in 20 accesses of vegetable loofah Luffa sp. (Cucurbitaceae, the distribution of the canopy of the plants in organic system and the production of fruits of the accesses. The experiment was in randomized blocks designed with 20 treatments and four replicates. The treatments were the accesses P159, P304, P466, P03, P570, P569, P467, P30, P446

  5. Characterization of the effects of macronutrient deficiencies in mangabeira seedlings Caracterização dos efeitos de deficiências de macronutrientes em mudas de mangabeira

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    Layara Alexandre Bessa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the mineral nutrition requirements of mangabeira (Hancornia speciosa Gomes is relatively scarce and rudimentary because there is a lack of consistent data concerning its nutritional demands at different developmental stages. The aim of this research was to characterize the visual symptoms of macronutrient deficiencies and to evaluate the effects of these deficiencies on the growth, the production of dry matter, and the leaf content of mangabeira. To achieve this goal, a greenhouse experiment was conducted at the Goiano Federal Institute (Instituto Federal Goiano in Rio Verde - GO, from January to June 2011 in which mangabeira plants were arranged in a random block design and grown in nutrient solutions. This experiment was replicated four times. The plants were treated with either a complete nutrient solution or a nutrient solution from which the individual macronutrient of interest (nitrogen (N, phosphorous (P, potassium (K, magnesium (Mg, calcium (Ca, or sulfur (S had been omitted. The omission of a macronutrient from the nutrient solution resulted in morphological alterations that were characteristic symptoms of the particular nutritional deficiency and caused decreases in growth and dry matter mass production. The accumulation of macronutrients displayed the following order in mangabeira leaves: N>K>Ca>P>S>Mg.Os conhecimentos de nutrição mineral da mangabeira (Hancornia speciosa Gomes são relativamente escassos e incipientes, faltando dados consistentes sobre sua demanda nutricional desde a fase de viveiro até a fase de produção. Com o objetivo de caracterizar os sintomas visuais de carências de macronutrientes, avaliar os efeitos da deficiência no crescimento, produção de massa da matéria seca e conteúdo foliar de mangabeira, foi conduzido um experimento em casa de vegetação no IF Goiano em Rio Verde - GO, nos períodos de janeiro a junho de 2011, onde plantas de mangaba foram cultivadas em solução nutritiva, no

  6. Mycorrhizal dependency of mangaba tree under increasing phosphorus levels Dependência micorrízica de mangabeira em doses crescentes de fósforo

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    Júlio Alves Cardoso Filho

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the mycorrhizal dependency of mangaba tree (Hancornia speciosa plantlets, under increasing levels of phosphorus fertilization. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 4×5 factorial arrangement with three mycorrhizal fungi inocula - Gigaspora margarita, Glomus etunicatum, or a pool of native mycorrhizal fungi (Acaulospora longula, Glomus clarum, Gigaspora albida, Paraglomus sp. -, and a nonmycorrhizal control, in combination with five levels of phosphorus applied to the substrate: 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 mg kg-1. After 180 days of growth, plantlets with inoculation of native mycorrhizal pool produced more shoot and root dry biomass and had higher shoot phosphorus content and accumulation. The noninoculated control showed the lowest values, independently of the phosphorus level. The highest relative mycorrhizal dependency occurred with the inoculation of native mycorrhizal fungi. Plants with mycorrhizal fungi did not respond to phosphorus addition above 50 mg kg-1. Mangaba tree is highly dependent on mycorrhiza, but the degree of dependency varies according to phosphorus levels and fungal inocula. In general, mangaba tree is more responsive to mycorrhizal fungi inoculation than to phosphorus addition.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a dependência micorrízica de mudas de mangaba (Hancornia speciosa, em doses crescentes de fósforo. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial 4´5 com três inóculos de fungos micorrízicos - Gigaspora margarita, Glomus etunicatum, ou uma mistura de espécies de fungos micorrízicos nativos (Acaulospora longula, Glomus clarum, Gigaspora albida e Paraglomus sp. -, e um controle não micorrízico, combinados a cinco doses de fósforo no substrato: 0, 25, 50, 75 e 100 mg kg-1. Após 180 dias, as mudas com inoculação dos fungos micorrízicos nativos produziram mais biomassa seca de parte aérea e raízes e apresentaram

  7. Arbuscular mycorrhizal associations in different forest tree species of Hazarikhil forest of Chittagong, Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.P.Dhar; M.A.U.Mridha

    2012-01-01

    Biodiversity ofarbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization and AM fungal spores were studied in the roots and rhizosphere soils of Acacia catechu (L.f).Wild.,A.mangium Willd,Anthocephala cadamba Miq.,Artocarpus chaplasha Roxb.,Chickrassia tabularis A.Juss.,Swietenia macrophylla King.,Tectona grandis L.from plantations; Albizia procera (Roxb.) Benth.,A.falcataria L.,Alstonia scholaris (L.) R.Br.,Aphanamixis polystachya (Wall.) Parker.,Hydnocarpus kurzii (King.)Warb.,Heynea trijuga Roxb.,Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers.,Messua ferrea Linn.,Podocarpus nerifolia Don.,Swintonia floribunda Griff.,Syzygium fruticosum (Roxb.) DC.,S.grandis (Wt.) Wal.from forest and nursery seedlings of A.polystachya,A.chaplasha,Gmelina arborea Roxb.and S.cuminii (L.) Skeels from Hazarikhil forest,Chittagong of Bangladesh.Roots were stained in aniline blue and rhizosphere soils were assessed by wet sieving and decanting methods.The range of AM colonization varied significantly from 10%-73% in the plantations samples.Maximum colonization was observed in A.mangium (73%) and minimum colonization was observed in C tabularis (10%).Vesicular colonization was recorded 15%-67% in five plantation tree species.The highest was in A.cadamba (67%) and the lowest was in T.grandis; A.chaplasha and C tabularis showed no vesicular colonization.Arbuscular colonization was recorded 12%-60% in four plantation tree species.The highest was in A.mangium (60%) and the lowest was in A.cadamba.Roots of Artocarpus chaplasha,C tabularis and T.grandis showed no arbuscular colonization.Among 12 forest tree species,nine tree species showed AM colonization.The highest was in A.falcataria (62%) and the lowest was in S.fruticosum (10%).Significant variation in vesicular colonization was recorded in seven forest tree species.The highest was in H.trijuga (52%) and the lowest was in L.speciosa (18%).Hydnocarpus kurzii,M.ferrea,P.nerifolia S.fruticosum and S.grandis showed no vesicular colonization.Arbuscular colonization was

  8. Levantamento da entomofauna associada a cultivares de batata em duas épocas de cultivo Survey of the entomofauna associated with potato varieties during two crop seasons

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    ANDERSON DIONEI GRÜTZMACHER

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi feito um levantamento da população de artrópodes num agroecossistema de batata, Solanum tuberosum L., em Santa Maria, RS, durante o ano agrícola 1989/90. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi comparar a entomofauna em diferentes cultivares de batata durante a época tradicional do seu crescimento e na safrinha. O experimento consistiu de nove cultivares durante a época tradicional, e de dez cultivares durante a safrinha. Amostras de insetos foram coletadas semanalmente com a rede de varredura (15 redadas por amostra. Os coleópteros foram predominantes durante a época tradicional do crescimento da cultura, e os dípteros, na safrinha. As espécies fitófagas mais freqüentes foram: Epitrix sp., na época tradicional, e Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, na safrinha, seguidas da Empoasca kraemeri Ross & Moore, em ambos os períodos de crescimento dessa cultura. Foi coletado um número maior de insetos no período tradicional de crescimento da cultura do que na safrinha. Os insetos mostraram preferência pela cultivar Bintje durante o período tradicional, e pela Pomina, na safrinha. A cultivar Sahael foi a menos procurada, nos dois períodos. As espécies de predadores Eriopis connexa (Germar e Geocoris sp. foram as mais numerosas no período tradicional de crescimento da cultura. Durante a safrinha, a Cycloneda sanguinea (L. predominou em todas as cultivares.A survey of arthropods present in a potato (Solanum tuberosum L. agroecossystem was conducted in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil, during 1989/90 field season. The objective of this research was to compare the entomofauna in different potato cultivars during the traditional and off-season time for potato growing. The experiment consisted of nine cultivars during the traditional season and ten cultivars during the off-season time. Insect samples were taken weekly with a sweep net (15 nets per sample. Coleoptera was the predominant insect order during the traditional potato growing season, and Diptera

  9. Purificação e caracterização de alfa-galactosidases de sementes de Platymiscium pubescens Micheli Purification and characterization of alpha-galactosidases from Platymiscium pubescens Micheli seeds

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    Giordani de Oliveira

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou foi determinar a composição bioquímica de sementes de espécies florestais e caracterizar a enzima alfa-galactosidase de sementes germinadas de Platymiscium pubescens. Os maiores teores de lipídios foram determinados em sementes de Chorisia speciosa, Caesalpinia peltophoroides, Tabebuia serratifolia e Tabebuia velanedae, enquanto sementes de Enterolobium contortisiliquum, Schizolobium parahyba e Cassia grandis apresentaram os maiores teores protéicos. A alfa-galactosidase catalisa a hidrólise dos oligossacarídeos de rafinose, em sementes de leguminosas, durante a germinação. A maior atividade da alfa-galactosidase foi detectada em sementes de Platymiscium pubescens após 72 h de embebição. Duas formas de alfa-galactosidases, C1 e C2, foram purificadas de sementes germinadas de P. pubescens, usando-se fracionamento com sulfato de amônio e cromatografias de filtração em gel e de afinidade. Essas enzimas apresentaram atividade máxima em pH 5,5 e a 50-55 ºC. Os valores de Km ap das formas C1 e C2, para o substrato ro-nitrofenil-alfa-D-galactopiranosídeo, foram de 0,54 mM e 0,78 mM, e para a rafinose, de 4,64 mM e 5,09 mM, respectivamente. Essas enzimas exibiram estabilidade térmica moderada, mantendo 70% da atividade original após 3 h de incubação a 45 ºC. A atividade enzimática da C1 e C2 foi totalmente perdida na presença de CuSO4 e dodecil sulfato de sódio (SDS. Tais enzimas também hidrolisaram melibiose, rafinose e estaquiose, indicando potencial para aplicações biotecnológicas.The objective of this work was to determine seed biochemical composition of forest species and to characterize alpha-galactosidase enzyme of germinated seeds of Platymiscium pubescens. The highest lipid levels were found in seeds of Chorisia speciosa, Caesalpinia peltophoroides, Tabebuia serratifolia and Tabebuia velanedae, whereas seeds of Enterolobium contortisiliquum, Schizolobium parahyba and Cassia grandis showed

  10. Variación de la comunidad de abejas de las orquídeas (Hymenoptera: Apidae en tres ambientes perturbados del piedemonte llanero colombiano

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    Alejandro Parra-H

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Las abejas de las orquídeas subsisten en vastas áreas de bosque tropicales gracias a que mantienen estrechas relaciones con tipos de vegetación particular en diversos micro-hábitats. Con base en este tipo de relaciones con el medio y características biológicas como preferencia por ciertos tipos de néctares y de polen, y diversidad morfológica y etológica de la tribu, es posible evaluar la calidad de un hábitat según la distribución de euglosinos. Este trabajo propone el uso de esta información, además de índices de diversidad para la evaluación de la calidad del medio. Entre marzo y diciembre de 2003 muestreamos tres tipos de paisaje (Urbano, Rural y Conservado en el piedemonte llanero colombiano, usando redes entomológicas y sustancias aromáticas (Cineol y Metil Salicilato. Para las 15 localidades muestreadas se registraron 17 de las 26 especies conocidas para el área. Eulaema nigrita fue la más frecuente mientras que Euglossa magnipes, E. cybelia, E. heterosticta, E. singularis, Eulaema bombiformis, E. speciosa y Exaerete frontalis correspondieron a ambientes considerados de aceptable a buena calidad. La composición y cercanía de fragmentos de bosque son factores favorables. La diversidad relativa (máxima variación de formas y tamaños dentro de la tribu, sería proporcional a la calidad del medio.Variation of the orchid bees community (Hymenoptera: Apidae in three altered habitats of the Colombian "llano" piedmont. Orchid bees subsist in vast tropical forest areas because they maintain close relationships with particular plant species in diverse micro-habitats. Based on the relationships among the environment and biological features (food preference, morphologic and ethologic diversity, it is possible to determine habitat quality using the euglossine array. This work proposes the use of this ecological information, in addition to diversity indices, for the evaluation of environmental quality. Fifteen localities in

  11. Elemental contents in exotic Brazilian tropical fruits evaluated by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence Composição mineral determinado por fluorescência de raios-X dispersiva de energia de frutos exóticos tropicais brasileiros

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    Alessandra Lopes de Oliveira

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The exotic flavor of Brazilian tropical fruits led to increased consumption. Consumers awareness regarding balanced diets, makes necessary determining nutritional composition - vitamins and minerals of the fruits ordinarily consumed. This study contributed to the evaluation of macro (K, Ca and microelements (Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br in eight exotic Brazilian tropical fruits: "abiu" (Lucuma caimito Ruiz & Pav., "jenipapo" (Genipa americana L., "jambo rosa" (rose apple, Eugenia Jambos L., "jambo vermelho" (Syzygium malaccence L., Merr & Perry, "macaúba" (Acrocomia aculeata Jacq. Lood. Ex Mart., "mangaba" (Hancornia speciosa, "pitanga" (Brazilian Cherry, Eugenia uniflora L., and tamarind (Tamarindus indica L., using the Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF technique. "jambo vermelho" and "macaúba" presented the highest values of K concentrations, 1,558 and 1,725 mg 100 g-1, respectively. On the other hand, Ca concentrations were highest in "macaúba" (680 mg 100 g-1 and "jenipapo" (341 mg 100 g-1. The microelemental concentrations in these eight fruits ranged from: 0.9 to 2.0 mg 100 g-1 for Mn, 3.9 to 11.4 mg 100 g-1 for Fe, 0.5 to 1.0 mg 100 g-1 for Cu, 0.6 to 1.5 mg 100 g-1 for, Zn and 0.3 to 1.3 mg 100 g-1 for Br. The amounts of macro and microelements in the eight fruits analyzed were compared to other tropical fruits and it was found that some of them could be classified as rich sources for these macro and microelements.O sabor exótico dos frutos tropicais brasileiros vem contribuindo para o aumento de seu consumo. Ao se considerar a busca por uma alimentação balanceada, por consumidores cada vez mais exigentes, o conhecimento da composição de vitaminas e sais minerais dos frutos que compõe a dieta se faz necessário. Desta forma o presente trabalho vem contribuir com a determinação da concentração de macro (K e Ca e microelementos (Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn e Br em oito frutos tropicais exóticos brasileiros: abiu (Lucuma caimito Ruiz

  12. Processo germinativo de sementes de paineira sob estresses hídrico e salino Seed germination of paineira under water and salt stress

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    Silmara Cristina Fanti

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available O ambiente mutável provoca múltiplos estresses, que podem limitar a germinação da semente e a emergência e sobrevivência da plântula. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram determinar o efeito dos estresses hídrico e salino na viabilidade e vigor de sementes de paineira (Chorisia speciosa St. Hil. e o limite máximo de tolerância a esses estresses. Para avaliação do efeito do estresse hídrico foram utilizadas soluções de manitol e PEG 6000; para o estresse salino, soluções de NaCl, KCl e CaCl2. Após a punção do tegumento, quatro repetições de 50 sementes por tratamento foram submetidas à germinação em substrato de papel-filtro umedecido com as soluções de diferentes potenciais osmóticos e incubadas a 27ºC. As sementes apresentaram menor tolerância ao estresse hídrico simulado com PEG 6000 em relação ao simulado com manitol. O limite máximo de tolerância à seca está situado entre -0,6 e -0,7 MPa de PEG 6000 e entre -1,4 e -1,6 MPa de manitol. Independentemente dos sais utilizados, a porcentagem de germinação decresceu com a diminuição do potencial osmótico do meio. O limite máximo de tolerância ao estresse salino foi o mesmo para todos os sais avaliados e está situado entre -1,0 e -1,2 MPa. A paineira pode ser classificada como glicófita, com moderada tolerância aos sais NaCl, KCl e CaCl2.Multiple stresses promoted by a changeable environment can limit germination process, seedling emergence and survival. The objective of this work was to determine the effect of water and salt stresses on the viability and vigour of "paineira" seeds (Chorisia speciosa St. Hil. and the maximal tolerance limits. Water stress was evaluated using mannitol and PEG 6000 solutions. Salt stress was evaluated using NaCl, KCl and CaCl2 solutions. After coat punction, four replicates of 50 seeds for each treatment were submitted to germination on filter paper moistened with test solutions at different osmotic potential and kept at 27

  13. Viabilidade e vigor de sementes de paineira após armazenamento, condicionamento e estresses salino e térmico Viability and vigor in folk silk tree seeds after storage, conditioning and submission to salt and thermal stress

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    Sonia Cristina Juliano Gualtieri de Andrade Perez

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do condicionamento e dos estresses salino e térmico sobre o vigor e a viabilidade de sementes de paineira (Chorisia speciosa St.-Hil armazenadas em geladeira, em embalagens impermeáveis, durante três anos. Sementes com e sem punção do tegumento foram condicionadas em água destilada e em soluções de KNO3 a 0,1 M e 0,2 M, durante 24 horas, a 27ºC. O estresse salino foi simulado com soluções de NaCl em potenciais osmóticos variando de 0,0 a -1,2 MPa, a 27ºC. O estresse térmico de diferentes intensidades foi aplicado em sementes secas, que germinaram a 27ºC. Houve diminuição da viabilidade e do vigor das sementes com o aumento da intensidade dos estresses salino e térmico. Nas sementes condicionadas e intactas, o limite máximo de tolerância à salinidade não foi reduzido, porém houve diminuição da tolerância ao estresse térmico, em sementes condicionadas com ou sem punção. O teste de condutividade elétrica indicou as sementes condicionadas em água e KNO3 0,1 M como as de maior vigor. Sementes condicionadas em água apresentaram maior velocidade de germinação sob estresses salino e térmico. O condicionamento substituiu a punção do tegumento, que não é recomendada para sementes armazenadas.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of priming, salt and thermal stress on viability and vigor of folk silk tree seeds (Chorisia speciosa St.-Hil after storage in hermetic containers at 5ºC. Intact and with coat punction seeds were primed in distilled water and KNO3 solutions (0.1 M and 0.2 M during 24 hours at 27ºC. Salt stress was simulated with NaCl solutions at different osmotic potential, ranging from 0.0 MPa until -1.2 MPa, at 27ºC. Different intensities of thermal stress were applied on dried seeds; germination tests were carried out at 27ºC. As the intensity of salt and thermal stress increased, a reduction on seed vigor and viability was recorded in intact

  14. Crescimento inicial, níveis críticos de fósforo e frações fosfatadas em espécies florestais Initial growing, phosphorus critical levels and phosphate fractions in forest species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIZ ARNALDO FERNANDES

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi conduzido um experimento em casa de vegetação, com o objetivo de avaliar o crescimento de plântulas, os níveis críticos de P e algumas frações fosfatadas, em três espécies florestais submetidas a quatro doses de P. Mudas de aroeirinha (Schinus terenbinthifolius Raddi, paineira (Chorisia speciosa St. Hill. e jambolão (Syzygium jambolanum Lam. foram cultivadas em um Latossolo Variação Una, onde foram aplicados 0, 150, 300 e 600 mg dm-3 de P. Aos 180 dias após a germinação, as plantas foram colhidas e submetidas às análises químicas. Sob todas as doses de P, a paineira produziu maior biomassa da parte aérea e das raízes em comparação à aroeirinha e jambolão, além de apresentar maiores teores de P orgânico (Po e maior participação relativa do P orgânico (Po em relação ao P total solúvel em ácido em todos os níveis de fertilização fosfatada. O melhor crescimento da paineira foi atribuído a uma maior eficiência nos ajustes metabólicos desta espécie em relação à nutrição fosfatada, o que indica que esta espécie pode ser plantada em solos com diferentes níveis de P.An experiment under greenhouse conditions was carried out at Universidade Federal de Lavras, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, to evaluate the growth of seedlings, phosphorus critical levels and phosphate fractions, in forest species growing under four phosphorus levels. Seedlings of Schinus terenbinthifolius Raddi (aroeirinha, Chorisia speciosa St. Hill. (paineira and Syzygium jambolanum Lam. (jambolão were cultivated on an Oxisol fertilized with 0, 150, 300 and 600 mg dm-3 of P. The seedlings were harvested 180 days after germination and analysed for P forms. In all levels of phosphorus addition, the paineira produced higher aerial and root biomass than aroeirinha and jambolão, and presented higher contents of organic phosphorus and higher relative participation of organic phosphorus in the total acid soluble phosphorus under all phosphorus

  15. A botanical, phytochemical and ethnomedicinal review of the genus Mitragyna korth: Implications for products sold as kratom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Paula N; Lund, Jensen A; Murch, Susan J

    2017-04-18

    The genus Mitragyna (Rubiacaeae) has been traditionally used in parts of Africa, Asia and Oceania. In recent years, there has been increased interest in species of Mitragyna with the introduction of products to western markets and regulatory uncertainty. This paper reviewed the traditional ethnomedicinal uses of leaves for species belonging to the genus Mitragyna with reference to the botany and known chemistry in order to highlight areas of interest for products currently being sold as kratom. A literature search was conducted using Web of Science, Google Scholar, the Royal Museum for Central Africa, Internet Archive, Hathi Trust, and Biodiversity Heritage Library search engines in the spring of 2015, fall of 2016 and winter of 2017 to document uses of bark, leaf and root material. Leaves of M. speciosa (kratom) had the most common documented ethnomedicinal uses as an opium substitute or remedy for addiction. Other species of Mitragyna were reportedly used for treating pain, however the mode of preparation was most often cited as topical application. Other uses of Mitragyna included treatment of fever, skin infections, and as a mild anxiolytic. Mitragyna species have been used medicinally in various parts of the world and that there is significant traditional evidence of use. Modern products that include formulations as topical application of liniments, balms or tinctures may provide effective alternatives for treatment of certain types of pains. Future research is required to establish safety and toxicology limits, medicinal chemistry parameters and the potential for different physiological responses among varying genetic populations to support regulatory requirements for Mitragyna spp. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Monitoring of kratom or Krypton intake in urine using GC-MS in clinical and forensic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Anika A; Meyer, Markus R; Wissenbach, Dirk K; Weber, Armin A; Zoerntlein, Siegfried W; Zweipfenning, Peter G M; Maurer, Hans H

    2011-04-01

    The Thai medicinal plant Mitragyna speciosa (kratom) is misused as a herbal drug. Besides this, a new herbal blend has appeared on the drugs of abuse market, named Krypton, a mixture of O-demethyltramadol (ODT) and kratom. Therefore, urine drug screenings should include ODT and focus on the metabolites of the kratom alkaloids mitragynine (MG), paynantheine (PAY), speciogynine (SG), and speciociliatine (SC). The aim of this study was to develop a full-scan gas chromatography-mass spectrometry procedure for monitoring kratom or Krypton intake in urine after enzymatic cleavage of conjugates, solid-phase extraction, and trimethylsilylation. With use of reconstructed mass chromatography with the ions m/z 271, 286, 329, 344, 470, 526, 528, and 586, the presence of MG, 16-carboxy-MG, 9-O-demethyl-MG, and/or 9-O-demethyl-16-carboxy-MG could be indicated, and in case of Krypton, with m/z 58, 84, 116, 142, 303, 361, 393, and 451, the additional presence of ODT and its nor metabolite could be indicated. Compounds were identified by comparison with their respective reference spectra. Depending on the plant type, dose, administration route, and/or sampling time, further metabolites of MG, PAY, SG, and SC could be detected. The limits of detection (signal-to-noise ratio of 3) were 100 ng/ml for the parent alkaloids and 50 ng/ml for ODT. As mainly metabolites of the kratom alkaloids were detected in urine, the detectability of kratom was tested successfully using rat urine after administration of a common user's dose of MG. As the metabolism in humans was similar, this procedure should be suitable to prove an intake of kratom or Krypton.

  17. Use of liquid chromatography coupled to low- and high-resolution linear ion trap mass spectrometry for studying the metabolism of paynantheine, an alkaloid of the herbal drug Kratom in rat and human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Anika A; Wissenbach, Dirk K; Weber, Armin A; Zapp, Josef; Zoerntlein, Siegfried W; Kanogsunthornrat, Jidapha; Maurer, Hans H

    2010-04-01

    The Thai medicinal plant Mitragyna speciosa (Kratom in Thai) is misused as a herbal drug of abuse. During studies on the main Kratom alkaloid mitragynine (MG) in rats and humans, several dehydro analogs could be detected in urine of Kratom users, which were not found in rat urine after administration of pure MG. Questions arose as to whether these compounds are formed from MG only by humans or whether they are metabolites formed from the second abundant Kratom alkaloid paynantheine (PAY), the dehydro analog of MG. Therefore, the aim of the presented study was to identify the phase I and II metabolites of PAY in rat urine after administration of the pure alkaloid. This was first isolated from Kratom leaves. Liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry provided detailed structure information of the metabolites in the MS(n) mode particularly with high resolution. Besides PAY, the following phase I metabolites could be identified: 9-O-demethyl PAY, 16-carboxy PAY, 9-O-demethyl-16-carboxy PAY, 17-O-demethyl PAY, 17-O-demethyl-16,17-dihydro PAY, 9,17-O-bisdemethyl PAY, 9,17-O-bisdemethyl-16,17-dihydro PAY, 17-carboxy-16,17-dihydro PAY, and 9-O-demethyl-17-carboxy-16,17-dihydro PAY. These metabolites indicated that PAY was metabolized via the same pathways as MG. Several metabolites were excreted as glucuronides or sulfates. The metabolism studies in rats showed that PAY and its metabolites corresponded to the MG-related dehydro compounds detected in urine of the Kratom users. In conclusion, PAY and its metabolites may be further markers for a Kratom abuse in addition of MG and its metabolites.

  18. Suppressive effect of mitragynine on the 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine-induced head-twitch response in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, K; Mizowaki, M; Takayama, H; Sakai, S; Aimi, N; Watanabe, H

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the effects of mitragynine, a major alkaloid isolated from the leaves of Mitragyna speciosa Korth (Rubiaceae), on the 5-HT2A receptor-mediated head-twitch response in mice. Intraperitoneal injection of mitragynine (5-30 mg/kg), as well as intraperitoneal injection of 5-HT2A receptor antagonist ritanserin, inhibited the 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT: 16 mg/kg, IP)-induced head-twitch response in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, mitragynine affected neither head-weaving caused by 5-MeO-DMT, nor drug-free spontaneous motor activity. Pretreatment of mice with reserpine (5 mg/kg, IP), p-chlorophenylalanine (p-CPA, 300 mg/kg x 3 times, IP), or 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, 50 micrograms/mouse, ICV) plus nomifensine (5 mg/kg, IP) did not change the suppressant effect of mitragynine on the head-twitch response caused by 5-MeO-DMT. On the other hand, the alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonists yohimbine (0.5 mg/kg, IP), and idazoxan (0.2 mg/kg, IP), significantly attenuated the suppressant effect of mitragynine. Lesion of central noradrenergic systems by 6-OHDA plus nomifensine did not alter the effect of idazoxan (0.2 mg/kg) on mitragynine-induced suppression of the head-twitch response. These results indicate that stimulation of postsynaptic alpha 2-adrenoceptor, blockade of 5-HT2A receptors, or both, are involved in suppression of 5-HT2A receptor-mediated head-twitch response by mitragynine.

  19. Kinetics and thermodynamics of textile dye adsorption from aqueous solutions using babassu coconut mesocarp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Adriana P.; Santana, Sirlane A.A.; Bezerra, Cicero W.B.; Silva, Hildo A.S. [Departamento de Quimica/CCET, Universidade Federal do Maranhao, Av. dos, Portugueses S/N, Campus do Bacanga, 65080-540 Sao Luis, Maranhao (Brazil); Chaves, Jose A.P. [Colegio Universitario, Universidade Federal do Maranhao, 65080-540 Sao Luis, Maranhao (Brazil); Melo, Julio C.P. de [Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, 13084-971 Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Silva Filho, Edson C. da [Quimica, Universidade Federal do Piaui, 64900-000 Bom Jesus, Piaui (Brazil); Airoldi, Claudio, E-mail: airoldi@iqm.unicamp.br [Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, 13084-971 Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2009-07-30

    Extracted babassu coconut (Orbignya speciosa) mesocarp (BCM) was applied as a biosorbent for aqueous Blue Remazol R160 (BR 160), Rubi S2G (R S2G), Red Remazol 5R (RR 5), Violet Remazol 5R (VR 5) and Indanthrene Olive Green (IOG) dye solutions. The natural sorbent was processed batchwise while varying several system parameters such as stirring time, pH and temperature. The interactions were assayed with respect to both pseudo-first-order and second-order reaction kinetics, with the latter the more suitable kinetic model. The maximum adsorption was obtained at pH 1.0 for all dyes due to available anionic groups attached to the structures, which can be justified by pH{sub pzc} 6.7 for the biosorbent BCM. The ability of babassu coconut mesocarp to adsorb dyes gave the order R S2G > VR 5 > BR 160 > IOG > RR 5, which data were best fit to Freundlich model, but did not well-adjusted for all dyes. The dye/biopolymer interactions at the solid/liquid interface are all spontaneous as given by free Gibbs energy, with exothermic enthalpic values of -26.1, -15.8, -17.8, -15.8 and -23.7 kJ mol{sup -1} for BR 160, R S2G, RR 5, IOG and VR 5, respectively. In spite of the negative entropic values contribution, the set of thermodynamic data is favorable for all dyes removal. However, the results pointed to the effectiveness of the mesocarp of babassu coconut as a biosorbent for removing textile dyes from aqueous solutions.

  20. 广州市14种常用园林树木健康评价%Tree Health Assessment of Fourteen Landscape Tree Species in Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎彩敏; 翁殊斐; 庞瑞君

    2010-01-01

    园林树木是城市园林绿地的重要组成部分,及时调查与正确评估园林树木健康状况,不仅有助于园林植物景观的可持续发展,更可确保树木不会对居民、设施与财产安全构成威胁.研究采用随机样方法,调查了3类城市园林绿地中园林树木的健康状况,并对应用最多的14种园林树木的健康状况进行了分析.结果表明,大部分植株生长基本健康,秋枫(Bischofia javanica)、木棉(Bombax malabaricum)、垂叶榕(Ficus benjamina)、小叶榕(F. microcarpa)、大花紫薇(Lagerstroemia speciosa)、芒果(Mangifera indica)、人心果(Manilkara zapota)、白千层(Melaleuca leucadendron)和乌墨(Syzygium cumini)等9种树木抗性与适应性强,生长基本健康;黄槐(Cassia surattensis)、黄葛榕(Ficus virens var. sublanceolata)和白兰(Michelia alba)在应用于某类绿地时容易出现健康问题;红花羊蹄甲(Bauhinia blakeana)和阴香(Cinnamomum burmannii)等2种树木存在一定的健康问题,管养应具有针对性;据此提出了园林树木应用及相应的管养建议.

  1. Microhabitats de mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae em internódios de taquara na Mata Atlântica, Paraná, Brasil Mosquitoes microhabitats (Diptera, Culicidae in bamboo internodes in Atlantic forest, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Leuch Lozovei

    Full Text Available During two consecutive years, from January 1985 to December 1986, a comparative study of mosquitoes preferences for breeding habitat was carried out in the Atlantic Forest of the Serra do Mar, Paraná State, Brazil. To achieve it, 1875 bamboo internodes aligned vertically in live green, bamboo plants Merostachys speciosa Munro and Merostachys sp. were used, in which metabolic water was exuded from the plant itself, and presenting different size/pattern holes at their lateral walls, bored by the local sylvan fauna. Another group of 1200 individual internode traps was used as comparative element, carved out with a transversal cut by a saw, filled with local stream water and held in branches at different heights in the vegetal strata nearby. At both microhabitat types, a total of 17 culicid species was registered. Culex (Microculex neglectus Lutz, 1904, Cx. (Carrollia soperi Antunes & Lane, 1937, Sabethes (Sabethes batesi Lane & Cerqueira, 1942 and Sa. (Sabethinus melanonymphe (Dyar, 1924colonized exclusively live plant internodes, while Culex (Microculex elongatus Rozeboom & Lane, 1950, Cx. (Carrollia iridescens (Lutz, 1905, Cx. (Carrollia kompi Valencia,1973and Trichoprosopon (Trichoprosopon soaresi Dyar & Knab, 1907 bred only in internode traps. The remaining nine species colonized both habitats indistinctly. Quantitatively, was detected the abundance of 60.1% at live green internodes, against 39.9% for internode traps. Concerning the different patterns of bored live internode holes, 40.3% of the total computed specimens were collected in square or rectangular holes, 31.9% in two hole internodes, one minute circular, the other wider, and the remaining 28.8% of specimens distributed in other pattern type internodes. The mosquitoes breeding at these microhabitats fall in the culicid entomofauna specialized at locating and detecting peculiar and propitious mesogen conditions for breeding purposes.

  2. Sesquiterpene lactones from the Yugoslavian wild growing plant families Asteraceae and Apiaceae (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILUTIN STEFANOVIC

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available 1. Introduction 2. Results 3. Asteraceae 3.1. Genus Artemisia L. 3.1.1. Artemisia annua L. 3.1.2. Artemisia vulgaris L. 3.1.3. Artemisia absinthium L. (warmwood 3.1.4. Artemisia scoparia W. et K. 3.1.5. Artemisia camprestris L. 3.2. Genus Ambrosia L. 3.2.1. Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (the common rag weed 3.3. Genus Tanacetum L. (syn. Chrysanthemum L. 3.3.1. Tanacetum parthenium L. (feverfew 3.3.2. Tanacetum serotinum L. 3.3.3. Tanacetum vulgare L. (tansy 3.3.4. Tanacetum macrophyllum Willd. 3.3.5. Tanacetum corymbosum L. 3.4. Genus Telekia Baumg. 3.4.1. Telekia speciosa (Schreb. Baumg. 3.5. Genus Inula L. 3.5.1. Inula helenium L. 3.5.2. Inula spiraeifolia L. 3.6. Genus Eupatorium L. 3.6.1. Eupatorium cannabinum L. 3.7. Genus Achillea L. 3.7.1. Achillea abrotanoides Vis. 3.7.2. Achillea millefolium subsp. pannonica 3.7.3. Achillea crithmifolia W. et K. 3.7.4. Achillea clypeolata Sibth. et Sm. 3.7.5. Achillea serbica Nyman 3.7.6. Achillea depressa Janka 3.8. Genus Anthemis L. 3.8.1. Anthemis carpatica Willd. 3.8.2. Anthemis cretica L. subsp. cretica 3.9. Genus Centaurea L. 3.9.1. Centaurea derventana Vis. et Panc. 3.9.2. Centaurea kosaninii Hayek 3.9.3. Centaurea solstitialis L. 4. Apiaceae 4.1. Genus Laserpitium L. 4.1.1. Laserpitium siler L. 4.1.2. Laserpitium marginatum L. 4.1.3. Laserpitium latifolium L. 4.1.4. Laserpitium alpinum W. K. 4.2. Genus Angelica L. 4.2.1. Angelica silvestris L. 4.3. Genus Peucedanum L. 4.3.1. Peucedanum austriacum (Jacq. Koch

  3. Screening for larvicidal activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of selected plants against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Russelle Alvarez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To screen for larvicidal activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts (95% ethanol from Selaginella elmeri, Christella dentata, Elatostema sinnatum, Curculigo capitulata, Euphorbia hirta, Murraya koenigii (M. koenigii, Alpinia speciosa, Cymbopogon citratus, Eucalyptus globulus (E. globulus, Jatropha curcas (J. curcas, Psidium guajava, Gliricidia sepium, Ixora coccinea and Capsicum frutescens (C. frutescens against Aedes aegypti (A. aegypti and Aedes albopictus (A. albopictus 3rd instar larvae. Methods: Ethanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for larvicidal activity by exposing the A. aegypti and A. albopictus 3rd instar larvae (15 larvae per trial, triplicates for 48 h, counting the mortalities every 24 h. Additionally, phytochemical screening for flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, anthraquinones, anthrones, coumarins, indoles and steroids were performed on active extracts using spray tests. Results: Against A. aegypti, the three most active extracts were C. frutescens ethanolic (100% after 24 and 48 h, J. curcas ethanolic (84.44% after 24 h and 88.89% after 48 h and M. koenigii ethanolic (53.33% after 24 h and 71.11% after 48 h. On the other hand, against A. albopictus, the three most active extracts were C. frutescens ethanolic (93.33% after 24 h and 100% after 48 h, J. curcas ethanolic (77.78% after 24 h and 82.22% after 48 h and E. globulus ethanolic (64.44% after 24 h and 73.33% after 48 h. Phytochemical screening was also performed on the active extracts, revealing alkaloids, tannins, indoles and steroids. Conclusios: The results demonstrate the larvicidal activities of ethanolic extracts of Cymbopogon citratus, Euphorbia hirta, Ixora coccinea, Gliricidia sepium, M. koenigii, E. globulus, J. curcas and C. frutescens against A. aegypti and A. albopictus 3rd instar larvae. These could be used as potential larvicidal agents for the control of these mosquitoes.

  4. Plantas hipoglicemiantes utilizadas por comunidades tradicionais na Bacia do Alto Paraguai e Vale do Guaporé, Mato Grosso - Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Macedo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, com inúmeras espécies tropicais, evidencia-se o conhecimento e uso da vegetação medicinal pelas comunidades quilombolas, ribeirinhas, rurais, tradicionais e indígenas, que são praticadas até os dias atuais. O Estado de Mato Grosso pela sua localização no Planalto Central brasileiro possui uma variedade destas comunidades, que utilizam estas plantas medicinais, levando em consideração o conhecimento popular passado de geração em geração. Esta pesquisa visa identificar a forma de coleta e os usos desse grupo vegetal indicados pelos usuários. O estudo foi realizado em 15 comunidades tradicionais (não indígenas na Bacia do Alto Paraguai e 2 (duas no Vale do Guaporé. A coleta de dados deu-se através de líderes comunitários, benzedeiras, parteiras e usuários utilizando o método qualitativo, mediante abordagem qualitativa, com auxílio de entrevistas estruturadas, semi-estruturadas e abertas. Dentre as espécies identificadas 17 estacam-se para o tratamento do Diabetes, dentre elas citam-se: Anacadium humile; Bauhinia glabra; Cecropia pachystachya; Hancornia speciosa; Heteropteris aphrodisiaca; Leonotis nepetifolia; Momordica charantia; Solanum lycocarpum. Registra-se ainda que as partes mais utilizadas desses vegetais são: folhas, casca do caule, raiz, planta toda, brotos, óleos dos frutos e polvilho dos frutos. De acordo com os usuários a maioria das plantas não podem ser colhidas após o nascer do sol e o preparo deve ser feito com folhas secas ou que tenham sido submetidas ao processo de secagem sobre o fogão de lenha ou em local abafado.

  5. Smart drugs: green shuttle or real drug?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornara, L; Borghesi, B; Canali, C; Andrenacci, M; Basso, M; Federici, S; Labra, M

    2013-11-01

    We have combined morphological, molecular, and chemical techniques in order to identify the plant and chemical composition of some last-generation smart drugs, present on the market under the following names: Jungle Mistic Incense, B-52, Blendz, and Kratom 10x. Micromorphological analyses of botanical fragments allowed identification of epidermal cells, stomata, trichomes, starch, crystals, and pollen. DNA barcoding was carried out by the plastidial gene rbcL and the spacer trnH-psbA as universal markers. The combination of morphological and molecular data revealed a mixture of plants from different families, including aromatic species, viz., Lamiaceae and Turneraceae. GC-MS and LC-MS analyses on ethanol or methanol extracts showed the presence of synthetic cannabinoids, including JWH-250 in Jungle, JWH-122 in B-52, and JWH-073 and JWH-018 in Blendz. In Kratom 10x, only the indole alkaloid mitragynine was detected. All the identified synthetic cannabinoids, apart from mitragynine, are under the restriction of law in Italy (TU 309/90). Synthetic cannabinoid crystals were also identified by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, which also detected other foreign organic chemicals, probably preservatives or antimycotics. In Kratom only leaf fragments from Mitragyna speciosa, containing the alkaloid mitragynine, were found. In the remaining products, aromatic plant species have mainly the role of hiding synthetic cannabinoids, thus acting as a "green shuttle" rather than as real drugs. Such a multidisciplinary approach is proposed as a method for the identification of herbal blends of uncertain composition, which are widely marketed in "headshops" and on the Internet, and represent a serious hazard to public health.

  6. Study of the effectiveness of several tree canopy types on roadside green belt in influencing the distribution of NO2 gas emitted from transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desyana, R. D.; Sulistyantara, B.; Nasrullah, N.; Fatimah, I. S.

    2017-03-01

    Transportation is one significant factor which contributes to urban air pollution. One of the pollutants emitted from transportation which affect human’s health is NO2. Plants, especially trees, have high potential in reducing air pollutants from transportation through diffusion, absorbtion, adsorption and deposition. Purpose of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of several tree canopy types on roadside green belt in influencing distribution of NO2 gas emitted from transportation. The study conducted in three plots of tree canopy in Jagorawi Highway: Bungur (Lagerstroemia speciosa), Gmelina (Gmelina arborea) and Tanjung (Mimusops elengi). The tree canopy ability in absorbing pollutant is derived by comparing air quality on vegetated area with ambience air quality at control area (open field). Air sampling was conducted to measure NO2 concentration at elevation 1.5m, 5m and 10m at distance 0m, 10m and 30m, using Air Sampler Impinger. Concentration of NO2 was analyzed with Griess-Saltzman method. From this research, the result of ANOVA showed that tree plot (vegetated area) affected significantly to NO2 concentration. However the effect of distance from road and elevation was not significant. Among the plots, the highest NO2 concentration was found on Control plot (area without tree canopy), while the lowest NO2 concentration was found in Tanjung plot. Tanjung plot with round shape and high density canopy performed better in reducing NO2 than Bungur plot with round shape and medium density canopy, regardless the sampling elevation and distance. Gmelina plot performed the best in reducing horizontal distribution of NO2 concentration at elevation 1.5 and 5m, but the result at elevation 10m was not significant.

  7. Taxonomy and species boundaries in the coral genus Favia Milne Edwards and Haime, 1857 (Cnidaria: Scleractinia) from Thailand revealed by morphological and genetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongjandtre, N.; Ridgway, T.; Cook, L. G.; Huelsken, T.; Budd, A. F.; Hoegh-Guldberg, O.

    2012-06-01

    While Faviidae is a widely and uniformly distributed coral family throughout the Indo-Pacific, the extensive phenotypic plasticity of colony surface and corallite features often confounds the use of macromorphological characters in species identification, and contributes to conflict between traditional classification and molecular analyses of the group. Recent advances in morphological and molecular techniques now provide a suite of methods to re-address coral taxonomy in complex groups, such as that represented by the Faviidae. This study combines morphologic measurements including "3D coordinates landmarks" data with phylogenetic assessments of nuclear (ITS) and mitochondrial (COI-trnM) DNA to assess species boundaries in nine species of Faviidae with para-septothecal walls from Thailand. Strong concordance was found between morphological features and a priori groupings based on both morphospecies and genetically defined groups (ITS and COI-trnM). Favia truncatus was the most well-defined species based on morphological analyses, and it was also shown to be monophyletic using phylogenetic analyses. Besides F. truncatus, the only other species that was found to be monophyletic in analyses of both genes was F. cf. helianthoides, but its skeletal morphology overlapped with the F. favus species complex (comprised of F. favus, F. speciosa, F. matthaii and F. rotumana). Although not genetically monophyletic, the F. favus species complex and F. pallida were fairly well delineated morphologically. Morphospecies within the F. favus species complex are therefore possibly a result of genetic drift and/or stable polymorphisms driven by divergent selection. These results represent a first step toward a taxonomic revision of the Indo-Pacific Favia, which will integrate morphological methods with the study of type material, genetic information, reproductive data, and tests of phenotypic plasticity—given that multiple lines of evidence are needed to resolve ambiguous species

  8. Incidência de insetos fitófagos e de predadores no milho e no feijão cultivados em sistema exclusivo e consorciado

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    Bastos Cristina Schetino

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido em Coimbra, MG, no ano agrícola 1996/97 e objetivou avaliar a ocorrência de insetos fitófagos e de predadores no milho e no feijoeiro cultivados em sistema exclusivo e em policultivo. Foi realizado um cultivo de milho (25/10/1996 a 24/03/1997 e dois cultivos de feijão[o primeiro de 25/10/1996 a 20/01/1997 (cultivo "das águas" e o segundo de 25/03/1997 a 21/07/1997 (cultivo "da seca"]. Realizaram-se contagens diretas das populações de insetos fitófagos e de predadores nas culturas. Menores densidades populacionais de herbívoros considerados preferenciais da cultura do milho [Dalbulus maidis (Delong & Wolcott (Homoptera: Cicadellidae e Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae] e do feijoeiro [Diabrotica speciosa (Germ., Cerotoma arcuata (Oliv. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae e Empoasca kraemeri (Ross & Moore (Homoptera: Cicadellidae] estiveram associadas ao cultivo consorciado. As densidades de herbívoros generalistas como Thrips tabaci Lind. (Thysanoptera: Thripidae e Pseudoplusia includens (Walk. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae foram maiores no feijoeiro consorciado com o milho. No cultivo "das águas", o total de insetos fitófagos foi maior no feijoeiro consorciado com o milho do que no feijoeiro cultivado exclusivamente, sendo que o inverso ocorreu no cultivo "da seca". Os predadores Anthicus sp. (Coleoptera: Anthicidae e Hymenoptera: Formicidae foram mais abundantes no milho e no feijoeiro cultivados exclusivamente do que as culturas foram consorciadas.

  9. THE SCIENTIFIC LETTERS OF LORENZO R. PARODI

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    Diego Medan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Se identifican las especies vegetales y sus partes empleadas en las prácticas alimentarias de los indígenas tapiete del noreste de la provincia de Salta, Argentina, así como sus formas de recolección, elaboración, consumo y almacenamiento. La finalidad última de este trabajo es contribuir a la apreciación y registro de los conocimientos del pueblo tapiete sobre estos aspectos de su cultura. Se efectuaron cinco campañas al Chaco semiárido norte y a la ciudad de Tartagal, donde se obtuvieron los datos etnobotánicos a partir de 75 entrevistas realizadas a un total de 32 colaboradores tapiete calificados y ocasionales. Cada una de las plantas alimenticias indicadas fue colectada e identificada por los autores y depositadas en el Herbario Ruiz Leal (MERL. Se registra un total de 54 plantas nativas, pertenecientes a 23 familias botánicas, empleadas como alimento por los tapiete en 106 preparaciones culinarias o formas de consumo y 13 formas de conservación. Las principales especies en su alimentación son Anisocapparis speciosa, Prosopis aff. elata y Prosopis alba con seis usos cada una y Ziziphus mistol, Geoffroea decorticans y Funastrum clausum con cuatro aplicaciones. La mayoría de estos usos (55%; 59 no incluyen preparación alguna -se consumen crudos-, el 21 % (22 se consumen cocidos (hervidos o asados, mientras que sus usos en bebidas, condimentos y harinas representan una minoría de las aplicaciones (24%; 25. Se registra por vez primera el consumo alimenticio de las hojas de Passiflora mooreana y de P. cincinatta por etnias del Gran Chaco.

  10. Synthetic and Receptor Signaling Explorations of the Mitragyna Alkaloids: Mitragynine as an Atypical Molecular Framework for Opioid Receptor Modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruegel, Andrew C; Gassaway, Madalee M; Kapoor, Abhijeet; Váradi, András; Majumdar, Susruta; Filizola, Marta; Javitch, Jonathan A; Sames, Dalibor

    2016-06-01

    Mu-opioid receptor agonists represent mainstays of pain management. However, the therapeutic use of these agents is associated with serious side effects, including potentially lethal respiratory depression. Accordingly, there is a longstanding interest in the development of new opioid analgesics with improved therapeutic profiles. The alkaloids of the Southeast Asian plant Mitragyna speciosa, represented by the prototypical member mitragynine, are an unusual class of opioid receptor modulators with distinct pharmacological properties. Here we describe the first receptor-level functional characterization of mitragynine and related natural alkaloids at the human mu-, kappa-, and delta-opioid receptors. These results show that mitragynine and the oxidized analogue 7-hydroxymitragynine, are partial agonists of the human mu-opioid receptor and competitive antagonists at the kappa- and delta-opioid receptors. We also show that mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine are G-protein-biased agonists of the mu-opioid receptor, which do not recruit β-arrestin following receptor activation. Therefore, the Mitragyna alkaloid scaffold represents a novel framework for the development of functionally biased opioid modulators, which may exhibit improved therapeutic profiles. Also presented is an enantioselective total synthesis of both (-)-mitragynine and its unnatural enantiomer, (+)-mitragynine, employing a proline-catalyzed Mannich-Michael reaction sequence as the key transformation. Pharmacological evaluation of (+)-mitragynine revealed its much weaker opioid activity. Likewise, the intermediates and chemical transformations developed in the total synthesis allowed the elucidation of previously unexplored structure-activity relationships (SAR) within the Mitragyna scaffold. Molecular docking studies, in combination with the observed chemical SAR, suggest that Mitragyna alkaloids adopt a binding pose at the mu-opioid receptor that is distinct from that of classical opioids.

  11. PHYTOSOCIOLOGY AND FLORISTIC DIVERSITY IN A CERRADO AREA UNDER DIFFERENT ANTROPIZATION LEVELS, RIO PARDO DE MINAS, MG

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    Wanderson Henrique do Couto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate diversity and floristic similarity of Cerrado environments, under different levels of anthropization for agricultural usage and extractivism, and to generate a database to subsidize sustainable development proposals for the North region of Minas Gerais State, and traditional agriculture systems. Four areas with different levels of anthropization were sampled, in the following environments: “Areião, Areiãozinho, Chapada de Latossolo and Tabuleiro”, whose identifications had been made from key informers in the Água Boa Community, in Rio Pardo de Minas (MG, Brazil. The sampled units were distributed in 8 parcels of 20 x 50 m, with 5 subplots. The trees with circumference at ground level of 15 cm or bigger were measured. For analysis of the phytosociology indexes the following parameters were calculated for each environment: density, dominance, frequency, basal area, and importance value. For the floristic diversity the Shannon (H' was calculated, and for the analysis of similarity the index of Jaccard index (Sij. In all the environments, it was found a total of 477 individuals, distributed in 21 families, with 48 botanical species identified, and 27 individuals not identified. The five most important (importance value families was Fabaceae/Papilionoideae, Apocynaceae, Vochysiaceae, Sapotaceae and Fabaceae/Caesalpinoideae. And the ten most important species was Pouteria ramiflora, Dalbergia miscolobium, Hancornia speciosa, Macherium opacum, Sclerolobium paniculatum var. subvelutinum, Qualea grandiflora, Aspidosperma tomentosum, Byrsonima pachyphylla, Vochysia thyrsoidea and Hymenaea stigonocarpa. The H' index was of 3.01; 2.72; 2.48 and 2.09 for “Areião, Areiãozinho, Chapada de Latossolo and Tabuleiro”, respectively. The Sij index indicated a small floristic similarity for all the combinations between the environments.

  12. Pastagens arborizadas no projeto de assentamento benfica, município de Itupiranga, Pará, Brasil

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    Alessio Moreira dos Santos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Na microrregião de Marabá, PA, as pastagens dos agricultores familiares apresentam alta diversidade de árvores e palmeiras que têm papel importante tanto para limitação da degradação da biodiversidade quanto para suas utilidades. O trabalho foi realizado em 26 propriedades, onde 62 pastagens foram visitadas junto com o agricultor. Em cada pastagem foram repertoriadas todas as árvores e palmeiras presentes. Setenta e uma espécies foram encontradas, pertencentes a 32 famílias, das quais nove se destacaram com maior número de espécies: Caesalpiniaceae (11, Mimosaceae (10, Arecaceae (4, Lecythidaceae (4, Bignoniaceae (3, Fabaceae (3, Moraceae (3, Sapotaceae (3 e Sterculiaceae (3; 20 famílias apresentaram uma única espécie. Vinte e quatro espécies (34% do total pertenceram às três famílias Leguminosae (Fabaceae, Caesalpiniaceae e Mimosaceae. As espécies arborescentes são conservadas principalmente em razão dos usos diversos na propriedade. Das 21 espécies, indicadas para arborização de pastagens de agricultores desta e de outras comunidades, nove espécies são particularmente recomendadas pela resistência ao fogo e para muitos anos de pastagem, pelo fato de ter dois usos ou mais: Caryocar villosum (Aubl. Pers., Bertholletia excelsa H. B. K., Attalea speciosa Mart. ex Spreng., Oenocarpus distichus Mart., Astrocaryum tucuma Mart., Swartzia flaemingii Raddi, Apeiba tibourbou Aubl., Cenostigma tocantinum Ducke e Spondias mombin L.

  13. RECURSOS VEGETALES Y PRÁCTICAS ALIMENTARIAS ENTRE INDÍGENAS TAPIETE DEL NORESTE DE LA PROVINCIA DE SALTA, ARGENTINA

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    María Cecilia Montani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Se identifican las especies vegetales y sus partes empleadas en las prácticas alimentarias de los indígenas tapiete del noreste de la provincia de Salta, Argentina, así como sus formas de recolección, elaboración, consumo y almacenamiento. La finalidad última de este trabajo es contribuir a la apreciación y registro de los conocimientos del pueblo tapiete sobre estos aspectos de su cultura. Se efectuaron cinco campañas al Chaco semiárido norte y a la ciudad de Tartagal, donde se obtuvieron los datos etnobotánicos a partir de 75 entrevistas realizadas a un total de 32 colaboradores tapiete calificados y ocasionales. Cada una de las plantas alimenticias indicadas fue colectada e identificada por los autores y depositadas en el Herbario Ruiz Leal (MERL. Se registra un total de 54 plantas nativas, pertenecientes a 23 familias botánicas, empleadas como alimento por los tapiete en 106 preparaciones culinarias o formas de consumo y 13 formas de conservación. Las principales especies en su alimentación son Anisocapparis speciosa, Prosopis aff. elata y Prosopis alba con seis usos cada una y Ziziphus mistol, Geoffroea decorticans y Funastrum clausum con cuatro aplicaciones. La mayoría de estos usos (55%; 59 no incluyen preparación alguna -se consumen crudos-, el 21 % (22 se consumen cocidos (hervidos o asados, mientras que sus usos en bebidas, condimentos y harinas representan una minoría de las aplicaciones (24%; 25. Se registra por vez primera el consumo alimenticio de las hojas de Passiflora mooreana y de P. cincinatta por etnias del Gran Chaco.

  14. Drogas emergentes (III: plantas y hongos alucinógenos

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    G. Burillo-Putze

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Se ha observado un aumento del consumo de sustancias vegetales con efecto alucinógeno, algunas de ellas asociadas a ceremonias religiosas ancestrales, siendo muchas de estas sustancias legales o con una regulación parcial. Salvia divinorum es un potente agonista de los receptores kappa, con propiedades disociativas y alucinógenas, de inicio rápido y corta duración. El Kratom (Mytragyna speciosa, posee como alcaloide principal la mitraginina, con efectos estimulantes a dosis bajas (efecto coca-like, y efectos sedativos (efecto opioide-like a dosis altas. Se han detectado varias muertes asociadas a su consumo. El consumo de hongos alucinógenos aparece de forma cíclica, aunque se ha incrementado su oferta on-line. Se consumen buscando sus efectos alucinógenos sobre todo los pertenecientes a la familia de los psilocybes, los cuales contienen triptaminas con efecto alucinógeno, similar al LSD. El peyote (Lophophora williamsii, cactus rico en mescalina (trimetoxifeniletilamina, produce alucinaciones de los cinco sentidos, y forma parte de la cultura religiosa de los indios norteamericanos. Las daturas, de gran ubicuidad, producen un cuadro anticolinérgico y efectos sobre el sistema nervioso central (delirios, alucinaciones, etc, por su alto contenido en atropina y escopolamina. Otras sustancia utilizadas por sus efectos alucinatorios incluyen la bebida conocida como ayahuasca, y semillas para preparación de infusiones como el Ololiuqui, la Gloria de la mañana (Ipomoea violacea, la Rosa de Hawai (Argyreia nervosa, la Ruda borde (Peganum harmala, y la Iboga (Tabernanthe iboga.

  15. DNA sequence analyses of blended herbal products including synthetic cannabinoids as designer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Jun; Uchiyama, Nahoko; Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri; Goda, Yukihiro

    2013-04-10

    In recent years, various herbal products adulterated with synthetic cannabinoids have been distributed worldwide via the Internet. These herbal products are mostly sold as incense, and advertised as not for human consumption. Although their labels indicate that they contain mixtures of several potentially psychoactive plants, and numerous studies have reported that they contain a variety of synthetic cannabinoids, their exact botanical contents are not always clear. In this study, we investigated the origins of botanical materials in 62 Spice-like herbal products distributed on the illegal drug market in Japan, by DNA sequence analyses and BLAST searches. The nucleotide sequences of four regions were analyzed to identify the origins of each plant species in the herbal mixtures. The sequences of "Damiana" (Turnera diffusa) and Lamiaceae herbs (Mellissa, Mentha and Thymus) were frequently detected in a number of products. However, the sequences of other plant species indicated on the packaging labels were not detected. In a few products, DNA fragments of potent psychotropic plants were found, including marijuana (Cannabis sativa), "Diviner's Sage" (Salvia divinorum) and "Kratom" (Mitragyna speciosa). Their active constituents were also confirmed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), although these plant names were never indicated on the labels. Most plant species identified in the products were different from the plants indicated on the labels. The plant materials would be used mainly as diluents for the psychoactive synthetic compounds, because no reliable psychoactive effects have been reported for most of the identified plants, with the exception of the psychotropic plants named above.

  16. Host-associated fitness trade-offs do not limit the evolution of diet breadth in the small milkweed bug Lygaeus kalmii (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Charles W; Caldwell, Roy L

    1994-04-01

    Theoretical models of evolution in a temporally variable environment predict that genotypes with low variance in fitness across generations will be favored. When host use varies temporally and fitness trade-offs exist among hosts, such that an increase in performance on one host results in a correlated decrease on the other, selection for low variance in fitness across generations will favor genotypes which are generalists. Before predictions such as this can be extended to natural herbivore populations, however, it is necessary to understand the extent to which performance trade-offs limit simultaneous adaptation to multiple hosts. The experiment reported here compares two populations of the common milkweed bug, Lygaeus kalmii (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) which differ in patterns of host usage. One population is largely restricted to milkweed (Asclepias spp.) when milkweed seeds are available, but becomes a scavenger on a large assortment of available seeds when milkweed seeds are unavailable. The second population is restricted largely to dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), without access to milkweed. We examine these populations to test for host-associated genetic trade-offs between specialization on dandelion (Taraxacum) and two species of milkweed, Asclepias fascicularis, which is low in cardiac glycoside content, and A. speciosa, which is high in cardiac glycoside content. Despite the difference in patterns of host use of the two L. kalmii populations, the populations did not differ in their performance on any of the host plants. Within each population, bugs performed nearly as well on each host, except that bugs had significantly lower survivorship on dandelion than on either milkweed species. Trade-offs in performance among hosts were not present in either population: estimated genetic correlations across hosts were strongly positive. The inability of this study to detect host-associated fitness trade-offs is consistent with most published data on this topic.

  17. The potency of Bukit Tapak forest as means for traditional ceremony, environmental conservation, and education

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    I WAYAN SUMANTERA

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Bukit Tapak (1903 m the natural reserve of Batukau I (816.4 ha is one of three natural reserve area of Batukau (1762.8 ha, 1974. Located at the tourism object of Bedugul, the eastern part boundaries to the Botanic Garden Eka Karya-LIPI (154.5 ha, 1959 and settlement of Candikuning area (1152 family, 4475 persons and near the three lakes of the water resources of Bali; Beratan, Buyan and Tamblingan lake. The special plants; cemara geseng (Casuarina junghuhniana Miq., cemara pandak (Dacrycarpus imbricatus (Blume de Laub., nyabah (Pinanga arinasaensis J.R. Witono, paku kidang (Dicksonia blumei Planch., and purnajiwa (Euchresta horsfieldii (Lesch. Benth.. The pioneer plant of the hill is cemara geseng and the endemic is cemara pandak. The plant of needle leaves that basically the existence of Bali Botanical Garden as the conservation ex situ flora of noodle leaves especially at the eastern Indonesian area. Nyabah, which is supposed to be the new kind of palm named Arinasa, driven from the staff name who is the pioneer of the conservation. Paku kidang is rare. There are ethnobotany plants of ritual ceremony such as: kayu tulak (Schefflera sp., kayu tulung (Brasaia sp., penjalin (Calamus sp., paku pidpid (Nephrolepis sp., trijata (Medinilla speciosa (Blume ex Mart. Blume, etc. Balinese people believe that forest is holly and sacred. But because of the existence of Pura Teratai Bang (16 century at the slope, moslem cemetery (found in 1938 at the peak, and other needs (climbing, food, medicine, etc., it can not be avoided the entrances of people that caused the forest is damaged. The forest reservation needs the approach to the local people, so the solution are morally and integration. The use of the forest which is potential as the environment education facilities conservation and other alternatives such as: horticulture, the improvement of the people economy discussed here to be the input for the forest conservation wisely and continuously.

  18. An Investigation on Species of Roadside Tree in Southern Subtropical Main Cities of China%南亚热带主要城市行道树树种调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周贱平; 李洪斌; 陈李利; 余凤英; 卢俊鸿; 钟惠红

    2007-01-01

    通过对南亚热带13个主要城市的1667条主要道路行道树生长状况的调查,结果表明,共有101种(含种以下单位)乔木用作行道树.它们分别隶属于32科68属,其中乡土树种占53.47%,常绿乔木占75.25%,其中87.13%的乔木生长良好.研究认为:海南蒲桃(Syzgium cumini)、非洲桃花心木(Khaya sencgalensis )、木棉(Bombax ceiba)、芒果(Mangifera indica)、扁桃(Mangifera persiciformis )、海南红豆(Ormosia pinnata)、秋枫(Bischofia javanica)、细叶榕(Ficus microcarpa)、麻楝(Chukrasia tabularis )、樟树(Cinnamomum camphora )、阴香(Cinnamomum burmanii )、垂叶榕(Ficus bengjamina)、高山榕(Ficus altissima)、尖叶杜英(Elaeocarpus apiculatus )、人面子(Dracontomelon duperreanum )、红花羊蹄甲(Bauhinia blakeana )、凤凰木(Delonix regia)、白兰花(Michelia alba )、大花紫薇(Lagerstroemia speciosa )、糖胶树(Alstonia scholaris )、紫檀(Pterocarpus indicus )、蝴蝶果(Cleidiocarpon cavaleriei )、石栗(Alcurites moluccana )、蒲桃(Syzgium jambos)等24种乔木适宜作为南亚热带城市行道树的骨干树种;大叶榕(Ficus virens var.sublanceolata )、黄槐( Cassia suffurtiosa )等31种乔木可作为行道树一般树种.

  19. Identification of cotton fleahopper (Hemiptera: Miridae) host plants in central Texas and compendium of reported hosts in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel, J F; Esquivel, S V

    2009-06-01

    The cotton fleahopper, Pseudatomoscelis seriatus (Reuter), is an early-season pest of developing cotton in Central Texas and other regions of the Cotton Belt. Cotton fleahopper populations develop on spring weed hosts and move to cotton as weed hosts senesce or if other weed hosts are not readily available. To identify weed hosts that were seasonably available for the cotton fleahopper in Central Texas, blooming weed species were sampled during early-season (17 March-31 May), mid-season (1 June-14 August), late-season (15 August-30 November), and overwintering (1 December-16 March) periods. The leading hosts for cotton fleahopper adults and nymphs were evening primrose (Oenothera speciosa T. Nuttall) and Mexican hat [Ratibida columnifera (T. Nuttall) E. Wooton and P. Standley], respectively, during the early season. During the mid-season, silver-leaf nightshade (Solanum elaeagnifolium A. Cavanilles) was consistently a host for fleahopper nymphs and adults. Woolly croton (Croton capitatus A. Michaux) was a leading host during the late season. Cotton fleahoppers were not collected during the overwintering period. Other suitable hosts were available before previously reported leading hosts became available. Eight previously unreported weed species were documented as temporary hosts. A compendium of reported hosts, which includes >160 plant species representing 35 families, for the cotton fleahopper is provided for future research addressing insect-host plant associations. Leading plant families were Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, and Onagraceae. Results presented here indicate a strong argument for assessing weed species diversity and abundance for the control of the cotton fleahopper in the Cotton Belt.

  20. Screening for larvicidal activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of selected plants against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus larvae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael RusselleAlvarez; Francisco Heralde III; Noel Quiming

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To screen for larvicidal activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts (95% ethanol) from Selaginella elmeri, Christella dentata, Elatostema sinnatum, Curculigo capitulata, Euphorbia hirta, Murraya koenigii (M. koenigii), Alpinia speciosa, Cymbopogon citratus, Eucalyptus globulus (E. globulus), Jatropha curcas (J. curcas), Psidium guajava, Gliricidia sepium, Ixora coccinea and Capsicum frutescens (C. frutescens) against Aedes aegypti (A. aegypti) and Aedes albopictus (A. albopictus) 3rd instar larvae. Methods: Ethanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for larvicidal activity by exposing the A. aegypti and A. albopictus 3rd instar larvae (15 larvae per trial, triplicates) for 48 h, counting the mortalities every 24 h. Additionally, phytochemical screening for flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, anthraquinones, anthrones, coumarins, indoles and steroids were performed on active extracts using spray tests. Results: Against A. aegypti, the three most active extracts were C. frutescens ethanolic (100%after 24 and 48 h), J. curcas ethanolic (84.44% after 24 h and 88.89% after 48 h) and M. koenigii ethanolic (53.33% after 24 h and 71.11% after 48 h). On the other hand, against A. albopictus, the three most active extracts were C. frutescens ethanolic (93.33% after 24 h and 100% after 48 h), J. curcas ethanolic (77.78% after 24 h and 82.22% after 48 h) and E. globulus ethanolic (64.44% after 24 h and 73.33% after 48 h). Phytochemical screening was also performed on the active extracts, revealing alkaloids, tannins, indoles and steroids. Conclusios: The results demonstrate the larvicidal activities of ethanolic extracts of Cymbopogon citratus, Euphorbia hirta, Ixora coccinea, Gliricidia sepium, M. koenigii, E. globulus, J. curcas and C. frutescens against A. aegypti and A. albopictus 3rd instar larvae. These could be used as potential larvicidal agents for the control of these mosquitoes.

  1. Weather forecasting by insects: modified sexual behaviour in response to atmospheric pressure changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Ana Cristina; Peñaflor, Maria Fernanda Gomes Villalba; Nardi, Cristiane; Bezner-Kerr, Wayne; Guglielmo, Christopher G; Bento, José Maurício Simões; McNeil, Jeremy N

    2013-01-01

    Prevailing abiotic conditions may positively or negatively impact insects at both the individual and population levels. For example while moderate rainfall and wind velocity may provide conditions that favour development, as well as movement within and between habitats, high winds and heavy rains can significantly decrease life expectancy. There is some evidence that insects adjust their behaviours associated with flight, mating and foraging in response to changes in barometric pressure. We studied changes in different mating behaviours of three taxonomically unrelated insects, the curcurbit beetle, Diabrotica speciosa (Coleoptera), the true armyworm moth, Pseudaletia unipuncta (Lepidoptera) and the potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Hemiptera), when subjected to natural or experimentally manipulated changes in atmospheric pressure. In response to decreasing barometric pressure, male beetles exhibited decreased locomotory activity in a Y-tube olfactometer with female pheromone extracts. However, when placed in close proximity to females, they exhibited reduced courtship sequences and the precopulatory period. Under the same situations, females of the true armyworm and the potato aphid exhibited significantly reduced calling behaviour. Neither the movement of male beetles nor the calling of armyworm females differed between stable and increasing atmospheric pressure conditions. However, in the case of the armyworm there was a significant decrease in the incidence of mating under rising atmospheric conditions, suggesting an effect on male behaviour. When atmospheric pressure rose, very few M. euphorbiae oviparae called. This was similar to the situation observed under decreasing conditions, and consequently very little mating was observed in this species except under stable conditions. All species exhibited behavioural modifications, but there were interspecific differences related to size-related flight ability and the diel periodicity of mating activity. We

  2. Estimating babassu palm density using automatic palm tree detection with very high spatial resolution satellite images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Alessio Moreira; Mitja, Danielle; Delaître, Eric; Demagistri, Laurent; de Souza Miranda, Izildinha; Libourel, Thérèse; Petit, Michel

    2017-05-15

    High spatial resolution images as well as image processing and object detection algorithms are recent technologies that aid the study of biodiversity and commercial plantations of forest species. This paper seeks to contribute knowledge regarding the use of these technologies by studying randomly dispersed native palm tree. Here, we analyze the automatic detection of large circular crown (LCC) palm tree using a high spatial resolution panchromatic GeoEye image (0.50 m) taken on the area of a community of small agricultural farms in the Brazilian Amazon. We also propose auxiliary methods to estimate the density of the LCC palm tree Attalea speciosa (babassu) based on the detection results. We used the "Compt-palm" algorithm based on the detection of palm tree shadows in open areas via mathematical morphology techniques and the spatial information was validated using field methods (i.e. structural census and georeferencing). The algorithm recognized individuals in life stages 5 and 6, and the extraction percentage, branching factor and quality percentage factors were used to evaluate its performance. A principal components analysis showed that the structure of the studied species differs from other species. Approximately 96% of the babassu individuals in stage 6 were detected. These individuals had significantly smaller stipes than the undetected ones. In turn, 60% of the stage 5 babassu individuals were detected, showing significantly a different total height and a different number of leaves from the undetected ones. Our calculations regarding resource availability indicate that 6870 ha contained 25,015 adult babassu palm tree, with an annual potential productivity of 27.4 t of almond oil. The detection of LCC palm tree and the implementation of auxiliary field methods to estimate babassu density is an important first step to monitor this industry resource that is extremely important to the Brazilian economy and thousands of families over a large scale.

  3. Extended geographic distribution of several Indo-Pacific coral reef diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, E; Irikawa, A; Casareto, B; Suzuki, Y

    2012-03-20

    Other than coral bleaching, few coral diseases or diseases of other reef organisms have been reported from Japan. This is the first report of lesions similar to Porites ulcerative white spots (PUWS), brown band disease (BrB), pigmentation response (PR), and crustose coralline white syndrome (CCWS) for this region. To assess the health status and disease prevalence, qualitative and quantitative surveys (3 belt transects of 100 m² each on each reef) were performed in March and September 2010 on 2 reefs of the Ginowan-Ooyama reef complex off Okinawa, and 2 protected reefs off Zamani Island, in the Kerama Islands 40 km west of Okinawa. Overall, mean (±SD) disease prevalence was higher in Ginowan-Ooyama (9.7 ± 7.9%) compared to Zamami (3.6 ± 4.6%). Porites lutea was most affected by PUWS at Ooyama (23.1 ± 10.4 vs. 4.5 ± 5.2%). White syndrome (WS) mostly affected Acropora cytherea (12. 5 ± 18.0%) in Zamami and Oxipora lacera (10.2 ± 10%) in Ooyama. Growth anomalies (GA) and BrB were only observed on A. cytherea (8.3 ± 6.2%) and A. nobilis (0.8%) at Zamami. Black band disease affected Pachyseris speciosa (6.0 ± 4.6%) in Ooyama only. Pigmentation responses (PR) were common in massive Porites in both localities (2.6 ± 1.9 and 5.6 ± 2.3% respectively). Crustose coralline white syndrome (CCWS) was observed in both localities. These results significantly expand the geographic distribution of PUWS, BrB, PR and CCWS in the Indo-Pacific, indicating that the northernmost coral reefs in the western Pacific are susceptible to a larger number of coral diseases than previously thought.

  4. Quantifying floral shape variation in 3D using microcomputed tomography: a case study of a hybrid line between actinomorphic and zygomorphic flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Neng eWang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The quantification of floral shape variations is difficult because flower structures are both diverse and complex. Traditionally, floral shape variations are quantified using the qualitative and linear measurements of two-dimensional (2D images. The 2D images cannot adequately describe flower structures, and thus lead to unsatisfactory discrimination of the flower shape. This study aimed to acquire three-dimensional (3D images by using microcomputed tomography (μCT and to examine the floral shape variations by using geometric morphometrics (GM. To demonstrate the advantages of the 3D-µCT-GM approach, we applied the approach to a second-generation population of florist’s gloxinia (Sinningia speciosa crossed from parents of zygomorphic and actinomorphic flowers. The flowers in the population considerably vary in size and shape, thereby served as good materials to test the applicability of the proposed phenotyping approach. Procedures were developed to acquire 3D volumetric flower images using a μCT scanner, to segment the flower regions from the background, and to select homologous characteristic points (i.e., landmarks from the flower images for the subsequent GM analysis. The procedures identified 95 landmarks for each flower and thus improved the capability of describing and illustrating the flower shapes, compared with typically lower number of landmarks in 2D analyses. The GM analysis demonstrated that flower opening and dorsoventral symmetry were the principal shape variations of the flowers. The degrees of flower opening and corolla asymmetry were then subsequently quantified directly from the 3D flower images. The 3D-µCT-GM approach revealed shape variations that could not be identified using typical 2D approaches and accurately quantified the flower traits that presented a challenge in 2D images. The approach opens new avenues to investigate floral shape variations.

  5. Sobrevivência e crescimento inicial de espécies arbóreas nativas do Cerrado em consórcio com mandioca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Martinotto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a sobrevivência e o crescimento inicial de seis espécies arbóreas do Cerrado em consórcio com mandioca (Manihot esculenta, com ou sem adubação fosfatada. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, em arranjo fatorial 6x2x2, com quatro repetições. As variáveis consideradas foram as espécies: Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil (angico-vermelho, Anacardium occidentale (caju, Dipteryx alata (cumbaru, Hymenaea stigonocarpa (jatobá, Hancornia speciosa (mangaba e Sclerolobium paniculatum var. rubiginosum (taxi-branco, em monocultivo ou em consórcio com mandioca, com ou sem adubação fosfatada. Uma distância fixa de 3x3 m foi usada para as espécies arbóreas e de 1,00x0,60 m para a mandioca. Até a idade de 20 meses, as espécies arbóreas foram avaliadas quatro vezes quanto à altura e ao diâmetro do coleto. A produção de biomassa da mandioca foi avaliada aos 20 meses. A taxa média de sobrevivência das espécies arbóreas foi crescente na seguinte ordem: cumbaru (79%, taxi-branco (86%, jatobá (95%, mangaba (98%, angico (99% e caju (100%. O taxi-branco apresentou maiores taxas de crescimento relativo em diâmetro e altura, enquanto jatobá e cumbaru apresentaram os menores valores. A adubação fosfatada favoreceu apenas ao taxi-branco. A produtividade de mandioca não foi afetada pelo consórcio. Caju, angico-vermelho e taxi-branco são as espécies mais indicadas para o consórcio com mandioca no Cerrado.

  6. The recent apple snails of Africa and Asia (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Ampullariidae: Afropomus, Forbesopomus, Lanistes, Pila, Saulea): a nomenclatural and type catalogue. The apple snails of the Americas: addenda and corrigenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Robert H

    2015-03-27

    earlier catalogue of the apple snails of the Americas are provided. No new names are proposed. Seven apparently new combinations are introduced, all with the genus Pila Preston: complicata Reeve, dira Reeve, major Germain (described as a variety of ovata Olivier), major Germain (described as a variety of speciosa Philippi), obvia Mabille, pallens Philippi, turbinoides Reeve.

  7. Chuva de sementes em remanescentes florestais de Campo Verde, MT

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    William Pietro-Souza

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho consistiu em avaliar sazonalmente a produção de sementes provenientes de fragmentos florestais presentes na zona rural de Campo Verde, MT. Essa caracterização ocorreu em termos de produção de sementes e riqueza de espécies vegetais. Foram selecionados três fragmentos florestais caracterizados como Floresta Estacional Semidecidual. Em cada fragmento, cinco coletores foram instalados e confeccionados com canos de PVC (1 m²; malha de náilon de 0,001 m e 0,15 m de profundidade do bojo. O material foi coletado mensalmente, cujas sementes foram quantificadas e separadas conforme a síndrome de dispersão, etapa sucessional e forma de vida. Houve a determinação da densidade, frequência absoluta, índice de diversidade e equitabilidade. Ao todo, foram obtidas 3.622 sementes, pertencentes a 74 táxons. Maiores densidades de sementes foram observadas durante os meses de setembro, outubro e novembro. As lianas Gouania sp., Fridericia speciosa, Heteropterys sp. e Distictella sp. responderam com 55,95% do total de sementes aportadas. Das espécies que compuseram a chuva de sementes, 74% não são dispersas pelo vento. Todavia, quando se verificou a quantidade de diásporos coletados, formas dispersas pelo vento foram predominantes, representando 76% do total. Citam-se como táxons arbóreos importantes para a recomposição florestal na região de Campo Verde, situada no Sudeste de Mato Grosso: Tachigali rubiginosa, Siparuna guianensis, Nectandra sp., Cordia alliodora, Alibertia sp., Terminalia brasiliensis e Myrcia sp. Essas espécies devem ser alvo de estudos mais específicos relacionados ao seu potencial para recuperação de ambientes degradados, considerando-se as Áreas de Preservação Permanente e Reservas Legais.

  8. Romulea pilosa and R. quartzicola (Iridaceae: Crocoideae, two new species from the southern African winter rainfall region, with nomenclatural corrections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Manning

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Romulea pilosa J.C.Manning & Goldblatt and R. quartzicola J.C.Manning & Goldblatt are two narrow endemics from the southern African winter rainfall region. An early, fragmentary collection of R. pilosa from Riviersonderend lacked the diagnostic corm and was thus mistakenly associated with R. tetragona (sect. Ciliatae as var. flavandra M.P.de Vos because of the highly distinctive pilose, H-shaped leaf. The rediscovery of the taxon in the wild shows it to be a previously unrecognized member of sect. Aggregatae, distinguished by its unusual foliage and bright orange flowers. R. quartzicola was grown to flowering from seeds collected from quartz patches in southern Namaqualand and proved to be a new species of sect. Ciliatae, distinguished by its early flowering, short, subclavate leaves with reduced sclerenchyma strands, and bright yellow flowers with short bracts. R. neglecta M.P.de Vos, a rare endemic from the Kamiesberg in Northern Cape, is a later homonym for the Mediterranean R. neglecta Jord. & Fourr., and the earliest name for this plant is shown to be R. speciosa (Ker Gawl. Baker, typified by an illustration in Andrews’ The botanist’s repository. An epitype is designated to fix the application of the name. We have also examined the type illustration of R. pudica (Sol. ex Ker Gawl. Baker, hitherto treated as an uncertain species, and are confident that it represents the species currently known as R. amoena Schltr. ex Bég., and takes priority over it as being the earlier name. The type of R. reflexa Eckl., a new name for the later homonym I. reflexa Thunb. and the basionym of R. rosea var. reflexa (Eckl. Bég., has been mistakenly identified as an Ecklon collection but is in fact the collection that formed the basis of Thunberg’s I. reflexa. This collection is actually a form of R. flava Lam., and the name R. rosea var. reflexa is thus moved to the synonomy of that species. The variety currently known under this name should now be

  9. Romulea pilosa and R. quartzicola (Iridaceae: Crocoideae, two new species from the southern African winter rainfall region, with nomenclatural corrections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Manning

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Romulea pilosa J.C.Manning & Goldblatt and R. quartzicola J.C.Manning & Goldblatt are two narrow endemics from the southern African winter rainfall region. An early, fragmentary collection of R. pilosa from Riviersonderend lacked the diagnostic corm and was thus mistakenly associated with R. tetragona (sect. Ciliatae as var. flavandra M.P.de Vos because of the highly distinctive pilose, H-shaped leaf. The rediscovery of the taxon in the wild shows it to be a previously unrecognized member of sect. Aggregatae, distinguished by its unusual foliage and bright orange flowers. R. quartzicola was grown to flowering from seeds collected from quartz patches in southern Namaqualand and proved to be a new species of sect. Ciliatae, distinguished by its early flowering, short, subclavate leaves with reduced sclerenchyma strands, and bright yellow flowers with short bracts. R. neglecta M.P.de Vos, a rare endemic from the Kamiesberg in Northern Cape, is a later homonym for the Mediterranean R. neglecta Jord. & Fourr., and the earliest name for this plant is shown to be R. speciosa (Ker Gawl. Baker, typified by an illustration in Andrews’ The botanist’s repository. An epitype is designated to fix the application of the name. We have also examined the type illustration of R. pudica (Sol. ex Ker Gawl. Baker, hitherto treated as an uncertain species, and are confident that it represents the species currently known as R. amoena Schltr. ex Bég., and takes priority over it as being the earlier name. The type of R. reflexa Eckl., a new name for the later homonym I. reflexa Thunb. and the basionym of R. rosea var. reflexa (Eckl. Bég., has been mistakenly identified as an Ecklon collection but is in fact the collection that formed the basis of Thunberg’s I. reflexa. This collection is actually a form of R. flava Lam., and the name R. rosea var. reflexa is thus moved to the synonomy of that species. The variety currently known under this name should now be

  10. BIO-MONITORING FOR URANIUM USING STREAM-SIDE TERRESTRIAL PLANTS AND MACROPHYTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, E.; Duff, M.; Hicks, T.; Coughlin, D.; Hicks, R.; Dixon, E.

    2012-01-12

    This study evaluated the abilities of various plant species to act as bio-monitors for environmental uranium (U) contamination. Vegetation and soil samples were collected from a U processing facility. The water-way fed from facility storm and processing effluents was the focal sample site as it represented a primary U transport mechanism. Soils and sediments from areas exposed to contamination possessed U concentrations that averaged 630 mg U kg{sup -1}. Aquatic mosses proved to be exceptional accumulators of U with dry weight (dw) concentrations measuring as high as 12500 mg U kg{sup -1} (approximately 1% of the dw mass was attributable to U). The macrophytes (Phragmites communis, Scripus fontinalis and Sagittaria latifolia) were also effective accumulators of U. In general, plant roots possessed higher concentrations of U than associated upper portions of plants. For terrestrial plants, the roots of Impatiens capensis had the highest observed levels of U accumulation (1030 mg kg{sup -1}), followed by the roots of Cyperus esculentus and Solidago speciosa. The concentration ratio (CR) characterized dry weight (dw) vegetative U levels relative to that in associated dw soil. The plant species that accumulated U at levels in excess of that found in the soil were: P. communis root (CR, 17.4), I. capensis root (CR, 3.1) and S. fontinalis whole plant (CR, 1.4). Seven of the highest ten CR values were found in the roots. Correlations with concentrations of other metals with U were performed, which revealed that U concentrations in the plant were strongly correlated with nickel (Ni) concentrations (correlation: 0.992; r-squared: 0.984). Uranium in plant tissue was also strongly correlated with strontium (Sr) (correlation: 0.948; r-squared: 0.899). Strontium is chemically and physically similar to calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg), which were also positively-correlated with U. The correlation with U and these plant nutrient minerals, including iron (Fe), suggests that active

  11. 广东8种乡土绿化树种的叶结构型性状研究%Leaf Structure Characteristics of Eight Indigenous Greening Trees in Guangdong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘爽; 李静鹏; 孙余丹; 李文斌

    2013-01-01

    为探讨乡土绿化树种对广东边缘热带和南亚热带气候的响应特征,在广州和湛江选取8种共有乡土绿化树种进行叶片结构型性状研究,分析两地间各性状的异同以及相关性状与叶比重(LMA)间的关系.结果表明,叶片鲜重(FW)、叶长、叶宽、平均宽度以及干重(DW)、叶面积和叶片含水率等在两地存在差异,但并未表现出一致的变化规律;尖叶杜英(Elaeocarpusapiculatus)、印度紫檀(Pterocarpus indicus)、大叶紫薇(Lagerstroemia speciosa)和非洲楝(Khaya senegalensis)两地间的比叶面积(SLA)差异极显著(P<0.001);洋紫荆(Bauhinia variegata)的上、中部叶片厚度(TH),黄葛榕(Ficus virens var.sublanceolata)、大叶紫薇、白兰(Michelia alba)和人面子(Dracontomelon duperreanum)的上部叶片厚度均为广州大于湛江(P<0.05).LMA与FW和DW呈显著正相关,与叶片含水率呈显著负相关,而与叶面积、叶平均宽度和宽长比并无显著的线性相关关系.这可能是两地的气候条件相差不大,还不足以使乡土树种的结构型性状产生一致性的适应性变化特征.

  12. Early Evolution of Apocrita(Insecta,Hymenoptera)as Indicated by New Findings in the Middle Jurassic of Daohugou,Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alexandr P.PASNITSYN; ZHANG Haichun

    2010-01-01

    .nov.,Praeproapocritus vulgatus gen.et sp.nov.,Sinaulacogastrinus solidus gen.et sp.nov.,Sinevania speciosa gen.et sp.nov.,Eonevania robusta gen.et sp.nov.,Kuafua polyneura gen.et sp.nov.(all from the Middle Jurassic of Daohugou),as well as Kuafuidae fam.nov.including Kuafua gen.nov.as well as Arthrogaster Rasnltsyn,1975,and Leptogastrella Rasnitsyn,1975 from the Upper Jurassic of Karatau in Kazakhstan.

  13. Yeasts associated with fresh and frozen pulps of Brazilian tropical fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Rita C; Resende, Maria Aparecida; Silva, Claudia M; Rosa, Carlos A

    2002-08-01

    The occurrence of yeasts on ripe fruits and frozen pulps of pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L), mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gom.), umbu (Spondias tuberosa Avr. Cam.), and acerola (Malpighia glaba L) was verified. The incidence of proteolytic, pectinolytic, and mycocinogenic yeasts on these communities was also determined. A total of 480 colonies was isolated and grouped in 405 different strains. These corresponded to 42 ascomycetous and 28 basidiomycetous species. Candida sorbosivorans, Pseudozyma antarctica, C. spandovensis-like, C. spandovensis, Kloeckera apis, C. parapsilosis, Rhodotorula graminis, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Cryptococcus laurentii, Metchnikowia sp (isolated only from pitanga ripe fruits), Issatchenkia occidentalis and C. krusei (isolated only from mangaba frozen pulps), were the most frequent species. The yeast communities from pitanga ripe fruits exhibited the highest frequency of species, followed by communities from acerola ripe fruits and mangaba frozen pulps. Yeast communities from frozen pulp and ripe fruits of umbu had the lowest number of species. Except the yeasts from pitanga, yeast communities from frozen pulp exhibited higher number of yeasts than ripe fruit communities. Mycocinogenic yeasts were found in all of the substrates studied except in communities from umbu ripe fruits and pitanga frozen pulps. Most of the yeasts found to produce mycocins were basidiomycetes and included P. antarctica, Cryptococcus albidus, C. bhutanensis-like, R. graminis and R. mucilaginosa-like from pitanga ripe fruits as well as black yeasts from pitanga and acerola ripe fruits. The umbu frozen pulps community had the highest frequency of proteolytic species. Yeasts able to hydrolyse casein at pH 5.0 represented 38.5% of the species isolated. Thirty-seven percent of yeast isolates were able to hydrolyse casein at pH 7.0. Pectinolytic yeasts were found in all of the communities studied, excepted for those of umbu frozen pulps. The highest frequency of

  14. Fitossociologia de duas fitocenoses de floresta ombrófila aberta no município de Codó, Estado do Maranhão Phytosociology of two open ombrophylous forest phytocenosis Codó municipality, State of Maranhão, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ricardo Vasconcellos Gama

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado no Projeto Magela (04º 35' 20" S e 43º 49' 55,2" W, pertencente à Empresa MARGUSA (Maranhão Gusa S.A., localizado no Município de Codó, Estado do Maranhão. Teve como objetivo analisar a composição florística e a estrutura horizontal de Floresta Ombrófila Aberta com cipó (FOAcipó e Floresta Ombrófila Aberta com palmeira (FOApalmeira. No inventário florestal, utilizou-se amostragem casual estratificada com 12 parcelas na FOAcipó e nove na FOApalmeira. Em parcelas de 50 x 200 m, mensuraram-se todos os indivíduos com DAP > 15 cm (nível I de inclusão e, em subparcelas de 5 x 50 m, os indivíduos com 5 cm The study was carried out in the area of the Magela Project (04º 35' 20" S and 43º 49' 55,2" W owned by MARGUSA Enterprise (Maranhão Gusa S/A, located in the Municipality of Codó, State of Maranhão. The forest cover belongs to the Open Ombrophylous Forest with lianas (OOFliana and to the Open Ombrophylous Forest with palms (OOFpalm. The objective was to analyze the floristic composition and horizontal structure of the OOFliana and OOFpalm. In 50 x 200 m plots, all individuals with DBH > 15 cm (inclusion level I were measured, and in 5 x 50 m subplots, individuals with 5 cm < DBH < 15 cm (inclusion level II were included. The OOFpalm formation showed the highest floristic diversity. Species with higher ecological importance in OOFliana were: Cenostigma macrophyllum Tul. (Leguminosae, Galipea jasminiflora (A. St.-Hil. Engl. (Rutaceae e Hymenaea parvifolia Huber (Leguminosae. In OOFpalms, the most important species were: Attalea speciosa Mart. Ex Spreng. (Arecaceae, Actinostemon klotzshii (Didr. Pax (Euphorbiaceae e Cenostigma macrophyllum.

  15. Extração de DNA genômico de tecidos foliares maduros de espécies nativas do cerrado

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    Márcia Nara da Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Grandes quantidades de contaminantes na amostra de DNA dificultam a obtenção de DNA genômico de qualidade durante a extração. A presença de polissacarídeos, fenóis e outros compostos secundários representa o principal problema com o procedimento de isolamento do DNA e sua aplicação subsequente, por inibir a atividade das enzimas Taq DNA polimera-se e enzimas de restrição. Neste estudo, descreveu-se um procedimento modificado baseado no hexadecyltrimethylammonium (CTAB, rendendo DNA genômico satisfatório para técnicas de manipulação subsequente, como reações de PCR e digestão com enzima de restrição. Nesse protocolo foram utilizadas diferentes concentrações de β-mercaptoetanol no tampão de extração (0,0; 0,2; 10; 15; 25; e 50 uL de β-mercaptoetanol/mL do tampão de extração: 100 mM de Tris-HCl, pH 8; 20 mM de EDTA; 1,4 mM de NaCl; 2% de CTAB; 1% de PVP, cujo procedimento foi aplicado no caso de folhas maduras e testado em Annona crassiflora (arati-cum, Eugenia dysenterica (cagaita, Anacardium humilis (caju-do-campo, Hancornia speciosa (mangaba e Caryocar brasiliense (pequi. O protocolo foi eficiente no isolamento de DNA livre de polissacarídeos e polifenóis, com rendimento do DNA com alto peso molecu-lar, utilizando-se concentrações a partir de 1% de β-mercaptoetanol no tampão de extração. O DNA isolado por esse método mostrou alta pureza, de acordo com as análises de digestão por restrição e amplificação por PCR.

  16. Evaluation of in vitro absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) properties of mitragynine, 7-hydroxymitragynine, and mitraphylline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manda, Vamshi K; Avula, Bharathi; Ali, Zulfiqar; Khan, Ikhlas A; Walker, Larry A; Khan, Shabana I

    2014-05-01

    Mitragyna speciosa (kratom) is a popular herb in Southeast Asia, which is traditionally used to treat withdrawal symptoms associated with opiate addiction. Mitragynine, 7-hydroxymitragynine, and mitraphylline are reported to be the central nervous system active alkaloids which bind to the opiate receptors. Mitraphylline is also present in the bark of Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw). Several therapeutic properties have been reported for these compounds but limited information is available on the absorption and distribution properties. This study focuses on evaluating the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) properties of these compounds and their effect on major efflux transporter P-glycoprotein, using in vitro methods. Quantitative analysis was performed by the Q-TOF LC-MS system. Mitragynine was unstable in simulated gastric fluid with 26 % degradation but stable in simulated intestinal fluid. 7-Hydroxymitragynine degraded up to 27 % in simulated gastric fluid, which could account for its conversion to mitragynine (23 %), while only 6 % degradation was seen in simulated intestinal fluid. Mitraphylline was stable in simulated gastric fluid but unstable in simulated intestinal fluid (13.6 % degradation). Mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine showed moderate permeability across Caco-2 and MDR-MDCK monolayers with no significant efflux. However, mitraphylline was subjected to efflux mediated by P-glycoprotein in both Caco-2 and MDR-MDCK monolayers. Mitragynine was found to be metabolically stable in both human liver microsomes and S9 fractions. In contrast, both 7-hydroxymitragynine and mitraphylline were metabolized by human liver microsomes with half-lives of 24 and 50 min, respectively. All three compounds exhibited high plasma protein binding (> 90 %) determined by equilibrium dialysis. Mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine inhibited P-glycoprotein with EC50 values of 18.2 ± 3.6 µM and 32.4 ± 1.9 µM, respectively

  17. Emergência e desenvolvimento de espécies nativas em área degradada por disposição de resíduos sólidos urbanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Auxiliadora de Resende

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O crescimento acelerado da população juntamente com o atual padrão de vida vivenciados nas últimas décadas vêm trazendo diversos impactos ambientais e sociais. Na maioria dos municípios a disposição de resíduos sólidos urbanos (RSU é descartada em áreas sem prévio tratamento ou fiscalização adequada, que quando são desativadas encontram-se degradadas e necessitam da elaboração de um plano de recuperação e revegetação, além do monitoramento, ao longo dos anos, para avaliar o desenvolvimento das espécies implantadas. Todavia estes problemas podem ser minimizados, principalmente se houver a recuperação do local atingido. Sendo assim, o presente estudo visou avaliar a emergência das espécies arbóreas semeadas na cova e em sulco aos 90 dias, e o desenvolvimento das plântulas emergidas aos 210 e 300 dias, podendo assim avaliar as espécies que melhor se adaptam à condição da área do lixão de Inconfidentes-MG. O experimento foi instalado no delineamento estatístico inteiramente casualizado com 3 tratamentos de semeadura direta,  com 15 espécies arbóreas nativas e três repetições (T1: semeadura direta de espécies nativas em cova; T2: semeadura direta de espécies nativas em sulco através de muvuca; T3: semeadura direta de espécies nativas associadas com feijão-guandu em sulco através de muvuca. O modelo de plantio que tem a associação de sementes de espécies arbóreas com feijão-guandu em sulco (T3 é o método mais indicado para a recuperação de áreas de lixões. As espécies arbóreas que se destacaram quanto à emergência e estabelecimento foram Schizolobium parahyba (guapuruvu e Eritrina speciosa (molungu.

  18. Estudo da fotodegradação de poliisoprenos naturais (borrachas naturais em radiações específicas do ultravioleta (UV - doi: 10.5102/ucs.v3i2.564

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    Kárin Astrid Marques dos Santos

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Filmes de poliisoprenos (PI naturais e sintéticos foram expostos à luz ultravioleta (UV e analisados por espectroscopia de absorção UV, antes e após exposição à radiação UV. Filmes de padrões cis PII foram irradiados separadamente por fontes de luz com comprimentos de ondas iguais a 253 e 300. A fotooxidação foi monitorada observando-se a dependência das intensidades das absorções correspondentes aos modos de estiramento C=C, C=O e O-H e do modo “wagging” =C-H de cis-e trans-PI em função do tempo de exposição. A irradiação em 253 nm levou a reações de reticulação do polímero, impedindo a completa oxidação do filme polimérico. Para irradiação em 300nm, as reações de cisão da cadeia ocorreram preferencialmente, levando à completa oxidação do filme polimérico. Os elastômeros de Hevea brasilienses (HB e Hancornia speciosa (HS foram caracterizadas por espectroscopia de absorção no infravermelho (FTIR como cis-1,4-poliisopreno. A foto-oxidação dos elastômeros apresentou cinética diferente com tempo de indução menor que o observado para os padrões cis-PI. A maior velocidade para o processo de fotodegradação dos filmes de BNs foi atribuída à presença de impurezas, caracterizadas por bandas de absorção nas regiões de estiramento O-H e C=O, mesmo antes da exposição à radiação UV.

  19. Stemflow-induced processes of soil water storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germer, Sonja

    2013-04-01

    Compared to stemflow production studies only few studies deal with the fate of stemflow at the near-stem soil. To investigate stemflow contribution to the root zone soil moisture by young and adult babassu palms (Attalea speciosa Mart.), I studied stemflow generation, subsequent soil water percolation and root distributions. Rainfall, stemflow and perched water tables were monitored on an event basis. Perched water tables were monitored next to adult palms at two depths and three stem distances. Dye tracer experiments monitored stemflow-induced preferential flow paths. Root distributions of fine and coarse roots were related to soil water redistribution. Average rainfall-collecting area per adult palm was 6.4 m², but variability between them was high. Funneling ratios ranged between 16-71 and 4-55 for adult and young palms, respectively. Nonetheless, even very small rainfall events of 1 mm can generate stemflow. On average, 9 liters of adult palm stemflow were intercepted and stemflow tended to decrease for-high intensity rainfall events. Young babassu palms funneled rainfall via their fronds, directly to their subterranean stems. The funneling of rainfall towards adult palm stems, in contrast, led to great stemflow fluxes down to the soil and induced initial horizontal water flows through the soil, leading to perched water tables next to palms, even after small rainfall events. The perched water tables extended, however, only a few decimeters from palm stems. After perched water tables became established, vertical percolation through the soil dominated. To my knowledge, this process has not been described before, and it can be seen as an addition to the two previously described stemflow-induced processes of Horton overland flow and fast, deep percolation along roots. This study has demonstrated that Babassu palms funnel water to their stems and subsequently store it in the soil next to their stems in areas where coarse root length density is very high. This might

  20. Desenvolvimento de espécies arbóreas nativas em uma área reflorestada do corredor de biodiversidade Santa Maria - PR

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    Rosimeri de Oliveira Fragoso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar um plantio de enriquecimento com 12 espécies arbóreas nativas da região, em uma área reflorestada do Corredor de Biodiversidade Santa Maria, localizado entre os Municípios de Santa Terezinha de Itaipu e São Miguel do Iguaçu, no Paraná. Objetivou-se, também, avaliar a persistência da espécie invasora Megathyrsus maximus (Jacq. B. K. Simon & S. W. L. Jacobs, conhecido como capim-colonião, e alterações nas características físicas e químicas do solo. As avaliações consistiram no acompanhamento mensal da mortalidade e desenvolvimento das mudas e da massa de matéria seca obtida no manejo do capim-colonião. As alterações promovidas no solo foram verificadas por meio de três coletas de solo ao longo do experimento. A mortalidade alcançou 24,38%, sendo mais acentuada nos dois primeiros meses, janeiro (11,88% e fevereiro (5,63%. Em relação ao desenvolvimento das mudas, destacaram-se as espécies Aloysia virgata (Ruiz & Pav. Juss. (lixeira e Ceiba speciosa (A. St.-Hil. Ravenna (paineira, com acréscimos mensais em diâmetro de 0,80 mm e 0,60 mm e em altura de 5,80 cm e 1,74 cm, respectivamente. O controle do capim-colonião pela metodologia aplicada foi eficiente, não havendo reincidência considerável ao longo dos meses. Por meio das análises de solo, foi possível observar que a recuperação da área, mesmo que por período curto, mostrou-se eficiente na alteração das características físicas e químicas do solo, podendo ainda levar a novas modificações em decorrência do desenvolvimento das mudas.

  1. Conservação in vitro de mangabeira da região nordeste do Brasil In vitro conservation of mangaba tree in Northeast Brazil

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    Aline de Jesus Sá

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A mangabeira (Hancornia speciosa Gomes é uma espécie cujas regiões de ocorrência natural vêm sofrendo grande pressão antrópica, a qual está provocando erosão genética em muitas populações nativas, principalmente da região Nordeste. Em virtude da existência de poucas coleções de mangabeira conservadas ex situ, evidencia-se a importância do desenvolvimento de um método alternativo e complementar para a conservação de germoplasma dessa espécie. A utilização de técnicas de cultura de tecidos de plantas para a conservação de recursos genéticos apresenta diversas vantagens sobre a conservação de germoplasma no campo, destacando-se a economia de recursos financeiros para a manutenção das coleções, redução de riscos fitossanitários e intempéries climáticas. Por esse motivo, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência de regulador osmótico (manitol e inibidor de crescimento (ácido abscísico na conservação in vitro de microestacas de mangabeira por crescimento lento. As culturas foram mantidas em meio MS com 3% de sacarose e 0,6% de agar. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em sala de crescimento com temperatura variando de 26±2°C, umidade relativa do ar média em torno de 70% e fotoperíodo de 12 horas de luz branca fria (52µmol m-2 s-1 de irradiância. Foram avaliadas cinco concentrações de manitol (0, 10, 15 e 20g L-1. Na presença de manitol, o comprimento da parte aérea apresentou valores numéricos inferiores à testemunha, mas, aos 90 dias de cultivo in vitro, foi observado efeito deletério do manitol nas microestacas. Em relação ao ácido abscísico, foram testadas cinco concentrações (0; 0,5; 1; 2 e 4mg L-1 em interação com dois tipos de vedação de frascos (tampa plástica rosqueada e papel alumínio e dois tipos de explantes (microestacas apicais e basais. O ácido abscísico (0,5mg L 1 apresentou melhores resultados para a conserva

  2. Efeito da descompactação profunda de solo na produção da cultura da batata Effect of deep soil compaction alleviation on the production of potato crop

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    Carlos Francisco Ragassi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O preparo de solo para batata no Brasil é geralmente realizado com o emprego de grade aradora (preparo raso, máquina cujo uso frequente estabelece uma zona compactada abaixo de 20 cm. Em tese, a descompactação profunda pode aumentar a produtividade e reduzir a incidência de doenças no tubérculo e esses efeitos podem variar com a espécie de gramínea cultivada anteriormente à cultura da batata. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a descompactação profunda associada ao cultivo de Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia, Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu e milho (Zea mays híbrido 'Dekalb 191' e, como testemunha, o preparo raso associado ao cultivo do mesmo híbrido de milho. O experimento foi conduzido em Piracicaba-SP, de dezembro de 2006 a outubro de 2008 no delineamento de blocos completos casualizados. A resistência à penetração no centro do canteiro, avaliada por meio de penetrômetro de impacto, foi inferior a 1,5 MPa até 40 cm de profundidade em todos os tratamentos e, na camada de 40 a 60 cm, esse valor no preparo raso (2,4 MPa foi significativamente superior aos dos demais tratamentos, cujos valores variaram de 0,9 a 1,0 MPa. A produtividade de tubérculos no preparo raso foi de 28,3 t ha-1 e diferiu estatisticamente do maior valor obtido com a descompactação profunda (32,9 t ha-1. A proporção de tubérculos com diâmetro inferior a 4 cm foi superior no preparo raso (5,1% em comparação ao preparo vertical com milho (2,9% e B. brizantha (2,2%. A ocorrência de pragas, doenças e lenticelose (Diabrotica speciosa, 31,0% a 49,7%; Streptomyces scabies, 3,3% a 6,3%; Helminthosporium solani, 60,3% a 69%; Rhizoctonia solani, 1,3% a 4,3%; lenticelose, 6,0% a 15,7%, não foi afetada pelos tratamentos. A descompactação profunda reduziu a resistência à penetração do solo e proporcionou maior produtividade com menor ocorrência de tubérculos pequenos, mas não influenciou a ocorrência de pragas, doenças e lenticelose

  3. Allometria da palmeira babaçu em um agroecossistema de derruba-e-queima na periferia este da Amazônia Allometry of the babassu palm growing on a slash-and-burn agroecosystem of the eastern periphery of Amazonia

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    Christoph Gehring

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A palmeira babaçu (Attalea speciosa C.Martius, Arecaceae tem grande importância socioeconômica e ecológica em grande parte da área tropical brasileira, especialmente em áreas degradadas por queimadas freqüentes na Amazônia. No entanto, ainda pouco se sabe sobre as características ecológicas desta espécie-chave. Este estudo investiga a alometria do babaçu com o objetivo de estabelecer uma metodologia eficiente na estimativa da biomassa aérea de palmeiras juvenis e adultas e para um melhor entendimento da sua arquitetura. A biomassa de palmeiras juvenis pode ser estimada facilmente e com precisão com o diâmetro mínimo das ráquis das folhas a 30 cm de extensão. A biomassa de palmeiras adultas pode ser estimada com base na altura do tronco lenhoso, também relativamente de fácil medição em campo. A biomassa foliar das palmeiras adultas foi em media 31,7% da biomassa aérea, porém houve uma alta variação e, portanto, somente pode ser estimada indiretamente através da relação entre a razão madeira:folha e biomassa aérea total. Os teores de carbono no babaçu apresentaram baixa variação, sem diferenças sistemáticas em relação ao tamanho ou estágio de crescimento, o que aponta à aplicabilidade geral dos valores 42.5% C para troncos, 39.8% C para folhas. Em conseqüência do limitado crescimento secundário do diâmetro inerente de palmeiras, não houve relação do diâmetro de tronco com a altura e a biomassa das palmeiras adultas. Observou-se que o afilamento do caule diminui com o aumento da altura das palmeiras, o que é parcialmente compensado pelo incremento da densidade de madeira em troncos quase-cilíndricos. No entanto, a altura máxima do babaçu, de cerca de 30 metros, aparentemente está definida por limitações na estabilidade mecânica. Todas as relações alométricas aqui descritas são independentes da idade da vegetação, indicando a aplicabilidade geral das relações encontradas

  4. Influence of silicon on the development, productivity and infestation by insect pests in potato crops Influência de silício no desenvolvimento de batateiras e na ocorrência de insetos-praga

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    Valkíria Fabiana da Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Potato crops are susceptible to various insect pests including the aphid Myzus persicae (Hemiptera, Aphididae and the beetle Diabrotica speciosa (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae. Induced resistance through silicon treatment of plants represents a potential strategy in pest management. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of silicic acid on the development, productivity and level of infestation by beetles and aphids following foliar application to potato plants cultivated in the presence of organic compost or chemical fertiliser. Four experimental groups were studied, namely, plants cultivated in soil supplied with organic compost (30 t/ha and either treated or non-treated with 0.5% silicic acid, and plants cultivated in soil supplied with NPK fertiliser (4:14:8; 4 t/ha and either treated or non-treated with 0.5% silicic acid. The number of aphids and beetles detected on the leaves and the number of lesions caused by the beetles were evaluated. The height and the stem diameter of the plants were determined 60 days after the emergence and the productivity was determined 95 days after the planting of the seed potatoes. The results demonstrated that there were no interactions between silicic acid treatment and way of cultivation. Moreover, the incidence of beetles and aphids was not influenced by weekly application of silicon, and neither were the development and the productivity of plants. Although the development and productivity of organically cultivated plants were inferior to those grown in the presence of chemical fertiliser, plants cultivated on organic compost were less susceptible to attack by beetles.A cultura da batata é suscetível a diversos insetos-praga, incluindo os pulgões (Hemiptera: Aphididae e a vaquinha Diabrotica speciosa (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae. A indução de resistência, por meio do tratamento com silício, é uma das táticas usadas no manejo integrado de pragas. Objetivou-se, no presente trabalho

  5. Wood Density and Moisture Content of Green Trees in Urban Area of Longyan, Fujian%福建龙岩城区园林树木木材密度和生材含水率研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄日明; 黄汝群; 段萍; 陈承德

    2016-01-01

    对福建龙岩城区栽植的30种园林树木测定木材基本密度、生材密度和生材含水率。结果表明,针叶树木材基本密度以柏木Cupressus funebris最高(0.636 g·cm-3),南洋杉Araucaria cunninghamii最低(0.462 g·cm-3);阔叶树以相思树Acacia confusa最高(0.757 g·cm-3),美丽异木棉Ceiba speciosa最低(0.228 g·cm-3)。生材密度针叶树竹柏Podocarpus nagi最高(0.975 g·cm-3),南洋杉最低(0.838 g·cm-3);阔叶树相思树最高(1.204 g·cm-3),石栗Aleurites moluccana最低(0.799 g·cm-3)。生材含水率针叶树竹柏最高(105%),柏木最低(30%);阔叶树以美丽异木棉最高(319%),光皮梾木Swida wilsoniana和木麻黄Casuarina equisetifolia最低,均为56%。南北两向的基本密度、生材密度和生材含水率差异不大。在距树皮8 cm范围内,基本密度和生材密度的径向变化模式可归纳为五种类型:(1)密度从髓心向树皮方向递增;(2)密度从髓心向树皮方向递减;(3)距树皮8 cm范围内密度变化不明显;(4)距树皮3~5 cm范围内密度较低;(5)距树皮3~5 cm范围内密度较高。生材含水率径向变化趋势仅限于上述前四种类型。%The wood basic density, green density and moisture content of 30 species landscape trees planted in Longyan urban area had been determined. The results showed that the highest of basic density of softwood was Cupressus funebris(0.636 g·cm-3), the lowest wasAraucaria cunninghamii (0.462 g·cm-3). In hardwood, the highest of basic density wasAcacia confusa (0.757 g·cm-3), the lowest wasCeiba speciosa (0.228 g·cm-3). The highest of green density of softwood wasPodocarpus nagi(0.975 g·cm-3), the lowest wasAraucaria cunninghamii (0.838 g·cm-3). In hardwood, the highest of green density wasAcacia confusa(1.204g·cm-3), the lowest isAleurites moluccana (0.799 g·cm-3). The highest of moisture content of green wood in softwood wasP. nagi 105%, the lowest was Cupressus funebris

  6. Caracterização fitofisionômica e levantamento florístico preliminar no Pantanal dos Rios Mortes-Araguaia, Cocalinho, Mato Grosso, Brasil Vegetation types and preliminary floristic survey in the Mortes-Araguaia Pantanal, Cocalinho, Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Beatriz Schwantes Marimon

    2001-08-01

    the Cristalino river (12° 52'S; 50° 49'W. Sampling was by the Rapid Survey method. Eight vegetation types were identified: Mata Inundável (swamp forest, Caapão (also swamp forest, Babaçual (Attalea speciosa forest, Cerradão, Cerrado stricto sensu (savanna types, closed canopy woodland and savanna grassland, respectively, Campo de Murunduns (grassland with scattered mounds bearing termites, Campo de Byrsonima orbignyana (grassland dominated by B. orbignyana and Campo Cerrado de Vochysia rufa (grassland with scattered trees of V. rufa. A total of 248 species of trees, shrubs and lianas were recorded, distributed in 158 genera and 62 families. The vegetation types were heterogeneous; none of the species occurred at all sites, but Alibertia edulis (L. Rich. A. Rich., Andira cuyabensis Benth., Maprounea guianensis (Aubl. M. Arg., and others, were found at six sites. The families richest in species were Caesalpiniaceae, Annonaceae and Myrtaceae. The flora apparently was similar to that of the Pantanal of Paraguai river, however, further studies are needed to confirm. This Heterogeneous vegetation patterns in the study area indicate the need to protect the Pantanal of the Mortes and Araguaia rivers.

  7. 木瓜属新品系果实的维生素C、总酚及香气成分分析%Chemical Constituents and Aroma Components Analysis of Chaenomeles New Strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚利; 胡文利; 胡永红

    2012-01-01

    采用紫外分光光度快速测定法、Folin-酚法、静态顶空和气相色谱-质谱联用技术,分别对上海植物园20世纪90年代木瓜属Chaenomeles×superba和Chaenomeles speciosa杂交选育的11个果用新品系果实进行了分析.结果表明,维生素C含量在25.27~168.69 mg·100 mL-1,酚类物质含量在185.49~346.03 mg·100 mL-1;新品系23-0183的维生素C含量最高,达168.69 mg·100 mL-1;4-067的酚类物质含量最高,达346.03 mg·100 mL-1.果实具浓香的新品系4-067共鉴定出25种主要挥发性成分,主要有:辛酸丙酯、乙酸-2-甲基-1-丁醇酯、己酸丙酯、异丁酸叶醇酯、己酸丁酯、乙酸叶醇酯、2-甲基丁酸己酯、辛酸正丁酯、己酸异戊酯、辛酸异丁酯、a-紫罗兰酮、己酸己酯、Z-3-己烯基-2甲基丁酸酯、2-甲基丁酸己酯和E-4-葵烯酸乙酯.%:Chaenomeles is one of the important germplasm for medicine, food and landscaping, Shanghai Botanical Garden started a breeding program among Chaenomeles X superha and Chaenomeles speciosa from 1990s) a series of new strains which are suitable for food industry, flavor or medicine had been selected. In this paper, knowledge of vitamin C, phenolic compounds and aroma components in fruits of Chaenomeles new strains were studied by UV Spectrophotometry , Folin-phenol method, SPME and GC-MS separately, vitamin C and phenolic compounds of 11 strains were 25. 27~168. 69 mg · 100 mL-1 and 185. 49~346. 03 mg · 100 mL-1 respectively. New strain of 23-0183 had the highest content of vitamin C, while the strain 4-067 had the highest content of phenolic compounds. This is of great interest for its applications in food industry as acidifying agent with antioxidant properties. Twenty five main volatiles were identified from the fruit of the strain 4-067 with strong fragrance. The main components were as follows- propyl octano-ate; 1-butanol 2-methyl- acetate, hexanoic acid propyl ester, cis-3-hexenyl isobutyrate, hexanoic acid

  8. THE OLD WORLD SPECIES OF LUDWIGIA (INCLUDING HISSIAEA, WITH A SYNOPSIS OF THE GENUS (ONAGRACEAE

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    Peter H. Raven

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence is presented in support of the reduction of Jussiaea and Oocarpon to rigid. This combined genus then  consists  of  75  species,  distributed  among  17 .lions, of  which   Africana,   Caryopkylloidea,  Brenania,  Seminuda,   Cryptosperma, tyonia, and Miquelia are proposed in this paper, and Prieuria, N em atopy xis, Fis-docarpa, and Oocarpon are used for the first time as sections of J-udwigia.  The ribution of species  with  pollen falling  in  tetrads has  been  compared  with  those rtich the grains fall singly. Of the 16 sections for which this character is known, have the pollen falling- in tetrads, five have it falling singly, and two (Micro-wm and Dantia have both types of pollen in different species. A revision of the 23 ties of Lurhvigia  in   the   Old   World   is  presented,  with   complete   synonymy;   13 hese species arc restricted to the Old World. New combinations are L. inclino.t", . L. stenorraphe subsp. speciosa, subsp. macroaepala, anil subsp. rcducta; L. pv,l-ris subsp. lobayensis is described as new; L. prostrota is delimited as a tropical icies very distinct from the temperate Asian L. epilobioides and its subsp.  fjreal-(comb.   nov.,   based   on   Jussiaea  greatrexii;   the   group   formerly   referred   to ea repens sens. lat. in the  Old  World  is  divided  into three  species, Ludwigia ieiis, L.  stolonifera  (comb,   nov.,  and  L.  pcploida   (comb,   nov.   with  subsp. Edewsts   (comb,   nov.   in   Australia   and   New   Zealand   (probably   introduced, peploides  introduced  on  a  few  Pacific  Islands,  and   subsp.  stipidacca  (comb. ', in north Asia;  and named varieties of L. pedustris are regarded as ecological 'ints and  reduced  to synonymy.  The  several  taxa of  Madagascar  described  and flrded as endemic by H.  Perrier de la Bathie are reduced  to  synonymy

  9. Pharmacokinetics of mitragynine in man

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    Trakulsrichai S

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Satariya Trakulsrichai,1,2 Korbtham Sathirakul,3,4 Saranya Auparakkitanon,5 Jatupon Krongvorakul,5 Jetjamnong Sueajai,5 Nantida Noumjad,5 Chonlaphat Sukasem,5 Winai Wananukul2,6 1Department of Emergency Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, 2Ramathibodi Poison Center, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, 3Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; 4Center for Drug Research Discovery and Development, Thammasat Univerisity, Prathumthani, Thailand; 5Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, 6Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand Background: Kratom, known botanically as Mitragyna speciosa (Korth., is an indigenous tree in Southeast Asia. Kratom is currently easily available worldwide via special shops and the Internet to use as a drug of abuse, opioid alternative, or pain killer. So far, the pharmacokinetics of this plant has been studied only in animals, and there is no such study in humans. The major abundant active alkaloid in Kratom, mitragynine, is one of the promising new chemical substances to be developed as a new drug. The aim of this study was to examine the pharmacokinetics of mitragynine and assess the linearity in pharmacokinetics in chronic users.Methods: Since Kratom is illegal in Thailand, studies in healthy subjects would be unethical. We therefore conducted a prospective study by enrolling ten chronic, regular, healthy users. We adjusted the steady state in each subject by giving a known amount of Kratom tea for 7 days before commencement of the experiment. We admitted and gave different oral doses to subjects to confirm linearity in pharmacokinetics. The mitragynine blood concentrations at 17 times points and the urine concentrations during the 24-hour period were collected and measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. Results: Ten male subjects completed

  10. 福建东山造礁石珊瑚资源现状及其保护%Investigating the Status Quo of Hermatypic Corals Resources and Its Protection in Dongshan Water Areas, Fujian Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜峰; 陈明茹; 杨圣云

    2011-01-01

    Hermatypic corals are the primary portion of the coral reef ecosystem and of great ecological value. There are plentiful hermatypic corals in Dongshan water areas of Fujian Province.Due to low water temperature in winter, hermatypic corals there seem difficult to build real coral reefs. To protect hermatypic corals near the Dongshan Island, the Dongshan provincial hermatypic corals nature reserve was established in 1997, covering an area of 3630 hm2 with the core area of 1498 hm2. Through two large-scale surveys conducted in 1995-1997 and 2007, it was found that there were 32 species of Anthozoa in the Dongshan water areas, pertaining to 13 families of 3 orders, ten species of which belong to 6 families in Scleratinia. Seven hermatypic coral species of the 10 species are state-level protected animals Ⅱ and listed in CITES Appendices Ⅱ, including Favia speciosa. Cyphastrea serailia, Turbinaria peltata, Acropora pruinosa, Porites lutea. Leptastrea sp. and Goniopora sp. In 2007, it was reported that there were also hermatypic corals in Nanji island water areas in Zhejiang Province. Nanji islands are far from the mainland, showing a special ocean current and environments. The species are unique in originating from a range of climatic zones, e.g., the tropical zone, subtropical zone, and temperate zone. Furthermore, there seems to be a few published studies and reports about the species, quantity, and distribution of hermatypic corals there. We suggest that the Dongshan water areas are the north edge of the hermatypic coral community distribution in subtropical coastal waters of mainland China. In the stereoscopic habitat formed by corals in the Dongshan water areas, 154 associate species were found in coral communities, which show relatively high species diversity. They live in coral reefs in a variety of ways. Both of the two comprehensive investigations were carried out in the extent of the Dongshan provincial hermatypic corals nature reserve, but there were also

  11. 人工生态恢复对南宁青秀山植物群落多样性的影响%Effect of artificial ecological restoration on the plant community biodiversity in Nanning Qingxiushan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈守云; 李德祥; 粱旺; 李伟进; 廖飞勇; 邢文; 蔡思琪; 夏青芳

    2016-01-01

    arbor layer was 2.091 8, the shrub layer was 3.257 2, and the herb layer was 0.849 3, and the lowest Gleason index of arbor layer was 0.321 8, the shrub layer and the herb layer were 0. The highest Shannon-Weiner index of arbor layer was Dalbergia obtusifolia-Lagerstroemia speciosa community 2.1193, shrub layer was Bambusa chungii community 2.105 9, the herb layer was Bambusa chungii 1.652 6. The lowest Shannon-Weiner index of arbor layer was Amygdalus persica community 0.182 2, shrub layer and herb layer were 0. Compared with natural communities, the ratio of arbor, shrub and grass layer changed largely, some over natural communities, some close to natural communities. The species of evergreen species in the community is more than that of the deciduous plants.

  12. Study on dust retention effect of common landscape plants in Shenzhen City%深圳市常见园林植物滞尘效应初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    禹海群; 李楠; 林平义; 蒋明

    2012-01-01

    采用蒸干称重法和显微观察法对深圳市28种常见园林绿化植物的滞尘能力及部分植物的滞尘方式进行了初步研究。单位叶面积滞尘量的测定结果表明,针状叶类乔木中:龙柏〉木麻黄;阔叶类乔木中:麻楝〉霸王棕〉黄花夹竹桃〉海枣〉大花紫薇〉长芒杜英〉椰子〉紫檀;灌木类中:紫薇〉金叶榕=小蜡树〉黄花马缨丹〉锈鳞木犀榄〉红花橙木〉龙船花〉散尾葵〉紫雪茄花〉大佛肚竹〉四季桂〉朱槿〉棕竹〉软叶刺葵〉朱蕉;草本类中:中国文殊兰〉花叶艳山姜〉蔓花生。以显微观察比较叶片滞尘能力有显著差异的种类,紫薇、金叶榕、红花橙木和朱蕉的滞尘方式分别以颗粒物堆叠式、块状层结式、颗粒镶嵌式及零星嵌入式为主。研究筛选出的常见园林绿化植物中滞尘能力强的种类,可为相似大气环境的亚热带城市绿化提供优先选择,使其成为有效改善空气质量的生物基本元素。%The quantification study of dust retention capacity on landscape plants can offer an academic direction to the ar- rangement of landscape plants cultivated in city, and it is also important for improving dust retention effects of the urban green lands. In this paper, the dust retention capacity of 28 landscape plant species and the corresponding manner of reten- tion of some plants were studied. The results of dust retention of all the species indicated that first,between needle formed species,Sabina chinensis ( L. ) Ant. cv ' Kaizuca' 〉 Casuarina equisetifolia L. ex Forst. ; second, among broadleaf tree spe- cies, Chukrasia tabularis A. Juss 〉 Bismarckia nobilis Hildebr. et. H. Wendl. 〉 Thevetia peruviana ( Pet's. ) Schum 〉 Phoe- nix dactylifera L. 〉 Lagerstroemia speciosa ( L. ) Pers. 〉 Elaeocarpus apiculatus Mast. 〉 Cocos nucifera L. 〉 Pterocarpus in- dicus Willd. ; Third, among scrubs, Lagerstroemia indica

  13. Japan-China Joint Medical Workshop on Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics 2008: The need of Asian pharmaceutical researchers' cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, M; Tang, W

    2008-10-01

    Design, synthesis and antiviral evaluation of novel heterocyclic compounds as HIV-1 NNRTIs by Xinyong Liu (Shandong University, China) ● Antiviral drug screening from microbial products by Eisaku Tsujii (Astellas Pharma Inc., Japan) ● Viral factors that determine the natural course of chronic hepatitis B viral infection by Hiroshi Yotsuyanagi (The University of Tokyo, Japan) ● Effect of andrographolide derivatives having α-glucosidase inhibition, on HBsAg, HBeAg secretion in HepG2 2.2.15 cells by Hongmin Liu (Zhengzhou University, China) ● Current and future antiviral therapy for influenza by Hideki Asanuma (Tokai University, Japan) ● Establishment of an HIV-based pseudotyping system as a safe model for screening inhibitors on bird flu H5N1 entry by Ying Guo (Peking Union Medical Collegee Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, China) ● Strategy of discovery for novel antibiotics using silkworm infection model by Hiroshi Hamamoto (The University of Tokyo, Japan) ● Potent neuraminidase inhibitors and anti-inflammatory substances from Chaenomeles speciosa by Li Zhang (Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, China) ● High-throughput screening assay for hepatitis C virus helicase inhibitors using fluorescence-quenching phenomenon by Hidenori Tani (Waseda University and National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Japan) Session VI. Biochemistry/Molecular Biology/Pharmacology ● A novel conjugate of low-molecular-weight heparin and Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase: Study on its mechanism in preventing brain reperfusion injury after ischemia in gerbils by Fengshan Wang (Shandong University, China) ● A novel gene fudoh in SCCmec region regulates the colony spreading ability and virulence in Staphylococcus aureus by Chikara Kaito (The University of Tokyo, Japan) ● Water soluble fluorescent boronic acid sensors for tumor cell-surface saccharide by Hao Fang (Shandong Unviersity, China) ● Molecular characterization


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