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Sample records for monocarboxylic acids due

  1. Chemiluminescence of the peroxomonosulphate-cobalt(II)-aliphatic monocarboxylic acids system.

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    Wang, Min; Zhao, Lixia; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2007-01-01

    A weak chemiluminescence (CL) emission was observed due to the production of singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) during the decomposition of peroxomonosulphate (HSO(5)(-)) catalysed by cobalt(II). Low molecular mass aliphatic monocarboxylic acids, such as formic, acetic, propionic, butyric and valeric acids, influenced the CL emission, and the reaction of aliphatic monocarboxylic acids with HSO(5)(-)/Co(2+) solution was further investigated using a flow injection analysis (FIA) CL method. The results indicated that the CL intensities of aliphatic monocarboxylic acids were improved with increase in the carbon chain length in the potassium peroxomonosulphate-cobalt(II) sulphate system. Generation of singlet oxygen was confirmed by the fact that the CL emission of aliphatic monocarboxylic acids with the HSO(5)(-)/Co(2+) solution was quenched by NaN(3), and from the CL spectrum of the reaction system. Additionally, a possible mechanism of aliphatic monocarboxylic acids CL emission enhancement was proposed.

  2. Role of Palladium in the Redox Electrochemistry of Ferrocene Monocarboxylic Acid Encapsulated Within ORMOSIL Networks

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    B. Upadhyay

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available We report herein the effect of palladium on the redox electrochemistry of ferrocene monocarboxylic acid encapsulated within an organically modified sol-gel glass network (ORMOSIL. It has been found that amount of palladium and its geometrical distribution significantly alter the redox electrochemistry of FcMCA. The geometrical distribution of palladium has been controlled by two methods: (i palladium is allowed to link within nanostructured network of the ORMOSIL which was subsequently availed from the reactivity of palladium chloride and trimethoxysilane; (ii palladium powder is encapsulated together FcMCA thus allowing the presence of palladium within the nanoporous domain. The content of palladium is varied by controlling the reaction dynamics of palladium chloride and trimethoxysilane interaction. For this we initially allowed to trigger hydrolysis, condensation and poly-condensation of trimethoxysilane and dimethyldiethoxysilane in acidic medium and subsequently partially dried ORMOSIL film was allowed to interact with palladium chloride. Even with partially dried ORMOSIL derived from trimethoxysilane and dimethyldiethoxysilane undergoes rapid interaction with palladium chloride and the transparent color of ORMOSIL changed to a black colour due to the formation of palladium silicon linkage. The palladium-silicon linkage has been identified by NMR, UV-VIS and transmission electron spectroscopy. The electrochemistry of FcMCA encapsulated within such an ORMOSIL matrix has been studied. Excellent redox electrochemistry of ferrocene monocarboxylic acid having peak potential separation tending to 0 for a multilayered electrode was investigated. The palladium content has been found to affect the redox electrochemistry of ferrocene as well as electrocatalytic efficiency of new ORMOSIL material. The electroanalysis of NADH is reported. The modified electrode is very sensitive to NADH with lowest detection limit of < 1 μM.

  3. Carbon isotope composition of low molecular weight hydrocarbons and monocarboxylic acids from Murchison meteorite

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    Yuen, G.; Blair, N.; Des Marais, D. J.; Chang, S.

    1984-01-01

    Carbon isotopic compositions have been measured for individual hydrocarbons and monocarboxylic acids from the Murchison meteorite, a C2 carbonaceous chondrite which fell in Australia in 1969. With few exceptions, notably benzene, the volatile products are substantially isotopically heavier than their terrestrial counterparts, signifying their extraterrestrial origin. For both classes of compounds, the ratio of C-13 to C-12 decreases with increasing carbon number in a roughly parallel manner, and each carboxylic acid exhibits a higher isotopic ratio than the hydrocarbon containing the same number of carbon atoms. These trends are consistent with the kinetically controlled synthesis of higher homologues from lower ones. The results suggest the possibility that the production mechanisms for hydrocarbons and carboxylic acids may be similar, and impose constraints on the identity of the reactant species.

  4. The Monocarboxylate Transporter Inhibitor α-Cyano-4-Hydroxycinnamic Acid Disrupts Rat Lung Branching

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    Sara Granja

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The human embryo develops in a hypoxic environment. In this way, cells have to rely on the glycolytic pathway for energy supply, leading to an intracellular accumulation of monocarboxylates such as lactate and pyruvate. These acids have an important role in cell metabolism and their rapid transport across the plasma membrane is crucial for the maintenance of intracellular pH homeostasis. This transport is mediated by a family of transporters, designated by monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs, namely isoforms 1 and 4. MCT1/4 expression is regulated by the ancillary protein CD147.The general aim of this study was to characterize the expression pattern of MCT1/4, CD147 and the glucose transporter GLUT1 during human fetal lung development and elucidate the role of MCTs in lung development. Methods: The expression pattern of MCT1/4 and GLUT1 was characterized by immunohistochemistry and fetal lung viability and branching were evaluated by exposing rat fetal lung explants to CHC, an inhibitor of MCT activity. Results: Our findings show that all the biomarkers are differently expressed during fetal lung development and that CHC appears to have an inhibitory effect on lung branching and viability, in a dose dependent way. Conclusion: We provide evidence for the role of MCTs in embryo lung development, however to prove the dependence of MCT activity further studies are waranted.

  5. On the possibility of using short chain length mono-carboxylic acids for stabilization of magnetic fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avdeev, Mikhail V. [Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna Moscow Region (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: avd@nf.jinr.ru; Bica, Doina [Laboratory of Magnetic Fluids, CFATR, Romanian Academy, Timisoara Division, Timisoara (Romania); Vekas, Ladislau [National Center for Engineering of Systems with Complex Fluids, University Politehnica, Timisoara (NC ESCF-UPT) (Romania); Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Marinica, Oana [National Center for Engineering of Systems with Complex Fluids, University Politehnica, Timisoara (NC ESCF-UPT) (Romania); Balasoiu, Maria [Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary); Aksenov, Victor L. [Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Rosta, Laszlo [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Garamus, Vasil M. [GKSS Research Centre, Geesthacht (Germany); Schreyer, Andreas [GKSS Research Centre, Geesthacht (Germany)

    2007-04-15

    Short chain length mono-carboxylic acids (lauric and myristic acids) are used to coat magnetite nanoparticles in non-polar organic liquids, which results in highly stable magnetic fluids. The new fluids are compared with classical organic fluids stabilized by oleic acid (OA). Magnetic granulometry and small-angle neutron scattering (polarized mode) reveal a great difference in the particle size distribution function for the studied magnetic fluids, particularly a decrease in the characteristic particle radius of magnetite when lauric and myristic acids are used instead of OA.

  6. On the possibility of using short chain length mono-carboxylic acids for stabilization of magnetic fluids

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    Avdeev, Mikhail V.; Bica, Doina; Vékás, Ladislau; Marinica, Oana; Balasoiu, Maria; Aksenov, Victor L.; Rosta, László; Garamus, Vasil M.; Schreyer, Andreas

    2007-04-01

    Short chain length mono-carboxylic acids (lauric and myristic acids) are used to coat magnetite nanoparticles in non-polar organic liquids, which results in highly stable magnetic fluids. The new fluids are compared with classical organic fluids stabilized by oleic acid (OA). Magnetic granulometry and small-angle neutron scattering (polarized mode) reveal a great difference in the particle size distribution function for the studied magnetic fluids, particularly a decrease in the characteristic particle radius of magnetite when lauric and myristic acids are used instead of OA.

  7. Effect of aliphatic, monocarboxylic, dicarboxylic, heterocyclic and sulphur-containing amino acids on Leishmania spp. chemotaxis.

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    Diaz, E; Zacarias, A K; Pérez, S; Vanegas, O; Köhidai, L; Padrón-Nieves, M; Ponte-Sucre, A

    2015-11-01

    In the sand-fly mid gut, Leishmania promastigotes are exposed to acute changes in nutrients, e.g. amino acids (AAs). These metabolites are the main energy sources for the parasite, crucial for its differentiation and motility. We analysed the migratory behaviour and morphological changes produced by aliphatic, monocarboxylic, dicarboxylic, heterocyclic and sulphur-containing AAs in Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania braziliensis and demonstrated that L-methionine (10-12 m), L-tryptophan (10-11 m), L-glutamine and L-glutamic acid (10-6 m), induced positive chemotactic responses, while L-alanine (10-7 m), L-methionine (10-11 and 10-7 m), L-tryptophan (10-11 m), L-glutamine (10-12 m) and L-glutamic acid (10-9 m) induced negative chemotactic responses. L-proline and L-cysteine did not change the migratory potential of Leishmania. The flagellum length of L. braziliensis, but not of L. amazonensis, decreased when incubated in hyperosmotic conditions. However, chemo-repellent concentrations of L-alanine (Hypo-/hyper-osmotic conditions) and L-glutamic acid (hypo-osmotic conditions) decreased L. braziliensis flagellum length and L-methionine (10-11 m, hypo-/hyper-osmotic conditions) decreased L. amazonensis flagellum length. This chemotactic responsiveness suggests that Leishmania discriminate between slight concentration differences of small and structurally closely related molecules and indicates that besides their metabolic effects, AAs play key roles linked to sensory mechanisms that might determine the parasite's behaviour.

  8. Unsaturated C3,5,7,9-Monocarboxylic Acids by Aqueous, One-Pot Carbon Fixation: Possible Relevance for the Origin of Life.

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    Scheidler, Christopher; Sobotta, Jessica; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Wächtershäuser, Günter; Huber, Claudia

    2016-06-10

    All scientific approaches to the origin of life share a common problem: a chemical path to lipids as main constituents of extant cellular enclosures. Here we show by isotope-controlled experiments that unsaturated C3,5,7,9-monocarboxylic acids form by one-pot reaction of acetylene (C2H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) in contact with nickel sulfide (NiS) in hot aqueous medium. The primary products are toto-olefinic monocarboxylic acids with CO-derived COOH groups undergoing subsequent stepwise hydrogenation with CO as reductant. In the resulting unsaturated monocarboxylic acids the double bonds are mainly centrally located with mainly trans-configuration. The reaction conditions are compatible with an origin of life in volcanic-hydrothermal sub-seafloor flow ducts.

  9. Unsaturated C3,5,7,9-Monocarboxylic Acids by Aqueous, One-Pot Carbon Fixation: Possible Relevance for the Origin of Life

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    Christopher Scheidler; Jessica Sobotta; Wolfgang Eisenreich; Günter Wächtershäuser; Claudia Huber

    2016-01-01

    All scientific approaches to the origin of life share a common problem: a chemical path to lipids as main constituents of extant cellular enclosures. Here we show by isotope-controlled experiments that unsaturated C3,5,7,9-monocarboxylic acids form by one-pot reaction of acetylene (C2H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) in contact with nickel sulfide (NiS) in hot aqueous medium. The primary products are toto-olefinic monocarboxylic acids with CO-derived COOH groups undergoing subsequent stepwise hydr...

  10. Freeze-out extraction of monocarboxylic acids from water into acetonitrile under the action of centrifugal forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekhterev, V. N.

    2016-10-01

    It is established that the efficiency of the freezing-out extraction of monocarboxylic acids C3-C;8 and sorbic acid from water into acetonitrile increases under the action of centrifugal forces. The linear growth of the partition coefficient in the homologous series of C2-C8 acids with an increase in molecule length, and the difference between the efficiency of extracting sorbic and hexanoic acid, are discussed using a theoretical model proposed earlier and based on the adsorption-desorption equilibrium of the partition of dissolved organic compounds between the resulting surface of ice and the liquid phase of the extract. The advantages of the proposed technique with respect to the degree of concentration over the method of low-temperature liquid-liquid extraction are explained in light of the phase diagram for the water-acetonitrile mixture.

  11. Role of monocarboxylate transporters in drug delivery to the brain.

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    Vijay, Nisha; Morris, Marilyn E

    2014-01-01

    Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) are known to mediate the transport of short chain monocarboxylates such as lactate, pyruvate and butyrate. Currently, fourteen members of this transporter family have been identified by sequence homology, of which only the first four members (MCT1- MCT4) have been shown to mediate the proton-linked transport of monocarboxylates. Another transporter family involved in the transport of endogenous monocarboxylates is the sodium coupled MCTs (SMCTs). These act as a symporter and are dependent on a sodium gradient for their functional activity. MCT1 is the predominant transporter among the MCT isoforms and is present in almost all tissues including kidney, intestine, liver, heart, skeletal muscle and brain. The various isoforms differ in terms of their substrate specificity and tissue localization. Due to the expression of these transporters in the kidney, intestine, and brain, they may play an important role in influencing drug disposition. Apart from endogenous short chain monocarboxylates, they also mediate the transport of exogenous drugs such as salicylic acid, valproic acid, and simvastatin acid. The influence of MCTs on drug pharmacokinetics has been extensively studied for γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) including distribution of this drug of abuse into the brain and the results will be summarized in this review. The physiological role of these transporters in the brain and their specific cellular localization within the brain will also be discussed. This review will also focus on utilization of MCTs as potential targets for drug delivery into the brain including their role in the treatment of malignant brain tumors.

  12. Induction of omega-oxidation of monocarboxylic acids in rats by acetylsalicylic acid.

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    Kundu, R K; Tonsgard, J H; Getz, G S

    1991-12-01

    The accumulation of dicarboxylic acids, particularly long chain, is a prominent feature of Reye's syndrome and diseases of peroxisomal metabolism. We assessed the omega-oxidation of a spectrum of fatty acids in rats and asked whether pretreatment of rats with aspirin, which is known to predispose children to Reye's syndrome, would affect omega-oxidation of long chain fatty acids. We found that aspirin increased liver free fatty acids and increased the capacity for omega-oxidation three- to sevenfold. Omega-oxidation of long chain substrate was stimulated to a greater degree than medium chain substrate and was apparent within one day of treatment, at serum aspirin concentrations below the therapeutic range in humans. The apparent Km for lauric acid was 0.9 microM and 12 microM for palmitate. We also found a difference in the storage stability of activity toward medium and long chain substrate. Saturating concentrations of palmitate had no effect on the formation of dodecanedioic acid, whereas laurate decreased but never eliminated the omega-oxidation of palmitate. 97% of the total laurate omega-oxidative activity recovered was found in the microsomes, but 32% of palmitate omega-oxidative activity was present in the cytosol. These results demonstrate that aspirin is a potent stimulator of omega-oxidation and suggest that there may be multiple enzymes for omega-oxidation with overlapping substrate specificity.

  13. One-pot formation of 2,4-di- or 2,4,6-tri-olefinic monocarboxylic acids by straight chain C4-extension

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    Jessica Sobotta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We report a one-pot formation of 2,4-diolefinic or 2,4,6-triolefinic monocarboxylic acids, R-(CHCH2or3-COOH, by decarboxylative condensation of an optionally α,β-unsaturated aldehyde with glutaconic acid, HOOC-CH2-CHCH-COOH as straight chain C4-extender. The reaction is broadly applicable to saturated and unsaturated aldehydes and opens up a simple gateway to valuable organic products and reactive intermediates.

  14. Separation and conductimetric detection of C1-C7 aliphatic monocarboxylic acids and C1-C7 aliphatic monoamines on unfunctionized polymethacrylate resin columns.

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    Ohta, Kazutoku; Towata, Atsuya; Ohashi, Masayoshi; Takeuchi, Toyohide

    2004-06-11

    The application of unfunctionized polymethacrylate resin (TSKgel G3000PWXL) as a stationary phase in liquid chromatography with conductimetric detection for C1-C7 aliphatic monocarboxylic acids (formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, isovaleric acid, valeric acid, 3,3-dimethylbutyric acid, 4-methylvaleric acid, hexanoic acid, 2-methylhexanoic acid, 5-methylhexanoic acid and heptanoic acid) and C1-C7 aliphatic monoamines (methylamine, ethylamine, propylamine, isobutylamine, butylamine, isoamylamine, amylamine, 1,3-dimethylbutylamine, hexylamine, 2-heptylamine and heptylamine) was attempted with C8 aliphatic monocarboxylic acids (2-propylvaleric acid, 2-ethylhexanoic acid, 2-methylheptanoic acid and octanoic acid) and C8 aliphatic monoamines (1,5-dimethylhexylamine, 2-ethylhexylamine, 1-methylheptylamine and octylamine) as eluents, respectively. Using 1 mM 2-methylheptanoic acid at pH 4.0 as the eluent, excellent separation and relatively high sensitive detection for these C1-C7 carboxylic acids were achieved on a TSKgel G3000PWXL column (150 mm x 6 mm i.d.) in 60 min. Using 2 mM octylamine at pH 11.0 as the eluent, excellent separation and relatively high sensitive detection for these C1-C7 amines were also achieved on the TSKgel G3000PWXL column in 60 min.

  15. The genetic variation in Monocarboxylic acid transporter 2 (MCT2) has functional and clinical relevance with male infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinu Lee; Dong Ryul Lee; Suman Lee

    2014-01-01

    Monocarboxylic acid transporter 2(MCT2) transports pyruvate and lactate outside and inside of sperms, mainly as energy sources and plays roles in the regulation of spermatogenesis. We investigated the association among genetic variations in theMCT2 gene, male infertility andMCT2 expression levels in sperm. The functional and genetic signiifcance of the intron 2(+28201A>G, rs10506398) and 3’ untranslated region(UTR) single nucleotide polymorphism(SNP)(+2626G>A, rs10506399) of MCT2 variants were investigated. Two MCT2 polymorphisms were associated with male infertility(n=471,PA) had a strong association with the oligoasthenoteratozoospermia(OAT) group. The+2626GG type had an almost 2.4‑fold higher sperm count than that of the+2626AA type(+2626GG; 66×106vs+2626AA; 27×106, P<0.0001). The MCT2‑3’ UTR SNP may be important for expression, as it is located at the MCT23’ UTR. The average MCT2 protein amount in sperm of the+2626GG type was about two times higher than that of the+2626AA type. The results suggest that genetic variation in MCT2 has functional and clinical relevance with male infertility.

  16. The genetic variation in Monocarboxylic acid transporter 2 (MCT2 has functional and clinical relevance with male infertility

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    Jinu Lee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Monocarboxylic acid transporter 2 (MCT2 transports pyruvate and lactate outside and inside of sperms, mainly as energy sources and plays roles in the regulation of spermatogenesis. We investigated the association among genetic variations in the MCT2 gene, male infertility and MCT2 expression levels in sperm. The functional and genetic significance of the intron 2 (+28201A > G, rs10506398 and 3' untranslated region (UTR single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP (+2626G > A, rs10506399 of MCT2 variants were investigated. Two MCT2 polymorphisms were associated with male infertility (n = 471, P A had a strong association with the oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT group. The +2626GG type had an almost 2.4-fold higher sperm count than that of the +2626AA type (+2626GG; 66 × 10 6 vs +2626AA; 27 × 10 6 , P < 0.0001. The MCT2-3' UTR SNP may be important for expression, as it is located at the MCT2 3' UTR. The average MCT2 protein amount in sperm of the +2626GG type was about two times higher than that of the +2626AA type. The results suggest that genetic variation in MCT2 has functional and clinical relevance with male infertility.

  17. Role of the DHH1 gene in the regulation of monocarboxylic acids transporters expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

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    Sandra Mota

    Full Text Available Previous experiments revealed that DHH1, a RNA helicase involved in the regulation of mRNA stability and translation, complemented the phenotype of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant affected in the expression of genes coding for monocarboxylic-acids transporters, JEN1 and ADY2 (Paiva S, Althoff S, Casal M, Leao C. FEMS Microbiol Lett, 1999, 170:301-306. In wild type cells, JEN1 expression had been shown to be undetectable in the presence of glucose or formic acid, and induced in the presence of lactate. In this work, we show that JEN1 mRNA accumulates in a dhh1 mutant, when formic acid was used as sole carbon source. Dhh1 interacts with the decapping activator Dcp1 and with the deadenylase complex. This led to the hypothesis that JEN1 expression is post-transcriptionally regulated by Dhh1 in formic acid. Analyses of JEN1 mRNAs decay in wild-type and dhh1 mutant strains confirmed this hypothesis. In these conditions, the stabilized JEN1 mRNA was associated to polysomes but no Jen1 protein could be detected, either by measurable lactate carrier activity, Jen1-GFP fluorescence detection or western blots. These results revealed the complexity of the expression regulation of JEN1 in S. cerevisiae and evidenced the importance of DHH1 in this process. Additionally, microarray analyses of dhh1 mutant indicated that Dhh1 plays a large role in metabolic adaptation, suggesting that carbon source changes triggers a complex interplay between transcriptional and post-transcriptional effects.

  18. Butyric acid increases transepithelial transport of ferulic acid through upregulation of the monocarboxylate transporters SLC16A1 (MCT1) and SLC16A3 (MCT4).

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    Ziegler, Kerstin; Kerimi, Asimina; Poquet, Laure; Williamson, Gary

    2016-06-01

    Ferulic acid is released by microbial hydrolysis in the colon, where butyric acid, a major by-product of fermentation, constitutes the main energy source for colonic enterocytes. We investigated how varying concentrations of this short chain fatty acid may influence the absorption of the phenolic acid. Chronic treatment of Caco-2 cells with butyric acid resulted in increased mRNA and protein abundance of the monocarboxylate transporters SLC16A1 (MCT1) and SLC16A3 (MCT4), previously proposed to facilitate ferulic acid absorption in addition to passive diffusion. Short term incubation with butyric acid only led to upregulation of MCT4 while both conditions increased transepithelial transport of ferulic acid in the apical to basolateral, but not basolateral to apical, direction. Chronic treatment also elevated intracellular concentrations of ferulic acid, which in turn gave rise to increased concentrations of ferulic acid metabolites. Immunofluorescence staining of cells revealed uniform distribution of MCT1 protein in the cell membrane, whereas MCT4 was only detected in the lateral plasma membrane sections of Caco-2 cells. We therefore propose that MCT1 may be acting as an uptake transporter and MCT4 as an efflux system across the basolateral membrane for ferulic acid, and that this process is stimulated by butyric acid.

  19. One-pot formation of 2,4-di- or 2,4,6-tri-olefinic monocarboxylic acids by straight chain C4-extension.

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    Sobotta, Jessica; Schmalhofer, Maximilian; Steiner, Thomas M; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Wächtershäuser, Günter; Huber, Claudia

    2017-07-01

    We report a one-pot formation of 2,4-diolefinic or 2,4,6-triolefinic monocarboxylic acids, R-(CH 000000000000 000000000000 000000000000 111111111111 000000000000 111111111111 000000000000 000000000000 000000000000 CH)2or3-COOH, by decarboxylative condensation of an optionally α,β-unsaturated aldehyde with glutaconic acid, HOOC-CH2-CHCH-COOH as straight chain C4-extender. The reaction is broadly applicable to saturated and unsaturated aldehydes and opens up a simple gateway to valuable organic products and reactive intermediates.

  20. Transport of monocarboxylic acids at the blood-brain barrier: Studies with monolayers of primary cultured bovine brain capillary endothelial cells

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    Terasaki, T.; Takakuwa, S.; Moritani, S.; Tsuji, A. (Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kanazawa University (Japan))

    1991-09-01

    The kinetics and mechanism of the transport of monocarboxylic acids (MCAs) were studied by using primary cultured bovine brain capillary endothelial cells. Concentration-dependent uptake of acetic acid was observed, and the kinetic parameters were estimated as follows: the Michaelis constant, Kt, was 3.41 {plus minus} 1.87 mM, the maximum uptake rate, Jmax, was 144.7 {plus minus} 55.7 nmol/mg of protein/min and the nonsaturable first-order rate constant, Kd, was 6.66 {plus minus} 1.98 microliters/mg of protein/min. At medium pH below 7.0, the uptake rate of (3H)acetic acid increased markedly with decreasing medium pH, whereas pH-independent uptake was observed in the presence of 10 mM acetic acid. An energy requirement for (3H)acetic acid uptake was also demonstrated, because metabolic inhibitors (2,4-dinitrophenol and rotenone) reduced significantly the uptake rate (P less than .05). Carbonylcyanide-p-trifluoro-methoxyphenylhydrazone, a protonophore, inhibited significantly the uptake of (3H)acetic acid at medium pH of 5.0 and 6.0, whereas 4,4{prime}-diisothiocyanostilben-2,2{prime}-disulfonic acid did not. Several MCAs inhibited significantly the uptake rate of (3H)acetic acid, whereas di- and tricarboxylic acids did not. The uptake of (3H)acetic acid was competitively inhibited by salicylic acid, with an inhibition constant, Ki, of 3.60 mM, suggesting a common transport system between acetic acid and salicylic acid. Moreover, at the medium pH of 7.4, salicylic acid and valproic acid inhibited significantly the uptake of (3H)acetic acid, demonstrating that the transport of MCA drugs could also be ascribed to the MCA transport system at the physiologic pH.

  1. Regulation of Monocarboxylic Acid Transporter 1 Trafficking by the Canonical Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway in Rat Brain Endothelial Cells Requires Cross-talk with Notch Signaling.

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    Liu, Zejian; Sneve, Mary; Haroldson, Thomas A; Smith, Jeffrey P; Drewes, Lester R

    2016-04-01

    The transport of monocarboxylate fuels such as lactate, pyruvate, and ketone bodies across brain endothelial cells is mediated by monocarboxylic acid transporter 1 (MCT1). Although the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway is required for rodent blood-brain barrier development and for the expression of associated nutrient transporters, the role of this pathway in the regulation of brain endothelial MCT1 is unknown. Here we report expression of nine members of the frizzled receptor family by the RBE4 rat brain endothelial cell line. Furthermore, activation of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway in RBE4 cells via nuclear β-catenin signaling with LiCl does not alter brain endothelialMct1mRNA but increases the amount of MCT1 transporter protein. Plasma membrane biotinylation studies and confocal microscopic examination of mCherry-tagged MCT1 indicate that increased transporter results from reduced MCT1 trafficking from the plasma membrane via the endosomal/lysosomal pathway and is facilitated by decreased MCT1 ubiquitination following LiCl treatment. Inhibition of the Notch pathway by the γ-secretase inhibitorN-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)-l-alanyl]-S-phenylglycinet-butyl ester negated the up-regulation of MCT1 by LiCl, demonstrating a cross-talk between the canonical Wnt/β-catenin and Notch pathways. Our results are important because they show, for the first time, the regulation of MCT1 in cerebrovascular endothelial cells by the multifunctional canonical Wnt/β-catenin and Notch signaling pathways.

  2. Tissue-specific expression of monocarboxylate transporters during fasting in mice.

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    Schutkowski, Alexandra; Wege, Nicole; Stangl, Gabriele I; König, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Monocarboxylates such as pyruvate, lactate and ketone bodies are crucial for energy supply of all tissues, especially during energy restriction. The transport of monocarboxylates across the plasma membrane of cells is mediated by monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). Out of 14 known mammalian MCTs, six isoforms have been functionally characterized to transport monocarboxylates and short chain fatty acids (MCT1-4), thyroid hormones (MCT8, -10) and aromatic amino acids (MCT10). Knowledge on the regulation of the different MCT isoforms is rare. In an attempt to get more insights in regulation of MCT expression upon energy deprivation, we carried out a comprehensive analysis of tissue specific expression of five MCT isoforms upon 48 h of fasting in mice. Due to the crucial role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α as a central regulator of energy metabolism and as known regulator of MCT1 expression, we included both wildtype (WT) and PPARα knockout (KO) mice in our study. Liver, kidney, heart, small intestine, hypothalamus, pituitary gland and thyroid gland of the mice were analyzed. Here we show that the expression of all examined MCT isoforms was markedly altered by fasting compared to feeding. Expression of MCT1, MCT2 and MCT10 was either increased or decreased by fasting dependent on the analyzed tissue. MCT4 and MCT8 were down-regulated by fasting in all examined tissues. However, PPARα appeared to have a minor impact on MCT isoform regulation. Due to the fundamental role of MCTs in transport of energy providing metabolites and hormones involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, we assumed that the observed fasting-induced adaptations of MCT expression seem to ensure an adequate energy supply of tissues during the fasting state. Since, MCT isoforms 1-4 are also necessary for the cellular uptake of drugs, the fasting-induced modifications of MCT expression have to be considered in future clinical care algorithms.

  3. Tissue-specific expression of monocarboxylate transporters during fasting in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Schutkowski

    Full Text Available Monocarboxylates such as pyruvate, lactate and ketone bodies are crucial for energy supply of all tissues, especially during energy restriction. The transport of monocarboxylates across the plasma membrane of cells is mediated by monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs. Out of 14 known mammalian MCTs, six isoforms have been functionally characterized to transport monocarboxylates and short chain fatty acids (MCT1-4, thyroid hormones (MCT8, -10 and aromatic amino acids (MCT10. Knowledge on the regulation of the different MCT isoforms is rare. In an attempt to get more insights in regulation of MCT expression upon energy deprivation, we carried out a comprehensive analysis of tissue specific expression of five MCT isoforms upon 48 h of fasting in mice. Due to the crucial role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-α as a central regulator of energy metabolism and as known regulator of MCT1 expression, we included both wildtype (WT and PPARα knockout (KO mice in our study. Liver, kidney, heart, small intestine, hypothalamus, pituitary gland and thyroid gland of the mice were analyzed. Here we show that the expression of all examined MCT isoforms was markedly altered by fasting compared to feeding. Expression of MCT1, MCT2 and MCT10 was either increased or decreased by fasting dependent on the analyzed tissue. MCT4 and MCT8 were down-regulated by fasting in all examined tissues. However, PPARα appeared to have a minor impact on MCT isoform regulation. Due to the fundamental role of MCTs in transport of energy providing metabolites and hormones involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, we assumed that the observed fasting-induced adaptations of MCT expression seem to ensure an adequate energy supply of tissues during the fasting state. Since, MCT isoforms 1-4 are also necessary for the cellular uptake of drugs, the fasting-induced modifications of MCT expression have to be considered in future clinical care algorithms.

  4. Tissue-Specific Expression of Monocarboxylate Transporters during Fasting in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutkowski, Alexandra; Wege, Nicole; Stangl, Gabriele I.; König, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Monocarboxylates such as pyruvate, lactate and ketone bodies are crucial for energy supply of all tissues, especially during energy restriction. The transport of monocarboxylates across the plasma membrane of cells is mediated by monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). Out of 14 known mammalian MCTs, six isoforms have been functionally characterized to transport monocarboxylates and short chain fatty acids (MCT1-4), thyroid hormones (MCT8, -10) and aromatic amino acids (MCT10). Knowledge on the regulation of the different MCT isoforms is rare. In an attempt to get more insights in regulation of MCT expression upon energy deprivation, we carried out a comprehensive analysis of tissue specific expression of five MCT isoforms upon 48 h of fasting in mice. Due to the crucial role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α as a central regulator of energy metabolism and as known regulator of MCT1 expression, we included both wildtype (WT) and PPARα knockout (KO) mice in our study. Liver, kidney, heart, small intestine, hypothalamus, pituitary gland and thyroid gland of the mice were analyzed. Here we show that the expression of all examined MCT isoforms was markedly altered by fasting compared to feeding. Expression of MCT1, MCT2 and MCT10 was either increased or decreased by fasting dependent on the analyzed tissue. MCT4 and MCT8 were down-regulated by fasting in all examined tissues. However, PPARα appeared to have a minor impact on MCT isoform regulation. Due to the fundamental role of MCTs in transport of energy providing metabolites and hormones involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, we assumed that the observed fasting-induced adaptations of MCT expression seem to ensure an adequate energy supply of tissues during the fasting state. Since, MCT isoforms 1–4 are also necessary for the cellular uptake of drugs, the fasting-induced modifications of MCT expression have to be considered in future clinical care algorithms. PMID:25390336

  5. Application of variable anti-connectivity index to active sites. Modelling pK(a) values of aliphatic monocarboxylic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sčavničar, A; Balaban, A T; Pompe, M

    2013-01-01

    A partial distance-weighted variable anti-connectivity topological index was introduced for modelling pK(a) values of 31 aliphatic carboxylic acids and haloalkyl-carboxylic acids. The partial distance-weighted variable anti-connectivity index showed superior modelling capabilities compared with the index calculated from the complete graph, because it is capable of accounting correctly for the intramolecular interactions of unconnected vertices to specific bond strengths (active site), thereby improving the RMS(CV) error by about 30% (0.221 pK(a) units).

  6. Homologous series of low molecular weight (C1-C10) monocarboxylic acids, benzoic acid and hydroxyacids in fine-mode (PM2.5) aerosols over the Bay of Bengal: Influence of heterogeneity in air masses and formation pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreddy, Suresh K. R.; Mochizuki, Tomoki; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Bikkina, Srinivas; Sarin, M. M.

    2017-10-01

    Low molecular weight monocarboxylic acids (LMW monoacids) are most abundant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere and often act as important contributors to the acidity of precipitation in addition to inorganic acids. However, there is a large uncertainty in the sources and secondary formations of these acids in the atmosphere. This study reports homologous series of LMW monoacids, including normal (C1-C10), branched chain (iC4-iC6), aromatic (benzoic acid) and hydroxyacids (lactic and glycolic acids) in the fine-mode (PM2.5) aerosols collected over the Bay of Bengal (BoB) during a winter cruise (December 2008 to January 2009). The samples were associated with two distinct continental air masses arriving from the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP-outflow) and Southeast Asia (SEA-outflow). The molecular distributions of organic acids are characterized by the dominance of formic acid (C1) followed by acetic acid (C2) and nonanoic acid (C9) in the IGP-outflow, whereas dominance of C1 or C9 was observed in the SEA-outflow followed by C2. Formic-to-acetic acid (C1/C2) ratios were higher than unity (mean: 1.3 ± 0.3) in the IGP-outflow, whereas they were less than unity (0.9 ± 0.5) in the SEA-outflow. These results suggest that secondary formation of organic acids is largely important in the IGP-outflow whereas primary emission is a major source of organic acids in the SEA-outflow. Based on the correlation coefficient matrix analysis and C1/C2 and C4/C3 ratios, we consider that the sources of C1 are probably associated with the secondary formation via the oxidation of biogenic VOCs, while C2 has both primary and secondary formations associated with anthropogenic sources in the IGP-outflow. On the other hand, C1 and C2 have similar sources (both primary and secondary) originated from biomass burning and bacterial activities via long-range atmospheric transport in the SEA-outflow, as inferred from the MODIS fire spot data, significant concentrations of isovaleric

  7. Linking supply to demand: the neuronal monocarboxylate transporter MCT2 and the alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid receptor GluR2/3 subunit are associated in a common trafficking process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Karin; Chatton, Jean-Yves; Parent, Annabelle; Repond, Cendrine; Gardoni, Fabrizio; Di Luca, Monica; Pellerin, Luc

    2009-05-01

    MCT2 is the major neuronal monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) that allows the supply of alternative energy substrates such as lactate to neurons. Recent evidence obtained by electron microscopy has demonstrated that MCT2, like alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors, is localized in dendritic spines of glutamatergic synapses. Using immunofluorescence, we show in this study that MCT2 colocalizes extensively with GluR2/3 subunits of AMPA receptors in neurons from various mouse brain regions as well as in cultured neurons. It also colocalizes with GluR2/3-interacting proteins, such as C-kinase-interacting protein 1, glutamate receptor-interacting protein 1 and clathrin adaptor protein. Coimmunoprecipitation of MCT2 with GluR2/3 and C-kinase-interacting protein 1 suggests their close interaction within spines. Parallel changes in the localization of both MCT2 and GluR2/3 subunits at and beneath the plasma membrane upon various stimulation paradigms were unraveled using an original immunocytochemical and transfection approach combined with three-dimensional image reconstruction. Cell culture incubation with AMPA or insulin triggered a marked intracellular accumulation of both MCT2 and GluR2/3, whereas both tumor necrosis factor alpha and glycine (with glutamate) increased their cell surface immunolabeling. Similar results were obtained using Western blots performed on membrane or cytoplasm-enriched cell fractions. Finally, an enhanced lactate flux into neurons was demonstrated after MCT2 translocation on the cell surface. These observations provide unequivocal evidence that MCT2 is linked to AMPA receptor GluR2/3 subunits and undergoes a similar translocation process in neurons upon activation. MCT2 emerges as a novel component of the synaptic machinery putatively linking neuroenergetics to synaptic transmission.

  8. Glutamine deprivation enhances antitumor activity of 3-bromopyruvate through the stabilization of monocarboxylate transporter-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardaci, Simone; Rizza, Salvatore; Filomeni, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Roberta; Bertocchi, Fabio; Mattei, Maurizio; Paci, Maurizio; Rotilio, Giuseppe; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa

    2012-09-01

    Anticancer drug efficacy might be leveraged by strategies to target certain biochemical adaptations of tumors. Here we show how depriving cancer cells of glutamine can enhance the anticancer properties of 3-bromopyruvate, a halogenated analog of pyruvic acid. Glutamine deprival potentiated 3-bromopyruvate chemotherapy by increasing the stability of the monocarboxylate transporter-1, an effect that sensitized cells to metabolic oxidative stress and autophagic cell death. We further elucidated mechanisms through which resistance to chemopotentiation by glutamine deprival could be circumvented. Overall, our findings offer a preclinical proof-of-concept for how to employ 3-bromopyruvate or other monocarboxylic-based drugs to sensitize tumors to chemotherapy.

  9. On the biologic origin of C6-C10-dicarboxylic and C6-C10-omega-1-hydroxy monocarboxylic acids in human and rat with acyl-CoA dehydrogenation deficiencies: in vitro studies on the omega- and omega-1-oxidation of medium-chain (C6-C12) fatty acids in human and rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, N; Mortensen, P B; Kølvraa, S

    1983-10-01

    C6-C10-dicarboxylic acid C6-C10-omega-1-hydroxy monocarboxylic acids were measured in postmitochondrial (10,000 g) fractions of rat liver after incubation with hexanoic, octanoic, and decanoic acids. In livers both from fed and starved rats, the proportion of decanoic acid converted to sebacic acid was high (approximately 25%) with only minor accumulation of the intermediate 10-hydroxy decanoic acid (1-2%). The conversion of octanoic and hexanoic acids to suberic and adipic acids, respectively, was low (less than 1%). The intermediate 8-hydroxy octanoic and 6-hydroxy hexanoic acids were also accumulated in very small amounts (less than 1%). It was concluded that cytochrome-P-450-mediated omega-hydroxylation was of decisive importance for the production rate of the dicarboxylic acids. Analysis of kinetic parameters of human and rat liver microsomal omega- and omega-1-hydroxylation of hexanoic, octanoic, decanoic, and dodecanoic acids gave the following results: in rats, the apparent Km values for the omega-hydroxylation for dodecanoic and decanoic acids are low, ie., 171 and 3.1 mumole/liter, respectively, whereas they are high for octanoic and hexanoic acids (8211 and 8822 mumole/liter, respectively). In two different humans, the corresponding Km values for dodecanoic, decanoic, octanoic, and hexanoic acids are 3.6-186, 522-247, 4861-3892, and 6825-10400 mumole/liter, respectively. Based on these results, it is argued that adipic and suberic acids found in urine from rats and humans with acyl-CoA dehydrogenation deficiencies are not biosynthesized by direct omega-oxidation of hexanoic and octanoic acids, but most probably by means of beta-oxidation of sebacic and dodecanedioic acids, produced by direct omega-oxidation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Candidate genes for performance in horses, including monocarboxylate transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inaê Cristina Regatieri

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Some horse breeds are highly selected for athletic activities. The athletic potential of each animal can be measured by its performance in sports. High athletic performance depends on the animal capacity to produce energy through aerobic and anaerobic metabolic pathways, among other factors. Transmembrane proteins called monocarboxylate transporters, mainly the isoform 1 (MCT1 and its ancillary protein CD147, can help the organism to adapt to physiological stress caused by physical exercise, transporting lactate and H+ ions. Horse breeds are selected for different purposes so we might expect differences in the amount of those proteins and in the genotypic frequencies for genes that play a significant role in the performance of the animals. The study of MCT1 and CD147 gene polymorphisms, which can affect the formation of the proteins and transport of lactate and H+, can provide enough information to be used for selection of athletic horses increasingly resistant to intense exercise. Two other candidate genes, the PDK4 and DMRT3, have been associated with athletic potential and indicated as possible markers for performance in horses. The oxidation of fatty acids is highly effective in generating ATP and is controlled by the expression of PDK4 (pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 4 in skeletal muscle during and after exercise. The doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor 3 (DMRT3 gene encodes an important transcription factor in the setting of spinal cord circuits controlling movement in vertebrates and may be associated with gait performance in horses. This review describes how the monocarboxylate transporters work during physical exercise in athletic horses and the influence of polymorphisms in candidate genes for athletic performance in horses.

  11. Deprive to kill: Glutamine closes the gate to anticancer monocarboxylic drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Cardaci, Simone; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa

    2012-01-01

    Killing properties of antitumor drugs can be enhanced by strategies targeting biochemical adaptations of cancer cells. Recently, we reported that depriving cancer cells of glutamine is a feasible approach to enhance antitumor effects of the alkylating analog of pyruvic acid, 3-bromopyruvate, which rely on the induction of autophagic cell death by metabolic-oxidative stress. 3-bromopyruvate chemopotentiation is the result of its increased intracellular uptake mediated by the monocarboxylate tr...

  12. Monocarboxylate Transporters 1 and 4 Are Associated with CD147 in Cervical Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Pinheiro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the highly glycolytic metabolism of solid tumours, there is an increased acid production, however, cells are able to maintain physiological pH through plasma membrane efflux of the accumulating protons. Acid efflux through MCTs (monocarboxylate transporters constitutes one of the most important mechanisms involved in tumour intracellular pH maintenance. Still, the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of these proteins are not fully understood. We aimed to evaluate the association between CD147 (MCT1 and MCT4 chaperone and MCT expression in cervical cancer lesions and the clinico-pathological significance of CD147 expression, alone and in combination with MCTs. The series included 83 biopsy samples of precursor lesions and surgical specimens of 126 invasive carcinomas. Analysis of CD147 expression was performed by immunohistochemistry. CD147 expression was higher in squamous and adenocarcinoma tissues than in the non-neoplastic counterparts and, importantly, both MCT1 and MCT4 were more frequently expressed in CD147 positive cases. Additionally, co-expression of CD147 with MCT1 was associated with lymph-node and/or distant metastases in adenocarcinomas. Our results show a close association between CD147 and MCT1 and MCT4 expressions in human cervical cancer and provided evidence for a prognostic value of CD147 and MCT1 co-expression.

  13. Immunocytochemical expression of monocarboxylate transporters in the human visual cortex at midgestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayol, Laurence; Baud, Olivier; Monier, Anne; Pellerin, Luc; Magistretti, Pierre; Evrard, Philippe; Verney, Catherine

    2004-01-31

    Lactate and the other monocarboxylates are a major energy source for the developing brain. We investigated the immunocytochemical expression of two monocarboxylate transporters, MCT1 and MCT2, in the human visual cortex between 13 and 26 post-ovulatory weeks. We used immunoperoxidase and immunofluorescence techniques to determine whether these transporters co-localized with markers for blood vessels (CD34), neurons (microtubule-associated protein 2 [MAP2], SMI 311), radial glia (vimentin), or astrocytes (glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP], S100beta protein). MCT1 immunoreactivity was visible in blood vessel walls as early as the 13th week of gestation mainly in the cortical plate and subplate. At this stage, less than 10% of vessels in the ventricular layer expressed MCT1, whereas all blood vessels walls showed this immunoreactivity at the 26th gestational week. Starting at the 19th week of gestation, sparse MCT1 positive cell bodies were detected, some of them co-localized with MAP2 immunoreactivity. MCT2 immunoreactivity was noted in astrocytic cell bodies from week 19 and spread subsequently to the astrocyte end-feet in contact with blood vessels. MCTs immunoreactivities were most marked in the subplate and deep cortical plate, where the most differentiated neurons were located. Our findings suggest that monocarboxylate trafficking between vessels (MCT1), astrocytes (MCT2) and some postmitotic neurons (MCT1) could develop gradually toward 20 gestational weeks (g.w.). These data suggest that lactate or other monocarboxylates could represent a significant energy source for the human visual cortex at this early stage.

  14. Hyperammonemic Encephalopathy due to Valproic Acid and Topiramate Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer D. Twilla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Valproic acid-induced hyperammonemic encephalopathy is a rare yet serious adverse drug reaction. Medication interactions such a valproic acid and topiramate can precipitate an event. We present the case of a 52-year-old female that presented with acute mental status change and hypersomnolence due to hyperammonemia caused by a valproic acid derivative. The patient improved after withdrawal of the offending medications and treatment with lactulose. Clinicians should remain hypervigilant in monitoring for valproic acid-induced hyperammonemic encephalopathy and risk factors such as polypharmacy.

  15. Evidence for a Homodimeric Structure of Human Monocarboxylate Transporter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, W. Edward; Philp, Nancy J.; van Dijk, Thamar B.; Klootwijk, Wim; Friesema, Edith C. H.; Jansen, Jurgen; Beesley, Philip W.; Ianculescu, Alexandra G.; Visser, Theo J.

    2009-01-01

    The human monocarboxylate transporter 8 (hMCT8) protein mediates transport of thyroid hormone across the plasma membrane. Association of hMCT8 mutations with severe psychomotor retardation and disturbed thyroid hormone levels has established its physiological relevance, but little is still known about the basic properties of hMCT8. In this study we present evidence that hMCT8 does not form heterodimers with the ancillary proteins basigin, embigin, or neuroplastin, unlike other MCTs. In contrast, it is suggested that MCT8 exists as monomer and homodimer in transiently and stably transfected cells. Apparently hMCT8 forms stable dimers because the complex is resistant to denaturing conditions and dithiothreitol. Cotransfection of wild-type hMCT8 with a mutant lacking amino acids 267–360 resulted in formation of homo-and heterodimers of the variants, indicating that transmembrane domains 4–6 are not involved in the dimerization process. Furthermore, we explored the structural and functional role of the 10 Cys residues in hMCT8. All possible Cys>Ala mutants did not behave differently from wild-type hMCT8 in protein expression, cross-linking experiments with HgCl2 and transport function. Our findings indicate that individual Cys residues are not important for the function of hMCT8 or suggest that hMCT8 has other yet-undiscovered functions in which cysteines play an essential role. PMID:19797118

  16. Redistribution of monocarboxylate transporter 2 on the surface of astrocytes in the human epileptogenic hippocampus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Fredrik; Heuser, Kjell; de Lanerolle, Nihal C

    2012-01-01

    Emerging evidence points to monocarboxylates as key players in the pathophysiology of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with hippocampal sclerosis (mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, MTLE). Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) 1 and 2, which are abundantly present on brain endothelial cells and perivascular...

  17. Monocarboxylate Transporters and Lactate Metabolism in Equine Athletes: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pösö AR

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Lactate is known as the end product of anaerobic glycolysis, a pathway that is of key importance during high intensity exercise. Instead of being a waste product lactate is now regarded as a valuable substrate that significantly contributes to the energy production of heart, noncontracting muscles and even brain. The recent cloning of monocarboxylate transporters, a conserved protein family that transports lactate through biological membranes, has given a new insight into the role of lactate in whole body metabolism. This paper reviews current literature on lactate and monocarboxylate transporters with special reference to horses.

  18. Resistance to diet-induced obesity and associated metabolic perturbations in haploinsufficient monocarboxylate transporter 1 mice.

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    Sylvain Lengacher

    Full Text Available The monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1 or SLC16A1 is a carrier of short-chain fatty acids, ketone bodies, and lactate in several tissues. Genetically modified C57BL/6J mice were produced by targeted disruption of the mct1 gene in order to understand the role of this transporter in energy homeostasis. Null mutation was embryonically lethal, but MCT1 (+/- mice developed normally. However, when fed high fat diet (HFD, MCT1 (+/- mice displayed resistance to development of diet-induced obesity (24.8% lower body weight after 16 weeks of HFD, as well as less insulin resistance and no hepatic steatosis as compared to littermate MCT1 (+/+ mice used as controls. Body composition analysis revealed that reduced weight gain in MCT1 (+/- mice was due to decreased fat accumulation (50.0% less after 9 months of HFD notably in liver and white adipose tissue. This phenotype was associated with reduced food intake under HFD (12.3% less over 10 weeks and decreased intestinal energy absorption (9.6% higher stool energy content. Indirect calorimetry measurements showed ∼ 15% increase in O₂ consumption and CO₂ production during the resting phase, without any changes in physical activity. Determination of plasma concentrations for various metabolites and hormones did not reveal significant changes in lactate and ketone bodies levels between the two genotypes, but both insulin and leptin levels, which were elevated in MCT1 (+/+ mice when fed HFD, were reduced in MCT1 (+/- mice under HFD. Interestingly, the enhancement in expression of several genes involved in lipid metabolism in the liver of MCT1 (+/+ mice under high fat diet was prevented in the liver of MCT1 (+/- mice under the same diet, thus likely contributing to the observed phenotype. These findings uncover the critical role of MCT1 in the regulation of energy balance when animals are exposed to an obesogenic diet.

  19. Soil Acidification due to Acid Deposition in Southern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Bohan

    1998-12-31

    Anthropogenic emission of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} to the atmosphere has made acid deposition one of the most serious environmental problems. In China, acid deposition research started in the late 1970s. The present thesis is part of a joint Chinese-Norwegian research project. The main goal of the thesis was to investigate the mechanism of soil acidification, to estimate soil responses to acid deposition, and to compare relative soil sensitivity to acidification in southern China. Laboratory experiments and modelling simulations were included. Specifically, the thesis (1) studies the characteristics of anion adsorption and cation release of the soils from southern China, (2) examines the effects of increased ionic strength in the precipitation and the effects of anion adsorption on cation release from the soils, (3) compares the relative sensitivity of these soils to acidification and the potentially harmful effects of acid deposition, (4) estimates likely soil responses to different deposition scenarios, including changes in soil waters and soil properties, and (5) investigates long-term changes in soils and soil waters in the Guiyang catchment due to acid deposition. 218 refs., 31 figs., 23 tabs.

  20. Cadmium Release in Contaminated Soils due to Organic Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Min; XIE Xiao-Mei

    2004-01-01

    There is limited information on the release behavior of heavy metals from natural soils by organic acids. Thus,cadmium release,due to two organic acids (tartrate and citrate) that are common in the rhizosphere,from soils polluted by metal smelters or tailings and soils artificially contaminated by adding Cd were analyzed. The presence of tartrate or citrate at a low concentration (≤6mmol L-1 for tartrate and ≤0.5 mmol L-1 for citrate) inhibited Cd release,whereas the presence of organic acids in high concentrations (≥2 mmol L-1 for citrate and ≥15 mmol L-1 for tartrate)apparently promoted Cd release. Under the same conditions,the Cd release in naturally polluted soils was less than that of artificially contaminated soils. Additionally,as the initial pH rose from 2 to 8 in the presence of citrate,a sequential valley and then peak appeared in the Cd release curve,while in the presence of tartrate the Cd release steadily decreased.In addition,Cd release was clearly enhanced as the electrolyte concentration of KNO3 or KC1 increased in the presence of 2 mmol L-1 tartrate. Moreover,a higher desorption of Cd was shown with the KC1 electrolyte compared to KNO3 for the same concentration levels. This implied that the bioavailability of heavy metals could be promoted with the addition of suitable types and concentrations of organic acids as well as reasonable field conditions.

  1. Positive direct antiglobulin tests due to clavulanic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M E; Thomas, D; Harman, C P; Mintz, P D; Donowitz, G R

    1985-01-01

    Clavulanic acid, a beta-lactamase inhibitor, was found to be associated with the development of a positive direct antiglobulin test. Of 23 antibiotic courses in patients treated with ticarcillin, clavulanic acid, and tobramycin, 10 (43.5%) developed positive direct antiglobulin tests versus 2 of 26 (7.7%) patients treated with piperacillin and tobramycin (P = 0.0044). In vitro immunohematological studies showed that clavulanic acid caused a nonimmunologic adsorption of plasma proteins onto the erythrocyte surface. Hemolysis was not associated with such nonimmunologic adsorption. However, the resulting positive antiglobulin test might delay cross matching of blood products for transfusions or interfere with the evaluation of true immune-mediated hemolytic anemia. PMID:3872623

  2. Pyruvate fuels mitochondrial respiration and proliferation of breast cancer cells: effect of monocarboxylate transporter inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diers, Anne R; Broniowska, Katarzyna A; Chang, Ching-Fang; Hogg, Neil

    2012-06-15

    Recent studies have highlighted the fact that cancer cells have an altered metabolic phenotype, and this metabolic reprogramming is required to drive the biosynthesis pathways necessary for rapid replication and proliferation. Specifically, the importance of citric acid cycle-generated intermediates in the regulation of cancer cell proliferation has been recently appreciated. One function of MCTs (monocarboxylate transporters) is to transport the citric acid cycle substrate pyruvate across the plasma membrane and into mitochondria, and inhibition of MCTs has been proposed as a therapeutic strategy to target metabolic pathways in cancer. In the present paper, we examined the effect of different metabolic substrates (glucose and pyruvate) on mitochondrial function and proliferation in breast cancer cells. We demonstrated that cancer cells proliferate more rapidly in the presence of exogenous pyruvate when compared with lactate. Pyruvate supplementation fuelled mitochondrial oxygen consumption and the reserve respiratory capacity, and this increase in mitochondrial function correlated with proliferative potential. In addition, inhibition of cellular pyruvate uptake using the MCT inhibitor α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid impaired mitochondrial respiration and decreased cell growth. These data demonstrate the importance of mitochondrial metabolism in proliferative responses and highlight a novel mechanism of action for MCT inhibitors through suppression of pyruvate-fuelled mitochondrial respiration.

  3. Hyperglycaemia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa acidify cystic fibrosis airway surface liquid by elevating epithelial monocarboxylate transporter 2 dependent lactate-H+ secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnett, James Peter; Kalsi, Kameljit K.; Sobotta, Mirko; Bearham, Jade; Carr, Georgina; Powell, Jason; Brodlie, Malcolm; Ward, Christopher; Tarran, Robert; Baines, Deborah L.

    2016-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis (CF) airway surface liquid (ASL) provides a nutrient rich environment for bacterial growth including elevated glucose, which together with defective bacterial killing due to aberrant HCO3− transport and acidic ASL, make the CF airways susceptible to colonisation by respiratory pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Approximately half of adults with CF have CF related diabetes (CFRD) and this is associated with increased respiratory decline. CF ASL contains elevated lactate concentrations and hyperglycaemia can also increase ASL lactate. We show that primary human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells secrete lactate into ASL, which is elevated in hyperglycaemia. This leads to ASL acidification in CFHBE, which could only be mimicked in non-CF HBE following HCO3− removal. Hyperglycaemia-induced changes in ASL lactate and pH were exacerbated by the presence of P. aeruginosa and were attenuated by inhibition of monocarboxylate lactate-H+ co-transporters (MCTs) with AR-C155858. We conclude that hyperglycaemia and P. aeruginosa induce a metabolic shift which increases lactate generation and efflux into ASL via epithelial MCT2 transporters. Normal airways compensate for MCT-driven H+ secretion by secreting HCO3−, a process which is dysfunctional in CF airway epithelium leading to ASL acidification and that these processes may contribute to worsening respiratory disease in CFRD. PMID:27897253

  4. Hyperglycaemia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa acidify cystic fibrosis airway surface liquid by elevating epithelial monocarboxylate transporter 2 dependent lactate-H(+) secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnett, James Peter; Kalsi, Kameljit K; Sobotta, Mirko; Bearham, Jade; Carr, Georgina; Powell, Jason; Brodlie, Malcolm; Ward, Christopher; Tarran, Robert; Baines, Deborah L

    2016-11-29

    The cystic fibrosis (CF) airway surface liquid (ASL) provides a nutrient rich environment for bacterial growth including elevated glucose, which together with defective bacterial killing due to aberrant HCO3(-) transport and acidic ASL, make the CF airways susceptible to colonisation by respiratory pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Approximately half of adults with CF have CF related diabetes (CFRD) and this is associated with increased respiratory decline. CF ASL contains elevated lactate concentrations and hyperglycaemia can also increase ASL lactate. We show that primary human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells secrete lactate into ASL, which is elevated in hyperglycaemia. This leads to ASL acidification in CFHBE, which could only be mimicked in non-CF HBE following HCO3(-) removal. Hyperglycaemia-induced changes in ASL lactate and pH were exacerbated by the presence of P. aeruginosa and were attenuated by inhibition of monocarboxylate lactate-H(+) co-transporters (MCTs) with AR-C155858. We conclude that hyperglycaemia and P. aeruginosa induce a metabolic shift which increases lactate generation and efflux into ASL via epithelial MCT2 transporters. Normal airways compensate for MCT-driven H(+) secretion by secreting HCO3(-), a process which is dysfunctional in CF airway epithelium leading to ASL acidification and that these processes may contribute to worsening respiratory disease in CFRD.

  5. Role of monocarboxylate transporters in human cancers: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Céline; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar; Azevedo-Silva, João; Casal, Margarida; Schmitt, Fernando C; Baltazar, Fátima

    2012-02-01

    Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) belong to the SLC16 gene family, presently composed by 14 members. MCT1-MCT4 are proton symporters, which mediate the transmembrane transport of pyruvate, lactate and ketone bodies. The role of MCTs in cell homeostasis has been characterized in detail in normal tissues, however, their role in cancer is still far from understood. Most solid tumors are known to rely on glycolysis for energy production and this activity leads to production of important amounts of lactate, which are exported into the extracellular milieu, contributing to the acidic microenvironment. In this context, MCTs will play a dual role in the maintenance of the hyper-glycolytic acid-resistant phenotype of cancer, allowing the maintenance of the high glycolytic rates by performing lactate efflux, and pH regulation by the co-transport of protons. Thus, they constitute attractive targets for cancer therapy, which have been little explored. Here we review the literature on the role of MCTs in solid tumors in different locations, such as colon, central nervous system, breast, lung, gynecologic tract, prostate, stomach, however, there are many conflicting results and in most cases there are no functional studies showing the dependence of the tumors on MCT expression and activity. Additional studies on MCT expression in other tumor types, confirmation of the results already published as well as additional functional studies are needed to deeply understand the role of MCTs in cancer maintenance and aggressiveness.

  6. Establishing a definitive stoichiometry for the Na+/monocarboxylate cotransporter SMCT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coady, Michael J; Wallendorff, Bernadette; Bourgeois, Francis; Charron, Francois; Lapointe, Jean-Yves

    2007-10-01

    Several different stoichiometries have been proposed for the Na(+)/monocarboxylate cotransporter SMCT1, including variable Na(+)/substrate stoichiometry. In this work, we have definitively established an invariant 2:1 cotransport stoichiometry for SMCT1. By using two independent means of assay, we first showed that SMCT1 exhibits a 2:1 stoichiometry for Na(+)/lactate cotransport. Radiolabel uptake experiments proved that, unlike lactate, propionic acid diffuses passively through oocyte membranes and, consequently, propionate is a poor candidate for stoichiometric determination by these methods. Although we previously determined SMCT1 stoichiometry by measuring reversal potentials, this technique produced erroneous values, because SMCT1 simultaneously mediates both an inwardly rectifying cotransport current and an outwardly rectifying anionic leak current; the leak current predominates in the range where reversal potentials are observed. We therefore employed a method that compared the effect of halving the external Na(+) concentration to the effect of halving the external substrate concentration on zero-current potentials. Both lactate and propionate were cotransported through SMCT1 using 2:1 stoichiometries. The leak current passing through the protein has a 1 osmolyte/charge stoichiometry. Identification of cotransporter stoichiometry is not always a trivial task and it can lead to a much better understanding of the transport activity mediated by the protein in question.

  7. Suicide case due to phosphoric acid ingestion: case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquila, Isabella; Pepe, Francesca; Di Nunzio, Ciro; Ausania, Francesco; Serra, Arianna; Ricci, Pietrantonio

    2014-11-01

    Ingesting caustic substances represents a common event which may result in serious injuries of the gastrointestinal system. Severity of injury depends on the type of ingested substance: Caustic burns are more frequently associated with acid ingestion and their severity depends on type, concentration, time of exposure, and amount of the ingested substance. We report a case of phosphoric acid ingestion leading to death in a patient with depressive disorder. While reports ingestion of other acids and organophosphates can be found in the literature, there are no reports detailing a death due to phosphoric acid ingestion. We hope that presenting the findings in this case can aid death investigators in future cases that may involve ingestion of such a substance. After autopsy pH, phosphate and calcium ions concentration in the blood were analyzed. The cause of death was due to systemic effects: metabolic acidosis, hypophosphatemia, hypocalcemia, and hyperkalemia.

  8. Knockdown of monocarboxylate transporter 8 (mct8) disturbs brain development and locomotion in zebrafish.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieze, E. de; Wiel, S.M. van de; Zethof, J; Flik, G.; Klaren, P.H.; Arjona, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome (AHDS) is an inherited disorder of brain development characterized by severe psychomotor retardation. This X-linked disease is caused by mutations in the monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8), an important thyroid hormone transporter in brain neurons. MCT8-knockout mice

  9. Consequences of monocarboxylate transporter 8 deficiency for renal transport and metabolism of thyroid hormones in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Trajkovic-Arsic (Marija); T.J. Visser (Theo); V.M. Darras (Veerle); E.C.H. Friesema (Edith); B. Schlott (Bernhard); J. Mittag (Jens); K. Bauer (Karl); H. Heuer (Heike)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPatients carrying inactivating mutations in the gene encoding the thyroid hormone transporting monocarboxylate transporter (MCT)-8 suffer from a severe form of psychomotor retardation and exhibit abnormal serum thyroid hormone levels. The thyroidal phenotype characterized by highserum T3

  10. H-1 magnetic resonance spectroscopy in monocarboxylate transporter 8 gene deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijens, Paul E.; Rodiger, Lars A.; Meiners, Linda C.; Lunsing, Roelineke J.

    2008-01-01

    Context: In monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) gene deficiency, a syndrome combining thyroid and neurological abnormalities, the central nervous system has not yet been characterized by magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy. Objective: We studied whether the degree of dysmyelinization in MCT8 gene

  11. Impact of monocarboxylate transporter-8 deficiency on the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Trajkovic-Arsic (Marija); J. Müller (Julia); V.M. Darras (Veerle); C. Groba (Claudia); S. Lee (Sooyeon); D. Weih (Debra); K. Bauer (Karl); T.J. Visser (Theo); H. Heuer (Heike)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn patients, inactivating mutations in the gene encoding the thyroid hormone-transporting monocarboxylate transporter 8 (Mct8) are associated with severe mental and neurological deficits and disturbed thyroid hormone levels. The latter phenotype characterized by high T3and low T4serum co

  12. The Stability of Lubricant Oil Acidity of Biogas Fuelled Engine due to Biogas Desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gde Tirta Nindhia, Tjokorda; Wayan Surata, I.; Wardana, Ari

    2017-05-01

    This research is established for the purpose of the understanding the stability of the acidity of lubricant oil in biogas fuelled engine due to the absence of hydrogen sulfide (H2S). As was recognized that other than Methane (CH4), there are also other gas impurities in the biogas such as carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), moisture (H2O) and ammonia (NH3). Due to H2S contents in the biogas fuel, the engine was found failure. This is caused by corrosion in the combustion chamber due to increase of lubricant acidity. To overcome this problem in practical, the lubricant is increased the pH to basic level with the hope will be decrease to normal value after several time use. Other method is by installing pH measurement sensor in the engine lubricant so that when lubricant is known turn to be acid, then lubricant replacement should be done. In this research, the effect of biogas desulfurization down to zero level to the acidity of lubricant oil in the four stroke engine was carried out with the hope that neutral lubrication oil to be available during running the engine. The result indicates that by eliminating H2S due desulfurization process, effect on stability and neutrality of pH lubricant. By this method the engine safety can be obtained without often replacement the lubricant oil.

  13. Volatile fatty acids production in ruminants and the role of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Essential to these roles is their rapid transport across the plasma membrane, ... The aim of this review is to critically discuss short-chain fatty acids production and the ... Two major functions of monocarboxylate transporter proteins, namely the ...

  14. Biological Activities of Uric Acid in Infection Due to Enteropathogenic and Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, Jacqueline E.; Lis, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    In previous work, we identified xanthine oxidase (XO) as an important enzyme in the interaction between the host and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and Shiga-toxigenic E. coli (STEC). Many of the biological effects of XO were due to the hydrogen peroxide produced by the enzyme. We wondered, however, if uric acid generated by XO also had biological effects in the gastrointestinal tract. Uric acid triggered inflammatory responses in the gut, including increased submucosal edema and release of extracellular DNA from host cells. While uric acid alone was unable to trigger a chloride secretory response in intestinal monolayers, it did potentiate the secretory response to cyclic AMP agonists. Uric acid crystals were formed in vivo in the lumen of the gut in response to EPEC and STEC infections. While trying to visualize uric acid crystals formed during EPEC and STEC infections, we noticed that uric acid crystals became enmeshed in the neutrophilic extracellular traps (NETs) produced from host cells in response to bacteria in cultured cell systems and in the intestine in vivo. Uric acid levels in the gut lumen increased in response to exogenous DNA, and these increases were enhanced by the actions of DNase I. Interestingly, addition of DNase I reduced the numbers of EPEC bacteria recovered after a 20-h infection and protected against EPEC-induced histologic damage. PMID:26787720

  15. Effective Cellular Uptake and Efflux of Thyroid Hormone by Human Monocarboxylate Transporter 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesema, Edith C. H.; Jansen, Jurgen; Jachtenberg, Jan-willem; Visser, W. Edward; Kester, Monique H. A.; Visser, Theo J.

    2008-01-01

    Cellular entry of thyroid hormone is mediated by plasma membrane transporters, among others a T-type (aromatic) amino acid transporter. Monocarboxylate transporter 10 (MCT10) has been reported to transport aromatic amino acids but not iodothyronines. Within the MCT family, MCT10 is most homologous to MCT8, which is a very important iodothyronine transporter but does not transport amino acids. In view of this paradox, we decided to reinvestigate the possible transport of thyroid hormone by human (h) MCT10 in comparison with hMCT8. Transfection of COS1 cells with hMCT10 cDNA resulted in 1) the production of an approximately 55 kDa protein located to the plasma membrane as shown by immunoblotting and confocal microscopy, 2) a strong increase in the affinity labeling of intracellular type I deiodinase by N-bromoacetyl-[125I]T3, 3) a marked stimulation of cellular T4 and, particularly, T3 uptake, 4) a significant inhibition of T3 uptake by phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan of 12.5%, 22.2%, and 51.4%, respectively, and 5) a marked increase in the intracellular deiodination of T4 and T3 by different deiodinases. Cotransfection studies using the cytosolic thyroid hormone-binding protein μ-crystallin (CRYM) indicated that hMCT10 facilitates both cellular uptake and efflux of T4 and T3. In the absence of CRYM, hMCT10 and hMCT8 increased T3 uptake after 5 min incubation up to 4.0- and 1.9-fold, and in the presence of CRYM up to 6.9- and 5.8-fold, respectively. hMCT10 was less active toward T4 than hMCT8. These findings establish that hMCT10 is at least as active a thyroid hormone transporter as hMCT8, and that both transporters facilitate iodothyronine uptake as well as efflux. PMID:18337592

  16. External auditory canal stenosis due to the use of powdered boric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dündar, Riza; Soy, Fatih Kemal; Kulduk, Erkan; Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Cingi, Cemal

    2014-09-01

    Acquired stenosis of the external auditory canal (EAC) may occur because of chronic external otitis, recurrent chronic catarrhal otitis media associated with tympanic membrane perforation, chronic dermatitis, tumors, and trauma. Stenosis occurs generally at the one-third bone part of the external auditory canal. In this article, we present 3 cases of acquired EAC stenosis due to the previous powdered boric acid application. Besides the presentation of surgical intervetions in these cases, we want to notify the physicians not to use or carefully use powdered boric acid because of the complication of EAC stenosis.

  17. Management of a Patient With Faciocervical Burns and Inhalational Injury Due to Hydrofluoric Acid Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuanhai, Zhang; Xingang, Wang; Liangfang, Ni; Chunmao, Han

    2014-05-01

    Hydrofluoric acid, a highly dangerous substance, can cause tissue damage and systemic toxicity by its unique mechanisms. Many cases of severe faciocervical burns due to hydrofluoric acid exposure are lethal. Herein, we present a case of 37-year-old man who suffered from hydrofluoric acid burns to his face, anterior neck, lips, and nasal cavity. On admission, this patient coughed with much sputum, and the chest auscultation detected rough breath sounds, wheezes, and very weak heart sounds, indicating possible inhalation injury. This case highlights the extreme complexity of managing this kind of injury. Timely and accurate wound treatment and respiratory tract care, as well as active systematic support treatment, played vital roles in the management of this patient.

  18. Acute renal failure due to bilateral uric acid lithiasis in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Mete; Boleken, M Emin; Soran, Mustafa; Kanmaz, Turan; Yücesan, Selçuk

    2007-06-01

    Acute renal failure (ARF) is one of the complications of urolithiasis, but the role of medical treatment to relieve urinary obstruction in children with ARF is uncertain. We report on infants with acute obstructive uric acid lithiasis. We describe presentation features as well as diagnosis methods and medical treatment in five infants who were admitted to our institution with ARF due to uric acid lithiasis. The medical treatments for all patients were fluid liberalization, urine alkalinization, and oral allopurinol. Two children underwent urinary diversion. Within 8 h, urine output improved in all patients, and the stones passed spontaneously. All obstructed kidneys were relieved with medical treatment, and no renal sequel remained. So this series has showed a role of medical therapy in acute obstructive uric acid lithiasis.

  19. Insights into molecular properties of the human monocarboxylate transporter 8 by combining functional with structural information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleinau Gunnar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8 is a member of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS and transports specificly iodothyronines. MCT8 mutations are the underlying cause of a syndrome of severe X-linked psychomotor retardation known as the Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome. This syndrome is characterized by abnormally high T3, low/normal T4 serum levels and slightly elevated serum TSH. To date, more than 25 pathogenic mutations in hMCT8 are known and they are valuable indicators of important regions for structural and functional MCT8 properties. Methods We designed a structural human MCT8 model and studied reported pathogenic missense mutations with focus on the estimation of those amino acid positions which are probably sensitive for substrate transport. Furthermore, assuming similarities between determinants of T3 binding observed in the published crystal structure of the thyroid hormone receptor beta occupied by its ligand T3 and the structural MCT8 model, we explore potential T3 binding sites in the MCT8 substrate channel cavity. Results We found that all known pathogenic missense mutations are located exclusively in the transmembrane helices and to a high degree at conserved residues among the MCT family. Furthermore, mutations either of or to prolines/glycines are located mainly at helices 9-12 and are expected to cause steric clashes or structural misfolding. In contrast, several other mutations are close to the potential substrate channel and affected amino acids are likely involved in the switching mechanism between different transporter conformations. Finally, three potential substrate binding sites are predicted for MCT8. Conclusions Naturally occurring mutations of MCT8 provide molecular insights into protein regions important for protein folding, substrate binding and the switching mechanism during substrate transport. Future studies guided by this information should help to clarify structure

  20. Fatty Acid Accumulation and Resulting PPARα Activation in Fibroblasts due to Trifunctional Protein Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Wakabayashi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To examine fatty acid accumulation and its toxic effects in cells, we analyzed skin fibroblasts from six patients with mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency, who had abnormalities in the second through fourth reactions in fatty acid β-oxidation system. We found free fatty acid accumulation, enhanced three acyl-CoA dehydrogenases, catalyzing the first reaction in the β-oxidation system and being assumed to have normal activities in these patients, and PPARα activation that was confirmed in the experiments using MK886, a PPARα specific antagonist and fenofibrate, a PPARα specific agonist. These novel findings suggest that the fatty acid accumulation and the resulting PPARα activation are major causes of the increase in the β-oxidation ability as probable compensation for fatty acid metabolism in the patients’ fibroblasts, and that enhanced cell proliferation and increased oxidative stress due to the PPARα activation relate to the development of specific clinical features such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, slight hepatomegaly, and skeletal myopathy. Additionally, significant suppression of the PPARα activation by means of MK886 treatment is assumed to provide a new method of treating this deficiency.

  1. Cyclobutyl methyl ketone as a model compound for pinonic acid to elucidate oxidation mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Praplan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available 3-Methyl-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid (MBTCA, terpenylic acid and diaterpenylic acid acetate were identified in secondary organic aerosol (SOA from α-pinene photooxidation or ozonolysis. These compounds display interesting structural features: MBTCA has a high oxygen to carbon ratio, terpenylic acid contains a lactone ring in its structure and diaterpenylic acid acetate possesses an ester functional group. The reaction mechanisms leading to these products are still unknown, but it was demonstrated experimentally in earlier studies that MBTCA is formed from pinonic acid, a primary ozonolysis product of α-pinene. Because the direct observation of pinonic acid oxidation in a smog chamber would be difficult due to its relatively low volatility, a model compound possessing the substructure of interest was used instead: cyclobutyl methyl ketone (CMK. From its oxidation, several organic acids could be measured with ion chromatography (IC coupled to a mass spectrometer (MS. Succinic acid, the analogous product of MBTCA is formed at molar yields of 2 to 5%. Butyrolactone is detected as butanoic acid, due to hydrolysis in the sampling device. A monocarboxylic acid with nominal mass 146 was detected in the absence of nitrogen oxides (NOx and could be the analogous product of diaterpenylic acid acetate. However, due to a lack of available standards, the exact structure of this compound remains unelucidated. Finally, 4-oxobutanoic acid could also be measured and two structures of its expected analogous compound from pinonic acid oxidation are proposed. Because these compounds are primary products of the CMK oxidation, reaction mechanisms capable of adding one or two carboxylic functional groups without formation of stable intermediate products needs to be formulated. Such a formation mechanism of MBTCA from pinonic acid was found in the literature; however, it includes a hydrogen atom migration to an acyloxy radical, which is expected to loose

  2. Alterations of monocarboxylate transporter densities during hypoxia in brain and breast tumour cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Chang; Edin, Nina F Jeppesen; Lauritzen, Knut H

    2012-01-01

    Tumour cells are characterized by aerobic glycolysis, which provides biomass for tumour proliferation and leads to extracellular acidification through efflux of lactate via monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). Deficient and spasm-prone tumour vasculature causes variable hypoxia, which favours...... tumour cell survival and metastases. Brain metastases frequently occur in patients with advanced breast cancer.Effective treatment strategies are therefore needed against brain metastasis from breast carcinoma....

  3. In vitro and in vivo evidence for active brain uptake of the GHB analogue HOCPCA by the monocarboxylate transporter subtype 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiesen, Louise; Kehler, Jan; Clausen, Rasmus P

    2015-01-01

    -affinity binding sites, ligands with high and specific affinity are essential. The conformationally restricted GHB analogue 3-hydroxycyclopent-1-enecarboxylic acid (HOCPCA) is one such compound. The objective of this study was to investigate the transport of HOCPCA across the blood-brain barrier in vitro...... and in vivo, and to investigate the hypothesis that HOCPCA, like GHB, is a substrate for the monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). For in vitro uptake studies, MCT1, 2 and 4 were recombinantly expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and the previously reported radioligand [(3)H]HOCPCA was used (as substrate......γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a recreational drug, a clinically prescribed drug in narcolepsy and alcohol dependence, and an endogenous substance which binds to both high and low affinity sites in the brain. For studying the molecular mechanisms and the biological role of the GHB high...

  4. Dynamic functional characterization and phylogenetic changes due to Long Chain Fatty Acids pulses in biogas reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Treu, Laura; Campanaro, Stefano;

    2016-01-01

    The process stability of biogas plants is often deteriorated by the accumulation of Long Chain Fatty Acids (LCFA). The microbial community shifts due to LCFA disturbances have been poorly understood as the molecular techniques used were not able to identify the genome characteristics of uncultured...... microorganisms, and additionally, the presence of limited number of reference genomes in public databases prevented the comprehension of specific functional roles characterizing these microorganisms. The present study is the first research which deciphers by means of high throughput shotgun sequencing...

  5. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage due to valproic acid: Case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Inzirillo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Valproic acid (VPA is one of the most frequently used antiepileptic drugs for the treatment of focal and generalized epilepsies, absence seizures, and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS. VPA has been demonstrated to have a negative effect on both the intrinsic and extrinsic coagulation systems and controversy exists about the clinical relevance of such hematological abnormalities. We describe a case of reversible lung hemorrage due to VPA. In English-language literature only two other similar cases (one of which fatal have been described so far.

  6. Unusual stable isotope ratios in amino acid and carboxylic acid extracts from the Murchison meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, S.; Krishnamurthy, R. V.; Cronin, J. R.; Pizzarello, S.; Yuen, G. U.

    1987-01-01

    The isotopic composition of hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon in amino acid and monocarboxylic acid extracts from the Murchison meteorite has been determined. The unusually high D/H and N-15/N-14 ratios in the amino acid fraction are uniquely characteristic of known interstellar organic materials. The delta D value of the monocarboxylic acid fraction is lower but still consistent with an interstellar origin. These results confirm the extraterrestrial origin of both classes of compound and provide the first evidence suggesting a direct relationship between the massive organosynthesis occurring in interstellar clouds and the presence of prebiotic compounds in primitive planetary bodies.

  7. Molecular characterization of a membrane transporter for lactate, pyruvate, and other monocarboxylates: implications for the Cori cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, C K; Goldstein, J L; Pathak, R K; Anderson, R G; Brown, M S

    1994-03-11

    Lactate and pyruvate cross cell membranes via a monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) with well-defined properties but undefined molecular structure. We report the cloning of a cDNA encoding MCT1, a monocarboxylate transporter whose properties resemble those of the erythrocyte MCT, including proton symport, trans acceleration, and sensitivity to alpha-cyanocinnammates. A Phe to Cys substitution in MCT1 converts it to Mev, a mevalonate transporter. MCT1 is abundant in erythrocytes, cardiac muscle, and basolateral intestinal epithelium. In skeletal muscle it is restricted to mitochondria-rich myocytes. As sperm traverse the epididymis, MCT1 switches from sperm to epithelial cells. MCT1 is present at low levels in liver, suggesting another MCT in this tissue. By exporting lactate from intestine and erythrocytes, MCT1 participates in the Cori cycle. It also participates in novel pathways of monocarboxylate metabolism in muscle and sperm.

  8. Liquid Crystalline Furandicarboxylic Acid-based Aaromatic Polyesters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WILSENS, CAROLUS HENRICUS R. MARIA; RASTOGI, SANJAY; VELD, MARTIJN ARNOLDUS JOHANNES; KLOP, ENNO ANTON; NOORDOVER, BART ADRIANUS JOHANNES

    2013-01-01

    The invention pertains to a fully aromatic liquid crystalline furandicarboxylic acid- based aromatic polyester obtainable from a mixture of monomers comprising 2,5- furandicarboxylic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, an aromatic diol, and 5-40 mol% of an aromatic monocarboxylic acid selected from vanilli

  9. New mathematical derivations for calculation of ATP yield due to the complete oxidation of different types of fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Banda Venkat; Prasad, Bommena Rajendra; Sinha, Sukesh Narayan; Ahmed, Noor

    2014-02-01

    During the complete oxidation of fatty acids, the electrons removed from fatty acids in different forms (FADH2 and NADH2) pass through the respiratory chain, driving the ATP synthesis. Generally, the ATP yield due to the complete oxidation of fatty acids is calculated by sum total the ATPs obtained due to the oxidation of FADH2 and NADH2 due to lack of any particular method. This calculation is simple for saturated even numbered fatty acids, but in the case of saturated and unsaturated odd numbered fatty acids the calculation of ATP yield is difficult and needs mathematical calculations due to some changes in their beta-oxidation pathway when compared to the pathway of saturated even numbered fatty acids. These calculations are made simple by our derivations and following formulae where we require only number of carbon atoms and double bonds present in a fatty acid. Our method is superior and easier in comparison to long mathematical calculations that are in the practice.

  10. Integration of a 'proton antenna' facilitates transport activity of the monocarboxylate transporter MCT4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Sina Ibne; Pouyssegur, Jacques; Deitmer, Joachim W; Becker, Holger M

    2017-01-01

    Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) mediate the proton-coupled transport of high-energy metabolites like lactate and pyruvate and are expressed in nearly every mammalian tissue. We have shown previously that transport activity of MCT4 is enhanced by carbonic anhydrase II (CAII), which has been suggested to function as a 'proton antenna' for the transporter. In the present study, we tested whether creation of an endogenous proton antenna by introduction of a cluster of histidine residues into the C-terminal tail of MCT4 (MCT4-6xHis) could facilitate MCT4 transport activity when heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Our results show that integration of six histidines into the C-terminal tail does indeed increase transport activity of MCT4 to the same extent as did coexpression of MCT4-WT with CAII. Transport activity of MCT4-6xHis could be further enhanced by coexpression with extracellular CAIV, but not with intracellular CAII. Injection of an antibody against the histidine cluster into MCT4-expressing oocytes decreased transport activity of MCT4-6xHis, while leaving activity of MCT4-WT unaltered. Taken together, these findings suggest that transport activity of the proton-coupled monocarboxylate transporter MCT4 can be facilitated by integration of an endogenous proton antenna into the transporter's C-terminal tail.

  11. Monocarboxylate transporters MCT1 and MCT4 regulate migration and invasion of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kong, Su Chii; Nøhr-Nielsen, Asbjørn; Zeeberg, Katrine

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Novel treatments for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are severely needed. The aim of this work was to explore the roles of H-lactate monocarboxylate transporters 1 and 4 (MCT1 and MCT4) in PDAC cell migration and invasiveness. METHODS: Monocarboxylate transporter expression...... and MCT4 (messenger RNA, protein) were robustly expressed in all PDAC lines, localizing to the plasma membrane. Lactate influx capacity was highest in AsPC-1 cells and lowest in HPDE cells and was inhibited by the MCT inhibitor α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate (4-CIN), MCT1/MCT2 inhibitor AR-C155858......, or knockdown of MCT1 or MCT4. PDAC cell migration was largely unaffected by MCT1/MCT2 inhibition or MCT1 knockdown but was reduced by 4-CIN and by MCT4 knockdown (BxPC-3). Invasion measured in Boyden chamber (BxPC-3, Panc-1) and spheroid outgrowth (BxPC-3) assays was attenuated by 4-CIN and AR-C155858...

  12. Monocarboxylate Transporter 8 Modulates the Viability and Invasive Capacity of Human Placental Cells and Fetoplacental Growth in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Vasilopoulou (Elisavet); L.S. Loubière (Laurence); H. Heuer (Heike); M. Trajkovic-Arsic (Marija); V.M. Darras (Veerle); T.J. Visser (Theo); G.E. Lash (Gendie); G.S. Whitley (Guy); C.J. McCabe (Christopher); J.A. Franklyn (Jayne); M.D. Kilby (Mark); S.Y. Chan (Shiao)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractMonocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) is a well-established thyroid hormone (TH) transporter. In humans, MCT8 mutations result in changes in circulating TH concentrations and X-linked severe global neurodevelopmental delay. MCT8 is expressed in the human placenta throughout gestation, wit

  13. Deficiency in monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) in mice delays regeneration of peripheral nerves following sciatic nerve crush

    KAUST Repository

    Morrison, Brett M.

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral nerve regeneration following injury occurs spontaneously, but many of the processes require metabolic energy. The mechanism of energy supply to axons has not previously been determined. In the central nervous system, monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1), expressed in oligodendroglia, is critical for supplying lactate or other energy metabolites to axons. In the current study, MCT1 is shown to localize within the peripheral nervous system to perineurial cells, dorsal root ganglion neurons, and Schwann cells by MCT1 immunofluorescence in wild-type mice and tdTomato fluorescence in MCT1 BAC reporter mice. To investigate whether MCT1 is necessary for peripheral nerve regeneration, sciatic nerves of MCT1 heterozygous mice are crushed and peripheral nerve regeneration was quantified electrophysiologically and anatomically. Compound muscle action potential (CMAP) recovery is delayed from a median of 21. days in wild-type mice to greater than 38. days in MCT1 heterozygote mice. In fact, half of the MCT1 heterozygote mice have no recovery of CMAP at 42. days, while all of the wild-type mice recovered. In addition, muscle fibers remain 40% more atrophic and neuromuscular junctions 40% more denervated at 42. days post-crush in the MCT1 heterozygote mice than wild-type mice. The delay in nerve regeneration is not only in motor axons, as the number of regenerated axons in the sural sensory nerve of MCT1 heterozygote mice at 4. weeks and tibial mixed sensory and motor nerve at 3. weeks is also significantly reduced compared to wild-type mice. This delay in regeneration may be partly due to failed Schwann cell function, as there is reduced early phagocytosis of myelin debris and remyelination of axon segments. These data for the first time demonstrate that MCT1 is critical for regeneration of both sensory and motor axons in mice following sciatic nerve crush.

  14. Monocarboxylate transporter 8 modulates the viability and invasive capacity of human placental cells and fetoplacental growth in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilopoulou, Elisavet; Loubière, Laurence S; Heuer, Heike; Trajkovic-Arsic, Marija; Darras, Veerle M; Visser, Theo J; Lash, Gendie E; Whitley, Guy S; McCabe, Christopher J; Franklyn, Jayne A; Kilby, Mark D; Chan, Shiao Y

    2013-01-01

    Monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) is a well-established thyroid hormone (TH) transporter. In humans, MCT8 mutations result in changes in circulating TH concentrations and X-linked severe global neurodevelopmental delay. MCT8 is expressed in the human placenta throughout gestation, with increased expression in trophoblast cells from growth-restricted pregnancies. We postulate that MCT8 plays an important role in placental development and transplacental TH transport. We investigated the effect of altering MCT8 expression in human trophoblast in vitro and in a Mct8 knockout mouse model. Silencing of endogenous MCT8 reduced T3 uptake into human extravillous trophoblast-like cells (SGHPL-4; 40%, PMCT8 over-expression transiently increased T3 uptake (SGHPL-4∶30%, PMCT8 did not significantly affect SGHPL-4 invasion, but with MCT8 over-expression T3 treatment promoted invasion compared with no T3 (3.3-fold; PMCT8 silencing increased cytotrophoblast viability (∼20%, PMCT8 over-expression reduced cytotrophoblast viability independently of T3 (∼20%, PMct8 knockout reduced fetal:placental weight ratios compared with wild-type controls at gestational day 18 (25%, Pfetal and placental weights were not significantly different. The volume fraction of the labyrinthine zone of the placenta, which facilitates maternal-fetal exchange, was reduced in Mct8 knockout placentae (10%, PMCT8 makes a significant contribution to T3 uptake into human trophoblast cells and has a role in modulating human trophoblast cell invasion and viability. In mice, Mct8 knockout has subtle effects upon fetoplacental growth and does not significantly affect placental cell viability probably due to compensatory mechanisms in vivo.

  15. Monocarboxylate transporter 4, associated with the acidification of synovial fluid, is a novel therapeutic target for inflammatory arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Wataru; Kawahito, Yutaka; Nagahara, Hidetake; Kukida, Yuji; Seno, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Aihiro; Kohno, Masataka; Oda, Ryo; Taniguchi, Daigo; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Ejima, Akika; Kishida, Tsunao; Mazda, Osam; Ashihara, Eishi

    2015-11-01

    Synovial fluid pH is decreased in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA); however, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. We undertook this study to examine the mechanism by which synovial fluid pH is regulated and to explore the possibility of a therapeutic strategy by manipulating this mechanism. We determined the pH and lactate concentration in synovial fluid from 16 RA patients. Cultured synovial fibroblasts (SFs) from the inflamed joints of 9 RA patients (RASFs) were examined for the expression of ion transporters that regulate intracellular and extracellular pH. The ion transporter up-regulated in RASF lines was then suppressed in RASFs by small interfering RNA (siRNA), and the effect of transfection on viability and proliferation was investigated. Finally, we examined the therapeutic effect of electrotransfer of monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4)-specific siRNA into the articular synovium of mice with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Synovial fluid pH correlated inversely with both the Disease Activity Score in 28 joints using the C-reactive protein level and the synovial fluid lactate levels. RASFs exhibited up-regulated transcription of MCT4 messenger RNA. MCT4 exported intracellular lactate into the extracellular space. RASFs had significantly higher MCT4 protein levels than did SFs from patients with osteoarthritis. Knockdown of MCT4 induced intrinsic apoptosis of RASFs, thereby inhibiting their proliferation. Moreover, electrotransfer of MCT4-specific siRNA into the articular synovium of mice with CIA significantly reduced the severity of arthritis. RA activity correlated with decreased synovial fluid pH. This may be due to increased MCT4 expression in RASFs. Silencing MCT4 induced apoptosis in RASFs and reduced the severity of CIA, suggesting that MCT4 is a potential therapeutic target for inflammatory arthritis. © 2015, American College of Rheumatology.

  16. Functional alterations due to amino acid changes and evolutionary comparative analysis of ARPKD and ADPKD genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burhan M. Edrees

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A targeted customized sequencing of genes implicated in autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD phenotype was performed to identify candidate variants using the Ion torrent PGM next-generation sequencing. The results identified four potential pathogenic variants in PKHD1 gene [c.4870C>T, p.(Arg1624Trp, c.5725C>T, p.(Arg1909Trp, c.1736C>T, p.(Thr579Met and c.10628T>G, p.(Leu3543Trp] among 12 out of 18 samples. However, one variant c.4870C>T, p.(Arg1624Trp was common among eight patients. Some patient samples also showed few variants in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD disease causing genes PKD1 and PKD2 such as c.12433G>A, p.(Val4145Ile and c.1445T>G, p.(Phe482Cys, respectively. All causative variants were validated by capillary sequencing and confirmed the presence of a novel homozygous variant c.10628T>G, p.(Leu3543Trp in a male proband. We have recently published the results of these studies (Edrees et al., 2016. Here we report for the first time the effect of the common mutation p.(Arg1624Trp found in eight samples on the protein structure and function due to the specific amino acid changes of PKHD1 protein using molecular dynamics simulations. The computational approaches provide tool predict the phenotypic effect of variant on the structure and function of the altered protein. The structural analysis with the common mutation p.(Arg1624Trp in the native and mutant modeled protein were also studied for solvent accessibility, secondary structure and stabilizing residues to find out the stability of the protein between wild type and mutant forms. Furthermore, comparative genomics and evolutionary analyses of variants observed in PKHD1, PKD1, and PKD2 genes were also performed in some mammalian species including human to understand the complexity of genomes among closely related mammalian species. Taken together, the results revealed that the evolutionary comparative analyses and characterization of PKHD1, PKD1

  17. A Case of Chronic Pancreatic Insufficiency Due to Valproic Acid in a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Anne Cooper

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A 14-year-old child treated with valproic acid over several years for a seizure disorder developed abdominal pain with radiological evidence of acute pancreatitis. The association with valproic acid was not recognized, and the child continued to take the drug. The patient eventually developed steatorrhea and weight loss that improved with pancreatic enzyme replacement. Radiological evaluation showed an atrophic pancreas. Without evidence of other etiological factors, valproic acid by itself appeared to be the cause of chronic pancreatitis with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in this patient.

  18. Amino acids in CSF and plasma in hyperammonaemic coma due to arginase1 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl-Bürgi, S; Sigl, S Baumgartner; Häberle, J; Haberlandt, E; Rostásy, K; Ertl, C; Eichinger-Öttl, U; Heinz-Erian, P; Karall, D

    2008-12-01

    We report the CSF and plasma amino acid concentrations and their ratios in a male patient with arginase1 deficiency with an unusual early presentation at 34 days of age. He developed hyperammonaemic coma (ammonia >400 μmol/L; normal amino acids were elevated but not those of the imino- and of the dibasic amino acids lysine and ornithine. The mechanism leading to the increase of most neutral amino acids in brain is not known. A normal glutamine in plasma does not exclude an increased concentration in CSF; it could be useful to ascertain by MRS that a high CSF glutamine concentration truly reflects a high concentration in brain tissue for better understanding its pathogenesis.

  19. Is Amino-Acid Homochirality Due To Asymmetric Photolysis In Space?

    CERN Document Server

    Cerf, C

    1999-01-01

    Amino acids occurring in proteins are, with rare exceptions, exclusively of the L-configuration. Among the many scenarios put forward to explain the origin of this chiral homogeneity (i.e., homochirality), one involves the asymmetric photolysis of amino acids present in space, triggered by circularly polarized UV radiation. The recent observation of circularly polarized light (CPL) in the Orion OMC-1 star-forming region (Bailey et al. 1998, Science 281, 672) has been presented as providing a strong validation of this scenario. The present paper reviews the situation. It is stressed for example that one important condition for the asymmetric photolysis by CPL to be at the origin of the terrestrial homochirality of natural amino acids is generally overlooked, namely, the asymmetric photolysis should favour the L-enantiomer for ALL the primordial amino acids involved in the genesis of life (i.e., biogenic amino acids). Although this condition is probably satisfied for aliphatic amino acids, some non-aliphatic am...

  20. Inhibition of monocarboxylate transporter-1 (MCT1) by AZD3965 enhances radiosensitivity by reducing lactate transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bola, Becky M; Chadwick, Amy L; Michopoulos, Filippos; Blount, Kathryn G; Telfer, Brian A; Williams, Kaye J; Smith, Paul D; Critchlow, Susan E; Stratford, Ian J

    2014-12-01

    Inhibition of the monocarboxylate transporter MCT1 by AZD3965 results in an increase in glycolysis in human tumor cell lines and xenografts. This is indicated by changes in the levels of specific glycolytic metabolites and in changes in glycolytic enzyme kinetics. These drug-induced metabolic changes translate into an inhibition of tumor growth in vivo. Thus, we combined AZD3965 with fractionated radiation to treat small cell lung cancer (SCLC) xenografts and showed that the combination provided a significantly greater therapeutic effect than the use of either modality alone. These results strongly support the notion of combining MCT1 inhibition with radiotherapy in the treatment of SCLC and other solid tumors. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. Entropy reduction in unfolded peptides (and proteins) due to conformational preferences of amino acid residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer-Stenner, Reinhard; Toal, Siobhan E

    2014-11-07

    As established by several groups over the last 20 years, amino acid residues in unfolded peptides and proteins do not exhibit the unspecific random distribution as assumed by the classical random coil model. Individual amino acid residues in small peptides were found to exhibit different conformational preferences. Here, we utilize recently obtained conformational distributions of guest amino acid residues in GxG peptides to estimate their conformational entropy, which we find to be significantly lower than the entropy of an assumed random coil like distribution. Only at high temperature do backbone entropies approach random coil like values. We utilized the obtained backbone entropies of the investigated amino acid residues to estimate the loss of conformational entropy caused by a coil → helix transition and identified two subsets of amino acid residues for which the thus calculated entropy losses correlate well with the respective Gibbs energy of helix formation obtained for alanine based host-guest systems. Calculated and experimentally derived entropic losses were found to be in good agreement. For most of the amino acid residues investigated entropic losses derived from our GxG distributions correlate very well with corresponding values recently obtained from MD simulations biased by conformational propensities derived from truncated coil libraries. Both, conformational entropy and the entropy of solvation exhibit a strong, residue specific temperature dependence, which can be expected to substantially affect the stability of unfolded states. Altogether, our results provide strong evidence for the notion that conformational preferences of amino acid residues matter with regard to the thermodynamics of peptide and protein folding.

  2. Overexpression of ESBP6 improves lactic acid resistance and production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Minetaka; Akase, Shin-Pei; Nakanishi, Ryota; Kaneko, Yoshinobu; Harashima, Satoshi

    2016-10-01

    Polylactic acid plastics are receiving increasing attention for the control of atmospheric CO2 emissions. Lactic acid, the building block for polylactic acid, is produced by fermentation technology from renewable carbon sources. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, harboring the lactate dehydrogenases gene (LDH), produces lactic acid at a large scale due to its strong acid resistance, to its simple nutritional requirements and to its ease of genetic engineering. Since improvement of lactic acid resistance is correlated with an increase of lactic acid production under non-neutralizing condition, we isolated a novel gene that enhances lactic acid resistance using a multi-copy yeast genomic DNA library. In this study, we identified the ESBP6 gene, which increases lactic acid resistance when overexpressed and which encodes a protein with similarity to monocarboxylate permeases. Although ESBP6 was not induced in response to lactic acid stress, it caused weak but reproducible sensitivity to lactic acid when disrupted. Furthermore, intracellular pH in the ESBP6 overexpressing strain was higher than that in the wild-type strain under lactic acid stressed condition, suggesting that Esbp6 plays some roles in lactic acid adaptation response. The ESBP6 overexpressing strain carrying the LDH gene induced 20% increase in lactic acid production compared with the wild-type strain carrying the LDH gene under non-neutralizing conditions. These results indicate that overexpression of ESBP6 provides a novel and useful tool to improve lactic acid resistance and lactic acid production in yeast.

  3. Chronic suppurative otitis media due to nontuberculous mycobacteria: A case of successful treatment with topical boric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Marie-Astrid; Quach, Caroline; Daniel, Sam J

    2015-07-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are an increasingly recognized cause of chronic suppurative otitis media in children with tympanostomy tubes. Treatment of this condition is difficult and typically requires a combination of systemic antibiotics and surgical debridement. We present the first case of a 2-year-old male with chronic suppurative otitis media due to NTM who failed systemic antibiotic therapy and was successfully managed with topical boric acid powder. This report highlights the challenges involved in treating this infection, and introduces boric acid as a potentially valuable component of therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. An autopsy case of death due to metabolic acidosis after citric acid ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Tomoya; Usui, Akihito; Matsumura, Takashi; Aramaki, Tomomi; Hosoya, Tadashi; Igari, Yui; Ohuchi, Tsukasa; Hayashizaki, Yoshie; Usui, Kiyotaka; Funayama, Masato

    2015-11-01

    A man in his 40s was found unconscious on a sofa in a communal residence for people with various disabilities. He appeared to have drunk 800 ml of undiluted citric acid from a commercial plastic bottle. The instructions on the label of the beverage specified that the beverage be diluted 20- to 30-fold before consumption. The patient was admitted to an emergency hospital with severe metabolic acidosis (pH, 6.70; HCO3(-), 3.6 mEq/L) and a low ionized calcium level (0.73 mmol/L). Although ionized calcium and catecholamines were continuously administered intravenously to correct the acidosis, the state of acidemia and low blood pressure did not improve, and he died 20 h later. Citric acid concentrations in the patient's serum drawn shortly after treatment in the hospital and from the heart at autopsy were 80.6 mg/ml and 39.8 mg/dl, respectively (normal range: 1.3-2.6 mg/dl). Autopsy revealed black discoloration of the mucosal surface of the esophagus. Microscopically, degenerated epithelium and neutrophilic infiltration in the muscle layer were observed. In daily life, drinking a large amount of concentrated citric acid beverage is rare as a cause of lethal poisoning. However, persons with mental disorders such as dementia may mistakenly drink detergent or concentrated fluids, as in our case. Family members or facility staff in the home or nursing facility must bear in mind that they should not leave such bottles in places where they are easily accessible to mentally handicapped persons.

  5. Degradation and contamination of perfluorinated sulfonic acid membrane due to swelling-dehydration cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Shuang Ma; Morgen, Per; Skou, Eivind Morten

    Formation of sulfonic anhydride S-O-S (from the condensation of sulfonic acids) was known one of the important degradation mechanisms [i] for Nafion membrane under hydrothermal aging condition, which is especially critical for hydrogen fuel cells. Similar mechanism would also have be desirable...... to the membrane degradation in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), where liquid water has direct contact with the electrolyte. An ex-situ experiment was established with swelling-dehydration cycles on the membrane. However, formation of sulfonic anhydride was not detected during the entire treatment; instead...

  6. Monocarboxylate transporter 8 modulates the viability and invasive capacity of human placental cells and fetoplacental growth in mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Vasilopoulou, E.; Loubière, LS; Heuer, H.; Trajkovic-Arsic, M; Darras, VM; Visser, TJ; Lash, GE; Whitley, GS; McCabe, CJ; Franklyn, JA; Kilby, MD; Chan, SY

    2013-01-01

    textabstractMonocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) is a well-established thyroid hormone (TH) transporter. In humans, MCT8 mutations result in changes in circulating TH concentrations and X-linked severe global neurodevelopmental delay. MCT8 is expressed in the human placenta throughout gestation, with increased expression in trophoblast cells from growth-restricted pregnancies. We postulate that MCT8 plays an important role in placental development and transplacental TH transport. We investiga...

  7. Amino and fatty acids in carbonaceous meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvenvolden, K. A.

    1974-01-01

    Analyses of two carbonaceous meteorites have provided much of the latest evidence which seems to support Oparin's theory on the origin of life. The meteorites involved are the Murray meteorite, which fell in 1950, and the Murchison meteorite, which fell in 1969. The amino acids in the two meteorites are similar in composition. Eight of the twenty amino acids found belong to amino acids present in proteins. A number of monocarboxylic and dicarboxylic fatty acids were also found in the meteorites.

  8. Dissolution and secondary mineral precipitation in basalts due to reactions with carbonic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakiya, Shreya; Adam, Ludmila; Esteban, Lionel; Rowe, Michael C.; Shane, Phil

    2017-06-01

    One of the leading hydrothermal alteration processes in volcanic environments is when rock-forming minerals with high concentrations of iron, magnesium, and calcium react with CO2 and water to form carbonate minerals. This is used to the advantage of geologic sequestration of anthropogenic CO2. Here we experimentally investigate how mineral carbonation processes alter the rock microstructure due to CO2-water-rock interactions. In order to characterize these changes, CO2-water-rock alteration in Auckland Volcanic Field young basalts (less than 0.3 Ma) is studied before and after a 140 day reaction period. We investigate how whole core basalts with similar geochemistry but different porosity, permeability, pore geometry, and volcanic glass content alter due to CO2-water-rock reactions. Ankerite and aluminosilicate minerals precipitate as secondary phases in the pore space. However, rock dissolution mechanisms are found to dominate this secondary mineral precipitation resulting in an increase in porosity and decrease in rigidity of all samples. The basalt with the highest initial porosity and volcanic glass volume shows the most secondary mineral precipitation. At the same time, this sample exhibits the greatest increase in porosity and permeability, and a decrease in rock rigidity post reaction. For the measured samples, we observe a correlation between volcanic glass volume and rock porosity increase due to rock-fluid reactions. We believe this study can help understand the dynamic rock-fluid interactions when monitoring field scale CO2 sequestration projects in basalts.

  9. Sex differences regarding the amelioration of wrinkles due to skin dryness by the administration of tranexamic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramoto, Keiichi; Sugiyama, Daijiro; Iizuka, Yasutaka; Yamaguchi, Tomohiko

    2016-10-01

    Tranexamic acid (trans-4-aminomethylcyclohexanecarboxylic acid) exerts an amelioration effect on wrinkle formation due to skin dryness. We examined the sex differences in this effect. We administered tranexamic acid (750mg/kg/day) orally for 20 consecutive days to male and female Naruto Research Institute Otsuka Atrichia (NOA) mice, which naturally develop skin dryness. In the treated female mice, the amelioration effect on the wrinkle score, deterioration of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), capacitance, and decrease in the expression of collagen type I was stronger than in the male treated mice. Furthermore, the level of β-endorphin in the plasma and the expression of β-endorphin, μ-opioid receptor, and macrophages in the dorsal skin increased after the administration of tranexamic acid, and this increase was higher in female mice than in males. In addition, the macrophage production was increased by the administration of tranexamic acid in the ovary but did not change after administration in the testes. A histological examination revealed that these macrophages produce the β-endorphin, clarifying the source of the elevated levels. The amelioration effect in the female treated mice was decreased by the administration of clophosome (a macrophage inhibitor) to a degree that did not markedly differ from the effect observed in the male treated mice. These results suggest that the amelioration effect on wrinkles is stronger in female NOA mice than in males and that β-endorphin produced by macrophages plays an important role in this sex difference.

  10. 单羧酸转运体在肿瘤中的功能%Function of the Monocarboxylate Transporter in Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨德志; 张学娇; 阿拉坦高勒

    2013-01-01

    单羧酸转运体(monocarboxylate transporters,MCTs)属于溶质运载蛋白家族(solute carrier family,SLC) SLC 16A亚家族成员.目前已发现该家族有14个成员;研究表明,MCTs具有偶联转运细胞新陈代谢中产生的单羧酸与质子的功能.MCTs在肿瘤组织中表达普遍增高,肿瘤细胞是以糖酵解代谢方式获取能量,该过程中产生的大量乳酸被MCTs运出胞外,以保护细胞因酸中毒诱发细胞凋亡;细胞外乳酸也能被肿瘤细胞摄取和利用.由于肿瘤组织的血管不发达,使肿瘤细胞内外的乳酸堆积,导致肿瘤细胞存活在缺氧和酸性微环境中,MCTs对此种环境中肿瘤细胞的存活与转移发挥重要作用.因此,研究肿瘤细胞和正常组织中MCTs的差异性表达及其机制,以及MCTs活性的调控机制,对于认识肿瘤细胞在缺氧和酸性微环境中存活与转移规律具有重要意义,并为肿瘤的治疗提供新的分子靶标.本文将对肿瘤中MCTs的功能研究的最新进展进行综述.同时,结合本室的研究提出一些见解.%Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs,SLC16A) belong to the subfamily of solute carrier protein family (SLC) consist of 14 members.MCTs are the proton-coupled transporters of monocarboxylates produced in metabolism that widely expressed in tumor tissues.Glycolysis is the most important metabolic pathway for tumor cells to obtain energy,and the produced large amounts of lactate need to be transported out the cells by MCTs,thus to prevent the cells from acidosis-induced apoptosis.The extracellular lactate may also be uptaken and utilized by tumor cells.As tumors are often poorly vascularized,extracellular lactate will lead to hypoxemic and acidic microenvironment,in which MCTs play important roles for tumor cells to survive.To study the different expression and function of MCTs in normal and tumor tissues is important for exploit new targets for the anti-tumor drug development.We reviewed the recent progress

  11. Monocarboxylate transporter 8 modulates the viability and invasive capacity of human placental cells and fetoplacental growth in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisavet Vasilopoulou

    Full Text Available Monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8 is a well-established thyroid hormone (TH transporter. In humans, MCT8 mutations result in changes in circulating TH concentrations and X-linked severe global neurodevelopmental delay. MCT8 is expressed in the human placenta throughout gestation, with increased expression in trophoblast cells from growth-restricted pregnancies. We postulate that MCT8 plays an important role in placental development and transplacental TH transport. We investigated the effect of altering MCT8 expression in human trophoblast in vitro and in a Mct8 knockout mouse model. Silencing of endogenous MCT8 reduced T3 uptake into human extravillous trophoblast-like cells (SGHPL-4; 40%, P<0.05 and primary cytotrophoblast (15%, P<0.05. MCT8 over-expression transiently increased T3 uptake (SGHPL-4∶30%, P<0.05; cytotrophoblast: 15%, P<0.05. Silencing MCT8 did not significantly affect SGHPL-4 invasion, but with MCT8 over-expression T3 treatment promoted invasion compared with no T3 (3.3-fold; P<0.05. Furthermore, MCT8 silencing increased cytotrophoblast viability (∼20%, P<0.05 and MCT8 over-expression reduced cytotrophoblast viability independently of T3 (∼20%, P<0.05. In vivo, Mct8 knockout reduced fetal:placental weight ratios compared with wild-type controls at gestational day 18 (25%, P<0.05 but absolute fetal and placental weights were not significantly different. The volume fraction of the labyrinthine zone of the placenta, which facilitates maternal-fetal exchange, was reduced in Mct8 knockout placentae (10%, P<0.05. However, there was no effect on mouse placental cell proliferation in vivo. We conclude that MCT8 makes a significant contribution to T3 uptake into human trophoblast cells and has a role in modulating human trophoblast cell invasion and viability. In mice, Mct8 knockout has subtle effects upon fetoplacental growth and does not significantly affect placental cell viability probably due to compensatory mechanisms in

  12. Dental erosion due to abuse of illicit drugs and acidic carbonated beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassiouny, Mohamed A

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of illicit drugs and the abusive intake of acidic carbonated beverages (particularly soda) often are associated with similar types of damage to the human dentition, the most common of which is dental erosion. The dentitions of individuals who are addicted to methamphetamines or crack cocaine can be misdiagnosed as dental caries rather than generalized dental erosion, a condition that also is associated with chronic excessive consumption of soda. Failing to identify the causative etiology could lead to a wrongful diagnosis that could in turn adversely affect treatment planning and misdirect a specified prevention protocol. This article seeks to identify the unique clinical features of each one of these conditions, highlight the resemblances between them, and recognize the unambiguous differences in their fundamental characteristics. Three representative cases-involving a methamphetamine user, a crack cocaine addict, and an avid consumer of diet soda-are presented. In each case, the patient has admitted to the cause of their poor oral health. The dental, oral, and paraoral manifestations of each case are documented and differentiated from one another, and the factors that contributed to the associated disease process are discussed.

  13. Kinetics of 3-chlorotyrosine formation and loss due to hypochlorous acid and chloramines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Matthew P; Hicks, Andrew J; Neidigh, Jonathan W

    2011-03-21

    The persistent activation of innate immune cells in chronic inflammation is gaining recognition as a contributing factor in a number of human diseases. A distinguishing feature of activated leukocytes at sites of inflammation is their production of reactive species such as hypochlorous acid (HOCl). Investigating the role of reactive molecules such as HOCl in inflammation and human disease requires appropriate biomarkers. The preferred biomarker for HOCl, and by extension its synthesizing enzyme myeloperoxidase, is 3-chlorotyrosine. 3-Chlorotyrosine is a chemically stable product formed when HOCl, or an HOCl-generated chloramine, reacts with the tyrosine side chain and is readily measured by sensitive mass spectrometry methods. However, Whiteman and Spencer ((2008) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 371, 50 - 53.) noted that 3-chlorotyrosine is degraded by HOCl, calling into question its use as a biomarker. The kinetic rate constants for the reaction of 3-chlorotyrosine with HOCl, histidine chloramine, or lysine chloramine to form 3,5-dichlorotyrosine are reported. The kinetics of tyrosine chlorination in the context of a peptide with a nearby lysine residue was also determined and further supports the role of chloramines in the chlorination of protein-bound tyrosine residues. The likelihood of free and protein-bound 3,5-dichlorotyrosine occurring in vivo, given the reported rate constants, is discussed.

  14. Possible long-term effects of γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) due to neurotoxicity and overdose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Amsterdam, Jan G C; Brunt, Tibor M; McMaster, Minni T B; Niesink, Raymond J M

    2012-04-01

    In several countries, including the Netherlands, the use of GHB seems to be rising. GHB is regarded by recreational users as an innocent drug without any side effects. Recently, the number of patients in treatment due to GHB addiction sharply increased. In addition, various studies report incidents following risky GHB use or GHB overdosing. Other sedative drugs, like ketamine and alcohol have been shown to result in unintended neurotoxic harm at the level of memory and cognitive function. As outlined in the present review, GHB and ketamine have a common mode of action, which suggests that GHB may also lead to similar neurotoxicity as ketamine. GHB overdosing, as well as binge drinking (and high ketamine doses), induce profound coma which is probably neurotoxic for the brain especially in the maturing brain of young adults. It is therefore advocated to investigate possible long-term neurotoxic effects in recreational GHB users e.g. by studying the residual effects on cognition and memory.

  15. Successful treatments of lung injury and skin burn due to hydrofluoric acid exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, K; Watanabe, T; Dote, T; Usuda, K; Nishiura, H; Tagawa, T; Tominaga, M; Higuchi, Y; Onnda, M

    2000-06-01

    Recent growth in the electronics and chemical industries has brought about a progressive increase in the use of hydrofluoric acid (HF), along with the concomitant risk of acute poisoning among HF workers. We report severe cases of inhalation exposure and skin injury which were successfully treated by administering a 5% calcium gluconate solution with a nebulizer and applying 2.5% calcium gluconate jelly, respectively. Case 1: A 52-year old worker used HF for surface treatment after welding stainless steel, and was hospitalized with rapid onset of severe dyspnea. On admission to the critical care medical center he had widespread wheezing and crackles in his lungs. Chest radiograph showed a fine diffuse veiling over both lower pulmonary fields. Severe hypocalcemia with high concentrations of F in serum and urine were disclosed. He was immediately given 5% calcium gluconate solution by intermittent positive-pressure breathing (IPPB), utilizing a nebulizer. On the 21st hospital day, chest film and CT scan did not demonstrate any abnormality. He was discharged very much improved on the 22nd hospital day. Case 2: A 35-year old worker at an electronics factory was admitted to his local hospital with severe skin burn on his face and neck after exposure to 100% HF. Treatment began with immediate copious washing with water for 20 min. Calcium gluconate 2.5% gel (HF burn jelly) was applied to the area as a first-aid measure. Persistent high concentrations of serum and urinary F were disclosed for 2 weeks. After treatment with applications of HF burn jelly, he was confirmed as being completely recovered. The present cases and a review of published data suggest that an adequate method of emergency treatment for accidental HF poisoning is necessary.

  16. Acidic pH retards the fibrillization of human islet amyloid polypeptide due to electrostatic repulsion of histidines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Xu, Weixin; Mu, Yuguang; Zhang, John Z. H.

    2013-08-01

    The human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide (hIAPP) is the major constituent of amyloid deposits in pancreatic islets of type-II diabetes. IAPP is secreted together with insulin from the acidic secretory granules at a low pH of approximately 5.5 to the extracellular environment at a neutral pH. The increased accumulation of extracellular hIAPP in diabetes indicates that changes in pH may promote amyloid formation. To gain insights and underlying mechanisms of the pH effect on hIAPP fibrillogenesis, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations in explicit solvent model were performed to study the structural properties of five hIAPP protofibrillar oligomers, under acidic and neutral pH, respectively. In consistent with experimental findings, simulation results show that acidic pH is not conducive to the structural stability of these oligomers. This provides a direct evidence for a recent experiment [L. Khemtemourian, E. Domenech, J. P. F. Doux, M. C. Koorengevel, and J. A. Killian, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133, 15598 (2011)], 10.1021/ja205007j, which suggests that acidic pH inhibits the fibril formation of hIAPP. In addition, a complementary coarse-grained simulation shows the repulsive electrostatic interactions among charged His18 residues slow down the dimerization process of hIAPP by twofold. Besides, our all-atom simulations reveal acidic pH mainly affects the local structure around residue His18 by destroying the surrounding hydrogen-bonding network, due to the repulsive interactions between protonated interchain His18 residues at acidic pH. It is also disclosed that the local interactions nearby His18 operating between adjacent β-strands trigger the structural transition, which gives hints to the experimental findings that the rate of hIAPP fibril formation and the morphologies of the fibrillar structures are strongly pH-dependent.

  17. Characterization of humic acid reactivity modifications due to adsorption onto α-Al2O3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janot, Noémie; Reiller, Pascal E; Zheng, Xing; Croué, Jean-Philippe; Benedetti, Marc F

    2012-03-01

    Adsorption of purified Aldrich humic acid (PAHA) onto α-Al(2)O(3) is studied by batch experiments at different pH, ionic strength and coverage ratios R (mg of PAHA by m(2) of mineral surface). After equilibration, samples are centrifuged and the concentration of PAHA in the supernatants is measured. The amount of adsorbed PAHA per m(2) of mineral surface is decreasing with increasing pH. At constant pH value, the amount of adsorbed PAHA increases with initial PAHA concentration until a pH-dependent constant value is reached. UV/Visible specific parameters such as specific absorbance SUVA(254), ratio of absorbance values E(2)/E(3) and width of the electron-transfer absorbance band Δ(ET) are calculated for supernatant PAHA fractions of adsorption experiments at pH 6.8, to have an insight on the evolution of PAHA characteristics with varying coverage ratio. No modification is observed compared to original compound for R ≥ 20 mg(PAHA)/g(α)(-)(A)1₂(O)₃. Below this ratio, aromaticity decreases with initial PAHA concentration. Size-exclusion chromatography - organic carbon detection measurements on these supernatants also show a preferential adsorption of more aromatic and higher-sized fractions. Spectrophotometric titrations were done to estimate changes of reactivity of supernatants from adsorption experiments made at pH ≈6.8 and different PAHA concentrations. Evolutions of UV/Visible spectra with varying pH were treated to obtain titration curves that are interpreted within the NICA-Donnan framework. Protonation parameters of non-sorbed PAHA fractions are compared to those obtained for the PAHA before contact with the oxide. The amount of low proton-affinity type of sites and the value of their median affinity constant decrease after adsorption. From PAHA concentration in the supernatant and mass balance calculations, "titration curves" are experimentally proposed for the adsorbed fractions for the first time. These changes in reactivity to our opinion could

  18. Characterization of humic acid reactivity modifications due to adsorption onto α-Al 2O 3

    KAUST Repository

    Janot, Noémie

    2012-03-01

    Adsorption of purified Aldrich humic acid (PAHA) onto α-Al 2O 3 is studied by batch experiments at different pH, ionic strength and coverage ratios R (mg of PAHA by m 2 of mineral surface). After equilibration, samples are centrifuged and the concentration of PAHA in the supernatants is measured. The amount of adsorbed PAHA per m 2 of mineral surface is decreasing with increasing pH. At constant pH value, the amount of adsorbed PAHA increases with initial PAHA concentration until a pH-dependent constant value is reached. UV/Visible specific parameters such as specific absorbance SUVA 254, ratio of absorbance values E 2/E 3 and width of the electron-transfer absorbance band Δ ET are calculated for supernatant PAHA fractions of adsorption experiments at pH 6.8, to have an insight on the evolution of PAHA characteristics with varying coverage ratio. No modification is observed compared to original compound for R≥20mgPAHA/gα-Al2O3. Below this ratio, aromaticity decreases with initial PAHA concentration. Size-exclusion chromatography - organic carbon detection measurements on these supernatants also show a preferential adsorption of more aromatic and higher-sized fractions. Spectrophotometric titrations were done to estimate changes of reactivity of supernatants from adsorption experiments made at pH ≈6.8 and different PAHA concentrations. Evolutions of UV/Visible spectra with varying pH were treated to obtain titration curves that are interpreted within the NICA-Donnan framework. Protonation parameters of non-sorbed PAHA fractions are compared to those obtained for the PAHA before contact with the oxide. The amount of low proton-affinity type of sites and the value of their median affinity constant decrease after adsorption. From PAHA concentration in the supernatant and mass balance calculations, "titration curves" are experimentally proposed for the adsorbed fractions for the first time. These changes in reactivity to our opinion could explain the difficulty

  19. Semivolatile behaviour of dicarboxylic acids and other polar organic species at a rural background site (Nylsvley, RSA)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Limbeck, A

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available esters and monocarboxylic acids is available (Cautreels and Van Cauwenberghe, 1978). Here we report about the observa- tion of a semivolatile behavior of oxalic acid and related polar organic compounds. Sample collection was per- formed at a biogenically...}propanol complex to obtain the propyl-esters. After the addition of a saturated aqueous NaCl solution the dicarboxylic acid esters were extracted with cyclohexane and analyzed by GC/MS. The adsor- bed compounds like monocarboxylic acids, aromatic compounds...

  20. In Vitro and In Vivo Evidence for Active Brain Uptake of the GHB Analog HOCPCA by the Monocarboxylate Transporter Subtype 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiesen, Louise; Kehler, Jan; Clausen, Rasmus P; Frølund, Bente; Bundgaard, Christoffer; Wellendorph, Petrine

    2015-08-01

    γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a recreational drug, a clinically prescribed drug in narcolepsy and alcohol dependence, and an endogenous substance that binds to both high- and low-affinity sites in the brain. For studying the molecular mechanisms and the biologic role of the GHB high-affinity binding sites, ligands with high and specific affinity are essential. The conformationally restricted GHB analog HOCPCA (3-hydroxycyclopent-1-enecarboxylic acid) is one such compound. The objective of this study was to investigate the transport of HOCPCA across the blood-brain barrier in vitro and in vivo and to investigate the hypothesis that HOCPCA, like GHB, is a substrate for the monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). For in vitro uptake studies, MCT1, -2, and -4 were recombinantly expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, and the previously reported radioligand [(3)H]HOCPCA was used as substrate. HOCPCA inhibited the uptake of the endogenous MCT substrate l-[(14)C]lactate, and [(3)H]HOCPCA was shown to act as substrate for MCT1 and 2 (Km values in the low- to mid-millimolar range). Introducing single-point amino acid mutations into positions essential for MCT function supported that HOCPCA binds to the endogenous substrate pocket of MCTs. MCT1-mediated brain entry of HOCPCA (10 mg/kg s.c.) was further confirmed in vivo in mice by coadministration of increasing doses of the MCT inhibitor AR-C141990 [(R)-5-(3-hydroxypyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)-1-isobutyl-3-methyl-6-(quinolin-4-ylmethyl)thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione], which inhibited brain penetration of HOCPCA in a dose-dependent manner (ID50 = 4.6 mg/kg). Overall, our study provides evidence that MCT1 is an important brain entry site for HOCPCA and qualifies for future in vivo studies with HOCPCA.

  1. Inward flux of lactate⁻ through monocarboxylate transporters contributes to regulatory volume increase in mouse muscle fibres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael I Lindinger

    Full Text Available Mouse and rat skeletal muscles are capable of a regulatory volume increase (RVI after they shrink (volume loss resultant from exposure to solutions of increased osmolarity and that this RVI occurs mainly by a Na-K-Cl-Cotransporter (NKCC-dependent mechanism. With high-intensity exercise, increased extracellular osmolarity is accompanied by large increases in extracellular [lactate⁻]. We hypothesized that large increases in [lactate⁻] and osmolarity augment the NKCC-dependent RVI response observed with a NaCl (or sucrose-induced increase in osmolarity alone; a response that is dependent on lactate⁻ influx through monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs. Single mouse muscle fibres were isolated and visualized under light microscopy under varying osmolar conditions. When solution osmolarity was increased by adding NaLac by 30 or 60 mM, fibres lost significantly less volume and regained volume sooner compared to when NaCl was used. Phloretin (MCT1 inhibitor accentuated the volume loss compared to both NaLac controls, supporting a role for MCT1 in the RVI response in the presence of elevated [lactate⁻]. Inhibition of MCT4 (with pCMBS resulted in a volume loss, intermediate to that seen with phloretin and NaLac controls. Bumetanide (NKCC inhibitor, in combination with pCMBS, reduced the magnitude of volume loss, but volume recovery was complete. While combined phloretin-bumetanide also reduced the magnitude of the volume loss, it also largely abolished the cell volume recovery. In conclusion, RVI in skeletal muscle exposed to raised tonicity and [lactate⁻] is facilitated by inward flux of solute by NKCC- and MCT1-dependent mechanisms. This work demonstrates evidence of a RVI response in skeletal muscle that is facilitated by inward flux of solute by MCT-dependent mechanisms. These findings further expand our understanding of the capacities for skeletal muscle to volume regulate, particularly in instances of raised tonicity and lactate

  2. Monocarboxylate transporter 8 deficiency: altered thyroid morphology and persistent high triiodothyronine/thyroxine ratio after thyroidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Eva K; Sheu, Sien-Yi; Chiu-Ugalde, Jazmin; Sapin, Remy; Klein, Marc O; Mossbrugger, Ilona; Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia; de Angelis, Martin Hrabĕ; Krude, Heiko; Riebel, Thomas; Rothe, Karin; Köhrle, Josef; Schmid, Kurt W; Schweizer, Ulrich; Grüters, Annette

    2011-10-01

    Thyroid hormone transport across the plasma membrane depends on transmembrane transport proteins, including monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8). Mutations in MCT8 (or SLC16A2) lead to a severe form of X-linked psychomotor retardation, which is characterised by elevated plasma triiodothyronine (T(3)) and low/normal thyroxine (T(4)). MCT8 contributes to hormone release from the thyroid gland. To characterise the potential impact of MCT8-deficiency on thyroid morphology in a patient and in Mct8-deficient mice. Thyroid morphology in a patient carrying the A224V mutation was followed by ultrasound imaging for over 10 years. After thyroidectomy, a histopathological analysis was carried out. The findings were compared with histological analyses of mouse thyroids from the Mct8(-/y) model. We show that an inactivating mutation in MCT8 leads to a unique, progressive thyroid follicular pathology in a patient. After thyroidectomy, histological analysis revealed gross morphological changes, including several hyperplastic nodules, microfollicular areas with stromal fibrosis and a small focus of microfollicular structures with nuclear features reminiscent of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). These findings are supported by an Mct8-null mouse model in which we found massive papillary hyperplasia in 6- to 12-month-old mice and nuclear features consistent with PTC in almost 2-year-old animals. After complete thyroidectomy and substitution with levothyroxine (l-T(4)), the preoperative, inadequately low T(4) and free T(4) remained, while increasing the l-T(4) dosage led to T(3) serum concentrations above the normal range. Our results implicate peripheral deiodination in the peculiar hormonal constellation of MCT8-deficient patients. Other MCT8-deficient patients should be closely monitored for potential thyroid abnormalities.

  3. Monocarboxylate transporter 8 expression in the human placenta: the effects of severe intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, S-Y; Franklyn, J A; Pemberton, H N; Bulmer, J N; Visser, T J; McCabe, C J; Kilby, M D

    2006-06-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are essential for normal fetal development, with even mild perturbation in maternal thyroid status in early pregnancy being associated with neurodevelopmental delay in children. Transplacental transfer of maternal THs is critical, with increasing evidence suggesting a role for 3,3',5-tri-iodothyronine (T3) in development and function of the placenta itself, as well as in development of the central nervous and other organ systems. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with fetal hypothyroxinaemia, a factor that may contribute to neurodevelopmental delay. The recent description of monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) as a powerful and specific TH membrane transporter, and the association of MCT8 mutations with profound neurodevelopmental delay, led us to explore MCT8 expression in placenta. We describe the expression of MCT8 in normal human placenta throughout gestation, and in normal third-trimester placenta compared with that associated with IUGR using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. MCT8 mRNA was detected in placenta from early first trimester, with a significant increase with advancing gestation (P=0.007). In the early third trimester, MCT8 mRNA was increased in IUGR placenta compared with normal samples matched for gestational age (PMCT8 immunostaining was demonstrated in villous cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast as well as extravillous trophoblast cells from the first trimester onwards with increasingly widespread immunoreactivity seen with advancing gestation. In conclusion, expression of MCT8 in placenta from early gestation is compatible with an important role in TH transport during fetal development and a specific role in placental development. Altered expression in placenta associated with IUGR may reflect a compensatory mechanism attempting to increase T3 uptake by trophoblast cells.

  4. Monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4 and CD147 overexpression is associated with poor prognosis in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Helena

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs are transmembrane proteins involved in the transport of monocarboxylates across the plasma membrane, which appear to play an important role in solid tumours, however the role of MCTs in prostate cancer is largely unknown. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the clinico-pathological value of monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs expression, namely MCT1, MCT2 and MCT4, together with CD147 and gp70 as MCT1/4 and MCT2 chaperones, respectively, in prostate carcinoma. Methods Prostate tissues were obtained from 171 patients, who performed radical prostatectomy and 14 patients who performed cystoprostatectomy. Samples and clinico-pathological data were retrieved and organized into tissue microarray (TMAs blocks. Protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in neoplastic (n = 171, adjacent non-neoplastic tissues (n = 135, PIN lesions (n = 40 and normal prostatic tissue (n = 14. Protein expression was correlated with patients' clinicopathologic characteristics. Results In the present study, a significant increase of MCT2 and MCT4 expression in the cytoplasm of tumour cells and a significant decrease in both MCT1 and CD147 expression in prostate tumour cells was observed when compared to normal tissue. All MCT isoforms and CD147 were expressed in PIN lesions. Importantly, for MCT2 and MCT4 the expression levels in PIN lesions were between normal and tumour tissue, which might indicate a role for these MCTs in the malignant transformation. Associations were found between MCT1, MCT4 and CD147 expressions and poor prognosis markers; importantly MCT4 and CD147 overexpression correlated with higher PSA levels, Gleason score and pT stage, as well as with perineural invasion and biochemical recurrence. Conclusions Our data provides novel evidence for the involvement of MCTs in prostate cancer. According to our results, we consider that MCT2 should be further explored as tumour marker and

  5. Lack of action of exogenously administered T3 on the fetal rat brain despite expression of the monocarboxylate transporter 8

    OpenAIRE

    Grijota Martínez, María del Carmen; Díez, Diego; Morreale de Escobar, Gabriella; Bernal, Juan; Morte, Beatriz

    2011-01-01

    Mutations of the monocarboxylate transporter 8 gene (MCT8, SLC16A2) cause the Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome, an X-linked syndrome of severe intellectual deficit and neurological impairment. Mct8 transports thyroid hormones (T4 and T3), and the Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome is likely caused by lack of T3 transport to neurons during critical periods of fetal brain development. To evaluate the role of Mct8 in thyroid hormone action in the fetal brain we administered T4 or T3 to thyroidectomized ...

  6. Intoxications due to ingestion of gamma-butyrolactone: organ distribution of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid and gamma-butyrolactone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Daniel; Rothschild, Markus A; Kröner, Lars

    2008-12-01

    In Europe, the misuse of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and its analogues has increased within the recent years. Here, 2 fatalities and 1 nonfatal intoxication resulting from ingestion of gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), a precursor of GHB, are presented. GHB was quantified involving the conversion to GBL by application of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method. Besides quantitation of GHB equivalents ("total GBL"), all specimens of case 1 were analyzed for the metabolic precursor GBL itself (absolute GBL). The cause of death in each case was attributed to GHB intoxication; the manner of death was suicide in the first case and accidental in the second one. Another yet nonfatal GHB intoxication was reported by an emergency department concerning a 36-year-old woman who was hospitalized due to her comatose state and loss of adverse effects reflexes. Here nail polish remover pads were used as source for GBL.

  7. Age-dependent changes of monocarboxylate transporter 8 availability in the postnatal murine retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Henning

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The thyroid hormones (TH triiodothyronine (T3 and its prohormone thyroxine (T4 are crucial for retinal development and function, and increasing evidence points at TH dysregulation as a cause for retinal degenerative diseases. Thus, precise regulation of retinal TH supply is required for proper retinal function, but knowledge on these mechanisms is still fragmentary. Several transmembrane transporters have been described as key regulators of TH availability in target tissues of which the monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8, a high affinity transporter for T4 and T3, plays an essential role in the central nervous system. Moreover, in the embryonic chicken retina, MCT8 is highly expressed, but the postnatal availability of MCT8 in the mammalian retina was not reported to date. In the present study, spatiotemporal retinal MCT8 availability was examined in mice of different age. For this purpose, we quantified expression levels of Mct8 via Real-Time Reverse-Transcriptase PCR in mouse eyecups (C57BL/6 of juvenile and adult age groups. Additionally, age-dependent MCT8 protein levels were quantified via Western blotting and localized via immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. While no difference in Mct8 expression levels could be detected between age groups, MCT8 protein levels in juvenile animals were about two times higher than in adult animals based on Western blot analyses. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that MCT8 immunoreactivity in the eyecup was restricted to the retina and the retinal pigment epithelium. In juvenile mice, MCT8 was broadly observed along the apical membrane of the retinal pigment epithelium, tightly surrounding photoreceptor outer segments. Distinct immunopositive staining was also detected in the inner nuclear layer and the ganglion cell layer. However, in adult specimens, immunoreactivity visibly declined in all layers, which was in line with Western blot analyses. Since MCT8 was abundantly present in juvenile and about

  8. 3-bromopyruvate enhanced daunorubicin-induced cytotoxicity involved in monocarboxylate transporter 1 in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhe; Sun, Yiming; Hong, Haiyu; Zhao, Surong; Zou, Xue; Ma, Renqiang; Jiang, Chenchen; Wang, Zhiwei; Li, Huabin; Liu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence demonstrates that the hexokinase inhibitor 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) induces the cell apoptotic death by inhibiting ATP generation in human cancer cells. Interestingly, some tumor cell lines are less sensitive to 3-BrPA-induced apoptosis than others. Moreover, the molecular mechanism of 3-BrPA-trigged apoptosis is unclear. In the present study, we examined the effects of 3-BrPA on the viability of the breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7. We further investigated the potential roles of monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) in drug accumulation and efflux of breast cancer cells. Finally, we explored whether 3-BrPA enhanced daunorubicin (DNR)-induced cytotoxicity through regulation of MCT1 in breast cancer cells. MTT and colony formation assays were used to measure cell viability. Western blot analysis, flow cytometric analysis and fluorescent microscopy were used to determine the molecular mechanism of actions of MCT1 in different breast cancer cell lines. Whole-body bioluminescence imaging was used to investigate the effect of 3-BrPA in vivo. We found that 3-BrPA significantly inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cell line, but not in MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, we observed that 3-BrPA efficiently enhanced DNR-induced cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cells by inhibiting the activity of ATP-dependent efflux pumps. We also found that MCT1 overexpression increased the efficacy of 3-BrPA in MDA-MB-231 cells. 3-BrPA markedly suppressed subcutaneous tumor growth in combination with DNR in nude mice implanted with MCF-7 cells. Lastly, our whole-body bioluminescence imaging data indicated that 3-BrPA promoted DNR accumulation in tumors. These findings collectively suggest that 3-BrPA enhanced DNR antitumor activity in breast cancer cells involved MCT-1, suggesting that inhibition of glycolysis could be an effective therapeutic approach for breast cancer treatment.

  9. Iodine deficiency up-regulates monocarboxylate transporter 8 expression of mouse thyroid gland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Zhimei; Zhuo Xiaohua; Shi Yanan; Liu Xin; Yuan Jihong; Li Lanying; Sun Yina

    2014-01-01

    Background Iodine deficiency is a major factor affecting thyroid auto-regulation,the quantity of iodine may greatly influence the synthesis of thyroid hormones (THs).It has long been believed that TH enters the cell through passive diffusion.Recent studies have suggested that several transporters could facilitate transportation of TH.The monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) was identified as a very active and specific TH transporter.The purpose of this study was to investigate whether iodine insufficient affected the expression of MCT8 in the thyroid gland.Methods Sixty BALB/c mice were randomly divided into two groups:control group was fed with standard feed (iodine concentration of 300 μg/kg); while low-iodine (LI) group received iodine-insufficient feed (iodine concentration of 20-40 μg/kg).After 3 months,10 mice of each group were sacrificed.The remaining 20 mice of each group were kept till 6 months.From the LI group,we randomly selected 15 mice and injected triiodothyronine (T3,100 μg/kg body weight per day) intraperitoneally for 24,48 or 72 hours (5 mice for each time-point).Then,all the mice were sacrificed.Mouse serum thyroxine (T4),T3,and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were determined by chemiluminescence immunoassay (CIA).The protein content or messenger RNA (mRNA) level of thyroid MCT8 was measured by Western blotting analysis or real time RT-PCR respectively.MCT8 subcellular location in thyroid tissues was probed with immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay.Results We found that mouse serum T3 and T4 levels decreased and TSH level increased by the end of the third month.Consistent with these findings,there was significant goiter and hypothyroidism in the LI group.Meanwhile,the MCT8 mRNA increased to 1.36-fold of the level in the control group at the 3rd month.At 6th month,the serum T4 level in LI mice remained at a lower level,and MCT8 mRNA expression continued rising to nearly 1.60-fold compared with the control group.The protein content was

  10. Salmonellosis outbreak due to Salmonella enteritidis phage type 14b resistant to nalidixic acid, Austria, September 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrivniaková, L; Schmid, D; Luckner-Hornischer, A; Lassnig, H; Kornschober, C; Angermayer, J; Allerberger, F

    2011-08-25

    We report on a salmonellosis-outbreak due to Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 14b resistant to nalidixic acid (S. Enteritidis PT14b Nx) among residents and employees of a student residence in Austria, September 2010. The outbreak was described and analysed by a retrospective cohort study, and microbiological environmental investigations were conducted to identify the outbreak source(s) and the reservoir of the outbreak strain. A total of 66 persons fulfilled the outbreak case definition including 14 laboratory-confirmed cases. Food specific cohort-analyses by day revealed that consumption of potato salad (RR: 1.65, 95%CI: 1.35–2.01, p=0.001) and a cheese-sausage cold plate (RR: 2.24, 95%CI: 1.29–3.88, p=0.002) on 14 September was associated with being an outbreak case. We hypothesised that cross-contamination with S. Enteritidis PT14b Nx positive eggs had occurred during preparation of the potato salad and cold plate as a result of preparing in parallel egg-containing breaded cutlets on 14 September. A traced laying hen holding in eastern Austria was identified as the sole source of the consumable eggs in the student residence. By applying the legally mandated sampling method for epidemiological-related laying hen farms (one pooled dust sample à 150g, two paired boot swabs cultured separately), the outbreak strain could not be detected. Our findings, that legally required sampling methods for laying hen farms failed to detect the causative pathogen in a laying hen holding, despite an epidemiological link, underline the request stated by the European Food Safety Authority Panel on Biological Hazards for a more sensitive sampling plan in epidemiologically-associated laying hen flocks.

  11. Role of carglumic acid in the treatment of acute hyperammonemia due to N-acetylglutamate synthase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Häberle J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Johannes HäberleKinderspital Zürich, Abteilung Stoffwechsel, Zürich, SwitzerlandAbstract: N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS deficiency is a rare inborn error of metabolism affecting ammonia detoxification in the urea cycle. The product of NAGS is N-acetylglutamate which is the absolutely required allosteric activator of the first urea cycle enzyme carbamoylphosphate synthetase 1. In defects of NAGS, the urea cycle function can be severely affected resulting in fatal hyperammonemia in neonatal patients or at any later stage in life. NAGS deficiency can be treated with a structural analog of N-acetylglutamate, N-carbamyl-L-glutamate, which is available for enteral use as a licensed drug. Since NAGS deficiency is an extremely rare disorder, reports on the use of N-carbamyl-L-glutamate are mainly based on single patients. According to these, the drug is very effective in treating acute hyperammonemia by avoiding the need for detoxification during the acute metabolic decompensation. Also during long-term treatment, N-carbamyl-L-glutamate is effective in maintaining normal plasma ammonia levels and avoiding the need for additional drug therapy or protein-restricted diet. Open questions remain which concern the optimal dosage in acute and long-term use of N-carbamyl-L-glutamate and potential additional disorders in which the drug might also be effective in treating acute hyperammonemia. This review focuses on the role of N-carbamyl-L-glutamate for the treatment of acute hyperammonemia due to primary NAGS deficiency but will briefly discuss the current knowledge on the role of N-carbamyl-L-glutamate for treatment of secondary NAGS deficiencies.Keywords: carglumic acid, carbamylglutamate, N-carbamyl-L-glutamate, N-acetylglutamate synthase deficiency, NAGS deficiency, hyperammonemia

  12. Continuous taurocholic acid exposure promotes esophageal squamous cell carcinoma progression due to reduced cell loss resulting from enhanced vascular development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sho Sato

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Refluxogenic effects of smoking and alcohol abuse may be related to the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC. The present study attempts to clarify the effects of continuous taurocholic acid (TCA exposure, which is neither mutagenic nor genotoxic, on ESCC progression. METHODS: A squamous carcinoma cell line (ESCC-DR was established from a tumor induced in a rat model of gastroduodenal reflux. ESCC-DR cells were incubated with 2 mM TCA for ≥2 months. The effects of continuous TCA exposure were evaluated in vitro on cell morphology, growth, and invasion and in vivo on xenograft tumor growth in nude mice. Moreover, the mean level of secreted transforming growth factor (TGF-β1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF proteins in cell culture supernatants and mRNA synthesis of TGF-β1 and VEGF-A of ESCC cells were measured. The angiogenic potential was further examined by a migration assay using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. RESULTS: Continuous TCA exposure induced marked formation of filopodia in vitro. Expression levels of angiogenic factors were significantly higher in the cells treated with TCA than in control cells. Tumor xenografts derived from cells pre-exposed to TCA were larger and more vascularized than those derived from control cells. In addition, TCA exposure increased HUVEC migration. CONCLUSION: Continuous TCA exposure enhanced ESCC progression due to reduced cell loss in vivo. Cell loss was inhibited by TCA-induced vascular endothelial cell migration, which was mediated by TGF-β1 and VEGF-A released from ESCC cells.

  13. Effect of antisense transfecting of monocarboxylate transporter gene on biological characteristics of lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Gui-zhi; HUANG Gui-jun; GUO Xian-jian; QIAN Gui-sheng

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the influence of transfecting antisense expression vector of the first subtype of the monocarboxylate transporter (MCT1) gene into lung cancer cells on pHi regulation, lactate transportation and cell growth, Methods: MCT1 antisense gene recombinant vector was introduced into human lung cancer cell line A549 by electroporation. The transfected A549 cells resistant to G418 were selected. Positive clones were examined by using PCR. The changes of intracellular pH and lactate were examined with spectrophotometric method. Cell growth was studied with cell growth curve. Results: Intracellular pH and lactate were remarkably decreased in the cells transfected pLXSN-MCT1 in comparison with A549 cells without transfection (P<0. 001). The growth of A549 cells transfected pLXSN-MCT1 was also inhibited remarkably. Conclusion: MCT1 gene may play an important role in pHi regulation, lactate transportation and cell growth in tumor cells.

  14. Alpha linolenic acid in maternal diet halts the lipid disarray due to saturated fatty acids in the liver of mice offspring at weaning

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background Alpha linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3) in maternal diets has been shown to attenuate obesity associated insulin resistance (IR) in adult offspring in mice. The objective in the present study was to detect the early effects of maternal dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA) and their partial substitution with ω-3 ALA, docosa hexenoic acid (DHA,22:6) and eicosapentenoic acid 20:5 (EPA,20:5) on the HOMA index, liver lipids and fatty acid desaturases in the offspring at weaning. Methods 3 month...

  15. Monocarboxylate transporter 4 plays a significant role in the neuroprotective mechanism of ischemic preconditioning in transient cerebral ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongkweon Hong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs, which carry monocarboxylates such as lactate across biological membranes, have been associated with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion process. In this study, we studied the effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC on MCT4 immunoreactivity after 5 minutes of transient cerebral ischemia in the gerbil. Animals were randomly designated to four groups (sham-operated group, ischemia only group, IPC + sham-operated group and IPC + ischemia group. A serious loss of neuron was found in the stratum pyramidale of the hippocampal CA1 region (CA1, not CA2/3, of the ischemia-only group at 5 days post-ischemia; however, in the IPC + ischemia groups, neurons in the stratum pyramidale of the CA1 were well protected. Weak MCT4 immunoreactivity was found in the stratum pyramidale of the CA1 in the sham-operated group. MCT4 immunoreactivity in the stratum pyramidale began to decrease at 2 days post-ischemia and was hardly detected at 5 days post-ischemia; at this time point, MCT4 immunoreactivity was newly expressed in astrocytes. In the IPC + sham-operated group, MCT4 immunoreactivity in the stratum pyramidale of the CA1 was increased compared with the sham-operated group, and, in the IPC + ischemia group, MCT4 immunoreactivity was also increased in the stratum pyramidale compared with the ischemia only group. Briefly, present findings show that IPC apparently protected CA1 pyramidal neurons and increased or maintained MCT4 expression in the stratum pyramidale of the CA1 after transient cerebral ischemia. Our findings suggest that MCT4 appears to play a significant role in the neuroprotective mechanism of IPC in the gerbil with transient cerebral ischemia.

  16. Fatty Acid Incubation of Myotubues from Humans with Type 2 Diabetes Leads to Enhanced Release of Beta Oxidation Products Due to Impaired Fatty Acid Oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wensaas, Andreas J; Rustan, Arild C; Just, Marlene

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Increased availability of fatty acids is important for accumulation of intracellular lipids and development of insulin resistance in human myotubes. It is unknown whether different types of fatty acids like eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) influence...... these processes. Research Design and Methods: We examined fatty acid and glucose metabolism, and gene expression in cultured human skeletal muscle cells from control and T2D individuals after four days preincubation with EPA or TTA. Results: T2D myotubes exhibited reduced formation of CO(2) from palmitic acid (PA....... EPA markedly enhanced TAG accumulation in myotubes, more pronounced in T2D cells. TAG accumulation and fatty acid oxidation were inversely correlated only after EPA preincubation, and total level of acyl-CoA was reduced. Glucose oxidation (CO(2) formation) was enhanced and lactate production decreased...

  17. Phenols and ascorbic acid in black currants (Ribes nigrum L.): variation due to genotype, location, and year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagiri, Michael; Ekholm, Anders; Öberg, Elisabeth; Johansson, Eva; Andersson, Staffan C; Rumpunen, Kimmo

    2013-10-02

    Black currant berries contain many biochemical compounds with proven or potential human health benefits. We studied the content of total and single polyphenols, ascorbic acid, soluble sugars, and titratable acidity for two advanced selections and three cultivars of black currant at two distant locations in Sweden (south: 56°06'N; north: 65°21'N) over a 3 year period. Regression analyses revealed the effect of genotype to be considerably larger than that of location and year. However, significant effects of location, year, and interactions were also revealed. A principal component analysis nevertheless separated the genotypes. The content of ascorbic acid, total phenols, total anthocyanins, and soluble sugars was highest in berries from the south, whereas the content of phenolic acids and titratable acidity was highest in berries from the north. The results show that selection of cultivars and production sites are important for cultivation of high-quality black currant raw material for health-promoting products.

  18. Brain energy metabolism spurns fatty acids as fuel due to their inherent mitotoxicity and potential capacity to unleash neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönfeld, Peter; Reiser, Georg

    2017-03-30

    The brain uses long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) to a negligible extent as fuel for the mitochondrial energy generation, in contrast to other tissues that also demand high energy. Besides this generally accepted view, some studies using cultured neural cells or whole brain indicate a moderately active mitochondrial β-oxidation. Here, we corroborate the conclusion that brain mitochondria are unable to oxidize fatty acids. In contrast, the combustion of liver-derived ketone bodies by neural cells is long-known. Furthermore, new insights indicate the use of odd-numbered medium-chain fatty acids as valuable source for maintaining the level of intermediates of the citric acid cycle in brain mitochondria. Non-esterified LCFAs or their activated forms exert a large variety of harmful side-effects on mitochondria, such as enhancing the mitochondrial ROS generation in distinct steps of the β-oxidation and therefore potentially increasing oxidative stress. Hence, the question arises: Why do in brain energy metabolism mitochondria selectively spurn LCFAs as energy source? The most likely answer are the relatively higher content of peroxidation-sensitive polyunsaturated fatty acids and the low antioxidative defense in brain tissue. There are two remarkable peroxisomal defects, one relating to α-oxidation of phytanic acid and the other to uptake of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) which lead to pathologically high tissue levels of such fatty acids. Both, the accumulation of phytanic acid and that of VLCFAs give an enlightening insight into harmful activities of fatty acids on neural cells, which possibly explain why evolution has prevented brain mitochondria from the equipment with significant β-oxidation enzymatic capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Molecular orientation of carboxylic acids adsorbed on graphite from the liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, Stuart M. [Department of Chemistry and BP Institute, Madingley Rise, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Inabe, Akira [Department of Chemistry and Research Center for Molecular Thermodynamics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan); Thomas, Robert K.; Fish, Joe [Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2001-03-01

    We present incoherent elastic neutron scattering and calorimetry data from simple monocarboxylic acids, C9, C14 and C16, adsorbed from their liquids to the graphite surface which indicate the formation of solid monolayers with molecules which are predominantly upright. (author)

  20. Chemical and physical transformations of aluminosilicate clay minerals due to acid treatment and consequences for heterogeneous ice nucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihvonen, Sarah K; Schill, Gregory P; Lyktey, Nicholas A; Veghte, Daniel P; Tolbert, Margaret A; Freedman, Miriam Arak

    2014-09-25

    Mineral dust aerosol is one of the largest contributors to global ice nuclei, but physical and chemical processing of dust during atmospheric transport can alter its ice nucleation activity. In particular, several recent studies have noted that sulfuric and nitric acids inhibit heterogeneous ice nucleation in the regime below liquid water saturation in aluminosilicate clay minerals. We have exposed kaolinite, KGa-1b and KGa-2, and montmorillonite, STx-1b and SWy-2, to aqueous sulfuric and nitric acid to determine the physical and chemical changes that are responsible for the observed deactivation. To characterize the changes to the samples upon acid treatment, we use X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. We find that the reaction of kaolinite and montmorillonite with aqueous sulfuric acid results in the formation of hydrated aluminum sulfate. In addition, sulfuric and nitric acids induce large structural changes in montmorillonite. We additionally report the supersaturation with respect to ice required for the onset of ice nucleation for these acid-treated species. On the basis of lattice spacing arguments, we explain how the chemical and physical changes observed upon acid treatment could lead to the observed reduction in ice nucleation activity.

  1. The Low Phytic Acid Phenotype in Soybean Line CX1834 is Due to Mutations in Two Homologues of the Maize Low Phytic Acid Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant seeds accumulate phosphorus in the form of myo-inositol-1,2,3,4,5,6 hexa-kisphosphate, commonly referred to as phytic acid. Phytic acid is found complexed with cationic mineral species in the form of phytate, which is not well digested or absorbed by monogastric species such as humans, poultry...

  2. Symptomatic hyponatremia due to the use of valproic acid - four cases and support from the WHO database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beers, E.; Van Puijenbroek, E.; Bartelink, I.; Jansen, P; van der Linden, C.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Centre Lareb received four cases of symptomatic hyponatremia during valproic acid (VPA) use. A causal relationship was suspected. This amount of reports doubles the described cases in worldwide literature. Almost 240 reports of hyponatremia and SIADH (

  3. Non-spectral interferences due to the presence of sulfuric acid in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Poyo, M. Carmen; Grindlay, Guillermo; Gras, Luis [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Alicante, P.O. Box 99, 03080 – Alicante (Spain); Loos-Vollebregt, Margaretha T.C. de, E-mail: margaretha.deloos@ugent.be [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Analytical Biotechnology, Julianalaan 67, 2628 BC Delft (Netherlands); Ghent University, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Krijgslaan 281 - S12, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Mora, Juan, E-mail: juan.mora@ua.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Alicante, P.O. Box 99, 03080 – Alicante (Spain)

    2015-03-01

    Results of a systematic study concerning non-spectral interferences from sulfuric acid containing matrices on a large number of elements in inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are presented in this work. The signals obtained with sulfuric acid solutions of different concentrations (up to 5% w w{sup −1}) have been compared with the corresponding signals for a 1% w w{sup −1−} nitric acid solution at different experimental conditions (i.e., sample uptake rates, nebulizer gas flows and r.f. powers). The signals observed for {sup 128}Te{sup +}, {sup 78}Se{sup +} and {sup 75}As{sup +} were significantly higher when using sulfuric acid matrices (up to 2.2-fold for {sup 128}Te{sup +} and {sup 78}Se{sup +} and 1.8-fold for {sup 75}As{sup +} in the presence of 5 w w{sup -1} sulfuric acid) for the whole range of experimental conditions tested. This is in agreement with previously reported observations. The signal for {sup 31}P{sup +} is also higher (1.1-fold) in the presence of sulfuric acid. The signal enhancements for {sup 128}Te{sup +}, {sup 78}Se{sup +}, {sup 75}As{sup +} and {sup 31}P{sup +} are explained in relation to an increase in the analyte ion population as a result of charge transfer reactions involving S{sup +} species in the plasma. Theoretical data suggest that Os, Sb, Pt, Ir, Zn and Hg could also be involved in sulfur-based charge transfer reactions, but no experimental evidence has been found. The presence of sulfuric acid gives rise to lower ion signals (about 10–20% lower) for the other nuclides tested, thus indicating the negative matrix effect caused by changes in the amount of analyte loading of the plasma. The elemental composition of a certified low-density polyethylene sample (ERM-EC681K) was determined by ICP-MS after two different sample digestion procedures, one of them including sulfuric acid. Element concentrations were in agreement with the certified values, irrespective of the acids used for the digestion. These

  4. Delayed recovery due to exaggerated acid, base and electrolyte imbalance in prolonged laparoscopic repair of diaphragmatic hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Garg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The acid, base and electrolyte changes are usually observed in the perioperative settings. We report a case of prolonged laparoscopic repair of left-sided diaphragmatic hernia which involved a lot of tissue handling and fluid replacement leading to acid, base and electrolyte imbalance. A 42-year-old male underwent prolonged laparoscopic repair under general anesthesia. Intraoperatively, surgeon reported that contents of hernia includes bowel along with mesentery, spleen and lot of fatty tissue The blood loss was about 2 L which was replaced with 1 L of colloid and 7.5 L of lactated ringer. Near the end of surgery arterial blood gas analysis revealed metabolic acidosis, hyperkalemia, and hypocalcemia leading to delayed recovery. We conclude prolonged laparoscopic surgery involving lot of tissue handling including gut and fat should be monitored for acid, base, electrolyte imbalance and corrected timely to have uneventful rapid recovery.

  5. Expression of Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide 1c1 and Monocarboxylate Transporter 8 in the Rat Placental Barrier and the Compensatory Response to Thyroid Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-na Sun; Yuan-jun Liu; Lu Zhang; Yan Ye; Lai-xiang Lin; Yong-mei Li; Yu-qin Yan; Zu-pei Chen

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) must pass from mother to fetus for normal fetal development and require the expression of placental TH transporters. We investigate the compensatory effect of placental organic anion transporting polypeptide 1c1 (Oatp1c1) and monocarboxylate transporter 8 (Mct8) on maternal thyroid dysfunction. We describe the expressions of these two transporters in placental barriers and trophoblastic cell populations in euthyroidism and thyroid dysfunction resulting from differential...

  6. Differences in determination of chemical elements in soil and attic dust samples due to various acid treatments, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Šajn

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an assessment of relationship existing between analytical values of samples, which were treated with two different acid procedures: four acid digestion and extraction in aqua regia. The sample population consisted of 256 soil samples and 139 atticdust samples collected within the frame of various geochemical studies in Slovenia. After acid treatments, elementary composition of the samples was determined by means of ICP method. As we were interested in functional relationships between both treatment procedures, we performed bivariate analysis of elementary compositions. A regression line based on the logarithms of data was used as a basic correlation indicator. We correlated the following 31 elements: Al, Ag, As, Au, Ba, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn,Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Sb, Sc, Sr, Th, Ti, U, V, W and Zn.The majority of analytical values for elements in our samples, treated with both procedures,showed a high degree of correlation and a good functional relationship. A weak relationship existed only between those elements that were on detection limits of theanalytical method or had a weak variability (Ag, Ba, Bi, K, Na, Ti, and W. On the basis of the results of double treatment and analysis of samples we calculated the boundary, warning and critical values, which are related to four acid digestion.

  7. Reduced PCR sensitivity due to impaired DNA recovery with the MagNA pure LC total nucleic acid isolation kit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, T; van Breda, A; Kooistra-Smid, Mirjam; Beld, M; Savelkoul, P; Boom, R; de Boer, R.A.

    The increasing demand for molecular diagnostics in clinical microbiology laboratories necessitates automated sample processing. In the present study, we evaluated the performance of the MagNA Pure LC total nucleic acid isolation kit (M extraction) in comparison with the manual method (Si extraction)

  8. Reduced PCR sensitivity due to impaired DNA recovery with the MagNA pure LC total nucleic acid isolation kit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, T; van Breda, A; Kooistra-Smid, Mirjam; Beld, M; Savelkoul, P; Boom, R; de Boer, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    The increasing demand for molecular diagnostics in clinical microbiology laboratories necessitates automated sample processing. In the present study, we evaluated the performance of the MagNA Pure LC total nucleic acid isolation kit (M extraction) in comparison with the manual method (Si extraction)

  9. Chemical changes in groundwater due to flooding of an iron mine in a non-acid producing environment

    OpenAIRE

    Collon, Pauline,; Fabriol, Robert; Bues, Michel

    2002-01-01

    International audience; Mine drainage is one of the mining industry’s undesirable effects on the environment. Mining operations disturb the chemical equilibrium of the surrounding rocks by suddenly exposing them to oxidising conditions. The chemical reactions that take place generate effluents that are usually acidic and contain SO42-, Fe, Mn, etc. After the mines are closed and abandoned, the suspension of dewatering and drainage leads to progressive flooding of the workings. The waters drai...

  10. Role of the double-contrast barium enema in rectal stenosis due to suppositories containing paracetamol and acetylsalicylic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tannouri, F.; Lalmand, B.; Zalcman, M.; Gansbeke, D. van; Gevenois, P.A.; Struyven, J. [Department of Radiology, Hopital Erasme, University of Brussels (Belgium); Peny, M.O. [Department of Pathology, University of Brussels (Belgium); Gossum, A. van [Department of Gastroenterology, University of Brussels (Belgium)

    1998-09-01

    Self-treatment of chronic headache with suppositories containing paracetamol and acetylsalaicylic acid may lead to serious complications. We report the radiological features of five cases of rectal stenosis following the use of such suppositories. The role of the double-contrast barium enema in suggesting the diagnosis of this complication of a chronic and often unrecognized self-treatment is emphasized. (orig.) With 6 figs., 20 refs.

  11. Short- and long-term changes in sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L. gene expression due to postharvest jasmonic acid treatment - Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucilene Silva de Oliveira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Jasmonic acid is a natural plant hormone that induces native defense responses in plants. Sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L. root unigenes that were differentially expressed 2 and 60 days after a postharvest jasmonic acid treatment are presented. Data include changes in unigene expression relative to water-treated controls, unigene annotations against nonredundant (Nr, Swiss-Prot, Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG protein databases, and unigene annotations with Gene Ontology (GO terms. Putative defense unigenes are compiled and annotated against the sugarbeet genome. Differential gene expression data were generated by RNA sequencing. Interpretation of the data is available in the research article, “Jasmonic acid causes short- and long-term alterations to the transcriptome and the expression of defense genes in sugarbeet roots” (K.K. Fugate, L.S. Oliveira, J.P. Ferrareze, M.D. Bolton, E.L. Deckard, F.L. Finger, 2017 [1]. Public dissemination of this dataset will allow further analyses of the data.

  12. Priming by Hexanoic Acid Induce Activation of Mevalonic and Linolenic Pathways and Promotes the Emission of Plant Volatiles

    OpenAIRE

    Eugenio eLlorens; Gemma eCamañes; Leonor eLapeña; Pilar eGarcía-Agustín

    2016-01-01

    Hexanoic acid is a short natural monocarboxylic acid present in some fruits and plants. Previous studies reported that soil drench application of this acid induces effective resistance in tomato plants against Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae and in citrus against Alternaria alternata and Xanthomonas citri. In this work, we performed an in deep study of the metabolic changes produced in citrus by the application of hexanoic acid in response to the challenge pathogen Alternaria altern...

  13. Expression of Monocarboxylate Transporters 1, 2, and 4 in Human Tumours and Their Association with CD147 and CD44

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Pinheiro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs are important cellular pH regulators in cancer cells; however, the value of MCT expression in cancer is still poorly understood. In the present study, we analysed MCT1, MCT2, and MCT4 protein expression in breast, colon, lung, and ovary neoplasms, as well as CD147 and CD44. MCT expression frequency was high and heterogeneous among the different tumours. Comparing with normal tissues, there was an increase in MCT1 and MCT4 expressions in breast carcinoma and a decrease in MCT4 plasma membrane expression in lung cancer. There were associations between CD147 and MCT1 expressions in ovarian cancer as well as between CD147 and MCT4 in both breast and lung cancers. CD44 was only associated with MCT1 plasma membrane expression in lung cancer. An important number of MCT1 positive cases are negative for both chaperones, suggesting that MCT plasma membrane expression in tumours may depend on a yet nonidentified regulatory protein.

  14. Monocarboxylate transporter 4 facilitates cell proliferation and migration and is associated with poor prognosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Zhu

    Full Text Available Monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4 is a cell membrane transporter of lactate. Recent studies have shown that MCT4 is over-expressed in various cancers; however, its role in cancer maintenance and aggressiveness has not been fully demonstrated. This study investigated the role of MCT4 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC, and found that it is highly expressed in OSCC patients by using immunohistochemistry. Moreover, this over-expression of MCT4 was closely associated with tumor size, TNM classification, lymphatic metastasis, distant metastasis and tumor recurrence, and also poor prognosis. To further study mechanisms of MCT4 in vitro, we used small-interfering RNA to silence its expression in OSCC cell lines. The results showed that knock-down of MCT4 decreased cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. The inhibition of proliferation was associated with down-regulation of p-AKT and p-ERK1/2, while decreased cell migration and invasion may be caused by down-regulation of integrin β4-SRC-FAK and MEK-ERK signaling. Together, these findings provide new insight into the critical role of MCT4 in cell proliferation and metastasis in OSCC.

  15. METHYLMALONIC ACID AND HOMOCYSTEIN SERUM IN DIAGNOSING MEGALOBLASTIC ANEMIA DUE TO COBALAMIN AND FOLATE DEFICIENCY IN TRAVEL MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Gian Indra Rahayuda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Anemia is a major global health problem, especially in developing countries. Anemia is a condition where the red blood cell mass and / or hemoglobin mass that circulating in the body was decreased to below normal level so it can not function well in providing oxygen to the body tissues. One of the most common type is megaloblastic anemia. Megaloblastic anemia is mostly caused by vitamin B12 (cobalamin and folate deficiency. One of the causes of cobalamin and folate deficiency anemia is tropical sprue. Cobalamin deficiency anemia and folate deficiency anemia gives a similar symptom, but in cobalamin deficiency there is neuropathy symptoms. Normal serum folate is between 3-15 ng/mL. Normal folate erythrocyte is 150-600 ng/mL. In cobalamin deficiency, serum cobalamin decreased below the cut off point 100pg/mL (normally 100 - 400pg/mL. Other examination such as elevated homocysteine??, methylmalonic acid, or formioglutamic acid (FIGLU in the urine can confirm the diagnosis of cobalamin and folic acid deficiency. There is no consensus on the cut-off point of homocysteine ??and MMA. Homocysteine ??has been considered to increase when the levels are above 12-14 ?mol /L in women and in the 14-15 ?mol/L. According to research by Robert et al in the case of cobalamin deficiency, serum tHcy> 15.0 ?mol/L. Most research considers the increase of MMA in cobalamin deficiency is> 0:28 ?mol / L, but the cut off point in circulation varies between 0:21 to 0:48 ?mol/L. MMA level is increased in serum and urine in cobalamin deficiency, whereas MMA normal in folate deficiency. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font

  16. IMPACT OF ADDITIONALS CONTAMINANTS DUE TO ACID MINE DRAINAGE IN TRIBUTARIES OF THE PILCOMAYO RIVER FROM CERRO RICO, POTOSÍ, BOLIVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William H.J. Strosnider

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Intensive mining and processing of the polymetallic sulfide ore body of Cerro Rico de Potosí (Bolivia has occurred since 1545. To further investigate acid mine drainage (AMD discharges and their link to downstream contamination, data were gathered during two sampling events during the most extreme periods of the dry and wet seasons of one year. Concentrations of Ag, B, Ba, Mo, Sb, Se, Sn and V in AMD and receiving streams were greater than Bolivian discharge limits and receiving water body guidelines as well as international agricultural use standards. High concentrations of rare earth metals have been documented in this area. Results indicate that contamination from mining has a larger scope than previously thought and underscore the importance of remediation.

  17. Extent and bioavailability of trace metal contamination due to acid rock drainage in Pennask Creek, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, L. D.; Li, L. Y.; Hall, K. J.

    2010-05-01

    Pennask Creek is one of the most important rainbow trout producing streams in British Columbia (BC). Much of the Pennask Creek watershed is located within a BC Parks Protected Area, which was set aside to protect the spawning and rearing habitat of this wild rainbow trout population. Construction of Highway 97C, which bisects the Pennask Creek watershed, resulted in the exposure of a highly pyritic rock formation, which began releasing acid rock drainage and causing metals to be leached into Highway Creek, a tributary of Pennask Creek. Previous studies commissioned by the BC Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure indicate that Highway Creek yields fewer invertebrates and elevated levels of some metals in the water when compared with downstream sites in Pennask Creek. This study examines the impacts of this acid rock drainage and metal leaching by determining the extent of trace metal contamination in the water and sediments of the Pennask Creek watershed and determining the bioavailability of these trace metals. Preliminary results indicate concentrations of Al, Cu, and Zn in the water as well as levels of total As, Cu, Fe, Ni, and Zn in the sediments that are above the BC Water and Sediment Quality Guidelines for the Protection of Aquatic Life. The highest level of trace metal contamination is found in Highway Creek, downstream of Highway 97C, with concentrations generally returning to near background levels downstream of the confluence with Pennask Creek. Levels of Cu in the water and Zn in the sediments appear to be of greatest concern in areas furthest from the highway.

  18. Degradation of self-compacting concrete (SCC) due to sulfuric acid attack: Experiment investigation on the effect of high volume fly ash content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiawan, S. A.; Sunarmasto; Tyas, G. P.

    2016-02-01

    Concrete is susceptible to a variety of chemical attacks. In the sulfuric acid environment, concrete is subjected to a combination of sulfuric and acid attack. This research is aimed to investigate the degradation of self-compacting concrete (SCC) due to sulfuric acid attack based on measurement of compressive strength loss and diameter change. Since the proportion of SCC contains higher cement than that of normal concrete, the vulnerability of this concrete to sulfuric acid attack could be reduced by partial replacement of cement with fly ash at high volume level. The effect of high volume fly ash at 50-70% cement replacement levels on the extent of degradation owing to sulfuric acid will be assessed in this study. It can be shown that an increase in the utilization of fly ash to partially replace cement tends to reduce the degradation as confirmed by less compressive strength loss and diameter change. The effect of fly ash to reduce the degradation of SCC is more pronounced at a later age.

  19. Reversible Encephalopathy due to Valproic Acid Induced Hyperammonemia in a Patient with Bipolar I Disorder: A Cautionary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Neel; Landry, Katherine B.; Fargason, Rachel E.; Birur, Badari

    2017-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is an FDA-approved medication widely prescribed for seizures, migraines, and mixed or manic episodes in bipolar disorder. Hyperammonemia is a rare complication of VPA use, which can result in high morbidity and occasionally fatal encephalopathy. The scant literature on Valproate Induced Hyperammonemic Encephalopathy (VIHE) is characterized by acute onset of decreasing level of consciousness, drowsiness, lethargy which in rare instances can lead to seizures, stupor, coma, and persistent morbidity and cortical damage. Below we describe a case report of a patient with Bipolar I Disorder with no primary evidence of hepatic dysfunction that was initiated on VPA and olanzapine to address manic and psychotic symptoms. This patient subsequently developed elevated ammonia (NH4) levels that led to a reversible encephalopathy. This cautionary case report highlights the potential for a rare but serious complication from VPA, a medication increasingly used in both neurologic and neuropsychiatric settings. It is imperative that clinicians perform a thorough physical, neurological and diagnostic evaluation, routinely check NH4 and VPA levels when prescribing these agents and exercise caution when VPA is concomitantly prescribed with antipsychotics and cytochrome P450 inducing antiepileptic medications.

  20. 5-Hydroxyethyl-3-tetradecanoyltetramic acid represents a novel treatment for intravascular catheter infections due to Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapotoczna, Marta; Murray, Ewan J; Hogan, Siobhan; O'Gara, James P; Chhabra, Siri R; Chan, Weng C; O'Neill, Eoghan; Williams, Paul

    2017-03-01

    Biofilm infections of intravascular catheters caused by Staphylococcus aureus may be treated with catheter lock solutions (CLSs). Here we investigated the antibacterial activity, cytotoxicity and CLS potential of 5-hydroxyethyl-3-tetradecanoyltetramic acid (5HE-C14-TMA) compared with the related compounds 3-tetradecanoyltetronic (C14-TOA) and 3-tetradecanoylthiotetronic (C14-TTA), which are variants of quorum sensing signalling molecules produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Antibacterial activity and mechanism of action of 5HE-C14-TMA, C14-TOA and C14-TTA were determined via MIC, bacterial killing, membrane potential and permeability assays. Susceptibility of S. aureus biofilms formed in the presence of plasma in vitro was investigated, MTT cytotoxicity testing was undertaken and cytokine release in human blood upon exposure to 5HE-C14-TMA and/or S. aureus biofilms was quantified. The effectiveness of 5HE-C14-TMA as CLS therapy in vivo was assessed using a rat intravascular catheter biofilm infection model. MICs of 5HE-C14-TMA, C14-TOA and C14-TTA ranged from 2 to 4 mg/L. 5HE-C14-TMA and C14-TTA were bactericidal; all three compounds perturbed the staphylococcal membrane by increasing membrane permeability, depolarized the transmembrane potential and caused ATP leakage. Cytotoxicity and haemolytic activity were compound and target cell type-dependent. 5HE-C14-TMA reduced S. aureus biofilm viability in a dose-dependent manner in vitro and in vivo and did not trigger release of cytokines in human blood, but inhibited the high levels of IL-8 and TNF-α induced by S. aureus biofilms. 5HE-C14-TMA, C14-TOA and C14-TTA are membrane-active agents. 5HE-C14-TMA was the most potent, eradicating S. aureus biofilms at 512-1024 mg/L both in vitro and in vivo as a CLS.

  1. 5-Hydroxyethyl-3-tetradecanoyltetramic acid represents a novel treatment for intravascular catheter infections due to Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapotoczna, Marta; Murray, Ewan J.; Hogan, Siobhan; O’Gara, James P.; Chhabra, Siri R.; Chan, Weng C.; O’Neill, Eoghan

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Biofilm infections of intravascular catheters caused by Staphylococcus aureus may be treated with catheter lock solutions (CLSs). Here we investigated the antibacterial activity, cytotoxicity and CLS potential of 5-hydroxyethyl-3-tetradecanoyltetramic acid (5HE-C14-TMA) compared with the related compounds 3-tetradecanoyltetronic (C14-TOA) and 3-tetradecanoylthiotetronic (C14-TTA), which are variants of quorum sensing signalling molecules produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Methods: Antibacterial activity and mechanism of action of 5HE-C14-TMA, C14-TOA and C14-TTA were determined via MIC, bacterial killing, membrane potential and permeability assays. Susceptibility of S. aureus biofilms formed in the presence of plasma in vitro was investigated, MTT cytotoxicity testing was undertaken and cytokine release in human blood upon exposure to 5HE-C14-TMA and/or S. aureus biofilms was quantified. The effectiveness of 5HE-C14-TMA as CLS therapy in vivo was assessed using a rat intravascular catheter biofilm infection model. Results: MICs of 5HE-C14-TMA, C14-TOA and C14-TTA ranged from 2 to 4 mg/L. 5HE-C14-TMA and C14-TTA were bactericidal; all three compounds perturbed the staphylococcal membrane by increasing membrane permeability, depolarized the transmembrane potential and caused ATP leakage. Cytotoxicity and haemolytic activity were compound and target cell type-dependent. 5HE-C14-TMA reduced S. aureus biofilm viability in a dose-dependent manner in vitro and in vivo and did not trigger release of cytokines in human blood, but inhibited the high levels of IL-8 and TNF-α induced by S. aureus biofilms. Conclusions: 5HE-C14-TMA, C14-TOA and C14-TTA are membrane-active agents. 5HE-C14-TMA was the most potent, eradicating S. aureus biofilms at 512–1024 mg/L both in vitro and in vivo as a CLS. PMID:27999062

  2. Clinical response to glycyrrhizinic acid in genital infection due to human papillomavirus and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelino Hernandez Valencia

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Human papilloma virus (HPV can infect any of the mucosal areas of the body and cause cervical cancer. Until recently, no specific treatments were available for this condition; therefore, any damaged tissue had to be removed or destroyed, which may have presented obstetrical repercussions for some women. Recently, new drugs have been developed that have shown to be effective for the cure of HPV infection. Glycyrrhizinic acid (GA has shown fewer side effects and its systemic use makes it possible to reach difficultto- treat lesions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of GA to eliminate the epithelial lesion and HPV. We carried out a longitudinal, descriptive study that included women of reproductive age who were diagnosed with HPV associated with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL. Subjects began treatment based on GA using two routes of administration - systemic (oral and topical (spray - with assessments every month to determine the clinical changes of the lesions through colposcopy and Papanicolaou (Pap smear. Simple statistics were used along with two-tailed Student’s t-test; P<0.05 was considered statistically significant before and after treatment. There were 70 eligible patients, of whom 62 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Age of subjects was 27.8±9.5 years. At the time of the study, 100% of the patients had HPV infection, 40% were associated with LSIL, and only 16% used a barrier contraceptive (condom method. Resolution was achieved in all patients from 4 weeks of treatment initiation and improvement was achieved in the majority of patients at 12 weeks (74% (P<0.001. However, there was persistence of LSIL in 27.7% of patients and only one patient progressed to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN II. The use of GA proved to be effective in resolving clinical HPV lesions. For cervical lesions with epithelial changes (LSIL, treatment may be required for a longer period as with other drugs used

  3. Butyrate activates the monocarboxylate transporter MCT4 expression in breast cancer cells and enhances the antitumor activity of 3-bromopyruvate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queirós, Odília; Preto, Ana; Pacheco, António; Pinheiro, Céline; Azevedo-Silva, João; Moreira, Roxana; Pedro, Madalena; Ko, Young H; Pedersen, Peter L; Baltazar, Fátima; Casal, Margarida

    2012-02-01

    Most malignant tumors exhibit the Warburg effect, which consists in increased glycolysis rates with production of lactate, even in the presence of oxygen. Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs), maintain these glycolytic rates, by mediating the influx and/or efflux of lactate and are overexpressed in several cancer cell types. The lactate and pyruvate analogue 3-bromopyruvate (3-BP) is an inhibitor of the energy metabolism, which has been proposed as a specific antitumor agent. In the present study, we aimed at determining the effect of 3-BP in breast cancer cells and evaluated the putative role of MCTs on this effect. Our results showed that the three breast cancer cell lines used presented different sensitivities to 3-BP: ZR-75-1 ER (+)>MCF-7 ER (+)>SK-BR-3 ER (-). We also demonstrated that 3-BP reduced lactate production, induced cell morphological alterations and increased apoptosis. The effect of 3-BP appears to be cytotoxic rather than cytostatic, as a continued decrease in cell viability was observed after removal of 3-BP. We showed that pre-incubation with butyrate enhanced significantly 3-BP cytotoxicity, especially in the most resistant breast cancer cell line, SK-BR-3. We observed that butyrate treatment induced localization of MCT1 in the plasma membrane as well as overexpression of MCT4 and its chaperone CD147. Our results thus indicate that butyrate pre-treatment potentiates the effect of 3-BP, most probably by increasing the rates of 3-BP transport through MCT1/4. This study supports the potential use of butyrate as adjuvant of 3-BP in the treatment of breast cancer resistant cells, namely ER (-).

  4. Lack of action of exogenously administered T3 on the fetal rat brain despite expression of the monocarboxylate transporter 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grijota-Martínez, Carmen; Díez, Diego; Morreale de Escobar, Gabriella; Bernal, Juan; Morte, Beatriz

    2011-04-01

    Mutations of the monocarboxylate transporter 8 gene (MCT8, SLC16A2) cause the Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome, an X-linked syndrome of severe intellectual deficit and neurological impairment. Mct8 transports thyroid hormones (T4 and T3), and the Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome is likely caused by lack of T3 transport to neurons during critical periods of fetal brain development. To evaluate the role of Mct8 in thyroid hormone action in the fetal brain we administered T4 or T3 to thyroidectomized pregnant dams treated with methyl-mercapto-imidazol to produce maternal and fetal hypothyroidism. Gene expression was then measured in the fetal cerebral cortex. T4 increased Camk4, Sema3c, and Slc7a3 expression, but T3 was without effect. To investigate the cause for the lack of T3 action we analyzed the expression of organic anion transport polypeptide (Oatp14, Slco1c1), a T4 transporter, and Mct8 (Slc16a2), a T4 and T3 transporter, by confocal microscopy. Both proteins were present in the brain capillaries forming the blood-brain barrier and in the epithelial cells of the choroid plexus forming the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. It is concluded that T4 from the maternal compartment influences gene expression in the fetal cerebral cortex, possibly after transport via organic anion transporter polypeptide and/or Mct8, and conversion to T3 in the astrocytes. On the other hand, T3 does not reach the target neurons despite the presence of Mct8. The data indicate that T4, through local deiodination, provides most T3 in the fetal rat brain. The role of Mct8 as a T3 transporter in the fetal rat brain is therefore uncertain.

  5. The role of charged residues in the transmembrane helices of monocarboxylate transporter 1 and its ancillary protein basigin in determining plasma membrane expression and catalytic activity

    OpenAIRE

    Manoharan, Christine; Wilson, Marieangela C.; Sessions, Richard B; Halestrap, Andrew P.

    2006-01-01

    Monocarboxylate transporters MCT1-MCT4 require basigin (CD147) or embigin (gp70), ancillary proteins with a glutamate residue in their single transmembrane (TM) domain, for plasma membrane (PM) expression and activity. Here we use site-directed mutagenesis and expression in COS cells or Xenopus oocytes to investigate whether this glutamate (Glu218 in basigin) may charge-pair with a positively charged TM-residue of MCT1. Such residues were predicted using a new molecular model of MCT1 based up...

  6. Alisol B 23-acetate protects against ANIT-induced hepatotoxity and cholestasis, due to FXR-mediated regulation of transporters and enzymes involved in bile acid homeostasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Qiang; Chen, Xin-li; Wang, Chang-yuan; Liu, Qi; Sun, Hui-jun; Sun, Peng-yuan; Huo, Xiao-kui; Liu, Zhi-hao; Yao, Ji-hong; Liu, Ke-xin, E-mail: kexinliu@dlmedu.edu.cn

    2015-03-15

    Intrahepatic cholestasis is a clinical syndrome with systemic and intrahepatic accumulation of excessive toxic bile acids that ultimately cause hepatobiliary injury. Appropriate regulation of bile acids in hepatocytes is critically important for protection against liver injury. In the present study, we characterized the protective effect of alisol B 23-acetate (AB23A), a natural triterpenoid, on alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT)-induced liver injury and intrahepatic cholestasis in mice and further elucidated the mechanisms in vivo and in vitro. AB23A treatment dose-dependently protected against liver injury induced by ANIT through reducing hepatic uptake and increasing efflux of bile acid via down-regulation of hepatic uptake transporters (Ntcp) and up-regulation of efflux transporter (Bsep, Mrp2 and Mdr2) expression. Furthermore, AB23A reduced bile acid synthesis through repressing Cyp7a1 and Cyp8b1, increased bile acid conjugation through inducing Bal, Baat and bile acid metabolism through an induction in gene expression of Sult2a1. We further demonstrate the involvement of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) in the hepatoprotective effect of AB23A. The changes in transporters and enzymes, as well as ameliorative liver histology in AB23A-treated mice were abrogated by FXR antagonist guggulsterone in vivo. In vitro evidences also directly demonstrated the effect of AB23A on FXR activation in a dose-dependent manner using luciferase reporter assay in HepG2 cells. In conclusion, AB23A produces protective effect against ANIT-induced hepatotoxity and cholestasis, due to FXR-mediated regulation of transporters and enzymes. - Highlights: • AB23A has at least three roles in protection against ANIT-induced liver injury. • AB23A decreases Ntcp, and increases Bsep, Mrp2 and Mdr2 expression. • AB23A represses Cyp7a1 and Cyp8b1 through inducing Shp and Fgf15 expression. • AB23A increases bile acid metabolism through inducing Sult2a1 expression. • FXR activation is involved

  7. Separation and determination of some carboxylic acids by capillary electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sladkov, V.; Fourest, B

    2006-07-01

    Separation and determination of some organic acids, mono-carboxylic (formic and acetic), dicarboxylic (oxalic and tartaric), tricarboxylic (citric) acids and aromatic acids (phtalic, benzoic, mellitic and trimellitic), by capillary electrophoresis are reviewed. The method development parameters, such as separation and injection mode, are discussed. Special attention is paid to the comparison of different detection types (spectroscopic and electrochemical). The optimisation of the carrier electrolyte composition (choice of carrier electrolyte, effect of pH, ionic strength, electro-osmotic flow modifier) is treated. Different additives (alkali-earth and transition metal ions, cyclodextrins and alcohol), which are often used for improving organic acid separation, are also considered. (authors)

  8. Modeling of the capacity loss of a 12 V automotive lead-acid battery due to ageing and comparison with measurement data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ui Seong; Shin, Chee Burm; Chung, Seung Myun; Kim, Sung Tae; Cho, Byung Won

    One-dimensional modeling was carried-out to predict the capacity loss of a 12 V automotive lead-acid battery due to ageing. The model not only accounted for electrochemical kinetics and ionic mass transfer in a battery cell, but also considered the anodic corrosion of lead in sulfuric acid. In order to validate the modeling, modeling results were compared with the measurement data of the cycling behaviors of the lead-acid batteries having nominal capacity of 68 Ah that are mounted on the automobiles manufactured by Hyundai Motor Company. The cycling was performed under the protocol of the constant-current discharge and the constant-voltage charge. The discharge rate of C/3 was used. The range of state of charge was between 1 and 0.85. The voltage was kept constant at the gassing voltage until the charge current tapered to 10 mA. The retention capacity of the battery was measured with C/3 discharge rate before the beginning of cycling and after every 40 cycles of cycling. The modeling results were in good agreement with the measurement data.

  9. Dietary acid reduction with fruits and vegetables or bicarbonate attenuates kidney injury in patients with a moderately reduced glomerular filtration rate due to hypertensive nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goraya, Nimrit; Simoni, Jan; Jo, Chanhee; Wesson, Donald E

    2012-01-01

    The neutralization of dietary acid with sodium bicarbonate decreases kidney injury and slows the decline of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in animals and patients with chronic kidney disease. The sodium intake, however, could be problematic in patients with reduced GFR. As alkali-induced dietary protein decreased kidney injury in animals, we compared the efficacy of alkali-inducing fruits and vegetables with oral sodium bicarbonate to diminish kidney injury in patients with hypertensive nephropathy at stage 1 or 2 estimated GFR. All patients were evaluated 30 days after no intervention; daily oral sodium bicarbonate; or fruits and vegetables in amounts calculated to reduce dietary acid by half. All patients had 6 months of antihypertensive control by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition before and during these studies, and otherwise ate ad lib. Indices of kidney injury were not changed in the stage 1 group. By contrast, each treatment of stage 2 patients decreased urinary albumin, N-acetyl β-D-glucosaminidase, and transforming growth factor β from the controls to a similar extent. Thus, a reduction in dietary acid decreased kidney injury in patients with moderately reduced eGFR due to hypertensive nephropathy and that with fruits and vegetables was comparable to sodium bicarbonate. Fruits and vegetables appear to be an effective kidney protective adjunct to blood pressure reduction and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition in hypertensive and possibly other nephropathies.

  10. Radiosynthesis and Evaluation of [(11)C]3-Hydroxycyclopent-1-enecarboxylic Acid as Potential PET Ligand for the High-Affinity γ-Hydroxybutyric Acid Binding Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Claus H; Hansen, Hanne D; Bay, Tina; Vogensen, Stine B; Lehel, Szabolcs; Thiesen, Louise; Bundgaard, Christoffer; Clausen, Rasmus P; Knudsen, Gitte M; Herth, Matthias M; Wellendorph, Petrine; Frølund, Bente

    2017-01-18

    γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is an endogenous neuroactive substance and proposed neurotransmitter with affinity for both low- and high-affinity binding sites. A radioligand with high and specific affinity toward the high-affinity GHB binding site would be a unique tool toward a more complete understanding of this population of binding sites. With its high specific affinity and monocarboxylate transporter (MCT1) mediated transport across the blood-brain barrier in pharmacological doses, 3-hydroxycyclopent-1-enecarboxylic acid (HOCPCA) seems like a suitable PET radiotracer candidate. Here, we report the (11)C-labeling and subsequent evaluation of [(11)C]HOCPCA in a domestic pig, as a PET-radioligand for visualization of the high-affinity GHB binding sites in the live pig brain. To investigate the regional binding of HOCPCA in pig brain prior to in vivo PET studies, in vitro quantitative autoradiography on sections of pig brain was performed using [(3)H]HOCPCA. In vivo evaluation of [(11)C]HOCPCA showed no brain uptake, possibly due to a limited uptake of HOCPCA by the MCT1 transporter at tracer doses of [(11)C]HOCPCA.

  11. The occurrence of fatty acids in immature source rocks and their distribution characteris-tics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The fatty acids in extractable bitumen and kerogen of immature source rocks of the Liaohe Basin and Jiyang sag were investigated in this study. The result showed that the bitumen fatty acids were mainly associated with non-hydrocarbon fraction and that the kerogen fatty acids with some tightly bound fatty acids were mainly bounded in a net structure of kerogen by ester bonds. For the investigated source rocks, the fatty acids in bitumen, bound fatty acids and tightly bound acids in kerogen ranged in 0.01% -0.073 9%, 0.005% - 0.045 5% and 0.005%- 0.010% respectively. Among the fatty acids analyzed in this study, mono-carboxylic acids, a, w-di-carboxylic acids and hydroxy acids accounted for 70%-100%, 0%-30% and <10% respec-tively. It was also found that the mono-carboxylic acids with longer chains mainly existed in bitumen, and that the a, w-di-carboxylic acids and hydroxy acids mainly existed in kerogen. From above, it was assumed that the mono-car- boxylic acids in bitumen might have played an important role in the hydrocarbon generation from fatty acids in imma-ture source rocks.

  12. Late-onset anaphylaxis due to poly (γ-glutamic acid) in the soup of commercial cold Chinese noodles in a patient with allergy to fermented soybeans (natto).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, Naoko; Chin, Keishi; Nagashima, Mayumi; Ikezawa, Zenro

    2011-09-01

    Fermented soybeans (natto) have been reported to induce IgE-mediated, late-onset anaphylaxis without early-phase responses. However, the relevant allergens of natto allergy have never been identified. A 38-year-old man developed an anaphylactic reaction accompanied by flashing, generalized urticaria, conjunctival redness, and dyspnea 3 hours after ingestion of commercial cold Chinese noodles. He had avoided natto for the past year due to developing several anaphylactic reactions half a day after natto ingestion. The results of skin prick tests (SPTs) were strongly positive for natto and the soup of cold Chinese noodles. Furthermore, SPTs showed positive for poly (γ-glutamic acid) (PGA), which is a major constituent of natto mucilage, alone among all the ingredients of the cold Chinese noodle soup. Therefore, he was diagnosed with late-onset anaphylaxis to PGA contained in natto and the cold Chinese noodle soup. These results indicated that in the present case, the relevant allergen of late-onset anaphylaxis may have been PGA in all episodes and that the patient had been sensitized by PGA through natto ingestion. PGA is produced by Bacillus subtilis during fermentation and is a high-molecular, biodegradable polymer. The late onset is therefore, hypothesized to be due to a delayed absorption of PGA, as PGA biodegrades to peptides sufficiently small to be absorbed in the bowel. PGA has recently been applied to a wide range of fields such as foods, cosmetics, and medicine. Therefore, patients with late-onset anaphylaxis to PGA of natto should avoid not only natto but also other materials containing PGA.

  13. Modeling and Simulation for Estimating the Influence of Renal Dysfunction on the Hypouricemic Effect of Febuxostat in Hyperuricemic Patients Due to Overproduction or Underexcretion of Uric Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Toshinori; Kimura, Toshimi; Echizen, Hirotoshi

    2016-01-01

    Whether renal dysfunction influences the hypouricemic effect of febuxostat, a xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitor, in patients with hyperuricemia due to overproduction or underexcretion of uric acid (UA) remains unclear. We aimed to address this question with a modeling and simulation approach. The pharmacokinetics (PK) of febuxostat were analyzed using data from the literature. A kinetic model of UA was retrieved from a previous human study. Renal UA clearance was estimated as a function of creatinine clearance (CLcr) but non-renal UA clearance was assumed constant. A reversible inhibition model for bovine XO was adopted. Integrating these kinetic formulas, we developed a PK-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) model for estimating the time course of the hypouricemic effect of febuxostat as a function of baseline UA level, febuxostat dose, treatment duration, body weight, and CLcr. Using the Monte Carlo simulation method, we examined the performance of the model by comparing predicted UA levels with those reported in the literature. We also modified the models for application to hyperuricemia due to UA overproduction or underexcretion. Thirty-nine data sets comprising 735 volunteers or patients were retrieved from the literature. A good correlation was observed between the hypouricemic effects of febuxostat estimated by our PK-PD model and those reported in the articles (observed) (r=0.89, p<0.001). The hypouricemic effect was estimated to be augmented in patients with renal dysfunction irrespective of the etiology of hyperuricemia. While validation in clinical studies is needed, the modeling and simulation approach may be useful for individualizing febuxostat doses in patients with various clinical characteristics.

  14. Therapeutic effects of ellagic acid on memory, hippocampus electrophysiology deficits, and elevated TNF-α level in brain due to experimental traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashhadizadeh, Shahram; Farbood, Yaghoub; Dianat, Mahin; Khodadadi, Ali; Sarkaki, Alireza

    2017-04-01

    Cognitive defects such as learning and memory impairment are amongst the most repetitious sequelae after sever and moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI). It was suggested that ellagic acid (EA), an innate phenol product, display neuroprotective properties against oxidative and inflammatory damages after brain injury. The object of the current study was therapeutic properties of EA on blood-brain barrier (BBB) interruption and elevated content of TNF-α in brain tissue followed by neurologic aftereffects, cognitive and brain electrophysiology deficits as outcomes of diffuse TBI in rat. TBI was induced by a 200 g weight falling by a 2-m height through a free-falling tube onto the head of anesthetized rat. TBI rats treated immediately after trauma with EA (100 mg/kg, IP) once every 8 hr until 48 hr later. Neurologic outcomes, passive avoidance task (PAT), hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), BBB permeability and content of TNF-α in brain tissue were evaluated. TBI induced significant impairments in neurological score, BBB function, PAT and hippocampal LTP in TBI+Veh group in compare with Sham+Veh (P<0.001). EA treatment decreased neurologic severity score (NSS), restored increased BBB permeability, cognitive and hippocampal LTP abnormalities, and elevated brain content of TNF-α due to TBI significantly (P<0.001). Our findings propose that EA can restore NSS, cognitive and LTP deficits and prevent brain inflammation may by restore BBB permeability as well as lowering brain content of TNF-α following TBI.

  15. Impaired reduction of N2O to N2 in acid soils is due to a posttranscriptional interference with the expression of nosZ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Binbin; Frostegård, Åsa; Bakken, Lars R

    2014-06-24

    Accumulating empirical evidence over the last 60 years has shown that the reduction of N2O to N2 is impaired by low soil pH, suggesting that liming of acid soils may reduce N2O emissions. This option has not gained much momentum in global change research, however, possibly due to limited understanding of why low pH interferes with N2O reductase. We hypothesized that the reason is that denitrifying organisms in soils are unable to assemble functional N2O reductase (N2OR) at low pH, as shown to be the case for the model strain Paracoccus denitrificans. We tested this by experiments with bacteria extracted from soils by density gradient centrifugation. The soils were sampled from a long-term liming experiment (soil pH 4.0, 6.1, and 8.0). The cells were incubated (stirred batches, He atmosphere) at pH levels ranging from 5.7 to 7.6, while gas kinetics (NO, N2O, and N2) and abundances of relevant denitrification genes (nirS, nirK, and nosZ) and their transcripts were monitored. Cells from the most acidic soil (pH 4.0) were unable to reduce N2O at any pH. These results warrant a closer inspection of denitrification communities of very acidic soils. Cells from the neutral soils were unable to produce functional N2OR at pH values of ≤6.1, despite significant transcription of the nosZ gene. The N2OR expressed successfully at pH 7.0, however, was functional over the entire pH range tested (5.7 to 7.6). These observations lend strong support to our hypothesis: low soil pH diminishes/prevents reduction of N2O, primarily by precluding a successful assembly of functional N2O reductase. Impaired N2O reduction in acid soils was first observed ~60 years ago, and the phenomenon has been rediscovered several times since then. The practical implication would be that the emissions of N2O from cropped soils could be controlled by soil pH management, but this option has largely been ignored till now. One reason for this could be that the mechanisms involved have remained obscure. Here

  16. Dicarboxylic acids, an alternate fuel substrate in parenteral nutrition: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grego, A V; Mingrone, G

    1995-06-01

    Dicarboxylic acids (DA) are formed from the omega-oxidation of monocarboxylic acids when the beta-oxidation of free fatty acids is impaired. Medium-chain DA have the peculiar characteristic of being water soluble due to the presence of two carboxylic terminal groups in the molecule. Contrary to both long- and medium-chain triglycerides which are administered as emulsions, they can be given by a peripheral vein as inorganic salts. DA are beta-oxidized at level of both peroxisomes and mitochondria via carnitine-independent pathway. The products of beta-oxidation of odd-chain DA are acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA, which cannot be oxidized further, are used in lipogenesis. Moreover even-chain DA produce acetyl-CoA and succinyl-CoA, which is a gluconeogenetic precursor. Azelaic acid (C9), does not show acute or chronic toxicity effects in animals but much of it is lost in urine (more than 50% of the given dose). Sebacic acid (C10) is lost in urine to a smaller extent (about 12% of the administered dose) and its energy density (6.64 kcal/g) is greater than that of C9 (4.97 kcal/g). Dodecanedioic acid (C12) seems to be the best candidate for parenteral nutrition, because it is eliminated in the urine only in minimal amounts (3.90% of the given dose), it is rapidly utilized by tissues, and it has a high energy density (7.20 kcal/g).

  17. Does trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid affect the intermediary glucose and energy expenditure of dairy cows due to repartitioning of milk component synthesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninghoff, Jens; Metzger-Petersen, Katrin; Tröscher, Arnulf H A; Südekum, Karl-Heinz

    2015-11-01

    The overall goal of this study was to evaluate if intermediary energy metabolism of cows fed with trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was modified such that milk-energy compounds were produced with less intermediary energy expenditure as compared to control cows. Published data on supplemented CLA were assembled. The extent was calculated to which the trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomer has an impact on glucose and energy conversion in the mammary gland by modifying glucose equivalent supply and energy required for fatty acid (FA) and fat synthesis, and if this will eventually lead to an improved glucose and energy status of CLA-supplemented high-yielding dairy cows. A possible relationship between CLA supplementation level and milk energy yield response was also studied. Calculations were conducted separately for orally and abomasally administered CLA and based on energy required for supply of glucose equivalents, i.e. lactose, glycerol and NADPH2. Further, modifications of milk FA profile due to CLA supplementation were considered when energy expenditures for FA and fat synthesis were quantified. Differences in yields between control and CLA groups were transformed into glucose energy equivalents. Only abomasal infusion (r(2) = 0.31) but not oral CLA administration (r(2) = 0.11) supplementation to dairy cow diets resulted in less glucose equivalent energy. Modifications of milk FA profiles also saved energy but the relationship with CLA supplementation was weaker for abomasal infusion (r(2) = 0.06) than oral administration (r(2) = 0.38). On average, 10 g/d of abomasally infused trans-10, cis-12 CLA saved 1.1 to 2.3 MJ net energy expressed as glucose equivalents, whereas both positive and negative values were observed when the trans-10, cis-12 CLA was fed to the cows. This study revealed a weak to moderate dose-dependent relationship between the amount of trans-10, cis-12 CLA administered and the amount of energy in glucose equivalents and energy for the

  18. A note on the prebiotic synthesis of organic acids in carbonaceous meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerridge, John F.

    1991-01-01

    Strong similarities between monocarboxylic and hydrocarboxylic acids in the Murchison meteorite suggest corresponding similarities in their origins. However, various lines of evidence apparently implicate quite different precursor compounds in the synthesis of the different acids. These seeming inconsistencies can be resolved by postulating that the apparent precursors also share a related origin. Pervasive D enrichment indicates that this origin was in a presolar molecular cloud. The organic acids themselves were probably synthesized in an aqueous environment on an asteroidal parent body, the hydroxy (and amino) acids by means of the Strecker cyanohydrin reaction.

  19. Fetal and neonatal exposure to nicotine leads to augmented hepatic and circulating triglycerides in adult male offspring due to increased expression of fatty acid synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Noelle [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, The University of Western Ontario (Canada); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The University of Western Ontario (Canada); The Lawson Health Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario (Canada); Nicholson, Catherine J. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University (Canada); Wong, Michael [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, The University of Western Ontario (Canada); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The University of Western Ontario (Canada); The Lawson Health Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario (Canada); Holloway, Alison C. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University (Canada); Hardy, Daniel B., E-mail: Daniel.Hardy@schulich.uwo.ca [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, The University of Western Ontario (Canada); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The University of Western Ontario (Canada); The Children' s Health Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario (Canada); The Lawson Health Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario (Canada)

    2014-02-15

    While nicotine replacement therapy is assumed to be a safer alternative to smoking during pregnancy, the long-term consequences for the offspring remain elusive. Animal studies now suggest that maternal nicotine exposure during perinatal life leads to a wide range of adverse outcomes for the offspring including increased adiposity. The focus of this study was to investigate if nicotine exposure during pregnancy and lactation leads to alterations in hepatic triglyceride synthesis. Female Wistar rats were randomly assigned to receive daily subcutaneous injections of saline (vehicle) or nicotine bitartrate (1 mg/kg/day) for two weeks prior to mating until weaning. At postnatal day 180 (PND 180), nicotine exposed offspring exhibited significantly elevated levels of circulating and hepatic triglycerides in the male offspring. This was concomitant with increased expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS), the critical hepatic enzyme in de novo triglyceride synthesis. Given that FAS is regulated by the nuclear receptor Liver X receptor (LXRα), we measured LXRα expression in both control and nicotine-exposed offspring. Nicotine exposure during pregnancy and lactation led to an increase in hepatic LXRα protein expression and enriched binding to the putative LXRE element on the FAS promoter in PND 180 male offspring. This was also associated with significantly enhanced acetylation of histone H3 [K9,14] surrounding the FAS promoter, a hallmark of chromatin activation. Collectively, these findings suggest that nicotine exposure during pregnancy and lactation leads to an increase in circulating and hepatic triglycerides long-term via changes in the transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of the hepatic lipogenic pathway. - Highlights: • Our data reveals the links nicotine exposure in utero and long-term hypertriglyceridemia. • It is due to nicotine-induced augmented expression of hepatic FAS and LXRα activity. • Moreover, this involves nicotine-induced enhanced

  20. Dicarboxylic acids with limited numbers of hydrocarbons stabilize cell membrane and increase osmotic resistance in rat erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineo, Hitoshi; Amita, Nozomi; Kawawake, Megumi; Higuchi, Ayaka

    2013-11-01

    We examined the effect of dicarboxylic acids having 0 to 6 hydrocarbons and their corresponding monocarboxylic or tricarboxylic acids in changing the osmotic fragility (OF) in rat red blood cells (RBCs). Malonic, succinic, glutaric and adipic acids, which are dicarboxylic acids with 1, 2, 3 and 4 straight hydrocarbons located between two carboxylic groups, decreased the OF in a concentration-dependent manner. Other long-chain dicarboxylic acids did not change the OF in rat RBCs. The benzoic acid derivatives, isophthalic and terephthalic acids, but not phthalic acid, decreased the OF in a concentration-dependent manner. Benzene-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid, but not benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid, also decreased the OF in rat RBCs. On the other hand, monocarboxylic acids possessing 2 to 7 straight hydrocarbons and benzoic acid increased the OF in rat RBCs. In short-chain dicarboxylic acids, a limited number of hydrocarbons between the two carboxylic groups are thought to form a V- or U-shaped structure and interact with phospholipids in the RBC membrane. In benzene dicarboxylic and tricarboxylic acids, a part of benzene nucleus between the two carboxylic groups is thought to enter the plasma membrane and act on acyl-chain in phospholipids in the RBC membrane. For dicarboxylic and tricarboxylic acids, limited numbers of hydrocarbons in molecules are speculated to enter the RBC membrane with the hydrophilic carboxylic groups remaining outside, stabilizing the structure of the cell membrane and resulting in an increase in osmotic resistance in rat RBCs.

  1. S-deficiency responsive accumulation of amino acids is mainly due to hydrolysis of the previously synthesized proteins - not to de novo synthesis in Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bok-Rye; Muneer, Sowbiya; Kim, Kil-Yong; Avice, Jean-Christophe; Ourry, Alain; Kim, Tae-Hwan

    2013-03-01

    To characterize the mechanisms of amino acid accumulation under sulphur (S)-deficiency and its physiological significance in Brassica napus, stable isotopes (15) N and (34) S were employed. The plants were exposed for 9 days to S-deficient conditions (0.05 mM vs 1.5 mM sulphate). After 9 days of S-deficiency, leaf-osmotic potential and total chlorophyll content significantly decreased. S uptake decreased by 94%, whereas N uptake and biomass were not significantly changed. Using (15) N and (34) S labelling, de novo synthesis of amino acids and proteins derived from newly absorbed NO(3) (-) and SO(4) (2) (-) and the content of N and S in the previously synthesized amino acids and proteins were quantified. At the whole plant level, S-deficiency increased the pool of amino acids but resulted in strong decrease of incorporation of newly absorbed NO(3) (-) and SO(4) (2) (-) into amino acids by 22.2 and 76.6%, respectively, compared to the controls. Total amount of N and S incorporated into proteins also decreased by 28.8 and 62.1%, respectively. The levels of (14) N- and (32) S-proteins (previously synthesized proteins) strongly decreased, mainly in mature leaves. The data thus indicate that amino acid accumulation under short-term S-deficiency results from the degradation of previously synthesized proteins rather than from de novo synthesis. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2012.

  2. Fluorescent derivatization of aromatic carboxylic acids with horseradish peroxidase in the presence of excess hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odo, Junichi; Inoguchi, Masahiko; Aoki, Hiroyuki; Sogawa, Yuto; Nishimura, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    The fluorescent derivatization of aromatic carboxylic acids by the catalytic activity of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in the presence of excess H2O2 was investigated. Four monocarboxylic acids, nine dicarboxylic acids, and two tricarboxylic acids, all of which are non- or weakly fluorescent, were effectively converted into fluorescent compounds using this new method. This technique was further developed for the fluorometric determination of trace amounts of terephthalic acid (3c) and lutidinic acid (2b), and linear calibration curves for concentrations between 2.5 and 20.0 nmol of terephthalic acid (3c) and 1.0 and 10.0 nmol of lutidinic acid (2b) were demonstrated. Compound III, an intermediate of HRP, played an essential role in this process. Additionally, lactoperoxidase and manganese peroxidase, peroxidases similar to HRP, showed successful fluorescent derivatization of nicotinic acid (1b), lutidinic acid (2b), and hemimellitic acid (4a) in the presence of excess H2O2.

  3. Effects of Phellinus linteus administration on serotonin synthesis in the brain and expression of monocarboxylate transporters in the muscle during exhaustive exercise in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jin-Hee; Sung, Yun-Hee; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Shin, Mal-Soon; Lee, Eun-Kyu; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of Phellinus linteus (PL) on serotonin synthesis in the brain and on the expression of monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) in muscles during exhaustive exercise in rats. In this study, 60 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following 6 groups: control; exercise; exercise and 50 mg/kg of PL treatment; exercise and 100 of mg/kg PL treatment; exercise and 200 mg/kg of PL treatment; and exercise and 100 mg/kg of caffeine treatment. Treatment with 200 mg/kg of PL led to a significant increase in the time to exhaustion in response to running on a treadmill and a significant decrease in 5-hydroxytryptamine synthesis and tryptophan hydroxylase expression in the dorsal raphe of rats. MCT1 and MCT4 expression of the gastrocnemius muscles was also increased in response to treatment with 200 mg/kg of PL. The results of the present study demonstrated that the administration of PL increased endurance exercise performance through inhibition of serotonin production in the brain and increased the expression of MCT1 and MCT4 in muscles. These results suggest that PL exerts an ergogenic effect.

  4. [The efficacy of function water (electrolyzed strong acid solution) on open heart surgery; postoperative mediastinitis due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihara, Toshihiko; Fujii, G; Eda, T; Sasaki, M; Ueda, Y

    2004-11-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection after cardiac surgery has recently increased. We compared the anti-inflammatory effect of an electrolyzed strong acid solution and a warm saline solution in patients with open heart surgery. These solutions were used for mediastinal irrigation before closing the sternum. Group A patients were irrigated by a warm saline solution, and group B patients were irrigated by an electrolyzed strong acid solution, administration of this water is safe, feasible, and easy for the prevention of MRSA infection. Postoperative infection was significantly decreased in the group B as compared in the group A. An electrolyzed strong acid solution may be effective on postoperative infection, particularly MRSA infection following open heart surgery.

  5. Inhibition of cold insolubility of an IgA cryoglobulin by decanedicarboxylic acid and related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalezari, P; Kumar, M; Kumar, K M; Lawrence, C

    1983-11-01

    Cold insolubility of a serum IgA cryoimmunoglobulin was found to be inhibited by the addition of 1.5 mM sodium decanedicarboxylate in vitro. The patient with the cryoglobulin had advanced multiple myeloma complicated by severe hyperviscosity that caused lethargy and episodic loss of consciousness. Decanedicarboxylic acid administered orally resulted in transient relief of symptoms and the loss of cryoprecipitability of the paraprotein. Further in vitro studies revealed that sodium salts of long-chain monocarboxylic acids with a minimum of eight carbons, and dicarboxylic acids with a minimum of 12 carbons inhibited cryoprecipitation. Salts of short-chain carboxylic acids, by contrast, enhanced cryoprecipitation. Sodium phenolate and sodium salts of benzoic acid, 2,4-DNP, phenylpropionic acid, and salicylic acid were also inhibitory. These latter compounds, which have a ring structure, did not cause precipitation at any concentration. It was demonstrated that the presence of a free carboxylic group was required for these activities; conversion of carboxylic acid to amide resulted in the loss of both the inhibitory and cryoprecipitation-enhancing effects. Normal plasma, or plasma from five other patients who had IgG, IgM, or mixed-type cryoglobulinemia, were not affected by any of these compounds. It is suggested that in selected cases of hyperviscosity syndrome associated with cryoglobulinemia, some of these compounds, especially monocarboxylic acids with appropriate chain lengths, or those with a ring structure, may have therapeutic applications.

  6. Growth on Octane Alters the Membrane Lipid Fatty Acids of Pseudomonas oleovorans due to the Induction of alkB and Synthesis of Octanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Qi; Janssen, Dick B.; Witholt, Bernard

    1995-01-01

    Growth of Pseudomonas oleovorans GPo1, which contains the OCT plasmid, on octane results in changes in the membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition. These changes were not found for GPo12, an OCT-plasmid-cured variant of GPo1, during growth in the presence or absence of octane, implying the invo

  7. Isoquercitrin Esters with Mono- or Dicarboxylic Acids: Enzymatic Preparation and Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavříková, Eva; Langschwager, Fanny; Jezova-Kalachova, Lubica; Křenková, Alena; Mikulová, Barbora; Kuzma, Marek; Křen, Vladimír; Valentová, Kateřina

    2016-06-07

    A series of isoquercitrin (quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside) esters with mono- or dicarboxylic acids was designed to modulate hydro- and lipophilicity and biological properties. Esterification of isoquercitrin was accomplished by direct chemoenzymatic reaction using Novozym 435 (lipase from Candida antarctica), which accepted C₅- to C12-dicarboxylic acids; the shorter ones, such as oxalic (C₂), malonic (C₃), succinic (C₄) and maleic (C₄) acids were not substrates of the lipase. Lipophilicity of monocarboxylic acid derivatives, measured as log P, increased with the chain length. Esters with glutaric and adipic acids exhibited hydrophilicity, and the dodecanedioic acid hemiester was more lipophilic. All derivatives were less able to reduce Folin-Ciocalteau reagent (FCR) and scavenge DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) than isoquercitrin; ABTS (2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) radical-scavenging activity was comparable. Dodecanoate and palmitate were the least active in FCR and ABTS scavenging; dodecanoate and hemiglutarate were the strongest DPPH scavengers. In contrast, most derivatives were much better inhibitors of microsomal lipoperoxidation than isoquercitrin; butyrate and hexanoate were the most efficient. Anti-lipoperoxidant activity of monocarboxylic derivatives, except acetates, decreased with increasing aliphatic chain. The opposite trend was noted for dicarboxylic acid hemiesters, isoquercitrin hemidodecanedioate being the most active. Overall, IQ butyrate, hexanoate and hemidodecanedioate are the most promising candidates for further studies.

  8. Isoquercitrin Esters with Mono- or Dicarboxylic Acids: Enzymatic Preparation and Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Vavříková

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of isoquercitrin (quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside esters with mono- or dicarboxylic acids was designed to modulate hydro- and lipophilicity and biological properties. Esterification of isoquercitrin was accomplished by direct chemoenzymatic reaction using Novozym 435 (lipase from Candida antarctica, which accepted C5- to C12-dicarboxylic acids; the shorter ones, such as oxalic (C2, malonic (C3, succinic (C4 and maleic (C4 acids were not substrates of the lipase. Lipophilicity of monocarboxylic acid derivatives, measured as log P, increased with the chain length. Esters with glutaric and adipic acids exhibited hydrophilicity, and the dodecanedioic acid hemiester was more lipophilic. All derivatives were less able to reduce Folin–Ciocalteau reagent (FCR and scavenge DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl than isoquercitrin; ABTS (2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical-scavenging activity was comparable. Dodecanoate and palmitate were the least active in FCR and ABTS scavenging; dodecanoate and hemiglutarate were the strongest DPPH scavengers. In contrast, most derivatives were much better inhibitors of microsomal lipoperoxidation than isoquercitrin; butyrate and hexanoate were the most efficient. Anti-lipoperoxidant activity of monocarboxylic derivatives, except acetates, decreased with increasing aliphatic chain. The opposite trend was noted for dicarboxylic acid hemiesters, isoquercitrin hemidodecanedioate being the most active. Overall, IQ butyrate, hexanoate and hemidodecanedioate are the most promising candidates for further studies.

  9. PPARα-Deficient ob/ob Obese Mice Become More Obese and Manifest Severe Hepatic Steatosis Due to Decreased Fatty Acid Oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Qian; Jia, Yuzhi; Yang, Gongshe; Zhang, Xiaohong; Boddu, Prajwal C.; Petersen, Bryon; Narsingam, Saiprasad; Zhu, Yi-Jun; Thimmapaya, Bayar; Kanwar, Yashpal S.; Reddy, Janardan K

    2015-01-01

    Obesity poses an increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome and closely associated nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, including liver cancer. Satiety hormone leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice, considered paradigmatic of nutritional obesity, develop hepatic steatosis but are less prone to developing liver tumors. Sustained activation of peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor α (PPARα) in ob/ob mouse liver increases fatty acid oxidation (FAO), which contributes to attenuation of obesity but...

  10. Increased Mitochondrial Activity in BMP7-Treated Brown Adipocytes, Due to Increased CPT1- and CD36-Mediated Fatty Acid Uptake

    OpenAIRE

    Townsend, Kristy L; An, Ding; Lynes, Matthew D.; Huang, Tian Lian; Zhang, Hongbin; Goodyear, Laurie J.; Tseng, Yu-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Brown adipose tissue dissipates chemical energy in the form of heat and regulates triglyceride and glucose metabolism in the body. Factors that regulate fatty acid uptake and oxidation in brown adipocytes have not yet been fully elucidated. Bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) is a growth factor capable of inducing brown fat mitochondrial biogenesis during differentiation from adipocyte progenitors. Administration of BMP7 to mice also results in increased energy expenditure. To determine...

  11. Wind tunnel investigations on the retention of carboxylic acids during riming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Alexander; Szakáll, Miklós; Diehl, Karoline; Mitra, Subir K.; Borrmann, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    In mid-latitudes, precipitation is mainly initiated via the ice phase in mixed phase clouds. In such clouds the ice particles grow to precipitation sizes at the expense of liquid drops through riming which means that supercooled droplets collide with ice particles and subsequently freeze. Water-soluble trace substances present in the liquid phase might remain only fractionally in the ice phase after freezing. This fractionation is called retention and is an important ratio which quantifies the partitioning of atmospheric trace substances between the phases. Laboratory experiments were carried out at the Mainz vertical wind tunnel to determine the retention of lower mono- and di-carboxylic acids during riming. Due to their low molecular weight and their polarity these acids are water-soluble. In the atmosphere formic acid and acetic acid are the most abundant mono-carboxylic acids in the gas and aqueous phase, thus, they represent the major fraction of carboxylic acids in cloud water. Oxalic and malonic acid are common coatings on aerosol particles because of their relatively low saturation vapor pressure. These di-carboxylic acids might therefore promote the aerosol particles to act as cloud condensation nuclei and additionally contribute to the aqueous phase chemistry in cloud droplets. The conditions during the riming experiments in the wind tunnel were similar to those in atmospheric mixed phase clouds, i.e. temperatures from -18°C to -6 °C, liquid water contents between 0.5 and 1.5 g/m3, and liquid drop radii between 10 and 20 μm. The liquid phase concentrations ranged from 3 to 5 mg/l (4.1 water was analyzed by ion chromatography and the retention coefficients, i.e. the fractions of the species which remained in the ice phase were determined. Average retention coefficients of formic acid and acetic acid were 0.73 ± 0.07 and 0.62 ± 0.12, respectively; both oxalic and malonic acids had average retention coefficients of 0.98 ± 0.04. These variations can be

  12. Haem oxygenase-1 is involved in salicylic acid-induced alleviation of oxidative stress due to cadmium stress in Medicago sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Weiti; Li, Le; Gao, Zhaozhou; Wu, Honghong; Xie, Yanjie; Shen, Wenbiao

    2012-09-01

    This work examines the involvement of haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in salicylic acid (SA)-induced alleviation of oxidative stress as a result of cadmium (Cd) stress in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seedling roots. CdCl(2) exposure caused severe growth inhibition and Cd accumulation, which were potentiated by pre-treatment with zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPPIX), a potent HO-1 inhibitor. Pre-treatment of plants with the HO-1 inducer haemin or SA, both of which could induce MsHO1 gene expression, significantly reduced the inhibition of growth and Cd accumulation. The alleviation effects were also evidenced by a decreased content of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). The antioxidant behaviour was confirmed by histochemical staining for the detection of lipid peroxidation and the loss of plasma membrane integrity. Furthermore, haemin and SA pre-treatment modulated the activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and guaiacol peroxidase (POD), or their corresponding transcripts. Significant enhancement of the ratios of reduced/oxidized homoglutathione (hGSH), ascorbic acid (ASA)/dehydroascorbate (DHA), and NAD(P)H/NAD(P)(+), and expression of their metabolism genes was observed, consistent with a decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) distribution in the root tips. These effects are specific for HO-1, since ZnPPIX blocked the above actions, and the aggravated effects triggered by SA plus ZnPPIX were differentially reversed when carbon monoxide (CO) or bilirubin (BR), two catalytic by-products of HO-1, was added. Together, the results suggest that HO-1 is involved in the SA-induced alleviation of Cd-triggered oxidative stress by re-establishing redox homeostasis.

  13. Expression of organic anion transporting polypeptide 1c1 and monocarboxylate transporter 8 in the rat placental barrier and the compensatory response to thyroid dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-na Sun

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormones (THs must pass from mother to fetus for normal fetal development and require the expression of placental TH transporters. We investigate the compensatory effect of placental organic anion transporting polypeptide 1c1 (Oatp1c1 and monocarboxylate transporter 8 (Mct8 on maternal thyroid dysfunction. We describe the expressions of these two transporters in placental barriers and trophoblastic cell populations in euthyroidism and thyroid dysfunction resulting from differential iodine nutrition at gestation day (GD 16 and 20, that is, before and after the onset of fetal thyroid function. Immunohistochemistry revealed that in the blood-placenta barrier, these two TH transporters were strongly expressed in the villous interstitial substance and were weakly expressed in trophoblast cells. Levels of Oatp1c1 protein obviously increased in the placental fetal portion during maternal thyroid deficiency at GD16. Under maternal thyroid deficiency after the production of endogenous fetal TH, quantitative PCR analysis revealed down-regulation of Oatp1c1 occurred along with up-regulation of Mct8 in trophoblast cell populations isolated by laser capture microdissection (LCM; this was consistent with the protein levels in the fetal portion of the placenta. In addition, decreased D3 mRNA at GD16 and increased D2 mRNA on two gestational days were observed in trophoblast cells with thyroid dysfunction. However, levels of Oatp1c1 mRNA at GD16 and D3 mRNA at GD20 were too low to be detectable in trophoblast cells. In conclusion, placental Oatp1c1 plays an essential compensatory role when the transplacental passage of maternal THs is insufficient at the stage before the fetal TH production. In addition, the coordinated effects of Oatp1c1, Mct8, D2 and D3 in the placental barrier may regulate both transplacental TH passage and the development of trophoblast cells during thyroid dysfunction throughout the pregnancy.

  14. Expression of organic anion transporting polypeptide 1c1 and monocarboxylate transporter 8 in the rat placental barrier and the compensatory response to thyroid dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yi-na; Liu, Yuan-jun; Zhang, Lu; Ye, Yan; Lin, Lai-xiang; Li, Yong-mei; Yan, Yu-qin; Chen, Zu-pei

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) must pass from mother to fetus for normal fetal development and require the expression of placental TH transporters. We investigate the compensatory effect of placental organic anion transporting polypeptide 1c1 (Oatp1c1) and monocarboxylate transporter 8 (Mct8) on maternal thyroid dysfunction. We describe the expressions of these two transporters in placental barriers and trophoblastic cell populations in euthyroidism and thyroid dysfunction resulting from differential iodine nutrition at gestation day (GD) 16 and 20, that is, before and after the onset of fetal thyroid function. Immunohistochemistry revealed that in the blood-placenta barrier, these two TH transporters were strongly expressed in the villous interstitial substance and were weakly expressed in trophoblast cells. Levels of Oatp1c1 protein obviously increased in the placental fetal portion during maternal thyroid deficiency at GD16. Under maternal thyroid deficiency after the production of endogenous fetal TH, quantitative PCR analysis revealed down-regulation of Oatp1c1 occurred along with up-regulation of Mct8 in trophoblast cell populations isolated by laser capture microdissection (LCM); this was consistent with the protein levels in the fetal portion of the placenta. In addition, decreased D3 mRNA at GD16 and increased D2 mRNA on two gestational days were observed in trophoblast cells with thyroid dysfunction. However, levels of Oatp1c1 mRNA at GD16 and D3 mRNA at GD20 were too low to be detectable in trophoblast cells. In conclusion, placental Oatp1c1 plays an essential compensatory role when the transplacental passage of maternal THs is insufficient at the stage before the fetal TH production. In addition, the coordinated effects of Oatp1c1, Mct8, D2 and D3 in the placental barrier may regulate both transplacental TH passage and the development of trophoblast cells during thyroid dysfunction throughout the pregnancy.

  15. Expression of the hypoxia-inducible monocarboxylate transporter MCT4 is increased in triple negative breast cancer and correlates independently with clinical outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyen, J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre A. Lacassagne, Nice (France); Trastour, C. [Department of Gynecology, Archet II Hospital, 06202 Nice (France); Ettore, F.; Peyrottes, I.; Toussant, N. [Department of Pathology, Centre A. Lacassagne, Nice (France); Gal, J. [Department of Medical Statistics, Centre A. Lacassagne, Nice (France); Ilc, K.; Roux, D. [Institute for Research on Cancer and Aging (IRCAN), University of Nice, Centre A. Lacassagne, 06189 Nice (France); Parks, S.K. [Centre Scientifique de Monaco (CSM) (Monaco); Ferrero, J.M. [Department of Medical Oncology, Centre A. Lacassagne, Nice (France); Pouysségur, J., E-mail: jacques.pouyssegur@unice.fr [Institute for Research on Cancer and Aging (IRCAN), University of Nice, Centre A. Lacassagne, 06189 Nice (France); Centre Scientifique de Monaco (CSM) (Monaco)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Glycolytic markers are highly expressed in triple negative breast cancers. • Lactate/H{sup +} symporter MCT4 demonstrated the strongest deleterious impact on survival. • MCT4 should serve as a new prognostic factor in node-negative breast cancers. - Abstract: Background: {sup 18}Fluor-deoxy-glucose PET-scanning of glycolytic metabolism is being used for staging in many tumors however its impact on prognosis has never been studied in breast cancer. Methods: Glycolytic and hypoxic markers: glucose transporter (GLUT1), carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), monocarboxylate transporter 1 and 4 (MCT1, 4), MCT accessory protein basigin and lactate-dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) were assessed by immunohistochemistry in two cohorts of breast cancer comprising 643 node-negative and 127 triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) respectively. Results: In the 643 node-negative breast tumor cohort with a median follow-up of 124 months, TNBC were the most glycolytic (≈70%), followed by Her-2 (≈50%) and RH-positive cancers (≈30%). Tumoral MCT4 staining (without stromal staining) was a strong independent prognostic factor for metastasis-free survival (HR = 0.47, P = 0.02) and overall-survival (HR = 0.38, P = 0.002). These results were confirmed in the independent cohort of 127 cancer patients. Conclusion: Glycolytic markers are expressed in all breast tumors with highest expression occurring in TNBC. MCT4, the hypoxia-inducible lactate/H{sup +} symporter demonstrated the strongest deleterious impact on survival. We propose that MCT4 serves as a new prognostic factor in node-negative breast cancer and can perhaps act soon as a theranostic factor considering the current pharmacological development of MCT4 inhibitors.

  16. Alteration of the phospho- or neutral lipid content and fatty acid composition in Listeria monocytogenes due to acid adaptation mechanisms for hydrochloric, acetic and lactic acids at pH 5.5 or benzoic acid at neutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastronicolis, Sofia K; Berberi, Anita; Diakogiannis, Ioannis; Petrova, Evanthia; Kiaki, Irene; Baltzi, Triantafillia; Xenikakis, Polydoros

    2010-10-01

    This study provides a first approach to observe the effects on Listeria monocytogenes of cellular exposure to acid stress at low or neutral pH, notably how phospho- or neutral lipids are involved in this mechanism, besides the fatty acid profile alteration. A thorough investigation of the composition of polar and neutral lipids from L. monocytogenes grown at pH 5.5 in presence of hydrochloric, acetic and lactic acids, or at neutral pH 7.3 in presence of benzoic acid, is described relative to cells grown in acid-free medium. The results showed that only low pH values enhance the antimicrobial activity of an acid. We suggest that, irrespective of pH, the acid adaptation response will lead to a similar alteration in fatty acid composition [decreasing the ratio of branched chain/saturated straight fatty acids of total lipids], mainly originating from the neutral lipid class of adapted cultures. Acid adaptation in L. monocytogenes was correlated with a decrease in total lipid phosphorus and, with the exception of cells adapted to benzoic acid, this change in the amount of phosphorus reflected a higher content of the neutral lipid class. Upon acetic or benzoic acid stress the lipid phosphorus proportion was analysed in the main phospholipids present: cardiolipin, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphoaminolipid and phosphatidylinositol. Interestingly only benzoic acid had a dramatic effect on the relative quantities of these four phospholipids.

  17. Osteopetrorickets due to Snx10 deficiency in mice results from both failed osteoclast activity and loss of gastric acid-dependent calcium absorption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Ye

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in sorting nexin 10 (Snx10 have recently been found to account for roughly 4% of all human malignant osteopetrosis, some of them fatal. To study the disease pathogenesis, we investigated the expression of Snx10 and created mouse models in which Snx10 was knocked down globally or knocked out in osteoclasts. Endocytosis is severely defective in Snx10-deficient osteoclasts, as is extracellular acidification, ruffled border formation, and bone resorption. We also discovered that Snx10 is highly expressed in stomach epithelium, with mutations leading to high stomach pH and low calcium solubilization. Global Snx10-deficiency in mice results in a combined phenotype: osteopetrosis (due to osteoclast defect and rickets (due to high stomach pH and low calcium availability, resulting in impaired bone mineralization. Osteopetrorickets, the paradoxical association of insufficient mineralization in the context of a positive total body calcium balance, is thought to occur due to the inability of the osteoclasts to maintain normal calcium-phosphorus homeostasis. However, osteoclast-specific Snx10 knockout had no effect on calcium balance, and therefore led to severe osteopetrosis without rickets. Moreover, supplementation with calcium gluconate rescued mice from the rachitic phenotype and dramatically extended life span in global Snx10-deficient mice, suggesting that this may be a life-saving component of the clinical approach to Snx10-dependent human osteopetrosis that has previously gone unrecognized. We conclude that tissue-specific effects of Snx10 mutation need to be considered in clinical approaches to this disease entity. Reliance solely on hematopoietic stem cell transplantation can leave hypocalcemia uncorrected with sometimes fatal consequences. These studies established an essential role for Snx10 in bone homeostasis and underscore the importance of gastric acidification in calcium uptake.

  18. Effect of carboxylic acid on sintering of inkjet-printed copper nanoparticulate films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Kyoohee; Kim, Youngwoo; Lee, Byungyoon; Kim, Jonghee; Moon, Jooho

    2011-07-01

    The reduction effect of various carboxylic acids on inkjet-printed copper film was investigated. Carboxylic acids were exposed to the film by nitrogen gas that was bubbled through the liquid acids during the annealing process. It was observed that in the case of saturated monocarboxylic acid (formic, acetic, propionic, butyric), the acids with shorter hydrocarbon chains perform better in reducing the surface copper oxides in the printed copper conductive film. The printed films exposed to formic acid vapor exhibited the lowest resistivity (3.10 and 2.30 μΩ cm when annealed at 200 and 250 °C, respectively). In addition, the oxalic acid more effectively reduces copper oxide than formic acid and its usage can shorten the annealing time for highly conductive printed copper film. This reductive annealing process allows fabrication of copper patterns with low resistivity, (3.82 μΩ cm annealed at 250 °C) comparable to the resistivity of bulk copper.

  19. Therapeutic effects of ellagic acid on memory, hippocampus electrophysiology deficits, and elevated TNF-α level in brain due to experimental traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Mashhadizadeh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Cognitive defects such as learning and memory impairment are amongst the most repetitious sequelae after sever and moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI. It was suggested that ellagic acid (EA, an innate phenol product, display neuroprotective properties against oxidative and inflammatory damages after brain injury. The object of the current study was therapeutic properties of EA on blood-brain barrier (BBB interruption and elevated content of TNF-α in brain tissue followed by neurologic aftereffects, cognitive and brain electrophysiology deficits as outcomes of diffuse TBI in rat. Materials and Methods: TBI was induced by a 200 g weight falling by a 2-m height through a free-falling tube onto the head of anesthetized rat. TBI rats treated immediately after trauma with EA             (100 mg/kg, IP once every 8 hr until 48 hr later. Neurologic outcomes, passive avoidance task (PAT, hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP, BBB permeability and content of TNF-α in brain tissue were evaluated. Results: TBI induced significant impairments in neurological score, BBB function, PAT and hippocampal LTP in TBI+Veh group in compare with Sham+Veh (P

  20. Evidence of iron (III) reduction in γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles due to meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid functionalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Eloiza S.; Lima, Emilia C. D.; Soler, Maria A. G.; Silva, Fabio R. L.; Azevedo, Ricardo B.; Morais, Paulo C.

    2014-03-01

    In this study we report on the meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) surface functionalization of nanosized maghemite particles which were obtained from oxidation of freshly-precipitated magnetite nanoparticles. Stable magnetic sols were produced while using [DMSA]/[Fe] in a wide range (2 to 90%) of values for the surface functionalization protocol. We found experimental evidence of Fe (III) reduction down to Fe (II) in the whole range of [DMSA]/[Fe] values employed, though presenting differences for lower and higher values of DMSA/Fe molar ratio. At lower (up to 10%) [DMSA]/[Fe] values the DMSA-functionalized iron oxide core remains essentially maghemite while the reduced Fe (II) ions move out to the bulk solution as soluble species. In contrast, at higher (20% and above) [DMSA]/[Fe] values the DMSA-functionalized iron oxide core holds the reduced Fe (II) on its crystal structure. The thiol group oxidation, via disulfide bridge formation, plays a key role in the Fe (III) reduction to Fe (II) during the surface functionalization process. We hypothesize that at higher [DMSA]/[Fe] values (20% and above) intermolecular disulfide bridge formation dominates, leading to the onset of a network at the nanoparticle’s surface, thus preventing the surface reduced Fe (II) ions moving out into the bulk solution. Experimental evidence based on visual inspection and different techniques (UV-vis-IR spectroscopy, chemical analysis, x-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy) are present to support the model picture herein introduced.

  1. Effects of docosahexaenoic acid and methylmercury on child's brain development due to consumption of fish by Finnish mother during pregnancy: a probabilistic modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leino, O; Karjalainen, A K; Tuomisto, J T

    2013-04-01

    Fish contains both beneficial substances e.g. docosahexaenoic acids but also harmful compounds e.g. methylmercury. Importantly, the health effects caused by these two substances can be evaluated in one common end point, intelligence quotient (IQ), providing a more transparent analysis. We estimated health effects of maternal fish consumption on child's central nervous system by creating a model with three alternative maternal fish consumption scenarios (lean fish, fatty fish, and current fish consumption). Additionally, we analyzed impacts of both regular fish consumption and extreme fish consumption habits. At the individual level, the simulated net effects were small, encompassing a range of one IQ point in all scenarios. Fatty fish consumption, however, clearly generated a beneficial net IQ effect, and lean fish consumption evoked an adverse net IQ effect. In view of the current fish consumption pattern of Finnish mothers the benefits and risks seem to more or less compensate each other. This study clearly shows the significance of which fish species are consumed during pregnancy and lactation, and the results can be generalized to apply to typical western population fish consumption habits.

  2. Incidence of gonorrhoea due to penicillinase producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Japan 1981-3 and treatment using a new antibiotic combination, BRL25000 (amoxycillin and clavulanic acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osato, K; Tsugami, H; Harada, K; Maruyama, J

    1986-01-01

    During the three years 1981-3, 134 (9.1%) of 1473 patients presenting at our clinics were found to be infected with penicillinase producing strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (PPNG). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of benzylpenicillin and ampicillin against these PPNG strains were 8 mg/l or more, whereas against non-PPNG strains they were consistently 4 mg/l or less. In contrast, the MIC of BRL25000 (two parts amoxycillin and one part clavulanic acid, the beta lactamase inhibitor) was 4 mg/l or less even against PPNG strains. MICs of a number of other drugs commonly used to treat gonorrhoea, such as cephaloridine, cefoxitin, tetracycline, doxycycline, minocycline, kanamycin, and spectinomycin, showed no appreciable differences between non-PPNG and PPNG strains and the MIC of cephaloridine in particular was relatively high. BRL25000 proved to be very effective in the treatment of PPNG infection and cured all of 121 patients treated. A daily dose of 2.25g, cured 105 patients in two days, 11 patients in three days, four patients in four days, and one patient in five days. A new rapid diagnostic method for detecting PPNG strains, capable of application at an outpatient clinic and providing a result on the following day, is described. Images PMID:3089905

  3. Rapid loss of adiponectin-stimulated fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle of rats fed a high fat diet is not due to altered muscle redox state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Ian R W; Dyck, David J

    2012-01-01

    A high fat (HF) diet rapidly impairs the ability of adiponectin (Ad) to stimulate fatty acid (FA) oxidation in oxidative soleus muscle, but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Mere days of HF feeding also increase the muscle's production and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and shift cellular redox to a more oxidized state. It seems plausible that this shift towards a more oxidized state might act as negative feedback to suppress the ability of Ad to stimulate FA oxidation and generate more ROS. Therefore, we sought to determine whether i) a shift towards a more oxidized redox state (reduction in GSH/2GSSG) coincided with impaired Ad-stimulated palmitate oxidation in oxidative and glycolytic rodent muscle after 5 days of HF feeding (60% kCal), and ii) if supplementation with the antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) could prevent the HF-diet induced impairment in Ad-response. Globular Ad (gAd) increased palmitate oxidation in isolated soleus and EDL muscles by 42% and 34%, respectively (pmuscles. HF feeding decreased total GSH (-26%, pmuscle. Furthermore, direct incubations with H(2)O(2) did not impair Ad-stimulated FA oxidation in either muscle. In conclusion, our data indicates that skeletal muscle Ad resistance is rapidly induced in both oxidative and glycolytic muscle, independently of altered cellular redox state.

  4. Late-Onset Anaphylaxis Due to Poly (γ-glutamic acid in the Soup of Commercial Cold Chinese Noodles in a Patient with Allergy to Fermented Soybeans (Natto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko Inomata

    2011-01-01

    Discussion: These results indicated that in the present case, the relevant allergen of late-onset anaphylaxis may have been PGA in all episodes and that the patient had been sensitized by PGA through natto ingestion. PGA is produced by Bacillus subtilis during fermentation and is a high-molecular, biodegradable polymer. The late onset is therefore, hypothesized to be due to a delayed absorption of PGA, as PGA biodegrades to peptides sufficiently small to be absorbed in the bowel. PGA has recently been applied to a wide range of fields such as foods, cosmetics, and medicine. Therefore, patients with late-onset anaphylaxis to PGA of natto should avoid not only natto but also other materials containing PGA.

  5. [Suicidal poisoning due to hydrogen sulfide produced by mixing a liquid bath essence containing sulfur and a toilet bowl cleaner containing hydrochloric acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kanya; Fukushima, Hirofumi

    2008-04-01

    A 21-year-old man was found dead in a car. There were 9 empty bottles of 610HAP (a 440 g bottle of a liquid bath essence containing 160-195 g/kg sulfur) and 10 of Sunpole (a 500 mL bottle of a toilet bowl cleaner containing 9.5% HCl) in the car. The car doors were sealed with tape, and there was a strong smell of sulfur in and around the car. GC/MS analysis showed 0.66 microg/mL sulfide and 0.14 micromol/mL thiosulfate in the blood sample. The concentration of thiosulfate in the urine sample was normal. Police investigation concluded that the man killed himself by aspirating hydrogen sulfide that had been produced by mixing 610 HAP and Sunpole. To examine the amount of hydrogen sulfide produced, small portions of these liquids were mixed in a 560-mL volume flask. The results showed that 0.1 mL of each liquid produced 4,950 ppm of hydrogen sulfide, and 0.2 mL of each produced 10,800 ppm. According to these results, if the cabin volume is assumed to be 3,300 L, mixing 120 mL of each liquid produces a lethal level of hydrogen sulfide, i.e., 1,000 ppm. This was a rare suicide case, and it revealed the hazards of mixing of liquid bath essences containing sulfur and toilet bowl cleaners containing hydrochloric acid.

  6. PPARα-Deficient ob/ob Obese Mice Become More Obese and Manifest Severe Hepatic Steatosis Due to Decreased Fatty Acid Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qian; Jia, Yuzhi; Yang, Gongshe; Zhang, Xiaohong; Boddu, Prajwal C; Petersen, Bryon; Narsingam, Saiprasad; Zhu, Yi-Jun; Thimmapaya, Bayar; Kanwar, Yashpal S; Reddy, Janardan K

    2015-05-01

    Obesity poses an increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome and closely associated nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, including liver cancer. Satiety hormone leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice, considered paradigmatic of nutritional obesity, develop hepatic steatosis but are less prone to developing liver tumors. Sustained activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) in ob/ob mouse liver increases fatty acid oxidation (FAO), which contributes to attenuation of obesity but enhances liver cancer risk. To further evaluate the role of PPARα-regulated hepatic FAO and energy burning in the progression of fatty liver disease, we generated PPARα-deficient ob/ob (PPARα(Δ)ob/ob) mice. These mice become strikingly more obese compared to ob/ob littermates, with increased white and brown adipose tissue content and severe hepatic steatosis. Hepatic steatosis becomes more severe in fasted PPARα(Δ)ob/ob mice as they fail to up-regulate FAO systems. PPARα(Δ)ob/ob mice also do not respond to peroxisome proliferative and mitogenic effects of PPARα agonist Wy-14,643. Although PPARα(Δ)ob/ob mice are severely obese, there was no significant increase in liver tumor incidence, even when maintained on a diet containing Wy-14,643. We conclude that sustained PPARα activation-related increase in FAO in fatty livers of obese ob/ob mice increases liver cancer risk, whereas deletion of PPARα in ob/ob mice aggravates obesity and hepatic steatosis. However, it does not lead to liver tumor development because of reduction in FAO and energy burning. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Binding of straight-chain saturated dicarboxylic acids to albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonsgard, J H; Mendelson, S A; Meredith, S C

    1988-11-01

    Dicarboxylic acids are prominent features of several diseases, including Reye's syndrome. Long-chain dicarboxylic acids have profound effects on the function and structure of isolated mitochondria, suggesting that they could contribute to the mitochondrial dysfunction in Reye's syndrome. Binding of fatty acids to albumin and the intracellular fatty acid-binding proteins is important in regulating the transport and metabolism of fatty acids and protects against the toxic effects of unbound fatty acids. We studied the binding of dicarboxylic acids to defatted albumin using equilibrium dialysis to assess to what extent dicarboxylic acids are likely to be bound in the plasma of patients. Dicarboxylic acids bind weakly to albumin in a molar ratio of 3.8, 4.2, 1.6, 0.8, and 0.7 to 1 for octadecanedioic, hexadecanedioic, tetradecanedioic, dodecanedioic, and decanedioic acid, respectively. The dissociation constants for long-chain dicarboxylic acids are 100-1,000-fold larger than those of comparable monocarboxylic acids. Oleate competes with dicarboxylic acid and reduces the moles of dicarboxylic acid bound per mol of albumin to less than 1. Octanoate inhibits dicarboxylic acid binding. Our observations indicate that in Reye's syndrome, substantial concentrations of dicarboxylic acids of patients may be free and potentially toxic to mitochondria and other cellular processes.

  8. Exantema hemorrágico por virus dengue inducido por ácido acetil-salicílico Haemorrhagic exanthema due to dengue virus induced by acetylsalicylic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Valerio

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El dengue, enfermedad infecciosa vírica propia de los climas tropicales, se considera una patología reemergente que ha dado lugar a graves epidemias en la última década. En la expansión del virus y de su mosquito vector se barajan factores relacionados con la alteración humana del medio, con la rapidez en el tránsito de mercancias y personas y debidos al cambio climático. Como reflejo de ello, se asiste a un aumento de casos importados que, al ser una enfermedad con periodo de incubación corto (7-10 días, afecta especialmente a turistas procedentes de áreas endémicas. El reconocimiento de los antecedentes personales de viajes, de los síntomas-guía de la enfermedad y de las potenciales complicaciones (dengue hemorrágico deben ser incluidos en una anamnesis para el estudio de fiebre de origen desconocido o de exantema febril. Se presenta el caso de una paciente cuya clínica de dengue clásico se agravó por el autotratamiento con ácido acetil-salicílico.Dengue fever, a viral infectious disease characteristic of tropical climates, is considered to be a re-emergent pathology responsible for several serious outbreaks in the last decade. Some factors have been involved in the spread of the virus and its vectorial mosquito carrier: human alteration of the ecosystems, improvement and speed in the transit of goods and people and climate changes. As a reflection of this, an increase in imported cases is probable, especially in tourists coming from endemic areas, considering its short period of incubation (7-10 days. The recognition of personal antecedents of journeys, the main symptoms of the disease and the potential presence of complications (haemorrhagic dengue should be included in the examination of fever of unknown origin or feverish exanthema. The case of a patient is presented whose clinical picture of classic dengue fever was worsened by self-treatment with acetylsalicylic acid.

  9. Free acetate production by rat hepatocytes during peroxisomal fatty acid and dicarboxylic acid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, F; Bergseth, S; Rørtveit, T; Christiansen, E N; Bremer, J

    1989-06-25

    The fate of the acetyl-CoA units released during peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation was studied in isolated hepatocytes from normal and peroxisome-proliferated rats. Ketogenesis and hydrogen peroxide generation were employed as indicators of mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, respectively. Butyric and hexanoic acids were employed as mitochondrial substrates, 1, omega-dicarboxylic acids as predominantly peroxisomal substrates, and lauric acid as a substrate for both mitochondria and peroxisomes. Ketogenesis from dicarboxylic acids was either absent or very low in normal and peroxisome-proliferated hepatocytes, but free acetate release was detected at rates that could account for all the acetyl-CoA produced in peroxisomes by dicarboxylic and also by monocarboxylic acids. Mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation also led to free acetate generation but at low rates relative to ketogenesis. The origin of the acetate released was confirmed employing [1-14C]dodecanedioic acid. Thus, the activity of peroxisomes might contribute significantly to the free acetate generation known to occur during fatty acid oxidation in rats and possibly also in humans.

  10. Organic acids in continental background aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbeck, Andreas; Puxbaum, Hans

    With a newly developed method aerosol samples from three distinctly different continental sites were analyzed: an urban site (Vienna), a savanna site in South Africa (Nylsvley Nature Reserve, NNR) and a free tropospheric continental background site (Sonnblick Observatory, SBO). In all samples a range of monocarboxylic acids (MCAs) and dicarboxylic acids (DCAs) has been identified and quantified. The three most abundant MCAs in Vienna were the C18, C16 and C14 acids with concentrations of 66, 45 and 36 ng m -3, respectively. At the mid tropospheric background site (SBO) the three most abundant MCAs were the C18, C16 and C12 acid. For the DCAs at all three sites oxalic, malonic and succinic acid were the dominant compounds. For some individual compounds an information about the sources could be obtained. For example the determined unsaturated MCAs in South Africa appear to result from biogenic sources whereas in Vienna those acids are considered to be derived from combustion processes. Oxalic and glyoxalic acid appear to have a free tropospheric air chemical source. The relative high amounts at SBO in comparison to Vienna can only be explained by secondary formation of oxalic acid in the atmosphere.

  11. Effect of morin-5'-sulfonic acid sodium salt on the expression of apoptosis related proteins caspase 3, Bax and Bcl 2 due to the mercury induced oxidative stress in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Rantham Subramaniam; Sadiq, Abdul Majeeth Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Many environmental contaminants have been reported to disturb the pro-oxidant or antioxidant balance of the cells by inducing oxidative stress. Oxidative stress mediated by the HgCl2 induces DNA, protein and lipid oxidation resulted in necrosis or apoptosis, or both. Currently flavonoids are being emerging topic and reported to have antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti- tumor and antioxidant activities. Morin is one of the flavonoid protects the cells from oxygen free radical damage and scavenges the free radicals and metals and also heals the injured cells commercially. Morin hydrate is sparingly soluble in water. Hence, the water soluble morin -5'- sulfonic acid sodium salt (NaMSA) was selected and synthesized. Aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of morin-5'-sulfonic acid sodium salt on the expression of apoptosis related proteins caspase 3, Bax and Bcl 2 due to the mercury induced oxidative stress in albino rats.. The experimental rats were exposed to sub lethal concentration of mercuric chloride (1.25mg/kg) and the ameliorating effect of NaMSA was studied by using apoptotic protein markers Bax and caspase-3 and Bcl-2. The obtained results were analyzed using one way analysis of variance by the Duncan's Multiple comparison test to determine the level of significance (p) and pBax and caspase-3 and a decreased expression was noted in the Bcl-2 level compared with control bands significantly (pBax, Caspase-3 and Bcl-2 levels compared with control rats. Hence, the membrane damage was protected, stopped the cell death and apoptosis. This could be due to the morin-5'-sulfonic acid sodium salt effective chelation action on the HgCl2 generated free radicals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Identification of diamino acids in the Murchison meteorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meierhenrich, Uwe J; Muñoz Caro, Guillermo M; Bredehöft, Jan Hendrik; Jessberger, Elmar K; Thiemann, Wolfram H-P

    2004-06-22

    Amino acids identified in the Murchison chondritic meteorite by molecular and isotopic analysis are thought to have been delivered to the early Earth by asteroids, comets, and interplanetary dust particles where they may have triggered the appearance of life by assisting in the synthesis of proteins via prebiotic polycondensation reactions [Oró, J. (1961) Nature 190, 389-390; Chyba, C. F. & Sagan, C. (1992) Nature 355, 125-132]. We report the identification of diamino acids in the Murchison meteorite by new enantioselective GC-MS analyses. dl-2,3-diaminopropanoic acid, dl-2,4-diaminobutanoic acid, 4,4'-diaminoisopentanoic acid, 3,3'-diaminoisobutanoic acid, and 2,3-diaminobutanoic acid were detected in the parts per billion range after chemical transformation into N,N-diethoxycarbonyl ethyl ester derivatives. The chiral diamino acids show a racemic ratio. Laboratory data indicate that diamino acids support the formation of polypeptide structures under primitive Earth conditions [Brack, A. & Orgel, L. E. (1975) Nature 256, 383-387] and suggest polycondensation reactions of diamino acids into early peptide nucleic acid material as one feasible pathway for the prebiotic evolution of DNA and RNA genomes [Joyce, G. F. (2002) Nature 418, 214-221]. The results obtained in this study favor the assumption that not only amino acids (as the required monomers of proteins) form in interstellar/circumstellar environments, but also the family of diamino monocarboxylic acids, which might have been relevant in prebiotic chemistry.

  13. Identification of diamino acids in the Murchison meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meierhenrich, Uwe J.; Muñoz Caro, Guillermo M.; Hendrik Bredehöft, Jan; Jessberger, Elmar K.; Thiemann, Wolfram H.-P.

    Amino acids identified in the Murchison chondritic meteorite by molecular and isotopic analysis are thought to have been delivered to the early Earth by asteroids, comets, and interplanetary dust particles where they may have triggered the appearance of life by assisting in the synthesis of proteins via prebiotic polycondensation reactions [Oró, J. (1961) Nature 190, 389-390; Chyba, C. F. & Sagan, C. (1992) Nature 355, 125-132]. We report the identification of diamino acids in the Murchison meteorite by new enantioselective GC-MS analyses. DL-2,3-diaminopropanoic acid, DL-2,4-diaminobutanoic acid, 4,4'-diaminoisopentanoic acid, 3,3'-diaminoisobutanoic acid, and 2,3-diaminobutanoic acid were detected in the parts per billion range after chemical transformation into N,N-diethoxycarbonyl ethyl ester derivatives. The chiral diamino acids show a racemic ratio. Laboratory data indicate that diamino acids support the formation of polypeptide structures under primitive Earth conditions [Brack, A. & Orgel, L. E. (1975) Nature 256, 383-387] and suggest polycondensation reactions of diamino acids into early peptide nucleic acid material as one feasible pathway for the prebiotic evolution of DNA and RNA genomes [Joyce, G. F. (2002) Nature 418, 214-221]. The results obtained in this study favor the assumption that not only amino acids (as the required monomers of proteins) form in interstellar/circumstellar environments, but also the family of diamino monocarboxylic acids, which might have been relevant in prebiotic chemistry.

  14. Persistent fibrosis in the liver of choline-deficient and iron-supplemented L-amino acid-defined diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis rat due to continuing oxidative stress after choline supplementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi-Yorimoto, Ayano, E-mail: ayano.takeuchi@astellas.com [Drug Safety Research Labs, Astellas Pharma Inc., Osaka 532-8514 (Japan); Noto, Takahisa [Drug Safety Research Labs, Astellas Pharma Inc., Osaka 532-8514 (Japan); Yamada, Atsushi [Drug Safety Research Division, Astellas Research Technologies Co., Ltd., Osaka 532-8514 (Japan); Miyamae, Yoichi; Oishi, Yuji; Matsumoto, Masahiro [Drug Safety Research Labs, Astellas Pharma Inc., Osaka 532-8514 (Japan)

    2013-05-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by combined pathology of steatosis, lobular inflammation, fibrosis, and hepatocellular degeneration, with systemic symptoms of diabetes or hyperlipidemia, all in the absence of alcohol abuse. Given the therapeutic importance and conflicting findings regarding the potential for healing the histopathologic features of NASH in humans, particularly fibrosis, we investigated the reversibility of NASH-related findings in Wistar rats fed a choline-deficient and iron-supplemented L-amino acid-defined (CDAA) diet for 12 weeks, with a recovery period of 7 weeks, during which the diets were switched to a choline-sufficient and iron-supplemented L-amino acid-defined (CSAA) one. Analysis showed that steatosis and inflammation were significantly resolved by the end of the recovery period, along with decreases in AST and ALT activities within 4 weeks. In contrast, fibrosis remained even after the recovery period, to an extent similar to that in continuously CDAA-fed animals. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunohistochemical investigations revealed that expression of some factors indicating oxidative stress (CYP2E1, 4-HNE, and iNOS) were elevated, whereas catalase and SOD1 were decreased, and a hypoxic state and CD34-positive neovascularization were evident even after the recovery period, although the fibrogenesis pathway by activated α-SMA-positive hepatic stellate cells via TGF-β and TIMPs decreased to the CSAA group level. In conclusion, persistent fibrosis was noted after the recovery period of 7 weeks, possibly due to sustained hypoxia and oxidative stress supposedly caused by capillarization. Otherwise, histopathological features of steatosis and inflammation, as well as serum AST and ALT activities, were recovered. - Highlights: ► NASH-like liver lesions are induced in rats by feeding a CDAA diet. ► Steatosis and lobular inflammation are resolved after switching to a

  15. General (medium-chain) acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (non-ketotic dicarboxylic aciduria): quantitative urinary excretion pattern of 23 biologically significant organic acids in three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, N; Kølvraa, S; Rasmussen, K; Mortensen, P B; Divry, P; David, M; Hobolth, N

    1983-08-15

    Urinary analysis of the pattern of 23 organic acid metabolites derived from fatty acids in three patients with general (medium-chain) acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency was performed. Although there exist quantitative differences in the excreted amounts of the different metabolites in the three patients the qualitative picture was the same. The excretion of adipic, suberic and sebacic acids was substantial, whereas that of dodecanedioic acid was within or just above control limit. The monounsaturated C6-C10-dicarboxylic acid excretion was only marginally or not increased. 5-OH-hexanoic acid and hexanoylglycine were excreted in excessive amounts, whereas 7-OH-octanoic acid, 9-OH-decanoic acid, octanoylglycine and decanoylglycine were excreted in limited amounts. The excreted amounts of 6-OH-hexanoic, 8-OH-octanoic and 10-OH-decanoic acids were not or only marginally elevated compared to controls. In one of the patients the excretion of ethylmalonic and methylsuccinic acids was enhanced, whereas the excretion of these two acids in the two other patients was comparable to that in controls. The urinary excretion of hexanoic, octanoic, decanoic and dodecanoic acids was just a little above the control limit, whereas the esterified hexanoic and octanoic acids were excreted in appreciable amounts. It is argued that the microsomal omega- and omega-1-oxidation systems are involved in the dicarboxylic and omega-1-OH-monocarboxylic acids formation at C10 and C12 level and that the C8-C6-dicarboxylic and omega-1-OH-monocarboxylic acids are formed from higher chained acids by beta-oxidation in both mitochondria and peroxisomes.

  16. alpha,omega-Dicarboxylic acid accumulation by acyl-CoA oxidase deficient mutants of Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Martha S; Mokgoro, Masego M; Setati, Evodia; Nicaud, Jean-Marc

    2005-06-01

    alpha,omega-Dicarboxylic acid accumulation from alkanes and alkane degradation intermediates was investigated using Yarrowia lipolytica wild type strain W29 as well as a double, a triple and a quadruple POX-deleted strains. Six genes, POX1 through POX6, encode six acyl-CoA oxidase isozymes in Y. lipolytica. All the strains accumulated dodecanedioic acid (5-20 mg ml(-1)) from the diterminal functionalised 1,12-dodecane diol and 12-hydroxdodecanoic acid. The quadruple-deleted strain was the only strain that was able to accumulate dioic acids from C16 alkanol and monocarboxylic acid as well as from C12, C14 and C16 alkanes (maximum 8 mg ml(-1) from dodecane).

  17. Gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) disruption of passive avoidance learning in the day-old chick appears to be due to its effect on GABAB not gamma-hydroxybutyric [corrected] acid (GHB) receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Joanne M; Hazi, Agnes; Hale, Mathew W; Milsome, Sarah L; Crowe, Simon F

    2009-02-11

    Gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) is a prodrug to gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and metabolises to GHB when ingested. Discrimination stimulus studies report generalisation of effects of GHB to GBL. While amnesia is one of the most commonly reported symptoms of GHB's ingestion in human users, as yet few studies have examined this effect. Although an endogenous GHB specific receptor is present in the brain, several studies have indicated that the clinical effects of exogenous doses of GBL/GHB are due to its action on GABA(B) receptors rather than on the GHB receptor. In this series of studies, New Hampshire x White leghorn cockerels were trained using a modified version of the passive avoidance learning task. Subcutaneous injections of GBL induced a memory deficit by 10 min post-training, which persisted for at least 24 h. No effect on memory was seen with administration of the specific GHB agonist NCS-356 (gamma-p-chlorophenyl-trans-4-hydroxycrotonate). The GBL-induced memory deficit appeared similar to the deficit produced by baclofen, where the antagonist facilitated learning. Additionally, GBL-induced memory deficit was ameliorated by application of a GABA(B) antagonist. The results support the hypothesis that GBL exerts its influence on memory via the GABA(B) receptor rather than by the specific GHB receptor.

  18. 不同稀释剂中三辛胺相对于有机羧酸碱度的研究%Relative Basicity of Trioctylamine to Carboxylic Acid in Selected Organic Diluents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单欣昌; 秦炜; 戴猷元

    2005-01-01

    The relative basicity of trioctylamine (TOA), pKa,BS, in protic polar diluent (1-octanol), non-protic polar diluent [methyl iso-butyl ketone (MIBK)] and inert diluent (CCl4) were determined for 11 mono-carboxylic acids, and the dependence of pKa,BS on the nature of solute and diluent type was discussed. The results show that pKa,BS determined by half neutralization with the solute carboxylic acid is in the order of 1-octanol>MIBK>CCl4for a fixed TOA concentration, and it increases with increasing acidity and hydrophobicity of the carboxylic acid.Compared with two parameters of the solute extracted (acidity and hydrophobicity), pKa,BS is more sensitive to hydrophobicity of the acid. A mathematic equation representing relationship between the apparent extraction equilibrium (K11) and the system properties (pKa,BS and pKa) was proposed: lg K11 = 2pKa,BS-pKa. It is proved that the extraction equilibrium of mono-carboxylic acids can be predicted by the above equation with reasonable accuracy.

  19. Acetic Acid Causes Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Induces the Unfolded Protein Response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nozomi Kawazoe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Since acetic acid inhibits the growth and fermentation ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it is one of the practical hindrances to the efficient production of bioethanol from a lignocellulosic biomass. Although extensive information is available on yeast response to acetic acid stress, the involvement of endoplasmic reticulum (ER and unfolded protein response (UPR has not been addressed. We herein demonstrated that acetic acid causes ER stress and induces the UPR. The accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER and activation of Ire1p and Hac1p, an ER-stress sensor and ER stress-responsive transcription factor, respectively, were induced by a treatment with acetic acid stress (>0.2% v/v. Other monocarboxylic acids such as propionic acid and sorbic acid, but not lactic acid, also induced the UPR. Additionally, ire1Δ and hac1Δ cells were more sensitive to acetic acid than wild-type cells, indicating that activation of the Ire1p-Hac1p pathway is required for maximum tolerance to acetic acid. Furthermore, the combination of mild acetic acid stress (0.1% acetic acid and mild ethanol stress (5% ethanol induced the UPR, whereas neither mild ethanol stress nor mild acetic acid stress individually activated Ire1p, suggesting that ER stress is easily induced in yeast cells during the fermentation process of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. It was possible to avoid the induction of ER stress caused by acetic acid and the combined stress by adjusting extracellular pH.

  20. Acetic Acid Causes Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Induces the Unfolded Protein Response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawazoe, Nozomi; Kimata, Yukio; Izawa, Shingo

    2017-01-01

    Since acetic acid inhibits the growth and fermentation ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it is one of the practical hindrances to the efficient production of bioethanol from a lignocellulosic biomass. Although extensive information is available on yeast response to acetic acid stress, the involvement of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and unfolded protein response (UPR) has not been addressed. We herein demonstrated that acetic acid causes ER stress and induces the UPR. The accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER and activation of Ire1p and Hac1p, an ER-stress sensor and ER stress-responsive transcription factor, respectively, were induced by a treatment with acetic acid stress (>0.2% v/v). Other monocarboxylic acids such as propionic acid and sorbic acid, but not lactic acid, also induced the UPR. Additionally, ire1Δ and hac1Δ cells were more sensitive to acetic acid than wild-type cells, indicating that activation of the Ire1p-Hac1p pathway is required for maximum tolerance to acetic acid. Furthermore, the combination of mild acetic acid stress (0.1% acetic acid) and mild ethanol stress (5% ethanol) induced the UPR, whereas neither mild ethanol stress nor mild acetic acid stress individually activated Ire1p, suggesting that ER stress is easily induced in yeast cells during the fermentation process of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. It was possible to avoid the induction of ER stress caused by acetic acid and the combined stress by adjusting extracellular pH.

  1. Acetic acid acts as an elicitor exerting a chitosan-like effect on xanthone biosynthesis in Hypericum perforatum L. root cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valletta, Alessio; De Angelis, Giulia; Badiali, Camilla; Brasili, Elisa; Miccheli, Alfredo; Di Cocco, Maria Enrica; Pasqua, Gabriella

    2016-05-01

    Acetic acid acts as a signal molecule, strongly enhancing xanthone biosynthesis in Hypericum perforatum root cultures. This activity is specific, as demonstrated by the comparison with other short-chain monocarboxylic acids. We have recently demonstrated that Hypericum perforatum root cultures constitutively produce xanthones at higher levels than the root of the plant and that they respond to chitosan (CHIT) elicitation with a noteworthy increase in xanthone production. In the present study, CHIT was administered to H. perforatum root cultures using three different elicitation protocols, and the increase in xanthone production was evaluated. The best results (550 % xanthone increase) were obtained by subjecting the roots to a single elicitation with 200 mg l(-1) CHIT and maintaining the elicitor in the culture medium for 7 days. To discriminate the effect of CHIT from that of the solvent, control experiments were performed by administering AcOH alone at the same concentration used for CHIT solubilization. Unexpectedly, AcOH caused an increase in xanthone production comparable to that observed in response to CHIT. Feeding experiments with (13)C-labeled AcOH demonstrated that this compound was not incorporated into the xanthone skeleton. Other short-chain monocarboxylic acids (i.e., propionic and butyric acid) have little or no effect on the production of xanthones. These results indicate that AcOH acts as a specific signal molecule, able to greatly enhance xanthone biosynthesis in H. perforatum root cultures.

  2. When a death apparently associated to sexual assault is instead a natural death due to idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome: The importance of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid analysis in vitreous humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Portelli, Francesca; Montana, Angelo; Rotolo, Maria Concetta; Pichini, Simona; Maresi, Emiliano

    2017-05-01

    We here report a case involving a 21-year-old female, found dead in a central square of a city in the south of Italy. Initial evidences and circumstances were suggestive of a death associated with a sexual assault. Two peripheral blood and two vitreous humor samples were collected for the purpose of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) testing from the dead body at two different post-mortem intervals (PMIs): approximately 2 (t0) and 36 (t1) hours. The obtained results showed that, between t0 and t1, there was an increase of GHB concentrations in peripheral blood and vitreous humor of 66.3% and 8.1%, respectively. This case was the first evidence of GHB post mortem production in a dead body and not in vitro, showing that vitreous humor is less affected than peripheral blood in GHB post-mortem production. The value detected at t1 in peripheral blood (53.4µg/mL) exceeded the proposed cut-off and if interpreted alone would have led to erroneous conclusions. This was not the case of vitreous humor GHB, whose post-mortem increase was minimal and it allowed to exclude a GHB exposure. Only after a broad forensic investigation including a complete autopsy, serological, histological, toxicological and haematology analyses, a diagnosis of idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome, a myeloproliferative disorder characterized by persistent eosinophilia associated with damage to multiple organs, was made and the cause of death was due to a pulmonary eosinophilic vasculitis responsible for an acute respiratory failure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Radiosynthesis and Evaluation of [(11)C]3-Hydroxycyclopent-1-enecarboxylic Acid as Potential PET Ligand for the High-Affinity γ-Hydroxybutyric Acid Binding Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Claus H; Hansen, Hanne D; Bay, Tina

    2017-01-01

    the (11)C-labeling and subsequent evaluation of [(11)C]HOCPCA in a domestic pig, as a PET-radioligand for visualization of the high-affinity GHB binding sites in the live pig brain. To investigate the regional binding of HOCPCA in pig brain prior to in vivo PET studies, in vitro quantitative......γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is an endogenous neuroactive substance and proposed neurotransmitter with affinity for both low- and high-affinity binding sites. A radioligand with high and specific affinity toward the high-affinity GHB binding site would be a unique tool toward a more complete...... understanding of this population of binding sites. With its high specific affinity and monocarboxylate transporter (MCT1) mediated transport across the blood-brain barrier in pharmacological doses, 3-hydroxycyclopent-1-enecarboxylic acid (HOCPCA) seems like a suitable PET radiotracer candidate. Here, we report...

  4. In vitro studies on the oxidation of medium-chain dicarboxylic acids in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kølvraa, S; Gregersen, N

    1986-05-21

    The degradation of medium-chained dicarboxylic (DC) acids was investigated on purified mitochondria and peroxisomes. Intact organelles were incubated with dodecanedioic acid (DC12), suberic acid (DC8) and adipic acid (DC6), and the production of lower-chained DC-acids and of acetyl-CoA + acetyl-carnitine was monitored. It was shown, that intact peroxisomes could beta-oxidize DC12, DC10, and DC8 at least as far as DC6, while intact mitochondria readily beta-oxidized DC12, and DC10 as far as succinic acid. DC8 and DC6 were not oxidized by intact mitochondria when these two acids were presented externally to the intact organelle. When they were formed intramitochondrially from DC12 and DC10, both DC8 and DC6 were, however, to a great extent beta-oxidized as far as succinic acid. The major reason for this difference between mitochondrial oxidation of externally and internally located DC8 and DC6 seems to be an inability to transport these two acids through the mitochondrial membrane. For DC12 and DC10, the mitochondrial transport systems, which were indicated to be identical to the systems used by the corresponding monocarboxylic acids, were found to be rate-limiting in the beta-oxidation of these acids. A contributing factor to the undetectable beta-oxidation of externally located DC8 and DC6 may also be, that the Km values of DC8-CoA (460 +/- 70 mumol/l) and DC6-CoA (980 +/- 90 mumol/l) towards the acyl-CoA dehydrogenases are very high. These results imply that very high concentrations of intermediates are created intramitochondrially during beta-oxidation, concentrations which are probably only formed through formation of DC8-CoA and DC6-CoA from longer DC-acids and not by transport from outside the mitochondria. The data presented thus for the first time give evidence to a pathway for medium-chained monocarboxylic acids (especially lauric acid and decanoic acid) through cytosolic omega-oxidation followed by activation, transport over the mitochondrial membrane and

  5. [Prevention of congenital malformations by means of folic acid - insurmountable problems due to the German penal code and German drug legislation when preparing a preconceptional model in Saxony-Anhalt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rösch, C; Steinbicker, V; Robra, B P; Kolbe, M; Heinrich, C

    2001-07-01

    For the last 20 years the prophylactic effect of the vitamin folic acid against the occurrence of neural tube defects has been known but in Germany this fact has not been realized by the public. The recommendations by medical institutions fail, among other reasons, because a folic acid prescription by gynaecologists comes too late in the course of events, i.e., women go to the gynaecologist when pregnancy has already set in and it is too late for preventive measures. An effective folic acid prophylaxis must take place before the onset of pregnancy. Data from the regional surveillance of congenital anomalies of the German Federal State of Saxony-Anhalt and interviews with women in maternity, as well as gynaecologists, indicate that there is a substantial knowledge deficit concerning folic acid prophylaxis. In 1998, therefore, a working group was set up in Saxony-Anhalt. It comprises representatives from interested institutions and has the goal of rectifying the knowledge deficit of women of childbearing age by way of a broad-based campaign while making use of the results of regional congenital anomalies monitoring. A pharmaceutical company was enlisted for cost-free distribution of its folic acid product. Legal problems with the prescription drug laws, the law against unfair competitive practices, the advertising of medicaments law and the SGB V (social code) made it impossible to procure multivitamins containing folic acid free of charge for women wanting a child. A highly differentiated legislation has hitherto prevented an elementary improvement in prevention.

  6. Hypoxia optimises tumour growth by controlling nutrient import and acidic metabolite export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Scott K; Cormerais, Yann; Marchiq, Ibtissam; Pouyssegur, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    In their quest for survival and successful growth, cancer cells optimise their cellular processes to enable them to outcompete normal cells in their microenvironment. In essence cancer cells: (i) enhance uptake of nutrients/metabolites, (ii) utilise nutrients more efficiently via metabolic alterations and (iii) deal with the metabolic waste products in a way that furthers their progression while hampering the survival of normal tissue. Hypoxia Inducible Factors (HIFs) act as essential drivers of these adaptations via the promotion of numerous membrane proteins including glucose transporters (GLUTs), monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs), amino-acid transporters (LAT1, xCT), and acid-base regulating carbonic anhydrases (CAs). In addition to a competitive growth advantage for tumour cells, these HIF-regulated proteins are implicated in metastasis, cancer 'stemness' and the immune response. Current research indicates that combined targeting of these HIF-regulated membrane proteins in tumour cells will provide promising therapeutic strategies in the future.

  7. Genomic study of the absorption mechanism of p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid of extract of Ananas comosus L. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Yun-jie; Zhu, Chun-yan

    2015-03-01

    Cardiac disease has emerged as the leading cause of death worldwide, and food rich in phenolic acids has drawn much attention as sources of active substances of hypolipidemic drug. Ananas comosus L. (pineapple) is one of the most popular tropical and subtropical fruits. Isolated from pineapple leaves, EAL(Extract of Ananas Comosus L. Leaves) is rich in phenolic acids, such as p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and other phenolics, highly relevant to the putative cardiovascular-protective effects, which suggests its potential to be a new plant medicine for treatment of cardiac disease, but little is known about absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of EAL in animals or human beings. In this study, we employed cDNA microarray, Caco-2 cell lines, and rat intestinal model to explore the absorption behavior of p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid in EAL. The permeation of 2 substances was concentration and time dependent. Results also indicated that monocarboxylic acid transporter was involved in the transepithelial transport of p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid.

  8. Diplopia due to Dacryops

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmi Duman; Reşat Duman; Mehmet Balcı

    2013-01-01

    Dacryops is a lacrimal ductal cyst. It is known that it can cause globe displacement, motility restriction, and proptosis because of the mass effect. Diplopia due to dacryops has not been reported previously. Here, we present a 57-year-old man with binocular horizontal diplopia that occurred during left direction gaze due to dacryops.

  9. Diplopia due to Dacryops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmi Duman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dacryops is a lacrimal ductal cyst. It is known that it can cause globe displacement, motility restriction, and proptosis because of the mass effect. Diplopia due to dacryops has not been reported previously. Here, we present a 57-year-old man with binocular horizontal diplopia that occurred during left direction gaze due to dacryops.

  10. Multicarboxylic acids as environment-friendly solvents and in situ crosslinkers for chitosan/PVA nanofibers with tunable physicochemical properties and biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangon, Autchara; Saesoo, Somsak; Saengkrit, Nattika; Ruktanonchai, Uracha; Intasanta, Varol

    2016-03-15

    Monocarboxylic acids are common solvents for chitosan to fabricate nanofibers however the unpleasant odor and the additional step of fiber stabilization using crosslinkers, which might cause toxicity, are always the points to be aware of. The present work demonstrates the potential use of multicarboxylic acids as environment-friendly solvents and in situ crosslinking agents for chitosan electrospinning. The use of these solvents leads to the tunable physicochemical properties, cellular compatibility, and cost effective production. By changing di-, to tri-, and tetracarboxylic acids combining with the simple thermal treatment, the stability and mechanical properties of the nanofibrous mats, especially the elastic modulus and elongation at break, can be altered. The resulting nanofibers exhibit biocompatibility favorable for proliferation and adhesion of the osteoblast cells. The multicarboxylic acids allow us lab-scale reproducibility and possibility to semi-production of nanofibrous chitosan using Nanospider™.

  11. Down-regulation of monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) gene expression in the colon of piglets is linked to bacterial protein fermentation and pro-inflammatory cytokine-mediated signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villodre Tudela, Carmen; Boudry, Christelle; Stumpff, Friederike; Aschenbach, Jörg R; Vahjen, Wilfried; Zentek, Jürgen; Pieper, Robert

    2015-02-28

    The present study investigated the influence of bacterial metabolites on monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) expression in pigs using in vivo, ex vivo and in vitro approaches. Piglets (n 24) were fed high-protein (26 %) or low-protein (18 %) diets with or without fermentable carbohydrates. Colonic digesta samples were analysed for a broad range of bacterial metabolites. The expression of MCT1, TNF-α, interferon γ (IFN-γ) and IL-8 was determined in colonic tissue. The expression of MCT1 was lower and of TNF-α and IL-8 was higher with high-protein diets (P< 0·05). MCT1 expression was positively correlated with l-lactate, whereas negatively correlated with NH₃ and putrescine (P< 0·05). The expression of IL-8 and TNF-α was negatively correlated with l-lactate and positively correlated with NH₃ and putrescine, whereas the expression of IFN-γ was positively correlated with histamine and 4-ethylphenol (P< 0·05). Subsequently, porcine colonic tissue and Caco-2 cells were incubated with Na-butyrate, NH₄Cl or TNF-α as selected bacterial metabolites or mediators of inflammation. Colonic MCT1 expression was higher after incubation with Na-butyrate (P< 0·05) and lower after incubation with NH₄Cl or TNF-α (P< 0·05). Incubation of Caco-2 cells with increasing concentrations of these metabolites confirmed the up-regulation of MCT1 expression by Na-butyrate (linear, P< 0·05) and down-regulation by TNF-α and NH₄Cl (linear, P< 0·05). The high-protein diet decreased the expression of MCT1 in the colon of pigs, which appears to be linked to NH₃- and TNF-α-mediated signalling.

  12. Preparation, spectral and thermal studies of pyrazinecarboxylic acids and their hydrazinium salts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Premkumar; S Govindarajan; Wei-Ping Pan

    2003-04-01

    Some new hydrazinium 2-pyrazinecarboxylate and 2,3-pyrazinedicarboxylate salts of the formulae N2H5pc, N2H5pc.H2O (Hpc = 2-pyrazinecarboxylic acid), N2H5Hpdc, (N2H5)2pdc.H2O and N2H5(Hpdc).H2pdc (H2pdc = 2,3-pyrazinedicarboxylic acid) have been prepared by neutralization of aqueous hydrazine hydrate with the respective acids in appropriate molar ratios. The free acids and their hydrazinium salts have been characterized by analytical, IR spectroscopic and thermal studies. IR spectra of all the salts show N-N stretching frequencies of the N2H$_{5}^{+}$ ion in the region 975-960 cm-1. The thermoanalytical behaviour of the free acids and their salts has been investigated by simultaneous TG and DTA. While pyrazinecarboxylic acid shows single-step endothermic (229°C) complete decomposition, pyrazindicarboxylic acid shows exothermic decarboxylation followed by identical endothermic decomposition as that of the former. Similarly, salts of the monocarboxylic acid show endothermic effects during pyrolysis, whereas salts of the dicarboxylic acid show endothermic followed by exothermic decomposition. The acids and their salts both undergo complete decomposition to gaseous products.

  13. The retinal pigment epithelium utilizes fatty acids for ketogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adijanto, Jeffrey; Du, Jianhai; Moffat, Cynthia; Seifert, Erin L; Hurle, James B; Philp, Nancy J

    2014-07-25

    Every day, shortly after light onset, photoreceptor cells shed approximately a tenth of their outer segment. The adjacent retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells phagocytize and digest shed photoreceptor outer segment, which provides a rich source of fatty acids that could be utilized as an energy substrate. From a microarray analysis, we found that RPE cells express particularly high levels of the mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase 2 (Hmgcs2) compared with all other tissues (except the liver and colon), leading to the hypothesis that RPE cells, like hepatocytes, can produce β-hydroxybutyrate (β-HB) from fatty acids. Using primary human fetal RPE (hfRPE) cells cultured on Transwell filters with separate apical and basal chambers, we demonstrate that hfRPE cells can metabolize palmitate, a saturated fatty acid that constitutes .15% of all lipids in the photoreceptor outer segment, to produce β-HB. Importantly, we found that hfRPE cells preferentially release β-HB into the apical chamber and that this process is mediated primarily by monocarboxylate transporter isoform 1 (MCT1). Using a GC-MS analysis of (13)C-labeled metabolites, we showed that retinal cells can take up and metabolize (13)C-labeled β-HB into various TCA cycle intermediates and amino acids. Collectively, our data support a novel mechanism of RPE-retina metabolic coupling in which RPE cells metabolize fatty acids to produce β-HB, which is transported to the retina for use as a metabolic substrate.

  14. Modeling of the formation of short-chain acids in propane flames

    CERN Document Server

    Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique; Jaffrezo, J L; Legrand, M

    2009-01-01

    In order to better understand their potential formation in combustion systems, a detailed kinetic mechanism for the formation of short-chain monocarboxylic acids, formic (HCOOH), acetic (CH3COOH), propionic (C2H5COOH) and propenic (C2H3COOH)) acids, has been developed. Simulations of lean (equivalence ratios from 0.9 to 0.48) laminar premixed flames of propane stabilized at atmospheric pressure with nitrogen as diluent have been performed. It was found that amounts up to 25 ppm of acetic acid, 15 ppm of formic acid and 1 ppm of C3 acid can be formed for some positions in the flames. Simulations showed that the more abundant C3 acid formed is propenic acid. A quite acceptable agreement has been obtained with the scarce results from the literature concerning oxygenated compounds, including aldehydes (CH2O, CH3CHO) and acids. A reaction pathways analysis demonstrated that each acid is mainly derived from the aldehyde of similar structure.

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DNOV-01-1812 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-1812 ref|NP_001099267.1| solute carrier family 16 (monocarboxylic acid transporters...), member 11 [Rattus norvegicus] gb|EDM04983.1| solute carrier family 16 (monocarboxylic acid transporters

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CINT-01-0214 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available monocarboxylic acid transporters), member 12 [Rattus norvegicus] ref|XP_001079987.1| PREDICTED: similar to s...olute carrier family 16 (monocarboxylic acid transporters), member 12 [Rattus norvegicus] XP_220057.4 3e-18 28% ...

  17. Due process traditionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunstein, Cass R

    2008-06-01

    In important cases, the Supreme Court has limited the scope of "substantive due process" by reference to tradition, but it has yet to explain why it has done so. Due process traditionalism might be defended in several distinctive ways. The most ambitious defense draws on a set of ideas associated with Edmund Burke and Friedrich Hayek, who suggested that traditions have special credentials by virtue of their acceptance by many minds. But this defense runs into three problems. Those who have participated in a tradition may not have accepted any relevant proposition; they might suffer from a systematic bias; and they might have joined a cascade. An alternative defense sees due process traditionalism as a second-best substitute for two preferable alternatives: a purely procedural approach to the Due Process Clause, and an approach that gives legislatures the benefit of every reasonable doubt. But it is not clear that in these domains, the first-best approaches are especially attractive; and even if they are, the second-best may be an unacceptably crude substitute. The most plausible defense of due process traditionalism operates on rule-consequentialist grounds, with the suggestion that even if traditions are not great, they are often good, and judges do best if they defer to traditions rather than attempting to specify the content of "liberty" on their own. But the rule-consequentialist defense depends on controversial and probably false assumptions about the likely goodness of traditions and the institutional incapacities of judges.

  18. Onycholysis due to trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Chang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Female patient, 35 years old who came to the private office due to discoloration of her left thumbnail and little pain since 1 month ago. Clinical examination shows nail disease on her left thumbnail with onycholysis and dyschromia, dermatoscopy showed white-yellowish discoloration (Fig. 1A, B. The rest of the clinical examination was normal. Patient use to using acrylic nails since 2 years ago and denied some trauma at the nail. The diagnosis of onycholysis due to trauma was done and recommended her not to use acrylic nail, maintain the nail short and avoid wetness.

  19. Investigation of low levels of plasma valproic acid concentration following simultaneous administration of sodium valproate and rizatriptan benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokama, Nobuo; Hobara, Norio; Kameya, Hiromasa; Ohshiro, Susumu; Hobara, Narumi; Sakanashi, Matao

    2007-03-01

    Drug interaction between rizatriptan benzoate, an anti-migraine agent, and sodium valproate (VPA-Na), an anticonvulsant, was studied in rats. When rizatriptan benzoate was administered orally immediately after VPA-Na oral administration, the pharmacokinetic parameters, such as plasma valproic acid (VPA) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve up to 3 h (AUC(0-3)), were significantly decreased compared with those in the control group. However, when rizatriptan benzoate was administered intraperitoneally immediately after VPA-Na orally, these parameters were not changed. In addition, when benzoic acid was administered orally immediately after VPA-Na orally, these were significantly lower compared with the control values. Therefore, it might be possible that VPA transport by monocarboxylate transporter was competitively inhibited by rizatriptan benzoate and thus absorption of VPA was decreased.

  20. Lipid, Oxidative and Inflammatory Profile and Alterations in the Enzymes Paraoxonase and Butyrylcholinesterase in Plasma of Patients with Homocystinuria Due CBS Deficiency: The Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid Importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanzin, Camila Simioni; Mescka, Caroline Paula; Donida, Bruna; Hammerschimidt, Tatiane Grazieli; Ribas, Graziela S; Kolling, Janaína; Scherer, Emilene B; Vilarinho, Laura; Nogueira, Célia; Coitinho, Adriana Simon; Wajner, Moacir; Wyse, Angela T S; Vargas, Carmen Regla

    2015-08-01

    Cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) deficiency is the main cause of homocystinuria. Homocysteine (Hcy), methionine, and other metabolites of Hcy accumulate in the body of affected patients. Despite the fact that thromboembolism represents the major cause of morbidity in CBS-deficient patients, the mechanisms of cardiovascular alterations found in homocystinuria remain unclear. In this work, we evaluated the lipid and inflammatory profile, oxidative protein damage, and the activities of the enzymes paraoxonase (PON1) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) in plasma of CBS-deficient patients at diagnosis and during the treatment (protein-restricted diet supplemented with pyridoxine, folic acid, betaine, and vitamin B12). We also investigated the effect of folic acid and vitamin B12 on these parameters. We found a significant decrease in HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA-1) levels, as well as in PON1 activity in both untreated and treated CBS-deficient patients when compared to controls. BuChE activity and IL-6 levels were significantly increased in not treated patients. Furthermore, significant positive correlations between PON1 activity and sulphydryl groups and between IL-6 levels and carbonyl content were verified. Moreover, vitamin B12 was positively correlated with PON1 and ApoA-1 levels, while folic acid was inversely correlated with total Hcy concentration, demonstrating the importance of this treatment. Our results also demonstrated that CBS-deficient patients presented important alterations in biochemical parameters, possibly caused by the metabolites of Hcy, as well as by oxidative stress, and that the adequate adherence to the treatment is essential to revert or prevent these alterations.

  1. Technical Due Diligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; Varano, Mattia

    2011-01-01

    Technical Due Diligence (TDD) as an evaluation of the performance of constructed facilities has become an important new field of practice for consultants. Before the financial crisis started in autumn 2008 it represented the fastest growing activity in some consulting companies. TDD is mostly car...

  2. Urinary amino acid alterations in 3-year-old children with neurodevelopmental effects due to perinatal dioxin exposure in Vietnam: a nested case-control study for neurobiomarker discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneko Nishijo

    Full Text Available In our previous study of 3-year-old children in a dioxin contamination hot spot in Vietnam, the high total dioxin toxic equivalent (TEQ-PCDDs/Fs-exposed group during the perinatal period displayed lower Bayley III neurodevelopmental scores, whereas the high 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD-exposed group displayed increased autistic traits. In autistic children, urinary amino acid profiles have revealed metabolic alterations in the amino acids that serve as neurotransmitters in the developing brain. Therefore, our present study aimed to investigate the use of alterations in urinary amino acid excretion as biomarkers of dioxin exposure-induced neurodevelopmental deficits in highly exposed 3-year-old children in Vietnam. A nested case-control study of urinary analyses was performed for 26 children who were selected from 111 3-year-old children whose perinatal dioxin exposure levels and neurodevelopmental status were examined in follow-up surveys conducted in a dioxin contaminated hot spot. We compared urinary amino acid levels between the following 4 groups: (1 a high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and high TCDD-exposed group; (2 a high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs but low TCDD-exposed group; (3 a low TEQ-PCDDs/Fs exposed and poorly developed group; and (4 a low TEQ-PCDDs/Fs exposed and well-developed group. Urinary levels of histidine and tryptophan were significantly decreased in the high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and high TCDD group, as well as in the high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs but low TCDD group, compared with the low TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and well-developed group. However, the ratio of histidine to glycine was significantly lower only in the high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and high TCDD group. Furthermore, urinary histidine levels and the ratio of histidine to glycine were significantly correlated with neurodevelopmental scores, particularly for language and fine motor skills. These results indicate that urinary histidine is specifically associated with dioxin exposure-induced neurodevelopmental deficits

  3. Urinary amino acid alterations in 3-year-old children with neurodevelopmental effects due to perinatal dioxin exposure in Vietnam: a nested case-control study for neurobiomarker discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijo, Muneko; Tai, Pham The; Anh, Nguyen Thi Nguyet; Nghi, Tran Ngoc; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Van Luong, Hoang; Anh, Tran Hai; Morikawa, Yuko; Waseda, Tomoo; Kido, Teruhiko; Nishijo, Hisao

    2015-01-01

    In our previous study of 3-year-old children in a dioxin contamination hot spot in Vietnam, the high total dioxin toxic equivalent (TEQ-PCDDs/Fs)-exposed group during the perinatal period displayed lower Bayley III neurodevelopmental scores, whereas the high 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-exposed group displayed increased autistic traits. In autistic children, urinary amino acid profiles have revealed metabolic alterations in the amino acids that serve as neurotransmitters in the developing brain. Therefore, our present study aimed to investigate the use of alterations in urinary amino acid excretion as biomarkers of dioxin exposure-induced neurodevelopmental deficits in highly exposed 3-year-old children in Vietnam. A nested case-control study of urinary analyses was performed for 26 children who were selected from 111 3-year-old children whose perinatal dioxin exposure levels and neurodevelopmental status were examined in follow-up surveys conducted in a dioxin contaminated hot spot. We compared urinary amino acid levels between the following 4 groups: (1) a high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and high TCDD-exposed group; (2) a high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs but low TCDD-exposed group; (3) a low TEQ-PCDDs/Fs exposed and poorly developed group; and (4) a low TEQ-PCDDs/Fs exposed and well-developed group. Urinary levels of histidine and tryptophan were significantly decreased in the high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and high TCDD group, as well as in the high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs but low TCDD group, compared with the low TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and well-developed group. However, the ratio of histidine to glycine was significantly lower only in the high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and high TCDD group. Furthermore, urinary histidine levels and the ratio of histidine to glycine were significantly correlated with neurodevelopmental scores, particularly for language and fine motor skills. These results indicate that urinary histidine is specifically associated with dioxin exposure-induced neurodevelopmental deficits, suggesting that

  4. Resistance to Cefepime and Cefpirome Due to a 4-Amino-Acid Deletion in the Chromosome-Encoded AmpC β-Lactamase of a Serratia marcescens Clinical Isolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammeri, Hedi; Poirel, Laurent; Bemer, Pascal; Drugeon, Henri; Nordmann, Patrice

    2004-01-01

    A multiresistant Serratia marcescens strain, HD, isolated from a patient with a urinary tract infection, was resistant to amino-, carboxy-, and ureidopenicillins, ceftazidime, and cefepime and was susceptible to cefotaxime and ceftriaxone, according to the guidelines of the NCCLS. No synergy was found between expanded-spectrum cephalosporins and clavulanic acid, according to the double-disk synergy test. The blaAmpC gene of the strain was amplified by PCR and cloned into Escherichia coli DH10B, giving rise to high-level resistance to ceftazidime, cefepime, and cefpirome. Sequencing analysis revealed that the blaAmpC gene from S. marcescens HD had a 12-nucleotide deletion compared to the blaAmpC gene from reference strain S. marcescens S3, leading to a 4-amino-acid deletion located in the H-10 helix of the β-lactamase. Kinetic analysis showed that this enzyme significantly hydrolyzed ceftazidime, cefepime, and cefpirome. This work underlined that resistance to the latest expanded-spectrum cephalosporins may be mediated by structurally modified AmpC-type β-lactamases. PMID:14982755

  5. Resistance to cefepime and cefpirome due to a 4-amino-acid deletion in the chromosome-encoded AmpC beta-lactamase of a Serratia marcescens clinical isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammeri, Hedi; Poirel, Laurent; Bemer, Pascal; Drugeon, Henri; Nordmann, Patrice

    2004-03-01

    A multiresistant Serratia marcescens strain, HD, isolated from a patient with a urinary tract infection, was resistant to amino-, carboxy-, and ureidopenicillins, ceftazidime, and cefepime and was susceptible to cefotaxime and ceftriaxone, according to the guidelines of the NCCLS. No synergy was found between expanded-spectrum cephalosporins and clavulanic acid, according to the double-disk synergy test. The bla(AmpC) gene of the strain was amplified by PCR and cloned into Escherichia coli DH10B, giving rise to high-level resistance to ceftazidime, cefepime, and cefpirome. Sequencing analysis revealed that the bla(AmpC) gene from S. marcescens HD had a 12-nucleotide deletion compared to the bla(AmpC) gene from reference strain S. marcescens S3, leading to a 4-amino-acid deletion located in the H-10 helix of the beta-lactamase. Kinetic analysis showed that this enzyme significantly hydrolyzed ceftazidime, cefepime, and cefpirome. This work underlined that resistance to the latest expanded-spectrum cephalosporins may be mediated by structurally modified AmpC-type beta-lactamases.

  6. Simulation experiments for evolution of fatty acids in immature source rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The anhydrous, hydrous and bitumen-extrac- ted simulations were carried out for the immature source rocks from the Liaohe sag. It has been shown from the result that with increasing temperature in simulation experiments, the fatty acids content decreased at first and then increased. The decrease of fatty acids in immature rocks is presumably related to alkanes generation in immature oils, whilst the increase may be related to the fact that some additional fatty acids are generated from kerogen and the tightly bound fatty acids in kerogen are released as bound fatty acids in kerogen and unbound fatty acids in bitumen. The fact that the bitumen generated from kerogen contains fatty acids has demonstrated that some bound and tightly bound fatty acids in kerogen can be transferred into bitumen. The preferential fatty acids in the immature source rocks are found to be mono-carboxylic acids with longer chains, whilst krogen contains relatively more di-carboxylic acids. It has been found that the fatty acids in immature source rocks can be changed from that with more longer chains to that with more shorter chains when evolution extent has been increased. Based on simulation results and the fact that the majority of fatty acids in immature oils are those with longer chains, it is inferred that the contribution of fatty acids to forming alkanes in immature oils mainly takes place at the evolution stage with R0 (0.6%. The simulation experiments have also demonstrated that H2O could promote the generation of fatty acids with more di-carboxylic acids and delay alkanes formation from fatty acids.

  7. 甲状腺激素转运体MCT8的病理生理作用%Pathophysiological role of monocarboxylate transporter 8 on thyroid hormone transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙毅娜; 叶艳; 李永梅; 林来祥

    2016-01-01

    甲状腺激素(THs)进出细胞需要转运体蛋白的介导.单羧酸转运体(MCT)8是介导T3进入神经元的主要转运体蛋白,是迄今为止唯一具有明确的临床意义、在转运THs入脑中起着重要作用的转运体蛋白,其编码基因(SLC16A2)突变导致了艾伦-赫恩登-达得利综合征(AHDS),以严重的神经运动发育迟滞和高T3、低T4的血清学改变为临床特征.Mct8基因敲除的小鼠模型能够完全复制人MCT8基因突变的血清学改变,但神经症状轻微,部分解释了MCT8缺陷患者的临床表现,为THs转运体病理生理作用的研究提供依据.%Transmembrane protein transporters mediate cellular uptake and efflux of thyroid hormones.Monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) plays an essential role in the supply of T3 to neurons in the central nervous system.So far, MCT8 is the only one with specific clinical significance and can importantlly transport THs into brain.MCT8 (encoded gene is SLC16A2) mutations lead to Allan-Herndon-Dudley Syndrome (AHDS) with severe neurological impairment and altered concentrations of thyroid hormones.The endocrine component in Mct8-deficiency mice is likely to be similar to the humans'.However, unlike in humans with an MCT8 deficiency, there is almost not neurological impairment in these mice.After all, deep insight for clinical features with MCT8 mutations can be partly explained and the pathophysiological role of thyroid hormone transporters can be partially identified in Mct8-deficiency mice.

  8. 三辛胺萃取一元羧酸的平衡规律(Ⅰ)萃取平衡特性%EXTRACTION EQUILIBRIA BEHAVIOR OF MONOCARBOXYLIC ACIDS BY TRIOCTYLAMINE (Ⅰ) EXTRACTION EQUILIBRIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李振宇; 秦炜; 戴猷元

    2004-01-01

    以三辛胺(TOA)为反应萃取剂,正辛醇、甲基异丁基酮(MiBK)、正己烷、四氯化碳和氯仿为稀释剂,甲酸、乙酸、丙酸、丁酸、戊酸、一氯乙酸、二氯乙酸、三氯乙酸、乙醇酸、乙醛酸、乳酸为被萃溶质,开展了萃取平衡特性的实验研究.结果表明,羧酸的亲油性和酸性是影响TOA萃取羧酸的关键参数.萃取平衡条件下,羧酸的酸性差别较小时,TOA的负载率主要取决于羧酸的亲油性lgP,且lgP越大,TOA负载率越高;羧酸的酸性差别较大时,TOA的负载率主要与羧酸的酸性pKa有关,且pKa越小,TOA负载率越高.稀释剂种类、TOA浓度对TOA的表观碱度和TOA的负载率有影响,TOA负载率Z<1时,稀释剂对羧酸萃取平衡的促进作用为正辛醇≥氯仿>MiBK>四氯化碳≥正己烷,且TOA的负载率随TOA浓度的增大而减小.TOA的表观碱度是定量表现萃取剂在萃取分离环境中性质的重要参数.

  9. EFFECTS OF MONOCARBOXYLIC ACID DERIVATIVES ON CARDIAC VENTRICULAR CFTR Cl-CHANNELS IN GUINEA PIG%单羧酸类Cl-通道阻断剂对心室肌CFTR Cl-通道的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周士胜; 臧益民

    1999-01-01

    本文采用全细胞膜片箝与细胞内灌注技术,观察了单羧酸类 Cl-通道阻断剂对豚鼠心室肌囊性纤维变性膜透性调节蛋白(CFTR)Cl-电流的影响,细胞外9-AC以可逆方式增强异丙肾上腺素(ISO)激发的CFTR Cl-的外向电流成分,5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoate (NPPB)和二苯胺羧酸(DPC)对ISO发的CFTR Cl-电流的作用呈现先增强后抑制的双相效应.细胞内NPPB表现为增强ISO激发作用.结果表明,单羧酸类Cl-通道阻断剂在细胞上有不同的作用位点,该类药物作用效果的差异可能与此有关.

  10. Complexation of gluconic acid with Nd(III) in acidic solutions: A thermodynamic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Zhicheng [Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)], E-mail: lxzhang@wsu.edu; Bottenus, Brienne; Clark, Sue B. [Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States); Tian Guoxin [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Zanonato, PierLuigi [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 1, 35131 Padova (Italy); Rao Linfeng [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2007-10-11

    Thermodynamic properties of gluconic acid (HGH{sub 4}(aq)) complexation with Nd(III) have been studied in acidic solutions at 25 deg. C and 1.0 M NaClO{sub 4} by potentiometry, spectrophotometry and calorimetry. Three Nd(III)/gluconate complexes were identified in solutions of pC{sub H} 2.5-4.5. The formation constants and the complexation enthalpies are: log {beta}{sub 1} = 2.55 {+-} 0.05 and {delta}H{sub 1}{sup o}=-(8.22{+-}0.23)kJmol{sup -1} for Nd(GH{sub 4}){sup 2+}, log {beta}{sub 2} = 4.45 {+-} 0.05 and {delta}H{sub 2}{sup o}=-(15.3{+-}0.4)kJmol{sup -1} for Nd(GH{sub 4}){sub 2}{sup +}, and log {beta}{sub 3} = 5.60 {+-} 0.15 and {delta}H{sub 3}{sup o}=-(24.6{+-}0.6)kJmol{sup -1} for Nd(GH{sub 4}){sub 3}(aq). The thermodynamic parameters indicate that gluconic acid, like other {alpha}-hydroxycarboxylic acids, forms stronger complexes with Nd(III) than simple monocarboxylic acids, likely by the participation of the {alpha}-hydroxyl group during complexation. The same type of binding appears to occur with Ca{sup 2+} and NpO{sub 2}{sup +} as the 1:1 stability constants are linearly correlated with the effective cationic charges of the metal cations.

  11. Investigation of Pyridine Carboxylic Acids in CM2 Carbonaceous Chondrites: Potential Precursor Molecules for Ancient Coenzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Karen E.; Callahan, Michael P.; Gerakines, Perry A.; Dworkin, Jason P.; House, Christopher H.

    2014-01-01

    The distribution and abundances of pyridine carboxylic acids (including nicotinic acid) in eight CM2 carbonaceous chondrites (ALH 85013, DOM 03183, DOM 08003, EET 96016, LAP 02333, LAP 02336, LEW 85311, and WIS 91600) were investigated by liquid chromatography coupled to UV detection and high resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry. We find that pyridine monocarboxylic acids are prevalent in CM2-type chondrites and their abundance negatively correlates with the degree of pre-terrestrial aqueous alteration that the meteorite parent body experienced. We also report the first detection of pyridine dicarboxylic acids in carbonaceous chondrites. Additionally, we carried out laboratory studies of proton-irradiated pyridine in carbon dioxide-rich ices (a 1:1 mixture) to serve as a model of the interstellar ice chemistry that may have led to the synthesis of pyridine carboxylic acids. Analysis of the irradiated ice residue shows that a comparable suite of pyridine mono- and dicarboxylic acids was produced, although aqueous alteration may still play a role in the synthesis (and ultimate yield) of these compounds in carbonaceous meteorites. Nicotinic acid is a precursor to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, a likely ancient molecule used in cellular metabolism in all of life, and its common occurrence in CM2 chondrites may indicate that meteorites may have been a source of molecules for the emergence of more complex coenzymes on the early Earth.

  12. Thr(118Met amino acid substitution in the peripheral myelin protein 22 does not influence the clinical phenotype of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A due to the 17p11.2-p12 duplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Marques Jr.

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The Thr(118Met substitution in the peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22 gene has been detected in a number of families with demyelinating Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT1 neuropathy or with the hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy, but in none of them has it consistently segregated with the peripheral neuropathy. We describe here a CMT1 family (a 63-year-old man, his brother and his niece in which two mutations on different chromosomes were found in the PMP22 gene, the 17p duplication, detected by fluorescent semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR of microsatellite markers localized within the duplicated region on chromosome 17p11.2-p12, and the Thr(118Met substitution, detected by direct sequencing the four coding exons of the PMP22 gene. A genotype/phenotype correlation study showed that the neuropathy segregates with the duplication and that the amino acid substitution does not seem to modify the clinical characteristics or the severity of the peripheral neuropathy. We did not find any evidence to characterize this substitution as a polymorphism in the population studied and we propose that the high frequency reported for this point mutation in the literature suggests that the Thr(118Met substitution may be a hotspot for mutations in the PMP22 gene.

  13. Credit where due.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Steven G

    2016-08-01

    The history of medicine is filled with stories of tireless researchers who failed to get credit for their hard work. Examples of this include Rosalind Franklin, who helped to elucidate the structure of DNA; Frederick Banting, who helped to discover insulin; and Jay McLean, who discovered heparin. The founding of the field of vascular surgery provides one of the most vivid examples of uncredited work. Even though Alexis Carrel was an unpaid, untitled assistant in Charles Guthrie's laboratory, it was Carrel alone who received a Nobel Prize for their work. In an attempt to give credit where due, the reasons for this injustice are described. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Chromatographic retention prediction and octanol-water partition coefficient determination of monobasic weak acidic compounds in ion-suppression reversed-phase liquid chromatography using acids as ion-suppressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Xin; Han, Shu-ying; Qi, Zheng-chun; Sheng, Dong; Lian, Hong-zhen

    2009-08-15

    Although simple acids, replacing buffers, have been widely applied to suppress the ionization of weakly ionizable acidic analytes in reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC), none of the previously reported works focused on the systematic studies about the retention behavior of the acidic solutes in this ion-suppression RPLC mode. The subject of this paper was therefore to investigate the retention behavior of monobasic weak acidic compounds using acetic, perchloric and phosphoric acids as the ion-suppressors. The apparent octanol-water partition coefficient (K" ow) was proposed to calibrate the octanol-water partition coefficient (K(ow)) of these weak acidic compounds, which resulted in a better linear correlation with log k(w), the logarithm of the hypothetical retention factor corresponding to neat aqueous fraction of hydroorganic mobile phase. This log K" ow-log k w linear correlation was successfully validated by the results of monocarboxylic acids and monohydrating phenols, and moreover by the results under diverse experimental conditions for the same solutes. This straightforward relationship not only can be used to effectively predict the retention values of weak acidic solutes combined with Snyder-Soczewinski equation, but also can offer a promising medium for directly measuring K(ow) data of these compounds via Collander equation. In addition, the influence of the different ion-suppressors on the retention of weak acidic compounds was also compared in this RPLC mode.

  15. Monocarboxylate transporters in temporal lobe epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Fredrik; Eid, Tore; Bergersen, Linda H

    2013-01-01

    Epilepsy is a serious neurological disorder that affects approximately 1 % of the general population, making it one of the most common disorders of the central nervous system. Furthermore, up to 40 % of all patients with epilepsy cannot control their seizures with current medications. More...... efficacious treatments for medication refractory epilepsy are therefore needed. A better understanding of the mechanisms that cause this disorder is likely to facilitate the discovery of such treatments. Impairment in cerebral energy metabolism has been proposed as a possible causative factor...... in the pathogenesis of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), which is one of the most common types of medication-refractory epilepsies in adults. In this review, we will discuss some of the current hypotheses regarding the possible causal relationship between brain energy metabolism and TLE. Emphasis will be placed...

  16. [Inhibition of Low Molecular Organic Acids on the Activity of Acidithiobacillus Species and Its Effect on the Removal of Heavy Metals from Contaminated Soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yong-wei; Wang, He-rul; Cao, Yan-xiao; Li, Fei; Cui, Chun-hong; Zhou, Li

    2016-05-15

    Application of organic fertilizer can reduce the solubility and bioavailability of heavy metals in contaminated soil, but in the flooded anaerobic environment, organic fertilizer will be decomposed to produce a large number of low molecular organic acids, which can inhibit the biological activity of Acidithiobacillus species. Batch cultures studies showed that the monocarboxylic organic acids including formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid exhibited a marked toxicity to Acidithiobacillus species, as indicated by that 90% of inhibitory rate for Fe2 and So oxidation in 72 h were achieved at extremely low concentrations of 41.2 mg · L⁻¹, 78.3 mg · L⁻¹, 43.2 mg · L⁻¹, 123.4 mg · L⁻¹ and 81.9 mg 230. 4 mg · L⁻¹, 170.1 mg · L⁻¹, 123.4 mg · L⁻¹ respectively. Of these organic acids, formic acid was the most toxic one as indicated by that Fe2 and So oxidation was almost entirely inhibited at a low concentration. In addition, it was found that Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans was more sensitive to low molecular organic acids than Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans. What's more, there was little effect on biological acidification process of heavy metal contaminated soil when organic acids were added at initial stage (Oh), but it was completely inhibited when these acids were added after 12 h of conventional biological acidification, thus decreasing the efficiency of heavy metals dissolution from soil.

  17. 甲状腺激素转运体MCT8在2VO大鼠脑组织中的表达%Expression of monocarboxylate transporter 8 mRNA in the brain tissue of rats with cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔丹; 管玉青; 蒋海山; 汪槿; 席蕾; 王群

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨2VO大鼠脑组织中甲状腺激素转运体MCT8在不同缺血时间点基因水平的变化规律.方法 25只成年雄性SD大鼠随机分为正常对照组、2VO 3 d组、2VO 2周组和2VO 5周组.采用免疫荧光法观察MCT8在正常大鼠侧脑室中的表达;采用双侧颈总动脉永久性结扎术制备脑缺血模型,术后各组大鼠于实验终点采用荧光定量PCR法测定脑组织中甲状腺激素转运体MCT8 mRNA的表达水平.结果 免疫荧光法观察到MCT8在正常大鼠侧脑室的血管内皮细胞膜上表达丰富;中枢甲状腺激素转运体MCT8 mRNA水平在2VO 3 d组及2VO 2周组与正常组相比较差异无统计学意义(P=-0.909,P=0.694);MCT8 mRNA水平在2VO 5周组较正常组及2VO 3 d组明显增高(P=0.029,P=0.023),与2VO 2周组相比较差异无统计学意义(P=0.065).结论 中枢甲状腺激素转运体MCT8基因水平在脑缺血后呈逐渐代偿性增高趋势.%Objective To investigate the mRNA expression of monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8),a thyroid hormone transport protein,in the lateral ventricle of rats with cerebral ischemia.Methods Immunofluorescence staining was used to observe the expression of MCT8 in the lateral ventricle of 5 normal SD rats.Another 20 adult male SD rats were randomized into 4 groups and subject to permanent ligation of both the common carotid arteries (2-vessel occlusion,2VO) for 3 days,2 weeks,or 5 weeks,or no ligation (control).At the end of the experiment,the transcriptional level of MCT8 in the brain tissue of the rats were detected using fluorescent quantitative PCR.Results MCT8 mRNA levels in 3-day and 2-week 2VO groups were comparable with that in the control group (P=0.909;P=0.694),but increased significantly in 5-week 2VO group compared with that in the control and 3-day 2VO groups (P=0.029;P=0.023).No significance was found in MCT8 mRNA between the 2-week and 5-week 2VO groups (P=0.065).Conclusion Prolonged cerebral ischemia causes

  18. Quantitative Structure of an Acetate Dye Molecule Analogue at the TiO2–Acetic Acid Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The positions of atoms in and around acetate molecules at the rutile TiO2(110) interface with 0.1 M acetic acid have been determined with a precision of ±0.05 Å. Acetate is used as a surrogate for the carboxylate groups typically employed to anchor monocarboxylate dye molecules to TiO2 in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Structural analysis reveals small domains of ordered (2 × 1) acetate molecules, with substrate atoms closer to their bulk terminated positions compared to the clean UHV surface. Acetate is found in a bidentate bridge position, binding through both oxygen atoms to two 5-fold titanium atoms such that the molecular plane is along the [001] azimuth. Density functional theory calculations provide adsorption geometries in excellent agreement with experiment. The availability of these structural data will improve the accuracy of charge transport models for DSSC. PMID:27110318

  19. Quantitative Structure of an Acetate Dye Molecule Analogue at the TiO2-Acetic Acid Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Hadeel; Torrelles, Xavier; Cabailh, Gregory; Rajput, Parasmani; Lindsay, Robert; Bikondoa, Oier; Tillotson, Marcus; Grau-Crespo, Ricardo; Zegenhagen, Jörg; Thornton, Geoff

    2016-04-14

    The positions of atoms in and around acetate molecules at the rutile TiO2(110) interface with 0.1 M acetic acid have been determined with a precision of ±0.05 Å. Acetate is used as a surrogate for the carboxylate groups typically employed to anchor monocarboxylate dye molecules to TiO2 in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Structural analysis reveals small domains of ordered (2 × 1) acetate molecules, with substrate atoms closer to their bulk terminated positions compared to the clean UHV surface. Acetate is found in a bidentate bridge position, binding through both oxygen atoms to two 5-fold titanium atoms such that the molecular plane is along the [001] azimuth. Density functional theory calculations provide adsorption geometries in excellent agreement with experiment. The availability of these structural data will improve the accuracy of charge transport models for DSSC.

  20. Occurrence and formation of dicarboxylic acids in different types of tropospheric aerosols; Vorkommen und Entstehung von Dicarbonsaeuren in troposphaerischen Aerosolen unterschiedlicher Praegung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roehrl, A.

    2000-07-01

    Since some time intensive research has been conducted on a large number of organic trace substances contained in tropospheric aerosols. This applies in particular to families of substances noted for their toxicity and persistence such as polycyclic aromatics, polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins and furans (Harrad, 1998; Smith and Harrison, 1998). These substances only account for a small part of the total particle mass of aerosols, i.e. far less than 1% of their dust mass. Due to their low degree of polarity they are poorly soluble in water and undergo little change in the troposphere. The paper also addresses extremely polar aerosol components, on which very few data are available, especially from Europe. Being unable to identify the reaction paths concerned, most studies available today have more the character of a stock taking. On the other hand, some detailed knowledge has evolved in individual cases. The present study was an attempt to extend the present body of data with data sets on concentrations of certain polar organic aerosol constituents, namely monofunctional and multifunctional monocarboxylic and dicarboxylic acids, from regions typical of Europe. Extensive research on further chemical (elemental composition, ion and carbon content) and physicometeorological parameters was conducted as a contribution to identifying the synthesis paths of these acids. [German] Viele organische Spurenbestandteile des troposphaerischen Aerosols, insbesondere die aufgrund ihrer Toxizitaet und Persistenz beachteten Stoffgruppen der polyzyklischen Aromaten, polychlorierten Biphenyle, Dioxine und Furane sind seit einiger Zeit intensiv untersucht worden (Harrad, 1998; Smith und Harrison, 1998). Sie machen allerdings mengenmaessig nur einen sehr geringen Anteil der Partikelmasse aus, weit unter ein Prozent bezogen auf die Staubmasse. Diese Stoffe sind nicht sehr polar und damit wenig wasserloeslich und unterliegen in der Troposphaere keinen chemischen Veraenderungen. Fuer die

  1. Long-chain α,ω-dioic acids as inducers of cyclosporin A-insensitive nonspecific permeability of the inner membrane of liver mitochondria loaded with calcium or strontium ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinin, M V; Adakeeva, S I; Samartsev, V N

    2013-04-01

    Long-chain saturated monocarboxylic fatty acids can induce nonspecific permeability of the inner membrane (open pores) of liver mitochondria loaded with Ca2+ or Sr(2+) by the mechanism insensitive to cyclosporin A. In this work we investigated the effect of their metabolites - α,ω-dioic (dicarboxylic) acids - as potential inducers of pore opening by a similar mechanism. It was established that the addition of α,ω-hexadecanedioic acid (HDA) at a concentration of 10-30 µM to liver mitochondria loaded with Ca2+ or Sr(2+) leads to swelling of the organelles and release of these ions from the matrix. The maximum effect of HDA is observed at 50 µM Ca2+ concentration. Cyclosporin A at a concentration of 1 µM, previously added to the mitochondria, did not inhibit the observed processes. The calcium uniporter inhibitor ruthenium red, which blocks influx of Ca2+ and Sr(2+) to the matrix of mitochondria, prevented HDA-induced swelling. The effect of HDA as inducer of swelling of mitochondria was compared with similar effects of α,ω-tetradecanedioic and α,ω-dodecanedioic acids whose acyl chains are two and four carbon atoms shorter than HDA, respectively. It was found that the efficiency of these α,ω-dioic acids decreases with reducing number of carbon atoms in their acyl chains. It was concluded that in the presence of Ca2+ or Sr(2+) long-chain saturated α,ω-dioic acids can induce a cyclosporin A-insensitive permeability of the inner membrane (open pores) of liver mitochondria as well as their monocarboxylic analogs.

  2. Deregulation of mitochondrial functions provoked by long-chain fatty acid accumulating in long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase and mitochondrial permeability transition deficiencies in rat heart--mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening as a potential contributing pathomechanism of cardiac alterations in these disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecatto, Cristiane; Hickmann, Fernanda H; Rodrigues, Marília D N; Amaral, Alexandre U; Wajner, Moacir

    2015-12-01

    Mitochondrial trifunctional protein and long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiencies are fatty acid oxidation disorders biochemically characterized by tissue accumulation of long-chain fatty acids and derivatives, including the monocarboxylic long-chain 3-hydroxy fatty acids (LCHFAs) 3-hydroxytetradecanoic acid (3HTA) and 3-hydroxypalmitic acid (3HPA). Patients commonly present severe cardiomyopathy for which the pathogenesis is still poorly established. We investigated the effects of 3HTA and 3HPA, the major metabolites accumulating in these disorders, on important parameters of mitochondrial homeostasis in Ca(2+) -loaded heart mitochondria. 3HTA and 3HPA significantly decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, the matrix NAD(P)H pool and Ca(2+) retention capacity, and also induced mitochondrial swelling. These fatty acids also provoked a marked decrease of ATP production reflecting severe energy dysfunction. Furthermore, 3HTA-induced mitochondrial alterations were completely prevented by the classical mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) inhibitors cyclosporin A and ADP, as well as by ruthenium red, a Ca(2+) uptake blocker, indicating that LCHFAs induced Ca(2+)-dependent mPT pore opening. Milder effects only achieved at higher doses of LCHFAs were observed in brain mitochondria, implying a higher vulnerability of heart to these fatty acids. By contrast, 3HTA and docosanoic acids did not change mitochondrial homeostasis, indicating selective effects for monocarboxylic LCHFAs. The present data indicate that the major LCHFAs accumulating in mitochondrial trifunctional protein and long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiencies induce mPT pore opening, compromising Ca(2+) homeostasis and oxidative phosphorylation more intensely in the heart. It is proposed that these pathomechanisms may contribute at least in part to the severe cardiac alterations characteristic of patients affected by these diseases.

  3. Metabolic conversion of dicarboxylic acids to succinate in rat liver homogenates. A stable isotope tracer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tserng, K Y; Jin, S J

    1991-02-15

    The metabolic conversion of dicarboxylic acids into succinate and other gluconeogenic intermediates in rat liver homogenates was investigated using [1,2,4-13C4]dodecanedioic acid as tracer. Isotope enrichments in 3-hydroxybutyrate, succinate, fumarate, and malate, as well as dicarboxylates (dodecanedioic, sebacic, suberic, and adipic acids) were measured with selected ion monitoring capillary column gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry. Significant enrichment in the M + 4 (four labeled carbons) ion of succinate (0.4-2.9%) was detected, unequivocally demonstrating the direct conversion of dicarboxylate into succinate. In addition, significant enrichment of the M + 2 ion of succinate was also observed. This labeled species was generated from labeled acetyl-CoA through the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The partition of acetyl-CoA into the tricarboxylic acid cycle relative to ketone body formation was higher in the beta oxidation of dicarboxylate than monocarboxylate. Therefore, in addition to the production of succinate, the beta oxidation of dodecanedioate resulted in the channeling of the acetyl-CoA produced to the tricarboxylic acid cycle instead of to acetoacetate production. The enrichments in lower chain dicarboxylates are consistent with a partial bidirectional beta oxidation of dodecanedioic acid. In addition to the expected M + 0 and M + 4 labels, significant M + 2 species were detected in suberic and adipic acids. These M + 2-labeled species were produced from the released free dicarboxylate intermediates which were then reactivated and metabolized. In these experiments, the overall succinate production was derived 4% from the direct conversion of dodecanedioic acid and 11% from the indirect route via acetyl-CoA through tricarboxylic acid.

  4. Gas-phase Acidities of Aspartic Acid, Glutamic Acid, and their Amino Acid Amides.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhong; Matus, Myrna H; Velazquez, Hector A; Dixon, David A; Cassady, Carolyn J

    2007-02-14

    Gas-phase acidities (GA or ΔGacid) for the two most acidic common amino acids, aspartic acid and glutamic acid, have been determined for the first time. Because of the amide linkage’s importance in peptides and as an aid in studying side chain versus main chain deprotonation, aspartic acid amide and glutamic acid amide were also studied. Experimental GA values were measured by proton transfer reactions in an electrospray ionization/Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Calculated GAs were obtained by density functional and molecular orbital theory approaches. The best agreement with experiment was found at the G3MP2 level; the MP2/CBS and B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ results are 3–4 kcal/mol more acidic than the G3MP2 results. Experiment shows that aspartic acid is more acidic than glutamic acid by ca. 3 kcal/mol whereas the G3MP2 results show a smaller acidity difference of 0.2 kcal/mol. Similarly, aspartic acid amide is experimentally observed to be ca. 2 kcal/mol more acidic than glutamic acid amide whereas the G3MP2 results show a correspondingly smaller energy difference of 0.7 kcal/mol. The computational results clearly show that the anions are all ring-like structures with strong hydrogen bonds between the OH or NH2 groups and the CO2- group from which the proton is removed. The two amino acids are main-chain deprotonated. In addition, use of the COSMO model for the prediction of the free energy differences in aqueous solution gave values in excellent agreement with the most recent experimental values for pKa. Glutamic acid is predicted to be more acidic than aspartic acid in aqueous solution due to differential solvation effects.

  5. Gas-phase acidities of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, and their amino acid amides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong; Matus, Myrna H.; Velazquez, Hector Adam; Dixon, David A.; Cassady, Carolyn J.

    2007-09-01

    Gas-phase acidities (GA or [Delta]Gacid) for the two most acidic common amino acids, aspartic acid and glutamic acid, have been determined for the first time. Because of the amide linkage's importance in peptides and as an aid in studying side chain versus main chain deprotonation, aspartic acid amide and glutamic acid amide were also studied. Experimental GA values were measured by proton transfer reactions in an electrospray ionization/Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Calculated GAs were obtained by density functional and molecular orbital theory approaches. The best agreement with experiment was found at the G3MP2 level; the MP2/CBS and B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ results are 3-4 kcal/mol more acidic than the G3MP2 results. Experiment shows that aspartic acid is more acidic than glutamic acid by ca. 3 kcal/mol whereas the G3MP2 results show a smaller acidity difference of 0.2 kcal/mol. Similarly, aspartic acid amide is experimentally observed to be ca. 2 kcal/mol more acidic than glutamic acid amide whereas the G3MP2 results show a correspondingly smaller energy difference of 0.7 kcal/mol. The computational results clearly show that the anions are all ring-like structures with strong hydrogen bonds between the OH or NH2 groups and the CO2- group from which the proton is removed. The two amino acids are main-chain deprotonated. In addition, use of the COSMO model for the prediction of the free energy differences in aqueous solution gave values in excellent agreement with the most recent experimental values for pKa. Glutamic acid is predicted to be more acidic than aspartic acid in aqueous solution due to differential solvation effects.

  6. Conjugated linoleic acids influence fatty acid metabolism in ovine ruminal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masur, F; Benesch, F; Pfannkuche, H; Fuhrmann, H; Gäbel, G

    2016-04-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA), particularly cis-9,trans-11 (c9t11) and trans-10,cis-12 (t10c12), are used as feed additives to adapt to constantly increasing demands on the performance of lactating cows. Under these feeding conditions, the rumen wall, and the rumen epithelial cells (REC) in particular, are directly exposed to high amounts of CLA. This study determined the effect of CLA on the fatty acid (FA) metabolism of REC and expression of genes known to be modulated by FA. Cultured REC were incubated with c9t11, t10c12, and the structurally similar FA linoleic acid (LA), oleic acid (OA), and trans-vaccenic acid (TVA) for 48 h at a concentration of 100 µM. Cellular FA levels were determined by gas chromatography. Messenger RNA expression levels of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) and monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) 1 and 4 were quantified by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Fatty acid evaluation revealed significant effects of CLA, LA, OA, and TVA on the amount of FA metabolites of β-oxidation and elongation and of metabolites related to desaturation by SCD. The observed changes in FA content point (among others) to the ability of REC to synthesize c9t11 from TVA endogenously. The mRNA expression levels of SCD identified a decrease after CLA, LA, OA, or TVA treatment. In line with the changes in mRNA expression, we found reduced amounts of C16:1n-7 cis-9 and C18:1n-9 cis-9, the main products of SCD. The expression of MCT1 mRNA increased after c9t11 and t10c12 treatment, and CLA c9t11 induced an upregulation of MCT4. Application of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α antagonist suggested that activation of PPARα is involved in the changes of MCT1, MCT4, and SCD mRNA expression induced by c9t11. Participation of PPARγ in the changes of MCT1 and SCD mRNA expression was shown by the application of the respective antagonist. The study demonstrates that exposure to CLA affects both FA metabolism and regulatory pathways within REC.

  7. Acidic deposition ("acid rain")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, R. Kent; LaRoe, Edward T.; Farris, Gaye S.; Puckett, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.; Mac, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    Acidic deposition, or "acid rain," describes any form of precipitation, including rain, snow, and fog, with a pH of 5.5 or below (Note: pH values below 7 are acidic; vinegar has a pH of 3). It often results when the acidity of normal precipitation is increased by sulfates and nitrates that are emitted into the atmosphere from burning fossil fuels. This form of airborne contamination is considered harmful, both directly and indirectly, to a host of plant and animal species.Although acid rain can fall virtually anywhere, ecological damages in environmentally sensitive areas downwind of industrial and urban emissions are a major concern. This includes areas that have a reduced capacity to neutralize acid inputs because of low alkalinity soils and areas that contain species with a low tolerance to acid conditions. To determine the distribution of acidic deposition and evaluate its biological effects, research and monitoring are being conducted by the federal government with support from states, universities, and private industry.            The national extent of the acid rain problem has been estimated by sampling water from 3,000 lakes and 500 streams (Irving 1991), representing more than 28,000 lakes and 56,000 stream reaches with a total of 200,000 km (125,000 mi). Some particularly sensitive areas, such as the Adirondack Mountain region, have been more intensively sampled and the biota examined in detail for effects from acidity.         To identify trends in aquatic ecosystems, present and historical survey data on water chemistry and associated biota are compared. In lakes, the chemical and biological history and pH trends may be inferred or reconstructed in some cases by examining assemblages of fossil diatoms and aquatic invertebrates in the sediment layers. In terrestrial ecosystems, vegetation damage is surveyed and effects of acidic deposition to plants and animals are determined from laboratory and field exposure experiments. Natural

  8. Metabolic engineering and adaptive evolution for efficient production of D-lactic acid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seung-Ho; Kwon, Eunice Y; Kim, Yong Hwan; Hahn, Ji-Sook

    2016-03-01

    There is an increasing demand for microbial production of lactic acid (LA) as a monomer of biodegradable poly lactic acid (PLA). Both optical isomers, D-LA and L-LA, are required to produce stereocomplex PLA with improved properties. In this study, we developed Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for efficient production of D-LA. D-LA production was achieved by expressing highly stereospecific D-lactate dehydrogenase gene (ldhA, LEUM_1756) from Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides ATCC 8293 in S. cerevisiae lacking natural LA production activity. D-LA consumption after glucose depletion was inhibited by deleting DLD1 encoding D-lactate dehydrogenase and JEN1 encoding monocarboxylate transporter. In addition, ethanol production was reduced by deleting PDC1 and ADH1 genes encoding major pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase, respectively, and glycerol production was eliminated by deleting GPD1 and GPD2 genes encoding glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. LA tolerance of the engineered D-LA-producing strain was enhanced by adaptive evolution and overexpression of HAA1 encoding a transcriptional activator involved in weak acid stress response, resulting in effective D-LA production up to 48.9 g/L without neutralization. In a flask fed-batch fermentation under neutralizing condition, our evolved strain produced 112.0 g/L D-LA with a yield of 0.80 g/g glucose and a productivity of 2.2 g/(L · h).

  9. Conducting Due Diligence in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHRIS; DEVONSHIRE-ELLIS

    2008-01-01

    Ninety percent of problems when set- ting up business in China can be avoided by the deployment of due diligence at the front end of the investment planning.Here we point out some of the areas that can hinder a sensible approach to due diligence,the hidden risks and basic checks.The process does not have to be expensive. Land use rights These relate to the status of the land on which your Chinese partner has his prem-

  10. The kinetics of photocatalytic degradation of aliphatic carboxylic acids in an UV/TiO2 suspension system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q; Song, J M; Pan, F; Xia, F L; Yuan, J Y

    2009-10-01

    Kinetic studies on the photocatalytic degradation of aliphatic carboxylic acids were carried out in a slurry photoreactor with in-situ monitoring, employing artificial UV light as the source of energy and nano-TiO2 powder as the catalyst. The influences on the photocatalytic degradation such as the initial concentration of reactant (C0), catalyst dosage (CTiO2), UV intensity (Ia) and pH value have been investigated. Good agreement has been obtained between the value calculated by Langmuir-Freundlich-Hinshelwood (L-F-H) model and experimental data, with coefficient of multiple determination (R2) varying from 0.880 to 0.999. The L-F-H model has been proven to be feasible in describing the kinetic characteristic of the photocatalytic degradation of aliphatic carboxylic acids. Moreover, the apparent reaction rate constant (k) of the photocatalytic degradation of dicarboxylic acids is higher than that of monocarboxylic acids with the same carbon atoms. This shows that the photocatalytic degradation rate is favoured by different chemical structure.

  11. Using in situ GC-MS for analysis of C2-C7 volatile organic acids in ambient air of a boreal forest site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellén, Heidi; Schallhart, Simon; Praplan, Arnaud P.; Petäjä, Tuukka; Hakola, Hannele

    2017-01-01

    An in situ method for studying gas-phase C2-C7 monocarboxylic volatile organic acids (VOAs) in ambient air was developed and evaluated. Samples were collected directly into the cold trap of the thermal desorption unit (TD) and analysed in situ using a gas chromatograph (GC) coupled to a mass spectrometer (MS). A polyethylene glycol column was used for separating the acids. The method was validated in the laboratory and tested on the ambient air of a boreal forest in June 2015. Recoveries of VOAs from fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) and heated stainless steel inlets ranged from 83 to 123 %. Different VOAs were fully desorbed from the cold trap and well separated in the chromatograms. Detection limits varied between 1 and 130 pptv and total uncertainty of the method at mean ambient mixing ratios was between 16 and 76 %. All straight chain VOAs except heptanoic acid in the ambient air measurements were found with mixing ratios above the detection limits. The highest mixing ratios were found for acetic acid and the highest relative variations for hexanoic acid. In addition, mixing ratios of acetic and propanoic acids measured by the novel GC-MS method were compared with proton-mass-transfer time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOFMS) data. Both instruments showed similar variations, but differences in the mixing ratio levels were significant.

  12. Stroke due to Hematologic Aspects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘泽霖

    2004-01-01

    @@ Stroke due to ‘cerebral vein thrombosis' (CVT) is commonly used to refer to thrombosis of the cerebral venous system, including either dural venous sinuses, or deep and superficial (cortical) cerebral veins. CVT are frightening events due to the severity of their clinical manifestations and their high mortality rate (up to 30% in some casereports).The clinical signs and symptoms of CVT are relatively nonspecific: they include headache, papilledema, vomiting,seizures, focal neurological deficits (motor or sensory) and impaired consciousness. CVT has long been considered as rare and mostly infection-related event; moreover, due to its nonspecific clinical manifestations, the diagnosis has been difficult, delayed and could often be made only post mortem.

  13. Due Process Hearing Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, David F.

    2009-01-01

    William is 9 years of age, residing with his parent within the boundaries of an unnamed district ("the District"). As a student with autism he is eligible for special education programming and services. There was one issue presented for this due process hearing: What was the appropriate program and placement for him for the 2008-2009 school year?…

  14. Elephantine nose due to rhinoentomophthoromycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorpade, Ashok; Sarma, Podila S A; Iqbal, Syed Md

    2006-01-01

    Rhinoentomophthoromycosis in an immunocompetent Indian male due to Basidiobolus species resulting in a huge (elephantine) nasal deformity, is reported. The diagnosis was done by demonstration of hyphae in direct tissue smear examination in potassium hydroxide, histopathological examination and by cultural characteristics. He showed an excellent response to oral potassium iodide solution.

  15. Endocarditis Due to Citrobacter Freundii

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes, Cesar V.; Folwarkiw, Oksana

    1984-01-01

    The etiologic association of acute bacterial endocarditis with the Citrobacter species has been rare, although it is one of the opportunistic organisms that afflicts the elderly, neonates, the debilitated and immunocompromised. We report a case of endocarditis due to Citrobacter freundii.

  16. Fixed drug eruption due to paracetamol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Kushwah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fixed drug eruption is a common type of drug eruption seen in dermatology OPD’s. Usually it is seen with sulphonamides, salicylates, tetracyclines, oxyphenbutazones, dapsone, barbiturates, phenolphthalein, morphine, codeine, quinine, phenacetin, erythromycin, griseofulvin, mebendazole etc. We hereby report a case of fixed drug eruption due to single dose of oral paracetamol in an otherwise healthy male after one hour of consuming it. A provisional diagnosis of Paracetamol induced fixed drug eruption was made. Paracetamol was stopped and patient advised never to take Paracetamol in future. Patient was managed with prednisolone 10mg /day, cetirizine 10 mg/day, and amoxicillin 500 mg twice a day and mometasone + fusidic acid cream to be applied over the lesions. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(6.000: 833-835

  17. Chemical characterization of insoluble macromolecules (kerogen) from marine and lacustrine sediments. Molecular distribution of aliphatic dicarboxylic acids in alkaline KMnO4 oxidation products; Kaiyo oyobi konuma taisekibutsuchu no fuyosei yukibutsu (kerogen) no characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morinaga, S.; Ishiwatari, R.; Machihara, T. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science

    1996-04-15

    The insoluble macromolecules (kerogen) in marine and lacustrine sediments was oxidated by alkaline KMnO4, and the kerogen was characterized by molecular distribution of produced aliphatic dicarboxylic acids. Seven seas and ten lakes in the world are used as a sample. The oxidation products consist of n-C4-C15 {alpha}, {omega}-dicarboxylic acids, n-C7-C28 mono-carboxylic acids, and benzene carboxylic acids. The dicarboxylic acid decreases from C4 to C15 for the marine kerogen and has a maximum at C8 to C9 for the lacustrine kerogen. The method for representing the molecular distribution by two mathematical expressions was proposed. The marine and lacustrine kerogens are classified into different groups, and the sample of an eruption bay is located between the two kerogens. The polymerized structure of polyhydoroxy acids in these kerogens is assumed to have been transformed into aliphatic dicarboxylic acids by oxidation. This is also backed up by the result of cutin oxidation. 38 refs., 4 figs., 4 tags.

  18. LACTIC ACID BACTERIA: PROBIOTIC APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    NEENA GARG

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is a heterotrophic Gram-positive bacteria which under goes lactic acid fermentations and leads to production of lactic acid as an end product. LAB includes Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, Lactococcus and Streptococcus which are grouped together in the family lactobacillaceae. LAB shows numerous antimicrobial activities due to production of antibacterial and antifungal compounds such as organic acids, bacteriocins, diacetyl, hydrogen peroxide and reutrin. LA...

  19. Wage differentials due to gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, N; Westergard-nielsen, N

    1988-10-01

    "In this paper, a longitudinal data set covering 5% of all Danish wage earners over a 9-year period is used to shed light on the observed wage differentials due to gender. A human capital model is used to isolate the effects of changes in experience, schooling and unemployment, together with other factors.... Despite the observation from macro statistics that women have had the highest observed increases in wage rates, the models show that this increase is mainly due to an improvement in their background characteristics and that men still receive a higher return to their characteristics. The main difference between genders appears to be that female workers do not, in general, get any return to their experience. The estimates also show negative effects on the wage rate of previous spells of unemployment." excerpt

  20. Maternal mortality due to trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Vivian Carolina; Pearlman, Mark

    2012-02-01

    Maternal mortality is an important indicator of adequacy of health care in our society. Improvements in the obstetric care system as well as advances in technology have contributed to reduction in maternal mortality rates. Trauma complicates up to 7% of all pregnancies and has emerged as the leading cause of maternal mortality, becoming a significant concern for the public health system. Maternal mortality secondary to trauma can often be prevented by coordinated medical care, but it is essential that caregivers recognize the unique situation of providing simultaneous care to 2 patients who have a complex physiologic relationship. Optimal management of the pregnant trauma victim requires a multidisciplinary team, where the obstetrician plays a central role. This review focuses on the incidence of maternal mortality due to trauma, the mechanisms involved in traumatic injury, the important anatomic and physiologic changes that may predispose to mortality due to trauma, and finally, preventive strategies that may decrease the incidence of traumatic maternal death.

  1. Visual Impairment Due to Lissencephaly

    OpenAIRE

    Marqués-Fernández, V. E.; Sánchez-Tocino, H.; Escudero-Caro, M.T.; Cancho-Candela, R.; García-Zamora, M.

    2016-01-01

    Lissencephaly is a rare disorder due to abnormal neural migration, causing neurological impairment and clinically characterised by mental retardation and epilepsy. Any disturbance of the visual pathway can cause loss of vision. The authors describe a case of a 6-year-old boy referred to the ophthalmologist presenting poor bilateral vision. This child had no other known medical conditions, and neurological examination was completely normal. Only when a magnetic resonance imaging was made that ...

  2. Autoerotic death due to electrocution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Arkuszewski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Autoerotic death is a very rare case in forensic medicine. It is usually caused by asphyxia, but other reasons are also possible. Herein we present a case of autoerotic death due to electrocution caused by a self-made electrical device. The device was constructed to increase sexual feelings through stimulation of the scrotal area.

  3. Chorioamnionitis due to Lactococcus lactis cremoris: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Azouzi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lactococcus lactis cremoris is rarely involved in human pathology. A thirty two-year old pregnant woman with premature rupture of membrane history presented with chorioamnionitis due to L. lactis cremoris. She underwent an emergency caesarian section and was treated with antibiotics including the association of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. She was completely recovered. This is the first case to our knowledge of chorioamnionitis due to this organism.

  4. Chorioamnionitis due to Lactococcus lactis cremoris: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    F. Azouzi; C. Chahed; Marzouk, M.; A. Ferjani; N. Hannechi; M. Fekih; Y. Ben Salem; J. Boukadida

    2015-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis cremoris is rarely involved in human pathology. A thirty two-year old pregnant woman with premature rupture of membrane history presented with chorioamnionitis due to L. lactis cremoris. She underwent an emergency caesarian section and was treated with antibiotics including the association of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. She was completely recovered. This is the first case to our knowledge of chorioamnionitis due to this organism.

  5. Structure-Dependent Anchoring of Organic Molecules to Atomically Defined Oxide Surfaces: Phthalic Acid on Co3O4(111), CoO(100), and CoO(111).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Schwarz, Matthias; Werner, Kristin; Mohr, Susanne; Amende, Max; Libuda, Jörg

    2016-04-04

    We have performed a model study to explore the influence of surface structure on the anchoring of organic molecules on oxide materials. Specifically, we have investigated the adsorption of phthalic acid (PA) on three different, well-ordered, and atomically defined cobalt oxide surfaces, namely 1) Co3O4(111), 2) CoO(111), and 3) CoO(100) on Ir(100). PA was deposited by physical vapor deposition (PVD). The formation of the PA films and interfacial reactions were monitored in situ during growth by isothermal time-resolved IR reflection absorption spectroscopy (TR-IRAS) under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions. We observed a pronounced structure dependence on the three surfaces with three distinctively different binding geometries and characteristic differences depending on the temperature and coverage. 1) PA initially binds to Co3O4(111) through the formation of a chelating bis-carboxylate with the molecular plane oriented perpendicularly to the surface. Similar species were observed both at low temperature (130 K) and at room temperature (300 K). With increasing exposure, chelating mono-carboxylates became more abundant and partially replaced the bis-carboxylate. 2) PA binds to CoO(100) in the form of a bridging bis-carboxylate for low coverage. Upon prolonged deposition of PA at low temperature, the bis-carboxylates were converted into mono-carboxylate species. In contrast, the bis-carboxylate layer was very stable at 300 K. 3) For CoO(111) we observed a temperature-dependent change in the adsorption mechanism. Although PA binds as a mono-carboxylate in a bridging bidentate fashion at low temperature (130 K), a strongly distorted bis-carboxylate was formed at 300 K, possibly as a result of temperature-dependent restructuring of the surface. The results show that the adsorption geometry of PA depends on the atomic structure of the oxide surface. The structure dependence can be rationalized by the different arrangements of cobalt ions at the three surfaces.

  6. Leg ulcers due to hyperhomocysteinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupa Shankar D

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic leg ulcers are rare in young adults and generally indicate a vascular cause. We report a case of a 26-year-old man with leg ulcers of eight months duration. Doppler study indicated venous incompetence and a postphlebitic limb. However, as the distribution and number of ulcers was not consistent with stasis alone and no features of collagen vascular disease were noted, a hyperviscosity state was considered and confirmed with significantly elevated homocysteine level in the serum. Administration of vitamins B1, B2, B6 and B12, trimethyl-glycine, mecobalamine, folic acid and povidone iodine dressings with culture-directed antibiotic therapy led to a satisfactory healing of ulcers over a period of one month. Hyperhomocysteinemia must be considered in the differential diagnosis of leg ulcers in young individuals.

  7. Anaphylaxis Due to Head Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruner, Heather C.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Both anaphylaxis and head injury are often seen in the emergency department, but they are rarely seen in combination. We present a case of a 30-year-old woman who presented with anaphylaxis with urticaria and angioedema following a minor head injury. The patient responded well to intramuscular epinephrine without further complications or airway compromise. Prior case reports have reported angioedema from hereditary angioedema during dental procedures and maxillofacial surgery, but there have not been any cases of first-time angioedema or anaphylaxis due to head injury. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(3:435–437.

  8. Endocarditis due to Kingella kingae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odum, L; Jensen, K T; Slotsbjerg, T D

    1984-06-01

    Four cases of endocarditis due to Kingella kingae are described in compromised patients. All had primary heart disease, and two had systemic lupus erythematosis and congenital heart defect respectively, in addition. Confirmation of Kingella kingae was made in one case at autopsy. The literature on 11 cases of endocarditis, 2 bacteremia, 4 osteomyelitis, 5 septic arthritis and 1 intervertebral disc infection, all caused by Kingella kingae, is reviewed. Our findings confirm that the organism is of low pathogenicity. Children may be predisposed to infection with Kingella kingae.

  9. Interference due to coherence swapping

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arun Kumar Pati; Marek Zukowski

    2001-02-01

    We propose a method called ‘coherence swapping’ which enables us to create superposition of a particle in two distinct paths, which is fed with initially incoherent, independent radiation. This phenomenon is also present for the charged particles, and can be used to swap the effect of flux line due to the Aharonov–Bohm effect. We propose an optical version of experimental set-up to test the coherence swapping. The phenomenon, which is simpler than entanglement swapping or teleportation, raises some fundamental questions about the true nature of wave-particle duality, and also opens up the possibility of studying the quantum erasure from a new angle.

  10. Tardive akathisia due to sulpiride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Munain, A; Poza, J J; Gorospe, A; Arce, A; Martí Massó, J F

    1994-10-01

    A 56 year-old woman who suffered from parkinsonism, oro-lingual dyskinesia (OLD) and tardive akathisia (TA) due to sulpiride is reported. OLD and TA appeared after sulpiride withdrawal. The patient was successfully treated with tetrabenazine even a mild parkinsonism was present. TA seems to be related with an apparent dopaminergic hyperactivity and it has to be differentiated of other neuroleptic-induced movement disorders such as restless legs syndrome in order of an appropriate treatment. Sulpiride has the same possible side effects than classic neuroleptics.

  11. Maculopathy due to drug inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio-Sánchez, V M; Gonzalez-Buendia, L; Marcos-Fernández, M

    2014-08-01

    A case of maculopathy due to "poppers" is described. Poppers is a drug composed of various forms of alkyl nitrite. A 39 year-old man, who had been using poppers for years, was seen in the clinic with phosphenes, reduced visual acuity and central scotoma. The SD-OCT in the right eye showed disruption at the level of the IS/OS junction line. The SD-OCT scan in the left eye showed an outer rectangular retinal hole and an outer retinal cyst. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Reactivity of chlorine radical with submicron palmitic acid particles: kinetic measurements and products identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mendez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The heterogeneous reaction of Cl. radicals with sub-micron palmitic acid (PA particles was studied in an aerosol flow tube in the presence or in the absence of O2. Fine particles were generated by homogeneous condensation of PA vapors and introduced in the reactor where chlorine atoms are produced by photolysis of Cl2 using UV lamps surrounding the reactor. The effective reactive uptake coefficient (γ has been determined from the rate loss of PA measured by GC/MS analysis of reacted particles as a function of the chlorine exposure. In the absence of O2, γ = 14 ± 5 indicates efficient secondary chemistry involving Cl2. GC/MS analyses have shown the formation of monochlorinated and polychlorinated compounds in the oxidized particles. Although, the PA particles are solid, the complete mass can be consumed. In the presence of oxygen, the reaction is still dominated by secondary chemistry but the propagation chain length is smaller than in the absence of O2 which leads to an uptake coefficient γ = 3 ± 1. In the particulate phase, oxocarboxylic acids and dicarboxylic acids are identified by GC/MS. Formation of alcohols and monocarboxylic acids are also suspected. All these results show that solid organic particles could be efficiently oxidized by gas-phase radicals not only on their surface, but also in bulk by mechanisms which are still unclear. Furthermore the identified reaction products are explained by a chemical mechanism showing the pathway of the formation of more functionalized products. They help to understand the aging of primary tropospheric aerosol containing fatty acids.

  13. Reactivity of chlorine radical with submicron palmitic acid particles: kinetic measurements and product identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, M.; Ciuraru, R.; Gosselin, S.; Batut, S.; Visez, N.; Petitprez, D.

    2013-12-01

    The heterogeneous reaction of Cl• radicals with submicron palmitic acid (PA) particles was studied in an aerosol flow tube in the presence or in the absence of O2. Fine particles were generated by homogeneous condensation of PA vapours and introduced into the reactor, where chlorine atoms were produced by photolysis of Cl2 using UV lamps surrounding the reactor. The effective reactive uptake coefficient (γ) has been determined from the rate loss of PA measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC/MS) analysis of reacted particles as a function of the chlorine exposure. In the absence of O2, γ = 14 ± 5 indicates efficient secondary chemistry involving Cl2. GC/MS analysis has shown the formation of monochlorinated and polychlorinated compounds in the oxidized particles. Although the PA particles are solid, the complete mass can be consumed. In the presence of oxygen, the reaction is still dominated by secondary chemistry but the propagation chain length is smaller than in the absence of O2, which leads to an uptake coefficient γ = 3 ± 1. In the particulate phase, oxocarboxylic acids and dicarboxylic acids were identified by GC/MS. The formation of alcohols and monocarboxylic acids is also suspected. A reaction pathway for the main products and more functionalized species is proposed. All these results show that solid organic particles could be efficiently oxidized by gas-phase radicals not only on their surface but also in bulk by mechanisms which are still unclear. They help to understand the aging of primary tropospheric aerosol containing fatty acids.

  14. Reactivity of chlorine radical with submicron palmitic acid particles: kinetic measurements and products identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, M.; Ciuraru, R.; Gosselin, S.; Batut, S.; Visez, N.; Petitprez, D.

    2013-06-01

    The heterogeneous reaction of Cl. radicals with sub-micron palmitic acid (PA) particles was studied in an aerosol flow tube in the presence or in the absence of O2. Fine particles were generated by homogeneous condensation of PA vapors and introduced in the reactor where chlorine atoms are produced by photolysis of Cl2 using UV lamps surrounding the reactor. The effective reactive uptake coefficient (γ) has been determined from the rate loss of PA measured by GC/MS analysis of reacted particles as a function of the chlorine exposure. In the absence of O2, γ = 14 ± 5 indicates efficient secondary chemistry involving Cl2. GC/MS analyses have shown the formation of monochlorinated and polychlorinated compounds in the oxidized particles. Although, the PA particles are solid, the complete mass can be consumed. In the presence of oxygen, the reaction is still dominated by secondary chemistry but the propagation chain length is smaller than in the absence of O2 which leads to an uptake coefficient γ = 3 ± 1. In the particulate phase, oxocarboxylic acids and dicarboxylic acids are identified by GC/MS. Formation of alcohols and monocarboxylic acids are also suspected. All these results show that solid organic particles could be efficiently oxidized by gas-phase radicals not only on their surface, but also in bulk by mechanisms which are still unclear. Furthermore the identified reaction products are explained by a chemical mechanism showing the pathway of the formation of more functionalized products. They help to understand the aging of primary tropospheric aerosol containing fatty acids.

  15. Regulation of the expression and activity of glucose and lactic acid metabolism-related genes by protein kinase C in skeletal muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otake, Sho; Kobayashi, Masaki; Narumi, Katsuya; Sasaki, Shotaro; Kikutani, Yurika; Furugen, Ayako; Watanabe, Meguho; Takahashi, Natsuko; Ogura, Jiro; Yamaguchi, Hiroaki; Iseki, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) modulators are very attractive therapeutic targets in cancer. Since most cancer cells display increased glycolysis, elucidations of the effects of PKC activation on glycolysis is necessary for the development of effective medicine. In the present study, to clarify the role of PKC in the regulation of glycolysis, we examined the effect of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a PKC activator, on the expression and activity of glucose and lactic acid metabolism-related genes in human rhabdomyosarcoma cells (RD cells). In parallel to increases in glucose uptake and mRNA levels of glucose transporters (GLUTs) induced by PMA treatment for 6 h, the hexokinase (HK) mRNA level and activity were also significantly increased in RD cells. On the other hand, a significant increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) mRNA level and activity was seen when the cells were incubated with PMA for 24 h, but not for 6 or 12 h, and was associated with lactic acid production. These effects by PMA treatment were markedly suppressed by Bisindolylmaleimide (BIM), a PKC inhibitor. Furthermore, chetomin, a hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) inhibitor, completely abrogated the increment of LDH mRNA level and activity as well as monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) 4, a lactic acid efflux transporter. In conclusion, we found that HK and LDH activity induced by PKC activation was associated with the glucose uptake and lactic acid level and that LDH and MCT4 are modulated by a common factor, HIF-1.

  16. Occupational injuries due to violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, T; Seligman, P J; Newman, S C; Timbrook, C L

    1988-06-01

    Each year in the United States, an estimated 800 to 1,400 people are murdered at work, and an unknown number of nonfatal injuries due to workplace violence occur. Based on Ohio's workers' compensation claims from 1983 through 1985, police officers, gasoline service station employees, employees of the real estate industry, and hotel/motel employees were found to be at the highest risk for occupational violent crime (OVC) injury and death. Grocery store employees, specifically those working in convenience food stores, and employees of the real estate industry had the most reported rapes. Four previously unidentified industries at increased risk of employee victimization were described. Identification of industries and occupations at high risk for crime victimization provides the opportunity to focus preventive strategies to promote employee safety and security in the workplace.

  17. Collisional Aggregation due to Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Pumir, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Collisions between particles suspended in a fluid play an important role in many physical processes. As an example, collisions of microscopic water droplets in clouds are a necessary step in the production of macroscopic raindrops. Collisions of dust grains are also conjectured to be important for planet formation in the gas surrounding young stars, and also to play a role in the dynamics of sand storms. In these processes, collisions are favoured by fast turbulent motions. Here we review recent advances in the understanding of collisional aggregation due to turbulence. We discuss the role of fractal clustering of particles, and caustic singularities of their velocities. We also discuss limitations of the Smoluchowski equation for modelling these processes. These advances lead to a semi-quantitative understanding on the influence of turbulence on collision rates, and point to deficiencies in the current understanding of rainfall and planet formation.

  18. The oxidation of dicarboxylic acid CoA esters via peroxisomal fatty acyl-CoA oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poosch, M S; Yamazaki, R K

    1989-12-18

    Evidence supporting a common peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway for the coenzyme A thioesters of medium-chain-length dicarboxylic acids (DCn-CoA) and monocarboxylic acids (MCn-CoA) has been obtained. Using the mono-CoA esters of dodecanedioic acid (DC12-CoA) and lauroyl-CoA (MC12-CoA) as substrates, parallel inductions of activities and parallel increases in specific activities during purification of peroxisomal fatty acyl-CoA oxidase (EC 1.3.99.3) from rat liver after di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate treatment were seen. The purified enzyme was used for antiserum production in rabbits; antiserum specificity was verified by immunoblot analysis. Coincident losses of oxidase activities with MC12-CoA and DC12-CoA were found in immunotitration experiments with rat liver homogenates, supporting the hypothesis that peroxisomal fatty acyl-CoA oxidase is solely responsible for the oxidation of medium-chain length dicarboxylic acid substrates. Kinetic studies with purified enzyme using the mono-CoA esters of sebacic (DC10-CoA), suberic (DC8-CoA), and adipic (DC6-CoA) acids along with DC12-CoA revealed substrate inhibition. Although these substrates exhibited similar calculated Vmax values, with decreasing chain length, the combination of increasing Km values and decreasing substrate inhibition constant (Ki) caused the maximum obtainable velocity to decrease. These studies offer an explanation for the previously observed limit of the ability of peroxisomes to chain-shorten dicarboxylates and increased urinary excretion of adipic acid when peroxisomal oxidation of dicarboxylic acids is enhanced.

  19. Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxidation of Phenyl Acetic Acid and Dl-Mandelic Acid by Permanganate in Acid Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Syama Sundar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Kinetics of oxidation of phenyl acetic acid and DL- Mandelic acid by potassium permanganate in aqueous acetic acid and perchloric acid mixture reveals that the kinetic orders are first order in oxidant, first order in H+ and zero order in substrate for phenyl acetic acid. DL-Mandelic acid exhibits first order in oxidant and zero order in substrate. The results are rationalised by a mechanism involving intermediate formation of mandelic acid in case of Phenyl acetic acid and ester formation with Mn (VII in case of DL-Mandelic acid. The following order of reactivity is observed: DL-Mandelic acid > Phenyl acetic acid. The high reactivity of DL-Mandelic acid over phenyl acetic acid may be due to different mechanisms operating with the two substrates and benzaldehyde is the final product in both the cases.

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-12-0067 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s musculus] gb|AAH17129.1| Solute carrier family 16 (monocarboxylic acid transporters), member 6 [Mus muscul...us] emb|CAM25213.1| solute carrier family 16 (monocarboxylic acid transporters), member 6 [Mus musculus] gb|...EDL34359.1| solute carrier family 16 (monocarboxylic acid transporters), member 6..., isoform CRA_a [Mus musculus] gb|EDL34361.1| solute carrier family 16 (monocarboxylic acid transporters), member 6, isoform CRA_a [Mus musculus] NP_598799.1 1e-62 47% ...

  1. Progress in engineering acid stress resistance of lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chongde; Huang, Jun; Zhou, Rongqing

    2014-02-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are widely used for the production of a variety of fermented foods, and are considered as probiotic due to their health-promoting effect. However, LAB encounter various environmental stresses both in industrial fermentation and application, among which acid stress is one of the most important survival challenges. Improving the acid stress resistance may contribute to the application and function of probiotic action to the host. Recently, the advent of genomics, functional genomics and high-throughput technologies have allowed for the understanding of acid tolerance mechanisms at a systems level, and many method to improve acid tolerance have been developed. This review describes the current progress in engineering acid stress resistance of LAB. Special emphasis is placed on engineering cellular microenvironment (engineering amino acid metabolism, introduction of exogenous biosynthetic capacity, and overproduction of stress response proteins) and maintaining cell membrane functionality. Moreover, strategies to improve acid tolerance and the related physiological mechanisms are also discussed.

  2. Secondary amyloidosis due to FMF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonem, Ozlem; Bayraktar, Yusuf

    2007-06-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an ethnically restricted disease with an autosomal recessive inheritance characterized by recurrent attacks of fever, painful manifestations in the abdomen, chest and joints. The disease affects mainly non-Ashkenazi Jews, Armenians, Turks Arabs and other people of Mediterranean origin. The disease may present at any age, more than 80% of patients being symptomatic by the age of 20. Although the inflammatory attacks that characterize the disease may sometimes be debilitating, secondary (AA) amyloidosis remains the most serious manifestation of FMF causing considerable morbidity due mostly to nephropathic amyloidosis. The largest series of secondary amyloidosis in FMF have been reported from Turkey. The pathophysiological steps in progressing a patient from FMF to amyloidosis are not definitely known. Daily treatment with colchicine can prevent both the attacks and amyloid deposition but no effective alternative treatment exists for colchicine resistant cases. Meanwhile more population based epidemiological and genetic data should be gathered by worldwide collaborative studies to elucidate the link between FMF and amyloidosis and to develop alternative therapies.

  3. Galactorrhea due to psychotropic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropp, S; Ziegenbein, M; Grohmann, R; Engel, R R; Degner, D

    2004-03-01

    Within the drug safety program in psychiatry AMSP ( Arzneimittelsicherheit in der Psychiatrie), severe adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are assessed. Currently 35 psychiatric hospitals and departments are participating in detecting severe ADRs. This paper focuses on prolactin-dependent ADRs such as gynecomastia and galactorrhea due to psychotropic medications. Related to the number of patients surveyed (122,562 from 1993 to 2000), these are rare events (0.03 % or 35 cases). Imputed drugs were mostly antipsychotics, but antidepressants were also imputed in single cases. In the group of antipsychotics, relative frequencies of galactorrhea were highest for amisulpride and risperidone and corresponded to the degree of D2 binding. Galactorrhea assessed as "severe" was accompanied by distressing symptoms such as pain, tension, enlargement of breasts, or soaked clothing. The AMSP data contribute to the knowledge on endocrine ADRs by the large number of patients examined and help clinicians select the appropriate drug if their patients have been prone to for these ADRs in the past.

  4. Local and global chirality at surfaces: succinic acid versus tartaric acid on Cu110.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humblot, Vincent; Lorenzo, Maria Ortega; Baddeley, Christopher J; Haq, Sam; Raval, Rasmita

    2004-05-26

    A detailed comparison of tartaric acid (HOOC-CHOH-CHOH-COOH) and succinic acid (HOOC-CH(2)-CH(2)-COOH) molecules on a Cu(110) surface is presented with a view to elucidate how the two-dimensional chirality exhibited by such robust, chemisorbed systems is affected when both OH groups of the former molecule are replaced with H groups, a stereochemical change that leaves the metal-bonding functionalities of the molecule untouched but destroys both chiral centers. It is found that this change does not significantly affect the thermodynamically preferred chemical forms that are adopted, namely the doubly deprotonated bicarboxylate at low coverages (theta monocarboxylate at higher coverage. However, the kinetics of phase formation are significantly affected so that the conditions required for self-assembling pertinent two-dimensional chiral phases alter substantially. For both molecules, two-dimensional assembly is found to depend strongly on the nature of the local adsorption motif created, with each motif essentially acting as a "synthon" for the supramolecular assembly. In this respect, it seems that molecule-metal bonding interactions define the general self-assembly structure. The presence/absence of the OH groups, instead, cause a subtler, second-order effect on the finer details of the self-assembled structure. Finally, the creation of chirality in the achiral succinate system is shown to arise from adsorption-induced asymmetrization, inducing point chirality via molecular distortion and/or metal reconstruction of the local adsorption unit. This chiral adsorption unit is then responsible for creating chiral supramolecular through-space and through-metal interactions that propagate a chiral organization. However, the achirality of the succinate ensures that nucleation points of either chirality are equally created, producing a racemic conglomerate of coexisting mirror domains. It is in this aspect that the uniquely

  5. Pulmonary Complications due to Esophagectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashar Talebi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Esophageal carcinoma is the scourge of human beings. Pulmonary compli-cations in patients who have undergone operation are common (20-30% of cases and there are no suitable tools and ways to predict these complications. Methods: During a period of 10 years, from March 1998 to February 2007, 200 patients (150 male and 50 female underwent Esophagectomy due to esophageal carcinoma in thoracic surgery ward retrospectively. Complications include the length of hospitalization, mechanical ventilation, morbidity and mortality. Patients’ risk factors include age, preoperative chemo-radiotherapy, stage of the disease and preoperative spirometry condition. Results: We grouped our patients into three categories: Normal (FEV1 ≥ 80% predicted, mildly impaired (FEV1 65% to 79% predicted, more severely impaired (FEV1 < 65% predicted.Although almost all patients had radiographic pulmonary abnormalities, significant pulmonary complications occurred in 40 patients (20% which underwent Esophagectomy. Pleural effusion and atelectasia in 160 patients (80%. 24 patients needed chest-tube insertion. 20 patients (10% developed ARDS. 14 patients (7% developed chylothorax. 20 patients (10% of patients died during their postoperative hospital stay. 30 patients (15% required mechanical ventilation for greater than 48 hours. Conclusion: We reviewed a number of preoperative clinical variables to determine whether they contributed to postoperative pulmonary complications as well as other outcomes. In general, age, impaired pulmonary function especially in those patients with FEV1 less than 65% predicted was associated with prolonged hospital length of stay (LOS. In fact pulmonary complications rate after Esophagectomy are high and there was associated mortality and morbidity.

  6. Otomycosis due to filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Agudo, Lidia; Aznar-Marín, Pilar; Galán-Sánchez, Fátima; García-Martos, Pedro; Marín-Casanova, Pilar; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Manuel

    2011-10-01

    Otomycosis is common throughout the world but barely studied in Spain. Our objective was to determine the microbiological and epidemiological characteristics of this pathology in Cadiz (Spain) between 2005 and 2010. Samples from patients with suspicion of otomycosis underwent a direct microscopic examination and culture on different media for fungi and bacteria. Mycological cultures were incubated at 30°C for at least seven days. Identification of fungi was based on colonial morphology and microscopic examination of fungal structure. From a total of 2,633 samples, microbial growth was present in 1,375 (52.2%) and fungal isolation in 390 (28.4%). We identified 228 yeasts and 184 filamentous fungi (13.4% of positive cultures and 47.2% of otomycosis), associated with yeasts in 22 cases (5.6%). The most frequent species were Aspergillus flavus (42.4%), A. niger (35.9%), A. fumigatus (12.5%), A. candidus (7.1%), A. terreus (1.6%), and Paecilomyces variotii (0.5%). Infection was predominant in men (54.9%) and patients beyond 55 years old (46.8%). The most common clinical symptoms were itching (98.9%), otalgia (59.3%), and hypoacusis (56.0%). Fall season reported the lowest number of cases (20.1%). Incidence of otomycosis and fungi producing otomycosis vary within the distinct geographical areas. In Cadiz, this infection is endemic due to warm temperatures, high humidity, sea bathing, and wind, which contributes to disseminate the conidia. Despite Aspergillus niger has been reported as the main causative agent, A. flavus is predominant in Cadiz. Although infection is usually detected in warm months, we observed a homogeneous occurrence of otomycosis in almost all the seasons.

  7. Telomere attrition due to infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petteri Ilmonen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Telomeres--the terminal caps of chromosomes--become shorter as individuals age, and there is much interest in determining what causes telomere attrition since this process may play a role in biological aging. The leading hypothesis is that telomere attrition is due to inflammation, exposure to infectious agents, and other types of oxidative stress, which damage telomeres and impair their repair mechanisms. Several lines of evidence support this hypothesis, including observational findings that people exposed to infectious diseases have shorter telomeres. Experimental tests are still needed, however, to distinguish whether infectious diseases actually cause telomere attrition or whether telomere attrition increases susceptibility to infection. Experiments are also needed to determine whether telomere erosion reduces longevity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We experimentally tested whether repeated exposure to an infectious agent, Salmonella enterica, causes telomere attrition in wild-derived house mice (Mus musculus musculus. We repeatedly infected mice with a genetically diverse cocktail of five different S. enterica strains over seven months, and compared changes in telomere length with sham-infected sibling controls. We measured changes in telomere length of white blood cells (WBC after five infections using a real-time PCR method. Our results show that repeated Salmonella infections cause telomere attrition in WBCs, and particularly for males, which appeared less disease resistant than females. Interestingly, we also found that individuals having long WBC telomeres at early age were relatively disease resistant during later life. Finally, we found evidence that more rapid telomere attrition increases mortality risk, although this trend was not significant. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that infectious diseases can cause telomere attrition, and support the idea that telomere length could provide a molecular

  8. Valproic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... acid is in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. It works by increasing the amount of a ... older (about 1 in 500 people) who took anticonvulsants such as valproic acid to treat various conditions ...

  9. Amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002222.htm Amino acids To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . ...

  10. Obeticholic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeticholic acid is used alone or in combination with ursodiol (Actigall, Urso) to treat primary biliary cholangitis (PBC; a ... were not treated successfully with ursodiol alone. Obeticholic acid is in a class of medications called farnesoid ...

  11. Ascorbic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascorbic acid is used to prevent and treat scurvy, a disease caused by a lack of vitamin C in ... Ascorbic acid comes in extended-release (long-acting) capsules and tablets, lozenges, syrup, chewable tablets, and liquid drops to ...

  12. Mefenamic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mefenamic acid is used to relieve mild to moderate pain, including menstrual pain (pain that happens before or during a menstrual period). Mefenamic acid is in a class of medications called NSAIDs. ...

  13. Acid mucopolysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003368.htm Acid mucopolysaccharides To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acid mucopolysaccharides is a test that measures the amount ...

  14. Ethacrynic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethacrynic acid, a 'water pill,' is used to treat swelling and fluid retention caused by various medical problems. It ... Ethacrynic acid comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken once or twice a day ...

  15. Aminocaproic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminocaproic acid is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This type ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid is also used to control bleeding in the ...

  16. Aspartic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body work. It plays a role in: Hormone production and release Normal nervous system function Plant sources of aspartic acid include: avocado, asparagus, and molasses. Animal sources of aspartic acid include: ...

  17. Priming by Hexanoic acid induce activation of mevalonic and linolenic pathways and promotes the emission of plant volatiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio eLlorens

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hexanoic acid is a short natural monocarboxylic acid present in some fruits and plants. Previous studies reported that soil drench application of this acid induces effective resistance in tomato plants against Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae and in citrus against Alternaria alternata and Xanthomonas citri. In this work, we performed an in deep study of the metabolic changes produced in citrus by the application of hexanoic acid in response to the challenge pathogen Alternaria alternata, focusing on the response of the plant. Moreover, we used 13C labeled hexanoic to analyze its behavior inside the plants. Finally, we studied the volatile emission of the treated plants after the challenge inoculation. Drench application of 13C labeled hexanoic demonstrated that this molecule stays in the roots and is not mobilized to the leaves, suggesting long distance induction of resistance. Moreover, the study of the metabolic profile showed an alteration of more than two hundred molecules differentially induced by the application of the compound and the inoculation with the fungus. Bioinformatics analysis of data showed that most of these altered molecules could be related with the mevalonic and linolenic pathways suggesting the implication of these pathways in the induced resistance mediated by hexanoic acid. Finally, the application of this compound showed an enhancement of the emission of 17 volatile metabolites. Taken together, this study indicates that after the application of hexanoic acid this compound remains in the roots, provoking molecular changes that may trigger the defensive response in the rest of the plant mediated by changes in the mevalonic and linolenic pathways and enhancing the emission of volatile compounds, suggesting for the first time the implication of mevalonic pathway in response to hexanoic application.

  18. Uric acid and evolution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Álvarez-Lario, Bonifacio; Macarrón-Vicente, Jesús

    2010-01-01

    Uric acid (UA) is the end product of purine metabolism in humans due to the loss of uricase activity by various mutations of its gene during the Miocene epoch, which led to humans having higher UA levels than other mammals. Furthermore, 90...

  19. MCT8 mutation analysis and identification of the first female with Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome due to loss of MCT8 expression.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frints, S.G.; Lenzner, S.; Bauters, M.; Jensen, L.R.; Esch, H. van; Portes, V. des; Moog, U.; Macville, M.V.; Roozendaal, K. van; Schrander-Stumpel, C.T.; Tzschach, A.; Marynen, P.; Fryns, J.P.; Hamel, B.C.J.; Bokhoven, H. van; Chelly, J.; Beldjord, C.; Turner, G.; Gecz, J.; Moraine, C.; Raynaud, M.; Ropers, H.H.; Froyen, G.; Kuss, A.W.

    2008-01-01

    Mutations in the thyroid monocarboxylate transporter 8 gene (MCT8/SLC16A2) have been reported to result in X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) in patients with clinical features of the Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome (AHDS). We performed MCT8 mutation analysis including 13 XLMR families with LOD scores

  20. d(− Lactic Acid-Induced Adhesion of Bovine Neutrophils onto Endothelial Cells Is Dependent on Neutrophils Extracellular Traps Formation and CD11b Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Alarcón

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Bovine ruminal acidosis is of economic importance as it contributes to reduced milk and meat production. This phenomenon is mainly attributed to an overload of highly fermentable carbohydrate, resulting in increased d(− lactic acid levels in serum and plasma. Ruminal acidosis correlates with elevated acute phase proteins in blood, along with neutrophil activation and infiltration into various tissues leading to laminitis and aseptic polysynovitis. Previous studies in bovine neutrophils indicated that d(− lactic acid decreased expression of L-selectin and increased expression of CD11b to concentrations higher than 6 mM, suggesting a potential role in neutrophil adhesion onto endothelia. The two aims of this study were to evaluate whether d(− lactic acid influenced neutrophil and endothelial adhesion and to trigger neutrophil extracellular trap (NET production (NETosis in exposed neutrophils. Exposure of bovine neutrophils to 5 mM d(− lactic acid elevated NET release compared to unstimulated neutrophil negative controls. Moreover, this NET contains CD11b and histone H4 citrullinated, the latter was dependent on PAD4 activation, a critical enzyme in DNA decondensation and NETosis. Furthermore, NET formation was dependent on d(− lactic acid plasma membrane transport through monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1. d(− lactic acid enhanced neutrophil adhesion onto endothelial sheets as demonstrated by in vitro neutrophil adhesion assays under continuous physiological flow conditions, indicating that cell adhesion was a NET- and a CD11b/ICAM-1-dependent process. Finally, d(− lactic acid was demonstrated for the first time to trigger NETosis in a PAD4- and MCT1-dependent manner. Thus, d(− lactic acid-mediated neutrophil activation may contribute to neutrophil-derived pro-inflammatory processes, such as aseptic laminitis and/or polysynovitis in animals suffering acute ruminal acidosis.

  1. Fatty acids - trans fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The data supporting a negative effect of dietary trans fatty acids on cardiovascular disease risk is consistent. The primary dietary sources of trans fatty acids include partially hydrogenated fat and rudiment fat. The adverse effect of trans fatty acids on plasma lipoprotein profiles is consisten...

  2. What to Expect After Your Due Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG What to Expect After Your Due Date Home For ... Your Due Date FAQ069, August 2011 PDF Format What to Expect After Your Due Date Pregnancy What ...

  3. Gluconic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastassiadis, Savas; Morgunov, Igor G

    2007-01-01

    Gluconic acid, the oxidation product of glucose, is a mild neither caustic nor corrosive, non toxic and readily biodegradable organic acid of great interest for many applications. As a multifunctional carbonic acid belonging to the bulk chemicals and due to its physiological and chemical characteristics, gluconic acid itself, its salts (e.g. alkali metal salts, in especially sodium gluconate) and the gluconolactone form have found extensively versatile uses in the chemical, pharmaceutical, food, construction and other industries. Present review article presents the comprehensive information of patent bibliography for the production of gluconic acid and compares the advantages and disadvantages of known processes. Numerous manufacturing processes are described in the international bibliography and patent literature of the last 100 years for the production of gluconic acid from glucose, including chemical and electrochemical catalysis, enzymatic biocatalysis by free or immobilized enzymes in specialized enzyme bioreactors as well as discontinuous and continuous fermentation processes using free growing or immobilized cells of various microorganisms, including bacteria, yeast-like fungi and fungi. Alternatively, new superior fermentation processes have been developed and extensively described for the continuous and discontinuous production of gluconic acid by isolated strains of yeast-like mold Aureobasidium pullulans, offering numerous advantages over the traditional discontinuous fungi processes.

  4. Multiple biological activities of lactic acid in cancer: influences on tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhup, Suveera; Dadhich, Rajesh Kumar; Porporato, Paolo Ettore; Sonveaux, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    High rate of glycolysis is a metabolic hallmark of cancer. While anaerobic glycolysis promotes energy production under hypoxia, aerobic glycolysis, the Warburg effect, offers a proliferative advantage through redirecting carbohydrate fluxes from energy production to biosynthetic pathways. To fulfill tumor cell needs, the glycolytic switch is associated with elevated glucose uptake and lactic acid release. Altered glucose metabolism is the basis of positron emission tomography using the glucose analogue tracer [18F]- fluorodeoxyglucose, a widely used clinical application for tumor diagnosis and monitoring. On the other hand, high levels of lactate have been associated with poor clinical outcome in several types of human cancers. Although lactic acid was initially considered merely as an indicator of the glycolytic flux, many evidences originally from the study of normal tissue physiology and more recently transposed to the tumor situation indicate that lactic acid, i.e. the lactate anion and protons, directly contributes to tumor growth and progression. Here, we briefly review the current knowledge pertaining to lactic acidosis and metastasis, lactate shuttles, the influence of lactate on redox homeostasis, lactate signaling and lactate-induced angiogenesis in the cancer context. The monocarboxylate transporters MCT1 and MCT4 have now been confirmed as prominent facilitators of lactate exchanges between cancer cells with different metabolic behaviors and between cancer and stromal cells. We therefore address the function and regulation of MCTs, highlighting MCT1 as a novel anticancer target. MCT1 inhibition allows to simultaneously disrupt metabolic cooperativity and angiogenesis in cancer with a same agent, opening a new path for novel anticancer therapies.

  5. Rotational study of the bimolecule acetic acid-fluoroacetic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Gang; Gou, Qian; Evangelisti, Luca; Caminati, Walther

    2017-01-01

    The rotational spectrum of the acetic acid-fluoroacetic acid bimolecule was measured by using a pulsed jet Fourier transform microwave spectrometer. One conformer, in which fluoroacetic acid is in trans form, has been observed. The rotational transitions are split into two component lines, due to the internal rotation of the methyl group of acetic acid. From these splittings, the corresponding V3 barrier has been determined. The dissociation energy of this complex has been estimated to 66 kJ/mol. An increase of the distance between the two monomers upon the OH → OD substitution (Ubbelohde effect) has been observed.

  6. [Asthma and allergy due to carmine dye].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabar, A I; Acero, S; Arregui, C; Urdánoz, M; Quirce, S

    2003-01-01

    Cochineal carmine, or simply carmine (E120), is a red colouring that is obtained from the dried bodies of the female insect Dactylopius coccus Costa (the cochineal insect). We have evaluated the prevalence of sensitization and asthma caused by carmine in a factory using natural colouring, following the diagnosis of two workers with occupational asthma. The accumulated incidence of sensitization and occupational asthma due to carmine in this factory are 48.1% and 18.5% respectively, figures that make the introduction of preventive measures obligatory. Occupational asthma caused by inhaling carmine should be considered as a further example of the capacity of certain protein particles of arthropods (in this case cochineal insects) to act as aeroallergens. Carmine should be added to the list of agents capable of producing occupational asthma, whose mechanism, according to our studies, would be immunological mediated by IgE antibodies in the face of diverse allergens of high molecular weight, which can vary from patient to patient. Nonetheless, given the existence of different components in carmine, it cannot be ruled out that substances of low molecular weight, such as carminic acid, might act as haptenes. Besides, since we are dealing with a colouring that is widely used as a food additive, as a pharmaceutical excipient and in the composition of numerous cosmetics, it is not surprising that allergic reactions can appear both through ingestion and through direct cutaneous contact. We find ourselves facing a new example of an allergen that can act through both inhalation and digestion, giving rise to an allergolical syndrome that can show itself clinically with expressions of both respiratory allergy and alimentary allergy.

  7. 5 CFR 732.301 - Due process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Due process. 732.301 Section 732.301...) NATIONAL SECURITY POSITIONS Due Process and Reporting § 732.301 Due process. When an agency makes an... any determination. (b) Comply with all applicable administrative due process requirements, as...

  8. Prenatal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status : the importance of a balanced intake of docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2008-01-01

    This review addresses the effect of prenatal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) status on neuro-developmental outcome. It focuses on the major LPCUFA doxosahexaenoic acid (DNA; 22:6 omega 3) and arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4 omega 6). Due to enzymatic competition high DHA intake results in

  9. Prenatal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status : the importance of a balanced intake of docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2008-01-01

    This review addresses the effect of prenatal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) status on neuro-developmental outcome. It focuses on the major LPCUFA doxosahexaenoic acid (DNA; 22:6 omega 3) and arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4 omega 6). Due to enzymatic competition high DHA intake results in

  10. Folic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... damage. 10 Do I need folic acid after menopause? Yes. Women who have gone through menopause still need 400 micrograms of folic acid every ... United States: 2003–2006 . American Journal of Clinical Nutrition; 91(1): 231–237. Hamner, H.C., Cogswell, ...

  11. Disruption of BASIGIN decreases lactic acid export and sensitizes non-small cell lung cancer to biguanides independently of the LKB1 status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granja, Sara; Marchiq, Ibtissam; Le Floch, Renaud; Moura, Conceição Souto; Baltazar, Fátima; Pouysségur, Jacques

    2015-03-30

    Most cancers rely on aerobic glycolysis to generate energy and metabolic intermediates. To maintain a high glycolytic rate, cells must efficiently export lactic acid through the proton-coupled monocarboxylate transporters (MCT1/4). These transporters require a chaperone, CD147/BASIGIN (BSG) for trafficking to the plasma membrane and function.To validate the key role of these transporters in lung cancer, we first analysed the expression of MCT1/4 and BSG in 50 non-small lung cancer (NSCLC) cases. These proteins were specifically upregulated in tumour tissues. We then disrupted BSG in three NSCLC cell lines (A549, H1975 and H292) via 'Zinc-Finger Nucleases'. The three homozygous BSG-/- cell lines displayed a low MCT activity (10- to 5-fold reduction, for MCT1 and MCT4, respectively) compared to wild-type cells. Consequently, the rate of glycolysis, compared to the wild-type counterpart, was reduced by 2.0- to 3.5-fold, whereas the rate of respiration was stimulated in BSG-/- cell lines. Both wild-type and BSG-null cells were extremely sensitive to the mitochondria inhibitor metformin/phenformin in normoxia. However, only BSG-null cells, independently of their LKB1 status, remained sensitive to biguanides in hypoxia in vitro and tumour growth in nude mice. Our results demonstrate that inhibiting glycolysis by targeting lactic acid export sensitizes NSCLC to phenformin.

  12. Supramolecular synthons in designing low molecular mass gelling agents: L-amino acid methyl ester cinnamate salts and their anti-solvent-induced instant gelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Pathik; Kumar, D Krishna; Raghavan, Srinivasa R; Dastidar, Parthasarathi

    2011-04-04

    Easy access to a class of chiral gelators has been achieved by exploiting primary ammonium monocarboxylate (PAM), a supramolecular synthon. A combinatorial library comprising of 16 salts, derived from 5 L-amino acid methyl esters and 4 cinnamic acid derivatives, has been prepared and scanned for gelation. Remarkably, 14 out of 16 salts prepared (87.5 % of the salts) show moderate to good gelation abilities with various solvents, including commercial fuels, such as petrol. Anti-solvent induced instant gelation at room temperature has been achieved in all the gelator salts, indicating that the gelation process is indeed an aborted crystallization phenomenon. Rheology, optical and scanning electron microscopy, small angle neutron scattering, and X-ray powder diffraction have been used to characterize the gels. A structure-property correlation has been attempted, based on these data, in addition to the single-crystal structures of 5 gelator salts. Analysis of the FT-IR and (1)H NMR spectroscopy data reveals that some of these salts can be used as supramolecular containers for the slow release of certain pest sex pheromones. The present study clearly demonstrates the merit of crystal engineering and the supramolecular synthon approach in designing new materials with multiple properties.

  13. Disturbance of mitochondrial functions provoked by the major long-chain 3-hydroxylated fatty acids accumulating in MTP and LCHAD deficiencies in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecatto, Cristiane; Godoy, Kálita Dos Santos; da Silva, Janaína Camacho; Amaral, Alexandre Umpierrez; Wajner, Moacir

    2016-10-01

    The pathogenesis of the muscular symptoms and recurrent rhabdomyolysis that are commonly manifested in patients with mitochondrial trifunctional protein (MTP) and long-chain 3-hydroxy-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) deficiencies is still unknown. In this study we investigated the effects of the major long-chain monocarboxylic 3-hydroxylated fatty acids (LCHFA) accumulating in these disorders, namely 3-hydroxytetradecanoic (3HTA) and 3-hydroxypalmitic (3HPA) acids, on important mitochondrial functions in rat skeletal muscle mitochondria. 3HTA and 3HPA markedly increased resting (state 4) and decreased ADP-stimulated (state 3) and CCCP-stimulated (uncoupled) respiration. 3HPA provoked similar effects in permeabilized skeletal muscle fibers, validating the results obtained in purified mitochondria. Furthermore, 3HTA and 3HPA markedly diminished mitochondrial membrane potential, NAD(P)H content and Ca(2+) retention capacity in Ca(2+)-loaded mitochondria. Mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) induction probably underlie these effects since they were totally prevented by cyclosporin A and ADP. In contrast, the dicarboxylic analogue of 3HTA did not alter the tested parameters. Our data strongly indicate that 3HTA and 3HPA behave as metabolic inhibitors, uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation and mPT inducers in skeletal muscle. It is proposed that these pathomechanisms disrupting mitochondrial homeostasis may be involved in the muscle alterations characteristic of MTP and LCHAD deficiencies.

  14. When you pass your due date

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000515.htm When you pass your due date To use the sharing features ... link between you and your baby. As you pass your due date, the placenta may not work ...

  15. 34 CFR 602.25 - Due process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Due process. 602.25 Section 602.25 Education... Required Operating Policies and Procedures § 602.25 Due process. The agency must demonstrate that the procedures it uses throughout the accrediting process satisfy due process. The agency meets this...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-06-0069 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DRER-06-0069 ref|NP_956379.1| solute carrier family 16 (monocarboxylic acid transporters...), member 1 [Danio rerio] gb|AAH48883.1| Solute carrier family 16 (monocarboxylic acid transporters), member 1 [Danio rerio] NP_956379.1 1e-125 83% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GACU-17-0013 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GACU-17-0013 ref|NP_956379.1| solute carrier family 16 (monocarboxylic acid transporters...), member 1 [Danio rerio] gb|AAH48883.1| Solute carrier family 16 (monocarboxylic acid transporters), member 1 [Danio rerio] NP_956379.1 1e-115 79% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-08-0031 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DRER-08-0031 ref|NP_956379.1| solute carrier family 16 (monocarboxylic acid transporters...), member 1 [Danio rerio] gb|AAH48883.1| Solute carrier family 16 (monocarboxylic acid transporters), member 1 [Danio rerio] NP_956379.1 1e-143 99% ...

  19. Folic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taking a specific nutritional supplement, containing vitamin B3 (nicotinamide), a compound isolated from grains (azelaic acid), zinc, ... lung cancer in most people. A type of skin cancer called melanoma. Limited research suggests that taking ...

  20. Folic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... B-complex vitamin needed by the body to manufacture red blood cells. A deficiency of this vitamin ... prepared from dried yeast, fruit, and fresh leafy green vegetables to increase the folic acid in your ...

  1. Ibotenic acid and thioibotenic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermit, Mette B; Greenwood, Jeremy R; Nielsen, Birgitte

    2004-01-01

    with the conformations preferred by the ligands upon docking to mGlu1 and models of the other mGlu subtypes, we propose that unlike other subtypes, group III mGlu receptor binding sites require a ligand conformation at an energy level which is prohibitively expensive for ibotenic acid, but not for thioibotenic acid....... These studies demonstrate how subtle differences in chemical structures can result in profound differences in pharmacological activity....

  2. Priming by Hexanoic Acid Induce Activation of Mevalonic and Linolenic Pathways and Promotes the Emission of Plant Volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens, Eugenio; Camañes, Gemma; Lapeña, Leonor; García-Agustín, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Hexanoic acid (Hx) is a short natural monocarboxylic acid present in some fruits and plants. Previous studies reported that soil drench application of this acid induces effective resistance in tomato plants against Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae and in citrus against Alternaria alternata and Xanthomonas citri. In this work, we performed an in deep study of the metabolic changes produced in citrus by the application of Hx in response to the challenge pathogen A. alternata, focusing on the response of the plant. Moreover, we used (13)C labeled hexanoic to analyze its behavior inside the plants. Finally, we studied the volatile emission of the treated plants after the challenge inoculation. Drench application of (13)C labeled hexanoic demonstrated that this molecule stays in the roots and is not mobilized to the leaves, suggesting long distance induction of resistance. Moreover, the study of the metabolic profile showed an alteration of more than 200 molecules differentially induced by the application of the compound and the inoculation with the fungus. Bioinformatics analysis of data showed that most of these altered molecules could be related with the mevalonic and linolenic pathways suggesting the implication of these pathways in the induced resistance mediated by Hx. Finally, the application of this compound showed an enhancement of the emission of 17 volatile metabolites. Taken together, this study indicates that after the application of Hx this compound remains in the roots, provoking molecular changes that may trigger the defensive response in the rest of the plant mediated by changes in the mevalonic and linolenic pathways and enhancing the emission of volatile compounds, suggesting for the first time the implication of mevalonic pathway in response to hexanoic application.

  3. Bile acid interactions with cholangiocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuefeng Xia; Heather Francis; Shannon Glaser; Gianfranco Alpini; Gene LeSage

    2006-01-01

    Cholangiocytes are exposed to high concentrations of bile acids at their apical membrane. A selective transporter for bile acids, the Apical Sodium Bile Acid Cotransporter (ASBT) (also referred to as Ibat; gene name Slc10a2)is localized on the cholangiocyte apical membrane. On the basolateral membrane, four transport systems have been identified (t-ASBT, multidrug resistance (MDR)3,an unidentified anion exchanger system and organic solute transporter (Ost) heteromeric transporter, OstαOstβ. Together, these transporters unidirectionally move bile acids from ductal bile to the circulation. Bile acids absorbed by cholangiocytes recycle via the peribiliaryplexus back to hepatocytes for re-secretion into bile.This recycling of bile acids between hepatocytes and cholangiocytes is referred to as the cholehepatic shunt pathway. Recent studies suggest that the cholehepatic shunt pathway may contribute in overall hepatobiliary transport of bile acids and to the adaptation to chronic cholestasis due to extrahepatic obstruction. ASBT is acutely regulated by an adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent translocation to the apical membrane and by phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination and proteasome degradation. ASBT is chronically regulated by changes in gene expression in response to biliary bile acid concentration and inflammatory cytokines.Another potential function of cholangiocyte ASBT is to allow cholangiocytes to sample biliary bile acids in order to activate intracellular signaling pathways. Bile acids trigger changes in intracellular calcium, protein kinase C (PKC), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), mitogenactivated protein (MAP) kinase and extracellular signalregulated protein kinase (ERK) intracellular signals.Bile acids significantly alter cholangiocyte secretion,proliferation and survival. Different bile acids have differential effects on cholangiocyte intracellular signals,and in some instances trigger opposing effects on cholangiocyte secretion

  4. Citric acid production patent review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastassiadis, Savas; Morgunov, Igor G; Kamzolova, Svetlana V; Finogenova, Tatiana V

    2008-01-01

    Current Review article summarizes the developments in citric acid production technologies in East and West last 100 years. Citric acid is commercially produced by large scale fermentation mostly using selected fungal or yeast strains in aerobe bioreactors and still remains one of the runners in industrial production of biotechnological bulk metabolites obtained by microbial fermentation since about 100 years, reflecting the historical development of modern biotechnology and fermentation process technology in East and West. Citric acid fermentation was first found as a fungal product in cultures of Penicillium glaucum on sugar medium by Wehmer in 1893. Citric acid is an important multifunctional organic acid with a broad range of versatile uses in household and industrial applications that has been produced industrially since the beginning of 20(th) century. There is a great worldwide demand for citric acid consumption due to its low toxicity, mainly being used as acidulant in pharmaceutical and food industries. Global citric acid production has reached 1.4 million tones, increasing annually at 3.5-4.0% in demand and consumption. Citric acid production by fungal submerged fermentation is still dominating, however new perspectives like solid-state processes or continuous yeast processes can be attractive for producers to stand in today's strong competition in industry. Further perspectives aiming in the improvement of citric acid production are the improvement of citric acid producing strains by classical and modern mutagenesis and selection as well as downstream processes. Many inexpensive by-products and residues of the agro-industry (e.g. molasses, glycerin etc.) can be economically utilized as substrates in the production of citric acid, especially in solid-state fermentation, enormously reducing production costs and minimizing environmental problems. Alternatively, continuous processes utilizing yeasts which reach 200-250 g/l citric acid can stand in today

  5. Injection site abscess due to mycobacterium fortuitum: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi DR

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Injection abscess is an iatrogenic infection occurring as an isolated case or as cluster outbreak. These infections occur due to contaminated injectables or lapse in sterilisation protocol. While pathogens such as Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, E. coli, and S. aureus are the usual causative agents, unusual organisms such as mycobacteria, particularly the rapidly growing non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM may cause the abscess. The chances of overlooking these organisms is high unless an acid fast bacilli (AFB smear and culture is done on all aspirated pus specimens. We report a case of a three year old child who presented with a gluteal abscess following an intramuscular infection with an unknown preparation.

  6. Postoperative infection of laparoscopic surgery wound due to Mycobacterium chelonae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajini M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of postoperative wound infection due to Mycobacterium chelonae. A 35-year-old woman presented with multiple erythematous nodules, plaques and discharging sinuses over the abdomen, 45 days after she had undergone laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy. The seropurulent discharge from the wound showed acid-fast bacilli on Ziehl- Neelsen stain and culture yielded Mycobacterium chelonae . The patient responded to clarithromycin and doxycycline. The source of infection was probably contaminated water or disinfectant solution used for sterilization of laparoscopic instruments.

  7. Ulcerations due to methotrexate toxicity in a psoriasis patient*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Claudia Fernanda Dias; Suarez, Olga Milena Zarco; da Silva, Talita Fonseca Medeiros; Gorenstein, Ana Carolina Lourenço Araújo; Quintella, Leonardo Pereira; Avelleira, João Carlos Regazzi

    2016-01-01

    Methotrexate is one of the most used drugs in the treatment of psoriasis with indication of systemic therapy. Cutaneous and mucous side effects are described by pharmacological characteristics of the drug itself or due to overdose. We report the case of a patient with ulcerations in oral mucosa and psoriatic plaques after incorrect use of Methotrexate. Prescribed in a weekly dose, it was used continuously for 10 days and without simultaneous intake of folic acid. It is important to ensure correct comprehension of the prescription. PMID:27438211

  8. Emergency thyroidectomy: Due to acute respiratory failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfu Bayhan

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: Respiratory failure due to giant nodular goiter is a life-threatening situation and should be treated immediately by performing awake endotracheal intubation following emergency total thyroidectomy.

  9. 北京西三环地区不同粒径大气颗粒物中有机脂肪酸的污染特性%Distribution Characteristics of Organic Aliphatic Acids in Airborne Particles with Different Sizes in the Area of the 3rd West Ring Road in Beijing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何翔; 钱枫; 李峣

    2013-01-01

    Particulate samples were collected by the multi-stage impactor sampler and classitied into five grades by their sizes trom January to July in 2012 in the area of the 3rd west ring road in Beijing City.The organic aliphatic acids in the samples were determined by GC-MS after the pretreatment of solvent extraction and derivation.Twenty one monocarboxylic aliphatic acids and seven dicarboxylic aliphatic acids were separately determined.The results showed that both acids had a tendency to concentrate in ultrafine particles which were smaller than 0.69 μm.For the two acids,ρ<0.69 (∑21 MOA) and ρ<0.69 (∑7DIA) accounted for 30.0% and 32.5% of the concentration of all stages particles,respectively.The monthly variations with concentrations of monocarboxylic aliphatic acids and dicarboxylic aliphatic acids appeared quite different.ρ(∑21 MOA) were much higher obviously for January and February and were the second in March.However,the highest values of ρ(∑7DIA) appeared from May to July.There were obvious differences in composition characteristics of the two acids.The monocarboxylic aliphatic acids in the ranges C10 ~ C24 had a significant even number predominances,while dicarboxylic aliphatic acids presented no parity preponderance.For the fatty acids,the concentration of hexadecanoic acid was the highest followed by octadecanoic acid; Nonandioic acid presented the highest concentration in dicarboxylic acids.Preliminary analysis based on the ratios of C18/C16 and the CPI showed that monocarboxylic aliphatic acids mainly caused by human activities such as coal combustion,vehicle exhaust and cooking emission.For instance,the most important source of fatty acids was coal burning in January and February.%2012年1-7月在北京市西三环航天桥地区,用大流量分级采样器分5级采集大气颗粒物样品,采用溶剂提取和衍生化方法对样品进行前处理,利用GC-MS分析不同粒径颗粒物中的有机脂肪酸.结果表明:

  10. Acidification and Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, S. A.; Veselã½, J.

    2003-12-01

    Air pollution by acids has been known as a problem for centuries (Ducros, 1845; Smith, 1872; Camuffo, 1992; Brimblecombe, 1992). Only in the mid-1900s did it become clear that it was a problem for more than just industrially developed areas, and that precipitation quality can affect aquatic resources ( Gorham, 1955). The last three decades of the twentieth century saw tremendous progress in the documentation of the chemistry of the atmosphere, precipitation, and the systems impacted by acid atmospheric deposition. Chronic acidification of ecosystems results in chemical changes to soil and to surface waters and groundwater as a result of reduction of base cation supply or an increase in acid (H+) supply, or both. The most fundamental changes during chronic acidification are an increase in exchangeable H+ or Al3+ (aluminum) in soils, an increase in H+ activity (˜concentration) in water in contact with soil, and a decrease in alkalinity in waters draining watersheds. Water draining from the soil is acidified and has a lower pH (=-log [H+]). As systems acidify, their biotic community changes.Acidic surface waters occur in many parts of the world as a consequence of natural processes and also due to atmospheric deposition of strong acid (e.g., Canada, Jeffries et al. (1986); the United Kingdom, Evans and Monteith (2001); Sweden, Swedish Environmental Protection Board (1986); Finland, Forsius et al. (1990); Norway, Henriksen et al. (1988a); and the United States (USA), Brakke et al. (1988)). Concern over acidification in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere has been driven by the potential for accelerating natural acidification by pollution of the atmosphere with acidic or acidifying compounds. Atmospheric pollution ( Figure 1) has resulted in an increased flux of acid to and through ecosystems. Depending on the ability of an ecosystem to neutralize the increased flux of acidity, acidification may increase only imperceptibly or be accelerated at a rate that

  11. Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker, Owen P.; Rice, Karen C.; Dietrich, W.E.; Sposito, Garrison

    1997-01-01

    Acid deposition, or acid rain as it is more commonly referred to, has become a widely publicized environmental issue in the U.S. over the past decade. The term usually conjures up images of fish kills, dying forests, "dead" lakes, and damage to monuments and other historic artifacts. The primary cause of acid deposition is emission of S02 and NOx to the atmosphere during the combustion of fossil fuels. Oxidation of these compounds in the atmosphere forms strong acids - H2SO4 and HNO3 - which are returned to the Earth in rain, snow, fog, cloud water, and as dry deposition.Although acid deposition has only recently been recognized as an environmental problem in the U.S., it is not a new phenomenon (Cogbill & Likens 1974). As early as the middle of the 17th century in England, the deleterious effects of industrial emissions on plants, animals, and humans, and the atmospheric transport of pollutants between England and France had become issues of concern (Evelyn 1661, Graunt 1662). It is interesting that well over three hundred years ago in England, recommendations were made to move industry outside of towns and build higher chimneys to spread the pollution into "distant parts." Increasing the height of smokestacks has helped alleviate local problems, but has exacerbated others. In the U.S. the height of the tallest smokestack has more than doubled, and the average height of smokestacks has tripled since the 1950s (Patrick et al 1981). This trend occurred in most industrialized nations during the 20th century and has had the effect of transforming acid rain from a local urban problem into a problem of global scale.

  12. Unwanted effects due to cosmetics - a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnuch, A.

    2007-01-01

    Cosmetics are a heterogeneous group of products, consisting of products abundantly used as shampoos or cleansing agents on the one hand, and of products not so frequently used as those applied for decorative purposes such as nail cosmetics. Due to a differing frequency of use and due to differing (c

  13. Procedural Due Process Rights in Student Discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressman, Robert; Weinstein, Susan

    To assist administrators in understanding procedural due process rights in student discipline, this manual draws together hundreds of citations and case summaries of federal and state court decisions and provides detailed commentary as well. Chapter 1 outlines the general principles of procedural due process rights in student discipline, such as…

  14. Unwanted effects due to cosmetics - a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnuch, A.

    2007-01-01

    Cosmetics are a heterogeneous group of products, consisting of products abundantly used as shampoos or cleansing agents on the one hand, and of products not so frequently used as those applied for decorative purposes such as nail cosmetics. Due to a differing frequency of use and due to differing (c

  15. Peritoneal tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium caprae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Nebreda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of tuberculosis in humans due to Mycobacterium caprae is very low and is almost confined to Europe. We report a case of a previously healthy 41-year-old Moroccan with a 6 month history of abdominal pain, weight loss, fatigue and diarrhea. A diagnosis of peritoneal tuberculosis due to M. caprae was made.

  16. Unwanted effects due to cosmetics - a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnuch, A.

    2007-01-01

    Cosmetics are a heterogeneous group of products, consisting of products abundantly used as shampoos or cleansing agents on the one hand, and of products not so frequently used as those applied for decorative purposes such as nail cosmetics. Due to a differing frequency of use and due to differing

  17. Perfluorooctanoic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Voogt, P.; Wexler, P.

    2014-01-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 335-67-1) is used in fluoropolymer production and firefighting foams and persists in the environment. Human exposure to PFOA is mostly through the diet. PFOA primarily affects the liver and can cause developmental and reproductive toxic effects in test animals.

  18. Determination of the presence of hyaluronic acid in preparations containing amino acids: the molecular weight characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellomaria, A; Nepravishta, R; Mazzanti, U; Marchetti, M; Piccioli, P; Paci, M

    2014-10-15

    Several pharmaceutical preparations contain hyaluronic acid in the presence of a large variety of low molecular weight charged molecules like amino acids. In these mixtures, it is particularly difficult to determine the concentration and the molecular weight of the hyaluronic acid fragments. In fact zwitterionic compounds in high concentration behave by masking the hyaluronic acid due to the electrostatic interactions between amino acids and hyaluronic acid. In such conditions the common colorimetric test of the hyaluronic acid determination appears ineffective and in the (1)H NMR spectra the peaks of the polymer disappear completely. By a simple separation procedure the presence of hyaluronic acid was revealed by the DMAB test and (1)H NMR while its average molecular weight in the final product was determined by DOSY NMR spectroscopy alone. The latter determination is very important due to the healthy effects of some sizes of this polymer's fragments.

  19. Damages of satsuma mandarine due to soot and sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushima, J.

    1976-01-01

    Small spots like a citrus melanose spot (disease spot by Diaporthe Citri) and relatively larger spots occurred on satsuma mandarine fruit due to soot of factories in Shikoku district in 1973. Thirteen kinds of soot collected from various districts of Japan were used for this experiment. Several soots showed pH 0.47 in 25% suspension and 1.60 in 1% suspension. These strong acid soots caused severe injuries with 2 mg per square centimeter of fruit surface, or injuries with 0.5 ml of 0.2% solution per fruit. Acidity of soot could be related to content of sulfur in fuel. Soot which was desulfurized by ammonia and contained much of ammonium also had a strong effect of fruit in spite of their rather weak acidity. Pure ammonium sulfide also caused severe injury on satusma mandarine fruit, and the salt diluted by 50% active carbon also injured fruit. A term of contact of soot on fruit was a factor for injury. Because sulfur content of leaves generally well indicate the integrating concentration of sulfur dioxide, sulfur content of satsuma mandarine leaves was determined, and the other nutritional elements of leaves and soils were also analyzed. According to leaf analysis, nutritional status of satsuma mandarine trees was normal, and content of nutritional elements of soils was also normal.

  20. Quantitative comparison of ammonia and 3-indoleacetic acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantitative comparison of ammonia and 3-indoleacetic acid production in ... method and 3-indoleacetic acid as Salkowski method in halophilic, alkalophilic and ... in research due to their ease of implementation and relatively accurate results.

  1. L- and D-lactate enhance DNA repair and modulate the resistance of cervical carcinoma cells to anticancer drugs via histone deacetylase inhibition and hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 1 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Waldemar; Ciszewski, Wojciech M; Kania, Katarzyna D

    2015-07-25

    lower mRNA levels of monocarboxylate transporter 4. Finally, the enhancement of DNA repair and cell survival by lactate was suppressed by pharmacologically inhibiting monocarboxylate transporters using the inhibitor α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (α-CHCA). Our data indicate that L- and D-lactate present in the uterine cervix may participate in the modulation of cellular DNA damage repair processes and in the resistance of cervical carcinoma cells to anticancer therapy.

  2. 中链脂肪酸对高脂肪饲料诱导的肥胖C57BL/6J小鼠脂肪组织中转录因子的影响%Effect of medium-chain fatty acid on transcription factor in adipose tissue of C57BL/6J mice with obesity due to high fat diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘英华; 张永; 徐庆; 于晓明; 张新胜; 王觐; 杨雪艳; 薛长勇

    2013-01-01

      目的观察中链脂肪酸(medium chain fatty acid,MCFA)对高脂肪饲料诱导的肥胖C57BL/6J小鼠脂肪组织中转录因子的表达,探讨中链脂肪酸降低体重、体脂肪的可能机制。方法30只C57BL/6J肥胖小鼠按空腹体重随机分为两组,每组15只,分别给予含2%MCFA和长链脂肪酸(long chain fatty acid,LCFA)的高脂饲料喂养12周,测定小鼠体重、体长,取小鼠肝脏、肠系膜周围脂肪垫、附睾周围脂肪垫及肾周脂肪垫并称重。采用BCA法测定附睾周围脂肪组织(white adipose tissue,WAT)蛋白浓度,采用ELISA法测定小鼠WAT中肿瘤坏死因子(tumor necrosis factor-α,TNF-α)和过氧化物酶体增殖物激活受体-γ(peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor-γ,PPAR-γ)水平,采用Real-time PCR法检测WAT中PPAR-γ、甾醇调控元件结合蛋白-1(sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1,SREBP-1)和CCAAT/增强子结合蛋白(CCAAT enhancer binding protein-α,C/EBP-α)的mRNA表达。结果 MCFA饲料组肥胖小鼠体质量、体长、肝脏质量、肾周脂肪质量、附睾周脂肪质量以及WAT中TNF-α水平、SREBP-1和C/EBP-α的mRNA表达量均显著低于LCFA饲料组(P<0.05)。PPAR-γ水平及其mRNA表达量,两组之间无统计学差异(P>0.05)。结论 MCFA可能通过下调脂肪组织中TNF-α、SREBP-1及C/EBP-α水平和mRNA表达,抑制脂肪细胞分化。%Objective To study the possible mechanism of medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) in reducing body weight and body fat mass by observing the effect of MCFA on expression of transcription factor mRNA in adipose tissue of obese mice. Methods Thirty C57BL/6J obese mice were randomly divided into MCFA group and long chain fatty acid (LCFA) group (15 in each group) according to their fasting body weight. Twelve weeks after they were fed with high fat diet containing 2%MCFA or LCFA, their body, liver, and mesenteric, epididymal, perirenal fat pads were weighed and their

  3. Eumycotic mycetoma due to Madurella grisea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Belda Júnior

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors reported one case of eumycotic mycetoma due to Madurella grisea (black grains occurred on the right foot of the patient studied. The structure, microscopic morphology and therapeutic evolution are also studied and reported.

  4. REVIEW ON LOCAL SCOUR DUE TO JETS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arindam SARKAR; Subhasish DEY

    2004-01-01

    The safety of an apron of the energy dissipator is threatened by the large-scale scour in the downstream of the apron due to the erosive action of a horizontal jet issuing from a sluice opening. Also, large-scale deposition of the scoured sediments due to an impinging jet in a plunging pool type energy dissipator affects the passage of flow adversely in the downstream channels. Owing to the significant practical importance, the problem of local scour due to jets has been studied by many investigators. In this paper, a comprehensive review of the up-to-date investigations on local scour due to horizontal and impinging jets is presented including all possible aspects, such as scouring process, parameters affecting scour, time variation of scour,velocity distribution on the apron and within the scour hole, development of boundary layer thickness, bed shear stress, scour estimation formulas and protection works.

  5. Facial nerve palsy due to birth trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seventh cranial nerve palsy due to birth trauma; Facial palsy - birth trauma; Facial palsy - neonate; Facial palsy - infant ... this condition. Some factors that can cause birth trauma (injury) include: Large baby size (may be seen ...

  6. Severe spruelike enteropathy due to olmesartan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gioia Fiorucci

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Villous atrophy and negative serologic testing is a diagnostic challenge, and the rarer possibility of drug-induced enteritis should be considered. We report a rare case of severe spruelike enteritis due to olmesartan that completely resolved after withdrawal of the drug. The possibility that patient labeled as "refractory" celiac disease may actually be due to drug treatment should always be taken into consideration, to avoid unnecessary investigations.

  7. Onychomadesis Secondary Erythroderma Exfoliative due to Ciprofloxacin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Female patient 63 years old who was hospitalized due to erythroderma exfoliative (Fig. 1 after taking ciprofloxacin by urinary tract infection, 4 weeks later we began to observe the detachment of the finger and toenails from the proximal nail fold predominantly on the thumbs (Fig. 2, and the diagnosis of onychomadesis was done. Nail diseases are common but no all people and doctors know about nail changes due to drug reaction or systemic diseases.

  8. Dysphagia due to Multiple Esophageal Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen N Sullivan

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A 27-year-old Saudi man with dysphagia due to multiple esophageal rings is reported and the literature reviewed. Dysphagia due to multiple esophageal rings is very rare. Only 15 cases have been reported. The patient is usually male and has had dysphagia for many years when presenting. The cause of the rings is unknown. Theories to explain dysphagia are that the rings are either congenital or an unusual manifestation of gastroesophageal reflux.

  9. Greenhouse effect due to atmospheric nitrous oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Y. L.; Wang, W. C.; Lacis, A. A.

    1976-01-01

    The greenhouse effect due to nitrous oxide in the present atmosphere is about 0.8 K. Increase in atmospheric N2O due to perturbation of the nitrogen cycle by man may lead to an increase in surface temperature as large as 0.5 K by 2025, or 1.0 K by 2100. Other climatic effects of N2O are briefly discussed.

  10. Fatal necrotizing fasciitis due to Vibrio damsela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, K Y; Ma, L; Wong, S S; Ng, W F

    1993-01-01

    A patient who succumbed to fulminant necrotizing fasciitis due to Vibrio damsela after injury by a rabbitfish is described. Despite the absence of any known underlying illness, he did not respond to appropriate antibiotic therapy and radical surgical intervention. This represents the first documented case of necrotizing fasciitis due to this organism, and is also the first reported case in Southeast Asia inflicted by rabbitfish.

  11. Colonic urticaria pattern due to early ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, H.M.; Goldberg, H.I.; Axel, L.

    1981-05-15

    The unusual radiographic pattern of bleb-like mounds on the surface of the colon mucosa, previously described as colonic urticaria, was seen in 3 patients in whom no allergic state was present. This urticaria-like pattern was due to colonic distention in all 3, and represented only submucosal edema on the gross and microscopic specimens. We hypothesize that this pattern is due to early changes of ischemia caused by colon distention.

  12. Identification of organic acids in wine that stimulate mechanisms of gastric acid secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liszt, Kathrin Ingrid; Walker, Jessica; Somoza, Veronika

    2012-07-18

    Wine may cause stomach irritation due to its stimulatory effect on gastric acid secretion, although the mechanisms by which wine or components thereof activate pathways of gastric acid secretion are poorly understood. Gastric pH was measured with a noninvasive intragastric probe, demonstrating that administration of 125 mL of white or red wine to healthy volunteers stimulated gastric acid secretion more potently than the administration of equivalent amounts of ethanol. Between both beverages, red wine showed a clear trend for being more active in stimulating gastric acid secretion than white wine (p = 0.054). Quantification of the intracellular proton concentration in human gastric tumor cells (HGT-1), a well-established indicator of proton secretion and, in turn, stomach acid formation in vivo, confirmed the stronger effect of red wine as compared to white wine. RT-qPCR experiments on cells exposed to red wine also revealed a more pronounced effect than white wine on the fold change expression of genes associated with gastric acid secretion. Of the quantitatively abundant organic acids in wine, malic acid and succinic acid most actively stimulated proton secretion in vitro. However, addition of ethanol to individual organic acids attenuated the secretory effect of tartaric acid, but not that of the other organic acids. It was concluded that malic acid for white wine and succinic acid for red wine are key organic acids that contribute to gastric acid stimulation.

  13. In Vivo Imaging of Branched Chain Amino Acid Metabolism in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Daniel Spielman Betty Diamond 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER E-Mail: spielman@stanford.edu 5f...substrate for monocarboxylate trans- porters such as MCT1, which are readily expressed prostate cancer cell lines and prostate tissue [27–29]. Further

  14. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  15. Chronic otomycosis due to Malassezia Spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Latha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 31-year-old male presenting with complaints of mild pain in the right ear for three months and hypoacusis for 10 days. On otoscopic examination, a thin, papery, white material was extracted from his ear and sent for fungal identification. This material revealed presence of Malassezia spp - with characteristic "spaghetti and meat ball appearance". The patient was treated with 2% acetic acid, hydrocortisone and Clotrimazole powder for one week and he resolved completely.

  16. Paraneoplastic Cushing Syndrome Due To Wilm's Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizan, Mahwish; Manzoor, Jaida; Saleem, Muhammad; Anwar, Saadia; Mehmood, Qaiser; Hameed, Ambreen; Ali, Agha Shabbir

    2017-05-01

    Paraneoplastic syndromes are rare disorders that are triggered by an altered immune system response to neoplasm. Paraneoplastic syndromes may be the first or the most prominent manifestations of cancer. Wilm's tumor is the most frequent pediatric renal malignancy and usually presents with abdominal mass. Unusual presentations like acquired von Willebrand disease, sudden death due to pulmonary embolism and Cushing syndrome have been described in the literature. Cushing syndrome, as the presenting symptom of a malignant renal tumor in children, is a very rare entity. Few case reports are available in the literature exploring the option of preoperative chemotherapy as well as upfront nephrectomy. We report a rare case of paraneoplastic Cushing syndrome due to a Wilm's tumor. Based on gradual decrease of postoperative weight, blood pressure, serum adrenocorticotropic hormone, and plasma cortisol levels, along with histological confirmation of Wilm's tumor, paraneoplastic Cushing syndrome due to Wilm's tumor was confirmed.

  17. Gynecomastia: An ADR due to drug interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiman Umme

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Gynecomastia results from conditions that cause an imbalance of estrogenic and androgenic effects on the breast, resulting in an increased or unopposed estrogen action on breast tissue. Approximately 4 to 10% cases of gynecomastia are due to drugs. Both Digoxin and Furosemide are also reported to cause the same condition. Although, chances of gynecomastia could be more if these two drugs are coadministered, but no case report of this adverse effect is ever reported when both are prescribed concurrently. Here we report a case of gynecomastia suspected to have resulted from the coadministation of both the drugs. Probability of the adverse effect due to drug interaction was evaluated by DIPS, which suggests that the adverse drug reaction (ADR due to DI is "Possible."

  18. Angioedema-Urticaria Due to Acitretin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solak, Berna; Metin, Nurcan; Erdem, Mustafa Teoman

    2016-01-01

    Acitretin is a synthetic oral retinoid that has been used for a number of dermatological diseases. Several side effects of acitretin have been reported such as teratogenicity, cheilitis, xerosis, dyslipidemia, and photosensitivity. Many drugs, mainly antibiotics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, can cause angioedema-urticaria. We present the case of angioedema-urticaria due to acitretin, confirmed by oral provocation test, in a 61-year-old man with psoriasis. To the best of our knowledge, only 1 case of angioedema due to oral acitretin has been reported in the literature so far. We report this case to draw attention that acitretin may cause angioedema-urticaria and to inform patients about this risk besides other side effects due to acitretin.

  19. Mortality due to lung cancer in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruíz-Godoy, L; Rizo Rios, P; Sánchez Cervantes, F; Osornio-Vargas, A; García-Cuellar, C; Meneses García, A

    2007-11-01

    The highest mortality due to cancer worldwide for both genders corresponds to lung cancer (1,179,000 deaths). In Mexico, the crude mortality rate due to lung cancer was of 5.01 per 10(5) inhabitants in 1979. The most important risk factor is smoking. The present study was aimed at analyzing the mortality due to lung cancer in Mexico, assessing data from each of the states constituting the Mexican Republic during the 1998-2004 period. Data were obtained from the National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Informatics (INEGI, for its initials in Spanish) corresponding to deaths due to lung cancer (1998-2004). We estimated the mean annual mortality rate (MAMR) for each of the 32 states of Mexico. We used the "World Population Standard". The MAMR was standardized according to age (ARS) direct method, and the standard error was determined by Poisson's approximation at a 95% confidence interval. To know the excess risk due to mortality, we calculated the standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) of ARS for each federal state, using the national rate as reference. In this period, 397,400 deaths due to malignant neoplasms were recorded, corresponding 45,578 (11.5%) to lung cancer; for men, 31,025 (68.1%) with MAMR of 8.9 and the respective ARS of 13.2 both x10(5) inhabitants. For women, results were 4553 (31.9%) deaths with MAMR of 4.1 and ARS of 5.4 both x10(5) inhabitants. The highest mortality rates due to lung cancer in both genders were observed in the north of Mexico, whereas for women this was observed in the central states. Although smoking is the main risk for lung cancer, there are other factors such as environmental pollution or exposure to toxicants that could be associated to this cancer. The years potentially lost due to lung cancer were 258,550 for men and 133,315 for women, with a total of 391,865 according to histopathology registry neoplasm malignant RHNM (1985-1995). Studies focused on the characterization and measurement of polluting agents would be a

  20. [Conjunctivitis due to Achromobacter xylosoxidans: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucatelli, Juliana Faggion; Cantarelli, Vlademir Vicente; Picoli, Simone Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    We report here a case of conjunctivitis in an immunocompetent patient due to Achromobacter xylosoxidans, which was associated with the use of rigid contact lenses. The bacteria were isolated from the scraped conjunctival swab as well as from the lens cleaning fluid. A. xylosoxidans is an opportunistic pathogen, especially in immunocompromised patients; however, in isolates of ocular infections, from immunocompetent patients, it may be confused with other gram-negative organisms, particularly Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Due to an increased resistance against different antimicrobial agents, A. xylosoxidans must be fully identified and differentiated from other gram-negative isolates from ocular infections.

  1. Enterolith ileus due to jejunal diverticulosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monchal, Tristan; Hornez, Emmanuel; Bourgouin, Stéphane; Sbardella, Fabrice; Baudoin, Yoann; Butin, Christophe; Salle, Etienne; Thouard, Hervé

    2010-04-01

    Jejunal diverticulosis is a rare malformation that is often asymptomatic. Complications might be similar to those occurring in large-bowel diverticula but also include a much more particular event: intestinal obstruction due to migration and impaction of enterolith formed inside diverticula. This is a very uncommon entity; diagnosis and management are thus often delayed. Mostly surgical exploration is necessary because obstruction symptoms are unresponsive to medical treatment. The authors report a new case of enterolith ileus in a 74-year-old man, due to jejunal diverticulosis, and its successful surgical management in emergency. Only 39 similar cases have ever been reported in the literature.

  2. Vulvar myiasis due to Wohlfahrtia magnifica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delir, S; Handjani, F; Emad, M; Ardehali, S

    1999-07-01

    Myiasis is a condition resulting from the invasion of tissues or organs of man or animals by the larvae of dipterous flies. The distribution of myiasis is worldwide, with more cases being reported from tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate areas. The various forms of myiasis may be classified from an entomological or a clinical point of view. This report describes a rare case of vulvar myiasis due to Wohlfahrtia magnifica in an otherwise healthy 20-year-old Iranian female. To our knowledge, this is the first report of cutaneous myiasis of the vulva due to W. magnifica from Iran and the Middle East region.

  3. Perianal abscesses due to ingested foreign bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doublali Mbarek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical presentation of perianal abscesses due to foreign bodies (FBs impacted in the anal canal mimics common causes of acute anal pain. The diagnosis can be established by digital rectal examination and/or proctoscopy, but may miss the presence of an FB. Incision and drainage of the abscess, along with removal of the FB, results in immediate pain relief and cure. Impacted FB must not be overlooked as an unusual cause of perianal abscess. One case of perianal abscesses due to FB impacted in the anal canal is reported.

  4. Due toponimi costieri istriani, Barbariga e Barabiga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Doria

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Avranno pazienza i lettori se ancora una volta in questa Rivista - e con ciò ritengo anche di far cosa gradita al valoroso collega e amico Pavao Tekavčić - mi soffermo sull'analisi di due toponimi costieri istriani, precisamente Barbariga e Ba­ rabiga, toponimi i quali, sebbene designino due oggetti geografici distinti e lontani l'un l'altro, abbiano quindi storia e tradizione fra loro indipendenti, risalgono senz'al­ tro - a mio modesto parere - ad uno stesso etimo. Ma vediamo un po', per ordine, come stiamo con la documentazione.

  5. Chest wall abscess due to Prevotella bivia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gwo-jong HSU; Cheng-ren CHEN; Mei-chu LAI; Shi-ping LUH

    2009-01-01

    Prevotella bivia is associated with pelvic inflammatory disease. A 77-year-old man developed a rapidly growing chest wall abscess due to P. Bivia within days. He underwent surgical resection of the infected area; his postoperative course was un-eventful. This is the first case of chest wall abscess due to P. Bivia infection. Its correct diagnosis cannot be underestimated be-cause fulminam infections can occur in aged or immunocompromised patients if treated incorrectly. Prompt, appropriate surgical management, and antibiotic therapy affect treatment outcome.

  6. Type 2 Diabetes and Uric Acid Nephrolithiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maalouf, Naim M.

    2008-09-01

    Type 2 diabetes is associated with an increased propensity for uric acid nephrolithiasis. In individuals with diabetes, this increased risk is due to a lower urine pH that results from obesity, dietary factors, and impaired renal ammoniagenesis. The epidemiology and pathogenesis of uric acid stone disease in patients with diabetes are hereby reviewed, and potential molecular mechanisms are proposed.

  7. LACTIC ACID BACTERIA: PROBIOTIC APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEENA GARG

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB is a heterotrophic Gram-positive bacteria which under goes lactic acid fermentations and leads to production of lactic acid as an end product. LAB includes Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, Lactococcus and Streptococcus which are grouped together in the family lactobacillaceae. LAB shows numerous antimicrobial activities due to production of antibacterial and antifungal compounds such as organic acids, bacteriocins, diacetyl, hydrogen peroxide and reutrin. LAB are used as starter culture, consortium members and bioprotective agents in food industry that improve food quality, safety and shelf life. A variety of probiotic LAB species are available including Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. bulgaricus, L. lactis, L. plantarum, L. rhamnosus, L. reuteri, L. fermentum, Bifidobacterium longum, B. breve, B. bifidum, B. esselnsis, B. lactis, B. infantis that are currently recommended for development of functional food products with health-promoting capacities.

  8. Mapping the structural requirements of inducers and substrates for decarboxylation of weak acid preservatives by the food spoilage mould Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratford, Malcolm; Plumridge, Andrew; Pleasants, Mike W; Novodvorska, Michaela; Baker-Glenn, Charles A G; Pattenden, Gerald; Archer, David B

    2012-07-16

    Moulds are able to cause spoilage in preserved foods through degradation of the preservatives using the Pad-decarboxylation system. This causes, for example, decarboxylation of the preservative sorbic acid to 1,3-pentadiene, a volatile compound with a kerosene-like odour. Neither the natural role of this system nor the range of potential substrates has yet been reported. The Pad-decarboxylation system, encoded by a gene cluster in germinating spores of the mould Aspergillus niger, involves activity by two decarboxylases, PadA1 and OhbA1, and a regulator, SdrA, acting pleiotropically on sorbic acid and cinnamic acid. The structural features of compounds important for the induction of Pad-decarboxylation at both transcriptional and functionality levels were investigated by rtPCR and GCMS. Sorbic and cinnamic acids served as transcriptional inducers but ferulic, coumaric and hexanoic acids did not. 2,3,4,5,6-Pentafluorocinnamic acid was a substrate for the enzyme but had no inducer function; it was used to distinguish induction and competence for decarboxylation in combination with the analogue chemicals. The structural requirements for the substrates of the Pad-decarboxylation system were probed using a variety of sorbic and cinnamic acid analogues. High decarboxylation activity, ~100% conversion of 1mM substrates, required a mono-carboxylic acid with an alkenyl double bond in the trans (E)-configuration at position C2, further unsaturation at C4, and an overall molecular length between 6.5Å and 9Å. Polar groups on the phenyl ring of cinnamic acid abolished activity (no conversion). Furthermore, several compounds were shown to block Pad-decarboxylation. These compounds, primarily aldehyde analogues of active substrates, may serve to reduce food spoilage by moulds such as A. niger. The possible ecological role of Pad-decarboxylation of spore self-inhibitors is unlikely and the most probable role for Pad-decarboxylation is to remove cinnamic acid-type inhibitors from

  9. Academic Due Process in Clinical Pharmacy Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abood, Richard R.; Iovacchini, Eric V.

    1979-01-01

    The historical evolution of academic due process, its current concept as revealed in the Supreme Court ruling in Horowitz vs Board of Curators of the University of Missouri, and the application of that judicial opinion to clinical clerkship programs in pharmacy are discussed. Guidelines to protect faculty and administration are offered. (JMD)

  10. Supraventricular Tachycardia Atackt Due to Losewieght Drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yalcin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is an important health problem. Treatment of obesity includes diet, exercise and drugs. Some of these drugs are out of prescription. Advers effects of these drugs have not been known. In this report; we present a case with supraventricular tachycardia attack due to loseweight drug containing mangostana (mango, hibiscus, citrus mate, L-karnitin, guarana.

  11. Duodenocolic fistula due to safety pin ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cay, Ali; Imamoğlu, Mustafa; Sarihan, Haluk; Sayil, Ozgür

    2004-01-01

    The authors describe the case of a 16-month-old boy with benign duodenocolic fistula due to safety pin ingestion who presented with abdominal pain, diarrhea and weight loss. Etiology, symptomatology, diagnosis and management are discussed and the literature is reviewed. Early diagnosis and surgical management are necessary to avoid serious morbidity.

  12. Sickness absence due to depressive symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, P. C.; Roelen, C. A. M.; Groothoff, J. W.

    Objective There is no information on the duration of absence of depressed Dutch workers. The aim of this study was to determine the duration of sickness absence due to depressive symptoms in the working population. Methods In this observational study of 15% of the Dutch working population, all

  13. Is Hubble's Expansion due to Dark Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, R C

    2010-01-01

    {\\it The universe is expanding} is known (through Galaxy observations) since 1929 through Hubble's discovery ($V = H D$). Recently in 1999, it is found (through Supernovae observations) that the universe is not simply expanding but is accelerating too. We, however, hardly know only $4\\%$ of the universe. The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite observational data suggest $73\\%$ content of the universe in the form of dark-energy, $23\\%$ in the form of non-baryonic dark-matter and the rest $4\\%$ in the form of the usual baryonic matter. The acceleration of the universe is ascribed to this dark-energy with bizarre properties (repulsive-gravity). The question is that whether Hubble's expansion is just due to the shock of big-bang & inflation or it is due to the repulsive-gravity of dark-energy? Now, it is believed to be due to dark-energy, say, by re-introducing the once-discarded cosmological-constant $\\Lambda$. In the present paper, it is shown that `the formula for acceleration due to dark...

  14. Ratchet due to broken friction symmetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norden, Bengt; Zolotaryuk, Yaroslav; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    2002-01-01

    A ratchet mechanism that occurs due to asymmetric dependence of the friction of a moving system on its velocity or a driving force is reported. For this kind of ratchet, instead of a particle moving in a periodic potential, the dynamics of which have broken space-time symmetry, the system must...

  15. Constructing the uncertainty of due dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Sarah C; Anthony, Kathryn E; O'Hair, H Dan

    2014-01-01

    By its nature, the date that a baby is predicted to be born, or the due date, is uncertain. How women construct the uncertainty of their due dates may have implications for when and how women give birth. In the United States as many as 15% of births occur before 39 weeks because of elective inductions or cesarean sections, putting these babies at risk for increased medical problems after birth and later in life. This qualitative study employs a grounded theory approach to understand the decisions women make on how and when to give birth. Thirty-three women who were pregnant or had given birth within the past 2 years participated in key informant or small-group interviews. The results suggest that women interpret the uncertainty of their due dates as a reason to wait for birth and as a reason to start the process early; however, information about a baby's brain development in the final weeks of pregnancy may persuade women to remain pregnant longer. The uncertainties of due dates are analyzed using Babrow's problematic integration, which distinguishes between epistemological and ontological uncertainty. The results point to a third type of uncertainty, axiological uncertainty. Axiological uncertainty is rooted in the values and ethics of outcomes.

  16. Contact dermatitis due to Alstroemeria (Peruvian lily).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apted, J H

    1990-01-01

    Two cases of hand dermatitis due to contact with the plant Alstroemeria (Peruvian Lily) are recorded. This plant has been increasingly used for making floral decorations during the last decade. As it is available throughout the year in Victoria more cases are likely to be discovered in the community.

  17. Bacterial endocarditis due to Kingella kingae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, M J; Maslowski, A H; MacCulloch, D

    1983-10-26

    A case of infective bacterial endocarditis due to Kingella kingae in a 26 year old male involving a prosthetic mitral valve is described. Microbiological features of this organism are outlined, and the treatment of this endocarditis is discussed with reference to the four previously reported cases.

  18. Consort contact dermatitis due to oak moss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, J L; Ruszkowski, A M; Deleo, V A

    1988-02-01

    An allergic contact dermatitis in a woman was found to be due to oak moss in her husband's after-shave lotion. When routine patch testing reveals a positive reaction, the dermatologist should consider exposure to the antigen not only in the patient but also through contact with the patient's consort.

  19. [Scalp burns due to hair bleach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenblast, Lene

    2011-02-28

    We present two cases of scalp burn or possible chemical reaction due to use of hair highlight products. One case was treated with serial excision of the scarred bald area after the burn, and the other case was treated with implantation of expanders and subsequent excision of the bald area.

  20. [Delayed asthma bronchiale due to epoxy resin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Authried, Georg; Al-Asadi, Haifaa; Møller, Ulla; Sherson, David Lee

    2013-10-28

    Epoxy resin is a low molecular weight agent, which can cause both acute and delayed allergic reactions. However, it is known causing skin reactions with direct or airborne contact. Rarely it can cause airway reactions like asthma bronchiale. We describe a case of a windmill worker who developed delayed asthma bronchiale due to airborne contact with epoxy resin.

  1. Hair transplantation in alopecia due to radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordstroem, R.E.; Holsti, L.R.

    1983-10-01

    Two cases of alopecia due to radiation of the scalp are presented in which it has been possible to achieve a technically and cosmetically satisfactory reconstruction by punch hair grafting. This does not mean that every case is suitable, but it does mean that those without contraindications should at least be given a try.

  2. Aggradation in rivers due to overloading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribberink, J.S.; Van der Sande, J.T.M.

    1984-01-01

    The problem of aggradation in a river due to overloading is tackled with a mathematical model consisting of a set of one-dimensional (in space) basic equations in which the water motion is assumed to be quasi-steady and the sediment transport is determined by local conditions. Analytical solutions a

  3. Inherited peripheral neuropathies due to mitochondrial disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassereau, J; Codron, P; Funalot, B

    2014-05-01

    Mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) are frequently responsible for neuropathies with variable severity. Mitochondrial diseases causing peripheral neuropathies (PNP) may be due to mutations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), as is the case in MERRF and MELAS syndromes, or to mutations of nuclear genes. Secondary abnormalities of mtDNA (such as multiple deletions of muscle mtDNA) may result from mitochondrial disorders due to mutations in nuclear genes involved in mtDNA maintenance. This is the case in several syndromes caused by impaired mtDNA maintenance, such as Sensory Ataxic Neuropathy, Dysarthria and Ophthalmoplegia (SANDO) due to recessive mutations in the POLG gene, which encodes the catalytic subunit of mtDNA polymerase (DNA polymerase gamma), or Mitochondrial Neuro-Gastro-Intestinal Encephalomyopathy (MNGIE), due to recessive mutations in the TYMP gene, which encodes thymidine phosphorylase. The last years have seen a growing list of evidence demonstrating that mitochondrial bioenergetics and dynamics might be dysfunctional in axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT2), and these mechanisms might present a common link between dissimilar CMT2-causing genes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Cytology of Pericardial Effusion due to Malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalogeraki Alexandra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Malignant pericardial effusion occurs in one tenth of all cancers. It is a very serious disorder that is mainly a secondary process due to metastasis because primary neoplasms of the pericardium such as mesotheliomas, sarcomas being exceedingly rare.

  5. Plagiarism Due to Misunderstanding: Online Instructor Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberger, Scott; Holbeck, Rick; Steele, John; Dyer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism is an ongoing problem in higher education. This problem exists in both online and face-to-face modalities. The literature indicates that there are three ways higher education institutions define plagiarism, which includes theft, deception, and misunderstanding. Plagiarism due to misunderstanding has received less attention in the…

  6. Nucleic acid-binding glycoproteins which solubilize nucleic acids in dilute acid: re-examination of the Ustilago maydis glycoproteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unrau, P.; Champ, D.R.; Young, J.L.; Grant, C.E.

    1980-01-01

    Holloman reported the isolation from Ustilago maydis of a glycoprotein which prevented the precipitation of nucleic acids in cold 5% trichloroacetic acid. Two glycoprotein fractions from U. maydis with this nucleic acid-solubilizing activity were isolated in our laboratory using improved purification procedures. The activity was not due to nuclease contamination. The glycoproteins are distinguished by: their ability to bind to concanavalin A-Sepharose; their differential binding to double- and single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid, and to ribonucleic acid; their molecular weights (46,000 and 69,000); and the relative amounts present in growing versus nongrowing cells. Both fractions required sulfhydryl-reducing conditions for optimal yields, specific activity, and stability. Nucleic acid binding was cooperative, the minimum number of glycoproteins required to make a native T7 DNA molecule soluble in dilute acid being estimated at 2 and 15, respectively.

  7. Timing shifts due to NIF beam repointing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, J

    2007-08-15

    Repointing a NIF beam to hit a target position off target chamber center (TCC) will introduce a timing shift due to changes in the light pathlength. This shift could be important for target experiment requirements even for targets placed at TCC, since beam timing test shots will place beams up to 15 mm off TCC in order to spatially separate them on foil targets. In particular, timing errors due to beam repointing need to be considered against the 30 ps RMS timing requirement. Since the repointing process will keep the beam passing through a fixed point in the final optics assembly (the conversion crystal) by tip/tilt adjustments of two turning mirrors (LM5 and LM7), the problem naturally divides into two parts: Timing offsets past the conversion crystal due to target positioning changes, and timing offsets behind the fixed point on the conversion crystal due to turning mirror adjustments. Timing offsets past the conversion crystal can be significant, but are trivial to calculate exactly; however, an exact calculation of timing offsets behind the fixed point on the conversion crystal would require a three-dimensional optomechanical raytrace model to be developed for every beamline, and this would be difficult and expensive. In this memo, I estimate the magnitude of timing offsets due to pathlength changes behind the conversion crystal by analysis of a worst-case model. I conclude that these timing offsets are insignificant compared with the current allocation in the 30 ps RMS timing requirement, and that more detailed raytrace modeling of individual beams is not necessary.

  8. Hydrofluoric acid poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluorhydric acid ... stomach, or intestine have holes (perforations) from the acid. ... Hydrofluoric acid is especially dangerous. The most common accidents involving hydrofluoric acid cause severe burns on the skin ...

  9. [Alcoholic ketoacidosis and reversible neurological complications due to hypophosphataemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández López, Ma T; García Bargo, Ma D; Rivero Luis, Ma T; Álvarez Vázquez, P; Saenz Fernández, C A; Mato Mato, J A

    2012-01-01

    A 57-year-old man with chronic alcoholism was admitted to our hospital due to disturbance of consciousness and polyradiculitis. Laboratory examination revealed metabolic acidosis, hypokalemia and hypophosphataemia. Alcoholic ketoacidosis is a common disorder in alcoholic patients. All patients present with a history of heavy alcohol misuse, preceding a bout of particularly excesive intake, which had been terminated by nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain. The most important laboratory results are: normal or low glucose level, metabolic acidosis with a raised anion GAP, low or absent blood alcohol level and urinary ketones. The greatest threats to patients are: hypovolemia, hypokaliemia, hypoglucemia and acidosis. Alcohol abuse may result in a wide range of electrolyte and acid-base disorders including hypophosphataemia, hypomagnesemia, hypocalcemia, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis and respiratory alkalosis. Disturbance of consciousness in alcoholic patients is observed in several disorders, such drunkenness, Wernicke encephalopathy, alcohol withdrawal syndrome, central pontine myelinolysis, hepatic encephalopathy, hypoglucemia and electrolyte disorders.

  10. Sudden death due to forced ingestion of vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Lisa B E; Rolf, Cristin M; Hunsaker, John C

    2016-09-01

    Vinegar is a clear colorless liquid that commercially consists of 5% acetic acid. It has numerous benefits in everyday use, including culinary, medical, and cleaning. The ingestion of concentrated acetic acid is strongly discouraged and may have detrimental consequences, such as acute pancreatitis, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, gastric and hepatic complications, upper airway obstruction, or death. We report the first case in the literature of a 5-year-old boy who experienced a sudden death due to ingestion of distilled white vinegar. The manner was homicide. There was evidence of nonfatal blunt force impacts of the head, trunk, and extremities. A pungent aromatic odor of the viscera, gastric/small bowel contents, and cranial cavity was noted at autopsy. A dusky gray discoloration of the gastric mucosa, small bowel, and pancreas was observed. Forensic pathologists should consider ingestion of vinegar when confronted with a compelling history as well as an aromatic odor suggesting vinegar and dusky gray discoloration of the gastric mucosa and small bowel. While vinegar is a common household item and has several advantages, it may prove fatal if ingested in large quantities.

  11. Fixed drug eruption due to levocetirizine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratinder Jhaj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A fixed drug eruption (FDE is a cutaneous adverse drug reaction due to Type IV or delayed cell-mediated hypersensitivity. Antihistamines, which antagonize the action of histamine during an allergic reaction by blocking the H 1 histamine receptors, are used routinely for the treatment of various allergic disorders such as urticaria, eczemas, and also in itchy lesions of skin like scabies.Levocetirizine, an active (R-enantiomer of cetirizine, is a newer or second generation antihistamine, with more specific actions and fewer side effects, including cutaneous reactions. FDE due to levocetirizine as well as with cetirizine are rare. We report a case of levocetirizine induced FDE in a 49-year-old male patient with scabies. The patient had a history of cetirizine induced FDE in the past.

  12. Sciatica due to pelvic hematoma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocaman Umit

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sciatica is defined as pain in the sciatic nerve distribution. The most common reason of sciatica is radiculopathy due to lumbar disc hernia. Other causes can be congenital, acquired, infectious, neoplastic, or inflammatory. The piriformis syndrome is another cause. The pain starts in an insidious manner when the cause of sciatica is an extraspinal tumor. It is intermittent at first but a constant and progressive pain that does not decrease with position or rest gradually develops in all patients. The possibility of an intraabdominal or pelvic mass should always be considered and the relevant tests requested when the cause of the sciatica cannot be explained. We present an 83-year-old male who presented with non-traumatic and non-vascular lumbosacral plexopathy due to a large hematoma in the left adductor muscle following the use of warfarin sodium.

  13. Cardiogenic shock due to acute tramadol intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdreau, Elodie; Iriart, Xavier; Mouton, Jean-Baptiste; Jalal, Zakaria; Thambo, Jean-Benoît

    2015-01-01

    Tramadol is a common analgesic, widely prescribed because of its efficiency and safety. We report the case of a 7-year-old child admitted in cardiac intensive care unit for cardiogenic shock due to tramadol intoxication. Without any past history, the child was admitted at emergency room for generalised convulsion, followed by respiratory distress. Cardiogenic shock was suspected after clinical examination and chest X-ray and confirmed by transthoracic echocardiography showing low left ventricular ejection fraction (1 mg/L) and O-desmethyltramadol (>1.5 mg/L). Hemodynamic support by inotropic drug infusion and diuretics was necessary. Left ventricular function normalised after 2 days of treatment allowing drug infusion weaning. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging performed 3 days after admission confirmed normal left ventricular ejection fraction and volumes without evidence of late gadolinium enhancement. Cardiogenic shock due to tramadol intoxication is rare but exists. Negative inotropic effect of high doses of tramadol has been suspected. Quick recovery is possible.

  14. ON DAMPING COEFFICIENT DUE TO PHASE TRANSFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Din-YuHSIEH

    2003-01-01

    The damping coefficient of capillary waves due to the evaporation-condensation process at the interface of the two phases of a fluid is evaluated. To highlight the mechanism of the effect of heat and mass transfer across the interface between regions of liquid and vapor, potential flow of incompressible fluids are assumed. Thus other mechanisms of damping are neglected. To fascilitate the analysis, the method of multiple-scale is employed in the analysis, even though the problem is linear.

  15. Dose due to {sup 40}K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escareno J, E.; Vega C, H. R., E-mail: edmundoej@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2011-10-15

    The dose due to {sup 40}K has been estimated. Potassium is one of the most abundant elements in nature, being approximately 2% of the Earth's crust. Potassium has three isotopes {sup 39}K, {sup 40}K and {sup 41}K, two are stable while {sup 40}K is radioactive with a half life of 1.2x10{sup 9} years; there is 0.0117% {sup 40}K-to-K ratio. Potassium plays an important role in plants, animals and humans growth and reproduction. Due to the fact that K is an essential element for humans, {sup 40}K is the most abundant radioisotope in human body. In order to keep good health conditions K must be intake at daily basis trough food and beverages, however when K in ingested above the requirements produce adverse health effects in persons with renal, cardiac and hypertension problems or suffering diabetes. In 89.3% {sup 40}K decays to {sup 40}C through {beta}-decay, in 10.3% decays through electronic capture and emitting 1.46 MeV {gamma}-ray. K is abundant in soil, construction materials, sand thus {gamma}-rays produced during {sup 40}K decay contribute to external dose. For K in the body practically all {sup 40}K decaying energy is absorbed by the body; thus {sup 40}K contributes to total dose in humans and it is important to evaluate its contribution. In this work a set of {sup 40}K sources were prepared using different amounts of KCl salt, a {gamma}-ray spectrometer with a NaI(Tl) was characterized to standardized the sources in order to evaluate the dose due to {sup 40}K. Using thermoluminescent dosemeters the dose due to {sup 40}K was measured and related to the amount of {sup 40}K {gamma}-ray activity. (Author)

  16. Acute flaccid paralysis due to rabies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J B Ghosh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two clinical forms of rabies are recognize: i a furious form associated with classical signs of excitation or phobic symptoms, ii Dumb rabies (paralytic rabies characterized by progressive paralysis without an initial furious phase wherein distinction from Guillain-Barrι Syndrome may be difficult. Paralytic rabies is more common in persons who have received postexposure vaccination. We report here the diagnostic dilemma of two cases of acute flaccid paralysis due to rabies.

  17. Deaths due to Unknown Foodborne Agents

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This study reviews the available evidence on unknown pathogenic agents transmitted in food and examines the methods that have been used to estimate that such agents cause 3,400 deaths per year in the United States. The estimate of deaths was derived from hospital discharge and death certificate data on deaths attributed to gastroenteritis of unknown cause. Fatal illnesses due to unknown foodborne agents do not always involve gastroenteritis, and gastroenteritis may not be accurately diagnosed...

  18. Mesenteric tumor due to chronic anisakiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Menéndez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal anisakiasis is a rare parasitic disease and difficult to diagnose due to symptoms are not specific, so it is considered an underdiagnosed disease. The clinical suspicion with a correct diagnosis of anisakiasis allows the establishment of a correct treatment; in most cases, the resolution is possible with conservative treatment, avoiding unnecessary surgery to the preoperative differential diagnosis of acute abdomen. We report the case of a patient who required urgent surgery secondary to an exacerbation of chronic anisakiasis.

  19. Cervical myelopathy due to degenerative spondylolisthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Koakutsu, Tomoaki; Nakajo, Junko; Morozumi, Naoki; Hoshikawa, Takeshi; Ogawa, Shinji; Ishii, Yushin

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate clinical-radiological features of cervical myelopathy due to degenerative spondylolisthesis (DSL). Methods A total of 448 patients were operated for cervical myelopathy at Nishitaga National Hospital between 2000 and 2003. Of these patients, DSL at the symptomatic disc level was observed in 22 (4.9%) patients. Clinical features were investigated by medical records, and radiological features were investigated by radiographs. Results Disc levels of DSL were C3/4 in 6 ca...

  20. Pseudo skin factor due to partial penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, A.C.; Chen, J.C.; Raghavan, R.

    1983-10-01

    In this study the authors examine the pseudo skin factor due to partial penetration in a two-layer reservoir when only one layer is open to flow. They show that the pseudo skin factor can be correlated as a unique function of three reservoir parameters and in some cases can be accurately correlated as a function of two reservoir parameters. They also present graphs and procedures for estimating the pseudo skin factor.

  1. Pseudo skin factor due to partial penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, A.C.; Chen, J.C.; Raghavan, R.

    1983-01-01

    This study examines the pseudo skin factor due to partial penetration in a 2-layer reservoir when only one layer is open to flow. The pseudo skin factor can be correlated as a unique function of 3 reservoir parameters and in some cases can be correlated accurately as a function of 2 reservoir parameters. Graphs and procedures for estimating the pseudo skin factor are presented. 17 references.

  2. Pure Sensory Stroke due to Lenticulocapsular Hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨益阶; 王国瑾; 潘松青

    2003-01-01

    @@ Pure sensory stroke (PSS) caused by lenticulo-capsular hemorrhage is rare. In this article, we re-ported 4 patients with PSS due to lenticulocapsularhemorrhage, including 3 men and 1 woman (mean age,58 years; range, 54 to 65 years), whose lesions couldbe identified by head computed tomographic (CT)scan and clinical findings correlated with the radio-logical lesions. All patients except 1 had hyperten-sion.

  3. Sprue-like enteropathy due to olmesartan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Muñoz, Cándido; López-Vivancos, Josefa; Huaman, Walter; García-Cors, Montserrat

    2015-10-01

    A case of spue-like enteropathy due to olmesartan is reported to draw attention to this disease, given the high frequency of use of this drug and the difficulty of diagnosis if the entity if it is not known. In his journal one case was published as Clinical Note in 2014 and we wish to emphasize the importance of knowledge about this relatively new entity.

  4. The Drone Court And Due Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    independent military judge or some other neutral decision maker, and the accused shall be presumed innocent unless and until the prosecution proves his...drone targeting of U.S. citizens seeks to exact the death penalty without providing the due process procedures required by the Constitution. The scene ... neutral decision maker.”211 In the majority opinion, Justice O’Connor, joined by the Chief Justice, Justice Kennedy, and Justice Breyer, concluded

  5. Acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Georgios K Georgiou; Haralampos Harissis; Michalis Mitsis; Haralampos Batsis; Michalis Fatouros

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of acute chylous ascites formation presenting as peritonitis (acute chylous peritonitis) in a patient suffering from acute pancreatitis due to hypertriglyceridemia and alcohol abuse.The development of chylous ascites is usually a chronic process mostly involving malignancy,trauma or surgery,and symptoms arise as a result of progressive abdominal distention.However,when accumulation of "chyle" occurs rapidly,the patient may present with signs of peritonitis.Preoperative diagnosis is difficult since the clinical picture usually suggests hollow organ perforation,appendicitis or visceral ischemia.Less than 100 cases of acute chylous peritonitis have been reported.Pancreatitis is a rare cause of chyloperitoneum and in almost all of the cases chylous ascites is discovered some days (or even weeks) after the onset of symptoms of pancreatitis.This is the second case in the literature where the patient presented with acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis,and the presence of chyle within the abdominal cavity was discovered simultaneously with the establishment of the diagnosis of pancreatitis.The patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy for suspected perforated duodenal ulcer,since,due to hypertriglyceridemia,serum amylase values appeared within the normal range.Moreover,abdominal computed tomography imaging was not diagnostic for pancreatitis.Following abdominal lavage and drainage,the patient was successfully treated with total parenteral nutrition and octreotide.

  6. Acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Georgios K; Harissis, Haralampos; Mitsis, Michalis; Batsis, Haralampos; Fatouros, Michalis

    2012-04-28

    We report a case of acute chylous ascites formation presenting as peritonitis (acute chylous peritonitis) in a patient suffering from acute pancreatitis due to hypertriglyceridemia and alcohol abuse. The development of chylous ascites is usually a chronic process mostly involving malignancy, trauma or surgery, and symptoms arise as a result of progressive abdominal distention. However, when accumulation of "chyle" occurs rapidly, the patient may present with signs of peritonitis. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult since the clinical picture usually suggests hollow organ perforation, appendicitis or visceral ischemia. Less than 100 cases of acute chylous peritonitis have been reported. Pancreatitis is a rare cause of chyloperitoneum and in almost all of the cases chylous ascites is discovered some days (or even weeks) after the onset of symptoms of pancreatitis. This is the second case in the literature where the patient presented with acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis, and the presence of chyle within the abdominal cavity was discovered simultaneously with the establishment of the diagnosis of pancreatitis. The patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy for suspected perforated duodenal ulcer, since, due to hypertriglyceridemia, serum amylase values appeared within the normal range. Moreover, abdominal computed tomography imaging was not diagnostic for pancreatitis. Following abdominal lavage and drainage, the patient was successfully treated with total parenteral nutrition and octreotide.

  7. Endoscopic pyloroplasty for severe gastric outlet obstruction due to alkali ingestion in a child

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghani, Seyed Mohsen; Aldaghi, Mitra; Javaherizadeh, Hazhir

    2016-01-01

    A common belief is that alkali ingestion causes severe esophageal damage and limited gastric injury due to the buffering action of acid. Gastric injury has been observed in patients who ingested alkali. Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) secondary to caustic ingestion occurs due to fibrosis after resolution of the acute injury and inflammation, most commonly 6 to 12 weeks after initial ingestion. The traditional treatment for GOO related to ingestion of corrosive agents is surgery. Experience w...

  8. Dehydroabietic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ping Rao

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound [systematic name: (1R,4aS,10aR-7-isopropyl-1,4a-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydrophenanthrene-1-carboxylic acid], C20H28O2, has been isolated from disproportionated rosin which is obtained by isomerizing gum rosin with a Pd-C catalyst.. Two crystallographically independent molecules exist in the asymmetric unit. In each molecule, there are three six-membered rings, which adopt planar, half-chair and chair conformations. The two cyclohexane rings form a trans ring junction with the two methyl groups in axial positions. The crystal structure is stabilized by intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  9. Effects of acid diffusibility and affinity to cellulose on strength loss of polycarboxylic acid crosslinked fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Bolin; Zhao, Cunyi; Yan, Kelu; Sun, Gang

    2016-06-25

    1,2,3,4-Butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) imparts good anti-wrinkle property to cotton fabrics and results in significant strength loss due to cross-linking and acid degradation of cellulose simultaneously. However, benzophenone-3,3',4,4'- tetracarboxylic acid (BPTCA), an aromatic acid, crosslinks cellulose effectively but causes less strength loss to the products under similar conditions. The difference in damages to cellulose fibers was analyzed by using diffusibility and corresponding affinity of the acids to cellulose fibers, which were estimated by their molecular sizes and Hansen solubility parameters (HSP). Both experimental results and theoretical speculations revealed consistent agreement, indicating that smaller acid molecules could diffuse into cellulose fiber more rapidly and deeply, resulting in more acid degradation. Besides, the aliphatic acid such as BTCA has higher molecular affinity than BPTCA to cellulose, causing additional more degradation of cellulose. Both factors are potential reasons of the observed more severe tensile strength loss of the BTCA treated cotton fabrics.

  10. Degradation and contamination of perfluorinated sulfonic acid membrane due to swelling-dehydration cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Shuang Ma; Morgen, Per; Skou, Eivind Morten

    to the membrane degradation in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), where liquid water has direct contact with the electrolyte. An ex-situ experiment was established with swelling-dehydration cycles on the membrane. However, formation of sulfonic anhydride was not detected during the entire treatment; instead...... contamination from calcium was found the primary reason for the deterioration of the membrane properties....

  11. Stupor due to possible interaction between Lorazepam and valproic acid: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uz, Yasemin; Hariri, Aytül; Ünübol, Hüseyin; Bilici, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    Valproate (VPA) and lorazepam are excreted mainly by glucuronide conjugation. VPA reduces the excretion of lorazepam as a result of the administration of these two medications together. As a result of these interactions, even if rarely, serious adverse effects such as coma may develop. Herein, we present two cases of stupor which developed after the addition of lorazepam to treatment administered with VPA. The first patient was being followed for five years with a diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder. She was subjected to a treatment of VPA at 1000 mg/day and an antipsychotic drug. On the twentieth day of the treatment, Lorazepam 2.5 mg was administered as an anxiolytic. The second patient was being followed with a diagnosis of schizophrenia for nine years. A VPA treatment of 750 mg/day was initiated together with an antipsychotic treatment. On the eighth day of the treatment, Lorazepam 2.5 mg was administered. A few hours later, a stupor manifestation developed in both of the patients. Administration of the entire medication to the patients was terminated and parenteral liquid administration was initiated. The clinical profile was back to normal approximately 24-36 hours following the termination of the medication. Studies about the clinical reflections of the VPA and Lorazepam interaction are limited. However, it must be remembered that as a result of the interaction of these two medications, conditions that vary between stupor and coma may arise.

  12. Skin Necrosis with Oculomotor Nerve Palsy Due to a Hyaluronic Acid Filler Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Il Lee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Performing rhinoplasty using filler injections, which improve facial wrinkles or soft tissues, is relatively inexpensive. However, intravascular filler injections can cause severe complications, such as skin necrosis and visual loss. We describe a case of blepharoptosis and skin necrosis caused by augmentation rhinoplasty and we discuss the patient’s clinical progress. We describe the case of a 25-year-old female patient who experienced severe pain, blepharoptosis, and decreased visual acuity immediately after receiving a filler injection. Our case suggests that surgeons should be aware of nasal vascularity before performing an operation, and that they should avoid injecting fillers at a high pressure and/or in excessive amounts. Additionally, filler injections should be stopped if the patient complains of severe pain, and appropriate measures should be taken to prevent complications caused by intravascular filler injections.

  13. Fixed drug eruption due to metronidazole: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Maxilline D. Marak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Metronidazole is commonly used for the treatment of amebiasis, giardiasis and trichomonous vaginitis. Its side effects are relatively frequent and unpleasant, but nonserious. It has the potential to cause fixed drug eruption (FDE. Case Presentation: This 10 year male boy presented for the itching in some part of the body including an itchy, erythematous oval lesion over the right side of the lower part of anterior abdominal wall. He developed these problems after intake of metronidazole tablet. He was diagnosed to be a case of FDE due to metronidazole. This case of adverse drug reaction (ADR was “probable” type (Score=7 of reaction based on Naranjo ADR probability scale and severity assessment showed “mild” type (level 2 based on Hartwig et al scale. The offending drug was stopped immediately and managed with deflazacort tablet 12 mg for 10 days and Fusidic acid+Betamethasone cream for topical application. Discussion: FDE due to metronidazole usually occur within 30 min to 8 hours following its administration and mean length of time from drug intake to the onset of symptoms is approximately 2 hr. Tissue damage in FDE results from the preferential activation of intraepidermal CD8+T cells

  14. Acetic acid mediated interactions between alumina surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Kimiyasu, E-mail: sato.kimiyasu@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Anagahora 2266-98, Shimoshidami, Moriyama-ku, Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan); Y Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I lmaz, Hueseyin [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Anagahora 2266-98, Shimoshidami, Moriyama-ku, Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan); Gebze Institute of Technology, Materials Science and Engineering Department, 41400, Gebze-Kocaeli (Turkey); Ijuin, Atsuko; Hotta, Yuji; Watari, Koji [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Anagahora 2266-98, Shimoshidami, Moriyama-ku, Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan)

    2012-02-01

    Low-molecular-weight organic acids have been known to modify colloidal stability of alumina-based suspensions. We investigated interaction forces between alumina surfaces mediated by acetic acid which is one of the simplest organic acids. Forces between alumina surfaces were measured using the colloid-probe method of atomic force microscope (AFM). Repulsive forces attributed to steric repulsion due to adsorbed molecules and electrostatic repulsion dominated the interaction. Results of rheological characterization of the alumina slurry containing acetic acid supported the finding.

  15. Large leg ulcers due to autoimmune diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozin, Alexander P.; Egozi, Dana; Ramon, Yehuda; Toledano, Kohava; Braun-Moscovici, Yolanda; Markovits, Doron; Schapira, Daniel; Bergman, Reuven; Melamed, Yehuda; Ullman, Yehuda; Balbir-Gurman, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Large leg ulcers (LLU) may complicate autoimmune diseases. They pose a therapeutic challenge and are often resistant to treatment. To report three cases of autoimmune diseases complicated with LLU. Case Report Case 1. A 55-year old woman presented with long-standing painful LLU due to mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD). Biopsy from the ulcer edge showed small vessel vasculitis. IV methylprednisolone (MethP) 1 G/day, prednisolone (PR) 1mg/kg, monthly IV cyclophosphamide (CYC), cyclosporine (CyA) 100mg/day, IVIG 125G, ciprofloxacin+IV Iloprost+enoxaparin+aspirin (AAVAA), hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HO), maggot debridement and autologous skin transplantation were performed and the LLU healed. Case 2. A 45-year old women with MCTD developed multiple LLU’s with non-specific inflammation by biopsy. MethP, PR, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), azathioprine (AZA), CYC, IVIG, AAVAA failed. Treatment for underlying the LLU tibial osteomyelitis and addition of CyA was followed by the LLU healing. Case 3. A 20-year-old man with history of polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) developed painful LLU’s due to small vessel vasculitis (biopsy). MethP, PR 1 mg/kg, CYC, CyA 100 mg/d, AAVAA failed. MRSA sepsis and relapse of systemic PAN developed. IV vancomycin, followed by ciprofloxacin, monthly IVIG (150 g/for 5 days) and infliximab (5 mg/kg) were instituted and the LLU’s healed. Conclusions LLU are extremely resistant to therapy. Combined use of multiple medications and services are needed for healing of LLU due to autoimmune diseases. PMID:21169912

  16. Periungual Lesion due to Secondary Syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noriega, Leandro; Gioia Di Chiacchio, Nilton; Cury Rezende, Flávia; Di Chiacchio, Nilton

    2017-01-01

    Several countries experience a new epidemic of syphilis, mainly due to the changes in risk behaviors. Dermatologists play an important role in the diagnosis, since cutaneous manifestations are frequent during disease progression. We report a rare case of secondary syphilis with periungual involvement. Syphilis, especially in the secondary form, may present with different clinical features, affecting different organs, and mimicking many diseases. Although nail apparatus lesions are more common in the primary form of the disease, they may also be present in the secondary and tertiary forms. Therefore, a comprehensive knowledge of the diverse forms of syphilis presentation is important for an early diagnosis and timely treatment.

  17. Obstructive hydrocephalus due to CNS toxocariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Hwan; Cho, Jae-Wook; Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Lee, Sang Weon; Kim, Hak-Jin; Choi, Kwang-Dong

    2013-06-15

    A 46-year-old man developed intermittent headache, diplopia, and visual obscuration for two months. Funduscopic examination showed optic disk swelling in both eyes. Brain MRI exhibited hydrocephalus and leptomeningeal enhancement at the prepontine cistern, left cerebellopontine angle cistern and bilateral cerebral hemisphere, and hemosiderin deposition along the cerebellar folia. CSF analysis revealed an elevated opening pressure with xanthochromic appearance and small amount of red blood cells. Antibody titer against Toxocariasis using ELISA was elevated both in blood and CSF. Obstructive hydrocephalus and hemosiderin deposition in this case may result from the active inflammatory process due to CNS toxocariasis within the subarachnoid space.

  18. Broadband Clutter due to Aggregations of Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Fish     Richard  H.  Love   BayouAcoustics   Abita  Springs,  LA  70420   Phone:    (985...Long  Term  Goals     Develop  an  understanding  of  physical  parameters  of  aggregations   of   fish  that  control...Acoustic  Uncertainty  due  to   Marine  Mammals  and   Fish ,”  which  was  informally  known  as

  19. Orbital effects due to gravitational induction

    CERN Document Server

    Bini, Donato; Giordano, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    We study the motion of test particles in the metric of a localized and slowly rotating astronomical source, within the framework of linear gravitoelectromagnetism, grounded on a Post-Minkowskian approximation of general relativity. Special attention is paid to gravitational inductive effects due to time-varying gravitomagnetic fields. We show that, within the limits of the approximation mentioned above, there are cumulative effects on the orbit of the particles either for planetary sources or for binary systems. They turn out to be negligible.

  20. Segmental Renal Infarction due to Blunt Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alevizopoulos, Aristeidis; Hamilton, Lauren; Stratu, Natalia; Rix, Gerald

    2016-05-01

    Segmental renal infarction is a rare situation which has been reported so far in the form of case reports. It's caused usually by cardiac conditions, such as atrial fibrillation, and systemic diseases (e.g. systemic lupus erythematous). We are presenting a case of a 31 year old healthy male, who sustained a left segmental renal infarction, following a motorbike accident. We report his presentation, management and outcome. We also review the literature in search of the optimal diagnostic and treatment pathway. To our knowledge, this is the first report of segmental renal infarction due to blunt trauma.

  1. Constrained inflaton due to a complex scalar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budhi, Romy H. S. [Physics Department, Gadjah Mada University,Yogyakarta 55281 (Indonesia); Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kanazawa University,Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Kashiwase, Shoichi; Suematsu, Daijiro [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kanazawa University,Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan)

    2015-09-14

    We reexamine inflation due to a constrained inflaton in the model of a complex scalar. Inflaton evolves along a spiral-like valley of special scalar potential in the scalar field space just like single field inflation. Sub-Planckian inflaton can induce sufficient e-foldings because of a long slow-roll path. In a special limit, the scalar spectral index and the tensor-to-scalar ratio has equivalent expressions to the inflation with monomial potential φ{sup n}. The favorable values for them could be obtained by varying parameters in the potential. This model could be embedded in a certain radiative neutrino mass model.

  2. Hyperekplexia and trismus due to brainstem encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellett, M.; Humphrey, P.; Tedman, B.; Steiger, M.

    1998-01-01

    The brainstem is said to be the generator of pathological startle responses due to reticular reflex myoclonus or hyperekplexia. A patient with facial weakness, nystagmus, and pyramidal tract signs had generalised reflex spasms in response to auditory, visual and tactile stimuli which clinically and neurophysiologically resembled hyperekplexia. The case is unusual because as well as hyperekplexia, the patient's initial presentation was with an equally rare manifestation of brainstem pathology—brainstem mediated trismus. The causes of brainstem trismus and exaggerated startle responses are discussed with respect to their underlying mechanisms. 

 PMID:9667574

  3. Pure dysarthria due to an insular infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraga, Akiyuki; Tanaka, Saiko; Kamitsukasa, Ikuo

    2010-06-01

    Cortical infarction presenting with pure dysarthria is rarely reported. Previous studies have reported pure dysarthria due to cortical stroke at the precentral gyrus or middle frontal gyrus. We report a 72-year-old man who developed pure dysarthria caused by an acute cortical infarction in the insular cortex. The role of the insula in language has been difficult to assess clinically because of the rarity of pure insular strokes. Our patient showed pure dysarthria without aphasia, indicating that pure dysarthria can be the sole manifestation of insular infarctions.

  4. Stretch due to Penile Prosthesis Reservoir Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Baten

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A 43-year old patient presented to the emergency department with stretch, due to impossible deflation of the penile prosthesis, 4 years after successful implant. A CT-scan showed migration of the reservoir to the left rectus abdominis muscle. Refilling of the reservoir was inhibited by muscular compression, causing stretch. Removal and replacement of the reservoir was performed, after which the prosthesis was well-functioning again. Migration of the penile prosthesis reservoir is extremely rare but can cause several complications, such as stretch.

  5. Pneumonia due to Enterobacter cancerogenus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Tülin; Baran, Gamze; Buyukguclu, Tuncay; Sezgin, Fikriye Milletli; Kaymaz, Haci

    2014-11-01

    Enterobacter cancerogenus (formerly known as CDC Enteric Group 19; synonym with Enterobacter taylorae) has rarely been associated with human infections, and little is known regarding the epidemiology and clinical significance of this organism. We describe a community-acquired pneumonia case in a 44-year-old female due to E. cancerogenus. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of the microorganism was performed by the automatized VITEK 2 Compact system (bioMerieux, France). The clinical case suggests that E. cancerogenus is a potentially pathogenic microorganism in determined circumstances; underlying diseases such as bronchial asthma, empiric antibiotic treatment, wounds, diagnostic, or therapeutic instruments.

  6. Erythema ab igne (Unilateral due to "Chulla"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Kar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythema ab igne (EAI is characterized by localized areas of reticulated erythema and hyperpigmentation due to chronic and repeated exposure to infrared radiation. Taking a good history plays an important role in coming to the diagnosis of the disease condition; and at the same time, the particular cultural practices of a place determine its occurrence in the local masses. Herein we report the case of a young lady in her early thirties who presented to us with a dusky hyperpigmentation over her right arm and leg. Her detailed history and cutaneous examination led to the diagnosis of erythema ab igne.

  7. Biocatalytic reduction of carboxylic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napora-Wijata, Kamila; Strohmeier, Gernot A; Winkler, Margit

    2014-06-01

    An increasing demand for non-petroleum-based products is envisaged in the near future. Carboxylic acids such as citric acid, succinic acid, fatty acids, and many others are available in abundance from renewable resources and they could serve as economic precursors for bio-based products such as polymers, aldehyde building blocks, and alcohols. However, we are confronted with the problem that carboxylic acid reduction requires a high level of energy for activation due to the carboxylate's thermodynamic stability. Catalytic processes are scarce and often their chemoselectivity is insufficient. This review points at bio-alternatives: currently known enzyme classes and organisms that catalyze the reduction of carboxylic acids are summarized. Two totally distinct biocatalyst lines have evolved to catalyze the same reaction: aldehyde oxidoreductases from anaerobic bacteria and archea, and carboxylate reductases from aerobic sources such as bacteria, fungi, and plants. The majority of these enzymes remain to be identified and isolated from their natural background in order to evaluate their potential as industrial biocatalysts.

  8. Septic arthritis of a native knee joint due to Corynebacterium striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westblade, Lars F; Shams, Farah; Duong, Scott; Tariq, Oosman; Bulbin, Alan; Klirsfeld, Dava; Zhen, Wei; Sakaria, Smita; Ford, Bradley A; Burnham, Carey-Ann D; Ginocchio, Christine C

    2014-05-01

    We report a case of septic arthritis of a native knee joint due to Corynebacterium striatum, a rare and unusual cause of septic arthritis of native joints. The isolate was identified by a combination of phenotypic, mass spectrometric, and nucleic acid-based assays and exhibited high-level resistance to most antimicrobials.

  9. Effect of Helicobacter pylori Infection on Symptoms of Gastroenteritis Due to Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, Alicia Hsin-Ming; Haggerty, Thomas Dean; de Martel, Catherine; Leung, Cynthia Wai-Mun; Parsonnet, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori can cause hypochlorhydria in some hosts and predispose to diarrheal infections. We tested the hypothesis that chronic H. pylori infection increases the risk of diarrheal illness due to an acid-sensitive organism: enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC). After testing healthy adu

  10. Effect of Helicobacter pylori Infection on Symptoms of Gastroenteritis Due to Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, Alicia Hsin-Ming; Haggerty, Thomas Dean; de Martel, Catherine; Leung, Cynthia Wai-Mun; Parsonnet, Julie

    Helicobacter pylori can cause hypochlorhydria in some hosts and predispose to diarrheal infections. We tested the hypothesis that chronic H. pylori infection increases the risk of diarrheal illness due to an acid-sensitive organism: enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC). After testing healthy

  11. Orbital dystopia due to orbital roof defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rha, Eun Young; Joo, Hong Sil; Byeon, Jun Hee

    2013-01-01

    We performed a retrospective review of patients who presented with delayed dystopia as a consequence of an orbital roof defect due to fractures and nontraumatic causes to search for a correlation between orbital roof defect size and surgical indications for the treatment thereof. Retrospective analyses were performed in 7 patients, all of whom presented with delayed dystopia due to orbital roof defects, between January 2001 and June 2011. The causes of orbital roof defects were displaced orbital roof fractures (5 cases), tumor (1 case), and congenital sphenoid dysplasia (1 case). All 7 patients had initially been treated conservatively and later presented with significant dystopia. The sizes of the defects were calculated on computed tomographic scans. Among the 7 patients, aspiration of cerebrospinal fluid, which caused ocular symptoms, in 1 patient with minimal displaced orbital roof and reconstruction with calvarial bone, titanium micromesh, or Medpor in 6 other patients were performed. The minimal size of the orbital roof in patients who underwent orbital roof reconstruction was 1.2 cm (defect height) x 1.0 cm (defect length), 0.94 cm(2). For all patients with orbital dystopia, displacement of the globe was corrected without any complications, regardless of whether the patient was evaluated grossly or by radiology. In this retrospective study, continuous monitoring of clinical signs and active surgical management should be considered for cases in which an orbital roof defect is detected, even if no definite symptoms are noted, to prevent delayed sequelae.

  12. Allergic contact cheilitis due to lipstick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatty Ravitasari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cheilitis is a common problem of unknown etiology. A possible cause of cheilitis is contact allergy. Drugs, lipsticks, sunblock and toothpaste are the most common implicated allergens. Allergic contact cheilitis is a chronic superficial inflammatory disorder of the vermilion borders characterized by desquamation due to delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction. Purpose: We report a management of Allergic contact cheilitis due to lipsticks. Case: A 21-year-old woman had a history of atopic allergy to eggs, milk, and chicken presented with sore, dry, fissured, scaled and sometimes bleeding lip, over a 3-month period after application of a lipstick. Her symptoms persisted despite treatments with hydrocortisone cream. The patient provided a detailed history and underwent physical examination and patch tests to cosmetic components and patch test to her own lipstick. The patient had strongly-positive result to the tested lipstick. A diagnosis of allergic contact cheilitis was made based on the history and clinical findings. Case management: Patient was advised to avoid wearing lipstick. To relieve symptoms, treatment was initiated with combined topical corticosteroid, antibiotic, and moisturizer. Conclusion: Contact allergy patients should be tested for both cosmetic component series and their own lipsticks to exclude exfolliative cheilitis, infection, or light actinic cheilitis as causal agents.

  13. Differential diagnosis of (inherited) amino acid metabolism or transport disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Blom (W.); J.G.M. Huijmans (Jan)

    1992-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Disorders of amino acid metabolism or transport are most clearly expressed in urine. Nevertheless the interpretation of abnormalities in urinary amino acid excretion remains difficult. An increase or decrease of almost every amino acid in urine can be due to various eti

  14. Synthesis of alpha-hydroxyphosphonic acids from Lesquerella oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesquerella oil has been a substance of growing chemical interest, due to the ease with which it is produced and its similarity in structure to castor oil. The primary fatty acid in Lesquerella oil, lesquerolic acid, is very similar to the principal component of castor oil, ricinoleic acid, and may ...

  15. Theobromine Inhibits Uric Acid Crystallization. A Potential Application in the Treatment of Uric Acid Nephrolithiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Felix Grases; Adrian Rodriguez; Antonia Costa-Bauza

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess the capacity of methylxanthines (caffeine, theophylline, theobromine and paraxanthine) to inhibit uric acid crystallization, and to evaluate their potential application in the treatment of uric acid nephrolithiasis. Materials and Methods The ability of methylxathines to inhibit uric acid nucleation was assayed turbidimetrically. Crystal morphology and its modification due to the effect of theobromine were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The ability of theobr...

  16. Extraperitoneal Fluid Collection due to Chronic Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Takeo; Kamei, Keiko; Araki, Mariko; Nakata, Yasuyuki; Ishikawa, Hajime; Yamazaki, Mitsuo; Sakamoto, Hiroki; Kitano, Masayuki; Nakai, Takuya; Takeyama, Yoshifumi

    2013-01-01

    A 39-year-old man was referred to our hospital for the investigation of abdominal fluid collection. He was pointed out to have alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. Laboratory data showed inflammation and slightly elevated serum direct bilirubin and amylase. An abdominal computed tomography demonstrated huge fluid collection, multiple pancreatic pseudocysts and pancreatic calcification. The fluid showed a high level of amylase at 4,490 IU/l. Under the diagnosis of pancreatic ascites, endoscopic pancreatic stent insertion was attempted but was unsuccessful, so surgical treatment (Frey procedure and cystojejunostomy) was performed. During the operation, a huge amount of fluid containing bile acid (amylase at 1,474 IU/l and bilirubin at 13.5 mg/dl) was found to exist in the extraperitoneal space (over the peritoneum), but no ascites was found. His postoperative course was uneventful and he shows no recurrence of the fluid. Pancreatic ascites is thought to result from the disruption of the main pancreatic duct, the rupture of a pancreatic pseudocyst, or possibly leakage from an unknown site. In our extremely rare case, the pancreatic pseudocyst penetrated into the hepatoduodenal ligament with communication to the common bile duct, and the fluid flowed into the round ligament of the liver and next into the extraperitoneal space.

  17. Extraperitoneal Fluid Collection due to Chronic Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Yasuda

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A 39-year-old man was referred to our hospital for the investigation of abdominal fluid collection. He was pointed out to have alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. Laboratory data showed inflammation and slightly elevated serum direct bilirubin and amylase. An abdominal computed tomography demonstrated huge fluid collection, multiple pancreatic pseudocysts and pancreatic calcification. The fluid showed a high level of amylase at 4,490 IU/l. Under the diagnosis of pancreatic ascites, endoscopic pancreatic stent insertion was attempted but was unsuccessful, so surgical treatment (Frey procedure and cystojejunostomy was performed. During the operation, a huge amount of fluid containing bile acid (amylase at 1,474 IU/l and bilirubin at 13.5 mg/dl was found to exist in the extraperitoneal space (over the peritoneum, but no ascites was found. His postoperative course was uneventful and he shows no recurrence of the fluid. Pancreatic ascites is thought to result from the disruption of the main pancreatic duct, the rupture of a pancreatic pseudocyst, or possibly leakage from an unknown site. In our extremely rare case, the pancreatic pseudocyst penetrated into the hepatoduodenal ligament with communication to the common bile duct, and the fluid flowed into the round ligament of the liver and next into the extraperitoneal space.

  18. [Pleural trichomoniasis due to trichomonas tenax].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcheret, H; Maisonneuve, L; Estève, V; Jagot, J L; Le Pennec, M P

    2002-02-01

    Thoracic infections due to Trichomonas species often go unrecognised as they are seldom described in the literature. We describe a case that, to our knowledge, is the first reported case of empyema caused by this organism. A 59 year old man with metastatic adenocarcinoma of the lung developed a right pyopneumothorax following treatment with corticosteroids and radiotherapy. The pleural fluid was purulent and fetid, and contained large numbers of Trichomonas tenax amongst a mixed bacterial flora. Pleural drainage and antibiotic therapy with metronidazole, ciprofloxacin and gentalline were instituted immediately, but the patient died 4 days later. Trichomonas tenax is part of the normal oral floral and may on occasions colonize the airways. It can thus become involved during aspiration pneumonia or cause pleural infection following the rupture of a pulmonary abscess. Such infection tends to be associated with concurrent respiratory pathology or with immunodepression. The significance Trichomonas tenax when found in the airways is unclear and their pathogenic role is discussed.

  19. Plasma Braking Due to External Magnetic Perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassinetti, L.; Olofsson, Kejo; Brunsell, P. R.; Khan, M. W. M.; Drake, J. R.

    2010-11-01

    The RFP EXTRAP T2R is equipped with a comprehensive active feedback system (128 active saddle coils in the full-coverage array) and active control of both resonant and non-resonant MHD modes has been demonstrated. The feedback algorithms, based on modern control methodology such as reference mode tracking (both amplitude and phase), are a useful tool to improve the ``state of the art'' of the MHD mode control. But this tool can be used also to improve the understanding and the characterization of other phenomena such as the ELM mitigation with a resonant magnetic perturbation or the plasma viscosity. The present work studies plasma and mode braking due to static RMPs. Results show that a static RMP produces a global braking of the flow profile. The study of the effect of RMPs characterized by different helicities will also give information on the plasma viscosity profile. Experimental results are finally compared to theoretical models.

  20. Acute renal failure due to rhabdomyolyisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieto-Ríos, John Fredy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Acute renal failure is a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in emergency, hospitalization and critical care services. In 15 % of cases it is due to rhabdomyolysis, in which there is breakdown of skeletal muscle with massive necrosis and leakage of muscle cell contents into the circulation. It has many different etiologies. The rhabdomyolysis-induced acute kidney injury results from the combination of several mechanisms, including tubular obstruction, vasoconstriction and oxidative stress. The most important therapeutic measures are: Aggressive repletion of fluids, forced diuresis and avoidance of exposure to nephrotoxic substances. In cases of severe uremia, metabolic acidosis, hiperkalemia or fluid overload it is necessary to start renal replacement therapy. As a rule, kidney function is completely recovered, but these patients have higher risk of future chronic kidney disease.

  1. Nasal infection due to Mycobacterium fortuitum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, D-Q; Righini, C; Darouassi, Y; Schmerber, S

    2011-09-01

    Mycobacterium fortuitum, a rapidly growing non-tuberculous atypical mycobacterium, is commonly found in soil and water. This organism generally causes skin, bone, and soft tissue infections following local trauma or surgical procedures, and in immunodeficient patients. The case reported here is, to our knowledge, the first published report of M. fortuitum nasal infection. The authors report the case of a 3-year-old girl with intranasal tumour-like swelling associated with cervical lymph nodes due to M. fortuitum infection. A combination of radical surgical debridement and prolonged therapy with several antimicrobial agents was required to completely eradicate the infection. This case report indicates that non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections should be considered after failure of conventional antibiotic therapy or when classical microbiological tests fail to identify the pathogen responsible for sinonasal and cervical infections. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. [Child maltreatment due to alcohol abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuná Salcedo, Lucia Julieta; Carvalho, Ana Maria Pimenta

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate the occurrence of maltreatment in children abused by alcohol users. Authors looked at the records of children hospitalized from 2000 to 2003 at the Children Hospital "Dr. Ovidio Aliga Uria". Findings showed that among the total of hospitalizations, 0.62% were due to maltreatment. Considering them, 57.9% involved alcohol users. Approximately 12.9% of them died as a consequence of brain trauma. The characterization of the aggressors showed that they are abusive drinkers with no dependence; with age varying from 20 to 30 years, are members of the children's family; finished primary school, do not have a job and are drug users. Although the low percentage of cases, there is a need to take care of this situation aiming at protecting the children and respecting their rights as well as at providing care to the adult that also experiences stressing conditions.

  3. Small Bowel Obstruction due to Intestinal Xanthomatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Barrera-Herrera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vast majority of bowel obstruction is due to postoperative adhesions, malignancy, intestinal inflammatory disease, and hernias; however, knowledge of other uncommon causes is critical to establish a prompt treatment and decrease mortality. Xanthomatosis is produced by accumulation of cholesterol-rich foamy macrophages. Intestinal xanthomatosis is an uncommon nonneoplastic lesion that may cause small bowel obstruction and several cases have been reported in the English literature as obstruction in the jejunum. We report a case of small intestinal xanthomatosis occurring in a 51-year-old female who presented with one day of copious vomiting and intermittent abdominal pain. Radiologic images revealed jejunal loop thickening and inflammatory changes suggestive of foreign body obstruction, diagnostic laparoscopy found two strictures at the jejunum, and a pathologic examination confirmed a segmental small bowel xanthomatosis. This case illustrates that obstruction even without predisposing factors such as hyperlipidemia or lymphoproliferative disorders.

  4. Hypomyelinating Leukodystrophy due to HSPD1 Mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schioldan Kusk, Maria; Damgaard, Bodil; Risom, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    The hypomyelinating leukodystrophies (HMLs) encompass the X-linked Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) caused by PLP1 mutations and known as the classical form of HML as well as Pelizaeus-Merzbacher-like disease (PMLD) (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man [OMIM] 608804 and OMIM 260600) due to GJC2...... mutations. In addition, mutations in at least 10 other genes are known to cause HMLs. In 2008, an Israeli family with clinical and neuroimaging findings similar to those found in PMD was reported. The patients were found to have a homozygous missense mutation in HSPD1, encoding the mitochondrial heat......-shock protein 60 (Hsp60), and the disorder was defined as the autosomal recessive mitochondrial Hsp60 chaperonopathy (MitCHAP-60) disease. We here report the first case of this severe neurodegenerative disease since it was first described. Given the fact that the families carried the same mutation our patient...

  5. Lichenoid drug eruption due to imatinib mesylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Anuradha; Kanish, Bimal; Chaudhary, Paulina

    2015-01-01

    Imatinib mesylate is a selective tyrosinase kinase inhibitor which has revolutionized the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia. It is also used in gastrointestinal stromal tumors and dermatofibrosarcoma protruberans. Cutaneous adverse reactions are the most common nonhematological side effects secondary to imatinib. Nonlichenoid reactions are common, while lichenoid reactions are rare. We report a case of lichenoid drug eruption due to imatinib. As the indications and use of imatinib are increasing, the incidences of adverse effects, including cutaneous ones, are likely to increase. Some of the reactions may be severe enough to warrant discontinuation of the drug. The physicians should be aware of this morphological entity, which is usually benign and does not warrant withdrawal of the drug.

  6. Seismoelectric effects due to mesoscopic heterogeneities

    CERN Document Server

    Jougnot, D; Carbajal, M Rosas; Linde, N; Holliger, K

    2014-01-01

    While the seismic effects of wave-induced fluid flow due to mesoscopic heterogeneities have been studied for several decades, the role played by these types of heterogeneities on seismoelectric phenomena is largely unexplored. To address this issue, we have developed a novel methodological framework which allows for the coupling of wave-induced fluid flow, as inferred through numerical oscillatory compressibility tests, with the pertinent seismoelectric conversion mechanisms. Simulating the corresponding response of a water-saturated sandstone sample containing mesoscopic fractures, we demonstrate for the first time that these kinds of heterogeneities can produce measurable seismoelectric signals under typical laboratory conditions. Given that this phenomenon is sensitive to key hydraulic and mechanical properties, we expect that the results of this pilot study will stimulate further exploration on this topic in several domains of the Earth, environmental, and engineering sciences.

  7. Growth of upper tropospheric aerosols due to uptake of HNO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Laaksonen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of nitric acid on the equilibrium size distributions of upper tropospheric aerosols is calculated as a function of relative humidity. It is shown that HNO3 concentrations above a few tenths of a ppb can cause substantial increases in haze mode particle concentrations at relative humidities at about 60% and above. The effect can be strongly magnified when letovicite particles are present in addition to sulfuric acid aerosols. This is mainly due to the lowering of the deliquescence RH of letovicite in the presence of gaseous nitric acid at low temperatures. We have also compared equilibrium calculations of the HNO3 effect with observations of increased haze mode concentrations at relative humidities above 50% (Petzold et al., 2000. Nitric acid mixing ratios on the order of 0.5–2 ppb may explain the observed increase of haze mode particles at least partially.

  8. Amino acids in the sedimentary humic and fulvic acids

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sardessai, S.

    to the coastal sedimentary humic acids implying higher association of amino acids with the carbonaceous and fine grained sedimentary humic acids. Both the humic and fulvic acids are composed of neutral, acidic, basic, aromatic and sulphur containing amino acids....

  9. Rest interval duration does not influence adaptations in acid/base transport proteins following 10 wk of sprint-interval training in active women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinley, Cian; Bishop, David J

    2017-05-01

    The removal of protons (H(+)) produced during intense exercise is important for skeletal muscle function, yet it remains unclear how best to structure exercise training to improve muscle pH regulation. We investigated whether 4 wk of work-matched sprint-interval trining (SIT), performed 3 days/wk, with either 1 (Rest-1; n = 7) or 5 (Rest-5; n = 7) min of rest between sprints, influenced adaptations in acid/base transport protein content, nonbicarbonate muscle buffer capacity (βmin vitro), and exercise capacity in active women. Following 1 wk of posttesting, comprising a biopsy, a repeated-sprint ability (RSA) test, and a graded-exercise test, maintenance of adaptations was then studied by reducing SIT volume to 1 day/wk for a further 5 wk. After 4 wk of SIT, there was increased protein abundance of monocarboxylate transporter (MCT)-1, sodium/hydrogen exchanger (NHE)-1, and carbonic anhydrase (CA) XIV for both groups, but rest interval duration did not influence the adaptive response. In contrast, greater improvements in total work performed during the RSA test after 4 wk of SIT were evident for Rest-5 compared with Rest-1 (effect size: 0.51; 90% confidence limits ±0.37), whereas both groups had similarly modest improvements in V̇o2peak When training volume was reduced to 1 day/wk, enhanced acid/base transport protein abundance was maintained, although NHE1 content increased further for Rest-5 only. Finally, our data support intracellular lactate as a signaling molecule for inducing MCT1 expression, but neither lactate nor H(+) accumulation appears to be important signaling factors in MCT4 regulation. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Furan-based benzene mono- and dicarboxylic acid derivatives as multiple inhibitors of the bacterial Mur ligases (MurC-MurF): experimental and computational characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdih, Andrej; Hrast, Martina; Pureber, Kaja; Barreteau, Hélène; Grdadolnik, Simona Golič; Kocjan, Darko; Gobec, Stanislav; Solmajer, Tom; Wolber, Gerhard

    2015-06-01

    Bacterial resistance to the available antibiotic agents underlines an urgent need for the discovery of novel antibacterial agents. Members of the bacterial Mur ligase family MurC-MurF involved in the intracellular stages of the bacterial peptidoglycan biosynthesis have recently emerged as a collection of attractive targets for novel antibacterial drug design. In this study, we have first extended the knowledge of the class of furan-based benzene-1,3-dicarboxylic acid derivatives by first showing a multiple MurC-MurF ligase inhibition for representatives of the extended series of this class. Steady-state kinetics studies on the MurD enzyme were performed for compound 1, suggesting a competitive inhibition with respect to ATP. To the best of our knowledge, compound 1 represents the first ATP-competitive MurD inhibitor reported to date with concurrent multiple inhibition of all four Mur ligases (MurC-MurF). Subsequent molecular dynamic (MD) simulations coupled with interaction energy calculations were performed for two alternative in silico models of compound 1 in the UMA/ d-Glu- and ATP-binding sites of MurD, identifying binding in the ATP-binding site as energetically more favorable in comparison to the UMA/ d-Glu-binding site, which was in agreement with steady-state kinetic data. In the final stage, based on the obtained MD data novel furan-based benzene monocarboxylic acid derivatives 8- 11, exhibiting multiple Mur ligase (MurC-MurF) inhibition with predominantly superior ligase inhibition over the original series, were discovered and for compound 10 it was shown to possess promising antibacterial activity against S. aureus. These compounds represent novel leads that could by further optimization pave the way to novel antibacterial agents.

  11. Growth of upper tropospheric aerosols due to uptake of HNO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Romakkaniemi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of nitric acid on the equilibrium size distributions of upper tropospheric aerosols is calculated as a function of relative humidity. It is shown that HNO3 concentrations above a few tenths of a ppb can cause substantial increases in haze mode particle concentrations at relative humidities at about 60% and above. The effect can be strongly magnified when letovicite particles are present in addition to sulfuric acid aerosols. Letovicite particles are less acidic than the sulfuric acid particles and so more nitric acid can be absorbed. This effect can be seen even at RH below 50% due to the lowering of the deliquescence RH of letovicite in the presence of gaseous nitric acid at low temperatures. We have also compared equilibrium calculations of the HNO3 effect with observations of increased haze mode concentrations at relative humidities above 50% (Petzold et al., 2000. Nitric acid mixing ratios on the order of 0.5-2ppb may explain the observed increase of haze mode particles at least partially.

  12. Effect of organic acids on shrimp pathogen, Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mine, Saori; Boopathy, Raj

    2011-07-01

    Shrimp farming accounts for more than 40% of the world shrimp production. Luminous vibriosis is a shrimp disease that causes major economic losses in the shrimp industry as a result of massive shrimp kills due to infection. Some farms in the South Asia use antibiotics to control Vibrio harveyi, a responsible pathogen for luminous vibriosis. However, the antibiotic-resistant strain was found recently in many shrimp farms, which makes it necessary to develop alternative pathogen control methods. Short-chain fatty acids are metabolic products of organisms, and they have been used as food preservatives for a long time. Organic acids are also commonly added in feeds in animal husbandry, but not in aquaculture. In this study, growth inhibitory effects of short-chain fatty acids, namely formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid, on V. harveyi were investigated. Among four acids, formic acid showed the strongest inhibitory effect followed by acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.035% formic acid suppressed growth of V. harveyi. The major inhibitory mechanism seems to be the pH effect of organic acids. The effective concentration 50 (EC50) values at 96 h inoculation for all organic acids were determined to be 0.023, 0.041, 0.03, and 0.066% for formic, acetic, propionic, and butyric acid, respectively. The laboratory study results are encouraging to formulate shrimp feeds with organic acids to control vibrio infection in shrimp aquaculture farms.

  13. [Teichoic acids from lactic acid bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livins'ka, O P; Harmasheva, I L; Kovalenko, N K

    2012-01-01

    The current view of the structural diversity of teichoic acids and their involvement in the biological activity of lactobacilli has been reviewed. The mechanisms of effects of probiotic lactic acid bacteria, in particular adhesive and immunostimulating functions have been described. The prospects of the use of structure data of teichoic acid in the assessment of intraspecific diversity of lactic acid bacteria have been also reflected.

  14. Plasma amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amino acids blood test ... types of methods used to determine the individual amino acid levels in the blood. ... test is done to measure the level of amino acids in the blood. An increased level of a ...

  15. Uric acid test (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uric acid urine test is performed to check for the amount of uric acid in urine. Urine is collected over a 24 ... testing. The most common reason for measuring uric acid levels is in the diagnosis or treatment of ...

  16. Analysis of Valproic Acid, Salicylic Acid and Ibuprofen in Whole Blood by GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Jon B; Flater, Melanie L; Bain, Lisa T

    2016-10-01

    The Georgia Bureau of Investigation utilized a silylation method of analysis for low molecular weight carboxylic acids in the past. Due to the negative impact such derivatizations can have on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) systems an alternative means of analysis was investigated. The described method is a whole blood solid phase extraction of valproic acid, salicylic acid and ibuprofen utilizing butylation for sensitivity and improved chromatography by GC-MS. The method produced a limit of detection and limit of quantitation at 1 mg/L for valproic acid, 2 mg/L for salicylic acid and 0.25 mg/L for ibuprofen. The variability based upon the middle of the calibration curve estimated to be 7% for valproic acid, 8% for salicylic acid and 11% for ibuprofen established upon a 95% confidence interval, with the highest percent coefficient of variation being 5.3% for ibuprofen.

  17. Metabolic pathways regulated by abscisic acid, salicylic acid and γ-aminobutyric acid in association with improved drought tolerance in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhou; Yu, Jingjin; Peng, Yan; Huang, Bingru

    2017-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are known to play roles in regulating plant stress responses. This study was conducted to determine metabolites and associated pathways regulated by ABA, SA and GABA that could contribute to drought tolerance in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera). Plants were foliar sprayed with ABA (5 μM), GABA (0.5 mM) and SA (10 μM) or water (untreated control) prior to 25 days drought stress in controlled growth chambers. Application of ABA, GABA or SA had similar positive effects on alleviating drought damages, as manifested by the maintenance of lower electrolyte leakage and greater relative water content in leaves of treated plants relative to the untreated control. Metabolic profiling showed that ABA, GABA and SA induced differential metabolic changes under drought stress. ABA mainly promoted the accumulation of organic acids associated with tricarboxylic acid cycle (aconitic acid, succinic acid, lactic acid and malic acid). SA strongly stimulated the accumulation of amino acids (proline, serine, threonine and alanine) and carbohydrates (glucose, mannose, fructose and cellobiose). GABA enhanced the accumulation of amino acids (GABA, glycine, valine, proline, 5-oxoproline, serine, threonine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid) and organic acids (malic acid, lactic acid, gluconic acid, malonic acid and ribonic acid). The enhanced drought tolerance could be mainly due to the enhanced respiration metabolism by ABA, amino acids and carbohydrates involved in osmotic adjustment (OA) and energy metabolism by SA, and amino acid metabolism related to OA and stress-defense secondary metabolism by GABA.

  18. Observations on brucellosis due to Brucella melitensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SPINK, W W

    1953-01-01

    A special study was made of the problem of brucellosis due to Brucella melitensis in visits to Mexico City in 1948, to the FAO/WHO Brucellosis Centres at Montpellier (France), Florence (Italy), and Rijeka (Yugoslavia) in 1951, and to Spain in 1952. Br. melitensis infection in human beings causes more severe illness than Br. abortus infection. It develops primarily in rural communities living in close contact with goats and sheep; cattle and swine may also harbour the infection.In diagnosis, the agglutination test has proved the most satisfactory procedure; testing would be more uniformly reliable if a single antigen were used. Lack of funds and technical assistance have in many instances limited the bacteriological studies upon which a more definitive diagnosis of brucellosis depends.Antibiotics, Brucella vaccines, and colloidal preparations of gold and silver-used separately and in combination-have proved of varying therapeutic value, although response to antibiotics is less favourable than in cases of Br. abortus infection.While the drastic measures-involving the slaughter of about 10,000 sheep-taken in Slovenia, Yugoslavia, in the late 1940's, against an outbreak of brucellosis, is an inspiring example of how the disease can be eradicated, the removal of all diseased animals is rarely feasible economically. It is hoped that future research will reveal a practicable alternative in the immunization of sheep and goats against the disease.

  19. Homocystinuria due to cystathionine beta synthase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao T

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A two year-old male child presented with cutis marmorata congenita universalis, brittle hair, mild mental retardation, and finger spasms. Biochemical findings include increased levels of homocysteine in the blood-106.62 µmol/L (normal levels: 5.90-16µmol/L. Biochemical tests such as the silver nitroprusside and nitroprusside tests were positive suggesting homocystinuria. The patient was treated with oral pyridoxine therapy for three months. The child responded well to this therapy and the muscle spasms as well as skin manifestations such as cutis marmorata subsided. The treatment is being continued; the case is reported here because of its rarity. Homocysteinuria arising due to cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of methionine metabolism that produces increased levels of urinary homocysteine and methionine It manifests itself in vascular, central nervous system, cutaneous, and connective tissue disturbances and phenotypically resembles Marfan′s syndrome. Skin manifestations include malar flush, thin hair, and cutis reticulata / marmorata.

  20. Sleep disturbance due to aircraft noise exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence S Finegold

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on nighttime sleep disturbance due to community noise sources, particularly from exposure to aircraft noise, has been conducted for over a half decade. However, there are still no national environmental noise policies (i.e., laws and regulations promulgated which prescribe a specific criterion for an exposure limit which is regulatory in nature. In the U.S., the new American National Standards Institute (ANSI Noise Standard, ANSI S12.9-2008/Part 6, Quantities and Procedures for Description and Measurement of Environmental Sound - Part 6: Methods for Estimation of Awakenings Associated with Outdoor Noise Events Heard in Homes, does provide the currently recommended exposure-response relationship used in the U.S. In Europe, there has also been significant laboratory and field research on sleep disturbance, although the U.S. and European research publications often use different research methodologies, different noise metrics and different meta-analysis techniques. The current article will provide a brief overview of sleep disturbance research internationally to document the similarities and differences between the various research approaches and research results.

  1. Haemoptysis due to pulmonary venous stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Braun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Haemoptysis is a potentially life-threatening condition with the need for prompt diagnosis. In about 10–20% of all cases the bleeding source remains unexplained with the standard diagnostic approach. The aim of this article is to show the necessity of widening the diagnostic approach to haemoptysis with consideration of pulmonary venous stenosis as a possible cause of even severe haemoptysis and haemoptoe. A review of the literature was performed using the Medline/PubMed database with the terms: “pulmonary venous stenosis”, “pulmonary venous infarction” and “haemoptysis”. Further references from the case reports were considered. 58 case reports and case collections about patients with haemoptysis due to pulmonary venous stenosis were detected. This review gives an overview about the case reports and discusses the underlying pathophysiology and the pros and cons of different imaging techniques for the detection of pulmonary venous stenosis. Several conditions predispose to the obstruction of the mediastinal pulmonary veins. Clinical findings are unspecific and may be misleading. Pulmonary venous stenosis can be detected using several imaging techniques, yet three-dimensional magnetic resonance-angiography and three-dimensional contrast-enhanced computed tomography are the most appropriate. Pulmonary venous stenosis should be considered in patients with haemoptysis.

  2. Health risks due to coffee dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, Marcus; Bittner, Cordula; Baur, Xaver

    2009-08-01

    This study assessed current health risks due to occupational exposure to coffee dust. We performed a cross-sectional study in a coffee haulage company (n = 24), a coffee silo (n = 19), and a decaffeinating company (n = 17). Cross-shift and cross-week case histories of these employees as well as lung function values were recorded. During the handling of green coffee, measurements of airborne dust were conducted. The employees in these workplaces were mainly affected by erythematous and rhinoconjunctival symptoms. They occurred especially in subjects exposed to a high dust load (> 10 mg of inhalable dust per cubic meter of air; n = 28) [Pearson chi(2) test, p = 0.020 and p = 0.023]. IgE antibodies to green coffee and castor beans were detected in 3 workers and 10 workers, respectively. The majority of them (two employees and six employees, respectively) had shown respiratory symptoms during the past 12 months. The preshift lung function values were below average but were not dependent on the level of the inhalable coffee dust exposure. Employees with a coffee dust load > 10 mg/m(3) of air showed higher unspecific bronchial responsiveness more frequently than those with lower exposures. During the transshipment (especially during unloading) of green coffee, a high and clinically relevant exposure to irritative and sensitizing dust occurs. Therefore, efforts to reduce these dust exposures are generally recommended.

  3. Acute hepatitis due to brucellosis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevil AYKIN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Brucella infection is a systemic disease. It rarely causes local infections like hepatitis in gastrointestinal system. In this article we would like to present an acute hepatitis case related to brucella infection that followed up in our clinic. A male, 30 year-old patient hospitalized due to common muscle pain, high fever and vomiting. During the physical examination the patient’s skin, scleras and mucosal membranes were icteric, the liver was 2-3 cm palpable and tender. Laboratory findings were as follows: AST:1190 U/L; ALT:715 U/L; GGT:961 U/L; ALP:369 U/L; total bilirubin:4.6 mg/dL; direct bilirubin:2.1 mg/dL. Viral markers were found to be negative. We started treatment with streptomicine and doxicycline since, the patient’s standard brucella tube agglutination test was positive (1/60 and brucella spp produced in his blood culture. From the second day of the treatment, we started to get clinical response. On the 17th day of the treatment, he discharged from the hospital because ALT, AST and bilirubine level were found normal and his treatment was completed to the 8 weeks. Brucella is continuing to be an important health problem especially who live in surrounding countryside and have to keep in mind in the differential diagnosis of the acute hepatitis.

  4. Subsidence due to geothermal fluid withdrawal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narasimhan, T. N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Goyal, K. P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1984-12-01

    Single-phase and two-phase geothermal reservoirs are currently being exploited for power production in Italy, Mexico, New Zealand, the United States, and elsewhere. Vertical ground displacements of up to 4.5 m and horizontal ground displacements of up to 0.5 m have been observed at Wairakei, New Zealand, that are clearly attributable to the resource exploitation. Similarly, vertical displacements of about 0.13 m have been recorded at The Geysers, California. No significant ground displacements that are attributable to large-scale fluid production have been observed at Larderello, Italy, and Cerro Prieto, Mexico. In this paper, observations show that subsidence due to geothermal fluid production is characterized by such features as an offset of the subsidence bowl from the main area of production, time-lag between production and subsidence, and nonlinear stress-strain relationships. Several plausible conceptual models, of varying degrees of sophistication, have been proposed to explain the observed features. At present, relatively more is known about the physical mechanisms that govern subsidence than the relevant thermal mechanisms. Finally, although attempts have been made to simulate observed geothermal subsidence, the modeling efforts have been seriously limited by a lack of relevant field data needed to sufficiently characterize the complex field system.

  5. Dermatoses due to Indian cultural practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Divya; Thappa, Devinder Mohan

    2015-01-01

    A wide prevalence of socio-religious and cultural practices in the Asian subcontinent often leads to multitude of skin diseases which may be missed by the dermatologists because of a lack of awareness. 'Henna' use causes IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions and contact dermatitis. 'Kumkum' application can result in pigmented contact dermatitis and lichen planus pigmentosus. Sticker 'bindis' and 'alta' induce contact leukoderma. Irritant and allergic contact dermatitis occurs after playing with 'Holi' colors. Threading and drawstring dermatitis lead to koebnerization of pre-existing dermatoses, infections and even squamous cell carcinoma of skin. Mild irritant reactions and contact sensitization occur secondary to balm and hair oil use. 'Mudichood' represents the comedogenic effect of hair oils combined with occlusion and humidity. Aromatherapy oils can cause contact dermatitis and photosensitive reactions. Heavy metal and steroid toxicity along with severe cutaneous adverse effects like erythroderma can occur as a consequent to the use of alternative medicines. Squamous cell carcinoma due to chronic heat exposure from the heating device "kangri" is seen in Kashmiris. Prayer nodules in Muslims and traction alopecia in Sikhs illustrate how religious practices can negatively affect the skin. With increasing globalization and migration, the practice of indigenous customs and traditions is no longer limited to regional territories, making it imperative for the dermatologists to be acquainted with the cutaneous side effects they can cause.

  6. Jejunal Diverticular Perforation due to Enterolith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Nonose

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Jejunal diverticulosis is a rare entity with variable clinical and anatomical presentations. Although there is no consensus on the management of asymptomatic jejunal diverticular disease, some complications are potentially life-threatening and require early surgical treatment. Small bowel perforation secondary to jejunal diverticulitis by enteroliths is rare. The aim of this study was to report a case of small intestinal perforation caused by a large jejunal enterolith. An 86-year-old woman was admitted with signs of diffuse peritonitis. After initial fluid recovery the patient underwent emergency laparotomy. The surgery showed that she had small bowel diverticular disease, mainly localized in the proximal jejunum. The peritonitis was due to intestinal perforation caused by an enterolith 12 cm in length, localized inside one of these diverticula. The intestinal segment containing the perforated diverticulum with the enterolith was removed and an end-to-end anastomosis was done to reconstruct the intestinal transit. The patient recovered well and was discharged from hospital on the 5th postoperative day. There were no signs of abdominal pain 1 year after the surgical procedure. Although jejunal diverticular disease with its complications, such as formation of enteroliths, is difficult to suspect in patients with peritonitis, it should be considered as a possible source of abdominal infection in the elderly patient when more common diagnoses have been excluded.

  7. Horner syndrome due to vertebral artery stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chul Han

    2013-11-01

    The author reports a rare case of Horner syndrome in a patient who resulted from stenosis of the vertebral artery after blunt trauma. A 31-year-old man was transferred to our department for evaluation of left medial orbital wall and nasal bone fractures. Five days ago, he was hospitalized due to multiple second to fourth rib fractures of the right chest following blunt trauma of the face, neck, and chest. Surgery was performed. Ten days later, he complained of drooping of the right eyelid. Physical examination revealed a discrete miosis and ptosis with normal levator function in the right eye. A workup for Horner syndrome was performed. Magnetic resonance angiography of the head and neck revealed a stenosis of the distal part of the right vertebral artery without the abnormality of carotid artery. He wore a cervical collar and underwent anticoagulation. However, Horner syndrome was not resolved over the next 12 months. Acute traumatic Horner syndrome may be associated with vertebral artery dissection in which the possibility of life-threatening injury can be masked.

  8. Decreased pain sensitivity due to trimethylbenzene exposure ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditionally, human health risk assessments have relied on qualitative approaches for hazard identification, often using the Hill criteria and weight of evidence determinations to integrate data from multiple studies. Recently, the National Research Council has recommended the development of quantitative approaches for evidence integration, including the application of meta-analyses. The following hazard identification case study applies qualitative as well as meta-analytic approaches to trimethylbenzene (TMB) isomers exposure and the potential neurotoxic effects on pain sensitivity. In the meta-analytic approach, a pooled effect size is calculated, after consideration of multiple confounding factors, in order to determine whether the entire database under consideration indicates that TMBs are likely to be a neurotoxic hazard. The pain sensitivity studies included in the present analyses initially seem discordant in their results: effects on pain sensitivity are seen immediately after termination of exposure, appear to resolve 24 hours after exposure, and then reappear 50 days later following foot-shock. Qualitative consideration of toxicological and toxicokinetic characteristics of the TMB isomers suggests that the observed differences between studies are due to testing time and can be explained through a complete consideration of the underlying biology of the effect and the nervous system as a whole. Meta-analyses and –regressions support this conclus

  9. Subarachnoid hemorrhage due to retained lumbar drain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guppy, Kern H; Silverthorn, James W; Akins, Paul T

    2011-12-01

    Intrathecal spinal catheters (lumbar drains) are indicated for several medical and surgical conditions. In neurosurgical procedures, they are used to reduce intracranial and intrathecal pressures by diverting CSF. They have also been placed for therapeutic access to administer drugs, and more recently, vascular surgeons have used them to improve spinal cord perfusion during the treatment of thoracic aortic aneurysms. Insertion of these lumbar drains is not without attendant complications. One complication is the shearing of the distal end of the catheter with a resultant retained fragment. The authors report the case of a 65-year-old man who presented with a subarachnoid hemorrhage due to the migration of a retained lumbar drain that sheared off during its removal. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of rostral migration of a retained intrathecal catheter causing subarachnoid hemorrhage. The authors review the literature on retained intrathecal spinal catheters, and their findings support either early removal of easily accessible catheters or close monitoring with serial imaging.

  10. Hospitalisations due to falls in older persons.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carey, D

    2005-06-01

    This paper describes hospitalisations due to falls among people aged 65 years and over resident in the Eastern Region of Ireland. Of the 2,029 hospitalisations recorded for 2002, 78% were female and 68% were aged 75 years and over. Fractures accounted for 1,697 or 84% of cases with nearly half of them (841) sustained to the hip. Females were more likely to have a limb fracture whereas males were more likely to have a head injury. The total inpatient costs of the 2,029 hospitalisations were estimated at 10.6 million euros. Hip fractures were the costliest injuries as they accounted for 7.4 million euros (70%) of inpatient costs. There are also substantial additional costs implications for hip fractures as they constituted the majority (56%) of cases transferred to nursing\\/convalescent homes or long-stay health facilities. In keeping with an ageing population, the problem of injuries in older people is likely to increase over time and as falls are the dominant cause of those injuries, all acute and long-stay health facilities need to develop and implement fall prevention strategies for older people.

  11. Recurrent Pneumonia due to Double Aortic Arch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sedighi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pneumonia is one of the most common infections during childhood. In children with recurrent bacterial pneumonia complete evaluation for underlying factors is necessary. The most common underlying diseases include: antibody deficiencies , cystic fibrosis , tracheoesophageal fistula and increased pulmonary blood flow. Vascular ring and its pressure effect is a less common cause of stridor and recurrent pneumonia. Congenital abnormalities in aortic arch and main branches which form vascular ring around esophagus and trachea with variable pressure effect cause respiratory symptoms such as stridor , wheezing and recurrent pneumoniaCase Report: A 2 year old boy was admitted in our hospital with respiratory distress and cough . Chest x-Ray demonstrated right lobar pneumonia. He had history of stridor and wheezing from neonatal period and hospitalization due to pneumonia for four times. The patient received appropriate antibiotics. Despite fever and respiratory distress improvement, wheezing continued. Review of his medical documents showed fixed pressure effect on posterior aspect of esophagus in barium swallow. In CT angiography we confirmed double aortic arch.Conclusion: Double aortic arch is one of the causes of persistant respiratory symptom and recurrent pneumonia in children for which fluoroscopic barium swallow is the first non-invasive diagnostic method.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;19(1:70-74

  12. Pediatric ischemic stroke due to dengue vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Subrat Kumar; Jayalakshmi, Sita; Mohandas, Surath

    2014-10-01

    Dengue infection is an important arboviral infection in southeast Asia, especially in India. Neurological manifestations of dengue are increasingly recognized. We report an ischemic stroke due to dengue vasculitis in an 8-year-old child. We present a girl with a short febrile illness followed by episodic severe headache, with gradually progressive hemiparesis and visual impairment. Her brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple infarctions in the anterior and posterior circulation. The magnetic resonance angiogram revealed irregular narrowing of bilateral middle cerebral arteries, right anterior cerebral artery, left posterior cerebral, and bilateral vertebral arteries suggestive of vasculitis. Her dengue serology was strongly positive for immunoglobulin M with 68.9 panbio units. The rest of the evaluation for pediatric stroke was unremarkable. She was treated with intravenous followed by oral corticosteroids and recovered totally with resolution of vasculitis on magnetic resonance angiogram over the next 3 months. This child illustrates possible immune-mediated vasculitis caused by dengue infection which is rather a rare presentation in a child who subsequently recovered well. One should consider dengue in childhood strokes in endemic regions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachiéry, Jean-Luc; Adir, Yochai; Barberà, Joan Albert; Champion, Hunter; Coghlan, John Gerard; Cottin, Vincent; De Marco, Teresa; Galiè, Nazzareno; Ghio, Stefano; Gibbs, J Simon R; Martinez, Fernando; Semigran, Marc; Simonneau, Gerald; Wells, Athol; Seeger, Werner

    2013-12-24

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH), a common complication of left heart diseases (LHD), negatively impacts symptoms, exercise capacity, and outcome. Although the true prevalence of PH-LHD is unknown, a subset of patients might present significant PH that cannot be explained by a passive increase in left-sided filling pressures. The term "out-of-proportion" PH has been used to identify that population without a clear definition, which has been found less than ideal and created confusion. We propose a change in terminology and a new definition of PH due to LHD. We suggest to abandon "out-of-proportion" PH and to distinguish "isolated post-capillary PH" from "post-capillary PH with a pre-capillary component" on the basis of the pressure difference between diastolic pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary artery wedge pressure. Although there is no validated treatment for PH-LHD, we provide insights into management and discuss completed and randomized trials in this condition. Finally, we provide recommendations for future clinical trials to establish safety and efficacy of novel compounds to target this area of unmet medical need. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Catatonia due to systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis Pinto Cabral Júnior Rabello

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Discuss neuropsychiatric aspects and differential diagnosis of catatonic syndrome secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE in a pediatric patient. Methods Single case report. Result A 13-year-old male, after two months diagnosed with SLE, started to present psychotic symptoms (behavioral changes, hallucinations and delusions that evolved into intense catatonia. During hospitalization, neuroimaging, biochemical and serological tests for differential diagnosis with metabolic encephalopathy, neurological tumors and neuroinfections, among other tests, were performed. The possibility of neuroleptic malignant syndrome, steroid-induced psychosis and catatonia was also evaluated. A complete reversal of catatonia was achieved after using benzodiazepines in high doses, associated with immunosuppressive therapy for lupus, which speaks in favor of catatonia secondary to autoimmune encephalitis due to lupus. Conclusion Although catatonia rarely is the initial clinical presentation of SLE, the delay in recognizing the syndrome can be risky, having a negative impact on prognosis. Benzodiazepines have an important role in the catatonia resolution, especially when associated with parallel specific organic base cause treatment. The use of neuroleptics should be avoided for the duration of the catatonic syndrome as it may cause clinical deterioration.

  15. Alpha particles diffusion due to charge changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clauser, C. F., E-mail: cesar.clauser@ib.edu.ar; Farengo, R. [Centro Atómico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica and Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Av. Bustillo 9500, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina)

    2015-12-15

    Alpha particles diffusion due to charge changes in a magnetized plasma is studied. Analytical calculations and numerical simulations are employed to show that this process can be very important in the pedestal-edge-SOL regions. This is the first study that presents clear evidence of the importance of atomic processes on the diffusion of alpha particles. A simple 1D model that includes inelastic collisions with plasma species, “cold” neutrals, and partially ionized species was employed. The code, which follows the exact particle orbits and includes the effect of inelastic collisions via a Monte Carlo type random process, runs on a graphic processor unit (GPU). The analytical and numerical results show excellent agreement when a uniform background (plasma and cold species) is assumed. The simulations also show that the gradients in the density of the plasma and cold species, which are large and opposite in the edge region, produce an inward flux of alpha particles. Calculations of the alpha particles flux reaching the walls or divertor plates should include these processes.

  16. Dermatoses Due to Indian Cultural Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Divya; Thappa, Devinder Mohan

    2015-01-01

    A wide prevalence of socio-religious and cultural practices in the Asian subcontinent often leads to multitude of skin diseases which may be missed by the dermatologists because of a lack of awareness. ‘Henna’ use causes IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions and contact dermatitis. ‘Kumkum’ application can result in pigmented contact dermatitis and lichen planus pigmentosus. Sticker ‘bindis’ and ‘alta’ induce contact leukoderma. Irritant and allergic contact dermatitis occurs after playing with ‘Holi’ colors. Threading and drawstring dermatitis lead to koebnerization of pre-existing dermatoses, infections and even squamous cell carcinoma of skin. Mild irritant reactions and contact sensitization occur secondary to balm and hair oil use. ‘Mudichood’ represents the comedogenic effect of hair oils combined with occlusion and humidity. Aromatherapy oils can cause contact dermatitis and photosensitive reactions. Heavy metal and steroid toxicity along with severe cutaneous adverse effects like erythroderma can occur as a consequent to the use of alternative medicines. Squamous cell carcinoma due to chronic heat exposure from the heating device “kangri” is seen in Kashmiris. Prayer nodules in Muslims and traction alopecia in Sikhs illustrate how religious practices can negatively affect the skin. With increasing globalization and migration, the practice of indigenous customs and traditions is no longer limited to regional territories, making it imperative for the dermatologists to be acquainted with the cutaneous side effects they can cause. PMID:25657390

  17. Sepsis due to clostridium septicum: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foga, M.M.; McGinn, G.J.; Kroeker, M.A. [Univ. of Manitoba Teaching Hospitals, St. Boniface General Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); Guzman, R. [Univ. of Manitoba Teaching Hospitals, St. Boniface General Hospital, Dept. of Surgery, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada)

    2000-04-15

    Clostridium septicum is an unusual anaerobic, gram-positive, gas-producing bacillus, which has been identified as a cause of fulminant rapidly fatal infection in humans. Infection with C. septicum usually occurs in patients with cancer, patients receiving immunosuppressive chemotherapy, or patients with a nonmalignant hematological disorder such as hemolytic uremic syndrome. C. septicum infection most commonly involves the abdomen, and a recent review article has identified 164 cases in the medical literature describing the abdominal findings in this disease. Intracranial manifestation of C. septicum infection are less common and include meningitis, cerebritis, abscess formation and pneumocephalus. There have been only 12 documented cases in the English literature describing central nervous system lesions associated with C. septicum. We present a case report of a 56-year-old man in whom septicemia due to C. septicum developed as a complication of Crohn's disease. To our knowledge, there has never been a previous report of C. septicum sepsis related to underlying Crohn's disease. Our case is also remarkable in that an intracerebral gas collection developed at the site of a mycotic infarct related to C. septicum bacteremia, Intracranial, intraparenchymal gas formation related to anaerobic infection is extremely rare; to our knowledge, this radiological finding related to C. septicum sepsis has been described in only 1 previous case report in the medical literature. We also describe the intra-abdominal manifestations of C. septicum sepsis that occurred in this patient as well as the associated radiographic and pathologic findings. (author)

  18. Cutaneous reactions due to antihypertensive drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upadhayai J

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Out of a total of 1147 patients on antihypertensive drugs, 23 (2.04% developed adverse cutaneous drug reactions (ACDR. The commonest antihypertensive drug group causing ACDR was beta-blockers of which atenolol was the commonest culprit. The second most common group was calcium channel blockers with amlodipine as the commonest offender. The most common patterns of ACDR observed included urticaria followed by lichenoid drug eruption (LDE. We noted 2 new patterns of reactions; (i one patient developed brownish blue pigmentation of nails while on atenolol for 3 years, which resolved in 4 months after withdrawal and (ii another patient on amlodipine for 8 years developed Schamberg′s like purpuric pigmentation, which resolved on withdrawal of drug within 3 months. These findings have not been reported in the literature earlier. This study is presented for paucity of Indian data on ACDR due to antihypertensive drugs, and remarkable advancement in area of cardiovascular and antihypertensive pharmacology and a large number of population taking antihypertensive drugs.

  19. Subsidence due to geothermal fluid withdrawal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narasimhan, T.N.; Goyal, K.P.

    1982-10-01

    Single-phase and two-phase geothermal reservoirs are currently being exploited for power production in Italy, Mexico, New Zealand, the U.S. and elsewhere. Vertical ground displacements of upto 4.5 m and horizontal ground displacements of up t o 0.5 m have been observed at Wairakei, New Zealand that are clearly attributable to the resource exploitation. Similarly, vertical displacements of about 0.13 m have been recorded at The Geysers, California. No significant ground displacements that are attributable to large-scale fluid production have been observed at Larderello, Italy and Cerro Prieto, Mexico. Observations show that subsidence due to geothermal fluid production is characterized by such features as an offset of the subsidence bowl from the main area of production, time-lag between production and subsidence and nonlinear stress-strain relationships. Several plausible conceptual models, of varying degrees of sophistication, have been proposed to explain the observed features. At present, relatively more is known about the physical mechanisms that govern subsidence than the relevant therma mechanisms. Although attempts have been made to simulate observed geothermal subsidence, the modeling efforts have been seriously limited by a lack of relevant field data needed to sufficiently characterize the complex field system.

  20. Dermatoses due to indian cultural practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide prevalence of socio-religious and cultural practices in the Asian subcontinent often leads to multitude of skin diseases which may be missed by the dermatologists because of a lack of awareness. ′Henna′ use causes IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions and contact dermatitis. ′Kumkum′ application can result in pigmented contact dermatitis and lichen planus pigmentosus. Sticker ′bindis′ and ′alta′ induce contact leukoderma. Irritant and allergic contact dermatitis occurs after playing with ′Holi′ colors. Threading and drawstring dermatitis lead to koebnerization of pre-existing dermatoses, infections and even squamous cell carcinoma of skin. Mild irritant reactions and contact sensitization occur secondary to balm and hair oil use. ′Mudichood′ represents the comedogenic effect of hair oils combined with occlusion and humidity. Aromatherapy oils can cause contact dermatitis and photosensitive reactions. Heavy metal and steroid toxicity along with severe cutaneous adverse effects like erythroderma can occur as a consequent to the use of alternative medicines. Squamous cell carcinoma due to chronic heat exposure from the heating device "kangri" is seen in Kashmiris. Prayer nodules in Muslims and traction alopecia in Sikhs illustrate how religious practices can negatively affect the skin. With increasing globalization and migration, the practice of indigenous customs and traditions is no longer limited to regional territories, making it imperative for the dermatologists to be acquainted with the cutaneous side effects they can cause.

  1. POLYELEOSTEARIC ACID VESICLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zichen; XIE Ximng; FAN Qinghua; FANG Yifei

    1992-01-01

    α-Eleostearic acid and β-eleostearic acid formed vesicles in aqueous medium when an ethanol solutionofeleostearic acid was injected rapidly into a vigorously vortexed aqueous phase. Formation of the vesicles was demonstrated by electron microscopic observation and bromothymol blue encapsulation experiments. Polymerizations of the eleostearic acids in the formed vesicles carried out by UV irradiation produced poly-α-eleostearic acid and poly-β-eleostearic acid vesicles.

  2. Glycolic acid physical properties and impurities assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D. P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pickenheim, B. R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bibler, N. E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hay, M. S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-06-08

    This document has been revised due to recent information that the glycolic acid used in Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) experiments contains both formaldehyde and methoxyacetic acid. These impurities were in the glycolic acid used in the testing included in this report and in subsequent testing using DuPont (now called Chemours) supplied Technical Grade 70 wt% glycolic acid. However, these impurities were not reported in earlier revisions. Additional data concerning the properties of glycolic acid have also been added to this report. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is planning to implement a nitric-glycolic acid flowsheets to increase attainment to meet closure commitment dates during Sludge Batch 9. In fiscal year 2009, SRNL was requested to determine the physical properties of formic and glycolic acid blends. Blends of formic acid in glycolic acid were prepared and their physical properties tested. Increasing amounts of glycolic acid led to increases in blend density, viscosity and surface tension as compared to the 90 wt% formic acid that is currently used at DWPF. These increases are small, however, and are not expected to present any difficulties in terms of processing. The effect of sulfur impurities in Technical Grade glycolic acid was studied for its impact on DWPF glass quality. While the glycolic acid specification allows for more sulfate than the current formic acid specification, the ultimate impact is expected to be on the order of 0.033 wt% sulfur in glass. Note that lower sulfur content glycolic acid could likely be procured at some increased cost if deemed necessary. A paper study on the effects of radiation on glycolic acid was performed. The analysis indicates that substitution of glycolic acid for formic acid would not increase the radiolytic production rate of H2 and cause an adverse effect in the Slurry Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) or Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) process. It has been cited that glycolic acid

  3. The proteolytic system of lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, B

    1993-12-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are widely used throughout the world, empirically or deliberately, in the manufacturing of several food and feed stuffs, including milk products (such as cheese, butter, yoghurt, buttermilk, etc.), fermented vegetables (pickles, olives and sauerkraut), sausages, sourdough bread and silage, due to their ability to convert sugars into lactic acid. Of these, dairy products are of outstanding economic importance. Starter cultures used in the dairy industry are mixtures of carefully selected lactic acid bacteria which are added to the milk to fulfil the desired fermentation. Dairy starter cultures must reach high densities in milk in order to produce lactic acid at the required rates for manufacturing. Under these conditions, amino acids supply becomes limitant due to their scarce concentration in milk and to the auxotrophies shown by many starter bacteria. This implies the necessity of a proteolytic system, able to degrade the most abundant protein in milk, casein, into assimilable amino acids and peptides. Casein degradation and utilization require the concerted action of proteinases, peptidases and amino acid and peptide uptake systems. This whole set of enzymes constitutes the proteolytic system. In this article an overview of the recent biochemical and genetic data on the proteolytic system of lactic acid bacteria will be presented.

  4. Acid distribution in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okae, I.; Seya, A.; Umemoto, M. [Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., Chiba (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Electrolyte acid distribution among each component of a cell is determined by capillary force when the cell is not in operation, but the distribution under the current load conditions had not been clear so far. Since the loss of electrolyte acid during operation is inevitable, it is necessary to store enough amount of acid in every cell. But it must be under the level of which the acid disturbs the diffusion of reactive gases. Accordingly to know the actual acid distribution during operation in a cell is very important. In this report, we carried out experiments to clarify the distribution using small single cells.

  5. Subjeans Condensations due to a Thermal Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opher, R.; Valio, A.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Las observaciones recientes muestran que las nubes moleculares no son homogeneas, sino que tienen condensaciones. Se observa que estas condensaciones estan libres gravitacionalmente. C6mo se forman estas condensaciones? Sugerimos explicar estas conden sac jones como debidas a que la inestabilidad termica ayuda a la gravedad. Se estudi6 una funci5n de enfriamiento por gramo de la forma general A p T , en donde p y T son la densidad y la temperatura. Estamos interesados en el valor maximo de para la cual el colapso ocurre. Se estudiaron varios mode- los. Nuestros resultados indican que los valores de comparables con aquellos sugeridos por la literatura (1 < son suficientes para provocar el colapso de masas inferiores a la masa de Jeans por medio de inestabilidad termica, ayudada por gravedad y asi se forman las condensaciones libres gravitacionalmente. ABSTRACT: Recent observations show that molecular clouds are not homogeneous, but clumpy. Some clumps are observed to be gravitationally unbound. How did these clumps then form? We suggest explaining these condensation as due to thermal instability aiding gravit y The cooling function per gram studied is of the general form A p T,where pand T are the density and temperature, respectively. We are interested in the maximum value of for which collapse still occurs. Various models are studied. Our results indicate that values comparable to those suggested in the literature (1 < %< 2) are sufficient to trigger the collapse of subjeans masses by thermal instability, when aided by gravity, and form the observed gravitationally unbound clumps. Keq o : HYDRODYNAMICS - INTERSTELLAR CLOUDS

  6. A CLINICORADIOLOGICAL STUDY OF MIDDLE LOBE SYNDROME DUE TO TUBERCULOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Karmakar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Although pulmonary tuberculosis is a common disease in India, tuberculosis of right middle lobe is infrequent. Tuberculosis of the right middle lobe leading to chronic collapse is a cause of Right Middle Lobe syndrome. METHODS The patients attended Pulmonary Medicine Outdoor at Era’s Lucknow Medical College, Lucknow from April 2015 to March 2016. The purpose of this study is to describe the clinicoradiological features of patients of middle lobe syndrome due to tuberculosis. All patients presented with cough with or without expectoration, fever, chest pain, haemoptysis and constitutional symptoms like loss of appetite and weight. Chest X-ray PA view revealed ill-defined opacity abutting the right cardiac border. HRCT thorax was done in each case. The diagnosis of tuberculous aetiology was based on (1 History of chronic cough and fever, not responding to antibiotic therapy and constitutional symptoms, (2 A positive tuberculin test using 2 TU of PPD RT 23 and (3 Detection of acid fast bacilli by direct smear or Mycobacterium tuberculosis by polymerase chain reaction in bronchoalveolar lavage. RESULTS Out of 10 patients, 4 (40% were males and 6 (60% were females. The mean ages of the males were 55.8 years and females were 60.8 years and overall mean age was 59 years. Most of the patients were females and belonged to the middle age and old age group. ATT was started in all the patients. CONCLUSIONS Right middle lobe syndrome predominantly affects the older population and the female gender. Although tuberculosis is a common disease in India, Middle Lobe Syndrome is a very rare presentation of the disease. Due to non-specific symptoms and usually normal chest X-ray PA view in Right Middle Lobe Syndrome, we should keep a high index of suspicion to diagnose the condition.

  7. [Acute encephalopathy due to late-onset maple syrup urine disease in a school boy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Su-Qing; Yang, Li-Cai; Luan, Zuo; Du, Kan; Yang, Hui

    2012-03-01

    Maple syrup urine disease is a common amino acids metabolic disease. In most patients, onset occurs in the neonatal period and infancy. In this study, the case of a school boy with acute encephalopathy due to late-onset maple syrup urine disease is summarized. The boy (8.5 years) was admitted because of acute encephalopathy after suffering from infection for two days at the age of eight and a half years. Metabolic acidosis, hyperuricemia and decreased protein level in cerebrospinal fluid were found by general laboratory tests. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed signal intensity abnormalities in the bilateral cerebellum dentate nucleus, brainstem, thalamus, putamen, caudate nucleus and cortex of the cerebral hemispheres. On T1WI and T2WI scanning, hyperintensive signal was found. Blood leucine and valine were significantly elevated. Urinary 2-hydroxy isovaleric acid, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, 2-keto isovaleric acid, and 2-keto acid also increased. Both the blood amino acid and urine organic acid profiles led to the diagnosis of maple syrup urine disease. In the acute period, the patient was treated with a large dose of vitamin B1, glucose, L-carnitine and a protein-restrict diet. The patient's condition improved significantly after five days of treatment, and he recovered completely two days later. Afterwards, treatment with vitamin B1, L-carnitine and a protein-restrict diet (1 g/kg/day) was continued. One and a half months later, blood amino acids and urine organic acids returned to normal. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain also indicated a great improvement. It was concluded that inborn metabolic disease should be considered in the patients with an onset similar to acute encephalopathy. Early diagnosis and proper treatment can prevent brain damage and improve prognosis.

  8. Diabetes due to recurrent pancreatitis secondary to hypercalcemia due to primary hyperparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Kumar Chakrabarti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis due to hypercalcemia associated with hyperparathyroidism (HPT is not very common. We herein report a case of a 21-year-old woman, who presented with acute pancreatitis. She had a past history of recurrent nephrolithiasis. Subsequent evaluation revealed hypercalcemia (serum calcium: 12.6 mg/dL; low phosphate (2.9 mg/dL with elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH, 156.7 pg/mL and HbA1c (6.9%. Diagnosis of primary HPT (PHPT was made. Recurrent pancreatitis due to hypercalcemia may have resulted in diabetes mellitus.

  9. Phytanic acid and pristanic acid, branched-chain fatty acids associated with Refsum disease and other inherited peroxisomal disorders, mediate intracellular Ca2+ signaling through activation of free fatty acid receptor GPR40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruska, Nicol; Reiser, Georg

    2011-08-01

    The accumulation of the two branched-chain fatty acids phytanic acid and pristanic acid is known to play an important role in several diseases with peroxisomal impairment, like Refsum disease, Zellweger syndrome and α-methylacyl-CoA racemase deficiency. Recent studies elucidated that the toxic activity of phytanic acid and pristanic acid is mediated by multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions, generation of reactive oxygen species and Ca2+ deregulation via the InsP3-Ca2+ signaling pathway in glial cells. However, the exact signaling mechanism through which both fatty acids mediate toxicity is still under debate. Here, we studied the ability of phytanic acid and pristanic acid to activate the free fatty acid receptor GPR40, a G-protein-coupled receptor, which was described to be involved in the Ca2+ signaling of fatty acids. We treated HEK 293 cells expressing the GPR40 receptor with phytanic acid or pristanic acid. This resulted in a significant increase in the intracellular Ca2+ level, similar to the effect seen after treatment with the synthetic GPR40 agonist GW9508. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the GPR40 activation might be due to an interaction of the carboxylate moiety of fatty acids with the receptor. Our findings indicate that the phytanic acid- and pristanic acid-mediated Ca2+ deregulation can involve the activation of GPR40. Therefore, we suppose that activation of GPR40 might be part of the signaling cascade of the toxicity of phytanic and pristanic acids.

  10. Amino acid homeostasis and signalling in mammalian cells and organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröer, Angelika

    2017-01-01

    Cells have a constant turnover of proteins that recycle most amino acids over time. Net loss is mainly due to amino acid oxidation. Homeostasis is achieved through exchange of essential amino acids with non-essential amino acids and the transfer of amino groups from oxidised amino acids to amino acid biosynthesis. This homeostatic condition is maintained through an active mTORC1 complex. Under amino acid depletion, mTORC1 is inactivated. This increases the breakdown of cellular proteins through autophagy and reduces protein biosynthesis. The general control non-derepressable 2/ATF4 pathway may be activated in addition, resulting in transcription of genes involved in amino acid transport and biosynthesis of non-essential amino acids. Metabolism is autoregulated to minimise oxidation of amino acids. Systemic amino acid levels are also tightly regulated. Food intake briefly increases plasma amino acid levels, which stimulates insulin release and mTOR-dependent protein synthesis in muscle. Excess amino acids are oxidised, resulting in increased urea production. Short-term fasting does not result in depletion of plasma amino acids due to reduced protein synthesis and the onset of autophagy. Owing to the fact that half of all amino acids are essential, reduction in protein synthesis and amino acid oxidation are the only two measures to reduce amino acid demand. Long-term malnutrition causes depletion of plasma amino acids. The CNS appears to generate a protein-specific response upon amino acid depletion, resulting in avoidance of an inadequate diet. High protein levels, in contrast, contribute together with other nutrients to a reduction in food intake. PMID:28546457

  11. DUE PROGETTI NELLA SCUOLA PLURILINGUE E INTERCULTURALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franca Bosc

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Per rispondere alle esigenze sempre più crescenti di una scuola plurilingue e interculturale alcuni anni fa nelle scuole torinesi sono stati realizzati due progetti, a cura della Divisione Servizi educativi del Comune di Torino. Il primo “Guarda, ce la fai” ha riunito scuole elementari e medie in un lavoro finalizzato alla realizzazione di un percorso multimediale di insegnamento dell’Italiano come L2 che permettesse il raggiungimento del livello A2 del Quadro comune europeo di riferimento (QCER, fosse facilmente utilizzabile, risultasse ampliabile e modificabile in funzione delle esigenze della singola realtà e costituisse un modello per i docenti su come costruire materiali per l’insegnamento della L2. Il risultato è un CD-Rom con sequenze video ed esercizi. Il secondo “Guarda come abbiamo fatto” raccoglie 14 percorsi interculturali di altrettante scuole elementari e medie e riflette sui curricula scolastici nelle diverse aree geografiche culturali, sulla metodologia interculturale e sui possibili percorsi per affrontare la lingua delle discipline. Gli apprendenti stranieri costituiscono il target privilegiato cui è rivolto il progetto, anche se esso ha finalità educative che riguardano anche gli studenti italofoni. Il DVD prodotto presenta in modo completo e dettagliato i percorsi attuati dalle scuole; ciascun percorso si è proposto di affrontare in chiave interculturale un tema disciplinare.TWO PROJECTS IN A MULTILINGUAL, INTERCULTURAL SCHOOL SETTINGTo meet the growing needs of a multilingual, intercultural school setting, a few years ago two projects were implemented by the Educational Services Department of the Municipality of Turin. The first, “Guarda, ce la fai” was aimed at elementary and middle school students and focused on teaching Italian L2 using multimedia materials in order to reach an A2 level (Quadro comune europeo di riferimento - QCER, that was easy to put into effect and could be modified based on the

  12. Neonatal cardiomyopathies and metabolic crises due to oxidative phosphorylation defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, Manuel; Ogier de Baulny, Hélène; Lombès, Anne

    2011-08-01

    Neonatal cardiomyopathies due to mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) defects are extremely severe conditions which can be either isolated or included in a multi-organ disease, with or without metabolic crises, of which profound lactic acidosis is the prominent feature. Cardiomyopathy is more often hypertrophic than dilated. Antenatal manifestations such as fetal cardiomyopathy, arrhythmia and/or hydrops have been reported. Pathophysiological mechanisms are complex, going beyond ATP deficiency of the high-energy-consuming neonatal myocardium. Birth is a key metabolic period when the myocardium switches ATP production from anaerobic glycolysis to mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and OXPHOS. Heart-specificity of the defect may be related to the specific localization of the defect, to the high myocardium dependency on OXPHOS, and/or to interaction between the primary genetic alteration and other factors such as modifier genes. Therapeutic options are limited but standardized diagnostic procedures are mandatory to confirm the OXPHOS defect and to identify its causal mutation, allowing genetic counseling and potential prenatal diagnosis.

  13. Changes in secondary structure of gluten proteins due to emulsifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Analía V.; Ferrer, Evelina G.; Añón, María C.; Puppo, María C.

    2013-02-01

    Changes in the secondary structure of gluten proteins due to emulsifiers were analyzed by Raman Spectroscopy. The protein folding induced by 0.25% SSL (Sodium Stearoyl Lactylate) (GS0.25, Gluten + 0.25% SSL) included an increase in α-helix conformation and a decrease in β-sheet, turns and random coil. The same behavior, although in a less degree, was observed for 0.5% gluten-DATEM (Diacetyl Tartaric Acid Esters of Monoglycerides) system. The low burial of Tryptophan residues to a more hydrophobic environment and the low percentage area of the C-H stretching band for GS0.25 (Gluten + 0.25% SSL), could be related to the increased in α-helix conformation. This behavior was also confirmed by changes in stretching vibrational modes of disulfide bridges (S-S) and the low exposure of Tyrosine residues. High levels of SSL (0.5% and 1.0%) and DATEM (1.0%) led to more disordered protein structures, with different gluten networks. SSL (1.0%) formed a more disordered and opened gluten matrix than DATEM, the last one being laminar and homogeneous.

  14. Investigation of differential surface removal due to electropolishing at JLab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marhauser, Frank [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Folkie, James [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Reece, Charles [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Surface chemistry carried out for Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cavities such as Buffered Chemical Polishing (BCP) and Electropolishing (EP) aims to uniformly remove the internal surface of a cavity along the entire structure and within each cell from equator to iris in order to obtain an equally etched surface. A uniform removal, however, is not readily achievable due to the complex fluid flow and varying temperatures of the acid mixture, which can lead to differential etching. This needs to be considered when envisaging a certain surface damage removal throughout the interior. The process-specific differential etching influences the target frequency set at the manufacturing stage as well as the field flatness and length of the as-built cavity. We report on analyses of JLab's present EP system using experimental data for six nine-cell cavities that have been processed recently in the frame of the LCLS-II high-Q development plan. In conjunction with numerical simulations, the differential etching and the impact on field flatness is assessed.

  15. L-Lactic acid production from glycerol coupled with acetic acid metabolism by Enterococcus faecalis without carbon loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Nao; Oba, Mana; Iwamoto, Mariko; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Noguchi, Takuya; Bonkohara, Kaori; Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed Ali; Zendo, Takeshi; Shimoda, Mitsuya; Sakai, Kenji; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Glycerol is a by-product in the biodiesel production process and considered as one of the prospective carbon sources for microbial fermentation including lactic acid fermentation, which has received considerable interest due to its potential application. Enterococcus faecalis isolated in our laboratory produced optically pure L-lactic acid from glycerol in the presence of acetic acid. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis using [1, 2-(13)C2] acetic acid proved that the E. faecalis strain QU 11 was capable of converting acetic acid to ethanol during lactic acid fermentation of glycerol. This indicated that strain QU 11 restored the redox balance by oxidizing excess NADH though acetic acid metabolism, during ethanol production, which resulted in lactic acid production from glycerol. The effects of pH control and substrate concentration on lactic acid fermentation were also investigated. Glycerol and acetic acid concentrations of 30 g/L and 10 g/L, respectively, were expected to be appropriate for lactic acid fermentation of glycerol by strain QU 11 at a pH of 6.5. Furthermore, fed-batch fermentation with 30 g/L glycerol and 10 g/L acetic acid wholly exhibited the best performance including lactic acid production (55.3 g/L), lactic acid yield (0.991 mol-lactic acid/mol-glycerol), total yield [1.08 mol-(lactic acid and ethanol)]/mol-(glycerol and acetic acid)], and total carbon yield [1.06 C-mol-(lactic acid and ethanol)/C-mol-(glycerol and acetic acid)] of lactic acid and ethanol. In summary, the strain QU 11 successfully produced lactic acid from glycerol with acetic acid metabolism, and an efficient fermentation system was established without carbon loss.

  16. THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE

    OpenAIRE

    GRAY, NICHOLAS FREDERICK; Sullivan, Monica

    2017-01-01

    This review examine the action of acid mine drainage (AMD), which is a multifactor pollutant, on surface waters. It affects aquatic ecosystems via a number of direct and indirect pathways. Major impact areas are coastal waters, rivers, lakes and estuaries, with AMD affecting ecosystems in different ways. Ground waters can also be severely impacted. Due to its complexity, the impact of AMD is particularly difficult to quantify and predict in lotic systems. Acid mine drainage pollut...

  17. Amino acid survival in large cometary impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierazzo, E.; Chyba, C. F.

    1999-11-01

    A significant fraction of the Earth's prebiotic volatile inventory may have been delivered by asteroidal and cometary impacts during the period of heavy bombardment. The realization that comets are particularly rich in organic material seemed to strengthen this suggestion. Previous modeling studies, however, indicated that most organics would be entirely destroyed in large comet and asteroid impacts. The availability of new kinetic parameters for the thermal degradation of amino acids in the solid phase made it possible to readdress this question. We present the results of new high-resolution hydrocode simulations of asteroid and comet impact coupled with recent experimental data for amino acid pyrolysis in the solid phase. Differences due to impact velocity as well as projectile material have been investigated. Effects of angle of impacts were also addressed. The results suggest that some amino acids would survive the shock heating of large (kilometer-radius) cometary impacts. At the time of the origins of life on Earth, the steady-state oceanic concentration of certain amino acids (like aspartic and glutamic acid) delivered by comets could have equaled or substantially exceeded that due to Miller-Urey synthesis in a carbon dioxide-rich atmosphere. Furthermore, in the unlikely case of a grazing impact (impact angle around 5 degrees from the horizontal) an amount of some amino acids comparable to that due to the background steady-state production or delivery would be delivered to the early Earth.

  18. Phytanic acid metabolism in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanders, Ronald J A; Komen, Jasper; Ferdinandusse, Sacha

    2011-09-01

    Phytanic acid (3,7,11,15-tetramethylhexadecanoic acid) is a branched-chain fatty acid which cannot be beta-oxidized due to the presence of the first methyl group at the 3-position. Instead, phytanic acid undergoes alpha-oxidation to produce pristanic acid (2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecanoic acid) plus CO(2). Pristanic acid is a 2-methyl branched-chain fatty acid which can undergo beta-oxidation via sequential cycles of beta-oxidation in peroxisomes and mitochondria. The mechanism of alpha-oxidation has been resolved in recent years as reviewed in this paper, although some of the individual enzymatic steps remain to be identified. Furthermore, much has been learned in recent years about the permeability properties of the peroxisomal membrane with important consequences for the alpha-oxidation process. Finally, we present new data on the omega-oxidation of phytanic acid making use of a recently generated mouse model for Refsum disease in which the gene encoding phytanoyl-CoA 2-hydroxylase has been disrupted.

  19. Cardiovascular effects of vanillylmandelic acid in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolentinis, Michalis K; Verginadis, Ioannis I; Simos, Yannis V; Tsitou, Natalia Ch; Karkabounas, Spyridon Ch; Kolettis, Theofilos M; Evangelou, Angelos M

    2013-03-05

    The main catecholamine end-metabolites have been considered biologically inactive, but accumulated evidence indicates a variety of pharmacological actions after exogenous administration. We examined the dose-related haemodynamic effects of vanillylmandelic acid in the in vivo rat-model. One hundred and sixteen Wistar rats (250 ± 20 g) were studied under continuous electrocardiographic monitoring; invasive blood pressure was recorded for 60 min through a catheter in the right common carotid artery. Measurements were performed at baseline and after vanillylmandelic acid (1, 10, 100mg/kg) and homovanillic acid (10mg/kg) intra-arterial administration. To examine the underlying mechanisms, the haemodynamic effects were compared with those (a) after trimetazidine administration, which has similar structure due to a tri-methylated phenolic ring; (b) after epinephrine and isoprenaline administration following vanillylmandelic acid pretreatment; (c) after vanillylmandelic acid administration post-bilateral vagotomy. Vanillylmandelic acid, homovanillic acid and (to a lesser extent) trimetazidine decreased heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure. This effect was blunted in vagotomized animals. Comparable effects were noted in heart rate and blood pressure after adrenaline and isoprenaline infusion, with and without vanillylmandelic acid-pretreatment. In conclusion, vanillylmandelic acid administration decreases heart rate dose-dependently, mediated by increased vagal tone, without α- or β-adrenergic-receptor blocking effects. The pharmacological properties of compounds with a mono- and tri-methylated phenolic ring merit further investigation.

  20. Effect of citric acid on noncovalent interactions in biopolymer jellies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuanyzhbek Musabekov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of citric acid on the formation of gels based on gelatine, melon pulp and sugar has been studied. It is found that the structuring of gelatin the presence of melon pulp is due to hydrogen bonds between the amino acids of gelatin and pectin melon by hydrogen bonds. It is shown that the structuring of gelatin and gelatin – melon pulp depends on the concentration of sugar. The addition of acid in the pectin-gelatin composition reduces the pH, the solubility of pectin and accelerates the formation of jelly. This is due to the fact that in the presence of citric acid reduced the degree of dissociation of galacturonic acid. The intensity of the effect of citric acid on the structure in the presence of melon pulp could be explained by the formation of hydrogen bonds between pectin and citric acid.