WorldWideScience

Sample records for mono-filament fibers wires

  1. New composite fiber-optic overhead ground wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, S.; Kitayama, Y.; Ona, A.; Shimada, S.; Kikuta, T.

    1986-11-01

    A composite fiber-optic overhead ground wire (OPGW) has already been used commercially. Most of the electric power companies have the plans to establish new telecommunication networks by means of OPGW, and it is greatly needed to develop OPGW which has a maximum number of fibers for specific ground wire size with low transmission loss, easy handling and higher reliability. We have developed New OPGW, which satisfies these demands. It has the following features: (1) 18 fibers within 75 sq mm ground wire. (2) The fiber is a pure silica core and a fluorine-doped cladding single mode fiber with the average transmission loss of 0.4 dB/km at 1.3 micron. (3) Six fibers are stranded into a compact bunch and three bunches are housed in the spiral grooves of an aluminum spacer.

  2. Fiber optical Bragg grating sensors embedded in CFRP wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nellen, Philipp M.; Frank, Andreas; Broennimann, Rolf; Meier, Urs; Sennhauser, Urs J.

    1999-05-01

    Based on the example application of Emmenbridge, a newly built steel-concrete-composite bridge in Switzerland with 47 m long built-in carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) prestressing cables, we will present and analyze the process chain leading to a reliable surveillance of modern civil engineering structures with embedded fiber optical Bragg gratings. This consists first in the embedding of optical fibers and in-fiber Bragg gratings in long CFRP wires in an industrial environment, including fiber optical monitoring of the curing process. Then, various qualifying tests were done: annealing experiments for determining optical lifetime of the Bragg gratings used, dynamic and static tensile tests for estimating their mechanical lifetime under operation, push-out experiments to check adhesion of fiber/coating/matrix interfaces, and performance tests to determine strain and temperature sensitivity of the embedded Bragg gratings. Finally, the prestressing cables were equipped with the CFRP sensor wires and built into the bridge.

  3. A retracting wire knife for cutting fiber bundles and making sheet lesions of brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, M; Russell, I S

    1979-07-01

    A retracting knife which has two cutting wires for the transection of fiber bundles is described. The knife holds the fiber bundles of the stria terminalis between the two cutting wires and transects them by a shearing movement as the wires close. In addition, the feasability of such a knife producing a sheet lesion around the n. caudatus is also described.

  4. Field trial of composite fiber-optic overhead ground wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, S.; Kawahira, H.; Nakajima, T.; Matsubara, I.; Saito, Y.; Kitayama, Y.

    A composite fiber-optic ground wire (OPGW), which provides additional communication capabilities for system protection and control of overhead power transmission systems has been developed. After laboratory tests, the OPGW was strung along a live power transmission line in a mountainous region and has been confirmed to have sufficient performance to establish a high-speed digital transmission network able to withstand actual conditions. The field line, constructed substantially by existing techniques, has proved that the new OPGW, accessories such as clamps and joint boxes, installation technique, and on-tower splicing method can be effectively utilized to produce a protection and control system with extremely stable characteristics.

  5. Hybrid CATV/MMW/BB lightwave transmission system based on fiber-wired/fiber-wireless/fiber-VLLC integrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chung-Yi; Lu, Hai-Han; Lu, Ting-Chieh; Chu, Chien-An; Chen, Bo-Rui; Lin, Chun-Yu; Peng, Peng-Chun

    2015-12-14

    A hybrid lightwave transmission system for cable television (CATV)/millimeter-wave (MMW)/baseband (BB) signal transmission based on fiber-wired/fiber-wireless/fiber-visible laser light communication (VLLC) integrations is proposed and demonstrated. For down-link transmission, the light is intensity-modulated with 50-550 MHz CATV signal and optically promoted from 25 GHz radio frequency (RF) signal to 10 Gbps/50 GHz and 20 Gbps/100 GHz MMW data signals based on fiber-wired and fiber-wireless integrations. Good performances of carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR), composite second-order (CSO), composite triple-beat (CTB), and bit error rate (BER) are obtained over a 40-km single-mode fiber (SMF) and a 10-m RF wireless transport. For up-link transmission, the light is successfully intensity-remodulated with 5-Gbps BB data stream based on fiber-VLLC integration. Good BER performance is achieved over a 40-km SMF and a 10-m free-space VLLC transport. Such a hybrid CATV/MMW/BB lightwave transmission system is an attractive alternative, it gives the benefits of a communication link for broader bandwidth and higher transmission rate.

  6. Preparation of Electrospun Polymer Fibers Using a Copper Wire Electrode in a Capillary Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinbo, Kazunari; Onozuka, Shintaro; Hoshino, Rikiya; Mizuno, Yoshinori; Ohdaira, Yasuo; Baba, Akira; Kato, Keizo; Kaneko, Futao

    2010-04-01

    Polymer fibers were prepared by an electrospinning method utilizing a copper wire electrode in a capillary tube. The morphology of electrospun poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) fibers was observed, and was found to be dependent on the wire electrode tip position in the capillary tube, the concentration of the polymer solution, the distance between the electrodes, and the applied voltage. By using the wire electrode, the experimental setup is simple and the distance between the electrodes and the applied voltage can be easily reduced. Furthermore, the preparation of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) fibers was carried out. P3HT fibers were successfully prepared by mixing poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) in P3HT solution. Orientation control was also carried out by depositing the fibers on a rotating collector electrode, and the alignment of the P3HT:PEO fibers was confirmed. Anisotropy of the optical absorption spectra was also observed for the aligned fibers.

  7. Fiber optic hot-wire flowmeter based on a metallic coated hybrid long period grating/fiber Bragg grating structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Paulo; Jorge, Pedro A S; Rego, Gaspar; Frazão, Orlando; Santos, José Luís; Ferreira, Luís Alberto; Araújo, Francisco

    2011-06-10

    In this work an all-optical hot-wire flowmeter based on a silver coated fiber combining a long period grating and a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) structure is proposed. Light from a pump laser at 1480  nm propagating down the fiber is coupled by the long period grating into the fiber cladding and is absorbed by the silver coating deposited on the fiber surface over the Bragg grating structure. This absorption acts like a hot wire raising the fiber temperature locally, which is effectively detected by the FBG resonance shift. The temperature increase depends on the flow speed of the surrounding air, which has the effect of cooling the fiber. It is demonstrated that the Bragg wavelength shift can be related to the flow speed. A flow speed resolution of 0.08  m/s is achieved using this new configuration.

  8. Flexible and weaveable capacitor wire based on a carbon nanocomposite fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jing; Bai, Wenyu; Guan, Guozhen; Zhang, Ye; Peng, Huisheng

    2013-11-06

    A flexible and weaveable electric double-layer capacitor wire is developed by twisting two aligned carbon nanotube/ordered mesoporous carbon composite fibers with remarkable mechanical and electronic properties as electrodes. This capacitor wire exhibits high specific capacitance and long life stability. Compared with the conventional planar structure, the capacitor wire is also lightweight and can be integrated into various textile structures that are particularly promising for portable and wearable electronic devices.

  9. Repair of olecranon fractures using fiberWire without metallic implants: report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okawa Atsushi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Olecranon fractures are a common injury in fractures. The tension band technique for olecranon fractures yields good clinical outcomes; however, it is associated with significant complications. In many patients, implants irritate overlying soft tissues and cause pain. This is mostly due to protrusion of the proximal ends of the K-wires or by the twisted knots of the metal wire tension band. Below we described 2 cases of olecranon fractures treated with a unique technique using FiberWire without any metallic implants. Technically, the fragment was reduced, and two K-wires were inserted from the dorsal cortex of the distal segment to the tip of the olecranon. K-wire was exchanged for a suture retriever, and 2 strands of FiberWire were retrieved twice. Each of the two FiberWires was manually tensioned and knotted on the posterior surface of the olecranon. Bony unions could be achieved, and patients had no complaint of pain and skin irritation. There was only a small loss of flexion and extension in comparison with that of the contralateral side, and the patient did not feel inconvenienced in his daily life. Using the method described, difficulty due to K-wire or other metallic implants was avoided.

  10. Repair of olecranon fractures using fiberWire without metallic implants: report of two cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Olecranon fractures are a common injury in fractures. The tension band technique for olecranon fractures yields good clinical outcomes; however, it is associated with significant complications. In many patients, implants irritate overlying soft tissues and cause pain. This is mostly due to protrusion of the proximal ends of the K-wires or by the twisted knots of the metal wire tension band. Below we described 2 cases of olecranon fractures treated with a unique technique using FiberWire without any metallic implants. Technically, the fragment was reduced, and two K-wires were inserted from the dorsal cortex of the distal segment to the tip of the olecranon. K-wire was exchanged for a suture retriever, and 2 strands of FiberWire were retrieved twice. Each of the two FiberWires was manually tensioned and knotted on the posterior surface of the olecranon. Bony unions could be achieved, and patients had no complaint of pain and skin irritation. There was only a small loss of flexion and extension in comparison with that of the contralateral side, and the patient did not feel inconvenienced in his daily life. Using the method described, difficulty due to K-wire or other metallic implants was avoided. PMID:20937160

  11. Development of wire drawing processes for refractory metal fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, G. W.

    1972-01-01

    Fabrication schedules were developed for producing wire, 0.25 mm to 0.51 mm diameter, from the refractory metal alloys ASTAR-811C, B-88 and W-Hf-C. Tensile properties were evaluated at room temperature and up to 1204 C. Also, the stress rupture properties of the alloys at 1093 C were determined. W-Hf-C and B-88 were found to have the best mechanical properties on a strength to density basis. The fabrication schedules for producing wire from these two alloys were further improved with regards to the wire quality and material yield under the optimization of fabrication schedule.

  12. Active PZT fibers: a commercial production process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strock, Harold B.; Pascucci, Marina R.; Parish, Mark V.; Bent, Aaron A.; Shrout, Thomas R.

    1999-07-01

    Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) active fibers, from 80 to 250 micrometers in diameter, are produced for the AFOSR/DARPA funded Active Fiber Composites Consortium (AFCC) Program and commercial customers. CeraNova has developed a proprietary ceramics-based technology to produce PZT mono-filaments of the required purity, composition, straightness, and piezoelectric properties for use in active fiber composite structures. CeraNova's process begins with the extrusion of continuous lengths of mono-filament precursor fiber from a plasticized mix of PZT-5A powder. The care that must be taken to avoid mix contamination is described using illustrations form problems experiences with extruder wear and metallic contamination. Corrective actions are described and example microstructures are shown. The consequences of inadequate lead control are also shown. Sintered mono- filament mechanical strength and piezoelectric properties data approach bulk values but the validity of such a benchmark is questioned based on variable correlation with composite performance measures. Comb-like ceramic preform structures are shown that are being developed to minimize process and handling costs while maintaining the required mono-filament straightness necessary for composite fabrication. Lastly, actuation performance data are presented for composite structures fabricated and tested by Continuum Control Corporation. Free strain actuation in excess of 2000 microstrain are observed.

  13. Experimental Test of Stainless Steel Wire Mesh and Aluminium Alloy With Glass Fiber Reinforcement Hybrid Composite

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    At present, composite materials are mostly used in aircraft structural components, because of their excellent properties like lightweight, high strength to weight ratio, high stiffness, and corrosion resistance and less expensive. In this experimental work, the mechanical properties of laminate, this is reinforced with stainless steel wire mesh, aluminum sheet metal, perforated aluminum sheet metal and glass fibers to be laminate and investigated. The stainless steel wire mesh and...

  14. Optimal forming zone length in continuous extrusion of lead-clad glass fiber wire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李霞; 唐景林; 王丽薇; 高明

    2008-01-01

    Forming zone length (FZL) is a key parameter of the lead-clad glass fiber extrusion dies, and an unsuitable FZL will lead to breakage of the glass fiber and/or unacceptable geometric and metallographic qualities of the product. The optimal FZL was determined theoretically based on a mathematical model established by upper bound method, and accepted Pb-GF wire was actually obtained experimentally by symmetric side-feed extrusion at a much lower temperature than that published before. The wire has features of fine grains, uniform diameter, good coaxiality and satisfied mechanical property. The results and conclusions obtained in the research can be used to design the forming tools for lead-clad glass fiber extrusion and have significance to further research on the extrusion of other complex wires of metal-clad brittle core.

  15. Photovoltaic wire derived from a graphene composite fiber achieving an 8.45 % energy conversion efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhibin; Sun, Hao; Chen, Tao; Qiu, Longbin; Luo, Yongfeng; Peng, Huisheng

    2013-07-15

    Wired for light: Novel wire-shaped photovoltaic devices have been developed from graphene/Pt composite fibers. The high flexibility, mechanical strength, and electrical conductivity of graphene composite fibers resulted in a maximum energy conversion efficiency of 8.45 %, which is much higher than that of other wire-shaped photovoltaic devices. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Downsized Sheath-Core Conducting Fibers for Weavable Superelastic Wires, Biosensors, Supercapacitors, and Strain Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyan; Liu, Zunfeng; Ding, Jianning; Lepró, Xavier; Fang, Shaoli; Jiang, Nan; Yuan, Ninyi; Wang, Run; Yin, Qu; Lv, Wei; Liu, Zhongsheng; Zhang, Mei; Ovalle-Robles, Raquel; Inoue, Kanzan; Yin, Shougen; Baughman, Ray H

    2016-07-01

    Hair-like-diameter superelastic conducting fibers, comprising a buckled carbon nanotube sheath on a rubber core, are fabricated, characterized, and deployed as weavable wires, biosensors, supercapacitors, and strain sensors. These downsized sheath-core fibers provide the demonstrated basis for glucose sensors, supercapacitors, and electrical interconnects whose performance is undegraded by giant strain, as well as ultrafast strain sensors that exploit strain-dependent capacitance changes.

  17. A transflective nano-wire grid polarizer based fiber-optic sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jing; Zhao, Yun; Lin, Xiao-Wen; Hu, Wei; Xu, Fei; Lu, Yan-Qing

    2011-01-01

    A transflective nano-wire grid polarizer is fabricated on a single mode fiber tip by focused ion beam machining. In contrast to conventional absorptive in-line polarizers, the wire grids reflect TE-mode, while transmitting TM-mode light so that no light power is discarded. A reflection contrast of 13.7 dB and a transmission contrast of 4.9 dB are achieved in the 1,550 nm telecom band using a 200-nm wire grid fiber polarizer. With the help of an optic circulator, the polarization states of both the transmissive and reflective lights in the fiber may be monitored simultaneously. A kind of robust fiber optic sensor is thus proposed that could withstand light power variations. To verify the idea, a fiber pressure sensor with the sensitivity of 0.24 rad/N is demonstrated. The corresponding stress-optic coefficient of the fiber is measured. In addition to pressure sensing, this technology could be applied in detecting any polarization state change induced by magnetic fields, electric currents and so on.

  18. A Transflective Nano-Wire Grid Polarizer Based Fiber-Optic Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Qing Lu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A transflective nano-wire grid polarizer is fabricated on a single mode fiber tip by focused ion beam machining. In contrast to conventional absorptive in-line polarizers, the wire grids reflect TE-mode, while transmitting TM-mode light so that no light power is discarded. A reflection contrast of 13.7 dB and a transmission contrast of 4.9 dB are achieved in the 1,550 nm telecom band using a 200-nm wire grid fiber polarizer. With the help of an optic circulator, the polarization states of both the transmissive and reflective lights in the fiber may be monitored simultaneously. A kind of robust fiber optic sensor is thus proposed that could withstand light power variations. To verify the idea, a fiber pressure sensor with the sensitivity of 0.24 rad/N is demonstrated. The corresponding stress-optic coefficient of the fiber is measured. In addition to pressure sensing, this technology could be applied in detecting any polarization state change induced by magnetic fields, electric currents and so on.

  19. Adhesive Properties of Bonded Orthodontic Retainers to Enamel : Stainless Steel Wire vs Fiber-reinforced Composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foek, Dave Lie Sam; Krebs, Eliza; Sandham, John; Ozcan, Mutlu

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The objectives of this study were to compare the bond strength of a stainless steel orthodontic wire vs various fiber-reinforced composites (FRC) used as orthodontic retainers on enamel, analyze the failure types after debonding, and investigate the influence of different application proced

  20. Impact strength of denture polymethyl methacrylate reinforced with continuous glass fibers or metal wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallittu, P K; Vojtkova, H; Lassila, V P

    1995-12-01

    The impact strength of heat-cured acrylic resin test specimens that had been reinforced in various ways was compared in this study. Ten rectangular test specimens were fabricated for each test group. The strengtheners included 1.0-mm-diameter steel wire and continuous E-glass fibers. Both notched and unnotched test specimens were tested in a Charpy-type impact test. In a further analysis the concentration of glass fibers in the test specimens was determined and plotted against the impact strength of the test specimens. The results showed that, compared with the unreinforced specimens, both types of reinforcement increased the impact strength of the test specimens considerably (p < 0.001). There was no clear difference between the mean impact strength value of the test specimens reinforced with metal wire and that of the specimens reinforced with glass fiber. The correlation coefficient between the fiber concentration of the test specimens and their impact strength was 0.818 (p < 0.005). Specimens with fiber concentrations greater than 25 wt% yielded to the higher impact strength more readily than those with metal wire reinforcement did.

  1. Aging life evaluation of a new carbon fiber composite core wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jiangming; Wang, Zhihua; Zhang, Yongbo; Fu, Huimin

    2017-01-01

    The carbon fiber composite core wire is the key component for new overhead transmission lines in the power industry. As the primary load-bearing member, the composite mandrel will produce long-term creep because of the tensile during operation. Therefore, designers need to understand the long-term deformation behaviour of the composite mandrel to assess its durability. To this end, an accelerated creep test on the composite core rod under different temperatures and stresses has been conducted in the current study. According to the time- temperature- stress superposition principle, the shift factors are calculated, and the creep under normal working condition is predicted. Results show that the carbon fiber composite core wire can satisfy the design requirements under normal working condition.

  2. Effect of surface treatment on mechanical properties of glass fiber/stainless steel wire mesh reinforced epoxy hybrid composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N, Karunagaran [S.K.P Engineering College, Tiruvannamalai (India); A, Rajadurai [Anna University, Chennai (India)

    2016-06-15

    This paper investigates the effect of surface treatment for glass fiber, stainless steel wire mesh on tensile, flexural, inter-laminar shear and impact properties of glass fiber/stainless steel wire mesh reinforced epoxy hybrid composites. The glass fiber fabric is surface treated either by 1 N solution of sulfuric acid or 1 N solution of sodium hydroxide. The stainless steel wire mesh is also surface treated by either electro dissolution or sand blasting. The hybrid composites are fabricated using epoxy resin reinforced with glass fiber and fine stainless steel wire mesh by hand lay-up technique at room temperature. The hybrid composite consisting of acid treated glass fiber and sand blasted stainless steel wire mesh exhibits a good combination of tensile, flexural, inter-laminar shear and impact behavior in comparison with the composites made without any surface treatment. The fine morphological modifications made on the surface of the glass fiber and stainless steel wire mesh enhances the bonding between the resin and reinforcement which inturn improved the tensile, flexural, inter-laminar shear and impact properties.

  3. Optical properties of photonic crystal fiber with integral micron-sized Ge wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, H K; Schmidt, M A; Prill Sempere, L; Russell, P St J

    2008-10-27

    Using a selective hole closure technique, individual hollow channels in silica-air photonic crystal fibers are filled with pure Ge by pumping in molten material at high pressure. The smallest channels filled so far are 600 nm in diameter, which is 10x smaller than in previous work. Electrical conductivity and micro-Raman measurements indicate that the resulting cm-long wires have a high degree of crystallinity. Optical transmission spectra are measured in a sample with a single wire placed adjacent to the core of an endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber. This renders the fiber birefringent, as well as causing strongly polarization-dependent transmission losses, with extinction ratios as high as 30 dB in the visible. In the IR, anti-crossings between the glass-core mode and resonances on the high index Ge wire create a series of clear dips in the spectrum transmitted through the fiber. The measurements agree closely with the results of finite-element simulations in which the wavelength dependence of the dielectric constants is taken fully into account. A toy model based on a multilayer structure is used to help interpret the results. Finally, the temperature dependence of the anti-crossing wavelengths is measured, the preliminary results suggesting that the structure might form the basis of a compact optical thermometer. Since Ge provides electrical conductance together with low-loss guidance in the mid-IR, Ge-filled PCF seems likely to lead to new kinds of in-fiber detector and sensor, as well as having potential uses in ultra-low-threshold nonlinear optical devices.

  4. Simple hybrid wire-wireless fiber laser sensor by direct photonic generation of beat signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shengchun; Gao, Liang; Yin, Zuowei; Shi, Yuechun; Zhang, Liang; Chen, Xiangfei; Cheng, Jianchun

    2011-04-20

    Based on direct photonic generation of a beat signal, a simple hybrid wire-wireless fiber laser sensor is proposed. In the sensor, an improved multilongitudinal modes fiber laser cavity is set up by only a fiber Bragg grating, a section of erbium-doped fiber, and a broadband reflector. A photodetector is used to detect the electrical beat signal. Next, the beat signal including the sensor information can access the wireless network through the wireless transmission. At last, a frequency spectrum analyzer is used to demodulate the sensing information. With this method, the long-distance real-time monitor of the fiber sensor can be realized. The proposed technique offers a simple and cheap way for sensing information of the fiber sensor to access the wireless sensor network. An experiment was implemented to measure the strain and the corresponding root mean square deviation is about -5.7 με at 916 MHz and -3.8 με at 1713 MHz after wireless transmission.

  5. THE PHYSICAL SIMULATION ON EXTRUSION PROCESS OF GLASS FIBER COMPOSITE WIRE COATED BY LEAD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.F. Sun; W.B. Fang; F. Han; W.X. He; E.D. Wang

    2004-01-01

    The method of manufacturing the composite wire by extruding lead to coated glass fiber is described. The different composite wire that diameter is from 0.5 to 1.0mm has been produced by two kinds of different extruding technology (getting wire along horizontal direction and getting wire along perpendicular direction). The optimal extruding technological parameter has been given in different extruding technology by the physical simulation (H: 300℃, 550kN, 0.16mm. P: 300℃, 215kN, 0.16mm). The effect on the coating speed by other extruding technological parameters in the different extruding technology has been discussed. The extruding temperature and extruding force is higher, the coating speed is faster. It has been pointed, that the affection on the extruding technology by the extruding temperature has also behaved as the extruding temperature rising up spontaneously. The reason for exiting the minimum extruding force and maximum extruding force also has been discussion in this paper. It is also important to the extruding process and coating speed that is the coating clearance.

  6. Structure of Polymer Fibers Fabricated by Electrospinning Method Utilizing a Metal Wire Electrode in a Capillary Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozuka, Shintaro; Hoshino, Rikiya; Mizuno, Yoshinori; Shinbo, Kazunari; Ohdaira, Yasuo; Baba, Akira; Kato, Keizo; Kaneko, Futao

    We fabricated electrospun poly (vinylalcohol) (PVA) fibers using a copper wire electrode in Teflon capillary tube, and the SEM images were observed. The apparatus in this method is reasonable, and needed volume of polymer solution and distance between the electrodes can be largely reduced compared to conventional method. The wire electrode tip position in the capillary tube is also important in this method and should be close to the polymer solution surface.

  7. Experimental Test of Stainless Steel Wire Mesh and Aluminium Alloy With Glass Fiber Reinforcement Hybrid Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranga Raj R.,

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available At present, composite materials are mostly used in aircraft structural components, because of their excellent properties like lightweight, high strength to weight ratio, high stiffness, and corrosion resistance and less expensive. In this experimental work, the mechanical properties of laminate, this is reinforced with stainless steel wire mesh, aluminum sheet metal, perforated aluminum sheet metal and glass fibers to be laminate and investigated. The stainless steel wire mesh and perforated aluminum metal were sequentially stacked to fabricate, hybrid composites. The aluminum metal sheet is also employed with that sequence to get maximum strength and less weight. The tensile, compressive and flexure tests carried out on the hybrid composite. To investigate the mechanical properties and elastic properties of the metal matrix composite laminate of a material we are using experimental test and theoretical calculation. The experimental work consists of Tensile, compressive and flexural test. The expectation of this project results in the tensile and compressive properties of this hybrid composite it is slightly lesser than carbon fibers but it could facilitate a weight reduction compared with CFRP panels. So this hybrid laminates composite material offering significant weight savings and maximum strength over some other GFRP conventional panels.

  8. Completely CMOS compatible SiN-waveguide-based fiber coupling structure for Si wire waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maegami, Yuriko; Okano, Makoto; Cong, Guangwei; Ohno, Morifumi; Yamada, Koji

    2016-07-25

    For Si wire waveguides, we designed a highly efficient fiber coupling structure consisting of a Si inverted taper waveguide and a CMOS-compatible thin SiN waveguide with an SiO2 spacer inserted between them. By using a small SiN waveguide with a 310 nm-square core, the optical field can be expanded to correspond to a fiber with a 4.0-μm mode field diameter. A coupled waveguide system with the SiN waveguide and Si taper waveguide can provide low-loss and low-polarization-dependent mode conversion. Both losses in fiber-SiN waveguide coupling and SiN-Si waveguide mode conversion are no more than 1 dB in a wide wavelength bandwidth from 1.36 μm to 1.65 μm. Through a detailed analysis of the effective refractive indices in the coupled waveguide system, we can understand mode conversion accurately and also derive guidelines for reducing the polarization dependence and for shortening device length.

  9. Modeling of Stress Development During Thermal Damage Healing in Fiber-reinforced Composite Materials Containing Embedded Shape Memory Alloy Wires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bor, Teunis Cornelis; Warnet, Laurent; Akkerman, Remko; de Boer, Andries

    2010-01-01

    Fiber-reinforced composite materials are susceptible to damage development through matrix cracking and delamination. This article concerns the use of shape memory alloy (SMA) wires embedded in a composite material to support healing of damage through a local heat treatment. The composite material

  10. Modeling of Stress Development During Thermal Damage Healing in Fiber-reinforced Composite Materials Containing Embedded Shape Memory Alloy Wires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bor, T.C.; Warnet, L.; Akkerman, R.; Boer, de A.

    2010-01-01

    Fiber-reinforced composite materials are susceptible to damage development through matrix cracking and delamination. This article concerns the use of shape memory alloy (SMA) wires embedded in a composite material to support healing of damage through a local heat treatment. The composite material co

  11. The RoF-WDM-PON for Wireless and Wire Layout with Multi-wavelength Fiber Laser and Carrier Reusing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wei; Zheng, Zhuowen

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we design a WDM-RoF-PON based on multi-wavelength fiber laser and CSRZ-DPSK, which can achieve wire-line and wireless access synchronously without any RF source in ONU. The multi-wavelength fiber laser is the union light source of WDM-PON. By the RSOA and downstream light source reusing, the ONU can also omit laser source and makes the WDM-PON to be colorless. The networking has the credible transmission property, including wireless access and fiber transmission. The networking also has excellent covering range.

  12. COST-EFFECTIVE WIRE-HARNESS MODEL BY USING POLYMER OPTICAL FIBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Syuhaimi Ab-Rahman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade automotive industries faced the exponential increase of in-vehicle electronic devices. The hydraulic systems are replacing with sophisticate electronic systems. Market demands for exploiting new in-vehicle technologies such as multimedia systems, internet access, GPS, Mobile communication, internal private network; engine, body and power train intelligent control and monitoring systems are increasing daily. These new needs make the wire-harness as physical pathway for power and data more complex. The amount of different data types’ transmission in vehicle networking requires higher bandwidth and subsequently applying expensive and advanced equipment. Also more functions and facilities lead to raise the number of Electronic Control Units (ECU. The high cost of manufacturing and implementing all mentioned equipment and systems only can be justified to luxury vehicle’s high prices. This study presents a conceptual model of in-vehicle networking which would lead to apply considerable portion of these advanced systems in non-luxury vehicles. In this context, Polymer Optical Fibers (POF exploited to achieve high speed bandwidth and cost-effective solution to transfer huge amount of data and one ECU to control and manage body/cabin electronic devices. Regarding to technical specification of POFs and using visible light as data carrier, they can meet all new needs of implementing modern expected technologies for non-luxury cars at inexpensive solution. In addition, POFs are easy-to-use, reliable and flexible in compare with silica base optical fibers. This study suggests three red, blue and green lights for transferring video/audio, communication data network such as internet/vehicle internal network and body/cabin command lines respectively. Moreover, this concept model claims for reducing wire-harness with integration of command lines into multiplexed POF line. By command lines integration also it is possible to merge

  13. Broadband single-mode operation of standard optical fibers by using a sub-wavelength optical wire filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yongmin; Brambilla, Gilberto; Richardson, David J

    2008-09-15

    We report the use of a sub-wavelength optical wire (SOW) with a specifically designed transition region as an efficient tool to filter higher-order modes in multimode waveguides. Higher-order modes are effectively suppressed by controlling the transition taper profile and the diameter of the sub-wavelength optical wire. As a practical example, single-mode operation of a standard telecom optical fiber over a broad spectral window (400 approximately 1700 nm) was demonstrated with a 1microm SOW. The ability to obtain robust and stable single-mode operation over a very broad range of wavelengths offers new possibilities for mode control within fiber devices and is relevant to a range of application sectors including high performance fiber lasers, sensors, photolithography, and optical coherence tomography systems.

  14. Fibers Caught in the Knuckles of the Forming Wires: Experimental Measurements and Physical Origins of the Force of Peeling in the Hydroentanglement Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Xiang

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In hydroentanglement process, very fine water jets with high pressure impinge on the fiberweb, which is supported by forming wires. The impact of the jets causes fiber entanglement in the fiberweb and produces an integrated fabric with desired performance, texture, and appearance similar to the forming wires. It is important that at the end of the process, the fiberweb can be easily separated from the forming wires. In this paper, the force of peeling required for the separation of the wet, hydroentangled fabric from the forming wires is measured experimentally. A set of experimental trials was conducted to investigate the effects of the jet pressure, fiberweb basis weight, and forming wires mesh size on the peeling force. Visualizing fibers caught in the knuckles of the forming wires under magnification reveals physical mechanisms leading to the formation of the peeling force.

  15. Fibers Caught in the Knuckles of the Forming Wires: Experimental Measurements and Physical Origins of the Force of Peeling in the Hydroentanglement Process

    OpenAIRE

    Ping Xiang; Andrey V. Kuznetsov, Ph.D.; Abdelfattah Mohamed Seyam, Ph.D.

    2007-01-01

    In hydroentanglement process, very fine water jets with high pressure impinge on the fiberweb, which is supported by forming wires. The impact of the jets causes fiber entanglement in the fiberweb and produces an integrated fabric with desired performance, texture, and appearance similar to the forming wires. It is important that at the end of the process, the fiberweb can be easily separated from the forming wires. In this paper, the force of peeling required for the separation of the wet, h...

  16. Passive smart self-repairing concrete beams by using shape memory alloy wires and fibers containing adhesives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KUANG Ya-chuan; OU Jin-ping

    2008-01-01

    An innovative approach to increase structural survivability of concrete and maintain structural durability of concrete was developed in ease of earthquakes and typhoons. This approach takes advantage of the superelastic effect of shape memory alloy (SMA) and the cohering characteristic of repairing adhesive. These SMA wires and brittle fibers containing adhesives were embedded into concrete beams during concrete casting to form smart reinforced concrete beams. The self-repairing capacity of smart concrete beams was investigated by three-point bending tests. The experimental results show that SMA wires add self-restoration capacity, the concrete beams recover almost completely after incurring an extremely large deflection and the cracks are closed almost completely by the recovery forces of SMA wires. The number or areas of SMA wires has no influence on the tendency of deformation during loading and the tendency of reversion by the superelasticity. The adhesives released from the broken-open fibers fill voids and cracks. The repaired damage enables continued function and prevents further degradation.

  17. Assessing Mechanical Properties of Hot Mix Asphalt with Wire Wool Fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed N. Bdour; Yahia Khalayleh; Aslam A. Al-Omari

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential application of wire wool in the modification of hot asphalt mixes (HMA). Wire wool material is widely available at local markets as a by-product of wire wool industry and as waste products from homes. For the purpose of this study, wire wool was cut into small pieces so that it can be placed in the asphalt mixes. Different percentages of wire wool were incorporated with the hot asphalt mixes (0.0%, 0.25%, and 0.5%) of the total weight of the asphalt binde...

  18. Two-year survival analysis of twisted wire fixed retainer versus spiral wire and fiber-reinforced composite retainers: a preliminary explorative single-blind randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobouti, Farhad; Rakhshan, Vahid; Saravi, Mahdi Gholamrezaei; Zamanian, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective Traditional retainers (both metal and fiber-reinforced composite [FRC]) have limitations, and a retainer made from more flexible ligature wires might be advantageous. We aimed to compare an experimental design with two traditional retainers. Methods In this prospective preliminary clinical trial, 150 post-treatment patients were enrolled and randomly divided into three groups of 50 patients each to receive mandibular canine-to-canine retainers made of FRC, flexible spiral wire (FSW), and twisted wire (TW). The patients were monitored monthly. The time at which the first signs of breakage/debonding were detected was recorded. The success rates of the retainers were compared using chi-squared, Kaplan-Meier, and Cox proportional-hazard regression analyses (α = 0.05). Results In total, 42 patients in the FRC group, 41 in the FSW group, and 45 in the TW group completed the study. The 2-year failure rates were 35.7% in the FRC group, 26.8% in the FSW group, and 17.8% in the TW group. These rates differed insignificantly (chi-squared p = 0.167). According to the Kaplan-Meier analysis, failure occurred at 19.95 months in the FRC group, 21.37 months in the FSW group, and 22.36 months in the TW group. The differences between the survival rates in the three groups were not significant (Cox regression p = 0.146). Conclusions Although the failure rate of the experimental retainer was two times lower than that of the FRC retainer, the difference was not statistically significant. The experimental TW retainer was successful, and larger studies are warranted to verify these results. PMID:27019825

  19. Pressure-assisted melt-filling and optical characterization of Au nano-wires in microstructured fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H W; Schmidt, M A; Russell, R F; Joly, N Y; Tyagi, H K; Uebel, P; Russell, P St J

    2011-06-20

    We report a novel splicing-based pressure-assisted melt-filling technique for creating metallic nanowires in hollow channels in microstructured silica fibers. Wires with diameters as small as 120 nm (typical aspect ration 50:1) could be realized at a filling pressure of 300 bar. As an example we investigate a conventional single-mode step-index fiber with a parallel gold nanowire (wire diameter 510 nm) running next to the core. Optical transmission spectra show dips at wavelengths where guided surface plasmon modes on the nanowire phase match to the glass core mode. By monitoring the side-scattered light at narrow breaks in the nanowire, the loss could be estimated. Values as low as 0.7 dB/mm were measured at resonance, corresponding to those of an ultra-long-range eigenmode of the glass-core/nanowire system. By thermal treatment the hollow channel could be collapsed controllably, permitting creation of a conical gold nanowire, the optical properties of which could be monitored by side-scattering. The reproducibility of the technique and the high optical quality of the wires suggest applications in fields such as nonlinear plasmonics, near-field scanning optical microscope tips, cylindrical polarizers, optical sensing and telecommunications.

  20. New fault location system for power transmission lines using composite fiber-optic overhead ground wire (OPGW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urasawa, K. (Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (Japan)); Kanemaru, K.; Toyota, S.; Sugiyama, K. (Hitachi Cable, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1989-10-01

    A new fault location (FL) method using composite fiber-optic overhead ground wires (OPGWs) is developed to find out where electrical faults occur on overhead power transmission lines. This method locates the fault section by detecting the current induced in the ground wire (GW), i.e. OPGW in this system. Since detected fault information is essentially uncertain, the new FL method treats the fault information oas a current distribution pattern throughout the power line, and applies Fuzzy Theory to realize the human-like manner of fault location used by electrical power engineers. It was confirmed by computer simulations that the fault section can be accurately located using this method under various conditions. This FL system has already been applied to several commercial power transmission lines and successfully located the sections where electrical faults occurred on actual power transmission lines.

  1. Preparation of metal wire supported solid-phase microextraction fiber coated with multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Juanjuan; Sun, Min; Xu, Lili; Li, Jubai; Liu, Xia; Jiang, Shengxiang

    2011-09-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes-coated solid-phase microextraction fiber was prepared by a novel protocol involving mussel-adhesive-protein-inspired polydopamine film. The polydopamine was used as binding agent to immobilize amine-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes onto the surface of the stainless steel wire via Michael addition or Schiff base reaction. Surface properties of the fiber were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope. Six phenols in aqueous solution were used as model compounds to investigate the extraction performance of the fiber and satisfactory results were obtained. Limit of detection was 0.10 μg/L for 2-methylphenol (2-MP) and 4-methylphenol (4-MP), and 0.02 μg/L for 2-ethylphenol (2-EP), 4-ethylphenol (4-EP), 2-tert-butylphenol (2-t-BuP), and 4-tert-butylphenol (4-t-BuP), which were much lower than commercial fiber and fibers made in laboratory. RSDs for one unique fiber are in the range of 1.92-7.00%. Fiber-to-fiber (n=3) reproducibility ranges from 4.44 to 8.41%. It also showed very high stability and durability to acid, alkali, organic solvent, and high temperature. Real water sample from Yellow river was applied to test the reliability of the established solid-phase microextraction (SPME)-GC method and recoveries with addition level at 5 and 100 μg/L were in the range from 81.5 to 110.0%.

  2. Fatigue resistance, debonding force, and failure type of fiber-reinforced composite, polyethylene ribbon-reinforced, and braided stainless steel wire lingual retainers in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foek, Dave Lie Sam; Yetkiner, Enver; Ozcan, Mutlu

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the fatigue resistance, debonding force, and failure type of fiber-reinforced composite, polyethylene ribbon-reinforced, and braided stainless steel wire lingual retainers in vitro. Methods: Roots of human mandibular central incisors were covered with silicone, mimicking the pe

  3. COST-EFFECTIVE WIRE-HARNESS MODEL BY USING POLYMER OPTICAL FIBER

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Syuhaimi Ab-Rahman; Farshad Nasimi Khameneh

    2013-01-01

    In the past decade automotive industries faced the exponential increase of in-vehicle electronic devices. The hydraulic systems are replacing with sophisticate electronic systems. Market demands for exploiting new in-vehicle technologies such as multimedia systems, internet access, GPS, Mobile communication, internal private network; engine, body and power train intelligent control and monitoring systems are increasing daily. These new needs make the wire-harness as physical pathway for power...

  4. Innovation on Energy Power Technology (24)Development of Composite Fiber-Optic Ground Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanada, Toshiki; Tamura, Kiyoshi

    In correspondence with the development of the high information-oriented society, macroscale of the information voltage by the optical fiber is planned. In such situation, it is OPGW forming the basis of the current communication. I introduce process about this development.

  5. CVD金刚石薄膜在钨丝和碳纤维上的制备%Preparation of CVD diamond coatings on W wire and C fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何贤昶; 沈荷生; 张志明; 胡晓君; 杨小倩; 万永中

    2001-01-01

    用CVD方法在钨丝和碳纤维上沉积金刚石薄膜。约含有10000根纤维的纤维束经特殊 处理后分离为单根。生长条件使碳纤维中心在CVD生长结束后仍保持固态。CVD金刚石在纤 维上生长的平均激活能为93.15kJ/mol。SEM照片给出了纤维涂层在不同生长条件下的表面和 中心的形貌。纤维内部的石墨碳和外部的金刚石层有很大的不同。钨丝的断裂强度和杨氏模量 的测量表明,具有金刚石涂层的钨丝的断裂强度为0.567GPa,非常接近不具有金刚石涂层的钨 丝的断裂强度。但具有金刚石涂层的钨丝的断裂应变为4.8%,比没有金刚石涂层的钨丝的断 裂应变7%要小得多。这表明了金刚石涂层可以减少钨丝的断裂应力,提高其机械性能。%Diamond growth on W-wire and C-fiber substrates was studied. A treatment was used to separate fibers one by one from a bunch of more than 10000 fibers. The selected growth condition was to keep the carbon fiber core solid after CVD growth. Activation energy of CVD coated fibers is 93.15 kJ/mol in average. SEM pictures show surface and core morphology of the coatings under different treatment conditions. There are two different contrasts related to interior graphite carbon and exterior diamond layer. Wire fracture strength and Young's modulus measurement indicates that the fracture strength of W wire with diamond coating is 0.567 GPa, very close to its value without coating. However, the fracture strain of the wire with diamond coating is 4.8% , which is much less than that of W wire fracture strain of 7% . It means that diamond coated wire may reduce wire fracture strain and improve its mechanical property.

  6. Measurement of Prestressing Force in Pretensioned UHPC Deck Using a Fiber Optic FBG Sensor Embedded in a 7-Wire Strand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-min Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the performance test and long-term monitoring of the prestressing force inside concrete performed on a pretensioned Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC deck. The force is measured by applying a 7-wire strand embedded with an FBG (Fiber Bragg Grating sensor. The performance test was conducted on a 3.7 m × 1.8 m pretensioned deck specimen through wheel loading tests to verify the applicability of the measurement method. In addition, a 12.3 m long and 4.8 m wide bridge with a pretensioned UHPC deck was erected and long-term monitoring was conducted over three years to verify the applicability of the method to real bridges. The effectiveness of the measurement method of the prestressing force inside concrete is verified, and the long-term monitoring data are used to investigate various temperature compensation methods. The results show that the proposed method enables effective measurement of small changes in the prestressing force inside the concrete. These changes are caused by the external forces acting on the bridge in service and provide sufficient durability for long-term sensing. The analysis of the prestressing force obtained through long-term monitoring reveals the necessity of conducting temperature compensation for the consistency of the data acquired using the FBG sensor. Moreover, the selection of the thermal expansion coefficient appears also to be of critical importance for temperature compensation.

  7. A General Method for Preparing Anatase TiO2 Treelike-Nanoarrays on Various Metal Wires for Fiber Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Liang; Li, Luying; Su, Jun; Tu, Fanfan; Liu, Nishuang; Gao, Yihua

    2014-03-01

    Anatase TiO2 tree-like nanoarrays were prepared on various metal wires (Ti, W, Ni, etc.) through one-step facile hydrothermal reaction. The anatase TiO2 tree-like nanoarrays consist of long TiO2 nanowire trunks with direct charge transport channels, and a large number of short TiO2 nanorod branches with large surface areas. Fiber dye-sensitized solar cells (FDSSCs) based on the anatase TiO2 tree-like nanoarrays deposited on Ti wires can achieve outstanding power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.32%, while FDSSCs on W wires have lower PCE of 3.24% due to the formation of WO3 layer, which might enhance recombination of charges. When the substrate is changed to a Nicole oxide wire, a novel p-n heterojunction can be obtained. This universal method is simple, facile, and low cost for preparing anatase TiO2 treelike-nanoarrays on various metal wires, which may find potential applications in fabrication of optoelectronic devices.

  8. 〈110〉 Fiber Texture Evolution of Ferrite Wires during Drawn-torsion and Drawn-annealing-torsion Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.D. Liu; Y.D. Zhang; A. Tidul; L. Zuo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the texture and microstructure evolution of drawn-torsion and drawn-annealing-torsion ferrite wires are studied by electron back scattering diffraction (EBSD) in order to investigate the special torsion texture evolution. Compared to the simulation results, the stable texture components {110}〈 110 〉 and {110}〈112〉 in both drawn-torsion and drawn-annealing-torsion wires display different evolution processes. The texture of the drawn-annealing-torsion wire fits to the Taylor model. A special texture evolution is found in drawn-torsion wires, related to the grain shape, and the heterogeneous deformation. A new plastic deformation viewpoint is suggested based on the special microstructure of drawn ferrite wire.

  9. Texturing of high T(sub c) superconducting polycrystalline fibers/wires by laser-driven directional solidification in an thermal gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, Usha; Eichelberger, B. Davis, III

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes the technique of laser-driven directional solidification in a controlled thermal gradient of yttria stabilized zirconia core coated Y-Ba-Cu-O materials to produce textured high T(sub c) superconducting polycrystalline fibers/wires with improved critical current densities in the extended range of magnetic fields at temperatures greater than 77 K. The approach involves laser heating to minimize phase segregation by heating very rapidly through the two-phase incongruent melt region to the single phase melt region and directionally solidifying in a controlled thermal gradient to achieve highly textured grains in the fiber axis direction. The technique offers a higher grain growth rate and a lower thermal budget compared with a conventional thermal gradient and is amenable as a continuous process for improving the J(sub c) of high T(sub c) superconducting polycrystalline fibers/wires. The technique has the advantage of suppressing weak-link behavior by orientation of crystals, formation of dense structures with enhanced connectivity, formation of fewer and cleaner grain boundaries, and minimization of phase segregation in the incongruent melt region.

  10. The radio-on-fiber-wavelength-division-multiplexed-passive-optical network (WDM-RoF-PON) for wireless and wire layout with linearly-polarized dual-wavelength fiber laser and carrier reusing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wei; Chang, Jun

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we design a WDM-RoF-PON based on linearly-polarized dual-wavelength fiber laser and CSRZ-DPSK, which can achieve wire-line and wireless access synchronously. With the CSRZ-DPSK modulation, the wireless access in ONU can save RF source and the frequency of radio carrier can be controlled by OLT. The dual-wavelength fiber laser is the union light source of WDM-PON with polarization multiplexing. By the RSOA and downstream light source reusing, the ONU can save omit laser source and makes the WDM-PON to be colorless. The networking has the credible transmission property, including wireless access and fiber transmission. The networking also has excellent covering range.

  11. Fabrication and application of zinc-zinc oxide nanosheets coating on an etched stainless steel wire as a selective solid-phase microextraction fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wenlan; Guo, Mei; Zhang, Yida; Zhang, Min; Wang, Xuemei; Du, Xinzhen

    2015-03-06

    A novel zinc-zinc oxide (Zn-ZnO) nanosheets coating was directly fabricated on an etched stainless steel wire substrate as solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber via previous electrodeposition of robust Zn coating. The scanning electron micrograph of the Zn-ZnO nanosheets coated fiber exhibits a flower-like nanostructure with high surface area. The SPME performance of as-fabricated fiber was investigated for the concentration and determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalates and ultraviolet (UV) filters coupled to high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (HPLC-UV). It was found that the Zn-ZnO nanosheets coating exhibited high extraction capability, good selectivity and rapid mass transfer for some UV filters. The main parameters affecting extraction performance were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the calibration graphs were linear over the range of 0.1-200μgL(-1). The limits of detection of the proposed method were 0.052-0.084μgL(-1) (S/N=3). The single fiber repeatability varied from 5.18% to 7.56% and the fiber-to-fiber reproducibility ranged from 6.74% to 8.83% for the extraction of spiked water with 50μgL(-1) UV filters (n=5). The established SPME-HPLC-UV method was successfully applied to the selective concentration and sensitive determination of target UV filters from real environmental water samples with recoveries from 85.8% to 105% at the spiking level of 10μgL(-1) and 30μgL(-1). The relative standard deviations were below 9.7%.

  12. Direct synthesis of nitrogen-doped graphene on platinum wire as a new fiber coating method for the solid-phase microextraction of BXes in water samples: Comparison of headspace and cold-fiber headspace modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memarian, Elham; Hosseiny Davarani, Saied Saeed; Nojavan, Saeed; Movahed, Siyavash Kazemi

    2016-09-01

    In this work, a new solid-phase microextraction fiber was prepared based on nitrogen-doped graphene (N-doped G). Moreover, a new strategy was proposed to solve problems dealt in direct coating of N-doped G. For this purpose, first, Graphene oxide (GO) was coated on Pt wire by electrophoretic deposition method. Then, chemical reduction of coated GO to N-doped G was accomplished by hydrazine and NH3. The prepared fiber showed good mechanical and thermal stabilities. The obtained fiber was used in two different modes (conventional headspace solid-phase microextraction and cold-fiber headspace solid-phase microextraction (CF-HS-SPME)). Both modes were optimized and applied for the extraction of benzene and xylenes from different aqueous samples. All effective parameters including extraction time, salt content, stirring rate, and desorption time were optimized. The optimized CF-HS-SPME combined with GC-FID showed good limit of detections (LODs) (0.3-2.3 μg/L), limit of quantifications (LOQs) (1.0-7.0 μg/L) and linear ranges (1.0-5000 μg/L). The developed method was applied for the analysis of benzene and xylenes in rainwater and some wastewater samples.

  13. Analysis of Different Positions of Fiber-Reinforced Composite Retainers versus Multistrand Wire Retainers Using the Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Jahanbin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to evaluate root displacement of the lower incisors fixed with FRC in different positions versus FSW retainers using the finite element method. Materials and Methods. 3D finite element models were designed for a mandibular anterior segment: Model 1: flexible spiral wire bonded to the lingual teeth surfaces, Model 2: FRC bonded to the upper third of lingual teeth surfaces, and Model 3: FRC bonded to the middle third. FE analysis was performed for three models and then tooth displacements were evaluated. Results. In contrast to lateral incisors and canines, the FSW retainer caused the central teeth to move more than the teeth bonded with FRC in both loadings. Comparison between Models 2 and 3 (in vertical loading showed that FRC retainers that bonded at the upper third of lingual teeth surfaces made central and canine teeth move less than FRC retainers bonded at the middle third; however, for lateral teeth it was the opposite. Conclusion. FRC retainers bonded at the upper third of lingual teeth surfaces make central and canine teeth move less than FRC retainers bonded at the middle third in vertical loading; however, for lateral teeth it was the opposite.

  14. Anodized aluminum wire as a solid-phase microextraction fiber for rapid determination of volatile constituents in medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholivand, Mohammad Bagher; Piryaei, Marzieh; Abolghasemi, Mir Mahdi

    2011-09-02

    Headspace solid phase microextraction using anodized aluminum fiber in combination with capillary GC-MS was utilized as monitoring technique for the collection and detection of the volatile compounds of Echinophora platyloba DC. Experimental parameters, including the sample weight, extraction temperature, extraction time and humidity effect, desorption time and desorption temperature were examined and optimized. Using HS-SPME followed by GC-MS, 53 compounds were separated and identified in E. platyloba DC, which mainly included E-β ocimene (47.63%), R-D-decalactone (13.28%), α-pinene (7.43%) and nonane (6.71%). Compared with hydrodistillation (HD), HS-SPME, provides the advantages of a small amount of sample, timesaving, simplicity and cheapness. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on using anodized aluminum fiber in solid-phase microextraction coupled to headspace for the investigation of volatile fraction of medicinal plant. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Wire Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Magnetoscriptive readout wire chamber. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  16. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1967-01-01

    Magnetoscriptive readout wire chamber.Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  17. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Proportional multi-wire chamber. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle. Proportional wire chambers allow a much quicker reading than the optical or magnetoscriptive readout wire chambers.

  18. Active vortex generator deployed on demand by size independent actuation of shape memory alloy wires integrated in fiber reinforced polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübler, M.; Nissle, S.; Gurka, M.; Wassenaar, J.

    2016-04-01

    Static vortex generators (VGs) are installed on different aircraft types. They generate vortices and interfuse the slow boundary layer with the fast moving air above. Due to this energizing, a flow separation of the boundary layer can be suppressed at high angles of attack. However the VGs cause a permanently increased drag over the whole flight cycle reducing the cruise efficiency. This drawback is currently limiting the use of VGs. New active VGs, deployed only on demand at low speed, can help to overcome this contradiction. Active hybrid structures, combining the actuation of shape memory alloys (SMA) with fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) on the materials level, provide an actuation principle with high lightweight potential and minimum space requirements. Being one of the first applications of active hybrid structures from SMA and FRP, these active vortex generators help to demonstrate the advantages of this new technology. A new design approach and experimental results of active VGs are presented based on the application of unique design tools and advanced manufacturing approaches for these active hybrid structures. The experimental investigation of the actuation focuses on the deflection potential and the dynamic response. Benchmark performance data such as a weight of 1.5g and a maximum thickness of only 1.8mm per vortex generator finally ensure a simple integration in the wing structure.

  19. Fabrication of ciprofloxacin molecular imprinted polymer coating on a stainless steel wire as a selective solid-phase microextraction fiber for sensitive determination of fluoroquinolones in biological fluids and tablet formulation using HPLC-UV detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzajani, Roya; Kardani, Fatemeh

    2016-04-15

    A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) fiber on stainless steel wire using ciprofloxacin template with a mild template removal condition was synthetized and evaluated for fiber solid phase microextraction (SPME) of fluoroquinolones (FQs) from biological fluids and pharmaceutical samples, followed by high performance liquid chromatography analysis with UV detection (HPLC-UV). The developed MIP fiber exhibited high selectivity for the analytes in complex matrices. The coating of the fibers were inspected using fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry, thermogaravimetric analysis, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy as well as by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The fiber shows high thermal stability (up to 300°C), good reproducibility and long lifetime. The composite coating did not swell in organic solvents nor did it strip off from the substrate. It was also highly stable and extremely adherent to the surface of the stainless steel fiber. The fabricated fiber exclusively exhibited excellent extraction efficiency and selectivity for some FQs. The effective parameters influencing the microextraction efficiency such as pH, extraction time, desorption condition, and stirring rate were investigated. Under optimized conditions, the limits of detection of the four FQs ranged from 0.023-0.033 μg L(-1) (S/N=5) and the calibration graphs were linear in the concentration range from 0.1-40 μg L(-1), the inter-day and intraday relative standard deviations (RSD) for various FQs at three different concentration level (n=5) using a single fiber were 1.1-4.4% and the fiber to fiber RSD% (n=5) was 4.3-6.7% at 5 μg L(-1) of each anlyetes. The method was successfully applied for quantification of FQs in real samples including serum, plasma and tablet formulation with the recoveries between 97 to 102%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  1. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Was used in ISR (Intersecting Storage Ring) split field magnet experiment. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  2. Wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  3. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1985-01-01

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  4. Analysis of planning of the"Optical Fiber Substituting Copper Wire"Project in Background of FTTx%浅析在FTTx背景下的“光进铜退”工程规划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宝奇

    2012-01-01

      With the emerging of high bandwidth applications,the user demand for access bandwidth is getting higher and higher.In order to meet the user demand for bandwidth,"Optical Fiber Substituting Copper Wire"network transformation is imperative,then to select which kind of building programs in order to supply and demand balance between the operators and the users are the problems faced by every operator.This paper combined with the planning and construction of a project with Chengdu,then giving how to select the appropriate planning of"Optical Fiber Substituting Copper Wire"transformation of technology.%  随着高宽带应用的不断涌现,用户对接入带宽的需求越来越高,为适应用户对带宽的需求,“光进铜退”的网络改造势在必行,选择哪种建设方案才能达到运营商和用户之间的供需平衡是每个运营商正在面对的问题。本文结合成都相关工程的规划建设,提出如何选择合适的“光进铜退”规划改造技术。

  5. Patellar ring pins and FiberWire braided polyblend sutures tension band fixation for the treatment of patellar fracture%髌骨针和FiberWire编织缝线张力带联合固定治疗髌骨骨折

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄奎; 刘克斌

    2013-01-01

    背景:克氏针钢丝张力带是治疗髌骨骨折最常见的方式,但易引起与金属植入物相关的并发症。基于上述原因,有学者开始在张力带固定中应用高强度缝线替代钢丝固定来治疗髌骨骨折。目的:观察髌骨针和FiberWire编织缝线张力带联合固定治疗髌骨骨折的效果。方法:对髌骨针和FiberWire编织缝线张力带固定治疗26例髌骨骨折患者的资料进行回顾性分析,其中男16例,女10例;年龄36-54岁,平均44.6岁。结果与结论:随访6-18个月,平均12个月。所有患者切口均一期愈合。骨折愈合时间为8-16周,平均12周。无骨折移位,无固定松动、断裂或突出于皮下刺激皮肤等并发症发生。按Lysholm&Gil quist 膝关节评分标准评定,优18例,良4例,可4例,优良率85%。结果可见应用髌骨针和FiberWire编织缝线张力带固定治疗髌骨骨折达到了满意的结果,且并发症少。%BACKGROUND:K-wire and steel wire tension band wiring is the most commonly method for the treatment of patel ar fracture. However, there have been many reports of complications related to the mental implants. Based on the reasons above, some scholars begin to replace the steel wire with braided polyester sutures for the treatment of patel ar fracture. OBJECTIVE:To observe the effect of patel ar ring pins and FiberWire braided polyblend sutures tension band fixation for treatment of patel ar fracture. METHODS:We performed a retrospective analysis involving 26 patients with patel ar fracture (16 males, 10 females, at the age of 36-54 years with a mean age of 44.6 years) who were treated with patel ar ring pins and FiberWire braided polyblend sutures tension band fixation. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Al the patients were fol owed-up for 6-18 months, average of 12 months. Al patients were primary healing and achieved bone union in 8-16 weeks, averaged in 12 weeks from surgery. There was no fracture fragment

  6. Development of a solid-phase microextraction fiber by chemical binding of polymeric ionic liquid on a silica coated stainless steel wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Long; Liu, Jing-Fu

    2012-03-23

    A novel approach was developed for the fabrication of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber by coating stainless steel fiber with a polymeric ionic liquid (PIL) through covalent bond. The stainless steel fiber was sequentially coated with a gold film by replacement reaction between Fe and Au when immerged in chloroauric acid, assembled with a monolayer of 3-(mercaptopropyl) triethoxysilane on the gold layer through the Au-S bond, and coated with a silica layer by the hydrolysis and polycondensation reaction of the surface-bonded siloxane moieties and the active silicate solution. Then, 1-vinyl-3-(3-triethoxysilylpropyl)-4,5-dihydroimidazolium chloride ionic liquid was anchored on the silica layer by covalent bond, and the PIL film was further formed by free radical copolymerization between 1-vinyl-3-(3-triethoxysilylpropyl)-4,5-dihydroimidazdium and vinyl-substituted imidazolium with azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as initiator. Parameters influencing the preparation of PIL fiber were optimized, and the developed SPME fiber has a coating thickness of ~20 μm with good thermal stability and long lifetime. The performance of the PIL fiber was evaluated by analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water samples. The developed PIL fiber showed good linearity between 0.5 and 20 μg l(-1) with regression coefficient in the range of 0.963-0.999, detection limit ranging from 0.05 to 0.25 μg l(-1), and relative standard deviation of 9.2-29% (n=7). This developed PIL fiber exhibited comparable analytical performance to commercial 7 μm thickness PDMS fiber in the extraction of PAHs. The spiked recoveries for three real water samples at 0.5-5 μg l(-1) levels were 49.6-111% for the PIL fiber and 40.8-103% for the commercial PDMS fiber.

  7. Tensile deformation of NiTi wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Ken; Tyber, Jeff; Brice, Valerie; Frick, Carl P; Maier, Hans J; Morgan, Neil

    2005-12-15

    We examine the structure and properties of cold drawn Ti-50.1 at % Ni and Ti-50.9 at % Ni shape memory alloy wires. Wires with both compositions possess a strong fiber texture in the wire drawing direction, a grain size on the order of micrometers, and a high dislocation density. The more Ni rich wires contain fine second phase precipitates, while the wires with lower Ni content are relatively free of precipitates. The wire stress-strain response depends strongly on composition through operant deformation mechanisms, and cannot be explained based solely on measured differences in the transformation temperatures. We provide fundamental connections between the material structure, deformation mechanisms, and resulting stress-strain responses. The results help clarify some inconsistencies and common misconceptions in the literature. Ramifications on materials selection and design for emerging biomedical applications of NiTi shape memory alloys are discussed.

  8. Wire Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1986-01-01

    Two wire chambers made originally for the R807 Experiment at CERN's Intersecting Storage Rings. In 1986 they were used for the PS 201 experiment (Obelix Experiment) at LEAR, the Low Energy Antiproton Ring. The group of researchers from Turin, using the chambers at that time, changed the acquisition system using for the first time 8 bit (10 bit non linear) analog to digital conversion for incoming signals from the chambers. The acquisition system was controlled by 54 CPU and 80 digital signal processors. The power required for all the electronics was 40 kW. For the period, this system was one of the most powerful on-line apparatus in the world. The Obelix Experiment was closed in 1996. To find more about how a wire chamber works, see the description for object CERN-OBJ-DE-038.

  9. Fiber Optics: No Illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American School and University, 1983

    1983-01-01

    A campus computer center at Hofstra University (New York) that holds 70 terminals for student use was first a gymnasium, then a language laboratory. Strands of fiber optics are used for the necessary wiring. (MLF)

  10. Needleless electrospinning with twisted wire spinneret.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holopainen, Jani; Penttinen, Toni; Santala, Eero; Ritala, Mikko

    2015-01-16

    A needleless electrospinning setup named 'Needleless Twisted Wire Electrospinning' was developed. The polymer solution is electrospun from the surface of a twisted wire set to a high voltage and collected on a cylindrical collector around the wire. Multiple Taylor cones are simultaneously self-formed on the downward flowing solution. The system is robust and simple with no moving parts aside from the syringe pump used to transport the solution to the top of the wire. The structure and process parameters of the setup and the results on the preparation of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), hydroxyapatite (HA) and bioglass fibers with the setup are presented. PVP fiber sheets with areas of 40 × 120 cm(2) and masses up to 1.15 g were prepared. High production rates of 5.23 g h(-1) and 1.40 g h(-1) were achieved for PVP and HA respectively. The major limiting factor of the setup is drying of the polymer solution on the wire during the electrospinning process which will eventually force to interrupt the process for cleaning of the wire. Possible solutions to this problem and other ways to develop the setup are discussed. The presented system provides a simple way to increase the production rate and area of fiber sheet as compared with the conventional needle electrospinning.

  11. Operative treatment of acute acromioclavicular dislocations Rockwood III and V-Comparative study between K-wires combined with FiberTape(®) vs. TightRope System(®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrgoč, G; Japjec, M; Jurina, P; Gulan, G; Janković, S; Šebečić, B; Starešinić, M

    2015-11-01

    Acromioclavicular (AC) joint dislocations usually occur in a young active population as a result of a fall on the shoulder. Rockwood divided these dislocations into six types. Optimal treatment is still a matter of discussion. Many operative techniques have been developed, but the main choice is between open and minimally-invasive arthroscopic procedures. The aim of this study was to compare two different surgical methods on two groups of patients to find out which method is superior in terms of benefit to the patient. The methods were evaluated through objective and subjective scores, with a focus on complications and material costs. A retrospective two-centre study was conducted in patients with acute AC joint dislocation Rockwood types III and V. The two methods conducted were an open procedure using K-wires combined with FiberTape(®) (Arthrex, Naples, USA) (Group 1) and an arthroscopic procedure using the TightRope System(®) (Arthrex, Naples, USA) (Group 2). Groups underwent procedures during a two-year period. Diagnosis was based on the clinical and radiographic examination of both AC joints. Surgical treatment and rehabilitation were performed. Sixteen patients were included in this study: Group 1 comprised 10 patients, all male, average age 41.6 years (range 17-64 years), Rockwood type III (eight patients) and Rockwood type V (two patients); Group 2 had six patients, one female and five male, average age 37.8 years (range 18-58 years), Rockwood type III (two patients) and Rockwood type V (four patients). Time from injury to surgery was shorter and patients needed less time to return to daily activities in Group 1. Duration of the surgical procedure was shorter in Group 2 compared with Group 1. Complications of each method were noted. According to the measured scores and operative outcome between dislocation Rockwood type III and V, no significant difference was found. Implant material used in Group 2 was 4.7 times more expensive than that used in Group 1

  12. 30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 75.1003 Section 75.1003... Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. Trolley wires, trolley feeder wires, and bare signal wires shall be insulated...

  13. Distributed flow sensing using optical hot -wire grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tong; Wang, Qingqing; Zhang, Botao; Chen, Rongzhang; Chen, Kevin P

    2012-04-09

    An optical hot-wire flow sensing grid is presented using a single piece of self-heated optical fiber to perform distributed flow measurement. The flow-induced temperature loss profiles along the fiber are interrogated by the in-fiber Rayleigh backscattering, and spatially resolved in millimeter resolution using optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR). The flow rate, position, and flow direction are retrieved simultaneously. Both electrical and optical on-fiber heating were demonstrated to suit different flow sensing applications.

  14. Photovoltaic fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudiana, Russell; Eckert, Robert; Cardone, John; Ryan, James; Montello, Alan

    2006-08-01

    It was realized early in the history of Konarka that the ability to produce fibers that generate power from solar energy could be applied to a wide variety of applications where fabrics are utilized currently. These applications include personal items such as jackets, shirts and hats, to architectural uses such as awnings, tents, large covers for cars, trucks and even doomed stadiums, to indoor furnishings such as window blinds, shades and drapes. They may also be used as small fabric patches or fiber bundles for powering or recharging batteries in small sensors. Power generating fabrics for clothing is of particular interest to the military where they would be used in uniforms and body armor where portable power is vital to field operations. In strong sunlight these power generating fabrics could be used as a primary source of energy, or they can be used in either direct sunlight or low light conditions to recharge batteries. Early in 2002, Konarka performed a series of proof-of-concept experiments to demonstrate the feasibility of building a photovoltaic cell using dye-sensitized titania and electrolyte on a metal wire core. The approach taken was based on the sequential coating processes used in making fiber optics, namely, a fiber core, e.g., a metal wire serving as the primary electrode, is passed through a series of vertically aligned coating cups. Each of the cups contains a coating fluid that has a specific function in the photocell. A second wire, used as the counter electrode, is brought into the process prior to entering the final coating cup. The latter contains a photopolymerizable, transparent cladding which hardens when passed through a UV chamber. Upon exiting the UV chamber, the finished PV fiber is spooled. Two hundred of foot lengths of PV fiber have been made using this process. When the fiber is exposed to visible radiation, it generates electrical power. The best efficiency exhibited by these fibers is 6% with an average value in the 4

  15. Self-healable electrically conducting wires for wearable microelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hao; You, Xiao; Jiang, Yishu; Guan, Guozhen; Fang, Xin; Deng, Jue; Chen, Peining; Luo, Yongfeng; Peng, Huisheng

    2014-09-01

    Electrically conducting wires play a critical role in the advancement of modern electronics and in particular are an important key to the development of next-generation wearable microelectronics. However, the thin conducting wires can easily break during use, and the whole device fails to function as a result. Herein, a new family of high-performance conducting wires that can self-heal after breaking has been developed by wrapping sheets of aligned carbon nanotubes around polymer fibers. The aligned carbon nanotubes offer an effective strategy for the self-healing of the electric conductivity, whereas the polymer fiber recovers its mechanical strength. A self-healable wire-shaped supercapacitor fabricated from a wire electrode of this type maintained a high capacitance after breaking and self-healing.

  16. Vacuum fiber-fiber coupler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrici, Axel; Bjelajac, Goran; Jonkers, Jeroen; Jakobs, Stefan; Olschok, Simon; Reisgen, Uwe

    2017-02-01

    Research and development carried out by the ISF Welding and Joining Institute of RWTH Aachen University has proven that combining high power laser and low vacuum atmosphere provides a welding performance and quality, which is comparable to electron beam welding. The developed welding machines are still using a beam forming which takes place outside the vacuum and the focusing laser beam has to be introduced to the vacuum via a suitable window. This inflexible design spoils much of the flexibility of modern laser welding. With the target to bring a compact, lightweight flying optics with flexible laser transport fibers into vacuum chambers, a high power fiber-fiber coupler has been adapted by II-VI HIGHYAG that includes a reliable vacuum interface. The vacuum-fiber-fiber coupler (V-FFC) is tested with up to 16 kW sustained laser power and the design is flexible in terms of a wide variety of laser fiber plug systems and vacuum flanges. All that is needed to implement the V-FFC towards an existing or planned vacuum chamber is an aperture of at least 100 mm (4 inch) diameter with any type of vacuum or pressure flange. The V-FFC has a state-of-the-art safety interface which allows for fast fiber breakage detection for both fibers (as supported by fibers) by electric wire breakage and short circuit detection. Moreover, the System also provides connectors for cooling and electric signals for the laser beam optics inside the vacuum. The V-FFC has all necessary adjustment options for coupling the laser radiation to the receiving fiber.

  17. Wire bonding in microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Harman, George G

    2010-01-01

    Wire Bonding in Microelectronics, Third Edition, has been thoroughly revised to help you meet the challenges of today's small-scale and fine-pitch microelectronics. This authoritative guide covers every aspect of designing, manufacturing, and evaluating wire bonds engineered with cutting-edge techniques. In addition to gaining a full grasp of bonding technology, you'll learn how to create reliable bonds at exceedingly high yields, test wire bonds, solve common bonding problems, implement molecular cleaning methods, and much more. Coverage includes: Ultrasonic bonding systems and technologies, including high-frequency systems Bonding wire metallurgy and characteristics, including copper wire Wire bond testing Gold-aluminum intermetallic compounds and other interface reactions Gold and nickel-based bond pad plating materials and problems Cleaning to improve bondability and reliability Mechanical problems in wire bonding High-yield, fine-pitch, specialized-looping, soft-substrate, and extreme-temperature wire bo...

  18. OPGW光纤复合架空地线异常发热现场测量分析及仿真%On-site Measurement Based Analysis and Simulation of Abnormal Heating of Optical Fiber Composite Overhead Ground Wires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭向阳; 刘毅刚; 张穗强

    2012-01-01

    In allusion to the phenomenon of abnormal heating at the joint where the optical fiber composite overhead ground wire (OPGW) is connected to the truss of substation, the on-site measurement of the induced current and voltage of the grounding circuit of OPGW was performed, and based on the measured results the reason causing the abnormal heating was analyzed. Analysis results showed that the bad contact of OPGW with the truss made the grounding current of OPGW transferring to the circuit of tensional joint and the heating power was larger and concentrated. On this basis the simulation research on induced current of OPGW and heating power are conducted, and simulation results basically conform to the measured data. Research results show that power flow of transmission line, tower grounding resistance and contact resistance of the joint where OPGW is connected to the truss differently influence on the shunt of grounding current of OPGW and the heating power.%针对光纤复合架空地线foptical fiber composite overhead ground wire,OPGW)在变电站构架连接处的异常发热问题,对其接地回路感应电流、电压进行现场实测,分析出异常发热原因是构架处OPGW主接地不良导致接地电流转移至耐张连接回路,且发热功率较大及较集中。据此进一步开展OPGW感应电流、发热功率的仿真研究,仿真与实测数据基本吻合。研究表明线路负荷电流、杆塔接地电阻以及OPGW与构架连接接触电阻对OPGW接地回路分流及发热功率存在不同程度的影响。

  19. Influence of Microstructures and Textures on the Torsional Behavior of Pearlitic Wires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yandong LIU; Qiwu JIANG; Gang WANG; Yandong WANG; A.Tidu; Liang ZUO

    2005-01-01

    The microstructure, texture characteristics and torsion ability of two kinds of steel wires were investigated. The eutectoid steel wires were produced by hot and cold drawing with severe deformation. The torsinability of steel wires was measured under two cases, i.e. there exists either fiber texture or circular texture. The results showed that the torsional behavior of the steel wires was affected by their textures and microstructures. The {110} circular texture weakened the torsion ability of the wires. The torsion fracture behavior of {110} texture wires is related to the fact that only two slip systems were activated under simple shear strain deformation.

  20. Wire harness twisting aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, E. J.; Commadore, C. C.; Ingles, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Long wire bundles twist into uniform spiral harnesses with help of simple apparatus. Wires pass through spacers and through hand-held tool with hole for each wire. Ends are attached to low speed bench motor. As motor turns, operator moves hand tool away forming smooth twists in wires between motor and tool. Technique produces harnesses that generate less radio-frequency interference than do irregularly twisted cables.

  1. Water Desalination with Wires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porada, S.; Sales, B.B.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Biesheuvel, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    We show the significant potential of water desalination using a novel capacitive wire-based technology in which anode/cathode wire pairs are constructed from coating a thin porous carbon electrode layer on top of electrically conducting rods (or wires). By alternately dipping an array of electrode

  2. Mechanical properties and aesthetics of FRP orthodontic wire fabricated by hot drawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, T; Watari, F; Yamagata, S; Kobayashi, M; Nagayama, K; Toyoizumi, Y; Nakamura, S

    1998-12-01

    The FRP wires 0.5 mm in diameter with a multiple fiber structure were fabricated by drawing the fiber polymer complex at 250 degrees C for an esthetic, transparent orthodontic wire. Biocompatible CaO-P2O5-SiO2-Al2O3 (CPSA) glass fibers of 8-20 microm in diameter were oriented unidirectionally in the longitudinal direction in PMMA matrix. The mechanical properties were investigated by 3-point flexural test. The FRP wire showed sufficient strength and a very good elastic recovery after deformation. Young's modulus and the flexural load at deflection 1 mm were nearly independent of the fiber diameter and linearly increased with the fiber fraction. The dependence on fiber fraction obeys well the rule of mixture. This FRP wire could cover the range of strength corresponding to the conventional metal orthodontic wires from Ni-Ti used in the initial stage of orthodontic treatments to Co-Cr used in the final stage by changing the volume ratio of glass fibers with the same external diameter. The estheticity in external appearance was excellent. Thus the new FRP wire can satisfy both mechanical properties necessary for an orthodontic wire and enough estheticity, which was not possible for the conventional metal wire.

  3. Effect of wire shape on wire array discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimomura, N.; Tanaka, Y.; Yushita, Y.; Nagata, M. [University of Tokushima, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Tokushima (Japan); Teramoto, Y.; Katsuki, S.; Akiyama, H. [Kumamoto University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    Although considerable investigations have been reported on z-pinches to achieve nuclear fusion, little attention has been given from the point of view of how a wire array consisting of many parallel wires explodes. Instability existing in the wire array discharge has been shown. In this paper, the effect of wire shape in the wire array on unstable behavior of the wire array discharge is represented by numerical analysis. The claws on the wire formed in installation of wire may cause uniform current distribution on wire array. The effect of error of wire diameter in production is computed by Monte Carlo Method. (author)

  4. PS wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    A wire chamber used at CERN's Proton Synchrotron accelerator in the 1970s. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  5. 单玻亚胺薄膜烧结电磁线在高压电机上的应用%An Application of Rectanglar Copper Winding Wire Covered withSingle Glass-Fiber and Plyimide/F46 Film to a High Voltage Motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兴斌; 宋卫华; 田国群; 陈红伟

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies the application of a new copper winding wire covered with glass-fiber and polyimide/F46 film to 1 M J-7 motor insulating system. Amnumber of analyses and tests indicates that the windingwire is suitable for the motor. Compared with the formerly winding wire,some properties and processabilityare improved.%本文对引进的德国西门子公司1MJ-7结构电机所用的原材料国产化时出现的不足之处进行了分析,结合制造工艺特点和烧结线特性,进行了一系列试验和研究,找出了合适的电磁线并弥补了原引进绝缘结构和制造中的缺陷。

  6. Fiber draw synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orf, Nicholas D.; Shapira, Ofer; Sorin, Fabien; Danto, Sylvain; Baldo, Marc A.; Joannopoulos, John D.; Fink, Yoel

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis of a high-melting temperature semiconductor in a low-temperature fiber drawing process is demonstrated, substantially expanding the set of materials that can be incorporated into fibers. Reagents in the solid state are arranged in proximate domains within a fiber preform. The preform is fluidized at elevated temperatures and drawn into fiber, reducing the lateral dimensions and bringing the domains into intimate contact to enable chemical reaction. A polymer preform containing a thin layer of selenium contacted by tin–zinc wires is drawn to yield electrically contacted crystalline ZnSe domains of sub-100-nm scales. The in situ synthesized compound semiconductor becomes the basis for an electronic heterostructure diode of arbitrary length in the fiber. The ability to synthesize materials within fibers while precisely controlling their geometry and electrical connectivity at submicron scales presents new opportunities for increasing the complexity and functionality of fiber structures.

  7. 30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 77.1802 Section 77.1802... Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare..., and bare signal wires shall be adequately guarded: (a) At all points where men are required to work or...

  8. Vibrating wire alignment technique

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao-Long, Wang; lei, Wu; Chun-Hua, Li

    2013-01-01

    Vibrating wire alignment technique is a kind of method which through measuring the spatial distribution of magnetic field to do the alignment and it can achieve very high alignment accuracy. Vibrating wire alignment technique can be applied for magnet fiducialization and accelerator straight section components alignment, it is a necessary supplement for conventional alignment method. This article will systematically expound the international research achievements of vibrating wire alignment technique, including vibrating wire model analysis, system frequency calculation, wire sag calculation and the relation between wire amplitude and magnetic induction intensity. On the basis of model analysis this article will introduce the alignment method which based on magnetic field measurement and the alignment method which based on amplitude and phase measurement. Finally, some basic questions will be discussed and the solutions will be given.

  9. Wire + Arc Additive Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Stewart W.; Martina, Filomeno; Addison, Adrian C.; Ding, Jialuo; Pardal, Goncalo; Colegrove, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Depositing large components (>10 kg) in titanium, aluminium, steel and other metals is possible using Wire + Arc Additive Manufacturing. This technology adopts arc welding tools and wire as feedstock for additive manufacturing purposes. High deposition rates, low material and equipment costs, and good structural integrity make Wire+Arc Additive Manufacturing a suitable candidate for replacing the current method of manufacturing from solid billets or large forgings, especially with regards to ...

  10. Charpak hemispherical wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    pieces. Mesures are of the largest one. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  11. Photovoltaic Wire Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will investigate a new architecture for photovoltaic devices based on nanotechnology: photovoltaic wire. The...

  12. On-Wire Lithography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lidong Qin; Sungho Park; Ling Huang; Chad A. Mirkin

    2005-01-01

    .... This procedure, termed on-wire lithography, combines advances in template-directed synthesis of nanowires with electrochemical deposition and wet-chemical etching and allows routine fabrication...

  13. 1998 wire development workshop proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This report consists of vugraphs of the presentations at the conference. The conference was divided into the following sessions: (1) First Generation Wire Development: Status and Issues; (2) First Generation Wire in Pre-Commercial Prototypes; (3) Second Generation Wire Development: Private Sector Progress and Issues; (4) Second Generation Wire Development: Federal Laboratories; and (5) Fundamental Research Issues for HTS Wire Development.

  14. Corrosion Preventative Compounds (CPCs) Effect on Aircraft Electrical Wiring Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Electrical Wiring Components TR285HN301 Final Report Revision: - • Fretting research project was performed on nano -miniature connectors...CPCs, including gold plated edge card connectors, electrical connectors, tin plated pins, nano -miniature connectors. Current Air Force and NAVAIR...early 1980’s on many Navy aircraft. The Navy’s standard wire type. M5086/2-20 c Polyvinyl chloride, polyamide jacket, glass fiber braid ( PVC /glass

  15. Wire Array Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Evans, Dan

    Over the past five years, the cost of solar panels has dropped drastically and, in concert, the number of installed modules has risen exponentially. However, solar electricity is still more than twice as expensive as electricity from a natural gas plant. Fortunately, wire array solar cells have emerged as a promising technology for further lowering the cost of solar. Si wire array solar cells are formed with a unique, low cost growth method and use 100 times less material than conventional Si cells. The wires can be embedded in a transparent, flexible polymer to create a free-standing array that can be rolled up for easy installation in a variety of form factors. Furthermore, by incorporating multijunctions into the wire morphology, higher efficiencies can be achieved while taking advantage of the unique defect relaxation pathways afforded by the 3D wire geometry. The work in this thesis shepherded Si wires from undoped arrays to flexible, functional large area devices and laid the groundwork for multijunction wire array cells. Fabrication techniques were developed to turn intrinsic Si wires into full p-n junctions and the wires were passivated with a-Si:H and a-SiNx:H. Single wire devices yielded open circuit voltages of 600 mV and efficiencies of 9%. The arrays were then embedded in a polymer and contacted with a transparent, flexible, Ni nanoparticle and Ag nanowire top contact. The contact connected >99% of the wires in parallel and yielded flexible, substrate free solar cells featuring hundreds of thousands of wires. Building on the success of the Si wire arrays, GaP was epitaxially grown on the material to create heterostructures for photoelectrochemistry. These cells were limited by low absorption in the GaP due to its indirect bandgap, and poor current collection due to a diffusion length of only 80 nm. However, GaAsP on SiGe offers a superior combination of materials, and wire architectures based on these semiconductors were investigated for multijunction

  16. Antiferromagnetic Mn 50Fe 50 wire with large magnetostriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Aina; Ma, Tianyu; Zhang, Jingjing; Luo, Wei; Yan, Mi

    2009-11-01

    This work presents a study on the relation between the fiber texture and the magnetostrictive performance in an antiferromagnetic Mn 50Fe 50 alloy wire, which was prepared through the combining process of hot rolling and cold drawing. The face-centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure can be retained during the plastic deformation process. Mixed fiber textures consisting of both and components were formed along the drawing direction (DD) in the wire. A large magnetostriction of 750 ppm was obtained along DD under 1.2 T, which can be ascribed to the single γ phase and the formation of preferred crystal orientation.

  17. Carbon Fiber Damage in Accelerator Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Sapinski, M; Guerrero, A; Koopman, J; Métral, E

    2009-01-01

    Carbon fibers are commonly used as moving targets in Beam Wire Scanners. Because of their thermomechanical properties they are very resistant to particle beams. Their strength deteriorates with time due to radiation damage and low-cycle thermal fatigue. In case of high intensity beams this process can accelerate and in extreme cases the fiber is damaged during a single scan. In this work a model describing the fiber temperature, thermionic emission and sublimation is discussed. Results are compared with fiber damage test performed on SPS beam in November 2008. In conclusions the limits of Wire Scanner operation on high intensity beams are drawn.

  18. Cavitation during wire brushing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Zou, Jun; Ji, Chen

    2016-11-01

    In our daily life, brush is often used to scrub the surface of objects, for example, teeth, pots, shoes, pool, etc. And cleaning rust and stripping paint are accomplished using wire brush. Wire brushes also can be used to clean the teeth for large animals, such as horses, crocodiles. By observing brushing process in water, we capture the cavitation phenomenon on the track of moving brush wire. It shows that the cavitation also can affect the surface. In order to take clear and entire pictures of cavity, a simplified model of one stainless steel wire brushing a boss is adopted in our experiment. A transparent organic tank filled with deionized water is used as a view box. And a high speed video camera is used to record the sequences. In experiment, ambient pressure is atmospheric pressure and deionized water temperature is kept at home temperature. An obvious beautiful flabellate cavity zone appears behind the moving steel wire. The fluctuation of pressure near cavity is recorded by a hydrophone. More movies and pictures are used to show the behaviors of cavitation bubble following a restoring wire. Beautiful tracking cavitation bubble cluster is captured and recorded to show.

  19. Copper wire bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Chauhan, Preeti S; Zhong, ZhaoWei; Pecht, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    This critical volume provides an in-depth presentation of copper wire bonding technologies, processes and equipment, along with the economic benefits and risks.  Due to the increasing cost of materials used to make electronic components, the electronics industry has been rapidly moving from high cost gold to significantly lower cost copper as a wire bonding material.  However, copper wire bonding has several process and reliability concerns due to its material properties.  Copper Wire Bonding book lays out the challenges involved in replacing gold with copper as a wire bond material, and includes the bonding process changes—bond force, electric flame off, current and ultrasonic energy optimization, and bonding tools and equipment changes for first and second bond formation.  In addition, the bond–pad metallurgies and the use of bare and palladium-coated copper wires on aluminum are presented, and gold, nickel and palladium surface finishes are discussed.  The book also discusses best practices and re...

  20. Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of as-Drawn and Laboratory Annealed Pearlitic Steel Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durgaprasad, A.; Giri, S.; Lenka, S.; Kundu, S.; Mishra, S.; Chandra, S.; Doherty, R. D.; Samajdar, I.

    2017-10-01

    Near eutectoid fully pearlitic wire rod (5.5 mm diameter) was taken through six stages of wire drawing (drawing strains of 0 to 2.47). The as-drawn (AD) wires were further laboratory annealed (LA) to re-austenitize and reform the pearlite. AD and LA grades, for respective wire diameters, had similar pearlite microstructure: interlamellar spacing ( λ) and pearlite alignment with the wire axis. However, LA grade had lower hardness (for both phases) and slightly lower fiber texture and residual stresses in ferrite. Surprisingly, essentially identical tensile yield strengths in AD and LA wires, measured at equivalent spacing, were found. The work hardened AD had, as expected, higher torsional yield strengths and lower tensile and torsional ductilities than LA. In both wires, stronger pearlite alignment gave significantly increased torsional ductility.

  1. Fabrication of highly conductive carbon nanotube fibers for electrical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fengmei; Li, Can; Wei, Jinquan; Xu, Ruiqiao; Zhang, Zelin; Cui, Xian; Wang, Kunlin; Wu, Dehai

    2015-09-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have great potential for use as electrical wires because of their outstanding electrical and mechanical properties. Here, we fabricate lightweight CNT fibers with electrical conductivity as high as that of stainless steel from macroscopic CNT films by drawing them through diamond wire-drawing dies. The entangled CNT bundles are straightened by suffering tension, which improves the alignment of the fibers. The loose fibers are squeezed by the diamond wire-drawing dies, which reduces the intertube space and contact resistance. The CNT fibers prepared by drawing have an electrical conductivity as high as 1.6 × 106 s m-1. The fibers are very stable when kept in the air and under cyclic tensile test. A prototype of CNT motor is demonstrated by replacing the copper wires with the CNT fibers.

  2. Surface topography, hardness, and frictional properties of GFRP for esthetic orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inami, Toshihiro; Tanimoto, Yasuhiro; Yamaguchi, Masaru; Shibata, Yo; Nishiyama, Norihiro; Kasai, Kazutaka

    2016-01-01

    In our previous study, glass-fiber-reinforced plastics (GFRPs) made from polycarbonate and glass fiber for esthetic orthodontic wires were prepared by using pultrusion. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the surface topography, hardness, and frictional properties of GFRPs. To investigate how fiber diameter affects surface properties, GFRP round wires with a diameter of 0.45 mm (0.018 in.) were prepared incorporating either 13 μm (GFRP-13) or 7 μm (GFRP-7) glass fibers. As controls, stainless steel (SS), cobalt-chromium-nickel alloy, β-titanium (β-Ti) alloy, and nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) alloy were also evaluated. Under scanning electron microscopy and scanning probe microscopy, the β-Ti samples exhibited greater surface roughness than the other metallic wires and the GFRP wires. The dynamic hardness and elastic modulus of GFRP wires obtained by the dynamic micro-indentation method were much lower than those of metallic wires (p < 0.05). Frictional forces against the polymeric composite brackets of GFRP-13 and GFRP-7 were 3.45 ± 0.49 and 3.60 ± 0.38 N, respectively; frictional forces against the ceramic brackets of GFRP-13 and GFRP-7 were 3.39 ± 0.58 and 3.87 ± 0.48 N, respectively. For both bracket types, frictional forces of GFRP wires and Ni-Ti wire were nearly half as low as those of SS, Co-Cr, and β-Ti wires. In conclusion, there was no significant difference in surface properties between GFRP-13 and GFRP-7; presumably because both share the same polycarbonate matrix. We expect that GFRP wires will deliver superior sliding mechanics with low frictional resistance between the wire and bracket during orthodontic treatment.

  3. A comparison of wire- and Kevlar-reinforced provisional restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, D B; Nicholls, J I; Yuodelis, R A; Strygler, H

    1994-01-01

    Stainless steel wire 0.036 inch in diameter was compared with Kevlar 49 polyaramid fiber as a means of reinforcing a four-unit posterior provisional fixed restoration with 2 pontics. Three reinforcement patterns for wire and two for Kevlar 49 were evaluated and compared with the control, which was an unreinforced provisional restoration. A central tensile load was placed on the cemented provisional restoration and the variables were measured: (1) the initial stiffness; (2) the load at initial fracture; and (3) the unit toughness, or the energy stored in the beam at a point where the load had undergone a 1.0-mm deflection. Statistical analysis showed (1) the bent wire configuration had a significantly higher initial stiffness (P < or = .05), (2) there was no difference between designs for load at initial fracture, and (3) the bent wire had a significantly higher unit toughness value (P < or = .05).

  4. Preparation, characterization, and applications of a novel solid-phase microextraction fiber by sol-gel technology on the surface of stainless steel wire for determination of poly cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aquatic environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Es-haghi, Ali, E-mail: a.eshaghi@rvsri.ac.ir [Department of Physico Chemistry, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, PO Box 31975/148, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseininasab, Valiallah; Bagheri, Habib [Environmental and Bio-Analytical Laboratories, Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, PO Box 11365-9516, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: • A novel solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber was prepared using sol–gel technology. • Sol–gel coating was performed on stainless steel substrate. • The new fibers are robust and unbreakable with temperature stability. • The fibers were used for extraction of PAHs from aqueous samples. Abstract: A novel solid-phase microextraction(SPME) fiber was prepared using sol–gel technology with ethoxylated nonylphenol as a fiber coating material. The fiber was employed to develop a headspace SPME–GC–MS method suitable for quantification of 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water samples. Surface characteristics of the fibers were inspected by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy as well as by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The SEM measurements showed the presence of highly porous nano-sized particles in the coating. Important parameters affecting the extraction efficiency such as extraction temperature and time, desorption conditions as well as ionic strength have been evaluated and optimized. In the next step, the validation of the new method have been performed, finding it to be specific in the trace analysis of PAHs, with the limit of detection (LOD) ranging from 0.01 to 0.5 μg L⁻¹ and the linear range from the respective LOD to 200 μg L⁻¹with RSD amounting to less than 8%. The thermal stability of the fibers was investigated as well and they were found to be durable at 280 °C for 345 min. Furthermore, the proposed method was successfully applied for quantification of PAHs in real water samples.

  5. Distribution of wire deformation within strands of wire ropes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jun; GE Shi-rong; ZHANG De-kun

    2008-01-01

    Using ANSYS software, we developed a modeling program for several kinds of wire ropes with metal cores and built a geometric model for the 6x19 IWS wire rope. Through proper grid partitioning, a finite element model for calculating the deformation of wire rope was obtained. Completely constraining one end of the wire rope and applying an axial force to the other end, we established the boundary conditions for solving the model. In addition, we numerically simulated the stress and deformation of the wire, obtaining the deformation distribution of each wire within the wire rope under different laying directions.At the end, a tensile test of the 6x19 IWS wire rope was carried out and the results of simulation and experiment compared.

  6. Crystallographic Texture Difference Between Center and Sub-Surface of Thin Cold-Drawn Pearlitic Steel Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tian-Zhang; Zhang, Guang-Liang; Song, Hong-Wu; Cheng, Ming; Zhang, Shi-Hong

    2014-09-01

    The texture difference between the center and sub-surface of pearlitic steel wires, which were manufactured by continuous cold drawing, was investigated by orientation distribution function based on electron back-scattered diffraction at different drawing passes. A perfect fiber texture parallel to drawing direction develops gradually with drawing strain increasing at the wire center, while at the sub-surface, a quasi fiber texture with the orientation nearly parallel to the circumferential direction is found. This texture at the sub-surface is softer than the perfect fiber texture in tension. The reasons for this texture difference and influences on the wire's mechanical properties are discussed.

  7. Electric wiring domestic

    CERN Document Server

    Coker, A J

    1992-01-01

    Electric Wiring: Domestic, Tenth Edition, is a clear and reliable guide to the practical aspects of domestic electric wiring. Intended for electrical contractors, installation engineers, wiremen and students, its aim is to provide essential up to date information on modern methods and materials in a simple, clear, and concise manner. The main changes in this edition are those necessary to bring the work into line with the 16th Edition of the Regulations for Electrical Installations issued by the Institution of Electrical Engineers. The book begins by introducing the basic features of domestic

  8. Wiring and lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Kitcher, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Wiring and Lighting provides a comprehensive guide to DIY wiring around the home. It sets out the regulations and legal requirements surrounding electrical installation work, giving clear guidelines that will enable the reader to understand what electrical work they are able to carry out, and what the testing and certification requirements are once the work is completed. Topics covered include: Different types of circuits; Types of cables and cable installation under floors and through joists; Isolating, earthing and bonding; Accessory boxes and fixings; Voltage bands; Detailed advice on safe

  9. Modern wiring practice

    CERN Document Server

    Steward, W E

    2012-01-01

    Continuously in print since 1952, Modern Wiring Practice has now been fully revised to provide an up-to-date source of reference to building services design and installation in the 21st century. This compact and practical guide addresses wiring systems design and electrical installation together in one volume, creating a comprehensive overview of the whole process for contractors and architects, as well as electricians and other installation engineers. Best practice is incorporated throughout, combining theory and practice with clear and accessible explanation, all

  10. Practical wiring in SI units

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Henry A

    2013-01-01

    Practical Wiring, Volume 1 is a 13-chapter book that first describes some of the common hand tools used in connection with sheathed wiring. Subsequent chapters discuss the safety in wiring, cables, conductor terminations, insulating sheathed wiring, conductor sizes, and consumer's control equipments. Other chapters center on socket outlets, plugs, lighting subcircuits, lighting accessories, bells, and primary and secondary cells. This book will be very valuable to students involved in this field of interest.

  11. 3D Wire 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordi, Moréton; F, Escribano; J. L., Farias

    This document is a general report on the implementation of gamification in 3D Wire 2015 event. As the second gamification experience in this event, we have delved deeply in the previous objectives (attracting public areas less frequented exhibition in previous years and enhance networking) and ha......, improves socialization and networking, improves media impact, improves fun factor and improves encouragement of the production team....

  12. One-wire thermocouple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, W. D.; Staimach, C. J.

    1977-01-01

    Nickel alloy/constantan device accurately measures surface temperature at precise locations. Device is moderate in cost and simplifies fabrication of highly-instrumented seamless-surface heat-transfer models. Device also applies to metal surfaces if constantan wire has insulative coat.

  13. 46 CFR 111.60-6 - Fiber optic cable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fiber optic cable. 111.60-6 Section 111.60-6 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Wiring Materials and Methods § 111.60-6 Fiber optic cable. Each fiber optic cable must— (a)...

  14. Development of lightning-resistant overhead ground wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoya, Munehisa; Katsuragi, Yukio (Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., Nagoya (Japan)); Goda, Yutaka (Central Research Inst. of the Electric Power Industry, Yokosuka (Japan)); Nagata, Yutaka; Asano, Yuji (Fujikura Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-07-01

    Overhead ground wires (GW) are vulnerable to strand breakage due to lightning strikes. With the wider application in recent years of Composite Fiber Optic Ground Wire (OPGW), it becomes more important to protect GW from such damage. In this paper, the authors present the results of various investigations made in developing lightning-resistant GW/OPGW. Investigations included field experiments using rocket-triggered lightning, studies on materials and designs to improve lightning characteristics and various evaluation tests, such as DC arc tests, of several prototypes. As a result, the authors have developed excellent lightning-resistant GW/OPGW applicable for conventional transmission lines.

  15. Recrystallization and Grain Growth of 316L Stainless Steel Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiuyun; Liu, Yong; Wang, Yan; Feng, Ping; Tang, Huiping

    2014-07-01

    Recrystallization and grain growth behaviors of 316L stainless steel wires with a diameter of 12 µm were investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction techniques. Heavily cold-drawn wires were isothermally held at temperatures from 1073 K to 1223 K (800 °C to 950 °C) for various holding times. Optical microscopy and TEM observations showed that recrystallization grains have irregular shape and that twins exist. The texture formed during drawing and annealing processes of the wires, as measured by X-ray methods, showed a fiber texture approximated by a and a component. The value of the grain growth exponent n was calculated, and the kinetic rates were plotted using the Arrhenius equation. Results show that the activation energy of the grain growth for 316L stainless steel wire was determined to be 407 kJ/mol, which was much higher than that of the bulk 316L stainless steel. The small wire diameter and the existence of texture played important roles in the increase of the activation energy for grain growth of the wire.

  16. Wired to freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Kim Sune Karrasch; Bertilsson, Margareta

    2017-01-01

    of cochlear implantations among Danish users in order to shed more light on their social and political implications. We situate cochlear implantation in a framework of new life science advances, politics, and user experiences. Analytically, we draw upon the notion of social imaginary and explore the social...... dimension of life science through a notion of public politics adopted from the political theory of John Dewey. We show how cochlear implantation engages different social imaginaries on the collective and individual levels and we suggest that users share an imaginary of being “wired to freedom” that involves...... new access to social life, continuous communicative challenges, common practices, and experiences. In looking at their lives as “wired to freedom,” we hope to promote a wider spectrum of civic participation in the benefit of future life science developments within and beyond the field of Cochlear...

  17. From Wires to Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Amin, Mustafa A

    2015-01-01

    We provide a statistical framework for characterizing stochastic particle production in the early universe via a precise correspondence to current conduction in wires with impurities. Our approach is particularly useful when the microphysics is uncertain and the dynamics are complex, but only coarse-grained information is of interest. We study scenarios with multiple interacting fields and derive the evolution of the particle occupation numbers from a Fokker-Planck equation. At late times, the typical occupation numbers grow exponentially which is the analog of Anderson localization for disordered wires. Some statistical features of the occupation numbers show hints of universality in the limit of a large number of interactions and/or a large number of fields. For test cases, excellent agreement is found between our analytic results and numerical simulations.

  18. Twisting wire scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Gharibyan, V; Krouptchenkov, I; Nölle, D; Tiessen, H; Werner, M; Wittenburg, K

    2012-01-01

    A new type of 'two-in-one' wire scanner is proposed. Recent advances in linear motors' technology make it possible to combine translational and rotational movements. This will allow to scan the beam in two perpendicular directions using a single driving motor and a special fork attached to it. Vertical or horizontal mounting will help to escape problems associated with the 45 deg scanners. Test results of the translational part with linear motors is presented.

  19. Magnetoconductance of quantum wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Gerson J.; Sammarco, Filipe; Egues, Carlos

    2010-03-01

    At low temperatures the conductance of a quantum wires exhibit characteristic plate-aus due to the quantization of the transverse modes [1]. In the presence of high in-plane magnetic fields these spin-split transverse modes cross. Recently, these crossings were observed experimentally [2] via measurements of the differential conductance as a function of the gate voltage and the in-plane magnetic-field. These show structures described as either anti-crossings or magnetic phase transitions. Motivated by our previous works on magnetotransport in 2DEGs via the Spin Density Functional Theory (SDFT) [3], here we propose a similar model to investigate the magnetoconductance of quantum wires. We use (i) the SDFT via the Kohn-Sham self-consistent scheme within the local spin density approximation to obtain the electronic structure and (ii) the Landauer-Buettiker formalism to calculate the conductance of a quantum wire. Our results show qualitative agreement with the data of Ref. [2]. [1] B. J. van Wees et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 848 (1988). [2] A. C. Graham et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 226804 (2008). [3] H. J. P. Freire, and J. C. Egues, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 026801 (2007); G. J. Ferreira, and J. Carlos Egues, J. Supercond. Nov. Mag., in press; G. J. Ferreira, H. J. P. Freire, J. Carlos Egues, submitted.

  20. Dual wire welding torch and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, Fernando Martinez; Stump, Kevin S.; Ludewig, Howard W.; Kilty, Alan L.; Robinson, Matthew M.; Egland, Keith M.

    2009-04-28

    A welding torch includes a nozzle with a first welding wire guide configured to orient a first welding wire in a first welding wire orientation, and a second welding wire guide configured to orient a second welding wire in a second welding wire orientation that is non-coplanar and divergent with respect to the first welding wire orientation. A method of welding includes moving a welding torch with respect to a workpiece joint to be welded. During moving the welding torch, a first welding wire is fed through a first welding wire guide defining a first welding wire orientation and a second welding wire is fed through a second welding wire guide defining a second welding wire orientation that is divergent and non-coplanar with respect to the first welding wire orientation.

  1. Sliding mechanics of coated composite wires and the development of an engineering model for binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zufall, S W; Kusy, R P

    2000-02-01

    A tribological (friction and wear) study, which was designed to simulate clinical sliding mechanics, was conducted as part of an effort to determine the suitability of poly(chloro-p-xylylene) coatings for composite orthodontic archwires. Prototype composite wires, having stiffnesses similar to those of current initial and intermediate alignment wires, were tested against stainless steel and ceramic brackets in the passive and active configurations (with and without angulation). Kinetic coefficient of friction values, which were determined to quantify sliding resistances as functions of the normal forces of ligation, had a mean that was 72% greater than uncoated wire couples at 0.43. To improve analysis of the active configuration, a mathematical model was developed that related bracket angulation, bracket width, interbracket distance, wire geometry, and wire elastic modulus to sliding resistance. From this model, kinetic coefficients of binding were determined to quantify sliding resistances as functions of the normal forces of binding. The mean binding coefficient was the same as that of uncoated wire couples at 0.42. Although penetrations through the coating were observed on many specimens, the glass-fiber reinforcement within the composite wires was undamaged for all conditions tested. This finding implies that the risk of glass fiber release during clinical use would be eliminated by the coating. In addition, the frictional and binding coefficients were still within the limits outlined by conventional orthodontic wire-bracket couples. Consequently, the coatings were regarded as an improvement to the clinical acceptability of composite orthodontic archwires.

  2. Metering Wheel-Wire Track Wire Boom Deployment Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granoff, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA MMS Spin Plane Double Probe (SDP) Deployer utilizes a helical path, rotating Metering Wheel and a spring loaded Wire "Holding" Track to pay out a "fixed end" 57 meter x 1.5 mm diameter Wire Boom stored between concentric storage cylinders. Unlike rotating spool type storage devices, the storage cylinders remain stationary, and the boom wire is uncoiled along the length of the cylinder via the rotation of the Metering Wheel. This uncoiling action avoids the need for slip-ring contacts since the ends of the wire can remain stationary. Conventional fixed electrical connectors (Micro-D type) are used to terminate to operational electronics.

  3. YBCO Coated Conductor with an Integrated Optical Fiber Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan [American Superconductor Corporation, Devens, MA (United States); Rupich, Marty [American Superconductor Corporation, Devens, MA (United States); Schwartz, Justin [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2016-03-31

    The primary objectives of the Phase I Project was to develop a proof-of-principle for a concept of integrating an optical fiber sensor into the laminated 2G wire, there by producing a functionalized 2G wire with self-monitoring capabilities

  4. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF METALLIC WIRES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU XIANG; GU JI-HUA; CHU JUN-HAO

    2001-01-01

    The effect of radial thickness on the thermal conductivity of a free standing wire is investigated. The thermal conductivity is evaluated using the Boltzmann equation. A simple expression for the reduction in conductivity due to the increase of boundary scattering is presented. A comparison is made between the experimental results of indium wires and the theoretical calculations. It is shown that this decrease of conductivity in wires is smaller than that in film where heat flux is perpendicular to the surface.

  5. Oblique-incidence excitation of surface plasmon polaritons on small metal wires

    CERN Document Server

    Kriesch, Arian

    2008-08-13

    This work reports on the experimental investigation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) on cylindrical wires of small diameters. Applying a new technique that was developed by this group and recently reported, single wire and wire array samples of gold (Au) and silver (Ag) with small diameters 400nm < D < 3 mum and high aspect ratios <= 75000 in photonic crystal fibers and single hole capillaries are fabricated. Additionally, effective bulk metal wires of Au and Ag are created by a hybrid technique, including fiber tapering and magnetron sputter deposition for a large number of different diameters between 13 mum to 50 mum. The measurement of the absorption, corresponding to the excitation of SPP modes is realized with a new goniometer-based experimental setup for oblique incidence laser beam scattering at a single wavelength. A device is developed that allows a simultaneous measurement of the scattering amplitude in s- and p-polarization under varied incident angle. For comparison, a model for the di...

  6. Modeling of effects of matrix on actuation characteristics of embedded shape memory alloy wires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Xiao-long; ZHENG Yan-jun; CUI Li-shan

    2005-01-01

    Effects of matrix properties on the actuation characteristics of embedded shape memory alloy wires were studied. The coefficient of thermal expansion and the modulus of matrix have significant effect on the maximum recovery stress. The thermal strain rate of the SMA wires upon heating is more sensitive to the matrix properties than the stress rate does. Additional fibers embedded in the matrix have significant effect on the stress distribution between the SMA wires and the matrix, and thus affect the interface quality significantly. Fibers with negative thermal expansion coefficient are beneficial to the interface between shape memory alloy wires and the epoxy matrix. All conclusions based on the numerical modeling can find experimental supports.

  7. Large magnetostriction and structural characteristics of Fe{sub 83}Ga{sub 17} wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J.H. [School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Gao, X.X., E-mail: gaox@skl.ustb.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Xie, J.X. [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Institute of Advanced Materials and Technology, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhu, J.; Bao, X.Q. [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Yu, R.B. [School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2012-04-15

    The columnar-grained structure induced by directional solidification was beneficial to improve the deformability of Fe{sub 83}Ga{sub 17} alloy. Fe{sub 83}Ga{sub 17} wires with diameter of 0.5{approx}0.9 mm were prepared successfully by hot rotary swaging and warm drawing from the directional solidified rods. The magnetostriction and microstructure of the as-drawn and the annealed Fe{sub 83}Ga{sub 17} wires with diameter of 0.6 mm were investigated. Results demonstrated that the magnetostriction of Fe{sub 83}Ga{sub 17} wires depended on the microstructure and the fiber texture, which were controlled by heat treatment process. The maximum magnetostriction of 160 ppm was detected in the annealed wire, which has the ideal <100> fiber texture. The phase mixture of A2 containing heterogeneous modified-DO{sub 3} phase has beneficial effect on magnetostriction.

  8. Subminiature Hot-Wire Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, R. V.; Lemos, F. R.; Ligrani, P. M.

    1989-01-01

    Class of improved subminiature hot-wire flow-measuring probes developed. Smaller sizes yield improved resolution in measurements of practical aerodynamic flows. Probe made in one-wire, two-perpendicular-wire, and three-perpendicular-wire version for measurement of one, two, or all three components of flow. Oriented and positioned on micromanipulator stage and viewed under microscope during fabrication. Tested by taking measurements in constant-pressure turbulent boundary layer. New probes give improved measurements of turbulence quantities near surfaces and anisotropies of flows strongly influence relative errors caused by phenomena related to spatial resolution.

  9. Plasma Formation Around Single Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duselis, Peter U.; Kusse, Bruce R.

    2002-12-01

    At Cornell's Laboratory of Plasma Studies, single wires of various metals were exploded using a ˜250 ns pulser with a rise time of ˜20 A/ns. It was found that the wires first experience a resistive heating phase that lasts 50-80 ns before a rapid collapse of voltage. From that point on, the voltage across the wire was negligible while the current through the wire continued to increase. We attribute this voltage collapse to the formation of plasma about the wire. Further confirmation of this explanation will be presented along with new experimental data describing preliminary spectroscopy results, the expansion rate of the plasma, and current flow along the wire as a function of radius. The resistance of the wire-electrode connection will be shown to significantly affect the energy deposition. Various diagnostics were used to obtain these experiments. Ultraviolet sensitive vacuum photodiodes and a framing camera with an 8 ns shutter were used to detect and measure the width of the visible light emitted by the plasma. A special wire holder was constructed that allowed the transfer of current from the wire to the surrounding plasma to be observed.

  10. Texture development in Galfenol wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesenberg, A. J.; Restorff, J. B.; Wun-Fogle, M.; Sailsbury, H.; Summers, E.

    2013-05-01

    Galfenol (Fe-Ga alloy) wire fabrication provides a low cost alternative to directional solidification methods. This work evaluates the compositional dependence of the wire drawing suitability of Fe-Ga and characterizes the microstructural and magnetic properties of these wires. Wire has been produced with Ga contents between 10 at. % and 17 at. % to allow determination of the ductile to brittle transition (DTBT) in wire manufacture. Published results on chill cast bend specimens indicated that a DTBT occurs at roughly 15 at. % Ga. This DTBT was observed under tensile loading with a corresponding change in fracture behavior from transverse fracture to intergranular fracture. For improved magnetostrictive performance, higher Ga contents are desired, closer to the 17 at. % Ga evaluated in this work. Electron backscattered diffraction B-H loop and resonance measurements as a function of magnetic field (to determine modulus and coupling factor) are presented for as-drawn, furnace, and direct current (DC) annealed wire. Galfenol wire produced via traditional drawing methods is found to have a strong (α) texture parallel to the drawing direction. As-drawn wire was observed to have a lower magnetic permeability and larger hysteresis than DC annealed wire. This is attributed to the presence of a large volume of crystalline defects; such as vacancies and dislocations.

  11. Evaluation of Macrobend Loss on Long Distance Optical Ground Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. M. Salleh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bend loss is a kind of loss that contributes to the power attenuation which is caused by the bending of optical fiber. For long distance optical fiber, bending might occur at joining point as there are many joining points along the link. Studies related to bend loss always relate the effect of bend radius on bend loss value. There is no study that relates the value of loss that can be affected by other factors like the natural environmental conditions. In this study, the evaluation of bend loss on existing long distance Optical Ground Wire (OPGW was studied since the cable was exposed to any climate condition.

  12. Wiring regulations in brief

    CERN Document Server

    Tricker, Ray

    2012-01-01

    Tired of trawling through the Wiring Regs?Perplexed by Part P?Confused by cables, conductors and circuits?Then look no further! This handy guide provides an on-the-job reference source for Electricians, Designers, Service Engineers, Inspectors, Builders, Students, DIY enthusiastsTopic-based chapters link areas of working practice - such as cables, installations, testing and inspection, special locations - with the specifics of the Regulations themselves. This allows quick and easy identification of the official requirements relating to the situati

  13. Carbon Fiber Damage in Particle Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Dehning, B; Kroyer, T; Meyer, M; Sapinski, M

    2011-01-01

    Carbon fibers are commonly used as moving targets in beam wire scanners. The heating of the fiber due to energy loss of the particles travelling through is simulated with Geant4. The heating induced by the beam electromagnetic field is estimated with ANSYS. The heat transfer and sublimation processes are modelled. Due to the model nonlinearity, a numerical approach based on discretization of the wire movement is used to solve it for particular beams. Radiation damage to the fiber is estimated with SRIM. The model is tested with available SPS and LEP data and a dedicated damage test on the SPS beam is performed followed by a post-mortem analysis of the wire remnants. Predictions for the LHC beams are made.

  14. Corrosion of Wires on Wooden Wire-Bound Packaging Crates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Stan Lebow

    2015-01-01

    Wire-bound packaging crates are used by the US Army to transport materials. Because these crates may be exposed to harsh environments, they are dip-treated with a wood preservative (biocide treatment). For many years, zinc-naphthenate was the most commonly used preservative for these packaging crates and few corrosion problems with the wires were observed. Recently,...

  15. Soft magnetic wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, M.

    2001-06-01

    An overview of the present state of the art on the preparation techniques, outstanding magnetic properties and applications of soft magnetic micro and nanowires is presented. Rapid solidification techniques (in-rotating-water quenching and drawing methods) to fabricate amorphous microwires with diameter in the range from 100 down to 1 μm are first described. Electrodeposition is also employed to prepare composite microtubes (magnetic coatings) and to fill porous membranes (diameter of the order of 0.1 μm). Magnetic behaviours of interest are related to the different hysteresis loops of samples: square-shaped loops typical of bistable behaviour, and nearly non-hysteretic loop with well-defined transverse anisotropy field. The role played by magnetic dipolar interactions in the magnetic behaviour of arrays of micro and nanowires is described. A particular analysis is done on the giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) effect in the radio and microwave frequency ranges exhibited by ultrasoft microwires. Finally, a few examples of applications are introduced for magnetostrictive and non-magnetostrictive wires, they are: “magnetoelastic pens”, micromotors; DC current-sensors based on GMI, and sharpened amorphous wire tips in spin polarised scanning tunneling microscopy.

  16. Biodegradable magnesium wire promotes regeneration of compressed sciatic nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo-Han; Yang, Ke; Wang, Xiao

    2016-12-01

    Magnesium (Mg) wire has been shown to be biodegradable and have anti-inflammatory properties. It can induce Schwann cells to secrete nerve growth factor and promote the regeneration of nerve axons after central nervous system injury. We hypothesized that biodegradable Mg wire may enhance compressed peripheral nerve regeneration. A rat acute sciatic nerve compression model was made, and AZ31 Mg wire (3 mm diameter; 8 mm length) bridged at both ends of the nerve. Our results demonstrate that sciatic functional index, nerve growth factor, p75 neurotrophin receptor, and tyrosine receptor kinase A mRNA expression are increased by Mg wire in Mg model. The numbers of cross section nerve fibers and regenerating axons were also increased. Sciatic nerve function was improved and the myelinated axon number was increased in injured sciatic nerve following Mg treatment. Immunofluorescence histopathology showed that there were increased vigorous axonal regeneration and myelin sheath coverage in injured sciatic nerve after Mg treatment. Our findings confirm that biodegradable Mg wire can promote the regeneration of acute compressed sciatic nerves.

  17. BEPC II wire scanner system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUI Yan-Feng; WANG Lin; ZHAO Ying; YUE Jun-Hui; LI Xiao-Ping; CAO Jian-She; MA Li

    2010-01-01

    To monitor the beam profile at the end of the linac non-destructively,a wire scanner as a new diagnostic instrument was designed,manufactured and installed in 2007.Since then,several measurements have been carried out using this device.This paper describes the whole system of the wire scanner and the testing results.

  18. Wire and Packing Tape Sandwiches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Sandy

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how students can combine craft wire with clear packing tape to create a two-dimensional design that can be bent and twisted to create a three-dimensional form. Students sandwich wire designs between two layers of tape. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  19. Wire metamaterials: physics and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simovski, Constantin R; Belov, Pavel A; Atrashchenko, Alexander V; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2012-08-16

    The physics and applications of a broad class of artificial electromagnetic materials composed of lattices of aligned metal rods embedded in a dielectric matrix are reviewed. Such structures are here termed wire metamaterials. They appear in various settings and can operate from microwaves to THz and optical frequencies. An important group of these metamaterials is a wire medium possessing extreme optical anisotropy. The study of wire metamaterials has a long history, however, most of their important and useful properties have been revealed and understood only recently, especially in the THz and optical frequency ranges where the wire media correspond to the lattices of microwires and nanowires, respectively. Another group of wire metamaterials are arrays and lattices of nanorods of noble metals whose unusual properties are driven by plasmonic resonances. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. FIRAS wire grid characterization techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, Richard D.; Magner, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    Characterization techniques used to verify the quality and spectral performance of the large freestanding wire grid polarizing beamsplitters and input/output polarizers used in the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) are presented. The clear aperture of these grids is lined with 20.8 micron diameter gold coated tungsten wire, spaced 33 microns apart. The grid characteristics measured throughout fabrication and space flight qualification are the center to center wire spacing and wire plane flatness. Ideally, the wire grids should produce coherent wavefronts with equal reflectance and transmittance properties. When the spacing is inconsistent, these wavefront intensities are unequal, thus decreasing the efficiency of the grids and reducing the output signal of the FIRAS. The magnitude of the output interferogram is also reduced by incoherence in the interfering wave fronts caused by uneven flatness.

  1. Nano-storage wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Jun; Kim, Eunji; Kim, Daesan; Park, Juhun; Hong, Seunghun

    2013-08-27

    We report the development of "nano-storage wires" (NSWs), which can store chemical species and release them at a desired moment via external electrical stimuli. Here, using the electrodeposition process through an anodized aluminum oxide template, we fabricated multisegmented nanowires composed of a polypyrrole segment containing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecules, a ferromagnetic nickel segment, and a conductive gold segment. Upon the application of a negative bias voltage, the NSWs released ATP molecules for the control of motor protein activities. Furthermore, NSWs can be printed onto various substrates including flexible or three-dimensional structured substrates by direct writing or magnetic manipulation strategies to build versatile chemical storage devices. Since our strategy provides a means to store and release chemical species in a controlled manner, it should open up various applications such as drug delivery systems and biochips for the controlled release of chemicals.

  2. Fiber diffraction without fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, H-C; Schwander, P; Uddin, M; Saldin, D K

    2013-06-28

    Postprocessing of diffraction patterns of completely randomly oriented helical particles, as measured, for example, in so-called "diffract-and-destroy" experiments with an x-ray free electron laser can yield "fiber diffraction" patterns expected of fibrous bundles of the particles. This will allow "single-axis alignment" to be performed computationally, thus obviating the need to do this by experimental means such as forming fibers and laser or flow alignment. The structure of such particles may then be found by either iterative phasing methods or standard methods of fiber diffraction.

  3. Plasma chemistry in wire chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, J.

    1990-05-01

    The phenomenology of wire chamber aging is discussed and fundamentals of proportional counters are presented. Free-radical polymerization and plasma polymerization are discussed. The chemistry of wire aging is reviewed. Similarities between wire chamber plasma (>1 atm dc-discharge) and low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas, which have been more widely studied, are suggested. Construction and use of a system to allow study of the plasma reactions occurring in wire chambers is reported. A proportional tube irradiated by an {sup 55}Fe source is used as a model wire chamber. Condensable species in the proportional tube effluent are concentrated in a cryotrap and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Several different wire chamber gases (methane, argon/methane, ethane, argon/ethane, propane, argon/isobutane) are tested and their reaction products qualitatively identified. For all gases tested except those containing methane, use of hygroscopic filters to remove trace water and oxygen contaminants from the gas resulted in an increase in the average molecular weight of the products, consistent with results from low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas. It is suggested that because water and oxygen inhibit polymer growth in the gas phase that they may also reduce polymer deposition in proportional tubes and therefore retard wire aging processes. Mechanistic implications of the plasma reactions of hydrocarbons with oxygen are suggested. Unresolved issues in this work and proposals for further study are discussed.

  4. Effect of extrusion ratio on coating extrusion of Pb-GF composite wire by numerical simulation and experimental investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin; SUN Hong-fei; FANG Wen-bin

    2009-01-01

    The extrusion ratio is one of the key parameters for manufacturing the lead-glass fiber (Pb-GF) composite wire by coating extrusion. The effect of extrusion ratio on coating extrusion of Pb-GF composite wire was studied by finite element numerical simulation with the use of the DEFOEM simulation software. The simulation result shows that the higher the extrusion ratio, the higher the effective stress that the glass fiber bears during extrusion. It is also observed that the extrusion force increases with the increase of the extrusion ratio. The extrusion experiment of Pb-GF composite wire reveals that extrusion ratio is changed by changing the quantity of glass fiber and composite diameter. The rule that increasing the extrusion ratio enhances the coating speed limit suggests that the load on the glass fiber increases with increasing extrusion ratio. Both the simulation and the extrusion experiments show that the extrusion force increases with increasing extrusion ratio.

  5. Influence of Flaws of Wire Rod Surface, Inclusions and Voids on Wire Breaks in Superfine Wire Drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kazunari; Norasethasopon, Somchai; Shinohara, Tetsuo; Ido, Ryuta

    By means of the finite element analysis (FEA), this study analyzed wire breaks that occurred in the drawing fine wires containing flaws on the wire surface, inclusion and void. The deformation behavior of an inclusion was examined, in which the inclusion's location is assumed to be on the center axis of the wire, and the cause of wire breaks and their prevention method were clarified. It was found that an inclusion diameter/wire diameter ratio of 0.4 or higher increases the likelihood of wire breaks occurring. When the inclusion is not assumed to be in the center axis of the wire, it was also found that necking and wire breaks appear more frequently. FEA showed that a flaw grows with each processing step, when a small circumferential flaw is placed on the wire rod surface, and eventually becomes a surface defect, which is called a check mark in practice.

  6. Effect of heat treatment temperature on nitinol wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, S.; Schaffer, J. E. [Fort Wayne Metals Research Products Corporation, 9609 Ardmore Ave., Fort Wayne, Indiana 46809 (United States); Daymond, M. R. [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Queen' s University, Nicol Hall, 60 Union Street, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada); Yu, C. [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, 102249 Beijing (China); Ren, Y. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave, 433/D008, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2014-08-18

    In-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction has been used to study the influence of the heat treatment temperature on the subsequent micromechanical behavior of nitinol wire. It was found that increase in the heat treatment temperature rotated the austenite texture from the (332){sub B2} fiber towards the (111){sub B2} fiber, and the texture of the Stress-Induced Martensite phase changed from the (1{sup ¯}40){sub B19'} to the (1{sup ¯}20){sub B19'} fiber accordingly. Heat treatment at a low temperature reduces the internal residual strains in the austenite during super-elastic deformation and therefore improves the materials fatigue performance. The development of internal residual strains in austenite is controlled by transformation induced plasticity and the reversal martensite to austenite transformation.

  7. Effect of heat treatment temperature on nitinol wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, S.; Schaffer, J. E.; Daymond, M. R.; Yu, C.; Ren, Y.

    2014-08-01

    In-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction has been used to study the influence of the heat treatment temperature on the subsequent micromechanical behavior of nitinol wire. It was found that increase in the heat treatment temperature rotated the austenite texture from the {332}B2 fiber towards the {111}B2 fiber, and the texture of the Stress-Induced Martensite phase changed from the ( 1 ¯ 40)B19' to the ( 1 ¯ 20)B19' fiber accordingly. Heat treatment at a low temperature reduces the internal residual strains in the austenite during super-elastic deformation and therefore improves the materials fatigue performance. The development of internal residual strains in austenite is controlled by transformation induced plasticity and the reversal martensite to austenite transformation.

  8. Plasmon resonances on gold nanowires directly drawn in a step-index fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, H K; Lee, H W; Uebel, P; Schmidt, M A; Joly, N; Scharrer, M; Russell, P St J

    2010-08-01

    We report the successful production of high-quality gold wires, with diameters down to 260nm, by direct fiber drawing from a gold-filled fused-silica cane. The stack-and-draw technique makes it straightforward to incorporate a conventional step-index core, adjacent to the gold wire, in the cane. In the drawn fiber, strong coupling of light from the glass core to SPP resonances on the gold wire is observed at specific well-defined wavelengths. Such embedded wires have many potential applications, for example, as nanoscale electrodes, in nonlinear optical plasmonics, and as near-field scanning optical microscope tips.

  9. Cavity Mode Related Wire Breaking of the SPS Wire Scanners and Loss Measurements of Wire Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, Friedhelm; Jensen, E; Koopman, J; Malo, J F; Roncarolo, F

    2003-01-01

    During the SPS high intensity run 2002 with LHC type beam, the breaking of several of the carbon wires in the wire scanners has been observed in their parking position. The observation of large changes in the wire resistivity and thermionic electron emission clearly indicated strong RF heating that was depending on the bunch length. A subsequent analysis in the laboratory, simulating the beam by two probe antennas or by a powered stretched wire, showed two main problems: i) the housing of the wire scanner acts as a cavity with a mode spectrum starting around 350 MHz and high impedance values around 700 MHz; ii) the carbon wire used so far appears to be an excellent RF absorber and thus dissipates a significant part of the beam-induced power. Different wire materials are compared with the classical cavity mode technique for the determination of the complex permittivity in the range of 2-4 GHz. As a resonator a rectangular TE_01n type device is utilized.

  10. Cavity mode related wire breaking of the SPS Wire Scanners and loss measurements of wire materials

    CERN Document Server

    Roncarolo, Federico

    2003-01-01

    During the SPS high intensity run 2002 with LHC type beam, the breaking of several of the carbon wires in the wire scanners has been observed in their parking position. The observation of large changes in the wire resistivity and thermionic electron emission clearly indicated strong RF heating that was depending on the bunch length. A subsequent analysis in the laboratory, simulating the beam by two probe antennas or by a powered stretched wire, showed two main problems: i) the housing of the wire scanner acts as a cavity with a mode spectrum starting around 350MHz and high impedance values around 700 MHz; ii) the carbon wire used so far appears to be an excellent RF absorber and thus dissipates a significant part of the beam-induced power. Different wire materials are compared with the classical cavity mode technique for the determination of the complex permittivity in the range of 2-4 GHz. As a resonator a rectangular TE01n type device is utilized.

  11. Recent Advances in Holey Fibers and Their Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T. Hasegawa; T. Saitoh; D. Nishioka; T. Hosoya; E. Sasaoka

    2003-01-01

    Transmission loss of holey fiber is found to depend on its structure, and to be caused by Rayleigh scattering at glass surface. Under this loss dependence, most promising is optical wiring application, for which fiber designs to realize bend-insensitivity and single-modedness are presented.

  12. "Cut wires grating – single longitudinal wire" planar metastructure to achieve microwave magnetic resonance in a single wire

    OpenAIRE

    G. Kraftmakher; V. Butylkin

    2012-01-01

    Here we present metastructures containing cut-wire grating and a single longitudinal cut-wire orthogonal to grating’s wires. Experimental investigations at microwaves show these structures can provide strong magnetic resonant response of a single nonmagnetic cut-wire in dependence on configuration and sizes in the case when metastructures are oriented along the direction of wave propagation and cut-wires of grating are parallel to the electric field of a plane electromagnetic wave. It is sugg...

  13. Superconducting wires and fractional flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá de Melo, C. A. R.

    1996-05-01

    The quantization of flux quanta in superconductors is revisited and analyzed in a new geometry. The system analyzed is a superconducting wire. The geometry is such that the superconducting wire winds N times around an insulating cylinder and that the wire has its end connected back to its beginning, thus producing an N-loop short circuited solenoid. The winding number N acts as a topological index that controls flux quantization. In this case, fractional flux quanta can be measured through the center of the insulating cylinder, provided that the cylinder radius is small enough. The Little-Parks experiment for an identical geometry is discussed. The period of oscillation of the transition temperature of the wire is found to vary as 1/N in units of flux Φ relative to the flux quantum Φ0. When a SQUID is made in such a geometry the maximal current through the SQUID varies with period Φ0/N.

  14. Wire ropes tension, endurance, reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Feyrer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this book is to present the methods used to calculate the most important parameters for ropes, and to explain how they are applied on the basis of numerous sample calculations. The book, based on the most important chapters of the German book DRAHTSEILE, has been updated to reflect the latest developments, with the new edition especially focusing on computational methods for wire ropes. Many new calculations and examples have also been added to facilitate the dimensioning and calculation of mechanical characteristics of wire ropes. This book offers a valuable resource for all those working with wire ropes, including construction engineers, operators and supervisors of machines and installations involving wire ropes.

  15. Wire Jewelry/Black History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Robert A.; Robinson, Charles C.

    1984-01-01

    Described is a project which made the study of Black history more real to fifth graders by having them make wire jewelry, smaller versions of the ornate filigreed ironwork produced by slave blacksmiths. (RM)

  16. Dieless wire drawing with lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedl, G.; Schuöcker, D.

    2007-06-01

    Thin wires are produced by drawing through nozzle-like tools, so called dies, that suffer from strong wear due to friction. In order to avoid the latter disadvantage the dies can be replaced by a laser beam heating the wire to such extend that the yield strength becomes smaller than the tensile strength and thus the wire is elongated and consequently constricted. To avoid rupture, the wire is cooled down again after the desired reduction of the diameter is reached. A further important advantage of this new process is that only one drawing step with a laser can substitute a large number of mechanical drawing actions, thus making the process much more efficient. Theoretical considerations and experimental investigations prove the feasibility of the latter new laser process and are subject to a description in the actual paper.

  17. 49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... underground wire. 236.74 Section 236.74 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from mechanical injury. The insulation shall not be punctured for test purposes. Splice in underground wire shall have insulation...

  18. 49 CFR 234.241 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... underground wire. 234.241 Section 234.241 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... of insulated wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from mechanical injury. The insulation shall not be punctured for test purposes. A splice in underground wire shall have...

  19. Composite conductor containing superconductive wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, W.L.; Wong, J.

    1974-03-26

    A superconductor cable substitute made by coworking multiple rods of superconductive niobium--titanium or niobium--zirconium alloy with a common copper matrix to extend the copper and rods to form a final elongated product which has superconductive wires distributed in a reduced cross-section copper conductor with a complete metallurgical bond between the normal-conductive copper and the superconductor wires contained therein is described. The superconductor cable can be in the form of a tube.

  20. Method of manufacturing superconductor wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motowidlo, Leszek

    2014-09-16

    A method for forming Nb.sub.3Sn superconducting wire is provided. The method employs a powder-in-tube process using a high-tin intermetallic compound, such as MnSn.sub.2, for producing the Nb.sub.3Sn. The use of a high-tin intermetallic compound enables the process to perform hot extrusion without melting the high-tin intermetallic compound. Alternatively, the method may entail drawing the wire without hot extrusion.

  1. Topology Optimized Photonic Wire Splitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Borel, Peter Ingo; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard;

    2006-01-01

    Photonic wire splitters have been designed using topology optimization. The splitters have been fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material and display broadband low-loss 3dB splitting in a bandwidth larger than 100 nm.......Photonic wire splitters have been designed using topology optimization. The splitters have been fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material and display broadband low-loss 3dB splitting in a bandwidth larger than 100 nm....

  2. 1 mil gold bond wire study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huff, Johnathon; McLean, Michael B.; Jenkins, Mark W.; Rutherford, Brian Milne

    2013-05-01

    In microcircuit fabrication, the diameter and length of a bond wire have been shown to both affect the current versus fusing time ratio of a bond wire as well as the gap length of the fused wire. This study investigated the impact of current level on the time-to-open and gap length of 1 mil by 60 mil gold bond wires. During the experiments, constant current was provided for a control set of bond wires for 250ms, 410ms and until the wire fused; non-destructively pull-tested wires for 250ms; and notched wires. The key findings were that as the current increases, the gap length increases and 73% of the bond wires will fuse at 1.8A, and 100% of the wires fuse at 1.9A within 60ms. Due to the limited scope of experiments and limited data analyzed, further investigation is encouraged to confirm these observations.

  3. HTS Wire Development Workshop: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The 1994 High-Temperature Superconducting Wire Development Workshop was held on February 16--17 at the St. Petersburg Hilton and Towers in St. Petersburg, Florida. The meeting was hosted by Florida Power Corporation and sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Program for Electric Power Systems. The meeting focused on recent high-temperature superconducting wire development activities in the Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Systems program. The meeting opened with a general discussion on the needs and benefits of superconductivity from a utility perspective, the US global competitiveness position, and an outlook on the overall prospects of wire development. The meeting then focused on four important technology areas: Wire characterization: issues and needs; technology for overcoming barriers: weak links and flux pinning; manufacturing issues for long wire lengths; and physical properties of HTS coils. Following in-depth presentations, working groups were formed in each technology area to discuss the most important current research and development issues. The working groups identified research areas that have the potential for greatly enhancing the wire development effort. These areas are discussed in the summary reports from each of the working groups. This document is a compilation of the workshop proceedings including all general session presentations and summary reports from the working groups.

  4. Wire Scanner Motion Control Card

    CERN Document Server

    Forde, S E

    2006-01-01

    Scientists require a certain beam quality produced by the accelerator rings at CERN. The discovery potential of LHC is given by the reachable luminosity at its interaction points. The luminosity is maximized by minimizing the beam size. Therefore an accurate beam size measurement is required for optimizing the luminosity. The wire scanner performs very accurate profile measurements, but as it can not be used at full intensity in the LHC ring, it is used for calibrating other profile monitors. As the current wire scanner system, which is used in the present CERN accelerators, has not been made for the required specification of the LHC, a new design of a wire scanner motion control card is part of the LHC wire scanner project. The main functions of this card are to control the wire scanner motion and to acquire the position of the wire. In case of further upgrades at a later stage, it is required to allow an easy update of the firmware, hence the programmable features of FPGAs will be used for this purpose. The...

  5. Vibrating wires for beam diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Arutunian, S G; Wittenburg, Kay

    2015-01-01

    A new approach to the technique of scanning by wires is developed. Novelty of the method is that the wire heating quantity is used as a source of information about the number of interacting particles. To increase the accuracy and sensitivity of measurements the wire heating measurement is regenerated as a change of wire natural oscillations frequency. By the rigid fixing of the wire ends on the base an unprecedented sensitivity of the frequency to the temperature and to the corresponding flux of colliding particles. The range of used frequencies (tens of kHz) and speed of processes of heat transfer limit the speed characteristics of proposed scanning method, however, the high sensitivity make it a perspective one for investigation of beam halo and weak beam scanning. Traditional beam profile monitors generally focus on the beam core and loose sensitivity in the halo region where a large dynamic range of detection is necessary. The scanning by a vibrating wire can be also successfully used in profiling and det...

  6. A fiber-coupled quantum-dot on a photonic tip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cadeddu, Davide; Teissier, Jean; Braakman, Floris R.

    2016-01-01

    We present the experimental realization of a quantum fiber-pigtail. The device consists of a semiconductor quantum-dot embedded into a conical photonic wire that is directly connected to the core of a fiber-pigtail. We demonstrate a photon collection efficiency at the output of the fiber of 5.8% ...

  7. Connecting to Thermocouples with Fewer Lead Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsby, Jon C.

    2003-01-01

    A simple technique has been devised to reduce the number of lead wires needed to connect an array of thermocouples to the instruments (e.g., voltmeters) used to read their output voltages. Because thermocouple wires are usually made of expensive metal alloys, reducing the number of lead wires can effect a considerable reduction in the cost of such an array. Reducing the number of wires also reduces the number of terminals and the amount of space needed to accommodate the wires.

  8. Flexible fiber batteries for applications in smart textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Hang; Semenikhin, Oleg; Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate flexible fiber-based Al-NaOCl galvanic cells fabricated using fiber drawing process. Aluminum and copper wires are used as electrodes, and they are introduced into the fiber structure during drawing of the low-density polyethylene microstructured jacket. NaOCl solution is used as electrolyte, and it is introduced into the battery after the drawing process. The capacity of a 1 m long fiber battery is measured to be ˜10 mAh. We also detail assembly and optimization of the electrical circuitry in the energy-storing fiber battery textiles. Several examples of their applications are presented including lighting up an LED, driving a wireless mouse and actuating a screen with an integrated shape-memory nitinol wire. The principal advantages of the presented fiber batteries include: ease of fabrication, high flexibility, simple electrochemistry and use of widely available materials in the battery design.

  9. Fiber biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton fiber cells arising from seed epidermis is the most important agricultural textile commodity in the world. To produce fully mature fibers, approximately two months of fiber developmental process are required. The timing of four distinctive fiber development stages consisting of initiation, ...

  10. Experimental and numerical investigations of the texture evolution in copper wire drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Karthic R.; Sridhar, I.; Subbiah, S.

    2012-05-01

    Polycrystalline copper wires are drawn in a single and multiple step for the equivalent area reduction (RA) of ˜33% The single step and multiple step drawing process was simulated using a rate independent crystal plasticity with finite strain, which is implemented as a user routine in commercial finite element package ABAQUS. The texture of the copper wires were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and compared with the texture based finite element (FE) simulation predictions. Initial fiber decreases during the drawing process and is replaced by fiber. The oriented grains are predominant in a single step drawing compared to a multiple step of the equivalent area reduction. The finite element analysis takes into account active crystallographic slip and orientation effects during the drawing process. Regions at the interface of die-wire exhibited complex textures, which was widely seen in the multiple step drawing pattern.

  11. Effect of cumulative strain on texture characteristics during wire drawing of eutectoid steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, F. [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallic Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, NanJing, 211189 (China)], E-mail: yangfan.hit@gmail.com; Ma, C.; Jiang, J.Q. [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallic Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, NanJing, 211189 (China); Feng, H.P.; Zhai, S.Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2008-10-15

    The texture characteristics associated with plastic deformation of Fe-C steels near-eutectoid composition during a continuous cold drawing process were thoroughly investigated by orientation distribution function analysis based on X-ray diffraction. The effect of cumulative drawing strains on the <1 1 0> fiber texture in drawn hypereutectoid and hypoeutectoid steel wires was discussed.

  12. RADIO OVER FIBER TECHNOLOGY USING ELECTRO-ABSORPTION MODULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAURABH R. PRASAD

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The demand for bandwidth is increasing vigorously. Thus wired network is using fiber optic telephone line instead of coaxial cable. The concept of Fiber to the Home (FTTH is really coming into picture. Few countries like Japan, Korea etc are leading in this technology. But now the major challenge is how to provide the high speed internet connection wirelessly. Thus the change is to integrate the wireless and optical fiber communication.

  13. Distributed optical fiber dynamic magnetic field sensor based on magnetostriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoudi, Ali; Newson, Trevor P

    2014-05-01

    A distributed optical fiber sensor is introduced which is capable of quantifying multiple magnetic fields along a 1 km sensing fiber with a spatial resolution of 1 m. The operation of the proposed sensor is based on measuring the magnetorestrictive induced strain of a nickel wire attached to an optical fiber. The strain coupled to the optical fiber was detected by measuring the strain-induced phase variation between the backscattered Rayleigh light from two segments of the sensing fiber. A magnetic field intensity resolution of 0.3 G over a bandwidth of 50-5000 Hz was demonstrated.

  14. Transmission Performance Analysis of Digital Wire and Wireless Optical Links in Local and Wide Areas Optical Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mohamed, Abd El Naser A; Rashed, Ahmed Nabih Zaki; Nabawy, Amina E M El

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper, the transmission performance analysis of digital wire and wireless optical links in local and wide areas optical networks have been modeled and parametrically investigated over wide range of the affecting parameters. Moreover, we have analyzed the basic equations of the comparative study of the performance of digital fiber optic links with wire and wireless optical links. The development of optical wireless communication systems is accelerating as a high cost effective to wire fiber optic links. The optical wireless technology is used mostly in wide bandwidth data transmission applications. Finally, we have investigated the maximum transmission distance and data transmission bit rates that can be achieved within digital wire and wireless optical links for local and wide areas optical network applications.

  15. Californium Recovery from Palladium Wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Jon D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The recovery of 252Cf from palladium-252Cf cermet wires was investigated to determine the feasibility of implementing it into the cermet wire production operation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Radiochemical Engineering Development Center. The dissolution of Pd wire in 8 M HNO3 and trace amounts of HCl was studied at both ambient and elevated temperatures. These studies showed that it took days to dissolve the wire at ambient temperature and only 2 hours at 60°C. Adjusting the ratio of the volume of solvent to the mass of the wire segment showed little change in the kinetics of dissolution, which ranged from 0.176 mL/mg down to 0.019 mL/mg. A successful chromatographic separation of 153Gd, a surrogate for 252Cf, from Pd was demonstrated using AG 50x8 cation exchange resin with a bed volume of 0.5 mL and an internal diameter of 0.8 cm.

  16. Californium Recovery from Palladium Wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Jon D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The recovery of 252Cf from palladium-252Cf cermet wires was investigated to determine the feasibility of implementing it into the cermet wire production operation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Radiochemical Engineering Development Center. The dissolution of Pd wire in 8 M HNO3 and trace amounts of HCl was studied at both ambient and elevated temperatures. These studies showed that it took days to dissolve the wire at ambient temperature and only 2 hours at 60°C. Adjusting the ratio of the volume of solvent to the mass of the wire segment showed little change in the kinetics of dissolution, which ranged from 0.176 mL/mg down to 0.019 mL/mg. A successful chromatographic separation of 153Gd, a surrogate for 252Cf, from Pd was demonstrated using AG 50x8 cation exchange resin with a bed volume of 0.5 mL and an internal diameter of 0.8 cm.

  17. Formation quality optimization of laser hot wire cladding for repairing martensite precipitation hardening stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Peng; Feng, Zhenhua; Zheng, Shiqing

    2015-01-01

    Laser cladding is an advantaged repairing technology due to its low heat input and high flexibility. With preheating wire by resistance heat, laser hot wire cladding shows better process stability and higher deposition efficiency compared to laser cold wire/powder cladding. Multi-pass layer were cladded on the surface of martensite precipitation hardening stainless steel FV520B by fiber laser with ER410NiMo wire. Wire feed rate and preheat current were optimized to obtain stable wire transfer, which guaranteed good formation quality of single pass cladding. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize processing parameters and predict formation quality of multi-pass cladding. Laser power P, scanning speed Vs, wire feed rate Vf and overlap ratio η were selected as the input variables, while flatness ratio, dilution and incomplete fusion value as the responses. Optimal clad layer with flat surface, low dilution and no incomplete fusion was obtained by appropriately reducing Vf, and increasing P, Vs and η. No defect like pore or crack was found. The tensile strength and impact toughness of the clad layer is respectively 96% and 86% of those of the substrate. The clad layer showed nonuniform microstructure and was divided into quenched areas with coarse lath martensite and tempered areas with tempered martensite due to different thermal cycles in adjacent areas. The tempered areas showed similar hardness to the substrate.

  18. Creep of Refractory Fibers and Modeling of Metal and Ceramic Matrix Composite Creep Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, S.N.

    1995-01-01

    Our concentration during this research was on the following subprograms. (1) Ultra high vacuum creep tests on 218, ST300 and WHfC tungsten and MoHfC molybdenum alloy wires, temperature range from 1100 K to 1500 K, creep time of 1 to 500 hours. (2) High temperature vacuum tensile tests on 218, ST300 and WHfC tungsten and MoHfC molybdenum alloy wires. (3) Air and vacuum tensile creep tests on polycrystalline and single crystal alumina fibers, such as alumina-mullite Nextel fiber, yttrium aluminum ganet (YAG) and Saphikon, temperature range from 1150 K to 1470 K, creep time of 2 to 200 hours. (4) Microstructural evaluation of crept fibers, TEM study on the crept metal wires, SEM study on the fracture surface of ceramic fibers. (5) Metal Matrix Composite creep models, based on the fiber creep properties and fiber-matrix interface zone formation.

  19. A Study on Protection of Cables by Solkor Differential Protection Relay with Fibre Optic Pilot Wireor Metallic Pilot Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Rashad .E. Bakr

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to briefly compare the protection of buried three phase high voltage cable with Solkordifferential protection relay using metallic pilot wires orfibre optic pilot wires. Dielectric property of the fiber optic provides complete electrical isolation as well as interference free signaling. This provides total immunity from GPR (ground potential rise, longitudinal induction, and differential mode noise coupling andhigh-voltage hazards to personnel safety. So Fibre optic provides great advantage for Solkor differential protection relaying.

  20. Strong and tough magnesium wire reinforced phosphate cement composites for load-bearing bone replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Reinhard; Seitz, Jan-Marten; Ewald, Andrea; Bach, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Groll, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    Calcium phosphate cements are brittle biomaterials of low bending strength. One promising approach to improve their mechanical properties is reinforcement with fibers. State of the art degradable reinforced composites contain fibers made of polymers, resorbable glass or whiskers of calcium minerals. We introduce a new class of composite that is reinforced with degradable magnesium alloy wires. Bending strength and ductility of the composites increased with aspect ratio and volume content of the reinforcements up to a maximal bending strength of 139±41MPa. Hybrid reinforcement with metal and polymer fibers (PLA) further improved the qualitative fracture behavior and gave indication of enhanced strength and ductility. Immersion tests of composites in SBF for seven weeks showed high corrosion stability of ZEK100 wires and slow degradation of the magnesium calcium phosphate cement by struvite dissolution. Finally, in vitro tests with the osteoblast-like cell line MG63 demonstrate cytocompatibility of the composite materials.

  1. 30 CFR 57.12047 - Guy wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Underground § 57.12047 Guy wires. Guy wires of poles supporting high-voltage transmission lines shall meet the... “Safety Rules for the Installation and Maintenance of Electric Supply and Communication Lines”...

  2. Anode wire aging tests with selected gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadyk, J.; Wise, J.; Hess, D.; Williams, M. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

    1990-04-01

    As a continuation of earlier wire aging investigations, additional candidates for wire chamber gas and wire have been tested. These include the gases: argon/ethane, HRS gas, dimethyl ether, carbon dioxide/ethane, and carbon tetrafluoride/isobutane. Wires used were: gold- plated tungsten, Stablohm, Nicotin, and Stainless Steel. Measurements were made of the effects upon wire aging of impurities from plumbing materials or contamination from various types of oil. Attempts were made to induce wire aging by adding measured amounts of oxygen and halogen (methyl chloride) with negative results. In this paper, the possible role of electronegativity in the wire aging process is discussed, and measurements of electronegativity are made with several single carbon Freons, using both an electron capture detector and a wire chamber operating with dimethyl ether.

  3. Evaluation of high temperature stranded hookup wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, J. H.; Moore, H. J., Jr.

    1967-01-01

    Tests are performed on wire and insulation materials to determine selection for electronic space assemblies. Wire characteristics of tensile strength, flexibility, conductivity, and general workability are tested. Knowledge of the advantages and limitations of these materials should prevent overspecification.

  4. TCP/IP Over SpaceWire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, S.; Parkes, S.

    The SpaceWire standard defines a network designed for handling payload data and control information onboard a spacecraft. Among the goals of SpaceWire are re-usability and reliability. The use of network protocols on top of SpaceWire is expected to enhance the already rich re-usability and reliability characteristics of SpaceWire. The Space Systems Research Group at the University of Dundee have developed software to allow data to be sent over SpaceWire using standard network protocols such as TCP/IP, as part of a program of work looking at network protocols for SpaceWire. This paper describes network protocols and their relationship to SpaceWire, introduces software written to allow network protocols to be layered on to SpaceWire, describes the research behind the development of this software, and gives results of some tests and observations made using the software.

  5. Carbon nanotube and graphene nanoribbon-coated conductive Kevlar fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Changsheng; Lu, Wei; Zhu, Yu; Sun, Zhengzong; Yan, Zheng; Hwang, Chi-Chau; Tour, James M

    2012-01-01

    Conductive carbon material-coated Kevlar fibers were fabricated through layer-by-layer spray coating. Polyurethane was used as the interlayer between the Kevlar fiber and carbon materials to bind the carbon materials to the Kevlar fiber. Strongly adhering single-walled carbon nanotube coatings yielded a durable conductivity of 65 S/cm without significant mechanical degradation. In addition, the properties remained stable after bending or water washing cycles. The coated fibers were analyzed using scanning electron microcopy and a knot test. The as-produced fiber had a knot efficiency of 23%, which is more than four times higher than that of carbon fibers. The spray-coating of graphene nanoribbons onto Kevlar fibers was also investigated. These flexible coated-Kevlar fibers have the potential to be used for conductive wires in wearable electronics and battery-heated armors.

  6. Novel Wiring Technologies for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Tracy L.; Parrish, Lewis M.

    2014-01-01

    Because wire failure in aerospace vehicles could be catastrophic, smart wiring capabilities have been critical for NASA. Through the years, researchers at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) have developed technologies, expertise, and research facilities to meet this need. In addition to aerospace applications, NASA has applied its knowledge of smart wiring, including self-healing materials, to serve the aviation industry. This webinar will discuss the development efforts of several wiring technologies at KSC and provide insight into both current and future research objectives.

  7. Further Studies Of Hot-Wire Anemometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckenzie, Robert; Logan, Pamela; Bershader, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Report discusses factors affecting readings of hot-wire anemometer in turbulent supersonic boundary layer. Represents extension of work described in "Hot-Wire Anemometry Versus Laser-Induced Fluorescence" (ARC-11802). Presents theoretical analysis of responses of hot-wire probe to changes in flow; also compares measurements by hot-wire probe with measurements of same flows by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF).

  8. Different mechanical properties in Seldinger guide wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Schummer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Most central venous catheters are placed using Seldinger guide wires. EN ISO 11070 is the guideline for testing guide wire flexing performance and tensile strength, and we can safely assume that guide wires in use meet these requirements. Unfortunately, EN ISO 11070 guidelines do not reflect the clinical requirements and we continue to see mechanical failures and their associated complications. Material and Methods: This in vitro study was performed in an accredited laboratory. With regard to flexing, we: (1 Established the minimum flexing performance needed to meet clinical requirements, (2 developed flexing performance tests which mimic clinical requirement, and (3 evaluated the mechanical properties of various guide wires relative to these requirements. With regard to tensile strength, we used the testing method prescribed in ISO 11070, but did not end the test at 5 Newton (N. We continued until the guide wire was damaged, or we reached maximum tractive force. We then did a wire-to-wire comparison. We examined two basic wire constructions, monofil and core and coil. Results: Tensile strength: All wires tested, except one, met EN ISO 11070 requirements for 5 N tensile strength. The mean of the wire types tested ranged from 15.06 N to 257.76 N. Flexing performance: None of the wires kinked. The monofil had no evidence of bending. Two core/coil wires displayed minor bending (angle 1.5°. All other wires displayed bending angles between 22.5° and 43.0°. Conclusion: We recommend that: (1 Clinicians use guide wires with high-end mechanical properties, (2 EN ISO 11070 incorporate our flexing test into their testing method, raise the flexing requirement to kink-proof, (3 and raise the tensile strength requirement to a minimum of 30 N, and (3 all manufacturers and suppliers be required to display mechanical properties of all guide wire, and guide wire kits sold.

  9. Hollow-core infrared fiber incorporating metal-wire metamaterial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Min; Mortensen, Asger

    2009-01-01

    Infrared (IR) light is considered important for short-range wireless communication, thermal sensing, spectroscopy, material processing, medical surgery, astronomy etc. However, IR light is in general much harder to transport than optical light or microwave radiation. Existing hollow-core IR...

  10. One century of Kirschner wires and Kirschner wire insertion techniques : A historical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, Bas B. G. M.; Schuurman, Arnold H.; Van der Molen, Aebele Mink; Kon, Moshe

    2010-01-01

    A century ago, in 1909, Martin Kirschner (1879-942) introduced a smooth pin, presently known as the Kirschner wire (K-wire). The K-wire was initiallly used for skeletal traction and is now currently used for many different goals. The development of the K-wire and its insertion devices were mainly in

  11. Templated Chemically Deposited Semiconductor Optical Fiber Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Justin R.; Sazio, Pier J. A.; Gopalan, Venkatraman; Badding, John V.

    2013-07-01

    Chemical deposition is a powerful technology for fabrication of planar microelectronics. Optical fibers are the dominant platform for telecommunications, and devices such as fiber lasers are forming the basis for new industries. High-pressure chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) allows for conformal layers and void-free wires of precisely doped crystalline unary and compound semiconductors inside the micro-to-nanoscale-diameter pores of microstructured optical fibers (MOFs). Drawing the fibers to serve as templates into which these semiconductor structures can be fabricated allows for geometric design flexibility that is difficult to achieve with planar fabrication. Seamless coupling of semiconductor optoelectronic and photonic devices with existing fiber infrastructure thus becomes possible, facilitating all-fiber technological approaches. The deposition techniques also allow for a wider range of semiconductor materials compositions to be exploited than is possible by means of preform drawing. Gigahertz bandwidth junction-based fiber devices can be fabricated from doped crystalline semiconductors, for example. Deposition of amorphous hydrogenated silicon, which cannot be drawn, allows for the exploitation of strong nonlinear optical function in fibers. Finally, crystalline compound semiconductor fiber cores hold promise for high-power infrared light-guiding fiber devices and subwavelength-resolution, large-area infrared imaging.

  12. Long term attenuation measurements on optical ground wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamarche, L.; Gagnon, D.; Miron, M. [Hydro-Quebec, Varennes, Quebec1 (Canada)

    1996-11-01

    The attenuation stability of optical fibers integrated in optical ground wires (OPGW) cables over temperature and time is of paramount importance in the planning of long distance links. The authors report here a mean thermal attenuation dependence of 5.5{center_dot}10{sup {minus}5} dB/(km{center_dot}C) at 1,550 nm, on a 220 km span of dispersion shifted (DS) fibers of an installed OPGW cable. This optical link is installed in the James Bay region over a 735 kV power line where temperature varies from {minus}40 C to +30 C annually. The data sample presented covers 1.5 year starting December 1993. The data sample presented covers 1.5 year starting December 1993. During that period, the authors also observed a temporal evolution of the attenuation described by the empirical relation A = A{sub 0} (t{minus}t{sub 0}){sup 0.00394}.

  13. Dietary Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber is a substance in plants. Dietary fiber is the kind you eat. It's a type of carbohydrate. You may also see it listed on a food label as soluble ... types have important health benefits. Good sources of dietary fiber include Whole grains Nuts and seeds Fruit and ...

  14. Fiber Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    The chapter provides a discussion of optical fiber amplifiers and through three sections provides a detailed treatment of three types of optical fiber amplifiers, erbium doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA), Raman amplifiers, and parametric amplifiers. Each section comprises the fundamentals including t...

  15. The equipment for the preparation of micro and nanoscale metallic glassy fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, D W; Yi, J; Liu, G L; Sun, Y T; Zhao, D Q; Pan, M X; Bai, H Y; Wang, W H

    2014-10-01

    A supercooled liquid extraction method and apparatus for micro and nanoscale metallic glassy fiber preparation was developed. Using the fiber fabrication equipment, micro to nanoscale metallic glassy fibers with diameter ranging from 70 nm to 300 μm can be obtained by wire drawing in the supercooled liquid region of metallic glasses via superplastic deformation. The obtained metallic glassy fibers possess precisely designed and controlled sizes, high structural uniformity and high degree of surface smoothness.

  16. The equipment for the preparation of micro and nanoscale metallic glassy fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, D. W.; Yi, J.; Liu, G. L.; Sun, Y. T.; Zhao, D. Q.; Pan, M. X.; Bai, H. Y.; Wang, W. H.

    2014-10-01

    A supercooled liquid extraction method and apparatus for micro and nanoscale metallic glassy fiber preparation was developed. Using the fiber fabrication equipment, micro to nanoscale metallic glassy fibers with diameter ranging from 70 nm to 300 μm can be obtained by wire drawing in the supercooled liquid region of metallic glasses via superplastic deformation. The obtained metallic glassy fibers possess precisely designed and controlled sizes, high structural uniformity and high degree of surface smoothness.

  17. Getting "Wired" for McLuhan's Cyberculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurdo, George

    1995-01-01

    Examines the introduction of the computing magazine, "Wired", into the United Kingdom's (UK) market. Presents conversations with the founder and editorial staff of the UK edition, and discusses the accessibility of "Wired" via the World Wide Web. Describes 10 articles from United States "Wired" back-issues and…

  18. Generalized additional boundary conditions for wire media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maslovski, Stanislav I; Morgado, Tiago A; Silveirinha, Mario G [Departamento de Engenharia Electrotecnica, Instituto de Telecomunicacoes, Universidade de Coimbra, Polo II, 3030-290 Coimbra (Portugal); Kaipa, Chandra S R; Yakovlev, Alexander B, E-mail: stas@co.it.p [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677-1848 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    We generalize additional boundary conditions (ABCs) for wire media by including arbitrary wire junctions with impedance loading. Special attention is given to the conditions at the interface of two uniaxial wire media with metallic patches at the junction. The derived ABCs are validated against full-wave numerical simulations.

  19. 75 FR 4584 - Wire Decking From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... COMMISSION Wire Decking From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling... retarded, by reason of subsidized and less-than-fair-value imports from China of wire decking, provided for..., producers, or exporters in China of wire decking, and that such ] products are being sold in the...

  20. 49 CFR 393.28 - Wiring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wiring systems. 393.28 Section 393.28 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Electrical Wiring § 393.28 Wiring systems...

  1. The Effect of Type and Volume Fraction (Vf) of Steel Fiber on the Mechanical Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghanbarpour, S.; Mazaheripour, H.; Mirmoradi, S. H.;

    2010-01-01

    is to investigate the effects of type and volume fraction of steel fiber on the compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexural strength and modulus of elasticity of steel fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete (SFRSCC). Design/methodology/approach – For this purpose, Micro wire and Wave type steel fibers...

  2. Water Fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Douvidzon, Mark L; Martin, Leopoldo L; Carmon, Tal

    2016-01-01

    Fibers constitute the backbone of modern communication and are used in laser surgeries; fibers also genarate coherent X-ray, guided-sound and supercontinuum. In contrast, fibers for capillary oscillations, which are unique to liquids, were rarely considered in optofluidics. Here we fabricate fibers by water bridging an optical tapered-coupler to a microlensed coupler. Our water fibers are held in air and their length can be longer than a millimeter. These hybrid fibers co-confine two important oscillations in nature: capillary- and electromagnetic-. We optically record vibrations in the water fiber, including an audio-rate fundamental and its 3 overtones in a harmonic series, that one can hear in soundtracks attached. Transforming Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems [MEMS] to Micro-Electro-Capillary-Systems [MECS], boosts the device softness by a million to accordingly improve its response to minute forces. Furthermore, MECS are compatible with water, which is a most important liquid in our world.

  3. Energy Deposition in a Septum Wire

    CERN Document Server

    Ferioli, G; Knaus, P; Koopman, J; CERN. Geneva. SPS and LHC Division

    2001-01-01

    The present note describes a machine development (MD) aimed to confirm experimentally the need for protection of the extraction wire septum ZS in SPS long straight section LSS6 during LHC operation. Single wires identical to the ones mounted on the extraction septum were fixed on a fast wire scanner and put into the beam path. The beam heated the wire until it broke after a measured number of turns. The maximum single shot intensity the septum wires could withstand was thus calculated and compared with simulation results.

  4. Directional growth of polypyrrole and polythiophene wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Prem S.; Yu, Deok Jin; Wicksted, James P.; Hadwiger, Jeffrey A.; Barisci, Joseph N.; Baughman, Ray H.; Flanders, Bret N.

    2009-01-01

    This work establishes an innovative electrochemical approach to the template-free growth of conducting polypyrrole and polythiophene wires along predictable interelectrode paths up to 30 μm in length. These wires have knobby structures with diameters as small as 98 nm. The conductivity of the polypyrrole wires is 0.5±0.3 S cm-1; that of the polythiophene wires is 7.6±0.8 S cm-1. Controlling the growth path enables fabrication of electrode-wire-target assemblies where the target is a biological cell in the interelectrode gap. Such assemblies are of potential use in cell stimulation studies.

  5. Clinical bending of nickel titanium wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Chain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the evolution and the involvement of Nickel Titanium wires in the field of Orthodontics. The treatment plan has evolved with the use of low force Nickel Titanium wires. Because of their high springback, low stiffness, they are the key initial wires in leveling and alignment but have poor formability. Since poor formability limits its ability to create variable arch forms thus; limits the form of treatment. We have devised a method to bend the Nickel Titanium wires to help in our inventory but also customized the wire according to the treatment.

  6. New concepts and materials for the manufacturing of MR-compatible guide wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecher, Christian; Emonts, Michael; Brack, Alexander; Wasiak, Christian; Schütte, Adrian; Krämer, Nils; Bruhn, Robin

    2014-04-01

    This paper shows the development of a new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-compatible guide wire made from fiber-reinforced plastics. The basic material of the developed guide wire is manufactured using a specially developed micro-pullwinding technology, which allows the adjustment of tensile, bending, and torsional stiffness independent from each other. Additionally, the micro-pullwinding technology provides the possibility to vary the stiffness along the length of the guide wire in a continuous process. With the possibilities of this technology, the mechanical properties of the guide wire were precisely adjusted for the intended usage in MRI-guided interventions. The performance of the guide wire regarding the mechanical properties was investigated. It could be shown, that the mechanical properties could be changed independently from each other by varying the process parameters. Especially, the torsional stiffness could be significantly improved with only a minor influence on bending and tensile properties. The precise influence of the variation of the winding angle on the mechanical and geometrical properties has to be further investigated. The usability of the guide wire as well as its visibility in MRI was investigated by radiologists. With the micro-pullwinding technology, a continuous manufacturing technique for highly stressable, MRI-safe profiles is available and can be the trigger for a new class of medical devices.

  7. Composite wire plasma formation and evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spielman, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    The detailed understanding of the formation and evolution of plasma from rapidly heated metallic wires is a long-standing challenge in the field of plasma physics and in exploding wire engineering. This physical process is made even more complicated if the wire material is composed of a number of individual layers. The authors have successfully developed both optical and x-ray backlighting diagnostics. In particular, the x-ray backlighting technique has demonstrated the capability for quantitative determination of the plasma density over a wide range of densities. This diagnostic capability shows that the process of plasma formation is composed of two separate phases: first, current is passed through a cold wire and the wire is heated ohmically, and, second, the heated wire evolves gases that break down and forms a low-density plasma surrounding the wire.

  8. Adhesion between Epoxy-Polysulfone Blends and Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantseva, T. V.; Gorbatkina, Yu. A.; Kerber, M. L.

    2001-01-01

    The adhesive strength of a fiber-polymer interface is determined, where epoxy resin blends and linear heat-resistant thermoplastics - polysulfone (PSF) and polyetherimide (Ultem) - are used as matrices. Steel wire and polyamide (nylon-6) fibers are taken as reinforcing fillers. It is shown that the addition of PSF to epoxy resin results in a maximum on the concentration curve corresponding to a 10% PSF content. It is also found that the adhesive strength of the ED-20+Ultem-steel wire interface is practically independent of the modifier content under low (up to 10%) Ultem concentrations.

  9. Preparation of uncladded YBCO wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grader, G.; Cadoche, L.; Shter, G.

    1993-04-01

    Wires of YBCO, 1-5 mm in diameter, have been obtained by extrusion of an oxalate derived powder mixed with polyvinyl butyral (PVB) and two phthalate plasticizers. The densification and transport properties of the wires were investigated at various organic loading conditions. For YBCO powder prepared by oxalate coprecipitation and calcined at 930°C, the maximal strength, relative density and Jc were 20MPa, 92% and 400A/cm 2, respectively. Results show that after a 4-hour sintering at 955°C the tensile strength, density, and Jc are all maximized at a binder content of 3-4 wt.%. The loading of up to 10 wt.% dibutyl phthalate (DBP) plasticizer (in the binder) has little effect on the properties. Beyond this loading a drastic drop in Jc is observed. The densification was very poor for sinterings below 950°C, which was reflected by a lower critical current.

  10. Thermoprocessing and wire drawing behaviour of ultra high strength steel wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Bargujer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The thermo-processing of piano wire rods is carried out in the lead bath. This experimentation is carried out under industrial conditions. The investigation is done to examine the effect of austenitic time, lead bath time and wire diameter on mechanical properties of lead patented wire. The Taguchi technique is adopted for optimization of thermo-processing of hypereutectoid steel wires. The lead patented wire of diameter 7.00 mm is cold drawn in a sequence of conical converging dies. The best pass schedule of lead patented piano wire is obtained by optimizing the ultimate tensile strength and torsion strength of cold drawn wire. The characterization of wire drawing behaviour of lead patented wires is carried out using optical microscopy, scanned electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis techniques.

  11. Magnetic Field Measurements in Wire-Array Z-Pinches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Wasif; Hammer, David; Lipson, Michal

    2006-10-01

    Understanding the evolution of the magnetic field topology and magnitude in the high energy density plasmas produced by wire-array Z-pinches is of critical importance for their ultimate application to stockpile stewardship and inertial confinement fusion^1. A method to determine the magnetic field profile in megampere level wire-array Z-pinches with high spatial and temporal resolution is under development. An ideal method would be passive and non-perturbing, such as Faraday rotation of laser light. We are developing a method involving temporally-resolved Faraday rotation through a sensing waveguide placed in the vicinity of, and eventually in, a wire-array Z-pinch^2. We present measurements of the magnetic field outside of a wire-array, and progress on measurements within the array. Our ideal device is a ``thin film waveguide'' coupled to an optical fiber system. While these sensing devices may not survive for long in a dense Z-pinch, they may provide useful information for a significant fraction of the current pulse. We present preliminary theoretical and experimental results. 1. M. Keith Matzen, M. A. Sweeney, R. G. Adams et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 055503 (2005). 2. W. Syed, D. A. Hammer, M. Lipson, R. B. van Dover, AIP Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Dense Z-Pinches, University of Oxford, UK, July 25-28, 2005. *This research was sponsored by the National Nuclear Security Administration under the Stockpile Stewardship Academic Alliances program through DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-F03-02NA00057.

  12. SpaceWire Satellite Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Figure 1. SpaceWire Topologies 309 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of...RS422 Hosted Payload data interface Joint  Architeccture  Standards Sandia,  LANL control interface; backplane sRIO, PCIe Common standards for joint

  13. Concept of porous wire anemometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afgan, N.H.; Pereira, J.C. [Inst. Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal); Leontiev, A.I.; Puzach, S.V. [Moscow Technical Univ. (Russian Federation)

    1997-05-01

    The paper presents a new scheme of the anemometer sensing element for the gas mean and fluctuation velocity measurement. The sensing element is a porous tube with gas suction through porous tube wall. The outside surface of the porous tube is at the gas temperature. The analysis, based on the heat balance at steady and unsteady state is performed in order to define the sensitivity and time constant of the porous sensing element. Two cases are considered, namely, the constant current and constant temperature anemometer. Comparison is made with the solid wire anemometer and shown that the proposed porous sensing element can have sensitivity four times higher than the standard hot wire anemometer with the same geometrical dimensions. With the respective selection of the physical properties of the sensing element, it could be possible to obtain higher frequency range of the measurement. Particular attention is devoted to the low gas velocity measurement. It is recognized that the minimum gas velocity to be measured with the solid hot wire anemometer is determined by the local heat transfer coefficient. For the low gas velocity, it was proved that the minimum is around .20 cm/sec. The proposed concept of the sensing element can be used for the very low velocity measurement due to the higher sensitivity obtained by the porous sensing element.

  14. Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer with Shredded Fibers: Quasi-Isotropic Material Properties and Antenna Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Artner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP laminate, with the top layer consisting of shredded fibers, is proposed and manufactured. The shredded fibers are aligned randomly on the surface to achieve a more isotropic conductivity, as is desired in antenna applications. Moreover, fiber shreds can be recycled from carbon fiber composites. Conductivity, permittivity, and permeability are obtained with the Nicolson-Ross-Weir method from material samples measured inside rectangular waveguides in the frequency range of 4 to 6 GHz. The decrease in material anisotropy results in negligible influence on antennas. This is shown by measuring the proposed CFRP as ground plane material for both a narrowband wire monopole antenna for 5.9 GHz and an ultrawideband conical monopole antenna for 1–10 GHz. For comparison, all measurements are repeated with a twill-weave CFRP.

  15. "Cut wires grating – single longitudinal wire" planar metastructure to achieve microwave magnetic resonance in a single wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kraftmakher

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Here we present metastructures containing cut-wire grating and a single longitudinal cut-wire orthogonal to grating’s wires. Experimental investigations at microwaves show these structures can provide strong magnetic resonant response of a single nonmagnetic cut-wire in dependence on configuration and sizes in the case when metastructures are oriented along the direction of wave propagation and cut-wires of grating are parallel to the electric field of a plane electromagnetic wave. It is suggested a concept of magnetic response based on antiparallel resonant currents excited by magnetic field of surface polaritons in many spatial LC-circuits created from cut-wire pairs of a grating and section of longitudinal cut-wire. Three separately observed resonant effects connected with grating, LC-circuits and with longitudinal cut-wire have been identified applying measurements in waveguides, cutoff waveguides and free space. To tune and mark resonance split cut-wires are loaded with varactor diodes.

  16. EFFECTS OF WIRE LAG IN WIRE ELECTRICAL DISCHARGE MACHINING (WEDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. SINHA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available WEDM is very useful wherever complex geometry with tight tolerances needs to be generated on hard materials. In view of modern and sophisticated technology readily available these days, the expectation of accuracy in WEDM is ever-increasing, and therefore, techniques for the improvement in WEDM must be developed. The main cause of inaccuracy is wire-lag, the cause and effect of which is described in the present work, along with a technique to obviate the problem in straight cutting. In a subsequent paper, a software approach (since the problem gets too complicated for improvement of accuracy in contour cutting is described.

  17. Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Chui, S T

    2013-01-01

    Despite the recent development and interest in the photonics of metallic wire structures, the relatively simple concepts and physics often remain obscured or poorly explained to those who do not specialize in the field. Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures provides a clear and coherent guide to understanding these phenomena without excessive numerical calculations.   Including both background material and detailed derivations of the various different formulae applied, Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures describes how to extend basic circuit theory relating to voltages, currents, and resistances of metallic wire networks to include situations where the currents are no longer spatially uniform along the wire. This lays a foundation for a deeper understanding of the many new phenomena observed in meta-electromagnetic materials.   Examples of applications are included to support this new approach making Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures a comprehensive and ...

  18. Phosphorus in antique iron music wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodway, M

    1987-05-22

    Harpsichords and other wire-strung musical instruments were made with longer strings about the beginning of the 17th century. This change required stronger music wire. Although these changes coincided with the introduction of the first mass-produced steel (iron alloyed with carbon), carbon was not found in samples of antique iron harpsichord wire. The wire contained an amount of phosphorus sufficient to have impeded its conversion to steel, and may have been drawn from iron rejected for this purpose. The method used to select pig iron for wire drawing ensured the highest possible phosphorus content at a time when its presence in iron was unsuspected. Phosphorus as an alloying element has had the reputation for making steel brittle when worked cold. Nevertheless, in replicating the antique wire, it was found that lowcarbon iron that contained 0.16 percent phosphorus was easily drawn to appropriate gauges and strengths for restringing antique harpsichords.

  19. Porous, single crystalline titanium nitride nanoplates grown on carbon fibers: excellent counter electrodes for low-cost, high performance, fiber-shaped dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Dai, Hui; Zhou, Yong; Hu, Yingjie; Yu, Tao; Liu, Jianguo; Zou, Zhigang

    2014-11-28

    An excellent, platinum free fiber counter electrode (CE) was successfully fabricated, consisting of porous, single crystalline titanium nitride (TiN) nanoplates grown on carbon fibers (CF). The fiber-shaped dye-sensitized solar cells (FDSSCs) based on the TiN-CF CE show a high conversion efficiency of 7.20%, comparable or even superior to that of the Pt wire (6.23%).

  20. Microstructural evolution and deformation behavior of twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steel during wire drawing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Joong-Ki [Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Steel Products Research Group, Technical Research Laboratories, POSCO, Pohang 790-785 (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Il-Cheol [Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Son, Il-Heon; Yoo, Jang-Yong [Steel Products Research Group, Technical Research Laboratories, POSCO, Pohang 790-785 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byoungkoo [Materials Technology Development Team, DHIC, Changwon 642-792 (Korea, Republic of); Zargaran, A. [Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Nack J., E-mail: njkim@postech.ac.kr [Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-17

    The effect of wire drawing on the microstructural evolution and deformation behavior of Fe–Mn–Al–C twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steel has been investigated. The inhomogeneities of the stress state, texture, microstructure, and mechanical properties were clarified over the cross section of drawn wire with the aid of numerical simulation, Schmid factor analysis, and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) techniques. The analysis of texture in drawn wire shows that a mixture of <111> and <100> fiber texture was developed with strain; however, the distribution of <111> and <100> fibers was inhomogeneous along the radial direction of wire due to uneven strain distribution and different stress state along the radial direction. It has also been shown that the morphology, volume fraction, and variant system of twins as well as twinning rate were dependent on the imposed stress state. The surface area was subjected to larger strain and more complex stress state involving compression, shear, and tension than the center area, resulting in a larger twin volume fraction and more twin variants in the former than in the latter at all the strain levels. While the surface area was saturated with twins at an early stage of drawing, the center area was not saturated with twins even at fracture, implying that the fracture of wire were initiated at the surface area because of the exhaustion of ductility due to twinning. Based on these results, it is suggested that imposing a uniform strain distribution along the radial direction of wire by the control of processing conditions such as die angle and amount of reduction per pass is necessary to increase the drawing limit of TWIP steel.

  1. Multi-service small-cell cloud wired/wireless access network based on tunable optical frequency comb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yu; Zhou, Kun; Yang, Liu; Pan, Lei; Liao, Zhen-wan; Zhang, Qiang

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a novel multi-service wired/wireless integrated access architecture of cloud radio access network (C-RAN) based on radio-over-fiber passive optical network (RoF-PON) system, which utilizes scalable multiple- frequency millimeter-wave (MF-MMW) generation based on tunable optical frequency comb (TOFC). In the baseband unit (BBU) pool, the generated optical comb lines are modulated into wired, RoF and WiFi/WiMAX signals, respectively. The multi-frequency RoF signals are generated by beating the optical comb line pairs in the small cell. The WiFi/WiMAX signals are demodulated after passing through the band pass filter (BPF) and band stop filter (BSF), respectively, whereas the wired signal can be received directly. The feasibility and scalability of the proposed multi-service wired/wireless integrated C-RAN are confirmed by the simulations.

  2. Wire frame to MOVIE. BYU transfer program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, D.; Byers, L.D.; Benner, M.S.

    1982-12-01

    At SNLA, the primary computer-aided drafting tool is the Applicon Graphics System (AGS). The data base for mechanical parts on the AGS is a wire frame model. This report summarizes a method of adding surface information to the wire frame and passing this information up stream to MOVIE.BYU which is on a VAX computer and is used to produce shaded graphics pictures of the AGS wire frame model on a RAMTEK 9400 display terminal.

  3. Subchannel Analysis of Wire Wrapped SCWR Assembly

    OpenAIRE

    Jianqiang Shan; Henan Wang; Wei Liu; Linxing Song; Xuanxiang Chen; Yang Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Application of wire wrap spacers in SCWR can reduce pressure drop and obtain better mixing capability. As a consequence, the required coolant pumping power is decreased and the coolant temperature profile inside the fuel bundle is flattened which will obviously decrease the peak cladding temperature. The distributed resistance model for wire wrap was developed and implemented in ATHAS subchannel analysis code. The HPLWR wire wrapped assembly was analyzed. The results show that: (1) the assemb...

  4. Development of Intercalated Wire and Cable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    size because of longitudinal splitting. Attempts have been made to 2 substitute wire drawing for the swaging (7) but these have been unsuccessful. It...appears that the radial pressure of the swaging may be an essential ingredient to the process and that the longitudinal tension of wire drawing causes...conductivity. It is possible that the high pressures encountered in swaging as opposed to wire drawing , for instance, are a significant factor. High

  5. Nondestructive Evaluation of Aircraft and Spacecraft Wiring

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, John E.; Tucholski, Edward J.; Green, Robert E., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Spacecraft, and especially aircraft, often fry well past their original design lives and, therefore, the need to develop nondestructive evaluation procedures for inspection of vital structures in these craft is extremely important. One of the more recent problems is the degradation of wiring and wiring insulation. The present paper describes several nondestructive characterization methods which afford the possibility to detect wiring and insulation degradation in-situ prior to major problems with the safety of aircraft and spacecraft.

  6. IEE wiring regulations explained and illustrated

    CERN Document Server

    Scaddan, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The IEE Wiring Regulations Explained and Illustrated, Second Edition discusses the recommendations of the IEE Regulations for the Electrical Equipment of Buildings for the safe selection or erection of wiring installations. The book emphasizes earthing, bonding, protection, and circuit design of electrical wirings. The text reviews the fundamental requirements for safety, earthing systems, the earth fault loop impedance, and supplementary bonding. The book also describes the different types of protection, such as protection against mechanical damage, overcurrent, under voltage (which prevents

  7. Laser Communications and Fiber Optics Lab Manual. High-Technology Training Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddick, Robert

    This laboratory training manual on laser communications and fiber optics may be used in a general technology-communications course for ninth graders. Upon completion of this exercise, students achieve the following goals: match concepts with laser communication system parts; explain advantages of fiber optic cable over conventional copper wire;…

  8. One-dimensional Incremental Constitutive Relation of SMA Wire Reinforced Smart Composites with Damages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zili HU; Wanlin ZHOU

    2008-01-01

    A new Martensitic transformation kinetic model for shape memory alloy (SMA) is proposed based on the phenomenological description of the Martensitic transformation heat flow-temperature curve and on the linear relationship between the partial derivatives of Martensite fraction and of Gbbis free energy with respect to the temperature. A meso-mechanical model is developed to describe the longitudinal stiffness reduction and thermo-dilatation variation of the composites caused by fiber breaking or fiber peeling off the base material.One-dimensional incremental constitutive relation is then established for SMA wire reinforced smart composites with damages by introducing three parameters to respectively describe the extent of fiber breaking, fiber peeling off the base material and interface weakening. The results presented herein may provide a theoretical basis for further studying on SMA smart composites with damages.

  9. Diode Pumped Fiber Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    FIBER LASERS I. Nd:YAG FIBER LASER FABRICATION .............. 5 A. FIBER GROWTH .......................... 5 B. FIBER PROCESSING 7...1.32 pm FIBER LASERS I. Nd:YAG FIBER LASER FABRICATION A. FIBER GROWTH The single crystal fibers used in this work were grown at Stanford University

  10. Tunable metamaterials fabricated by fiber drawing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleming, Simon; Stefani, Alessio; Tang, Xiaoli

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate a practical scalable approach to the fabrication of tunable metamaterials. Designed for terahertz (THz) wavelengths, the metamaterial is comprised of polyurethane filled with an array of indium wires using the well-established fiber drawing technique. Modification of the dimensions...... of the metamaterial provides tunability; by compressing the metamaterial we demonstrated a 50% plasma frequency shift using THz time-domain spectroscopy. Releasing the compression allowed the metamaterial to return to its original dimensions and plasma frequency, demonstrating dynamic reversible tunability....

  11. Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL) provides a variety of research, design engineering and prototype fabrication services...

  12. Uniform wire segmentation algorithm of distributed interconnects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Guoli; Lin Zhenghui

    2007-01-01

    A uniform wire segmentation algorithm for performance optimization of distributed RLC interconnects was proposed in this paper. The optimal wire length for identical segments and buffer size for buffer insertion are obtained through computation and derivation, based on a 2-pole approximation model of distributed RLC interconnect. For typical inductance value and long wires under 180nm technology, experiments show that the uniform wire segmentation technique proposed in the paper can reduce delay by about 27% ~ 56% , while requires 34%~69% less total buffer usage and thus 29% to 58% less power consumption. It is suitable for long RLC interconnect performance optimization.

  13. submitter Dynamical Models of a Wire Scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Barjau, Ana; Dehning, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    The accuracy of the beam profile measurements achievable by the current wire scanners at CERN is limited by the vibrations of their mechanical parts. In particular, the vibrations of the carbon wire represent the major source of wire position uncertainty which limits the beam profile measurement accuracy. In the coming years, due to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade, a wire traveling speed up to 20 $m s^{−1}$ and a position measurement accuracy of the order of 1 μm will be required. A new wire scanner design based on the understanding of the wire vibration origin is therefore needed. We present the models developed to understand the main causes of the wire vibrations observed in an existing wire scanner. The development and tuning of those models are based on measurements and tests performed on that CERN proton synchrotron (PS) scanner. The final model for the (wire + fork) system has six degrees-of-freedom (DOF). The wire equations contain three different excitation terms: inertia...

  14. Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL) provides a variety of research, design engineering and prototype fabrication services...

  15. Gold nanoparticle wire and integrated wire array for electronic detection of chemical and biological molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Diao

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticle wire and integrated nanoparticle wire array have been prepared through a green technique: discontinuous vertical evaporation-driven colloidal deposition. The conducting gold nanoparticle wire made by this technique shows ability for the sensitive electronic detection of chemical and biological molecules due to its high surface to volume ratio. Furthermore, we also demonstrate a potential usage of integrated gold nanoparticle wire array for the localized detection.

  16. FE modeling of Cu wire bond process and reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, C.A.; Weltevreden, E.R.; Akker, P. van den; Kregting, R.; Vreugd, J. de; Zhang, G.Q.

    2011-01-01

    Copper based wire bonding technology is widely accepted by electronic packaging industry due to the world-wide cost reduction actions (compared to gold wire bond). However, the mechanical characterization of copper wire differs from the gold wire; hence the new wire bond process setting and new bond

  17. FE modeling of Cu wire bond process and reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, C.A.; Weltevreden, E.R.; Akker, P. van den; Kregting, R.; Vreugd, J. de; Zhang, G.Q.

    2011-01-01

    Copper based wire bonding technology is widely accepted by electronic packaging industry due to the world-wide cost reduction actions (compared to gold wire bond). However, the mechanical characterization of copper wire differs from the gold wire; hence the new wire bond process setting and new bond

  18. Wire-supported CdSe nanowire array photoelectrochemical solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luhui; Shi, Enzheng; Li, Zhen; Li, Peixu; Jia, Yi; Ji, Chunyan; Wei, Jinquan; Wang, Kunlin; Zhu, Hongwei; Wu, Dehai; Cao, Anyuan

    2012-03-14

    Previous fiber-shaped solar cells are based on polymeric materials or dye-sensitized wide band-gap oxides. Here, we show that efficient fiber solar cells can be made from semiconducting nanostructures (e.g. CdSe) with smaller band-gap as the light absorption material. We directly grow a vertical array of CdSe nanowires uniformly around a core metal wire and make the device by covering the top of nanowires with a carbon nanotube (CNT) film as the porous transparent electrode. The CdSe-CNT fiber solar cells show power conversion efficiencies of 1-2% under AM 1.5 illumination after the nanowires are infiltrated with redox electrolyte. We do not use a secondary metal wire (e.g. Pt) as in conventional fiber-shaped devices, instead, the end part of the CNT film is condensed into a conductive yarn to serve as the secondary electrode. In addition, our CdSe nanowire-based photoelectrochemical fiber solar cells maintain good flexibility and stable performance upon rotation and bending to large angles.

  19. Wired

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    迄今为止,已有45000个项目借助在线捐赠成功完成众筹,金额总计达5亿美元以上。其中绝大部分(据估计为80%)来自Kickstarter网站,这家网站如今几乎成了“众筹”这一术语的代名词。

  20. THERMO-MECHANICALLY PROCESSED ROLLED WIRE FOR HIGH-STRENGTH ON-BOARD WIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Lutsenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that at twisting of wire of diameter 1,83 mm, produced by direct wire drawing of thermomechanically processed rolled wire of diameter 5,5 mm of steel 90, metal stratification is completely eliminated at decrease of carbon, manganese and an additional alloying of chrome.

  1. Finite element analysis on the wire breaking rule of 1×7IWS steel wire rope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzheng Du

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking the wire rope of 1×7+IWS structure as the research object, the influences of the number of broken wires on the stress distribution under the same axial load were simulated and analysed, and it also explored the rule of wire breaking of steel wire ropes. Based on the SolidWorks software, the three-dimensional model of the wire rope was established. Importing the model into the ABAQUS, the finite element model of the steel wire rope was established. Firstly 5000 N axial tension was placed on the rope, the stress distribution was simulated and analysed, and the steel wire with the largest stress distribution was found out. Then one steel wire was truncated with the load unchanged, and the finite element simulation was carried out again, and repeated the steps several times. The results show that, with the increase of the number of broken wires, the Von-Mises stress of the wire rope increases sharply, and the stress distribution is concentrated on the rest of the unbroken wires, which brings great challenges to the safety of the wire rope.

  2. Two Fiber Optical Fiber Thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Mathew R.; Farmer, Jeffery T.; Breeding, Shawn P.

    2000-01-01

    An optical fiber thermometer consists of an optical fiber whose sensing tip is given a metallic coating. The sensing tip of the fiber is essentially an isothermal cavity, so the emission from this cavity will be approximately equal to the emission from a blackbody. Temperature readings are obtained by measuring the spectral radiative heat flux at the end of the fiber at two wavelengths. The ratio of these measurements and Planck's Law are used to infer the temperature at the sensing tip. Optical fiber thermometers have high accuracy, excellent long-term stability and are immune to electromagnetic interference. In addition, they can be operated for extended periods without requiring re-calibration. For these reasons. it is desirable to use optical fiber thermometers in environments such as the International Space Station. However, it has recently been shown that temperature readings are corrupted by emission from the fiber when extended portions of the probe are exposed to elevated temperatures. This paper will describe several ways in which the reading from a second fiber can be used to correct the corrupted temperature measurements. The accuracy and sensitivity to measurement uncertainty will be presented for each method.

  3. Multi-scale analysis by SEM, EBSD and X-ray diffraction of deformation textures of a copper wire drawn industrially

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zidani M.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we tried to understand the texture evolution of deformation during the cold drawing of copper wire (99.26% Drawn by the company ENICAB destined for electrical cabling and understand its link with the electrical conductivity. Characterisations performed show the appearance and texture development during the reduction of section of the wire. The texture is mainly composed of the fiber // DN (DN // drawing axis (majority and the fiber // ND (minority whose acuity increases with deformation level. The wire was performed for the main components of the texture, ie the fiber and conventionally present in these materials. We will pay particular attention on the energy of the cube component {100} recrystallization that develops when the level of reduction is sufficient. There was also an increase in hardness and electrical resistivity along the applied deformation.

  4. Tuning a Tetrahertz Wire Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qi; Williams, Benjamin S.; Kumar, Sushil; Reno, John L.; Hu, Qing

    2009-01-01

    Tunable terahertz lasers are desirable in applications in sensing and spectroscopy because many biochemical species have strong spectral fingerprints at terahertz frequencies. Conventionally, the frequency of a laser is tuned in a similar manner to a stringed musical instrument, in which pitch is varied by changing the length of the string (the longitudinal component of the wave vector) and/ or its tension (the refractive index). However, such methods are difficult to implement in terahertz semiconductor lasers because of their poor outcoupling efficiencies. Here, we demonstrate a novel tuning mechanism based on a unique 'wire laser' device for which the transverse dimension w is much much less than lambda. Placing a movable object close to the wire laser manipulates a large fraction of the waveguided mode propagating outside the cavity, thereby tuning its resonant frequency. Continuous single-mode redshift and blueshift tuning is demonstrated for the same device by using either a dielectric or metallic movable object. In combination, this enables a frequency tuning of approximately equal to 137 GHz (3.6%) from a single laser device at approximately equal to 3.8 THz.

  5. Bird on a (live) wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farr, M.

    2003-09-30

    Bird mortality as a result of contact with power lines is discussed. U. S. statistics are cited, according to which 174 million birds annually die as a result of contact with power lines, specifically when birds touch two phases of current at the same time. Raptors are particularly vulnerable to power-line electrocution due to their habit of perching on the highest vantage point available as they survey the ground for prey. Hydro lines located in agricultural areas, with bodies of water on one side and fields on the other, also obstruct flight of waterfowl as dusk and dawn when visibility is low. Various solutions designed to minimize the danger to birds are discussed. Among these are: changing the configuration of wires and cross arms to make them more visible to birds in flight and less tempting as perches, and adding simple wire markers such as flags, balloons, and coloured luminescent clips that flap and twirl in the wind. There is no evidence of any coordinated effort to deal with this problem in Ontario. However, a report is being prepared for submission to Environment Canada outlining risks to birds associated with the growing number of wind turbine power generators (negligible compared with power lines and communications towers), and offering suggestions on remedial measures. The Fatal Light Awareness Program (FLAP) also plans to lobby the Canadian Wildlife Service to discuss the possibility of coordinating efforts to monitor, educate about and ultimately reduce this form of bird mortality.

  6. The wiring economy principle: connectivity determines anatomy in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Ashish; Chen, Yu-hsien

    2011-01-01

    Minimization of the wiring cost of white matter fibers in the human brain appears to be an organizational principle. We investigate this aspect in the human brain using whole brain connectivity networks extracted from high resolution diffusion MRI data of 14 normal volunteers. We specifically address the question of whether brain anatomy determines its connectivity or vice versa. Unlike previous studies we use weighted networks, where connections between cortical nodes are real-valued rather than binary off-on connections. In one set of analyses we found that the connectivity structure of the brain has near optimal wiring cost compared to random networks with the same number of edges, degree distribution and edge weight distribution. A specifically designed minimization routine could not find cheaper wiring without significantly degrading network performance. In another set of analyses we kept the observed brain network topology and connectivity but allowed nodes to freely move on a 3D manifold topologically identical to the brain. An efficient minimization routine was written to find the lowest wiring cost configuration. We found that beginning from any random configuration, the nodes invariably arrange themselves in a configuration with a striking resemblance to the brain. This confirms the widely held but poorly tested claim that wiring economy is a driving principle of the brain. Intriguingly, our results also suggest that the brain mainly optimizes for the most desirable network connectivity, and the observed brain anatomy is merely a result of this optimization.

  7. The wiring economy principle: connectivity determines anatomy in the human brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Raj

    Full Text Available Minimization of the wiring cost of white matter fibers in the human brain appears to be an organizational principle. We investigate this aspect in the human brain using whole brain connectivity networks extracted from high resolution diffusion MRI data of 14 normal volunteers. We specifically address the question of whether brain anatomy determines its connectivity or vice versa. Unlike previous studies we use weighted networks, where connections between cortical nodes are real-valued rather than binary off-on connections. In one set of analyses we found that the connectivity structure of the brain has near optimal wiring cost compared to random networks with the same number of edges, degree distribution and edge weight distribution. A specifically designed minimization routine could not find cheaper wiring without significantly degrading network performance. In another set of analyses we kept the observed brain network topology and connectivity but allowed nodes to freely move on a 3D manifold topologically identical to the brain. An efficient minimization routine was written to find the lowest wiring cost configuration. We found that beginning from any random configuration, the nodes invariably arrange themselves in a configuration with a striking resemblance to the brain. This confirms the widely held but poorly tested claim that wiring economy is a driving principle of the brain. Intriguingly, our results also suggest that the brain mainly optimizes for the most desirable network connectivity, and the observed brain anatomy is merely a result of this optimization.

  8. High-temperature strength of refractory-metal wires and consideration for composite applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrasek, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    Tensile and stress-rupture tests were conducted on wires of W-Hf-C, W-Re-Hf-C, ASTAR 811C (a tantalum alloy), and B-88 (a columbium alloy) at room temperature, 1093 C (2000 F), and 1204 C (2200 F). Metallographic examinations were also made of the wire microstructure after testing. Ultimate tensile strength values up to 2170 meganewtons per square meter (314000 psi) at 1093 C (2000 F) and 1940 meganewtons per square meter (281 000 psi) at 1204 C (2200 F) were obtained for W-Re-Hf-C wire. The best strength values obtained for a 100-hour rupture life were, 1410 meganewtons per square meter (205 000 psi) at 1093 C (2000 F) and 910 meganewtons per square meter (132 000 psi) at 1240 C (2200 F) for W-Re-Hf-C wire. The properties obtained suggested that the wires studied showed promise as potential fiber reinforcement in the 1093 to 1204 C (2000 to 2200 F) temperature range.

  9. Synchrotron high energy X-ray diffraction study of microstructure evolution of severely cold drawn NiTi wire during annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Cun; Aoun, Bachir; Cui, Lishan; Liu, Yinong; Yang, Hong; Jiang, Xiaohua; Cai, Song; Jiang, Daqiang; Liu, Zunping; Brown, Dennis E.; Ren, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Microstructure evolution of a cold-drawn NiTi shape memory alloy wire was investigated by means of in-situ synchrotron high-energy X-ray diffraction during continuous heating. The cold-drawn wire contained amorphous regions and nano-crystalline domains in its microstructure. Pair distribution function analysis revealed that the amorphous regions underwent structural relaxation via atomic rearrangement when heated above 100 °C. The nano-crystalline domains were found to exhibit a strong cold work induced lattice strain anisotropy having a preferential <111> fiber orientation along the wire axial direction. The lattice strain anisotropy systematically decreased upon heating above 200 °C, implying a structural recovery. A broad conical texture was formed in the wire specimen after crystallization similar in detail to the initial <111> texture axial orientation of the nano-crystalline domains produced by the severe cold wire drawing deformation.

  10. Thermoprocessing and wire drawing behaviour of ultra high strength steel wires

    OpenAIRE

    Bargujer, S.S.; Singh, Parvinder; Raizada, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    The thermo-processing of piano wire rods is carried out in the lead bath. This experimentation is carried out under industrial conditions. The investigation is done to examine the effect of austenitic time, lead bath time and wire diameter on mechanical properties of lead patented wire. The Taguchi technique is adopted for optimization of thermo-processing of hypereutectoid steel wires. The lead patented wire of diameter 7.00 mm is cold drawn in a sequence of conical converging dies. The best...

  11. REMEDY OF WIRE LAG IN WIRE ELECTRICAL DISCHARGE MACHINING (WEDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. SINHA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available WEDM is extensively used these days for generating complex geometries with tight tolerances on difficult-tomachine materials. Therefore, demand for improvement in precision has been ever increasing. The main source of inaccuracy is wire-lag, the cause and effect of which is well-known. Research has been going on to overcome this drawback. So far, the techniques suggested for improvement in accuracy are, in general, based on monitoring the machining process at hardware-level, which is not only tedious but involves extra expenditure also. In the present paper, a software approach for improvement in accuracy is described, which does not require any additional investment on the machine, and still gives very good results.

  12. Topological transition in coated wire medium

    CERN Document Server

    Gorlach, Maxim A; Slobozhanyuk, Alexey P; Bogdanov, Andrey A; Belov, Pavel A

    2016-01-01

    We develop a theory of nonlocal homogenization for metamaterial consisting of parallel metallic wires with dielectric coating. It is demonstrated that manipulation of dielectric contrast between wire dielectric shell and host material results in switching of metamaterial dispersion regime from elliptic to the hyperbolic one, i.e. the topological transition takes place. We confirm our theoretical predictions by full-wave numerical simulations.

  13. Kirschner Wire Breakage during Removal Requiring Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yuen Wong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Kirschner wires (K-wires are widely used for fixation of fractures and dislocations in the hand as they are readily available, reliable, and cost-effective. Complication rates of up to 18% have been reported. However, K-wire breakage during removal is rare. We present one such case illustrating a simple technique for retrieval. A 35-year-old male presented with a distal phalanx fracture of his right middle finger. This open fracture was treated with K-wire fixation. Postoperatively, he developed a pin site infection with associated finger swelling. The K-wire broke during removal with the proximal piece completely retained in his middle phalanx. To minimise risk of osteomyelitis, the K-wire was removed with a novel surgical technique. He had full return of hand function. Intraoperative K-wire breakage has a reported rate of 0.1%. In our case, there was no obvious cause of breakage and the patient denied postoperative trauma. On the other hand, pin site infections are much more common with reported rates of up to 7% in the hand or wrist. K-wire fixation is a simple method for bony stabilisation but can be a demanding procedure with complications often overlooked. It is important to be aware of the potential sequelae.

  14. Flywheel system using wire-wound rotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiao, Edward Young; Bender, Donald Arthur; Means, Andrew E.; Snyder, Philip K.

    2016-06-07

    A flywheel is described having a rotor constructed of wire wound onto a central form. The wire is prestressed, thus mitigating stresses that occur during operation. In another aspect, the flywheel incorporates a low-loss motor using electrically non-conducting permanent magnets.

  15. Microfabricated wire arrays for Z-pinch.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spahn, Olga Blum; Rowen, Adam M.; Cich, Michael Joseph; Peake, Gregory Merwin; Arrington, Christian L.; Nash, Thomas J.; Klem, John Frederick; Romero, Dustin Heinz

    2008-10-01

    Microfabrication methods have been applied to the fabrication of wire arrays suitable for use in Z. Self-curling GaAs/AlGaAs supports were fabricated as an initial route to make small wire arrays (4mm diameter). A strain relief structure that could be integrated with the wire was designed to allow displacements of the anode/cathode connections in Z. Electroplated gold wire arrays with integrated anode/cathode bus connections were found to be sufficiently robust to allow direct handling. Platinum and copper plating processes were also investigated. A process to fabricate wire arrays on any substrate with wire thickness up to 35 microns was developed. Methods to handle and mount these arrays were developed. Fabrication of wire arrays of 20mm diameter was demonstrated, and the path to 40mm array fabrication is clear. With some final investment to show array mounting into Z hardware, the entire process to produce a microfabricated wire array will have been demonstrated.

  16. WIRED magazine announces rave awards nominees

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    WIRED Magazine has anounced the nominees for its fourth annual WIRED Rave Awards, celebrating innovation and the individuals transforming commerce and culture. Jeffrey Hangst of the University of Aarhus has been nominated in the science category, for his work on the ATHENA Experiment, CERN (1/2 page).

  17. Hot-wire anemometer for spirography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakk, P; Liik, P; Kingisepp, P H

    1998-01-01

    The use of a constant temperature hot-wire anemometer flow sensor for spirography is reported. The construction, operating principles and calibration procedure of the apparatus are described, and temperature compensation method is discussed. Frequency response is studied. It is shown that this hot-wire flow transducer satisfies common demands with respect to accuracy, response time and temperature variations.

  18. Transcolonic Migration of Retained Epicardial Pacing Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Gonzales

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Temporary epicardial pacing wires are associated with rare complications. Most of these occur in the chest. Even rarer are complications that occur within the abdomen. We report a case of migrating epicardial pacing wires entering the abdomen and penetrating the transverse colon found incidentally on colonoscopy in an asymptomatic patient.

  19. Optical Fiber/Nanowire Hybrid Structures for Efficient Three-Dimensional Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Weintraub, Benjamin

    2009-11-09

    Wired up: The energy conversion efficiency of three-dimensional dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) in a hybrid structure that integrates optical fibers and nanowire arrays is greater than that of a two-dimensional device. Internal axial illumination enhances the energy conversion efficiency of a rectangular fiber-based hybrid structure (see picture) by a factor of up to six compared to light illumination normal to the fiber axis from outside the device.

  20. Wire and Cable Cold Bending Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    One of the factors in assessing the applicability of wire or cable on the lunar surface is its flexibility under extreme cold conditions. Existing wire specifications did not address their mechanical behavior under cold, cryogenic temperature conditions. Therefore tests were performed to provide this information. To assess this characteristic 35 different insulated wire and cable pieces were cold soaked in liquid nitrogen. The segments were then subjected to bending and the force was recorded. Any failure of the insulation or jacketing was also documented for each sample tested. The bending force tests were performed at room temperature to provide a comparison to the change in force needed to bend the samples due to the low temperature conditions. The results from the bending tests were plotted and showed how various types of insulated wire and cable responded to bending under cold conditions. These results were then used to estimate the torque needed to unroll the wire under these low temperature conditions.

  1. Development and Manufacture of Bi-2223 Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shin-Ichi

    This chapter reviews Ag-sheathed (Bi, Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox (Bi-2223) wire made by the powder-in-tube technique (PIT). The currently leading high-temperature superconductors (HTS) wire technology for practical use is Bi-2223 wire, made by the controlled over-pressure (CT-OP) sintering process. The CT-OP process uses pressures up to 30MPa during heat treatment. The technique densifies the Bi-2223 filaments and enhances the uniformity of the electrical and mechanical performance in the Bi-2223 wire. Today, Bi-2223 wires are used in most HTS applications, such as power cables, many kinds of magnets, and motors for ship propulsion and electric vehicles.

  2. Dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madar, Z; Thorne, R

    1987-01-01

    Studies done on dietary fiber (DF) over the past five years are presented in this Review. The involvement of dietary fiber in the control of plasma glucose and lipid levels is now established. Two dietary fiber sources (soybean and fenugreek) were studied in our laboratory and are discussed herein. These sources were found to be potentially beneficial in the reduction of plasma glucose in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus subjects. They are shown to be acceptable by human subjects and are easy to use either in a mixture of milk products and in cooking. The mechanism by which dietary fiber alters the nutrient absorption is also discussed. The effect of DF on gastric emptying, transit time, adsorption and glucose transport may contribute to reducing plasma glucose and lipid levels. DF was found to be effective in controlling blood glucose and lipid levels of pregnant diabetic women. Dietary fiber may also be potentially beneficial in the reduction of exogenous insulin requirements in these subjects. However, increased consumption of DF may cause adverse side effects; the binding capabilities of fiber may affect nutrient availability, particularly that of minerals and prolonged and high DF dosage supplementation must be regarded cautiously. This is particularly true when recommending such a diet for pregnant or lactating women, children or subjects with nutritional disorders. Physiological effects of DF appear to depend heavily on the source and composition of fiber. Using a combination of DF from a variety of sources may reduce the actual mass of fiber required to obtain the desired metabolic effects and will result in a more palatable diet. Previously observed problems, such as excess flatus, diarrhea and mineral malabsorption would also be minimized.

  3. Fabricating metamaterials using the fiber drawing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuniz, Alessandro; Lwin, Richard; Argyros, Alexander; Fleming, Simon C; Kuhlmey, Boris T

    2012-10-18

    Metamaterials are man-made composite materials, fabricated by assembling components much smaller than the wavelength at which they operate (1). They owe their electromagnetic properties to the structure of their constituents, instead of the atoms that compose them. For example, sub-wavelength metal wires can be arranged to possess an effective electric permittivity that is either positive or negative at a given frequency, in contrast to the metals themselves (2). This unprecedented control over the behaviour of light can potentially lead to a number of novel devices, such as invisibility cloaks (3), negative refractive index materials (4), and lenses that resolve objects below the diffraction limit (5). However, metamaterials operating at optical, mid-infrared and terahertz frequencies are conventionally made using nano- and micro-fabrication techniques that are expensive and produce samples that are at most a few centimetres in size (6-7). Here we present a fabrication method to produce hundreds of meters of metal wire metamaterials in fiber form, which exhibit a terahertz plasmonic response (8). We combine the stack-and-draw technique used to produce microstructured polymer optical fiber (9) with the Taylor-wire process (10), using indium wires inside polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) tubes. PMMA is chosen because it is an easy to handle, drawable dielectric with suitable optical properties in the terahertz region; indium because it has a melting temperature of 156.6 °C which is appropriate for codrawing with PMMA. We include an indium wire of 1 mm diameter and 99.99% purity in a PMMA tube with 1 mm inner diameter (ID) and 12 mm outside diameter (OD) which is sealed at one end. The tube is evacuated and drawn down to an outer diameter of 1.2 mm. The resulting fiber is then cut into smaller pieces, and stacked into a larger PMMA tube. This stack is sealed at one end and fed into a furnace while being rapidly drawn, reducing the diameter of the structure by a factor

  4. Phonon spectra in quantum wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Dušan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Green's function method, adjusted to bound crystalline structures, was applied to obtain the phonon dispersion law in quantum wires. The condition of the existence of small mechanical atom movements defining phonon spectra can be found by solving the secular equation. This problem was presented graphically for different boundary parameters. The presence of boundaries, as well as the change of boundary parameters, leads to the appearance of new properties of the layered structure. The most important feature is that, beside the allowed energy zones (which are continuous as in the bulk structure, zones of forbidden states appear. Different values of the boundary parameters lead to the appearance of lower and upper energy gaps, or dispersion branches spreading out of the bulk energy zone. The spectra of phonons in corresponding unbound structures were correlated to those in bound structures.

  5. Active fiber polymer cladding temperature measurement under conditions of laser generation and amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sypin, V. E.; Prusakov, K. Y.; Ryabushkin, O. A.

    2016-04-01

    Polymer cladding temperature of active fiber in lasing regime is important parameter as it allows determination of fiber core temperature that in turn effects laser generation and amplification efficiency. Besides polymer cladding has much lower temperature damage threshold comparing to fused silica. For example, 200 degrees Kelvin overheating of the polymer cladding can result in fiber degradation. In present paper we introduce novel and simple method for precise temperature measurement of active fibers cladding under conditions of laser generation and amplification. Dependence of longitudinal temperature distribution along active fibers on optical pump power can be determined. This method employs measurement of temperature dependent electrical resistance of the metal wire being in thermal contact with fiber polymer cladding. The wire is reeled on the active fiber segment. Under lasing or amplification conditions the polymer cladding of the active fiber is heated together with coiled metal wire resulting in its electrical resistance change. By measuring resistance variation one can determine the temperature of the given fiber section.

  6. LONGITUDINAL LASER WIRE AT SNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksandrov, Alexander V [ORNL; Liu, Yun [ORNL; Zhukov, Alexander P [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a longitudinal H- beam profile scanner that utilizes laser light to detach convoy electrons and an MCP to collect and measure these electrons. The scanner is located in MEBT with H- energy of 2.5MeV and an RF frequency 402.5MHz. The picosecond pulsed laser runs at 80.5MHz in sync with the accelerator RF. The laser beam is delivered to the beam line through a 30m optical fiber. The pulse width after the fiber transmission measures about 10ps. Scanning the laser phase effectively allows measurements to move along ion bunch longitudinal position. We are able to reliably measure production beam bunch length with this method. The biggest problem we have encountered is background signal from electrons being stripped by vacuum. Several techniques of signal detection are discussed.

  7. Optical fiber cable and wiring techniques for fiber to the home (FTTH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Hirofumi; Yamauchi, Osamu

    2009-08-01

    NTT group's new medium-term management strategy calls for 20 million optical subscribers by 2010, and NTT Laboratories is pushing forward to meet this goal. Before that date, an efficient optical access network must be constructed, and afterwards, when the era of mass optical communications finally arrives, the facilities and equipment supporting the network will have to be effectively operated and maintained. At NTT Access Network Service Systems Laboratories, we are developing various technologies to correspond to the massive deployment of optical broadband services. We are also developing various new technologies for efficiently operating optical access network systems that will continue to expand in the future, and to supply our customers with good services. This paper provides an overview of the new optical access network system technologies that are being developed at NTT Access Network Service Systems Laboratories to address these issues.

  8. Experimental study of free abrasive wire sawing by using multi-strands wire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Chunyan; Wang Jinsheng; Peng Wei; Jin Xin; Chen Shijie

    2013-01-01

    Grains in the slurry can be brought into cutting zone by steel wire with a certain speed to achieve the purpose of removing the workpiece material in the free abrasive wire sawing machining. Because its own of multi-strands characteristics,we use it to replace the steel wire to do slicing experiment. In this paper,multi-strands wire is made by seven metal wires and has many grooves on its surface. Compared with steel wire,it can carry more grains into cutting zone which is conducive to improving the slicing efficiency. We do some comparative slic-ing experiments by applying multi-strands wire (ϕ0.25 mm) and steel wire (ϕ0.25 mm) to cut optical glass (K9). The results show that slicing efficiency and the surface roughness of the workpiece sliced by using multi-strands wire are better than that by using steel wire,but the kerf width of the former is wider than that of the latter in the same experimental conditions.

  9. Wire recycling for quantum circuit optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paler, Alexandru; Wille, Robert; Devitt, Simon J.

    2016-10-01

    Quantum information processing is expressed using quantum bits (qubits) and quantum gates which are arranged in terms of quantum circuits. Here, each qubit is associated with a quantum circuit wire which is used to conduct the desired operations. Most of the existing quantum circuits allocate a single quantum circuit wire for each qubit and hence introduce significant overhead. In fact, qubits are usually not needed during the entire computation, only between their initialization and measurement. Before and after that, corresponding wires may be used by other qubits. In this work, we propose a solution which exploits this fact in order to optimize the design of quantum circuits with respect to the required wires. To this end, we introduce a representation of the lifetimes of all qubits which is used to analyze the respective need for wires. Based on this analysis, a method is proposed which "recycles" the available wires and, as a result, reduces the size of the resulting circuit. Numerical tests based on established reversible and fault-tolerant quantum circuits confirm that the proposed solution reduces the number of wires by more than 90% compared to unoptimized quantum circuits.

  10. Lightning current test of power ground wires with optical fibres (OPGW); Blitzstromfestigkeitspruefung von Erdseilen mit integrierten Lichtwellenleitern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehme, M. [VEW EuroTest GmbH, Dortmund (Germany); Moeller, K. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Allgemeine Elektrotechnik und Hochspannungstechnik; Nolden, W. [Felten und Guilleaume Energietechnik AG, Koeln (Germany)

    1998-09-21

    The area-wide application of ground wires with integrated optical fibers establishes a basis to use the existing overhead lines in addition to power supply also as communication networks. Taking in account the particular lightning stroke endangering of overhead lines a basic study of the thermal stress and damage progression of this ground wire type during a lightning stroke is necessary. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Einsatz von Erdseilen mit integrierten Lichtwellenleitern schafft die Voraussetzung, bestehende Freileitungstrassen nicht nur zur Energieversorgung zu nutzen, sondern auch als Kommunikationsnetze zu betreiben. Unter Beruecksichtigung der besonderen Blitzeinschlagsgefaehrdung von Freileitungstrassen ist eine grundlegende Untersuchung der thermischen Beanspruchung und der Schadensentwicklung dieses Erdseiltyps waehrend eines Blitzeinschlags notwendig. (orig.)

  11. Space Station Freedom secondary power wiring requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, C. R.

    1994-09-01

    Secondary power is produced by DDCU's (direct current to direct current converter units) and routed to and through secondary power distribution assemblies (SPDA's) to loads or tertiary distribution assemblies. This presentation outlines requirements of Space Station Freedom (SSF) EEE (electrical, electronic, and electromechanical) parts wire and the approved electrical wire and cable. The SSF PDRD (Program Definition and Requirements Document) language problems and resolution are reviewed. The cable routing to and from the SPDA's is presented as diagrams and the wire recommendations and characteristics are given.

  12. Preparation of SiC Fiber Reinforced Nickel Matrix Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Zhang; Nanlin Shi; Jun Gong; Chao Sunt

    2012-01-01

    A method of preparing continuous(Al+Al2O3)-coated SiC fiber reinforced nickel matrix composite was presented,in which the diffusion between SiC fiber and nickel matrix could be prevented.Magnetron sputtering is used to deposit Ni coating on the surface of the(Al+Al2O3)-coated SiC fiber in preparation of the precursor wires.It is shown that the deposited Ni coating combines well with the(Al+Al2O3) coating and has little negative effect on the tensile strength of(Al+Al2O3)-coated SiC fiber.Solid-state diffusion bonding process is employed to prepare the(Al+Al2O3)-coated SiC fiber reinforced nickel matrix with 37% fibers in volume.The solid-state diffusion bonding process is optimized and the optimum parameters are temperature of 870,pressure of 50 MPa and holding time of 2 h.Under this condition,the precursor wires can diffuse well,composite of full density can be formed and the(Al+Al2O3) coating is effective to restrict the reaction between SiC fiber and nickel matrix.

  13. Soluble vs. insoluble fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insoluble vs. soluble fiber; Fiber - soluble vs. insoluble ... There are 2 different types of fiber -- soluble and insoluble. Both are important for health, digestion, and preventing diseases. Soluble fiber attracts water and turns to gel during digestion. ...

  14. 7 CFR 1755.506 - Aerial wire services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...), Specifications and Drawings for Service Installations at Customer Access Locations. The wire used for aerial... service wire spans. (d) Aerial service wires shall be run in accordance with the construction drawings... aerial service wires at poles shall be as illustrated in construction drawings 503-2 and 504 contained in...

  15. Diamagnetism in wire medium metamaterials: theory and experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Yagupov, Ilya; Kosulnikov, Sergei; Hasan, Mehedi; Iorsh, Ivan; Belov, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Strong diamagnetic response of wire medium with finite wire radius is reported. Contrary to the previous works where it was assumed that the wire medium exhibits only the electric response, we show that the non-zero magnetic susceptibility has to be taken into account for proper effective medium description of the wire medium. Analytical and numerical results are supported by the experimental measurements.

  16. Modelling aluminium wire bond reliability in high power OMP devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kregting, R.; Yuan, C.A.; Xiao, A.; Bruijn, F. de

    2011-01-01

    In a RF power application such as the OMP, the wires are subjected to high current (because of the high power) and high temperature (because of the heat from IC and joule-heating from the wire itself). Moreover, the wire shape is essential to the RF performance. Hence, the aluminium wire is preferre

  17. 47 CFR 76.804 - Disposition of home run wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... in service to subscribers to the extent possible. (b) Unit-by-unit disposition of home run wiring: (1... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of home run wiring. 76.804 Section... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Inside Wiring § 76.804 Disposition of home run wiring....

  18. 30 CFR 56.12053 - Circuits powered from trolley wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Circuits powered from trolley wires. 56.12053... § 56.12053 Circuits powered from trolley wires. Ground wires for lighting circuits powered from trolley wires shall be connected securely to the ground-return circuit....

  19. 30 CFR 57.12053 - Circuits powered from trolley wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Circuits powered from trolley wires. 57.12053... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12053 Circuits powered from trolley wires. Ground wires for lighting circuits powered from trolley wires shall be connected securely to the ground return circuit. Surface Only...

  20. Tunable permeability of magnetic wires at microwaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panina, L. V.; Makhnovskiy, D. P.; Morchenko, A. T.; Kostishin, V. G.

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the analysis into microwave magnetic properties of magnetic microwires and their composites in the context of applications in wireless sensors and tunable microwave materials. It is demonstrated that the intrinsic permeability of wires has a wide frequency dispersion with relatively large values in the GHz band. In the case of a specific magnetic anisotropy this results in a tunable microwave impedance which could be used for distributed wireless sensing networks in functional composites. The other range of applications is related with developing the artificial magnetic dielectrics with large and tunable permeability. The composites with magnetic wires with a circumferential anisotropy have the effective permeability which differs substantially from unity for a relatively low concentration (less than 10%). This can make it possible to design the wire media with a negative and tunable index of refraction utilising natural magnetic properties of wires.

  1. 30 CFR 56.12047 - Guy wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... wires of poles supporting high-voltage transmission lines shall meet the requirements for grounding or... Installation and Maintenance of Electric Supply and Communication Lines” (also referred to as National...

  2. Inelastic Electron Transport in Monoatomic Wires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jin; CHEN Jing-Zhe; CHEN Qing; REN Shang-Fen; HAN Ru-Shan

    2007-01-01

    @@ Based on non-equilibrium Green's function theory and density functional theory, we investigate the vibrational property and electron-phonon (el-ph) interaction induced inelastic scattering in electron transport through metallic monoatomic wires.

  3. Wire Bonder: Kulicke and Soffa Model 4526

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:CORAL Name: Wire BonderNeeds Description.Scientific Opportunities / Applications:Wedge bonderSemi-automatic and manual modesIndependent Z-axis control,...

  4. Beam Profiling through Wire Chambing Tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Nash, W

    2013-01-01

    This note describes the calibration of the Delay Wire Chambers (DWCs) used during test runs of CALICE’s Tungsten Digital Hadron Calorimeter (W-DHCAL) prototype in CERN’s SPS beam line (10 – 300 GeV).

  5. Wire core reactor for nuclear thermal propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harty, Richard B.; Brengle, Robert G.

    1993-01-01

    Studies have been performed of a compact high-performance nuclear rocket reactor that incorporates a tungsten alloy wire fuel element. This reactor, termed the wire core reactor, can deliver a specific impulse of 1,000 s using an expander cycle and a nozzle expansion ratio of 500 to 1. The core is constructed of layers of 0.8-mm-dia fueled tungsten wires wound over alternate layers of spacer wires, which forms a rugged annular lattice. Hydrogen flow in the core is annular, flowing from inside to outside. In addition to the concepts compact size and good heat transfer, the core has excellent power-flow matching features and can resist vibration and thermal stresses during star-up and shutdown.

  6. Highly stretchable wrinkled gold thin film wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joshua; Park, Sun-Jun; Nguyen, Thao; Chu, Michael; Pegan, Jonathan D.; Khine, Michelle

    2016-02-01

    With the growing prominence of wearable electronic technology, there is a need to improve the mechanical reliability of electronics for more demanding applications. Conductive wires represent a vital component present in all electronics. Unlike traditional planar and rigid electronics, these new wearable electrical components must conform to curvilinear surfaces, stretch with the body, and remain unobtrusive and low profile. In this paper, the piezoresistive response of shrink induced wrinkled gold thin films under strain demonstrates robust conductive performance in excess of 200% strain. Importantly, the wrinkled metallic thin films displayed negligible change in resistance of up to 100% strain. The wrinkled metallic wires exhibited consistent performance after repetitive strain. Importantly, these wrinkled thin films are inexpensive to fabricate and are compatible with roll to roll manufacturing processes. We propose that these wrinkled metal thin film wires are an attractive alternative to conventional wires for wearable applications.

  7. Angular response of hot wire probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Mare, L.; Jelly, T. O.; Day, I. J.

    2017-03-01

    A new equation for the convective heat loss from the sensor of a hot-wire probe is derived which accounts for both the potential and the viscous parts of the flow past the prongs. The convective heat loss from the sensor is related to the far-field velocity by an expression containing a term representing the potential flow around the prongs, and a term representing their viscous effect. This latter term is absent in the response equations available in the literature but is essential in representing some features of the observed response of miniature hot-wire probes. The response equation contains only four parameters but it can reproduce, with great accuracy, the behaviour of commonly used single-wire probes. The response equation simplifies the calibration the angular response of rotated slanted hot-wire probes: only standard King’s law parameters and a Reynolds-dependent drag coefficient need to be determined.

  8. Frequency Responses Of Hot-Wire Anemometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watmuff, Jonathan H.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes theoretical study of frequency response of constant-temperature hot-wire anemometer, with view toward increasing frequency response while maintaining stable operation in supersonic flow. Effects of various circuit parameters discussed.

  9. Highly stretchable wrinkled gold thin film wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joshua, E-mail: joshuk7@uci.edu; Park, Sun-Jun; Nguyen, Thao [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Chu, Michael [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Pegan, Jonathan D. [Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Khine, Michelle, E-mail: mkhine@uci.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)

    2016-02-08

    With the growing prominence of wearable electronic technology, there is a need to improve the mechanical reliability of electronics for more demanding applications. Conductive wires represent a vital component present in all electronics. Unlike traditional planar and rigid electronics, these new wearable electrical components must conform to curvilinear surfaces, stretch with the body, and remain unobtrusive and low profile. In this paper, the piezoresistive response of shrink induced wrinkled gold thin films under strain demonstrates robust conductive performance in excess of 200% strain. Importantly, the wrinkled metallic thin films displayed negligible change in resistance of up to 100% strain. The wrinkled metallic wires exhibited consistent performance after repetitive strain. Importantly, these wrinkled thin films are inexpensive to fabricate and are compatible with roll to roll manufacturing processes. We propose that these wrinkled metal thin film wires are an attractive alternative to conventional wires for wearable applications.

  10. Refractometric sensor based on silicon photonic wires

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    We have characterized the refractive index sensing properties of a compact refractometric sensor based on a grated silicon photonic wire. A resolution of $10^{-5}$ in refractive index has been measured.

  11. Audio wiring guide how to wire the most popular audio and video connectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hechtman, John

    2012-01-01

    Whether you're a pro or an amateur, a musician or into multimedia, you can't afford to guess about audio wiring. The Audio Wiring Guide is a comprehensive, easy-to-use guide that explains exactly what you need to know. No matter the size of your wiring project or installation, this handy tool provides you with the essential information you need and the techniques to use it. Using The Audio Wiring Guide is like having an expert at your side. By following the clear, step-by-step directions, you can do professional-level work at a fraction of the cost.

  12. Coating of a steel wire with copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vdovin, K. N.; Dubskii, G. A.; Nefed'ev, A. A.; Derevyanko, D. V.

    2016-03-01

    The process of coating of a steel wire with liquid copper at a high speed (>1 m/s) is considered. The results of long-term studies of copperizing under laboratory conditions and electron-microscopic investigation of the copper-steel adhesion are used to develop a mathematical model for coating of a steel wire with copper and to create a commercial setup to implement this process.

  13. Graphene wire medium: Homogenization and application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Chigrin, Dmitry N.; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    In this contribution we analyze numerically the optical properties of the graphene wire medium, which unit cell consists of a stripe of graphene embedded into dielectric. We propose a simple method for retrieval of the isofrequency contour and effective permittivity tensor. As an example...... of the graphene wire medium application we demonstrate a reconfigurable hyperlens for the terahertz subwavelength imaging capable of resolving two sources with separation λ0/5 in the far-field....

  14. A Magnetic Sensor with Amorphous Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongfeng He

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a FeCoSiB amorphous wire and a coil wrapped around it, we have developed a sensitive magnetic sensor. When a 5 mm long amorphous wire with the diameter of 0.1 mm was used, the magnetic field noise spectrum of the sensor was about 30 pT/ÖHz above 30 Hz. To show the sensitivity and the spatial resolution, the magnetic field of a thousand Japanese yen was scanned with the magnetic sensor.

  15. Note: Improved wire-wound heater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, Ricardo G; Vitoux, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    The authors have measured, at cryogenic temperature, the upper limit of the heat transfer in different configurations of a wire-wound heater. We found that the heat transferred has an upper limit of about 15 W/cm(2) and is dependent on the diameter of the wire. In this paper, we present three ways of increasing the heat transferred by this type of heater and its application in different continuous flow cryostats.

  16. Note: Improved wire-wound heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, Ricardo G.; Vitoux, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    The authors have measured, at cryogenic temperature, the upper limit of the heat transfer in different configurations of a wire-wound heater. We found that the heat transferred has an upper limit of about 15 W/cm2 and is dependent on the diameter of the wire. In this paper, we present three ways of increasing the heat transferred by this type of heater and its application in different continuous flow cryostats.

  17. Tracking with wire chambers at high luminosities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, G.G. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (USA) Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (USA))

    1989-12-01

    Radiation damage and rate limitations impose severe constraints on wire chambers at the SSC. Possible conceptual designs for wire chamber tracking systems that satisfy these constraints are discussed. Computer simulation studies of tracking in such systems are presented. Simulations of events from interesting physics at the SSC, including hits from minimum bias background events, are examined. Results of some preliminary pattern recognition studies are given. 11 refs., 10 figs.

  18. Corrosion of surface defects in fine wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentler, R M; Greene, N D

    1975-11-01

    Defects were observed on the surfaces of various fine diameter wires commonly used in biomedical applications. These surface irregularities were viewed at high magnifications using a scanning electron microscope which has a much greater depth of field than normal light microscopy. Defects include scratches, pits, and crevices, which are the result of commercial wire drawing practices. Corrosion test results show that imperfections can serve as sites for localized corrosion attack which could lead to premature failures.

  19. Novel use of the "buddy"wire.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Hare, A

    2008-12-29

    Summary: During interventional procedures the tortuosity of the vasculature hampers catheter stability. The buddy wire may be used to aid and maintain vascular access.We describe a case of acute subarachnoid haemorrhage secondary to dissecting aneurysm of the vertebral artery.We discuss the value of the buddy wire during balloon occlusion of the vertebral artery not as it is typically used, but to actually prevent the balloon repeatedly entering the posterior inferior cerebellar artery during the procedure.

  20. A Magnetic Sensor with Amorphous Wire

    OpenAIRE

    Dongfeng He; Mitsuharu Shiwa

    2014-01-01

    Using a FeCoSiB amorphous wire and a coil wrapped around it, we have developed a sensitive magnetic sensor. When a 5 mm long amorphous wire with the diameter of 0.1 mm was used, the magnetic field noise spectrum of the sensor was about 30 pT/ÖHz above 30 Hz. To show the sensitivity and the spatial resolution, the magnetic field of a thousand Japanese yen was scanned with the magnetic sensor.

  1. Experimental and numerical investigations of the texture evolution in copper wire drawing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayanan, Karthic R.; Sridhar, I.; Subbiah, S. [Nanyang Technological University, School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Singapore (Singapore)

    2012-05-15

    Polycrystalline copper wires are drawn in a single and multiple step for the equivalent area reduction (RA) of {proportional_to}33% The single step and multiple step drawing process was simulated using a rate independent crystal plasticity with finite strain, which is implemented as a user routine in commercial finite element package ABAQUS. The texture of the copper wires were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and compared with the texture based finite element (FE) simulation predictions. Initial left angle 10 0 right angle fiber decreases during the drawing process and is replaced by left angle 111 right angle fiber. The left angle 111 right angle oriented grains are predominant in a single step drawing compared to a multiple step of the equivalent area reduction. The finite element analysis takes into account active crystallographic slip and orientation effects during the drawing process. Regions at the interface of die-wire exhibited complex textures, which was widely seen in the multiple step drawing pattern. (orig.)

  2. Propagation and spatiotemporal summation of electrical pulses in semiconductor nerve fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samardak, A.; Taylor, S.; Nogaret, A.; Hollier, G.; Austin, J.; Ritchie, D. A.

    2007-08-01

    The authors report the propagation and analog summation of electrical impulses in artificial nerve fibers made of submicron p-n wires. These wires model the longitudinal conductivities of K + and Na+ ions inside and outside a nerve capillary as well as the transverse capacitance of the nerve membrane and the nonlinear conductance of its ion channels. They demonstrate the summation and annihilation of electrical impulses at room temperature which form the basis for making spike timing neural networks.

  3. Chemistry of radiation damage to wire chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, J.

    1992-08-01

    Proportional counters are used to study aspects of radiation damage to wire chambers (wire aging). Principles of low-pressure, rf plasma chemistry are used to predict the plasma chemistry in electron avalanches (1 atm, dc). (1) Aging is studied in CF{sub 4}/iC{sub 4}H{sub 10} gas mixtures. Wire deposits are analyzed by Auger electron spectroscopy. An apparent cathode aging process resulting in loss of gain rather than in a self-sustained current is observed in CF{sub 4}-rich gases. A four-part model considering plasma polymerization of the hydrocarbon, etching of wire deposits by CF{sub 4}, acceleration of deposition processes in strongly etching environments, and reactivity of the wire surface is developed to understand anode wire aging in CF{sub 4}/iC{sub 4}H{sub 10} gases. Practical guidelines suggested by the model are discussed. (2) Data are presented to suggest that trace amounts of Freons do not affect aging rates in either dimethyl ether or Ar/C{sub 2}H{sub 6}. Apparent loss of gain is explained by attachment of primary electrons to a continuously increasing concentration of Freon 11 (CCl{sub 3}F) in the counter gas. An increase in the concentration of Freon 11 in dimethyl ether is caused by a distillation process in the gas supply bottle and is a natural consequence of the unequal volatilities of the two compounds.

  4. Subchannel Analysis of Wire Wrapped SCWR Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqiang Shan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of wire wrap spacers in SCWR can reduce pressure drop and obtain better mixing capability. As a consequence, the required coolant pumping power is decreased and the coolant temperature profile inside the fuel bundle is flattened which will obviously decrease the peak cladding temperature. The distributed resistance model for wire wrap was developed and implemented in ATHAS subchannel analysis code. The HPLWR wire wrapped assembly was analyzed. The results show that: (1 the assembly with wire wrap can obtain a more uniform coolant temperature profile than the grid spaced assembly, which will result in a lower peak cladding temperature; (2 the pressure drop in a wire wrapped assembly is less than that in a grid spaced assembly, which can reduce the operating power of pump effectively; (3 the wire wrap pitch has significant effect on the flow in the assembly. Smaller Hwire/Drod will result in stronger cross flow a more uniform coolant temperature profile, and also a higher pressure drop.

  5. A Review of Temporary Cardiac Pacing Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This review aims to tabulate data from all available studies of temporary cardiac pacing wires. Particular aims were to determine the best route of venous access and find ways to reduce complications. The review set out to see if specialist doctors are better at inserting wires than non-specialist doctors. In addition, a contemporary study of wire insertion has been performed to compare modern practice in the UK with the previous studies.Methods: A literature search produced 15 studies available for inclusion. Over 3700 patients from 1973 to 2004 were included. The data was tabulated and attention was given to the route of venous access, the complication rates and whether a specialist or non-specialist doctor had inserted the wire. Results: Internal jugular veins are associated with lowest complication rates and ease of access. Antecubital fossa veins have the highest complication rates. Complication rates are high, especially infections and failure to secure access. Specialist doctors have lower rates of complications than non-specialist doctors. Elderly patient suffer the highest complication rate. Our study showed comparable results to the previous studies.Conclusions: Internal jugular veins are the preferred route for access followed by subclavian and femoral veins. The right side should be used when possible. The use of antibiotics and ultrasound probes must be contemplated for all wire insertions. Alternatives to wire insertion (especially in the elderly must be seriously considered. Setting up an on-call rota would provide experienced doctors to reduce complication rates.

  6. Fiber resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. J. Ince

    2004-01-01

    In economics, primary inputs or factors of production define the term ‘resources.’ Resources include land resources (plants, animals, and minerals), labor, capital, and entrepreneurship. Almost all pulp and paper fiber resources are plant materials obtained from trees or agricultural crops. These resources encompass plant materials harvested directly from the land (...

  7. 75 FR 60480 - In the Matter of Certain Bulk Welding Wire Containers and Components Thereof and Welding Wire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Bulk Welding Wire Containers and Components Thereof and Welding Wire... importation, or the sale within the United States after importation of certain bulk welding wire containers, components thereof, and welding wire by reason of infringement of certain claims of United States Patent...

  8. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of an as-drawn MP35N alloy wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, M.J.N.V. [School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 (United States); Reiterer, M.W. [Medtronic Incorporated, Science and Technology, Minneapolis, MN 55432 (United States); Kumar, K.S., E-mail: Sharvan_Kumar@brown.edu [School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 (United States)

    2014-07-29

    The deformation response of low Ti (<0.1%), MP35N alloy (35% Co–35% Ni–20% Cr–10% Mo, all in wt%) wire with a ∼100 µm diameter was assessed in monotonic and cyclic loading modes. The as-drawn wire exhibited a strong 〈111〉 fiber texture and consisted of a hierarchically twinned microstructure with twins spanning the micrometer to nanometer scale; when deformed in this condition in uniaxial tension at room temperature, high strengths up to 2 GPa, limited tensile ductility of 3% and strain rate sensitivity in the quasi-static regime were noted. The deformed microstructure revealed evidence for slip, twinning and de-twinning, and in the necked region, in the vicinity where fracture had occurred, the fine twins appeared broken down into nanograins. The cyclic response of the as-drawn wire, evaluated using rotary beam bending (R=−1) and in tension–tension fatigue (R=0.3), appeared to be initiation-controlled and sensitive to the presence of extraneous second phase inclusions identified as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles. Cyclically-deformed as{sub -}drawn wire samples displayed extensive de-twinning and multiple twin variants formation.

  9. All-optical fiber anemometer based on laser heated fiber Bragg gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shaorui; Zhang, A Ping; Tam, Hwa-Yaw; Cho, L H; Lu, Chao

    2011-05-23

    A fiber-optic anemometer based on fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) is presented. A short section of cobalt-doped fiber was utilized to make a fiber-based "hot wire" for wind speed measurement. Fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) were fabricated in the cobalt-doped fiber using 193 nm laser pulses to serve as localized temperature sensors. A miniature all-optical fiber anemometer is constructed by using two FBGs to determine the dynamic thermal equilibrium between the laser heating and air flow cooling through monitoring the FBGs' central wavelengths. It was demonstrated that the sensitivity of the sensor can be adjusted through the power of pump laser or the coating on the FBG. Experimental results reveal that the proposed FBG-based anemometer exhibits very good performance for wind speed measurement. The resolution of the FBG-based anemometer is about 0.012 m/s for wind speed range between 2.0 m/s and 8.0 m/s.

  10. The Analysis of the High Speed Wire Drawing Process of High Carbon Steel Wires Under Hydrodynamic Lubrication Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suliga M.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work the analysis of the wire drawing process in hydrodynamic dies has been done. The drawing process of φ5.5 mm wire rod to the final wire of φ1.7 mm was conducted in 12 passes, in drawing speed range of 5-25 m/s. For final wires of φ1.7 mm the investigation of topography of wire surface, the amount of lubricant on the wire surface and the pressure of lubricant in hydrodynamic dies were determined. Additionally, in the work selected mechanical properties of the wires have been estimated.

  11. The Analysis of the High Speed Wire Drawing Process of High Carbon Steel Wires Under Hydrodynamic Lubrication Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Suliga M.

    2015-01-01

    In this work the analysis of the wire drawing process in hydrodynamic dies has been done. The drawing process of φ5.5 mm wire rod to the final wire of φ1.7 mm was conducted in 12 passes, in drawing speed range of 5-25 m/s. For final wires of φ1.7 mm the investigation of topography of wire surface, the amount of lubricant on the wire surface and the pressure of lubricant in hydrodynamic dies were determined. Additionally, in the work selected mechanical properties of the wires have been estima...

  12. Coaxial electrospun fibers: applications in drug delivery and tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yang; Huang, Jiangnan; Yu, Guoqiang; Cardenas, Romel; Wei, Suying; Wujcik, Evan K; Guo, Zhanhu

    2016-09-01

    Coelectrospinning and emulsion electrospinning are two main methods for preparing core-sheath electrospun nanofibers in a cost-effective and efficient manner. Here, physical phenomena and the effects of solution and processing parameters on the coaxial fibers are introduced. Coaxial fibers with specific drugs encapsulated in the core can exhibit a sustained and controlled release. Their exhibited high surface area and three-dimensional nanofibrous network allows the electrospun fibers to resemble native extracellular matrices. These features of the nanofibers show that they have great potential in drug delivery and tissue engineering applications. Proteins, growth factors, antibiotics, and many other agents have been successfully encapsulated into coaxial fibers for drug delivery. A main advantage of the core-sheath design is that after the process of electrospinning and release, these drugs remain bioactive due to the protection of the sheath. Applications of coaxial fibers as scaffolds for tissue engineering include bone, cartilage, cardiac tissue, skin, blood vessels and nervous tissue, among others. A synopsis of novel coaxial electrospun fibers, discussing their applications in drug delivery and tissue engineering, is covered pertaining to proteins, growth factors, antibiotics, and other drugs and applications in the fields of bone, cartilage, cardiac, skin, blood vessel, and nervous tissue engineering, respectively. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2016, 8:654-677. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1391 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  13. INFLUENCE OF SURFACE DEFECTS, INHERITED FROM ROLLED WIRE, ON QUALITY OF A COLD-DRAWN WIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Savenok

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Researches of the most often occurred surface defects of rolled wires, their modification at drawing and influence on technological process and quality of cold-drawn wire with regard to working conditions of hardware shops of OAO “BMZ” are  presented.

  14. INFLUENCE OF THE SURFACE DEFECTS INHERITED FROM ROLLED WIRE ON QUALITY OF COLD DRAWN WIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Savenok

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Researches of the most often occurred surface defects of rolled wires, their modification at drawing and influence on technological process and quality of cold-drawn wire with regard to working conditions of hardware shops of BMZ are presented.

  15. Evolution of cementite morphology in pearlitic steel wire during wet wire drawing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Godfrey, Andrew; Hansen, Niels

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of the cementite phase during wet wire drawing of a pearlitic steel wire has been followed as a function of strain. Particular attention has been given to a quantitative characterization of changes in the alignment and in the dimensions of the cementite phase. Scanning electron...

  16. STRS SpaceWire FPGA Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, James P.; Taylor, Gregory H.; Lang, Minh; Stern, Ryan A.

    2011-01-01

    An FPGA module leverages the previous work from Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) relating to NASA s Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) project. The STRS SpaceWire FPGA Module is written in the Verilog Register Transfer Level (RTL) language, and it encapsulates an unmodified GSFC core (which is written in VHDL). The module has the necessary inputs/outputs (I/Os) and parameters to integrate seamlessly with the SPARC I/O FPGA Interface module (also developed for the STRS operating environment, OE). Software running on the SPARC processor can access the configuration and status registers within the SpaceWire module. This allows software to control and monitor the SpaceWire functions, but it is also used to give software direct access to what is transmitted and received through the link. SpaceWire data characters can be sent/received through the software interface, as well as through the dedicated interface on the GSFC core. Similarly, SpaceWire time codes can be sent/received through the software interface or through a dedicated interface on the core. This innovation is designed for plug-and-play integration in the STRS OE. The SpaceWire module simplifies the interfaces to the GSFC core, and synchronizes all I/O to a single clock. An interrupt output (with optional masking) identifies time-sensitive events within the module. Test modes were added to allow internal loopback of the SpaceWire link and internal loopback of the client-side data interface.

  17. Effect of grain size on superelasticity in Fe-Mn-Al-Ni shape memory alloy wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Omori

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Effects of grain size on superelastic properties in Fe-34Mn-15Al-7.5Ni alloy wires with a ⟨110⟩ fiber-texture were investigated by cyclic tensile tests. It was confirmed that the critical stress for induced martensitic transformation and the superelastic strain are functions of relative grain size d/D (d: mean grain diameter, D: wire diameter, and that the critical stress is proportional to (1–d/D2 as well as in Cu-based shape memory alloys. A large superelastic strain of about 5% was obtained in the specimen with a large relative grain size over d/D = 1.

  18. Hot Wire Anemometer Turbulence Measurements in the wind Tunnel of LM Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Andreas

    Flow measurements were carried out in the wind tunnel of LM Wind Power A/S with a Dantec Streamline CTA system to characterize the flow turbulence. Besides the free tunnel flow with empty test section we also investigated the tunnel flow when two grids with different mesh size were introduced...... downstream of the nozzle contraction. We used two different hot wire probes: a dual sensor miniature wire probe (Dantec 55P61) and a triple sensor fiber film probe (Dantec 55R91). The turbulence intensity measured with the dual sensor probe in the empty tunnel section was significantly lower than the one...... measured with the triple sensor probe. The turbulence intensity as well as the mean flow velocity downstream of the grids were not homogeneous in space. The grid with the finer mesh size created higher turbulence intensity. For both grids we found a functional form of the power spectral density...

  19. The effect of multiple bending of wire on the residual stresses of high carbon steel wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kruzel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Steel tire cord, springs and rope wires belong to the group of metal products from which the low residual stresses are required. In this paper the effect of multiple bending of wire on residual stresses of high carbon steel wires has been assessed. It was found that the application of the multi-roller straightening machine in the banding wire process enables to reduce the residual stresses in the drawn wires. It should be also noted that the value of the residual stresses depends on the type of straightener construction. The residual stresses on the basis of stress-strain curve has been determined. It has been stated that the application of seven-rolls straightener gives the best effect of straightening.

  20. Selected developments in laser wire stripping. [cutting insulation from aerospace-type wires and cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The operation of mechanical and thermal strippers and the early development of laser wire strippers are reviewed. NASA sponsored development of laser wire stripping for space shuttle includes bench-type strippers as well as an advanced portable hand-held stripper which incorporates a miniaturized carbon dioxide laser and a rotating optics unit with a gas-jet assist and debris exhaust. Drives and controls girdle the wire and slit the remaining slug without manual assistance. This unit can strip wire sizes 26 through 12 gage. A larger-capacity hand-held unit for wire sizes through 1/0 gage was built using a neodynium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser. The hand-held units have a flexible umbilical cable to an accompanying cart that carries the power supply, gas supply, cooling unit, and the controls.

  1. K-wire position in tension-band wiring technique affects stability of wires and long-term outcome in surgical treatment of olecranon fractures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, S.C. van der; Kampen, A. van; Jaarsma, R.L.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tension-band wiring (TBW) has been accepted as the treatment of choice for displaced olecranon fractures. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of K-wire position on instability of the K-wires in relation to local complications and radiological and clinical long-term outcome. M

  2. Vibration measurements of a wire scanner - Experimental setup and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herranz, Juan; Barjau, Ana; Dehning, Bernd

    2016-03-01

    In the next years the luminosity of the LHC will be significantly increased. This will require a much higher accuracy of beam profile measurement than actually achievable by the current wire scanner. The new performance demands a wire travelling speed up to 20 m s-1 and a position measurement accuracy of the order of 1 μm. The vibrations of the mechanical parts of the system and particularly the vibrations of the thin carbon wire have been identified as the major error sources of wire position uncertainty. Therefore the understanding of the wire vibrations has been given high priority for the design and operation of the new device. This article presents a new strategy to measure the wire vibrations based on the piezoresistive effect of the wire itself. An electronic readout system based on a Wheatstone bridge is used to measure the variation of the carbon wire resistance, which is directly proportional to the wire elongation caused by the oscillations.

  3. Flexible Wire-Shaped Supercapacitors in Parallel Double Helix Configuration with Stable Electrochemical Properties under Static/Dynamic Bending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kai; Ma, Ying; Li, Huiqiao; Zhai, Tianyou

    2016-02-24

    Wire-shaped flexible supercapacitors (SCs) have aroused much attention due to their small size, light weight, high flexibility, and deformability. However, the previously reported wire-shaped SCs usually involve complex assembly processes, encounter potential structural instabilities, and the influence of dynamic bending on the electrochemical stability of wire-shaped SCs is also not clear. Here, a parallel double helix wire-shaped supercapacitor (PDWS) protocol has been developed with two symmetric titanium@MnO2 fiber electrodes winded on a flexible nylon fiber by a simple and reliable process. The PDWSs show an operate voltage of 0.8 V, a high capacitance of 15.6 mF cm(-2) and an energy density of 1.4 µWh cm(-2) . Due to rational structure design, the PDWSs demonstrate excellent mechanical and electrochemical stability under both static and dynamic deformations. Over 3500 bending cycles, 88.0% of the initial capacitance can still be retained. In terms of dynamic bending, it is found that the cyclic voltammetry curves show periodically fluctuations simultaneously with the bending frequency and the intensity of fluctuation increases with higher bending frequency, while the dynamic capacitance is almost not affected. With extraordinary mechanical flexibility and excellent electrochemical stability, the high performance PDWS is considered to be a promising power source for wearable electronics. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Integrated Electrical Wire Insulation Repair System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha; Jolley, Scott; Gibson, Tracy; Parks, Steven

    2013-01-01

    An integrated system tool will allow a technician to easily and quickly repair damaged high-performance electrical wire insulation in the field. Low-melt polyimides have been developed that can be processed into thin films that work well in the repair of damaged polyimide or fluoropolymer insulated electrical wiring. Such thin films can be used in wire insulation repairs by affixing a film of this low-melt polyimide to the damaged wire, and heating the film to effect melting, flow, and cure of the film. The resulting repair is robust, lightweight, and small in volume. The heating of this repair film is accomplished with the use of a common electrical soldering tool that has been modified with a special head or tip that can accommodate the size of wire being repaired. This repair method can furthermore be simplified for the repair technician by providing replaceable or disposable soldering tool heads that have repair film already "loaded" and ready for use. The soldering tool heating device can also be equipped with a battery power supply that will allow its use in areas where plug-in current is not available

  5. EVALUATION OF INDUCTANCE WITH ELECTRICAL WIRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kudry

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper proved the possibility of developing passive electronic inductive elements based replace metal wire that is wound inductor, the wire is made of electret. The relative permeability of the electret S  10 000, several orders of magnitude greater than the permeability of conventional insulation materials, i < 10, resulting current in the wire acquires properties bias current. The essence of innovation is to replace the source of of magnetic induction flow that pervades the core of the coil. According to the theory of electrodynamics, current bias, in contrast to conduction current, generated no movement of charge along the wire, but the change of the charge in the local volume.Equivalence bias current and conduction current is manifested in the possibility of forming a magnetic field. The flow through magnetic induction coil core regardless of the current it generates, creates voltage at its ends.The paper also shows the numeric characteristics that determine the effective frequency range, specified the reason why electric a wire with і < 10 can not generate magnetic flux through the core and serve as a passive reactive component.

  6. Forgotten Kirschner Wire Causing Severe Hematuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kirschner wire (K-wire is commonly used in the treatment of hip fracture and its migration into pelvis leading to bladder injury is a very rare complication. Nonremoval of these devices either because of lack of followup or because of prolonged requirement due to disease process is associated with this complication. We report a case of a patient who presented with acute onset severe hematuria with clot retention secondary to perforation of bladder by a migrated K-wire placed earlier, for the treatment of hip fracture. Initial imaging showed its presence in the soft tissues of the pelvis away from the major vascular structures. Patient was taken for emergency laparotomy and wire was removed after cystotomy. Postoperative period was uneventful and patient was discharged in satisfactory condition. K-wires are commonly used in the management of fracture bones and their migration has been reported in the literature although such migration in the intrapelvic region involving bladder is very rare. Early diagnosis and prompt removal of such foreign bodies are required to avert potentially fatal involvement of major structures.

  7. The PS Booster Fast Wire Scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Burger, S; Priestnall, K; Raich, U

    2003-01-01

    The very tight emittance budget for LHC type beams makes precise emittance measurements in the injector complex a necessity. The PS machine uses 2 fast wire scanners per transverse plane for emittance measurement of the circulating beams. In order to ease comparison the same type of wire scanners have been newly installed in the upstream machine, the PS Booster, where each of the 4 rings is equipped with 2 wire scanners measuring the horizontal and vertical profiles. Those wire scanners use new and more modern control and readout electronics featuring dedicated intelligent motor movement controllers, which relieves the very stringent real time constraints due to the very high speed of 20m/s. In order to be able to measure primary beams at the very low injection energy of the Booster (50MeV) secondary emission currents from the wire can be measured as well as secondary particle flows at higher primary particle energies during and after acceleration. The solution adopted for the control of the devices is descri...

  8. Optimal welding of beta titanium orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, K R; Burstone, C J; Goldberg, A J

    1987-09-01

    Today the orthodontist is confronted by an array of new orthodontic wire materials that, when applied to appliance design, can vastly increase the flexibility and versatility of therapy. Welded joints, especially for the newer titanium alloy wires, provide a means to extend the useful applications of these materials. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimum settings for electrical resistance welding of various configurations of titanium-molybdenum (TMA) wires. Specimens were of a t-joint configuration and were mechanically tested in torsion to simulate the failure mode most often observed in clinical practice. Variables included wire size, wire orientation, and welding voltage. Results indicated that excellent welds can be obtained with very little loss of strength and ductility in the area of the weld joint. Torsional loads at failure were at least 90% of the unwelded base material. Although a wide range of voltage settings resulted in high-strength welds, typically a narrow range of voltages yielded optimal ductility.

  9. Residual stresses in boron/tungsten and boron/carbon fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    Longitudinal residual stress distribution is determined for 102-micron diam B/W and B/C fibers. The 102-micron diam B/W fibers are deposited on a 12.7-micron diam tungsten wire resistively heated in a BCl3-H2 reactor. The 102-micron diam B/C fibers are made by deposition of boron on a pyrolytic graphite-coated carbon fiber. The longitudinal residual stress distribution is calculated from measurements of the change in length of the fiber produced by removal of the surface through electropolishing. It is found that for both types of fibers, the residual stress vary from a compressive stress at the surface to a tensile stress in the boron near the core. Closer to the core and in the core, significant differences in the residual stresses are observed for the B/W and B/C fibers.

  10. Fiber Optic Experience with the Smart Actuation System on the F-18 Systems Research Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, Eddie

    1997-01-01

    High bandwidth, immunity to electromagnetic interference, and potential weight savings have led to the development of fiber optic technology for future aerospace vehicle systems. This technology has been incorporated in a new smart actuator as the primary communication interface. The use of fiber optics simplified system integration and significantly reduced wire count. Flight test results showed that fiber optics could be used in aircraft systems and identified critical areas of development of fly-by-light technology. This paper documents the fiber optic experience gained as a result of this program, and identifies general design considerations that could be used in a variety of specific applications of fiber optic technology. Environmental sensitivities of fiber optic system components that significantly contribute to optical power variation are discussed. Although a calibration procedure successfully minimized the effect of fiber optic sensitivities, more standardized calibration methods are needed to ensure system operation and reliability in future aerospace vehicle systems.

  11. Electron microscopy investigation of interface between carbon fiber and ultra high molecular weight polyethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepashkin, A.A.; Chukov, D.I., E-mail: dil_chukov@yahoo.com; Gorshenkov, M.V.; Tcherdyntsev, V.V.; Kaloshkin, S.D.

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Effect of the carbon fibers surface treatments on the adhesive interactions in UHMWPE composites was studied. • Air oxidation of carbon filler ensures most significant increase in adhesion interaction in UHMWPE based composites. • Nanosized UHMWPE fibers with 20–40 nm in diameter and with 6–10 μm in length, was observed on the surface of carbon fibers. -- Abstract: Scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate the surface of initial and modified high-strength and high-modulus carbon fibers as well as interfaces in the ultra high molecular weight polyethylene, filled with above-mentioned fibers. Effect of the fibers surface modifying method on the adhesive interactions in composites was studied. It was observed that interaction of matrix with a modified surface of fibers results in a formation of bonds with strength higher than the yield strength of the polymer. It results in a formation of long nanosized polymer wires at tensile fracture of composites.

  12. Forgotten Kirschner wire passing across the sigmoid colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Yo, Shogen; Fukushima, Shinya; Osawa, Motoyasu; Murao, Takahiro; Ishii, Manabu; Fujita, Minoru; Shiotani, Akiko

    2017-04-01

    The Kirschner wire (K-wire) is used in the treatment of hip fractures, and migration of a K-wire into the pelvis with resultant colon injury is a very rare complication. We report a case in which a forgotten K-wire passing across the sigmoid colon was accidentally found by screening colonoscopy in a patient with no abdominal symptoms. Surgery was performed to remove the K-wire. Although the migration of a K-wire is extremely rare, it is important for it to be considered in patients with a history of orthopedic surgery.

  13. Heat-transfer regularities of the anemometric wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikheev, N. I.; Sakhovsky, A. V.; Khairnasov, K. R.; Kratirov, D. V.

    2010-06-01

    Experimental heat-transfer data for a small-diameter hot wire have been obtained and generalized in a wide range of Reynolds numbers typical of hot-wire anemometry. The experiments were carried out using an IRVIS-TA5 digital hot-wire anemometer and standard critical nozzles used for regulating the flow in the test section of the Eiffel chamber in which the hot-wire sensor was installed. Approaches to carrying out hot-wire anemometric measurements without a labor-consuming calibration procedure for the hot-wire sensor are substantiated.

  14. Optimization of the Single Staggered Wire and Tube Heat Exchanger

    OpenAIRE

    Arsana I Made; Susianto; Budhikarjono Kusno; Altway Ali

    2016-01-01

    Wire and tube heat exchanger consists of a coiled tube, and wire is welded on the two sides of it in normal direction of the tube. Generally,wire and tube heat exchanger uses inline wire arrangement between the two sides, whereas in this study, it used staggered wire arrangement that reduces the restriction of convection heat transfer. This study performed the optimization of single staggered wire and tube heat exchanger to increase the capacity and reduce the mass of the heat exchanger. Opti...

  15. Ultrasonic Welding of Wires and Cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Stefan; Wagner, Guntram; Eifler, Dietmar

    2012-03-01

    In the automobile industry, ultrasonic metal welding is an established method. At the Institute of Materials Science and Engineering (WKK) at the University of Kaiserslautern, Germany, systematic investigations of the weldability of Al-wires and flat flexible copper cables were carried out. In the case of Al-wires, joints with cross-sectional area of up to 80 mm2 and tensile shear load of about 3500 N were finally realized. Furthermore, methods to reduce unintentional adherence between the sonotrode coupling face and the Al-wires were developed. To realize FFC joints, ultrasonic spot welding systems and ultrasonic torsion welding systems were used. A central purpose of these investigations is the development of a system to enable welding through the insulation of the FFC without weakening the base material.

  16. Induced voltage in an open wire

    CERN Document Server

    Morawetz, K; Trupp, A

    2015-01-01

    A puzzle arising from Faraday's law is considered and solved concerning the question which voltage is induced in an open wire feeling a time-varying homogeneous magnetic field. The longitudinal electric field contributes 1/3 and the transverse field 2/3 to the induced voltage. The representation of a homogeneous and time-varying magnetic field implies unavoidably a certain symmetry point or line dependent on the geometry of the source. As a consequence the induced voltage of an open wire is found to be the area covered with respect to the symmetry line or point perpendicular to the magnetic field. This in turn allows to find the symmetry points of a magnetic field source by measuring the voltage of an open wire. We present two exactly solvable models for a symmetry point and for a symmetry line. The results are applicable to open circuit problems and for astrophysical applications.

  17. Reusable Hot-Wire Cable Cutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauken, Michael T.; Steinkraus, Joel M.

    2010-01-01

    During the early development stage of balloon deployment systems for missions, nichrome wire cable cutters were often used in place of pyro-actuated cutters. Typically, a nichrome wire is wrapped around a bundle of polymer cables with a low melting point and connected to a relay-actuated electric circuit. The heat from the nichrome reduces the strength of the cable bundle, which quickly breaks under a mechanical load and can thus be used as a release mechanism for a deployment system. However, the use of hand-made heated nichrome wire for cutters is not very reliable. Often, the wrapped nichrome wire does not cut through the cable because it either pulls away from its power source or does not stay in contact with the cable being cut. Because nichrome is not readily soldered to copper wire, unreliable mechanical crimps are often made to connect the nichrome to an electric circuit. A self-contained device that is reusable and reliable was developed to sever cables for device release or deployment. The nichrome wire in this new device is housed within an enclosure to prevent it from being damaged by handling. The electric power leads are internally connected within the unit to the nichrome wire using a screw terminal connection. A bayonet plug, a quick and secure method of connecting the cutter to the power source, is used to connect the cutter to the power leads similar to those used in pyro-cutter devices. A small ceramic tube [0.25-in. wide 0.5-in. long (.6.4-mm wide 13-mm long)] houses a spiraled nichrome wire that is heated when a cable release action is required. The wire is formed into a spiral coil by wrapping it around a mandrel. It is then laid inside the ceramic tube so that it fits closely to the inner surface of the tube. The ceramic tube provides some thermal and electrical insulation so that most of the heat generated by the wire is directed toward the cable bundle in the center of the spiral. The ceramic tube is cemented into an aluminum block, which

  18. Hot-wire anemometry in transonic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstman, C. C.; Rose, W. C.

    1977-01-01

    The use of hot-wire anemometry for obtaining fluctuating data in transonic flows has been evaluated. From hot-wire heat loss correlations based on previous transonic data, the sensitivity coefficients for velocity, density, and total temperature fluctuations have been calculated for a wide range of test conditions and sensor parameters. For sensor Reynolds number greater than 20 and high sensor overheat ratios, the velocity sensitivity remains independent of Mach number and equal to the density sensitivity. These conditions were verified by comparisons of predicted sensitivities with those from recent direct calibrations in transonic flows. Based on these results, techniques are presented to obtain meaningful measurements of fluctuating velocity, density, and Reynolds shear stress using hot-wire and hot-film anemometers. Example of these measurements are presented for two transonic boundary layers.

  19. Hot wire anemometry in transonic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstman, C. C.; Rose, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    The use of hot-wire anemometry for obtaining fluctuating data in transonic flows has been evaluated. From hot-wire heat loss correlations based on previous transonic data, the sensitivity coefficients for velocity, density, and total temperature fluctuations have been calculated for a wide range of test conditions and sensor parameters. For sensor Reynolds numbers greater than 20 and high sensor overheat ratios, the velocity sensitivity remains independent of Mach number and equal to the density sensitivity. These conclusions were verified by comparisons of predicted sensitivities with those from recent direct calibrations in transonic flows. Based on these results, techniques are presented to obtain meaningful measurements of fluctuating velocity, density, and Reynolds shear stress using hot-wire and hot-film anemometers. Examples of these measurements are presented for two transonic boundary layers.

  20. A new route to process diamond wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Filgueira

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose an original route to process diamond wires, denominated In Situ Technology, whose fabrication involves mechanical conformation processes, such as rotary forging, copper tubes restacking, and thermal treatments, such as sintering and recrystallisation of a bronze 4 wt.% diamond composite. Tensile tests were performed, reaching an ultimate tensile strength (UTS of 230 MPa for the diameter of Æ = 1.84 mm. Scanning electron microscopy showed the diamond crystals distribution along the composite rope during its manufacture, as well as the diamond adhesion to the bronze matrix. Cutting tests were carried out with the processed wire, showing a probable performance 4 times higher than the diamond sawing discs, however its probable performance was about 5 to 8 times less than the conventional diamond wires (pearl system due to the low abrasion resistance of the bronze matrix, and low adhesion between the pair bronze-diamond due to the use of not metallised diamond single crystals.

  1. Rotor Embedded with Shape Memory Alloy Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gupta

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present analysis, the fundamental natural frequency of a Jeffcott and a two-mass rotor with fibre reinforced composite shaft embedded with shape memory alloy (SMA wires is evaluated by Rayleigh's procedure. The flexibility of rotor supports is taken into account. The effect of three factors, either singly or in combination with each other, on rotor critical speed is studied. The three factors are: (i increase in Young's modulus of SMA (NITINOL wires when activated, (ii tension in wires because of phase recovery stresses, and (iii variation of support stiffness by three times because of activation of SMA in rotor supports. It is shown by numerical examples that substantial variation in rotor critical speeds can be achieved by a combination of these factors which can be effectively used to avoid resonance during rotor coast up/down.

  2. Emulating Wired Backhaul with Wireless Network Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Henning; De Carvalho, Elisabeth; Popovski, Petar

    2014-01-01

    of the two-way protocol. The transmit power is set high enough to enable successive decoding at the small cell base station where the downlink data to the user is first decoded and its contribution removed from the received signal followed by the uplink data from the user. The decoding of the second layer......In this paper we address the need for wireless network densification. We propose a solution wherein the wired backhaul employed in heterogeneous cellular networks is replaced with wireless links, while maintaining the rate requirements of the uplink and downlink traffic of each user. The first......, the uplink traffic to the user, remains identical to the one performed in a wired system. In the broadcast phase, the decoding of the downlink traffic can also be guaranteed to remain identical. Hence, our solution claims an emulation of a wired backhaul with wireless network coding with same performance. We...

  3. Cold-Drawn Bioabsorbable Ferrous and Ferrous Composite Wires: An Evaluation of Mechanical Strength and Fatigue Durability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Jeremy E.; Nauman, Eric A.; Stanciu, Lia A.

    2012-08-01

    Yield strengths exceeding 1 GPa with elastic strains exceeding 1 pct were measured in novel bioabsorbable wire materials comprising high-purity iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), magnesium (Mn), and zinc (Zn), which may enable the development of self-expandable, bioabsorbable, wire-based endovascular stents. The high strength of these materials is attributed to the fine microstructure and fiber textures achieved through cold drawing techniques. Bioabsorbable vascular stents comprising nutrient metal compositions may provide a means to overcome the limitations of polymer-based bioabsorbable stents such as excessive strut thickness and poor degradation rate control. Thin, 125- μm wires comprising combinations of ferrous alloys surrounding a relatively anodic nonferrous core were manufactured and tested using monotonic and cyclic techniques. The strength and durability properties are tested in air and in body temperature phosphate-buffered saline, and then they were compared with cold-drawn 316L stainless steel wire. The antiferromagnetic Fe35Mn-Mg composite wire exhibited more than 7 pct greater elasticity (1.12 pct vs 1.04 pct engineering strain), similar fatigue strength in air, an ultimate strength of more than 1.4 GPa, and a toughness exceeding 35 mJ/mm3 compared with 30 mJ/mm3 for 316L.

  4. Temperature effect on DNA molecular wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Christopher Minh

    The demand of technology and information today has further pushed the fabrication process of nanotechnology, yet there are limits and obstacles set by the primary laws of physics. Therefore, researchers are pursuing alternative technologies. Deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) molecular wire is one advantageous option due to its unique characteristics including self-assembly and naturally small; size. This thesis reports the temperature effect on the electrical properties of a double-stranded ?-DNA molecular wire. The data will help expand the DNA wire application and functionality. Thus, the data supports the charge hopping theory on DNA electrical conductivity. Diverse amount of literatures has demonstrated that DNA experiences a biochemical alteration when exposed under different temperature conditions. This change will also cause a change in the electrical properties. In this research, DNA will hang between two gold covered microelectrodes with a distance of 10 to 12 microns. The microelectrodes are fabricated through negative lithography techniques. Then, the samples were exposed to a numerous range of temperature from 25°C to 180°C and went through varying cycles of heating and cooling. The experimental results revealed that the DNA experienced a hysteresis like behavior where the impedance differed between the heating and cooling phase. The impedance of the DNA molecular wire increased when exposed to higher temperature. Furthermore, the impedance stops increasing after a certain amount of heat cycles before the DNA structure failed. The biology and thermodynamics of the DNA wire was analyzed due to the temperature hysteresis effect. The melting temperature and the bond dissociation temperature were evaluated to determine the cause of the impedance trends. The studies and analysis of the temperature effect provided certain insights towards the charge hopping transport mechanism. The thesis concludes with possible applications relating to the temperature effect of

  5. A disposable, coated wire heparin sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, J H; Fu, B; Meyerhoff, M E; Yang, V C

    1994-01-01

    The development of an ion-selective electrode heparin sensor consisting of a specially formulated polymer membrane doped with tridodecylmethylammonium chloride as the heparin complexing agent was recently reported. Because of the simple nature of the membrane technology used, the authors envisioned that the sensor could be configured as a disposable single-use device for rapid clinical or bedside measurement of heparin in a small, discrete sample. To explore this possibility, an inexpensive, disposable heparin sensor was created by dip-coating a copper wire with the specially formulated heparin-sensing polymeric membrane. Coated wire heparin sensors with a broad range of membrane thicknesses, prepared by repeatedly dipping the wire in the membrane solution for various times, were examined. Data show that increasing the membrane thickness of the sensor to a certain degree (more than 10 microns) enhanced the sensor's potentiometric response to heparin, although the time required to achieve 90% of the steady-state potential change was also prolonged. In addition, increasing membrane thickness also magnified the stirring effect on the sensor's response. In undiluted plasma samples, the coated-wire sensor with an optimized membrane thickness yielded a significant (5 to 30 mV) and reproducible response to heparin in a clinically relevant concentration range (0.5 to 12 units/ml, respectively). The clinical utility of the coated wire heparin sensor was shown using the sensor during protamine titration of heparinized plasma to assess the titration end-point. Preliminary results showed that the titration end-points determined by the heparin sensor strongly correlated with those determined by the activated partial thromboplastin time clotting assay. The overall time requirement to complete the titration process using a set of prefabricated coated wire heparin sensors, however, was less than 3 minutes. Further titration studies using undiluted clinical whole blood samples are

  6. Experimental study of lightning protection effects to a overhead ground wire by a lightning rod and projection rods; Yuraishin oyobi dosshi wo mochiita kakuchisen no raigai boshi ni kansuru jikkenteki kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsuragi, Y. [Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Nagoya (Japan); Aihara, Y. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-04-20

    The overhead ground wire is generally used on transmission lines as one of the lightning protection devices for the power conductors. In recent years, the ground wire with an optical fiber cable in it (OPGW) has been employed on the transmission systems. The strands of the ground wire are, however, frequently melted down because of lightning strokes to them not only in summer but also in winter. For this reason, it is necessary to devise the new lightning protection method for the ground wire. As the protection method, lightning rods installed on the transmission tower arms and projection rods wound around a ground wire are proposed by authors. Lightning protection effects of these methods are shown by model experiments which simulate summer and winter lightning strokes. It has been made clear that these methods are useful as one of the lightning protection methods for transmission lines, and application conditions of them for practical use are also shown. 4 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. The aging of wire chambers filled with dimethyl ether: Wire and construction materials and freon impurities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jibaly, M.; Majewski, S.; Chrusch, P. Jr.; Wojcik, R. (Florida Univ., Gainesville (USA). Dept. of Physics (USA)); Sauli, F.; Gaudaen, J. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). EP-Div. (Switzerland))

    1989-11-10

    This is a complete summary of our study of the aging of different types of wire chambers, with a variety of construction materials and wires, filled with dimethyl ether (DME) of varying degrees of purity. The resistive Nicotin and Stablohm wires were corroded by DME, producing fast aging. The moderately resistive stainless steel wires were able to withstand extended irradiation (up to 1 C/cm) in high-purity DME without any apparent damage; and gold-plated tungsten and molybdenum wires exhibited a comparable behavior. Many construction materials were tested and recommendations are thus reached as to what kinds of materials are safe in building DME-operated wire chambers. Among many different Freon and hydrocarbon impurities detected in DME by means of gas chromatography (GC), Freon-11 was found to be mostly responsible for the aging, even with noncorrosive stainless steel or gold-plated wires. The availability and feasibility of obtaining Freon-free DME is reported as well. (orig.).

  8. Physarum wires: Self-growing self-repairing smart wires made from slime mould

    CERN Document Server

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    We report experimental laboratory studies on developing conductive pathways, or wires, using protoplasmic tubes of plasmodium of acellular slime mould Physarum polycephalum. Given two pins to be connected by a wire, we place a piece of slime mould on one pin and an attractant on another pin. Physarum propagates towards the attract and thus connects the pins with a protoplasmic tube. A protoplasmic tube is conductive, can survive substantial over-voltage and can be used to transfer electrical current to lightning and actuating devices. In experiments we show how to route Physarum wires with chemoattractants and electrical fields. We demonstrate that Physarum wire can be grown on almost bare breadboards and on top of electronic circuits. The Physarum wires can be insulated with a silicon oil without loss of functionality. We show that a Physarum wire self-heals: end of a cut wire merge together and restore the conductive pathway in several hours after being cut. Results presented will be used in future designs ...

  9. Combining Wired and Wireless Networks for a QoS-Aware Broadband Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Riaz, Muhammad Tahir; Knudsen, Thomas Phillip

    2004-01-01

    households and businesses. Two factors are considered particularly important when designing an infrastructure: The chosen technology must allow for sufficient bandwidth, and the physical network structures must allow for independent paths between any pair of nodes. A final solution is obtained by using Fiber......We show how integrated planning of wired and wireless infrastructures can be used to build a QoS-aware broadband infrastructure. The outset is a case study of the municipality of Hals, a rural community in Denmark, where the objective is to establish a broadband infrastructure reaching all...

  10. Principles of intramedullary pin and wire fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, P E

    1991-02-01

    Knowledge and experience in the proper use of IM pins, K-wires, and orthopedic wire is a valuable asset to the veterinarian's ability to successfully repair a variety of long bone fractures. Most long bone fractures are amenable to repair with this form of fixation. When the principles of application are violated or the implants are used when contraindicated, complications often occur. Proper use of these implants results in the successful management of complex fractures to the satisfaction of both the animal owner and the veterinarian (Fig 10).

  11. Temperature Dependent Wire Delay Estimation in Floorplanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Andreas Thor; Liu, Wei; Nannarelli, Alberto;

    2011-01-01

    Due to large variations in temperature in VLSI circuits and the linear relationship between metal resistance and temperature, the delay through wires of the same length can be different. Traditional thermal aware floorplanning algorithms use wirelength to estimate delay and routability. In this w......Due to large variations in temperature in VLSI circuits and the linear relationship between metal resistance and temperature, the delay through wires of the same length can be different. Traditional thermal aware floorplanning algorithms use wirelength to estimate delay and routability...

  12. CODEX sounding rocket wire grid collimator design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, Ann; Zeiger, Ben; Rogers, Thomas

    2011-05-01

    CODEX is a sounding rocket payload designed to operate in the soft x-ray (0.1-1.0 kV) regime. The instrument has a 3.25 degree square field of view that uses a one meter long wire grid collimator to create a beam that converges to a line in the focal plane. Wire grid collimator performance is directly correlated to the geometric accuracy of actual grid features and their relative locations. Utilizing a strategic combination of manufacturing and assembly techniques, this design is engineered for precision within the confines of a typical rocket budget. Expected resilience of the collimator under flight conditions is predicted by mechanical analysis.

  13. Laser wire emittance measurement line AT CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia, H; Blair, G A; Aumeyr, T; Schulte, D; Stulle, F

    2011-01-01

    A precise measurement of the transverse beam size and beam emittances upstream of the final focus is essential for ensuring the full luminosity at future linear colliders. A scheme for the emittance measurements at the RTML line of the CLIC using laser-wire beam profile monitors is described. A lattice of the measurement line is discussed and results of simulations of statistical errors and of their impact on the accuracy of the emittance reconstruction are given. Laser wire systems suitable for CLIC and their main characteristics are discussed.

  14. Results from some anode wire aging tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juricic, I.; Kadyk, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Using twin setups to test anode wire aging in small gas avalanche tubes, a variety of different gas mixtures were tried and other parameters were varied to study their effects upon the gain drop, nomalized to charge transfer: - 1/Q dI/I. This was found to be quite sensitive to the purity of the gases, and also sensitive to the nominal gain and the gas flow rate. The wire surface material can also significantly affect the aging, as can additives, such as ethanol or water vapor. Certain gas mixtures have been found to be consistent with zero aging at the sensitivity level of this technique.

  15. Quantum conductance in silicon quantum wires

    CERN Document Server

    Bagraev, N T; Klyachkin, L E; Malyarenko, A M; Gehlhoff, W; Ivanov, V K; Shelykh, I A

    2002-01-01

    The results of investigations of electron and hole quantum conductance staircase in silicon quantum wires are presented. The characteristics of self-ordering quantum wells of n- and p-types, which from on the silicon (100) surface in the nonequilibrium boron diffusion process, are analyzed. The results of investigations of the quantum conductance as the function of temperature, carrier concentration and modulation degree of silicon quantum wires are given. It is found out, that the quantum conductance of the one-dimensional channels is observed, for the first time, at an elevated temperature (T >= 77 K)

  16. A FLYING WIRE SYSTEM IN THE AGS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HUANG,H.; BUXTON,W.; MAHLER,G.; MARUSIC,A.; ROSER,T.; SMITH,G.; SYPHERS,M.; WILLIAMS,N.; WITKOVER,R.

    1999-03-29

    As the AGS prepares to serve as the injector for RHIC, monitoring and control of the beam transverse emittance become a major and important topic. Before the installation of the flying wire system, the emittance was measured with ionization profile monitors in the AGS, which require correction for space charge effects. It is desirable to have a second means of measuring profile that is less depend on intensity. A flying wire system has been installed in the AGS recently to perform this task. This paper discusses the hardware and software setup and the capabilities of the system.

  17. EDITORIAL More than a wire More than a wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-10-01

    Nanowires are the natural evolution of the connections in circuits when scaled down to nanometre sizes. On closer inspection, of course, the role of nanowires in developing new technologies is much more than just a current-bearing medium. By sizing the diameters of these objects down to the nanoscale, their properties become increasingly sensitive to factors such as the gas composition, temperature and incident light of their surrounding environment, as well as defects and variations in diameter. What becomes important in modern electronics innovations is not just what is connected, but how. Nanowires had already begun to attract the attention of researchers in the early 1990s as advances in imaging and measurement devices invited researchers to investigate the properties of these one-dimensional structures [1, 2]. This interest has sparked ingenious ways of fabricating nanowires such as the use of a DNA template. A collaboration of researchers at Louisiana Tech University in the US hs provided an overview of various methods to assemble conductive nanowires on a DNA template, including a summary of different approaches to stretching and positioning the templates [3]. Work in this area demonstrates a neat parallel for the role of DNA molecules as the building blocks of life and the foundations of nanoscale device architectures. Scientists at HP Labs in California are using nanowires to shrink the size of logic arrays [4]. One aspect of electronic interconnects that requires particular attention at nanoscale sizes is the effect of defects. The researchers at HP Labs demonstrate that their approach, which they name FPNI (field-programmable nanowire interconnect), is extremely tolerant of the high defect rates likely to be found in these nanoscale structures, and allows reduction in size and power without significantly sacrificing the clock rate. Another issue in scaling down electronics is the trend for an increasing resistivity with decreasing wire width. Researchers

  18. Flow gradient corrections on hot-wire measurements using an X-wire probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooden, J. H. M.; van Lent, M.

    A method has been developed to correct hot-wire measurements by means of a single X-wire probe for the effect of gradients normal to the plane of the wires in the mean flow velocities as well as in the turbulence intensities. Dataprocessing is performed in an iterative way, using the results of measurements with different probe rolling angles, to determine the gradient corrections along the traverse from the previous loop. The method has been applied to measurements in the wake above the trailing edge flap of a wing and it is shown that substantial improvements in the results have been achieved.

  19. Constant-temperature hot-wire anemometer practice in supersonic flows. II - The inclined wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, A. J.; Muck, K. C.

    1983-01-01

    The performance of a constant-temperature inclined hot-wire in a supersonic flow is critically examined. It is shown that calibration techniques applicable to subsonic flow, such as the cosine cooling law cannot be used when the flow is supersonic. Calibration and measurement procedures appropriate to supersonic flow are suggested, together with the possible limits on their validity. Experimental results for different wires indicate that the sensitivities do not seem to depend on flow direction according to any simple correlation. When the sensitivity exhibits a strong dependence on flow direction, the wire should be discarded to avoid errors due to nonlinear effects.

  20. Mode profiling of optical fibers at high laser powers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Carøe; Pedersen, David Bue; Simonsen, R.B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a measuring equipment capable of analysing the beam profile at high optical powers emitted by delivery fibers used in manufacturing processes. Together with the optical delivery system, the output beam quality from the delivery fiber and the shape...... of the focused spot can be determined. The analyser is based on the principle of a rotating wire being swept though the laser beam, while the reflected signal is recorded [1]. By changing the incident angle of the rotating rod from 0° to 360° in relation to the fiber, the full profile of the laser beam...... is obtained. Choosing a highly reflective rod material and a sufficiently high rotation speed, these measurements can be done with high laser powers, without any additional optical elements between the fiber and analyzer. The performance of the analyzer was evaluated by coupling laser light into different...

  1. Photonic Bandgap Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barkou, Stig Eigil; Broeng, Jes; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    1999-01-01

    Photonic bandgap fibers are describes using a new Kagomé cladding structure. These fibers may potentially guide light in low-index regions. Such fibers offer new dispersion properties, and large design flexibility.......Photonic bandgap fibers are describes using a new Kagomé cladding structure. These fibers may potentially guide light in low-index regions. Such fibers offer new dispersion properties, and large design flexibility....

  2. Temperature characteristics analysis of HIV partial disconnection wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dae-Dong; Shim, Jae-Myung; Lee, Yu-Sung; Jeong, Yun-Mi; Kim, Young-Dal

    2015-09-01

    Electric fires are caused mainly due to short circuits, overloads, and electric leakage. Of the causes, short circuits are caused by deteriorated insulation, poor contacts, and pressure damage. A partially disconnected wire refers to the status in which the wire section is partially cut, thus reducing the contact area compared to the normal state. Causes of partially disconnected wires, e.g., poor wire contacts and pressure damage, occur mostly in the wiring and in the device's contact area, and they locally increase the resistance, thus triggering thermal changes. Thus, this study simulated damage to a 450/750 V heat-resistant polyvinyl-chloride-insulated (HIV) wire used for preventing electric fires and analyzed the temperature characteristics of normal wires and partially disconnected wires.

  3. Ultrasonic drawing of tungsten wire for incandescent lamps production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordyuk, B N; Mordyuk, V S; Buryak, V V

    2004-04-01

    An influence of ultrasonic treatment (drawing) on structure, high temperature durability, evaporation and creep behaviours of tungsten single crystal and wires were investigated. A relation of tungsten wires properties with dislocation distribution was determined.

  4. Material Properties of Wire for the Fabrication of Knotted Fences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk J. Pons

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the materials properties of galvanised fencing wire, as used in the fabrication of knotted wire fences. A range of physical properties are investigated: tensile strength, ductility in tension, Young’s modulus, three-point bending, and bending span. A range of commercially available wire products were tested. The results show that most, but not all, high tensile wire samples met the minimum tensile and ductility requirements. Young’s modulus results failed to provide any meaningful insights into wire quality. Flexural modulus results also failed to provide any insight into wire quality issues, with no statistically significant differences existing between acceptable and problematic wire batches. The implications are that premature fence failures are unlikely to be caused solely by reduced tensile properties. Existing test methods, including tensile strength and ductility, are somewhat incomplete, perhaps even unreliable, as measures of wire quality.

  5. Use of miniature, single-wire, sheathed thermocouples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glawe, G. E.; Holanda, R.; Krause, L. N.

    1977-01-01

    Temperature measurement with small thermocouples is improved by device. Each wire is sheathed separately which increases the interelement insulation by factor of 2 1/2. Each wire in its separate sheath can be brought to junction by independent paths.

  6. STRUCTURE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF PATENTED HIGH-CARBON WIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ju. Borisenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of bainite structure on mechanical characteristics of wire of steel 80 after patenting is studied. The quantity and structure state of bainite, providing high complex of mechanical characteristics of high-carbon wire, is determined.

  7. Resistance of a Wire as a Function of Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, David

    1995-01-01

    Presents a simple experiment that enables students to get a quantitative measure of the relationship between the resistance of a wire and the temperature of the wire allowing the calculation of the temperature coefficient of resistance. (JRH)

  8. Spectroscopic properties of colloidal indium phosphide quantum wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lin-Wang; Wang, Fudong; Yu, Heng; Li, Jingbo; Hang, Qingling; Zemlyanov, Dmitry; Gibbons, Patrick C.; Wang, Lin-Wang; Janes, David B.; Buhro, William E.

    2008-07-11

    Colloidal InP quantum wires are grown by the solution-liquid-solid (SLS) method, and passivated with the traditional quantum dots surfactants 1-hexadecylamine and tri-n-octylphosphine oxide. The size dependence of the band gaps in the wires are determined from the absorption spectra, and compared to other experimental results for InP quantum dots and wires, and to the predictions of theory. The photoluminescence behavior of the wires is also investigated. Efforts to enhance photoluminescence efficiencies through photochemical etching in the presence of HF result only in photochemical thinning or photo-oxidation, without a significant influence on quantum-wire photoluminescence. However, photo-oxidation produces residual dot and rod domains within the wires, which are luminescent. The results establish that the quantum-wire band gaps are weakly influenced by the nature of the surface passivation, and that colloidal quantum wires have intrinsically low photoluminescence efficiencies.

  9. Spectroscopic properties of colloidal indium phosphide quantum wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fudong; Yu, Heng; Li, Jingbo; Hang, Qingling; Zemlyanov, Dmitry; Gibbons, Patrick C; Wang, Lin-Wang; Janes, David B; Buhro, William E

    2007-11-21

    Colloidal InP quantum wires are grown by the solution-liquid-solid (SLS) method, and passivated with the traditional quantum dots surfactants 1-hexadecylamine and tri-n-octylphosphine oxide. The size dependence of the band gaps in the wires are determined from the absorption spectra, and compared to other experimental results for InP quantum dots and wires, and to the predictions of theory. The photoluminescence behavior of the wires is also investigated. Efforts to enhance photoluminescence efficiencies through photochemical etching in the presence of HF result only in photochemical thinning or photooxidation, without a significant influence on quantum-wire photoluminescence. However, photooxidation produces residual dot and rod domains within the wires, which are luminescent. The results establish that the quantum-wire band gaps are weakly influenced by the nature of the surface passivation and that colloidal quantum wires have intrinsically low photoluminescence efficiencies.

  10. Radiation of relativistic electrons in a periodic wire structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soboleva, V.V., E-mail: sobolevaveronica@mail.ru; Naumenko, G.A.; Bleko, V.V.

    2015-07-15

    We present in this work the experimental investigation of the interaction of relativistic electron field with periodic wire structures. We used two types of the targets in experiments: flat wire target and sandwich wire target that represent the right triangular prism. The measurements were done in millimeter wavelength region (10–40 mm) on the relativistic electron beam with energy of 6.2 MeV in far-field zone. We showed that bunched electron beam passing near wire metamaterial prism generates coherent Cherenkov radiation. The experiments with flat wire target were carried out in two geometries. In the first geometry the electron beam passed close to the flat wire target surface. In the second case the electron beam passed through the flat wire structure with generation of a coherent backward transition radiation (CBTR). The comparison of the Cherenkov radiation intensity and BTR intensity from the flat wire target and from the flat conductive target (conventional BTR) was made.

  11. STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF PATENTED HIGH-CARBON WIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Borisenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of bainite structure on mechanical characteristics of wire of steel 80 after patenting is studied. The quantity and structure state of bainite, providing high complex of mechanical characteristics of high-carbon wire, is determined.

  12. Development of Stretched wire measurement bench at IDDL, DAVV Indore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlot, Mona; Mishra, G.

    2016-10-01

    A stretched wire magnetic measurement bench is under development at IDDL, DAVV, Indore. In this method a multistrend wire consisting of N turns is stretched inside the undulator to measure the field integrals of the undulators. The wire moved with constant velocity of translation measures the first integral of the undulator field. The cross motion of the wire at the undulator ends measures the second field integral. The measurement accuracy depends on the wire conditions and material properties. In this paper we follow an analytical approach to find the voltage fluctuations due to wire vibrations during the field measurement. It is shown that the voltage fluctuations depend on undulator gap, magnitude of the impulse on the wire. The mass density and the length of the wire also cause sizeable voltage fluctuations. The analytical derived expression is analysed to optimize system parameters for minimum errors during the measurement.

  13. A Passive Optical Fiber Current Sensor Based on YIG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Shao; Wen Liu; Cui-Qing Liu; Duan Xu

    2008-01-01

    A research on passive optical fiber current sensor based on magneto-optical crystal and a new design of light path of the sensor head are presented. Both methods of dual-channel optical detection of the polarization state of the output light and signal processing are proposed. Signal processing can obtain the linear output of the current measurement of the wire more conveniently. Theoretical analysis on the magneto-optical fiber current sensor is given, followed by experiments. After that, further analysis is made according to the results, which leads to clarifying the exiting problems and their placements.

  14. High frequency strain measurements with fiber Bragg grating sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, J.; Angelmahr, M.; Schade, W.

    2015-05-01

    In recent years fiber Bragg grating sensors gained interest in structural health monitoring and concepts for smart structures. They are small, lightweight, and immune to electromagnetic interference. Using multiplexing techniques, several sensors can be addressed by a single fiber. Therefore, well-established structures and materials in industrial applications can be easily equipped with fiber optical sensors with marginal influence on their mechanical properties. In return, critical components can be monitored in real-time, leading to reduced maintenance intervals and a great reduction of costs. Beside of generally condition monitoring, the localization of failures in a structure is a desired feature of the condition monitoring system. Detecting the acoustic emission of a sudden event, its place of origin can be determined by analyzing the delay time of distributed sensor signals. To achieve high localization accuracies for the detection of cracks, breaks, and impacts high sampling rates combined with the simultaneous interrogation of several fiber Bragg grating sensors are required. In this article a fiber Bragg grating interrogator for high frequency measurements up to the megahertz range is presented. The interrogator is based on a passive wavelength to intensity conversion applying arrayed waveguide gratings. Light power fluctuations are suppressed by a differential data evaluation, leading to a reduced signal-to-noise ratio and a low strain detection limit. The measurement system is used to detect, inter alia, wire breaks in steel wire ropes for dockside cranes.

  15. Evaluating the Gradient of the Thin Wire Kernel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilton, Donald R.; Champagne, Nathan J.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, a formulation for evaluating the thin wire kernel was developed that employed a change of variable to smooth the kernel integrand, canceling the singularity in the integrand. Hence, the typical expansion of the wire kernel in a series for use in the potential integrals is avoided. The new expression for the kernel is exact and may be used directly to determine the gradient of the wire kernel, which consists of components that are parallel and radial to the wire axis.

  16. Nonlinear theory of a hot-wire anemometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betchov, R

    1952-01-01

    A theoretical analysis is presented for the hot-wire anemometer to determine the differences in resistance characteristics as given by King's equation for an infinite wire length and those given by the additional considerations of (a) a finite length of wire with heat loss through its ends and (b) heat loss due to a nonlinear function of the temperature difference between the wire and the air.

  17. Highly precise distributed Brillouin scattering sensor for structural health monitoring of optical ground wire cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Lufan; Ravet, Fabien; Bao, Xiaoyi; Chen, Liang

    2004-07-01

    A distributed Brillouin scattering sensor with high special precision has been developed for the measurement of small damages/cracks of 1.5 cm. The out-layer damaged regions in an optical ground wire (OPGW) cable have been identified successfully by measuring the strain distributions every 5 cm using this technology. The stress increased to 127 kN which corresponds to more than 7500 micro-strain in the fibers. The locations of structural indentations comprising repaired and undamaged regions are found and distinguished using their corresponding strain data. The elongation of repaired region increases with time on 127 kN. These results are quantified in terms of the fiber orientation, stress, and behavior relative to undamaged sections.

  18. Numerical Simulation of Wire-Coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wapperom, Peter; Hassager, Ole

    1999-01-01

    A finite element program has been used to analyze the wire-coating process of an MDPE melt. The melt is modeled by a nonisothermal Carreau model. The emphasis is on predicting an accurate temperature field. Therefore, it is necessary to include the heat conduction in the metal parts. A comparison...

  19. Welding Wires To Thin Thermocouple Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holanda, Raymond; Kim, Walter S.; Danzey, Gerald A.; Pencil, Eric; Wadel, Mary

    1993-01-01

    Parallel-gap resistance welding yields joints surviving temperatures of about 1,000 degrees C. Much faster than thermocompression bonding. Also exceeds conductive-paste bonding and sputtering thin films through porous flame-sprayed insulation on prewelded lead wires. Introduces no foreign material into thermocouple circuit and does not require careful control of thickness of flame-sprayed material.

  20. Phase Slips in Topological Superconductor Wire Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Samuel; Bergman, Doron; Pekker, David; Refael, Gil

    2012-02-01

    We make a detailed study of phase slips in topological superconducting wires and devices based on topological wires. We begin by investigating a device composed of a topological superconducting wire connected to a non-topological wire (T-S). In the T-segment only slips of the phase by multiples of 4π are allowed, while in the S-segment slips by 2π are also allowed. We show that near the interface, 2π phase slips are also allowed and we comment on the consequences of such phase slips for the Aharonov-Casher effect. We also consider an implementation of a q-bit consisting of a T-S-T device, where the quantum information is stored in the parity of the two topological segments via the four Majorana modes. We show that the central S-segment of this type of device can support 2π phase-slips which result in the decoherence of the q-bit.

  1. Wire chamber degradation at the Argonne ZGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haberichter, W.; Spinka, H.

    1986-01-01

    Experience with multiwire proportional chambers at high rates at the Argonne Zero Gradient Synchrotron is described. A buildup of silicon on the sense wires was observed where the beam passed through the chamber. Analysis of the chamber gas indicated that the density of silicon was probably less than 10 ppM.

  2. Brain Wiring in the Fourth Dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernet, Mathias F; Desplan, Claude

    2015-07-02

    In this issue of Cell, Langen et al. use time-lapse multiphoton microscopy to show how Drosophila photoreceptor growth cones find their targets. Based on the observed dynamics, they develop a simple developmental algorithm recapitulating the highly complex connectivity pattern of these neurons, suggesting a basic framework for establishing wiring specificity.

  3. Studying superconducting Nb3Sn wire

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2099575

    2015-01-01

    Studying superconducting Nb3Sn wire. From the current experience from LHC and HL-LHC we know that the performance requirements for Nb3Sn conductor for future circular collider are challenging and should exceed that of present state-of-the-art materials.

  4. Tunable permeability of magnetic wires at microwaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panina, L.V., E-mail: lpanina@plymouth.ac.uk [National University of Science and Technology, MISiS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Institute for Design Problems in Microelectronics, RAN, Moscow (Russian Federation); Makhnovskiy, D.P. [School of Computing and Mathematics, University of Plymouth (United Kingdom); Morchenko, A.T.; Kostishin, V.G. [National University of Science and Technology, MISiS, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the analysis into microwave magnetic properties of magnetic microwires and their composites in the context of applications in wireless sensors and tunable microwave materials. It is demonstrated that the intrinsic permeability of wires has a wide frequency dispersion with relatively large values in the GHz band. In the case of a specific magnetic anisotropy this results in a tunable microwave impedance which could be used for distributed wireless sensing networks in functional composites. The other range of applications is related with developing the artificial magnetic dielectrics with large and tunable permeability. The composites with magnetic wires with a circumferential anisotropy have the effective permeability which differs substantially from unity for a relatively low concentration (less than 10%). This can make it possible to design the wire media with a negative and tunable index of refraction utilising natural magnetic properties of wires. - Highlights: • Applications of magnetic microwires for functional composites and distributed sensor networks are proposed. • Diluted composites with magnetic microwires can demonstrate tunable left-handed properties. • Large microwave permeability combined with a specific magnetic structure lead to a large and sensitive microwave magnetoimpedance. • Microwave magnetoimpedance highly sensitive to temperature is demonstrated.

  5. 77 FR 1504 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... antidumping duty order on stainless steel wire rod From India would be likely to lead to continuation or... contained in USITC Publication 4300 (January 2012), entitled Stainless Steel Wire Rod From...

  6. Lunar Module Wiring Design Considerations and Failure Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the considerations for the design of wiring for the Lunar Module. Included are a review of the choice of conductors and insulations, the wire splicing (i.e., crimping, and soldering), the wire connectors, and the fabrication of the wire harnesses. The problems in fabrication include the wires being the wrong length, the damage due to the sharp edges, the requried use of temproary protective covers and inadequate training. The problems in the wire harness installation include damge from sharp eges, work on adjacent harnesses, connector damage, and breaking wires. Engineering suggestions from the Apollo-era in reference to the conductors that are reviewed include: the use of plated conductors, and the use of alloys for stronger wiring. In refernce to insulation, the suggestions from Apollo era include the use of polymer tape-wrap wire insulation due to the light weight, however, other types of modern insulation might be more cost-effective. In reference to wire splices and terminal boards the suggestions from the Apollo Era include the use of crimp splices as superior to solder splices, joining multiple wire to a common point using modular plug-ins might be more reliable, but are heavier than crimp splicing. For connectors, the lessons from the Apollo era indicate that a rear environmental seal that does not require additional potting is preferred, and pins should be crimped or welded to the incoming wires and be removable from the rear of the connector.

  7. Thermal Aware Floorplanning Incorporating Temperature Dependent Wire Delay Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, AndreasThor; Liu, Wei; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Temperature has a negative impact on metal resistance and thus wire delay. In state-of-the-art VLSI circuits, large thermal gradients usually exist due to the uneven distribution of heat sources. The difference in wire temperature can lead to performance mismatch because wires of the same length ...

  8. Integrating the Gradient of the Thin Wire Kernel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Nathan J.; Wilton, Donald R.

    2008-01-01

    A formulation for integrating the gradient of the thin wire kernel is presented. This approach employs a new expression for the gradient of the thin wire kernel derived from a recent technique for numerically evaluating the exact thin wire kernel. This approach should provide essentially arbitrary accuracy and may be used with higher-order elements and basis functions using the procedure described in [4].When the source and observation points are close, the potential integrals over wire segments involving the wire kernel are split into parts to handle the singular behavior of the integrand [1]. The singularity characteristics of the gradient of the wire kernel are different than those of the wire kernel, and the axial and radial components have different singularities. The characteristics of the gradient of the wire kernel are discussed in [2]. To evaluate the near electric and magnetic fields of a wire, the integration of the gradient of the wire kernel needs to be calculated over the source wire. Since the vector bases for current have constant direction on linear wire segments, these integrals reduce to integrals of the form

  9. Low-Inductance Wiring For Parallel Switching Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veatch, M. S.; Landis, D. M.

    1990-01-01

    Simple configuration for wiring of multiple parallel-connected switching transistors minimizes stray wiring inductance while providing for use of balancing transformers, which equalize currents in transistors. Currents balanced on twisted pairs of wires. Because twisted pairs carry both "hot-side" and return currents, this configuration has relatively low inductance.

  10. 30 CFR 57.12012 - Bare signal wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bare signal wires. 57.12012 Section 57.12012 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... and Underground § 57.12012 Bare signal wires. The potential on bare signal wires accessible to contact...

  11. 30 CFR 56.12012 - Bare signal wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bare signal wires. 56.12012 Section 56.12012 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Bare signal wires. The potential on bare signal wires accessible to contact by persons shall not exceed...

  12. 78 FR 7452 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Vietnam; Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... COMMISSION Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Vietnam; Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed... imports of steel wire garment hangers from Vietnam, provided for in subheading 7326.20.00 of the... countervailing and antidumping duty orders on steel wire garment hangers from Vietnam. Background The...

  13. 77 FR 72884 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... COMMISSION Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... the United States is materially injured by reason of imports of steel wire garment hangers from Taiwan... wire garment hangers from Taiwan were dumped within the meaning of 733(b) of the Act (19 U.S.C....

  14. Quantum stability and magic lengths of metal atom wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ping; Choi, Jin-Ho; Lan, Haiping; Cho, Jun-Hyung; Niu, Qian; Yang, Jinlong; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2016-06-01

    Metal atom wires represent an important class of nanomaterials in the development of future electronic devices and other functional applications. Using first-principles calculations within density functional theory, we carry out a systematic study of the quantum stability of freestanding atom wires consisting of prototypical metal elements with s -, s p -, and s d -valence electrons. We explore how the quantum mechanically confined motion and local bonding of the valence electrons in these different wire systems can dictate their overall structural stability and find that the formation energy of essentially all the wires oscillates with respect to their length measured by the number n of atoms contained in the wires, establishing the existence of highly preferred (or magic) lengths. Furthermore, different wire classes exhibit distinctively different oscillatory characteristics and quantum stabilities. Alkali metal wires possessing an unpaired s valence electron per atom exhibit simple damped even-odd oscillations. In contrast, Al and Ga wires containing three s2p1 valence electrons per atom generally display much larger and undamped even-odd energy oscillations due to stronger local bonding of the p orbitals. Among the noble metals, the s -dominant Ag wires behave similarly to the linear alkali metal wires, while Au and Pt wires distinctly prefer to be structurally zigzagged due to strong relativistic effects. These findings are discussed in connection with existing experiments and should also be instrumental in future experimental realization of different metal atom wires in freestanding or supported environments with desirable functionalities.

  15. 77 FR 28404 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... COMMISSION Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... retarded, by reason of imports from Mexico of galvanized steel wire, provided for in subheadings 7217.20.30... galvanized steel wire from China and Mexico were sold at LTFV within the meaning of 733(b) of the Act (19...

  16. 76 FR 29266 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... COMMISSION Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... injured by reason of imports from China and Mexico of galvanized steel wire, provided for in subheading... subsidized imports of galvanized steel wire from China and Mexico. Accordingly, effective March 31, 2011,...

  17. A laser-wire system for the International Linear Collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nicolas Delerue; Sudhir Dixit; Fred Gannaway; David Howell; Myriam Qurshi; Grahame Blair; Stewart Boogert; Gary Boorman; Chafik Driouichi; Lawerence Deacon; Alexander Aryshev; Pavel Karataev; Nobuhiro Terunnuma; Junji urakawa; Axel Brachmann; Joe Frisch; Marc Ross

    2007-12-01

    A new laser-wire has been installed in the extraction line of the ATF at KEK. It aims at demonstrating that laser-wires can be used to measure micrometre scale beam size. In parallel, studies have been made to specify a laser suitable for the ILC laser-wires.

  18. Hot-Wire Probe for Compressible Subsonic Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stainback, P. C.; Johnson, C. B.; Basnett, C. B.

    1985-01-01

    Probe measures velocity, density, and total temperature fluctuations. Three-wire probe used with each wire operating at different overheat ratio. Technique extendable into transonic and low supersonic flow regimes without difficulty except for those problems usually associated with lengthy calibration and possible wire breaking.

  19. Thermal conductivity modeling of circular-wire nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Tse-Yang; Yang, Jaw-Yen

    2010-08-01

    A phonon Boltzmann equation solver using multiblock-structured grid system is developed and applied to study transverse thermal transport in silicon-germanium circular-wire nanocomposite (silicon nanowires embedded in germanium host matrix). Past studies usually assume geometric simplification for the circular-wire nanocomposite, so the heat transfer is actually modeled in a square-wire nanocomposite. To demonstrate geometry effect, phonon transport in both the circular-wire and square-wire nanocomposites are investigated with various wire spacings, volume fractions, and dimensions. In ballistic phonon transport, due to the smoothness of circular shape, the circular wire imposes less thermal resistance than the square wire. Nevertheless, in the geometric simplification, the wire spacing of the square-wire nanocomposite is larger than that of the circular-wire nanocomposite. The usual geometric simplification can overestimate the thermal conductivity of the circular-wire nanocomposite. The obtained results can provide essential information for the development of bulk-nanostructured thermoelectric devices.

  20. 21 CFR 872.4880 - Intraosseous fixation screw or wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intraosseous fixation screw or wire. 872.4880... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4880 Intraosseous fixation screw or wire. (a) Identification. An intraosseous fixation screw or wire is a metal device intended to be...

  1. A Laser-Wire System for the International Linear Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delerue, N.; Dixit, S.; Gannaway, F.; Howell, D.; Qurshi, M.; Blair, G.; Boogert, S.; Boorman, G.; Driouichi, C.; Deacon, L.; Aryshev, A.; Karataev, P.; Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J.; Brachmann, A.; Frisch, J.; Ross, M.; /Oxford U. /Royal Holloway, U. of London /KEK, Tsukuba /SLAC

    2009-04-30

    A new laser-wire has been installed in the extraction line of the ATF at KEK. It aims at demonstrating that laser-wires can be used to measure micrometre scale beam size. In parallel, studies have been made to specify a laser suitable for the ILC laser-wires.

  2. Corrosion behavior of titanium wires: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakur Prasad Chaturvedi

    2012-01-01

    Results: The results showed degradation of titanium wires by electrochemical attack when they were placed in the hostile electrolytic environments provided in the experiments. Surface analysis of titanium wires showed pitting and localized attacks on the surface. Pitting corrosion was found in the titanium wires.

  3. THERMO-MECHANICALLY PROCESSED ROLLED WIRE FOR HIGH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Lutsenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that at twisting of wire of diameter 1,83 mm, produced by direct wire drawing of thermomechanically processed rolled wire of diameter 5,5 mm of steel 90, metal stratification is completely eliminated at decrease of carbon, manganese and an additional alloying of chrome.

  4. Kirschner Wires : insertion techniques and bone related consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, B.B.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    The Kirschner (K-) wire was first introduced in 1909 by Martin Kirschner. This is a thin unthreaded wire of surgical steel with a diameter of up to three millimeters and a selection of different tips. The use of K-wires is often promoted as a simple technique because of its easy placement, cost-effe

  5. 30 CFR 77.701-3 - Grounding wires; capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding wires; capacity. 77.701-3 Section 77.701-3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY... MINES Grounding § 77.701-3 Grounding wires; capacity. Where grounding wires are used to ground...

  6. 24 CFR 3280.814 - Painting of wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... wires, as the color coding may be obliterated by the paint. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Painting of wiring. 3280.814... Painting of wiring. During painting or staining of the manufactured home, it shall be permitted to...

  7. Early clinical experience utilizing scintillator with optical fiber (SOF) detector in clinical boron neutron capture therapy: its issues and solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Ishikawa, Masayori; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Matsumura, Akira; Hiratsuka, Junichi; Miyatake, Shin-Ichi; Kato, Itsuro; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Kumada, Hiroaki; Shrestha, Shubhechha J.; ONO, KOJI

    2016-01-01

    Background Real-time measurement of thermal neutrons in the tumor region is essential for proper evaluation of the absorbed dose in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) treatment. The gold wire activation method has been routinely used to measure the neutron flux distribution in BNCT irradiation, but a real-time measurement using gold wire is not possible. To overcome this issue, the scintillator with optical fiber (SOF) detector has been developed. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate...

  8. Percutaneous Kirschner wire (K-wire) fixation for humerus shaft fractures in children: A treatment concept

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background: Fractures of the humeral shaft are uncommon, representing less than 10 percent of all fractures in children. Humeral shaft fractures in children can be treated by immobilisation alone. A small number of fractures are unable to be reduced adequately or maintained in adequate alignment, and these should be treated surgically. In the present study, Kirschner wires (K-wire) were used to achieve a closed intramedullary fixation of humeral shaft fractures. The objective of this study wa...

  9. Thulium fiber laser damage to Nitinol stone baskets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Christopher R.; Hardy, Luke A.; Irby, Pierce B.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2015-02-01

    Our laboratory is studying the experimental Thulium fiber laser (TFL) as an alternative lithotripter to clinical gold standard Holmium:YAG laser. Safety studies characterizing undesirable Holmium laser-induced damage to Nitinol stone baskets have been previously reported. Similarly, this study characterizes TFL induced stone basket damage. A TFL beam with pulse energy of 35 mJ, pulse duration of 500 μs, and pulse rates of 50-500 Hz was delivered through 100-μm-core optical fibers, to a standard 1.9-Fr Nitinol stone basket wire. Stone basket damage was graded as a function of pulse rate, number of pulses, and working distance. Nitinol wire damage decreased with working distance and was non-existent at distances greater than 1.0 mm. In contact mode, 500 pulses delivered at pulse rates >= 200 Hz (Nitinol wires. The Thulium fiber laser, operated in low pulse energy and high pulse rate mode, may provide a greater safety margin than standard Holmium laser for lithotripsy, as evidenced by shorter non-contact working distances for stone basket damage than previously reported with Holmium laser.

  10. An interconnecting bus power optimization method combining interconnect wire spacing with wire ordering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Zhang-Ming; Hao Bao-Tian; En Yun-Fei; Yang Yin-Tang; Li Yue-Jin

    2011-01-01

    On-chip interconnect buses consume tens of percents of dynamic power in a nanometer scale integrated circuit and they will consume more power with the rapid scaling down of technology size and continuously rising clock frequency,therefore it is meaningful to lower the interconnecting bus power in design. In this paper, a simple yet accurate interconnect parasitic capacitance model is presented first and then, based on this model, a novel interconnecting bus optimization method is proposed. Wire spacing is a process for spacing wires for minimum dynamic power, while wire ordering is a process that searches for wire orders that maximally enhance it. The method, i.e., combining wire spacing with wire ordering, focuses on bus dynamic power optimization with a consideration of bus performance requirements.The optimization method is verified based on various nanometer technology parameters, showing that with 50% slack of routing space, 25.71% and 32.65% of power can be saved on average by the proposed optimization method for a globalbus and an intermediate bus, respectively, under a 65-nm technology node, compared with 21.78% and 27.68% of power saved on average by uniform spacing technology. The proposed method is especially suitable for computer-aided designof nanometer scale on-chip buses.

  11. Forecasting of Corrosion Properties of Steel Wires for Production of Guide Wires for Cardiological Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Przondziono

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presents evaluation of the influence of strain in drawing process and of surface modification on resistance to electrochemical corrosion of wires made of stainless steel for production of guide wires used in invasive cardiology. The results of static tensile test enabled us to determine the course of flow curve of wires made of X10CrNi 18-8 steel as well as mathematical form of flow stress function. Resistance to electrochemical corrosion was evaluated on the ground of registered anodic polarisation curves by means of potentiodynamic method. The tests were performed in solution simulating human blood on samples that were electrolytically polished and samples that were polished and then chemically passivated. Exemplary anodic polarisation curves were given. It was proved that with the applied strain, corrosion properties decrease. It was found that chemical passivation improves wire corrosion characteristics. Statistical analysis showed that there is a significant dependence between corrosion properties (polarisation resistance Rp and strain ε applied in drawing process. Functions that present the change Rp=f(ε were selected. The issue is of importance to guide wire manufacturers because application of the suggested methodology will enable us to forecast corrosion characteristics of wire with the required strength drawn with the applied strain.

  12. Research regarding wires elastic deformations influence on joints positioning of a wire-driven robotic arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciofu, C.; Stan, G.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we present the influence of driving wires deformation on positioning precision of joints from an elephant's trunk robotic arm. Robotic arms driven by wires have the joint accuracy largely depending on wires rigidity. The joint moment of resistance causes elastic deformation of wires and it is determined by: manipulated object load, weight loads previous to the analyzed joint and inherent resistance moment of joint. Static load analysis emphasizes the particular wires elastic deformation of each driven joint from an elephant's trunk robotic arm with five degrees of freedom. We consider the case of a constant manipulated load. Errors from each driving system of joints are not part of the closed loop system. Thus, precision positioning depends on wires elastic deformation which is about microns and causes angle deviation of joints about tens of minutes of sexagesimal degrees. The closer the joints to base arm the smaller positioning precision of joint. The obtained results are necessary for further compensation made by electronic corrections in the programming algorithm of the elephant's trunk robotic arm to improve accuracy.

  13. SPECIFIC FEATURES OF TECHNOLOGY OF MANUFACTURING A ZINC-COATED TUB WIRE FOR MUZZLE (BOTTLE’ HOOD WIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Zuev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the main technical specifications of galvanized low carbon wire for muzzles (bottle’hood wire, consistent with the exploitation requirements to the wire in the manufacture and use of muzzles. The main criteria when selecting the steel grade and upon selection of the technological processes are given. 

  14. Development of rolling mill for rectangular orthodontic wires production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.E. Totten

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In orthodontic treatments, wires of different metallic alloys are used for alignment, leveling, correction of the molar position, space closing, finish and retention. The purpose of the paper is the characteristics of austenitic stainless steel wires, with a square traverse section, which were produced using a rolling mill built for this purpose, are presented hereDesign/methodology/approach: With respect to finish and retention, these wires are responsible for adequate positioning of the upper teeth on the lower teeth. Wires that are subjected to incisor torque require high resistance and stiffness. For this, wires of rectangular austenitic stainless steel are used due to high modulus of elasticity and good corrosion resistance in the oral environment. Because of the rectangular geometry, wire production requires process development suitable for industrial scale manufacture with geometric characteristics and mechanical properties better adapted to the use conditions.Findings: To obtain wires with such characteristics, a rolling mill was developed for the production of rectangular wires by a rolling process with the objective of reducing cost of the cold drawing process that is currently used which utilize complex and expensive wire-drawing dies. In addition to the rolling process itself, wire deformation, microhardness, tension and bend tests were also performed.Research limitations/implications: A rolling-mill was built that successfully produced dental wires within acceptable tolerances and physical/mechanical properties.These wires exhibited excellent hardness and tensile strength, although slightly less than analogous commercial wires. It is expected that this problem are corrected by using initial wires with a higher hardness, since this property is directly related with the tensile strength.Originality/value: In these tests, wire geometry, surface finish and mechanical properties were successfully adapted for use in orthodontic

  15. STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING IN COMPOSITE MATERIALS USING EMBEDDED SHAPE MEMORY ALLOY(SMA) WIRE SENSORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Zixue; YAO Xingtian; COSTAS Soutis

    2006-01-01

    Shape memory alloy (SMA) materials possess completely superelasticity or pseudoelasticity above the austenite finish temperature and many unique mechanical, thermal,thermal-mechanical and electrical properties compared with other conventional materials. Many studies have reported that the superelastic and hysteresis properties of the SMA materials can absorb energies coming from external excitations or sudden impacts. In addition, due to the special electrical properties of NiTi superelastic wires, they can also be used as strain-sensing elemem to monitor structural health conditions. Composite laminated specimens embedded with SMA wire sensors are fabricated and detailed testing system is designed such as multi-parameters measuring for impact and weak signal processing for SMA sensor. Low velocity impact test shows that SMA wire sensors embedded in fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) laminate can be well used to monitor impact responses,such as the location of impact damage, impact degree, and strain distribution. Experimental results and theoretical predictions reveal almost the same. Comparing with other method, a simple, economic and reliable technique method monitoring important engineering structures on line is provided.

  16. Film boiling heat transfer from a wire to upward flow of liquid hydrogen and liquid nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiotsu, M.; Shirai, Y.; Horie, Y.; Shigeta, H.; Higa, D.; Tatsumoto, H.; Hata, K.; Kobayashi, H.; Nonaka, S.; Naruo, Y.; Inatani, Y.

    2015-11-01

    Film boiling heat transfer coefficients in liquid hydrogen were measured for the heater surface superheats to 300 K under pressures from 0.4 to 1.1 MPa, liquid subcoolings to 11 K and flow velocities to 8 m/s. Two test wires were both 1.2 mm in diameter, 120 mm and 200 mm in lengths and were made of PtCo alloy. The test wires were located on the center of 8 mm and 5 mm diameter conduits of FRP (Fiber Reinforced Plastics). Furthermore film boiling heat transfer coefficients in liquid nitrogen were measured only for the 200 mm long wire. The film boiling heat transfer coefficients are higher for higher pressure, higher subcooling, and higher flow velocity. The experimental data were compared with a conventional equation for forced flow film boiling in a wide channel. The data for the 8 mm diameter conduit were about 1.7 times and those for the 5 mm conduit were about 1.9 times higher than the predicted values by the equation. A new equation was presented modifying the conventional equation based on the liquid hydrogen and liquid nitrogen data. The experimental data were expressed well by the equation.

  17. Structure and thermomechanical behavior of NiTiPt shape memory alloy wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Brian; Gall, Ken; Maier, Hans J; Waldron, Robbie

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work is to understand the structure-property relationships in polycrystalline NiTiPt (Ti 42.7 at.% Ni 7.5 at %Pt) with a composition showing pseudoelasticity at ambient temperatures. Structural characterization of the alloy includes grain size determination and texture analysis while the thermomechanical properties are explored using tensile testing. Variation in heat treatment is used as a vehicle to modify microstructure. The results are compared to experiments on Ni-rich NiTi alloy wires (Ti-51.0 at.% Ni), which are in commercial use in various biomedical applications. With regards to microstructure, both alloys exhibit a fiber texture along the wire drawing axis; however, the NiTiPt alloy grain size is smaller than that of the Ni-rich NiTi wires, while the latter materials contain second-phase precipitates. Given the nanometer-scale grain size in NiTiPt and the dispersed, nanometer-scale precipitate size in NiTi, the overall strength and ductility of the alloys are essentially identical when given appropriate heat treatments. Property differences include a much smaller stress hysteresis and smaller temperature dependence of the transformation stress for NiTiPt alloys compared to NiTi alloys. Potential benefits and implications for use in vascular stent applications are discussed.

  18. A wire scanning type position monitor for an undulator radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Ando, Masami; Xia, Shaojian; Shiwaku, Hideaki

    1995-02-01

    A scanning wire position monitor for insertion devices was designed and installed in an x-ray undulator beam line. It consists of a graphite wire, a copper mesh for electric shielding, and a motor-driven linear guide. The wire of the monitor was tested under the undulator radiation thermal load. It has been found that the signal level of the monitor was proportional to the radiation power density on the wire. Even when the wire crossed the beam during the x-ray experiment, no detectable influence on the experiment was observed.

  19. Conductance of a Finite Quantum Wire Connected to Reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yu-Liang

    1997-01-01

    We study a finite quantum wire connected to external leads, and show that the conductance of the system significantly depends upon the length of the quantum wire and the position of the impurity in it. For a very long quantum wire and the impurity far away from its two ends, the conductance has the same behavior as that for an infinity quantum wire above some very little energy scale. However, for a very short quantum wire, the conductance is independent of the electron-electron interactions ...

  20. Accuracy Of Hot-Wire Anemometry In Supersonic Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Pamela; Mckenzie, Robert L.; Bershader, Daniel

    1989-01-01

    Sensitivity of hot-wire probe compared to laser-induced-florescence measurements. Report discusses factors affecting readings of hot-wire anemometer in turbulent supersonic boundary layer. Presents theoretical analysis of responses of hot-wire probe to changes in flow; also compares measurements by hot-wire probe with measurements of same flows by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). Because LIF provides spatially and temporally resolved data on temperature, density, and pressure, provides independent means to determine responses of hot-wire anemometers to these quantities.

  1. Model of Carbon Wire Heating in Accelerator Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Sapinski, M

    2008-01-01

    A heat flow equation with beam-induced heating and various cooling processes for a carbon wire passing through a particle beam is solved. Due to equation nonlinearity a numerical approach based on discretization of the wire movement is used. Heating of the wire due to the beam-induced electromagnetic field is taken into account. An estimation of the wire sublimation rate is made. The model is tested on SPS, LEP and Tevatron Main Injector data. Results are discussed and conclusions about limits of Wire Scanner operation on LHC beams are drawn.

  2. Photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægsgaard, Jesper; Hansen, K P; Nielsen, M D;

    2003-01-01

    Photonic crystal fibers having a complex microstructure in the transverse plane constitute a new and promising class of optical fibers. Such fibers can either guide light through total internal reflection or the photonic bandgap effect, In this paper, we review the different types and applications...... of photonic crystal fibers with particular emphasis on recent advances in the field....

  3. Photonic crystal fibers -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Libori, Stig E. Barkou

    2002-01-01

    During this ph.d. work, attention has been focused on understanding and analyzing the modal behavior of micro-structured fibers. Micro-structured fibers are fibers with a complex dielectric toplogy, and offer a number of novel possibilities, compared to standard silica based optical fibers. The t...

  4. Photonic Crystal Fiber Attenuator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joo; Beom; Eom; Hokyung; Kim; Jinchae; Kim; Un-Chul; Paek; Byeong; Ha; Lee

    2003-01-01

    We propose a novel fiber attenuator based on photonic crystal fibers. The difference in the modal field diameters of a conventional single mode fiber and a photonic crystal fiber was used. A variable optical attenuator was also achieved by applying macro-bending on the PCF part of the proposed attenuator

  5. Microstructure and phase stress partition of Mo fiber reinforced CuZnAl composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Feng [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Beijing 102249 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Beijing 102249 (China); Ni, Dingrui [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Hao, Shijie [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Beijing 102249 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Beijing 102249 (China); Li, Sirui [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Beijing 102249 (China); Ma, Zongyi [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Liu, Yinong [School of Mechanical and Chemical Engineering, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Feng, Chun [Department of Materials Physics and Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Cui, Lishan, E-mail: andor_20@sina.com [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Beijing 102249 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Beijing 102249 (China)

    2015-03-25

    A Mo fiber reinforced CuZnAl composite was prepared by means of friction stir processing and wire drawing. Reinforcing effect of the Mo fiber and phase stress partition in the composite were investigated by means of in-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The maximum elastic strain of the Mo fiber achieved was 1.8%, implying a component stress of 550 MPa on the fibers. The Mo fibers, with a volume fraction of 10%, carried 80% of stress fraction during tensile deformation. The change of modulus caused by stress-induced martensitic transformation strain resulted in redistribution of the phase stress partition between Mo fibers and CuZnAl matrix.

  6. Improvement in microstructure and superconducting properties of single-filament powder-in-tube MgB2 wires by cold working with a swaging machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yusuke; Murakami, Masato; Matsumoto, Akiyoshi; Kumakura, Hiroaki

    2017-06-01

    We investigated the influence of the mechanical deformation method of wire fabrication on the microstructure and superconducting properties of single-filament in situ powder-in-tube (PIT) MgB2 wires. We employed three deformation methods to fabricate the wires: only swaging, groove rolling + roller drawing, and groove rolling + conventional drawing. We found that cold working by swaging has three advantages over the groove rolling + drawing method: (1) improved uniformity of the MgB2 core along the longitudinal direction; (2) higher mass density of the Mg + B (MgB2) core before (after) heat treatment (HT); and (3) well-developed fiber structures of Mg (MgB2) before (after) HT. These three factors greatly enhanced the critical current density (J c) values of PIT MgB2 wires. The highest J c values were obtained through mechanical deformation by swaging for both pure and carbon-doped wires. A J c value of 3.5 × 104 A cm-2 and an engineering critical current density (J e) of 1.1 × 104 A cm-2 were recorded at 4.2 K and 10 T for a swaged wire of 4.5%-carbon-coated boron powder heat-treated at 600 °C for 1 h.

  7. SpaceWire Plug and Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakow, Glenn; McGuirk, Patrick; Kimmery, Clifford; Jaffe, Paul

    2006-01-01

    The ability to rapidly deploy inexpensive satellites to meet tactical goals has become an important goal for military space systems. In fact, Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) has been in the spotlight at the highest levels. The Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) has identified that the critical next step is developing the bus standards and modular interfaces. Historically, satellite components have been constructed based on bus standards and standardized interfaces. However, this has not been done to a degree, which would allow the rapid deployment of a satellite. Advancements in plug-and-play (PnP) technologies for terrestrial applications can serve as a baseline model for a PnP approach for satellite applications. Since SpaceWire (SpW) has become a de facto standard for satellite high-speed (greater than 200Mbp) on-board communications, it has become important for SpW to adapt to this Plug and Play (PnP) environment. Because SpW is simply a bulk transport protocol and lacks built-in PnP features, several changes are required to facilitate PnP with SpW. The first is for Host(s) to figure out what the network looks like, i.e., how pieces of the network, routers and nodes, are connected together; network mapping, and to receive notice of changes to the network. The second is for the components connected to the network to be understood so that they can communicate. The first element, network topology mapping & change of status indication, is being defined (topic of this paper). The second element describing how components are to communicate has been defined by ARFL with the electronic data sheets known as XTEDS. The first element, network mapping, is recent activities performed by Air Force Research Lab (ARFL), Naval Research Lab (NRL), NASA and US industry (Honeywell, Clearwater, FL, and others). This work has resulted in the development of a protocol that will perform the lower level functions of network mapping and Change Of Status (COS) indication

  8. Microfluidic flowmeter based on micro "hot-wire" sandwiched Fabry-Perot interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Yan, Guofeng; Zhang, Liang; He, Sailing

    2015-04-06

    We present a compact microfluidic flowmeter based on Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI). The FPI was composed by a pair of fiber Bragg grating reflectors and a micro Co(2+)-doped optical fiber cavity, acting as a "hot-wire" sensor. Microfluidic channels made from commercial silica capillaries were integrated with the FPIs on a chip to realize flow-rate sensing system. By utilizing a tunable pump laser with wavelength of 1480 nm, the proposed flowmeter was experimentally demonstrated. The flow rate of the liquid sample is determined by the induced resonance wavelength shift of the FPI. The effect of the pump power, microfluidic channel scale and temperature on the performance of our flowmeter was investigated. The dynamic response was also measured under different flow-rate conditions. The experimental results achieve a sensitivity of 70 pm/(μL/s), a dynamic range up to 1.1 μL/s and response time in the level of seconds, with a spatial resolution ~200 μm. Such good performance renders the sensor a promising supplementary component in microfluidic biochemical sensing system. Furthermore, simulation modal was built up to analyze the heat distribution of the "hot-wire" cavity and optimize the FPI structure as well.

  9. Minimizing RF heating of conducting wires in MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Christopher J; Karmarkar, Parag; McVeigh, Elliot R

    2007-11-01

    Performing interventions using long conducting wires in MRI introduces the risk of focal RF heating at the wire tip. Comprehensive EM simulations are combined with carefully measured experimental data to show that method-of-moments EM field modeling coupled with heat transfer modeling can adequately predict RF heating with wires partially inserted into the patient-mimicking phantom. The effects of total wire length, inserted length, wire position in the phantom, phantom position in the scanner, and phantom size are examined. Increasing phantom size can shift a wire's length of maximum tip heating from about a half wave toward a quarter wave. In any event, with wires parallel to the scanner bore, wire tip heating is minimized by keeping the patient and wires as close as possible to the central axis of the scanner bore. At 1.5T, heating is minimized if bare wires are shorter than 0.6 m or between approximately 2.4 m and approximately 3.0 m. Heating is further minimized if wire insertion into phantoms equivalent to most aqueous soft tissues is less than 13 cm or greater than 40 cm (longer for fatty tissues, bone, and lung). The methods demonstrated can be used to estimate the absolute amount of heating in order to set RF power safety thresholds.

  10. Deformation Analysis of Surface Defects in Wire Drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Tetsuo; Yoshida, Kazunari

    2004-06-01

    Recently, the high surface quality of drawn wires and rods have been required from the field of automobile and machine. The surface flaw of a drawn wire has big influence on the quality of a product. Using three-dimensional FEA, this study investigates growth of surface defects due to wire drawing when these on wire, wire breaks due to surface defects are common problems in wire drawing. As a cause of a surface flaw, rolling up of a wire rod and the poor handling at the time of conveyance are cited. The authors artificially produced transversal cracks and scratches on the surface of wires, and investigated the growth and disappearance of these cracks during drawing, by three-dimensional FEA and experiments. If drawing out of the wire rod which has a flaw in the wire rod surface is repeated, it will become the check mark which the width of a flaw spreads and is known well in the production site. Furthermore, if drawing out is repeated, the compression stress of the direction of an axis by stress, and will become quite small. However, the crack of the direction of an axis remained and it was shown clearly that quality is affected. Moreover, the influence which the surface treatment of peeling has on a wire rod was also considered.

  11. Solar power wires based on organic photovoltaic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael R; Eckert, Robert D; Forberich, Karen; Dennler, Gilles; Brabec, Christoph J; Gaudiana, Russell A

    2009-04-10

    Organic photovoltaics in a flexible wire format has potential advantages that are described in this paper. A wire format requires long-distance transport of current that can be achieved only with conventional metals, thus eliminating the use of transparent oxide semiconductors. A phase-separated, photovoltaic layer, comprising a conducting polymer and a fullerene derivative, is coated onto a thin metal wire. A second wire, coated with a silver film, serving as the counter electrode, is wrapped around the first wire. Both wires are encased in a transparent polymer cladding. Incident light is focused by the cladding onto to the photovoltaic layer even when it is completely shadowed by the counter electrode. Efficiency values of the wires range from 2.79% to 3.27%.

  12. Metal-wire terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Markus; Freeman, Mark R.; Hegmann, Frank A.

    2005-12-01

    Terahertz (THz) pulses propagating on a metal-wire waveguide are used to perform terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of lactose powder dispersed on top of the wire. The THz pulses are generated by a photoconductive switch at one end of the metal wire and are detected at the other end by electro-optic sampling in a ZnTe crystal that can be moved parallel to the axis of the metal wire. A large enhancement in the peak amplitude of the THz signal is observed by contacting the metal wire to one of the electrodes of the photoconductive switch. The propagation characteristics of the THz pulse along the metal wire and near its end are studied. Potential applications of metal-wire terahertz time-domain spectroscopy are discussed.

  13. Investigation of Mechanical Properties of Cryogenically Treated Music Wire

    CERN Document Server

    Heptonstall, A; Robertson, N A

    2015-01-01

    It has been reported that treating music wire (high carbon steel wire) by cooling to cryogenic temperatures can enhance its mechanical properties with particular reference to those properties important for musical performance. We use such wire for suspending many of the optics in Advanced LIGO, the upgrade to LIGO - the Laser Interferometric Gravitational-Wave Observatory. Two properties that particularly interest us are mechanical loss and breaking strength. A decrease in mechanical loss would directly reduce the thermal noise associated with the suspension, thus enhancing the noise performance of mirror suspensions within the detector. An increase in strength could allow thinner wire to be safely used, which would enhance the dilution factor of the suspension, again leading to lower suspension thermal noise. In this article we describe the results of an investigation into some of the mechanical properties of music wire, comparing untreated wire with the same wire which has been cryogenically treated. For th...

  14. High power fiber lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LOU Qi-hong; ZHOU Jun

    2007-01-01

    In this review article, the development of the double cladding optical fiber for high power fiber lasers is reviewed. The main technology for high power fiber lasers, including laser diode beam shaping, fiber laser pumping techniques, and amplification systems, are discussed in de-tail. 1050 W CW output and 133 W pulsed output are ob-tained in Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, China. Finally, the applications of fiber lasers in industry are also reviewed.

  15. Heat Transfer Analysis in Wire Bundles for Aerospace Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, S. L.; Iamello, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Design of wiring for aerospace vehicles relies on an understanding of "ampacity" which refers to the current carrying capacity of wires, either, individually or in wire bundles. Designers rely on standards to derate allowable current flow to prevent exceedance of wire temperature limits due to resistive heat dissipation within the wires or wire bundles. These standards often add considerable margin and are based on empirical data. Commercial providers are taking an aggressive approach to wire sizing which challenges the conventional wisdom of the established standards. Thermal modelling of wire bundles may offer significant mass reduction in a system if the technique can be generalized to produce reliable temperature predictions for arbitrary bundle configurations. Thermal analysis has been applied to the problem of wire bundles wherein any or all of the wires within the bundle may carry current. Wire bundles present analytical challenges because the heat transfer path from conductors internal to the bundle is tortuous, relying on internal radiation and thermal interface conductance to move the heat from within the bundle to the external jacket where it can be carried away by convective and radiative heat transfer. The problem is further complicated by the dependence of wire electrical resistivity on temperature. Reduced heat transfer out of the bundle leads to higher conductor temperatures and, hence, increased resistive heat dissipation. Development of a generalized wire bundle thermal model is presented and compared with test data. The steady state heat balance for a single wire is derived and extended to the bundle configuration. The generalized model includes the effects of temperature varying resistance, internal radiation and thermal interface conductance, external radiation and temperature varying convective relief from the free surface. The sensitivity of the response to uncertainties in key model parameters is explored using Monte Carlo analysis.

  16. Thin Magnetically Soft Wires for Magnetic Microsensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcady Zhukov

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in technology involving magnetic materials require development of novel advanced magnetic materials with improved magnetic and magneto-transport properties and with reduced dimensionality. Therefore magnetic materials with outstanding magnetic characteristics and reduced dimensionality have recently gained much attention. Among these magnetic materials a family of thin wires with reduced geometrical dimensions (of order of 1–30 μm in diameter have gained importance within the last few years. These thin wires combine excellent soft magnetic properties (with coercivities up to 4 A/m with attractive magneto-transport properties (Giant Magneto-impedance effect, GMI, Giant Magneto-resistance effect, GMR and an unusual re-magnetization process in positive magnetostriction compositions exhibiting quite fast domain wall propagation. In this paper we overview the magnetic and magneto-transport properties of these microwires that make them suitable for microsensor applications.

  17. Negative Magnetoresistance in Amorphous Indium Oxide Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Sreemanta; Tewari, Girish C.; Mahalu, Diana; Shahar, Dan

    2016-11-01

    We study magneto-transport properties of several amorphous Indium oxide nanowires of different widths. The wires show superconducting transition at zero magnetic field, but, there exist a finite resistance at the lowest temperature. The R(T) broadening was explained by available phase slip models. At low field, and far below the superconducting critical temperature, the wires with diameter equal to or less than 100 nm, show negative magnetoresistance (nMR). The magnitude of nMR and the crossover field are found to be dependent on both temperature and the cross-sectional area. We find that this intriguing behavior originates from the interplay between two field dependent contributions.

  18. Aging analyses of aircraft wire insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GILLEN,KENNETH T.; CLOUGH,ROGER LEE; CELINA,MATHIAS C.; AUBERT,JAMES H.; MALONE,G. MICHAEL

    2000-05-08

    Over the past two decades, Sandia has developed a variety of specialized analytical techniques for evaluating the long-term aging and stability of cable insulation and other related materials. These techniques have been applied to cable reliability studies involving numerous insulation types and environmental factors. This work has allowed the monitoring of the occurrence and progression of cable material deterioration in application environments, and has provided insights into material degradation mechanisms. It has also allowed development of more reliable lifetime prediction methodologies. As a part of the FAA program for intrusive inspection of aircraft wiring, they are beginning to apply a battery of techniques to assessing the condition of cable specimens removed from retired aircraft. It is anticipated that in a future part of this program, they may employ these techniques in conjunction with accelerated aging methodologies and models that the authros have developed and employed in the past to predict cable lifetimes. The types of materials to be assessed include 5 different wire types: polyimide, PVC/Glass/Nylon, extruded XL-polyalkene/PVDF, Poly-X, and XL-ETFE. This presentation provides a brief overview of the main techniques that will be employed in assessing the state of health of aircraft wire insulation. The discussion will be illustrated with data from their prior cable aging studies, highlighting the methods used and their important conclusions. A few of the techniques that they employ are widely used in aging studies on polymers, but others are unique to Sandia. All of their techniques are non-proprietary, and maybe of interest for use by others in terms of application to aircraft wiring analysis. At the end of this report is a list showing some leading references to papers that have been published in the open literature which provide more detailed information on the analytical techniques for elastomer aging studies. The first step in the

  19. Processing of Intermetallic Titanium Aluminide Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uta Kühn

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study shows the possibility of processing titanium aluminide wires by cold deformation and annealing. An accumulative swaging and bundling technique is used to co-deform Ti and Al. Subsequently, a two step heat treatment is applied to form the desired intermetallics, which strongly depends on the ratio of Ti and Al in the final composite and therefore on the geometry of the starting composite. In a first step, the whole amount of Al is transformed to TiAl3 by Al diffusion into Ti. This involves the formation of 12% porosity. In a second step, the complete microstructure is transformed into the equilibrium state of -TiAl and TiAl3. Using this approach, it is possible to obtain various kinds of gradient materials, since there is an intrinsic concentration gradient installed due to the swaging and bundling technique, but the processing of pure -TiAl wires is possible as well.

  20. Fluorescent silver nanoparticles via exploding wire technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alqudami Abdullah; S Annapoorni

    2005-11-01

    Aqueous solution containing spherical silver nanoparticles of 20–80 nm size have been generated using a newly developed novel electro-exploding wire (EEW) technique where thin silver wires have been exploded in double distilled water. Structural properties of the resulted nanoparticles have been studied by means of X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The absorption spectrum of the aqueous solution of silver nanoparticles showed the appearance of a broad surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak centered at a wavelength of 390 nm. The theoretically generated SPR peak seems to be in good agreement with the experimental one. Strong green fluorescence emission was observed from the water-suspended silver nanoparticles excited with light of wavelengths 340, 360 and 390 nm. The fluorescence of silver nanoparticles could be due to the excitation of the surface plasmon coherent electronic motion with the small size effect and the surface effect considerations.

  1. Photonic band gap in thin wire metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Kai Meng

    2008-03-01

    We investigate the band structure of a class of photonic crystals made from only thin wires. Using a different method, we demonstrate that a complete photonic band gap is possible for such materials. Band gap materials normally consist of space filling dielectric or metal, whereas thin wires occupy a very small fraction of the volume. We show that this is related to the large increase in scattering at the Brillouin zone boundary. The method we developed brings together the calculation techniques in three different fields. The first is the calculation of scattering from periodic, tilted antennas, which we improve upon. The second is the standard technique for frequency selective surface design. The third is obtained directly from low energy electron diffraction theory. Good agreements with experiments for left handed materials, negative materials, and frequency selective surfaces are demonstrated.

  2. Miniaturized Linear Wire Ion Trap Mass Analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qinghao; Li, Ailin; Tian, Yuan; Zare, Richard N; Austin, Daniel E

    2016-08-02

    We report a linear ion trap (LIT) in which the electric field is formed by fine wires held under tension and accurately positioned using holes drilled in two end plates made of plastic. The coordinates of the hole positions were optimized in simulation. The stability diagram and mass spectra using boundary ejection were compared between simulation and experiment and good agreement was found. The mass spectra from experiments show peak widths (fwhm) in units of mass-to-charge of around 0.38 Th using a scan rate of 3830 Th/s. The limits of detection are 137 ppbv and 401 ppbv for benzene and toluene, respectively. Different sizes of the wire ion trap can be easily fabricated by drilling holes in scaled positions. Other distinguishing features, such as high ion and photon transmission, low capacitance, high tolerance to mechanical and assembly error, and low weight, are discussed.

  3. Using wire shaping techniques and holographic optics to optimize deposition characteristics in wire-based laser cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffin, N. J.; Higginson, R. L.; Tyrer, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    In laser cladding, the potential benefits of wire feeding are considerable. Typical problems with the use of powder, such as gas entrapment, sub-100% material density and low deposition rate are all avoided with the use of wire. However, the use of a powder-based source material is the industry standard, with wire-based deposition generally regarded as an academic curiosity. This is because, although wire-based methods have been shown to be capable of superior quality results, the wire-based process is more difficult to control. In this work, the potential for wire shaping techniques, combined with existing holographic optical element knowledge, is investigated in order to further improve the processing characteristics. Experiments with pre-placed wire showed the ability of shaped wire to provide uniformity of wire melting compared with standard round wire, giving reduced power density requirements and superior control of clad track dilution. When feeding with flat wire, the resulting clad tracks showed a greater level of quality consistency and became less sensitive to alterations in processing conditions. In addition, a 22% increase in deposition rate was achieved. Stacking of multiple layers demonstrated the ability to create fully dense, three-dimensional structures, with directional metallurgical grain growth and uniform chemical structure.

  4. Buoyant Helical Twin-Axial Wire Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Wire Antenna” by the inventor, David A. Tonn. STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0002] The invention described herein may be manufactured and used by...BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION (1) Field of the Invention [0003] The present invention is directed to a linear antenna for dual frequencies and a method for...curves and hinders the submarine’s operations when using the antenna. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION [0006] It is a first object of the present

  5. Wire chambers with their magnetostrictive readout

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    This set of wire chamber planes shaped as a cylinder sector was installed inside the magnet of a polarized spin target modified to allow as well momentum analysis of the produced particles. The experiment (S126) was set up by the CERN-Trieste Collaboration in the PS beam m9 to measure spin effects in the associated production of of a positive kaon and a positive Sigma by interaction of a positive pion with polarized protons.

  6. Merging of the grains during wire drawing

    OpenAIRE

    Metlov, Leonid; Zavdoveev, Anatoliy; Pashinska, Elena

    2015-01-01

    It has been first proved the effect of grains merging during drawing deformation. This was done with example of producing a steel wire from rod manufactured by rolling with shear technology and was shown not only grain refinement but its merging as well. The result obtained in current work has fundamental importance; it reveals new mechanism of the "recrystallization" which takes place without diffusion actions owing to the mechanical impact.

  7. Peltier effect in strongly driven quantum wires

    OpenAIRE

    Mierzejewski, M.; Crivelli, D.; Prelovsek, P.

    2013-01-01

    We study a microscopic model of a thermocouple device with two connected correlated quantum wires driven by a constant electric field. In such isolated system we follow the time-- and position--dependence of the entropy density using the concept of the reduced density matrix. At weak driving, the initial changes of the entropy at the junctions can be described by the linear Peltier response. At longer times the quasiequilibrium situation is reached with well defined local temperatures which i...

  8. Raman spectroscopy of single quantum well wires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    We used the micro-Raman spectroscopy to investigate the V-grooved quantum well wires (QWWs), and first observed and assigned the Raman spectra of single QWW. They were the disorder induced modes at 223 and 243 cm-1, confined LO mode of GaAs QWW at 267 cm1, and higher order peaks of disorder induced modes at 488 and 707 cm-1.

  9. Delayed migration of K-wire into popliteal fossa used for tension band wiring of patellar fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sanjay Meena; Hira Lal Nag; Senthil Kumar; Nilesh Barwar; Samarth Mittal; Amit Singla

    2013-01-01

    Breakage of K-wires and stainless steel wires which are used for fracture fixation is not uncommon,but migration is rare.We report a case of migration of broken K-wire used for patella tension band wiring to the popliteal fossa.The broken hardware was removed surgically.We would like to suggest that K-wire and wire fixation used for treatment ofpatellar fractures can migrate into the posterior compartment of the knee and cause clinical symptoms.Close clinical and radiological follow-up after internal fixation to identify the presence of hardware breakage or movement and removal of wires once fracture has united can avert such complications.

  10. Niobium Titanium and Copper wire samples

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    A comparison of the LHC magnet wire that carries 13kA and the equivalent in copper that would be needed to carry such a current. About LHC superconducting wiring: The high magnetic fields needed for the LHC can only be reached using superconductors. At very low temperatures, superconductors have no electrical resistance and therefore no power loss. The LHC will be the largest superconducting installation ever built and, at 1.9 degrees above absolute zero (300 degrees below room temperature), one of the the coldest objects in the universe! Magnet coils are made of copper-clad niobium–titanium cables — each wire in the cable consists of 9000 niobium–titanium filaments ten times finer than a hair. The cables carry up to 12 500 amps and must withstand enormous electromagnetic forces. At full field, the force on one metre of magnet is comparable to the weight of a jumbo jet. Coil winding requires great care to prevent movements as the field changes. Friction can create hot spots which “quench” the mag...

  11. NA48: Wiring up for Change

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The NA48 Collaboration is rebuilding its drift chambers ready for the experiment to start up again this coming July. An intricate task involving the soldering of over 24,000 wires! The future of the NA48 experiment is coming right down to the wire, that is, the wires which the Collaboration is installing in the clean room of Hall 887 on the Prévessin site. Six days a week, technicians are working in shifts to rebuild the experiment's drift chambers. The original chambers were damaged when a section of a vacuum tube imploded at the end of 1999. A year ago, CERN gave the green light for this essential part of the spectrometer to be rebuilt, so the NA48 experiment, which studies CP violation (see box), still has a bright future ahead of it. Three years of data-taking ahead The NA48 experiment aims to penetrate the secrets of CP (Charge Parity) violation. Charge and parity are two parameters which distinguish a particle from an antiparticle. In other words, an electron possesses a negative electric ...

  12. Demonstrating diamond wire cutting of the TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rule, K.; Perry, E.; Larson, S.; Viola, M. [and others

    2000-02-24

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) ceased operation in April 1997 and decommissioning commenced in October 1999. The deuterium-tritium fusion experiments resulted in contaminating the vacuum vessel with tritium and activating the materials with 14 Mev neutrons. The total tritium content within the vessel is in excess of 7,000 Curies while dose rates approach 50 mRem/hr. These radiological hazards along with the size of the Tokamak (100 cubic meters) present a unique and challenging task for dismantling. Plasma arc cutting is the current baseline technology for the dismantlement of fission reactors. This technology is typically used because of its faster cutting times. Alternatively, an innovative approach for dismantlement of the TFTR is the use of diamond wire cutting technology. Recent improvements in diamond wire technology have allowed the cutting of carbon steel components such as pipe, plate, and tube bundles in heat exchangers. Some expected benefits of this technology include: significantly reduction in airborne contaminates, reduced personnel exposure, a reduced risk of spread of tritium contamination, and reduced overall costs as compared to using plasma arc cutting. This paper will provide detailed results of the diamond wire cutting demonstration that was completed in September of 1999, on a mock-up of this complex reactor. The results will identify cost, safety, industrial and engineering parameters, and the related performance of each situation.

  13. Evolution of cementite morphology in pearlitic steel wire during wet wire drawing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Xiaodan [Advanced Materials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, 100084 (China); Godfrey, Andrew, E-mail: awgodfrey@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Advanced Materials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, 100084 (China); Hansen, Niels; Huang Xiaoxu [Center for Fundamental Research: Metal Structures in Four Dimensions, Materials Research Division, Riso National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, DTU, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Liu Wei [Advanced Materials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, 100084 (China); Liu Qing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400030 (China)

    2010-01-15

    The evolution of the cementite phase during wet wire drawing of a pearlitic steel wire has been followed as a function of strain. Particular attention has been given to a quantitative characterization of changes in the alignment and in the dimensions of the cementite phase. Scanning electron microscope observations show that cementite plates become increasingly aligned with the wire axis as the drawing strain is increased. Measurements in the transmission electron microscope show that the cementite deforms plastically during wire drawing , with the average thickness of the cementite plates decreasing from 19 nm ({epsilon} = 0) to 2 nm ({epsilon} = 3.7) in correspondence with the reduction in wire diameter. The deformation of the cementite is strongly related to plastic deformation in the ferrite, with coarse slip steps, shear bands and cracks in the cementite plates/particles observed parallel to either {l_brace}110{r_brace}{sub {alpha}} or {l_brace}112{r_brace}{sub {alpha}} slip plane traces in the ferrite.

  14. Durability Evaluation of a Thin Film Sensor System With Enhanced Lead Wire Attachments on SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jih-Fen; Kiser, J. Douglas; Singh, Mrityunjay; Cuy, Mike; Blaha, Charles A.; Androjna, Drago

    2000-01-01

    An advanced thin film sensor system instrumented on silicon carbide (SiC) fiber reinforced SiC matrix ceramic matrix composites (SiC/SiC CMCs), was evaluated in a Mach 0.3 burner rig in order to determine its durability to monitor material/component surface temperature in harsh environments. The sensor system included thermocouples in a thin film form (5 microns thick), fine lead wires (75 microns diameter), and the bonds between these wires and the thin films. Other critical components of the overall system were the heavy, swaged lead wire cable (500 microns diameter) that contained the fine lead wires and was connected to the temperature readout, and ceramic attachments which were bonded onto the CMCs for the purpose of securing the lead wire cables, The newly developed ceramic attachment features a combination of hoops made of monolithic SiC or SiC/SiC CMC (which are joined to the test article) and high temperature ceramic cement. Two instrumented CMC panels were tested in a burner rig for a total of 40 cycles to 1150 C (2100 F). A cycle consisted of rapid heating to 1150 C (2100 F), a 5 minute hold at 1150 C (2100 F), and then cooling down to room temperature in 2 minutes. The thin film sensor systems provided repeatable temperature measurements for a maximum of 25 thermal cycles. Two of the monolithic SiC hoops debonded during the sensor fabrication process and two of the SiC/SiC CMC hoops failed during testing. The hoops filled with ceramic cement, however, showed no sign of detachment after 40 thermal cycle test. The primary failure mechanism of this sensor system was the loss of the fine lead wire-to-thin film connection, which either due to detachment of the fine lead wires from the thin film thermocouples or breakage of the fine wire.

  15. Flexible fiber energy storage and integrated devices: recent progress and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianfu Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Flexible fiber-shaped energy storage devices have been studied and developed intensively over the past few years to meet the demands of modern electronics in terms of flexibility, weavability and being lightweight. In this review, fiber electrodes and flexible fiber energy storage devices containing solid-state supercapacitors (SCs and lithium-ion batteries (LIBs are carefully summarized with particular emphasis on their electrode fabrication, structure design and flexibility. In addition, emerging wire-shaped integrated energy systems, combined energy storage and solar cells, as well as other electronic devices to realize self-charging and self-powered integrated systems are specifically highlighted.

  16. Amplitude-modulated fiber-ring laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caputo, J. G.; Clausen, Carl A. Balslev; Sørensen, Mads Peter

    2000-01-01

    Soliton pulses generated by a fiber-ring laser are investigated by numerical simulation and perturbation methods. The mathematical modeling is based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with perturbative terms. We show that active mode locking with an amplitude modulator leads to a self-starting......Soliton pulses generated by a fiber-ring laser are investigated by numerical simulation and perturbation methods. The mathematical modeling is based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with perturbative terms. We show that active mode locking with an amplitude modulator leads to a self......-starting of stable solitonic pulses from small random noise, provided the modulation depth is small. The perturbative analysis leads to a nonlinear coupled return map for the amplitude, phase, and position of the soliton pulses circulating in the fiber-ring laser. We established the validity of this approach...

  17. Amplitude-modulated fiber-ring laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caputo, J. G.; Clausen, Carl A. Balslev; Sørensen, Mads Peter

    2000-01-01

    Soliton pulses generated by a fiber-ring laser are investigated by numerical simulation and perturbation methods. The mathematical modeling is based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with perturbative terms. We show that active mode locking with an amplitude modulator leads to a self-starting......Soliton pulses generated by a fiber-ring laser are investigated by numerical simulation and perturbation methods. The mathematical modeling is based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with perturbative terms. We show that active mode locking with an amplitude modulator leads to a self......-starting of stable solitonic pulses from small random noise, provided the modulation depth is small. The perturbative analysis leads to a nonlinear coupled return map for the amplitude, phase, and position of the soliton pulses circulating in the fiber-ring laser. We established the validity of this approach...

  18. Optical Fiber Fusion Splicing

    CERN Document Server

    Yablon, Andrew D

    2005-01-01

    This book is an up-to-date treatment of optical fiber fusion splicing incorporating all the recent innovations in the field. It provides a toolbox of general strategies and specific techniques that the reader can apply when optimizing fusion splices between novel fibers. It specifically addresses considerations important for fusion splicing of contemporary specialty fibers including dispersion compensating fiber, erbium-doped gain fiber, polarization maintaining fiber, and microstructured fiber. Finally, it discusses the future of optical fiber fusion splicing including silica and non-silica based optical fibers as well as the trend toward increasing automation. Whilst serving as a self-contained reference work, abundant citations from the technical literature will enable readers to readily locate primary sources.

  19. [Central venous catheterization complication by a guide wire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Yoshiyuki; Fukuda, Isao; Hirano, Masato; Matsuoka, Nobuhiro; Kazama, Tomiei

    2009-03-01

    Central venous catheterization using the Seldinger technique is a well known and often used method. On the other hand, there are also well known complications by needle puncture or by indwelling catheter, there are few reports about a guide wire which got hung up around the tricuspid valve. We report a case in which a guide wire got hung up to the chordae tendineae of the tricuspid valve. To insert the AVA 3Xi (Edwards life science Co. Iervine) from the right internal jugular vein, we inserted a guide wire without ease. Resistance appeared when we tried to remove the wire for 20 cm from the inserted state. The X-ray and the transesophageal echocardiography, showed the guide wire in the right ventricle. As actions to be taken, we advanced the central vein catheter of the EXCV catheter kit (Nippon Sherwood Medical Industries Co., Ltd.) to the tip, and a the guide wire was easily removed. There are many reports of the complication by the central venepuncture, but there are few reports about the guide wire which was entrapped in the vicinity of a tricuspid valve. The tip of the guide wire in this case was bent excessively, but the cause of the damage did not become clear by investigation. When a guide wire became hard to withdraw, we should never withdraw a guide wire blindly, but should search a cause and we should use the material which was matched with the cause.

  20. Applications of surface analysis in the wire industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, David A.

    The quality of wire is judged not only by its physical properties such as tensile strength and fatigue resistance, but also by its surface finish. The surface roughness, oxide formation, cleanliness, and plating homogeneity and porosity are just a few of the surface properties than can influence the performance of a wire product. Coupled to this is the large amount of surface area generated in drawing wire. For example, a ten pound spool holds nine miles of 0.006″ diameter stainless steel wire. For these reasons surface analysis has become important both to the manufacturer and consumer of wire products. When surface analysis equipment such as AES, ESCA, and SIMS was first becoming commercially available in the late sixties and early seventies, the wire industry was beginning to enter a phase of technological development for many of its products. Wire manufacturers and users began using surface analysis to investigate such topics as adhesion of brass plated automobile tire cord to rubber and diffusion of layered deposits. Examples of surface analysis used for process control, problem solving, and project development include discoloration problems on stainless steel wire, welding problems with composite wires, diffusion formed brass coatings, and diffusion problems with solder coated and Cu plated steel wire.

  1. A new design of wire locators for drift tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Ilgner, C

    2004-01-01

    Every position-sensitive wire detector needs to solve the problem of wire positioning with a defined accuracy all over its sensitive volume. In particular, thin-walled drift tubes ("straws"), which are currently being attached to large detector units of several tens of square meters of surface, need to be equipped with wire locators along their signal wires. A wire locator has been developed together with an insertion device, especially for medium-sized drift tube systems, which significantly reduces the production time and avoids the danger of applying epoxy glue to the signal wire. The wire locator is being inserted in one single time-saving production step together with the signal wire itself. The proposed design is being compared to the rigid wire locators in use in the COMPASS straw tracking system at CERN. The investigation comprises both wire- centering capability and influence on the efficiency of adjacent detector regions, demonstrating the competitive performance of the proposed new system. Its suff...

  2. Optimization of the Single Staggered Wire and Tube Heat Exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsana I Made

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wire and tube heat exchanger consists of a coiled tube, and wire is welded on the two sides of it in normal direction of the tube. Generally,wire and tube heat exchanger uses inline wire arrangement between the two sides, whereas in this study, it used staggered wire arrangement that reduces the restriction of convection heat transfer. This study performed the optimization of single staggered wire and tube heat exchanger to increase the capacity and reduce the mass of the heat exchanger. Optimization was conducted with the Hooke-Jeeves method, which aims to optimize the geometry of the heat exchanger, especially on the diameter (dw and the distance between wires (pw. The model developed to present heat transfer correlations on single staggered wire and tube heat exchanger was valid. The maximum optimization factor obtained when the diameter wire was 0.9 mm and the distance between wires (pw was 11 mm with the fref value = 1.5837. It means that the optimized design only using mass of 59,10 % and could transfer heat about 98,5 % from the basis design.

  3. Developing Process of Negative Creeping Discharge along Aerial Insulated Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Toshiyuki; Hanaoka, Ryoichi; Takata, Shinzo

    When a lightning occurs at the neighborhood of high voltage aerial distribution lines, the overvoltage due to the inductive lightning surge invades to the central line of the insulated wire. Because of the insulated wire is supported by the insulator and the binding wire at the electric light pole, the creeping discharges develop along the wire surface from the free end of the binding wire, just after a flashover of the insulator at the wire supporting point. These creeping discharges give rise to the disaster near the wire supporting point including the punch-through breakdown of wire when the weak points such as pin-holes exist in the wire insulator. To prevent these accidents, it is important to understand the behavior of creeping discharges at the insulated wire surface originating in the lightning strike. Positive and negative creeping discharges reveal the distinctive aspect by the polarities of the inductive lightning surges. In the previous paper, we have clarified the developing process of positive creeping discharge based on the data obtained from an image converter camera. In this paper, we report the developing process of negative creeping discharge. Complicated behavior of negative creeping discharge is clarified using an image converter camera and its process is discussed.

  4. Body of Knowledge (BOK) for Copper Wire Bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, E.; Sampson, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Copper wire bonds have replaced gold wire bonds in the majority of commercial semiconductor devices for the latest technology nodes. Although economics has been the driving mechanism to lower semiconductor packaging costs for a savings of about 20% by replacing gold wire bonds with copper, copper also has materials property advantages over gold. When compared to gold, copper has approximately: 25% lower electrical resistivity, 30% higher thermal conductivity, 75% higher tensile strength and 45% higher modulus of elasticity. Copper wire bonds on aluminum bond pads are also more mechanically robust over time and elevated temperature due to the slower intermetallic formation rate - approximately 1/100th that of the gold to aluminum intermetallic formation rate. However, there are significant tradeoffs with copper wire bonding - copper has twice the hardness of gold which results in a narrower bonding manufacturing process window and requires that the semiconductor companies design more mechanically rigid bonding pads to prevent cratering to both the bond pad and underlying chip structure. Furthermore, copper is significantly more prone to corrosion issues. The semiconductor packaging industry has responded to this corrosion concern by creating a palladium coated copper bonding wire, which is more corrosion resistant than pure copper bonding wire. Also, the selection of the device molding compound is critical because use of environmentally friendly green compounds can result in internal CTE (Coefficient of Thermal Expansion) mismatches with the copper wire bonds that can eventually lead to device failures during thermal cycling. Despite the difficult problems associated with the changeover to copper bonding wire, there are billions of copper wire bonded devices delivered annually to customers. It is noteworthy that Texas Instruments announced in October of 2014 that they are shipping microcircuits containing copper wire bonds for safety critical automotive applications

  5. Electromagnetic scattering and absorption by a finite conducting thin fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyones, Sharhabeel Saleh

    Scattering, absorption and extinction by a thin finite length conducting wire are computed numerically by solving the Generalized Pocklington integro-differential equation using two distinct approaches: the Method of Moments and the Galerkin method. The former employs discretization of the wire and the latter uses Legendre polynomials as basis functions with modifications to satisfy the boundary conditions of the problem. A new development included in the computations to be reported here involves a more accurate rendering of wires with lower aspect (length-to-diameter) ratios. Both methods converge to the same answer and satisfies the energy balance to within one percent for high aspect ratios. In spite of the improvement of the computational model, lower aspect ratios still satisfy the energy balance less precisely. A comparison is made with an existing analytical theory by Waterman and Pedersen. This theory solves a more approximate form of the Pocklington equation. The solutions of this study agree with the analytical theory for very thin wires and give a small but significant amplitude and resonance shift for lower aspect ratios. All three solutions are in agreement with the numerous available experimental results to within the experimental errors. The measurements of this study were used to examine the agreement with recently developed theory for long wavelength fibrous aerosol attenuative properties (extinction and components absorption, scattering). This was intended to be the final phase of a long and systematic examination of the theory's key features. In this case the parameters were high conductivities coupled with a broad range of fiber diameters. It is clear that there is a limit on the extinction efficiency or effective extinction cross section per unit fiber volume represented by the fiber diameter of translucency, that is, the diameter at which the fiber is not completely opaque to the electromagnetic energy. This is approximated by the classical

  6. Photonic liquid crystal fibers tuning by four electrode system produced with 3D printing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertman, Slawomir; Bednarska, Karolina; Czapla, Aleksandra; Woliński, Tomasz R.

    2015-09-01

    Photonic liquid crystal fiber has been intensively investigated in last few years. It has been proved that guiding properties of such fibers could be tuned with an electric field. In particular efficient tuning could be obtained if multi-electrode system allowing for dynamic change of not only intensity of the electric field, but also its direction. In this work we report a simple to build four electrode system, which is based on a precisely aligned four cylindrical microelectrodes. As an electrodes we use enameled copper wire with diameter adequate to the diameter of the fiber to be tuned. To ensure uniform and parallel alignment of the wires a special micro-profiles has been designed and then produced with filament 3D printer. The possibility of the dynamic change of the electric field direction in such scalable and cost effective electrode assembly has been experimentally confirmed.

  7. Effect of the wire length on the torsion impedance in Fe-rich wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernando, B. E-mail: grande@pinon.ccu.uniovi.es; Sanchez, M.L.; Prida, V.M.; Olivera, J.; Gorria, P.; Tejedor, M.; Vazquez, M

    2004-05-01

    In this work, we show the results of measuring the impedance as a function of the applied torsion on amorphous Fe{sub 73.5}Si{sub 13.5}B{sub 9}Cu{sub 1}Nb{sub 3} wires with a 133 {mu}m diameter and lengths between 2 and 10 cm. A decrease of the impedance value can be observed as a consequence of the decrease of the wire length, and sensitivities to the applied torsion up to 57%/rad/cm can be measured at a drive current frequency of 2 MHz.

  8. Fiber and fabric solar cells by directly weaving carbon nanotube yarns with CdSe nanowire-based electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luhui; Shi, Enzheng; Ji, Chunyan; Li, Zhen; Li, Peixu; Shang, Yuanyuan; Li, Yibin; Wei, Jinquan; Wang, Kunlin; Zhu, Hongwei; Wu, Dehai; Cao, Anyuan

    2012-08-21

    Electrode materials are key components for fiber solar cells, and when combined with active layers (for light absorption and charge generation) in appropriate ways, they enable design and fabrication of efficient and innovative device structures. Here, we apply carbon nanotube yarns as counter electrodes in combination with CdSe nanowire-grafted primary electrodes (Ti wire) for making fiber and fabric-shaped photoelectrochemical cells with power conversion efficiencies in the range 1% to 2.9%. The spun-twist long nanotube yarns possess both good electrical conductivity and mechanical flexibility compared to conventional metal wires or carbon fibers, which facilitate fabrication of solar cells with versatile configurations. A unique feature of our process is that instead of making individual fiber cells, we directly weave single or multiple nanotube yarns with primary electrodes into a functional fabric. Our results demonstrate promising applications of semiconducting nanowires and carbon nanotubes in woven photovoltaics.

  9. PULP FIBER SIZE CHARACTERIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shijie Liu

    2004-01-01

    Pulp fiber length distribution characterization has been examined in this study. Because of the fiber morphology: slender in shape, fiber size distribution characterization is a very difficult task. Traditional technique involves separation of the particles by size,such as Bauer-McNett fiber classifier, and measuring the weight fractions. The particle fractions obtained may or may not reflect the desired size classification.On the other hand, the more recent technique through optical measurement of fiber length is limited by its inability to measure the mass of the particle fractions.Therefore, not only the two techniques fail to generate identical results, either one was accepted to be of better value. Pure hardwood kraft, softwood kraft, and their mixture samples have been measured for their fiber length distributions using an optical fiber quality analyzer: FQA. The data obtained from FQA are extensively studied to investigate more reliable way of representing the fiber length data and thus examining the viable route for measuring the fiber size distributions. It has been found that the fiber length averaged length 11 is a viable indicator of the average pulp fiber length. The fiber size fraction and/or distribution can be represented by the fiber "length" fractions.

  10. Radiation and scattering from thin wires in chiral media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggard, Dwight L.; Liu, John C.; Grot, Annette; Pelet, Philippe

    1992-11-01

    The effect of chirality on thin win antennas and scatterers in unbounded chiral material is examined through the application of fundamental principles and the examination of several canonical examples. In particular, the interplay between normalized chirality and wire length is investigated to classify radiation and scattering patterns. Chirality induces rapid decay in the currents on such wires, resulting in mountain-peak-shaped current distributions characteristic of wire antennas and bow-tie-shaped current distributions characteristic of wire scatterers of sufficient length. These current distributions, in turn, cause radiation and scattering patterns which exhibit a chirality-dependent forbidden zone for both antennas and scatterers. In this zone, the fields are greatly reduced. These distinctive results lead naturally to the classification of wire scattering and radiation into subchiral, chiral, and superchiral regimes. All results are understood from the underlying physical principles of electromagnetic chirality, and are related to values of a dimensionless parameter involving normalized chirality and normalized wire length.

  11. Failure analysis of the fractured wires in sternal perichronal loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Jesús; Voces, Roberto; Peña, Carmen

    2011-10-01

    We report failure analysis of sternal wires in two cases in which a perichronal fixation technique was used to close the sternotomy. Various characteristics of the retrieved wires were compared to those of unused wires of the same grade and same manufacturer and with surgical wire specifications. In both cases, wire fracture was un-branched and transgranular and proceeded by a high cycle fatigue process, apparently in the absence of corrosion. However, stress anlysis indicates that the effective stress produced during strong coughing is lower than the yield strength. Our findings suggest that in order to reduce the risk for sternal dehiscence, the diameter of the wire used should be increased. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Surface cleaning of metal wire by atmospheric pressure plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, T., E-mail: tsubasa@oshima-k.ac.jp [Electronic-Mechanical Engineering Department, Oshima National College of Maritime Technology, 1091-1 Komatsu, Suo-Oshima, Yamaguchi (Japan); Department of Electrical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka, Nagaoka (Japan); Buttapeng, C. [School of Electrical and Energy Engineering, University of the Thai Chamber of Commerce, 126/1, Vibhavadee-Rungsit, Dindaeng, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Furuya, S. [Faculty of Education, Gunma University, 4-2 Aramaki, Maebashi (Japan); Harada, N. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka, Nagaoka (Japan)

    2009-11-30

    In this study, the possible application of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge plasma for the annealing of metallic wire is examined and presented. The main purpose of the current study is to examine the surface cleaning effect for a cylindrical object by atmospheric pressure plasma. The experimental setup consists of a gas tank, plasma reactor, and power supply with control panel. The gas assists in the generation of plasma. Copper wire was used as an experimental cylindrical object. This copper wire was irradiated with the plasma, and the cleaning effect was confirmed. The result showed that it is possible to remove the tarnish which exists on the copper wire surface. The experiment reveals that atmospheric pressure plasma is usable for the surface cleaning of metal wire. However, it is necessary to examine the method for preventing oxidization of the copper wire.

  13. System and method for evaluating a wire conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panozzo, Edward; Parish, Harold

    2013-10-22

    A method of evaluating an electrically conductive wire segment having an insulated intermediate portion and non-insulated ends includes passing the insulated portion of the wire segment through an electrically conductive brush. According to the method, an electrical potential is established on the brush by a power source. The method also includes determining a value of electrical current that is conducted through the wire segment by the brush when the potential is established on the brush. The method additionally includes comparing the value of electrical current conducted through the wire segment with a predetermined current value to thereby evaluate the wire segment. A system for evaluating an electrically conductive wire segment is also disclosed.

  14. Dynamics of vapor emissions at wire explosion threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belony, Paul A; Kim, Yong W

    2010-10-01

    X-pinch plasmas have been actively studied in the recent years. Numerical simulation of the ramp-up of metallic vapor emissions from wire specimens shows that under impulsive Ohmic heating the wire core invariably reaches a supercritical state before explosion. The heating rate depends sensitively on the local wire resistance, leading to highly variable vapor emission flux along the wire. To examine the vapor emission process, we have visualized nickel wire explosions by means of shock formation in air. In a single explosion as captured by shadowgraphy, there usually appear several shocks with spherical or cylindrical wave front originating from different parts of the wire. Growth of various shock fronts in time is well characterized by a power-law scaling in one form or another. Continuum emission spectra are obtained and calibrated to measure temperature near the explosion threshold. Shock front structures and vapor plume temperature are examined.

  15. Copper Nanoparticle Synthesis By The Wire Explosion Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y. S.; Tay, W. H.; Yap, S. L.; Wong, C. S.; Ahmad, Z.

    2009-07-01

    Wire explosion technique is performed by passing a high power pulsed current through a metallic wire to disintegrate it through Joule heating effect. In this work, the production of nanoparticles by the wire explosion technique has been investigated. Copper wires with a diameter of 125 μm and a length of 3.5 cm are exploded in air at two different pressures, namely, 1 bar and 10-2 mbar. Particles produced from the wire explosion are collected for characterization. The characterization of the particles is done by using field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive analysis by X-rays (EDAX). The morphology and chemical composition of the particles produced at the two different pressures are compared. Discharge current and optical emission spectra of the wire explosion at the two pressures are also presented.

  16. COLD ROLLING ORTHODONTIC WIRES OF AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL AISI 304

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Santos Messner

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Austenitic stainless steels wires are widely used in the final stages of orthodontic treatment. The objective of this paper is to study the process of conformation of rectangular wires from round wires commercial austenitic stainless steel AISI 304 by the process of cold rolling. The wire quality is evaluated by means of dimensional analysis, microhardness measurements, tensile strength and fractographic analysis of the wires subjected to tensile tests. Also a study on the application of finite element method to simulate the process, comparing the force and rolling stress obtained in the rolling is done. The simulation results are consistent with those obtained in the actual process and the rolled wires show ductile fracture, tensile strength and dimensional variations appropriate to orthodontic standards. The fracture morphology shows the model cup-cone type besides the high deformation and hardness inherent in the cold rolling process.

  17. Residual stresses and durability in cold drawn eutectoid steel wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atienza, J. M.; Elices, M.; Ruiz-Hervias, J.; Caballero, L.; Valiente, A.

    2007-04-01

    Prestressing steel wires have excellent mechanical properties but there is a need to improve their durability in aggressive environments. In this work, the influence of residual stresses on the environmentally assisted cracking of these wires is studied. A good correlation has been found between residual stresses at the surface of the wires and the time to rupture during stress corrosion test proposed by the International Federation of Prestressing. Wires with the same microstructure, surface quality and mechanical properties show very different behaviour in aggressive environments depending on their residual stress state. Research shows that environmentally assisted cracking can be improved significantly by acting on the surface residual stresses produced by wire drawing. In addition, in this study a post-drawing treatment to generate compressive residual stresses at the surface of the wires is proposed.

  18. Transient Free Convection Development in Hot-Wire Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaretto, Valter

    The transient behavior of free convection along the vertical wire of a hot-wire apparatus has been experimentally investigated at room temperature and ambient pressure, using water and propylene glycol. The development of free convection has been studied using an ad hoc apparatus, in order to obtain the best agreement between the vertical direction and the wire. The measurements were corrected for radiation influences, and the effects induced by free convection were detected at the wire-fluid interface. The convection outcomes have been correlated to fluid properties and test conditions. A suitable time scale has been introduced, which is defined by the modified Fourier and a proper definition of the local Grashof number. The obtained correlation has been applied to data found in the literature. The possibility of describing the free convection development at the wire-fluid interface could enable the fluid properties related to momentum diffusion to be investigated by the hot-wire technique.

  19. A dual-amplifier hot-wire anemometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, W. Z.; Finn, C. L.

    1979-01-01

    The conceptual design of a dual-amplifier constant-temperature hot-wire anemometer is described. This hot-wire anemometer consists of three basic independent modules: a Wheatstone bridge in which the hot wire is one of its arms, an error-correction amplifier, and a voltage-controlled current source. The last two modules constitute the feedback network of this hot-wire anemometer. Thus the output voltage across the wire is a true function of the instantaneous changes in the wire resistance induced by the cooling effect of the flow. The dual-amplifier is capable of reaching relatively high frequency response through adequate selection of its active elements. Suitable gain of the error-correction amplifier and proper choice of the transfer function of the current source has yielded a frequency bandwidth up to 200 kHz.

  20. Single-mode fiber, velocity interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauter, K. G.; Jacobson, G. F.; Patterson, J. R.; Nguyen, J. H.; Ambrose, W. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave., Livermore California 94551 (United States)

    2011-04-15

    In this paper, we describe a velocity interferometer system based entirely on single-mode fiber optics. This paper includes a description of principles used in developing the single-mode velocity interferometry system (SMV). The SMV design is based on polarization-insensitive components. Polarization adjusters are included to eliminate the effects of residual birefringence and polarization dependent losses in the interferometers. Characterization measurements and calibration methods needed for data analysis and a method of data analysis are described. Calibration is performed directly using tunable lasers. During development, we demonstrated its operation using exploding-foil bridge-wire fliers up to 200 m/s. In a final test, we demonstrated the SMV in a gas gun experiment up to 1.2 km/sec. As a basis for comparison in the gas gun experiment, we used another velocimetry technique that is also based on single-mode fiber optics: photonic Doppler velocimetry (PDV). For the gas gun experiment, we split the light returned from a single target spot and performed a direct comparison of the homodyne (SMV) and heterodyne (PDV) techniques concurrently. The two techniques had a negligible mean difference and a 1.5% standard deviation in the one-dimensional shock zone. Within one interferometer delay time after a sudden Doppler shift, a SMV unencumbered by multimode-fiber dispersion exhibits two color beats. These beats have the same period as PDV beats--this interference occurs between the ''recently'' shifted and ''formerly unshifted'' paths within the interferometer. We believe that recognizing this identity between homodyne and heterodyne beats is novel in the shock-physics field. SMV includes the conveniences of optical fiber, while removing the time resolution limitations associated with the multimode delivery fiber.

  1. Electric Effect of Impurity in Square Quantum Wires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Kui-Hua; ZHANG Ying-Tao; LI You-Cheng

    2004-01-01

    @@ In the presence of an electric fidd perpendicular to the axes of the wire, the binding energy of shallow donor impurity in finite square quantum well wires is calculated. For different impurity positions and aspect ratios of the wires, we investigate the Stark shift of the 1s-like state energy of the impurity by expanding the wavefunction into a two-dimensional Fourier series and by using the variational scheme.

  2. Third NASA Workshop on Wiring for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammoud, Ahmad (Compiler); Stavnes, Mark (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    This workshop addressed key technology issues in the field of electrical power wiring for space applications, and transferred information and technology related to space wiring for use in government and commercial applications. Speakers from space agencies, U.S. Federal labs, industry, and academia presented program overviews and discussed topics on arc tracking phenomena, advancements in insulation materials and constructions, and new wiring system topologies.

  3. Modern trends of aircraft fly-by-wire systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С. С. Юцкевич

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Specifics of civil aviation modern transport aircraft fly-by-wire control systems are described. A comparison of the systems-level hardware and software, expressed through modes of guidance, provision of aircraft Airbus A-320, Boeing B-777, Tupolev Tu-214, Sukhoi Superjet SSJ-100 are carried out. The possibility of transition from mechanical control wiring to control through fly-by-wire system in the backup channel is shown.

  4. Application of ultra-thin polymer coating on metallic wires

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Juan

    1992-01-01

    In this study, the coating of fine wires using hydrodynamic pressure technique has been investigated theoretically and experimentally. One of the principal aims of the project is to establish the minimum possible coating thickness on fine wires which can be applied by means of hydrodynamic technique. Models based on steady, uniform and laminar flow of Newtonian as well as non-Newtonian fluid for polymer coating for the process of plasto-hydrodynamic wire coating in a stepped bore unit have be...

  5. Potentiodynamic studies of stainless steel wire for endourology

    OpenAIRE

    J. Przondziono; W. Walke

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to evaluate resistance to electrochemical corrosion of wire made of Cr-Ni stainless steel, designed for use in endourological treatment. The influence of strain formed in the process of drawing and methods of wire surface preparation to corrosive resistance in artificial urine solution were analysed.Design/methodology/approach: Wire corrosion tests were carried out in the solution of artificial urine with the u...

  6. Resonant bond wire vibrations in the ATLAS semiconductor tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Barber, T J; Murray, W; Villani, G; Warren, M; Weidberg, A R

    2005-01-01

    Dangerous mechanical resonances exist which can lead to the breaking of bond wires if time varying currents are passed through them in a magnetic field. The results of analytic calculations and an FEA analysis are described. The results of experimental investigations using wire bonds on test circuits are given. The possible effects within the ATLAS SCT were investigated and a fixed frequency trigger veto algorithm, designed to minimise the dangers of breaking wire bonds, was developed.

  7. Development of rolling mill for rectangular orthodontic wires production

    OpenAIRE

    Totten, G.E.; A.I. Filho; C.A.R. Gouvéa; Neto, A.; L.C. Casteletti

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: In orthodontic treatments, wires of different metallic alloys are used for alignment, leveling, correction of the molar position, space closing, finish and retention. The purpose of the paper is the characteristics of austenitic stainless steel wires, with a square traverse section, which were produced using a rolling mill built for this purpose, are presented hereDesign/methodology/approach: With respect to finish and retention, these wires are responsible for adequate positioning o...

  8. Metallurgical Characterization of Niobium/Tin Superconducting Multifilamentary Wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-31

    bronze phases and substantial interfacial shear stress between these phases being developed during both the wire drawing and anneal cycle operations. The...porosity pit has not fully cohered to the matrix in the extrusion process steps, then the flow of the bronze at the pit site during wire drawing is...stress of the materials being drawn, satisfactory wire drawing (5)is possible . It Is possible that for about 10% reduction in area passes of the

  9. Strain rate effect in high-speed wire drawing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, S.; Van Houtte, P.; Van Bael, A.; Mei, F.; Sarban, A.; Boesman, P.; Galvez, F.; Atienza, J. M.

    2002-05-01

    This paper presents a study on the strain rate effect during high-speed wire drawing process by means of finite element simulation. Based on the quasistatic stresses obtained by normal tensile tests and dynamic stresses at high strain rates by split Hopkinson pressure bar tests, the wire drawing process was simulated for low carbon steel and high carbon steel. The results show that both the deformation process and the final properties of drawn wires are influenced by the strain rate.

  10. Tungsten quasispherical wire loads with a profiled mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabovskii, E. V.; Dzhangobegov, V. V., E-mail: jvv88@triniti.ru; Oleinik, G. M.; Rodionov, R. N. [State Research Center of the Russian Federation Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (TRINITI) (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    Wire arrays made from micrometer tungsten wires with linear mass profiled along their height are developed for experiments on the generation of X-ray radiation upon pinch compression with a current of ∼3 MA at a pulse duration of ∼100 ns. Wires are imaged with a scanning electron microscope, and their diameter is determined. It is shown that the arrays have such a profile of height distribution of linear mass that allows for compact spherical compression upon current implosion.

  11. An Electrostatic Model of Split-Gate Quantum Wires

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yinlong; Kirczenow, George; Sachrajda, Andrew. S.; Feng, Yan

    1995-01-01

    We present a theoretical model of split-gate quantum wires that are fabricated from GaAs-AlGaAs heterostructures. The model is built on the physical properties of donors and of semiconductor surfaces, and considerations of equilibrium in such systems. Based on the features of this model, we have studied different ionization regimes of quantum wires, provided a method to evaluate the shallow donor density, and calculated the depletion and pinchoff voltages of quantum wires both before and afte...

  12. Fiber and fabric solar cells by directly weaving carbon nanotube yarns with CdSe nanowire-based electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luhui; Shi, Enzheng; Ji, Chunyan; Li, Zhen; Li, Peixu; Shang, Yuanyuan; Li, Yibin; Wei, Jinquan; Wang, Kunlin; Zhu, Hongwei; Wu, Dehai; Cao, Anyuan

    2012-07-01

    Electrode materials are key components for fiber solar cells, and when combined with active layers (for light absorption and charge generation) in appropriate ways, they enable design and fabrication of efficient and innovative device structures. Here, we apply carbon nanotube yarns as counter electrodes in combination with CdSe nanowire-grafted primary electrodes (Ti wire) for making fiber and fabric-shaped photoelectrochemical cells with power conversion efficiencies in the range 1% to 2.9%. The spun-twist long nanotube yarns possess both good electrical conductivity and mechanical flexibility compared to conventional metal wires or carbon fibers, which facilitate fabrication of solar cells with versatile configurations. A unique feature of our process is that instead of making individual fiber cells, we directly weave single or multiple nanotube yarns with primary electrodes into a functional fabric. Our results demonstrate promising applications of semiconducting nanowires and carbon nanotubes in woven photovoltaics.Electrode materials are key components for fiber solar cells, and when combined with active layers (for light absorption and charge generation) in appropriate ways, they enable design and fabrication of efficient and innovative device structures. Here, we apply carbon nanotube yarns as counter electrodes in combination with CdSe nanowire-grafted primary electrodes (Ti wire) for making fiber and fabric-shaped photoelectrochemical cells with power conversion efficiencies in the range 1% to 2.9%. The spun-twist long nanotube yarns possess both good electrical conductivity and mechanical flexibility compared to conventional metal wires or carbon fibers, which facilitate fabrication of solar cells with versatile configurations. A unique feature of our process is that instead of making individual fiber cells, we directly weave single or multiple nanotube yarns with primary electrodes into a functional fabric. Our results demonstrate promising applications

  13. Nonlinear Photonic Crystal Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Per

    2004-01-01

    Despite the general recession in the global economy and the collapse of the optical telecommunication market, research within specialty fibers is thriving. This is, more than anything else, due to the technology transition from standard all-glass fibers to photonic crystal fibers, which, instead...... of doping, use a microstructure of air and glass to obtain a refractive index difference between the core and the cladding. This air/glass microstructure lends the photonic crystal fibers a range of unique and highly usable properties, which are very different from those found in solid standard fibers....... The freedom to design the dispersion profile of the fibers is much larger and it is possible to create fibers, which support only a single spatial mode, regardless of wavelength. In comparison, the standard dispersion-shifted fibers are limited by a much lower index-contrast between the core and the cladding...

  14. Glass Fibers: Quo Vadis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Mäder

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 1930s, the process of melting glass and subsequently forming fibers, in particular discontinuous fiber glass or continuous glass filaments, evolved into commercial-scale manufacturing.[...

  15. Fiber Optics Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, William E.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses various applications of fiber optics technology: information systems, industrial robots, medicine, television, transportation, and training. Types of jobs that will be available with fiber optics training (such as electricians and telephone cable installers and splicers) are examined. (CT)

  16. Fiber Optics Instrumentation Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Patrick Hon Man; Parker, Allen R., Jr.; Richards, W. Lance

    2010-01-01

    This is a general presentation of fiber optics instrumentation development work being conducted at NASA Dryden for the past 10 years and recent achievements in the field of fiber optics strain sensors.

  17. Moral Hard-Wiring and Moral Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Ingmar; Savulescu, Julian

    2017-05-01

    We have argued for an urgent need for moral bioenhancement; that human moral psychology is limited in its ability to address current existential threats due to the evolutionary function of morality to maximize cooperation in small groups. We address here Powell and Buchanan's novel objection that there is an 'inclusivist anomaly': humans have the capacity to care beyond in-groups. They propose that 'exclusivist' (group-based) morality is sensitive to environmental cues that historically indicated out-group threat. When this is not present, we are inclusivist. They conclude that moral bioenhancement is unnecessary or less effective than socio-cultural interventions. We argue that Powell and Buchanan underestimate the hard-wiring features of moral psychology; their appeal to adaptively plastic, conditionally expressed responses accounts for only a fragment of our moral psychology. In addition to restrictions on our altruistic concern that their account addresses - such as racism and sexism - there are ones it is ill-suited to address: that our concern is stronger for kin and friends and for concrete individuals rather than for statistical lives; also our bias towards the near future. Hard-wired features of our moral psychology that are not clearly restrictions in altruistic concern also include reciprocity, tit-for-tat, and others. Biomedical means are not the only, and maybe not the most important, means of moral enhancement. Socio-cultural means are of great importance and there are currently no biomedical interventions for many hard-wired features. Nevertheless research is desirable because the influence of these features is greater than our critics think. © 2017 The Authors Bioethics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Electronic transport in Si:P δ-doped wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, J. S.; Drumm, D. W.; Budi, Akin

    2015-01-01

    Despite the importance of Si:P δ-doped wires for modern nanoelectronics, there are currently no computational models of electron transport in these devices. In this paper we present a nonequilibrium Green’s function model for electronic transport in a δ-doped wire, which is described by a tight...... for a variety of δ-doped wires, each with different donor configurations. These calculations also allow us to accurately define the electronic extent of a δ-doped wire, which we find to be at least 4.6 nm....

  19. Research on quantum efficiency of GaN wire photocathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Sihao; Liu, Lei; Diao, Yu; Kong, Yike

    2017-02-01

    On the basis of three-dimensional continuity equation in semiconductors and finite difference method, the carrier concentration and the quantum efficiency of GaN wire photocathode as a function of incident photon energy are achieved. Results show that the quantum efficiency of the wire photocathode is largely enhanced compared with the conventional planar photocathode. The superiority of the wire photocathode is reflected in its structure with surrounding surfaces. The quantum efficiency of the wire photocathode largely depends on the wire width, surface reflectivity, surface escape probability and incident angle of light. The back interface recombination rate, however, has little influences on the quantum efficiency of the wire photocathode. The simulation results suggest that the optimal width for photoemission is 150-200 nm. Besides, the quantum efficiency increases and decreases linearly with increasing surface escape probability and surface reflectivity, respectively. With increasing ratio of wire spacing to wire height, the optimal incident angle of light is reduced. These simulations are expected to guide the preparation of a better performing GaN wire photocathode.

  20. An aging study of wire chambers with dimethyl ether

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jibaly, M.; Chrusch, P. Jr.; Hilgenberg, G.; Majewski, S.; Wojcik, R.; Sauli, F.; Gaudaen, J.

    1989-02-01

    The authors report results on the aging of different types of resistive and non-resistive wires in wire chambers filled with dimethyl ether (DME) of varying degrees of purity. Among the Freon impurities detected in our DME batches, only Freon-11 was found to contribute to the aging process. Of the resistive wires, Nicotin and Stablohm produced fast aging, whereas stainless steel withstood extended irradiation in purified DME (up to 1 C/cm) without any apparent damage. Gold-plated tungsten and molybdenum wires produced results comparable to those of the stainless steel.