WorldWideScience

Sample records for mono-dominant plant patches

  1. Streamlining of Plant Patches in Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand-Jensen, Kaj; Pedersen, Morten Lauge

    2008-01-01

    area or root area was significantly lower in shallow water . Canopy shape and indices of streamlining did not change significantly with approach velocity (0.02-0.40 m s)1), either because canopy shape is not sensitive to approach velocity or summer velocities were too low to induce such changes. 3......1. Plants in shallow streams often grow in well-defined monospecific patches experiencing a predictable unidirectional flow, though of temporally variable velocity. During maximum patch development in summer we studied: (i) the shape and streamlining of 59 patches of Callitriche cophocarpa, (ii...... averaged 0.25. The canopy and root area of the patches were more elongate and slender in sites with shallow water, where currents accelerate alongside patches and restrict lateral expansion, compared to deeper sites where currents can pass above the canopy. Similarly, the frontal area relative to planform...

  2. Patch size and isolation predict plant species density in a naturally fragmented forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munguía-Rosas, Miguel A; Montiel, Salvador

    2014-01-01

    Studies of the effects of patch size and isolation on plant species density have yielded contrasting results. However, much of the available evidence comes from relatively recent anthropogenic forest fragments which have not reached equilibrium between extinction and immigration. This is a critical issue because the theory clearly states that only when equilibrium has been reached can the number of species be accurately predicted by habitat size and isolation. Therefore, species density could be better predicted by patch size and isolation in an ecosystem that has been fragmented for a very long time. We tested whether patch area, isolation and other spatial variables explain variation among forest patches in plant species density in an ecosystem where the forest has been naturally fragmented for long periods of time on a geological scale. Our main predictions were that plant species density will be positively correlated with patch size, and negatively correlated with isolation (distance to the nearest patch, connectivity, and distance to the continuous forest). We surveyed the vascular flora (except lianas and epiphytes) of 19 forest patches using five belt transects (50×4 m each) per patch (area sampled per patch = 0.1 ha). As predicted, plant species density was positively associated (logarithmically) with patch size and negatively associated (linearly) with patch isolation (distance to the nearest patch). Other spatial variables such as patch elevation and perimeter, did not explain among-patch variability in plant species density. The power of patch area and isolation as predictors of plant species density was moderate (together they explain 43% of the variation), however, a larger sample size may improve the explanatory power of these variables. Patch size and isolation may be suitable predictors of long-term plant species density in terrestrial ecosystems that are naturally and anthropogenically fragmented.

  3. Patch size and isolation predict plant species density in a naturally fragmented forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A Munguía-Rosas

    Full Text Available Studies of the effects of patch size and isolation on plant species density have yielded contrasting results. However, much of the available evidence comes from relatively recent anthropogenic forest fragments which have not reached equilibrium between extinction and immigration. This is a critical issue because the theory clearly states that only when equilibrium has been reached can the number of species be accurately predicted by habitat size and isolation. Therefore, species density could be better predicted by patch size and isolation in an ecosystem that has been fragmented for a very long time. We tested whether patch area, isolation and other spatial variables explain variation among forest patches in plant species density in an ecosystem where the forest has been naturally fragmented for long periods of time on a geological scale. Our main predictions were that plant species density will be positively correlated with patch size, and negatively correlated with isolation (distance to the nearest patch, connectivity, and distance to the continuous forest. We surveyed the vascular flora (except lianas and epiphytes of 19 forest patches using five belt transects (50×4 m each per patch (area sampled per patch = 0.1 ha. As predicted, plant species density was positively associated (logarithmically with patch size and negatively associated (linearly with patch isolation (distance to the nearest patch. Other spatial variables such as patch elevation and perimeter, did not explain among-patch variability in plant species density. The power of patch area and isolation as predictors of plant species density was moderate (together they explain 43% of the variation, however, a larger sample size may improve the explanatory power of these variables. Patch size and isolation may be suitable predictors of long-term plant species density in terrestrial ecosystems that are naturally and anthropogenically fragmented.

  4. Scale-dependent feedbacks between patch size and plant reproduction in desert grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svejcar, Lauren N.; Bestelmeyer, Brandon T.; Duniway, Michael C.; James, Darren K.

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical models suggest that scale-dependent feedbacks between plant reproductive success and plant patch size govern transitions from highly to sparsely vegetated states in drylands, yet there is scant empirical evidence for these mechanisms. Scale-dependent feedback models suggest that an optimal patch size exists for growth and reproduction of plants and that a threshold patch organization exists below which positive feedbacks between vegetation and resources can break down, leading to critical transitions. We examined the relationship between patch size and plant reproduction using an experiment in a Chihuahuan Desert grassland. We tested the hypothesis that reproductive effort and success of a dominant grass (Bouteloua eriopoda) would vary predictably with patch size. We found that focal plants in medium-sized patches featured higher rates of grass reproductive success than when plants occupied either large patch interiors or small patches. These patterns support the existence of scale-dependent feedbacks in Chihuahuan Desert grasslands and indicate an optimal patch size for reproductive effort and success in B. eriopoda. We discuss the implications of these results for detecting ecological thresholds in desert grasslands.

  5. Root growth and plant biomass in Lolium perenne exploring a nutrient-rich patch in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Ryoji; Kachi, Naoki; Suzuki, Jun-Ichirou

    2008-11-01

    We investigated soil exploration by roots and plant growth in a heterogeneous environment to determine whether roots can selectively explore a nutrient-rich patch, and how nutrient heterogeneity affects biomass allocation and total biomass before a patch is reached. Lolium perenne L. plants were grown in a factorial experiment with combinations of fertilization (heterogeneous and homogeneous) and day of harvest (14, 28, 42, or 56 days after transplanting). The plant in the heterogeneous treatment was smaller in its mean total biomass, and allocated more biomass to roots. The distributions of root length and root biomass in the heterogeneous treatment did not favor the nutrient-rich patch, and did not correspond to the patchy distribution of inorganic nitrogen. Specific root length (length/biomass) was higher and root elongation was more extensive both laterally and vertically in the heterogeneous treatment. These characteristics may enable plants to acquire nutrients efficiently and increase the probability of encountering nutrient-rich patches in a heterogeneous soil. However, heterogeneity of soil nutrients would hold back plant growth before a patch was reached. Therefore, although no significant selective root placement in the nutrient-rich patch was observed, plant growth before reaching nutrient-rich patches differed between heterogeneous and homogeneous environments.

  6. Effects of Spatial Patch Arrangement and Scale of Covarying Resources on Growth and Intraspecific Competition of a Clonal Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Jian; Shi, Xue-Ping; Meng, Xue-Feng; Wu, Xiao-Jing; Luo, Fang-Li; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2016-01-01

    Spatial heterogeneity in two co-variable resources such as light and water availability is common and can affect the growth of clonal plants. Several studies have tested effects of spatial heterogeneity in the supply of a single resource on competitive interactions of plants, but none has examined those of heterogeneous distribution of two co-variable resources. In a greenhouse experiment, we grew one (without intraspecific competition) or nine isolated ramets (with competition) of a rhizomatous herb Iris japonica under a homogeneous environment and four heterogeneous environments differing in patch arrangement (reciprocal and parallel patchiness of light and soil water) and patch scale (large and small patches of light and water). Intraspecific competition significantly decreased the growth of I. japonica, but at the whole container level there were no significant interaction effects of competition by spatial heterogeneity or significant effect of heterogeneity on competitive intensity. Irrespective of competition, the growth of I. japonica in the high and the low water patches did not differ significantly in the homogeneous treatments, but it was significantly larger in the high than in the low water patches in the heterogeneous treatments with large patches. For the heterogeneous treatments with small patches, the growth of I. japonica was significantly larger in the high than in the low water patches in the presence of competition, but such an effect was not significant in the absence of competition. Furthermore, patch arrangement and patch scale significantly affected competitive intensity at the patch level. Therefore, spatial heterogeneity in light and water supply can alter intraspecific competition at the patch level and such effects depend on patch arrangement and patch scale.

  7. Evaluation of diel patterns of relative changes in cell turgor of tomato plants using leaf patch clamp pressure probes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, K.M.; Driever, S.M.; Heuvelink, E.; Rüger, S.; Zimmermann, U.; Gelder, de A.; Marcelis, L.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    Relative changes in cell turgor of leaves of well-watered tomato plants were evaluated using the leaf patch clamp pressure probe (LPCP) under dynamic greenhouse climate conditions. Leaf patch clamp pressure changes, a measure for relative changes in cell turgor, were monitored at three different hei

  8. Effects of patch contrast and arrangement on benefits of clonal integration in a rhizomatous clonal plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Jian; Shi, Xue-Ping; Wu, Xiao-Jing; Meng, Xue-Feng; Wang, Peng-Cheng; Zhou, Zhi-Xiang; Luo, Fang-Li; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2016-01-01

    The availabilities of light and soil water resources usually spatially co-vary in natural habitats, and the spatial pattern of such co-variation may affect the benefits of physiological integration between connected ramets of clonal plants. In a greenhouse experiment, we grew connected or disconnected ramet pairs [consisting of a proximal (relatively old) and a distal (relative young) ramet] of a rhizomatous herb Iris japonica in four heterogeneous environments differing in patch arrangement (reciprocal vs. parallel patchiness of light and soil water) and patch contrast (high vs. low contrast of light and water). Biomass of the proximal part, distal part and clonal fragment of I. japonica were all significantly greater in the intact than in the severed treatment, in the parallel than in the reciprocal patchiness treatment and in the high than in the low contrast treatment, but the effect of severing the connection between ramet pairs did not depend on patch arrangement or contrast. Severing the connection decreased number of ramets of the distal part and the clonal fragment in the parallel patchiness arrangement, but not in the reciprocal patchiness arrangement. Therefore, the spatial arrangement of resource patches can alter the effects of clonal integration on asexual reproduction in I. japonica. PMID:27759040

  9. Relationship between plant species diversity and patch characteristics in a marsh in the Sangjiang Plain, China -Using Yaluhe farm as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Zhonglin; Xing Fu; Lu Xianguo; Xu Kun; Yu Lili; Ni Hongwei

    2007-01-01

    Based on Quick Bird satellite image data, the present study examined small-scale herbaceous community patches in the marsh of the Sanjiang Plain and measured patch characteristics such as the area, perimeter and shape by GPS. The coenological characteristics of the patches were investigated using quadrat method, and the vascular plant species were recorded using transect method. A total of 219 plant species were recorded, which represents 12.2% of the vascular flora in Heilongjiang Province. Our results showed that species number S correlated with patch area and perimeter; richness index (R) correlated with patch perimeter; Simpson index (D) correlated with patch area and perimeter/area; Shannon-Wiener index (H') correlated with patch area, perimeter and perimeter/area; Evenness index (Jsw) correlated with perimeter/area. Both S and R have significant difference between different size of patches. Plant diversity in the small-scale herbaceous communities tended to increase with the patch area and perimeter. We concluded that edge effects and the habitat heterogeneity of the patches are important in determining the number of species. The relative smoothness of the patch edges also affects the plant diversity of the patches. The richness of plant species in the marsh in the Sanjiang Plain is highly sensitive to the smallscale patches, which continues to play an important role in preserving plant diversity in the local area.

  10. Recent changes in patch characteristics and plant communities in the jalca grasslands of the Peruvian Andes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tovar, C.; Duivenvoorden, J.F.; Sánchez-Vega, I.; Seijmonsbergen, A.C.

    2012-01-01

    Habitat loss and fragmentation are considered major threats to biodiversity, especially in tropical mountain ecosystems. Most studies focus on the relationships between biodiversity and patch characteristics such as patch size, connectivity or degree of contrast with the surrounding matrix, but leav

  11. Electrospinning of Biodegradable and Biocompatible Nanofiber Patches from Solutions of ``Green'' Materials for Plant Protection against Fungi Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sett, Soumyadip; Lee, Minwook; Yarin, Alexander; Moghadam, S. M. Alavi; Meinke, Matthias; Schroeder, Wolfgang

    2015-11-01

    Biodegradable and biocompatible soy protein/petroleum-derived polymer monolithic fibers containing adhesives were electrospun on commercial rayon pads. The polymers used, PVA and PCL, are widely used in the biomedical industry, including such applications as drug delivery and scaffold manufacturing. Soy protein is an abundant waste of SoyDiesel production, and is widely used as a nutrient. The soy content in our fibers was as high as 40% w/w. Four different adhesives, including ordinary wood glue, repositionable glue and FDA-approved pressure-sensitive glue were used for electrospinning and electrospraying. The normal and shear adhesive strengths of the patches developed in this work were measured and compared. The adhesive strength was sufficient enough to withstand normal atmospheric conditions. These biodegradable and biocompatible nano-textured patches are ready to be used on prune locations without being carried away by wind and will protect plants against fungi attack at these locations, preventing diseases like Vine Decline.

  12. Compositae dermatitis in a Danish dermatology department in one year (I). Results of routine patch testing with the sesquiterpene lactone mix supplemented with aimed patch testing with extracts and sesquiterpene lactones of Compositae plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, E; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Hausen, B M

    1993-01-01

    of standard, photo- and other plant patch tests are presented. The only partial overlap between positive reactions to the mixes emphasizes the necessity of supplementary testing in patients suspected of Compositae allergy, as well as the lack of a reliable single screening agent. Since no cases of active...

  13. Differential host-finding abilities by a weed biocontrol insect create within-patch spatial refuges for nontarget plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catton, Haley A; Lalonde, Robert G; De Clerck-Floate, Rosemarie A

    2014-10-01

    Many modern weed biocontrol insects exhibit transient "spillover" nontarget herbivory when and where insects are in high density, such as following biocontrol releases, or around dense target weed infestations. Understanding spatial patterns of herbivory is important for predicting efficacy and safety of biocontrol, as refuges from herbivory can buffer plants from population-level impacts. Here, we demonstrate that differential host-finding and arrestment behaviors by an oligophagous biocontrol insect lead to spatial refuges from nontarget herbivory around insect release points within mixed patches of target and nontarget plants. We created transient insect outbreaks by releasing large numbers of Mogulones crucifer Pallas (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) into naturally occurring rangeland patches of the nontarget plant Hackelia micrantha (Eastwood) J.L. Gentry with varying densities of its target weed Cynoglossum officinale L., and monitored spatial patterns of herbivory around release points after 4-7 wk. In complement, we conducted a mark-release-recapture (MRR) experiment to compare M. crucifer's target and nontarget host-finding and arrestment behaviors. For rangeland releases, 95% of nontarget herbivory occurred within 4.25 m of release points, independent of target plant density. Target herbivory occurred throughout our evaluation radii (up to 14 m), where maximum density of diffusing M. crucifer was 1/10 of that in the nontarget herbivory radius. In the MRR experiment, more weevils were recaptured on C. officinale (but not H. micrantha) than expected by chance. M. crucifer's lack of specialized nontarget host-finding and arrestment behaviors means that spatial refuges from herbivory are created for H. micrantha just meters away from sources of high weevil density.

  14. Evaluation of diel patterns of relative changes in cell turgor of tomato plants using leaf patch clamp pressure probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang M; Driever, Steven M; Heuvelink, Ep; Rüger, Simon; Zimmermann, Ulrich; de Gelder, Arie; Marcelis, Leo F M

    2012-12-01

    Relative changes in cell turgor of leaves of well-watered tomato plants were evaluated using the leaf patch clamp pressure probe (LPCP) under dynamic greenhouse climate conditions. LPCP changes, a measure for relative changes in cell turgor, were monitored at three different heights of transpiring and non-transpiring leaves of tomato plants on sunny and cloudy days simultaneously with whole plant water uptake. Clear diel patterns were observed for relative changes of cell turgor of both transpiring and non-transpiring leaves, which were stronger on sunny days than on cloudy days. A clear effect of canopy height was also observed. Non-transpiring leaves showed relative changes in cell turgor that closely followed plant water uptake throughout the day. However, in the afternoon the relative changes of cell turgor of the transpiring leaves displayed a delayed response in comparison to plant water uptake. Subsequent recovery of cell turgor loss of transpiring leaves during the following night appeared insufficient, as the pre-dawn turgescent state similar to the previous night was not attained. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2012.

  15. Forest fragmentation effects on patch occupancy and population viability of herbaceous plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honnay, Olivier; Jacquemyn, Hans; Bossuyt, Beatrijs; Hermy, Martin

    2005-06-01

    Habitat fragmentation is one of the major threats to species diversity. In this review, we discuss how the genetic and demographic structure of fragmented populations of herbaceous forest plant species is affected by increased genetic drift and inbreeding, reduced mate availability, altered interactions with pollinators, and changed environmental conditions through edge effects. Reported changes in population genetic and demographic structure of fragmented plant populations have, however, not resulted in large-scale extinction of forest plants. The main reason for this is very likely the long-term persistence of small and isolated forest plant populations due to prolonged clonal growth and long generation times. Consequently, the persistence of small forest plant populations in a changing landscape may have resulted in an extinction debt, that is, in a distribution of forest plant species reflecting the historical landscape configuration rather than the present one. In some cases, fragmentation appears to affect ecosystem integrity rather than short-term population viability due to the opposition of different fragmentation-induced ecological effects. We finally discuss extinction and colonization dynamics of forest plant species at the regional scale and suggest that the use of the metapopulation concept, both because of its heuristic power and conservation applications, may be fruitful.

  16. Combined effects of patch size and plant nutritional quality on local densities of insect herbivores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bukovinszky, T.; Gols, R.; Kamp, A.; Oliveira-Domingues, de F.; Hamback, P.A.; Jongema, Y.; Bezemer, T.M.; Dicke, M.; Dam, N.; Harvey, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Plant–insect interactions occur in spatially heterogeneous habitats. Understanding how such interactions shape density distributions of herbivores requires knowledge on how variation in plant traits (e.g. nutritional quality) affects herbivore abundance through, for example, affecting movement rates

  17. Forest fragmentation effects on patch occupancy and population viability of herbaceous plant species

    OpenAIRE

    Honnay, Olivier; Jacquemyn, Hans; Bossuyt, B; Hermy, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation is one of the major threats to species diversity. In this review, we discuss how the genetic and demographic structure of fragmented populations of herbaceous forest plant species is affected by increased genetic drift and inbreeding, reduced mate availability, altered interactions with pollinators, and changed environmental conditions through edge effects. Reported changes in population genetic and demographic structure of fragmented plant populations have, however, not...

  18. Floristic diversity and regeneration status of woody plants in Zengena Forest, a remnant montane forest patch in northwestern Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Desalegn Tadele; Ermias Lulekal; Destaw Damtie; Adane Assefa

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted at Zengena forest, a fragmented remnant montane forest in northwestern Ethiopia, which surrounds Lake Zengena. The purpose was to assess the species composition, diversity and the regeneration status of woody plants. A total of 27 plots of 20 m × 20 m were sampled along the line transects laid down the altitudinal gradient from the edge of the forest encompassing the lake to the edge of the lake in eight aspects. In each plot, woody species were counted and the diameter at breast height and the height of trees and shrubs were measured. A total of 50 woody species belonging to 31 families were found, of which 17 (34%) were trees, 7 (14%) trees or shrubs, 23 (46%) shrubs and 3 (6%) lianas. The overall Shannon-Wiener diversity and evenness indices of woody species were 2.74 and 0.7, respectively. Clausena anisata had the highest relative density (23.5%), Rapanea rhododendroides the highest relative frequency (6.5%) and Prunus afri-cana the highest relative dominance (45%) and importance value index (IVI, 51.6). The total basal area and density of woody plants were 22.3 m2⋅ha-1 and 2,202 individuals⋅ha-1, respectively. The population structure showed variations among woody plants and revealed varied regeneration patterns of different species. The importance value index and population structure revealed that some species are threatened and need prioritiza-tion for conservation measures. The results suggest that remnant forest patches in the highlands of northern Ethiopia host several woody plant species that are almost disappearing in other areas due to deforestation.

  19. Reconstituting a rainforest patch in southern Benin for the protection of threatened plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Neuenschwander

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In a twenty-year effort at Drabo, southern Benin, small remnant forests, young fallow and agricultural fields were linked and rehabilitated to develop a 14 ha forest reserve. Forest regrowth was encouraged by managing the natural growth of the local fallow vegetation and by bringing in seeds and other propagules from forest islands of Benin. The succession to shade-tolerant woody forest species of Guineo-Congolian origin at the expense of extra-regional herbs, the co-existence of species with slightly different requirements, and the fate of exotic trees in this natural forest are described. A quantitative assessment of a homogeneous lot indicated 397 trees per ha, with stem diameters >10 cm, 43.7% of them below 20 cm, and a rich undergrowth of 72600 smaller plants per ha, proof of active rejuvenation. Only 4.2% of all plants resulted from the 1041 introduction events, i.e., species per date, mostly of the 253 plant species that were new to Drabo. A total of 635 species were recorded, but 50 did not survive and four are yet to be identified. In June 2016, the total of 581 known living species included 224 trees. Among all plants, 244 hailed from the Guineo-Congolian zone with 17 of Upper Guinean and four of Lower Guinean origin, 113 from the three savannah zones, and 224 were of extra-regional origin. Overall, 72.8% of all woody plants, such as many climbers, all shrubs and trees, were of forest and savanna origin (GC, SG, SZ and S, whereas 70.4% of all herbs came from other regions (At, PAL and Pt. Only 7.0% of all species from the GC zone were in decline; but the further away the plants originated from, the larger the decline in numbers and vigour, up to 64.6% among plants of pan-tropical origin. Particularly pan-tropical herbs became ever rarer, with 80.0% of them declining and confined to the few open spaces along paths. In 2017 the forest harboured 52 threatened species, with threat categories EW, CR, EN or VU on the Red List of Benin, out

  20. A cross-continental comparison of plant and beetle responses to retention of forest patches during timber harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Susan C; Halpern, Charles B; Wardlaw, Timothy J; Kern, Christel; Edgar, Graham J; Thomson, Russell J; Bigley, Richard E; Franklin, Jerry F; Gandhi, Kamal J K; Gustafsson, Lena; Johnson, Samuel; Palik, Brian J; Spies, Thomas A; Steel, E Ashley; Weslien, Jan; Strengbom, Joachim

    2016-12-01

    Timber harvest can adversely affect forest biota. Recent research and application suggest that retention of mature forest elements (retention forestry), including unharvested patches (or aggregates) within larger harvested units, can benefit biodiversity compared to clearcutting. However, it is unclear whether these benefits can be generalized among the diverse taxa and biomes in which retention forestry is practiced. Lack of comparability in methods for sampling and analyzing responses to timber harvest and edge creation presents a challenge to synthesis. We used a consistent methodology (similarly spaced plots or traps along transects) to investigate responses of vascular plants and ground-active beetles to aggregated retention at replicate sites in each of four temperate and boreal forest types on three continents: Douglas-fir forests in Washington, USA; aspen forests in Minnesota, USA; spruce forests in Sweden; and wet eucalypt forests in Tasmania, Australia. We assessed (1) differences in local (plot-scale) species richness and composition between mature (intact) and regenerating (previously harvested) forest; (2) the lifeboating function of aggregates (capacity to retain species of unharvested forest); and whether intact forests and aggregates (3) are susceptible to edge effects and (4) influence the adjacent regenerating forest. Intact and harvested forests differed in composition but not richness of plants and beetles. The magnitude of this difference was generally similar among regions, but there was considerable heterogeneity of composition within and among replicate sites. Aggregates within harvest units were effective at lifeboating for both plant and beetle communities. Edge effects were uncommon even within the aggregates. In contrast, effects of forest influence on adjacent harvested areas were common and as strong for aggregates as for larger blocks of intact forest. Our results provide strong support for the widespread application of aggregated

  1. Effects of environmental parameters and irrigation on the turgor pressure of banana plants measured using the non-invasive, online monitoring leaf patch clamp pressure probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, U; Rüger, S; Shapira, O; Westhoff, M; Wegner, L H; Reuss, R; Gessner, P; Zimmermann, G; Israeli, Y; Zhou, A; Schwartz, A; Bamberg, E; Zimmermann, D

    2010-05-01

    Turgor pressure provides a sensitive indicator for irrigation scheduling. Leaf turgor pressure of Musa acuminate was measured by using the so-called leaf patch clamp pressure probe, i.e. by application of an external, magnetically generated and constantly retained clamp pressure to a leaf patch and determination of the attenuated output pressure P(p) that is highly correlated with the turgor pressure. Real-time recording of P(p) values was made using wireless telemetric transmitters, which send the data to a receiver base station where data are logged and transferred to a GPRS modem linked to an Internet server. Probes functioned over several months under field and laboratory conditions without damage to the leaf patch. Measurements showed that the magnetic-based probe could monitor very sensitively changes in turgor pressure induced by changes in microclimate (temperature, relative humidity, irradiation and wind) and irrigation. Irrigation effects could clearly be distinguished from environmental effects. Interestingly, oscillations in stomatal aperture, which occurred frequently below turgor pressures of 100 kPa towards noon at high transpiration or at high wind speed, were reflected in the P(p) values. The period of pressure oscillations was comparable with the period of oscillations in transpiration and photosynthesis. Multiple probe readings on individual leaves and/or on several leaves over the entire height of the plants further emphasised the great impact of this non-invasive turgor pressure sensor system for elucidating the dynamics of short- and long-distance water transport in higher plants.

  2. The tritrophic system hyptis suaveolens (Lamiaceae - agromyzid leafminers (Diptera: Agromyzidae - parasitoids (Hymenoptera: effects of herbivore density, host plant patch size, and habitat complexity on parasitism rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarbas Marcal de Queiroz

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study a tritrophic system was evaluated to measure the contributions of the insect host density and its host plant concentration in simple and diversified habitat on the rate of parasitism. The system was composed of the plant Hyptis suaveolens, two species of agromyzid leafminers, and three morphospecies of parasitoids. The parasitism rate, patch size, and habitat complexity were found to be interdependent. If only the habitat complexity or patch size was take into account the differences in parasitism rate are not significant, although habitat diversity seemed to contribute more than the host plant concentration to increase the parasitism rate. The leaves or plants with different number of mines were equally attacked by the parasitoids. The results were representative of what happened to the leafminers at different host plant densities under the homogeneous and heterogeneous habitat condition. This work could help to reinforce the idea of the importance of the plant diversity for enhancing the biological control of the pests by the parasitoids in the managed ecosystems.Foi avaliado um sistema tritrófico para medir os efeitos da densidade de insetos minadores e a concentração da planta hospedeira em habitats simples e diversificados sobre a taxa de parasitismo. O sistema era composto pela planta Hyptis suaveolens, duas espécies de agromizídeos minadores de folhas e três morfoespécies de parasitóides. A taxa de parasitismo, tamanho da mancha e a complexidade do habitat foram interdependentes. Se levarmos em consideração apenas a complexidade ou tamanho de mancha, as diferenças na taxa de parasitismo não foram significativas, embora a diversidade de habitat pareça ter contribuido mais do que a concentração da planta hospedeira para aumentar a taxa de parasitismo. Folhas ou plantas com diferentes números de minas foram igualmente parasitadas. Nossos resultados são representativos do que acontece com insetos minadores em

  3. Interpatch movement of the red milkweed beetle, Tetraopes tetraophthalmus: individual responses to patch size and isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matter, Stephen F

    1996-03-01

    Individual movement patterns and the effects of host plant patch size and isolation on patch occupancy were examined for red milkweed beetles, Tetraopes tetraophthalmus, residing in a heterogeneous landscape. Male beetles were found to move both more often and farther between host plant patches than female beetles, and this difference affected the patterns of patch occupancy observed. Overall, unoccupied milkweed patches were smaller and more isolated than patches occupied by beetles. Patches uninhabited by females tended to be more isolated, but not necessarily smaller, than patches with female beetles, indicating that females may be affected more by patch isolation than patch size. Presence of male beetles on patches showed a stronger response to patch size than to patch isolation. Differences in movement between males and females illustrate the need for demographically based dispersal data. Comparisons of Tetraopes interpatch movement patterns between landscapes composed of patches of different size revealed that landscapes with overall smaller patches may have greater rates of interpatch movement.

  4. Diclofenac Transdermal Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transdermal diclofenac comes as a patch to apply to the skin. Diclofenac patches are usually applied two times a day, once every ... your regular schedule. Do not apply an extra diclofenac patch to make up for a missed dose.

  5. Plant traits and soil properties in pasture mini-patches in an alpine meadow%高寒草甸草地微斑块植物特征及其土壤性质的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石明明; 张永超; 张典业; 任运涛; 宗文杰; 傅华; 牛得草

    2015-01-01

    植物群落的斑块化与维持是草地对外界干扰的响应,也是植物群落及其生物多样性持续发展的基础。分析了3个不同鼠洞数量梯度下斑块种类、数量、面积的变化和中度鼠洞数下5种主要斑块植物群落的结构及其土壤性质。结果表明,在中度鼠洞数下,斑块的种类和总数量最高;斑块的总面积随鼠害的加重呈增加趋势;从中度到重度梯度上,鹅绒委陵菜、黄帚橐吾和草玉梅斑块的数量和面积都增加,且面积增大剧烈,乳白香青和火绒草等斑块的数量和面积都减小,具有消失的趋势;在重度鼠洞数量下草地微斑块表现为由少数起主导作用的斑块组成,斑块格局变的较为简单。斑块中单一物种生物量的变异性增加是斑块最主要的特征,这种单一物种的大量繁殖影响着斑块中植物的功能群结构和物种的多度,从而通过不同形式对干扰产生缓冲作用。植物群落的斑块化影响着土壤的异质性,对不同斑块土壤性质进行主成分分析,除乳白香青和基质斑块,其余4种斑块土壤都具有较低的全氮、碱解氮、速效磷,且不同斑块间土壤全氮、碱解氮和速效磷的变异系数都较高,可见,土壤全氮、碱解氮和速效磷的含量以及空间异质性在响应植被的演替上较敏感,因此,高寒草甸生态系统中维持全氮和速效养分资源的供应对维持生态系统的稳定具有重要的意义。%The patchiness and persistence of plant communities represent grassland responses to outside disturb-ance,and are the basis of sustainable development of plant communities and biodiversity.The aim of this study was to understand the factors contributing to the maintenance and development of plant communities and the effects of patchiness on soil properties after a disturbance.The changes in the types,number,and areas of mini-patches in meadows were evaluated in

  6. Metal Patch Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Neil F. (Inventor); Hodges, Richard E. (Inventor); Zawadzki, Mark S. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a patch antenna comprises a planar conductive patch attached to a ground plane by a support member, and a probe connector in electrical communication with the conductive patch arranged to conduct electromagnetic energy to or from the conductive patch, wherein the conductive patch is disposed essentially parallel to the ground plane and is separated from the ground plane by a spacing distance; wherein the support member comprises a plurality of sides disposed about a central axis oriented perpendicular to the conductive patch and the ground plane; wherein the conductive patch is solely supported above the ground plane by the support member; and wherein the support member provides electrical communication between the planer conductive patch and the ground plane.

  7. Sleep Sleeping Patch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Sleep Sleeping Patch is a new kind of external patch based on modern sleep medicine research achievements, which uses the internationally advanced transdermal therapeutic system (TTS). The Sleep Sleeping Patch transmits natural sleep inducers such as peppermint and liquorice extracts and melatonin through the skin to induce sleep. Clinical research proves that the Sleep Sleeping Patch can effectively improve insomnia and the quality of sleep. Highly effective: With the modern TTS therapy,

  8. Birth Control Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Patch KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Patch Print A A A What's in this ... Does It Cost? What Is It? The birth control patch is a thin, beige, 1¾-inch (4½- ...

  9. Birth Control Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Patch KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Patch A A A What's in this article? ... Much Does It Cost? What Is It? The birth control patch is a thin, beige, 1¾-inch (4½- ...

  10. PLASMALEMMA PATCH CLAMP EXPERIMENTS IN PLANT-ROOT CELLS - PROCEDURE FOR FAST ISOLATION OF PROTOPLASTS WITH MINIMAL EXPOSURE TO CELL-WALL DEGRADING ENZYMES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VOGELZANG, SA; PRINS, HBA

    1992-01-01

    A convenient and rapid isolation procedure for root cell protoplasts suitable for patch clamp experiments. was developed for root cells of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum and Plantago species, grown on hydroculture. The procedure is based on a minimal exposure of cells to cell wall degrading enzyme

  11. Granisetron Transdermal Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breastfeeding. If you become pregnant while using transdermal granisetron, call your doctor.plan to protect the granisetron patch and the skin around it from real and artificial sunlight (tanning beds, sunlamps). Keep the patch covered ...

  12. Patch size has no effect on insect visitation rate per unit area in garden-scale flower patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbuzov, Mihail; Madsen, Andy; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies investigating the effect of flower patch size on insect flower visitation rate have compared relatively large patches (10-1000s m2) and have generally found a negative relationship per unit area or per flower. Here, we investigate the effects of patch size on insect visitation in patches of smaller area (range c. 0.1-3.1 m2), which are of particular relevance to ornamental flower beds in parks and gardens. We studied two common garden plant species in full bloom with 6 patch sizes each: borage (Borago officinalis) and lavender (Lavandula × intermedia 'Grosso'). We quantified flower visitation by insects by making repeated counts of the insects foraging at each patch. On borage, all insects were honey bees (Apis mellifera, n = 5506 counts). On lavender, insects (n = 737 counts) were bumble bees (Bombus spp., 76.9%), flies (Diptera, 22.4%), and butterflies (Lepidoptera, 0.7%). On both plant species we found positive linear effects of patch size on insect numbers. However, there was no effect of patch size on the number of insects per unit area or per flower and, on lavender, for all insects combined or only bumble bees. The results show that it is possible to make unbiased comparisons of the attractiveness of plant species or varieties to flower-visiting insects using patches of different size within the small scale range studied and make possible projects aimed at comparing ornamental plant varieties using existing garden flower patches of variable area.

  13. Oxybutynin Transdermal Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clothing, and where it will be protected from sunlight by clothing. After you apply a patch to ... stomach extreme tiredness drowsiness headache blurred vision flushing back pain Some side effects can be serious. The following ...

  14. Windows Security patch required

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    This concerns Windows PCs (XP, 2000, NT) which are NOT centrally managed at CERN for security patches, e.g. home PCs, experiment PCs, portables, ... A security hole which can give full privileges on Windows systems needs to be URGENTLY patched. Details of the security hole and hotfix are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-026.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-026.asp

  15. Windows Security patch required

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    This concerns Windows PCs which are NOT centrally managed at CERN for security patches, e.g. home PCs, experiment PCs, portables, ... A security hole which can give full privileges on Windows systems needs to be URGENTLY patched. Details of the security hole and hotfix are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-026.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-026.asp

  16. Windows Security patch required

    CERN Multimedia

    3004-01-01

    This concerns Windows PCs (XP, 2000, NT) which are NOT centrally managed at CERN for security patches, e.g. home PCs, experiment PCs, portables,... A security hole which can give full privileges on Windows systems needs to be URGENTLY patched. Details of the security hole and hotfix are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-026.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-026.asp

  17. Windows Security patch required

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    This concerns Windows PCs (XP, 2000, NT) which are NOT centrally managed at CERN for security patches, e.g. home PCs, experiment PCs, portables,... A security hole which can give full privileges on Windows systems needs to be URGENTLY patched. Details of the security hole and hotfix are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-026.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-026.asp

  18. Topical ketoprofen patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazières, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    Although oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are effective in the treatment of a variety of acute and chronic pain conditions, their use may be associated with serious systemic adverse effects, particularly gastrointestinal disorders. In order to minimise the incidence of systemic events related to such agents, topical NSAIDs have been developed. Topical NSAIDs, applied as gels, creams or sprays, penetrate the skin, subcutaneous fatty tissue and muscle in amounts that are sufficient to exert a therapeutic effect on peripheral and central mechanisms in the absence of high plasma concentrations. Data indicate that topical NSAIDs are effective at relieving pain in a number of acute and chronic pain indications. This review article discusses the pharmacokinetics, efficacy and tolerability of a new formulation of ketoprofen available as a topical patch. The topical patch containing ketoprofen 100mg as the active principle has been developed using a novel delivery system that dispenses therapeutic doses of the drug directly to the site of injury. Pharmacokinetic data indicate that although plasma levels of ketoprofen are higher when the drug is administered as a patch versus a gel, the total systemic bioavailability of ketoprofen 100 mg administered via a patch is no more than 10% of that reported for ketoprofen 100 mg administered orally. Because the patch facilitates ketoprofen delivery over a 24-hour period, the drug remains continually present in the tissue subjacent to the site of application. High tissue but low plasma ketoprofen concentrations mean that while tissue concentrations are high enough to exert a therapeutic effect, plasma concentrations remain low enough to not result in systemic adverse events caused by elevated serum NSAID levels. Phase III clinical trials in patients with non-articular rheumatism and traumatic painful soft tissue injuries showed that the topical ketoprofen patch was significantly more effective than placebo at

  19. Esophageal Inlet Patch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Behrens

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An inlet patch is a congenital anomaly consisting of ectopic gastric mucosa at or just distal to the upper esophageal sphincter. Most inlet patches are largely asymptomatic, but in problematic cases complications related to acid secretion such as esophagitis, ulcer, web and stricture may occur. The diagnosis of inlet patch is strongly suggested on barium swallow where the most common pattern consists of two small indentations on the wall of the esophagus. The diagnosis of inlet patch is confirmed via endoscopy with biopsy. At endoscopy, the lesion appears salmon-coloured and velvety and is easily distinguished from the normal grey-white squamous epithelium of the esophagus. The prominent margins correlate with the radiological findings of indentations and rim-like shadows on barium swallow. Histopathology provides the definitive diagnosis by demonstrating gastric mucosa adjacent to normal esophageal mucosa. No treatment is required for asymptomatic inlet patches. Symptomatic cases are treated with proton pump inhibitors to relieve symptoms related to acid secretion. Strictures and webs are treated with serial dilatation and should be biopsied to rule out malignancy.

  20. Generic patch inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper; Lawall, Julia

    2010-01-01

    A key issue in maintaining Linux device drivers is the need to keep them up to date with respect to evolutions in Linux internal libraries. Currently, there is little tool support for performing and documenting such changes. In this paper we present a tool, spdiff, that identifies common changes...... developers can use it to extract an abstract representation of the set of changes that others have made. Our experiments on recent changes in Linux show that the inferred generic patches are more concise than the corresponding patches found in commits to the Linux source tree while being safe with respect...

  1. Patching for corneal abrasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chris H L; Turner, Angus; Lim, Blanche X

    2016-07-26

    Published audits have demonstrated that corneal abrasions are a common presenting eye complaint. Eye patches are often recommended for treating corneal abrasions despite the lack of evidence for their use. This systematic review was conducted to determine the effects of the eye patch when used to treat corneal abrasions. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of patching for corneal abrasion on healing and pain relief. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2016, Issue 4), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to May 2016), EMBASE (January 1980 to May 2016), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (January 1982 to May 2016), System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe (OpenGrey) (January 1995 to May 2016), the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 9 May 2016. We also searched the reference lists of included studies, unpublished 'grey' literature and conference proceedings and contacted pharmaceutical companies for details of unpublished trials. We included randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials that compared patching the eye with no patching to treat simple corneal abrasions. Two authors independently assessed the risk of bias and extracted data. Investigators were contacted for further information regarding the quality of trials. The primary outcome was healing at 24, 48 and 72 hours while secondary outcomes included measures of pain, quality of life and adverse effects. We graded the certainty of the evidence using GRADE. We included 12 trials which

  2. Biocide patch tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Veien, Niels

    1985-01-01

    Routine patch testing with a series of 6 industrial biocides containing methylene-bis-thiocyanate (Cytox 3522), benzisothiazolin-3-one (BIT), chlorocresol (Preventol CMK), 2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (Kathon 893), polyhydroxymethylene monobenzylether (Preventol D2) or 1,3,5-tris (hydroxy-ethyl...

  3. Polar Cap Patch Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    cap arcs Citation: Hosokawa, K., J. I. Moen, K. Shiokawa, and Y. Otsuka ( 2011 ), Motion of polar cap arcs , J. Geophys. Res. , 116 , A01305, doi...K., J. I. Moen, K. Shiokawa, and Y. Otsuka , (2011), Decay of polar cap patch, J. Geophys. Res., 116, A05308, doi:10.1029/2010JA016287, Abstract. We

  4. Century Tide Nicotine Patch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Century Tide Nicotine Patch, a hi-tech smoking control therapy, is designed in accordance with the scientific principle of nicotine replacement. The therapy is promoted by the World Health Organization. Meanwhile, it also integrates traditional Chinese medical therapy and adopts advanced TTS technology.

  5. Security of Patched DNS

    CERN Document Server

    Herzberg, Amir

    2012-01-01

    In spite of the availability of DNSSEC, which protects against cache poisoning even by MitM attackers, many caching DNS resolvers still rely for their security against poisoning on merely validating that DNS responses contain some 'unpredictable' values, copied from the re- quest. These values include the 16 bit identifier field, and other fields, randomised and validated by different 'patches' to DNS. We investigate the prominent patches, and show how attackers can circumvent all of them, namely: - We show how attackers can circumvent source port randomisation, in the (common) case where the resolver connects to the Internet via different NAT devices. - We show how attackers can circumvent IP address randomisation, using some (standard-conforming) resolvers. - We show how attackers can circumvent query randomisation, including both randomisation by prepending a random nonce and case randomisation (0x20 encoding). We present countermeasures preventing our attacks; however, we believe that our attacks provide ...

  6. Patch test with preservatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar Sumit

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the 705 patients patch tested between March 88 to March 91, 317 were tested for sensitivity to preservatives with antigens obtained from Chemo technique AB, Sweden. Paraben was the commonest sensitizer (22.4% followed by Groton B K (8.1% and Triclosan (6.5%. We stress the need to consider these allergens as source of dermatitis and advocate complete labelling of topical preparations marketed.

  7. Runoff and erosion in a pinon-juniper woodland: Influence of vegetation patches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, K.D.; Wilcox, B.P.; Breshears, D.D.; MacDonald, L.

    1999-12-01

    In many semiarid regions, runoff and erosion differ according to vegetation patch type. These differences, although hypothesized to fundamentally affect ecological processes, have been poorly quantified. In a semiarid pinion-juniper woodland [Pinus edulis Engelm. and Juniperus monosperma (Engelm) Sarg.] in northern New Mexico, the authors measured runoff and erosion from the three patch types that compose these woodlands: Canopy patches (those beneath woody plants), vegetated patched in intercanopy areas, and bare patches in intercanopy areas. The bare intercanopy patches exhibited the highest rates, followed by vegetated intercanopy patches and then by canopy patches. Large convective summer storms, though relatively infrequent, generated much of the runoff and most of the sediment; prolonged frontal storms were capable of generating considerable runoff but little sediment. A portion of the runoff and most of the sediment generated from bare intercanopy patches was redistributed down-slope, probably to adjacent vegetated intercanopy patches, demonstrating connectivity between these two patch types. Their results indicate that there are significant and important differences in runoff and sediment production from the three patch types; that bare intercanopy patches act as sources of both water and sediment for the vegetated intercanopy patches; and that the transfer of water and sediment at small scales is both frequent enough and substantial enough to be considered ecologically significant.

  8. Patch antenna terahertz photodetectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palaferri, D.; Todorov, Y., E-mail: yanko.todorov@univ-paris-diderot.fr; Chen, Y. N.; Madeo, J.; Vasanelli, A.; Sirtori, C. [Laboratoire Matériaux et Phénomènes Quantiques, Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, CNRS-UMS 7162, 75013 Paris (France); Li, L. H.; Davies, A. G.; Linfield, E. H. [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-20

    We report on the implementation of 5 THz quantum well photodetector exploiting a patch antenna cavity array. The benefit of our plasmonic architecture on the detector performance is assessed by comparing it with detectors made using the same quantum well absorbing region, but processed into a standard 45° polished facet mesa. Our results demonstrate a clear improvement in responsivity, polarization insensitivity, and background limited performance. Peak detectivities in excess of 5 × 10{sup 12} cmHz{sup 1/2}/W have been obtained, a value comparable with that of the best cryogenic cooled bolometers.

  9. Collaboratively Patching Linked Data

    CERN Document Server

    Knuth, Magnus; Sack, Harald

    2012-01-01

    Today's Web of Data is noisy. Linked Data often needs extensive preprocessing to enable efficient use of heterogeneous resources. While consistent and valid data provides the key to efficient data processing and aggregation we are facing two main challenges: (1st) Identification of erroneous facts and tracking their origins in dynamically connected datasets is a difficult task, and (2nd) efforts in the curation of deficient facts in Linked Data are exchanged rather rarely. Since erroneous data often is duplicated and (re-)distributed by mashup applications it is not only the responsibility of a few original publishers to keep their data tidy, but progresses to be a mission for all distributers and consumers of Linked Data too. We present a new approach to expose and to reuse patches on erroneous data to enhance and to add quality information to the Web of Data. The feasibility of our approach is demonstrated by example of a collaborative game that patches statements in DBpedia data and provides notifications ...

  10. Statistics for Patch Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hingee, K. L.

    2016-06-01

    In the application of remote sensing it is common to investigate processes that generate patches of material. This is especially true when using categorical land cover or land use maps. Here we view some existing tools, landscape pattern indices (LPI), as non-parametric estimators of random closed sets (RACS). This RACS framework enables LPIs to be studied rigorously. A RACS is any random process that generates a closed set, which encompasses any processes that result in binary (two-class) land cover maps. RACS theory, and methods in the underlying field of stochastic geometry, are particularly well suited to high-resolution remote sensing where objects extend across tens of pixels, and the shapes and orientations of patches are symptomatic of underlying processes. For some LPI this field already contains variance information and border correction techniques. After introducing RACS theory we discuss the core area LPI in detail. It is closely related to the spherical contact distribution leading to conditional variants, a new version of contagion, variance information and multiple border-corrected estimators. We demonstrate some of these findings on high resolution tree canopy data.

  11. Strategic Analysis for Patch Ltd.

    OpenAIRE

    Louis, Owen

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a strategic analysis for the start-up Patch Ltd. Patch has developed innovative products for growing produce in homes and will compete in the consumer containergrowing industry. The industry and the company are introduced along with urban agriculture trends. The industry is analysed using Porter’s 5 forces analysis, and a competitive analysis compares Patch to its competitors in key success factors found in the 5 forces analysis. A strategy is developed using opportunities and t...

  12. Polymer concrete patching materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontana, J.J.

    1977-09-01

    The increased use of deicing salts is causing rapid deterioration of portland cement concrete bridge decks. Soluble chlorides cause corrosion of the steel reinforcing rods with a corresponding increase in volume of the rods. This expansion causes stresses in the concrete which result in delaminations and surface spalling. The repair of surface spalls with portland cement concrete can only be made if traffic can be avoided for several days. A patching material which would allow traffic to resume over the repaired area in a few hours was needed. Polymer concrete (PC) was developed to repair deteriorated portland cement concrete. Polymer concrete is defined as a composite material in which the aggregate is bound together in a dense matrix with a polymer binder. The aggregate is mixed with a monomer mixture and subsequently cured in place. Polymer concrete combines the premix characteristics of portland cement concrete with high strength, long term durability properties and fast cure times. PC placed at temperatures between 35/sup 0/F and 95/sup 0/F attains strengths greater than 5000 psi in 2 hours. The high early strength of PC is suitable for use in the repair of highway structures where traffic conditions allow closing of the area for only a few hours.

  13. A search theory model of patch-to-patch forager movement with application to pollinator-mediated gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyle, Martin; Cresswell, James E

    2007-09-07

    We present a spatially implicit analytical model of forager movement, designed to address a simple scenario common in nature. We assume minimal depression of patch resources, and discrete foraging bouts, during which foragers fill to capacity. The model is particularly suitable for foragers that search systematically, foragers that deplete resources in a patch only incrementally, and for sit-and-wait foragers, where harvesting does not affect the rate of arrival of forage. Drawing on the theory of job search from microeconomics, we estimate the expected number of patches visited as a function of just two variables: the coefficient of variation of the rate of energy gain among patches, and the ratio of the expected time exploiting a randomly chosen patch and the expected time travelling between patches. We then consider the forager as a pollinator and apply our model to estimate gene flow. Under model assumptions, an upper bound for animal-mediated gene flow between natural plant populations is approximately proportional to the probability that the animal rejects a plant population. In addition, an upper bound for animal-mediated gene flow in any animal-pollinated agricultural crop from a genetically modified (GM) to a non-GM field is approximately proportional to the proportion of fields that are GM and the probability that the animal rejects a field.

  14. *New* CRITICAL Windows Security patch

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 10 September 2003, Microsoft issued a new CRITICAL security patch, MS03-039. It must be URGENTLY applied on ALL WINDOWS systems, which are not centrally managed for security patches. This includes Experiment computers, Home computers and Windows Portable and Desktop systems not running NICE. Details of the security hole and patch for MS03-039 (which also includes MS03-026) are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-039.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-039.asp

  15. *New*: CRITICAL Windows Security patch

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 10 September 2003, Microsoft issued a new CRITICAL security patch, MS03-039. It must be URGENTLY applied on ALL WINDOWS systems, which are not centrally managed for security patches. This includes Experiment computers, Home computers and Windows Portable and Desktop systems not running NICE. Details of the security hole and patch for MS03-039 (which also includes MS03-026) are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-039.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-039.asp

  16. Toric degenerations of Bezier patches

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Puente, Luis David; Zhu, Chungang

    2010-01-01

    The control polygon of a Bezier curve is well-defined and meaningful---there is a sequence of weights under which the limiting position of the curve is the control polygon. For a Bezier surface patch, there are many possible polyhedral control structures, and none are canonical. We propose a not necessarily polyhedral control structure for surface patches, regular control surfaces, which are certain C^0 spline surfaces. While not unique, regular control surfaces are exactly the possible limiting positions of a Bezier patch when the weights are allowed to vary, but the control points are fixed.

  17. Formulation optimization of arecoline patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pao-Chu; Tsai, Pi-Ju; Lin, Shin-Chen; Huang, Yaw-Bin

    2014-01-01

    The response surface methodology (RSM) including polynomial equations has been used to design an optimal patch formulation with appropriate adhesion and flux. The patch formulations were composed of different polymers, including Eudragit RS 100 (ERS), Eudragit RL 100 (ERL) and polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP), plasticizers (PEG 400), and drug. In addition, using terpenes as enhancers could increase the flux of the drug. Menthol showed the highest enhancement effect on the flux of arecoline.

  18. Formulation Optimization of Arecoline Patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pao-Chu Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The response surface methodology (RSM including polynomial equations has been used to design an optimal patch formulation with appropriate adhesion and flux. The patch formulations were composed of different polymers, including Eudragit RS 100 (ERS, Eudragit RL 100 (ERL and polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP, plasticizers (PEG 400, and drug. In addition, using terpenes as enhancers could increase the flux of the drug. Menthol showed the highest enhancement effect on the flux of arecoline.

  19. Patch photopatch test at Manipal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panja Arindrajit

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Patch and photopatch testing was performed on 55 patients with history of photosensitivity using Scandanavian photo patch test antigens obtained from Chemotechnique Diagnostics AB Sweden. The commonest reactions were seen to perfume mix 4 (21.0%, PABA 3 (15.78%, promethazine hydrochloride 3 (15.78%, chlorpromazine hydrochloride 3 (15.78%, balsam of peru 2 (10.52%, usnic acid, hexachlorophane, musk ambrette and 6 methyl coumarin showed 1 positive reaction each (5.26% suggesting either phototoxicity or photo sensitization. Patch and photo patch test positive reaction suggesting allergic sensitisation was seen to balsam of peru 3 (23.0% perfume mix 3 (23.0% promethazine hydrochloride 2 (15.3% and PABA, 6 methyl coumarin, tribromosalicylanilide, atranorin and wood mix showed positive reaction in one case each (7.69%. We conclude that photoxic or photo allergic reaction is a problem in India and patch photo patch test should be performed in all cases of idiopathic light eruptions to rule out photo sensitisation and in cases where photo sensitivity of exogenous origin is suspected.

  20. Demonstration of an instrumented patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, M.; Renaud, G.; Backman, D.; Genest, M.; Delannoy, M.

    2007-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of various strain measurement techniques at detecting the disbonding of a composite repair patch and then using this information to validate a new capacitance based disbond detection technique. The instrumented repair patch was parametrically designed with the help of Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software to have a stress concentration at its tip. This stress concentration was designed to produce a disbond during fatigue testing, without the need for the introduction of any foreign material to create an artificial disbond condition. The aluminum substrate was grit blasted and the instrumented patch was bonded using FM ®73 adhesive, and was cured following the recommendations of the manufacturer. The geometric characteristics of the patch followed standard repair guidelines for such variables as material selection, taper angles and loading conditions, with the exception of the area designed for premature disbond. All test specimens were inspected using non-destructive testing technique (ultrasound pulse echo) to guarantee that no disbonding had occurred during curing of the specimen. The specimens were placed under fatigue loading to induce a disbond condition between the aluminum substrate and the patch. The specimens were cyclically loaded and strain gauges bonded to strategic locations on the aluminum and composite patch surface to be able to measure changes in surface strains as the disbond progressed. A Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system was also used to measure full field strains over the gauge length of the coupon. The DIC results were compared with the strain gauge data and were used to provide a qualitative measure of the load transfer in the bonded specimen, which clearly demonstrated the change in surface strain that occurred as the composite patch disbonded from the aluminum substrate. Thermoelastic Stress Analysis (TSA) was also used to measure surface strains on the

  1. Local spread of metamitron resistant Chenopodium album L. patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aper, J; De Riek, J; Mechant, E; Bulcke, R; Reheul, D

    2011-01-01

    Molecular markers can provide valuable information on the spread of resistant weed biotypes. In particular, tracing local spread of resistant weed patches will give details on the importance of seed migration with machinery, manure, wind or birds. This study investigated the local spread of metamitron resistant Chenopodium album L. patches in the southwest region of the province West-Flanders (Belgium). During the summer of 2009, leaf and seed samples were harvested in 27 patches, distributed over 10 sugar beet fields and 1 maize field. The fields were grouped in four local clusters. Each cluster corresponded with the farmer who cultivated these fields. A cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) procedure identified the Ser264 to Gly mutation in the D1 protein, endowing resistance to metamitron, a key herbicide applied in sugar beet. The majority of the sampled plants within a patch (97% on average) carried this mutation. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was performed with 4 primer pairs and yielded 270 molecular markers, polymorphic for the whole dataset (303 samples). Analysis of molecular variance revealed that a significant part of the genetic variability was attributed to variation among the four farmer locations (12 %) and variation among Chenopodium album patches within the farmer locations (14%). In addition, Mantel tests revealed a positive correlation between genetic distances (linearised phipt between pairs of patches) and geographic distances (Mantel-coefficient significant at p = 0.002), suggesting isolation-by-distance. In one field, a decreased genetic diversity and strong genetic relationships between all the patches in this field supported the hypothesis of a recent introduction of resistant biotypes. Furthermore, genetic similarity between patches from different fields from the same farmer and from different farmers indicated that seed transport between neighbouring fields is likely to have an important impact on the

  2. Advanced patch-clamp techniques and single-channel analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biskup, B; Elzenga, JTM; Homann, U; Thiel, G; Wissing, F; Maathuis, FJM

    1999-01-01

    Much of our knowledge of ion-transport mechanisms in plant cell membranes comes from experiments using voltage-clamp. This technique allows the measurement of ionic currents across the membrane, whilst the voltage is held under experimental control. The patch-clamp technique was developed to study t

  3. Temporary patching of damaged UF{sub 6} cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas, A.L. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., OH (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Patching techniques based on application of epoxy resins have been developed for temporarily repairing UF{sub 6} cylinders which have sustained relatively minor damage and must be safely emptied. The method is considerably faster and simpler than metallurgical weld repairs. Laboratory tests, detailed operational procedures, and case histories of experience at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant are described.

  4. Constructing parametric triangular patches with boundary conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Liu; Jun Ma; Fuhua Cheng

    2008-01-01

    The problem of constructing a parametric triangular patch to smoothly connect three surface patches is studied. Usually, these surface patches are defined on different parameter spaces. Therefore, it is necessary to define interpolation conditions, with values from the given surface patches, on the boundary of the triangular patch that can ensure smooth transition between different parameter spaces. In this paper we present a new method to define boundary conditions. Boundary conditions defined by the new method have the same parameter space if the three given surface patches can be converted into the same form through affine transformation. Consequently, any of the classic methods for constructing functional triangular patches can be used directly to construct a parametric triangular patch to connect given surface patches with G continuity. The resulting parametric triangular patch preserves precision of the applied classic method.

  5. *NEW* CRITICAL Windows Security patches

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 3 October and 10 September 2003, Microsoft issued new CRITICAL security patches MS03-040 and MS03-039. They must be URGENTLY applied on ALL WINDOWS systems, which are not centrally managed for security patches. This includes Experiment computers, Home computers and Windows Portable and Desktop systems not running NICE. Details of the security holes and patches are at: MS03-039: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-039.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-039.asp MS03-040: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-040.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-040.asp

  6. Resource availability, matrix quality, microclimate, and spatial pattern as predictors of patch use by the Karner blue butterfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundel, R.; Pavlovic, N.B.

    2007-01-01

    Determination of which aspects of habitat quality and habitat spatial arrangement best account for variation in a species’ distribution can guide management for organisms such as the Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis), a federally endangered subspecies inhabiting savannas of Midwest and Eastern United States. We examined the extent to which three sets of predictors, (1) larval host plant (Lupinus perennis, wild lupine) availability, (2) characteristics of the matrix surrounding host plant patches, and (3) factors affecting a patch’s thermal environment, accounted for variation in lupine patch use by Karner blues at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Indiana and Fort McCoy, Wisconsin, USA. Each predictor set accounted for 7–13% of variation in patch occupancy by Karner blues at both sites and in larval feeding activity among patches at Indiana Dunes. Patch area, an indicator of host plant availability, was an exception, accounting for 30% of variation in patch occupancy at Indiana Dunes. Spatially structured patterns of patch use across the landscape accounted for 9–16% of variation in patch use and explained more variation in larval feeding activity than did spatial autocorrelation between neighboring patches. Because of this broader spatial trend across sites, a given management action may be more effective in promoting patch use in some portions of the landscape than in others. Spatial trend, resource availability, matrix quality, and microclimate, in general, accounted for similar amounts of variation in patch use and each should be incorporated into habitat management planning for the Karner blue butterfly.

  7. Automated planar patch-clamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, Carol J; Möller, Clemens

    2013-01-01

    Ion channels are integral membrane proteins that regulate the flow of ions across the plasma membrane and the membranes of intracellular organelles of both excitable and non-excitable cells. Ion channels are vital to a wide variety of biological processes and are prominent components of the nervous system and cardiovascular system, as well as controlling many metabolic functions. Furthermore, ion channels are known to be involved in many disease states and as such have become popular therapeutic targets. For many years now manual patch-clamping has been regarded as one of the best approaches for assaying ion channel function, through direct measurement of ion flow across these membrane proteins. Over the last decade there have been many remarkable breakthroughs in the development of technologies enabling the study of ion channels. One of these breakthroughs is the development of automated planar patch-clamp technology. Automated platforms have demonstrated the ability to generate high-quality data with high throughput capabilities, at great efficiency and reliability. Additional features such as simultaneous intracellular and extracellular perfusion of the cell membrane, current clamp operation, fast compound application, an increasing rate of parallelization, and more recently temperature control have been introduced. Furthermore, in addition to the well-established studies of over-expressed ion channel proteins in cell lines, new generations of planar patch-clamp systems have enabled successful studies of native and primary mammalian cells. This technology is becoming increasingly popular and extensively used both within areas of drug discovery as well as academic research. Many platforms have been developed including NPC-16 Patchliner(®) and SyncroPatch(®) 96 (Nanion Technologies GmbH, Munich), CytoPatch™ (Cytocentrics AG, Rostock), PatchXpress(®) 7000A, IonWorks(®) Quattro and IonWorks Barracuda™, (Molecular Devices, LLC); Dynaflow(®) HT (Cellectricon

  8. Improved Gain Microstrip Patch Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-06

    same as one half wavelength, λ, of a design frequency for reception or transmission by the antenna 10. Patch 16 can be joined to a coaxial feed 18. A...expressed in the appended claims. [0024] The foregoing description of the preferred embodiments of the invention has been presented for purposes of

  9. Assessment of patches attributes along the Urban Development Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopel, Daniella; Wittenberg, lea; Malkinson, Dan

    2014-05-01

    The world is increasingly urban. If current trends maintain, by 2050 the global urban population is estimated to be 6.3 billion, nearly doubling the world population in 2010. Consequently, more than 60% of the area projected to be urban in 2030 has yet to be built, replacing the open and agriculture lands with construction and infrastructure. The open green patches (OGP), within the urban matrix, are essential for healthy and wellness of cities by supplying the city's ecological services (Mausback and Seybold, 1998). Regarding future trends, there is a need and obligation to insure the functional and sustainability of the city's OPG. Urban vegetation composition and diversity in the OGP had long been considered as an indication for ecologically functioning systems. Furthermore, urban soil is also essential for the sustainability and function of the urban habitat and ecological services, such as maintaining groundwater restraining urban floods etc. (Lehmann and Stahr 2007). There is no single set of rules to classify a functional urban green patch worth preserving. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of patch properties (including geometry, age, type and location along the urban gradient, connectivity, and urban matrix density) on the presence, abundance and characteristics of vegetation and soil conditions of remnant patches The inspired purpose is to eventually find an assessment for urban open green patches OGP quality by linking, patches attributes, plants indexes and soil quality indexes The research is conducted in the city of Haifa, which is located on the northern part of Mount Carmel in the north-western part of Israel . Mean annual rainfall, 550-800 mm, varies with latitude and the mean temperature is 18.80c. Modern Haifa is a relatively young city which maintains remnant vegetation patches within its municipal boundary. 32 OGP were selected in nine categories (size: small, medium and large, distance from city edge: far, average, near), in

  10. A decision algorithm for patch spraying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Svend; Heisel, Torben; Walter, Mette

    2003-01-01

    It has been established that weeds are spatially aggregated with a spatially varying composition of weed species within agricultural fields. Site-specific spraying therefore requires a decision method that includes the spatial variation of the weed composition and density. A computerized decision...... method that estimates an economic optimal herbicide dose according to site-specific weed composition and density is presented in this paper. The method was termed a ‘decision algorithm for patch spraying’ (DAPS) and was evaluated in a 5-year experiment, in Denmark. DAPS consists of a competition model......, a herbicide dose–response model and an algorithm that estimates the economically optimal doses. The experiment was designed to compare herbicide treatments with DAPS recommendations and the Danish decision support system PC-Plant Protection. The results did not show any significant grain yield difference...

  11. Patch stage of mycosis fungoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavarkar Laxman

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Parapsoriasis is aeon troversial topic. There are many studies regarding the relationship of parapsoriasis to lymphoma but no correlation between histology and clinical appearance. Parapsoriasis satisfies histologic criteria for mycosis fungoides and therefore it should be considered as patch stage of mycosis fungoides. A 30-year-old man presented with scaly skin lesions over the trunk since 4 years. Routine blood and urine investigations were normal. Skin biopsy from the lesion revealed atypical lymphocytes within the epidermis without spongiosis.

  12. Capacitance of circular patch resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miano, G.; Verolino, L. [Dip. di Ingegneria Elettrica, Ist. Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Naples (Italy); Panariello, G. [Dip. di Ingegneria Elettronica, Naples (Italy); Vaccaro, V.G. [Ist. Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Naples (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Fisiche

    1995-11-01

    In this paper the capacitance of the circular microstrip patch resonator is computed. It is shown that the electrostatic problem can be formulated as a system of dual integral equations, and the most interesting techniques of solutions of these systems are reviewed. Some useful approximated formulas for the capacitance are derived and plots of the capacitance are finally given in a wide range of dielectric constants.

  13. Palmar herald patch in pityriasis rosea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Mualla; Yildirim, Yasemin; Makara, Anil

    2012-08-01

    Pityriasis rosea is an acute self-limited inflammatory disorder of the skin. The initial clinical features of typical cases are the appearance of a herald patch. The herald patch is commonly located on the thigh, upper arm, trunk or neck; rarely the patch may be on the face, scalp or penis. There are no reports of a palmar herald patch in pityriasis rosea. In this article we present a 14-year-old male patient who had a palmar herald patch with truncal lesions of pityriasis rosea. © 2012 The Authors. Australasian Journal of Dermatology © 2012 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  14. Patching. Restitching business portfolios in dynamic markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhardt, K M; Brown, S L

    1999-01-01

    In turbulent markets, businesses and opportunities are constantly falling out of alignment. New technologies and emerging markets create fresh opportunities. Converging markets produce more. And of course, some markets fade. In this landscape of continuous flux, it's more important to build corporate-level strategic processes that enable dynamic repositioning than it is to build any particular defensible position. That's why smart corporate strategists use patching, a process of mapping and remapping business units to create a shifting mix of highly focused, tightly aligned businesses that can respond to changing market opportunities. Patching is not just another name for reorganizing; patchers have a distinctive mindset. Traditional managers see structure as stable; patching managers believe structure is inherently temporary. Traditional managers set corporate strategy first, but patching managers keep the organization focused on the right set of business opportunities and let strategy emerge from individual businesses. Although the focus of patching is flexibility, the process itself follows a pattern. Patching changes are usually small in scale and made frequently. Patching should be done quickly; the emphasis is on getting the patch about right and fixing problems later. Patches should have a test drive before they're formalized but then be tightly scripted after they've been announced. And patching won't work without the right infrastructure: modular business units, fine-grained and complete unit-level metrics, and companywide compensation parity. The authors illustrate how patching works and point out some common stumbling blocks.

  15. Formaldehyde concentration in diagnostic patch testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trattner, A; Johansen, J D; Menné, T

    1998-01-01

    Exposure to formaldehyde is common from both consumer products and industry. The reliability of the patch test is essential for the diagnosis of formaldehyde allergy as it is difficult to suspect from the patient's history. The recommended formaldehyde patch test concentration has been reduced over......% in consecutively patch-tested patients, with respect to frequency of positive patch test reactions, strength of patch test reactions to different formaldehyde test concentrations, irritancy and relevance. The study included 3734 consecutively patch tested patients. 121 gave a positive reaction to 1% and/or 2...... gave few additional positive cases compared to D 3/4. Problems related to relevance are discussed. Based on present knowledge, a 1% patch test concentration for formaldehyde is recommended....

  16. Diagnosis of Broiler Livers by Classifying Image Patches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders; Moeslund, Thomas B.; Fagertun, Jens

    2017-01-01

    The manual health inspection are becoming the bottleneck at poultry processing plants. We present a computer vision method for automatic diagnosis of broiler livers. The non-rigid livers, of varying shape and sizes, are classified in patches by a convolutional neural network, outputting maps...... with probabilities of the three most common diseases. A Random Forest classifier combines the maps to a single diagnosis. The method classifies 77.6% livers correctly in a problem that is far from trivial....

  17. Patched2 modulates tumorigenesis in patched1 heterozygous mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngsoo; Miller, Heather L; Russell, Helen R; Boyd, Kelli; Curran, Tom; McKinnon, Peter J

    2006-07-15

    The sonic hedgehog (SHH) receptor Patched 1 (Ptch1) is critical for embryonic development, and its loss is linked to tumorigenesis. Germ line inactivation of one copy of Ptch1 predisposes to basal cell carcinoma and medulloblastoma in mouse and man. In many cases, medulloblastoma arising from perturbations of Ptch1 function leads to a concomitant up-regulation of a highly similar gene, Patched2 (Ptch2). As increased expression of Ptch2 is associated with medulloblastoma and other tumors, we investigated the role of Ptch2 in tumor suppression by generating Ptch2-deficient mice. In striking contrast to Ptch1-/- mice, Ptch2-/- animals were born alive and showed no obvious defects and were not cancer prone. However, loss of Ptch2 markedly affected tumor formation in combination with Ptch1 haploinsufficiency. Ptch1+/-Ptch2-/- and Ptch1+/-Ptch2+/- animals showed a higher incidence of tumors and a broader spectrum of tumor types compared with Ptch1+/- animals. Therefore, Ptch2 modulates tumorigenesis associated with Ptch1 haploinsufficiency.

  18. Enhanced patch test of finite element methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Wanji

    2006-01-01

    Theoretically, the constant stress patch test is not rigorous. Also, either the patch test of non-zero constant shear for Mindlin plate problem or non-zero strain gradient curvature of the microstructures cannot be performed. To improve the theory of the patch test, in this paper, based on the variational principle with relaxed continuity requirement of nonconforming element for homogeneous differential equations, the author proposed the individual element condition for passing the patch test and the convergence condition of the element: besides passing the patch test, the element function should include the rigid body modes and constant strain modes and satisfy the weak continuity condition, and no extra zero energy modes occur. Moreover, the author further established a variational principle with relaxed continuity requirement of nonconforming element for inhomogeneous differential equations, the enhanced patch test condition and the individual element condition. To assure the convergence of the element that should pass the enhanced patch test, the element function should include the rigid body modes and non-zero strain modes which satisfied the equilibrium equations, and no spurious zero energy modes occur and should satisfy new weak continuity condition. The theory of the enhanced patch test proposed in this paper can be applied to both homogeneous and inhomogeneous differential equations. Based on this theory, the patch test of the non-zero constant shear stress for Mindlin plate and the C0-1 patch test of the non-zero constant curvature for the couple stress/strain gradient theory were established.

  19. Compliance and patching and atropine amblyopia treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingyun

    2015-09-01

    In the past 20 years, there has been a great advancement in knowledge pertaining to compliance with amblyopia treatments. The occlusion dose monitor introduced quantitative monitoring methods in patching, which sparked our initial understanding of the dose-response relationship for patching amblyopia treatment. This review focuses on current compliance knowledge and the impact it has on patching and atropine amblyopia treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Multi-Mode Broadband Patch Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanofsky, Robert R. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A multi-mode broad band patch antenna is provided that allows for the same aperture to be used at independent frequencies such as reception at 19 GHz and transmission at 29 GHz. Furthermore, the multi-mode broadband patch antenna provides a ferroelectric film that allows for tuning capability of the multi-mode broadband patch antenna over a relatively large tuning range. The alternative use of a semiconductor substrate permits reduced control voltages since the semiconductor functions as a counter electrode.

  1. RF MEMS reconfigurable triangular patch antenna.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christodoulou, Christos George (The University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Nordquist, Christopher Daniel; Feldner, Lucas Matthew

    2005-07-01

    A Ka-band RF MEMS enabled frequency reconfigurable triangular microstrip patch antenna has been designed for monolithic integration with RF MEMS phase shifters to demonstrate a low-cost monolithic passive electronically scanned array (PESA). This paper introduces our first prototype reconfigurable triangular patch antenna currently in fabrication. The aperture coupled patch antenna is fabricated on a dual-layer quartz/alumina substrate using surface micromachining techniques.

  2. RF MEMS reconfigurable triangular patch antenna.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordquist, Christopher Daniel; Christodoulou, Christos George (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Feldner, Lucas Matthew

    2005-01-01

    A Ka-band RF MEMS enabled frequency reconfigurable triangular microstrip patch antenna has been designed for monolithic integration with RF MEMS phase shifters to demonstrate a low-cost monolithic passive electronically scanned array (PESA). This paper introduces our first prototype reconfigurable triangular patch antenna currently in fabrication. The aperture coupled patch antenna is fabricated on a dual-layer quartz/alumina substrate using surface micromachining techniques.

  3. Smart thermal patch for adaptive thermotherapy

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2015-11-12

    A smart thermal patch for adaptive thermotherapy is provided. In an embodiment, the patch can be a stretchable, non-polymeric, conductive thin film flexible and non-invasive body integrated mobile thermal heater with wireless control capabilities that can be used to provide adaptive thermotherapy. The patch can be geometrically and spatially tunable on various pain locations. Adaptability allows the amount of heating to be tuned based on the temperature of the treated portion.

  4. Patch layout generation by detecting feature networks

    KAUST Repository

    Cao, Yuanhao

    2015-02-01

    The patch layout of 3D surfaces reveals the high-level geometric and topological structures. In this paper, we study the patch layout computation by detecting and enclosing feature loops on surfaces. We present a hybrid framework which combines several key ingredients, including feature detection, feature filtering, feature curve extension, patch subdivision and boundary smoothing. Our framework is able to compute patch layouts through concave features as previous approaches, but also able to generate nice layouts through smoothing regions. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework by comparing with the state-of-the-art methods.

  5. The "edge effect" with patch test materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyad, A; Masmoudi, M L; Lachapelle, J M

    1987-03-01

    A positive "edge effect", i.e., the accumulation on the skin of a chemical solution (such as fluorescein 0.01% in a 50/50 water-ethanol solution) at the periphery of the patch test sites has been demonstrated. It occurs with different test materials (Finn Chamber; Silver Patch Test; Patch Test Chamber). Practical implications are discussed: this observation could be important when discussing results of laboratory investigations. In clinical practice, it could explain the occurrence of "ring-shaped" positive allergic patch test reactions to chemicals used in solution, i.e., Kathon CG or hydrocortisone.

  6. Fast exact nearest patch matching for patch-based image editing and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Chunxia; Liu, Meng; Nie, Yongwei; Dong, Zhao

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents an efficient exact nearest patch matching algorithm which can accurately find the most similar patch-pairs between source and target image. Traditional match matching algorithms treat each pixel/patch as an independent sample and build a hierarchical data structure, such as kd-tree, to accelerate nearest patch finding. However, most of these approaches can only find approximate nearest patch and do not explore the sequential overlap between patches. Hence, they are neither accurate in quality nor optimal in speed. By eliminating redundant similarity computation of sequential overlap between patches, our method finds the exact nearest patch in brute-force style but reduces its running time complexity to be linear on the patch size. Furthermore, relying on recent multicore graphics hardware, our method can be further accelerated by at least an order of magnitude (≥10×). This greatly improves performance and ensures that our method can be efficiently applied in an interactive editing framework for moderate-sized image even video. To our knowledge, this approach is the fastest exact nearest patch matching method for high-dimensional patch and also its extra memory requirement is minimal. Comparisons with the popular nearest patch matching methods in the experimental results demonstrate the merits of our algorithm. © 2011 IEEE

  7. Gravity Survey of the Rye Patch KGRA, Rye Patch, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, M. R.; Gosnold, W. D.

    2011-12-01

    The Rye Patch Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA) is located in Pershing County Nevada on the west side of the Humboldt Range and east of the Rye Patch Reservoir approximately 200 km northeast of Reno, Nevada. Previous studies include an earlier gravity survey, 3-D seismic reflection, vertical seismic profiling (VSP) on a single well, 3-D seismic imaging, and a report of the integrated seismic studies. Recently, Presco Energy conducted an aeromagnetic survey and is currently in the process of applying 2-D VSP methods to target exploration and production wells at the site. These studies have indicated that geothermal fluid flow primarily occurs along faults and fractures and that two potential aquifers include a sandstone/siltstone member of the Triassic Natchez Pass Formation and a karst zone that occurs at the interface between Mesozoic limestone and Tertiary volcanics. We hypothesized that addition of a high-resolution gravity survey would better define the locations, trends, lengths, and dip angles of faults and possible solution cavity features. The gravity survey encompassed an area of approximately 78 km2 (30 mi2) within the boundary of the KGRA along with portions of 8 sections directly to the west and 8 sections directly to the east. The survey included 203 stations that were spaced at 400 m intervals. The simple Bouguer anomaly patterns were coincident with elevation, and those patterns remained after terrain corrections were performed. To remove this signal, the data were further processed using wave-length (bandpass) filtering techniques. The results of the filtering and comparison with the recent aeromagnetic survey indicate that the location and trend of major fault systems can be identified using this technique. Dip angles can be inferred by the anomaly contour gradients. By further reductions in the bandpass window, other features such as possible karst solution channels may also be recognizable. Drilling or other geophysical methods such as a

  8. Transdermal patches: history, development and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Michael N; Kalia, Yogeshvar N; Horstmann, Michael; Roberts, Michael S

    2015-05-01

    Transdermal patches are now widely used as cosmetic, topical and transdermal delivery systems. These patches represent a key outcome from the growth in skin science, technology and expertise developed through trial and error, clinical observation and evidence-based studies that date back to the first existing human records. This review begins with the earliest topical therapies and traces topical delivery to the present-day transdermal patches, describing along the way the initial trials, devices and drug delivery systems that underpin current transdermal patches and their actives. This is followed by consideration of the evolution in the various patch designs and their limitations as well as requirements for actives to be used for transdermal delivery. The properties of and issues associated with the use of currently marketed products, such as variability, safety and regulatory aspects, are then described. The review concludes by examining future prospects for transdermal patches and drug delivery systems, such as the combination of active delivery systems with patches, minimally invasive microneedle patches and cutaneous solutions, including metered-dose systems.

  9. Formulation study of tea tree oil patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minghetti, Paola; Casiraghi, Antonella; Cilurzo, Francesco; Gambaro, Veniero; Montanari, Luisa

    2009-01-01

    The antimicrobial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties of tea tree oil (TTO), the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia are well documented. In order to optimize its therapeutic activity, TTO patches were designed. The aim of this work was the formulation of monolayer patches containing TTO. Moreover, the performance of oleic acid (OA) as a skin penetration enhancer in patches was evaluated. Terpinen-4-ol (T4OL), the main component of TTO, was the marker used to evaluate TTO skin permeability. The permeation study was performed through human epidermis by using Franz diffusion cells. Patches were prepared by using methacrylic copolymers, Eudragit E100 (EuE100) or Eudragit NE (EuNE), and a silicone resin, BioPSA7-4602 (Bio-PSA). TTO and OA contents were fixed at 10% w/w and 3% w/w, respectively. The patches were prepared by a casting method and characterised in terms of T4OL content and skin permeability. All the selected polymers were suitable as the main component of the patch matrix. Since the main critical issue in the use of TTO is related to its toxicity after absorption, the local administration of TTO can take advantage of the use of patches based on EuE100 because of the high retained amount and the low permeation of T4OL. In this matrix, OA slightly increased the T4OL retained amount, improving the efficacy and safety of TTO patches.

  10. Patch scales in coastal ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broitman, Bernardo R.

    Quantifying the spatial and temporal scales over which ecological processes are coupled to environmental variability is a major challenge for ecologists. Here, I assimilate patterns of oceanographic variability with ecological field studies in an attempt to quantify spatial and temporal scales of coupling. Using coastal time series of chlorophyll-a concentration from remote sensing, the first chapter examines the alongshore extent of coastal regions subject to similar temporal patterns of oceanographic variability in Western North America (WNA) and North-Central Chile (Chile). I found striking interhemispherical differences in the length of coastal sections under similar oceanographic regimes, with the Chile region showing longshore coherency over much smaller spatial scales (˜60 km) than on the coast of WNA (˜140 km). Through a spatial analysis of coastal orientation I suggest that the characteristic length scales may be traced to the geomorphologic character of the ocean margins. The second chapter examines spatial patterns of primary production through long-term means of coastal chlorophyll-a concentration and kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) cover and explores their relationship with coastal geomorphology and sea surface temperature (SST). Spatial analyses showed a striking match in length scales around 180--250 km. Strong anticorrelations at small spatial lags and positive correlations at longer distances suggest little overlap between patches of kelp and coastal chlorophyll-a. In agreement with findings from the previous chapter, I found that coastal patches could be traced back to spatial patterns of coastal geomorphology. Through SST time series and long-term datasets of larval recruitment in Santa Cruz Island, California, the third chapter examines temporal patterns of oceanographic variability as determinants of ecological patterns. SST time series from sites experiencing low larval recruitment rates were dominated by strong temporal variability. These sites

  11. Image quality assessment based on inter-patch and intra-patch similarity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Zhou

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a full-reference (FR image quality assessment (IQA scheme, which evaluates image fidelity from two aspects: the inter-patch similarity and the intra-patch similarity. The scheme is performed in a patch-wise fashion so that a quality map can be obtained. On one hand, we investigate the disparity between one image patch and its adjacent ones. This disparity is visually described by an inter-patch feature, where the hybrid effect of luminance masking and contrast masking is taken into account. The inter-patch similarity is further measured by modifying the normalized correlation coefficient (NCC. On the other hand, we also attach importance to the impact of image contents within one patch on the IQA problem. For the intra-patch feature, we consider image curvature as an important complement of image gradient. According to local image contents, the intra-patch similarity is measured by adaptively comparing image curvature and gradient. Besides, a nonlinear integration of the inter-patch and intra-patch similarity is presented to obtain an overall score of image quality. The experiments conducted on six publicly available image databases show that our scheme achieves better performance in comparison with several state-of-the-art schemes.

  12. Robustness of metacommunities with omnivory to habitat destruction: disentangling patch fragmentation from patch loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jinbao; Bearup, Daniel; Wang, Yeqiao; Nijs, Ivan; Bonte, Dries; Li, Yuanheng; Brose, Ulrich; Wang, Shaopeng; Blasius, Bernd

    2017-06-01

    Habitat destruction, characterized by patch loss and fragmentation, is a major driving force of species extinction, and understanding its mechanisms has become a central issue in biodiversity conservation. Numerous studies have explored the effect of patch loss on food web dynamics, but ignored the critical role of patch fragmentation. Here we develop an extended patch-dynamic model for a tri-trophic omnivory system with trophic-dependent dispersal in fragmented landscapes. We found that species display different vulnerabilities to both patch loss and fragmentation, depending on their dispersal range and trophic position. The resulting trophic structure varies depending on the degree of habitat loss and fragmentation, due to a tradeoff between bottom-up control on omnivores (dominated by patch loss) and dispersal limitation on intermediate consumers (dominated by patch fragmentation). Overall, we find that omnivory increases system robustness to habitat destruction relative to a simple food chain. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  13. A new patch antenna with metamaterial cover

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Jun; YAN Chun-sheng; LIN Qing-chun

    2006-01-01

    A metamaterial was introduced into the cover of a patch antenna and its band structure was analyzed. The metamaterial cover with correct selection of the working frequency increases by 9.14 dB the patch antenna's directivity. The mechanism of metamaterial cover is completely different from that of a photonic bandgap cover. The mechanism of the metamaterial cover,the number of the cover's layers, and the distance between the layers, were analyzed in detail. The results showed that the metamaterial cover, which works like a lens, could effectively improve the patch antenna's directivity. The physical reasons for the improvement are also given.

  14. Conserving Tropical Tree Diversity and Forest Structure: The Value of Small Rainforest Patches in Moderately-Managed Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ruedas, Manuel A.; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Meave, Jorge A.; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Ibarra-Manríquez, Guillermo; Martínez, Esteban; Jamangapé, Gilberto; Melo, Felipe P. L.; Santos, Bráulio A.

    2014-01-01

    Rainforests are undergoing severe deforestation and fragmentation worldwide. A huge amount of small forest patches are being created, but their value in conserving biodiversity and forest structure is still controversial. Here, we demonstrate that in a species-rich and moderately-managed Mexican tropical landscape small rainforest patches (<100 ha) can be highly valuable for the conservation of tree diversity and forest structure. These patches showed diverse communities of native plants, including endangered species, and a new record for the country. Although the number of logged trees increased in smaller patches, patch size was a poor indicator of basal area, stem density, number of species, genera and families, and community evenness. Cumulative species-area curves indicated that all patches had a similar contribution to the regional species diversity. This idea also was supported by the fact that patches strongly differed in floristic composition (high β-diversity), independently of patch size. Thus, in agreement with the land-sharing approach, our findings support that small forest patches in moderately-managed landscapes should be included in conservation initiatives to maintain landscape heterogeneity, species diversity, and ecosystem services. PMID:24901954

  15. Conserving tropical tree diversity and forest structure: the value of small rainforest patches in moderately-managed landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ruedas, Manuel A; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Meave, Jorge A; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Ibarra-Manríquez, Guillermo; Martínez, Esteban; Jamangapé, Gilberto; Melo, Felipe P L; Santos, Bráulio A

    2014-01-01

    Rainforests are undergoing severe deforestation and fragmentation worldwide. A huge amount of small forest patches are being created, but their value in conserving biodiversity and forest structure is still controversial. Here, we demonstrate that in a species-rich and moderately-managed Mexican tropical landscape small rainforest patches (tree diversity and forest structure. These patches showed diverse communities of native plants, including endangered species, and a new record for the country. Although the number of logged trees increased in smaller patches, patch size was a poor indicator of basal area, stem density, number of species, genera and families, and community evenness. Cumulative species-area curves indicated that all patches had a similar contribution to the regional species diversity. This idea also was supported by the fact that patches strongly differed in floristic composition (high β-diversity), independently of patch size. Thus, in agreement with the land-sharing approach, our findings support that small forest patches in moderately-managed landscapes should be included in conservation initiatives to maintain landscape heterogeneity, species diversity, and ecosystem services.

  16. Conserving tropical tree diversity and forest structure: the value of small rainforest patches in moderately-managed landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel A Hernández-Ruedas

    Full Text Available Rainforests are undergoing severe deforestation and fragmentation worldwide. A huge amount of small forest patches are being created, but their value in conserving biodiversity and forest structure is still controversial. Here, we demonstrate that in a species-rich and moderately-managed Mexican tropical landscape small rainforest patches (<100 ha can be highly valuable for the conservation of tree diversity and forest structure. These patches showed diverse communities of native plants, including endangered species, and a new record for the country. Although the number of logged trees increased in smaller patches, patch size was a poor indicator of basal area, stem density, number of species, genera and families, and community evenness. Cumulative species-area curves indicated that all patches had a similar contribution to the regional species diversity. This idea also was supported by the fact that patches strongly differed in floristic composition (high β-diversity, independently of patch size. Thus, in agreement with the land-sharing approach, our findings support that small forest patches in moderately-managed landscapes should be included in conservation initiatives to maintain landscape heterogeneity, species diversity, and ecosystem services.

  17. Inferring local competition intensity from patch size distributions: a test using biological soil crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Matthew A.; Maestre, Fernando T.

    2012-01-01

    Dryland vegetation is inherently patchy. This patchiness goes on to impact ecology, hydrology, and biogeochemistry. Recently, researchers have proposed that dryland vegetation patch sizes follow a power law which is due to local plant facilitation. It is unknown what patch size distribution prevails when competition predominates over facilitation, or if such a pattern could be used to detect competition. We investigated this question in an alternative vegetation type, mosses and lichens of biological soil crusts, which exhibit a smaller scale patch-interpatch configuration. This micro-vegetation is characterized by competition for space. We proposed that multiplicative effects of genetics, environment and competition should result in a log-normal patch size distribution. When testing the prevalence of log-normal versus power law patch size distributions, we found that the log-normal was the better distribution in 53% of cases and a reasonable fit in 83%. In contrast, the power law was better in 39% of cases, and in 8% of instances both distributions fit equally well. We further hypothesized that the log-normal distribution parameters would be predictably influenced by competition strength. There was qualitative agreement between one of the distribution's parameters (μ) and a novel intransitive (lacking a 'best' competitor) competition index, suggesting that as intransitivity increases, patch sizes decrease. The correlation of μ with other competition indicators based on spatial segregation of species (the C-score) depended on aridity. In less arid sites, μ was negatively correlated with the C-score (suggesting smaller patches under stronger competition), while positive correlations (suggesting larger patches under stronger competition) were observed at more arid sites. We propose that this is due to an increasing prevalence of competition transitivity as aridity increases. These findings broaden the emerging theory surrounding dryland patch size distributions

  18. Can Stem Cell 'Patch' Help Heart Failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164475.html Can Stem Cell 'Patch' Help Heart Failure? Small improvement seen over ... Scientists report another step in the use of stem cells to help treat people with debilitating heart failure. ...

  19. A Microstripe Slotted Patch Antenna Using Amc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manju Saini,

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Microstrip patch antenna offer an attractive solution to compact and ease-low-cost design of modern wireless communication system due to their many advantages as light weight and low volume, low profile, planer configuration which can be easily made conformal to low fabrication cost and capability of obtaining dual and triple frequency operations. A microstrip patch antenna with bandwidth enhancement by means of artificial magnetic conductor (AMC/electromagnetic band-gap structure (EBG is studied in this paper. The three different geometry shapes, the U, E and H are developed from rectangular patch. The antennas studied in this paper are simulated using sonnet software and results compared with the conventional rectangular patch antenna. The results obtained clearly shows that , bandwidth of conventional rectangular microstrip antenna can be enhanced has been studied

  20. Shallow ATRIS Seafloor Images - West Turtle Shoal Patch Reef, Rawa PatchReef, Dustan Rocks Patch Reef, and Thor Patch Reef, Florida, 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Underwater digital images, single-beam bathymetry, and global-positioning system (GPS) data were collected September 29-30, 2011 around Dustan Rocks Patch Reef, Thor...

  1. U-Slotted Microstrip Patch Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh Bhomia

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A new U–slotted microstrip antenna is proposed. A patch antenna is a narrowband, wide-beam antenna These antennas are low profile, conformal to planar and non-planar surface, simple and inexpensive to manufacture using modern printed circuit technology, mechanically robust when mounted on rigid surface, compatible with MMIC designs and when the particular shape and mode are selected they are very versatile in terms of resonant frequency, polarization, field pattern and impedance. Microstrip antenna consist of a very thin metallic strip (patch placed a small fraction of a wavelength above a ground plane. The patch is generally made of conducting material such as copper or gold and can take any possible shape. This paper presents a design of U - slotted microstrip patch antenna and experimentally studied on IE3D software. This design is achieved by cutting U shape in a patch. With U - slotted shapes patch antenna is designed on a FR4 substrate of thickness 1.524 mm and relative permittivity of 4.4 and mounted above the ground plane at a height of 6 mm. Bandwidth as high as 39% are achieved with stable pattern characteristics, such as gain and cross polarization, within its bandwidth. Impedance bandwidth, antenna gain and return loss are observed for the proposed antenna. Details of the measured and simulated results are presented and discussed

  2. Short-term monocular patching boosts the patched eye’s response in visual cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiawei; Baker, Daniel H.; Simard, Mathieu; Saint-Amour, Dave; Hess, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Several recent studies have demonstrated that following short-term monocular deprivation in normal adults, the patched eye, rather than the unpatched eye, becomes stronger in subsequent binocular viewing. However, little is known about the site and nature of the underlying processes. In this study, we examine the underlying mechanisms by measuring steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) as an index of the neural contrast response in early visual areas. Methods: The experiment consisted of three consecutive stages: a pre-patching EEG recording (14 minutes), a monocular patching stage (2.5 hours) and a post-patching EEG recording (14 minutes; started immediately after the removal of the patch). During the patching stage, a diffuser (transmits light but not pattern) was placed in front of one randomly selected eye. During the EEG recording stage, contrast response functions for each eye were measured. Results: The neural responses from the patched eye increased after the removal of the patch, whilst the responses from the unpatched eye remained the same. Such phenomena occurred under both monocular and dichoptic viewing conditions. Conclusions: We interpret this eye dominance plasticity in adult human visual cortex as homeostatic intrinsic plasticity regulated by an increase of contrast-gain in the patched eye. PMID:26410580

  3. Individual colour patches as multicomponent signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grether, Gregory F; Kolluru, Gita R; Nersissian, Karen

    2004-08-01

    Colour patches are complex traits, the components of which may evolve independently through a variety of mechanisms. Although usually treated as simple, two-dimensional characters and classified as either structural or pigmentary, in reality colour patches are complicated, three-dimensional structures that often contain multiple pigment types and structural features. The basic dermal chromatophore unit of fishes, reptiles and amphibians consists of three contiguous cell layers. Xanthophores and erythrophores in the outermost layer contain carotenoid and pteridine pigments that absorb short-wave light; iridophores in the middle layer contain crystalline platelets that reflect light back through the xanthophores; and melanophores in the basal layer contain melanins that absorb light across the spectrum. Changes in any one component of a chromatophore unit can drastically alter the reflectance spectrum produced, and for any given adaptive outcome (e.g. an increase in visibility), there may be multiple biochemical or cellular routes that evolution could take, allowing for divergent responses by different populations or species to similar selection regimes. All of the mechanisms of signal evolution that previously have been applied to single ornaments (including whole colour patches) could potentially be applied to the individual components of colour patches. To reach a complete understanding of colour patch evolution, however, it may be necessary to take an explicitly multi-trait approach. Here, we review multiple trait evolution theory and the basic mechanisms of colour production in fishes, reptiles and amphibians, and use a combination of computer simulations and empirical examples to show how multiple trait evolution theory can be applied to the components of single colour patches. This integrative perspective on animal colouration opens up a host of new questions and hypotheses. We offer specific, testable functional hypotheses for the most common pigmentary

  4. Deformation of vortex patches by boundaries

    CERN Document Server

    Crosby, A; Morrison, P J

    2013-01-01

    The deformation of two-dimensional vortex patches in the vicinity of fluid boundaries is investigated. The presence of a boundary causes an initially circular patch of uniform vorticity to deform. Sufficiently far away from the boundary, the deformed shape is well approximated by an ellipse. This leading order elliptical deformation is investigated via the elliptic moment model of Melander, Zabusky & Styczek [M. V. Melander, N. J. Zabusky & A. S. Styczek, J. Fluid. Mech., 167, 95 (1986)]. When the boundary is straight, the centre of the elliptic patch remains at a constant distance from the boundary, and the motion is integrable. Furthermore, since the straining flow acting on the patch is constant in time, the problem is that of an elliptic vortex patch in constant strain, which was analysed by Kida [S. Kida, J. Phys. Soc. Japan, 50, 3517 (1981)]. For more complicated boundary shapes, such as a square corner, the motion is no longer integrable. Instead, there is an adiabatic invariant for the motion....

  5. Measles vaccination using a microneedle patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edens, Chris; Collins, Marcus L; Ayers, Jessica; Rota, Paul A; Prausnitz, Mark R

    2013-07-25

    Measles vaccination programs would benefit from delivery methods that decrease cost, simplify logistics, and increase safety. Conventional subcutaneous injection is limited by the need for skilled healthcare professionals to reconstitute and administer injections, and by the need for safe needle handling and disposal to reduce the risk of disease transmission through needle re-use and needlestick injury. Microneedles are micron-scale, solid needles coated with a dry formulation of vaccine that dissolves in the skin within minutes after patch application. By avoiding the use of hypodermic needles, vaccination using a microneedle patch could be carried out by minimally trained personnel with reduced risk of blood-borne disease transmission. The goal of this study was to evaluate measles vaccination using a microneedle patch to address some of the limitations of subcutaneous injection. Viability of vaccine virus dried onto a microneedle patch was stabilized by incorporation of the sugar, trehalose, and loss of viral titer was less than 1 log10(TCID50) after storage for at least 30 days at room temperature. Microneedle patches were then used to immunize cotton rats with the Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine strain. Vaccination using microneedles at doses equaling the standard human dose or one-fifth the human dose generated neutralizing antibody levels equivalent to those of a subcutaneous immunization at the same dose. These results show that measles vaccine can be stabilized on microneedles and that vaccine efficiently reconstitutes in vivo to generate a neutralizing antibody response equivalent to that generated by subcutaneous injection.

  6. Characterizing the morphology of protein binding patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malod-Dognin, Noël; Bansal, Achin; Cazals, Frédéric

    2012-12-01

    Let the patch of a partner in a protein complex be the collection of atoms accounting for the interaction. To improve our understanding of the structure-function relationship, we present a patch model decoupling the topological and geometric properties. While the geometry is classically encoded by the atomic positions, the topology is recorded in a graph encoding the relative position of concentric shells partitioning the interface atoms. The topological-geometric duality provides the basis of a generic dynamic programming-based algorithm comparing patches at the shell level, which may favor topological or geometric features. On the biological side, we address four questions, using 249 cocrystallized heterodimers organized in biological families. First, we dissect the morphology of binding patches and show that Nature enjoyed the topological and geometric degrees of freedom independently while retaining a finite set of qualitatively distinct topological signatures. Second, we argue that our shell-based comparison is effective to perform atomic-level comparisons and show that topological similarity is a less stringent than geometric similarity. We also use the topological versus geometric duality to exhibit topo-rigid patches, whose topology (but not geometry) remains stable upon docking. Third, we use our comparison algorithms to infer specificity-related information amidst a database of complexes. Finally, we exhibit a descriptor outperforming its contenders to predict the binding affinities of the affinity benchmark. The softwares developed with this article are availablefrom http://team.inria.fr/abs/vorpatch_compatch/.

  7. Microneedle patches for vaccination in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Jaya; Prausnitz, Mark R

    2016-10-28

    Millions of people die of infectious diseases each year, mostly in developing countries, which could largely be prevented by the use of vaccines. While immunization rates have risen since the introduction of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI), there remain major challenges to more effective vaccination in developing countries. As a possible solution, microneedle patches containing an array of micron-sized needles on an adhesive backing have been developed to be used for vaccine delivery to the skin. These microneedle patches can be easily and painlessly applied by pressing against the skin and, in some designs, do not leave behind sharps waste. The patches are single-dose, do not require reconstitution, are easy to administer, have reduced size to simplify storage, transportation and waste disposal, and offer the possibility of improved vaccine immunogenicity, dose sparing and thermostability. This review summarizes vaccination challenges in developing countries and discusses advantages that microneedle patches offer for vaccination to address these challenges. We conclude that microneedle patches offer a powerful new technology that can enable more effective vaccination in developing countries. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Surface patterning of nanoparticles with polymer patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choueiri, Rachelle M.; Galati, Elizabeth; Thérien-Aubin, Héloïse; Klinkova, Anna; Larin, Egor M.; Querejeta-Fernández, Ana; Han, Lili; Xin, Huolin L.; Gang, Oleg; Zhulina, Ekaterina B.; Rubinstein, Michael; Kumacheva, Eugenia

    2016-10-01

    Patterning of colloidal particles with chemically or topographically distinct surface domains (patches) has attracted intense research interest. Surface-patterned particles act as colloidal analogues of atoms and molecules, serve as model systems in studies of phase transitions in liquid systems, behave as ‘colloidal surfactants’ and function as templates for the synthesis of hybrid particles. The generation of micrometre- and submicrometre-sized patchy colloids is now efficient, but surface patterning of inorganic colloidal nanoparticles with dimensions of the order of tens of nanometres is uncommon. Such nanoparticles exhibit size- and shape-dependent optical, electronic and magnetic properties, and their assemblies show new collective properties. At present, nanoparticle patterning is limited to the generation of two-patch nanoparticles, and nanoparticles with surface ripples or a ‘raspberry’ surface morphology. Here we demonstrate nanoparticle surface patterning, which utilizes thermodynamically driven segregation of polymer ligands from a uniform polymer brush into surface-pinned micelles following a change in solvent quality. Patch formation is reversible but can be permanently preserved using a photocrosslinking step. The methodology offers the ability to control the dimensions of patches, their spatial distribution and the number of patches per nanoparticle, in agreement with a theoretical model. The versatility of the strategy is demonstrated by patterning nanoparticles with different dimensions, shapes and compositions, tethered with various types of polymers and subjected to different external stimuli. These patchy nanocolloids have potential applications in fundamental research, the self-assembly of nanomaterials, diagnostics, sensing and colloidal stabilization.

  9. Dermoscopy of shagreen patch: A first report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivanand Gundalli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The name is derived from French phrase peau chagrinee which is usually found on lower back, buttock and thigh. The major manifestations of Tuberous sclerosis include skin lesions in more than 95%, mental retardation in approximately 50%, autism, seizures in approximately 85%. The incidence at birth is estimated to be 1 in 5800. We report case of shagreen patch in a 27 year female which is present since birth. However there is no history of seizures or consanginous marriage in our case. Associated features are naevus comedonicus and naevus collagenosis, facial angiofibroma. Shagreen patch are present in mandibular area of face. Although, diagnosis is easy, it can be mistaken for inflammatory verrucous epidermal nevus, plaques of other inflammatory skin conditions. Diagnosis is usually on clinical background. Sometimes biopsy is necessary to confirm the diagnosis. Dermoscopy, a non-invasive, in vivo technique for the microscopic examination of pigmented skin lesions, has the potential to improve the diagnostic accuracy. Dermoscopy of Shagreen patch showed reddish-brown strands with white dots giving a cobblestone appearance It can be utilized as a diagnostic aide in the diagnosis of Shagreen patch. Authors evaluated the dermoscopic patterns of Shagreen patch and hence, it is useful in diagnosis.

  10. Improved patch antenna performance by using a metamaterial cover

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Fang-ming; HU Jun

    2007-01-01

    A new patch antenna system with a metamaterial cover is presented in this paper. The impedance, radiation pattern, and directivity of such an antenna are studied. A performance comparison between the conventional patch antenna and the new metamaterial patch antenna is given. The results show that the directivity of the metamaterial patch antenna is significantly improved. The effect of the metamaterial cover's layer numbers on the radiation pattern of the patch antenna is also studied.

  11. SuperPatchMatch: an Algorithm for Robust Correspondences using Superpixel Patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, Remi; Ta, Vinh-Thong; Bugeau, Aurelie; Coupe, Pierrik; Papadakis, Nicolas

    2017-05-29

    Superpixels have become very popular in many computer vision applications. Nevertheless, they remain underexploited since the superpixel decomposition may produce irregular and non stable segmentation results due to the dependency to the image content. In this paper, we first introduce a novel structure, a superpixel-based patch, called SuperPatch. The proposed structure, based on superpixel neighborhood, leads to a robust descriptor since spatial information is naturally included. The generalization of the PatchMatch method to SuperPatches, named SuperPatchMatch, is introduced. Finally, we propose a framework to perform fast segmentation and labeling from an image database, and demonstrate the potential of our approach since we outperform, in terms of computational cost and accuracy, the results of state-of-the-art methods on both face labeling and medical image segmentation.

  12. Water fluxes between inter-patches and vegetated mounds in flat semiarid landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, María J.; Ares, Jorge O.

    2017-03-01

    It has been assumed that bare soil (BS) inter-patches in semi arid spotted vegetation behave as sources of water to near vegetated soil (VS) patches. However, little evidence has been gained from direct measurements of overland and infiltration water fluxes between bare soil inter-patches and shrub mounds at a scale compatible with available high resolution imagery and hydrological modeling techniques. The objective of this study is to address the thin scale internal redistribution of water between BS inter-patches and vegetated mounds at relatively flat spotted semiarid landscapes. The relation between plant cover, topography and runoff was inspected with non-parametric association coefficients based on high resolution remotely sensed imagery, ground truth topographic elevation and spatial-explicit field data on potential runoff. Measurements of advective flows at the same spatial scale were carried out at micro-plots of BS and shrub mounds. Water fluxes between BS inter-patch and a shrub mound were simulated under varying typical Patagonian rainfall scenarios with an hydrological model. Results obtained revealed that the soil properties, infiltration and overland flow metrics at the mounds and inter-patches exhibit spatially and dynamic variable hydraulic properties. High micro-topographic roughness and depression storage thickened overland flow depth at VS patches. At BS inter-patches prevailing low slopes and depression storage were found to be important variables attenuating the surface runoff. At both rainfall scenarios simulated, the soil under the shrub mound accumulated more moisture (from direct rain) and reached saturation long before this occurred in BS nearby inter-patch area. Overland flow at the inter-patch was attenuated as it reached the border of the patch, diverging from the latter as it followed the (small) topographic gradient. The overland flow generated inside the vegetated mound was effectively retained at the typical Summer rainfall

  13. A stronger patch test elicitation reaction to the allergen hydroxycitronellal plus the irritant sodium lauryl sulfate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, S; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Johansen, Jeanne Duus;

    2003-01-01

    elicitation reaction than patch testing with the allergen (hydroxycitronellal) alone, in patients previously patch tested positive to hydroxycitronellal. A stronger patch test elicitation reaction was defined as at least 1 day of patch test reading showing more positive patch tests...

  14. Fault-patch stress-transfer efficiency in presence of sub-patch geometric complexity

    KAUST Repository

    Zielke, Olaf

    2015-04-01

    It is well known that faults are not planar surfaces. Instead they exhibit self-similar or self-affine properties that span a wide range of spatial (sub-micrometer to tens-of-kilometer). This geometric fault roughness has a distinct impact on amount and distribution of stresses/strains induced in the medium and on other portions of the fault. However, when numerically simulated (for example in multi-cycle EQ rupture simulations or Coulomb failure stress calculations) this roughness is largely ignored: individual fault patches --the incremental elements that build the fault surface in the respective computer models-- are planar and fault roughness at this and lower spatial scales is not considered. As a result, the fault-patch stress-transfer efficiency may be systematically too large in those numerical simulations with respect to the "actual" efficiency level. Here, we investigate the effect of sub-patch geometric complexity on fault-patch stress-transfer efficiency. For that, we sub-divide a fault patch (e.g., 1x1km) into a large number of sub-patches (e.g., 20x20m) and determine amount of induced stresses at selected positions around that patch for different levels and realizations of fault roughness. For each fault roughness level, we compute mean and standard deviation of the induced stresses, enabling us to compute the coefficient of variation. We normalize those values with stresses from the corresponding single (planar) fault patch, providing scaling factors and their variability for stress transfer efficiency. Given a certain fault roughness that is assumed for a fault, this work provides the means to implement the sub-patch fault roughness into investigations based on fault-patch interaction schemes.

  15. Patch-augmented rotator cuff repair: influence of the patch fixation technique on primary biomechanical stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Christian; Spreiter, Gregor; Audigé, Laurent; Ferguson, Stephen J; Flury, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    There is an ongoing debate about the potential of patch augmentation to improve biomechanical stability and healing associated with rotator cuff repair. The biomechanical properties of three different patch-augmented rotator cuff repair techniques were assessed in vitro and compared with a standard repair. Dermal collagen patch augmentation may increase the primary stability and strength of the repaired tendon in vitro, depending on the technique used for patch application. Forty cadaveric sheep shoulders with dissected infraspinatus tendons were randomized into four groups (n = 10/group) for tendon repair using a knotless double-row suture anchor technique. A xenologous dermal extracellular matrix patch was used for augmentation in the three test groups using an "integrated", "cover", or "hybrid" technique. Tendons were preconditioned, cyclically loaded from 10 to 30 N at 1 Hz, and then loaded monotonically to failure. Biomechanical properties and the mode of failure were evaluated. Patch augmentation significantly increased the maximum load at failure by 61 % in the "cover" technique test group (225.8 N) and 51 % in the "hybrid" technique test group (211.4 N) compared with the non-augmented control group (140.2 N) (P ≤ 0.015). For the test group with "integrated" patch augmentation, the load at failure was 28 % lower (101.6 N) compared with the control group (P = 0.043). There was no significant difference in initial and linear stiffness among the four experimental groups. The most common mode of failure was tendon pullout. No anchor dislocation, patch disruption or knot breakage was observed. Additional patch augmentation with a collagen patch influences the biomechanical properties of a rotator cuff repair in a cadaveric sheep model. Primary repair stability can be significantly improved depending on the augmentation technique.

  16. Boolean Operations with Prism Algebraic Patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Chandrajit; Paoluzzi, Alberto; Portuesi, Simone; Lei, Na; Zhao, Wenqi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a symbolic-numeric algorithm for Boolean operations, closed in the algebra of curved polyhedra whose boundary is triangulated with algebraic patches (A-patches). This approach uses a linear polyhedron as a first approximation of both the arguments and the result. On each triangle of a boundary representation of such linear approximation, a piecewise cubic algebraic interpolant is built, using a C1-continuous prism algebraic patch (prism A-patch) that interpolates the three triangle vertices, with given normal vectors. The boundary representation only stores the vertices of the initial triangulation and their external vertex normals. In order to represent also flat and/or sharp local features, the corresponding normal-per-face and/or normal-per-edge may be also given, respectively. The topology is described by storing, for each curved triangle, the two triples of pointers to incident vertices and to adjacent triangles. For each triangle, a scaffolding prism is built, produced by its extreme vertices and normals, which provides a containment volume for the curved interpolating A-patch. When looking for the result of a regularized Boolean operation, the 0-set of a tri-variate polynomial within each such prism is generated, and intersected with the analogous 0-sets of the other curved polyhedron, when two prisms have non-empty intersection. The intersection curves of the boundaries are traced and used to decompose each boundary into the 3 standard classes of subpatches, denoted in, out and on. While tracing the intersection curves, the locally refined triangulation of intersecting patches is produced, and added to the boundary representation. PMID:21516262

  17. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF CARVEDILOL TRANSDERMAL PATCHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandal Sonjoy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to develop and evaluate matrix-type transdermal formulations containing carvedilol with different ratios of hydrophilic (HPMC and hydrophobic polymeric (Eudragit RS100 combinations plasticized with glycerin and dibutyl pthalate by the solvent evaporation technique. Effect of surfactant (PEG-400 and Tween 80 and permeation enhancers (DMSO and DMF were studied. The interference of the polymers were ruled out by infrared and uv spectroscopic methods. Viscosity of the polymers was determined using Brookfield viscometer (LVDV-E. The partition coefficient study was performed using n-octanol as the organic phase and phosphate buffer pH 7.4 as an aqueous phase. The prepared patches were tested for their physicochemical characteristics such as thickness, weight, and drug content uniformity, swelling index, water vapour transmission, folding endurance, and tensile strength. In vitro release studies of carvedilol-loaded patches in phosphate buffer (pH, 7.4 exhibited drug release in the range of 80.70 to 98.56 % in 24 h. Data of in vitro release from patches were fit in to different equations and kinetic models to explain release kinetics. The models used were zero and first-order equations, Hixon-Crowell, Higuchi and Korsmeyer-Peppas models. Based on physicochemical and in vitro release studies, patches containing HPMC and Eudragit RS 100 (DMSO as permeation enhancer were chosen for in vitro skin permeation studies which were performed using a modified diffusion cell across rat abdominal skin and showed first order release mechanism. Skin studies for the transdermal patches were assessed and were found to be free of irritation. The patches were subjected to short term stability studies and were found stable. Good correlation was observed (R2 = 0.810 with in vitro release Vs in vitro skin permeation studies.

  18. Patch testing for adverse drug reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhon, Sahil; Nedorost, Susan T

    2017-01-01

    Adverse drug reactions result in a substantial number of hospital admissions and inpatient events. Diagnosis usually is made with clinical judgment and circumstantiality without diagnostic testing. Furthermore, even in situations where diagnostic testing is performed, no safe gold standard tests exist. Oral rechallenge is currently the gold standard but carries the risk of recrudescence of severe allergic symptoms. Other tests include skin prick tests, the lymphocyte transformation test, immunohistochemistry, and patch testing. This article provides a review of patch testing in cases of adverse drug reactions and presents new data on this topic.

  19. Assembling a Network out of Ambiguous Patches

    OpenAIRE

    Yartseva, Lyudmila; Elbert, Jefferson Simoes; Grossglauser, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Many graph mining and network analysis problems rely on the availability of the full network over a set of nodes. But inferring a full network is sometimes non-trivial if the raw data is in the form of many small {\\em patches} or subgraphs, of the true network, and if there are ambiguities in the identities of nodes or edges in these patches. This may happen because of noise or because of the nature of data; for instance, in social networks, names are typically not unique. \\textit{Graph...

  20. Learning Dictionaries of Discriminative Image Patches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Larsen, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    Remarkable results have been obtained using image models based on image patches, for example sparse generative models for image inpainting, noise reduction and superresolution, sparse texture segmentation or texton models. In this paper we propose a powerful and yet simple approach for segmentation...... using dictionaries of image patches with associated label data. The approach is based on ideas from sparse generative image models and texton based texture modeling. The intensity and label dictionaries are learned from training images with associated label information of (a subset) of the pixels based...

  1. Generic Patch Inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper; Lawall, Julia Laetitia

    2008-01-01

    A key issue in maintaining Linux device drivers is the need to update drivers in response to evolutions in Linux internal libraries. Currently, there is little tool support for performing and documenting such changes. In this paper we present a tool, spfind, that identifies common changes made...... developers can use it to extract an abstract representation of the set of changes that others have made. Our experiments on recent changes in Linux show that the inferred generic patches are more concise than the corresponding patches found in commits to the Linux source tree while being safe with respect...

  2. How Does Patch Clamp Work?--An easy approach to understanding patch clamp mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关兵才; 李之望

    2003-01-01

    In order to help patch clamp users,most of whom are not good enough at electrics and electronics,to understandthe complicated principles of patch clamp technique,we present a readily accessible explanation of patch clamp mechanism,in-cluding basic analysis of membrane currents under voltage clamp,achievement of voltage clamp and current recording,capaci-tance compensation,series resistance compensation,voltage offset correction,leak subtraction and current clamp,based on ourworking and teaching experience and with the aid of some useful formulae.

  3. Umbilical Hernia Repair with Proceed Ventral Patch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salati Sajad Ahmad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Umbilical hernia is one the commonest surgical lesions and there is a variety of methods available for its repair. Proceed Ventral Patch is a recent and novel innovation in hernia management and we present a successful management of umbilical hernia in a 45 years old obese patient with this technique

  4. Wireless Arm Patch May Blunt Migraine Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... electrodes and a chip in the patch produce electric impulses that block pain signals from reaching the brain, the study authors said. When a migraine starts, you can control the intensity of the electric impulses using a smartphone app, explained lead researcher ...

  5. A method for detecting hydrophobic patches protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lijnzaad, P.; Berendsen, H.J.C.; Argos, P.

    1996-01-01

    A method for the detection of hydrophobic patches on the surfaces of protein tertiary structures is presented, it delineates explicit contiguous pieces of surface of arbitrary size and shape that consist solely of carbon and sulphur atoms using a dot representation of the solvent-accessible surface,

  6. Evidence-based diagnosis in patch testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Valk, PGM; Devos, SA; Coenraads, PJ

    2003-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is defined as the integration of the best research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values. Based on the principles of EBM, we can conclude that patch testing is cost-effective only if patients are selected on the basis of a clear-cut clinical suspicion of c

  7. Positive patch test reactions to oxidized limonene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bråred Christensson, Johanna; Andersen, Klaus E; Bruze, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: R-Limonene is a common fragrance terpene found in domestic and industrial products. R-Limonene autoxidizes on air exposure, and the oxidation products can cause contact allergy. In a recent multicentre study, 5.2% (range 2.3-12.1%) of 2900 patients showed a positive patch test reactio...

  8. Soil, Seeds, and the Pumpkin Patch!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Marianne; Vowell, Julie

    2013-01-01

    "Soil, Seeds, and the Pumpkin Patch!" is an integrated unit designed to provide elementary school teachers with ideas for using hands-on activities, fostering inquiry and valuable discussion, and using technology as a learning tool. This unit integrates science with language arts, mathematics, literature, and technology. During this unit, students…

  9. Capsaicin patch (Qutenza) for postherpetic neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-30

    The FDA has approved a topical 8% patch formulation of capsaicin (Qutenza-NeurogesX), available only by prescription, for local treatment of postherpetic neuralgia. Postherpetic neuralgia occurs after herpes zoster in about one third of patients ≥60 years old and can persist for months or even years.

  10. Juno Microwave Radiometer Patch Array Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, N.; Chen, J.; Focardi, P.; Hodges, R.; Hughes, R.; Jakoboski, J.; Venkatesan, J.; Zawadzki, M.

    2009-01-01

    Juno is a mission in the NASA New Frontiers Program with the goal of significantly improving our understanding of the formation and structure of Jupiter. This paper discusses the modeling and measurement of the two patch array antennas. An overview of the antenna architecture, design and development at JPL is provided, along with estimates of performance and the results of measurements.

  11. Bye-Bye Flu Shot, Hello Patch?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for intramuscular injection [a flu shot] by a health care professional," he added. Also, "this patch does not need to be refrigerated -- it has ... National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page ...

  12. A method for detecting hydrophobic patches protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lijnzaad, P.; Berendsen, H.J.C.; Argos, P.

    1996-01-01

    A method for the detection of hydrophobic patches on the surfaces of protein tertiary structures is presented, it delineates explicit contiguous pieces of surface of arbitrary size and shape that consist solely of carbon and sulphur atoms using a dot representation of the solvent-accessible surface,

  13. Abundance, distribution and patch formation of zooplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paffenhöfer, Gustav-Adolf; Sherman, Byron K.; Lee, Thomas N.

    The goal of studies described here was to determine the responses of zooplankton taxa to phytoplankton patches which develop in and near intrusions of cold, nutrient-rich Gulf Stream water. To achieve this goal we determined the horizontal and vertical distributions of abundant mesozooplankton taxa on the south-eastern continental shelf of the USA between 29°30‧ and 31°N. The study period was from June 23 to August 16, 1981. Highest concentrations of zooplankton usually occurred in and near patches of phytoplankton. Increased phytoplankton appeared to trigger the formation of patches of the calanoid copepod Temora turbinata and the cyclopoid copepods Oithona spp. and Oncaea spp. The patches of zooplankton had greater alongshore than cross-shelf dimensions. T. turbinata responded rapidly to increased concentrations of phytoplankton by reproducing and aggregating in and above intruded waters. Oithonidae which were often, but not always, abundant in phytoplankton patches eventually attained high concentrations over most of the middle and part of the inner shelf. Their concentration and that of Oncaeidae increased steadily. Oncaeidae were not abundant in recently upwelled waters, as was T. turbinata but reached high concentrations in older intrusions when the abundance of T. turbinata remained level or decreased slowly. Both cyclopoid taxa are thought to reproduce slowly (egg sacs) compared to T. turbinata. Another taxon, the doliolids, became abundant far more rapidly in intruded waters (by asexual reproduction) than did the other three taxa. Doliolids were the most opportunistic intrusion zooplankton form. They do not regularly occur in low abundance on the shelf, as do the three copepod taxa, but develop in pulses in regions where T. turbinata and Oncaea are not abundant. Of the four taxa studied the abundance of doliolids increased and decreased most rapidly, whereas Oithona and Oncaea increased slowly and did not decrease during the study period. T. turbinata

  14. Field Deployable Fiber Bragg Grating Strain Patch for Long-Term Stable Health Monitoring Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Kalinka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A fiber Bragg grating (FBG strain patch specially adapted for long-term and high-strain applications has been developed and characterized. The design concept for the patch is based on a glass-fiber reinforced plastic (gfrp carrier material. The developed concept for the FBG integration into the carrier material was derived from reliable integration procedure of FBG sensors into composite structures. The patches’ temperature sensitivity, strain gauge factor, fiber–matrix interface adhesion and fatigue behavior were characterized. As a result, FBG strain patches with linear temperature and strain behavior, as well as excellent fatigue resistance, were developed and can be used as part of a monitoring system for advanced composite materials in aerospace structures or wind turbine power plants.

  15. Magnetic Patches in Internetwork Quiet Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wijn, Alfred; Lites, B.; Berger, T.; Shine, R.; Title, A.; Katsukawa, Y.; Tsuneta, S.; Suematsu, Y.; Shimizu, T.; Hinode Team

    2007-05-01

    We study strong flux elements in the quiet sun in the context of the nature of quiet-sun magnetism, its coupling to chromospheric, transition-region and coronal fields, and the nature of a local turbulent dynamo. Strong, kilogauss flux elements show up intermittently as small bright points in G-band and Ca II H images. Although bright points have been extensively studied in the magnetic network, internetwork magnetism has only come under scrutiny in recent years. A full spectrum of field strengths seems to be ubiquitously present in the internetwork at small spatial scales, with the stronger elements residing in intergranular lanes. De Wijn et al. (2005) found that bright points in quiet sun internetwork areas appear recurrently with varying intensity and horizontal motion within long-lived patches that outline cell patterns on mesogranular scales. They estimate that the "magnetic patches" have a mean lifetime of nine hours, much longer than granular timescales. We use multi-hour sequences of G-band and Ca II H images as well as magnetograms recorded by the Hinode satellite to follow up on their results. The larger field of view, the longer sequences, the addition of magnetograms, and the absence of atmospheric seeing allows us to better constrain the patch lifetime, to provide much improved statistics on IBP lifetime, to compare IBPs to network bright points, and to study field polarity of IBPs in patches and between nearby patches. Hinode is an international project supported by JAXA, NASA, PPARC and ESA. We are grateful to the Hinode team for all their efforts in the design, build and operation of the mission.

  16. Understanding patch departure rules for large carnivores: lion movements support a patch-disturbance hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeix, Marion; Chamaillé-Jammes, Simon; Loveridge, Andrew J; Davidson, Zeke; Hunt, Jane E; Madzikanda, Hillary; Macdonald, David W

    2011-08-01

    We test two hypotheses that could account for patch departure by large mammalian carnivores. One hypothesis is the unsuccessful-hunt hypothesis, where carnivores leave an area after an unsuccessful hunt but continue hunting in the same area after a successful hunt. The second hypothesis is the patch-disturbance hypothesis, where carnivores depart the area after a successful hunt because of behavioral responses of prey to predator presence. We used global positioning system collars to monitor the movements of African lions (Panthera leo) and identified their kill sites to distinguish between these two hypotheses. Lions moved to a different area (≥ 5 km away) after 87% of the kills, which supports the patch-disturbance hypothesis for patch-departure behavior of large mammalian carnivores.

  17. Foliar fungal communities strongly differ between habitat patches in a landscape mosaic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Fort

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Dispersal events between habitat patches in a landscape mosaic can structure ecological communities and influence the functioning of agrosystems. Here we investigated whether short-distance dispersal events between vineyard and forest patches shape foliar fungal communities. We hypothesized that these communities homogenize between habitats over the course of the growing season, particularly along habitat edges, because of aerial dispersal of spores. Methods We monitored the richness and composition of foliar and airborne fungal communities over the season, along transects perpendicular to edges between vineyard and forest patches, using Illumina sequencing of the Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS2 region. Results In contrast to our expectation, foliar fungal communities in vineyards and forest patches increasingly differentiate over the growing season, even along habitat edges. Moreover, the richness of foliar fungal communities in grapevine drastically decreased over the growing season, in contrast to that of forest trees. The composition of airborne communities did not differ between habitats. The composition of oak foliar fungal communities change between forest edge and centre. Discussion These results suggest that dispersal events between habitat patches are not major drivers of foliar fungal communities at the landscape scale. Selective pressures exerted in each habitat by the host plant, the microclimate and the agricultural practices play a greater role, and might account for the differentiation of foliar fugal communities between habitats.

  18. Light transmission and preference of eye patches for occlusion treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwan Heo

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate light transmission and preference for six eye patches for occlusion therapy. METHODS: Six patches were examined, including; Ortopad Fun Pack, Ortopad Flesh, Kawamoto A-1, Kawamoto A-2, 3M Opticlude, and Everade Eye Guard. The size and the presence of a light blocking pad of patches were investigated. The amount of light transmitted through the patches was evaluated, using a digital light meter and a model eye, in three different environments; indoors with fluorescent light, outdoors on a sunny day, and strong light from illuminator. After patching the normal eye, the flash visual evoked potential (VEP was measured. Thirty patients with amblyopia or horizontal strabismus, who received occlusion therapy as initial treatment, were included. After using all six patches, patients completed a 7-item questionnaire regarding the patch preference for size, color and shape, adhesive power, pain with removal, skin irritation after removing patch, parent's preference and overall opinion. RESULTS: All patches had a light-blocking pad, except the 3M Nexcare. Ortopad had the strongest light blocking power in the three environments, and the 3M Nexcare had the weakest power. In flash VEP, Ortopad and Kawamoto patches showed flat, but 3M Nexcare and Everade Eye Guard showed normal response. There were significant preferential differences among the patches in all the items of the questionnaire (P<0.05. In comparison between the patches respectively, 3M Nexcare received the lowest satisfaction in pain when removing a patch and skin irritation after removing a patch. Kawamoto A-2 received the lowest score in the overall satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: We found differences in the light-blocking power and in the preference of the various patches for the occlusion treatment. This is a pilot study regarding only characteristics and preferences of patches. Further clinical studies regarding the relationship between characteristics or preferences of

  19. Effect of eye patching in rehabilitation of neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola eSmania

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Eye patching (monocular or right hemifield has been proposed to improve visuospatial attention to the ignored field in patients with neglect. The aim of this paper is to review the literature on the effects of eye patching in hemispatial neglect after stroke in order to convey evidence-based recommendations to clinicians in stroke rehabilitation. Thirteen intervention studies were selected from the Medline, EMBASE, Scopus, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, PsychINFO, EBRSR and Health Star databases. Methodological quality was defined according to the Physiotherapy Evidence Database. Overall, seven studies used monocular eye patching, five used right hemifield patching and one compared right monocular with right hemifield patching. Seven studies compared normal viewing to monocular or hemifield patching conditions. Six studies included a period of treatment. Three studies included follow-up evaluations. As to the monocular eye patching, four studies reported positive effects of right monocular patching. One study showed an improvement in hemispatial neglect with left monocular patching. Two studies found no superiority of right versus left monocular patching. One study found no effects of right monocular patching. As to the right hemifield eye patching, one study showed improvements in neglect after right hemifield patching. Three studies found that right hemifield patching combined with another rehabilitation technique was more effective than that treatment alone. One study found no differences between right hemifield patching combined with another treatment and that treatment alone. One study found the same effect between right hemifield patching alone and another rehabilitation technique.Our results globally tend to support the usefulness of right hemifield eye patching in clinical practice. In order to define a level of evidence with the standard rehabilitation evidence rating tools, further properly powered randomized controlled trials or meta

  20. Patch testing in contact dermatitis of hands and feet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda M

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Eighty clinically diagnosed cases of allergic contact dermatitis of hands and feet when subjected to patch testing, Seventy four (92.5% cases showed positive patch test reactions to different suspected antigens. Maximum number of cases belonged to housewives and tea garden workers which showed positive patch test reaction to vegetables and soaps and detergents and pesticides, respectively.

  1. Studying mechanosensitive ion channels with an automated patch clamp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barthmes, Maria; Jose, Mac Donald F; Birkner, Jan Peter; Brüggemann, Andrea; Wahl-Schott, Christian; Kocer, Armagan

    2014-01-01

    Patch clamp electrophysiology is the main technique to study mechanosensitive ion channels (MSCs), however, conventional patch clamping is laborious and success and output depends on the skills of the operator. Even though automated patch systems solve these problems for other ion channels, they cou

  2. Physical properties of gum karaya-starch-essential oil patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbina, Yulia; Roth, Zvi; Nussinovitch, Amos

    2010-09-01

    Essential oils are used in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. Despite the recent marketing of novel essential-oil-containing patches, there is no information on their production, constituents, or physical properties. The objectives of this study were to produce essential-oil patches and characterize their physical properties. The essential oil of Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) was included at concentrations of 2.5% to 10% in patches manufactured from the exudate gum karaya, propylene glycol, glycerol, emulsifier, and optionally, potato starch as filler. Inclusion of essential oil reduced patch strength, stiffness, and elasticity relative to patches without essential oil. Inclusion of starch in the essential-oil patches strengthened them, but reduced their elasticity. Patches' adhesion to substrate was examined by both peeling and probe-tack tests: the higher the inclusion of essential oils within the patch, the larger the decrease in its adhesion to substrate. Addition of starch to essential-oil-containing patches increased their adhesion relative to their essential-oil-only counterparts. Scanning electron micrographs of the patches provided evidence of entrapped starch granules. Although inclusion of essential oil reduced both the mechanical properties and adhesion of the patches, a high proportion of essential oil can still be included without losing patch integrity or eliminating its adhesiveness to the skin.

  3. Smooth surfaces from rational bilinear patches

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Ling

    2014-01-01

    Smooth freeform skins from simple panels constitute a challenging topic arising in contemporary architecture. We contribute to this problem area by showing how to approximate a negatively curved surface by smoothly joined rational bilinear patches. The approximation problem is solved with help of a new computational approach to the hyperbolic nets of Huhnen-Venedey and Rörig and optimization algorithms based on it. We also discuss its limits which lie in the topology of the input surface. Finally, freeform deformations based on Darboux transformations are used to generate smooth surfaces from smoothly joined Darboux cyclide patches; in this way we eliminate the restriction to surfaces with negative Gaussian curvature. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  4. Bilaterally Weighted Patches for Disparity Map Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Fernández Julià

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Visual correspondence is the key for 3D reconstruction in binocular stereovision. Local methods perform block-matching to compute the disparity, or apparent motion, of pixels between images. The simplest approach computes the distance of patches, usually square windows, and assumes that all pixels in the patch have the same disparity. A prominent artifact of the method is the "foreground fattening effet" near depth discontinuities. In order to find a more appropriate support, Yoon and Kweon introduced the use of weights based on color similarity and spatial distance, analogous to those used in the bilateral filter. This paper presents the theory of this method and the implementation we have developed. Moreover, some variants are discussed and improvements are used in the final implementation. Several examples and tests are presented and the parameters and performance of the method are analyzed.

  5. Metamaterial Embedded Wearable Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Joshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an indigenous low-cost metamaterial embedded wearable rectangular microstrip patch antenna using polyester substrate for IEEE 802.11a WLAN applications. The proposed antenna resonates at 5.10 GHz with a bandwidth and gain of 97 MHz and 4.92 dBi, respectively. The electrical size of this antenna is 0.254λ×0.5λ. The slots are cut in rectangular patch to reduce the bending effect. This leads to mismatch the impedance at WLAN frequency band; hence, a metamaterial square SRR is embedded inside the slot. A prototype antenna has been fabricated and tested, and the measured results are presented in this paper. The simulated and measured results of the proposed antenna are found to be in good agreement. The bending effect on the performance of this antenna is experimentally verified.

  6. Mesh saliency with adaptive local patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Anass; Charrier, Christophe; Lézoray, Olivier

    2015-03-01

    3D object shapes (represented by meshes) include both areas that attract the visual attention of human observers and others less or not attractive at all. This visual attention depends on the degree of saliency exposed by these areas. In this paper, we propose a technique for detecting salient regions in meshes. To do so, we define a local surface descriptor based on local patches of adaptive size and filled with a local height field. The saliency of mesh vertices is then defined as its degree measure with edges weights computed from adaptive patch similarities. Our approach is compared to the state-of-the-art and presents competitive results. A study evaluating the influence of the parameters establishing this approach is also carried out. The strength and the stability of our approach with respect to noise and simplification are also studied.

  7. Tunable Patch Antennas Using Microelectromechanical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    wavelength of the desired resonant frequency [1]. (25) To aid in the design process a MATLAB script was written to solve for patch antenna...10–12, the widths of 50 Ω and 112 Ω microstrip lines were calculated using a MATLAB script included as an appendix to this report. The calculated...2009, pp. 50–55. [11] W.L. Stutzman, G.A. Thiele , Antenna Theory and Design, Second Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (Hoboken, New Jersey), 1998, pp

  8. Design of an innovative magnetostrictive patch actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinquemani, S.; Giberti, H.

    2015-04-01

    Magnetostrictive actuators can be profitably used to reduce vibration in structures. However, this technology has been exploited only to develop inertial actuators, while patches actuators have not been ever used in practice. Patches actuators consist on a layer of magnetostrictive material, which has to be stuck to the surface of the vibrating structure, and on a coil surrounding the layer itself. However, the presence of the winding severely limits the use of such devices. As a matter of fact, the scientific literature reports only theoretical uses of such actuators, but, in practice it does not seem they were ever used. This paper presents an innovative solution to improve the structure of the actuator patches, allowing their use in several practical applications. The principle of operation of these devices is rather simple. The actuator patch is able to generate a local deformation of the surface of the vibrating structure so as to introduce an equivalent damping that dissipates the kinetic energy associated to the vibration. This deformation is related to the behavior of the magnetostrictive material immersed in a variable magnetic field generated by the a variable current flowing in the winding. Contrary to what suggested in the theoretical literature, the designed device has the advantage of generating the variable magnetic field no longer in close proximity of the material, but in a different area, thus allowing a better coupling. The magnetic field is then conveyed through a suitable ferromagnetic structure to the magnetostrictive material. The device has been designed and simulated through FEA. Results confirm that the new configuration can easily overcome all the limits of traditional devices.

  9. Broadband Circularly Polarized Patch Antenna and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-16

    embodiment further includes a series of coupling layers 24A, 24B and 24C of low dielectric constant spacers 26 and parallel high dielectric constant...as that used to make a printed circuit board. [0005] A common means of obtaining a circularly polarized signal from a rectangular patch antenna of...in a single plane, coplanar with the emitter, and parallel to the dominant current distribution when the emitter is active. Further coupling layers

  10. Aortic aneurysm after patch aortoplasty for coarctation: analysis of patch size and wall growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hroob, A; Husayni, T S; Freter, A; Chiemmongkoltip, P; Ilbawi, M N; Arcilla, R A

    2003-01-01

    Aortic aneurysm may develop after surgery for coarctation of aorta especially patch aortoplasty. The size of patch and of adjacent native aortic wall was analyzed to determine whether aortic dilatation represents a true aneurysm. Electron beam tomography (EBT) was done on 19 patients, three months to 17.5 years after patch aortoplasty. Tomograms of aorta were obtained in 6-mm slices, and maximal cross-sectional area was digitized to obtain: total circumference (Ct), patch component (Cp), and aortic wall component (Cw). Ct, Cp, and Cw were normalized to the circumference of distal aorta (Cda) as: isthmus/distal aorta (Ct/Cda), patch segment/distal aorta (Cp/Cda), wall segment/distal aorta (Cw/Cda). Ct/Cda ranged from 109% to 260%. In 12 patients (group A), it varied from 168% to 260%; and in seven (group B), 109% to 133%. There was strong correlation (r = 0.92) between Ct/Cda and Cp/Cda. Ct/Cda, Cp/Cda, and Cp/Cw were higher in group A than B (p <0.001) but Cw/Cda did not differ. Cw/Cda was greater than the coarctation/distal aorta diameter ratios of preoperative angiograms, consistent with accelerated aortic wall growth postsurgery. No definite aneurysm was seen. Localized dilatation of aorta following patch aortoplasty in children is primarily due to a large synthetic patch and, partly, to increased aortic wall growth. Serial EBT or magnetic resonance imaging is indicated to monitor aortic wall growth and occurrence of aneurysm.

  11. Optimal patch code design via device characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wencheng; Dalal, Edul N.

    2012-01-01

    In many color measurement applications, such as those for color calibration and profiling, "patch code" has been used successfully for job identification and automation to reduce operator errors. A patch code is similar to a barcode, but is intended primarily for use in measurement devices that cannot read barcodes due to limited spatial resolution, such as spectrophotometers. There is an inherent tradeoff between decoding robustness and the number of code levels available for encoding. Previous methods have attempted to address this tradeoff, but those solutions have been sub-optimal. In this paper, we propose a method to design optimal patch codes via device characterization. The tradeoff between decoding robustness and the number of available code levels is optimized in terms of printing and measurement efforts, and decoding robustness against noises from the printing and measurement devices. Effort is drastically reduced relative to previous methods because print-and-measure is minimized through modeling and the use of existing printer profiles. Decoding robustness is improved by distributing the code levels in CIE Lab space rather than in CMYK space.

  12. Modular assembly of thick multifunctional cardiac patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Sharon; Shapira, Assaf; Feiner, Ron; Dvir, Tal

    2017-01-01

    In cardiac tissue engineering cells are seeded within porous biomaterial scaffolds to create functional cardiac patches. Here, we report on a bottom-up approach to assemble a modular tissue consisting of multiple layers with distinct structures and functions. Albumin electrospun fiber scaffolds were laser-patterned to create microgrooves for engineering aligned cardiac tissues exhibiting anisotropic electrical signal propagation. Microchannels were patterned within the scaffolds and seeded with endothelial cells to form closed lumens. Moreover, cage-like structures were patterned within the scaffolds and accommodated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticulate systems that controlled the release of VEGF, which promotes vascularization, or dexamethasone, an anti-inflammatory agent. The structure, morphology, and function of each layer were characterized, and the tissue layers were grown separately in their optimal conditions. Before transplantation the tissue and microparticulate layers were integrated by an ECM-based biological glue to form thick 3D cardiac patches. Finally, the patches were transplanted in rats, and their vascularization was assessed. Because of the simple modularity of this approach, we believe that it could be used in the future to assemble other multicellular, thick, 3D, functional tissues. PMID:28167795

  13. Miniaturization of Multiple-Layer Folded Patch Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jiaying; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2009-01-01

    A new folded patch antenna with multiple layers was developed in this paper, by folding the patch in a proper way, and a highly miniaturized antenna can be realized. The multiple layer patch with 4-layer and 6-layer are designed and evaluated at 2.4 GHz, 915 MHz, and 415 MHz respectively. Then a 4...... layer patch is fabricated and measured to validate the design method. The theoretical analysis, design and simulations, fabrications, as well as the measurements are presented in this paper. All the results show that the folded patch antenna is a good candidate in making a highly miniaturized compact...... antenna....

  14. Retrospective evaluation of the consequence of alleged patch test sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte D; Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus E

    2006-01-01

    consequences in cases of possible patch test sensitization. Among 7619 consecutively tested eczema patients in a 14-year period 26 (0.3%) were identified in the database as having had a late patch test reaction, which may be an indication of patch test sensitization. 9 of these cases were not suitable....... For the remaining 11 patients we could not rule out that they were patch test sensitized, and they were investigated further. 1 was diseased and 10 were interviewed regarding the possible consequences of the alleged patch test sensitization. 9 had not experienced any dermatitis problems, and 1 could not exclude...

  15. Single image super-resolution based on image patch classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ping; Yan, Hua; Li, Jing; Sun, Jiande

    2017-06-01

    This paper proposed a single image super-resolution algorithm based on image patch classification and sparse representation where gradient information is used to classify image patches into three different classes in order to reflect the difference between the different types of image patches. Compared with other classification algorithms, gradient information based algorithm is simpler and more effective. In this paper, each class is learned to get a corresponding sub-dictionary. High-resolution image patch can be reconstructed by the dictionary and sparse representation coefficients of corresponding class of image patches. The result of the experiments demonstrated that the proposed algorithm has a better effect compared with the other algorithms.

  16. A Pragmatic Approach to Patch Testing Atopic Dermatitis Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jennifer K; Jacob, Sharon E; Nedorost, Susan T

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) may complicate the clinical course of atopic dermatitis (AD), and patch testing remains the criterion standard for diagnosing ACD. To date, there have been no guidelines or consensus recommendations on when and how to patch test individuals with AD. Failure...... to patch test when appropriate may result in overlooking an important and potentially curable complicating comorbidity. In this article, we present consensus recommendations regarding when to perform patch testing in the AD patient, best practices, and common pitfalls. Patch testing should be considered...

  17. Movement of patches during thermoforming: Experiment and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, J. S. U.; Amory, L.; Guillon, D.

    2016-10-01

    The application of local reinforcement like uni-directional patches can locally increase the strength of composite parts without adding much weight. During design through structural analysis, shape and position of local reinforcement can easily be determined. In the thermoforming process, patches can be integrated into the ply-stack by preassembling. During forming, these patches can move and change their position reducing the structural effect of the patch. The movement of patches has been investigated experimentally. Key factors that influence this movement are orientation, size, position in the pile and slope of the mold. The forming process is simulated using HYPERFORM. The results show that this complex process needs special models which can be computationally intensive. In this work, we model the movement of patches and compare with experiments. The final goal is to have a reasonable predictive capability for movement of patches and design the process to minimize it.

  18. A Latent Source Model for Patch-Based Image Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, George H; Shah, Devavrat; Golland, Polina

    2015-10-01

    Despite the popularity and empirical success of patch-based nearest-neighbor and weighted majority voting approaches to medical image segmentation, there has been no theoretical development on when, why, and how well these nonparametric methods work. We bridge this gap by providing a theoretical performance guarantee for nearest-neighbor and weighted majority voting segmentation under a new probabilistic model for patch-based image segmentation. Our analysis relies on a new local property for how similar nearby patches are, and fuses existing lines of work on modeling natural imagery patches and theory for nonparametric classification. We use the model to derive a new patch-based segmentation algorithm that iterates between inferring local label patches and merging these local segmentations to produce a globally consistent image segmentation. Many existing patch-based algorithms arise as special cases of the new algorithm.

  19. Simple relationships to predict attributes of fish assemblages in patches of submerged macrophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Mayer Pelicice

    Full Text Available Submerged macrophytes play an important role in structuring habitats and, therefore, in determining patterns of aquatic biodiversity. Because these plants are widespread in shallow areas of many Neotropical reservoirs, the present work investigated if variables related to habitat structure, measured in patches of submerged macrophytes (Egeria densa and E. najas, can be used to predict fish assemblage attributes (fish density and species richness. Based on patch characteristics at fine spatial extents (macrophyte patches within reservoir arms, we considered plant biomass, volume and proportional volume (i.e. percentage of macrophyte volume in the water column as potential predictors. Fish and macrophytes were sampled with a 1-m² throw trap in littoral habitats of Rosana Reservoir, Paranapanema River, and simple correlation analyses were performed. Fish richness and abundance were highly correlated with all variables (R = 0.53 to 0.90, a relationship consistently observed in all sites. When compared to biomass, plant volume and proportional volume did not yield stronger correlations. We observed stronger correlations when E. densa and E. najas patches were analyzed separately (mono-specificity, probably because particular effects of each macrophyte on habitat structuring were removed (e.g. unnoticed morphological differences or unknown effects on habitat quality. The high R values observed in all pairwise relationships are uncommon in ecological studies, highlighting the predictive potential of variables related to habitat structure. These results suggest that, at small spatial extents, macrophyte biomass may represent an interesting predictor of fish density and richness in reservoirs with extensive colonization of submerged plants.

  20. The effect of cultivation on the size, shape, and persistence of disease patches in fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truscott, J E; Gilligan, C A

    2001-06-19

    Epidemics of soil-borne plant disease are characterized by patchiness because of restricted dispersal of inoculum. The density of inoculum within disease patches depends on a sequence comprising local amplification during the parasitic phase followed by dispersal of inoculum by cultivation during the intercrop period. The mechanisms that control size, shape, and persistence have received very little rigorous attention in epidemiological theory. Here we derive a model for dispersal of inoculum in soil by cultivation that takes account into the discrete stochastic nature of the system in time and space. Two parameters, probability of movement and mean dispersal distance, characterize lateral dispersal of inoculum by cultivation. The dispersal parameters are used in combination with the characteristic area and dimensions of host plants to identify criteria that control the shape and size of disease patches. We derive a critical value for the probability of movement for the formation of cross-shaped patches and show that this is independent of the amount of inoculum. We examine the interaction between local amplification of inoculum by parasitic activity and subsequent dilution by dispersal and identify criteria whereby asymptomatic patches may persist as inoculum falls below a threshold necessary for symptoms to appear in the subsequent crop. The model is motivated by the spread of rhizomania, an economically important soil-borne disease of sugar beet. However, the results have broad applicability to a very wide range of diseases that survive as discrete units of inoculum. The application of the model to patch dynamics of weed seeds and local introductions of genetically modified seeds is also discussed.

  1. Fine-Tuning on the Effective Patch Radius Expression of the Circular Microstrip Patch Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Yilmaz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effective patch radius expression for the circular microstrip antennas is improved by means of several manipulations. Departing from previously proposed equations in the literature, one of the most accurate equations is picked up, and this equation is fine-tuned by means of Particle Swarm Optimization technique. Throughout the study, impacts of other parameters (such as the definition of the fitness/objective function, the degree-of-freedom in the proposed effective patch radius expression, the number of measured resonant frequency values are observed in a controlled manner. Finally, about 3% additional improvement is achieved over a very accurate formula, which was proposed earlier.

  2. Patch-based vehicle logo detection with patch intensity and weight matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海明; 黄樟灿; Ahmed Mahgoub Ahmed Talab

    2015-01-01

    A patch-based method for detecting vehicle logos using prior knowledge is proposed. By representing the coarse region of the logo with the weight matrix of patch intensity and position, the proposed method is robust to bad and complex environmental conditions. The bounding-box of the logo is extracted by a thershloding approach. Experimental results show that 93.58% location accuracy is achieved with 1100 images under various environmental conditions, indicating that the proposed method is effective and suitable for the location of vehicle logo in practical applications.

  3. Reinforcement of a plate weakened by multiple holes with several patches for different types of plate-patch attachment

    KAUST Repository

    Zemlyanova, A.

    2014-01-24

    The most general situation of the reinforcement of a plate with multiple holes by several patches is considered. There is no restriction on the number and the location of the patches. Two types of patch attachment are considered: only along the boundary of the patch or both along the boundary of the patch and the boundaries of the holes which this patch covers. The unattached boundaries of the holes may be loaded with given in-plane stresses. The mechanical problem is reduced to a system of singular integral equations which can be further reduced to a system of Fredholm equations. A new numerical procedure for the solution of the system of singular integral equations is proposed in this paper. It is demonstrated on numerical examples that this procedure has advantages in the case of multiple patches and holes and allows achievement of better numerical convergence with less computational effort.

  4. Contact Dermatitis, Patch Testing, and Allergen Avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkemper, Nicole M

    2015-01-01

    In patients presenting with a complaint of rash, contact dermatitis is often the underlying diagnosis making it an entity with which health care providers should be familiar. Contact dermatitis can be divided into irritant contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis. In a patient suspected of having allergic contact dermatitis, patch testing can be done to identify specific allergens. Education focused on allergen avoidance and safe products is an integral part of treatment for the contact dermatitis patient. Knowledge of the most common allergens is helpful for clinicians to be able to provide this education.

  5. Patch Testing In Soldiers : An Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walia N. S

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Our study concerns contact sensitization in soldiers, the frequency of which is poorly documented. During a six-year period, 128 patients of age range 17-50 years were patch tested with the Indian standard battery of 30 allergens. We obtained a reaction in 23 (18% of our patients. Nickel sulfate, fragrance mix, wool alcohol and parthenium induced most of the positive responses. In addition, an irritant reaction was seen in 16 (12.5% of our patients. Patients of atopic dermatitis and hand/foot dermatoses evoked a high sensitivity response. Adverse effects were seen in 15 patients.

  6. Patch testing with Indian standard series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra G

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Hundred patients (61 males, 39 females suspected to have allergic contact dermatitis were patch tested with Indian standard series (ISS. Forty four showed one or more positive reactions. The frequent sensitizers observed were nickel sulphate-12 (15%, potassium dichromate-11 (13.75%, cobalt chloride and colophony-7 (8.75% each, fragrance mix and thiuram mix-6 (7.5% each. The ISS differs from the European Standard Series by inclusion of propylene glycol, nitrofurazone, gentamicin, chlorocresol, PEG-400 and ethylenediamine chloride where assesquiterpene lactone mix and primin allergens are excluded.

  7. Lidocaine patches reduce pain in trauma patients with rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Karen A; Mayberry, John C; Peck, Ellen G; Schreiber, Martin A

    2011-04-01

    Rib fracture pain is notoriously difficult to manage. The lidocaine patch is effective in other pain scenarios with an excellent safety profile. This study assesses the efficacy of lidocaine patches for treating rib fracture pain. A prospectively gathered cohort of patients with rib fracture was retrospectively analyzed for use of lidocaine patches. Patients treated with lidocaine patches were matched to control subjects treated without patches. Subjective pain reports and narcotic use before and after patch placement, or equivalent time points for control subjects, were gathered from the chart. All patients underwent long-term follow-up, including a McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ). Twenty-nine patients with lidocaine patches (LP) and 29 matched control subjects (C) were analyzed. During the 24 hours before patch placement, pain scores and narcotic use were similar (LP 5.3, C 4.6, P = 0.19 and LP 51, C 32 mg morphine, P = 0.17). In the 24 hours after patch placement, LP patients had a greater decrease in pain scores (LP 1.2, C 0.0, P = 0.01) with no change in narcotic use (LP -8.4, C 0.5-mg change in morphine, P = 0.25). At 60 days, LP patients had a lower MPQ pain score (LP 7.7, C 12.2, P rib fracture pain. Lidocaine patches resulted in a sustained reduction in pain, outlasting the duration of therapy.

  8. Contribution of Root Proliferation in Nutrient-Rich Soil Patches to Nutrient Uptake and Growth of Maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hong-Bo; ZHANG Fu-Suo; SHEN Jian-Bo

    2012-01-01

    Root proliferation can be stimulated in a heterogeneous nutrient patch; however,the functions of the root proliferation in the nutrient-rich soil patches are not fully understood.In the present study,a two-year field experiment was conducted to examine the comparative effects of localized application of ammonium and phosphorus (P) at early or late stages on root growth,nutrient uptake,and biomass of maize (Zea mays L.) on a calcareous soil in an intensive farming system.Localized supply of ammonium and P had a more evident effect on shoot and root growth,and especially stimulated fine root development at the early seedling stage,with most of the maize roots being allocated to the nutrient-rich patch in the topsoil.Although localized ammonium and P supply at the late stage also enhanced the fine root growth,the plant roots in the patch accounted for a low proportion of the whole maize roots in the topsoil at the flowering stage.Compared with the early stage,fine root length in the short-lived nutrient patch decreased by 44%-62% and the shoot dry weight was not different between heterogeneous and homogeneous nutrient supply at the late growth stage.Localized supply of ammonium and P significantly increased N and P accumulation by maize at 35 and 47 days after sowing (DAS); however,no significant difference was found among the treatments at 82 DAS and the later growth stages.The increased nutrient uptake and plant growth was related to the higher proportion of root length in the localized nutrient-enriched patch.The results indicated that root proliferation in nutrient patches contributed more to maize growth and nutrient uptake at the early than late stages.

  9. Patch forest: a hybrid framework of random forest and patch-based segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhongliu; Gillies, Duncan

    2016-03-01

    The development of an accurate, robust and fast segmentation algorithm has long been a research focus in medical computer vision. State-of-the-art practices often involve non-rigidly registering a target image with a set of training atlases for label propagation over the target space to perform segmentation, a.k.a. multi-atlas label propagation (MALP). In recent years, the patch-based segmentation (PBS) framework has gained wide attention due to its advantage of relaxing the strict voxel-to-voxel correspondence to a series of pair-wise patch comparisons for contextual pattern matching. Despite a high accuracy reported in many scenarios, computational efficiency has consistently been a major obstacle for both approaches. Inspired by recent work on random forest, in this paper we propose a patch forest approach, which by equipping the conventional PBS with a fast patch search engine, is able to boost segmentation speed significantly while retaining an equal level of accuracy. In addition, a fast forest training mechanism is also proposed, with the use of a dynamic grid framework to efficiently approximate data compactness computation and a 3D integral image technique for fast box feature retrieval.

  10. Improving Saliency Models by Predicting Human Fixation Patches

    KAUST Repository

    Dubey, Rachit

    2015-04-16

    There is growing interest in studying the Human Visual System (HVS) to supplement and improve the performance of computer vision tasks. A major challenge for current visual saliency models is predicting saliency in cluttered scenes (i.e. high false positive rate). In this paper, we propose a fixation patch detector that predicts image patches that contain human fixations with high probability. Our proposed model detects sparse fixation patches with an accuracy of 84 % and eliminates non-fixation patches with an accuracy of 84 % demonstrating that low-level image features can indeed be used to short-list and identify human fixation patches. We then show how these detected fixation patches can be used as saliency priors for popular saliency models, thus, reducing false positives while maintaining true positives. Extensive experimental results show that our proposed approach allows state-of-the-art saliency methods to achieve better prediction performance on benchmark datasets.

  11. SafePatch for Windows Version 1.0 User Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, D; Meier, T

    2003-05-01

    SafePatch for Windows provides automated analysis of network-based Microsoft Windows{trademark} computer systems to determine the status of security patches. SafePatch determines what patches need to be installed on a system or group of systems. SafePatch collects and packages the necessary patches and the script to install those patches for the selected remote systems. SafePatch for Windows also supports browsing the Microsoft{trademark} patch database and the viewing of the bulletins associated with the patches.

  12. The hedgehog receptor patched is involved in cholesterol transport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Bidet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sonic hedgehog (Shh signaling plays a crucial role in growth and patterning during embryonic development, and also in stem cell maintenance and tissue regeneration in adults. Aberrant Shh pathway activation is involved in the development of many tumors, and one of the most affected Shh signaling steps found in these tumors is the regulation of the signaling receptor Smoothened by the Shh receptor Patched. In the present work, we investigated Patched activity and the mechanism by which Patched inhibits Smoothened. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using the well-known Shh-responding cell line of mouse fibroblasts NIH 3T3, we first observed that enhancement of the intracellular cholesterol concentration induces Smoothened enrichment in the plasma membrane, which is a crucial step for the signaling activation. We found that binding of Shh protein to its receptor Patched, which involves Patched internalization, increases the intracellular concentration of cholesterol and decreases the efflux of a fluorescent cholesterol derivative (BODIPY-cholesterol from these cells. Treatment of fibroblasts with cyclopamine, an antagonist of Shh signaling, inhibits Patched expression and reduces BODIPY-cholesterol efflux, while treatment with the Shh pathway agonist SAG enhances Patched protein expression and BODIPY-cholesterol efflux. We also show that over-expression of human Patched in the yeast S. cerevisiae results in a significant boost of BODIPY-cholesterol efflux. Furthermore, we demonstrate that purified Patched binds to cholesterol, and that the interaction of Shh with Patched inhibits the binding of Patched to cholesterol. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that Patched may contribute to cholesterol efflux from cells, and to modulation of the intracellular cholesterol concentration. This activity is likely responsible for the inhibition of the enrichment of Smoothened in the plasma membrane, which is an important step in Shh pathway

  13. Dendritic Actin Filament Nucleation Causes Traveling Waves and Patches

    CERN Document Server

    Carlsson, Anders E

    2010-01-01

    The polymerization of actin via branching at a cell membrane containing nucleation-promoting factors is simulated using a stochastic-growth methodology. The polymerized-actin distribution displays three types of behavior: a) traveling waves, b) moving patches, and c) random fluctuations. Increasing actin concentration causes a transition from patches to waves. The waves and patches move by a treadmilling mechanism which does not require myosin II. The effects of downregulation of key proteins on actin wave behavior are evaluated.

  14. Physical Properties of Gum Karaya-Starch-Essential Oil Patches

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Essential oils are used in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. Despite the recent marketing of novel essential-oil-containing patches, there is no information on their production, constituents, or physical properties. The objectives of this study were to produce essential-oil patches and characterize their physical properties. The essential oil of Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) was included at concentrations of 2.5% to 10% in patches manufactured from the exudate gum karaya, propylene g...

  15. Cost benefit of patch testing with textile finish resins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Hamann, K

    1982-01-01

    Eleven years experience of textile finish resin patch testing of suspected textile dermatitis patients revealed 15 cases of allergic textile dermatitis among 428 patients tested. Ten of the 15 patients had a relevant positive patch test to one or more of a limited series of textile finishes; 1...... was negative and 4 were not tested with textile finishes. All 15 patients were formaldehyde sensitive. No unexpected, relevant, positive textile finish resin patch test was found. In this study a negative patch test to formaldehyde virtually excluded allergic contact dermatitis from textile finishes....

  16. Histological distinction between early allergic and irritant patch test reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, L; Clemmensen, Ole; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1999-01-01

    differentiate between early allergic and irritant patch test reactions. 8 patients with known contact allergy to either colophony or quarternium-15 participated in the study. In each patient, allergic and irritant patch tests reactions were elicited, and 4-mm punch biopsies were taken after 6 8 h from...... clinically equipotent reactions. Paired sets of slides were assessed blindly by 2 pathologists. 1 patient showing a pityrosporum folliculitis was excluded from the study. All biopsies from allergic patch tests were characterized by follicular spongiosis, while biopsies from irritant patch tests showed...... the diagnostic significance of the histological classification of allergic and irritant cutaneous reactions in punch biopsies....

  17. Facile route to morphologically tailored silver patches on colloidal particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klupp Taylor, Robin N; Bao, Huixin; Tian, Chenting; Vasylyev, Serhiy; Peukert, Wolfgang

    2010-08-17

    Here we demonstrate, for the first time, the heterogeneous nucleation and growth of silver patches on submicrometer silica spheres. While patches can be grown directly onto native silica particles, it is shown that a higher patch yield can be obtained by first treating the silica with a mixture of an alkanolamine and silver nitrate. Variation of the pretreatment and subsequent coating reactions allowed the patch yield, number, size, thickness, and shape to be adjusted. The patchy particles were shown to possess plasmon modes extending from the visible into the near-IR region, making these structures highly interesting for both their asymmetric morphological and functional properties.

  18. Blending Parametric Patches with Subdivision Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李桂清; 李华

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the problem of blending parametric surfaces using subdivision patches is discussed. A new approach, named removing-boundary, is presented to generate piecewise-smooth subdivision surfaces through discarding the outmost quadrilaterals of the open meshes derived by each subdivision step. Then the approach is employed both to blend parametric bicubic B-spline surfaces and to fill n-sided holes. It is easy to produce piecewisesmooth subdivision surfaces with both convex and concave corners on the boundary, and limit surfaces are guaranteed to be C2 continuous on the boundaries except for a few singular points by the removing-boundary approach. Thus the blending method is very efficient and the blending surface generated is of good effect.

  19. E-SHAPED STACKED BROADBAND PATCH ANTENNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Rochani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A coaxial feed modified E-shaped patch antenna has been presented with parametric study of the antenna parameters. The proposed antenna is designed for WLAN and WiMAX applications from 5 – 6 GHz. The 5 – 6 GHz band has been chosen because it provides higher data rate (>50 Mbps for laptops, note-book computers and many new wireless digital applications devices without interference. Although current 5.0 GHz wireless computer network systems operated from 5.15 GHz – 5.35 GHz band. But in future, for faster data rate 5.725 – 5.85 GHz band becomes popular in addition to 5.15 – 5.35 GHz.

  20. Patch test reactivity to feverfew-containing creams in feverfew-allergic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Christensen, Lars P; Fretté, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    Background: The Compositae plant feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) has long been recognized as an important sensitizer in European Compositae-allergic patients, mainly because of its content of the sesquiterpene lactone parthenolide. Recently, a parthenolide-depleted feverfew extract with claimed...... with feverfew contact allergy were patch tested with two creams containing the feverfew extract. Subsequently, the creams were analysed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry to detect parthenolide. Results: Four of the patients tested positive to one of the creams; reactivity was associated...... with simultaneous positive reactions to parthenolide. This cream was analysed about 2 years later, and no parthenolide was detected, probably because of degradation of the compound. Conclusions: Topical products containing parthenolide-depleted feverfew extracts may elicit positive patch test reactions in feverfew...

  1. Texture synthesis via the matching compatibility between patches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG WenCheng; LIU FeiTong; HUANG PeiJie; WU EnHua

    2009-01-01

    A new patch-based texture synthesis method is presented in this paper.By the method,a set of patches that can be matched with a sampled patch for growing textures effectively,called the matching compatibility between patches,is generated first for each patch,and the set is further optimized by culling the patches that may cause synthesis conflicts.In this way,similarity measurement calculation for selecting suitable patches in texture synthesis can be greatly saved,and synthesis conflicts between neighbouring patches are substantially reduced.Furthermore,retrace computation is Integrated in the synthesis process to improve the texture quality.As a result,the new method can produce high quality textures as texture optimization,the best method to date for producing good textures,and run in a time complexity linear to the size of the output texture.Experimental results show that the new method can interactively generate a large texture in 1024 × 1024 pixels,which is very difficult to achieve by existing methods.

  2. Hydrophobic patches on the surfaces of protein structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lijnzaad, P.; Berendsen, H.J.C.; Argos, P.

    1996-01-01

    A survey of hydrophobic patches on the surface of 112 soluble, monomeric proteins is presented, The largest patch on each individual protein averages around 400 Angstrom(2) but can range from 200 to 1,200 Angstrom(2). These areas are not correlated to the sizes of the proteins and only weakly to the

  3. Patch based predation in a southern Appalachian stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.A. Gibson; R.E. Ratajezak; G.D. Grossman

    2004-01-01

    Streams are characterized by high degrees of patchiness that could influence the role of predators in these systems. Here we assess the impact of predatory benthic fishes on benthic macroinvertebrate density, biomass, and community structure at the patch scale in a fourth order stream in the southern Appalachians. We tested the role of predation in two different patch...

  4. Trends and developments in two decades of patch testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christoffers, W.A.; Schuttelaar, M.-L.A.; Coenraads, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Allergic contact dermatitis is a common condition with an estimated lifetime prevalence of 19.5%. The diagnosis is confirmed by patch tests. This study aims to visualise trends and developments in patch testing over 23 years and to evaluate the influence of legal restrictions with spec

  5. Phosphorus leaching from cow manure patches on soil columns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chardon, W.J.; Aalderink, G.H.; Salm, van der C.

    2007-01-01

    The loss of P in overland flow or leachate from manure patches can impair surface water quality. We studied leaching of P from 10-cmhigh lysimeters filled with intact grassland soil or with acid-washed sand. A manure patch was created on two grassland and two sandfilled lysimeters, and an additional

  6. Organic transdermal iontophoresis patch with built-in biofuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yudai; Kato, Koichiro; Miyake, Takeo; Nagamine, Kuniaki; Ofuji, Takuya; Yoshino, Syuhei; Nishizawa, Matsuhiko

    2015-03-11

    A completely organic iontophoresis patch is reported. A built-in biofuel cell is mounted on the patch that generates transdermal iontophoretic administration of compounds into the skin. The amplitude of transdermal current is tuned by integrating a conducting polymer-based stretchable resistor of predetermined resistance.

  7. SIERPIENSKI & CROWN SQUARE FRACTAL SHAPES SLOTTED MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Yogesh Bhomia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new Sierpienski & Crown Square Fractal Shapes Slotted Microstrip Patch Antenna is proposed. A patch antenna is a narrowband, wide-beam antenna. These antennas are low profile, conformal to planar and non-planar surface, simple and inexpensive to manufacture using modern printed circuit technology, mechanically robust when mounted on rigid surface, compatible with MMIC designs and when the particular shape and mode are selected they are very versatile in terms of resonant frequency, polarization, field pattern and impedance. Microstrip patch antenna consist of a very thin metallic strip (patch placed a small fraction of a wavelength above a ground plane. The patch is generally made of conducting material such as copper or gold and can take any possible shape. This paper presents a design of Sierpienski & Crown Square Fractal Shapes Slotted Microstrip Patch Antenna and experimentally studied on IE3D software. This design is achieved by cutting Sierpienski & Crown Square Fractal Shapes Slottes in a patch. With Sierpienski & Crown Square Fractal Shapes patch antenna is designed on a FR4 substrate of thickness 1.524 mm and relative permittivity of 4.4 and mounted above the ground plane at a height of 6 mm. Bandwidth as high as 36.6% are achieved with stable pattern characteristics, such as gain and cross polarization, within its bandwidth. Impedance bandwidth, antenna gain and return loss are observed for the proposed antenna. Details of the measured and simulated results are presented and discussed.

  8. Cell-Detection Technique for Automated Patch Clamping

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Mark; Gray, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    A unique and customizable machinevision and image-data-processing technique has been developed for use in automated identification of cells that are optimal for patch clamping. [Patch clamping (in which patch electrodes are pressed against cell membranes) is an electrophysiological technique widely applied for the study of ion channels, and of membrane proteins that regulate the flow of ions across the membranes. Patch clamping is used in many biological research fields such as neurobiology, pharmacology, and molecular biology.] While there exist several hardware techniques for automated patch clamping of cells, very few of those techniques incorporate machine vision for locating cells that are ideal subjects for patch clamping. In contrast, the present technique is embodied in a machine-vision algorithm that, in practical application, enables the user to identify good and bad cells for patch clamping in an image captured by a charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera attached to a microscope, within a processing time of one second. Hence, the present technique can save time, thereby increasing efficiency and reducing cost. The present technique involves the utilization of cell-feature metrics to accurately make decisions on the degree to which individual cells are "good" or "bad" candidates for patch clamping. These metrics include position coordinates (x,y) in the image plane, major-axis length, minor-axis length, area, elongation, roundness, smoothness, angle of orientation, and degree of inclusion in the field of view. The present technique does not require any special hardware beyond commercially available, off-the-shelf patch-clamping hardware: A standard patchclamping microscope system with an attached CCD camera, a personal computer with an imagedata- processing board, and some experience in utilizing imagedata- processing software are all that are needed. A cell image is first captured by the microscope CCD camera and image-data-processing board, then the image

  9. Performance of NBPE in Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we use a rectangular microstrip patch antenna with fed patch contains four notches of equal Length and width (L×W and having one parasitic patch, to achieve dual band operation of proposed microstrip patch antenna, is analyzed using circuit theory concept. The theoretical and simulated results of proposed antenna are compared. The return loss of NBPE using rectangular microstrip patch antenna decreased and bandwidth at dual operating frequency 1.44 GHz & 1.80 GHz are increased at a substrate height of 1.6 mm. This paper shows the decreased in return loss & improves in Gain as well as bandwidth using NBPE. These structures are simulated using IE3D version 12.29 Zeland software incorporation.

  10. Analysis of a multi patch dynamical model about cattle brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The dissemination of cattle brucellosis in Zhejiang province of China can be attributed to the transport of cattle between cities within the province. In this paper,an n-patch dynamical model is proposed to study the effect of cattle dispersal on brucellosis spread. Theoretically,we analyze the dynamical behavior of the muti-patch model. For the 2-patch submodel,sensitivity analyses of the basic reproduction number R0 and the number of the infectious cattle in term of model parameters are carried out. By numerical analysis,it is obtained that the dispersal of susceptible cattle between patches and the centralization of infected cattle to the large scale patch can alleviate the epidemic and are in favor of the control of disease in the whole region.

  11. Nickel patch test reactivity and the menstrual cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohold, A E; Halkier-Sørensen, L; Thestrup-Pedersen, K;

    1994-01-01

    Premenstrual exacerbation of allergic contact dermatitis and varying allergic patch test responses have been reported at different points of the period. Using a dilution series of nickel sulphate, we studied the variation in patch test reactivity in nickel allergic women in relation...... to the menstrual cycle. Twenty women with regular periods were tested on day 7-10 and on day 20-24. Ten nickel patch tests with different concentrations were applied using the TRUE test assay, and the threshold concentration of nickel sulphate eliciting an erythematous reaction was determined. Half of the women...... an increased nickel sensitivity at the second patch test (0.02 nickel sulphate patch tests premenstrually in 20 nickel allergic women, but we found that elicitation...

  12. Dual-Band Microstrip Patch Antenna Miniaturization Using Metamaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrasen Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A dual-band microstrip patch antenna is designed and analyzed using metamaterial artificial substrate. Metamaterial based substrate is designed using Square Split Ring Resonator (SSRR and Wire Strip. The antenna is tuned to work at two resonating frequencies in the frequency range from 1 GHz to 4 GHz depending on the geometric specifications of SSRR, strip line, radiating patch, and feed location point. Proposed antenna provides good return loss behavior at both resonating frequencies. The obtained VSWR at both resonating frequencies is very much near to 1. Proposed antenna covers applications in mobile communication and Wi-MAX. Proposed patch antenna is compared with the conventional patch antenna, which shows the significant miniaturization as compared to conventional patch antenna.

  13. Formulation and Characterization of Transdermal Patches of Losartan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujjawal Nautiyal*1, Devendra Singh2

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Administration of drugs through skin has received great attention through the last decade. Hence this study aims to formulate an anti-hypertensive drug losartan as transdermal patch using different bioadhesive polymers such as ethyl cellulose, cellulose acetate, and polyvinyl pyrrolidon,hydroxyl propylemethylcellulose with plasticizers propylene glycol (PG. Patches were prepared though solvent evaporation method, The backing membrane was a non permeable aluminium foil laminated with polyethylene and evaluated for thickness uniformity, Uniformity of weight, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Surface pH, Swelling studies, Drug content uniformity Effect on agingn, skin irritation potential, and In vitro release study.Patches exhibited controlled release over more than 2 hr.It was concluded that patches containing 30 mg of losartane with HPMC (formulation F2 ,showed moderate swelling, surface pH and controlled drug release, thus can be selected for the development of transdermal patches for effective uses.

  14. Low-Power Optically Controlled Patch Antenna of Reconfigurable Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshuang Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel compact beam-reconfigurable patch antenna based on light control of no more than 30 mW optical powers is successfully demonstrated. It consists of one T-shape driven patch and one slot-etched parasitic patch. A silicon dice is employed as the photoconductive switch that is bridged across the slot center for optical control of reconfigurable beams. The antenna greatly reduces the total optical powers required for reconfigurable beams. Such design is based on the fact that the current phase change of the parasitic patch is sensitive to the conductivity of the silicon dice. A few conductivity changes of the silicon dice induced by the optical light can lead to a big phase change of the parasitic patch currents, eventually resulting in reconfigurable beams with low optical power requirement.

  15. Does the patch fit the stoma? A study on peristoma geometry and patch use in laryngectomized patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Houwen, E. B.; van Kalkeren, T. A.; Post, W. J.; Hilgers, F. J. M.; van der Laan, B. F. A. M.; Verkerke, G. J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the geometry of (peri) stomas of laryngectomised patients in relation to patch use. This data will enable improvement of tracheostoma interfaces, specifically addressing patients currently unable to use stoma patches. The low use of Heat-and-Moisture-Exchange (HME) filters an

  16. Does the patch fit the stoma? A study on peristoma geometry and patch use in laryngectomized patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Houwen, E.B.; van Kalkeren, T.A.; Post, W.J.; Hilgers, F.J.M.; van der Laan, B.F.A.M.; Verkerke, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the geometry of (peri)stomas of laryngectomised patients in relation to patch use. This data will enable improvement of tracheostoma interfaces, specifically addressing patients currently unable to use stoma patches. The low use of Heat-and-Moisture-Exchange (HME) filters and

  17. GLOBAL STABILITY OF EXTENDED MULTI-GROUP SIR EPIDEMIC MODELS WITH PATCHES THROUGH MIGRATION AND CROSS PATCH INFECTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshiaki MUROYA; Yoichi ENATSU; Toshikazu KUNIYA

    2013-01-01

    In this article,we establish the global stability of an endemic equilibrium of multi-group SIR epidemic models,which have not only an exchange of individuals between patches through migration but also cross patch infection between different groups.As a result,we partially generalize the recent result in the article [16].

  18. SubPatch: random kd-tree on a sub-sampled patch set for nearest neighbor field estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersoli, Fabrizio; Benini, Sergio; Adami, Nicola; Okuda, Masahiro; Leonardi, Riccardo

    2015-02-01

    We propose a new method to compute the approximate nearest-neighbors field (ANNF) between image pairs using random kd-tree and patch set sub-sampling. By exploiting image coherence we demonstrate that it is possible to reduce the number of patches on which we compute the ANNF, while maintaining high overall accuracy on the final result. Information on missing patches is then recovered by interpolation and propagation of good matches. The introduction of the sub-sampling factor on patch sets also allows for setting the desired trade off between accuracy and speed, providing a flexibility that lacks in state-of-the-art methods. Tests conducted on a public database prove that our algorithm achieves superior performance with respect to PatchMatch (PM) and Coherence Sensitivity Hashing (CSH) algorithms in a comparable computational time.

  19. Flexural waves focusing through shunted piezoelectric patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, K.; Collet, M.; Ichchou, M.; Li, L.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we designed and analyzed a piezo-lens to focus flexural waves in thin plates. The piezo-lens is comprised of a host plate and piezoelectric arrays bonded on the surfaces of the plate. The piezoelectric patches are shunted with negative capacitance circuits. The effective refractive indexes inside the piezo-lens are designed to fit a hyperbolic secant distribution by tuning the negative capacitance values. A homogenized model of a piezo-mechanical system is adopted in the designing process of the piezo-lens. The wave focusing effect is studied by the finite element method. Numerical results show that the piezo-lens can focus flexural waves by bending their trajectories, and is effective in a large frequency band. The piezo-lens has the ability to focus flexural waves at different locations by tuning the shunting negative capacitance values. The piezo-lens is shown to be effective for flexural waves generated by different types of sources.

  20. Is Cervical Inlet Patch Important Clinical Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAHIN, Gurol; ADAS, Gokhan; KOC, Bora; AKCAKAYA, Adem; DOGAN, Yasar; Goksel, Suha; Yalcin, Ozben

    2014-01-01

    AIM: In this study we aim to determine the frequency of Inlet Patch (IP) and its association to clinical symptoms and draw attention to be aware of this heterotopic gastric mucosa. METHODS: This study was a prospective case series that IP was detected in the upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Patients with laringopharyngeal reflux symptoms underwent endoscopy between March 2009 and July 2012 in two different institutions. All the biopsies were obtained from if there is the IP lesion and antral or/and gastric mucosa. The data was prospectively evaluated. The prevalence was compared with those of patients that did not determine IP in the study period. RESULTS: 3907 upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy was performed while 123 patients consist of 51 male and 72 female was determined as IP. The prevalence of IP in patiens who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was 3.14% in our study. The majority of symptoms of those who had IP were laringopharyngeal reflux symptoms. Heterotopic gastric mucosa was fixed in 114 cases while 28 chronic inflammation, 9 esophagitis, 5 intestinal metaplasia, 4 glicogenic acanthosis were obtained as additional findings in pathological examinations. CONCLUSION: Heterotopic gastric mucosa in the proximal esophagus is a frequent finding if the endoscopist is aware of this entity. The importance of IP is the increasing number of cases of neoplastic transformation. Symptomatic patients should be treated and should be considered of the complications of heterotopic gastric mucosa. PMID:25018682

  1. TRIMETAZIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE TRANSDERMAL PATCH: FORMULATION AND IN-VITRO EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarfaraz Md

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to formulate and evaluate matrix-type transdermal formulations containing trimetazidine hydrochloride with polymers such as carboxymethyl chitosan and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC 5cps by solvent evaporation technique with glycerin, as plasticizer. The prepared patches were tested for their physicochemical characteristics such as thickness, weight variation, drug content uniformity, folding endurance and tensile strength. The partition coefficient study was performed using n-octanol as the organic phase and phosphate buffer pH 7.4 as an aqueous phase and it was found to be 1.01. In-vitro release studies of trimetazidine hydrochloride-loaded patches in phosphate buffer (pH, 7.4 exhibited drug release in the range of 89.40 to 92.10 % in 24 hrs. The parameter flux (J was calculated and it was in the range of 1.325 to 2.898 mg/cm2/hr. Based on optimization studies, patches containing carboxymethyl chitosan patches were chosen as optimized formulation. Skin irritation studies were performed on optimized transdermal patch and were found to be free of irritation. The patches were subjected to short term stability studies and were found stable. FTIR studies revealed no interactions between drug and excipients. Data of in vitro release from optimized patches were fit in to different equations and kinetic models such as zero order, first-order, Higuchi and Korsmeyer-Peppas models to explain release kinetics.

  2. Sub-Patch Roughness in Earthquake Rupture Investigations

    KAUST Repository

    Zielke, Olaf

    2016-02-13

    Fault geometric complexities exhibit fractal characteristics over a wide range of spatial scales (<µm to >km) and strongly affect the rupture process at corresponding scales. Numerical rupture simulations provide a framework to quantitatively investigate the relationship between a fault\\'s roughness and its seismic characteristics. Fault discretization however introduces an artificial lower limit to roughness. Individual fault patches are planar and sub-patch roughness –roughness at spatial scales below fault-patch size– is not incorporated. Does negligence of sub-patch roughness measurably affect the outcome of earthquake rupture simulations? We approach this question with a numerical parameter space investigation and demonstrate that sub-patch roughness significantly modifies the slip-strain relationship –a fundamental aspect of dislocation theory. Faults with sub-patch roughness induce less strain than their planar-fault equivalents at distances beyond the length of a slipping fault. We further provide regression functions that characterize the stochastic effect sub-patch roughness.

  3. Investigation of the homogeneity of methacrylate allergens in commercially available patch test preparations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Kristian Fredløv; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Christensen, Lars Porskjaer

    2013-01-01

    The homogeneity of methacrylates in commercial patch test preparations has not yet been investigated. Inhomogeneous patch test preparations may give rise to false-negative or false-positive patch test results in patients suspected of having methacrylate allergy....

  4. Reconfigurable Wideband Circularly Polarized Stacked Square Patch Antenna for Cognitive Radios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa Kortright, Miguel A.; Waldstein, Seth W.; Simons, Rainee N.

    2017-01-01

    An almost square patch and a square patch with corner truncation for circularly polarized (CP) and a stacked CP square patch are researched and developed at X-band for cognitive devices. A draft set of presentation charts are attached.

  5. Multi-Scale Patch-Based Image Restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papyan, Vardan; Elad, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Many image restoration algorithms in recent years are based on patch processing. The core idea is to decompose the target image into fully overlapping patches, restore each of them separately, and then merge the results by a plain averaging. This concept has been demonstrated to be highly effective, leading often times to the state-of-the-art results in denoising, inpainting, deblurring, segmentation, and other applications. While the above is indeed effective, this approach has one major flaw: the prior is imposed on intermediate (patch) results, rather than on the final outcome, and this is typically manifested by visual artifacts. The expected patch log likelihood (EPLL) method by Zoran and Weiss was conceived for addressing this very problem. Their algorithm imposes the prior on the patches of the final image, which in turn leads to an iterative restoration of diminishing effect. In this paper, we propose to further extend and improve the EPLL by considering a multi-scale prior. Our algorithm imposes the very same prior on different scale patches extracted from the target image. While all the treated patches are of the same size, their footprint in the destination image varies due to subsampling. Our scheme comes to alleviate another shortcoming existing in patch-based restoration algorithms--the fact that a local (patch-based) prior is serving as a model for a global stochastic phenomenon. We motivate the use of the multi-scale EPLL by restricting ourselves to the simple Gaussian case, comparing the aforementioned algorithms and showing a clear advantage to the proposed method. We then demonstrate our algorithm in the context of image denoising, deblurring, and super-resolution, showing an improvement in performance both visually and quantitatively.

  6. Increasing the spatial scale of process-based agricultural systems models by representing heterogeneity: The case of urine patches in grazed pastures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snow, Val O.; Cichota, R; McAuliffe, John

    2017-01-01

    We sought to extend the spatial scale of soil-plant models by including, rather than ignoring, heterogeneity using the deposition of urine patches as an example. Our “pseudo-patches” approach preserves the most important biophysical effects but is computationally-tractable within a multi......-paddock simulation. It explicitly preserves the soil carbon and nitrogen heterogeneity but does not require independent simulation of soil water and plant processes and is temporal in that the patches of heterogeneity can appear and disappear during the simulation. The approach was tested through comparison...

  7. Patching rainfall data using regression methods. 3. Grouping, patching and outlier detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegram, Geoffrey

    1997-11-01

    Rainfall data are used, amongst other things, for augmenting or repairing streamflow records in a water resources analysis environment. Gaps in rainfall records cause problems in the construction of water-balance models using monthly time-steps, when it becomes necessary to estimate missing values. Modest extensions are sometimes also desirable. It is also important to identify outliers as possible erroneous data and to group data which are hydrologically similar in order to accomplish good patching. Algorithms are described which accomplish these tasks using the covariance biplot, multiple linear regression, singular value decomposition and the pseudo-Expectation-Maximization algorithm.

  8. Patching It Up, Pulling It Forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon E. Pierce

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An important reason for making any software open source is to encourage code and other community contributions, resulting in more diverse developer communities coalescing around valuable software efforts. We believe the full picture of open developer communities is underappreciated by scientific and cyberinfrastructure open source software efforts. Free and open source licensing is popular in scientific and cyberinfrastructure software, and Web-based tools for source code management (such as GitHub and Bitbucket are in common use, but community building efforts and associated governance models that foster these communities need improvement. We propose here a simple mechanism to address this problem: developers should be given incentives to submit patches and to make other measurable contributions to code bases that they use but are not otherwise connected to, and projects should be given incentives to accept these outside contributions. As an example implementation, we outline a contest system with small monetary rewards for individuals and recognition for both individuals and projects. The goal is to change the mindset of scientific and cyberinfrastructure developers, converting them from passive downstream users to active contributors. We hypothesize that this easily measurable concrete action will contribute to the sustainability of many projects and also create a more flexible scientific workforce. Building this effort on currently available, federally funded software will establish a foundation of public data that can be used to verify our hypothesis. More broadly, the effort will demonstrate the benefits for scientific and cyberinfrastructure projects that adopt workable governance models that are already well established in the broader open source software ecosystem.

  9. Statistical study of auroral fragmentation into patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Ayumi; Shiokawa, Kazuo; Otsuka, Yuichi; Oyama, Shin-ichiro; Nozawa, Satonori; Hori, Tomoaki; Lester, Mark; Johnsen, Magnar Gullikstad

    2015-08-01

    The study of auroral dynamics is important when considering disturbances of the magnetosphere. Shiokawa et al. (2010, 2014) reported observations of finger-like auroral structures that cause auroral fragmentation. Those structures are probably produced by macroscopic instabilities in the magnetosphere, mainly of the Rayleigh-Taylor type. However, the statistical characteristics of these structures have not yet been investigated. Here based on observations by an all-sky imager at Tromsø (magnetic latitude = 67.1°N), Norway, over three winter seasons, we statistically analyzed the occurrence conditions of 14 large-scale finger-like structures that developed from large-scale auroral regions including arcs and 6 small-scale finger-like structures that developed in auroral patches. The large-scale structures were seen from midnight to dawn local time and usually appeared at the beginning of the substorm recovery phase, near the low-latitude boundary of the auroral region. The small-scale structures were primarily seen at dawn and mainly occurred in the late recovery phase of substorms. The sizes of these large- and small-scale structures mapped in the magnetospheric equatorial plane are usually larger than the gyroradius of 10 keV protons, indicating that the finger-like structures could be caused by magnetohydrodynamic instabilities. However, the scale of small structures is only twice the gyroradius of 10 keV protons, suggesting that finite Larmor radius effects may contribute to the formation of small-scale structures. The eastward propagation velocities of the structures are -40 to +200 m/s and are comparable with those of plasma drift velocities measured by the colocating Super Dual Auroral Radar Network radar.

  10. Hydrogel blends with adjustable properties as patches for transdermal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzitelli, Stefania; Pagano, Cinzia; Giusepponi, Danilo; Nastruzzi, Claudio; Perioli, Luana

    2013-09-15

    The effect of different preparation parameters were analyzed with respect to the rheological and pharmaceutical characteristics of hydrogel blend patches, as transdermal delivery formulation. Mixtures of pectin and gelatin were employed for the production of patches, with adjustable properties, following a two-step gelation procedure. The first gelation, a thermal one, is trigged by the presence of gelatin, whereas, the second gelation, an ionic one, is due to the formation of the typical egg box structure of pectin. In particular, the patch structural properties were assessed by oscillation stress sweep measurements which provided information concerning their viscolelastic properties. In addition, different modalities for drug loading were analyzed with respect to drug homogeneous distribution; testosterone was employed as model drug for transdermal administration. Finally, the performances of the produced transdermal patches were studied, in term of reproducibility and reliability, by determination of in vitro drug release profiles.

  11. Disorganized Cortical Patches Suggest Prenatal Origin of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2014 Disorganized cortical patches suggest prenatal origin of autism NIH-funded study shows disrupted cell layering process ... study suggests that brain irregularities in children with autism can be traced back to prenatal development. “While ...

  12. Isogeometric shape optimization of photonic crystals via Coons patches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qian, Xiaoping; Sigmund, Ole

    2011-01-01

    of multiple patches is motivated by the need for representing topologically complex geometries. The Coons patches are used as a design representation so that designers do not need to specify interior control points and they provide a mechanism to compute analytical sensitivities for internal nodes in shape...... in the parametric domain of the Coons patches with a built-in mesh rectifier to ensure the injectivity of the resulting B-spline geometry, i.e. every point in the physical domain is mapped to one point in the parametric domain, (3) analytical sensitivities. Sensitivities of objective functions and constraints......In this paper, we present an approach that extends isogeometric shape optimization from optimization of rectangular-like NURBS patches to the optimization of topologically complex geometries. We have successfully applied this approach in designing photonic crystals where complex geometries have...

  13. Okeanos Explorer (EX1601): Transit and Mission Patch Test

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Normal underway operations and mapping patch testing. Bathymetric mapping of either the Murray or Molokai Fracture Zones during the transit to Hawaii is planned, as...

  14. Friction-Sensing Retroreflector Array Patches (FRAP) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Research Support Instruments, Inc. (RSI) proposes to develop the Friction-Sensing Retroreflector Array Patches (FRAP), a technology that will measure the shear...

  15. Friction-Sensing Reflector Array Patches (FRAP) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Research Support Instruments, Inc. (RSI) proposes to develop the Friction-Sensing Reflector Array Patches (FRAP), a technology that will measure the shear stress...

  16. Dermatotoxicologic clinical solutions: textile dye dermatitis patch testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coman, Garrett; Blickenstaff, Nicholas; Edwards, Ashley; Maibach, Howard

    2015-03-01

    The authors provide a framework for working up and counseling a patient with suspected textile dermatitis, focusing on identifying which textile materials are most likely to be the cause of the eczematous lesions, the current clinical guidelines, the utility and appropriateness of patch testing, the limitations of these guidelines, and our pro tempore recommendations. While there are many challenges to correctly identify and counsel patients on how to avoid the offending textile products in a patient with suspected textile dye dermatitis, there is value in following the guidelines set forth to help identify the causative textile(s). Although patch tests can be useful, dermatologists should understand the limitations of standardized patch testing for patients with suspected textile dye-induced dermatitis. These guidelines are expected to increase the likelihood of identifying the causative textile(s), so that patch testing can be supplemented with swatch testing and chemical dye extraction to help discover the allergenic dye.

  17. Unusual edge effect in patch testing with silver nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliev, D; Elsner, P

    1998-03-01

    Silver nitrate is a widely used substance and has been applied topically for cauterizing bleeding and healing wounds. In the past it has even been used to mark patch test sites, when no one knew that the substance itself might be a sensitizer. However, there are also toxic reactions to that substance. We report a case in which a positive "edge effect" at the periphery of the patch test site could be shown. It can be explained by the unequal distribution of patch test solutions in the different patch test systems with a concentration at the rim. Distinguishing between allergic and toxic reactions may be difficult when an edge effect occurs. Therefore, in certain rare cases a biopsy or a lymphocyte transformation test might be of help.

  18. Combined Hormonal Birth Control: Pill, Patch, and Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ185 CONTRACEPTION Combined Hormonal Birth Control: Pill, Patch, and Ring • What are combined hormonal birth control methods? • How do combined hormonal methods prevent pregnancy? • ...

  19. Histological distinction between early allergic and irritant patch test reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, L; Clemmensen, Ole; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1999-01-01

    Comparative light microscopic studies have revealed subtle differences between allergic and irritant reactions in the skin. In the search for specific differences, we focussed on the early inflammatory response. This pilot study was conducted to test the hypothesis that follicular spongiosis can...... differentiate between early allergic and irritant patch test reactions. 8 patients with known contact allergy to either colophony or quarternium-15 participated in the study. In each patient, allergic and irritant patch tests reactions were elicited, and 4-mm punch biopsies were taken after 6 8 h from...... clinically equipotent reactions. Paired sets of slides were assessed blindly by 2 pathologists. 1 patient showing a pityrosporum folliculitis was excluded from the study. All biopsies from allergic patch tests were characterized by follicular spongiosis, while biopsies from irritant patch tests showed...

  20. Preparation of Mucoadhesive Patches for Buccal Administration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    The development of bioadhesive buccal formulation for metoprolol ... a generation of many macromolecular drugs ... buccal drug delivery system should be ..... first order. Fig 2: Drug release profile of metoprolol succinate buccal patches made ...

  1. Self-focusing dynamics of patches of ripples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewski, P. A.; Wang, Z.

    2016-10-01

    The dynamics of focussing of extended patches of nonlinear capillary-gravity waves within the primitive fluid dynamic equations is presented. It is found that, when the envelope has certain properties, the patch focusses initially in accordance to predictions from nonlinear Schrödinger equation, and focussing can concentrate energy to the vicinity of a point or a curve on the fluid surface. After initial focussing, other effects dominate and the patch breaks up into a complex set of localised structures-lumps and breathers-plus dispersive radiation. We perform simulations both in the inviscid regime and for small viscosities. Lastly we discuss throughout the similarities and differences between the dynamics of ripple patches and self-focussing light beams.

  2. Polarization Reconfigurable Patch Antenna Using Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Chun, Donghoon; Katehi, Linda P. B.

    2002-01-01

    The paper demonstrates a nearly square patch antenna integrated with a novel microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) actuator for reconfiguring the polarization. Experimental results demonstrate that at a fixed frequency, the polarization can be reconfigured, from circular to linear.

  3. Alzheimer's Patients' Use of Painkilling Patches Cause for Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162442.html Alzheimer's Patients' Use of Painkilling Patches Cause for Concern ... of powerful opioid painkillers may be common among Alzheimer's disease patients and could be a cause for ...

  4. Capsaicin 8 % Patch: A Review in Peripheral Neuropathic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burness, Celeste B; McCormack, Paul L

    2016-01-01

    The capsaicin 8 % patch (QUTENZA®) is an adhesive patch containing a high concentration (8 % w/w) of synthetic capsaicin, a selective agonist of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 channel. It is approved for treatment of peripheral neuropathic pain in adults either alone or in combination with other medicinal products for pain in the EU; it is only approved to treat postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) in the USA. In patients with painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (PDPN), a single 30-min application of the capsaicin 8 % patch significantly improved pain relief and sleep quality compared with placebo in a 12-week double-blind trial. In a 52-week, randomized trial, up to seven consecutive 30-min treatments with the capsaicin 8 % patch (≤7 treatments each at least 8 weeks apart) plus standard of care therapy was associated with sustained pain relief and no negative neurological safety consequences compared with standard of care. In two randomized trials, a single 60-min application of the capsaicin 8 % patch reduced pain scores significantly more than a low-concentration (0.04 %) capsaicin control patch in patients with PHN. Capsaicin 8 % patch treatment was noninferior to pregabalin (optimized dosage) in a randomized trial in patients with nondiabetic peripheral neuropathic pain. Results in two trials in patients with HIV-AN were equivocal, with a significant improvement in pain intensity observed in one trial, but not in the other. The capsaicin 8 % patch was associated with expected, transient, capsaicin-related application-site adverse events such as erythema and pain.

  5. An Atypical Cutaneous Reaction to Rivastigmine Transdermal Patch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Grieco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rivastigmine is a cholinesterase inhibitor which improves cognitive function and is currently being used in patients with mild to moderate Parkinson's and Alzheimer's dementia. This drug can be given orally or topically, as transdermal patch. The latter form is currently used for most excellent compliance and few side effects. The most common cutaneous side effects are irritative dermatitis. We report the second case of active sensitization by the rivastigmine-patch in a patient suffering from Alzheimer's dementia.

  6. The conundrum of parapsoriasis versus patch stage of mycosis fungoides

    OpenAIRE

    Sarveswari K; Yesudian Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Terminological confusion with benign dermatosis, such as parapsoriasis en plaques, makes it difficult to diagnose mycosis fungoides in the early patch stage. Early diagnosis of mycosis fungoides (MF) is important for deciding on type of therapy, prognosis and for further follow-up. However, until recently, there has been no consensus on criteria that would help in diagnosing the disease early. Some believe that large plaque parapsoriasis (LPP) should be classified with early patch stage of MF...

  7. A torus patch approximation approach for point projection on surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiao-ming; Yang, Lei; Yong, Jun-Hai; Gu, He-Jin; Sun, Jia-Guang

    2009-01-01

    International audience; This paper proposes a second order geometric iteration algorithm for point projection and inversion on parametric surfaces. The iteration starts from an initial projection estimation. In each iteration, we construct a second order osculating torus patch to the parametric surface at the previous projection. Then we project the test point onto the torus patch to compute the next projection and its parameter. This iterative process is terminated when the parameter satisfi...

  8. Formulation and evaluation of transdermal patches of papaverine hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Samip

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Transdermal patches of papaverine hydrochloride were prepared by the solvent casting method using ethyl cellulose: PVP, PVA: PVP and Eudragit RL-100: Eudragit RS-100 using different ratios. The physicochemical parameters such as flexibility, thickness, smoothness, weight variation, moisture content, hardness and tensile strength were evaluated for the prepared patches. The formulation exhibited flexibility, uniform thickness and weight, smoothness, good drug content (92 to 96%, and little moisture content. The in vitro diffusion studies were carried out using modified Keshery-Chein cell using cellophane as the diffusion membrane and the formulation followed the Higuchi diffusion mechanism. The formulation containing PVA: PVP as polymers showed faster release rate (hydrophilic polymers compared to Eudragit RL-100: Eudragit RS-100 (hydrophobic polymers or combination of hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymers (ethyl cellulose and PVP. The stability studies indicated that all the patches maintained good physicochemical properties and drug content after storing the patches in different storage conditions. Compatibility studies indicated that there was no interaction between the drug and polymers. In vivo studies showed that papaverine hydrochloride helps in decreasing the effect of isoproterenol-induced myocardial necrosis. Hence, the aim of the present study was to prepare the sustained release formulation (Transdermal patches of the drug using different blend of polymers. The formulated patches containing the hydroplilic polymers showed best release rate of drug.

  9. Sessile Nanodroplets on Elliptical Patches of Enhanced Lyophilicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the shape of a nanodroplet on a lyophilic elliptical patch in lyophobic surroundings on a flat substrate. To compute the droplet equilibrium shape, we minimize its interfacial free energy using both Surface Evolver and Monte Carlo calculations, finding good agreement between the two methods. We observe different droplet shapes, which are controlled by the droplet volume and the aspect ratio of the ellipse. In particular, we study the behavior of the nanodroplet contact angle along the three-phase contact line, explaining the different droplet shapes. Although the nanodroplet contact angle is constant and fixed by Young’s law inside and outside the elliptical patch, its value varies along the rim of the elliptical patch. We find that because of the pinning of the nanodroplet contact line at the rim of the elliptical patch, which has a nonconstant curvature, there is a regime of aspect ratios of the elliptical patch in which the nanodroplet starts expanding to the lyophobic part of the substrate, although there is still a finite area of the lyophilic patch free to be wetted. PMID:28248114

  10. Guided bone regeneration using a flexible hydroxyapatite patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fangfang; Kang, Hyun Gu; Ryu, Su-Chak; Kim, Ji Eun; Park, Enoch Y; Hwang, Dae Youn; Lee, Jaebeom

    2013-11-01

    Guided bone regeneration (GBR) is a new method of promoting new bone formation by blocking the proliferation of regenerated connective tissue or providing additional interventions such as direct drug delivery and mechanical support. This in vivo study of bone regeneration in radius compound fractures in rabbits was conducted using a highly flexible scaffold of nanoscale hydroxyapatite (nHAp)/chitosan, termed a "bone patch". A solidification-assisted compression (SAC) method was utilized to fabricate the bone patch, and its in vivo cytotoxicity, bio-absorption, and bone regeneration capacity were evaluated. Four weeks after implantation, new bone formation with abundant active osteoblasts and incompleted degradation of chitosan in the patch were observed without any regeneration of connective tissue, compared with the corresponding implant without a patch. X-ray images showed that the radius with the bone patch had higher opacity than that of the control, which was consistent with the results obtained via histological analysis. Evidently, the nHAp-embedded bone-patch scaffold has considerable potential for application in the field of orthopedics of bone regeneration.

  11. Gain Enhancement and comparison of rectangular slot patch antenna circular slot patch antenna using dual FSS superstrate Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Chaudhary,

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Circular Microstrip Patch Antenna and Rectangular Slot Patch Antenna comparison of present and an effort is made to optimize the gain to show better performance analysis on the basis of design and simulation results by implementing FSS structured superstrate layer at operating frequency of 5.8 GHz for ISM Band. The proposed design will be fed by coaxial probe feed, in order to get proper impedance matching. Design technique for enhancing Bandwidth that improves the performance of a conventional microstrip patch antenna is proposed. In order to show our results better, we have made a comparative analysis with conventional microstrip patch antenna, at the same frequency band to increase the gain, directivity and minimize the return loss of the desired antenna. This simulation results are carried out by using Ansoft based HFSS software.

  12. Allelopathy in saline agricultural land: Vegetation successional changes and patch dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, K; Malik, K A; Sheikh, K H; Lodhi, M A

    1989-02-01

    In reclamation fields of salt-affected wasteland, five plant communities colonized the undisturbed land, represented byCynodon dactylon, Desmostachya bipinnata, Prosopis juliflora, Sporobolus arabicus, andSuaeda fruticosa. Kallar grass (Leptochloa fusca), a highly salt tolerant plant when cultivated, shared dominance withCynodon, Desmostachya, andSporobolus in 15-month-old fields, whereasPolypogon was the only dominant species in 30-month-old kallar grass fields. Through successional stages, soil pH, salinity, sodicity, and Na, K, Ca + Mg significantly decreased due to leaching. Electrical conductivity successively changed from 13.0 to 3.0 to 1.0, while soil total nitrogen, NH4 nitrogen, NO3 nitrogen and available P significantly increased. In high-density kallar grass fields, six weed species appeared only in well-defined patches and radially eliminated or reduced kallar grass growth. Many soil factors, such as pH, EC, NH4 nitrogen, NO3 nitrogen and available P analyzed in patch vegetation soils, were mostly either comparable or significantly better than those of surrounding kallar grass fields. On the other hand, aqueous extracts of all six invading species and kallar grass significantly reduced kallar grass seed germination to varying degrees. Further, decaying leaf powder of allelopathically suspected species significantly reduced kallar grass biomass, which varied from species to species and in most cases corresponded with field data of kallar grass in patch vegetation. It should be strongly pointed out that allelopathic behavior discussed in patch dynamics was in areas where soil saline-sodic conditions had improved greatly (e.g., EC = from 13.0 to only 1.0) due to kallar grass plantation. Further,Suaeda appeared to be a poor competitor when soil conditions improved for other species as well, and it could not capitalize on its evolutionary strategic trait of performing well in saline-sodic conditions. To our knowledge, this is the first report indicating that

  13. Reinforcement of a plate weakened by multiple holes with several patches for different types of a plate-patch attachment

    CERN Document Server

    Zemlyanova, A Y

    2012-01-01

    The most general situation of the reinforcement of a plate with multiple holes by several patches is considered. There is no restriction on the number and the location of the patches. Two types of the patch attachment are considered: only along the boundary of the patch or both along the boundary of the patch and the boundaries of the holes which this patch covers. The unattached boundaries of the holes may be loaded with given in-plane stresses. The mechanical problem is reduced to the system of singular integral equations which can be further reduced to the system of Fredholm equations. A new numerical procedure for the solution of the system of singular integral equations is proposed in this paper. It can be observed that this procedure provides a noticeable improvement from the one presented in Zemlyanova \\cite{Zem2007}, Zemlyanova and Silvestrov \\cite{ZemSil2007}, \\cite{ZemSil2009} and allows to achieve a significantly better numerical convergence with less computational effort.

  14. STUDIES ON MELOXICAM SOLID DISPERSION INCORPORATED BUCCAL PATCHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Jafar

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Arthritis is one of the most common chronic diseases in the world. Life style effects of arthritis includes; Depression, Anxiety, Feelings of helplessness, Limitations on daily activities, Job limitations etc. Meloxicam, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug is widely used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondulytis and osteoarthritis. It is also indicated for the management of dental pain, Post-traumatic and post-operative pain, inflammation and swelling. Recently it is considered as a potential drug for prevention and treatment of colorectal polyps. One of the major problems with this drug is its low solubility in biological fluids, which results into poor bioavailability and GI-Side effects after oral administration. The present work was aimed at overcoming these limitations of the drug. The first problem i.e. Poor solubility of meloxicam was overcome by solid dispersion technique and the same work was than published in a reputed online journal. The present study was the continuation of the published work, in this study buccal patches were prepared using varying percentage of carbopol 934p, HPMC (muco adhesive polymers and 50% W/W of propylene glycol (Plasticizer by solvent casting technique, using 32 factorial design. Prepared blank buccal patches were evaluated for various physical and mechanical parameters, patches which comply with reported results were selected for meloxicam and its solid dispersion incorporation. Meloxicam solid dispersion incorporated buccal patches were prepared and evaluated for drug content, in-vitro diffusion, in-vivo release of meloxicam in rabbits and stability study. All solid dispersion incorporated patches showed increased in-vitro drug release (i.e. between 94% to 99.98% over an extended period of 8hrs as compared to plain drug incorporated buccal patch. Whereas plain drug incorporated buccal patch showed only 31.22% in-vitro drug release in 8hrs. Release of meloxicam was slightly

  15. A nanofibrous electrospun patch to maintain human mesenchymal cell stemness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfi, L; Furman, N Toledano; Wang, Xin; Lupo, C; Martinez, J O; Mohamed, M; Taraballi, F; Tasciotti, E

    2017-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been extensively investigated in regenerative medicine because of their crucial role in tissue healing. For these properties, they are widely tested in clinical trials, usually injected in cell suspension or in combination with tridimensional scaffolds. However, scaffolds can largely affect the fates of MSCs, inducing a progressive loss of functionality overtime. The ideal scaffold must delay MSCs differentiation until paracrine signals from the host induce their change. Herein, we proposed a nanostructured electrospun gelatin patch as an appropriate environment where human MSCs (hMSCs) can adhere, proliferate, and maintain their stemness. This patch exhibited characteristics of a non-linear elastic material and withstood degradation up to 4 weeks. As compared to culture and expansion in 2D, hMSCs on the patch showed a similar degree of proliferation and better maintained their progenitor properties, as assessed by their superior differentiation capacity towards typical mesenchymal lineages (i.e. osteogenic and chondrogenic). Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis and longitudinal non-invasive imaging of inflammatory response revealed no sign of foreign body reaction for 3 weeks. In summary, our results demonstrated that our biocompatible patch favored the maintenance of undifferentiated hMSCs for up to 21 days and is an ideal candidate for tridimensional delivery of hMSCs. The present work reports a nanostructured patch gelatin-based able to maintain in vitro hMSCs stemness features. Moreover, hMSCs were able to differentiate toward osteo- and chondrogenic lineages once induces by differentiative media, confirming the ability of this patch to support stem cells for a potential in vivo application. These attractive properties together with the low inflammatory response in vivo make this patch a promising platform in regenerative medicine.

  16. Reversed polarity patches at the CMB and geomagnetic field reversal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Wenyao(徐文耀); WEI; Zigang(魏自刚)

    2002-01-01

    The International Geomagnetic Reference Field models (IGRF) for 1900-2000 are used to calculate the geomagnetic field distribution in the Earth' interior from the ground surface to the core-mantle boundary (CMB) under the assumption of insulated mantle. Four reversed polarity patches, as one of the most important features of the CMB field, are revealed. Two patches with +Z polarity (downward) at the southern African and the southern American regions stand out against the background of -Z polarity (upward) in the southern hemisphere, and two patches of -Z polarity at the North Polar and the northern Pacific regions stand out against the +Z background in the northern hemisphere. During the 1900-2000 period the southern African (SAF) patch has quickly drifted westward at a speed of 0.2-0.3°/a; meanwhile its area has expanded 5 times, and the magnetic flux crossing the area has intensified 30 times. On the other hand, other three patches show little if any change during this 100-year period. Extending upward, each of the reversed polarity patches at the CMB forms a chimney-shaped "reversed polarity column" in the mantle with the bottom at the CMB. The height of the SAF column has grown rapidly from 200km in 1900 to 900km in 2000. If the column grows steadily at the same rate in the future, its top will reach to the ground surface in 600-700 years. And then a reversed polarity patch will be observed at the Earth's surface, which will be an indicator of the beginning of a magnetic field reversal. On the basis of this study, one can describe the process of a geomagnetic polarity reversal, the polarity reversal may be observed firstly in one or several local regions; then the areas of these regions expand, and at the same time, other new reversed polarity regions may appear. Thus several poles may exist during a polarity reversal.

  17. Winter soil respiration from different vegetation patches in the Yellow River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guangxuan; Yu, Junbao; Li, Huabing; Yang, Liqiong; Wang, Guangmei; Mao, Peili; Gao, Yongjun

    2012-07-01

    Vegetation type and density exhibited a considerable patchy distribution at very local scales in the Yellow River Delta, due to the spatial variation of soil salinity and water scarcity. We proposed that soil respiration is affected by the spatial variations in vegetation type and soil chemical properties and tested this hypothesis in three different vegetation patches (Phragmites australis, Suaeda heteroptera and bare soil) in winter (from November 2010 to April 2011). At diurnal scale, soil respiration all displayed single-peak curves and asymmetric patterns in the three vegetation patches; At seasonal scale, soil respiration all declined steadily until February, and then increased to a peak in next April. But, the magnitude of soil respiration showed significant differences among the three sites. Mean soil respiration rates in winter were 0.60, 0.45 and 0.17 μmol CO(2) m(-2) s(-1) for the Phragmites australis, Suaeda heteroptera and bare soil, respectively. The combined effect of soil temperature and soil moisture accounted for 58-68 % of the seasonal variation of winter soil respiration. The mean soil respiration revealed positive and linear correlations with total N, total N and SOC storages at 0-20 cm depth, and plant biomass among the three sites. We conclude that the patchy distribution of plant biomass and soil chemical properties (total C, total N and SOC) may affect decomposition rate of soil organic matter in winter, thereby leading to spatial variations in soil respiration.

  18. Hydrological heterogeneity in Mediterranean reclaimed slopes: runoff and sediment yield at the patch and slope scales along a gradient of overland flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Merino-Martín

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological heterogeneity is recognized as a fundamental ecosystem attribute in drylands controlling the flux of water and energy through landscapes. Therefore, mosaics of runoff and sediment source patches and sinks are frequently identified in these dry environments. There is a remarkable scarcity of studies about hydrological spatial heterogeneity in restored slopes, where ecological succession and overland flow are interacting. We conducted field research to study the hydrological role of patches and slopes along an "overland flow gradient" (gradient of overland flow routing through the slopes caused by different amounts of run-on coming from upslope in three reclaimed mining slopes of Mediterranean-continental climate. We found that runoff generation and routing in non-rilled slopes showed a pattern of source and sink areas of runoff. Such hydrological microenvironments were associated with seven vegetation patches (characterized by plant community types and cover. Two types of sink patches were identified: shrub Genista scorpius patches could be considered as "deep sinks", while patches where the graminoids Brachypodium retusum and Lolium perenne dominate were classified as "surface sinks" or "runoff splays". A variety of source patches were also identified spanning from "extreme sources" (Medicago sativa patches; equivalent to bare soil to "poor sources" (areas scattered by dwarf-shrubs of Thymus vulgaris or herbaceous tussocks of Dactylis glomerata. Finally, we identified the volume of overland flow routing along the slope as a major controlling factor of "hydrological diversity" (heterogeneity of hydrological behaviours quantified as Shannon diversity index: when overland flow increases at the slope scale hydrological diversity diminishes.

  19. Hydrological heterogeneity in Mediterranean reclaimed slopes: runoff and sediment yield at the patch and slope scales along a gradient of overland flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino-Martín, L.; Moreno-de las Heras, M.; Pérez-Domingo, S.; Espigares, T.; Nicolau, J. M.

    2012-05-01

    Hydrological heterogeneity is recognized as a fundamental ecosystem attribute in drylands controlling the flux of water and energy through landscapes. Therefore, mosaics of runoff and sediment source patches and sinks are frequently identified in these dry environments. There is a remarkable scarcity of studies about hydrological spatial heterogeneity in restored slopes, where ecological succession and overland flow are interacting. We conducted field research to study the hydrological role of patches and slopes along an "overland flow gradient" (gradient of overland flow routing through the slopes caused by different amounts of run-on coming from upslope) in three reclaimed mining slopes of Mediterranean-continental climate. We found that runoff generation and routing in non-rilled slopes showed a pattern of source and sink areas of runoff. Such hydrological microenvironments were associated with seven vegetation patches (characterized by plant community types and cover). Two types of sink patches were identified: shrub Genista scorpius patches could be considered as "deep sinks", while patches where the graminoids Brachypodium retusum and Lolium perenne dominate were classified as "surface sinks" or "runoff splays". A variety of source patches were also identified spanning from "extreme sources" (Medicago sativa patches; equivalent to bare soil) to "poor sources" (areas scattered by dwarf-shrubs of Thymus vulgaris or herbaceous tussocks of Dactylis glomerata). Finally, we identified the volume of overland flow routing along the slope as a major controlling factor of "hydrological diversity" (heterogeneity of hydrological behaviours quantified as Shannon diversity index): when overland flow increases at the slope scale hydrological diversity diminishes.

  20. Hydrological heterogeneity in Mediterranean reclaimed slopes: runoff and sediment yield at the patch and slope scales along a gradient of overland flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Merino-Martín

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological heterogeneity is recognized as a fundamental ecosystem attribute in drylands controlling the flux of water and energy through landscapes. Therefore, mosaics of runoff and sediment sinks and source patches are frequently identified in these dry environments. There is a remarkable scarcity of studies about hydrological spatial heterogeneity in restored slopes, where ecological succession and overland flow are interacting. We conducted a field research to study the hydrological role of patches and slopes along an overland flow gradient in three reclaimed slopes coming from mining reclamation in a Mediterranean-continental climate. We found that runoff generation and routing in non-rilled slopes showed a pattern of source and sink areas of runoff. Such hydrological microenvironments were associated to seven vegetation patches (characterized by plant community types and cover. Two types of sink patches were identified: shrub Genista scorpius patches could be considered as a "deep sink", while patches where the graminoids Brachypodium retusum and Lolium perenne dominate were classified as "surface sinks" or "runoff splays". A variety of source patches were also identified spanning from "extreme sources" (Medicago sativa patches; equivalent to bare soil to "poor sources" (areas scattered by dwarf-shrubs of Thymus vulgaris or herbaceous tussocks of Dactylis glomerata. Finally, we identified the volume of overland flow routing along the slope as a controlling major factor of hydrological diversity: when overland flow increases at the slope scale hydrological diversity diminishes.

  1. The dynamics of stiff clubmoss Lycopodium annotinum L. patches in clumps of trees left on the clear-cutting in pine forest Leucobryo-Pinetum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanowicz Monika

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Clumps of trees left on the clear-cuttings have an important role in protecting populations of endangered plant species against destruction during silviculture activities. The aim of this study is to describe the changes in the area of the Lycopodium annotinum patches. The area of L. annotinum patch in clump of trees, have been significantly reduced during 5 years after clear-cut. In the first year of the observations, the studied population occupied an area of 69.8 m2 whereas in 2012, it was only 37.5 m2. Most of the shoots were withered away on the south side of the clump. The probable reason was too strong insolation. Shoots that survived were located in the north part of the clump – shielded by young trees and shrubs layer. At this time, the control patch of L. annotinum located inside the forest increased its area. Before the clear-cuttings, the annual growth of vertical shoots of clubmoss was higher in the patch located in future tree clump. After the clear-cutting, growth of shoots in this patch was shorter than in patch located all the time inside the forests. The most effective growth was observed in the third studied patch located in the clear-cutting border. The explanation for this phenomenon could be the higher humidity of habitat on this site. Clumps of trees left after the clear-cutting contribute to the protection of endangered populations, but do not eliminate the significant microhabitat changes. The clubmoss patches located in moist habitats are more likely to survive even if they are partially exposed to the sunlight.

  2. Left ventricle remodelling by double-patch sandwich technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nocchi Andrea

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sandwich double-patch technique was adopted as an alternative method for reconstruction of the left ventricle after excision of postinfarction dysfunctional myocardium to solve technical problems due to the thick edges of the ventricular wall. Methods Over a 5-year period, 12 of 21 patients with postinfarction antero-apical left ventricular aneurysm had thick wall edges after wall excision. It was due to akinetic muscular thick tissue in 6 cases, while in the other 6 with classic fibrous aneurysm, thick edges remained after the cut of the border zone. The ventricular opening was sandwiched between two patches and this is a technique which is currently used for the treatment of the interventricular septum rupture. In our patients the patches are much smaller than the removed aneurysm and they were sutured simply by a single row of single stitches. However, in contrast to interventricular septum rupture where the patches loosen the tension of the tissues, in our patients the patches pull strongly and restrain the walls by fastening their edges and supporting tight stitches. In this way they could narrow the cavity and close the ventricle. Results The resected area varied from 5 × 4 to 8 × 8 cm. Excision was extended into the interventricular septum in 5 patients, thus opening the right ventricle. CABG was performed on all patients but two. Left ventricular volumes and the ejection fraction changed significantly: end-systolic volume 93.5 ± 12.4 to 57.8 ± 8.9 ml, p Conclusion The double-patch sandwich technique (bi-patch closure offers some advantages and does not result in increased morbidity and mortality. In the case of excising a left ventricular aneurysm, this technique in no way requires eversion of the edges, felt strips, buttressed and multiple sutures, all of which are needed for longitudinal linear closure. Moreover, it does not require purse string sutures, endocardial scar remnant to secure the patch or

  3. Patches for Repairing Ceramics and Ceramic-Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenson, Peter A.; Toombs, Gordon R.; Adam, Steven; Tompkins, James V.

    2006-01-01

    Patches consisting mostly of ceramic fabrics impregnated with partially cured polymers and ceramic particles are being developed as means of repairing ceramics and ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) that must withstand temperatures above the melting points of refractory metal alloys. These patches were conceived for use by space-suited, space-walking astronauts in repairing damaged space-shuttle leading edges: as such, these patches could be applied in the field, in relatively simple procedures, and with minimal requirements for specialized tools. These design characteristics also make the patches useful for repairing ceramics and CMCs in terrestrial settings. In a typical patch as supplied to an astronaut or repair technician, the polymer would be in a tacky condition, denoted as an A stage, produced by partial polymerization of a monomeric liquid. The patch would be pressed against the ceramic or CMC object to be repaired, relying on the tackiness for temporary adhesion. The patch would then be bonded to the workpiece and cured by using a portable device to heat the polymer to a curing temperature above ambient temperature but well below the maximum operating temperature to which the workpiece is expected to be exposed. The patch would subsequently become pyrolized to a ceramic/glass condition upon initial exposure to the high operating temperature. In the original space-shuttle application, this exposure would be Earth-atmosphere-reentry heating to about 3,000 F (about 1,600 C). Patch formulations for space-shuttle applications include SiC and ZrO2 fabrics, a commercial SiC-based pre-ceramic polymer, and suitable proportions of both SiC and ZrO2 particles having sizes of the order of 1 m. These formulations have been tailored for the space-shuttle leading-edge material, atmospheric composition, and reentry temperature profile so as to enable repairs to survive re-entry heating with expected margin. Other formulations could be tailored for specific terrestrial

  4. Geometrically Consistent Stereoscopic Image Editing Using Patch-Based Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Sheng-Jie; Sun, Ying-Tse; Shen, I-Chao; Chen, Bing-Yu; Chuang, Yung-Yu

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a patch-based synthesis framework for stereoscopic image editing. The core of the proposed method builds upon a patch-based optimization framework with two key contributions: First, we introduce a depth-dependent patch-pair similarity measure for distinguishing and better utilizing image contents with different depth structures. Second, a joint patch-pair search is proposed for properly handling the correlation between two views. The proposed method successfully overcomes two main challenges of editing stereoscopic 3D media: (1) maintaining the depth interpretation, and (2) providing controllability of the scene depth. The method offers patch-based solutions to a wide variety of stereoscopic image editing problems, including depth-guided texture synthesis, stereoscopic NPR, paint by depth, content adaptation, and 2D to 3D conversion. Several challenging cases are demonstrated to show the effectiveness of the proposed method. The results of user studies also show that the proposed method produces stereoscopic images with good stereoscopics and visual quality.

  5. Foraging decisions, patch use, and seasonality in egrets (Aves: ciconiiformes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    Feeding snowy (Egretta thula) and great (Casmerodius albus) egrets were observed during 2 breeding seasons in coastal New Jersey and 2 brief winter periods in northeast Florida (USA). A number of tests based on assumptions of foraging models, predictions from foraging theory, and earlier empirical tests concerning time allocation and movement in foraging patches was made. Few of the expectations based on foraging theory and/or assumptions were supported by the empirical evidence. Snowy egrets fed with greater intensity and efficiency during the breeding season (when young were being fed) than during winter. They also showed some tendency to leave patches when their capture rate declined, and they spent more time foraging in patches when other birds were present nearby. Great egrets showed few of these tendencies, although they did leave patches when their intercapture intervals increased. Satiation differences had some influence on feeding rates in snowy egrets, but only at the end of feeding bouts. Some individuals of both species revisited areas in patches that had recently been exploited, and success rates were usually higher after the 2nd visit. Apparently, for predators of active prey, short-term changes in resource availability ('resource depression') may be more important than resource depletion, a common assumption in most optimal foraging theory models.

  6. Aeroallergen patch testing in patients of suspected contact dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelee Bisen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aeroallergens are airborne substances present in the environment with the potential to trigger an allergic reaction in the respiratory tract, mucosae, or skin of susceptible individuals. The relevance of aeroallergens in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis has been reported by many investigators. However, very few studies have been conducted to investigate their role in the production of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD. Aims: To determine the prevalence of aeroallergen patch test positivity in patients of suspected ACD and to study the clinical characteristics of patients testing positive with aeroallergens. Materials and Methods: Patients presenting to our department with suspected contact allergy and undergoing patch testing with Indian Standard Series (ISS between January 2010 and June 2011 were studied. After a detailed history and clinical examination, patients were patch tested with ISS and aeroallergen series. Based on the history and clinical suspicion, patients were additionally patch tested with 15% Parthenium. Prior tape stripping was done in some patients. Results: Out of total 114 patients, 26 (22.8% showed sensitivity to aeroallergen series. Parthenium was the commonest aeroallergen being positive in all 26 patients followed by Xanthium in two. None reacted to other allergens. Although positivity was more in patients with prior tape stripping, the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Most common aeroallergen found to be positive in our study was Parthenium hysterophorus. In view of low positivity to other allergens, routine aeroallergen patch testing in patients with suspected contact dermatitis may not be necessary.

  7. Robust Tracking with Discriminative Ranking Middle-level Patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Liu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The appearance model has been shown to be essential for robust visual tracking since it is the basic criterion to locating targets in video sequences. Though existing tracking-by-detection algorithms have shown to be greatly promising, they still suffer from the drift problem, which is caused by updating appearance models. In this paper, we propose a new appearance model composed of ranking middle-level patches to capture more object distinctiveness than traditional tracking-by-detection models. Targets and backgrounds are represented by both low-level bottom-up features and high-level top-down patches, which can compensate each other. Bottom-up features are defined at the pixel level, and each feature gets its discrimination score through selective feature attention mechanism. In top-down feature extraction, rectangular patches are ranked according to their bottom-up discrimination scores, by which all of them are clustered into irregular patches, named ranking middle-level patches. In addition, at the stage of classifier training, the online random forests algorithm is specially refined to reduce drifting problems.Experiments on challenging public datasets and our test videos demonstrate that our approach can effectively prevent the tracker drifting problem and obtain competitive performance in visual tracking.

  8. Bilateral patching in retinal detachment: fluid mechanics and retinal "settling".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, William J

    2011-07-20

    When a patient suffers a retinal detachment and surgery is delayed, it is known clinically that bilaterally patching the patient may allow the retina to partially reattach or "settle." Although this procedure has been performed since the 1860s, there is still debate as to how such a maneuver facilitates the reattachment of the retina. Finite element calculations using commercially available analysis software are used to elucidate the influence of reduction in eye movement caused by bilateral patching on the flow of subretinal fluid in a physical model of retinal detachment. It was found that by coupling fluid mechanics with structural mechanics, a physically consistent explanation of increased retinal detachment with eye movements can be found in the case of traction on the retinal hole. Large eye movements increase vitreous traction and detachment forces on the edge of the retinal hole, creating a subretinal vacuum and facilitating increased subretinal fluid. Alternative models, in which intraocular fluid flow is redirected into the subretinal space, are not consistent with these simulations. The results of these simulations explain the physical principles behind bilateral patching and provide insight that can be used clinically. In particular, as is known clinically, bilateral patching may facilitate a decrease in the height of a retinal detachment. The results described here provide a description of a physical mechanism underlying this technique. The findings of this study may aid in deciding whether to bilaterally patch patients and in counseling patients on pre- and postoperative care.

  9. Omnidirectional Lamb waves by axisymmetrically-configured magnetostrictive patch transducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo Kyung; Kim, Hoe Woong; Kim, Yoon Young

    2013-09-01

    This work presents the generation of omnidirectional Lamb waves by a new magnetostrictive patch transducer (MPT) and investigates its generation mechanism. Although MPTs have been widely used for wave transduction in plates and pipes, no investigation reports the generation of omnidirectional Lamb waves in a plate by an MPT. For the generation, we propose an axisymmetrically-configured MPT that installs multiple axisymmetric turns of coil outside of a permanent cylindrical magnet located above the center of a circular magnetostrictive patch. After confirming the omnidirectivity of the proposed MPT experimentally, the mechanism of the Lamb wave generation and its frequency characteristics are investigated. It is also shown that the Lamb wave is most efficiently generated in a test plate when its wavelength is equal to two-thirds of the magnetostrictive patch diameter. If this wavelength¿patch diameter relation holds, the second radial extensional vibration mode of the patch of the proposed MPT is shown to be the mode responsible for generating the Lamb wave in a plate.

  10. The effect of transdermal nicotine patches on sleep and dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, F; Coleman, G; Conduit, R

    2006-07-30

    This study was undertaken to determine the effect of 24-h transdermal nicotine patches on sleep and dream mentation in 15 smokers aged 20 to 33. Utilising a repeated measures design, it was found that more time awake and more ASDA micro-arousals occurred while wearing the nicotine patch compared to placebo. Also, the percentage of REM sleep decreased, but REM latency and the proportion of time spent in NREM sleep stages did not change significantly. Dream reports containing visual imagery, visual imagery ratings and the number of visualizable nouns were significantly greater from REM compared to Stage 2 awakenings, regardless of patch condition. However, a general interaction effect was observed. Stage 2 dream variables remained equivalent across nicotine and placebo conditions. Within REM sleep, more dream reports containing visual imagery occurred while wearing the nicotine patch, and these were rated as more vivid. The greater frequency of visual imagery reports and higher imagery ratings specifically from REM sleep suggests that previously reported dreaming side effects from 24-h nicotine patches may be specific to REM sleep. Combined with previous animal studies showing that transdermally delivered nicotine blocks PGO activity in REM sleep, the current results do no appear consistent with PGO-based hypotheses of dreaming, such as the Activation-Synthesis (AS) or Activation, Input and Modulation (AIM) models.

  11. Front-Side Microstrip Line Feeding a Raised Antenna Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Richard; Hoppe, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    An improved design concept for a printed-circuit patch antenna and the transmission line that feeds the patch calls for (1) a microstrip transmission line on the front (radiative) side of a printed-circuit board based on a thin, high-permittivity dielectric substrate; (2) using the conductor covering the back side of the circuit board as a common ground plane for both the microstrip line and the antenna patch; (3) supporting the antenna patch in front of the circuit board on a much thicker, lower-permittivity dielectric spacer layer; and (4) connecting the microstrip transmission line to the patch by use of a thin wire or narrow ribbon that extends through the thickness of the spacer and is oriented perpendicularly to the circuit-board plane. The thickness of the substrate is typically chosen so that a microstrip transmission line of practical width has an impedance between 50 and 100 ohms. The advantages of this design concept are best understood in the context of the disadvantages of prior design concepts, as explained

  12. A DOUBLE E SHAPED MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNA FOR MULTIBAND APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pristin K Mathew

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a dual band Compact double E shaped Microstrip Patch antenna with enhanced gain for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WI-MAX, Universal Mobile Telecommunication Systems (UMTS and Satellite applications. The modified E shaped patch antenna is designed using CADFEKO and the results of return loss, Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR, gain of the proposed antenna are compared with a conventional E shaped patch antenna. The results show that the double E shaped wideband patch antenna has an impedance bandwidth of 10.7 % with a return loss of -13.6dB, -12.4 dB, -12.1dB and -14.2dB at resonant frequencies of 1.96 GHz, 3.62 GHz, 5.76 GHz and 6.82 GHz, whereas a conventional E shaped patch antenna operates at 2.5 GHz, 3.4 GHz and 5.5 GHz with a return loss of -16 dB each and impedance bandwidth of 10.6 %. Both the antennas uses Coaxial Probe feeding technique and Flame Retardant 4 (FR-4 as the substrate material with a thickness of 2.87 mm. A parametric study has been done so as to understand the effect of each parameter to obtain a better performance and optimised results.

  13. Multiscale patterned transplantable stem cell patches for bone tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jangho; Bae, Won-Gyu; Choung, Han-Wool; Lim, Ki Taek; Seonwoo, Hoon; Jeong, Hoon Eui; Suh, Khap-Yang; Jeon, Noo Li; Choung, Pill-Hoon; Chung, Jong Hoon

    2014-11-01

    Stem cell-based therapy has been proposed as an enabling alternative not only for the treatment of diseases but also for the regeneration of tissues beyond complex surgical treatments or tissue transplantation. In this study, we approached a conceptual platform that can integrate stem cells into a multiscale patterned substrate for bone regeneration. Inspired by human bone tissue, we developed hierarchically micro- and nanopatterned transplantable patches as synthetic extracellular matrices by employing capillary force lithography in combination with a surface micro-wrinkling method using a poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) polymer. The multiscale patterned PLGA patches were highly flexible and showed higher tissue adhesion to the underlying tissue than did the single nanopatterned patches. In response to the anisotropically multiscale patterned topography, the adhesion and differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were sensitively controlled. Furthermore, the stem cell patch composed of hMSCs and transplantable PLGA substrate promoted bone regeneration in vivo when both the micro- and nanotopography of the substrate surfaces were synergistically combined. Thus, our study concludes that multiscale patterned transplantable stem cell patches may have a great potential for bone regeneration as well as for various regenerative medicine approaches.

  14. Modeling of endovascular patch welding using the computer program LATIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glinsky, M.E.; London, R.A.; Zimmerman, G.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Jacques, S.L. [Univ. of Texas, Houston, TX (United States). M. D. Anderson Cancer Center

    1995-03-01

    A new computer program, LATIS, being developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is used to study the effect of pulsed laser irradiation on endovascular patch welding. Various physical and biophysical effects are included in these simulations: laser light scattering and absorption, tissue heating and heat conduction, vascular cooling, and tissue thermal damage. The geometry of a patch being held against the inner vessel wall (500 {mu}m inner diameter) by a balloon is considered. The system is exposed to light pulsed from an optical fiber inside the balloon. A minimum in the depth of damage into the vessel wall is found. The minimum damage zone is about the thickness of the patch material that is heated by the laser. The more ordered the tissue the thinner the minimum zone of damage. The pulse length which minimizes the zone of damage is found to be the time for energy to diffuse across the layer. The delay time between the pulses is determined by the time for the heated layer to cool down. An optimal pulse length exists which minimizes the total time needed to weld the patch to the wall while keeping the thickness of the damaged tissue to less than 100 {mu}m. For the case that is considered, a patch dyed with light absorbing ICG on the side next to the vessel (thickness of the dyed layer is 60 {mu}m), the best protocol is found to be 65-200 ms pulses applied over 2 min.

  15. Robust Tracking with Discriminative Ranking Middle-Level Patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Liu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The appearance model has been shown to be essential for robust visual tracking since it is the basic criterion to locating targets in video sequences. Though existing tracking-by-detection algorithms have shown to be greatly promising, they still suffer from the drift problem, which is caused by updating appearance models. In this paper, we propose a new appearance model composed of ranking middle-level patches to capture more object distinctiveness than traditional tracking-by-detection models. Targets and backgrounds are represented by both low-level bottom-up features and high-level top-down patches, which can compensate each other. Bottom-up features are defined at the pixel level, and each feature gets its discrimination score through selective feature attention mechanism. In top-down feature extraction, rectangular patches are ranked according to their bottom-up discrimination scores, by which all of them are clustered into irregular patches, named ranking middle-level patches. In addition, at the stage of classifier training, the online random forests algorithm is specially refined to reduce drifting problems. Experiments on challenging public datasets and our test videos demonstrate that our approach can effectively prevent the tracker drifting problem and obtain competitive performance in visual tracking.

  16. Patching the Exchange-Correlation Potential in Density Functional Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen

    2016-05-10

    A method for directly patching exchange-correlation (XC) potentials in materials is derived. The electron density of a system is partitioned into subsystem densities by dividing its Kohn-Sham (KS) potential among the subsystems. Inside each subsystem, its projected KS potential is required to become the total system's KS potential. This requirement, together with the nearsightedness principle of electronic matters, ensures that the electronic structures inside subsystems can be good approximations to the total system's electronic structure. The nearsightedness principle also ensures that subsystem densities could be well localized in their regions, making it possible to use high-level methods to invert the XC potentials for subsystem densities. Two XC patching methods are developed. In the local XC patching method, the total system's XC potential is improved in the cluster region. We show that the coupling between a cluster and its environment is important for achieving a fast convergence of the electronic structure in the cluster region. In the global XC patching method, we discuss how to patch the subsystem XC potentials to construct the XC potential in the total system, aiming to scale up high-level quantum mechanics simulations of materials. Proof-of-principle examples are given.

  17. Functional diversity in arbuscular mycorrhizas: Exploitation of soil patches with different phosphate enrichment differs among fungal species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavagnaro, T.R.; Smith, F.A.; Smith, S.E.;

    2005-01-01

    Most terrestrial plant species form associations with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) that transfer soil P to the plant via their external hyphae. The distribution of nutrients in soils is typically patchy (heterogeneous) but little is known about the ability of AMF to exploit P patches in soi...... by decreased P uptake by other parts of the mycelium. This is the first demonstration of variation in growth and nutrient uptake by an AMF as influenced by a localized P enrichment of the soil. The results are discussed in the context of functional diversity of AMF....

  18. Improvement of 5.8 GHz Band Patch Antenna with Metamaterial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nam-ki LEE; Seung-in YANG

    2010-01-01

    A patch antenna,a metamaterial patch antenna and a proposed metamaterial patch antenna,are simulated and compared.Simulation results show that the proposed antenna can concentrate so well radiation energy into broadside direction that the antenna gain is increased and the side lobe level is decreased.Therefore,the gain of the proposed metamaterial patch antenna is improved by 2 dB than that of the ordinary metamaterial patch anterma.

  19. Density of Diadema antillarum (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) on live coral patch reefs and dead Acropora cervicornis rubble patches near Loggerhead Key, Dry Tortugas National Park, Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Density of adult Diadema antillarum was assessed on live coral patch reefs and dead Acropora cervicornis rubble patches next to Loggerhead Key, Dry Tortugas National Park, Florida, USA in June 2009. Mean density on live coral patch reefs (0.49 individuals m-2) was not statistical...

  20. Transdermal Patches: A Complete Review on Transdermal Drug Delivery System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel DS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Today about 70% of drugs are taken orally and are found not to be as effective as desired. To improvesuch characters transdermal drug delivery system was emerged. Transdermal drug delivery system(TDDS provides a means to sustain drug release as well as reduce the intensity of action and thusreduce the side effects associated with its oral therapy and differs from traditional topical drug delivery.Transdermal Drug Delivery System is the system in which the delivery of the active ingredients of thedrug occurs by means of skin. Several important advantages of transdermal drug delivery are limitationof hepatic first pass metabolism, enhancement of therapeutic efficiency and maintenance of steadyplasma level of the drug. Various types of transdermal patches are used to incorporate the activeingredients into the circulatory system via skin. This review article covers a brief outline of theprinciples of transdermal permeation, various components of transdermal patch, approaches oftransdermal patch, evaluation of transdermal system, its application with its limitation.

  1. Modified Microstrip Aperture Coupled Patch Antenna with Sierpinski Fractal Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-layer modified microstrip aperture coupled patch antenna with Sierpinski fractal geometry is presented in this paper. The effects of the two coupling slots and the parasitic patch are discussed. The proposed antenna can work on 956 MHz to 968 MHz, 3.654 GHz to 3.78 GHz, and 8.81 GHz to 9.28 GHz three frequency bands, and the maximum gain in each band is 4.64 dBi, 8.46 dBi, and 7.85 dBi, respectively. The simulated result reveals that the Sierpinski patch antenna we proposed in this paper performs better on radiation properties.

  2. Recommended Practice for Patch Management of Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Tom; Dale Christiansen; Dan Berrett

    2008-12-01

    A key component in protecting a nation’s critical infrastructure and key resources is the security of control systems. The term industrial control system refers to supervisory control and data acquisition, process control, distributed control, and any other systems that control, monitor, and manage the nation’s critical infrastructure. Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources (CIKR) consists of electric power generators, transmission systems, transportation systems, dam and water systems, communication systems, chemical and petroleum systems, and other critical systems that cannot tolerate sudden interruptions in service. Simply stated, a control system gathers information and then performs a function based on its established parameters and the information it receives. The patch management of industrial control systems software used in CIKR is inconsistent at best and nonexistent at worst. Patches are important to resolve security vulnerabilities and functional issues. This report recommends patch management practices for consideration and deployment by industrial control systems owners.

  3. Mitral valve mechanics following posterior leaflet patch augmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahmani, Azadeh; Rasmussen, Ann Qvist; Hønge, Jesper Langhoff

    2013-01-01

    tendineae emanating from the posterior papillary muscle in a FIMR-simulated valve, following posterior leaflet patch augmentation. Methods: Mitral valves were obtained from 12 pigs (body weight 80 kg). An in vitro test set-up simulating the left ventricle was used to hold the valves. The left ventricular...... pressure was regulated with water to simulate different static pressures during valve closure. A standardized oval pericardial patch (17 × 29 mm) was introduced into the posterior leaflet from mid P2 to the end of the P3 scallop. Dedicated miniature transducers were used to record the forces exerted...... on the valve, patch augmentation may have an adverse long-term influence on mitral valve function and remodeling....

  4. Patched Green's function techniques for two-dimensional systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Settnes, Mikkel; Power, Stephen; Lin, Jun

    2015-01-01

    We present a numerically efficient technique to evaluate the Green's function for extended two-dimensional systems without relying on periodic boundary conditions. Different regions of interest, or “patches,” are connected using self-energy terms which encode the information of the extended parts...... of the system. The calculation scheme uses a combination of analytic expressions for the Green's function of infinite pristine systems and an adaptive recursive Green's function technique for the patches. The method allows for an efficient calculation of both local electronic and transport properties, as well...... as the inclusion of multiple probes in arbitrary geometries embedded in extended samples. We apply the patched Green's function method to evaluate the local densities of states and transmission properties of graphene systems with two kinds of deviations from the pristine structure: bubbles and perforations...

  5. Fixed drug eruption by etoricoxib confirmed by patch test*

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Aline Soares; Cardoso, José Carlos; Gouveia, Miguel Pinto; Gameiro, Ana Rita; Teixeira, Vera Barreto; Gonçalo, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory drugs, followed by antibiotics, are the main causes of fixed drug eruption. They provoke one or several round erythematous or bullous lesions that recur in the same place after taking the causative medication. A positive patch test on residual, lesional skin can replace satisfactorily oral reintroduction. We describe the case of a 74-year-old woman with numerous, rounded, erythematous lesions on the trunk and recurrent blistering on the fifth right-hand finger, which developed a few hours after taking etoricoxib. Lesional patch testing with etoricoxib was positive and reproduced the typical pattern of a fixed drug eruption upon histopathology. We emphasize the specific reactivity of the etoricoxib patch test, and the capacity to reproduce the histologic pattern of the reaction. PMID:27828643

  6. Failure analysis and surety design of composite patching systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamoush, Sameer (North Carolina A& T State University, Greensboro, NC)

    2004-08-01

    This work presents an experimental evaluation of patch repair of solid laminated composites. The study was focused on destructive and nondestructive tests of full-scale repaired panels under static tension loading conditions. The testing program consisted of ten panels: three pristine, three damaged, three repaired and one repaired with mismatched fiber orientation patch. The evaluated panels were (300 mm x 675 mm) in size and consisted of 6-ply ((-60 /60/0){sub s}) quasi-isotropic laminates. The destructive tests were performed by North Carolina A&T State University and the nondestructive tests were performed by Iowa State University using Pulse-echo C-scan, Air coupled TTU and Auto-Tap. Sandia National Laboratories validated the NDT tests by implementing NDE field methods. Based on the evaluation performed in this study, it appears that the patch repair is an effective means in retrofitting damaged solid composite laminates.

  7. Spatial patch occupancy patterns of the Lower Keys marsh rabbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Mitchell J.; Hughes, Phillip T.; Nichols, James D.; Morkill, Anne; Anderson, Chad

    2011-01-01

    Reliable estimates of presence or absence of a species can provide substantial information on management questions related to distribution and habitat use but should incorporate the probability of detection to reduce bias. We surveyed for the endangered Lower Keys marsh rabbit (Sylvilagus palustris hefneri) in habitat patches on 5 Florida Key islands, USA, to estimate occupancy and detection probabilities. We derived detection probabilities using spatial replication of plots and evaluated hypotheses that patch location (coastal or interior) and patch size influence occupancy and detection. Results demonstrate that detection probability, given rabbits were present, was rabbits from historical data and to guide management decisions for species recovery. The sampling and analytical methods we used may be useful for researchers and managers of other endangered lagomorphs and cryptic or fossorial animals occupying diverse habitats.

  8. Planar patch-clamp force microscopy on living cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pamir, Evren [Center for Nano Science, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Amalienstr 54, 80799 Munich (Germany); George, Michael; Fertig, Niels [Nanion Technologies GmbH, Erzgiessereistr. 4, 80335 Munich (Germany); Benoit, Martin [Center for Nano Science, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Amalienstr 54, 80799 Munich (Germany)], E-mail: martin.benoit@physik.uni-muenchen.de

    2008-05-15

    Here we report a new combination of the patch-clamp technique with the atomic force microscope (AFM). A planar patch-clamp chip microstructured from borosilicate glass was used as a support for mechanical probing of living cells. The setup not only allows for immobilizing even a non-adherent cell for measurements of its mechanical properties, but also for simultaneously measuring the electrophysiological properties of a single cell. As a proof of principle experiment we measured the voltage-induced membrane movement of HEK293 and Jurkat cells in the whole-cell voltage clamp configuration. The results of these measurements are in good agreement with previous studies. By using the planar patch-clamp chip for immobilization, the AFM not only can image non-adhering cells, but also gets easily access to an electrophysiologically controlled cellular probe at low vibrational noise.

  9. Analysis of finite phased arrays of circular microstrip patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Manohar D.; Bailey, Marion C.

    1989-01-01

    A method is presented for analyzing a finite planar array of circular microstrip patches fed by coaxial probes. The self- and mutual impedances between array elements are calculated using the method of moments with the dyadic Green's function for a dielectric layer on a ground plane. The patch circuits are determined by using the reaction integral equation. The active input impedance as well as the active element pattern of the array are computed from a knowledge of the resultant patch currents. The calculated results for two-element and eight-element linear arrays are in good agreement with experimental data. The active reflection coefficient and element pattern for the center and edge elements of a two-dimensional array as a function of scan angle are also presented.

  10. Image superresolution of cytology images using wavelet based patch search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Carlos; García-Arteaga, Juan D.; Romero, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Telecytology is a new research area that holds the potential of significantly reducing the number of deaths due to cervical cancer in developing countries. This work presents a novel super-resolution technique that couples high and low frequency information in order to reduce the bandwidth consumption of cervical image transmission. The proposed approach starts by decomposing into wavelets the high resolution images and transmitting only the lower frequency coefficients. The transmitted coefficients are used to reconstruct an image of the original size. Additional details are added by iteratively replacing patches of the wavelet reconstructed image with equivalent high resolution patches from a previously acquired image database. Finally, the original transmitted low frequency coefficients are used to correct the final image. Results show a higher signal to noise ratio in the proposed method over simply discarding high frequency wavelet coefficients or replacing directly down-sampled patches from the image-database.

  11. Comparing 14-day adhesive patch with 24-h Holter monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Christopher C; Kerr, Charles R; Krahn, Andrew D

    2014-05-01

    Barrett PM, Komatireddy R, Haaser S et al. Comparison of 24-hour Holter monitoring with 14-day novel adhesive patch electrocardiographic monitoring. Am. J. Med. 127(1), 95.e11–95.e17 (2014). The investigation of cardiac arrhythmias in the outpatient ambulatory setting has traditionally been initiated with the Holter monitor. Using the continuous recording over 24 or 48 h, the Holter monitor permits the detection of baseline rhythm, dysrhythmia and conduction abnormalities, including heart block and changes in the ST segment that may indicate myocardial ischemia. However, apart from the bulkiness and inconvenience of the device itself, the lack of extended monitoring results in a diagnostic yield of typically less than 20%. In this study by Barrett et al., 146 patients referred for the evaluation of cardiac arrhythmia were prospectively enrolled to wear both the 24-h Holter monitor and 14-day adhesive patch monitor (Zio Patch) simultaneously. The primary outcome was the detection of any one of six arrhythmias: supraventricular tachycardia, atrial fibrillation/flutter, pause >3 s, atrioventricular block, ventricular tachycardia, or polymorphic ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation. The adhesive patch monitor detected more arrhythmia events compared with the Holter monitor over the total wear time (96 vs. 61 events; p Holter monitor detected more events during the initial 24-h monitoring period (61 vs. 52 events; p = 0.013). Novel, single-lead, intermediate-duration, user-friendly adhesive patch monitoring devices, such as the Zio Patch, represent the changing face of ambulatory ECG monitoring. However, the loss of quality, automated rhythm analysis and inability to detect myocardial ischemia continue to remain important issues that will need to be addressed prior to the implementation of these new devices.

  12. Investigation of contact allergy to dental materials by patch testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena Rai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental products are widely used by patients and dental personnel alike and may cause problems for both. Dental materials could cause contact allergy with varying manifestations such as burning, pain, stomatitis, cheilitis, ulcers, lichenoid reactions localized to the oral mucosa in patients, and hand dermatitis in dental personnel. Patch testing with the dental series comprising commonly used materials can be used to detect contact allergies to dental materials. Aim: This study aimed to identify contact allergy among patients who have oral mucosal lesions after dental treatment and among dental personnel who came in contact with these materials. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients who had undergone dental procedures with symptoms of oral lichen planus, oral stomatitis, burning mouth, and recurrent aphthosis, were included in the study. Dental personnel with history of hand dermatitis were also included in the study. Patch testing was performed using Chemotechnique Dental Series and results interpreted as recommended by the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group (ICDRG. Results: Out of 13 patients who had undergone dental treatment/with oral symptoms, six patients with stomatitis, lichenoid lesions, and oral ulcers showed positive patch tests to a variety of dental materials, seven patients with ulcers had negative patch tests, seven dental personnel with hand dermatitis showed multiple allergies to various dental materials, and most had multiple positivities. Conclusion: The patch test is a useful, simple, noninvasive method to detect contact allergies among patients and among dental personnel dealing with these products. Long term studies are necessary to establish the relevance of these positive patch tests by eliminating the allergic substances, identifying clinical improvement, and substituting with nonallergenic materials.

  13. Effect of rotational shepherding on demographic and genetic connectivity of calcareous grassland plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, Yessica; Boehmer, Hans Juergen; Wagner, Helene H

    2014-04-01

    Response to habitat fragmentation may not be generalized among species, in particular for plant communities with a variety of dispersal traits. Calcareous grasslands are one of the most species-rich habitats in Central Europe, but abandonment of traditional management has caused a dramatic decline of calcareous grassland species. In the Southern Franconian Alb in Germany, reintroduction of rotational shepherding in previously abandoned grasslands has restored species diversity, and it has been suggested that sheep support seed dispersal among grasslands. We tested the effect of rotational shepherding on demographic and genetic connectivity of calcareous grassland specialist plants and whether the response of plant populations to shepherding was limited to species dispersed by animals (zoochory). Specifically, we tested competing dispersal models and source and focal patch properties to explain landscape connectivity with patch-occupancy data of 31 species. We fitted the same connectivity models to patch occupancy and nuclear microsatellite data for the herb Dianthus carthusianorum (Carthusian pink). For 27 species, patch connectivity was explained by dispersal by rotational shepherding regardless of adaptations to zoochory, whereas population size (16% species) and patch area (0% species) of source patches were not important predictors of patch occupancy in most species. [Correction made after online publication, February 25, 2014: Population size and patch area percentages were mistakenly inverted, and have now been fixed.] Microsite diversity of focal patches significantly increased the model variance explained by patch occupancy in 90% of the species. For D. carthusianorum, patch connectivity through rotational shepherding explained both patch occupancy and population genetic diversity. Our results suggest shepherding provides dispersal for multiple plant species regardless of their dispersal adaptations and thus offers a useful approach to restore plant

  14. Affine Patches on Positroid Varieties and Affine Pipe Dreams (Thesis)

    CERN Document Server

    Snider, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    The objects of interest in this thesis are positroid varieties in the Grassmannian, which are indexed by juggling patterns. In particular, we study affine patches on these positroid varieties. Our main result corresponds these affine patches to Kazhdan-Lusztig varieties in the affine Grassmannian. We develop a new term order and study how these spaces are related to subword complexes and Stanley-Reisner ideals. We define an extension of pipe dreams to the affine case and conclude by showing how our affine pipe dreams are generalizations of Cauchon and Le diagrams.

  15. Resonance of a rectangular microstrip patch on a uniaxial substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kin-Lu; Row, Jeen-Sheen; Kuo, Chih-Wen; Huang, Kuang-Chih

    1993-04-01

    Effects of uniaxial anisotropy in the substrate on the complex resonant frequency of the microstrip patch antenna are investigated in terms of an integral equation formulation. The complex resonant frequency of the microstrip patch antenna is calculated by using Galerkin's method in solving the integral equation. The sinusoidal functions are selected as the basis functions, which show fast numerical convergence. Numerical results also indicate that both the resonant frequency and the half-power bandwidth are increased due to the positive uniaxial anisotropy and, on the other hand, decreased due to the negative uniaxial anisotropy.

  16. Transparent biocompatible sensor patches for touch sensitive prosthetic limbs

    KAUST Repository

    Nag, Anindya

    2016-12-26

    The paper presents the fabrication of transparent, flexible sensor patches developed using a casting technique with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as substrate and a nanocomposite of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and PDMS as interdigital electrodes. The electrodes act as strain sensitive capacitor. The prototypes were used as touch sensitive sensors attached to the limbs. Experiments results show the sensitivity of the patches towards tactile sensing. The results are very promising and can play a key role in the development of a cost efficient sensing system attached to prosthetic limbs.

  17. Optimal location of piezoelectric patches for active vibration control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labanie, Mohammad F.; Ali, J. S. Mohamed; Shaik Dawood, M. S. I.

    2017-03-01

    This paper focuses on finding the optimal location for a piezoelectric patch for minimizing the settling time of an excited isotropic and orthotropic plate. COMSOL Multiphysics has been used to design and model the plate with PID controller. Classical Optimization tool called Parametric Sweep has been used to achieve the objective of the experiment. Five different stacking sequences were used in the study of orthotropic plate. The results obtained by the FEA software indicated that by placing the piezoelectric patches at the optimal location, the settling time of a plate can decrease by 40% compared to placing it at the centre of the fixed end.

  18. A Modified E Shaped Patch Antenna For Mimo Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jagadeesh Babu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A compact E shaped patch antenna is proposed in the present work, which can be used for Multiple Input Multiple output (MIMO systems. The modified E shaped patch antenna proposed in this paper offers improved directivity, bandwidth, and return loss characteristics compared to normal E shaped antenna. The antenna system resonates at 5.36GHz and 5.89GHz frequencies for VSWR≤2 which can be used for WiMAX (Wireless interoperability for microwave access applications. The simulation results of return loss, VSWR, gain and radiation pattern are presented.

  19. Patch electrode glass composition affects ion channel currents.

    OpenAIRE

    Furman, R E; Tanaka, J C

    1988-01-01

    The influence of patch electrode glass composition on macroscopic IV relations in inside-out patches of the cGMP-activated ion channel from rod photoreceptors was examined for a soda lime glass, a Kovar sealing glass, a borosilicate glass, and several soft lead glasses. In several glasses the shape or magnitude of the currents changed as the concentration of EGTA or EDTA was increased from 200 microM to 10 mM. The changes in IV response suggest that, at low concentrations of chelator, divalen...

  20. A NOVEL WIDE-BAND CIRCULAR PATCH ANTENNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jian; Zhang Hou; Huang Wenli; Huang Xueyu

    2005-01-01

    In order to overcome the narrow-bandwidth of the patch antenna, one kind of configuration which can widen the bandwidth significantly is discussed in this letter. Analyzed by the equivalent-circuits method and simulated by HFSS, a rule derived from simulated results that can aid to design the microstrip antennas is found. Finally, the structure parameters are optimized out, which reaches 44.67% impedance bandwidth. Furthermore, this kind of configuration can also be applied to the multi-layer patch antenna.

  1. Patched1 and Patched2 inhibit Smoothened non-cell autonomously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Brock; Casillas, Catalina; Alfaro, Astrid C; Jägers, Carina; Roelink, Henk

    2016-08-23

    Smoothened (Smo) inhibition by Patched (Ptch) is central to Hedgehog (Hh) signaling. Ptch, a proton driven antiporter, is required for Smo inhibition via an unknown mechanism. Hh ligand binding to Ptch reverses this inhibition and activated Smo initiates the Hh response. To determine whether Ptch inhibits Smo strictly in the same cell or also mediates non-cell-autonomous Smo inhibition, we generated genetically mosaic neuralized embryoid bodies (nEBs) from mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). These experiments utilized novel mESC lines in which Ptch1, Ptch2, Smo, Shh and 7dhcr were inactivated via gene editing in multiple combinations, allowing us to measure non-cell autonomous interactions between cells with differing Ptch1/2 status. In several independent assays, the Hh response was repressed by Ptch1/2 in nearby cells. When 7dhcr was targeted, cells displayed elevated non-cell autonomous inhibition. These findings support a model in which Ptch1/2 mediate secretion of a Smo-inhibitory cholesterol precursor.

  2. [Allelopathy of aqueous extract from Ligularia virgaurea, a dominant weed in psychro-grassland, on pasture plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ruijun; Wang, Mingli; Zhao, Kun; Guo, Shoujun; Zhao, Qingfang; Sun, Kun

    2006-05-01

    Ligularia virgaurea is a noxious weed widely distributed in the alpine grassland of east Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China. This paper studied the allelopathy of its aqueous extract on the pasture plants Festuca sinensis, Bromus magnus, Elymus nutans, Poa annua, and F. ovina in the region. The mean response index (RI) values of the pasture plants were calculated, and used to quantitatively assess the allelopathic sensitivity of the receptors at three levels, i. e., growth items, development stages, and species. Corresponding values of the weed were also treated in similar way to assess the allelopathic potential of the donor. The results showed that the allelopathic sensitivity was in the order of P. annua > B. magnus > F. sinensis > F. ovina > E. nutans. Both the seed germination and the seedling growth of test pasture plants were inhibited at species level, suggesting that rain eluviation was one of the means by which the weed released allelochemicals. The aqueous extracts from L. virgaurea root and leaf had a significant inhibitory effect at species level, and the effect of root extract was stronger than that of leaf extract, suggesting the competition among species on the underground resources in natural grassland. Allelopathy played an important role in L. virgaurea invasion, and might be responsible to the formation of mono-dominant community and the degeneration of grassland.

  3. A comparative study of the effects of using normalized patches for penalized likelihood tomographic reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xue; Lee, Soo-Jin

    2016-03-01

    Patch-based regularization methods, which have proven useful not only for image denoising, but also for tomographic reconstruction, penalize image roughness based on the intensity differences between two nearby patches. However, when two patches are not considered to be similar in the general sense of similarity but still have similar features in a scaled domain after normalizing the two patches, the difference between the two patches in the scaled domain is smaller than the intensity difference measured in the standard method. Standard patch-based methods tend to ignore such similarities due to the large intensity differences between the two patches. In this work, for patch-based penalized likelihood tomographic reconstruction, we propose a new approach to the similarity measure using the normalized patch differences as well as the intensity-based patch differences. A normalized patch difference is obtained by normalizing and scaling the intensity-based patch difference. To selectively take advantage of the standard patch (SP) and normalized patch (NP), we use switching schemes that can select either SP or NP based on the gradient of a reconstructed image. In this case the SP is selected for restoring large-scaled piecewise-smooth regions, while the NP is selected for preserving the contrast of fine details. The numerical experiments using software phantom demonstrate that our proposed methods not only improve overall reconstruction accuracy in terms of the percentage error, but also reveal better recovery of fine details in terms of the contrast recovery coefficient.

  4. Colour detection thresholds in faces and colour patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kok Wei; Stephen, Ian D

    2013-01-01

    Human facial skin colour reflects individuals' underlying health (Stephen et al 2011 Evolution & Human Behavior 32 216-227); and enhanced facial skin CIELab b* (yellowness), a* (redness), and L* (lightness) are perceived as healthy (also Stephen et al 2009a International Journal of Primatology 30 845-857). Here, we examine Malaysian Chinese participants' detection thresholds for CIELab L* (lightness), a* (redness), and b* (yellowness) colour changes in Asian, African, and Caucasian faces and skin coloured patches. Twelve face photos and three skin coloured patches were transformed to produce four pairs of images of each individual face and colour patch with different amounts of red, yellow, or lightness, from very subtle (deltaE = 1.2) to quite large differences (deltaE = 9.6). Participants were asked to decide which of sequentially displayed, paired same-face images or colour patches were lighter, redder, or yellower. Changes in facial redness, followed by changes in yellowness, were more easily discriminated than changes in luminance. However, visual sensitivity was not greater for redness and yellowness in nonface stimuli, suggesting red facial skin colour special salience. Participants were also significantly better at recognizing colour differences in own-race (Asian) and Caucasian faces than in African faces, suggesting the existence of cross-race effect in discriminating facial colours. Humans' colour vision may have been selected for skin colour signalling (Changizi et al 2006 Biology Letters 2 217-221), enabling individuals to perceive subtle changes in skin colour, reflecting health and emotional status.

  5. Field patching, factorization and local-global principles

    CERN Document Server

    Krashen, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we first describe the method of field patching, developed by Harbater and Hartmann, paying special attention to the relationship between factorization and local-global principles, and second, we extend the basic factorization result previously known for rational groups to the case of retract rational groups.

  6. A Flexible and Wearable Human Stress Monitoring Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sunghyun; Sim, Jai Kyoung; Cho, Young-Ho

    2016-03-01

    A human stress monitoring patch integrates three sensors of skin temperature, skin conductance, and pulsewave in the size of stamp (25 mm × 15 mm × 72 μm) in order to enhance wearing comfort with small skin contact area and high flexibility. The skin contact area is minimized through the invention of an integrated multi-layer structure and the associated microfabrication process; thus being reduced to 1/125 of that of the conventional single-layer multiple sensors. The patch flexibility is increased mainly by the development of flexible pulsewave sensor, made of a flexible piezoelectric membrane supported by a perforated polyimide membrane. In the human physiological range, the fabricated stress patch measures skin temperature with the sensitivity of 0.31 Ω/°C, skin conductance with the sensitivity of 0.28 μV/0.02 μS, and pulse wave with the response time of 70 msec. The skin-attachable stress patch, capable to detect multimodal bio-signals, shows potential for application to wearable emotion monitoring.

  7. Evaluation of UAV imagery for mapping Silybum marianum weed patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    The invasive weed, milk thistle (Silybum marianum), has the tendency to grow in patches. In order to perform site-specific weed management, determining the spatial distribution of weeds is important for its eradication. Remote sensing has been used to perform species discrimination, and it offers pr...

  8. Smooth surfaces from bilinear patches: Discrete affine minimal surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Käferböck, Florian

    2013-06-01

    Motivated by applications in freeform architecture, we study surfaces which are composed of smoothly joined bilinear patches. These surfaces turn out to be discrete versions of negatively curved affine minimal surfaces and share many properties with their classical smooth counterparts. We present computational design approaches and study special cases which should be interesting for the architectural application. 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  9. [Right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction with monocusp patch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, T; Yokota, Y; Okamoto, F; Nakayama, S; Matsuno, S; Ohtani, S; Nakanishi, K; Nishimori, H

    1990-02-01

    Two kinds of monocusp patch were used for reconstruction of right ventricular outflow tract in patients with a variety of congenital heart defects. A bovine pericardial patch with monocusp (MVOP) was used in 11 patients (group M), and a separate transannular outflow patch (STOP) with turned-down equine pericardial monocusp was used in 10 patients (group S). Mean age at operation was 9 years 5 months in group M, and 7 years 9 months in group S. There was one operative death in group M. Survivors have completed a mean follow-up of 19 months. There were no late deaths. In early postoperative period, mean peak systolic pressure gradient between right ventricle and main pulmonary artery was 21 +/- 11 mmHg in group M and 21 +/- 11 mmHg in group S, which were not statistically significant. During follow-up period, no significant increase of peak systolic pressure gradient was noted in both groups. In late postoperative period, pulmonary regurgitation was moderate in 7 and severe in 1 in group M, while it was non-significant in 1, mild in 6 and moderate in 2 in group S. The difference between two groups was significant (p < 0.005). In conclusion, both types of patches equally relieved right ventricular outflow obstruction, but STOP prevented postoperative pulmonary regurgitation more effectively.

  10. Reduced groundplane shorted patch antenna for on-body communications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chandran, A.R.; Scanlon, W.G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a compact, low profile shorted patch antenna designed for on-body communication at 2.45 GHz. The proposed antenna operates with a small (~�¿/5 dimension) groundplane yet maintains a reasonable radiation efficiency of 50.9 % when in close proximity to a muscle tissue phantom.

  11. Photopatch and UV-irradiated patch testing in photosensitive dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena Rai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The photopatch test is used to detect photoallergic reactions to various antigens such as sunscreens and drugs. Photosensitive dermatitis can be caused due to antigens like parthenium, fragrances, rubbers and metals. The photopatch test does not contain these antigens. Therefore, the Indian Standard Series (ISS along with the Standard photopatch series from Chemotechnique Diagnostics, Sweden was used to detect light induced antigens. Aim: To detect light induced antigens in patients with photosensitive dermatitis. Methods: This study was done in a descriptive, observer blinded manner. Photopatch test and ISS were applied in duplicate on the patient's back by the standard method. After 24 hours, readings were recorded according to ICDRG criteria. One side was closed and other side irradiated with 14 J/cm2 of UVA and a second set of readings were recorded after 48 hrs. Result: The highest positivity was obtained with parthenium, with 18 out of 35 (51% patients showing a positive patch test reaction with both photoallergic contact dermatitis and photoaggravation. Four patients (11% showed positive patch test reaction suggestive of contact dermatitis to potassium dichromate and fragrance mix. Six patients had contact dermatitis to numerous antigens such as nickel, cobalt, chinoform and para-phenylenediamine. None of these patients showed photoaggravation on patch testing. Conclusion: Parthenium was found to cause photoallergy, contact dermatitis with photoaggravation and contact allergy. Hence, photopatch test and UV irradiated patch test can be an important tool to detect light induced antigens in patients with photosensitive dermatitis.

  12. Aortic aneurysm formation following coarctation repair by Dacron patch aortoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walhout, R J; Braam, R L; Schepens, M A; Mulder, B J M; Plokker, H W M

    2010-08-01

    We describe the finding of an aortic aneurysm in an asymptomatic 43-year-old male, who was managed by Dacron patch aortoplasty for native coarctation of the aorta 25 years before. The role of magnetic resonance angiography as standard imaging technique in lifelong postoperative surveillance is discussed subsequently. (Neth Heart J 2010;18:376-7.).

  13. Person Tracking System by Fusing Multicues Based on Patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Min Jia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A person tracking algorithm by fusing multicues based on patches is proposed to solve the problem of distinguishing person, occlusion, and illumination variations. Kinect is mounted on the robot for providing color images and depth maps. A detector representing a person by using the fusion of multicues based on patches is proposed. The detector divides the person into many patches and then represents each patch by using depth-color histograms and depth-texture histograms. The appearance representation, considering depth, color, and texture information, has powerful discrimination ability to handle the problems of occlusion, illumination changes, and pose variations. Considering the motion of the robot and person, a tracker called motion extended Kalman filter (MEKF is presented to predict the person’s position. The result of the tracker is treated as a candidate sample of the detector, and then the result of the detector is the previous knowledge of the tracker. The detector and tracker supplement each other and improve the tracking performance. To drive the robot towards the given person precisely, a fuzzy based intelligent gear control strategy (FZ-IGS is implemented. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed approach can track a person in a complex environment and have an optimum performance.

  14. Patch test dose-response study of p-phenylenediamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sosted, Heidi; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2006-01-01

    The elicitation response in allergic contact dermatitis for the hair dye substance p-phenylenediamine (PPD) is dose dependent, but threshold concentrations have not previously been investigated. 15 PPD-sensitive patients participated in a serial dilution 48-hr patch test with PPD using 8 concentr...

  15. Constraint Patch Matching for Faster Person Re-identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lejbølle, Aske Rasch; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2017-01-01

    In person re-identification, it is of great importance toextract very discriminative features in order to distinguishbetween images of different persons captured in differentcamera views. Features can be extracted globally from theentire or parts of the image, or locally from patches. Inaddition,...

  16. Interactive object modelling based on piecewise planar surface patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prankl, Johann; Zillich, Michael; Vincze, Markus

    2013-06-01

    Detecting elements such as planes in 3D is essential to describe objects for applications such as robotics and augmented reality. While plane estimation is well studied, table-top scenes exhibit a large number of planes and methods often lock onto a dominant plane or do not estimate 3D object structure but only homographies of individual planes. In this paper we introduce MDL to the problem of incrementally detecting multiple planar patches in a scene using tracked interest points in image sequences. Planar patches are reconstructed and stored in a keyframe-based graph structure. In case different motions occur, separate object hypotheses are modelled from currently visible patches and patches seen in previous frames. We evaluate our approach on a standard data set published by the Visual Geometry Group at the University of Oxford [24] and on our own data set containing table-top scenes. Results indicate that our approach significantly improves over the state-of-the-art algorithms.

  17. Patch Pd para Nih-Nik de Chico Mello

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Montechiari e Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This Pure Data patch was commissioned by the Ensemble Nih-Nik for the premier of the homonymous 1993 piece by Brazilian composer Chico Mello at the SiMN 2014 + matrix14 on tour festival (Curitiba, Brazil.

  18. High order and conservative method for patched grid interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Maugars, B.; Michel, B.; Cinnella, P.

    2014-01-01

    International audience; A high-order and conservative method is developed for the numerical treatment of interface conditions in patched grids, based on the use of a ctitious grid methodology. The proposed approach is compared with a non-conservative interpolation of the state variables from the neighbouring domain for selected internal fow problems.

  19. Performance of shcc with bacteria for concrete patch repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierra Beltran, M.G.; Jonkers, H.M.; Schlangen, E.

    2014-01-01

    The overall performance of concrete patch repair systems depends on the durability of and compatibility between the concrete substrate and the repair material. This paper investigates the performance of a new type of SHCC material with embedded bacteria as a repair material. The bacteria are a

  20. Per-patch metric learning for robust image matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karaoglu, S.; Everts, I.; van Gemert, J.C.; Gevers, T.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a patch-specific metric learning method to improve matching performance of local descriptors. Existing methodologies typically focus on invariance, by completely considering, or completely disregarding all variations. We propose a metric learning method that is robust to only a range of

  1. Evaluation of adhesive properties of patches based on acrylic matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minghetti, P; Cilurzo, F; Montanari, L

    1999-01-01

    Adhesion is an essential property of the dermal and transdermal therapeutic systems (TS). It is influenced by the composition and the thickness of the matrix and also by the characteristics of the backing layer. Our aim was to evaluate the usefulness of the "thumb tack test," the "tack rolling ball test," and the "peel adhesion 180 degrees test" in the development studies and quality control of TS. These tests were performed on two series of placebo patches in which the backing layer was made of artificial silk (series 1) and polyurethane film (series 2). The patches of both series were prepared using five different mixtures of a hydrophilic adhesive copolymer and a hydrophobic nonadhesive copolymer as matrices. Plastoid E 35 L, a copolymer of dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate and neutral methacrylic esters, was used as the adhesive polymer. Eudragit NE 40 D, a copolymer of ethylacrylate and methylmethacrylate, was used as the nonadhesive copolymer. In the standard procedure for the peel adhesion 180 degrees test, used in the tape industries, the adherent is made of stainless steel. Because the latter has a high surface energy, it was not suitable for the analysis of the patches with a polyurethane backing layer. Therefore, the critical surface tension of five alternative materials (rubber, polysiloxane, polyethylene, nylon, polyvinyl chloride) was evaluated. Polyethylene was selected for the modified peel adhesion 180 degrees test, and better results were obtained in terms of feasibility of the test and ability to discriminate between the different patches prepared.

  2. Patch testing for food-associated allergies in orofacial granulomatosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzpatrick, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Food-associated allergies, especially to benzoates and cinnamon-related compounds, have been associated with orofacial granulomatosis and both standard and urticarial patch testing have been used to detect such allergies. Elimination diets have also been shown to be effective in some patients.

  3. Improved Radiation and Bandwidth of Triangular and Star Patch Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ramkumar Prabhu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a hexagonal shape Defected Ground Structure (DGS implemented on two element triangular patch microstrip antenna array. The radiation performance of the antenna is characterized by varying the geometry and dimension of the DGS and also by locating the DGS at specific position which were simulated. Simulation and measurement results have verified that the antenna with DGS had improved the antenna without DGS. Measurement results of the hexagonal DGS have axial ratio bandwidth enhancement of 10 MHz, return loss improvement of 35%, mutual coupling reduction of 3 dB and gain enhancement of 1 dB. A new wideband and small size star shaped patch antenna fed capacitively by a small diamond shape patch is proposed. To enhance the impedance bandwidth, posts are incorporated under the patch antenna. HFSS high frequency simulator is employed to analyze the proposed antenna and simulated results on the return loss, the E- and H-plane radiation patterns and Gain of the proposed antenna are presented at various frequencies. The antenna is able to achieve in the range of 4-8.8 GHz an impedance bandwidth of 81% for return loss of less than-10 dB.

  4. Mitral valve mechanics following posterior leaflet patch augmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahmani, Azadeh; Rasmussen, Ann Qvist; Hønge, Jesper Langhoff;

    2013-01-01

    pressure was regulated with water to simulate different static pressures during valve closure. A standardized oval pericardial patch (17 × 29 mm) was introduced into the posterior leaflet from mid P2 to the end of the P3 scallop. Dedicated miniature transducers were used to record the forces exerted...

  5. Radiation Characteristics of Rectangular Patch Antennas with an Array of Pins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Myung-ki CHO; Tae-young KIM; Boo-gyoun KIM

    2010-01-01

    The patch antennas with an array of pins (pin array patch antennas) with excellent radiation characteristics are investigated for various substrate thicknesses.The radiation in the horizontal plane of a pin array patch antenna is very small campared to that of a conventional patch antenna.And the increase of forward radiation and the decrease of backward radiation of a pin array patch antenna are tained than these conventional one's.Also the half-power beamwidth of E-plane radiation pattern of a pin array patch antenna is narrower compared to that of the conventional so that the directivity is improved.

  6. Species traits predict assemblage dynamics at ephemeral resource patches created by carrion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Philip S; Cunningham, Saul A; Macdonald, Ben C T; McIntyre, Sue; Lindenmayer, David B; Manning, Adrian D

    2013-01-01

    Carrion is an ephemeral and spatially patchy resource that supports a diverse subset of species linked to nutrient cycling and the decomposition process. A number of studies have separately documented changes in the diversity of plants, arthropods and vertebrates at individual carcasses, but there are few studies that have examined how functional traits of different groups of organisms underpin their responses to carrion patches. We used a carrion addition experiment to compare changes in composition and functional traits of insect and plant assemblages at carcasses compared with control sites. We found that significant changes in insect assemblage evenness and heterogeneity was associated with species' dispersal traits, and that plant assemblage responses to subsequent soil nitrogen changes was most apparent among graminoids and exotic species. Beetles at carcasses were twice as large as their counterparts at control sites during the first week of carrion decomposition, and also had higher wing loadings. Plants with high specific leaf area responded faster to the carcass addition, and twice as many species recolonised the centre of carcasses in exotic-dominated grassland compared with carcasses in native-dominated grassland. These results provide an example of how traits of opportunist species enable them to exploit patchy and dynamic resources. This increases our understanding of how carcasses can drive biodiversity dynamics, and has implications for the way carrion might be managed in ecosystems, such as appropriate consideration of spatial and temporal continuity in carrion resources to promote heterogeneity in nutrient cycling and species diversity within landscapes.

  7. Species traits predict assemblage dynamics at ephemeral resource patches created by carrion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip S Barton

    Full Text Available Carrion is an ephemeral and spatially patchy resource that supports a diverse subset of species linked to nutrient cycling and the decomposition process. A number of studies have separately documented changes in the diversity of plants, arthropods and vertebrates at individual carcasses, but there are few studies that have examined how functional traits of different groups of organisms underpin their responses to carrion patches. We used a carrion addition experiment to compare changes in composition and functional traits of insect and plant assemblages at carcasses compared with control sites. We found that significant changes in insect assemblage evenness and heterogeneity was associated with species' dispersal traits, and that plant assemblage responses to subsequent soil nitrogen changes was most apparent among graminoids and exotic species. Beetles at carcasses were twice as large as their counterparts at control sites during the first week of carrion decomposition, and also had higher wing loadings. Plants with high specific leaf area responded faster to the carcass addition, and twice as many species recolonised the centre of carcasses in exotic-dominated grassland compared with carcasses in native-dominated grassland. These results provide an example of how traits of opportunist species enable them to exploit patchy and dynamic resources. This increases our understanding of how carcasses can drive biodiversity dynamics, and has implications for the way carrion might be managed in ecosystems, such as appropriate consideration of spatial and temporal continuity in carrion resources to promote heterogeneity in nutrient cycling and species diversity within landscapes.

  8. Dairy cow excreta patches change the boreal grass swards from sink to source of methane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja Elisa Maljanen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied methane (CH4 flux rates from experimental excreta patches on a dairy pasture with a chamber technique during snow free seasons and with a gas gradient technique during winter from timothy-meadow fescue sward with mineral N fertilization (220 kg ha-1 and from grass-white clover mixture without fertilization. The dung and urine patches were applied in June or August two consecutive grazing seasons and the measurements were carried out for a year following each application. There were no significant differences in CH4 fluxes between plant species and emissions originated mainly from the fresh dung pats. The average annual CH4 fluxes from the control sites without excreta were -0.60±0.1 and with the excreta 0.47±0.3 kg CH4 ha-1. Thus, excreta originating from dairy cows can turn boreal swards from weak sinks to small sources of CH4. However, these emissions are only 0.2% of the total CH4 emissions from a dairy cow.

  9. Intestinal Peyer's patch-immunomodulating glucomannans from rhizomes of Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyohara, Hiroaki; Matsuzaki, Toshiake; Yamada, Haruki

    2013-12-01

    During screening for intestinal Peyer's patch-immunomodulating polysaccharides from plant resources including medicinal herbs, a potent modulating activity was observed in a crude polysaccharide fraction (AS-1) from the rhizome of Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge. Oral administration of AS-1 (100 mg/kg/day) to aged BALB/c mice enhanced productions of IL-10, IFN-γ and IL-6 from Peyer's patch immunocompetent cells, and its oral administration to ovalbumin (OVA)-fed B10.A mice led to significant suppression on induction of OVA-specific IgE in systemic immune system. Further fractionation of the polysaccharides in the crude polysaccharide fraction, AS-1, yielded 4 polysaccharide fractions that were potently active, and contained glucomannans. Treatment of these polysaccharide fractions with endo-β-D-(1→4)-mannanase significantly decreased their activities. Mannanase digestion of the active glucomannan gave both long and short hexosyl-oligosaccharides, whereas konjac glucomannan, which was inactive, released short oligosaccharides. Structural analysis indicates that the long oligosaccharides from the active glucomannan contain mannanase-resistant complex structure comprising β-D-Man and β-D-Glc.

  10. Speeding up 3D speckle tracking using PatchMatch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zontak, Maria; O'Donnell, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    Echocardiography provides valuable information to diagnose heart dysfunction. A typical exam records several minutes of real-time cardiac images. To enable complete analysis of 3D cardiac strains, 4-D (3-D+t) echocardiography is used. This results in a huge dataset and requires effective automated analysis. Ultrasound speckle tracking is an effective method for tissue motion analysis. It involves correlation of a 3D kernel (block) around a voxel with kernels in later frames. The search region is usually confined to a local neighborhood, due to biomechanical and computational constraints. For high strains and moderate frame-rates, however, this search region will remain large, leading to a considerable computational burden. Moreover, speckle decorrelation (due to high strains) leads to errors in tracking. To solve this, spatial motion coherency between adjacent voxels should be imposed, e.g., by averaging their correlation functions.1 This requires storing correlation functions for neighboring voxels, thus increasing memory demands. In this work, we propose an efficient search using PatchMatch, 2 a powerful method to find correspondences between images. Here we adopt PatchMatch for 3D volumes and radio-frequency signals. As opposed to an exact search, PatchMatch performs random sampling of the search region and propagates successive matches among neighboring voxels. We show that: 1) Inherently smooth offset propagation in PatchMatch contributes to spatial motion coherence without any additional processing or memory demand. 2) For typical scenarios, PatchMatch is at least 20 times faster than the exact search, while maintaining comparable tracking accuracy.

  11. Patch-based iterative conditional geostatistical simulation using graph cuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Mariethoz, Gregoire; Lu, DeTang; Linde, Niklas

    2016-08-01

    Training image-based geostatistical methods are increasingly popular in groundwater hydrology even if existing algorithms present limitations that often make real-world applications difficult. These limitations include a computational cost that can be prohibitive for high-resolution 3-D applications, the presence of visual artifacts in the model realizations, and a low variability between model realizations due to the limited pool of patterns available in a finite-size training image. In this paper, we address these issues by proposing an iterative patch-based algorithm which adapts a graph cuts methodology that is widely used in computer graphics. Our adapted graph cuts method optimally cuts patches of pixel values borrowed from the training image and assembles them successively, each time accounting for the information of previously stitched patches. The initial simulation result might display artifacts, which are identified as regions of high cost. These artifacts are reduced by iteratively placing new patches in high-cost regions. In contrast to most patch-based algorithms, the proposed scheme can also efficiently address point conditioning. An advantage of the method is that the cut process results in the creation of new patterns that are not present in the training image, thereby increasing pattern variability. To quantify this effect, a new measure of variability is developed, the merging index, quantifies the pattern variability in the realizations with respect to the training image. A series of sensitivity analyses demonstrates the stability of the proposed graph cuts approach, which produces satisfying simulations for a wide range of parameters values. Applications to 2-D and 3-D cases are compared to state-of-the-art multiple-point methods. The results show that the proposed approach obtains significant speedups and increases variability between realizations. Connectivity functions applied to 2-D models transport simulations in 3-D models are used to

  12. Computer modeling of endovascular patch welding using temperature feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glinsky, M.E.; London, R.A.; Zimmerman, G.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Jacques, S.L. [Anderson (M.D.) Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Ols, J.D. [Ols & Associates, Mountain View, CA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    A new computer program, LATIS, being developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is used to study the effect of pulsed laser irradiation with temperature feedback on endovascular patch welding. Various physical and biophysical effects are included in these simulations: laser light scattering and absorption, tissue heating and heat conduction, vascular cooling, and tissue thermal damage. The geometry of a patch being held against the inner vessel wall (500 {mu}m inner diameter) by a balloon is considered. The system is exposed to light pulsed from an optical fiber inside the balloon. The laser power is adjusted during the course of a pulse. This is done automatically in the simulation by temperature feedback. A minimum in the depth of damage into the vessel wall is found. The minimum damage zone is about the thickness of the patch material that is heated by the laser. The more ordered the tissue the thinner the minimum zone of damage. The pulse length which minimizes the zone of damage is found to be the time for energy to diffuse across the layer. The delay time between the pulses is determined by the time for the heated layer to cool down. An optimal pulse length exists which minimizes the total time needed to weld the patch to the wall while keeping the thickness of the damaged tissue to less than 100 {mu}m. For the case that is considered, a patch dyed with light absorbing ICG on the side next to the vessel (thickness of the dyed layer is 60 {mu}m), the best protocol is found to be 33-600 ms pulses applied over 1.6 min.

  13. Genetic-Based Dissection Unveils the Inputs and Outputs of Striatal Patch and Matrix Compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jared B; Klug, Jason R; Ross, Danica L; Howard, Christopher D; Hollon, Nick G; Ko, Vivian I; Hoffman, Hilary; Callaway, Edward M; Gerfen, Charles R; Jin, Xin

    2016-09-01

    The striatum contains neurochemically defined compartments termed patches and matrix. Previous studies suggest patches preferentially receive limbic inputs and project to dopamine neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), whereas matrix neurons receive sensorimotor inputs and do not innervate SNc. Using BAC-Cre transgenic mice with viral tracing techniques, we mapped brain-wide differences in the input-output organization of the patch/matrix. Findings reveal a displaced population of striatal patch neurons termed "exo-patch," which reside in matrix zones but have neurochemistry, connectivity, and electrophysiological characteristics resembling patch neurons. Contrary to previous studies, results show patch/exo-patch and matrix neurons receive both limbic and sensorimotor information. A novel inhibitory projection from bed nucleus of the stria terminalis to patch/exo-patch neurons was revealed. Projections to SNc were found to originate from patch/exo-patch and matrix neurons. These findings redefine patch/matrix beyond traditional neurochemical topography and reveal new principles about their input-output connectivity, providing a foundation for future functional studies.

  14. Grassland fire and cattle grazing regulate reptile and amphibian assembly among patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Danelle M

    2014-12-01

    Fire and grazing are common management schemes of grasslands globally and are potential drivers of reptilian and amphibian (herpetofauna) metacommunity dynamics. Few studies have assessed the impacts of fire and cattle grazing on herpetofauna assemblages in grasslands. A patch-burn grazing study at Osage Prairie, MO, USA in 2011-2012 created landscape patches with treatments of grazing, fire, and such legacies. Response variables were measured before and after the application of treatments, and I used robust-design occupancy modeling to estimate patch occupancy and detection rate within patches, and recolonization and extinction (i.e., dispersal) across patches. I conducted redundancy analysis and a permuted multivariate analysis of variance to determine if patch type and the associated environmental factors explained herpetofauna assemblage. Estimates for reptiles indicate that occupancy was seasonally constant in Control patches (ψ ~ 0.5), but declined to ψ ~ 0.15 in patches following the applications of fire and grazing. Local extinctions for reptiles were higher in patches with fire or light grazing (ε ~ 0.7) compared to the controls. For the riparian herpetofaunal community, patch type and grass height were important predictors of abundance; further, the turtles, lizards, snakes, and adult amphibians used different patch types. The aquatic amphibian community was predicted by watershed and in-stream characteristics, irrespective of fire or grazing. The varying responses from taxonomic groups demonstrate habitat partitioning across multiple patch types undergoing fire, cattle grazing, and legacy effects. Prairies will need an array of patch types to accommodate multiple herpetofauna species.

  15. Grassland Fire and Cattle Grazing Regulate Reptile and Amphibian Assembly Among Patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Danelle M.

    2014-12-01

    Fire and grazing are common management schemes of grasslands globally and are potential drivers of reptilian and amphibian (herpetofauna) metacommunity dynamics. Few studies have assessed the impacts of fire and cattle grazing on herpetofauna assemblages in grasslands. A patch-burn grazing study at Osage Prairie, MO, USA in 2011-2012 created landscape patches with treatments of grazing, fire, and such legacies. Response variables were measured before and after the application of treatments, and I used robust-design occupancy modeling to estimate patch occupancy and detection rate within patches, and recolonization and extinction (i.e., dispersal) across patches. I conducted redundancy analysis and a permuted multivariate analysis of variance to determine if patch type and the associated environmental factors explained herpetofauna assemblage. Estimates for reptiles indicate that occupancy was seasonally constant in Control patches ( ψ ~ 0.5), but declined to ψ ~ 0.15 in patches following the applications of fire and grazing. Local extinctions for reptiles were higher in patches with fire or light grazing ( ɛ ~ 0.7) compared to the controls. For the riparian herpetofaunal community, patch type and grass height were important predictors of abundance; further, the turtles, lizards, snakes, and adult amphibians used different patch types. The aquatic amphibian community was predicted by watershed and in-stream characteristics, irrespective of fire or grazing. The varying responses from taxonomic groups demonstrate habitat partitioning across multiple patch types undergoing fire, cattle grazing, and legacy effects. Prairies will need an array of patch types to accommodate multiple herpetofauna species.

  16. The Impact of Different Habitat Conditions on the Variability of Wild Populations of a Medicinal Plant Betonica officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Kostrakiewicz-Gierałt

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants are important source of beneficial bioactive compounds which may find various applications as functional ingredients, such as components of food supplements, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. One such medicinal plant is Betonica officinalis, populations of which were investigated in 2012‒13. The studies were conducted in patches of Molinietum caeruleae dominated by: small meadow taxa (patch I; the shrub willow Salix repens ssp. rosmarinifolia (patch II; large tussock grasses Deschampsia caespitosa and Molinia caerulaea (patch III; tall-growing macroforbs Filipendula ulmaria and Solidago canadensis (patch IV. Over successive patches, the average height of plant cover increased, as did soil moisture, while light availability at ground level decreased. Much greater abundance and density of the Betonica officinalis population were found in patches I, III and IV, while lower values for these parameters were noted in patch II. Individuals in pre-reproductive stages were absent during whole study period in all study plots, vegetative ramet clusters were observed in plots situated in patches I and III in the first year of observations, while only generative ramet clusters occurred in plots set in patches II and IV. The number of rosettes per ramet cluster, number and dimensions of rosette leaves, height of flowering stems, number of cauline leaves, length of inflorescences, as well as number and length of flowers increased gradually over successive patches, whereas the number of generative stems per ramet cluster did not differ remarkably among populations. On the basis of the performed studies it might be concluded that the condition of populations deteriorated from patches overgrown by large-tussock grasses and characterized by considerable share of native and alien tall-growing macroforbs, via patch dominated by small meadow taxa, to patch prevailed by shrub willows.

  17. A Patch to MCNP5 for Multiplication Inference: Description and User Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, Jr., Clell J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-05-05

    A patch to MCNP5 has been written to allow generation of multiple neutrons from a spontaneous-fission event and generate list-mode output. This report documents the implementation and usage of this patch.

  18. Patch Test Results of 775 Patients with Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simin Ada

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: The allergens responsible for allergic contact dermatitis vary among countries and even between different geographical regions within the same country over time. It is of great importance to perform the patch test at certain intervals, to evaluate the results in different centers and to compare them afterwards. Our aim was to evaluate the patch test results in our patients with allergic contact dermatitis.Material and Method: The records of the patients with allergic contact dermatitis, who had been patch tested between May 1997 and March 2009, were analyzed retrospectively. The demographic features such as age and sex, localization of the contact dermatitis, and the patch test results were recorded. Results: Of the 775 patients, 581 (75.2% were females and 194 (25% males. Of all patients, 735 were patch tested with the European Standard Series, 318 - with both the European Standard Series and cosmetic series, and 40-with cosmetic series alone. Of the patients tested with the European Standard Series, 255 (34.7% had at least one positive reaction. The most frequent allergen in the European Standard Series was nickel sulfate (17.3%, followed by cobalt chloride (7.2%, potassium dichromate (3%, fragrance mix (2.9%, and p-phenylenediamine base (2.6%. Of the 358 patients tested with cosmetic series, 82 (22.9% had at least one positive reaction. The 5 most frequently observed cosmetic series allergens were octyl gallate (3.9%, thimerosal (2.2%, sorbitan sesquioleate (2%, Euxyl K 400 (2% and methyldibromo glutaronitrile (1.4%. Conclusion: Our study shows the contact allergen profile of our center over 12 years. The most common allergens and their frequency differ between centers in various cities in Turkey. Those geographical differences should be re-evaluated by further studies performed in the certain time period. The high frequency of reactions to octyl gallate is an important finding in patients suspected of cosmetic allergy

  19. Prevalence of benzocaine and lidocaine patch test sensitivity in Denmark: temporal trends and relevance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Engkilde, Kåre; Menné, Torkil;

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Allergens included in the European baseline series should result in positive patch test reactions in at least 1% of a patch test population. Inclusion of local anaesthetics other than benzocaine in the baseline series has previously been debated.......BACKGROUND. Allergens included in the European baseline series should result in positive patch test reactions in at least 1% of a patch test population. Inclusion of local anaesthetics other than benzocaine in the baseline series has previously been debated....

  20. UW MCNP source patch for the EPFL Haefely source. EPFL (Swiss) fusion-fission hybrid experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKinney, G; Woodruff, G L

    1986-06-01

    The development of a source patch which describes the Haefely neutron source for use in the MCNP Monte Carlo code has been described in progress reports of the EPFL (Swiss) Fusion Blanket Project at the University of Washington. The most recent of these reports dealing with the source patch was Progress Report No. 14. This report reviews some of the physical description included in the report, and also includes additional details of the patch as well as a listing of the patch itself.

  1. A nonadjuvanted transcutaneous tetanus patch is effective in boosting anti-tetanus toxoid immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seid, Robert C; Reinisch, Christoph; Schlegl, Robert; Moehlen, Michael; Meinke, Andreas; Lundberg, Urban

    2014-02-01

    Dry tetanus toxoid (TTx) patches were formulated without any adjuvant, with excipients to impart antigen stabilization and to enhance skin delivery. The booster effects of the TTx patches were assessed using a guinea pig model. The study revealed significant rises in TTx IgG titers induced by the TTx patches after a low-dose subcutaneous (s.c.) prime with TTx adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide. The TTx patch can therefore be considered an effective alternative to a subcutaneous booster.

  2. Effects of patch-size on populations of intertidal limpets, Siphonaria spp., in a linear landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria J Cole

    Full Text Available Organisms with different life-histories and abilities to disperse often utilise habitat patches in different ways. We investigated the influence of the size of patches of rock (separated by stretches of sand on the density of pulmonate limpets (Siphonaria spp. along 1500 km of the linear landscape of the South African coastline. We compared the influence of patch-size on two congeneric species with different modes of development, S. serrata a direct developer, and S. concinna a planktonic developer. We tested the spatial and temporal consistency of the effects of patch-size by sampling 7 independent regions spanning the distributional range of both species of limpets, and by sampling one region at monthly intervals for 1 year. Within each region or month, 4 small patches (60 m in length were sampled. Across the entire geographic range and throughout the year, there were more of both species of limpets in large patches than in small patches. In most regions, there was greater variability in large patches than small patches. Variability within patches in a single region was similar throughout the year, with greater variability of both species in large than in small patches. We found little influence of the mode of development on the response of limpets to patch-size. Our findings highlight the importance of understanding patterns of distribution of species with respect to habitat heterogeneity in linear landscapes, and contradict the idea that organism mobility at an early ontogenetic stage directly affects habitat use.

  3. An extended patch-dynamic framework for food chains in fragmented landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jinbao; Chen, Jiehong; Ying, Zhixia; Hiebeler, David E; Nijs, Ivan

    2016-09-09

    Habitat destruction, a key determinant of species loss, can be characterized by two components, patch loss and patch fragmentation, where the former refers to the reduction in patch availability, and the latter to the division of the remaining patches. Classical metacommunity models have recently explored how food web dynamics respond to patch loss, but the effects of patch fragmentation have largely been overlooked. Here we develop an extended patch-dynamic model that tracks the patch occupancy of the various trophic links subject to colonization-extinction-predation dynamics by incorporating species dispersal with patch connectivity. We found that, in a simple food chain, species at higher trophic level become extinct sooner with increasing patch loss and fragmentation due to the constraint in resource availability, confirming the trophic rank hypothesis. Yet, effects of fragmentation on species occupancy are largely determined by patch loss, with maximal fragmentation effects occurring at intermediate patch loss. Compared to the spatially explicit simulations that we also performed, the current model with pair approximation generates similar community patterns especially in spatially clustered landscapes. Overall, our extended framework can be applied to model more complex food webs in fragmented landscapes, broadening the scope of existing metacommunity theory.

  4. Within-patch habitat quality determines the resilience of specialist species in fragmented landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ye, X.; Skidmore, A.K.; Wang, T.

    2013-01-01

    Patch geometry and habitat quality among patches are widely recognized as important factors affecting population dynamics in fragmented landscapes. Little is known, however, about the influence of within-patch habitat quality on population dynamics. In this paper, we investigate the relative importa

  5. Reactivity to patch tests with nickel sulfate and fragrance mix in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jøhnke, H; Norberg, L A; Vach, W

    2004-01-01

    The pattern of patch test reactivity to nickel sulfate and fragrance mix was studied with respect to patch test performance, reproducibility and clinical relevance in a population of unselected infants followed prospectively from birth to 18 months of age. TRUE Testtrade mark patches with nickel ...

  6. A New Low-Complexity Patch-based Super-Resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasti, Pejman; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Orlova, Olga

    2017-01-01

    through an illumination enhancement process resulting in consistency of illumination between neigh- bour patches. This process is applied to all patches of the LR image. Finally, in order to remove the blocking effect caused by merging the patches, an average of the obtained HR image and the interpolated...

  7. Low patch test reactivity to nickel in unselected adolescents tested repeatedly with nickel in infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Elisabeth Soegaard; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is questionable how repeated patch tests with nickel sulphate in infancy affect nickel patch test reactivity at a later age. METHODS: The DARC cohort encompasses 562 infants invited to a clinical examination including patch tests with nickel sulphate 6 times during the first 36 mon...

  8. An extended patch-dynamic framework for food chains in fragmented landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jinbao; Chen, Jiehong; Ying, Zhixia; Hiebeler, David E.; Nijs, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Habitat destruction, a key determinant of species loss, can be characterized by two components, patch loss and patch fragmentation, where the former refers to the reduction in patch availability, and the latter to the division of the remaining patches. Classical metacommunity models have recently explored how food web dynamics respond to patch loss, but the effects of patch fragmentation have largely been overlooked. Here we develop an extended patch-dynamic model that tracks the patch occupancy of the various trophic links subject to colonization-extinction-predation dynamics by incorporating species dispersal with patch connectivity. We found that, in a simple food chain, species at higher trophic level become extinct sooner with increasing patch loss and fragmentation due to the constraint in resource availability, confirming the trophic rank hypothesis. Yet, effects of fragmentation on species occupancy are largely determined by patch loss, with maximal fragmentation effects occurring at intermediate patch loss. Compared to the spatially explicit simulations that we also performed, the current model with pair approximation generates similar community patterns especially in spatially clustered landscapes. Overall, our extended framework can be applied to model more complex food webs in fragmented landscapes, broadening the scope of existing metacommunity theory. PMID:27608823

  9. Gigaseal formation in patch clamping with applications of nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Malboubi, Majid

    2014-01-01

    This book presents an investigation of gigaseal formation using micro/nanotechnology. The aims of the book are twofold. First, it explains the mechanisms of gigaseal formation using the latest discoveries. Second, it provides practical techniques for frequent formation of high resistance seals. The formation of a high-resistance electrical seal, also known as a gigaseal, between a cell membrane and a glass micropipette tip is essential in patch-clamp experiments. Even though four decades have passed since the introduction of the patch-clamping technique by Neher and Sakmann, gigaseal formation remains an obstacle in developing the high-throughput ion channel screening systems required by the pharmaceutical industry. Here the authors share their latest methods for achieving gigaseal formation and describe techniques that are highly desirable at both research and industrial levels. Nanotechnology has been found to be a powerful tool for studying and modifying glass micropipettes and in tackling the problem of g...

  10. Epidural blood patch for refractory low CSF pressure headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren Aalbæk; Fomsgaard, Jonna Storm; Jensen, Rigmor

    2011-01-01

    of non-invasive/conservative measures and invasive measures with epidural blood patch providing the cornerstone of the invasive measures. In the present pilot study we therefore aimed to evaluate the treatment efficacy of epidural blood patch (EBP) in treatment-refractory low-pressure headache. Our...... reduction in frequency. An increase in days with use of medication was found. Increased awareness of low CSF pressure headache is emphasized and a controlled larger randomized study is needed to confirm the results. However the present results, allows us to conclude that EBP in treatment-refractory low CSF......Once believed an exceedingly rare disorder, recent evidence suggests that low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure headache has to be considered an important cause of new daily persistent headaches, particularly among young and middle-aged individuals. Treatment of low CSF pressure headache consists...

  11. Designing of Circular and Square Type Fractal Microstrip Patch Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Yogesh Bhomia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a design of microstrip patch antenna combining circular and square slots by cutting different slots on rectangular microstrip antenna and experimentally studied on IE3D software. This design is achieved by cutting multi shapes in square pattern combining with circular and square slots & placing a microstrip line feed. This design has been studied in III iterations. The radiation pattern of the proposed microstrip antennas maintained because of the self similarity and centro-symmetry of the fractal shapes. With fractal shapes patch antenna is designed on a FR4 substrate of relative permittivity of 4.4 and thickness 1.524mm and mounted above the ground plane at a height of 6 mm. Details of the measured and simulated results of the case-by-case iterations are presented & discussed

  12. Comparative study of icy patches on comet nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklay, Nilda; Pommerol, Antoine; Barucci, Maria Antonietta; Sunshine, Jessica; Sierks, Holger; Pajola, Maurizio

    2016-07-01

    Cometary missions Deep Impact, EPOXI and Rosetta investigated the nuclei of comets 9P/Tempel 1, 103P/Hartley 2 and 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko respectively. Bright patches were observed on the surfaces of each of these three comets [1-5]. Of these, the surface of 67P is mapped at the highest spatial resolution via narrow angle camera (NAC) of the Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System (OSIRIS, [6]) on board the Rosetta spacecraft. OSIRIS NAC is equipped with twelve filters covering the wavelength range of 250 nm to 1000 nm. Various filters combinations are used during surface mapping. With high spatial resolution data of comet 67P, three types of bright features were detected on the comet surface: Clustered, isolated and bright boulders [2]. In the visible spectral range, clustered bright features on comet 67P display bluer spectral slopes than the average surface [2, 4] while isolated bright features on comet 67P have flat spectra [4]. Icy patches observed on the surface of comets 9P and 103P display bluer spectral slopes than the average surface [1, 5]. Clustered and isolated bright features are blue in the RGB composites generated by using the images taken in NIR, visible and NUV wavelengths [2, 4]. This is valid for the icy patches observed on comets 9P and 103P [1, 5]. Spectroscopic observations of bright patches on comets 9P and 103P confirmed the existence of water [1, 5]. There were more than a hundred of bright features detected on the northern hemisphere of comet 67P [2]. Analysis of those features from both multispectral data and spectroscopic data is an ongoing work. Water ice is detected in eight of the bright features so far [7]. Additionally, spectroscopic observations of two clustered bright features on the surface of comet 67P revealed the existence of water ice [3]. The spectral properties of one of the icy patches were studied by [4] using OSIRIS NAC images and compared with the spectral properties of the active regions observed

  13. A MILLIMETER WAVE MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNA WITH CPW FEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GARIMA SANYAL

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work a coplanar waveguide fed rectangular microstrip patch antenna with U slot at 40 Ghz is designed and simulated. Simulated results are presented by using Ansoft HFSS 13 software, a full wave electromagnetic field simulator for arbitrary 3D volumetric passive device modeling that takes advantage of the familiar Microsoft Windows graphical user interface.The patch element is been placed on FR4 Epoxy substrate with relative permittivity 4.4 at a height of 1.8 mm. The gain of the proposed antenna is 5dB.This antenna is smallsize,cheap,compact,easy to fabricate ,achieve return loss of -17.8dB at 40GHz which ranges to -25 dB at 10 0GHz and good VSWR.The approach presented in this paper offers major advantages in millimeter waveapplications as in radar communication.

  14. A patch in the pectoral position lowers defibrillation threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasik, P; Solomon, A; Verdino, R; Moore, H; Rodak, D; Hannan, R; Fletcher, R

    1997-06-01

    Implantable pacemaker cardioverter defibrillators are now available with biphasic waveforms, which have been shown to markedly improve defibrillation thresholds (DFTs). However, in a number of patients the DFT remains high. Also, DFT may increase after implantation, especially if antiarrhythmic drugs are added. We report on the use of a subcutaneous patch in the pectoral position in 15 patients receiving a transvenous defibrillator as a method of easily reducing the DFT. A 660-mm2 patch electrode was placed beneath the generator in a pocket created on the pectoral fascia. The energy required for defibrillation was lowered by 56% on average, and the system impedance was lowered by a mean of 25%. This maneuver allowed all patients to undergo a successful implant with adequate safety margin.

  15. A comparison of two patch NAH methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, Jesper Skovhus; Hald, Jørgen

    continuation of the measured pressure beyond the measurement area, followed by the use of standard NAH procedures. Two other methods completely avoid the use of spatial FFT, and instead they perform a least squares fit of a local sound field model to the measured sound pressure data. Statistically Optimized......The spatial FFT processing used in Near-field Acoustical Holography (NAH) makes the method computationally efficient, but it introduces severe spatial windowing effects, unless the measurement area is significantly larger than the source. To avoid the need for these very extended measurement areas......, Patch Holography techniques have been developed to provide acceptable accuracy based on measurements that only partially cover the source area. Calculation and mapping is then performed over a corresponding concentric patch, typically on the source surface. One such method performs an iterative analytic...

  16. Impulse Testing of Corporate-Fed Patch Array Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Neil F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses a novel method for detecting faults in antenna arrays. The method, termed Impulse Testing, was developed for corporate-fed patch arrays where the element is fed by a probe and is shorted at its center. Impulse Testing was devised to supplement conventional microwave measurements in order to quickly verify antenna integrity. The technique relies on exciting each antenna element in turn with a fast pulse (or impulse) that propagates through the feed network to the output port of the antenna. The resulting impulse response is characteristic of the path through the feed network. Using an oscilloscope, a simple amplitude measurement can be made to detect faults. A circuit model of the antenna elements and feed network was constructed to assess various fault scenarios and determine fault-detection thresholds. The experimental setup and impulse measurements for two patch array antennas are presented. Advantages and limitations of the technique are discussed along with applications to other antenna array topologies

  17. Comparison of shrinkage related properties of various patch repair materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiawan, S. A.; Fitrianto, R. S.

    2017-02-01

    A patch repair material has been developed in the form of unsaturated polyester resin (UPR)-mortar. The performance and durability of this material are governed by its compatibility with the concrete being repaired. One of the compatibility issue that should be tackled is the dimensional compatibility as a result of differential shrinkage between the repair material and the concrete substrate. This research aims to evaluate such shrinkage related properties of UPR-mortar and to compare with those of other patch repair materials. The investigation includes the following aspects: free shrinkage, resistance to delamination and cracking. The results indicate that UPR-mortar poses a lower free shrinkage, lower risk of both delamination and cracking tendency in comparison to other repair materials.

  18. Epidural blood patch for refractory low CSF pressure headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren Aalbæk; Fomsgaard, Jonna Storm; Jensen, Rigmor

    2011-01-01

    of non-invasive/conservative measures and invasive measures with epidural blood patch providing the cornerstone of the invasive measures. In the present pilot study we therefore aimed to evaluate the treatment efficacy of epidural blood patch (EBP) in treatment-refractory low-pressure headache. Our......Once believed an exceedingly rare disorder, recent evidence suggests that low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure headache has to be considered an important cause of new daily persistent headaches, particularly among young and middle-aged individuals. Treatment of low CSF pressure headache consists...... reduction in frequency. An increase in days with use of medication was found. Increased awareness of low CSF pressure headache is emphasized and a controlled larger randomized study is needed to confirm the results. However the present results, allows us to conclude that EBP in treatment-refractory low CSF...

  19. A "Patch" to the NYU Emergency Department Visit Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Kenton J; Allen, Lindsay; Melanson, Taylor A; Pitts, Stephen R

    2017-08-01

    To document erosion in the New York University Emergency Department (ED) visit algorithm's capability to classify ED visits and to provide a "patch" to the algorithm. The Nationwide Emergency Department Sample. We used bivariate models to assess whether the percentage of visits unclassifiable by the algorithm increased due to annual changes to ICD-9 diagnosis codes. We updated the algorithm with ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes added since 2001. The percentage of unclassifiable visits increased from 11.2 percent in 2006 to 15.5 percent in 2012 (p < .01), because of new diagnosis codes. Our update improves the classification rate by 43 percent in 2012 (p < .01). Our patch significantly improves the precision and usefulness of the most commonly used ED visit classification system in health services research. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  20. Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) Actuator for Reconfigurable Patch Antenna Demonstrated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rainee N.

    2001-01-01

    A microstrip patch antenna with two contact actuators along the radiating edges for frequency reconfiguration was demonstrated at K-band frequencies. The layout of the antenna is shown in the following figure. This antenna has the following advantages over conventional semiconductor varactor-diode-tuned patch antennas: 1. By eliminating the semiconductor diode and its nonlinear I-V characteristics, the antenna minimizes intermodulation signal distortion. This is particularly important in digital wireless systems, which are sensitive to intersymbol interference caused by intermodulation products. 2. Because the MEMS actuator is an electrostatic device, it does not draw any current during operation and, hence, requires a negligible amount of power for actuation. This is an important advantage for hand-held, battery-operated, portable wireless systems since the battery does not need to be charged frequently. 3. The MEMS actuator does not require any special epitaxial layers as in the case of diodes and, hence, is cost effective.

  1. Habitat fragmentation and connectivity : Spatial and temporal characteristics of the colonization process in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soons, Merel Barbara

    2003-01-01

    The connectivity between habitat patches or between populations indicates the potential for transfer of genetic material between habitat patches or populations. In plants, genetic material is usually transferred by dispersal of seeds or pollen. A sufficient level of connectivity is essential for reg

  2. Habitat fragmentation and connectivity : Spatial and temporal characteristics of the colonization process in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soons, Merel Barbara

    2003-01-01

    The connectivity between habitat patches or between populations indicates the potential for transfer of genetic material between habitat patches or populations. In plants, genetic material is usually transferred by dispersal of seeds or pollen. A sufficient level of connectivity is essential for reg

  3. Habitat fragmentation and connectivity : Spatial and temporal characteristics of the colonization process in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soons, Merel Barbara

    2003-01-01

    The connectivity between habitat patches or between populations indicates the potential for transfer of genetic material between habitat patches or populations. In plants, genetic material is usually transferred by dispersal of seeds or pollen. A sufficient level of connectivity is essential for

  4. Utilizing patch and site level greenhouse-gas concentration measurements in tandem with the prognostic model, ecosys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, T. H.; Rey Sanchez, C.; Bohrer, G.; Riley, W. J.; Angle, J.; Mekonnen, Z. A.; Stefanik, K. C.; Wrighton, K. C.

    2016-12-01

    Estimates of wetland greenhouse gas (GHG) budgets currently have large uncertainties. While wetlands are the largest source of natural methane (CH4) emissions worldwide, they are also important carbon dioxide (CO2) sinks. Determining the GHG budget of a wetland is challenging, particularly because wetlands have intrinsically temporally and spatially heterogeneous land cover patterns and complex dynamics of CH4 production and emissions. These issues pose challenges to both measuring and modeling GHG budgets from wetlands. To improve wetland GHG flux predictability, we utilized the ecosys model to predict CH4 fluxes from a natural temperate estuarine wetland in northern Ohio. Multiple patches of terrain (that included Typha spp. and Nelumbo lutea) were represented as separate grid cells in the model. Cells were initialized with measured values but were allowed to dynamically evolve in response to meteorological, hydrological, and thermodynamic conditions. Trace gas surface emissions were predicted as the end result of microbial activity, physical transport, and plant processes. Corresponding to each model gridcell, measurements of dissolved gas concentrations were conducted with pore-water dialysis samplers (peepers). The peeper measurements were taken via a series of tubes, providing an undisturbed observation of the pore water concentrations of in situ dissolved gases along a vertical gradient. Non-steady state chambers and a flux tower provided both patch level and integrated site-level fluxes of CO2 and CH4. New Typha chambers were also developed to enclose entire plants and segregate the plant fluxes from soil/water fluxes. We expect ecosys to predict the seasonal and diurnal fluxes of CH4 from within each land cover type and to resolve where CH4 is generated within the soil column and its transmission mechanisms. We demonstrate the need for detailed information at both the patch and site level when using models to predict whole wetland ecosystem-scale GHG

  5. Patch test with ether extracts in salicaceae allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawhney M

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 23 cases suggestive of airborne contact dermatitis were patch tested with ether extracts of flowers and leaves of populus sp. and salix sp. in a study conducted in Ladakh at an altitude of 3445 meters above sea level. Overall positivity was found in 12 (52.17%, with populus sp. alone in 7 (30. 43%, salix sp. alone in 4 17.39% and to both in one (8.33%.

  6. Molecular complexities of patched signaling in cancer development

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Basal Cell Cancer (BCC) is the most common cancer in the Western world. Although BCCs hardly ever metastasize, invasive growth may cause considerable local tissue destruction. BCCs mainly occur as sporadic tumors but can also be found in a hereditary form in the Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS). The gene underlying the NBCCS is Patched1 (PTCH1), a tumor suppressor gene that is mutated or deleted in these patients. This thesis is focusing in deciphering complex...

  7. Accurate Insertion Loss Measurements of the Juno Patch Array Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Neil; Chen, Jacqueline; Hodges, Richard; Demas, John

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes two independent methods for estimating the insertion loss of patch array antennas that were developed for the Juno Microwave Radiometer instrument. One method is based principally on pattern measurements while the other method is based solely on network analyzer measurements. The methods are accurate to within 0.1 dB for the measured antennas and show good agreement (to within 0.1dB) of separate radiometric measurements.

  8. THE DERIVATIVE PATCH INTERPOLATING RECOVERY TECHNIQUE FOR FINITE ELEMENT APPROXIMATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TieZhang; Yan-pingLin; R.J.Tait

    2004-01-01

    A derivative patch interpolating recovery technique is analyzed for the finite element approximation to the second order elliptic boundary value problems in two dimensional case.It is shown that the convergence rate of the recovered gradient admits superc onvergence on the recovered subdomain, and is two order higher than the optimal global convergence rate (ultracovergence) at an internal node point when even order finite element spaces and local uniform meshes are used.

  9. Diclofenac epolamine topical patch relieves pain associated with ankle sprain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Lionberger

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available David R Lionberger1, Eric Joussellin2, Arturo Lanzarotti3, Jillmarie Yanchick4, Merrell Magelli5 1Southwest Orthopedic Group, LLP, Houston, Texas, USA; 2Institut National du Sport, Paris, France; 3Institut Biochimique SA, Pambionoranco, Switzerland; 4Alpharma Pharmaceuticals LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of King Pharmaceuticals®, Inc, Piscataway, New Jersey, USA; 5GTx, Inc, Memphis, Tennessee, USABackground: Sports-related injuries, such as sprains and strains, commonly occur during exercise and athletic events. Current therapy includes nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, which have a high incidence of upper gastrointestinal side effects. The present study assessed the efficacy and safety of the diclofenac epolamine topical patch (DETP, 1.3%, a topical NSAID for the treatment of acute minor sprains and strains.Methods: This multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical study enrolled adult patients (n = 134 with acute ankle pain (due to a minor sprain occurring less than 48 hours prior to entering the study. Patients were treated with either the DETP or a placebo topical patch daily for seven days. Pain intensity was evaluated during the first six hours after application of the patch, and on treatment days 1, 2, 3, and 7.Results: Patients treated with the DETP experienced a significantly greater reduction in pain associated with their ankle injury compared with placebo, beginning four hours after the first patch application (P = 0.02. The DETP was well tolerated and was comparable with placebo in terms of safety.Conclusion: Overall, the results of this study demonstrate that the DETP is an effective analgesic for local treatment of pain in mild acute ankle sprain.Keywords: soft tissue injury, acute pain, visual analog scale, efficacy, tolerability 

  10. Space-weather MDI Active Region Patches (SMARPs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobra, Monica

    2017-08-01

    We are developing a new data product from the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SoHO) called Space-weather MDI Active Region Patches (SMARPs). The SMARP data series provide maps of the photospheric line-of-sight magnetic field in patches that encompass automatically tracked magnetic concentrations, or active regions, for their entire lifetime. These concentrations are automatically detected in the photospheric line-of-sight magnetic field data using a method described in Turmon et al. (2010) and, thus, are necessarily different from NOAA's definition of an active region. As such, these regions are assigned their own identification number, or SMARP number, which is also linked to a NOAA active region number should it exist. In addition, keywords in the SMARP data series include parameters that concisely characterize the magnetic field distribution. These parameters may be useful for active region event forecasting and for identifying regions of interest. These parameters are calculated per patch and are available on a 96 minute cadence.The SMARP data product is designed to provide seamless coverage with its counterpart, the Space-weather HMI Active Region Patches (SHARPs), described in Bobra et al. (2014). Together, the SMARP and SHARP data series provide continuous coverage of tracked active regions for two solar cycles from 1996 to the present day. The SMARP data series, which runs from April 1996 to October 2010, contains 9496 unique active regions tracked throughout their lifetime. The SHARP data series, which runs from May 2010 to the present day, contains (as of May 30, 2017) 3883 unique active regions tracked throughout their lifetime. In addition, the two series contain 118 unique active regions during the overlap period between May and October 2010. SMARP data will be available at jsoc.stanford.edu and the photospheric line-of-sight magnetic field maps will be available in either of two different coordinate

  11. Experimental characterization of wheel-rail contact patch evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, M.B.; Lewis, R.; Dwyer-Joyce, R.S.; Olofsson, U.; Björklund, S.

    2006-01-01

    The contact area and pressure distribution in a wheel/rail contact is essential information required in any fatigue or wear calculations to determine design life, re-grinding, and maintenance schedules. As wheel or rail wear or surface damage takes place the contact patch size and shape will change. This leads to a redistribution of the contact stresses. The aim of this work was to use ultrasound to nondestructively quantify the stress distribution in new, worn, and damaged wheel-rail contact...

  12. DIAGNOSTIC VALUE OF PATCH TEST IN HAND AND FOOT ECZEMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sravani Sandhya Bellam

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The present study is undertaken to evaluate the results of patch test in 50 patients having hand and foot eczema attending skin OPD from October 2010 to September 2012 at KIMS, Narketpally. RESULTS Maximum number of cases in this study belong to 16-30 yrs. (46%.  In majority of cases, eczema was seen in both hands and feet (40%. Hand and foot eczema was commonly seen in construction workers (42.3%.  Mean duration of illness is 19.48 months.  42% of patients presented with acute eczema followed by subacute eczema (38% and then chronic eczema (20%.  Personal and family history of atopy was seen in only 4% and 6%, respectively.  Hand and foot eczema (42.3% was the commonest eczema followed by hand (30.74% and then foot eczema (11.53% and others (15.37%.  57.69% of patients are positive to more than one allergen and 42.3% were positive to single allergen.  Multiple allergens positivity is seen in construction workers (30.76%.  Potassium di chromate (28.5% is the common allergen found in patch test followed by Parthenium (16.6% followed by Paraphenylenediamine (14% and then Cobalt sulphate and Thiuram mix (9.5% and lastly Parabens mix, Nickel sulphate, Black rubber mix and Neomycin (4.7%.  Positive patch test is more commonly observed in patients having hands and or foot eczemas (42.30%. CONCLUSION Hand and foot eczema (42% was the commonest eczema followed by hand (30% and then foot eczema (11.5% and others (15.3%. Potassium dichromate is the commonest sensitiser (28.8%. We encountered a high degree of patch test positivity in our study group and the Indian standard series proved to be very useful.

  13. Finds and access at Black Patch, East Sussex

    OpenAIRE

    J. Williams

    2011-01-01

    The arrangement of divided space dictates to some extent the activities that take place within the smaller spaces created by such division. Access analysis of Hut Platform 4 at the Bronze Age site at Black Patch, combined with study of the artefacts and ecofacts from the site, gives some insight into the relationship between the constructed spaces and the way they were used. The accessibility of places in which activities occur affects and is affected by the perceived status of these activiti...

  14. Oral vaccination through Peyer's Patches: update on particle uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Edna; Borges, Olga

    2017-08-25

    Oral immunization has numerous advantages over parenteral administrations. In addition to ease administration, more effective pathogen elimination on the mucosa before spreading into the blood circulation, constitutes the main benefit. This is particularly true for pathogens that enter the body through the oral route. On the other hand, it is the most challenging administration route for peptides, proteins and recombinant antigens due to gastrointestinal (GI) tract numerous barriers including the harsh environment and the inherent weak immunogenicity. In addition to the adjuvant properties, polymeric particles arise as the most promising strategy to overcome poor antigen bioavailability/stability upon oral administration. The Peyer's patches have been considered an important structure of the gut associate lymphoid tissue (GALT) for the initiation of the immune response towards particulate oral antigens. The transport mechanism of both, nano and microparticles across intestinal mucosa, particularly throughout Peyer's patches, is discussed in this review. We provide a short and concise update (last decade) focused on the importance of particle physicochemical properties, M-cell ligands and size-dependent transport and intracellular fate concerning Peyer's patches targeted oral vaccination. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Earth's polar cap ionization patches lead to ion upflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q. H.; Zong, Q.; Lockwood, M. M.; Liang, J.; Zhang, B.; Moen, J. I.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, Y.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Thomas, E. G.; Liu, R.; Dunlop, M. W.; Yang, H. G.; Hu, H.; Liu, Y.; Lester, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Earth constantly losses matter through ions escaping from the polar ionosphere. This makes the ionosphere as an important source of plasma for the magnetosphere and could modulate atmospheric isotope abundances on geological timescales, depending on what fraction of the upflowing ions subsequently return to the ionosphere and what fraction are ejected into interplanetary space. It has been proposed that the magnetosphere is dynamically modulated by the presence of the ionospheric ions, particularly heavy ions O+, during magnetic substorms and storms. The origin and formation mechanism of ionospheric ion upflow is, however, poorly understood, particularly under disturbed space weather conditions. We report simultaneous direct observations of ion upflow and a patch of ionization at the center of the polar cap region during a geomagnetic storm. Our observations indicate enhanced fluxes of upwelling O+ ions originate from the patch and were accelerated by the enhanced ambipolar electric field. This enhancement is caused by soft electron precipitations. Polar cap patches therefore provide an important source of upwelling ions for accelerations mechanisms at greater altitudes which can eject the ions. These observations give new insight into the processes of ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling and the potential loss of terrestrial water dissociation products into space which, although extremely slow in the case of Earth, may be significant for other planets and moons.

  16. Pumped : everyone's guide to the oil patch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, D.

    2007-07-01

    This books remarked on several issues regarding oil and gas, such as who controls oil and gas in Canada and why it costs so much. It explained where oil comes from, how it got there, why it is trapped in the earth and how it was discovered. It also explained why oil and gas has taken over as the fuel of choice for many modern societies. The book clarified why the petroleum industry dominates world economics and political arenas. Seven examples of Canadian National Energy Programs were also presented. The author provided a historical context of all areas of the Canadian oil patch, including exploration crews at the Geological Survey, Hibernia east-coast offshore drilling technology, the controversial Mackenzie pipeline and Alberta's oil sands. The issue of remaining oil reserves was also discussed along with the current state of the tar sands. The book included illustrations, maps, photographs and a user friendly index-glossary to explain basic terms used in the oil patch, such as the differentiation between the upstream, midstream and downstream industry. The author emphasized the importance of being well informed as a consumer in order to form knowledgeable opinions about how the Canadian oil patch is developed. tabs., figs.

  17. Pentagonal shaped microstrip patch antenna in wireless capsule endoscopy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondili Kohitha Bai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless capsule endoscopy is a best option for exploring inaccessible areas of small intestine for inspection of gastrointestinal tract. This technique brings less pain compare to conventional endoscopy technique. The wireless endoscopy system comprises of three main modules: an ingestible capsule that is swallowed by the patient, an external control unit and display device for image display. In this paper we proposed pentagonal shape microstrip patch antenna for wireless capsule endoscopy system. Inhibiting characteristics of a single microstrip patch like low gain, light weight, thin thickness and smaller bandwidth, make it more popular. This kind of antenna is aggressive miniaturized to meet the requirements of the wireless capsule endoscope. The simulation results show that the designed Circular Polarization (CP pentagonal shaped microstrip patch antenna gives axial ratio of 0.6023 at 2.38 GHz and CP axial ratio bandwidth of 36MHz with 1.5%. The antenna designed for wireless capsule endoscopy is a proposed one, which may work effectively when compared to other antennas in the capsule.

  18. Adhesive RFID Sensor Patch for Monitoring of Sweat Electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Daniel P; Ratterman, Michael E; Griffin, Daniel K; Hou, Linlin; Kelley-Loughnane, Nancy; Naik, Rajesh R; Hagen, Joshua A; Papautsky, Ian; Heikenfeld, Jason C

    2015-06-01

    Wearable digital health devices are dominantly found in rigid form factors such as bracelets and pucks. An adhesive radio-frequency identification (RFID) sensor bandage (patch) is reported, which can be made completely intimate with human skin, a distinct advantage for chronological monitoring of biomarkers in sweat. In this demonstration, a commercial RFID chip is adapted with minimum components to allow potentiometric sensing of solutes in sweat, and surface temperature, as read by an Android smartphone app with 96% accuracy at 50 mM Na(+) (in vitro tests). All circuitry is solder-reflow integrated on a standard Cu/polyimide flexible-electronic layer including an antenna, but while also allowing electroplating for simple integration of exotic metals for sensing electrodes. Optional paper microfluidics wick sweat from a sweat porous adhesive allowing flow to the sensor, or the sensor can be directly contacted to the skin. The wearability of the patch has been demonstrated for up to seven days, and includes a protective textile which provides a feel and appearance similar to a standard Band-Aid. Applications include hydration monitoring, but the basic capability is extendable to other mM ionic solutes in sweat (Cl(-), K(+), Mg(2+), NH4(+), and Zn(2+)). The design and fabrication of the patch are provided in full detail, as the basic components could be useful in the design of other wearable sensors.

  19. Aperture coupled stacked patch antenna for dual band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar Vishwakarma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available -Microstrip antennas (MAS are very useful antenna where low profile antennas are required. They are most popular due to their small size, low cost, light weight. The first aperture coupled microstrip antenna was introduced in 1985 by D M Pozar. Aperture coupled antenna is a particular antenna with high gain and wide bandwidth. This paper presents aperture coupled stacked patch antenna using air gap variation. The variation of air gap [2mm to 6mm] has been done between single patch antenna and an aperture coupled antenna. The main advantage of this antenna to increase the band width of the antenna as compared with single layered patch antenna. The resonant frequencies changes with air gap variations. The feed can be done either a conventional coaxial probe or through a coupling aperture in the ground plane as we done. This antenna works well in the frequency range (2.9 GHz to 6.0 GHz. The measured return loss exhibit an impedance bandwidth of 35%.The input impedance and VSWR return loss have been measured with the help of Network analyzer. [Agilent E8363B A.04.06] From the measured result it is found that the value of VSWR corresponding lower resonance frequencies increases from 14 to 2.2 with increasing air gap variation where as at the upper resonance frequencies is also increased from 1.8 to 2.3.

  20. The groundwater subsidy to vegetation: groundwater exchanges between landcover patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven, L. I.; Gimenez, R.; Jobbagy, E. G.

    2015-12-01

    The Gran Chaco is a hot, dry plain, that spans over 60 million hectares across Bolivia, Paraguay, Brazil and Argentina. It supports high biodiversity in its dry forest and savannahs, but is rapidly being converted to agriculture in response to growing soy demand and technology including genetic modification and zero-till, that has made cultivation in drier landscapes more viable. Under natural conditions, the deep-rooted, native vegetation of the Chaco effectively captured all rainfall for evapotranspiration resulting in near zero groundwater recharge under the dry forest. Conversion to shallower rooted soy and corn, combined with the fallow period prior to the growing season, reduces evapotranspiration and allows some water to percolate through the root zone and recharge the groundwater system. When this groundwater recharge occurs, it creates groundwater mounding and a hydraulic gradient that drives flow to adjacent landcover patches where recharge does not occur. As the watertable rises, groundwater becomes available to the deep-rooted, dry forest vegetation. We develop a soil and groundwater flow model to simulate infiltration, percolation, evaporation, rootwater uptake, groundwater recharge and the lateral transfer of water between adjacent landcover patches to quantify this groundwater subsidy from converted agricultural lands to remnant patches of dry forest.

  1. Cleaning patch-clamp pipettes for immediate reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, I.; Stoy, W. A.; Rousseau, E. B.; Moody, O. A.; Jenkins, A.; Forest, C. R.

    2016-01-01

    Patch-clamp recording has enabled single-cell electrical, morphological and genetic studies at unparalleled resolution. Yet it remains a laborious and low-throughput technique, making it largely impractical for large-scale measurements such as cell type and connectivity characterization of neurons in the brain. Specifically, the technique is critically limited by the ubiquitous practice of manually replacing patch-clamp pipettes after each recording. To circumvent this limitation, we developed a simple, fast, and automated method for cleaning glass pipette electrodes that enables their reuse within one minute. By immersing pipette tips into Alconox, a commercially-available detergent, followed by rinsing, we were able to reuse pipettes 10 times with no degradation in signal fidelity, in experimental preparations ranging from human embryonic kidney cells to neurons in culture, slices, and in vivo. Undetectable trace amounts of Alconox remaining in the pipette after cleaning did not affect ion channel pharmacology. We demonstrate the utility of pipette cleaning by developing the first robot to perform sequential patch-clamp recordings in cell culture and in vivo without a human operator. PMID:27725751

  2. STS-69 Crew members display 'Dog Crew' patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Following their arrival at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility, the five astronauts assigned to Space Shuttle Mission STS-69 display the unofficial crew patch for their upcoming spaceflight: the Dog Crew II patch. Mission Commander David M. Walker (center) and Payload Commander James S. Voss (second from right) previously flew together on Mission STS-53, the final dedicated Department of Defense flight on the Space Shuttle. A close comradery formed among Walker, Voss and the rest of the crew, and they dubbed themselves the 'dogs of war', with each of the STS-53 'Dog Crew' members assigned a 'dog tag' or nickname. When the STS-69 astronauts also became good buddies, they decided it was time for the Dog Crew II to be named. Walker's dog tag is Red Dog, Voss's is Dogface, Pilot Kenneth D. Cockrell (second from left) is Cujo, space rookie and Mission Specialist Michael L. Gernhardt (left) is Under Dog, and Mission Specialist James H. Newman (right) is Pluato. The Dog Crew II patch features a bulldog peering out from a doghouse shaped like the Space Shuttle and lists the five crew member's dog names. The five astronauts are scheduled to lift off on the fifth Shuttle flight of the year at 11:04 a.m. EDT, August 31, aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour.

  3. The conundrum of parapsoriasis versus patch stage of mycosis fungoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarveswari, K N; Yesudian, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Terminological confusion with benign dermatosis, such as parapsoriasis en plaques, makes it difficult to diagnose mycosis fungoides in the early patch stage. Early diagnosis of mycosis fungoides (MF) is important for deciding on type of therapy, prognosis and for further follow-up. However, until recently, there has been no consensus on criteria that would help in diagnosing the disease early. Some believe that large plaque parapsoriasis (LPP) should be classified with early patch stage of MF and should be treated aggressively. However, there is no firm clinical or laboratory criteria to predict which LPP will progress to MF and we can only discuss about statistical probability. Moreover, long-term outcome analysis of even patch stage of MF is similar to that of control population. We therefore believe that LPP should be considered as a separate entity at least to prevent the patient from being given a frightening diagnosis. We also feel that patients need not be treated with aggressive therapy for LPP and will need only a close follow-up. This article emphasizes the criteria for diagnosing early MF and has highlighted the importance of considering LPP as a distinct benign entity.

  4. The conundrum of parapsoriasis versus patch stage of mycosis fungoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarveswari K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Terminological confusion with benign dermatosis, such as parapsoriasis en plaques, makes it difficult to diagnose mycosis fungoides in the early patch stage. Early diagnosis of mycosis fungoides (MF is important for deciding on type of therapy, prognosis and for further follow-up. However, until recently, there has been no consensus on criteria that would help in diagnosing the disease early. Some believe that large plaque parapsoriasis (LPP should be classified with early patch stage of MF and should be treated aggressively. However, there is no firm clinical or laboratory criteria to predict which LPP will progress to MF and we can only discuss about statistical probability. Moreover, long-term outcome analysis of even patch stage of MF is similar to that of control population. We therefore believe that LPP should be considered as a separate entity at least to prevent the patient from being given a frightening diagnosis. We also feel that patients need not be treated with aggressive therapy for LPP and will need only a close follow-up. This article emphasizes the criteria for diagnosing early MF and has highlighted the importance of considering LPP as a distinct benign entity.

  5. Cylindrical Bending of Deformable Textile Rectangular Patch Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freek Boeykens

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Textile patch antennas are well known as basic components for wearable systems that allow communication between a human body and the external world. Due to their flexibility, textile antennas are subjected to bending when worn, causing a variation in resonance frequency and radiation pattern with respect to the flat state in which their nominal design is performed. Hence, it is important for textile antenna engineers to be able to predict these performance parameters as a function of the bending radius. Therefore, we propose a comprehensive analytical model that extends the cylindrical cavity model for conformal rigid patch antennas by incorporating the effects of patch stretching and substrate compression. It allows to predict the resonance frequency and the radiation pattern as a function of the bending radius. Its validity has been verified experimentally. Unlike previous contributions, which concerned only qualitative studies by means of measurements and numerical full-wave simulations, the proposed model offers advantages in terms of physical insight, accuracy, speed, and cost.

  6. Experimental and computational laser tissue welding using a protein patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, W; Heredia, N J; Maitland, D J; Eder, D C; Celliers, P M; Da Silva, L B; London, R A; Matthews, D L

    1998-01-01

    An in vitro study of laser tissue welding mediated with a dye-enhanced protein patch was conducted. Fresh sections of porcine aorta were used for the experiments. Arteriotomies were treated using an indocyanine green dye-enhanced collagen patch activated by an 805-nm continuous-wave fiber-delivered diode laser. Temperature histories of the surface of the weld site were obtained using a hollow glass optical fiber-based two-color infrared thermometer. The experimental effort was complemented by simulations with the LATIS (LAser-TISsue) computer code, which uses coupled Monte Carlo, thermal transport, and mass transport models. Comparison of simulated and experimental thermal data indicated that evaporative cooling clamped the surface temperature of the weld site below 100 °C. For fluences of approximately 200 J/cm2, peak surface temperatures averaged 74°C and acute burst strengths consistently exceeded 0.14×106 dyn/cm (hoop tension). The combination of experimental and simulation results showed that the inclusion of water transport and evaporative losses in the computer code has a significant impact on the thermal distributions and hydration levels throughout the tissue volume. The solid-matrix protein patch provided a means of controllable energy delivery and yielded consistently strong welds. © 1998 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.

  7. Self-Replication of Localized Vegetation Patches in Scarce Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordeu, Ignacio; Clerc, Marcel G.; Couteron, Piere; Lefever, René; Tlidi, Mustapha

    2016-09-01

    Desertification due to climate change and increasing drought periods is a worldwide problem for both ecology and economy. Our ability to understand how vegetation manages to survive and propagate through arid and semiarid ecosystems may be useful in the development of future strategies to prevent desertification, preserve flora—and fauna within—or even make use of scarce resources soils. In this paper, we study a robust phenomena observed in semi-arid ecosystems, by which localized vegetation patches split in a process called self-replication. Localized patches of vegetation are visible in nature at various spatial scales. Even though they have been described in literature, their growth mechanisms remain largely unexplored. Here, we develop an innovative statistical analysis based on real field observations to show that patches may exhibit deformation and splitting. This growth mechanism is opposite to the desertification since it allows to repopulate territories devoid of vegetation. We investigate these aspects by characterizing quantitatively, with a simple mathematical model, a new class of instabilities that lead to the self-replication phenomenon observed.

  8. Parametric study on patch repaired CFRP laminates using FEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashfuddoja, M.; Ramji, M. [Indian Institute of Technology. Engineering Optics Lab. Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Hyderabad (India)

    2012-07-01

    Carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) composite laminates have become popular for structural applications as they are lighter, stronger and tougher. Composite structures are also susceptible to damage while in service. For improved service life, the damage needs to be repaired so that repair structure integrity is enhanced. Various parameters like patch size and shape, it's layup sequence and adhesive thickness would influence the performance of the repaired structure. In present work, a parametric study is carried out using finite element analysis (FEA) to investigate the influence of various parameters involved in composite repair. The panel is made of carbon / epoxy composite laminate with stacking sequence of (0/{+-}45/900)s and is subjected to tensile load. Damaged CFRP laminates is repaired by symmetrical patch adhesively bonded over the damaged area. Circular patch of different stacking sequence and size is considered. Influence of adhesive material and it's thickness on repair efficiency is also investigated. The influence of various repair parameters on peel stress is also analysed. (Author)

  9. Self-Replication of Localized Vegetation Patches in Scarce Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordeu, Ignacio; Clerc, Marcel G.; Couteron, Piere; Lefever, René; Tlidi, Mustapha

    2016-01-01

    Desertification due to climate change and increasing drought periods is a worldwide problem for both ecology and economy. Our ability to understand how vegetation manages to survive and propagate through arid and semiarid ecosystems may be useful in the development of future strategies to prevent desertification, preserve flora—and fauna within—or even make use of scarce resources soils. In this paper, we study a robust phenomena observed in semi-arid ecosystems, by which localized vegetation patches split in a process called self-replication. Localized patches of vegetation are visible in nature at various spatial scales. Even though they have been described in literature, their growth mechanisms remain largely unexplored. Here, we develop an innovative statistical analysis based on real field observations to show that patches may exhibit deformation and splitting. This growth mechanism is opposite to the desertification since it allows to repopulate territories devoid of vegetation. We investigate these aspects by characterizing quantitatively, with a simple mathematical model, a new class of instabilities that lead to the self-replication phenomenon observed. PMID:27650430

  10. The importance of edaphic niches and pioneer plant species succession for the phytomanagement of mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parraga-Aguado, Isabel; Gonzalez-Alcaraz, Maria Nazaret; Alvarez-Rogel, Jose; Jimenez-Carceles, Francisco J; Conesa, Hector M

    2013-05-01

    Phytomanagement in terms of phytostabilisation is considered a suitable method to decrease environmental risks of metal(loid) enriched mine tailings. The goal of this study was to identify plant-favourable edaphic niches in mine tailings from a semiarid area, in order to obtain relevant information for further phytostabilisation procedures. For this purpose, a transect-designed sampling from non-disturbed soils to two mine tailings was performed, including the description of soil and plant ecology gradients. Plant ecological indicators showed several stages in plant succession: from weeds to stable patches of late successional plant species. PCA results revealed that plant distribution at the tailings was driven mainly by salinity while metal(loid) concentrations played a minor role. The presence of soil desiccation cracks generated low salinity patches which facilitated favourable niches for plant establishment. Edaphic-patch distribution may condition phytostabilisation since ploughing or the employment of certain amendments should take into account favourable niches for plant growth.

  11. Patch Test as a Diagnostic Tool in Hand Eczema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneshkarthik, Natarajan; Kuruvila, Sheela

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Allergic contact dermatitis is an important cause of hand eczema. Patch testing is the only investigation available to prove the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis. Exposures to allergens differ according to geographical, occupational, economic and social factors. Accordingly, patterns of allergic contact dermatitis differ in different parts of the world and different regions of the same country. Aim To study the causes of allergic contact dermatitis in adult patients with hand eczema with the help of patch testing. Materials and Methods This was a cross-sectional study involving 54 hand eczema patients conducted between October 2013 and June 2015, at a tertiary care centre in Southern India. After a detailed history including history of occupational exposure and detailed examination, patch test was done on these patients with Indian standard series. The patches were removed after 48 hours. Another reading was taken after 72 hours. The readings were interpreted according to International Contact Dermatitis Research Group criteria and noted down. The data were summarized using mean and standard deviation for continuous variables and percentages for categorical and dichotomous variables. The test of association was done with Fisher’s-exact test. Results Hyperkeratotic hand eczema was the commonest morphological type (29%), followed by discoid eczema. Pompholyx was significantly more common among patients with history of atopy. A total of 20 patients (37%) showed patch test positivity to a total of 25 allergens. Nickel was the most common allergen (11.11%) followed by para-phenylenediamine (PPD) (7.4%). Nickel (6 patients) and cobalt (3 patients) were the common allergens among women, while potassium dichromate (3 patients) and parthenium (2 patients) were the common allergens among men. Potassium dichromate allergy was significantly more common among masons and PPD allergy was significantly more common among hair dye users. Discoid pattern of

  12. Nevirapine patch testing in Thai human immunodeficiency virus infected patients with nevirapine drug hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasertvit, Piyatida; Chareonyingwattana, Angkana; Wattanakrai, Penpun

    2017-08-06

    Antiretroviral drug hypersensitivity in HIV patients is common. Publications have shown that Abacavir (ABC) patch testing is useful in confirming ABC hypersensitivity in 24-50% of cases with a 100% sensitivity of HLA-B*5701 in patch test positive cases. However, Nevirapine (NVP) patch testing has not been reported. (1) To evaluate the usefulness and safety of NVP patch testing in Thai HIV patients with NVP hypersensitivity. (2) To assess the correlation of positive patch tests with HLA-B*3505. Patients were classified into two groups: (1) study group of 20 HIV NVP hypersensitivity patients and (2) control group of 15 volunteers without NVP hypersensitivity. Both groups were patch tested with purified and commercialized form of NVP in various vehicles. Two HIV patients with NVP hypersensitivity were patch test positive. All controls tested negative. Three HIV patients were positive for HLA-B*3505 and the two patients with positive patch testing were both HLA-B*3505 positive. NVP patch testing in Thai HIV patients is safe and can be used to help confirm the association between NVP and hypersensitivity skin reactions. NVP patch test results significantly correlated with HLA-B*3505. The sensitivity of HLA-B*3505 for positive patch test was 100%. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Covalent modification of pericardial patches for sustained rapamycin delivery inhibits venous neointimal hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Hualong; Lee, Jung Seok; Chen, Elizabeth; Wang, Mo; Xing, Ying; Fahmy, Tarek M.; Dardik, Alan

    2017-01-01

    Prosthetic grafts and patches are commonly used in cardiovascular surgery, however neointimal hyperplasia remains a significant concern, especially under low flow conditions. We hypothesized that delivery of rapamycin from nanoparticles (NP) covalently attached to patches allows sustained site-specific delivery of therapeutic agents targeted to inhibit localized neointimal hyperplasia. NP were covalently linked to pericardial patches using EDC/NHS chemistry and could deliver at least 360 ng rapamycin per patch without detectable rapamycin in serum; nanoparticles were detectable in the liver, kidney and spleen but no other sites within 24 hours. In a rat venous patch angioplasty model, control patches developed robust neointimal hyperplasia on the patch luminal surface characterized by Eph-B4-positive endothelium and underlying SMC and infiltrating cells such as macrophages and leukocytes. Patches delivering rapamycin developed less neointimal hyperplasia, less smooth muscle cell proliferation, and had fewer infiltrating cells but retained endothelialization. NP covalently linked to pericardial patches are a novel composite delivery system that allows sustained site-specific delivery of therapeutics; NP delivering rapamycin inhibit patch neointimal hyperplasia. NP linked to patches may represent a next generation of tissue engineered cardiovascular implants.

  14. A framework for landscape ecological design of new patches in the rural landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafortezza, R; Brown, R D

    2004-10-01

    This study developed a comprehensive framework to incorporate landscape ecological principles into the landscape planning and design process, with a focus on the design of new patches in the rural landscape. The framework includes two interrelated phases: patch analyst (PA) and patch designer (PD). The patch analyst augments the process of landscape inventory and analysis. It distinguishes nodes (associated with potential habitat patches) from links (associated with corridors and stepping stones between habitats). For natural vegetation patches, characteristics such as size, shape, and spatial arrangement have been used to develop analytical tools that distinguish between nodes and links. The patch designer uses quantitative information and analytical tools to recommend locations, shapes, sizes, and composition of introduced patches. The framework has been applied to the development of a new golf course in the rural Mediterranean landscape of Apulia, Southern Italy. Fifty new patches of Mediterranean maquis (24 patches) and garrigue (26 patches) have been designed and located in the golf course, raising the overall natural vegetation area to 70 ha (60% of total property). The framework has potential for use in a wide variety of landscape planning, design, and management projects.

  15. Engineered hybrid cardiac patches with multifunctional electronics for online monitoring and regulation of tissue function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiner, Ron; Engel, Leeya; Fleischer, Sharon; Malki, Maayan; Gal, Idan; Shapira, Assaf; Shacham-Diamand, Yosi; Dvir, Tal

    2016-01-01

    In cardiac tissue engineering approaches to treat myocardial infarction, cardiac cells are seeded within three-dimensional porous scaffolds to create functional cardiac patches. However, current cardiac patches do not allow for online monitoring and reporting of engineered-tissue performance, and do not interfere to deliver signals for patch activation or to enable its integration with the host. Here, we report an engineered cardiac patch that integrates cardiac cells with flexible, free-standing electronics and a 3D nanocomposite scaffold. The patch exhibited robust electronic properties, enabling the recording of cellular electrical activities and the on-demand provision of electrical stimulation for synchronizing cell contraction. We also show that electroactive polymers containing biological factors can be deposited on designated electrodes to release drugs in the patch microenvironment on-demand. We expect that the integration of complex electronics within cardiac patches will eventually provide therapeutic control and regulation of cardiac function. PMID:26974408

  16. Taro corms mucilage/HPMC based transdermal patch: an efficient device for delivery of diltiazem hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Gunjan; Saha, Nayan Ranjan; Roy, Indranil; Bhattacharyya, Amartya; Bose, Madhura; Mishra, Roshnara; Rana, Dipak; Bhattacharjee, Debashis; Chattopadhyay, Dipankar

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work is to examine the effectiveness of mucilage/hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) based transdermal patch (matrix type) as a drug delivery device. We have successfully extracted mucilage from Colocasia esculenta (Taro) corms and prepared diltiazem hydrochloride incorporated mucilage/HPMC based transdermal patches using various wt% of mucilage by the solvent evaporation technique. Characterization of both mucilage and transdermal patches has been done by several techniques such as Molisch's test, organoleptic evaluation of mucilage, mechanical, morphological and thermal analysis of transdermal patches. Skin irritation test is studied on hairless Albino rat skin showing that transdermal patches are apparently free of potentially hazardous skin irritation. Fourier transform infrared analysis shows that there is no interaction between drug, mucilage and HPMC while scanning electron microscopy shows the surface morphology of transdermal patches. In vitro drug release time of mucilage-HPMC based transdermal patches is prolonged with increasing mucilage concentration in the formulation.

  17. Modeling the effects of size on patch dynamics of an inert tracer

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    P. Xiu

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Mesoscale iron enrichment experiments have revealed that additional iron affects the phytoplankton productivity and carbon cycle. However, the role of initial size of fertilized patch in determining the patch evolution is poorly quantified due to the limited time of research vessels at sea. Using a three-dimensional ocean circulation model, we simulated different sizes of inert tracer patches that were only regulated by physical circulation and diffusion. Model results showed that during the first few days since release of inert tracer, the calculated dilution rate was found to be a linear function with time, which was sensitive to the initial patch size with steeper slope for smaller size patch. After the initial phase of rapid decay, the relationship between dilution rate and time became an exponential function, which was also size dependent. Therefore, larger initial size patches can usually last longer and ultimately affect biogeochemical processes much stronger than smaller patches.

  18. Large-scale experimental landscapes reveal distinctive effects of patch shape and connectivity on arthropod communities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orrock, John, L.; Curler, Gregory, R.; Danielson, Brent, J.; Coyle, David. R.

    2011-09-14

    The size, shape, and isolation of habitat patches can affect organism behavior and population dynamics, but little is known about the relative role of shape and connectivity in affecting ecological communities at large spatial scales. Using six sampling sessions from July 2001 until August 2002, we collected 33,685 arthropods throughout seven 12-ha experimental landscapes consisting of clear-cut patches surrounded by a matrix of mature pine forest. Patches were explicitly designed to manipulate connectivity (via habitat corridors) independently of area and edge effects. We found that patch shape, rather than connectivity, affected ground-dwelling arthropod richness and beta diversity (i.e. turnover of genera among patches). Arthropod communities contained fewer genera and exhibited less turnover in high-edge connected and high-edge unconnected patches relative to low-edge unconnected patches of similar area. Connectivity, rather than patch shape, affected the evenness of ground-dwelling arthropod communities; regardless of patch shape, high-edge connected patches had lower evenness than low- or high-edge unconnected patches. Among the most abundant arthropod orders, increased richness in low-edge unconnected patches was largely due to increased richness of Coleoptera, whereas Hymenoptera played an important role in the lower evenness in connected patches and patterns of turnover. These findings suggest that anthropogenic habitat alteration can have distinct effects on ground-dwelling arthropod communities that arise due to changes in shape and connectivity. Moreover, this work suggests that corridors, which are common conservation tools that change both patch shape and connectivity, can have multiple effects on arthropod communities via different mechanisms, and each effect may alter components of community structure.

  19. Does nest site availability limit the density of hole nesting birds in small woodland patches?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Loman

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available By providing nest boxes, previous studies have shown that nest sites are in short supply and limit the populations of several small passerines, including the Great Tit Parus major, the Blue Tit P. caeruleus, and the Pied Flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca. Can this influence their distribution over a range of small woodland patch sizes in a heterogeneous landscape? To investigate this, a study was conducted in a heterogeneous agricultural landscape, with a mixture of wooded patches and cropped fields, in southern Sweden. The descriptive part of the study involved mapping territories of the three species in 135 patches. These species avoided small (<1 ha, Pied Flycatcher or very small (<0.2 ha, the two tit species forest patches in this landscape. In an experimental part, a subset of 34 patches, 0.01 to 24 ha in size was used. Territories were mapped in a first year as a control. In a second year, patches were matched by size and vegetation and nest-boxes were provided in one patch of each pair. Territories were again mapped. Providing nestboxes increased the density of breeding Great Tits in patches of all sizes and expanded their use of very small patches. The nest-boxes increased the density of Pied Flycatchers in large patches but not in small patches. So, is the lack of territories in small patches due to shortage of nest sites? The outcome of the experiment suggests nest site limitation as a cause of the observed Great Tit discrimination against very small habitat patches. The lack of Pied Flycatchers in small patches must however have another basis than lack of nest sites. The effect of providing nest-boxes on Blue Tit distribution was inconclusive.

  20. Seasonality and edge effect determine herbivory risk according to different plant association models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, M; Díaz, L; Sicilia, M; Cristóbal, I; Cassinello, J

    2011-01-01

    We report evidence of hierarchical resource selection by large herbivores and plant neighbouring effects in a Mediterranean ecosystem. Plant palatability was assessed according to herbivore foraging decisions. We hypothesize that under natural conditions large herbivores follow a hierarchical foraging pattern, starting at the landscape scale, and then selecting patches and individual plants. A between- and within-patch selection study was carried out in an area formed by scrubland and pasture patches, connected by habitat edges. With regard to between-patch selection, quality-dependent resource selection is reported: herbivores mainly consume pasture in spring and woody plants in winter. Within-patch selection was also observed in scrub habitats, influenced by season, relative patch palatability and edge effect. We defined a Proximity Index (PI) between palatable and unpalatable plants, which allowed verification of neighbouring effects. In spring, when the preferred food resource (i.e. herbs) is abundant, we observed that in habitat edges large herbivores basically select the relatively scarce palatable shrubs, whereas inside scrubland, unpalatable shrub consumption was related to increasing PI. In winter, a very different picture was observed; there was low consumption of palatable species surrounded by unpalatable species in habitat edges, where the latter were more abundant. These outcomes could be explained though different plant associations described in the literature. We conclude that optimal foraging theory provides a conceptual framework behind the observed interactions between plants and large herbivores in Mediterranean ecosystems.

  1. Emergent properties of patch shapes affect edge permeability to animals.

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    Vilis O Nams

    Full Text Available Animal travel between habitat patches affects populations, communities and ecosystems. There are three levels of organization of edge properties, and each of these can affect animals. At the lowest level are the different habitats on each side of an edge, then there is the edge itself, and finally, at the highest level of organization, is the geometry or structure of the edge. This study used computer simulations to (1 find out whether effects of edge shapes on animal behavior can arise as emergent properties solely due to reactions to edges in general, without the animals reacting to the shapes of the edges, and to (2 generate predictions to allow field and experimental studies to test mechanisms of edge shape response. Individual animals were modeled traveling inside a habitat patch that had different kinds of edge shapes (convex, concave and straight. When animals responded edges of patches, this created an emergent property of responding to the shape of the edge. The response was mostly to absolute width of the shapes, and not the narrowness of them. When animals were attracted to edges, then they tended to collect in convexities and disperse from concavities, and the opposite happened when animals avoided edges. Most of the responses occurred within a distance of 40% of the perceptual range from the tip of the shapes. Predictions were produced for directionality at various locations and combinations of treatments, to be used for testing edge behavior mechanisms. These results suggest that edge shapes tend to either concentrate or disperse animals, simply because the animals are either attracted to or avoid edges, with an effect as great as 3 times the normal density. Thus edge shape could affect processes like pollination, seed predation and dispersal and predator abundance.

  2. Azithromycin buccal patch in treatment of chronic periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Sajith Abdul; Vandana, K. L.; Thimmashetty, J.; Dalvi, Priyanka Jairaj

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study aims to explore the clinical, microbiological, and biochemical impact of azithromycin (AZM) buccal patch in chronic generalized patients as a monotherapy as well as an adjunct to nonsurgical therapy. Materials and Methods: A parallel design was used forty periodontitis patients were randomly allocated into five groups, namely Group 1 scaling root planing (SRP) alone, Group 2 (SRP + AZM patch group), Group 3 (SRP + AZM tablet group), Group 4 (AZM patch monotherapy), and Group 5 (AZM tablet as monotherapy). Plaque index, gingival bleeding index, modified gingival index, probing pocket depth (PPD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) were assessed at baseline and 21 and 90 days. Subgingival pooled plaque sample was collected to assess periodontopathogens like Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia (Pi) by anaerobic culture method. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was also evaluated at baseline and 21 days. Periodontal maintenance was performed in Group 1 until 90th day, and clinical parameter was assessed at the end of 90th day. Results: SRP + AZM tablets showed greater reduction in clinical parameters (P < 0.05) AZM as monotherapy did not offer clinical benefits over SRP. Baseline data were compared at the end, i.e., 90th day a significant reduction in plaque scores, gingival bleeding, and PPD was observed however no significant gain in the clinical attachment was observed. Conclusion: The monotherapy resulted in no improvement of periodontal parameters, microbial parameters, and TNF-α level. It is safe to use AZM + SRP as a mode of nonsurgical treatment in periodontitis patients. PMID:27127325

  3. Diclofenac Transdermal Patch: A Potential Ingress to Maxillofacial Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perepa, Anisha; Sinha, Brig Ramen; Uppada, Uday Kiran; Kumar, Avss Subramanya

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the analgesic efficacy of a diclofenac transdermal patch with diclofenac intra muscular injection in the immediate postoperative period in patients undergoing major oral surgical procedures. Subjects who underwent bijaw surgeries for surgical correction of various dentofacial deformities were included. Sixty such patients who belonged to the above entity were randomly categorized into two groups from Jan 2012-Aug 2015. Group A (study group) received a single dose of 100 mg transdermal diclofenac patch, Group B (control group) received 75 mg intramuscular diclofenac and tramadol HCl 2 mg/kg body wt was used as rescue analgesic in the immediate post operative phase. The analgesic efficacy of the drugs are evaluated on periodic patient's perception of pain in the immediate postoperative phase of 2nd, 6th, 12th, 24th and 48 hours. The mean VAS score in Group A was 2, mean duration of analgesia was 16 h 9 min, and in Group B the mean VAS score was 4, duration of analgesia was 8 h and 4 min. Tramadol HCl was given as rescue analgesia in 22 % (6) of patients belonging to Group A. None of the patients from both the groups reported local complications. A noninvasive application of a single dose of 100 mg transdermal diclofenac patch is more effective than intramuscular diclofenac (75 mg) in the immediate post operative phase, without any significant side-effects is a novel ingress into the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery for post operative pain management.

  4. Patch testing in Iranian patients: A ten-year experience

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    Davoudi Masoud

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Allergic contact dermatitis is a common inflammatory skin disease, which may occur as a result of exposure to specific allergens. Genetic and allergen exposure variations are determinants of different frequency of sensitization in different countries. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of sensitization to contact allergens in the Iranian patients with dermatitis. Materials and Methods: We analyzed our patch-test database in a referral skin clinic in Tehran, Iran, retrospectively. All patients patch-testing with a clinical diagnosis of contact dermatitis and/or atopic dermatitis over a 10-year period (1993 to 2002 were included. The 23-allergen European standard series (ESS screening has been used for evaluation in all the patients. Results: Data were available from a total of 222 patients. Out of them, 145 patients (65.3% showed at least one positive reaction and 34 patients (15.3% had more than two positive reactions. The five most common allergens were: nickel sulfate 50 (22.6%, cobalt chloride chloride 32 (14.5%, fragrance mix 30 (13.6%, potassium dichromate 21 (9.5% and neomycin sulfate 20 (9.0%. Contact allergy to nickel sulfate was significantly more common in females and in younger patients ( P < 0.05. Fragrance mix was the most common allergen in male patients, but there was no significant difference in its frequency between males and females. Conclusion: The ESS seems to be suitable for patch testing patients in Iran. Nickel sulfate was found to be the most common contact allergen in Iran, mostly affecting women and younger patients probably due to more exposure.

  5. Patch Test Results in Patients with Allergic Contact Dermatitis / Mucositis

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    Özlem Su

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: The aims of our study were to determine the frequency of positive patch reactions and the most common allergens in patients with allergic contact dermatitis (ACD and/or mucositis(M who underwent with T.R.U.E. “Thin-layer Rapid-Use Epicutaneous” test and evaluate supplemantal series used with T.R.U.E. test effect on patch test results.Material and Method: In this study 161 ACD, 5 ACM, 1 ACD and ACM were enrolled. While 139 of all patients were patch tested with T.R.U.E. test alone,out of 28 patients were tested for T.R.U.E. test and also with supplemental series that included textile colours (9 of tested patients, plastic and glues (9, dental screening (6, backery (2, cosmetic (1 and plastic and glues and dental screening (1. Supplemental series were chosen according to patient’s occupation and clinic presentation. The data from our patients were analyzed as percentage. The relationship between contact sensitization and atopic status was evaluated with Yate’s correlation x2 test.Results: Eighty-six male, 81 female were taken into this study. The median age was 36.5.While 25.9% of 139 patients tested with T.R.U.E. test alone,46.4% of 28 patients applied supplemental series in addition to T.R.U.E. test showed positive reaction to one or more allergens. The most common allergens were nickel sulphate (14.4%, potassium dichromate (4.8%, fragrance mix (2.9% and colophony (2.9%. The most common supplemental allergens were octil gallat (50% in bakery and copper sulphate, goldsodiumthiosulphate (42.8% in dental screening. Positive patch reactions were detected 83.3% in 6 patients with AKM, 80% of these positive reactions was againts dental screening. The rate of contact sensitization between atopics and non-atopics was not significant (p>0.05. Conclusion: We suggest in presence of mucositis and/or occupational dermatoses using supplemental series in addition to T.R.U.E. test would be more beneficial in identifing the

  6. How to Patch Active Plasma and Collisionless Sheath: Pragmatical Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shneider, Mikhail N.; Kaganovich, Igor D.

    2002-11-01

    Most plasmas have very thin sheath compared with plasma dimension. This necessitates separate calculation of plasma and sheath. Bohm criterion provides boundary condition for calculation of plasma profiles. To calculate sheath properties a value of electric field at the plasma-sheath interface has to be specified in addition to Bohm criterion. The value of the boundary electric field and robust procedure to approximately patch plasma and collisionless sheath with a very good accuracy is reported. Additional information on the subject will be posted in http://www.pppl.gov/pub/report/2002/ http://arxiv.org/abs/physics/ Work supported by the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory through a University Research Support Program.

  7. The effect of patch testing on surgical practices and outcomes in orthopedic patients with metal implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanaskova Mesinkovska, Natasha; Tellez, Alejandra; Molina, Luciana; Honari, Golara; Sood, Apra; Barsoum, Wael; Taylor, James S

    2012-06-01

    To determine the effect of patch testing on surgical decision making and outcomes in patients evaluated for suspected metal hypersensitivity related to implants in bones or joints. Medical chart review. Tertiary care academic medical center. All patients who had patch testing for allergic contact dermatitis related to orthopedic implants. Patch testing. The surgeon's preoperative choice of metal implant alloy compared with patch testing results and the presence of hypersensitivity complications related to the metal implant on postsurgical follow-up. Patients with potential metal hypersensitivity from implanted devices (N = 72) were divided into 2 groups depending on timing of their patch testing: preimplantation (n = 31) and postimplantation (n = 41). History of hypersensitivity to metals was a predictor of positive patch test results to metals in both groups. Positive patch test results indicating metal hypersensitivity influenced the decision-making process of the referring surgeon in all preimplantation cases (n = 21). Patients with metal hypersensitivity who received an allergen-free implant had surgical outcomes free of hypersensitivity complications (n = 21). In patients who had positive patch test results to a metal in their implant after implantation, removal of the device led to resolution of associated symptoms (6 of 10 patients). The findings of this study support a role for patch testing in patients with a clinical history of metal hypersensitivity before prosthetic device implantation. The decision on whether to remove an implanted device after positive patch test results should be made on a case-by-case basis, as decided by the surgeon and patient.

  8. Robotic patch-stabilizer using wire driven mechanism for minimally invasive fetal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Kobayashi, Yo; Chiba, Toshio; Fujie, Masakatsu G

    2009-01-01

    The clinical target of this study is intrauterine patch coverage of fetal myelomeningocele. We propose a new surgical robotic system for intrauterine fetal surgery with patch-stabilizer and laser manipulator. The target disease of the fetal surgery is spina bifida or myelomeningocele, which is incomplete closure in the spinal column and one of the common fetal diseases. In the fetal surgery, the collagen patch is supposed to be stabilized onto the fragile fetal tissue during the laser fixation process. In this study, a prototype of the patch-stabilizer using wire driven mechanism has been developed for precise force control on the patch without damaging fetal tissue. The diameter of the patch-stabilizer's shaft is 2.4 mm. The patch-stabilizer including one ball joint and wire driven mechanism is able to bend through 40 degrees. The stabilizing part holds collagen patch with diamond shape mechanism using wire driven. In this paper, we showed that the patch-stabilizer is developed with the stabilizing force control using the tension control of wires. Results of the experiment showed that the tension of driven wires was controlled at 0.3 N to stabilize the collagen patch onto the lesion surface without the damages of fetal tissues and the influence by the amnion liquid.

  9. Within and Among Patch Variability in Patterns of Insect Herbivory Across a Fragmented Forest Landscape.

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    Dorothy Y Maguire

    Full Text Available Fragmentation changes the spatial patterns of landscapes in ways that can alter the flow of materials and species; however, our understanding of the consequences of this fragmentation and flow alteration for ecosystem processes and ecosystem services remains limited. As an ecological process that affects many ecosystem services and is sensitive to fragmentation, insect herbivory is a good model system for exploring the role of fragmentation, and the resulting spatial patterns of landscapes, in the provision of ecosystem services. To refine our knowledge of how changes in landscape pattern affect insect herbivory, we quantified the combined influence of among patch (patch area and patch connectivity and within patch (location within patch; canopy, edge, interior factors on amounts of insect herbivory in a fragmented forest landscape. We measured herbivory in 20 forest patches of differing size and connectivity in southern Quebec (Canada. Within each patch, herbivory was quantified at the interior, edge, and canopy of sugar maple trees during the spring and summer of 2011 and 2012. Results show that connectivity affects herbivory differently depending on the location within the patch (edge, interior, canopy, an effect that would have gone unnoticed if samples were pooled across locations. These results suggest considering structure at both the patch and within patch scales may help to elucidate patterns when studying the effects of fragmentation on ecosystem processes, with implications for the services they support.

  10. Features of change of permanent snow patches in the Mongun-Taiga Massif, 1966–2011

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    D. A. Ganyushkin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to perennial snow patches of Mongun-Taiga mountain massif (south-western Tuva, their morphology, present state and dynamics over the last 45 years. We created a scheme of snow patch classification with regard to genesis of relief and position on the slopes. Dynamics of snow patches is analyzed for periods between several time points – 1966 (on basis of aerial photos, 2000, 2007–2008 and 2011 (on basis of field measurements and observations. From 1966 to 2008 the number of snow patches decreased by 4 times, the total area – by 15 times, the altitudinal zone of snow patches moved 250–300 m up. In 2008–2011 the altitudinal zone of snow patches partly recovered, its lower limit moved 250 m down, periglacial snow patches recovered, a new type – snow patches of buried ice and debris-covered glaciers appeared. It could be the first face of the process of small glaciers recovery in the massif. Using the changes of the altitudinal position of snow patches in comparison with data of the closest meteorological station we estimated the amount of annual precipitation, critical for the existence of local snow patches.

  11. Feasibility of a nanomaterial-tissue patch for vascular and cardiac reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostdiek, Allison M; Ivey, Jan R; Hansen, Sarah A; Gopaldas, Raja; Grant, Sheila A

    2016-04-01

    Vascular and cardiac reconstruction involves the use of biological patches to treat trauma and defects. An in vivo study was performed to determine the remodeling and biologic effects of novel nanostructured vascular patches with and without gold nanoparticles. Porcine vascular tissue was decellularized and conjugated with gold nanoparticles to evaluate if integration would occur while avoiding rupture and stenosis. Swine underwent a bilateral patch angioplasty of the carotid arteries with experimental patches on the right and control patches of bovine pericardium on the left. Animals were sacrificed after surgery and at 3 and 9 weeks. Ultrasound was performed during surgery, every 3 weeks, and before euthanasia. Endothelial regeneration was examined using Evans Blue dye and histology using Trichrome and H&E. There was a 100% success rate of implantation with 0% mortality. All patches were patent on ultrasound. At 3 weeks, experimental patches had regenerating endothelial cell growth and normal healing responses. At 9 weeks, the experimental patches demonstrated excellent integration. Histology demonstrated cellular in-growth into the experimental patches and no major immune reactions. This is one of the first studies to demonstrate the feasibility of nanomaterial-tissue patches for vascular and cardiac reconstruction.

  12. Morphological and physiological responses of seagrasses (Alismatales to grazers (Testudines: Cheloniidae and the role of these responses as grazing patch abandonment cues

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    Elizabeth A. Lacey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Green sea turtles, Chelonia mydas, are grazers influencing the distribution of seagrass within shallow coastal ecosystems, yet the drivers behind C. mydas patch use within seagrass beds are largely unknown. Current theories center on food quality (nutrient content as the plant responds to grazing disturbances; however, no study has monitored these parameters in a natural setting without grazer manipulation. To determine the morphological and physiological responses potentially influencing seagrass recovery from grazing disturbances, seagrasses were monitored for one year under three different grazing scenarios (turtle grazed, fish grazed and ungrazed in a tropical ecosystem in Akumal Bay, Quintana Roo, Mexico. Significantly less soluble carbohydrates and increased nitrogen and phosphorus content in Thalassia testudinum were indicative of the stresses placed on seagrasses during herbivory. To determine if these physiological responses were the drivers of the heterogeneous grazing behavior by C. mydas recorded in Akumal Bay, patches were mapped and monitored over a six-month interval. The abandoned patches had the lowest standing crop rather than leaf nutrient or rhizome soluble carbohydrate content. This suggests a modified Giving Up Density (GUD behavior: the critical threshold where cost of continued grazing does not provide minimum nutrients, therefore, new patches must be utilized, explains resource abandonment and mechanism behind C. mydas grazing. This study is the first to apply GUD theory, often applied in terrestrial literature, to explain marine herbivore grazing behavior.

  13. Classification of patch type in severe saline-alkaline grassland community in north of Shanxi Province%晋北重度盐碱化草地群落斑块的类型划分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永新; 赵祥; 徐静; 董宽虎; 高文俊; 朱慧森; 陈文斌

    2012-01-01

    通过研究围栏封育3年的晋北重度盐碱草地的群落斑块类型,为采取合理的措施和选择适宜的植物改良盐碱草地提供理论依据。试验根据斑块内的指示性植物或高度聚集的植物种群且轮廓明显选取15个斑块进行初步分类,另随机选择斑块特征和界限不明显的20个斑块采用聚类分析法划分斑块群落类型,调查每个斑块的群落特征和基本形状,计算斑块形状指数和分维指数确定斑块类型。结果表明:晋北重度盐碱草地群落斑块可划分为光碱斑、碱蒿(Artemisia anethifolia)斑块、芦苇(Phrag-mites australis)斑块、碱茅(Puccinellia tenuiflora)斑块、虎尾草(Chioris virgata)斑块和赖草(Leymussecalinus)斑块等6种类型。斑块形状指数和分维指数从小到大的顺序依次是光碱斑、碱蒿斑块、芦苇斑块、碱茅斑块、虎尾草斑块和赖草斑块,反映了各斑块受盐碱干扰程度依次降低。%The patch types in severe saline-alkaline grassland community fenced for 3 years in north of Shanxi Province were studied in order to provide basic data for improving saline-alkaline grassland with reasonable methods and proper plants.Fifteen patches with indicative or highly collective and distinctive aspects were used for classification and another randomly selected 20 patches without indicative or highly collective and distinctive aspects were used for classification and cluster analysis.The results showed that patch community included bare saline-alkaline patch,Artemisia anethifolia patch,Phragmites australis patch,Puccinellia distans patch,Chloria virgata patch and Leymus secalinus patch.The order of patches shape indices and fractal dimensions from small to big was bare saline-alkaline patch,A.anethifolia patch,P.australis patch,P.distans patch,C.virgata patch and L.secalinus patch,which indicated the disturbance degree of salinization.

  14. Patch-clamp detection of macromolecular translocation along nuclear pores

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    Bustamante J.O.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reviews the application of patch-clamp principles to the detection and measurement of macromolecular translocation along the nuclear pores. We demonstrate that the tight-seal 'gigaseal' between the pipette tip and the nuclear membrane is possible in the presence of fully operational nuclear pores. We show that the ability to form a gigaseal in nucleus-attached configurations does not mean that only the activity of channels from the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope can be detected. Instead, we show that, in the presence of fully operational nuclear pores, it is likely that the large-conductance ion channel activity recorded derives from the nuclear pores. We conclude the technical section with the suggestion that the best way to demonstrate that the nuclear pores are responsible for ion channel activity is by showing with fluorescence microscopy the nuclear translocation of ions and small molecules and the exclusion of the same from the cisterna enclosed by the two membranes of the envelope. Since transcription factors and mRNAs, two major groups of nuclear macromolecules, use nuclear pores to enter and exit the nucleus and play essential roles in the control of gene activity and expression, this review should be useful to cell and molecular biologists interested in understanding how patch-clamp can be used to quantitate the translocation of such macromolecules into and out of the nucleus

  15. Intraventricular Hemorrhage after Epidural Blood Patching: An Unusual Complication

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    Mohammad Sorour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors present two cases of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH believed to be a result of epidural blood patching. The first was a 71-year-old woman who had new onset of nontraumatic IVH on computed tomography (CT scan after undergoing an epidural blood patch (EBP. This amount of intraventricular blood was deemed an incidental finding since it was of very small volume to account for her overall symptoms. The second patient, a 29-year-old woman, was found to have nontraumatic IVH three days after undergoing an EBP. This was seen on CT scan of the head for workup of pressure-like headaches, nausea, vomiting, and absence seizures. Conservative management was followed in both instances. Serial CT scan of the head in our first patient displayed complete resolution of her IVH. The second patient did not have follow-up CT scans because her overall clinical picture had improved significantly. This highlights a potential sequel of EBP that may be observed on CT scan of the head. In the event that IVH is detected, signs and symptoms of hydrocephalus should be closely monitored with the consideration for a future workup if warranted by the clinical picture.

  16. Long wavelength undulations dominate dynamics in large surfactant membrane patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipfert, Frederik; Holderer, Olaf; Frielinghaus, Henrich; Appavou, Marie-Sousai; Do, Changwoo; Ohl, Michael; Richter, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    By exposing microemulsions to small (80 nm diameter) and large (500 nm) disk shaped clay particles we were able to show the presence of long wavelength undulations that only occur for large membrane patches. A combination of small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and neutron spin echo (NSE) experiments have been applied to study microemulsions. These, consisting of D2O, d-decane and the surfactant C10E4, were used in connection with Laponite (small) and Nanofil (large) clay. To our knowledge our experiments show for the first time that the clay platelets induce lamellar ordering adjacent to the clay discs in the otherwise bicontinuous microemulsion. This is due to the fact that in purely structural investigations, radial averaging smears out the signature of the lamellar phase. For thermodynamically fluctuating membranes near interfaces the theory of Seifert predicts a cross-over of the dispersion relationship from k2 to a k3-dependence. With the correlation length of the membrane patches being confined by the dimension of the clay platelets we were able to show that this in fact takes place but is only present for the larger Nanofil particles.

  17. Compact filtering monopole patch antenna with dual-band rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Woong; Choi, Dong-You

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a compact ultra-wideband patch antenna with dual-band rejection is proposed. The proposed antenna filters 3.3-3.8 GHz WiMAX and 5.15-5.85 GHz WLAN by respectively rejecting these bands through a C-shaped slit and a λg/4 resonator. The λg/4 resonator is positioned as a pair, centered around the microstrip line, and a C-type slit is inserted into an elliptical patch. The impedance bandwidth of the proposed antenna is 2.9-9.3 GHz, which satisfies the bandwidth for ultra-wideband communication systems. Further, the proposed antenna provides dual-band rejection at two bands: 3.2-3.85 and 4.7-6.03 GHz. The radiation pattern of the antenna is omnidirectional, and antenna gain is maintained constantly while showing -8.4 and -1.5 dBi at the two rejected bands, respectively.

  18. Cytokine expression in Peyer's patches following hemorrhage and resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenkar, R; Chang, Y H; Abraham, E

    1994-01-01

    Intestinal dysfunction commonly occurs following hemorrhage and injury and appears to contribute to the development of multiple organ system failure in this setting. In order to examine possible mechanisms leading to intestinal dysfunction following blood loss, we investigated mRNA levels for cytokines with proinflammatory and immunoregulatory properties (interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta), IL-6, IL-10, TNF-alpha, TGF-beta, IFN-gamma) as well as mRNA expression for inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS) over the 3 days following hemorrhage and resuscitation. Significantly increased levels of mRNA for IL-1 beta, IL-10, and IFN-gamma were found among cells isolated from Peyer's patches 3 days following hemorrhage. Amounts of mRNA for inducible NOS were not significantly altered 24 or 72 h after blood loss. In addition to being increased 72 h following hemorrhage, levels of mRNA for IL-10 also were increased 1 and 4 h posthemorrhage. No alterations in cytokine or NOS expression were found 24 h following blood loss. These results demonstrate that significant increases in proinflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokine mRNA levels among cellular populations in Peyer's patches are present at late posthemorrhage time points. These alterations in cytokine expression may contribute to the morphologic, immunologic, and functional changes in the intestines which are present following blood loss and injury.

  19. Assessment criteria for MEG/EEG cortical patch tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Chang-Hwan [ENG420-040, School of Electrical Engineering, Seoul National University, Shillim-dong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); An, Kwang-Ok [ENG420-040, School of Electrical Engineering, Seoul National University, Shillim-dong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Hyun-Kyo [ENG420-040, School of Electrical Engineering, Seoul National University, Shillim-dong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Hyukchan [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, PO Box 102, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yong-Ho [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, PO Box 102, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-08-07

    To validate newly developed methods or implemented software for magnetoencephalography/electroencephalography (MEG/EEG) source localization problems, many researchers have used human skull phantom experiments or artificially constructed forward data sets. Between the two methods, the use of an artificial data set constructed with forward calculation attains superiority over the use of a human skull phantom in that it is simple to implement, adjust and control various conditions. Nowadays, for the forward calculation, especially for the cortically distributed source models, generating artificial activation patches on a brain cortical surface has been popularized instead of activating some point dipole sources. However, no well-established assessment criterion to validate the reconstructed results quantitatively has yet been introduced. In this paper, we suggest some assessment criteria to compare and validate the various MEG/EEG source localization techniques or implemented software applied to the cortically distributed source model. Four different criteria can be used to measure accuracy, degrees of focalization, noise-robustness, existence of spurious sources and so on. To verify the usefulness of the proposed criteria, four different results from two different noise conditions and two different reconstruction techniques were compared for several patches. The simulated results show that the new criteria can provide us with a reliable index to validate the MEG/EEG source localization techniques.

  20. Electrospun biocomposite nanofibrous patch for cardiac tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhakaran, Molamma P; Ramakrishna, Seeram [Health Care and Energy Materials Laboratory, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 2 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Kai, Dan [NUS Graduate School of Integrative Sciences and Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Ghasemi-Mobarakeh, Laleh, E-mail: nnimpp@nus.edu.s [Islamic Azad University, Najafabad Branch, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    A bioengineered construct that matches the chemical, mechanical, biological properties and extracellular matrix morphology of native tissue could be suitable as a cardiac patch for supporting the heart after myocardial infarction. The potential of utilizing a composite nanofibrous scaffold of poly(dl-lactide-co-glycolide)/gelatin (PLGA/Gel) as a biomimetic cardiac patch is studied by culturing a population of cardiomyocyte containing cells on the electrospun scaffolds. The chemical characterization and mechanical properties of the electrospun PLGA and PLGA/Gel nanofibers were studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and tensile measurements. The biocompatibility of the scaffolds was also studied and the cardiomyocytes seeded on PLGA/Gel nanofibers were found to express the typical functional cardiac proteins such as alpha-actinin and troponin I, showing the easy integration of cardiomyocytes on PLGA/Gel scaffolds. Our studies strengthen the application of electrospun PLGA/Gel nanofibers as a bio-mechanical support for injured myocardium and as a potential substrate for induction of endogenous cardiomyocyte proliferation, ultimately reducing the cardiac dysfunction and improving cardiac remodeling.

  1. Jellyfish Patch Detecting Using Low Latitude Remote Sensing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. S.; Jo, Y. H.

    2015-12-01

    Jellyfish can be asexual and sexual reproduction depending on the environment, and it has excellent environmental adaptability and reproduction than other sea creatures. If the marine environment become worse, jellyfish can take advantage in the competition for survival. Marine environmental changes caused by rapid climate change, dyke construction and land reclamation will increase the amount of jellyfish and as a result can lead to a various social and economic problems. In this study, jellyfish were observed in coastal area using a low-altitude Helikite remote sensing system for the first time. Helikite is a type of helium balloon plus a kite that can get the data with optical sensors for the desired spatial resolutions by adjusting the altitudes. In addition, it has an advantage that can monitor any objects for a long time at one place as long as the electric power and helium last. In this study, we observed the jellyfish patches using a digital camera in the Chesapeake Bay and estimate populations and size of jellyfish patches through image processing. Research results suggests that we can have long-term real-time observations for not only jellyfish, but also other harmful marine creatures.

  2. Medical image registration using sparse coding of image patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzali, Maryam; Ghaffari, Aboozar; Fatemizadeh, Emad; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid

    2016-06-01

    Image registration is a basic task in medical image processing applications like group analysis and atlas construction. Similarity measure is a critical ingredient of image registration. Intensity distortion of medical images is not considered in most previous similarity measures. Therefore, in the presence of bias field distortions, they do not generate an acceptable registration. In this paper, we propose a sparse based similarity measure for mono-modal images that considers non-stationary intensity and spatially-varying distortions. The main idea behind this measure is that the aligned image is constructed by an analysis dictionary trained using the image patches. For this purpose, we use "Analysis K-SVD" to train the dictionary and find the sparse coefficients. We utilize image patches to construct the analysis dictionary and then we employ the proposed sparse similarity measure to find a non-rigid transformation using free form deformation (FFD). Experimental results show that the proposed approach is able to robustly register 2D and 3D images in both simulated and real cases. The proposed method outperforms other state-of-the-art similarity measures and decreases the transformation error compared to the previous methods. Even in the presence of bias field distortion, the proposed method aligns images without any preprocessing.

  3. Characterization of Face-Selective Patches in Orbitofrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troiani, Vanessa; Dougherty, Chase C; Michael, Andrew M; Olson, Ingrid R

    2016-01-01

    Face processing involves a complex, multimodal brain network. While visual-perceptual face patches in posterior parts of the brain have been studied for over a decade, the existence and properties of face-selective regions in orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is a relatively new area of research. While regions of OFC are implicated in the emotional processing of faces, this is typically interpreted as a domain-general response to affective value rather than a face- or socially-specific response. However, electrophysiology studies in monkeys have identified neurons in OFC that respond more to faces than any other stimuli. Here, we characterize the prevalence and location of OFC face-selective regions in 20 healthy college students. We did this by including another biologically motivating category (appetizing foods) in a variant of the standard face localizer. Results show that face-selective patches can be identified at the individual level. Furthermore, in both a region of interest (ROI) and a whole brain analysis, medial regions of the OFC were face-selective, while lateral regions were responsive to faces and foods, indicating a domain-general response in lateral OFC. Medial OFC (mOFC) response to faces scales in relationship to a measure of social motivation that is distinct from face processing abilities associated with fusiform cortex.

  4. TRANSDERMAL PATCHES: PHYSIOCHEMICAL AND IN-VITRO EVALUATION METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishabh Bahl

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Various drugs are available these days, which may either require long term administration via multiple doses or may be susceptible to enzymes and first pass-metabolism or all the above. One way to administer such drugs is through the transdermal route. After a transdermal delivery system is designed, it is important to evaluate it for various essential parameters that help us determine how effective it is, i.e. its physiochemical parameters, which describe the physical and some of the chemical properties of the patch and it’s in-vitro parameters, which would mimic how the patch would behave on exposure to real time conditions On the body. This article briefly reviews the ideal characters for choosing this mode of drug delivery, its advantages and provides an in-depth analysis of the techniques used to physio-chemically evaluate the delivery system’s important parameters and also the conditions that help understand the systems behavior in a real time scenario.

  5. Porites white patch syndrome: associated viruses and disease physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, S. A.; Davy, J. E.; Wilson, W. H.; Hoegh-Guldberg, O.; Davy, S. K.

    2015-03-01

    In recent decades, coral reefs worldwide have undergone significant changes in response to various environmental and anthropogenic impacts. Among the numerous causes of reef degradation, coral disease is one factor that is to a large extent still poorly understood. Here, we characterize the physiology of white patch syndrome (WPS), a disease affecting poritid corals on the Great Barrier Reef. WPS manifests as small, generally discrete patches of tissue discolouration. Physiological analysis revealed that chlorophyll a content was significantly lower in lesions than in healthy tissues, while host protein content remained constant, suggesting that host tissue is not affected by WPS. This was confirmed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) examination, which showed intact host tissue within lesions. TEM also revealed that Symbiodinium cells are lost from the host gastrodermis with no apparent harm caused to the surrounding host tissue. Also present in the electron micrographs were numerous virus-like particles (VLPs), in both coral and Symbiodinium cells. Small (<50 nm diameter) icosahedral VLPs were significantly more abundant in coral tissue taken from diseased colonies, and there was an apparent, but not statistically significant, increase in abundance of filamentous VLPs in Symbiodinium cells from diseased colonies. There was no apparent increase in prokaryotic or eukaryotic microbial abundance in diseased colonies. Taken together, these results suggest that viruses infecting the coral and/or its resident Symbiodinium cells may be the causative agents of WPS.

  6. Topical lidocaine patch 5% for acute postoperative pain control.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gilhooly, D

    2011-02-01

    A 39-year-old para 3 woman presented for elective caesarean section (lower segment caesarean section (LSCS)) for breech presentation. The patient had a strong history of atopy and anaphylaxis to paracetamol, codeine, penicillin and latex. The patient was asthmatic, triggered by aspirin. Epidural anaesthesia was unsuccessful and LSCS was carried out under spinal anaesthesia. Postoperatively the patient was unwilling to take analgesic medication due to fear of an allergic reaction. Three 5% lidocaine patches were applied to the wound for postoperative analgesia. This reduced the patient\\'s visual analogue scale pain score from 10\\/10 to 5\\/10 at rest and 10\\/10 to 7\\/10 with movement. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation was added and this improved associated back pain, reducing the pain further to 2\\/10. This is the first description of lignocaine patch 5% for postoperative LSCS pain. It is suggested that this method of delivery of local anaesthetic, which is easy to apply and has minimal side effects, should be considered not as a sole agent but as part of a multimodal technique to address postoperative LSCS pain.

  7. Online object tracking via bag-of-local-patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhihui; Bo, Chunjuan; Wang, Dong

    2017-01-01

    As one of the most important tasks in computer vision, online object tracking plays a critical role in numerous lines of research, which has drawn a lot of researchers' attention and be of many realistic applications. This paper develops a novel tracking algorithm based on the bag-of-local-patches representation with the discriminative learning scheme. In the first frame, a codebook is learned by applying the Kmeans algorithm to a set of densely sampled local patches of the tracked object, and then used to represent the template and candidate samples. During the tracking process, the similarities between the coding coefficients of the candidates and template are chosen as the likelihood values of these candidates. In addition, we propose effective model updating and discriminative learning schemes to capture the appearance change of the tracked object and incorporate the discriminative information to achieve a robust matching. Both qualitative and quantitative evaluations on some challenging image sequences demonstrate that the proposed tracker performs better than other state-of-the-art tracking methods.

  8. Detection and plant monitoring programs: lessons from an intensive survey of Asclepias meadii with five observers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Helen M; Reed, Aaron W; Kettle, W Dean; Slade, Norman A; Bodbyl Roels, Sarah A; Collins, Cathy D; Salisbury, Vaughn

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring programs, where numbers of individuals are followed through time, are central to conservation. Although incomplete detection is expected with wildlife surveys, this topic is rarely considered with plants. However, if plants are missed in surveys, raw count data can lead to biased estimates of population abundance and vital rates. To illustrate, we had five independent observers survey patches of the rare plant Asclepias meadii at two prairie sites. We analyzed data with two mark-recapture approaches. Using the program CAPTURE, the estimated number of patches equaled the detected number for a burned site, but exceeded detected numbers by 28% for an unburned site. Analyses of detected patches using Huggins models revealed important effects of observer, patch state (flowering/nonflowering), and patch size (number of stems) on probabilities of detection. Although some results were expected (i.e. greater detection of flowering than nonflowering patches), the importance of our approach is the ability to quantify the magnitude of detection problems. We also evaluated the degree to which increased observer numbers improved detection: smaller groups (3-4 observers) generally found 90 - 99% of the patches found by all five people, but pairs of observers or single observers had high error and detection depended on which individuals were involved. We conclude that an intensive study at the start of a long-term monitoring study provides essential information about probabilities of detection and what factors cause plants to be missed. This information can guide development of monitoring programs.

  9. Foraging Behavior in Golden Hamsters (Mesocricetus Auratus: Effect of the Distance among Multiple Patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Cabrera

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of travel and the efficiency in foraging behavior was evaluated in four hamsters searching for food within an enclosure with multiple patches. Two different distances among patches were randomly arranged: Near-Patches (10 cm separation and Distant-Patches (21.5 cm separation. Subjects obtained the food by mounting over the cylinders (stations placed in the enclosure of 110 cm2. Results showed that in both, Near and Distant conditions, the distance between responses was longer in late stages of the trials then in early stages. Nonetheless, the most choices to adjacent stations were in Distant-Patches condition, while skips and diagonal-station choices were more frequently showed in the Near-Patches condition.

  10. Anatomical Connections of the Functionally Defined "Face Patches" in the Macaque Monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Piercesare; Saleem, Kadharbatcha S; Tsao, Doris

    2016-06-15

    The neural circuits underlying face recognition provide a model for understanding visual object representation, social cognition, and hierarchical information processing. A fundamental piece of information lacking to date is the detailed anatomical connections of the face patches. Here, we injected retrograde tracers into four different face patches (PL, ML, AL, AM) to characterize their anatomical connectivity. We found that the patches are strongly and specifically connected to each other, and individual patches receive inputs from extrastriate cortex, the medial temporal lobe, and three subcortical structures (the pulvinar, claustrum, and amygdala). Inputs from prefrontal cortex were surprisingly weak. Patches were densely interconnected to one another in both feedforward and feedback directions, inconsistent with a serial hierarchy. These results provide the first direct anatomical evidence that the face patches constitute a highly specialized system and suggest that subcortical regions may play a vital role in routing face-related information to subsequent processing stages.

  11. Combined Approach of Patch-Surfer and PL-PatchSurfer for Protein-Ligand Binding Prediction in CSAR 2013 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaolei; Shin, Woong-Hee; Kim, Hyungrae; Kihara, Daisuke

    2016-06-27

    The Community Structure-Activity Resource (CSAR) benchmark exercise provides a unique opportunity for researchers to objectively evaluate the performance of protein-ligand docking methods. Patch-Surfer and PL-PatchSurfer, molecular surface-based methods for predicting binding ligands of proteins developed in our group, were tested on both CSAR 2013 and 2014 benchmark exercises in combination with an empirical scoring function-based method, AutoDock, while we only participated in CSAR 2013 using Patch-Surfer. The prediction results for Phase 1 task in CSAR 2013 showed that Patch-Surfer was able to rank all the four designed binding proteins within top ranks, outperforming AutoDock Vina. In Phase 2 of 2013, PL-PatchSurfer correctly selected the correct ligand pose for two target proteins. PL-PatchSurfer performed reasonably well in ranking ligands according to their binding affinity and in selecting near-native ligand poses in 2013 Phase 3 and 2014 Phase 1, respectively, although AutoDock Vina showed better performance. Lastly, in the 2014 Phase 2 exercise, the PL-PatchSurfer scores computed for ligands to target protein pairs correlated well with their pIC50 values, which was better or comparable to results by other participants. Overall, our methods showed fairly good performance in CSAR 2013 and 2014. Unique characteristics of the methods are discussed in comparison with AutoDock.

  12. Allergic contact dermatitis to benzocaine: the importance of concomitant positive patch test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rodríguez, A J; Gutiérrez-Paredes, E M; Revert Fernández, Á; Jordá-Cuevas, E

    2013-03-01

    Local anesthetics are widely used in clinical practice, and adverse effects are not uncommon. Delayed hypersensitivity reactions are among the most common effects, but immediate-type reactions may also occur. Patch testing should be considered in patients with hypersensitivity reactions. We present a case of allergic contact dermatitis to benzocaine that was detected incidentally by patch testing and highlight the importance of correctly interpreting patch test results when there are concomitant positive reactions.

  13. Is there an association between Helicobacter pylori in the inlet patch and globus sensation?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hakan; Alagozlu; Zahide; Simsek; Selahattin; Unal; Mehmet; Cindoruk; Sukru; Dumlu; Ayse; Dursun

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To determine the association between Helicobacter pylori(H.pylori)and globus sensation(GS)in the patients with cervical inlet patch. METHODS:Sixty-eight patients with esophageal inlet patches were identified from 6760 consecutive patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy prospectively.In these 68 patients with cervical inlet patches, symptoms of globus sensation(lump in the throat), hoarseness,sore throat,frequent clearing of the throat,cough,dysphagia,odynophagia of at least 3 mo duration wa...

  14. Patch test function for axisymmetric element of conventional and couple stress theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The enhanced patch test proposed by Chen W J(2006) can be used to assess the convergence of the problem with non-homogeneous differential equations.Based on this theory,we establish the patch test function for axisymmetric elements of conventional and couple stress theories,and reach an important conclusion that the patch test function for axisymmetric elements cannot contain non-zero constant shear.

  15. Patch test function for axisymmetric element of conventional and couple stress theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN WanJi; ZHAO Jie; WANG JinZhi; JI Bian

    2009-01-01

    The enhanced patch test proposed by Chen W J (2006) can be used to assess the convergence of the problem with non-homogeneous differential equations. Based on this theory, we establish the patch test function for axisyrnrnetric elements of conventional and couple stress theories, and reach an im-portant conclusion that the patch test function for axisymrnetric elements cannot contain non-zero constant shear.

  16. High Gain Patch Antenna for 2.4GHz using Metamaterial Superstrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kyu-Chang; LEE; Seung-In; YANG

    2010-01-01

    <正>A patch antenna and our proposed metamaterial patch antenna are simulated and compared. A high gain patch antenna using a single layer metamaterial superstrate with a near to zero refractive index(n)is proposed.The simulation results provide that the gain of the proposed antenna is increased by about 7dB. Consequently,the high gain antenna can be easily obtained by using our metamaterial superstrate.

  17. Suppression of hair follicle development inhibits induction of sonic hedgehog, patched, and patched-2 in hair germs in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamago, G; Takata, Y; Furuta, I; Urase, K; Momoi, T; Huh, N

    2001-09-01

    Embryonic induction of hair follicles is a fascinating model of localized morphogenesis from a simple homogeneous epithelial cell sheet. Accumulating evidence indicates that Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling plays a central role in hair follicle formation. We quantitated the expression levels of Shh and its receptor genes, Patched (Ptc) and Patched-2 (Ptch2), in two distinct experimental systems in which the development of hair follicles was suppressed. Shh, Ptc, and Ptch2 were induced about six- to tenfold in normal embryonic hair germs in vivo as well as in developing skin tissue maintained in organ culture. This induction was almost completely inhibited both in the developing skin tissue of ICR mice cultured with 30ng/ml epidermal growth factor and in embryos of Tabby mutant mice (a model of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia) at 14.5-15.5 days postcoitus. Expression of Shh, Ptc and Ptch2 was induced in the Tabby embryos at 16.5 days postcoitus, indicating that Shh signaling may be involved in the formation not only of the well-studied guard hair but also of the awl hair. The potential of the two biological systems for studying molecular mechanisms in hair follicle formation, particularly at an early phase including Shh signaling, is discussed.

  18. Performance Analysis of Corporate Feed Rectangular Patch Element and Circular Patch Element 4x2 Microstrip Array Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Tanvir Ishtaique-ul Huque

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper present simple, slim, low cost and high gain circular patch and rectangular patch microstrip array antenna, with the details steps of design process, operate in X-band(8 GHz to 12 GHz and it provides a mean to choose the effective one based on the performance analysis of both of these array antennas. The method of analysis, design and development of these array antennas are explained completely here and analyses are carried out for 4x2 arrays. The simulation has been performed by using commercially available antenna simulator, SONNET version V12.56, to compute the current distribution, return loss response and radiation pattern. The proposed antennas are designed by using Taconic TLY-5 dielectric substrate with permittivity, er = 2.2 and height, h =1.588 mm. In all cases we get return losses in the range -4.96 dB to -25.21 dB at frequencies around 10 GHz. The gain of these antennas as simulated are found above 6 dB and side lobe label is maintained lower than main lobe. Operating frequency of these antennas is 10 GHz so these antennas are suitable for X-band application.

  19. Mechanical Development of a Very Non-Standard Patch Array Antenna for Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Richard; Chamberlain, Neil; Jakoboski, Julie; Petkov, Mihail

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the mechanical development of patch antenna arrays for the Juno mission. The patch arrays are part of a six-frequency microwave radiometer instrument that will be used to measure thermal emissions from Jupiter. The very harsh environmental conditions in Jupiter orbit, as well as a demanding launch environment, resulted in a design that departs radically from conventional printed circuit patch antennas. The paper discusses the development and qualification of the Juno patch array antennas, with emphasis on the materials approach that was devised to mitigate the effects of electron charging in Jupiter orbit.

  20. A large-scale deforestation experiment: effects of patch area and isolation on Amazon birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Gonçalo; Nichols, James D; Hines, James E; Stouffer, Philip C; Bierregaard, Richard O; Lovejoy, Thomas E

    2007-01-12

    As compared with extensive contiguous areas, small isolated habitat patches lack many species. Some species disappear after isolation; others are rarely found in any small patch, regardless of isolation. We used a 13-year data set of bird captures from a large landscape-manipulation experiment in a Brazilian Amazon forest to model the extinction-colonization dynamics of 55 species and tested basic predictions of island biogeography and metapopulation theory. From our models, we derived two metrics of species vulnerability to changes in isolation and patch area. We found a strong effect of area and a variable effect of isolation on the predicted patch occupancy by birds.

  1. Reconfigurable Wideband Circularly Polarized Stacked Square Patch Antenna for Cognitive Radios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa Kortright, Miguel A.; Waldstein, Seth W.; Simons, Rainee N.

    2017-01-01

    An almost square patch, a square patch and a stacked square patch with corner truncation for circular polarization (CP) are researched and developed at X-band for cognitive radios. Experimental results indicate, first, that the impedance bandwidth of a CP almost square patch fed from the edge by a 50 ohm line is 1.70% and second, that of a CP square patch fed from the ground plane side by a surface launch connector is 1.87%. Third, the impedance bandwidth of a CP stacked square patch fed by a surface launch connector is 2.22%. The measured center frequency for the CP square patch fed by a surface launch connector without and with an identical stacked patch is 8.45 and 8.1017 GHz, respectively. By stacking a patch, separated by a fixed air gap of 0.254 mm, the center frequency is observed to shift by as much as 348.3 MHz. The shift in center frequency, brought about by the reconfiguring of the physical layer antenna, can be exploited in a cognitive system since it expands the usable frequency spectrum for software reconfiguration in the presence of interference. In addition, varying the fixed air gap in the stacked antenna geometry by increments of 0.254 mm further expands the usable frequency spectrum.

  2. Effect of components (polymer, plasticizer and solvent as a variable in fabrication of diclofenac transdermal patch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetna Modi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transdermal drug delivery influence consumer acceptance and marked increase in bioavailability of some drugs which undergoes hepatic first-pass metabolism. Fabrication of transdermal patch requires lots of attention regarding the amount of components used for it. Because of varied nature of polymer and plasticizer, transdermal patches have different properties and different drug release. This study is on the basis to evaluate the amount to be needed for fabrication of diclofenac transdermal patch. Study shows that Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose has great influence on transdermal patch, if it is used alone in combination with glycerin or PEG-4000 plasticizer.

  3. Effect of components (polymer, plasticizer and solvent) as a variable in fabrication of diclofenac transdermal patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Chetna

    2012-03-01

    Transdermal drug delivery influence consumer acceptance and marked increase in bioavailability of some drugs which undergoes hepatic first-pass metabolism. Fabrication of transdermal patch requires lots of attention regarding the amount of components used for it. Because of varied nature of polymer and plasticizer, transdermal patches have different properties and different drug release. This study is on the basis to evaluate the amount to be needed for fabrication of diclofenac transdermal patch. Study shows that Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose has great influence on transdermal patch, if it is used alone in combination with glycerin or PEG-4000 plasticizer.

  4. Correlation of open cell-attached and excised patch clamp techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipovic, D; Hayslett, J P

    1995-11-01

    The excised patch clamp configuration provides a unique technique for some types of single channel analyses, but maintenance of stable, long-lasting preparations may be confounded by rundown and/or rapid loss of seal. Studies were performed on the amiloride-sensitive Na+ channel, located on the apical surface of A6 cells, to determine whether the nystatin-induced open cell-attached patch could serve as an alternative configuration. Compared to excised inside-out patches, stable preparations were achieved more readily with the open cell-attached patch (9% vs. 56% of attempts). In both preparations, the current voltage (I-V) relation was linear, current amplitudes were equal at opposite equivalent clamped voltages, and Erev was zero in symmetrical Na+ solutions, indicating similar Na+ activities on the cytosolic and external surfaces of the patch. Moreover, there was no evidence that nystatin altered channel activity in the patch because slope conductance (3-4pS) and Erev (75 mV), when the bath was perfused with a high K:low Na solution (ENa = 80 mV), were nearly equal in both patch configurations. Our results therefore indicate that the nystatin-induced open cell-attached patch can serve as an alternative approach to the excised inside-out patch when experiments require modulation of univalent ions in the cytosol.

  5. A large-scale deforestation experiment: Effects of patch area and isolation on Amazon birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, G.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Stouffer, P.C.; Bierregaard, R.O.; Lovejoy, T.E.

    2007-01-01

    As compared with extensive contiguous areas, small isolated habitat patches lack many species. Some species disappear after isolation; others are rarely found in any small patch, regardless of isolation. We used a 13-year data set of bird captures from a large landscape-manipulation experiment in a Brazilian Amazon forest to model the extinction-colonization dynamics of 55 species and tested basic predictions of island biogeography and metapopulation theory. From our models, we derived two metrics of species vulnerability to changes in isolation and patch area. We found a strong effect of area and a variable effect of isolation on the predicted patch occupancy by birds.

  6. Pericardial patch angioplasty heals via an Ephrin-B2 and CD34 positive cell mediated mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Pericardial patches are commonly used in vascular surgery to close arteriotomies. The mechanism of early healing after patch implantation is still not well defined. We used a rat aortic patch model to assess pericardial patch healing and examined Ephrin-B2, a marker of arterial identity, expression within the post-implantation patch. We also determined whether endothelial progenitor cells (EPC are associated with early patch healing in the arterial environment. METHODS: Wistar rats (200-250 grams underwent infrarenal aortic arteriotomy and then closure via bovine or porcine pericardial patch angioplasty. Control groups included subcutaneously implanted patches. Patches were harvested at 0-30 days and analyzed by histology, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and Western blot as well as quantitative PCR. RESULTS: Prior to implantation, pericardial patches are largely composed of collagen and are acellular. Following arterial implantation, increasing numbers of CD68-positive cells as well as Ephrin-B2 and CD34 dual-positive cells are found within both bovine and porcine pericardial patches, whereas the infiltrating cells are negative for vWF and α-actin. Porcine patches have a luminal monolayer of cells at day 7, compared to bovine patches that have fewer luminal cells. Subcutaneously implanted patches do not attract Ephrin-B2/CD34-positive cells. By day 30, both bovine and porcine pericardial patches develop a neointima that contains Ephrin-B2, CD34, and VEGFR2-positive cells. CONCLUSION: Both CD68-positive and Ephrin-B2 and CD34 dual-positive cells infiltrate the pericardial patch early after implantation. Arteriotomy closure via pericardial patch angioplasty shows patch adaptation to the arterial environment that may involve a foreign body response as well as localization of EPC. Arterial remodeling of pericardial patches support endothelialization and may represent a paradigm of healing of scaffolds used for tissue engineering.

  7. A Simple Method for Measuring Tensile Force with Piezoelectric Patch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-Wen; JIANG Zhong-Wei; Testuya Morisaki

    2007-01-01

    @@ We propose a simple method for monitoring the axial tensile and compressive force in a structure by using a piezoelectric patch with the piezoelectric impedance based measurement. A simple approximate equation for estimating the tensile force in two different conditions, which can be calculated easily if the natural frequencies in two different states are measured, is explained in detail. On another front, the natural frequency can be very easily measured by a piezoelectric element by bonding it on the measuring subject structure, because its electric impedance of piezoelement is related to the structural mechanical impedance. Furthermore, an experiment for measuring a tensile force in a simple supported beam is carried out for validating the proposed method. The results show a good accuracy in estimating the tensile force variation by the natural frequency change measured from the piezoelement.

  8. Transient bladder and fecal incontinence following epidural blood patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomero-Rodríguez, Miguel Angel; Palacio-Abinzada, Francisco J.; Campollo, Sara Chacón; Laporta-Báez, Yolanda; Mendez Cendón, Jose Carlos; López-García, Andres

    2015-01-01

    Epidural blood patch (EBP) is the currently accepted treatment of choice for postdural puncture headache because of its high initial success rates and infrequent complications. Many authors recommended a small volume (10-20 mL) of blood to be delivered for an effective EBP. Here, we report an obstetric patient who developed a transient bladder and fecal incontinence after 19 mL of blood EBP at L1 -L2 level. Since the magnetic resonance image did not demonstrate any definitive spinal cord lesion, the exact mechanism remains unclear. We suggest that accumulation of blood performed at L1 to L2 level in a closed relationship with the sacral cord, may have trigger a significant pressure elevation of the epidural space at this level, resulting in a temporal spinal cord-related injury in the sacral cord. PMID:26543470

  9. Active AU Based Patch Weighting for Facial Expression Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Weicheng; Shen, Linlin; Yang, Meng; Lai, Zhihui

    2017-01-01

    Facial expression has many applications in human-computer interaction. Although feature extraction and selection have been well studied, the specificity of each expression variation is not fully explored in state-of-the-art works. In this work, the problem of multiclass expression recognition is converted into triplet-wise expression recognition. For each expression triplet, a new feature optimization model based on action unit (AU) weighting and patch weight optimization is proposed to represent the specificity of the expression triplet. The sparse representation-based approach is then proposed to detect the active AUs of the testing sample for better generalization. The algorithm achieved competitive accuracies of 89.67% and 94.09% for the Jaffe and Cohn–Kanade (CK+) databases, respectively. Better cross-database performance has also been observed. PMID:28146094

  10. A Patch-based Sparse Representation for Sketch Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qi, Yonggong; Zhang, Honggang; Song, Yi-Zhe

    2014-01-01

    , such as Symmetric-aware Flip Invariant Sketch Histogram (SYM-FISH). We present a novel patch-based sparse representation (PSR) for describing sketch image and it is evaluated under a sketch recognition framework. Extensive experiments on a large scale human drawn sketch dataset demonstrate the effectiveness......Categorizing free-hand human sketches has profound implications in applications such as human computer interaction and image retrieval. The task is non-trivial due to the iconic nature of sketches, signified by large variances in both appearance and structure when compared with photographs. One...... of the most fundamental problem is how to effectively describe a sketch image. Many existing descriptors, such as Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG) and Shape Context (SC), have achieved great success. Moreover, some works have attempted to design features specifically engineered for sketches...

  11. Development of Acne therapeutic hydrogel patches by radiation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Younmook; Nho, Youngchang; Gwon, Huijeong; Park, Jongseok; Kim, Jinkyu; Kim, Yongsoo

    2012-04-15

    In this project, hydrogel patches containing herbal extracts mixture were developed by radiation technology for acne treatment. Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), one of the anaerobic bacterium, is the cause of inflammatory acne. To find novel mediation for inflammation of P. acnes, we confirmed the anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of several herbal extracts against P. acnes. The water extracts from five dried herbs, Phellodendron amurense Rupr., Paeonia lactiflora Pallas., Houttuynia cordata Thumb., Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., were mixed into biocompatible polymers and irradiated by using gamma-ray to prepare hydrogels. The hydrogels containing herbal extracts mixture initiated to decrease the growth of P. acnes and reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-{alpha}, IL-8, IL-1{beta} and IL-6, in experiment with human monocytic THP-1 cells treated with heat-killed P. acnes at 1 mg/ml of mixture concentration.

  12. Patch antenna microcavity terahertz sources with enhanced emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madéo, J.; Todorov, Y.; Gilman, A.; Frucci, G.; Li, L. H.; Davies, A. G.; Linfield, E. H.; Sirtori, C.; Dani, K. M.

    2016-10-01

    We study the emission properties of an electroluminescent THz frequency quantum cascade structure embedded in an array of patch antenna double-metal microcavities. We show that high photon extraction efficiencies can be obtained by adjusting the active region thickness and array periodicity as well as high Purcell factors (up to 65), leading to an enhanced overall emitted power. Up to a 44-fold increase in power is experimentally observed in comparison with a reference device processed in conventional mesa geometry. Estimation of the Purcell factors using electromagnetic simulations and the theoretical extraction efficiency are in agreement with the observed power enhancement and show that, in these microcavities, the overall enhancement solely depends on the square of the total quality factor.

  13. Identification of material properties of sandwich structure with piezoelectric patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemčík R.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The work focuses on light-weight sandwich structures made of carbon-epoxy skins and foam core which have unique bending stiffness compared to conventional materials. The skins are manufactured by vacuum autoclave technology from unidirectional prepregs and the sandwich is then glued together. The resulting material properties of the structure usually differ from those provided by manufacturer or even those obtained from experimental tests on separate materials, which makes computational models unreliable. Therefore, the properties are identified using the combination of experimental analysis of the sandwich with attached piezoelectric transducer and corresponding static and modal finite element analyses. Simple mathematical optimization with repetitive finite element solution is used. The model is then verified by transient analysis when the piezoelectric patch is excited by harmonic signals covering the first two eigen-frequencies and the induced oscillations are measured by laser sensor.

  14. Patch nearfield acoustic holography based on the equivalent source method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of nearfield acoustic holography (NAH) based on the equivalent source method (ESM), patch NAH based on the ESM is proposed. The method overcomes the shortcoming in the conventional NAH that the hologram surface should be larger than the source surface. It need not to discretize the whole source and its measurement need not to cover the whole source. The measurement may be performed over the region of interest, and the reconstruction can be done in the region directly. The method is flexible in applications, stable in computation, and very easy to implement. It has good potential applications in engineering. The nu- merical simulations show the invalidity of the conventional NAH based on the ESM and prove the validities of the proposed method for reconstructing a partial source and the regularization for reducing the error effect of the pressure measured on the hologram surface.

  15. No patch technique for complete atrioventricular canal repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramendi, José Ignacio; Rodriguez, Miguel Angel; Luis, Teresa; Voces, Roberto

    2006-08-01

    We describe our initial experience with a new technique, consisting in direct closure of the ventricular septal defect component of the AV canal, by directly attaching the common bridging leaflets to the crest of the ventricular septum with interrupted sutures. After closure of the cleft, the ostium primum defect was closed with a running suture suturing the border of the septum primum to the newly created AV valve annulus. Three patients were operated upon. There was no mortality. Mean ischemic time was 39 min and mean pump time 77 min. All patients remained in sinus rhythm. At follow-up only trivial or mild mitral regurgitation was observed. This new technique permits the repair of complete AV canal without the need for any patch. It is fast, simple and reproducible.

  16. Active AU Based Patch Weighting for Facial Expression Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weicheng Xie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Facial expression has many applications in human-computer interaction. Although feature extraction and selection have been well studied, the specificity of each expression variation is not fully explored in state-of-the-art works. In this work, the problem of multiclass expression recognition is converted into triplet-wise expression recognition. For each expression triplet, a new feature optimization model based on action unit (AU weighting and patch weight optimization is proposed to represent the specificity of the expression triplet. The sparse representation-based approach is then proposed to detect the active AUs of the testing sample for better generalization. The algorithm achieved competitive accuracies of 89.67% and 94.09% for the Jaffe and Cohn–Kanade (CK+ databases, respectively. Better cross-database performance has also been observed.

  17. Polar Dunes In Summer Exhibit Frost Patches, Wind Streaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Mars Global Surveyor passes over the north polar region of the red planet twelve times each day, offering many opportunities to observe how the polar cap frosts and dunes are changing as the days goby. Right now it is summer in the north. This picture, taken the second week of April 1999, shows darks and dunes and remnant patches of bright frost left over from the winter that ended in July 1998. Dark streaks indicate recent movement of sand. The picture covers an area only 1.4 kilometers (0.9 miles)across and is illuminated from the upper right. Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  18. Low dielectric polyimide aerogels as substrates for lightweight patch antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Mary Ann B; Wright, Sarah; Sandberg, Anna; Nguyen, Baochau N; Van Keuls, Frederick W; Mueller, Carl H; Rodríguez-Solís, Rafael; Miranda, Félix A

    2012-11-01

    The dielectric properties and loss tangents of low-density polyimide aerogels have been characterized at various frequencies. Relative dielectric constants as low as 1.16 were measured for polyimide aerogels made from 2,2'-dimethylbenzidine (DMBZ) and biphenyl 3,3',4,4'-tetracarbozylic dianhydride (BPDA) cross-linked with 1,3,5-triaminophenoxybenzene (TAB). This formulation was used as the substrate to fabricate and test prototype microstrip patch antennas and benchmark against state of practice commercial antenna substrates. The polyimide aerogel antennas exhibited broader bandwidth, higher gain, and lower mass than the antennas made using commercial substrates. These are very encouraging results, which support the potential advantages of the polyimide aerogel-based antennas for aerospace applications.

  19. Series expansions for the mutual coupling in microstrip patch arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, David R.; Richards, William F.; Ali-Khan, Ajaz

    1989-03-01

    A dominant-mode mutual coupling theory is developed for an array of microstrip patches. One of the key features of the formulation is that only values for isolated self- and mutual impedance are needed in the formulation, making the method suitable for either a cavity model or spectral-domain analysis, or compatible with experimental measurements. The formulation is equivalent with Pozar's (1982) moment-method formulation. A series expansion of the solution is derived, allowing for approximate formulas accurate to any specified order. These formulas do not require matrix inversion. Formulas up to third order require less computation time than the exact solution, for single elements of the impedance, admittance, and scattering matrices. These expansions are computationally efficient for large sparse arrays.

  20. TRANSDERMAL PATCHES: A SYNERGISTIC APPROACH OF DRUG DELIVERY FOR NSAIDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragya* and V. Rastogi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Transdermal drug delivery system has been accepted as potential non-invasive route of drug administration, with advantages of prolonged therapeutic effect, reduced side effects, improved bioavailability, better patient compliance and easy termination of drug therapy. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs represents the most commonly used medications for the treatment of pain and inflammation, but numerous well-described side effects can limit their use. Therefore transdermal delivery of NSAIDs has advantages of avoiding hepatic first pass effect, gastric irritation and delivering the drug for extended period of time at a sustained level. The present article gives the brief view on the work been done on various NSAIDs by formulated and delivered as transdermal patches to decrease the side effects associated with the oral delivery. The various NSAIDs included in this article include Ketoprofen, Ibuprofen, Naproxen, Fluribrofen, Diclofenac, Aceclofenac, Ketorolac, Indomethacin, Meloxicam, Nimesulide, Celecoxib, Etoricoxib.

  1. Electrocardiographic Patch Devices and Contemporary Wireless Cardiac Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik eFung

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac electrophysiologic derangements often coexist with disorders of the circulatory system. Capturing and diagnosing arrhythmias and conduction system disease may lead to a change in diagnosis, clinical management and patient outcomes. Standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG, Holter monitors and event recorders have served as useful diagnostic tools over the last few decades. However, their shortcomings are only recently being addressed by emerging technologies. With advances in device miniaturization and wireless technologies, and changing consumer expectations, wearable ‘on-body’ ECG patch devices have evolved to meet contemporary needs. These devices are unobtrusive and easy to use, leading to increased device wear time and diagnostic yield. While becoming the standard for detecting arrhythmias and conduction system disorders in the outpatient setting where continuous ECG monitoring in the short to medium term (days to weeks is indicated, these cardiac devices and related digital mobile health technologies are reshaping the clinician-patient interface with important implications for future healthcare delivery.

  2. Progress in patch repair of aerospace composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Weiguo; Zhang, Weifang; Tang, Qingyun

    2012-04-01

    With the rapid application of the composite structure in the aerospace industry, more load-bearing structures and components are used with composites instead of conventional engineering materials. However, the composite structures are inevitably suffered damages in the complex environment, the composites structures repair become more important in the airplane maintenance. This paper describes the composites patch repair progress. Firstly, the flaws and damages concerned to composite structures are concluded, and also the repair principles are presented. Secondly, the advantages and disadvantages for different repair methods are analyzed, as well as the different bonded repair and their applicability to different structures is discussed. According the recent research in theory and experiment, the scarf repair effects under different parameters are analyzed. Finally, the failure mechanisms of repair structure are discussed, and some prospects are put forward.

  3. Synthesizing MR contrast and resolution through a patch matching technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Snehashis; Carass, Aaron; Prince, Jerry L.

    2010-03-01

    Tissue contrast and resolution of magnetic resonance neuroimaging data have strong impacts on the utility of the data in clinical and neuroscience tasks such as registration and segmentation. Lengthy acquisition times typically prevent routine acquisition of multiple MR tissue contrast images at high resolution, and the opportunity for detailed analysis using these data would seem to be irrevocably lost. This paper describes an example based approach using patch matching from a multiple resolution multiple contrast atlas in order to change an image's resolution as well as its MR tissue contrast from one pulse-sequence to that of another. The use of this approach to generate different tissue contrasts (T2/PD/FLAIR) from a single T1-weighted image is demonstrated on both phantom and real images.

  4. Lecture 11: Systemtap : Patching the linux kernel on the fly

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    The presentation will describe the usage of Systemtap, in CERN Scientific Linux environment. Systemtap is a tool that allows developers and administrators to write and reuse simple scripts to deeply examine the activities of a live Linux system. We will go through the life cycle of a system tap module : creation, packaging, deployment. It will focus on how we used it recently at CERN as a workaround to patch a 0-day. Thomas Oulevey is a member if the IT department at CERN where he is an active member of the Linux team which supports 9’000 servers, 3’000 desktop systems and more than 5’000 active users. Before CERN he worked at the former astrophysics department of CERN, now called the European Southern Observatory, based in Chile. He was used to maintain the core telescope Linux systems and monitoring infrastructure.

  5. Peyer's patch innate lymphoid cells regulate commensal bacteria expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Masaaki; Kashiwakura, Yuji; Kojima, Hidefumi; Kobayashi, Ayano; Kanno, Yumiko; Kobata, Tetsuji

    2015-05-01

    Anatomical containment of commensal bacteria in the intestinal mucosa is promoted by innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). However, the mechanism by which ILCs regulate bacterial localization to specific regions remains unknown. Here we show that Peyer's patch (PP) ILCs robustly produce IL-22 and IFN-γ in the absence of exogenous stimuli. Antibiotic treatment of mice decreased both IL-22+ and IFN-γ+ cells in PPs. Blockade of both IL-2 and IL-23 signaling in vitro lowered IL-22 and IFN-γ production. PP ILCs induced mRNA expression of the antibacterial proteins RegIIIβ and RegIIIγ in intestinal epithelial cells. Furthermore, in vivo depletion of ILCs rather than T cells altered bacterial composition and allowed bacterial proliferation in PPs. Collectively, our results show that ILCs regulate the expansion of commensal bacteria in PPs.

  6. Study of LCP based flexible patch antenna array

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan A.

    2012-07-01

    Wrapping of a two element LCP based patch antenna array is studied in this work. For the first time, the designed array is bent in both E and H planes to observe the effect on the radiation and impedance performance of the antenna. The 38 GHz simulation results reveal better performance for H plane bending as compared to E plane bending. A 100 um thick substrate is used for the design which is best suited for flexible antenna applications. Gain variations of 1.1 dB and 1.4 dB are observed for the two orientations while a significantly increased impedance bandwidth of 3 % is obtained with H plane wrapping. The design is highly suitable for broadband micro-cellular backhaul applications. © 2012 IEEE.

  7. Patch nearfield acoustic holography based on the equivalent source method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of nearfield acoustic holography (NAH) based on the equivalent source method (ESM), patch NAH based on the ESM is proposed. The method overcomes the shortcoming in the conventional NAH that the hologram surface should be larger than the source surface. It need not to discretize the whole source and its measurement need not to cover the whole source. The measurement may be performed over the region of interest, and the reconstruction can be done in the region directly. The method is flexible in applications, stable in computation, and very easy to implement. It has good potential applications in engineering. The numerical simulations show the invalidity of the conventional NAH based on the ESM and prove the validities of the proposed method for reconstructing a partial source and the regularization for reducing the error effect of the pressure measured on the hologram surface.

  8. Changes in size of deforested patches in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Isabel M D; Souza, Carlos; Ewers, Robert M

    2012-10-01

    Different deforestation agents, such as small farmers and large agricultural businesses, create different spatial patterns of deforestation. We analyzed the proportion of deforestation associated with different-sized clearings in the Brazilian Amazon from 2002 through 2009. We used annual deforestation maps to determine total area deforested and the size distribution of deforested patches per year. The size distribution of deforested areas changed over time in a consistent, directional manner. Large clearings (>1000 ha) comprised progressively smaller amounts of total annual deforestation. The number of smaller clearings (6.25-50.00 ha) remained unchanged over time. Small clearings accounted for 73% of all deforestation in 2009, up from 30% in 2002, whereas the proportion of deforestation attributable to large clearings decreased from 13% to 3% between 2002 and 2009. Large clearings were concentrated in Mato Grosso, but also occurred in eastern Pará and in Rondônia. In 2002 large clearings accounted for 17%, 15%, and 10% of all deforestation in Mato Grosso, Pará, and Rondônia, respectively. Even in these states, where there is a highly developed agricultural business dominated by soybean production and cattle ranching, the proportional contribution of large clearings to total deforestation declined. By 2009 large clearings accounted for 2.5%, 3.5%, and 1% of all deforestation in Mato Grosso, Pará, and Rondônia, respectively. These changes in deforestation patch size are coincident with the implementation of new conservation policies by the Brazilian government, which suggests that these policies are not effectively reducing the number of small clearings in primary forest, whether these are caused by large landholders or smallholders, but have been more effective at reducing the frequency of larger clearings. ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials of Patch Angioplasty Versus Primary Closure and Different Types of Patch Materials During Carotid Endarterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittipan Rerkasem

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: Meta-analysis of relatively small RCTs suggests that carotid patch angioplasty reduces the combined perioperative and long-term risk of stroke and the risk of restenosis. More data are needed.

  10. Single dose pharmacokinetics of the novel transdermal donepezil patch in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim YH

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Yo Han Kim,1 Hee Youn Choi,1 Hyeong-Seok Lim,1 Shi Hyang Lee,1 Hae Sun Jeon,1 Donghyun Hong,2 Seong Su Kim,2 Young Kweon Choi,2 Kyun-Seop Bae1 1Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2iCure Pharmaceutical lncorporated, Anseong, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea Background: Donepezil is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor indicated for Alzheimer’s disease. The aim of this randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dose, dose-escalation study was to investigate the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of the donepezil patch in healthy male subjects. Methods: Each healthy male subject received a single transdermal donepezil patch (72 hours patch-on periods of 43.75 mg/12.5 cm2, 87.5 mg/25 cm2, or 175 mg/50 cm2. Serial blood samples were collected up to 312 hours after patch application. The plasma concentrations of donepezil were determined by using a validated liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method. Pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained by noncompartmental analysis. Tolerability of the patches and performance of the patches (adhesion, skin irritation, residual donepezil content in the patch were assessed throughout the study. Results: The study was completed by 36 healthy subjects. After patch application, the maximal plasma donepezil concentration (Cmax and the area under the curve (AUC increased in a dose-proportional manner. Median time to Cmax was ~74–76 hours (~2–4 hours after patch removal, and mean t1/2ß was ~63.77–93.07 hours. The average donepezil residue in the patch after 72 hours was ~73.9%–86.7% of the loading dose. There were neither serious adverse events nor adverse events that lead to discontinuation. Skin adhesion of the patch was good in 97.2% of the subjects. All skin irritations after patch removal were mild and were resolved during the study period. Conclusion: The donepezil patch

  11. Transmucosal delivery of oxytocin to rabbits using a mucoadhesive buccal patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C; Bhatt, P P; Johnston, T P

    1997-08-01

    A biocompatible, mucoadhesive buccal patch was evaluated in rabbits for transmucosal delivery of peptides. Oxytocin (OT) was incorporated into custom coformulations of Carbopol 974P and silicone polymer and the resulting plasma OT concentration versus time profiles determined following patch application. For comparative purposes, the mean values determined for the elimination half-life (t1/2), volume of distribution (Vd), and the total body clearance (CL) following intravenous injection of OT were 2.9 +/- 0.2 min, 85.3 +/- 6.7 ml, and 20.4 +/- 2.03 ml/min, respectively. Following application of oxytocin-loaded mucoadhesive patches, plasma OT concentrations remained 20- to 28-fold greater from 0.5 to 3.0 hr than control animals administered placebo patches. The steady-state plasma OT concentration (Css) following application of the buccal patches was 80.6 +/- 15.9 pg/ml. The lag-time associated with attainment of the Css was 0.45 +/- 0.18 hr. Steady-state flux (Jss) of oxytocin in vivo was 139 +/- 36.8 ng/hr/cm2. Based on the amount of OT remaining in the patches following removal, the average dose of OT released in vivo was 0.27 +/- 0.024 mg with a bioavailability of 0.1%. No significant alterations in mucosal histology were observed when underlying mucosa to which OT patches had been applied were compared to either control (no patch) mucosa or mucosa underneath placebo patches. The mucoadhesive buccal patches were easy to apply and remove, nonirritating to tissue, and able to continuously deliver a nonapeptide over 3 hr. Based on these preliminary studies, the mucoadhesive buccal patches evaluated may represent an improved transmucosal drug delivery system for peptides and conventional drug substances.

  12. Mechanism of inhibition of the tumor suppressor Patched by Sonic Hedgehog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukachinsky, Hanna; Petrov, Kostadin; Watanabe, Miyako; Salic, Adrian

    2016-10-04

    The Hedgehog cell-cell signaling pathway is crucial for animal development, and its misregulation is implicated in numerous birth defects and cancers. In unstimulated cells, pathway activity is inhibited by the tumor suppressor membrane protein, Patched. Hedgehog signaling is triggered by the secreted Hedgehog ligand, which binds and inhibits Patched, thus setting in motion the downstream events in signal transduction. Despite its critical importance, the mechanism by which Hedgehog antagonizes Patched has remained unknown. Here, we show that vertebrate Patched1 inhibition is caused by direct, palmitate-dependent interaction with the Sonic Hedgehog ligand. We find that a short palmitoylated N-terminal fragment of Sonic Hedgehog binds Patched1 and, strikingly, is sufficient to inhibit it and to activate signaling. The rest of Sonic Hedgehog confers high-affinity Patched1 binding and internalization through a distinct binding site, but, surprisingly, it is not absolutely required for signaling. The palmitate-dependent interaction with Patched1 is specifically impaired in a Sonic Hedgehog mutant causing human holoprosencephaly, the most frequent congenital brain malformation, explaining its drastically reduced potency. The palmitate-dependent interaction is also abolished in constitutively inhibited Patched1 point mutants causing the Gorlin cancer syndrome, suggesting that they might adopt a conformation distinct from the wild type. Our data demonstrate that Sonic Hedgehog signals via the palmitate-dependent arm of a two-pronged contact with Patched1. Furthermore, our results suggest that, during Hedgehog signaling, ligand binding inhibits Patched by trapping it in an inactive conformation, a mechanism that explains the dramatically reduced activity of oncogenic Patched1 mutants.

  13. Heterogeneity of competition at decameter scale: patches of high canopy leaf area in a shade-intolerant larch stand transpire less yet are more sensitive to drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wei; Oren, Ram; Wang, Yanhui; Yu, Pengtao; Liu, Hailong; Cao, Gongxiang; Xu, Lihong; Wang, Yunni; Zuo, Haijun

    2015-05-01

    Small differences in the sensitivity of stomatal conductance to light intensity on leaf surfaces may lead to large differences in total canopy transpiration (EC) with increasing canopy leaf area (L). Typically, the increase of L would more than compensate for the decrease of transpiration per unit of leaf area (EL), resulting in concurrent increase of EC. However, highly shade-intolerant species, such as Larix principis-rupprechtii Mayr., may be so sensitive to increased shading that such compensation is not complete. We hypothesized that in such a stand, windfall-induced spatial variation at a decameter scale would result in greatly reduced EL in patches of high L leading to lower EC than low competition patches of sparse canopy. We further hypothesized that quicker extraction of soil moisture in patches of lower competition will result in earlier onset of drought symptoms in these patches. Thus, patches of low L will transition from light to soil moisture as the factor dominating EL. This process should progressively homogenize EC in the stand even as the variation of soil moisture is increasing. We tested the hypotheses utilizing sap flux of nine trees, and associated environmental and stand variables. The results were consistent with only some of the expectations. Under non-limiting soil moisture, EL was very sensitive to the spatial variation of L, decreasing sharply with increasing L and associated decrease of mean light intensity on leaf surfaces. Thus, under the conditions of ample soil moisture maximum EC decreased with increasing patch-scale L. Annual EC and biomass production also decreased with L, albeit more weakly. Furthermore, variation of EC among patches decreased as average stand soil moisture declined between rain events. However, contrary to expectation, high L plots which transpired less showed a greater EL sensitivity to decreasing stand-scale soil moisture, suggesting a different mechanism than simple control by decreasing soil moisture. We

  14. Negative plant soil feedback explaining ring formation in clonal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartenì, Fabrizio; Marasco, Addolorata; Bonanomi, Giuliano; Mazzoleni, Stefano; Rietkerk, Max; Giannino, Francesco

    2012-11-21

    Ring shaped patches of clonal plants have been reported in different environments, but the mechanisms underlying such pattern formation are still poorly explained. Water depletion in the inner tussocks zone has been proposed as a possible cause, although ring patterns have been also observed in ecosystems without limiting water conditions. In this work, a spatially explicit model is presented in order to investigate the role of negative plant-soil feedback as an additional explanation for ring formation. The model describes the dynamics of the plant biomass in the presence of toxicity produced by the decomposition of accumulated litter in the soil. Our model qualitatively reproduces the emergence of ring patterns of a single clonal plant species during colonisation of a bare substrate. The model admits two homogeneous stationary solutions representing bare soil and uniform vegetation cover which depend only on the ratio between the biomass death and growth rates. Moreover, differently from other plant spatial patterns models, but in agreement with real field observations of vegetation dynamics, we demonstrated that the pattern dynamics always lead to spatially homogeneous vegetation covers without creation of stable Turing patterns. Analytical results show that ring formation is a function of two main components, the plant specific susceptibility to toxic compounds released in the soil by the accumulated litter and the decay rate of these same compounds, depending on environmental conditions. These components act at the same time and their respective intensities can give rise to the different ring structures observed in nature, ranging from slight reductions of biomass in patch centres, to the appearance of marked rings with bare inner zones, as well as the occurrence of ephemeral waves of plant cover. Our results highlight the potential role of plant-soil negative feedback depending on decomposition processes for the development of transient vegetation patterns.

  15. Irritant and allergenic potential of some latex producing Indian plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasricha J

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The iatex exuding from the freshly sliced stems/leaves of 11 Indian plants was tested on 10 volunteers each by the open patch test and in 5 volunteers each by the 48 hour occluded patch test technique. In the open patch test, there was no reaction with (1 calotropis procera, (2 Alstonia scholaris,(3 Euphorbia splendens, (4 Euphorbia clarkina (5 Nerium indicum, and (6 Padilanthus tithymaloides (Green and white leaf variety, while mild reactions were observed with Euphorbia pulcherrima in 3 volunteers, Ficus elastida in 2 volunteers, and Pedilanthus tithymaloidas (Green leaf variety and Plumeria indica in one volunteer each Sapium sebiferum on the other hand produced severe itching, burning and erythema in all the 10 volunteers. The 48 hour occluded patch test produced definite reactions with Pedilanthus tithymaloides (Green leaf varietyin 2 cases and calotropis procera and Euphorbia clarkina in 1 case each. Sapium sebiferum on the other hand produced cauterization type of reactions in all the cases.

  16. A pliable electroporation patch (ep-Patch) for efficient delivery of nucleic acid molecules into animal tissues with irregular surface shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zewen; Huang, Yuanyu; Zhao, Deyao; Hu, Zhiyuan; Li, Zhihong; Liang, Zicai

    2015-01-05

    Delivery of nucleic acids into animal tissues by electroporation is an appealing approach for various types of gene therapy, but efficiency of existing methodsis not satisfactory. Here we present the validation of novel electroporation patch (ep-Patch) for efficient delivery of DNA and siRNA into mouse tissues. Using micromachining technology, closely spaced gold electrodes were made on the pliable parylene substrate to form a patch-like electroporation metrics. It enabled large coverage of the target tissues and close surface contact between the tissues and electrodes, thus providing a uniform electric field to deliver nucleic acids into tissues, even beneath intact skin. Using this ep-Patch for efficiently delivery of both DNA and siRNA, non-invasive electroporation of healthy mouse muscle tissue was successfully achieved. Delivery of these nucleic acids was performed to intact tumors with satisfactory results. Silencing of tumor genes using the ep-Patch was also demonstrated on mice. This pliable electroporation patch method constitutes a novel way of in vivo delivery of siRNA and DNA to certain tissues or organs to circumvent the disadvantages of existing methodologies for in vivo delivery of nucleic acid molecules.

  17. Maintaining social cohesion is a more important determinant of patch residence time than maximizing food intake rate in a group-living primate, Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazahari, Nobuko

    2014-04-01

    Animals have been assumed to employ an optimal foraging strategy (e.g., rate-maximizing strategy). In patchy food environments, intake rate within patches is positively correlated with patch quality, and declines as patches are depleted through consumption. This causes patch-leaving and determines patch residence time. In group-foraging situations, patch residence times are also affected by patch sharing. Optimal patch models for groups predict that patch residence times decrease as the number of co-feeding animals increases because of accelerated patch depletion. However, group members often depart patches without patch depletion, and their patch residence time deviates from patch models. It has been pointed out that patch residence time is also influenced by maintaining social proximity with others among group-living animals. In this study, the effects of maintaining social cohesion and that of rate-maximizing strategy on patch residence time were examined in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). I hypothesized that foragers give up patches to remain in the proximity of their troop members. On the other hand, foragers may stay for a relatively long period when they do not have to abandon patches to follow the troop. In this study, intake rate and foraging effort (i.e., movement) did not change during patch residency. Macaques maintained their intake rate with only a little foraging effort. Therefore, the patches were assumed to be undepleted during patch residency. Further, patch residence time was affected by patch-leaving to maintain social proximity, but not by the intake rate. Macaques tended to stay in patches for short periods when they needed to give up patches for social proximity, and remained for long periods when they did not need to leave to keep social proximity. Patch-leaving and patch residence time that prioritize the maintenance of social cohesion may be a behavioral pattern in group-living primates.

  18. Patch testing with a textile dye mix – a multicentre study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Kristina; Agner, Tove; Andersen, Klaus E;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Disperse dyes are well-known contact sensitizers. However, they are not included in the majority of commercially available baseline patch test series. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the outcome of patch testing with a textile dye mix (TDM) consisting of eight disperse dyes at dermatology ...

  19. Evaluation of a mucoadhesive buccal patch for delivery of peptides: in vitro screening of bioadhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C; Bhatt, P P; Johnston, T P

    1998-10-01

    We have assessed the bioadhesive properties of several different mucoadhesive buccal patches. The patches consisted of custom coformulations of silicone polymers and Carbopol 974P. The contact angle of water was measured for each of the test formulations, using an ophthalmic shadow scope. The corresponding work of adhesion between the water and the patches (W1), and between the patches and freshly-excised rabbit buccal mucosa (W2) was then calculated, using a modification of Dupre's equation. The bioadhesive strength between the patches and excised rabbit buccal mucosa was also assessed. The results of the contact-angle measurements indicated that the contact angle decreased with an increase in the amount of Carbopol in the formulation. Additionally, the calculated values of both W1 and W2 increased with an increase in the amount of Carbopol in the buccal-patch formulations. A correlation (r not equal to 0.9808) was found between the measured contact angle and the calculated values for W2. The direct measurement of the force required to separate a buccal patch from excised rabbit buccal mucosa with the INSTRON demonstrated that the adhesive strength increased with an increase in the amount of Carbopol. This preliminary study has shown that the measurement of contact angles alone may provide a useful technique for estimating the work of adhesion, and may serve as a convenient and rapid screening procedure to identify potential mucoadhesive buccal-patch formulations.

  20. Expansion or extinction: deterministic and stochastic two-patch models with Allee effects

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Yun

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the impact of Allee effect and dispersal on the long-term evolution of a population in a patchy environment, focusing on whether a population already established in one patch either successfully invades an adjacent empty patch or undergoes a global in-all-patch extinction. Our study is based on the combination of analytical and numerical results for both a deterministic two-patch model and its stochastic analog. The deterministic model has either two or four attractors. In the presence of weak dispersal, the analysis of the deterministic model shows that a high-density and a low-density populations can coexist at equilibrium in nearby patches, whereas the analysis of the stochastic model indicates that this equilibrium is metastable, thus leading after a large random time to either an in-all-patch expansion or an in-all-patch extinction. Up to some critical dispersal, increasing the intensity of the interactions leads to an increase of both the basin of attraction of the in-all-patch extinction...

  1. Patch-wise denoising of phase fringe patterns based on matrix enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Rishikesh; Rastogi, Pramod

    2016-12-01

    We propose a new approach for the denoising of a phase fringe pattern recorded in an optical interferometric setup. The phase fringe pattern which is generally corrupted by high amount of speckle noise is first converted into an exponential phase field. This phase field is divided into a number of overlapping patches. Owing to the small size of each patch, the presence of a simple structure of the interference phase is assumed in it. Accordingly, the singular value decomposition (SVD) of the patch allows us to separate the signal and noise components effectively. The patch is reconstructed only with the signal component. In order to further improve the robustness of the proposed method, an enhanced data matrix is generated using the patch and the SVD of this enhanced matrix is computed. The matrix enhancement results in an increased dimension of the noise subspace which thus accommodates more amount of noise component. Reassignment of the filtered pixels of the preceding patch in the current patch improves the noise filtering accuracy. The fringe denoising capability in function of the noise level and the patch size is studied. Simulation and experimental results are provided to demonstrate the practical applicability of the proposed method.

  2. Degenerate polynomial patches of degree 4 and 5 used for geometrically smooth interpolation in R3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neamtu, M.; Pfluger, P.R.

    1994-01-01

    The problem of interpolating scattered 3D data by a geometrically smooth surface is considered. A completely local method is proposed, based on employing degenerate triangular Bernstein-Bézier patches. An analysis of these patches is given and some numerical experiments with quartic and quintic patc

  3. Relationship between formaldehyde and quaternium-15 contact allergy. Influence of strength of patch test reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Anton C.; Blok, Janine; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To test our hypothesis that patients with stronger patch test reactions to formaldehyde are more likely to react to quaternium-15, attesting to the aetiological role for formaldehyde in such co-reactivity. Methods: Retrospective analysis of all patients patch tested with formaldehyde and

  4. Patch densities determines movement patterns and foraging efficiency of large herbivores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegt, de H.J.; Hengeveld, G.M.; Langevelde, van F.; Boer, de W.F.; Kirkman, K.P.

    2007-01-01

    Few experimental studies have tested theoretical predictions regarding the movement strategies of large herbivores and their consequences for foraging efficiency. We therefore analyze how the movement and foraging behavior of goats are related to patch density, with patches being trees and bushes. W

  5. A procedure of landscape services assessment based on mosaics of patches and boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín de Agar, Pilar; Ortega, Marta; de Pablo, Carlos L

    2016-09-15

    We develop a procedure for assessing the environmental value of landscape mosaics that simultaneously considers the values of land use patches and the values of the boundaries between them. These boundaries indicate the ecological interactions between the patches. A landscape mosaic is defined as a set of patches and the boundaries between them and corresponds to a spatial pattern of ecological interactions. The procedure is performed in two steps: (i) an environmental assessment of land use patches by means of a function that integrates values based on the goods and services the patches provide, and (ii) an environmental valuation of mosaics using a function that integrates the environmental values of their patches and the types and frequencies of the boundaries between them. This procedure allows us to measure how changes in land uses or in their spatial arrangement cause variations in the environmental value of landscape mosaics and therefore in that of the whole landscape. The procedure was tested in the Sierra Norte of Madrid (central Spain). The results show that the environmental values of the landscape depend not only on the land use patches but also on the values associated with the pattern of the boundaries within the mosaics. The results also highlight the importance of the boundaries between land use patches as determinants of the goods and services provided by the landscape. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Processor for the Study of Ocean Fine-Scale Patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    journal article and will not be discussed in detail here. In the course of developing the patch algorithm, other patch outputs have * been produced and some...Fig. 13b Isotherm plot for 8th 40 mm SI S 35 S ELT A (De ’ Fig. 14 Sampl vetia te peatr difrec 36j , a *Ja, -I - a a a ,I

  7. [Patch augmentation of the rotator cuff. A reasonable choice or a waste of money?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flury, M

    2016-02-01

    Although reconstruction methods have improved, tendon retears remain a major complication associated with rotator cuff repair. With the application of patches, either by interposition or by augmentation, surgeons can attempt to close an irreparable cuff defect or improve the mechanical and biological properties of tendons respectively. Which factors need to be considered when using a patch and what outcome can be expected? Based on the current literature, an overview of the techniques and materials in use and biomechanical and clinical experience is provided. The literature shows clear improvements in the biomechanical properties of a repair with patch augmentation; in particular, weakened tendons of the anterior supraspinatus and superior infraspinatus benefit most. It is important to keep in mind that each patch material has its own individual properties, which makes comparison of the various patch types difficult. The current scientific evidence is promising, although larger level 1 studies are still required. The general use of patches cannot be recommended at this time. Nevertheless, the use of a patch should be considered in patients who are at a high risk of recurrent retears. In future, patches will probably be applied mainly as part of a combined effort, together with biological measures to further reduce retear rates.

  8. Rotator cuff repair with a tendon-fibrocartilage-bone composite bridging patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaoxi; Chen, Qingshan; Thoreson, Andrew R; Qu, Jin; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C; Steinmann, Scott P; Zhao, Chunfeng

    2015-11-01

    To compare the mechanical performance of a rotator cuff repaired with a novel tendon-fibrocartilage-bone composite bridging patch vs the traditional Mason-Allen repair in an in vitro canine model. Twenty shoulders and 10 bridging patches from patellar tendon were harvested. The patches were trimmed and sliced into 2 layers. An infraspinatus tendon tear was created in each shoulder. Modified Mason-Allen sutures were used to repair the infraspinatus tendon to the greater tuberosity, with or without the bridging patch (bridging patch group and controls, respectively). Shoulders were loaded to failure under displacement control at a rate of 0.5mm/s. The ultimate tensile load was significantly higher in the bridging patch group than control (mean [SD], 365.46 [36.45] vs 272.79 [48.88] N; Pinfraspinatus tendon repair site was significantly higher than the control repair site (93.96 [27.72] vs 42.62 [17.48] N/mm Ptendon-fibrocartilage-bone composite bridging patch achieved higher ultimate tensile load and stiffness at the patch-greater tuberosity repair site compared with traditional repair in a canine model. This composite tissue transforms the traditional tendon-to-bone healing interface (with dissimilar tissues) into a pair of bone-to-bone and tendon-to-tendon interfaces, which may improve healing quality and reduce retear rate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Quantitative aspects of isoeugenol contact allergy assessed by use and patch tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Menné, T

    1996-01-01

    The clinical implications of sensitization to the fragrance material isoeugenol were studied in 19 subjects. Patch testing with serial dilutions of isoeugenol and a repeated open application test (ROAT) were performed. The minimum effect level under patch test conditions was below 0.01% isoeugeno...

  10. Investigation of bandwidth, efficiency, and quality factor for circular patch antennas with magneto-dielectric substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nour, Baqer; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2011-01-01

    This article documents an investigation of the effect of a magneto-dielectric substrate on the performance of a circular patch antenna; in particular, the radiation efficiency, the quality factor, and the bandwidth. Both analytical and numerical methods have been used to model the patch antenna. ....... The numerical method is used for lossy substrates, while the analytical method is used for lossless substrates....

  11. Investigation of bandwidth, efficiency, and quality factor for circular patch antennas with magneto-dielectric substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nour, Baqer; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2011-01-01

    This article documents an investigation of the effect of a magneto-dielectric substrate on the performance of a circular patch antenna; in particular, the radiation efficiency, the quality factor, and the bandwidth. Both analytical and numerical methods have been used to model the patch antenna...

  12. 16 CFR 1304.4 - Consumer patching compounds as banned hazardous products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer patching compounds as banned hazardous products. 1304.4 Section 1304.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS BAN OF CONSUMER PATCHING COMPOUNDS CONTAINING RESPIRABLE FREE-FORM...

  13. EISCAT observations of plasma patches at sub-auroral cusp latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Moen

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A sequence of 3 patches of high-density (1012 m−3 cold plasma on a horizontal scale-size of 300–700 km was observed near magnetic noon by the EISCAT VHF radar above Svalbard on 17 December 2001. The patches followed a trajectory towards the cusp inflow region. The combination of radar and all-sky observations demonstrates that the patches must have been segmented equatorward of the cusp/cleft auroral display, and hence their properties had not yet been influenced by cusp particle showers and electrodynamics on open flux tubes. The last patch in the sequence was intersected by radio tomography observations, and was found to be located adjacent to a broader region of the same high electron density further south. The patches occurred under moderately active conditions (Kp=3 and the total electron content (TEC of the high-density plasma was 45 TEC units. The train of patches appeared as a segmentation of the tongue of ionization. The sequence of patches occurred in association with a sequence of flow bursts in the dusk cell return flow. It is proposed that reconnection driven pulsed convection is able to create sub-auroral patches in the region where high density mid-latitude plasma is diverted poleward toward the cusp. It is the downward Birkeland current sheet located at the equatorward boundary of the flow disturbance that represents the actual cutting mechanism.

  14. Sensitivity analysis and control of a cantilever beam by mean of a shunted piezoelectric patch

    OpenAIRE

    Matten, Gaël; Collet, Manuel; Sadoulet-Reboul, Emeline; Cogan, Scott

    2013-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, a sensitivity analysis of a beam controlled with a shunted piezoelectric patch is presented. A negative capacitance controller is implemented and a study of stability and performance is performed. Besides, the effects of the technological aspects such as the variability in the material properties or in the position of the piezoelectric patch is evaluated through a finite element simulation

  15. Pairwise Operator Learning for Patch Based Single-image Super-resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi; Shao, Ling

    2016-12-14

    Motivated by the fact that image patches could be inherently represented by matrices, single-image super-resolution is treated as a problem of learning regression operators in a matrix space in this paper. The regression operators that map low-resolution image patches to high-resolution image patches are generally defined by left and right multiplication operators. The pairwise operators are respectively used to extract the raw and column information of low-resolution image patches for recovering high-resolution estimations. The patch based regression algorithm possesses three favorable properties. Firstly, the proposed super-resolution algorithm is efficient during both training and testing, because image patches are treated as matrices. Secondly, the data storage requirement of the optimal pairwise operator is far less than most popular single-image super-resolution algorithms because only two small sized matrices need to be stored. Lastly, the super-resolution performance is competitive with most popular single-image super-resolution algorithms because both raw and column information of image patches is considered. Experimental results show the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed patch-based single-image superresolution algorithm.

  16. Regulation of DEAH/RHA Helicases by G-Patch Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Robert-Paganin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RNA helicases from the DEAH/RHA family are present in all the processes of RNA metabolism. The function of two helicases from this family, Prp2 and Prp43, is regulated by protein partners containing a G-patch domain. The G-patch is a glycine-rich domain discovered by sequence alignment, involved in protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interaction. Although it has been shown to stimulate the helicase’s enzymatic activities, the precise role of the G-patch domain remains unclear. The role of G-patch proteins in the regulation of Prp43 activity has been studied in the two biological processes in which it is involved: splicing and ribosome biogenesis. Depending on the pathway, the activity of Prp43 is modulated by different G-patch proteins. A particular feature of the structure of DEAH/RHA helicases revealed by the Prp43 structure is the OB-fold domain in C-terminal part. The OB-fold has been shown to be a platform responsible for the interaction with G-patch proteins and RNA. Though there is still no structural data on the G-patch domain, in the current model, the interaction between the helicase, the G-patch protein, and RNA leads to a cooperative binding of RNA and conformational changes of the helicase.

  17. Small-scale mapping of indeterminate arborescent acroporid coral ( Acropora cervicornis) patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, B. K.; Larson, E. A.; Moulding, A. L.; Gilliam, D. S.

    2012-09-01

    Western Atlantic populations of the staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis have drastically declined over the past few decades. Hence, interest in its ecology and spatial extent has increased. Acroporid corals with indeterminate arborescent growth like A. cervicornis primarily reproduce asexually by fragmentation, which can lead to extensive monotypic patches. Since fragmentation is a major component in indeterminate acroporid reproduction, these patches may expand or move over time. Periodic perimeter mapping facilitates comparison of patch areas to determine movement or expansion. A repeatable, low-cost method using a differential GPS carried by a snorkeler was employed to map the perimeter of A. cervicornis patches in southeast Florida. Perimeters were mapped over a 3-year period. Patch boundaries were dynamic, expanding in one or more directions. Patch areas increased by up to 7.5 times their original size and moved up to 51 m. Results were corroborated by spatial cluster analyses of in situ live coral cover measurements. Getis-Ord Gi* statistic and Anselin Local Moran's I spatial cluster analyses of live coral cover within an array of in situ monitoring plots indicated that significant high cover clusters moved in the direction of mapped patch perimeter expansion. Expansion was coupled by more than 50 % decreases in total live cover. Information gained herein shows that A. cervicornis patches are spatially and temporally dynamic, having implications to long-term permanent transect monitoring studies and framework development. Results may be applicable to other shallow water indeterminate arborescent acroporid coral species.

  18. Automating the Port of Linux to the VirtualLogix Hypervisor using Semantic Patches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armand, Francois; Muller, Gilles; Lawall, Julia Laetitia

    2008-01-01

    of Linux to the VLX hypervisor.  Coccinelle provides a notion of semantic patches, which are more abstract than standard patches, and thus are potentially applicable to a wider range of OS versions.  We have applied this approach in the context of Linux versions 2.6.13, 2.6.14, and 2.6.15, for the ARM...

  19. Patch sampling behaviour and future foraging expectations in Argentine ants, Linepithema humile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonacs; Soriano

    1998-03-01

    Nests of Argentine ants, L. humile, were exposed to pairs of foraging patches of varying quality. These patches varied from never having food to having food for 4 h every day. After 15 days, colonies were allowed an added access to a new patch. The new patch, however, never contained food. The sampling behaviour of nests towards the initial patches and the new patch suggested that the nests were using a sampling rule based on maximizing net benefits of finding food minus the cost of sampling. The behaviour of the nests towards the new patch was also significantly affected by what the foraging workers had previouisly encountered in the foraging patches. The behaviour of the L. humile colonies is similar in pattern to what would result by Bayesian updating of expectations for success in novel foraging opportunities. These data are the first suggestions of such an ability in an insect. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  20. Unmanned Ground Vehicle Navigation and Coverage Hole Patching in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guyu

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents a study of an Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) navigation and coverage hole patching in coordinate-free and localization-free Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). Navigation and coverage maintenance are related problems since coverage hole patching requires effective navigation in the sensor network environment. A…

  1. Functions for patch test in finite element analysis of the Mindlin plate and the thin cylindrical shell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Current patch test for Mindlin plate element only satisfies the zero shear deformation condition.The patch test of non-zero constant shear for Mindlin plate problem cannot be performed.For shell element, the patch test does not even exist.Based on the theory of enhanced patch test proposed by Chen W J (2006),the authors proposed the enhanced patch test function for Mindlin plate and thin cylindrical shell elements.This enhanced patch test function can be used to assess the convergence of the Mindlin plate and cylindrical thin shell elements.

  2. Performance of a commercially available plant allergen series in the assessment of suspected occupational contact dermatitis to plants in north Indian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar De

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parthenium hysterophorus is the leading cause of phytogenic allergic contact dermatitis in India. The Indian Standard Series currently supplied by Systopic Laboratories Ltd and manufactured by Chemotechnique Diagnostics ® contains parthenolide as the only allergen representing plant allergens. Aim: The study was conducted to assess the performance of the Chemotechnique plant series (PL-1000, consisting of 14 allergens, in patients with clinically suspected occupational contact dermatitis to plant allergens. Methods: Ninety patients were patch tested with the Chemotechnique plant series from 2011 to 2013. Demographic details, clinical diagnosis and patch test results were recorded in the contact dermatitis clinic proforma. Results: Of 90 patients, 24 (26.7% showed positive reactions to one or more allergens in the plant series. Positive patch tests were elicited most commonly by sesquiterpene lactone mix in 19 (78.6% patients, followed by parthenolide in 14 (57.1%, Achillea millefolium in 10 (42.9% and others in decreasing order. Conclusion: The plant allergen series prepared by Chemotechnique Diagnostics is possibly not optimal for diagnosing suspected allergic contact dermatitis to plants in north Indians. Sesquiterpene lactone mix should replace parthenolide as the plant allergen in the Indian Standard Series until relevant native plant extracts are commercially available for patch testing.

  3. Constructing triangular patch by basic approximation operator plus additional interpolation operator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Caiming; Jl Xiuhua; YANG Xingqiang

    2005-01-01

    A new method for constructing triangular patches is presented. The triangular patch that interpolates the given boundary curves and cross-boundary slopes is constructed by a basic approximation operator plus an additional interpolation operator. The basic approximation operator is constructed by a polynomial surface of degree five which approximates the given interpolation conditions. The additional interpolation operator is formed by the side-vertex method. The basic and the additional operators have different roles in constructing the triangular patch: the first one makes the triangular patch approximate the given interpolation conditions with a polynomial approximation precision of degree five, while the second one makes it satisfy the given interpolation conditions. The triangular patch reproduces polynomial surfaces of degree five. Comparison results of the new method with the other two methods are included.

  4. A high gain patch fed horn antenna for millimeter wave imaging receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shireen, Rownak; Hwang, Timothy; Shi, Shouyuan; Prather, D. W.

    2005-11-01

    In this paper, antennas that combine transitions from microstrip line / coplanar waveguide (CPW) to horn antenna in a single unit are presented. Conventional single layer microstrip patch antennas inherently suffer narrow operation bandwidth; to widen the frequency bandwidth, stacked patch antennas are used and high gain is achieved from the horn antenna. Here, microstrip line / CPW directly feeds the bottom patch while the top patch couples parasitically to the bottom patch. For -10 dB return loss, 25% bandwidth is achieved for both microstrip line to horn antenna (MSLTHA) at center frequency f0=17.5 GHz and for CPW to horn antenna (CPWTHA) at f0=97 GHz. The designs were optimized using 3D Finite Element Method (FEM) software HFSS by Ansoft Corporation. The optimal design of MSLTHA has been fabricated and characterized. The return loss and far field radiation pattern are measured and has been found in very good agreement with the simulation results.

  5. The Association of Polar Faculae with Polar Magnetic Patches Examined with Hinode Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Kaithakkal, Anjali John; Kubo, M; Shiota, D; Tsuneta, S

    2013-01-01

    The magnetic properties of the Sun's polar faculae are investigated with spectropolarimetric observations of the north polar region obtained by the Hinode satellite in 2007 September. Polar faculae are embedded in nearly all magnetic patches with fluxes greater than $10^{18}$ Mx, while magnetic patches without polar faculae dominate in the flux range below $10^{18}$ Mx. The faculae are considerably smaller than their parent patches, and single magnetic patches contain single or multiple faculae. The faculae in general have higher intrinsic magnetic field strengths than the surrounding regions within their parent patches. Less than 20% of the total magnetic flux contributed by the large (${\\ge}10^{18}$ Mx) concentrations, which are known to be modulated by the solar cycle, is accounted for by the associated polar faculae.

  6. An Electronic Patch for Wearable Health Monitoring by Reflectance Pulse Oximetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Rasmus Grønbek; Duun, Sune Bro; Toft, Mette H.;

    2012-01-01

    We report the development of an Electronic Patch for wearable health monitoring. The Electronic Patch is a new health monitoring system incorporating biomedical sensors, microelectronics, radio frequency (RF) communication, and a battery embedded in a 3-dimensional hydrocolloid polymer...... photodiode to enable low power consumption by the light emitting components. The Electronic Patch has a disposable part of soft adhesive hydrocolloid polymer and a reusable part of hard polylaurinlactam. The disposable part contains the battery. The reusable part contains the reflectance pulse oximetry....... In this paper the Electronic Patch is demonstrated with a new optical biomedical sensor for reflectance pulse oximetry so that the Electronic Patch in this case can measure the pulse and the oxygen saturation. The reflectance pulse oximetry solution is based on a recently developed annular backside silicon...

  7. Cell patch seeding and functional analysis of cellularized scaffolds for tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, P R Anil [Division of Implant Biology, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695012 (India); Varma, H K [Bioceramics Laboratory, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695012 (India); Kumary, T V [Division of Implant Biology, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695012 (India)

    2007-03-01

    Cell seeding has a direct impact on the final structure and function of tissue constructs, especially for applications like tissue engineering and regeneration. In this study seeding cell patches retrieved from the thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) surface were used to generate in vitro tissue constructs. Porous and dense bone substitute materials were cellularized using osteoblast cells by a patch transfer and a trypsin method. The function and proliferation of cells was analyzed after 7 days of culture. The relative cell growth rate was found to be higher in cellularized porous hydroxyapatite (PHA) than in dense hydroxyapatite. Live-dead staining confirmed viable cells inside the pores of PHA. Increased alkaline phosphatase activity of cells transferred by the cell patch over the trypsin method revealed the significance of cell patch seeding. This novel method of generating tissue constructs by cell patch seeding was successful in cellularizing scaffolds with intact cell function.

  8. A capsaicin (8%) patch in the treatment of severe persistent inguinal postherniorrhaphy pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bischoff, Joakim M; Ringsted, Thomas K; Petersen, Marian;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persistent pain after inguinal herniorrhaphy is a disabling condition with a lack of evidence-based pharmacological treatment options. This randomized placebo-controlled trial investigated the efficacy of a capsaicin 8% cutaneous patch in the treatment of severe persistent inguinal....... The primary outcome was comparisons of summed pain intensity differences (SPIDs) between capsaicin and placebo treatments at 1, 2 and 3 months after patch application (significance level P treatments, was observed at 1 month after...... patch application, but the pain reduction was not significant (NRS, mean difference [95% CI]: 5.0 [0.09 to 9.9]; P = 0.046). No differences in SPID between treatments were observed at 2 and 3 months after patch application. Changes in IENFD on the pain side, from baseline to 1 month after patch...

  9. Cell patch seeding and functional analysis of cellularized scaffolds for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anil Kumar, P R; Varma, H K; Kumary, T V

    2007-03-01

    Cell seeding has a direct impact on the final structure and function of tissue constructs, especially for applications like tissue engineering and regeneration. In this study seeding cell patches retrieved from the thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) surface were used to generate in vitro tissue constructs. Porous and dense bone substitute materials were cellularized using osteoblast cells by a patch transfer and a trypsin method. The function and proliferation of cells was analyzed after 7 days of culture. The relative cell growth rate was found to be higher in cellularized porous hydroxyapatite (PHA) than in dense hydroxyapatite. Live-dead staining confirmed viable cells inside the pores of PHA. Increased alkaline phosphatase activity of cells transferred by the cell patch over the trypsin method revealed the significance of cell patch seeding. This novel method of generating tissue constructs by cell patch seeding was successful in cellularizing scaffolds with intact cell function.

  10. The optimal dispersal strategy: a two-patch model with travel loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Hong Wu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The dispersal of organisms plays an important role in determining the dynamics of ecological models. Ecologically, it is of interest in understanding how dispersal strategy influences the distribution of populations. An ideal free distribution (IFD of populations has been used to predict the distribution of organisms among patches, where a key assumption is to assume that species can move freely between patches without paying any cost. If instead one assumes that there are losses when species moves from one patch to another, then ideal free distributions may not appear. In this note, we examine a two-patch resident-mutant model with travel loss and predict the optimal dispersal strategy for resident and mutant. Moreover, such strategy which produces a non-IFD is evolutionarily stable. Some same and different features of patch models with travel loss are discussed.

  11. Repeated patch testing to nickel during childhood do not induce nickel sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard Christiansen, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previously, patch test reactivity to nickel sulphate in a cohort of unselected infants tested repeatedly at 3-72 months of age has been reported. A reproducible positive reaction at 12 and 18 months was selected as a sign of nickel sensitivity, provided a patch test with an empty Finn...... chamber was negative. The objective of this study is to follow-up on infants with suspected nickel sensitivity. Methods: A total of 562 infants were included in the cohort and patch tested with nickel sulphate. The 26 children with a positive patch test to nickel sulphate at 12 and 18 months were offered...... repeated patch test to nickel sulphate at 3 (36 months), 6 (72 months) and 14 years of age. Results: At 3 years, 24 of 26 nickel sensitive children were retested and a positive reaction was seen in 7 children, a negative reaction in 16 and 1 child was excluded due to reaction to both nickel and the empty...

  12. Pattern Reconfigurable Wideband Stacked Microstrip Patch Antenna for 60 GHz Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Bondarik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A beam shift method is presented for an aperture coupled stacked microstrip antenna with a gridded parasitic patch. The gridded parasitic patch is formed by nine close coupled identical rectangular microstrip patches. Each of these patches is resonant at the antenna central frequency. Using four switches connecting adjacent parasitic patches in the grid, it is possible to realize a pattern reconfigurable antenna with nine different beam directions in broadside, H-plane, E-plane, and diagonal planes. The switches are modeled by metal strips and different locations for strips are studied. As a result an increase in the antenna coverage is achieved. Measurement results for fabricated prototypes correspond very well to simulation results. The antenna is designed for 60 GHz central frequency and can be used in high speed wireless communication systems.

  13. TARPs: Tracked Active Region Patches from SoHO/MDI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turmon, M.; Hoeksema, J. T.; Bobra, M.

    2013-12-01

    We describe progress toward creating a retrospective MDI data product consisting of tracked magnetic features on the scale of solar active regions, abbreviated TARPs (Tracked Active Region Patches). The TARPs are being developed as a backward-looking extension (covering approximately 3500 regions spanning 1996-2010) to the HARP (HMI Active Region Patch) data product that has already been released for HMI (2010-present). Like the HARPs, the MDI TARP data set is designed to be a catalog of active regions (ARs), indexed by a region ID number, analogous to a NOAA AR number, and time. TARPs from MDI are computed based on the 96-minute synoptic magnetograms and pseudo-continuum intensitygrams. As with the related HARP data product, the approximate threshold for significance is 100G. Use of both image types together allows faculae and sunspots to be separated out as sub-classes of activity, in addition to identifying the overall active region that the faculae/sunspots are part of. After being identified in single images, the magnetically-active patches are grouped and tracked from image to image. Merges among growing active regions, as well as faint active regions hovering at the threshold of detection, are handled automatically. Regions are tracked from their inception until they decay within view, or transit off the visible disk. The final data product is indexed by a nominal AR number and time. For each active region and for each time, a bitmap image is stored containing the precise outline of the active region. Additionaly, metadata such as areas and integrated fluxes are stored for each AR and for each time. Because there is a calibration between the HMI and MDI magnetograms (Liu, Hoeksema et al. 2012), it is straightforward to use the same classification and tracking rules for the HARPs (from HMI) and the MDI TARPs. We anticipate that this will allow a consistent catalog spanning both instruments. We envision several uses for the TARP data product, which will be

  14. Riverine Landscape Patch Heterogeneity Drives Riparian Ant Assemblages in the Scioto River Basin, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagwireyi, Paradzayi; Sullivan, S Mažeika P

    2015-01-01

    Although the principles of landscape ecology are increasingly extended to include riverine landscapes, explicit applications are few. We investigated associations between patch heterogeneity and riparian ant assemblages at 12 riverine landscapes of the Scioto River, Ohio, USA, that represent urban/developed, agricultural, and mixed (primarily forested, but also wetland, grassland/fallow, and exurban) land-use settings. Using remotely-sensed and ground-collected data, we delineated riverine landscape patch types (crop, grass/herbaceous, gravel, lawn, mudflat, open water, shrub, swamp, and woody vegetation), computed patch metrics (area, density, edge, richness, and shape), and conducted coordinated sampling of surface-active Formicidae assemblages. Ant density and species richness was lower in agricultural riverine landscapes than at mixed or developed reaches (measured using S [total number of species], but not using Menhinick's Index [DM]), whereas ant diversity (using the Berger-Park Index [DBP]) was highest in agricultural reaches. We found no differences in ant density, richness, or diversity among internal riverine landscape patches. However, certain characteristics of patches influenced ant communities. Patch shape and density were significant predictors of richness (S: R2 = 0.72; DM: R2=0.57). Patch area, edge, and shape emerged as important predictors of DBP (R2 = 0.62) whereas patch area, edge, and density were strongly related to ant density (R2 = 0.65). Non-metric multidimensional scaling and analysis of similarities distinguished ant assemblage composition in grass and swamp patches from crop, gravel, lawn, and shrub as well as ant assemblages in woody vegetation patches from crop, lawn, and gravel (stress = 0.18, R2 = 0.64). These findings lend insight into the utility of landscape ecology to river science by providing evidence that spatial habitat patterns within riverine landscapes can influence assemblage characteristics of riparian arthropods.

  15. Biophysical constraints on optimal patch lengths for settlement of a reef-building bivalve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi L Fuchs

    Full Text Available Reef-building species form discrete patches atop soft sediments, and reef restoration often involves depositing solid material as a substrate for larval settlement and growth. There have been few theoretical efforts to optimize the physical characteristics of a restored reef patch to achieve high recruitment rates. The delivery of competent larvae to a reef patch is influenced by larval behavior and by physical habitat characteristics such as substrate roughness, patch length, current speed, and water depth. We used a spatial model, the "hitting-distance" model, to identify habitat characteristics that will jointly maximize both the settlement probability and the density of recruits on an oyster reef (Crassostrea virginica. Modeled larval behaviors were based on laboratory observations and included turbulence-induced diving, turbulence-induced passive sinking, and neutral buoyancy. Profiles of currents and turbulence were based on velocity profiles measured in coastal Virginia over four different substrates: natural oyster reefs, mud, and deposited oyster and whelk shell. Settlement probabilities were higher on larger patches, whereas average settler densities were higher on smaller patches. Larvae settled most successfully and had the smallest optimal patch length when diving over rough substrates in shallow water. Water depth was the greatest source of variability, followed by larval behavior, substrate roughness, and tidal current speed. This result suggests that the best way to maximize settlement on restored reefs is to construct patches of optimal length for the water depth, whereas substrate type is less important than expected. Although physical patch characteristics are easy to measure, uncertainty about larval behavior remains an obstacle for predicting settlement patterns. The mechanistic approach presented here could be combined with a spatially explicit metapopulation model to optimize the arrangement of reef patches in an estuary

  16. Riverine Landscape Patch Heterogeneity Drives Riparian Ant Assemblages in the Scioto River Basin, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paradzayi Tagwireyi

    Full Text Available Although the principles of landscape ecology are increasingly extended to include riverine landscapes, explicit applications are few. We investigated associations between patch heterogeneity and riparian ant assemblages at 12 riverine landscapes of the Scioto River, Ohio, USA, that represent urban/developed, agricultural, and mixed (primarily forested, but also wetland, grassland/fallow, and exurban land-use settings. Using remotely-sensed and ground-collected data, we delineated riverine landscape patch types (crop, grass/herbaceous, gravel, lawn, mudflat, open water, shrub, swamp, and woody vegetation, computed patch metrics (area, density, edge, richness, and shape, and conducted coordinated sampling of surface-active Formicidae assemblages. Ant density and species richness was lower in agricultural riverine landscapes than at mixed or developed reaches (measured using S [total number of species], but not using Menhinick's Index [DM], whereas ant diversity (using the Berger-Park Index [DBP] was highest in agricultural reaches. We found no differences in ant density, richness, or diversity among internal riverine landscape patches. However, certain characteristics of patches influenced ant communities. Patch shape and density were significant predictors of richness (S: R2 = 0.72; DM: R2=0.57. Patch area, edge, and shape emerged as important predictors of DBP (R2 = 0.62 whereas patch area, edge, and density were strongly related to ant density (R2 = 0.65. Non-metric multidimensional scaling and analysis of similarities distinguished ant assemblage composition in grass and swamp patches from crop, gravel, lawn, and shrub as well as ant assemblages in woody vegetation patches from crop, lawn, and gravel (stress = 0.18, R2 = 0.64. These findings lend insight into the utility of landscape ecology to river science by providing evidence that spatial habitat patterns within riverine landscapes can influence assemblage characteristics of riparian

  17. Habitat patch size and isolation as predictors of occupancy and number of argyrodine spider kleptoparasites in Nephila webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnarsson, Ingi

    2011-02-01

    How fully a suitable habitat patch is utilized by organisms depends crucially on patch size and isolation. Testing this interplay is made difficult in many systems by the arbitrariness of defining a "habitat patch", measuring its boarders, and relatively low detection probability of the inhabitants. Spider webs as habitat patches for obligate web kleptoparasites are free from these problems. Each individual web is a highly discrete and readily measured habitat patch, and the detection probability of argyrodine spider kleptoparasites is very nearly 1. Hence, spider webs emerge as simple systems for ecological models such as patch occupancy and metapopulation biology. Recently, I showed that the distribution of kleptoparasites among host webs relates both to web (patch) size as well as patch connectivity. Here, I test the relative importance of patch size versus isolation in explaining patch occupancy and abundance of inhabitants. I find that (1) web size is the better predictor of patch occupancy and abundance. (2) Web size is overall positively correlated with abundance, but predicts it most precisely among interconnected webs and not at all among the most isolated webs. Hence, patch occupancy and inhabitant abundance is explained by a rather complex interplay between patch size and isolation.

  18. Integrated seismic studies at the Rye Patch Geothermal Reservoir, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gritto, Roland; Daley, Thomas M.; Majer, Ernest L.

    2002-05-23

    A 3-D surface seismic reflection survey, covering an area of over 3 square miles, was conducted at the Rye Patch geothermal reservoir (Nevada) to explore the structural features that may control geothermal production in the area. In addition to the surface sources and receivers, a high-temperature three-component seismometer was deployed in a borehole at a depth of 3900 ft within the basement below the reservoir, which recorded the waves generated by all surface sources. A total of 1959 first-arrival travel times were determined out of 2134 possible traces. Two-dimensional ray tracing was performed to simulate wave propagation from the surface sources to the receiver at depth. Travel time differences between observed and calculated times were mapped to topographic changes in the elevation of the interface between the carbonate basement and the sedimentary and volcanic unit above. Results indicate the presence of two dominant geologic features. The first confirms the regional trend of the geologic units in the Basin and Range province with a north-south strike and dip to the west, as expected for normal faulting encountered in an extensional regime. The second is a local disturbance of this regional pattern in form of an elevation of the interface between the carbonate basement and the overlying sedimentary sequence, striking east-west. The geometry of the structure is corroborated by results from a seismic-reflection survey, and by results of tomographic studies conducted as part of the seismic survey. Seismic waves, generated from far-offset shots during the 3-D surface survey, exhibit a sudden decrease in amplitudes while propagating across the boundaries of the elevation high. This apparent boundary correlates spatially with the location of the Rye Patch fault as interpreted from the 3-D seismic reflection data. Finite-difference modeling of elastic wave propagation is performed to estimate the structural parameters of the fault. Questions to be answered are

  19. EMSAM (deprenyl patch: how a promising antidepressant was underutilized

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asnis GM

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gregory M Asnis,1,2 Margaret A Henderson2 1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; 2Anxiety and Depression Clinic, Montefiore Medical Center, New York, NY, USA Abstract: The EMSAM patch is a unique monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI being the only antidepressant utilizing a transdermal delivery system. This was welcomed by clinicians who hoped that EMSAM would be better tolerated than oral MAOIs and non-MAOI antidepressants, as well as being effective for treatment in a wide spectrum of depressed patients including atypical depression, bipolar depression, and refractory depression. Unfortunately, the clinical use of EMSAM has been underutilized and its potential usefulness overlooked. This article suggests that fear of possible side effects, particularly the “cheese reaction” and serotonin syndrome, are some of the main contributors to underutilization by clinicians. These risks have been significantly exaggerated with the 6 mg/day dose not even requiring a special diet. Other contributing factors leading to underutilization are reviewed such as: the lack of studies addressing many important clinical questions; inadequate data analyses; not evaluating the effect of EMSAM on comorbid psychiatric conditions, particularly anxiety disorders; lack of antidepressant comparators versus EMSAM; no dose–response relationship examined; various depressive subtypes and conditions are unexplored, eg, bipolar depression and refractory depression; poor insurance coverage for an expensive medication; as well as minimal marketing efforts and postmarketing studies. On the other hand, many potential advantages of EMSAM are not highlighted enough in the literature and by pharmaceutical companies which might have increased clinical interest and utilization of the antidepressant. For example, the advantages of EMSAM include: avoidance of swallowing issues, as can be seen with oral antidepressants

  20. Geochemical factors promoting die-back gap formation in colonizing patches of Spartina densiflora in an irregularly flooded marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirlean, Nicolai; Costa, Cesar S. B.

    2017-04-01

    Circular (RP) and ring-shape (RP) patches of vegetation in intertidal flats have been associated with the radial expansion of tussock growth forms and die-back gap in older central stands, respectively. RP formation has not yet been sufficiently explained. We accomplished a comparative geochemical study of CP and RP structures of Spartina densiflora within a single saltmarsh in a microtidal estuary (toxic environment for S. densiflora and die-back central gap formation in RP. CP structure was 5 cm higher in the intertidal than RP but shows frequent presence of a water layer, less severe oxidation of sulfides and limited building-up of toxic condition to plants. Development of S. densiflora RP probably indicates the uplift of sediment by this bioengineer grass and/or periodic lowering of the water surface below a certain critical level.